Science.gov

Sample records for blue image planes

  1. Fourier plane imaging microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez, Daniel Peralta, Luis Grave de; Alharbi, Nouf; Alhusain, Mdhaoui; Bernussi, Ayrton A.

    2014-09-14

    We show how the image of an unresolved photonic crystal can be reconstructed using a single Fourier plane (FP) image obtained with a second camera that was added to a traditional compound microscope. We discuss how Fourier plane imaging microscopy is an application of a remarkable property of the obtained FP images: they contain more information about the photonic crystals than the images recorded by the camera commonly placed at the real plane of the microscope. We argue that the experimental results support the hypothesis that surface waves, contributing to enhanced resolution abilities, were optically excited in the studied photonic crystals.

  2. Fourier plane image amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Hermann, Mark R.; Dane, C. Brent; Tiszauer, Detlev H.

    1995-01-01

    A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 .mu.m. A small portion of the laser is split off and generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only .about.1/10th the power of a competitive system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires much less laser power.

  3. Fourier plane image amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, L.A.; Hermann, M.R.; Dane, C.B.; Tiszauer, D.H.

    1995-12-12

    A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 {micro}m. A small portion of the laser is split off and generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only about 1/10th the power of a competitive system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires much less laser power. 1 fig.

  4. Oblique planes of section in MR imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Edelman, R.R.; Stark, D.D.; Saini, S.; Ferrucci, J.T.; Dinsmore, R.E.; Ladd, W.; Brady, T.J.

    1986-06-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging allows freedom in choosing oblique planes of section and rotation of the image plane with respect to the frequency-encoded (F) and phase-encoded (P) dimensions. A general method is described for understanding geometric relationships between the fixed magnetic coordinate system, patient positioning and the flexible observer's coordinate system. Oblique planes of section are clinically useful in studying organs with an axis of symmetry that is oblique to the magnet coordinate system, such as the heart. Rotation of the image plane can be used to move motion artifacts away from anatomic regions of interest, such as the liver and spine. Appropriate use of oblique section selection and image rotation can improve MR image quality and diagnostic value of the patient study.

  5. Reconnaissance with slant plane circular SAR imaging.

    PubMed

    Soumekh, M

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a method for imaging from the slant plane data collected by a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) over the full rotation or a partial segment of a circular flight path. A Fourier analysis for the Green's function of the imaging system is provided. This analysis is the basis of an inversion for slant plane circular SAR data. The reconstruction algorithm and resolution for this SAR system are outlined. It is shown that the slant plane circular SAR, unlike the slant plane linear SAR, has the capability to extract three-dimensional imaging information of a target scene. The merits of the algorithm are demonstrated via a simulated target whose ultra wideband foliage penetrating (FOPEN) or ground penetrating (GPEN) ultrahigh frequency (UHF) radar signature varies with the radar's aspect angle. PMID:18285213

  6. Image-plane processing of visual information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, F. O.; Fales, C. L.; Park, S. K.; Samms, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    Shannon's theory of information is used to optimize the optical design of sensor-array imaging systems which use neighborhood image-plane signal processing for enhancing edges and compressing dynamic range during image formation. The resultant edge-enhancement, or band-pass-filter, response is found to be very similar to that of human vision. Comparisons of traits in human vision with results from information theory suggest that: (1) Image-plane processing, like preprocessing in human vision, can improve visual information acquisition for pattern recognition when resolving power, sensitivity, and dynamic range are constrained. Improvements include reduced sensitivity to changes in lighter levels, reduced signal dynamic range, reduced data transmission and processing, and reduced aliasing and photosensor noise degradation. (2) Information content can be an appropriate figure of merit for optimizing the optical design of imaging systems when visual information is acquired for pattern recognition. The design trade-offs involve spatial response, sensitivity, and sampling interval.

  7. Hybrid Image-Plane/Stereo Manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgartner, Eric; Robinson, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Hybrid Image-Plane/Stereo (HIPS) manipulation is a method of processing image data, and of controlling a robotic manipulator arm in response to the data, that enables the manipulator arm to place an end-effector (an instrument or tool) precisely with respect to a target (see figure). Unlike other stereoscopic machine-vision-based methods of controlling robots, this method is robust in the face of calibration errors and changes in calibration during operation. In this method, a stereoscopic pair of cameras on the robot first acquires images of the manipulator at a set of predefined poses. The image data are processed to obtain image-plane coordinates of known visible features of the end-effector. Next, there is computed an initial calibration in the form of a mapping between (1) the image-plane coordinates and (2) the nominal three-dimensional coordinates of the noted end-effector features in a reference frame fixed to the main robot body at the base of the manipulator. The nominal three-dimensional coordinates are obtained by use of the nominal forward kinematics of the manipulator arm that is, calculated by use of the currently measured manipulator joint angles and previously measured lengths of manipulator arm segments under the assumption that the arm segments are rigid, that the arm lengths are constant, and that there is no backlash. It is understood from the outset that these nominal three-dimensional coordinates are likely to contain possibly significant calibration errors, but the effects of the errors are progressively reduced, as described next. As the end-effector is moved toward the target, the calibration is updated repeatedly by use of data from newly acquired images of the end-effector and of the corresponding nominal coordinates in the manipulator reference frame. By use of the updated calibration, the coordinates of the target are computed in manipulator-reference-frame coordinates and then used to the necessary manipulator joint angles to position and orient the end-effector at the target with respect to the same kinematic model from the calibration step. As the end-effector/target distance decreases, the computed coordinates of the end-effector and target become more nearly affected by the same errors, so that the differences between their coordinates become increasingly precise. When the end-effector reaches the target, the remaining effective position error is the distance that corresponds to more than about one pixel in the stereoscopic images of the target.

  8. Scanned Image Projection System Employing Intermediate Image Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeJong, Christian Dean (Inventor); Hudman, Joshua M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    In imaging system, a spatial light modulator is configured to produce images by scanning a plurality light beams. A first optical element is configured to cause the plurality of light beams to converge along an optical path defined between the first optical element and the spatial light modulator. A second optical element is disposed between the spatial light modulator and a waveguide. The first optical element and the spatial light modulator are arranged such that an image plane is created between the spatial light modulator and the second optical element. The second optical element is configured to collect the diverging light from the image plane and collimate it. The second optical element then delivers the collimated light to a pupil at an input of the waveguide.

  9. Measurement of image plane illumination uniformity of photoelectric imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Deng-kui; Yang, Hong; Sha, Ding-guo; Jiang, Chang-lu; Chen, Min; Zhong, Xing-hui; Ma, Shi-bang; Yuan, Liang

    2014-09-01

    The image plane illumination nonuniformity caused by optical system or detector will affect the detection precision of photoelectric imaging system, especially in image guidance, positioning and recognition. An image plane illumination uniformity measurement device was set up, which was characteristiced of high uniformity and wide dynamic range. The device was composed of an asymmetric integrating sphere?the image collection and processing system, as well as the electrical control system.The asymmetric integrating sphere had two different radius,which was respectively 800mm and 1000mm.The spectral region was ?0.4~1.1??m, the illumination range was (110-4~2104)lx. The image collection and processing system had two different acquisition card,which were respectively used for analog and digital signals. The software can process for dynamic image or static image. The TracePro software was used to make a internal ray tracing of integrating sphere, the illumination uniformity at the export was simulated for the size of 330mm230mm and ? 100mm export, the results were respectively 97.95% and 98.33%. Then,an illuminometer was used to measure the actual illumination uniformity of integrating sphere, the result was shown the actual illumination uniformity was 98.8%. Finally, a visible photoelectric imaging system was tested ,and three different uniformity indicators results were given.

  10. Automatic determination of the imaging plane in lumbar MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaki, Tsurumaki; Lee, Yongbum; Tsai, Du-Yih; Sekiya, Masaru; Kazama, Kiyoko

    2006-03-01

    In this paper we describe a method for assisting radiological technologists in their routine work to automatically determine the imaging plane in lumbar MRI. The method is first to recognize the spinal cord and the intervertebral disk (ID) from the lumbar vertebra 3-plane localizer image, and then the imaging plane is automatically determined according to the recognition results. To determine the imaging plane, the spinal cord and the ID are automatically recognized from the lumbar vertebra 3-plane localizer image with a series of image processing techniques. The proposed method consists of three major steps. First, after removing the air and fat regions from the 3-plane localizer image by use of histogram analysis, the rachis region is specified with Sobel edge detection filter. Second, the spinal cord and the ID were respectively extracted from the specified rachis region making use of global thresholding and the line detection filter. Finally, the imaging plane is determined by finding the straight line between the spinal cord and the ID with the Hough transform. Image data of 10 healthy volunteers were used for investigation. To validate the usefulness of our proposed method, manual determination of the imaging plane was also conducted by five experienced radiological technologists. Our experimental results showed that the concordance rate between the manual setting and automatic determination reached to 90%. Moreover, a remarkable reduction in execution time for imaging-plane determination was also achieved.

  11. Fuzzy logic color detection: Blue areas in melanoma dermoscopy images

    PubMed Central

    Lingala, Mounika; Stanley, R. Joe; Rader, Ryan K.; Hagerty, Jason; Rabinovitz, Harold S.; Oliviero, Margaret; Choudhry, Iqra; Stoecker, William V.

    2014-01-01

    Fuzzy logic image analysis techniques were used to analyze three shades of blue (lavender blue, light blue, and dark blue) in dermoscopic images for melanoma detection. A logistic regression model provided up to 82.7% accuracy for melanoma discrimination for 866 images. With a support vector machines (SVM) classifier, lower accuracy was obtained for individual shades (79.980.1%) compared with up to 81.4% accuracy with multiple shades. All fuzzy blue logic alpha cuts scored higher than the crisp case. Fuzzy logic techniques applied to multiple shades of blue can assist in melanoma detection. These vector-based fuzzy logic techniques can be extended to other image analysis problems involving multiple colors or color shades. PMID:24786720

  12. Nonpolar m-plane gallium Nitride-based Laser Diodes in the Blue Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelchner, Kathryn M.

    Gallium nitride (GaN), together with its alloys with aluminum and indium, have revolutionized the solid-state optoelectronics market for their ability to emit a large portion of the visible electromagnetic spectrum from deep ultraviolet and into the infrared. GaN-based semiconductor laser diodes (LDs) with emission wavelengths in the violet, blue and green are already seeing widespread implementation in applications ranging from energy storage, lighting and displays. However, commercial GaN-based LDs use the basal c-plane orientation of the wurtzite crystal, which can suffer from large internal electric fields due to discontinuities in spontaneous and piezoelectric polarizations, limiting device performance. The nonpolar orientation of GaN benefits from the lack of polarization-induced electric field as well as enhanced gain. This dissertation discusses some of the benefits and limitations of m-plane oriented nonpolar GaN for LD applications in the true blue spectrum (450 nm). Topics include an overview of material growth by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), waveguide design and processing techniques for improving device performance for multiple lateral mode and single lateral mode ridge waveguides.

  13. Multiplane transesophageal echocardiography: a basic oblique plane patient imaging sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, M.; Rafferty, T.

    1998-01-01

    We have previously reported a standardized 10-step sequence of monoplane (transverse plane) transesophageal two-dimensional echocardiographic views and a standardized 7-step vertical plane examination, both suitable for expeditious intraoperative use by the beginning practitioner. A multiplane transesophageal examination involves transverse plane views, vertical plane views and the remaining "in-between" oblique plane views. This report describes a sequence of specific oblique views to be used as a framework for the completion of a multiplane transesophageal examination. Each of these steps is illustrated with a two-dimensional echocardiographic image, a matching diagram and a schematic representation of the corresponding axis of interrogation. This description of oblique plane imaging, therefore, completes the components of a multiplane transesophageal examination. Images Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 PMID:10604783

  14. Multimodal Plane Wave Imaging for Non-destructive Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Jeune, Lonard; Robert, Sbastien; Villaverde, Eduardo Lopez; Prada, Claire

    Ultrasonic imaging with high frame rates is of great interest in Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) to perform fast inspections. In this communication, we propose a new fast imaging method for NDT which is derived from the medical Plane Wave Imaging (PWI). The PWI method is applied to immersion-testing configurations (plane or complex water/steel interface between the probe and the image area) and to different imaging modes (imaging with direct or half-skip wave paths) according to the type of defects (point-like or extended crack-types defects).

  15. BATSE imaging survey of the Galactic plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindlay, J. E.; Barret, D.; Bloser, P. F.; Zhang, S. N.; Robinson, C.; Harmon, B. A.

    1997-01-01

    The burst and transient source experiment (BATSE) onboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) provides all sky monitoring capability, occultation analysis and occultation imaging which enables new and fainter sources to be searched for in relatively crowded fields. The occultation imaging technique is used in combination with an automated BATSE image scanner, allowing an analysis of large data sets of occultation images for detections of candidate sources and for the construction of source catalogs and data bases. This automated image scanner system is being tested on archival data in order to optimize the search and detection thresholds. The image search system, its calibration results and preliminary survey results on archival data are reported on. The aim of the survey is to identify a complete sample of black hole candidates in the galaxy and constrain the number of black hole systems and neutron star systems.

  16. Imaging of virtual objects with a plane periodic grating.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jianjie; Zhang, Weiping

    2009-10-15

    The purpose of this study is to let a plane periodic grating act as an imaging element for general objects. Using the Fresnel approximation and the Kirchhoff diffraction theory, we investigated an object wave diffracted by a grating. We demonstrated that an image of an original virtual object can be produced by the nth-order monochromatic diffracted wave of a grating. The impulse response of this imaging system and some imaging properties of this imaging system were obtained. PMID:19838283

  17. Recognising Planes in a Single Image.

    PubMed

    Haines, Osian; Calway, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    We present a novel method to recognise planar structures in a single image and estimate their 3D orientation. This is done by exploiting the relationship between image appearance and 3D structure, using machine learning methods with supervised training data. As such, the method does not require specific features or use geometric cues, such as vanishing points. We employ general feature representations based on spatiograms of gradients and colour, coupled with relevance vector machines for classification and regression. We first show that using hand-labelled training data, we are able to classify pre-segmented regions as being planar or not, and estimate their 3D orientation. We then incorporate the method into a segmentation algorithm to detect multiple planar structures from a previously unseen image. PMID:26353131

  18. Quantum image Gray-code and bit-plane scrambling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ri-Gui; Sun, Ya-Juan; Fan, Ping

    2015-05-01

    With the rapid development of multimedia technology, the image scrambling for information hiding and digital watermarking is crucial. But, in quantum image processing field, the study on image scrambling is still few. Several quantum image scrambling schemes are basically position space scrambling strategies; however, the quantum image scrambling focused on the color space does not exist. Therefore, in this paper, the quantum image Gray-code and bit-plane (GB) scrambling scheme, an entire color space scrambling strategy, is proposed boldly. On the strength of a quantum image representation NEQR, several different quantum scrambling methods using GB knowledge are designed. Not only can they change the histogram distribution of the image dramatically, some designed schemes can almost make the image histogram flush, enhance the anti-attack ability of digital image, but also their cost or complexity is very low. The simulation experiments result also shows a good performance and indicates the particular advantage of GB scrambling in quantum image processing field.

  19. Two-Sided Coded Aperture Imaging Without a Detector Plane

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter; Cunningham, Mark F; Fabris, Lorenzo

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a novel design for a two-sided, coded-aperture, gamma-ray imager suitable for use in stand off detection of orphan radioactive sources. The design is an extension of an active-mask imager that would have three active planes of detector material, a central plane acting as the detector for two (active) coded-aperture mask planes, one on either side of the detector plane. In the new design the central plane is removed and the mask on the left (right) serves as the detector plane for the mask on the right (left). This design reduces the size, mass, complexity, and cost of the overall instrument. In addition, if one has fully position-sensitive detectors, then one can use the two planes as a classic Compton camera. This enhances the instrument's sensitivity at higher energies where the coded-aperture efficiency is decreased by mask penetration. A plausible design for the system is found and explored with Monte Carlo simulations.

  20. Quantitative analysis of sperm plane circular movement in the blue mussels Mytilus edulis, M. trossulus and their hybrids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangxu; Innes, David; Thompson, Raymond J

    2011-06-01

    Fertilization success of free spawning organisms such as Mytilus species depends on gamete interactions. Therefore, gamete traits such as sperm movement are important for determining fertilization success in free spawning organisms. Since little is known about sperm movement pattern in Mytilus species, the purpose of this study was to investigate sperm movement pattern of blue mussel M. edulis, M. trossulus and their hybrids using computer-assisted sperm movement video analysis. Sperm of all genotypes were found to conduct circular movement in a two-dimensional plane. Furthermore, new sperm movement parameters, real time radius (R), angle change rate (θ) and the center of circular track (O(t)) were developed to verify and quantitatively describe the plane circular movement pattern using software (Image-J) that may be widely applied to sperm movement study in other organisms. Angle change rate was positively correlated to fertilization success. However, no correlation between fertilization and real time radius was detected. Although no interspecific differences were found in the radius, the F¹ (first generation) hybrid sperm had a lower angle change rate than M. edulis and M. trossulus. Published studies have shown that sperm circular movement is more prevalent in aquatic broadcast spawning species than in species with mating behavior or internal fertilization. Therefore, a two-dimensional circular movement pattern in sperm may represent a trait that increases fertilization success for broadcast spawning species by either increasing gamete interaction rate at a small scale and/or avoiding swimming further away from the eggs before sperm detects the chemoattractant gradient. PMID:21360686

  1. Noninvasive Vascular Elastography With Plane Strain Incompressibility Assumption Using Ultrafast Coherent Compound Plane Wave Imaging.

    PubMed

    Poree, Jonathan; Garcia, Damien; Chayer, Boris; Ohayon, Jacques; Cloutier, Guy

    2015-12-01

    Plane strain tensor estimation using non-invasive vascular ultrasound elastography (NIVE) can be difficult to achieve using conventional focus beamforming due to limited lateral resolution and frame rate. Recent developments in compound plane wave (CPW) imaging have led to high speed and high resolution imaging. In this study, we present the performance of NIVE using coherent CPW. We show the impact of CPW beamforming on strain estimates compared to conventional focus sequences. To overcome the inherent variability of lateral strains, associated with the low lateral resolution of linear array transducers, we use the plane strain incompressibility to constrain the estimator. Taking advantage of the approximate tenfold increase in frame rate of CPW compared with conventional focus imaging, we introduce a time-ensemble estimation approach to further improve the elastogram quality. By combining CPW imaging with the constrained Lagrangian speckle model estimator, we observe an increase in elastography quality ( ?10 dB both in signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios) over a wide range of applied strains (0.02 to 3.2%). PMID:26625341

  2. Coded Excitation Plane Wave Imaging for Shear Wave Motion Detection

    PubMed Central

    Song, Pengfei; Urban, Matthew W.; Manduca, Armando; Greenleaf, James F.; Chen, Shigao

    2015-01-01

    Plane wave imaging has greatly advanced the field of shear wave elastography thanks to its ultrafast imaging frame rate and the large field-of-view (FOV). However, plane wave imaging also has decreased penetration due to lack of transmit focusing, which makes it challenging to use plane waves for shear wave detection in deep tissues and in obese patients. This study investigated the feasibility of implementing coded excitation in plane wave imaging for shear wave detection, with the hypothesis that coded ultrasound signals can provide superior detection penetration and shear wave signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) compared to conventional ultrasound signals. Both phase encoding (Barker code) and frequency encoding (chirp code) methods were studied. A first phantom experiment showed an approximate penetration gain of 2-4 cm for the coded pulses. Two subsequent phantom studies showed that all coded pulses outperformed the conventional short imaging pulse by providing superior sensitivity to small motion and robustness to weak ultrasound signals. Finally, an in vivo liver case study on an obese subject (Body Mass Index = 40) demonstrated the feasibility of using the proposed method for in vivo applications, and showed that all coded pulses could provide higher SNR shear wave signals than the conventional short pulse. These findings indicate that by using coded excitation shear wave detection, one can benefit from the ultrafast imaging frame rate and large FOV provided by plane wave imaging while preserving good penetration and shear wave signal quality, which is essential for obtaining robust shear elasticity measurements of tissue. PMID:26168181

  3. Staring infrared focal plane arrays for thermal imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jitescu, Florina; Novac, Octavian

    2000-02-01

    Thermal imaging converts the IR radiation of a scene into a live picture of that scene; the thermal image is a pictorial representation of temperature differences. One of the most promising new sensor for thermal imaging is the IR focal plane array. The IR focal plane array consists of a large number of minuscule IR detectors which can resolve targets as little as one tenth of a degree warmer than their surroundings, and offer enormous gains in data throughput per unit time without mechanical scanning. Imaging arrays are the most advanced IR detectors and commonplace in products ranging form hand-held IR cameras for industry and security use, to sophisticated systems for military applications.

  4. Parallax handling of image stitching using dominant-plane homography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Zhaofeng; Li, Cheng; Zhao, Baojun; Tang, Linbo

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we present a novel image stitching method to handle parallax in practical application. For images with significant amount of parallax, the more effective approach is to align roughly and globally the overlapping regions and then apply a seam-cutting method to composite naturally stitched images. It is well known that images can be modeled by various planes result from the projective parallax under non-ideal imaging condition. The dominant-plane homography has important advantages of warping an image globally and avoiding some local distortions. The proposed method primarily addresses large parallax problem through two steps: (1) selecting matching point pairs located on the dominant plane, by clustering matching correspondences and then measuring the cost of each cluster; and (2) in order to obtain a plausible seam, edge maps of overlapped area incorporation arithmetic is adopted to modify the standard seam-cutting method. Furthermore, our approach is demonstrated to achieve reliable performance of handling parallax through a mass of experimental comparisons with state-of-the-art methods.

  5. Unidirectional Computational Integral Imaging Technique for Perspective Plane-Image Reconstruction of Three-Dimensional Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Dong-Hak; Yoo, Hoon

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents a computational integral imaging (CII) technique based on a unidirectional reconstruction to provide perspective plane images of three-dimensional (3D) objects for occluded object recognition and visualization. CII has been widely investigated for 3D passive imaging systems. However, the conventional CII method provides only front-view plane images along the z axis. In this paper, we propose a new computational method to reconstruct perspective-view plane images of 3D objects. We introduce unidirectional elemental images extracted from original elemental images. The unidirectional elemental images produced by our method with respect to an observation angle are utilized to reconstruct various perspective plane images. Experimental results indicate the efficacy of the proposed method. Also, the proposed method is performed fast due to the nature of the unidirectional processing.

  6. Ultrafast acousto-optic imaging with ultrasonic plane waves.

    PubMed

    Laudereau, Jean-Baptiste; Grabar, Alexander A; Tanter, Mickaël; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Ramaz, François

    2016-02-22

    Due to multiple light scattering inside biological tissues, deep non-invasive optical medical imaging is very challenging. Acousto-optic imaging is a technique coupling ultrasound and light that allows recovering optical contrast at depths of few centimeters with a millimeter resolution. Recent advances in acousto-optic imaging are using short focused ultrasound pulses often averaged over several hundred or thousand pulses. As the pulsing rate of commercial probes is limited to about few ultrasound cycles every 100 μs, acquiring an acousto-optic image usually takes several tens of seconds due to the high number of acoustic pulses excitation. We propose here a new acousto-optic imaging technique based on the use of ultrasound plane waves instead of focused ones that allows increasing drastically the imaging rate. PMID:26907033

  7. Lower-Dark-Current, Higher-Blue-Response CMOS Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata; Cunningham, Thomas; Hancock, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Several improved designs for complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated-circuit image detectors have been developed, primarily to reduce dark currents (leakage currents) and secondarily to increase responses to blue light and increase signal-handling capacities, relative to those of prior CMOS imagers. The main conclusion that can be drawn from a study of the causes of dark currents in prior CMOS imagers is that dark currents could be reduced by relocating p/n junctions away from Si/SiO2 interfaces. In addition to reflecting this conclusion, the improved designs include several other features to counteract dark-current mechanisms and enhance performance.

  8. Stolt's f-k migration for plane wave ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Damien; Le Tarnec, Louis; Muth, Stéphan; Montagnon, Emmanuel; Porée, Jonathan; Cloutier, Guy

    2013-09-01

    Ultrafast ultrasound is an emerging modality that offers new perspectives and opportunities in medical imaging. Plane wave imaging (PWI) allows one to attain very high frame rates by transmission of planar ultrasound wave-fronts. As a plane wave reaches a given scatterer, the latter becomes a secondary source emitting upward spherical waves and creating a diffraction hyperbola in the received RF signals. To produce an image of the scatterers, all the hyperbolas must be migrated back to their apexes. To perform beamforming of plane wave echo RFs and return high-quality images at high frame rates, we propose a new migration method carried out in the frequency-wavenumber (f-k) domain. The f-k migration for PWI has been adapted from the Stolt migration for seismic imaging. This migration technique is based on the exploding reflector model (ERM), which consists in assuming that all the scatterers explode in concert and become acoustic sources. The classical ERM model, however, is not appropriate for PWI. We showed that the ERM can be made suitable for PWI by a spatial transformation of the hyperbolic traces present in the RF data. In vitro experiments were performed to outline the advantages of PWI with Stolt's f-k migration over the conventional delay-and-sum (DAS) approach. The Stolt's f-k migration was also compared with the Fourier-based method developed by J.-Y. Lu. Our findings show that multi-angle compounded f-k migrated images are of quality similar to those obtained with a stateof- the-art dynamic focusing mode. This remained true even with a very small number of steering angles, thus ensuring a highly competitive frame rate. In addition, the new FFT-based f-k migration provides comparable or better contrast-to-noise ratio and lateral resolution than the Lu's and DAS migration schemes. Matlab codes for the Stolt's f-k migration for PWI are provided. PMID:24626107

  9. Fundamentals of multiple plane stereo particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kähler, C. J.; Kompenhans, J.

    For complex flow analysis in air, a stereoscopic particle image velocimetry-based system was developed, tested and applied which allows the determination of all three velocity components in spatially separated planes simultaneously (in order to determine the vorticity vector field for example) or separated in time (for space-time investigations). For this purpose, the flow field was illuminated with orthogonally linearly polarized light delivered by four frequency doubled Nd:YAG lasers. The light scattered by the tracer particles was separated by means of a polarizing beam-splitter pair onto the sensors of four progressive-scan CCD cameras in an angular imaging configuration with Scheimpflug correction.

  10. Fundamentals of multiple plane stereo particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kähler, C. J.; Kompenhans, J.

    2000-12-01

    For complex flow analysis in air, a stereoscopic particle image velocimetry-based system was developed, tested and applied which allows the determination of all three velocity components in spatially separated planes simultaneously (in order to determine the vorticity vector field for example) or separated in time (for space-time investigations). For this purpose, the flow field was illuminated with orthogonally linearly polarized light delivered by four frequency doubled Nd:YAG lasers. The light scattered by the tracer particles was separated by means of a polarizing beam-splitter pair onto the sensors of four progressive-scan CCD cameras in an angular imaging configuration with Scheimpflug correction.

  11. Search Image Formation in the Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata).

    PubMed

    Pietrewicz, A T; Kamil, A C

    1979-06-22

    Blue jays trained to detect Catocala moths in slides were exposed to two types of slide series containing these moths: series of one species and series of two species intermixed. In one-species series, detection ability increased with successive encounters with one prey type. No similar effect occurred in two-species series. These results are a direct demonstration of a specific search image. PMID:17813172

  12. Integral imaging with variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid crystal layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yunhee; Choi, Heejin; Kim, Joohwan; Cho, Seong-Woo; Lee, Byoungho

    2006-10-01

    In this paper, we propose an integral imaging with variable image planes using PDLC (polymer-dispersed liquid crystal) films. Parallel layered PDLC films and a projector are adopted as a display system and enable to vary the location of image plane. We can control the transparency of PDLC films electrically and make each film diffuse the projected light successively with different depth from lens array. The explanation of the proposed system is provided and the experimental results are also presented.

  13. Image-plane processing for improved computer vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, F. O.; Fales, C. L.; Park, S. K.; Samms, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    The proper combination of optical design with image plane processing, as in the mechanism of human vision, which allows to improve the performance of sensor array imaging systems for edge detection and location was examined. Two dimensional bandpass filtering during image formation, optimizes edge enhancement and minimizes data transmission. It permits control of the spatial imaging system response to tradeoff edge enhancement for sensitivity at low light levels. It is shown that most of the information, up to about 94%, is contained in the signal intensity transitions from which the location of edges is determined for raw primal sketches. Shading the lens transmittance to increase depth of field and using a hexagonal instead of square sensor array lattice to decrease sensitivity to edge orientation improves edge information about 10%.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of the heart: positioning and gradient angle selection for optimal imaging planes

    SciTech Connect

    Dinsmore, R.E.; Wismer, G.L.; Levine, R.A.; Okada, R.D.; Brady, T.J.

    1984-12-01

    Electrocardiographically gated magnetic resonance images were acquired in 20 subjects using a spin-echo pulse sequence. For optimizing the display of cardiac anatomy, a technique was developed which uses patients positioning in addition to alteration of gradient angle to select image planes. High-quality images were acquired in three basic cardiac projections: (1) the long axis of the left ventricle, through the aortic valve and apex, parallel to the interventricular septum, (2) the long axis of the left ventricle, perpendicular to the septum, and (3) the short axis of the left ventricle at multiple levels including outflow, papillary muscle, and apex. Images of the aorta included axial images at multiple levels and long-axis images oriented to display the plane of the aortic arch. Images of these planes are easily achieved and, in contrast to standard images orthogonal to the chest wall, provide a reproductible and logical display of cardiac anatomy.

  15. Achromatic Focal Plane Mask for Exoplanet Imaging Coronagraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Kevin Edward; Belikov, Ruslan; Guyon, Olivier; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Wilson, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in coronagraph technologies for exoplanet imaging have achieved contrasts close to 1e10 at 4 lambda/D and 1e-9 at 2 lambda/D in monochromatic light. A remaining technological challenge is to achieve high contrast in broadband light; a challenge that is largely limited by chromaticity of the focal plane mask. The size of a star image scales linearly with wavelength. Focal plane masks are typically the same size at all wavelengths, and must be sized for the longest wavelength in the observational band to avoid starlight leakage. However, this oversized mask blocks useful discovery space from the shorter wavelengths. We present here the design, development, and testing of an achromatic focal plane mask based on the concept of optical filtering by a diffractive optical element (DOE). The mask consists of an array of DOE cells, the combination of which functions as a wavelength filter with any desired amplitude and phase transmission. The effective size of the mask scales nearly linearly with wavelength, and allows significant improvement in the inner working angle of the coronagraph at shorter wavelengths. The design is applicable to almost any coronagraph configuration, and enables operation in a wider band of wavelengths than would otherwise be possible. We include initial results from a laboratory demonstration of the mask with the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization coronagraph.

  16. Edge detection - Image-plane versus digital processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Park, Stephen K.; Triplett, Judith A.

    1987-01-01

    To optimize edge detection with the familiar Laplacian-of-Gaussian operator, it has become common to implement this operator with a large digital convolution mask followed by some interpolation of the processed data to determine the zero crossings that locate edges. It is generally recognized that this large mask causes substantial blurring of fine detail. It is shown that the spatial detail can be improved by a factor of about four with either the Wiener-Laplacian-of-Gaussian filter or an image-plane processor. The Wiener-Laplacian-of-Gaussian filter minimizes the image-gathering degradations if the scene statistics are at least approximately known and also serves as an interpolator to determine the desired zero crossings directly. The image-plane processor forms the Laplacian-of-Gaussian response by properly combining the optical design of the image-gathering system with a minimal three-by-three lateral-inhibitory processing mask. This approach, which is suggested by Marr's model of early processing in human vision, also reduces data processing by about two orders of magnitude and data transmission by up to an order of magnitude.

  17. Uncooled infrared focal plane array imaging in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Shuyu

    2015-06-01

    This article reviews the development of uncooled infrared focal plane array (UIFPA) imaging in China in the past decade. Sensors based on optical or electrical read-out mechanism were developed but the latter dominates the market. In resistive bolometers, VOx and amorphous silicon are still the two major thermal-sensing materials. The specifications of the IRFPA made by different manufactures were collected and compared. Currently more than five Chinese companies and institutions design and fabricate uncooled infrared focal plane array. Some devices have sensitivity as high as 30 mK; the largest array for commercial products is 640×512 and the smallest pixel size is 17 μm. Emphasis is given on the pixel MEMS design, ROIC design, fabrication, and packaging of the IRFPA manufactured by GWIC, especially on design for high sensitivities, low noise, better uniformity and linearity, better stabilization for whole working temperature range, full-digital design, etc.

  18. Simultaneous Multi-plane Imaging of Neural Circuits.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weijian; Miller, Jae-Eun Kang; Carrillo-Reid, Luis; Pnevmatikakis, Eftychios; Paninski, Liam; Yuste, Rafael; Peterka, Darcy S

    2016-01-20

    Recording the activity of large populations of neurons is an important step toward understanding theemergent function of neural circuits. Here we present a simple holographic method to simultaneously perform two-photon calcium imaging of neuronal populations across multiple areas and layers of mouse cortex invivo. We use prior knowledge of neuronal locations, activity sparsity, and a constrained nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm to extract signals from neurons imaged simultaneously and located in different focal planes or fields of view. Our laser multiplexing approach is simple and fast, and could be used as a general method to image the activity of neural circuits in three dimensions across multiple areas in the brain. PMID:26774159

  19. Distance of the image plane from metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, N. V.; Chen, C. T.; Weinert, M.

    1989-10-01

    The data base of surface-state energies on the metals Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd, and Pt is assembled and, with the aid of a simple model, is used to estimate the distance of the image plane and its trends from surface to surface and metal to metal. The model combines a nearly-free-electron representation of the crystal with a Jones-Jennings-Jepsen ansatz for the saturated image barrier. The projected bulk-band gaps are taken from published determinations. Constraints are placed on the surface barrier parameters by appeal to the results of self-consistent first-principles slab calculations. The general experimental trend observed is for the image-plane distance z0 to decrease in the sequence (111) to (001) to (110), in the same sense but not as rapidly as zJ, the distance of the effective jellium edge. This trend is rationalized using a simple model of the tail of the surface charge density. Typical values for z0-zJ fall in the range -0.2 to +0.5 a.u., with the larger values occurring for the 3d metals Cu and Ni.

  20. Design of scale distorting imaging devices with tilted object plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahlweg, Cornelius; Pescoller, Lukas

    2012-10-01

    The current paper deals with the design of macro imaging optics with x-y-ratios significantly differing from unity. Such optics might be based on combinations of cylindrical lenses. Description and design procedures use the paraxial method. Special attention is drawn to questions of aperture stop design and some Fourier optical consequences. A next step would be consideration of tilted object planes and the satisfaction of the Scheimpflug rule, which finally leads to a simple realization. The paper can be seen as a follow up to last year's papers on Fourier optics vs. the Scheimpflug principle and multiple reflections in lenses.

  1. Terahertz imaging with Si MOSFET focal-plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisauskas, A.; Glaab, D.; Roskos, H. G.; Oejefors, E.; Pfeiffer, U. R.

    2009-02-01

    We report on imaging at terahertz frequencies using a 3x5 Si MOSFET focal-plane array (FPA) processed by a 0.25-?m CMOS technology. Each pixel of the FPA consists of a 645-GHz patch antenna coupled to a FET detector and a 43-dB voltage amplifier with a 1.6-MHz bandwidth. We achieve a typical single-pixel responsivity of 80 kV/W and a noise-equivalent power (NEP) of 300 pW/?Hz at 30-kHz. The performance data of these all-CMOS devices pave the way for the realization of broad-band THz detectors and FPAs for video-rate active imaging on the basis of established low-cost and integration-friendly CMOS technology.

  2. Concurrent Monitoring of In-plane Strain and Out-of-plane Displacement of Tire Using Digital Image Correlation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraoka, Naoki; Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Todoroki, Akira

    In order to improve performance of anti lock brake system (ABS) and detect condition of road surface, intelligent tires that monitor strain of interior surface and rolling radius of tire are demanded. However, the high stiffness of an attached sensor like a strain gauge causes debonding of sensors from tire rubber. In the present study, noncontact concurrent monitoring method is proposed using digital image correlation method (DICM) and spotlight projection. In-plane strain and out-of-plane displacement (rolling radius) are calculated by using image processing with an image of interior surface of tire that is taken with a single CCD camera fixed on wheel rim. New monitoring system is applied to Al beam and commercially available radial tire. As a result, this monitoring system is proved to be able to measure in-plane strain and out-of-plane displacement with high accuracy, and confirmed to be effective for concurrent monitoring of tires.

  3. Photoacoustic lifetime imaging of dissolved oxygen using methylene blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenazi, Shai

    2010-07-01

    Measuring distribution of dissolved oxygen in biological tissue is of prime interest for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy optimization. Tumor hypoxia indicates poor prognosis and resistance to radiotherapy. Despite its major clinical significance, no current imaging modality provides direct imaging of tissue oxygen. We present preliminary results demonstrating the potential of photoacoustic lifetime imaging (PALI) for noninvasive, 3-D imaging of tissue oxygen. The technique is based on photoacoustic probing of the excited state lifetime of methylene blue (MB) dye. MB is an FDA-approved water soluble dye with a peak absorption at 660 nm. A double pulse laser system (pump probe) is used to excite the dye and probe its transient absorption by detecting photoacoustic emission. The relaxation rate of MB depends linearly on oxygen concentration. Our measurements show high photoacoustic signal contrast at a probe wavelength of 810 nm, where the excited state absorption is more than four times higher than the ground state absorption. Imaging of a simple phantom is demonstrated. We conclude by discussing possible implementations of the technique in clinical settings and combining it with photodynamic therapy (PDT) for real-time therapy monitoring.

  4. Imaging Polarimetry With Polarization-Sensitive Focal Planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobiev, Dmitry; Ninkov, Z.

    2014-01-01

    We present a compact, lightweight, snapshot imaging polarimeter designed for operation in the near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR). Flux, polarization and spectral energy distribution are the fundamental measurements through which we infer properties of the sources of radiation such as intensity, temperature, chemical composition, emission mechanisms and structure. In recent decades, many scientific fields that utilize radiometry and spectroscopy have benefited from revolutionary improvements in instrumentation, for example, charge-coupled devices, hybridized infrared arrays, multi-object spectrometers and adaptive optics. Advances in polarimetric instrumentation have been more modest. Recently, the fabrication of microgrid polarizer arrays (MGPAs), facilitated the development of polarization-sensitive focal planes. These devices have inherent capability to measure the degree and angle of polarization across a scene (i.e., imaging polarimetry) instantaneously, without the need for multiple exposures and moving optics or multiple detectors. MGPA-based devices are compact, lightweight, and mechanically robust and perfectly suited for deployment on space-based and airborne platforms. We describe the design, operation and expected performance of MGPA-based imaging polarimeters and identify the applications for which these polarimeters are best suited.

  5. A CMOS Imager with Focal Plane Compression using Predictive Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon-Salas, Walter D.; Balkir, Sina; Sayood, Khalid; Schemm, Nathan; Hoffman, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a CMOS image sensor with focal-plane compression. The design has a column-level architecture and it is based on predictive coding techniques for image decorrelation. The prediction operations are performed in the analog domain to avoid quantization noise and to decrease the area complexity of the circuit, The prediction residuals are quantized and encoded by a joint quantizer/coder circuit. To save area resources, the joint quantizerlcoder circuit exploits common circuitry between a single-slope analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and a Golomb-Rice entropy coder. This combination of ADC and encoder allows the integration of the entropy coder at the column level. A prototype chip was fabricated in a 0.35 pm CMOS process. The output of the chip is a compressed bit stream. The test chip occupies a silicon area of 2.60 mm x 5.96 mm which includes an 80 X 44 APS array. Tests of the fabricated chip demonstrate the validity of the design.

  6. MAGPIS: A MULTI-ARRAY GALACTIC PLANE IMAGING SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Helfand, D J; Becker, R H; White, R L; Fallon, A; Tuttle, S

    2005-11-10

    We present the Multi-Array Galactic Plane Imaging Survey (MAGPIS), which maps portions of the first Galactic quadrant with an angular resolution, sensitivity and dynamic range that surpasses existing radio images of the Milky Way by more than an order of magnitude. The source detection threshold at 20 cm is in the range 1-2 mJy over the 85% of the survey region (5{sup o} < l < 32{sup o}, |b| < 0.8{sup o}) not covered by bright extended emission; the angular resolution is {approx} 6''. We catalog over 3000 discrete sources (diameters mostly < 30'') and present an atlas of {approx} 400 diffuse emission regions. New and archival data at 90 cm for the whole survey area are also presented. Comparison of our catalogs and images with the MSX mid-infrared data allow us to provide preliminary discrimination between thermal and non-thermal sources. We identify 49 high-probability supernova remnant candidates, increasing by a factor of seven the number of known remnants with diameters smaller than 50 in the survey region; several are pulsar wind nebula candidates and/or very small diameter remnants (D < 45''). We report the tentative identification of several hundred H II regions based on a comparison with the mid-IR data; they range in size from unresolved ultra-compact sources to large complexes of diffuse emission on scales of half a degree. In several of the latter regions, cospatial nonthermal emission illustrates the interplay between stellar death and birth. We comment briefly on plans for followup observations and our extension of the survey; when complemented by data from ongoing X-ray and mid-IR observations, we expect MAGPIS to provide an important contribution to our understanding of the birth and death of massive stars in the Milky Way.

  7. Virtual-image generation in 360-degree viewable image-plane disk-type multiplex holography.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yih-Shyang; Chen, Zheng-Feng; Chen, Chih-Hung

    2013-04-22

    By shifting the rotational axis of the recording film and recording the individual image-plane holograms in reversed sequence with the real-image holographic system [Opt. Express 18, 14012 (2010)], the disk-type multiplex hologram can be made to generate virtual image for walk-around viewing if the recording reference source point is maintained on the symmetry axis of hologram disk. Theoretical formulation and numerical simulation show the characteristics of the reconstructed image. Experimental results are also shown for qualitative comparison. PMID:23609740

  8. Combatting infrared focal plane array nonuniformity noise in imaging polarimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratliff, Bradley M.; Kumar, Rakesh; Black, Wiley; Boger, James K.; Tyo, J. Scott

    2005-08-01

    One of the most significant challenges in performing infrared (IR) polarimetery is the focal plane array (FPA) nonuniformity (NU) noise that is inherent in virtually all IR photodetector technologies that operate in the midwave IR (MWIR) or long-wave IR (LWIR). NU noise results from pixel-to-pixel variations in the repsonsivity of the photodetectors. This problem is especially severy in the microengineered IR FPA materials like HgCdTe and InSb, as well as in uncooled IR microbolometer sensors. Such problems are largely absent from Si based visible spectrum FPAs. The pixel response is usually a variable nonlinear response function, and even when the response is linearized over some range of temperatures, the gain and offset of the resulting response is usually highly variable. NU noise is normally corrected by applying a linear calibration to the data, but the resulting imagery still retains residual nonuniformity due to the nonlinearity of the photodetector responses. This residual nonuniformity is particularly troublesome for polarimeters because of the addition and subtraction operations that must be performed on the images in order to construct the Stokes parameters or other polarization products. In this paper we explore the impact of NU noise on full stokes and linear-polarization-only IR polarimeters. We compare the performance of division of time, division of amplitude, and division of array polarimeters in the presence of both NU and temporal noise, and assess the ability of calibration-based NU correction schemes to clean up the data.

  9. Automatic detection of blue-white veil and related structures in dermoscopy images.

    PubMed

    Celebi, M Emre; Iyatomi, Hitoshi; Stoecker, William V; Moss, Randy H; Rabinovitz, Harold S; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Soyer, H Peter

    2008-12-01

    Dermoscopy is a non-invasive skin imaging technique, which permits visualization of features of pigmented melanocytic neoplasms that are not discernable by examination with the naked eye. One of the most important features for the diagnosis of melanoma in dermoscopy images is the blue-white veil (irregular, structureless areas of confluent blue pigmentation with an overlying white "ground-glass" film). In this article, we present a machine learning approach to the detection of blue-white veil and related structures in dermoscopy images. The method involves contextual pixel classification using a decision tree classifier. The percentage of blue-white areas detected in a lesion combined with a simple shape descriptor yielded a sensitivity of 69.35% and a specificity of 89.97% on a set of 545 dermoscopy images. The sensitivity rises to 78.20% for detection of blue veil in those cases where it is a primary feature for melanoma recognition. PMID:18804955

  10. Plane Wave Imaging for ultrasonic non-destructive testing: Generalization to multimodal imaging.

    PubMed

    Le Jeune, Lonard; Robert, Sbastien; Lopez Villaverde, Eduardo; Prada, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a new ultrasonic array imaging method for Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) which is derived from the medical Plane Wave Imaging (PWI) technique. The objective is to perform fast ultrasound imaging with high image quality. The approach is to transmit plane waves at several angles and to record the back-scattered signals with all the array elements. Focusing in receive is then achieved by coherent summations of the signals in every point of a region of interest. The medical PWI is generalized to immersion setups where water acts as a coupling medium and to multimodal (direct, half-skip modes) imaging in order to detect different types of defects (inclusions, porosities, cracks). This method is compared to the Total Focusing Method (TFM) which is the reference imaging technique in NDT. First, the two post-processing algorithms are described. Then experimental results with the array probe either in contact or in immersion are presented. A good agreement between the TFM and the PWI is observed, with three to ten times less transmissions required for the PWI. PMID:26323547

  11. Depth-enhanced integral imaging display system with electrically variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal layers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yunhee; Choi, Heejin; Kim, Joohwan; Cho, Seong-Woo; Kim, Youngmin; Park, Gilbae; Lee, Byoungho

    2007-06-20

    A depth-enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging system with electrically variable image planes is proposed. For implementing the variable image planes, polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal (PDLC) films and a projector are adopted as a new display system in the integral imaging. Since the transparencies of PDLC films are electrically controllable, we can make each film diffuse the projected light successively with a different depth from the lens array. As a result, the proposed method enables control of the location of image planes electrically and enhances the depth. The principle of the proposed method is described, and experimental results are also presented. PMID:17538673

  12. Depth-enhanced integral imaging display system with electrically variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yunhee; Choi, Heejin; Kim, Joohwan; Cho, Seong-Woo; Kim, Youngmin; Park, Gilbae; Lee, Byoungho

    2007-06-01

    A depth-enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging system with electrically variable image planes is proposed. For implementing the variable image planes, polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal (PDLC) films and a projector are adopted as a new display system in the integral imaging. Since the transparencies of PDLC films are electrically controllable, we can make each film diffuse the projected light successively with a different depth from the lens array. As a result, the proposed method enables control of the location of image planes electrically and enhances the depth. The principle of the proposed method is described, and experimental results are also presented.

  13. Blue laser imaging endoscopy system for the early detection and characterization of colorectal lesions: a guide for the endoscopist.

    PubMed

    Togashi, Kazutomo; Nemoto, Daiki; Utano, Kenichi; Isohata, Noriyuki; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Endo, Shungo; Lefor, Alan K

    2016-01-01

    Blue laser imaging is a new system for image-enhanced endoscopy using laser light. Blue laser imaging utilizes two monochromatic lasers (410 and 450 nm) instead of xenon light. A 410 nm laser visualizes vascular microarchitecture, similar to narrow band imaging, and a 450 nm laser provides white light by excitation. According to three recently published reports, the diagnostic ability of polyp characterization using blue laser imaging compares favorably with narrow band imaging. No published data are available to date regarding polyp detection with blue laser imaging. However, blue laser imaging has the possibility to increase the detection of colorectal polyps by depicting brighter and clearer endoscopic images, even at a distant view, compared with first-generation image-enhanced endoscopy. A clinical trial to compare the detection between blue laser imaging and xenon light is warranted. PMID:26770267

  14. Blue laser imaging endoscopy system for the early detection and characterization of colorectal lesions: a guide for the endoscopist

    PubMed Central

    Togashi, Kazutomo; Nemoto, Daiki; Utano, Kenichi; Isohata, Noriyuki; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Endo, Shungo; Lefor, Alan K.

    2016-01-01

    Blue laser imaging is a new system for image-enhanced endoscopy using laser light. Blue laser imaging utilizes two monochromatic lasers (410 and 450 nm) instead of xenon light. A 410 nm laser visualizes vascular microarchitecture, similar to narrow band imaging, and a 450 nm laser provides white light by excitation. According to three recently published reports, the diagnostic ability of polyp characterization using blue laser imaging compares favorably with narrow band imaging. No published data are available to date regarding polyp detection with blue laser imaging. However, blue laser imaging has the possibility to increase the detection of colorectal polyps by depicting brighter and clearer endoscopic images, even at a distant view, compared with first-generation image-enhanced endoscopy. A clinical trial to compare the detection between blue laser imaging and xenon light is warranted. PMID:26770267

  15. Research on spatial-variant property of bistatic ISAR imaging plane of space target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bao-Feng; Wang, Jun-Ling; Gao, Mei-Guo

    2015-04-01

    The imaging plane of inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) is the projection plane of the target. When taking an image using the range-Doppler theory, the imaging plane may have a spatial-variant property, which causes the change of scatter’s projection position and results in migration through resolution cells. In this study, we focus on the spatial-variant property of the imaging plane of a three-axis-stabilized space target. The innovative contributions are as follows. 1) The target motion model in orbit is provided based on a two-body model. 2) The instantaneous imaging plane is determined by the method of vector analysis. 3) Three Euler angles are introduced to describe the spatial-variant property of the imaging plane, and the image quality is analyzed. The simulation results confirm the analysis of the spatial-variant property. The research in this study is significant for the selection of the imaging segment, and provides the evidence for the following data processing and compensation algorithm. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61401024), the Shanghai Aerospace Science and Technology Innovation Foundation, China (Grant No. SAST201240), and the Basic Research Foundation of Beijing Institute of Technology (Grant No. 20140542001).

  16. Fast sub-pixel accuracy stereo image matching based on disparity plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Nan; Qu, Yufu; Li, Yueping

    2015-08-01

    To avoid "stair-casing effect" in the disparity map when dealing with slant plane, curved surface and weak texture region, an improved fast dense stereo matching algorithm based on disparity plane estimation is proposed. First, a set of support points are extracted from the edge of the original matching images and the description images. Second, Delaunay triangulation disparity planes are calculated using all the support points. Third, the sub-pixel disparity map is computed from the best support points and parameters of the Delaunay triangulation disparity planes. Finally, experimental results show that the "stair-casing effect" caused by slant plane, curved surface and weak texture region is eliminated by using the presented method. In addition, the proposed method spends less than 600ms on a one-megapixel image averagely.

  17. The application of digital image plane holography technology to identify Chinese herbal medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huaying; Guo, Zhongjia; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Zhihui

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, the imaging technology of digital image plane holography to identify the Chinese herbal medicine is studied. The optical experiment system of digital image plane holography which is the special case of pre-magnification digital holography was built. In the record system, one is an object light by using plane waves which illuminates the object, and the other one is recording hologram by using spherical light wave as reference light. There is a Micro objective lens behind the object. The second phase factor which caus ed by the Micro objective lens can be eliminated by choosing the proper position of the reference point source when digital image plane holography is recorded by spherical light. In this experiment, we use the Lygodium cells and Onion cells as the object. The experiment results with Lygodium cells and Onion cells show that digital image plane holography avoid the process of finding recording distance by using auto-focusing approach, and the phase information of the object can be reconstructed more accurately. The digital image plane holography is applied to the microscopic imaging of cells more effectively, and it is suit to apply for the identify of Chinese Herbal Medicine. And it promotes the application of digital holographic in practice.

  18. The application of digital image plane holography technology to identify Chinese herbal medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huaying; Guo, Zhongjia; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Zhihui

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, the imaging technology of digital image plane holography to identify the Chinese herbal medicine is studied. The optical experiment system of digital image plane holography which is the special case of pre-magnification digital holography was built. In the record system, one is an object light by using plane waves which illuminates the object, and the other one is recording hologram by using spherical light wave as reference light. There is a Micro objective lens behind the object. The second phase factor which caus ed by the Micro objective lens can be eliminated by choosing the proper position of the reference point source when digital image plane holography is recorded by spherical light. In this experiment, we use the Lygodium cells and Onion cells as the object. The experiment results with Lygodium cells and Onion cells show that digital image plane holography avoid the process of finding recording distance by using auto-focusing approach, and the phase information of the object can be reconstructed more accurately. The digital image plane holography is applied to the microscopic imaging of cells more effectively, and it is suit to apply for the identify of Chinese Herbal Medicine. And it promotes the application of digital holographic in practice.

  19. Detection of blue-white veil areas in dermoscopy images using machine learning techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celebi, M. E.; Kingravi, Hassan A.; Aslandogan, Y. A.; Stoecker, William V.

    2006-03-01

    As a result of the advances in skin imaging technology and the development of suitable image processing techniques, during the last decade, there has been a significant increase of interest in the computer-aided diagnosis of skin cancer. Dermoscopy is a non-invasive skin imaging technique which permits visualization of features of pigmented melanocytic neoplasms that are not discernable by examination with the naked eye. One of the useful features in dermoscopic diagnosis is the blue-white veil (irregular, structureless areas of confluent blue pigmentation with an overlying white "ground-glass" film) which is mostly associated with invasive melanoma. In this preliminary study, a machine learning approach to the detection of blue-white veil areas in dermoscopy images is presented. The method involves pixel classification based on relative and absolute color features using a decision tree classifier. Promising results were obtained on a set of 224 dermoscopy images.

  20. Optimum defocus planes selection method for transport of intensity phase imaging based on phase transfer function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jiasong; Zhang, Yuzhen; Zuo, Chao; Chen, Qian

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, medical, biological and scientific fields have been benefited from phase information, which can reveal the hidden features of various objects. By solving the transport of intensity equation (TIE), the phase distribution of an object can be obtained from a series of intensity measurements. Assuming the solving process is correct, the reconstruction accuracy is depending on the distances between planes, the number of planes, and the level of noise. Increasing the number of planes or utilizing multi-frame de-noise algorithm could improve the reconstruction accuracy certainly, but neither of them is a time-efficient strategy. In this work, an optimum defocus planes selection (OPS) method is proposed for reconstructing high quality phase information by solving the transport of intensity equation. It is shown that the difference image between two symmetrical separated, lager defocused planes contains a lot of lower frequency components of the phase distribution and the higher frequency components can be easily observed in the difference image between two nearly focused planes. Based on the phase transfer function (PTF), our method estimate a more accurate frequency spectrum of the object phase distribution, which is combined with different frequency components from the stack of through-focus intensity images. Both the simulation and experimental results demonstrate that this optimum defocus planes selection method can give a computationally efficient and noise-robust phase reconstruction with higher accuracy and fewer defocus planes.

  1. Support plane method applied to ground objects recognition using modelled SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zherdev, Denis A.; Fursov, Vladimir A.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the object recognition problem was solved using support plane method. The modelled SAR images were used as features vectors in the recognition algorithm. Radar signal backscattering of objects in different observing poses is presented in SAR images. For real time simulation, we used simple mixture model of Lambertian-specular reflectivity. To this end, an algorithm of ray tracing is extended for simulating SAR images of 3D man-made models. The suggested algorithm of support plane is very effective in objects recognition using SAR images and RCS diagrams.

  2. Rapid three-dimensional isotropic imaging of living cells using Bessel beam plane illumination

    PubMed Central

    Planchon, Thomas A; Gao, Liang; Milkie, Daniel E; Davidson, Michael W; Galbraith, James A; Galbraith, Catherine G; Betzig, Eric

    2012-01-01

    A key challenge when imaging living cells is how to noninvasively extract the most spatiotemporal information possible. Unlike popular wide-field and confocal methods, plane-illumination microscopy limits excitation to the information-rich vicinity of the focal plane, providing effective optical sectioning and high speed while minimizing out-of-focus background and premature photobleaching. Here we used scanned Bessel beams in conjunction with structured illumination and/or two-photon excitation to create thinner light sheets (<0.5 ?m) better suited to three-dimensional (3D) subcellular imaging. As demonstrated by imaging the dynamics of mitochondria, filopodia, membrane ruffles, intracellular vesicles and mitotic chromosomes in live cells, the microscope currently offers 3D isotropic resolution down to ~0.3 ?m, speeds up to nearly 200 image planes per second and the ability to noninvasively acquire hundreds of 3D data volumes from single living cells encompassing tens of thousands of image frames. PMID:21378978

  3. Focal plane resolution and overlapped array time delay and integrate imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grycewicz, Thomas J.; Cota, Stephen A.; Lomheim, Terrence S.; Kalman, Linda S.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper we model sub-pixel image registration for a generic earth-observing satellite system with a focal plane using two offset time delay and integrate (TDI) arrays in the focal plane to improve the achievable ground resolution over the resolution achievable with a single array. The modeling process starts with a high-resolution image as ground truth. The Parameterized Image Chain Analysis & Simulation Software (PICASSO) modeling tool is used to degrade the images to match the optical transfer function, sampling, and noise characteristics of the target system. The model outputs a pair of images with a separation close to the nominal half-pixel separation between the overlapped arrays. A registration estimation algorithm is used to measure the offset for image reconstruction. The two images are aligned and summed on a grid with twice the capture resolution. We compare the resolution in images between the inputs before overlap, the reconstructed image, and a simulation for the image which would have been captured on a focal plane with twice the resolution. We find the performance to always be better than the lower resolution baseline, and to approach the performance of the high-resolution array in the ideal case. We show that the overlapped array imager significantly outperforms both the conventional high- and low-resolution imagers in conditions with high image smear.

  4. Doping dependent blue shift and linewidth broadening of intersubband absorption in non-polar m-plane AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotani, Teruhisa; Arita, Munetaka; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2015-09-01

    Blue shift and broadening of the absorption spectra of mid-infrared intersubband transition in non-polar m-plane AlGaN/GaN 10 quantum wells were observed with increasing doping density. As the doping density was increased from 6.6 1011 to 6.0 1012 cm-2 per a quantum well, the intersubband absorption peak energy shifted from 274.0 meV to 302.9 meV, and the full width at half maximum increased from 56.4 meV to 112.4 meV. Theoretical calculations reveal that the blue shift is due to many body effects, and the intersubband linewidth in doped AlGaN/GaN QW is mainly determined by scattering due to interface roughness, LO phonons, and ionized impurities.

  5. Using Satellite Images for Wireless Network Planing in Baku City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gojamanov, M.; Ismayilov, J.

    2013-04-01

    It is a well known fact that the Information-Telecommunication and Space research technologies are the fields getting much more benefits from the achievements of the scientific and technical progress. In many cases, these areas supporting each other have improved the conditions for their further development. For instance, the intensive development in the field of the mobile communication has caused the rapid progress of the Space research technologies and vice versa.Today it is impossible to solve one of the most important tasks of the mobile communication as Radio Frecance planning without the 2D and 3D digital maps. The compiling of such maps is much more efficient by means of the space images. Because the quality of the space images has been improved and developed, especially at the both spectral and spatial resolution points. It has been possible to to use 8 Band images with the spatial resolution of 50 sm. At present, in relation to the function 3G of mobile communications one of the main issues facing mobile operator companies is a high-precision 3D digital maps. It should be noted that the number of mobile phone users in the Republic of Azerbaijan went forward other Community of Independent States Countries. Of course, using of aerial images for 3D mapping would be optimal. However, depending on a number of technical and administrative problems aerial photography cannot be used. Therefore, the experience of many countries shows that it will be more effective to use the space images with the higher resolution for these issues. Concerning the fact that the mobile communication within the city of Baku has included 3G function there were ordered stereo images wih the spatial resolution of 50 cm for the 150 sq.km territory occupying the central part of the city in order to compile 3D digital maps. The images collected from the WorldView-2 satellite are 4-Band Bundle(Pan+MS1) stereo images. Such kind of imagery enable to automatically classificate some required clutter classes.Meanwhile, there were created 12 GPS points in the territory and there have been held some appropriate observations in these points for the geodesic reference of the space images in the territory. Moreover, it would like to mention that there have been constructed 37 permanently acting GPS stations in the territory of Azerbaijan at present. It significantly facilitates the process of the geodesic reference of the space images in order to accomplish such kind of mentioned projects. The processing of the collected space images was accomplished by means of Erdas LPS 10 program. In the first stage there was created the main component of the 3D maps- Digital Elevevation Model. In this model the following clutter classes are presented: Open; Open areas in urban; Airport, Sea, Inland water; Forest; Parks in urban; Semi Open Area; Open Wet Area; Urban/Urban Mean; Dense urban, Villages, Industrial/Commercial, Residential/Suburban; Dense residential/Suburban; Block of BUILDINGS; Dense Urban High; Buildings, Urban Mixed, Mixed dense urban

  6. Full-color image-plane holographic video display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Okabe, Gen; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi

    2007-02-01

    In this paper, we have investigated real time calculation and display optics of full color hologram with full parallax. In our previous study, full color hologram was realized as the rainbow hologram which discards vertical parallax to reduce computation complexity. Since the color of the reconstructed image changes when observer moves to the vertical direction even a little, proper color reproduction can be obtained only from narrow viewing area. And this hologram has horizontal parallax only. In this study, we employ the image hologram for better color reproduction and full parallax reconstruction. When we calculate the image hologram, we use the virtual window to reduce the calculation amount. By using the virtual window, we could achieve 253 times faster the calculation speed compare with Fresnel hologram using the difference method. The full color hologram is displayed on the holographic television (HoloTV), which uses a part of original optics and LCoS panels of the conventional video projector (Cannon POWERPROJECTOR SX50) to separate and combine color components. From experimental results, computational speed of the full-color image hologram is almost same as the full-color rainbow hologram and color reproduction is better than that of the rainbow hologram. We also could achieve to reconstruct good quality animation.

  7. Single-plane versus three-plane methods for relative range error evaluation of medium-range 3D imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKinnon, David K.; Cournoyer, Luc; Beraldin, J.-Angelo

    2015-05-01

    Within the context of the ASTM E57 working group WK12373, we compare the two methods that had been initially proposed for calculating the relative range error of medium-range (2 m to 150 m) optical non-contact 3D imaging systems: the first is based on a single plane (single-plane assembly) and the second on an assembly of three mutually non-orthogonal planes (three-plane assembly). Both methods are evaluated for their utility in generating a metric to quantify the relative range error of medium-range optical non-contact 3D imaging systems. We conclude that the three-plane assembly is comparable to the single-plane assembly with regard to quantification of relative range error while eliminating the requirement to isolate the edges of the target plate face.

  8. Effect of novel bright image enhanced endoscopy using blue laser imaging (BLI)

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Kazuhiro; Oono, Yasuhiro; Yano, Tomonori; Ikematsu, Hiroaki; Odagaki, Tomoyuki; Yoda, Yusuke; Yagishita, Atsushi; Sato, Akihiro; Nomura, Shogo

    2014-01-01

    Background and study aims: The novel method of image-enhanced endoscopy (IEE) named blue laser imaging (BLI) can enhance the contrast of surface vessels using lasers for light illumination. BLI has two IEE modes: high contrast mode (BLI-contrast) for use with magnification, and bright mode (BLI-bright), which achieves a brighter image than BLI-contrast and yet maintains the enhanced visualization of vascular contrast that is expected for the detection of tumors from a far field of view. The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of BLI-bright with a far field of view compared to BLI-contrast and commonly available narrow-band imaging (NBI). Patients and methods: Patients with neoplasia, including early cancer in the pharynx, esophagus, stomach, or colorectum, were recruited and underwent tandem endoscopy with BLI and NBI systems. Six sets of images of the lesions were captured with a changing observable distance from 3 to 40?mm. Individual sets of images taken from various observable distances were assessed for visibility among BLI-bright, BLI-contrast, and NBI modes. The brightness and contrast of these images were also analyzed quantitatively. Results: Of 51 patients, 39 were assessed. Image analysis indicated that only BLI-bright maintained adequate brightness and contrast up to 40?mm and had significantly longer observable distances compared to the other methods. Furthermore, BLI-bright enhanced the visualization of serious lesions infiltrating into deeper layers, such as esophageal lamina propria or gastric submucosal cancers. Conclusions: BLI-bright will be a helpful tool for the far-field view with IEE in organs with wider internal spaces such as the stomach. PMID:26135095

  9. Quantitative Characterization of Super-Resolution Infrared Imaging Based on Time-Varying Focal Plane Coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Yuan, Y.; Zhang, J.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, Y.

    2014-10-01

    High resolution infrared image has been the goal of an infrared imaging system. In this paper, a super-resolution infrared imaging method using time-varying coded mask is proposed based on focal plane coding and compressed sensing theory. The basic idea of this method is to set a coded mask on the focal plane of the optical system, and the same scene could be sampled many times repeatedly by using time-varying control coding strategy, the super-resolution image is further reconstructed by sparse optimization algorithm. The results of simulation are quantitatively evaluated by introducing the Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), which illustrate that the effect of compressed measurement coefficient r and coded mask resolution m on the reconstructed image quality. Research results show that the proposed method will promote infrared imaging quality effectively, which will be helpful for the practical design of new type of high resolution ! infrared imaging systems.

  10. Vision and Wide-Field Imagers with Curved Focal Planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arianpour, Ashkan

    This dissertation provides details regarding the implementation of curved-focal surface fiber coupled imaging for medical and wide-field applications. An optomechanical fluid-filled eye model with visual acuity better than 20/20 vision was design and characterized. A wearable telescopic contact lens was worn on the optomechanical eye model and the performance characterized. Measurements of the contact lens surfaces were modeled to quantify the impact of contact lens fabrication on end-result resolution. Separately, the limitations of the field of view in fiber coupled monocentric imaging are analyzed. This dissertation describes a novel technique to address this based on conformal micro-optics. The design, simulation, and fabrication of an embossed surface relief micro-prism that increases the field of view are demonstrated.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thorax: the advantages of coronal and sagittal planes

    SciTech Connect

    O'Donovan, P.B.; Ross, J.S.; Sivak, E.D.; O'Donnell, J.K.; Meaney, T.F.

    1984-12-01

    A major advantage of MRI of the thorax is its ability to display sagittal and coronal planes without relying on cumbersome patient positioning or reformatting of multiple transverse slices as in CT. The vertical orientation of viscera and vessels within the mediastinum is ideally suited to imaging in these planes, which may be considered analogous to the standard radiographic posteroanterior (PA) and lateral views of the chest. Since radiologists and clinicians alike are thoroughly familiar with thoracic anatomay in these planes, it would seem desirable to adopt coronal and sagittal MR images as the standard projections for MRI of the thorax, reserving axial and oblique projections for situations in which they may provide additional information. To this end, the authors describe normal sagittal and coronal anatomy of the thorax and illustrate some examples of pathology in these planes.

  12. Supplemental Blue LED Lighting Array to Improve the Signal Quality in Hyperspectral Imaging of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Hammersley, Simon; Oerke, Erich-Christian; Dehne, Heinz-Wilhelm; Goldbach, Heiner; Grieve, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging systems used in plant science or agriculture often have suboptimal signal-to-noise ratio in the blue region (400500 nm) of the electromagnetic spectrum. Typically there are two principal reasons for this effect, the low sensitivity of the imaging sensor and the low amount of light available from the illuminating source. In plant science, the blue region contains relevant information about the physiology and the health status of a plant. We report on the improvement in sensitivity of a hyperspectral imaging system in the blue region of the spectrum by using supplemental illumination provided by an array of high brightness light emitting diodes (LEDs) with an emission peak at 470 nm. PMID:26039423

  13. Coherent imaging with two-dimensional focal-plane arrays: design and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M.L.; Bennett, C.A.; Emery, M.S.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Miller, G.H.; Richards, R.K.; Sitter, D.N.

    1997-09-01

    Scanned, single-channel optical heterodyne detection has been used in a variety of lidar applications from ranging and velocity measurements to differential absorption spectroscopy. We describe the design of a coherent camera system that is based on a two-dimensional staring array of heterodyne receivers for coherent imaging applications. Experimental results with a single HgCdTe detector translated in the image plane to form a synthetic two-dimensional array demonstrate the ability to obtain passive heterodyne images of chemical vapor plumes that are invisible to normal video infrared cameras. We describe active heterodyne imaging experiments with use of focal-plane arrays that yield hard-body Doppler lidar images and also demonstrate spatial averaging to reduce speckle effects in static coherent images. {copyright} 1997 Optical Society of America

  14. Coherent imaging with two-dimensional focal-plane arrays: design and applications.

    PubMed

    Simpson, M L; Bennett, C A; Emery, M S; Hutchinson, D P; Miller, G H; Richards, R K; Sitter, D N

    1997-09-20

    Scanned, single-channel optical heterodyne detection has been used in a variety of lidar applications from ranging and velocity measurements to differential absorption spectroscopy. We describe the design of a coherent camera system that is based on a two-dimensional staring array of heterodyne receivers for coherent imaging applications. Experimental results with a single HgCdTe detector translated in the image plane to form a synthetic two-dimensional array demonstrate the ability to obtain passive heterodyne images of chemical vapor plumes that are invisible to normal video infrared cameras. We describe active heterodyne imaging experiments with use of focal-plane arrays that yield hard-body Doppler lidar images and also demonstrate spatial averaging to reduce speckle effects in static coherent images. PMID:18259563

  15. A Thresholding Technique for Character Images Based on Gray-levels of Plane-edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, Fumihiko

    This paper proposes a thresholding technique to extract characters from the background in a gray-scaled image with shading or highlights. The method can set a threshold automatically without any external parameters. The method uses the gray-levels of the plane-edge pixels that are located on the both sides of the general edge pixels. Because these plane-edge pixels are located near the gray-scaled planes compared with the general edge pixels, the gray-levels of the plane-edge pixels are supposed to be stable to the change of the position and the pose of an object to be extracted. The threshold is obtained from the averaged gray-levels of the plane-edge pixels with the maximum frequency of the plane-edge strength. The experimental results show that the characters were extracted clearly in the binary image by the proposed method in comparison with in the binary image by the discriminatory analysis method.

  16. NESP: Nonlinear enhancement and selection of plane for optimal segmentation and recognition of scene word images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Deepak; Anil Prasad, M. N.; Ramakrishnan, A. G.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we report a breakthrough result on the difficult task of segmentation and recognition of coloured text from the word image dataset of ICDAR robust reading competition challenge 2: reading text in scene images. We split the word image into individual colour, gray and lightness planes and enhance the contrast of each of these planes independently by a power-law transform. The discrimination factor of each plane is computed as the maximum between-class variance used in Otsu thresholding. The plane that has maximum discrimination factor is selected for segmentation. The trial version of Omnipage OCR is then used on the binarized words for recognition. Our recognition results on ICDAR 2011 and ICDAR 2003 word datasets are compared with those reported in the literature. As baseline, the images binarized by simple global and local thresholding techniques were also recognized. The word recognition rate obtained by our non-linear enhancement and selection of plance method is 72.8% and 66.2% for ICDAR 2011 and 2003 word datasets, respectively. We have created ground-truth for each image at the pixel level to benchmark these datasets using a toolkit developed by us. The recognition rate of benchmarked images is 86.7% and 83.9% for ICDAR 2011 and 2003 datasets, respectively.

  17. Present and future status of flexible spectral imaging color enhancement and blue laser imaging technology.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Hironori

    2014-01-01

    The usefulness of flexible spectral imaging color enhancement (FICE) has been reported for evaluating the esophagus, stomach, and small and large intestine. Higher contrast is shown between cancer and the surrounding mucosa in the esophagus and stomach and may facilitate the detection of gastric cancers missed by white light imaging alone. The surface patterns of gastric mucosa are clearly visualized in non-malignant areas but are irregular and blurred in malignant areas, leading to clear demarcation. Capsule endoscopy with FICE detects angiodysplasia and erosions of the small intestine. The surface and vascular pattern with FICE is useful for the differential diagnosis of colorectal polyps. However, FICE remains somewhat poor at visualizing mucosal microvasculature on a tumor surface. Narrow-band imaging (NBI) is dark in observing whole gastric mucosa and poor at visualizing mucosal microstructure. Blue laser imaging (BLI) has the potential to resolve these limitations. Narrow-band laser light combined with white light shows irregular microvessels on both differentiated and undifferentiated gastric cancer similar to those using NBI. In addition, irregular surface patterns including minute white zones are clearly seen on the uneven surface of differentiated lesions, resulting in exclusion of undifferentiated lesions. Using both distant and close-up views, a high contrast between green intestinal metaplasia and brown gastric cancer may lead to early detection of gastric cancers and determination of a demarcation line. BLI produces high-contrast images in esophageal cancer with clear vision of intrapapillary capillary loops and also predicts the histopathological diagnosis and depth of invasion in colorectal neoplasms. PMID:24373002

  18. Coronagraphic phase diversity: a simple focal plane sensor for high-contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    Sauvage, J-F; Mugnier, L; Paul, B; Villecroze, R

    2012-12-01

    Exoplanet direct imaging is a challenging goal of today's astronomical instrumentation. Several high-contrast imaging instruments dedicated to this task are currently being integrated; they are ultimately limited by the presence of quasi-static speckles in the imaging focal plane. These speckles originate in residual quasi-static optical aberrations, which must be measured and compensated for, typically at a nanometric level. We present a novel focal plane wavefront sensor (WFS) designed for this particular application. It is an extension of the phase diversity technique to coronagraphic imaging. This sensor requires no dedicated hardware and uses only two scientific images differing from a known aberration, which can be conveniently introduced by the adaptive optics subsystem. The aberrations are therefore calibrated all the way down to the scientific camera, without any differential aberrations between the sensor and the scientific camera. We show the potential of this WFS by means of simulations, and we perform a preliminary experimental validation. PMID:23202053

  19. Image plane detector spectrophotometer - Application to O2 atmospheric band nightglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, Mingzhao; Yee, Jeng-Hwa; Hays, Paul B.

    1988-01-01

    A new variety of low resolution spectrometer is described. This device, an image plane detector spectrophotometer, has high sensitivity and modest resolution sufficient to determine the rotational temperature and brightness of molecular band emissions. It uses an interference filter as a dispersive element and a multichannel image plane detector as the photon collecting device. The data analysis technqiue used to recover the temperature of the emitter and the emission brightness is presented. The atmospheric band of molecular oxygen is used to illustrate the use of the device.

  20. Mid-callosal plane determination using preferred directions from diffusion tensor images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, André L.; Rittner, Letícia; Lotufo, Roberto A.; Appenzeller, Simone

    2015-03-01

    The corpus callosum is the major brain structure responsible for inter{hemispheric communication between neurons. Many studies seek to relate corpus callosum attributes to patient characteristics, cerebral diseases and psychological disorders. Most of those studies rely on 2D analysis of the corpus callosum in the mid-sagittal plane. However, it is common to find conflicting results among studies, once many ignore methodological issues and define the mid-sagittal plane based on precary or invalid criteria with respect to the corpus callosum. In this work we propose a novel method to determine the mid-callosal plane using the corpus callosum internal preferred diffusion directions obtained from diffusion tensor images. This plane is analogous to the mid-sagittal plane, but intended to serve exclusively as the corpus callosum reference. Our method elucidates the great potential the directional information of the corpus callosum fibers have to indicate its own referential. Results from experiments with five image pairs from distinct subjects, obtained under the same conditions, demonstrate the method effectiveness to find the corpus callosum symmetric axis relative to the axial plane.

  1. Noninvasive vascular elastography using plane-wave and sparse-array imaging.

    PubMed

    Korukonda, Sanghamithra; Nayak, Rohit; Carson, Nancy; Schifitto, Giovanni; Dogra, Vikram; Doyley, Marvin M

    2013-02-01

    Stroke may occur when an atherosclerotic plaque ruptures in the carotid artery. Noninvasive vascular elastography (NIVE) visualizes the strain distribution within the carotid artery, which is related to its mechanical properties that govern plaque rupture. Strain elastograms obtained from the transverse plane of the carotid artery are difficult to interpret, because strain is estimated in Cartesian coordinates. Sparsearray (SA) elastography overcomes this problem by transforming shear and normal strain to polar coordinates. However, the SA's transmit power may be too weak to produce useful elastograms in the clinical setting. Consequently, we are exploring other imaging methods to solve this potential problem. This study evaluated the quality of elastograms produced with SA imaging, plane-wave (PW) imaging, and compounded-plane-wave (CPW) imaging. We performed studies on simulated and physical vessel phantoms, and the carotid artery of a healthy volunteer. All echo imaging was performed with a linear transducer array that contained 128 elements, operating at 5 MHz. In SA imaging, 7 elements were fired during transmission, but all 128 elements were active during reception. In PW imaging, all 128 elements were active during both transmission and reception. We created CPW images by steering the acoustic beam within the range of -15 to 15 in increments of 5. SA radial and circumferential strain elastograms were comparable to those produced using PW and CPW imaging. Additionally, side-lobe levels incurred during SA imaging were 20 dB lower than those produced during PW imaging, and 10 dB lower than those computed using CPW imaging. Overall, SA imaging performs well in vivo; therefore, we plan to improve the technique and perform preclinical studies. PMID:23357907

  2. Extended linear detection range for optical tweezers using image-plane detection scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajizadeh, Faegheh; Masoumeh Mousavi, S.; Khaksar, Zeinab S.; Reihani, S. Nader S.

    2014-10-01

    Ability to measure pico- and femto-Newton range forces using optical tweezers (OT) strongly relies on the sensitivity of its detection system. We show that the commonly used back-focal-plane detection method provides a linear response range which is shorter than that of the restoring force of OT for large beads. This limits measurable force range of OT. We show, both theoretically and experimentally, that utilizing a second laser beam for tracking could solve the problem. We also propose a new detection scheme in which the quadrant photodiode is positioned at the plane optically conjugate to the object plane (image plane). This method solves the problem without need for a second laser beam for the bead sizes that are commonly used in force spectroscopy applications of OT, such as biopolymer stretching.

  3. NIR-green-blue high-resolution digital images for assessement of winter cover crop biomass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many small unmanned aerial systems use true-color digital cameras for remote sensing. For some cameras, only the red channel is sensitive to near-infrared (NIR) light; we attached a custom red-blocking filter to a digital camera to obtain NIR-green-blue digital images. One advantage of this low-co...

  4. Three-dimensional imaging of the uterus: The value of the coronal plane

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Lufee; White, Nikki; Ramkrishna, Jayshree; Jnior, Edward Araujo; Meagher, Simon; Costa, Fabricio Da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Advent in three-dimensional (3D) imaging technology has seen 3D ultrasound establish itself as a useful adjunct complementary to traditional two-dimensional imaging of the female pelvis. This advantage largely arises from its ability to reconstruct the coronal plane of the uterus, which allows further delineation of many gynecological disorders. 3D imaging of the uterus is now the preferred imaging modality for assessing congenital uterine anomalies and intrauterine device localization. Newer indications include the diagnosis of adenomyosis. It can also add invaluable information to delineate other endometrial and myometrial pathology such as fibroids and endometrial polyps. PMID:26753063

  5. Slice plane generation for three-dimensional image viewing using multiprocessing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Bruce K. T.; Ma, Marco; Chuang, Keh-Shih

    1991-06-01

    Mapping of PET images with CT or MR has a very high potential for clinical applications. A crucial step in the mapping process is the registration of two sets of 3D image data. This work demonstrates a technique for real-time alignment of a 3D image set based on parallel processors and a high bandwidth data transporter. The rapid response afforded by this hardware makes it feasible to visually align two image sets by adjusting the angle and depth of cutting planes along a tilted axis in a trial and error manner.

  6. [Multi-plane transesophageal echocardiography--the next step to 3 dimensional imaging of the heart].

    PubMed

    Braksator, W; Kuch, M; Drexler, M; Schon, F; Makowski, T; Erbel, R

    1993-12-01

    The multiplane transesophageal echocardiography (MTEE) is a new method making the precise imaging of the heart and great vessels possible. That technique allows to obtain the images of cardiovascular structures in two perpendicular investigation planes ("biplane" operation): transverse (examination angle is equal to 90 degrees--in relation to long axis of esophagus) and longitudinal = sagittal (examination angle is equal to 0 degree--in relation to long axis of esophagus) and, as well, in all medial planes enclosed from 0 degree to 90 degrees examination angle. During the investigation planes were being rotated mechanically or manually by rotation wheel. Passing from one plane to another is fluent, due to that the heart and main vessels can be observed continuously. Sector angle variability is 180 degrees (from minus 90 degrees to plus 90 degrees). The investigation planes from 0 degrees to plus 90 degrees from so called "normal" visualization field, and planes from 90 degrees to 0 degree make a "mirror" reflection of the "normal" field (mirror field). In our investigations the Vingmed-Sonotron echocardiograph connected with 5 MHz annular phased--array transducer, placed at the end of flexible endoscope was used. The multiplanar transducers have a full Doppler option (pulsed and continuous waves) with the possibility of colour flow imaging. The initial experience with the new method is presented in this report. The MTEE enables precise assessment of atrial septal defects. The multiplane imaging allows complete evaluation of heart muscle thickness and left ventricular contractility. This technique gives a better visualization of coronary artery. MTEE permits for planimetric assessment of aortic valve.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8289432

  7. Focal-Plane Imaging of Crossed Beams in Nonlinear Optics Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bivolaru, Daniel; Herring, G. C.

    2007-01-01

    An application of focal-plane imaging that can be used as a real time diagnostic of beam crossing in various optical techniques is reported. We discuss two specific versions and demonstrate the capability of maximizing system performance with an example in a combined dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering interferometric Rayleigh scattering experiment (CARS-IRS). We find that this imaging diagnostic significantly reduces beam alignment time and loss of CARS-IRS signals due to inadvertent misalignments.

  8. REFLECTANCE CALIBRATION OF FOCAL PLANE ARRAY HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGING SYSTEM FOR AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD SAFETY APPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method to calibrate a pushbroom hyperspectral imaging system for "near-field" applications in agricultural and food safety has been demonstrated. The method consists of a modified geometric control point correction applied to a focal plane array to remove smile and keystone distortion from the sy...

  9. Chemical imaging of cotton fibers using an infrared microscope and a focal-plane array detector

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this presentation, the chemical imaging of cotton fibers with an infrared microscope and a Focal-Plane Array (FPA) detector will be discussed. Infrared spectroscopy can provide us with information on the structure and quality of cotton fibers. In addition, FPA detectors allow for simultaneous spe...

  10. Ex Vivo Sentinel Node Mapping in Colon Cancer Combining Blue Dye Staining and Fluorescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Schaafsma, Boudewijn E.; Verbeek, Floris P.R.; van der Vorst, Joost R.; Hutteman, Merlijn; Kuppen, Peter J.K.; Frangioni, John V.; van de Velde, Cornelis J.H.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.

    2013-01-01

    Background The sentinel lymph node procedure has been proposed to improve nodal staging in colon cancer patients. The aim of this study was to assess the added value of near-infrared fluorescence imaging to conventional blue dye staining for ex vivo sentinel lymph node mapping. Materials and Methods Twenty-two consecutive patients undergoing surgery for colon cancer were included. After tumor resection, a premixed cocktail of the near-infrared lymphatic tracer HSA800 and blue dye was submucosally injected around the tumor for detection of sentinel lymph nodes. The Mini-FLARE imaging system was used for fluorescence imaging. Results In 95% of the patients, at least one sentinel lymph node was identified. Overall, a total of 77 sentinel lymph nodes were identified, of which 77 were fluorescent (100%) and 70 (91%) were blue. Sentinel lymph nodes that were located deeper in the mesenteric fat could easily be located by NIR fluorescence. In 4 out of 5 patients with lymph node metastases, tumor cells were present in at least 1 of the sentinel lymph nodes. Conclusions This study shows the successful use and added value of the near-infrared fluorescence tracer HSA800 to conventional blue dye for the ex vivo sentinel lymph node procedure in colon cancer. PMID:23391167

  11. Learning-based scan plane identification from fetal head ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Annangi, Pavan; Gupta, Mithun; Yu, Bing; Padfield, Dirk; Banerjee, Jyotirmoy; Krishnan, Kajoli

    2012-03-01

    Acquisition of a clinically acceptable scan plane is a pre-requisite for ultrasonic measurement of anatomical features from B-mode images. In obstetric ultrasound, measurement of gestational age predictors, such as biparietal diameter and head circumference, is performed at the level of the thalami and cavum septum pelucidi. In an accurate scan plane, the head can be modeled as an ellipse, the thalami looks like a butterfly, the cavum appears like an empty box and the falx is a straight line along the major axis of a symmetric ellipse inclined either parallel to or at small angles to the probe surface. Arriving at the correct probe placement on the mother's belly to obtain an accurate scan plane is a task of considerable challenge especially for a new user of ultrasound. In this work, we present a novel automated learning-based algorithm to identify an acceptable fetal head scan plane. We divide the problem into cranium detection and a template matching to capture the composite "butterfly" structure present inside the head, which mimics the visual cues used by an expert. The algorithm uses the stateof- the-art Active Appearance Models techniques from the image processing and computer vision literature and tie them to presence or absence of the inclusions within the head to automatically compute a score to represent the goodness of a scan plane. This automated technique can be potentially used to train and aid new users of ultrasound.

  12. Reproducibility of Frankfort Horizontal Plane on 3D Multi-Planar Reconstructed MR Images

    PubMed Central

    Daboul, Amro; Schwahn, Christian; Schaffner, Grit; Soehnel, Silvia; Samietz, Stefanie; Aljaghsi, Ahmad; Habes, Mohammad; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Puls, Ralf; Klinke, Thomas; Biffar, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy and reliability of Frankfort horizontal plane identification using displays of multi-planar reconstructed MRI images, and propose it as a sufficiently stable and standardized reference plane for craniofacial structures. Materials and Methods MRI images of 43 subjects were obtained from the longitudinal population based cohort study SHIP-2 using a T1-weighted 3D sequence. Five examiners independently identified the three landmarks that form FH plane. Intra-examiner reproducibility and inter-examiner reliability, correlation coefficients (ICC), coefficient of variability and Bland-Altman plots were obtained for all landmarks coordinates to assess reproducibility. Intra-examiner reproducibility and inter-examiner reliability in terms of location and plane angulation were also assessed. Results Intra- and inter-examiner reliabilities for X, Y and Z coordinates of all three landmarks were excellent with ICC values ranging from 0.914 to 0.998. Differences among examiners were more in X and Z than in Y dimensions. The Bland–Altman analysis demonstrated excellent intra- as well as inter-examiner agreement between examiners in all coordinates for all landmarks. Intra-examiner reproducibility and inter-examiner reliability of the three landmarks in terms of distance showed mean differences between 1.3 to 2.9 mm, Mean differences in plane angulation were between 1.0° to 1.5° among examiners. Conclusion This study revealed excellent intra-examiner reproducibility and inter-examiner reliability of Frankfort Horizontal plane through 3D landmark identification in MRI. Sufficiently stable landmark-based reference plane could be used for different treatments and studies. PMID:23118970

  13. Hard X-ray imaging survey of the Galactic plane with the Caltech gamma-ray imaging payload GRIP-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbel, S.; Cook, W. R.; Harrison, F. A.; Prince, T. A.; Schindler, S. M.; Wang, S.

    1997-01-01

    In a two-day balloon flight during October 1995, the Caltech coded aperture gamma ray imaging payload (GRIP-2) imaged various fields in the Galactic plane and center in the 25 to 600 keV energy band. The large phoswich detector, the 15 deg field of view, the 30 arcmin angular resolution and 6 arcmin point source localization capability of GRIP-2 provides the possibility of surveying the accreting binary population of the Galaxy at high energy. The instrument is described and preliminary imaging results are reported on. The capabilities of this instrument for hard X-ray/gamma ray imaging are demonstrated.

  14. Spatially isotropic four-dimensional imaging with dual-view plane illumination microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yicong; Wawrzusin, Peter; Senseney, Justin; Fischer, Robert S; Christensen, Ryan; Santella, Anthony; York, Andrew G; Winter, Peter W; Waterman, Clare M; Bao, Zhirong; Coln-Ramos, Daniel A; McAuliffe, Matthew; Shroff, Hari

    2014-01-01

    Optimal four-dimensional imaging requires high spatial resolution in all dimensions, high speed and minimal photobleaching and damage. We developed a dual-view, plane illumination microscope with improved spatiotemporal resolution by switching illumination and detection between two perpendicular objectives in an alternating duty cycle. Computationally fusing the resulting volumetric views provides an isotropic resolution of 330 nm. As the sample is stationary and only two views are required, we achieve an imaging speed of 200 images/s (i.e., 0.5 s for a 50-plane volume). Unlike spinning-disk confocal or Bessel beam methods, which illuminate the sample outside the focal plane, we maintain high spatiotemporal resolution over hundreds of volumes with negligible photobleaching. To illustrate the ability of our method to study biological systems that require high-speed volumetric visualization and/or low photobleaching, we describe microtubule tracking in live cells, nuclear imaging over 14 h during nematode embryogenesis and imaging of neural wiring during Caenorhabditis elegans brain development over 5 h. PMID:24108093

  15. Real-time planar segmentation of depth images: from three-dimensional edges to segmented planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javan Hemmat, Hani; Bondarev, Egor; de With, Peter H. N.

    2015-09-01

    Real-time execution of processing algorithms for handling depth images in a three-dimensional (3-D) data framework is a major challenge. More specifically, considering depth images as point clouds and performing planar segmentation requires heavy computation, because available planar segmentation algorithms are mostly based on surface normals and/or curvatures, and, consequently, do not provide real-time performance. Aiming at the reconstruction of indoor environments, the spaces mainly consist of planar surfaces, so that a possible 3-D application would strongly benefit from a real-time algorithm. We introduce a real-time planar segmentation method for depth images avoiding any surface normal calculation. First, we detect 3-D edges in a depth image and generate line segments between the identified edges. Second, we fuse all the points on each pair of intersecting line segments into a plane candidate. Third and finally, we implement a validation phase to select planes from the candidates. Furthermore, various enhancements are applied to improve the segmentation quality. The GPU implementation of the proposed algorithm segments depth images into planes at the rate of 58fps. Our pipeline-interleaving technique increases this rate up to 100fps. With this throughput rate improvement, the application benefit of our algorithm may be further exploited in terms of quality and enhancing the localization.

  16. Out-of-plane light-scattering polarimetric imaging of a thread surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng-Yang; Chang, Li-Jen

    2014-12-01

    A novel polarimetric measurement based on hemispherical light-scattering for the assessment of superficial screw is presented. The optical system is capable of capturing polarized light images. The effect of the thread surface backscattering is estimated with the use of in-plane and out-of-plane illumination. The angular distributions of polarized light scattered by the ISO metric screws are measured for light incident from a green laser. A partial Stokes vector imaging detector is mounted on a motorized rotating arm at an oblique angle to the sample normal and consists of a 10-bit scientific camera, an object lens, and a polarizer. The partial Stokes vector images of light scattered towards the camera are generated for each direction and a useful decomposition of the partial Stokes vector is presented. The thread surface effects can be minimized using out-of-plane polarized illumination in conjunction with polarized images. The experimental result may provide a new polarized imaging technique for using visible light to inspect the key features of a screw in automated optical inspection system.

  17. Line-plane-switching infrared bundle for push-broom sensing fiber imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Huan; Yan, Xingtao; Guo, Haitao; Xu, Yantao; He, Jianli; Li, Fu; Yang, Jianfeng; Si, Jinhai; Zhou, Zhiguang; Lin, Aoxiang

    2015-04-01

    We reported line-plane-switching infrared (IR) fiber bundle with high-resolution of 0.027 ?m-1, small numerical aperture (NA) of 0.20 (0.02), high filling-factor, and bending radius of around 5.0 mm, i.e. extremely good flexibility. This fiber bundle is made from chalcogenide glass fibers, possessing core (As40S58Se2) of 45 ?m, cladding (As40S60) of 50 ?m, and error of 1% in diameter. Based on the lens used to demonstrate IR push-broom imaging, the format of matching fiber bundle we chose is 64 9 in system to implement 192 3 format linear array imaging. By principle-demonstrating system incorporated this fiber bundle coupled with small scale Infrared Focal Plane Array (IRFPA), wide-field and long-array IR push-broom image was successfully demonstrated.

  18. Automatic bilateral symmetry (midsagittal) plane extraction from pathological 3D neuroradiological images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanxi; Collins, Robert T.; Rothfus, William E.

    1998-06-01

    Most pathologies (tumor, bleed, stroke) of the human brain can be determined by a symmetry-based analysis of neural scans showing the brain's 3D internal structure. Detecting departures of this internal structure from its normal bilateral symmetry can guide the classification of abnormalities. This process is facilitated by first locating the ideal symmetry plane (midsagittal) with respect to which the brain is invariant under reflection. An algorithm to automatically identify this bilateral symmetry plane from a given 3D clinical image has been developed. The method has been tested on both normal and pathological brain scans, multimodal data (CT and MR), and on coarsely sliced samples with elongated voxel sizes.

  19. Electric field reconstruction in the image plane of a high-contrast coronagraph using a set of pinholes around the Lyot plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Give'on, Amir; Shaklan, Stuart; Kern, Brian; Noecker, Charley; Kendrick, Steve; Wallace, Kent

    2012-09-01

    In a setup similar to the self coherent camera, we have added a set of pinholes in the diffraction ring of the Lyot plane in a high-contrast stellar Lyot coronagraph. We describe a novel complex electric field reconstruction from image plane intensity measurements consisting of light in the coronagraph's dark hole interfering with light from the pinholes. The image plane field is modified by letting light through one pinhole at a time. In addition to estimation of the field at the science camera, this method allows for self-calibration of the probes by letting light through the pinholes in various permutations while blocking the main Lyot opening. We present results of estimation and calibration from the High Contrast Imaging Testbed along with a comparison to the pair-wise deformable mirror diversity based estimation technique. Tests are carried out in narrow-band light and over a composite 10% bandpass.

  20. Electric Field Reconstruction in the Image Plane of a High-Contrast Coronagraph Using a Set of Pinholes around the Lyot Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giveona, Amir; Shaklan, Stuart; Kern, Brian; Noecker, Charley; Kendrick, Steve; Wallace, Kent

    2012-01-01

    In a setup similar to the self coherent camera, we have added a set of pinholes in the diffraction ring of the Lyot plane in a high-contrast stellar Lyot coronagraph. We describe a novel complex electric field reconstruction from image plane intensity measurements consisting of light in the coronagraph's dark hole interfering with light from the pinholes. The image plane field is modified by letting light through one pinhole at a time. In addition to estimation of the field at the science camera, this method allows for self-calibration of the probes by letting light through the pinholes in various permutations while blocking the main Lyot opening. We present results of estimation and calibration from the High Contrast Imaging Testbed along with a comparison to the pair-wise deformable mirror diversity based estimation technique. Tests are carried out in narrow-band light and over a composite 10% bandpass.

  1. Design of a multi-spectral TDICCD focal plane imaging and processing system based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Guo-fang; Zhang, Jing-jing; Wang, Dong; Han, Zhi-xue; Cheng, Yun

    2014-11-01

    A multi-spectral time delay and integration charge couple device(TDICCD) focal plane imaging and processing system is introduced in this paper. FPGA is the core logic control of the system. The main hardware component of the system and the implementation method of FPGA are described and the diagrams of main modules are presented. Software workflow and a variety of image processing methods are also given. Test results show that the design achieves data transfer speed of 4.48Gbps and realizes real-time processing of image for high-speed multi-channel TDICCD camera so that meets the system requirement.

  2. Ballistic imaging of biological media with collimated illumination and focal plane detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brezner, Barak; Cahen, Sarah; Glasser, Ziv; Sternklar, Shmuel; Granot, Er'el

    2015-07-01

    A simple, affordable method for imaging through biological tissue is investigated. The method consists of (1) imaging with a wavelength that has a relatively small scattering coefficient (1310 nm in this case) and (2) collimated illumination together with (3) focal plane detection to enhance the detection of the ballistic photons relative to the diffusive light. We demonstrate ballistic detection of an object immersed in a 1-cm-thick cuvette filled with 4% Intralipid, which is equivalent to ˜1 to 2 cm of skin tissue. With the same technology, a ballistic image of a 1-mm-wide object in 10-mm-thick chicken breast is also presented.

  3. Industrial applications of FTIR microspectroscopic imaging using a mercury-cadmium-telluride focal plane array detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcott, Curtis A.; Reeder, Robert C.

    1998-10-01

    A 64 X 64 Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride (MCT) focal-plane array detector attached to a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microscope has been used to spectroscopically image a cross section of a laminated polymer film in the fingerprint region of the infrared spectrum (1800 - 900 cm-1). Image contrast is achieved due to the intrinsic chemical nature of the sample at each pixel location in the image. This technique is clearly able to identify the individual layers in this polymer film laminate. Infrared spectra of individual pixels in a 7.5- micrometer-thick adhesive tie layer of this polymer laminate show no interference from adjacent layers.

  4. Holographic illumination in optical readout focal plane array infrared imaging system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming; Zhao, Yuejin; Dong, Liquan; Yu, Xiaomei; Liu, Xiaohua; Hui, Mei; You, Jianfeng; Yi, Yuliang

    2009-11-15

    An IR imaging system based on a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) microcantilever is uncooled, low-cost, and more reliable than traditional systems. However, it is difficult to avoid unwanted shape distortions in fabrication, which can degrade image quality in many ways, so we use holography to compensate for these shape distortions in an optical readout focal plane array (FPA) IR imaging system. The experiment shows that it is a feasible way to improve system performance, especially when it is too difficult to perfect the techniques of an FPA fabrication. PMID:19927206

  5. Three dimensional imaging of gold-nanoparticles tagged samples using phase retrieval with two focus planes

    PubMed Central

    Ilovitsh, Tali; Ilovitsh, Asaf; Weiss, Aryeh; Meir, Rinat; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2015-01-01

    Optical sectioning microscopy can provide highly detailed three dimensional (3D) images of biological samples. However, it requires acquisition of many images per volume, and is therefore time consuming, and may not be suitable for live cell 3D imaging. We propose the use of the modified Gerchberg-Saxton phase retrieval algorithm to enable full 3D imaging of gold-particle tagged samples using only two images. The reconstructed field is free space propagated to all other focus planes using post processing, and the 2D z-stack is merged to create a 3D image of the sample with high fidelity. Because we propose to apply the phase retrieving on nano particles, the regular ambiguities typical to the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm, are eliminated. The proposed concept is presented and validated both on simulated data as well as experimentally. PMID:26498517

  6. Three dimensional imaging of gold-nanoparticles tagged samples using phase retrieval with two focus planes.

    PubMed

    Ilovitsh, Tali; Ilovitsh, Asaf; Weiss, Aryeh; Meir, Rinat; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2015-01-01

    Optical sectioning microscopy can provide highly detailed three dimensional (3D) images of biological samples. However, it requires acquisition of many images per volume, and is therefore time consuming, and may not be suitable for live cell 3D imaging. We propose the use of the modified Gerchberg-Saxton phase retrieval algorithm to enable full 3D imaging of gold-particle tagged samples using only two images. The reconstructed field is free space propagated to all other focus planes using post processing, and the 2D z-stack is merged to create a 3D image of the sample with high fidelity. Because we propose to apply the phase retrieving on nano particles, the regular ambiguities typical to the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm, are eliminated. The proposed concept is presented and validated both on simulated data as well as experimentally. PMID:26498517

  7. Multispectral information hiding in RGB image using bit-plane-based watermarking and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoda, Kazuma; Watanabe, Aya; Hasegawa, Madoka; Kato, Shigeo

    2015-06-01

    Although it was expected that multispectral images would be implemented in many applications, such as remote sensing and medical imaging, their use has not been widely diffused in these fields. The development of a compact multispectral camera and display will be needed for practical use, but the format compatibility between multispectral and RGB images is also important for reducing the introduction cost and having high usability. We propose a method of embedding the spectral information into an RGB image by watermarking. The RGB image is calculated from the multispectral image, and then, the original multispectral image is estimated from the RGB image using Wiener estimation. The residual data between the original and the estimated multispectral image are compressed and embedded in the lower bit planes of the RGB image. The experimental results show that, as compared with Wiener estimation, the proposed method leads to more than a 10 dB gain in the peak signal-to-noise ratio of the reconstructed multispectral image, while there are almost no significant perceptual differences in the watermarked RGB image.

  8. Statistical analysis of cross-talk noise and storage capacity in volume holographic memory: image plane holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xianmin; Campbell, Scott; Yeh, Pochi; Gu, Claire

    1995-04-01

    We investigate the cross-talk noise in optical storage based on angle-multiplexed image plane volume holograms. Simple expressions for the signal-to-noise ratio and the storage density are obtained. The cross-talk noise is found to limit the size of the pixels and the number of recorded holograms. The cross-talk-limited storage density of image plane holographic storage is found to be close to that of Fourier plane holographic storage.

  9. Exoplanet detection with simultaneous spectral differential imaging: effects of out-of-pupil-plane optical aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Marois, C; Phillion, D W; Macintosh, B

    2006-05-02

    Imaging faint companions (exoplanets and brown dwarfs) around nearby stars is currently limited by speckle noise. To efficiently attenuate this noise, a technique called simultaneous spectral differential imaging (SSDI) can be used. This technique consists of acquiring simultaneously images of the field of view in several adjacent narrow bands and in combining these images to suppress speckles. Simulations predict that SSDI can achieve, with the acquisition of three wavelengths, speckle noise attenuation of several thousands. These simulations are usually performed using the Fraunhofer approximation, i.e. considering that all aberrations are located in the pupil plane. We have performed wavefront propagation simulations to evaluate how out-of-pupil-plane aberrations affect SSDI speckle noise attenuation performance. The Talbot formalism is used to give a physical insight of the problem; results are confirmed using a proper wavefront propagation algorithm. We will show that near-focal-plane aberrations can significantly reduce SSDI speckle noise attenuation performance at several {lambda}/D separation. It is also shown that the Talbot effect correctly predicts the PSF chromaticity. Both differential atmospheric refraction effects and the use of a coronagraph will be discussed.

  10. Correlation plane statistical analysis for estimation of measurement uncertainty for Particle Image Velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Zhenyu; Charonoko, John; Vlachos, Pavlos

    2013-11-01

    Early development of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) methods did not involve quantification of measurement uncertainty, which in result created skepticism about the reliability of PIV. Quantification of PIV uncertainty is complex because coupled sources are involved in PIV measurement. Recently several attempts have been proposed. However, most of those methods were ``posteriori'' methods: deducing the uncertainty from post-processing of recorded images, or using observed relationships between metrics calculated from images, flow field and the resulting error distribution. Here we propose a novel theoretical and statistical PIV uncertainty estimation approach. It is based on the notion that the correlation plane represents the probability distribution function (PDF) of all possible particle displacements convoluted with particle shape information. The PDF can be obtained by de-convolving the particle information from original correlation plane. Knowing the primary peak of correlation plane indicates the most probable displacement, and the PDF, standard deviation of measured displacement, i.e. the uncertainty, can be calculated by computing the second order moment about the most probable displacement. We will present theoretical and statistical foundations of this method, we will validate each performance with synthetic image sets, and finally we will show its application on real experiment data.

  11. Comparison of kinoform synthesis methods for image reconstruction in Fourier plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheremkhin, Pavel A.; Evtikhiev, Nikolay N.; Krasnov, Vitaly V.; Porshneva, Liudmila A.; Rodin, Vladislav G.; Starikov, Sergey N.

    2014-05-01

    Kinoform is synthesized phase diffractive optical element which allows to reconstruct image by its illumination with plane wave. Kinoforms are used in image processing systems. For tasks of kinoform synthesis iterative methods had become wide-spread because of relatively small error of resulting intensity distribution. There are articles in which two or three iterative methods are compared but they use only one or several test images. The goal of this work is to compare iterative methods by using many test images of different types. Images were reconstructed in Fourier plane from synthesized kinoforms displayed on phase-only LCOS SLM. Quality of reconstructed images and computational resources of the methods were analyzed. For kinoform synthesis four methods were implemented in programming environment: Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (GS), Fienup algorithm (F), adaptive-additive algorithm (AA) and Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm with weight coefficients (GSW). To compare these methods 50 test images with different characteristics were used: binary and grayscale, contour and non-contour. Resolution of images varied from 6464 to 10241024. Occupancy of images ranged from 0.008 to 0.89. Quantity of phase levels of synthesized kinoforms was 256 which is equal to number of phase levels of SLM LCOS HoloEye PLUTO VIS. Under numerical testing it was found that the best quality of reconstructed images provides the AA method. The GS, F and GSW methods showed worse results but roughly similar between each other. Execution time of single iteration of the analyzed methods is minimal for the GS method. The F method provides maximum execution time. Synthesized kinoforms were optically reconstructed using phase-only LCOS SLM HoloEye PLUTO VIS. Results of optical reconstruction were compared to the numerical ones. The AA method showed slightly better results than other methods especially in case of gray-scale images.

  12. Manganese-containing Prussian blue nanoparticles for imaging of pediatric brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Matthieu F; Yadavilli, Sridevi; Sze, Raymond W; Nazarian, Javad; Fernandes, Rohan

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric brain tumors (PBTs) are a leading cause of death in children. For an improved prognosis in patients with PBTs, there is a critical need to develop molecularly-specific imaging agents to monitor disease progression and response to treatment. In this paper, we describe manganese-containing Prussian blue nanoparticles as agents for molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescence-based imaging of PBTs. Our core-shell nanoparticles consist of a core lattice structure that incorporates and retains paramagnetic Mn2+ ions, and generates MRI contrast (both negative and positive). The biofunctionalized shell is comprised of fluorescent avidin, which serves the dual purpose of enabling fluorescence imaging and functioning as a platform for the attachment of biotinylated ligands that target PBTs. The surfaces of our nanoparticles are modified with biotinylated antibodies targeting neuron-glial antigen 2 or biotinylated transferrin. Both neuron-glial antigen 2 and the transferrin receptor are protein markers overexpressed in PBTs. We describe the synthesis, biofunctionalization, and characterization of these multimodal nanoparticles. Further, we demonstrate the MRI and fluorescence imaging capabilities of manganese-containing Prussian blue nanoparticles in vitro. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of these nanoparticles as PBT imaging agents by measuring their organ and brain biodistribution in an orthotopic mouse model of PBTs using ex vivo fluorescence imaging. PMID:24920896

  13. Lyot-plane phase masks for improved high-contrast imaging with a vortex coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruane, G. J.; Huby, E.; Absil, O.; Mawet, D.; Delacroix, C.; Carlomagno, B.; Swartzlander, G. A.

    2015-11-01

    Context. The vortex coronagraph is an optical instrument that precisely removes on-axis starlight allowing for high contrast imaging at small angular separation from the star, a crucial capability for direct detection and characterization of exoplanets and circumstellar disks. Telescopes with aperture obstructions, such as secondary mirrors and spider support structures, require advanced coronagraph designs to provide adequate starlight suppression. Aims: We introduce a phase-only Lyot-plane optic to the vortex coronagraph, which offers improved contrast performance on telescopes with complicated apertures. Potential solutions for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) are described. Methods: Adding a Lyot-plane phase mask relocates residual starlight away from a region of the image plane, thereby reducing stellar noise and improving sensitivity to off-axis companions. The phase mask is calculated using an iterative phase retrieval algorithm. Results: Numerically, we achieve a contrast on the order of 10-6 for a companion with angular displacement as small as 4?/D with an E-ELT type aperture. Even in the presence of aberrations, improved performance is expected compared to either a conventional vortex coronagraph or an optimized pupil plane phase element alone.

  14. Mid-level image representations for real-time heart view plane classification of echocardiograms.

    PubMed

    Penatti, Otvio A B; Werneck, Rafael de O; de Almeida, Waldir R; Stein, Bernardo V; Pazinato, Daniel V; Mendes Jnior, Pedro R; Torres, Ricardo da S; Rocha, Anderson

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we explore mid-level image representations for real-time heart view plane classification of 2D echocardiogram ultrasound images. The proposed representations rely on bags of visual words, successfully used by the computer vision community in visual recognition problems. An important element of the proposed representations is the image sampling with large regions, drastically reducing the execution time of the image characterization procedure. Throughout an extensive set of experiments, we evaluate the proposed approach against different image descriptors for classifying four heart view planes. The results show that our approach is effective and efficient for the target problem, making it suitable for use in real-time setups. The proposed representations are also robust to different image transformations, e.g., downsampling, noise filtering, and different machine learning classifiers, keeping classification accuracy above 90%. Feature extraction can be performed in 30fps or 60fps in some cases. This paper also includes an in-depth review of the literature in the area of automatic echocardiogram view classification giving the reader a through comprehension of this field of study. PMID:26386547

  15. Near Real-Time Imaging of the Galactic Plane with BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, B. A.; Zhang, S. N.; Robinson, C. R.; Paciesas, W. S.; Barret, D.; Grindlay, J.; Bloser, P.; Monnelly, C.

    1997-01-01

    The discovery of new transient or persistent sources in the hard X-ray regime with the BATSE Earth occultation Technique has been limited previously to bright sources of about 200 mCrab or more. While monitoring known source locations is not a problem to a daily limiting sensitivity of about 75 mCrab, the lack of a reliable background model forces us to use more intensive computer techniques to find weak, previously unknown emission from hard X-ray/gamma sources. The combination of Radon transform imaging of the galactic plane in 10 by 10 degree fields and the Harvard/CFA-developed Image Search (CBIS) allows us to straightforwardly search the sky for candidate sources in a +/- 20 degree latitude band along the plane. This procedure has been operating routinely on a weekly basis since spring 1997. We briefly describe the procedure, then concentrate on the performance aspects of the technique and candidate source results from the search.

  16. Back focal plane imaging of Tamm plasmons and their coupled emission

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yikai; Zhang, Douguo; Qiu, Dong; Zhu, Liangfu; Yu, Sisheng; Yao, Peijun; Wang, Pei; Ming, Hai; Badugu, Ramachandram; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    The unique optical properties of TPs such as flexible wavevector matching conditions including in-plane wavevector within the light line, existing both S- and P-polarized TPs and ability of populating with KR and RK illuminations facilitate them for direct optical excitation. The Tamm plasmon Coupled emission (TPCE) from a combined photonic-plasmonic structure sustaining both surface plasmons (SPs) and Tamm plasmons (TPs) is described. The sensitivity of TPCE to the emission wavelength and polarization is examined with back focal plane imaging and verified with the numerical calculations. The results reveal that the excited probe can couple with both TPs and SPs, resulting in SPCE and TPCE, respectively. The TPCE angle is strongly dependent on the wavelength allowing for spectral resolution using different observation angles. These Tamm structures provide a new tool to control the optical emission from dye molecules and have many potential applications in fluorescence based-sensing and imaging. PMID:25893010

  17. Chromatically-corrected, high-efficiency, multi-colour, multi-plane 3D imaging.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan; Dalgarno, Paul A; Lee, David; Yang, Yi; Thomson, Robert R; Greenaway, Alan H

    2012-08-27

    It is shown that grisms, a grating and prism combination, are a simple way to achieve chromatic control in 3D multi-plane imaging. A pair of grisms, whose separation can be varied, provide a collimated beam with a tuneable chromatic shear from a collimated polychromatic input. This simple control permits the correction of chromatic smearing in 3D imaging using off-axis Fresnel zone plates and improved control of the axial profile of a focussed spot in multi-photon experiments. PMID:23037119

  18. Out of Plane Polarimetric Imaging of Skin: Surface and Subsurface Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

    True borders of certain skin cancers are hard to detect by the human eye. For this reason, techniques such as polarized light imaging have been used to enhance skin cancer contrast before Mohs surgery procedures. In standard polarized light imaging the effect of the exposed rough surface is minimized using an index-matched boundary, such as a glass slide with gel. Moreover, surface glare is eliminated using indirect illumination. We studied the effect of surface roughness on the polarized light backscattered from skin demonstrating that rough surface effects can be minimized using out-of-plane polarized illumination in conjunction with polarized viewing, without the need for an index-matched boundary.

  19. A Low-Cost Demonstration Kit for Locating an Image Formed by a Plane Mirror Integrated with a Ray Diagram

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaewkhong, Kreetha; Chitaree, Ratchapak

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces a low-cost, easy to make apparatus that can be used to locate the position of an image formed by a plane mirror. The apparatus is combined with a method used to identify an image's position by drawing a ray diagram, based on the principle of reflection, to show how an image is formed. An image's distance and an object's

  20. Intensified charge coupled devices for use as a spaceborne spectrographic image-plane detector system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, M. R.; Devlin, J.

    1982-01-01

    An instrument that has been developed for studies of atmospheric emissions from the Space Shuttle comprises an array of imaging spectrometers to observe features over the 300-12,000-A wavelength range. Each spectrometer has a 2-D image-plane detector system on which spectral information is dispersed in one direction and spatial information is resolved in the other. The detectors consist of CCD arrays which are coupled to proximity focused image intensifiers. The intensifier in each case is selected for the wavelength range covered by the particular spectrometer. The result is a compact low-power spectrographic detector system. In the course of building the five flight detector systems, there was occasion to evaluate a larger number of the charge coupled devices and the proximity focused image intensifiers. Various characteristics, advantages, and shortcomings of these devices and the overall intensified CCD system are reported.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging planes for the 3-dimensional characterisation of human coronary arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Gates, A R; Huang, C L; Crowley, J J; Gresham, A; Shapiro, L M; Carpenter, T A; Hall, L D

    1994-01-01

    We report a magnetic resonance imaging study which developed a consistent hierarchy of imaging planes for examination of the origins, courses and principal branches of the main coronary arteries of prepared human cadaveric hearts. The reference longitudinal axis was chosen between the aortic valve and the apex of the left ventricle. A series of transverse planes then successfully visualised the ostia of the left and right coronary arteries; the left main coronary, its bifurcation, and the left anterior descending artery for a distance 24 mm distal to its origin were clearly distinct in successively posterior sections as was the emergence and course of the right coronary artery. Further sections were derived from an axis that joined the posterior aspects of the left and right coronary artery ostia seen in cross-section, which demonstrated the origins of these arteries. They also traced the circumflex artery 30 mm beyond its point of emergence and demonstrated the course of the right coronary artery between the right ventricle and right atrium. The anatomical identifications were confirmed in selective 3-dimensional reconstructions of the cardiac anatomy around the aortic root and pulmonary artery origin. The orthogonal anatomical arrangements of the left and right coronary artery arterial trees thus permit a consistent set of imaging planes useful for the visualisation of all the major branches in a static heart in vitro. This may offer an approach useful for clinical imaging of human coronary vessels in vivo in the moving heart. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:7961140

  2. Multispectral Thermal Imager Optical Assembly Performance and Intergration of the Flight Focal Plane Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, Dick; Byrd, Don; Christensen, Wynn; Henson, Tammy; Krumel, Les; Rappoport, William; Shen, Gon-Yen

    1999-06-08

    The Multispectral Thermal Imager Optical Assembly (OA) has been fabricated, assembled, successfully performance tested, and integrated into the flight payload structure with the flight Focal Plane Assembly (FPA) integrated and aligned to it. This represents a major milestone achieved towards completion of this earth observing E-O imaging sensor that is to be operated in low earth orbit. The OA consists of an off-axis three mirror anastigmatic (TMA) telescope with a 36 cm unobscured clear aperture, a wide-field-of-view (WFOV) of 1.82 along the direction of spacecraft motion and 1.38 across the direction of spacecraft motion. It also contains a comprehensive on-board radiometric calibration system. The OA is part of a multispectral pushbroom imaging sensor which employs a single mechanically cooled focal plane with 15 spectral bands covering a wavelength range from 0.45 to 10.7 m. The OA achieves near diffraction-limited performance from visible to the long-wave infrared (LWIR) wavelengths. The two major design drivers for the OA are 80% enpixeled energy in the visible bands and radiometric stability. Enpixeled energy in the visible bands also drove the alignment of the FPA detectors to the OA image plane to a requirement of less than 20 m over the entire visible detector field of view (FOV). Radiometric stability requirements mandated a cold Lyot stop for stray light rejection and thermal background reduction. The Lyot stop is part of the FPA assembly and acts as the aperture stop for the imaging system. The alignment of the Lyot stop to the OA drove the centering and to some extent the tilt alignment requirements of the FPA to the OA.

  3. Simultaneous in-and-out-of-plane displacement measurements using fringe projection and digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felipe-Ses, Luis; Siegmann, Philip; Daz, Francisco A.; Patterson, Eann A.

    2014-01-01

    The combination of fringe projection (FP) and two-dimensional digital image correlation (2D-DIC) has been proposed in previous work [1] as an alternative method to obtain displacement maps in the three spatial directions. However, if a telecentric lens is not employed in the experimental setup, the in-plane displacements obtained with 2D-DIC are influenced by the out-of-plane displacements occurring during deformation. Nevertheless, this error can be corrected if the out-of-plane displacements are known, for instance from measurements using the FP technique. In this paper a novel methodology based on the combination of FP and 2D-DIC is employed to perform the correction of the in-plane displacements, and is applied to several experimental examples. Results are compared and validated with those obtained using a commercial 3D-DIC system showing an average displacement error of 4% for X-displacements and 6.5% for Y-displacements.

  4. A deep image of the diffuse soft X-ray background at the Galactic plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Qingde

    1992-01-01

    A deep Einstein IPC image of the Galactic plane provides important information about the Galactic diffuse X-ray background. Free from contamination by sources with fluxes greater than about 4 x 10 exp -14 ergs/sq cm s and by X-rays from beyond the Galactic plane, the intensity and spectrum of the background at the Galactic plane are measured for the first time in the 0.16-3.5 keV band. The spectrum can be characterized by a thermal hot gas model with a temperature of about 4,000,000 K, and the M-band Galactic flux is about 3 x 10 exp -8 ergs/sq cm s sr. This background is enhanced in the M band at the Galactic plane, but it is keV regime. If discrete sources are to be responsible for the background, their surface density must be much greater than one source per resolution element of the IPC (i.e., about 0.4 sources/sq arcmin) because of the lack of a correlation among observed X-ray on scales comparable to the instrument resolution. This density constraint, together with a model study of the Galactic emission, leads to the conclusion that no known stellar population could be responsible for the bulk of the emission.

  5. Computer-assisted scheme for automated determination of imaging planes in cervical spinal cord MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsurumaki, Masaki; Tsai, Du-Yih; Lee, Yongbum; Sekiya, Masaru; Kazama, Kiyoko

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents a computerized scheme to assist MRI operators in accurate and rapid determination of sagittal sections for MRI exam of cervical spinal cord. The algorithm of the proposed scheme consisted of 6 steps: (1) extraction of a cervical vertebra containing spinal cord from an axial localizer image; (2) extraction of spinal cord with sagittal image from the extracted vertebra; (3) selection of a series of coronal localizer images corresponding to various, involved portions of the extracted spinal cord with sagittal image; (4) generation of a composite coronal-plane image from the obtained coronal images; (5) extraction of spinal cord from the obtained composite image; (6) determination of oblique sagittal sections from the detected location and gradient of the extracted spinal cord. Cervical spine images obtained from 25 healthy volunteers were used for the study. A perceptual evaluation was performed by five experienced MRI operators. Good agreement between the automated and manual determinations was achieved. By use of the proposed scheme, average execution time was reduced from 39 seconds/case to 1 second/case. The results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can assist MRI operators in performing cervical spinal cord MRI exam accurately and rapidly.

  6. Simultaneous orthogonal-plane particle image velocimetry measurements in a turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambleton, W. T.; Hutchins, N.; Marusic, Ivan

    2006-08-01

    Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were taken simultaneously in streamwise spanwise and streamwise wall-normal planes in a zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate. Polarization techniques were employed to allow PIV to be taken in both planes simultaneously. Image preprocessing techniques were used to improve the quality of data near the line of intersection of the planes. Linear stochastic estimation was performed on these data, revealing the streamwise, spanwise, and wall-normal extent of swirl events primarily near the top of the log region of the boundary layer. Swirl events with rotation consistent with the mean vorticity are found to have a large footprint in the lower limit of the log region whereas swirls with opposite-signed vorticity are found to have little influence lower in the boundary layer. These long-time-averaged statistics contain features that are consistent with the hairpin packet model (or its kinematic equivalent). This model also seems to provide a reasonable description of many instantaneous events involving large-scale coherence, where long regions of streamwise momentum deficit are surrounded by vortex cores.

  7. InstantScope: a low-cost whole slide imaging system with instant focal plane detection.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kaikai; Liao, Jun; Bian, Zichao; Heng, Xin; Zheng, Guoan

    2015-09-01

    We report the development of a high-throughput whole slide imaging (WSI) system by adapting a cost-effective optomechanical add-on kit to existing microscopes. Inspired by the phase detection concept in professional photography, we attached two pinhole-modulated cameras at the eyepiece ports for instant focal plane detection. By adjusting the positions of the pinholes, we can effectively change the view angle for the sample, and as such, we can use the translation shift of the two pinhole-modulated images to identify the optimal focal position. By using a small pinhole size, the focal-plane-detection range is on the order of millimeter, orders of magnitude longer than the objective's depth of field. We also show that, by analyzing the phase correlation of the pinhole-modulated images, we can determine whether the sample contains one thin section, folded sections, or multiple layers separated by certain distances - an important piece of information prior to a detailed z scan. In order to achieve system automation, we deployed a low-cost programmable robotic arm to perform sample loading and $14 stepper motors to drive the microscope stage to perform x-y scanning. Using a 20X objective lens, we can acquire a 2 gigapixel image with 14 mm by 8 mm field of view in 90 seconds. The reported platform may find applications in biomedical research, telemedicine, and digital pathology. It may also provide new insights for the development of high-content screening instruments. PMID:26417493

  8. Medical image compression using cubic spline interpolation with bit-plane compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Trieu-Kien; Chen, Shi-Huang; Lin, Tsung-Ching

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, a modified medical image compression algorithm using cubic spline interpolation (CSI) is presented for telemedicine applications. The CSI is developed in order to subsample image data with minimal distortion and to achieve compression. It has been shown in literatures that the CSI can be combined with the JPEG algorithms to develop a modified JPEG codec, which obtains a higher compression ratio and a better quality of reconstructed image than the standard JPEG. However, this modified JPEG codec will lose some high-frequency components of medical images during compression process. To minimize the drawback arose from loss of these high-frequency components, this paper further makes use of bit-plane compensation to the modified JPEG codec. The bit-plane compensation algorithm used in this paper is modified from JBIG2 standard. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme can increase 20~30% compression ratio of original JPEG medical data compression system with similar visual quality. This system can reduce the loading of telecommunication networks and is quite suitable for low bit-rate telemedicine applications.

  9. Accuracy of image-plane holographic tomography with filtered backprojection: random and systematic errors.

    PubMed

    Belashov, A V; Petrov, N V; Semenova, I V

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of image-plane holographic tomography applied to the measurements of laser-induced thermal gradients in an aqueous solution of a photosensitizer with respect to the reconstruction accuracy of three-dimensional variations of the refractive index. It uses the least-squares estimation algorithm to reconstruct refractive index variations in each holographic projection. Along with the bitelecentric optical system, transferring focused projection to the sensor plane, it facilitates the elimination of diffraction artifacts and noise suppression. This work estimates the influence of typical random and systematic errors in experiments and concludes that random errors such as accidental measurement errors or noise presence can be significantly suppressed by increasing the number of recorded digital holograms. On the contrary, even comparatively small systematic errors such as a displacement of the rotation axis projection in the course of a reconstruction procedure can significantly distort the results. PMID:26835625

  10. The Second Epoch Molonglo Galactic Plane Survey: Images and Candidate Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, A. J.; Reeves, S. N.; Murphy, T.

    2014-11-01

    The second epoch Molonglo Galactic Plane Survey covers the area 245 ? l ? 365 and |b| ? 10 at a frequency of 843 MHz and an angular resolution of 45 arcsec 45 arcsec cosec(?). The sensitivity varies between 1-2 mJy beam- 1 depending on the presence of strong extended sources. This survey is currently the highest resolution and most sensitive large-scale continuum survey of the southern Galactic plane. In this paper, we present the images of the complete survey, including postage stamps of some new supernova remnant (SNR) candidates and a discussion of the highly structured features detected in the interstellar medium. The intersection of these two types of features is discussed in the context of the `missing' SNR population in the Galaxy.

  11. Multiple Plane Phase Retrieval Based On Inverse Regularized Imaging and Discrete Diffraction Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migukin, Artem; Katkovnik, Vladimir; Astola, Jaakko

    2010-04-01

    The phase retrieval is formulated as an inverse problem, where the forward propagation is defined by Discrete Diffraction Transform (DDT) [1], [2]. This propagation model is precise and aliasing free for pixelwise invariant (pixelated) wave field distributions in the sensor and object planes. Because of finite size of sensors DDT can be ill-conditioned and the regularization is an important component of the inverse. The proposed algorithm is designed for multiple plane observations and can be treated as a generalization of the Gerchberg-Saxton iterative algorithm. The proposed algorithm is studied by numerical experiments produced for phase and amplitude modulated object distributions. Comparison versus the conventional forward propagation models such as the angular spectrum decomposition and the convolutional model used in the algorithm of the same structure shows a clear advantage of DDT enabling better accuracy and better imaging.

  12. Compact reconnaissance imaging spectrometer for Mars (CRISM): characterization results for instrument and focal plane subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverglate, Peter R.; Heffernan, Kevin J.; Bedini, Peter D.; Boldt, John D.; Cavender, Peter J.; Choo, Tech H.; Darlington, Edward H.; Donald, Erik T.; Fasold, Melissa J.; Fort, Dennis E.; Gurnee, Reid S.; Hayes, Allen T.; Hayes, John R.; Hemler, James B.; Humm, David C.; Izenberg, Noam R.; Lee, Robert E.; Lees, William J.; Lohr, David A.; Murchie, Scott L.; Murphy, Graham A.; Reiter, Ralph A.; Rossano, Edigio; Seagrave, Gordon G.; Schaefer, Edward D.; Strohbehn, Kim; Taylor, Howard W.; Thompson, Patrick L.; Tossman, Barry E.; Wilson, Paul, IV; Robinson, Mark S.; Green, Robert; Mitchell, Steven E.

    2004-10-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) will launch in 2005 on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) mission, with its primary science objective to characterize sites with aqueous mineral deposits hyperspectrally at high spatial resolution. CRISM"s two Offner relay spectrometers share a single entrance slit with a dichroic beamsplitter. The IR focal plane contains a 640 (spatial) x 480 (spectral) HgCdTe FPA with a 980 nm to 3960 nm spectral bandpass. It is cooled to 110 K to minimize dark current, and coupled to a 28 mm long cold shield to minimize thermal background. The spectrometer housing is cooled to -90 C for the same reason. A three-zone IR filter consisting of two broadband filters and a linear variable filter overlays the IR focal plane, eliminating multiple grating orders and providing additional attenuation of the thermal background. The visible focal plane contains a 640 (spatial) x 480 (spectral) silicon photodiode array, with a 380-1050 nm spectral bandpass occupying approximately 106 rows of the detector. A two-zone filter comprised of two different Schott glasses eliminates multiple grating orders. The two focal planes together cover 544 spectral channels with a dispersion of 6.55 nm/channel in the VNIR and 6.63 nm/channel in the IR. The optics and focal planes are gimbaled, and a pre-programmed slew can be used to remove groundtrack motion while superimposing a scan across a target. CRISM will operate in two basic modes: a scanning, high resolution mode to hyperspectrally map small, targeted areas of high scientific interest, and a fixed, nadir-pointed, lower resolution pixel-binned mode using selected wavelength channels to obtain near-global coverage to find targets. Preliminary performance of the CRISM instrument is presented, and is compared with prior system design predictions.

  13. Assessment of methods to extract the mid-sagittal plane from brain MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuijf, Hugo J.; Leemans, Alexander; Viergever, Max A.; Vincken, Koen L.

    2013-03-01

    Automatic detection of the mid-sagittal plane, separating both hemispheres of the brain, is useful in various applications. Several methods have been developed in the past years, applying different techniques to estimate the position of the mid-sagittal plane. These methods can be classified into three distinct classes: feature-based, global symmetry based, and local symmetry based methods. Feature-based methods use the shape or intensity of the interhemispheric fissure to extract the mid-sagittal plane. Global symmetry based methods reflect the entire image with respect to the sagittal axes and perform a rigid registration. Local symmetry based methods try to optimize a symmetry-measure in a small band covering the interhemispheric fissure. From each class, one leading method has been implemented. The methods have been evaluated on the same datasets to allow a fair comparison. Manual delineations were made by two experienced human observers. The results show that the examined methods perform similar to human observers. No significant differences were found between errors (defined as the angle and volume between planes) made by the methods and the inter-observer differences. Feature-based and local symmetry based methods have a low computation time of 1.8 and 0.5 seconds, respectively. The global symmetry based method has a higher computation time of 33.6 seconds, caused by the full 3D rigid registration. The largest errors, both by the methods and observers, are made in participants with cerebral atrophy. These participants have a widened interhemispheric fissure, allowing many plane orientations and positions to result in a valid division of the hemispheres.

  14. Photo-acoustic imaging of blue nanoparticle targeted brain tumor for intra-operative glioma delineation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Aniruddha; Wang, Xueding; Koo Lee, Yong-Eun; Hah, HoeJin; Kim, Gwangseong; Chen, Thomas; Orrienger, Daniel; Sagher, Oren; Kopelman, Raoul

    2011-07-01

    Distinguishing the tumor from the background neo-plastic tissue is challenging for cancer surgery such as surgical resection of glioma. Attempts have been made to use visible or fluorescent markers to delineate the tumors during surgery. However, the systemic injection of the dyes requires high dose, resulting in negative side effects. A novel method to delineate rat brain tumors intra-operatively, as well as post-operatively, using a highly sensitive photoacoustic imaging technique enhanced by tumor targeting blue nanoparticle as contrast agent is demonstrated. The nanoparticles are made of polyacrylamide (PAA) matrix with covalently linked Coomassie-Blue dye. They contain 7.0% dye and the average size is 80nm. Their surface was conjugated with F3 peptide for active tumor targeting. These nanoparticles are nontoxic, chemically inert and have long plasma circulation lifetime, making them suitable as nanodevices for imaging using photoacoustics. Experiments on phantoms and rat brains tumors ex-vivo demonstrate the high sensitivity of photoacoustic imaging in delineating the tumor, containing contrast agent at concentrations too low to be visualized by eye. The control tumors without nanoparticles did not show any enhanced signal. This study shows that photoacoustic imaging facilitated with the nanoparticle contrast agent could contribute to future surgical procedures for glioma.

  15. High-speed infrared imaging by an uncooled optomechanical focal plane array.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yun; Zhao, Yuejin; Dong, Liquan; Liu, Ming; Li, Xueyan; Ma, Wei; Yu, Xiaomei; Kong, Lingqin; Liu, Xiaohua

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that the imaging speed of the optomechanical focal plane array infrared imaging system can be significantly improved by changing the pressure in the vacuum chamber. The decrease in the thermal time constant is attributed to the additional thermal conductance caused by air. The response time will be greatly shortened to about 1/3 time in low vacuum (around ∼102  Pa) compared with that in high vacuum. At a chamber pressure of 50 Pa, the "trailing" in the IR image of a moving hot iron is eliminated with negligible deterioration in the image quality. Moreover, infrared images on rapid occurrence events, such as ignition of an alcohol blast burner, lighting and fusion of a tungsten filament, are captured at a frame rate up to 200 Hz. The above results show that the proposed pressure-dependent performance provides a way to improve the system imaging speed and helps to slow down a dynamic event, which is of great value to the uncooled IR imaging systems in practical applications. PMID:26836676

  16. Intraoperative epicardial echocardiography with a miniature high-frequency transducer: imaging techniques and scanning planes.

    PubMed

    Kenny, A; Cary, N R; Murphy, D; Shapiro, L M

    1994-01-01

    Intraoperative Doppler echocardiography has the potential to provide anatomic and functional information but is hindered by the large size of standard transducers. We describe new scanning planes accessible through the application of a new 5 MHz miniature transducer with imaging, Doppler, and color-flow capability. Epicardial echocardiography was performed in 15 adults undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting. Standard parasternal equivalent, subcostal equivalent, aortopulmonary sulcus and aortosuperior vena caval views were obtained. Previously unobtainable apical four-chamber, five-chamber, and long-axis views were possible by positioning the transducer at the apex. The transducer has a broad bandwidth, allowing high-quality imaging at different depths and could be maneuvered laterally, posteriorly, and over the aorta and pulmonary arteries to provide off-axis views. The proximal-mid coronary arteries were imaged on the beating heart with a standoff medium. Transducer miniaturization should expand the role of epicardial ultrasonography in the surgical management of heart disorders. PMID:8185958

  17. Multiple binary images hiding with bit-plane composition and jigsaw transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yishi; Wang, Yali; Yang, Yuhua; Zhang, Jingjuan

    2010-11-01

    A new scheme for multiple binary image hiding is proposed. The digital methods of the bit-plane composition and the jigsaw transform are both introduced into the double phase modulated system. By the combination of the digital and the optical methods, the direct superposition of multiple images in most of present techniques is easily avoided. As a result, the proposed scheme is available to hide sixteen binary images without any noises. It implies that a quite satisfactory trade-off between the fidelity and the multiplexing capacity is achieved. According to the results of computer simulations, we also analyze the performances of the proposed scheme including the security, the complexity and the flexibility.

  18. Identification and classification of chemicals using terahertz reflective spectroscopic focal-plane imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Hua; Redo-Sanchez, Albert; Zhang, X.-C.

    2006-10-01

    We present terahertz (THz) reflective spectroscopic focal-plane imaging of four explosive and bio-chemical materials (2, 4-DNT, Theophylline, RDX and Glutamic Acid) at a standoff imaging distance of 0.4 m. The 2 dimension (2-D) nature of this technique enables a fast acquisition time and is very close to a camera-like operation, compared to the most commonly used point emission-detection and raster scanning configuration. The samples are identified by their absorption peaks extracted from the negative derivative of the reflection coefficient respect to the frequency (-dr/dv) of each pixel. Classification of the samples is achieved by using minimum distance classifier and neural network methods with a rate of accuracy above 80% and a false alarm rate below 8%. This result supports the future application of THz time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) in standoff distance sensing, imaging, and identification.

  19. FT-IR spectroscopic imaging microscopy using an MCT focal-plane array detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcott, C.; Reeder, R. C.

    1998-06-01

    A 64×64 Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride (MCT) focal-plane array (FPA) detector coupled to a step-scanning Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microscope has been used to acquire spectroscopic images in the fingerprint region of the infrared spectrum (1800-900 cm-1). FT-IR microspectroscopic imaging using this MCT FPA enabled us to chemically identify a 7.5-μm-thick adhesive tie layer in a polymer laminate packaging material. Infrared spectroscopic images of cross sections of human bone tissue obtained using the MCT FPA detector are also presented. The protein, carbonate, and phosphate concentrations change as a function of radial distance from an osteon.

  20. Recursive Focal Plane Wavefront and Bias Estimation for the Direct Imaging of Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldorado Riggs, A. J.; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Groff, Tyler Dean

    2016-01-01

    To image the reflected light from exoplanets and disks, an instrument must suppress diffracted starlight by about nine orders of magnitude. A coronagraph alters the stellar PSF to create regions of high contrast, but it is extremely sensitive to wavefront aberrations. Deformable mirrors (DMs) are necessary to mitigate these quasi-static aberrations and recover high-contrast. To avoid non-common path aberrations, the science camera must be used as the primary wavefront sensor. Focal plane wavefront correction is an iterative process, and obtaining sufficient signal in the dark holes requires long exposure times. The fastest coronagraphic wavefront correction techniques require estimates of the stellar electric field. The main challenge of coronagraphy is thus to perform complex wavefront estimation quickly and efficiently using intensity images from the camera. The most widely applicable and tested technique is DM Diversity, in which a DM modulates the focal plane intensity and several images are used to reconstruct the stellar electric field in a batch process. At the High Contrast Imaging Lab (HCIL) at Princeton, we have developed an iterative extended Kalman filter (IEKF) to improve upon this technique. The IEKF enables recursive starlight estimation and can utilize fewer images per iteration, thereby speeding up wavefront correction. This IEKF formulation also estimates the bias in the images recursively. Since exoplanets and disks are embedded in the incoherent bias signal, the IEKF enables detection of science targets during wavefront correction. Here we present simulated and experimental results from Princeton's HCIL demonstrating the effectiveness of the IEKF for recursive electric field estimation and exoplanet detection.

  1. Simulation of High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Images on the IBM Blue Gene/L Supercomputer Using SIMRI.

    PubMed

    Baum, K G; Menezes, G; Helguera, M

    2011-01-01

    Medical imaging system simulators are tools that provide a means to evaluate system architecture and create artificial image sets that are appropriate for specific applications. We have modified SIMRI, a Bloch equation-based magnetic resonance image simulator, in order to successfully generate high-resolution 3D MR images of the Montreal brain phantom using Blue Gene/L systems. Results show that redistribution of the workload allows an anatomically accurate 256(3) voxel spin-echo simulation in less than 5 hours when executed on an 8192-node partition of a Blue Gene/L system. PMID:21747818

  2. Simulation of High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Images on the IBM Blue Gene/L Supercomputer Using SIMRI

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Baum, K. G.; Menezes, G.; Helguera, M.

    2011-01-01

    Medical imaging system simulators are tools that provide a means to evaluate system architecture and create artificial image sets that are appropriate for specific applications. We have modified SIMRI, a Bloch equation-based magnetic resonance image simulator, in order to successfully generate high-resolution 3D MR images of the Montreal brain phantom using Blue Gene/L systems. Results show that redistribution of the workload allows an anatomically accurate 256 3 voxel spin-echo simulation in less than 5 hours when executed on an 8192-node partition of a Blue Gene/L system.

  3. Camera model and calibration process for high-accuracy digital image metrology of inspection planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, Bento A. B.; Dinis, Joao

    1998-10-01

    High accuracy digital image based metrology must rely on an integrated model of image generation that is able to consider simultaneously the geometry of the camera vs. object positioning, and the conversion of the optical image on the sensor into an electronic digital format. In applications of automated visual inspection involving the analysis of approximately plane objects these models are generally simplified in order to facilitate the process of camera calibration. In this context, the lack of rigor in the determination of the intrinsic parameters in such models is particularly relevant. Aiming at the high accuracy metrology of contours of objects lying on an analysis plane, and involving sub-pixel measurements, this paper presents a three-stage camera model that includes an extrinsic component of perspective distortion and the intrinsic components of radial lens distortion and sensor misalignment. The later two factors are crucial in applications of machine vision that rely on the use of low cost optical components. A polynomial model for the negative radial lens distortion of wide field of view CCTV lenses is also established.

  4. Intraoperative near-infrared fluorescence imaging of a paraganglioma using methylene blue: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Tummers, Quirijn R.J.G.; Boonstra, Martin C.; Frangioni, John V.; van de Velde, Cornelis J.H.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.; Bonsing, Bert A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Intraoperative identification of tumors can be challenging. Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging is an innovative technique that can assist in intraoperative identification of tumors, which may otherwise be undetectable. Presentation of case A 19-year-old patient with symptoms, normetanephrine levels and radiological findings suspicious for a paraganglioma, a rare tumor arising from extra-adrenal chromaffin cells within the sympathetic nervous system, is presented. Intraoperative NIR fluorescence imaging using intravenous administration of methylene blue (MB) assisted in intraoperative detection of the tumor, and even identified a smaller second lesion, which was not identified during surgery by visual inspection. Discussion Although the exact mechanism of MB accumulation in neuroendocrine tumors is unclear, it is described in both preclinical and clinical studies. Conclusion In this report, we describe the first case of intraoperative NIR fluorescence imaging of a paraganglioma using MB, which identified an otherwise undetectable lesion. PMID:25541370

  5. Subarray coherence based postfilter for eigenspace based minimum variance beamformer in ultrasound plane-wave imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinxin; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yu, Jinhua; Guo, Wei; Li, Tianjie; Zheng, Yong-Ping

    2016-02-01

    This paper introduces a new beamformer, which combines the eigenspace based minimum variance (ESBMV) beamformer with a subarray coherence based postfilter (SCBP), for improving the quality of ultrasound plane-wave imaging. The ESBMV beamformer has been validated in improving the imaging contrast, but the difficulty in dividing the signal subspace limits the usage of it in the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) scenarios. Coherence factor (CF) based methods could optimize the output of a distortionless beamformer to reduce sidelobes, but the influence by the subarray decorrelation technique on the postfilter design has not attracted enough concern before. Accordingly, an ESBMV-SCBP beamformer was proposed in this paper, which used the coherence of the subarray signal to compute an SCBP to optimize the ESBMV results. Simulated and experimental data were used to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The results showed that the ESBMV-SCBP method achieved an improved imaging quality compared with the ESBMV beamformer. In the simulation study, the contrast ratio (CR) for an anechoic cyst was improved by 9.88 dB and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was improved by 0.97 over the ESBMV. In the experimental study, the CR improvements for two anechoic cysts were 7.32 dB and 9.45 dB, while the CNRs were improved by 1.27 and 0.66, respectively. The ESBMV-SCBP also showed advantages over the ESBMV-Wiener beamformer in preserving a less grainy speckle, which is closer to that of distortionless beamformers and benefits the imaging contrast. With a relatively small extra computational load, the proposed method has potential to enhance the quality of the ultrasound plane-wave imaging. PMID:26582600

  6. Stolt’s f-k migration for plane wave ultrasound imaging

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Damien; Le Tarnec, Louis; Muth, Stéphan; Montagnon, Emmanuel; Porée, Jonathan; Cloutier, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Ultrafast ultrasound is an emerging modality that offers new perspectives and opportunities in medical imaging. Plane wave imaging (PWI) allows one to attain very high frame rates by transmission of planar ultrasound wavefronts. As a plane wave reaches a given scatterer, the latter becomes a secondary source emitting upward spherical waves and creating a diffraction hyperbola in the received RF (radio-frequency) signals. To produce an image of the scatterers, all the hyperbolas must be migrated back to their apexes. In order to perform beamforming of plane wave echo RFs and return high-quality images at high frame rates, we propose a new migration method carried out in the frequency-wavenumber (f-k) domain. The f-k migration for PWI has been adapted from the Stolt migration for seismic imaging. This migration technique is based on the exploding reflector model (ERM), which consists in assuming that all the scatterers explode in concert and become acoustic sources. The classical ERM model, however, is not appropriate for PWI. We showed that the ERM can be made suitable for PWI by a spatial transformation of the hyperbolic traces present in the RF data. In vitro experiments were performed to sketch the advantages of PWI with Stolt’s f-k migration over the conventional delay-and-sum (DAS) approach. The Stolt’s f-k migration was also compared with the Fourier-based method developed by J-Y Lu. Our findings show that multi-angle compounded f-k migrated images are of quality similar to those obtained with a state-of-the-art dynamic focusing mode. This remained true even with a very small number of steering angles thus ensuring a highly competitive frame rate. In addition, the new FFT-based f-k migration provides comparable or better contrast-to-noise ratio and lateral resolution than the Lu’s and DAS migration schemes. Matlab codes of the Stolt’s f-k migration for PWI are provided. PMID:24626107

  7. Evaluation of aortic regurgitation by using PC MRI: A comparison of the accuracies at different image plane locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byeong-Gull; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soon-Bae; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Park, Yong-Soon

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this study is to determine which imaging location on phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC MRI) best correlates with echocardiography to enable the severity of aortic regurgitation to be accurately evaluated by using PC MRI. The subjects were 34 patients with aortic regurgitation confirmed by echocardiography and cardiac MRI. Two velocity distribution images were obtained by positioning image planes above and below the aortic valve in the PC MRI. Using the acquired images, regurgitation fractions were calculated by calculating the average forward and reverse blood flows. The severity of aortic regurgitation was then evaluated and compared with the severity as determined by using echocardiography. When image planes were positioned above the aortic valve, the regurgitation fraction obtained by using PC MRI was 44.5 ± 18.7%, and when planes were positioned below the valve, the regurgitation fraction was 34.8 ± 15.9%. Regarding agreement with echocardiographic findings, concurrence was shown to be 50% when image planes sections were positioned above the valve and 85.3% when they were positioned below the valve. The present study shows that if image planes are positioned below the valve rather than above the valve, provides as accurate evaluation of the severity of aortic regurgitation.

  8. Large size MOEMS Fabry-Perot interferometer filter for focal plane array hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chee, J.; Hwu, J.; Kim, T. S.; Kubby, J.; Velicu, S.; Gupta, N.

    2015-02-01

    Focal plane array (FPA) technology is mature and is widely used for imaging applications. However, FPAs have broadband responses which limit their ability to provide high performance in hyperspectral applications such as detection of buried explosives, and identifying the presence of explosive chemicals and their concentrations. EPIR is currently developing Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical System (MOEMS) Fabry-Perot interferometer filter (FPF) devices for FPAs. In this paper, we present our approach to MOEMS FPF design and fabrication that will meet the size requirements for large format FPA hyperspectral imaging. We also report the performance of our FPF resonance cavity, capable of up to 3 μm change gap in tens of nanometer increments.

  9. Detection of moving objects in image plane for robot navigation using monocular vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yin-Tien; Sun, Chung-Hsun; Chiou, Ming-Jang

    2012-12-01

    This article presents an algorithm for moving object detection (MOD) in robot visual simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). This MOD algorithm is designed based on the defining epipolar constraint for the corresponding feature points on image plane. An essential matrix obtained using the state estimator is utilized to represent the epipolar constraint. Meanwhile, the method of speeded-up robust feature (SURF) is employed in the algorithm to provide a robust detection for image features as well as a better description of landmarks and of moving objects in visual SLAM system. Experiments are carried out on a hand-held monocular camera to verify the performances of the proposed algorithm. The results show that the integration of MOD and SURF is efficient for robot navigating in dynamic environments.

  10. Characterization of the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) Neutron Radiography System Imaging Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Krista; Chantel Nowlen, K.; DePriest, K. Russell

    2016-02-01

    The Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is an epithermal pool-type research reactor licensed up to a thermal power of 2.4 MW. The ACRR facility has a neutron radiography facility that is used for imaging a wide range of items including reactor fuel and neutron generators. The ACRR neutron radiography system has four apertures (65:1, 125:1, 250:1, and 500:1) available to experimenters. The neutron flux and spectrum as well as the gamma dose rate were characterized at the imaging plane for the ACRR's neutron radiography system for the 65:1, 125:1 and 250:1 apertures.

  11. InstantScope: a low-cost whole slide imaging system with instant focal plane detection

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Kaikai; Liao, Jun; Bian, Zichao; Heng, Xin; Zheng, Guoan

    2015-01-01

    We report the development of a high-throughput whole slide imaging (WSI) system by adapting a cost-effective optomechanical add-on kit to existing microscopes. Inspired by the phase detection concept in professional photography, we attached two pinhole-modulated cameras at the eyepiece ports for instant focal plane detection. By adjusting the positions of the pinholes, we can effectively change the view angle for the sample, and as such, we can use the translation shift of the two pinhole-modulated images to identify the optimal focal position. By using a small pinhole size, the focal-plane-detection range is on the order of millimeter, orders of magnitude longer than the objective’s depth of field. We also show that, by analyzing the phase correlation of the pinhole-modulated images, we can determine whether the sample contains one thin section, folded sections, or multiple layers separated by certain distances – an important piece of information prior to a detailed z scan. In order to achieve system automation, we deployed a low-cost programmable robotic arm to perform sample loading and $14 stepper motors to drive the microscope stage to perform x-y scanning. Using a 20X objective lens, we can acquire a 2 gigapixel image with 14 mm by 8 mm field of view in 90 seconds. The reported platform may find applications in biomedical research, telemedicine, and digital pathology. It may also provide new insights for the development of high-content screening instruments. PMID:26417493

  12. THz imaging using Glow Discharge Detector (GDD) focal plane arrays and large aperture quasi optic mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeika, N. S.; Abramovich, A.; Joseph, H.; Rozban, D.; Akram, A.; Levanon, A.; Yadid-Pecht, O.; Belenky, A.; Lineykin, S.

    2010-10-01

    The properties of terahertz (THz) radiation are well known. They penetrate well most nonconducting media; there are no known biological hazards, and atmospheric attenuation and scattering is lower than for visual and IR radiation. Recently we have found that common miniature commercial neon glow discharge detector (GDD) lamps costing typically about 30 cents each exhibit high sensitivity to THz radiation, with microsecond order rise times, thus making them excellent candidates for such focal plane arrays. Based on this technology we designed, built and tested 4X4 and 8X8 GDD focal plane arrays. A line vector of 32 GDD pixels is being designed in order to increase the number of pixels in such arrays and thus the image resolution. Unique large aperture quasi optic mirrors were design and tested experimentally in this work. A new technology of light weight large aperture mirrors is proposed in this work. In this case a metal coating on plastic substrate is demonstrated. According to first experiments this technology proves to reliable with minimal deformation in LAB conditions. THz Images at 100 GHz were taken using this new inexpensive technology with good quality and resolution.

  13. Vibration measurement of a miniature component by high-speed image-plane digital holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yu; Shi, Hongjian; Miao, Hong

    2009-04-10

    Measuring deformation of vibrating specimens whose dimensions are in the submillimeter range introduces a number of difficulties using laser interferometry. Normal interferometry is not suitable because of a phase ambiguity problem. In addition, the noise effect is much more serious in the measurement of small objects because a high-magnification lens is used. We present a method for full-field measurement of displacement, velocity, and acceleration of a vibrating miniature object based on image-plane digital holographic microscopy. A miniature cantilever beam is excited by a piezoelectric transducer stage with a sinusoidal configuration. A sequence of digital holograms is captured using a high-speed digital holographic microscope. Windowed Fourier analysis is applied in the spatial and spatiotemporal domains to extract the displacement, velocity and acceleration. The result shows that a combination of image-plane digital holographic microscopy and windowed Fourier analyses can be used to study vibration without encountering a phase ambiguity problem, and one can obtain instantaneous kinematic parameters on each point. PMID:19363535

  14. Vibration measurement of a miniature component by high-speed image-plane digital holographic microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Fu Yu; Shi Hongjian; Miao Hong

    2009-04-10

    Measuring deformation of vibrating specimens whose dimensions are in the submillimeter range introduces a number of difficulties using laser interferometry. Normal interferometry is not suitable because of a phase ambiguity problem. In addition, the noise effect is much more serious in the measurement of small objects because a high-magnification lens is used. We present a method for full-field measurement of displacement, velocity, and acceleration of a vibrating miniature object based on image-plane digital holographic microscopy. A miniature cantilever beam is excited by a piezoelectric transducer stage with a sinusoidal configuration. A sequence of digital holograms is captured using a high-speed digital holographic microscope. Windowed Fourier analysis is applied in the spatial and spatiotemporal domains to extract the displacement, velocity and acceleration. The result shows that a combination of image-plane digital holographic microscopy and windowed Fourier analyses can be used to study vibration without encountering a phase ambiguity problem, and one can obtain instantaneous kinematic parameters on each point.

  15. Solid-state image sensor with focal-plane digital photon-counting pixel array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A photosensitive layer such as a-Si for a UV/visible wavelength band is provided for low light level imaging with at least a separate CMOS amplifier directly connected to each PIN photodetector diode to provide a focal-plane array of NxN pixels, and preferably a separate photon-counting CMOS circuit directly connected to each CMOS amplifier, although one row of counters may be time shared for reading out the photon flux rate of each diode in the array, together with a buffer memory for storing all rows of the NxN image frame before transfer to suitable storage. All CMOS circuitry is preferably fabricated in the same silicon layer as the PIN photodetector diode for a monolithic structure, but when the wavelength band of interest requires photosensitive material different from silicon, the focal-plane array may be fabricated separately on a different semiconductor layer bump-bonded or otherwise bonded for a virtually monolithic structure with one free terminal of each diode directly connected to the input terminal of its CMOS amplifier and digital counter for integration of the photon flux rate at each photodetector of the array.

  16. Removal of out-of-plane fluorescence for single cell visualization and quantification in cryo-imaging.

    PubMed

    Steyer, Grant J; Roy, Debashish; Salvado, Olivier; Stone, Meredith E; Wilson, David L

    2009-08-01

    We developed a cryo-imaging system, which alternates between sectioning (10-40 microm) and imaging bright field and fluorescence block-face image volumes with micron-scale-resolution. For applications requiring single-cell detection of fluorescently labeled cells anywhere in a mouse, we are developing software for reduction of out-of-plane fluorescence. In mouse experiments, we imaged GFP-labeled cancer and stem cells, and cell-sized fluorescent microspheres. To remove out-of-plane fluorescence, we used a simplified model of light-tissue interaction whereby the next-image was scaled, blurred, and subtracted from the current image. We estimated scaling and blurring parameters by minimizing an objective function on subtracted images. Tissue-specific attenuation parameters [micro(T): heart (267 +/- 47.6 cm(-1)), liver (218 +/- 27.1 cm(-1)), brain (161 +/- 27.4 cm(-1))] were found to be within the range of estimates in the literature. "Next-image" processing removed out-of-plane fluorescence equally well across multiple tissues (brain, kidney, liver, etc.), and analysis of 200 microsphere images gave 97 +/- 2% reduction of out-of-plane fluorescence. Next-image processing greatly improved axial-resolution, enabled high quality 3D volume renderings, and improved automated enumeration of single cells by up to 24%. The method has been used to identify metastatic cancer sites, determine homing of stem cells to injury sites, and show microsphere distribution correlated with blood flow patterns. PMID:19513848

  17. Sentinel lymph nodes detection with an imaging system using Patent Blue V dye as fluorescent tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellier, F.; Steibel, J.; Chabrier, R.; Rodier, J. F.; Pourroy, G.; Poulet, P.

    2013-03-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the gold standard to detect metastatic invasion from primary breast cancer. This method can help patients avoid full axillary chain dissection, thereby decreasing the risk of morbidity. We propose an alternative to the traditional isotopic method, to detect and map the sentinel lymph nodes. Indeed, Patent Blue V is the most widely used dye in clinical routine for the visual detection of sentinel lymph nodes. A Recent study has shown the possibility of increasing the fluorescence quantum yield of Patent Blue V, when it is bound to human serum albumin. In this study we present a preclinical fluorescence imaging system to detect sentinel lymph nodes labeled with this fluorescent tracer. The setup is composed of a black and white CCD camera and two laser sources. One excitation source with a laser emitting at 635 nm and a second laser at 785 nm to illuminate the region of interest. The prototype is operated via a laptop. Preliminary experiments permitted to determine the device sensitivity in the ?mol.L-1 range as regards the detection of PBV fluorescence signals. We also present a preclinical evaluation performed on Lewis rats, during which the fluorescence imaging setup detected the accumulation and fixation of the fluorescent dye on different nodes through the skin.

  18. Automatic standard plane adjustment on mobile C-Arm CT images of the calcaneus using atlas-based feature registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehler, Michael; Grres, Joseph; Wolf, Ivo; Franke, Jochen; von Recum, Jan; Grtzner, Paul A.; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Nabers, Diana

    2014-03-01

    Intraarticular fractures of the calcaneus are routinely treated by open reduction and internal fixation followed by intraoperative imaging to validate the repositioning of bone fragments. C-Arm CT offers surgeons the possibility to directly verify the alignment of the fracture parts in 3D. Although the device provides more mobility, there is no sufficient information about the device-to-patient orientation for standard plane reconstruction. Hence, physicians have to manually align the image planes in a position that intersects with the articular surfaces. This can be a time-consuming step and imprecise adjustments lead to diagnostic errors. We address this issue by introducing novel semi-/automatic methods for adjustment of the standard planes on mobile C-Arm CT images. With the semi-automatic method, physicians can quickly adjust the planes by setting six points based on anatomical landmarks. The automatic method reconstructs the standard planes in two steps, first SURF keypoints (2D and newly introduced pseudo-3D) are generated for each image slice; secondly, these features are registered to an atlas point set and the parameters of the image planes are transformed accordingly. The accuracy of our method was evaluated on 51 mobile C-Arm CT images from clinical routine with manually adjusted standard planes by three physicians of different expertise. The average time of the experts (46s) deviated from the intermediate user (55s) by 9 seconds. By applying 2D SURF key points 88% of the articular surfaces were intersected correctly by the transformed standard planes with a calculation time of 10 seconds. The pseudo-3D features performed even better with 91% and 8 seconds.

  19. A Low-Cost Demonstration Kit for Locating an Image Formed by a Plane Mirror Integrated with a Ray Diagram

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaewkhong, Kreetha; Chitaree, Ratchapak

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces a low-cost, easy to make apparatus that can be used to locate the position of an image formed by a plane mirror. The apparatus is combined with a method used to identify an image's position by drawing a ray diagram, based on the principle of reflection, to show how an image is formed. An image's distance and an object's…

  20. Comparative evaluation of methylene blue and demeclocycline for enhancing optical contrast of gliomas in optical images.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Dennis; Snuderl, Matija; Curry, William; Yaroslavsky, Anna

    2014-09-01

    Contrast agents have shown to be useful in the detection of cancers. The goal of this study was to compare enhancement of brain cancer contrast using reflectance and fluorescence confocal imaging of two fluorophores, methylene blue (MB) and demeclocycline (DMN). MB absorbs light in the red spectral range and fluoresces in the near-infrared. It is safe for in vivo staining of human skin and breast tissue. However, its safety for staining human brain is questionable. Thus, DMN, which absorbs light in the violet spectral range and fluoresces between 470 and 570 nm, could provide a safer alternative to MB. Fresh human gliomas, obtained from surgeries, were cut in half and stained with aqueous solutions of MB and DMN, respectively. Stained tissues were imaged using multimodal confocal microscopy. Resulting reflectance and fluorescence optical images were compared with hematoxylin and eosin histopathology, processed from each imaged tissue. Results indicate that images of tissues stained with either stain exhibit comparable contrast and resolution of morphological detail. Further studies are required to establish the safety and efficacy of these contrast agents for use in human brain. PMID:25239672

  1. Massively-parallel electrical-conductivity imaging of hydrocarbonsusing the Blue Gene/L supercomputer

    SciTech Connect

    Commer, M.; Newman, G.A.; Carazzone, J.J.; Dickens, T.A.; Green,K.E.; Wahrmund, L.A.; Willen, D.E.; Shiu, J.

    2007-05-16

    Large-scale controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM)three-dimensional (3D) geophysical imaging is now receiving considerableattention for electrical conductivity mapping of potential offshore oiland gas reservoirs. To cope with the typically large computationalrequirements of the 3D CSEM imaging problem, our strategies exploitcomputational parallelism and optimized finite-difference meshing. Wereport on an imaging experiment, utilizing 32,768 tasks/processors on theIBM Watson Research Blue Gene/L (BG/L) supercomputer. Over a 24-hourperiod, we were able to image a large scale marine CSEM field data setthat previously required over four months of computing time ondistributed clusters utilizing 1024 tasks on an Infiniband fabric. Thetotal initial data misfit could be decreased by 67 percent within 72completed inversion iterations, indicating an electrically resistiveregion in the southern survey area below a depth of 1500 m below theseafloor. The major part of the residual misfit stems from transmitterparallel receiver components that have an offset from the transmittersail line (broadside configuration). Modeling confirms that improvedbroadside data fits can be achieved by considering anisotropic electricalconductivities. While delivering a satisfactory gross scale image for thedepths of interest, the experiment provides important evidence for thenecessity of discriminating between horizontal and verticalconductivities for maximally consistent 3D CSEM inversions.

  2. Comparative evaluation of methylene blue and demeclocycline for enhancing optical contrast of gliomas in optical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, Dennis; Snuderl, Matija; Curry, William; Yaroslavsky, Anna

    2014-09-01

    Contrast agents have shown to be useful in the detection of cancers. The goal of this study was to compare enhancement of brain cancer contrast using reflectance and fluorescence confocal imaging of two fluorophores, methylene blue (MB) and demeclocycline (DMN). MB absorbs light in the red spectral range and fluoresces in the near-infrared. It is safe for in vivo staining of human skin and breast tissue. However, its safety for staining human brain is questionable. Thus, DMN, which absorbs light in the violet spectral range and fluoresces between 470 and 570 nm, could provide a safer alternative to MB. Fresh human gliomas, obtained from surgeries, were cut in half and stained with aqueous solutions of MB and DMN, respectively. Stained tissues were imaged using multimodal confocal microscopy. Resulting reflectance and fluorescence optical images were compared with hematoxylin and eosin histopathology, processed from each imaged tissue. Results indicate that images of tissues stained with either stain exhibit comparable contrast and resolution of morphological detail. Further studies are required to establish the safety and efficacy of these contrast agents for use in human brain.

  3. Fractal scaling of apparent soil moisture estimated from vertical planes of Vertisol pit images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumbrera, Ramiro; Tarquis, Ana M.; Gascó, Gabriel; Millán, Humberto

    2012-07-01

    SummaryImage analysis could be a useful tool for investigating the spatial patterns of apparent soil moisture at multiple resolutions. The objectives of the present work were (i) to define apparent soil moisture patterns from vertical planes of Vertisol pit images and (ii) to describe the scaling of apparent soil moisture distribution using fractal parameters. Twelve soil pits (0.70 m long × 0.60 m width × 0.30 m depth) were excavated on a bare Mazic Pellic Vertisol. Six of them were excavated in April/2011 and six pits were established in May/2011 after 3 days of a moderate rainfall event. Digital photographs were taken from each Vertisol pit using a Kodak™ digital camera. The mean image size was 1600 × 945 pixels with one physical pixel ≈373 μm of the photographed soil pit. Each soil image was analyzed using two fractal scaling exponents, box counting (capacity) dimension (DBC) and interface fractal dimension (Di), and three prefractal scaling coefficients, the total number of boxes intercepting the foreground pattern at a unit scale (A), fractal lacunarity at the unit scale (Λ1) and Shannon entropy at the unit scale (S1). All the scaling parameters identified significant differences between both sets of spatial patterns. Fractal lacunarity was the best discriminator between apparent soil moisture patterns. Soil image interpretation with fractal exponents and prefractal coefficients can be incorporated within a site-specific agriculture toolbox. While fractal exponents convey information on space filling characteristics of the pattern, prefractal coefficients represent the investigated soil property as seen through a higher resolution microscope. In spite of some computational and practical limitations, image analysis of apparent soil moisture patterns could be used in connection with traditional soil moisture sampling, which always renders punctual estimates.

  4. Fast color flow mode imaging using plane wave excitation and temporal encoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udesen, Jesper; Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jorgen A.

    2005-04-01

    In conventional ultrasound color flow mode imaging, a large number (~500) of pulses have to be emitted in order to form a complete velocity map. This lowers the frame-rate and temporal resolution. A method for color flow imaging in which a few (~10) pulses have to be emitted to form a complete velocity image is presented. The method is based on using a plane wave excitation with temporal encoding to compensate for the decreased SNR, resulting from the lack of focusing. The temporal encoding is done with a linear frequency modulated signal. To decrease lateral sidelobes, a Tukey window is used as apodization on the transmitting aperture. The data are beamformed along the direction of the flow, and the velocity is found by 1-D cross correlation of these data. First the method is evaluated in simulations using the Field II program. Secondly, the method is evaluated using the experimental scanner RASMUS and a 7 MHz linear array transducer, which scans a circulating flowrig. The velocity of the blood mimicking fluid in the flowrig is constant and parabolic, and the center of the scanned area is situated at a depth of 40 mm. A CFM image of the blood flow in the flowrig is estimated from two pulse emissions. At the axial center line of the CFM image, the velocity is estimated over the vessel with a mean relative standard deviation of 2.64% and a mean relative bias of 6.91%. At an axial line 5 mm to the right of the center of the CFM image, the velocity is estimated over the vessel with a relative standard deviation of 0.84% and a relative bias of 5.74%. Finally the method is tested on the common carotid artery of a healthy 33-year-old male.

  5. Fourier plane colorimetric sensing using broadband imaging of surface plasmons and application to biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, P.; Krishnan, A.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate an optical technique for refractive index and thickness sensing of sub-wavelength-thick dielectric analytes. The technique utilizes the broadband, multimode, directional leakage radiation arising from the excitation of hybrid mode surface plasmons (SP) on low aspect ratio periodic plasmonic substrates with period ≈λ. The approach requires relaxed fabrication tolerances compared to extra ordinary transmission-based sensing techniques, wherein minor shifts in the fabricated dimensions result in a very large change from the designed resonant wavelength. We show that refractive index perturbations due to about 10-nm-thick dielectric can be captured optically by the usage of carefully designed plasmonic substrates, a halogen lamp source, free-space optical components, polarizers, and a low-end, consumer-grade charge coupled device camera. The plasmonic substrates were designed for converting the signature of hybrid mode SP excitation into a transmission peak by utilizing a thin homogeneous metal layer sandwiched between the periodic plasmonic structures and the substrate. The resonance is highly sensitive to the refractive index and thickness of the analyte superstrate. The excitation of hybrid mode SP results in a polarization rotation of 90° of the leaked radiation at resonant wavelength. In order to eliminate the problem of image registration (i.e., placing the same feature in the same pixel of the image, for comparison before and after a change in refractive index) for sensing, we perform the color analysis in the Fourier plane. The change in color of the bright emitted spot with highest momentum, corresponding to the leakage of fundamental SP mode, was used to measure the changes in refractive index, whereas the number and color of spots of lower momenta, corresponding to higher-order Fabry Perot modes, was used to measure the variation in thickness. We further show that the Fourier plane analysis can also be used to sense the index of thicker dielectrics, where real plane image analysis may fail to sense index perturbations, simply due to superposition of different modes in the real plane images of such substrates. Control experiments and analysis revealed a refractive index resolution of 10-5 RIU. The results were correlated with simulations to establish the physical origin of the change in the fundamental mode and higher-order modes due to the refractive index and thickness of analyte. As a demonstration of an application and to test the limits of sensing, the substrates were used to image the surface functionalization using 2-nm-thick 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid and immobilization of 7-nm-thick mouse anti-human IgG antibody. In biological systems, where a priori knowledge about a process step is available, where accurate chemical composition testing is not necessary or possible, the presented method could be used to study the surface changes using a label-free sensing mechanism.

  6. Focal Image Plane Detection Based on Central Coordinate Point Spectral Value in Off-Axis Digital Particle Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Peizhen; Deng, Lijun; Lu, Wenhui

    2015-12-01

    A method to detect the focal image plane from a single off-axis digital particle hologram is proposed. This method utilizes the central coordinate point spectral value of the reconstructed particle image as focusing criterion to detect the focal image plane. It is found that the central coordinate point spectral values come into maximum when the reconstruction distance is equal to the actual distance that was used in experiment of hologram acquisition. Numerical simulations are given to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. The proposed method is a potential and better option for studying three dimensional particles by using digital holography.

  7. THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. II. CATALOG OF THE IMAGE DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Rosolowsky, Erik; Dunham, Miranda K.; Evans, Neal J.; Harvey, Paul; Ginsburg, Adam; Bally, John; Battersby, Cara; Glenn, Jason; Stringfellow, Guy S.; Bradley, E. Todd; Aguirre, James; Cyganowski, Claudia; Dowell, Darren; Drosback, Meredith; Walawender, Josh; Williams, Jonathan P.

    2010-05-15

    We present a catalog of 8358 sources extracted from images produced by the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS). The BGPS is a survey of the millimeter dust continuum emission from the northern Galactic plane. The catalog sources are extracted using a custom algorithm, Bolocat, which was designed specifically to identify and characterize objects in the large-area maps generated from the Bolocam instrument. The catalog products are designed to facilitate follow-up observations of these relatively unstudied objects. The catalog is 98% complete from 0.4 Jy to 60 Jy over all object sizes for which the survey is sensitive (<3.'5). We find that the sources extracted can best be described as molecular clumps-large dense regions in molecular clouds linked to cluster formation. We find that the flux density distribution of sources follows a power law with dN/dS {proportional_to} S {sup -2.4{+-}0.1} and that the mean Galactic latitude for sources is significantly below the midplane: (b) = (-0.{sup 0}095 {+-} 0.{sup 0}001).

  8. LOOKING THROUGH THE GALACTIC PLANE: IMAGING COLD DUST TOWARD l = 44 DEG

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Henry; Kirk, Helen; Johnstone, Doug; Weferling, Bernd; Cohen, Martin; Jenness, Tim; Davis, Gary; Evans, Aneurin; Dent, William R. F.; Fuller, Gary; Jackson, James M.; Rathborne, Jill; Richer, John; Simon, Robert

    2009-11-15

    We present imaging observations of continuum emission from interstellar dust at 850 and 1200 {mu}m of a section of the Galactic Plane covering 2 deg{sup 2} centered at l = 44 DEG. Complementary jiggle-mapping and fast-scanning techniques were used, respectively, at these two wavelengths. The mapped area includes the well-known star formation regions W49 and G45.1/45.5. Using an automated clump-finding routine, we identify 132 compact 850 {mu}m emission features within the region above a completeness level of about 200 mJy beam{sup -1}. The positions of the latter objects were used to determine fluxes from the 1200 {mu}m image. Spectral line data were subsequently obtained with the same observing beamwidth as at 850 {mu}m for almost half of the objects; these were either imaged in the {sup 13}CO (3-2) line, or basic characteristics determined using the {sup 12}CO (3-2) transition. We use these data, supplemented by existing {sup 13}CO (1-0) and H I survey data, to determine distances and hence derive masses for the dust clump ensemble, assuming a uniform dust temperature of 15 K. From these data we find that the number-mass relationship for clumps in the field is similar to that found for individual star-forming regions.

  9. Solid-state Image Sensor with Focal-plane Digital Photon-counting Pixel Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R.; Pain, Bedabrata

    1997-01-01

    A solid-state focal-plane imaging system comprises an NxN array of high gain. low-noise unit cells. each unit cell being connected to a different one of photovoltaic detector diodes, one for each unit cell, interspersed in the array for ultra low level image detection and a plurality of digital counters coupled to the outputs of the unit cell by a multiplexer(either a separate counter for each unit cell or a row of N of counters time shared with N rows of digital counters). Each unit cell includes two self-biasing cascode amplifiers in cascade for a high charge-to-voltage conversion gain (greater than 1mV/e(-)) and an electronic switch to reset input capacitance to a reference potential in order to be able to discriminate detection of an incident photon by the photoelectron (e(-))generated in the detector diode at the input of the first cascode amplifier in order to count incident photons individually in a digital counter connected to the output of the second cascade amplifier. Reseting the input capacitance and initiating self-biasing of the amplifiers occurs every clock cycle of an integratng period to enable ultralow light level image detection by the may of photovoltaic detector diodes under such ultralow light level conditions that the photon flux will statistically provide only a single photon at a time incident on anyone detector diode during any clock cycle.

  10. An Image-plane Algorithm for JWST's Non-redundant Aperture Mask Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Pueyo, Laurent; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Lacour, Sylvestre

    2015-01-01

    The high angular resolution technique of non-redundant masking (NRM) or aperture masking interferometry (AMI) has yielded images of faint protoplanetary companions of nearby stars from the ground. AMI on James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)'s Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS) has a lower thermal background than ground-based facilities and does not suffer from atmospheric instability. NIRISS AMI images are likely to have 90%-95% Strehl ratio between 2.77 and 4.8 μm. In this paper we quantify factors that limit the raw point source contrast of JWST NRM. We develop an analytic model of the NRM point spread function which includes different optical path delays (pistons) between mask holes and fit the model parameters with image plane data. It enables a straightforward way to exclude bad pixels, is suited to limited fields of view, and can incorporate effects such as intra-pixel sensitivity variations. We simulate various sources of noise to estimate their effect on the standard deviation of closure phase, σCP (a proxy for binary point source contrast). If σCP < 10-4 radians—a contrast ratio of 10 mag—young accreting gas giant planets (e.g., in the nearby Taurus star-forming region) could be imaged with JWST NIRISS. We show the feasibility of using NIRISS' NRM with the sub-Nyquist sampled F277W, which would enable some exoplanet chemistry characterization. In the presence of small piston errors, the dominant sources of closure phase error (depending on pixel sampling, and filter bandwidth) are flat field errors and unmodeled variations in intra-pixel sensitivity. The in-flight stability of NIRISS will determine how well these errors can be calibrated by observing a point source. Our results help develop efficient observing strategies for space-based NRM.

  11. AN IMAGE-PLANE ALGORITHM FOR JWST'S NON-REDUNDANT APERTURE MASK DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Pueyo, Laurent; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Lacour, Sylvestre

    2015-01-10

    The high angular resolution technique of non-redundant masking (NRM) or aperture masking interferometry (AMI) has yielded images of faint protoplanetary companions of nearby stars from the ground. AMI on James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)'s Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS) has a lower thermal background than ground-based facilities and does not suffer from atmospheric instability. NIRISS AMI images are likely to have 90%-95% Strehl ratio between 2.77 and 4.8 μm. In this paper we quantify factors that limit the raw point source contrast of JWST NRM. We develop an analytic model of the NRM point spread function which includes different optical path delays (pistons) between mask holes and fit the model parameters with image plane data. It enables a straightforward way to exclude bad pixels, is suited to limited fields of view, and can incorporate effects such as intra-pixel sensitivity variations. We simulate various sources of noise to estimate their effect on the standard deviation of closure phase, σ{sub CP} (a proxy for binary point source contrast). If σ{sub CP} < 10{sup –4} radians—a contrast ratio of 10 mag—young accreting gas giant planets (e.g., in the nearby Taurus star-forming region) could be imaged with JWST NIRISS. We show the feasibility of using NIRISS' NRM with the sub-Nyquist sampled F277W, which would enable some exoplanet chemistry characterization. In the presence of small piston errors, the dominant sources of closure phase error (depending on pixel sampling, and filter bandwidth) are flat field errors and unmodeled variations in intra-pixel sensitivity. The in-flight stability of NIRISS will determine how well these errors can be calibrated by observing a point source. Our results help develop efficient observing strategies for space-based NRM.

  12. Multi-beam millimeter wave focal plane array airborne imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Robert W.; Brest, Dennis H.; Bowers, Robert J.

    1994-08-01

    The design, fabrication, and test of a multiple beam millimeter wave airborne imaging system is presented. This radiometric system operates at 81 - 98 GHz and consists of a f/D equals 3 offset parabolic reflector antenna fed by an array of 24 feed/receiver elements. The receivers are built as six, four element modules, each of which can be positioned anywhere on the focal plane plate. Fully populated, the plate can accommodate 48 modules in four rows of twelve (192 elements total). The polarization of all four elements in a module is the same, but each module can be rotated 90 degrees to receive either vertically or horizontally polarized radiation. Progress in the development of MMIC based receivers and improved feed arrays for insertion into this system is also presented.

  13. Mercury cadmium telluride focal-plane array detection for mid-infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Kidder, L H; Levin, I W; Lewis, E N; Kleiman, V D; Heilweil, E J

    1997-05-15

    By combining step-scan Fourier-transform Michelson interferometry, an infrared microscope, and mercury cadmium telluride focal-plane array image detection we have constructed a mid-infrared spectroscopic imaging system that simultaneously records high-fidelity images and spectra of materials from 3500 to 900 cm(-1) (2.8 to 11 microm) at a variety of spectral resolutions. The fidelity of the spectral images is determined by the pixel number density of the focal-plane array. Step-scan imaging principles and instrument design details are outlined. Spatial resolution measurements and infrared chemical imaging examples are presented, and the results are discussed with respect to implications for chemical analysis of biosystems and composite materials. PMID:18185647

  14. Seismic Imaging Reveals Deep-Penetrating Fault Planes in the Wharton Basin Oceanic Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, H. D.; Singh, S. C.; Dyment, J.; Hananto, N. D.; Chauhan, A.

    2011-12-01

    We present images from a deep multi-channel seismic reflection survey acquired in 2006 over the oceanic lithosphere of the Wharton Basin offshore northern Sumatra, NW of Simeulue island. The main ~230-km long seismic profile is roughly parallel to the trench at ~32-66 km distance from the subduction front and crosses (at oblique angles to both flow line and isochron directions) an entire segment of 55-57 my-old fast-spread crust formed at the extinct Wharton spreading center, as well as two bounding ~N5E trending fracture zones near its extremities; complementary data is provided by the oceanic portions of two margin-crossing profiles on either side shot during the same survey. This high-quality, 12-km streamer dataset acquired for deep reflection imaging (10000 cu in tuned airgun array and 15-m source and streamer depths) reveals the presence of mostly SE-dipping (20 to 40 degrees dip) events cutting across and extending below the oceanic Moho, down to a maximum depth below seafloor of ~37 km, at ~5 km spacing along the trench-parallel profile. Similar dipping mantle events are imaged on the oceanic portion of another long-offset profile acquired in 2009 offshore central Sumatra south of Pagai island, which will also be presented. Such events are unlikely to be imaging artefacts of the 2D acquisition, such as out-of-plane energy originating from sharp, buried basement reliefs trending obliquely to the profile. Due to their geometry, they do not seem to be associated with plate bending at the trench outer-rise, which has a relatively modest expression at the seafloor and within the incoming sedimentary section north of the Simeulue elbow. We propose that these deep-penetrating dipping reflectors are fossil fault planes formed due to compressive stresses at the beginning of the continent-continent collision between India and Eurasia, the early stages of which were responsible for the cessation of seafloor spreading at the Wharton ridge at ca 40 Ma.

  15. Research on auto-calibration technology of the image plane's center of 360-degree and all round looking camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Xu, Xiping

    2015-10-01

    The 360-degree and all round looking camera, as its characteristics of suitable for automatic analysis and judgment on the ambient environment of the carrier by image recognition algorithm, is usually applied to opto-electronic radar of robots and smart cars. In order to ensure the stability and consistency of image processing results of mass production, it is necessary to make sure the centers of image planes of different cameras are coincident, which requires to calibrate the position of the image plane's center. The traditional mechanical calibration method and electronic adjusting mode of inputting the offsets manually, both exist the problem of relying on human eyes, inefficiency and large range of error distribution. In this paper, an approach of auto- calibration of the image plane of this camera is presented. The imaging of the 360-degree and all round looking camera is a ring-shaped image consisting of two concentric circles, the center of the image is a smaller circle and the outside is a bigger circle. The realization of the technology is just to exploit the above characteristics. Recognizing the two circles through HOUGH TRANSFORM algorithm and calculating the center position, we can get the accurate center of image, that the deviation of the central location of the optic axis and image sensor. The program will set up the image sensor chip through I2C bus automatically, we can adjusting the center of the image plane automatically and accurately. The technique has been applied to practice, promotes productivity and guarantees the consistent quality of products.

  16. Robust angle-independent blood velocity estimation based on dual-angle plane wave imaging.

    PubMed

    Fadnes, Solveig; Ekroll, Ingvild Kinn; Nyrnes, Siri Ann; Torp, Hans; Lovstakken, Lasse

    2015-10-01

    Two-dimensional blood velocity estimation has shown potential to solve the angle-dependency of conventional ultrasound flow imaging. Clutter filtering, however, remains a major challenge for large beam-to-flow angles, leading to signal drop-outs and corrupted velocity estimates. This work presents and evaluates a compounding speckle tracking (ST) algorithm to obtain robust angle-independent 2-D blood velocity estimates for all beam-to-flow angles. A dual-angle plane wave imaging setup with full parallel receive beamforming is utilized to achieve high-frame-rate speckle tracking estimates from two scan angles, which may be compounded to obtain velocity estimates of increased robustness. The acquisition also allows direct comparison with vector Doppler (VD) imaging. Absolute velocity bias and root-mean-square (RMS) error of the compounding ST estimations were investigated using simulations of a rotating flow phantom with low velocities ranging from 0 to 20 cm/s. In a challenging region where the estimates were influenced by clutter filtering, the bias and RMS error for the compounding ST estimates were 11% and 2 cm/s, a significant reduction compared with conventional single-angle ST (22% and 4 cm/s) and VD (36% and 6 cm/s). The method was also tested in vivo for vascular and neonatal cardiac imaging. In a carotid artery bifurcation, the obtained blood velocity estimates showed that the compounded ST method was less influenced by clutter filtering than conventional ST and VD methods. In the cardiac case, it was observed that ST velocity estimation is more affected by low signal-to-noise (SNR) than VD. However, with sufficient SNR the in vivo results indicated that a more robust angle-independent blood velocity estimator is obtained using compounded speckle tracking compared with conventional ST and VD methods. PMID:26470038

  17. Portable sequential multicolor thermal imager based on a MCT 384 x 288 focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, Rainer; Cabanski, Wolfgang A.; Mauk, Karl-Heinz; Rode, Werner; Ziegler, Johann

    2001-10-01

    AIM has developed a sequential multicolor thermal imager to provide customers with a test system to realize real-time spectral selective thermal imaging. In contrast to existing PC based laboratory units, the system is miniaturized with integrated signal processing like non-uniformity correction and post processing functions such as image subtraction of different colors to allow field tests in military applications like detection of missile plumes or camouflaged targets as well as commercial applications like detection of chemical agents, pollution control, etc. The detection module used is a 384 X 288 mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) focal plane array (FPA) available in the mid wave (MWIR) or long wave spectral band LWIR). A compact command and control electronics (CCE) provides clock and voltage supply for the detector as well as 14 bit deep digital conversion of the analog detector output. A continuous rotating wheel with four facets for filters provides spectral selectivity. The customer can choose between various types of filter characteristics, e.g. a 4.2 micrometer bandpass filter for CO2 detection in the MWIR band. The rotating wheel can be synchronized to an external source giving the rotation speed, typical 25 l/s. A position sensor generates the four frame start signals for synchronous operation of the detector -- 100 Hz framerate for the four frames per rotation. The rotating wheel is exchangeable for different configurations and also plates for a microscanner operation to improve geometrical resolution are available instead of a multicolor operation. AIM's programmable MVIP image processing unit is used for signal processing like non- uniformity correction and controlling the detector parameters. The MVIP allows to output the four subsequent images as four quarters of the video screen to prior to any observation task set the integration time for each color individually for comparable performance in each spectral color and after that also to determine separate NUC coefficients for each filter position. This procedure allows to really evaluate the pay off of spectral selectivity in the IR. The display part of the MVIP allows linear look up tables (LUT) for dynamic reduction as well as histogram equalization for automatic LUT optimization. Parallel to the video output a digital interface is provided for digital recording of the 14 bit corrected detector data. The architecture of the thermal imager with its components is presented in this paper together with some aspects on multicolor thermal imaging.

  18. Pair-Wise, Deformable Mirror, Image Plane-Based Diversity Electric Field Estimation for High Contrast Coronagraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Give'on, Amir; Kern, Brian D.; Shaklan, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe the complex electric field reconstruction from image plane intensity measurements for high contrast coronagraphic imaging. A deformable mirror (DM) surface is modied with pairs of complementary shapes to create diversity in the image plane of the science camera where the intensity of the light is measured. Along with the Electric Field Conjugation correction algorithm, this estimation method has been used in various high contrast imaging testbeds to achieve the best contrasts to date both in narrow and in broad band light. We present the basic methodology of estimation in easy to follow list of steps, present results from HCIT and raise several open quations we are confronted with using this method. XXXX We have presented a DM diversity based estimation technique for reconstruction of the complex EF in the image plane based on intensity measurements. The method uses a typical diversity methodology with a unique way of achieving the diversity. In this case, the diversity in the EF is done by changing the DM, using pairs of perturbation patterns ( "probes"). This paper described the complete details of how to solve for the EF and proposed various ways to validate the model used. Without an independent measurement of the EF, it is impossible to quantify the accuracy of each reconstruction. However, since this method is used in conjunction with the EFC correction algorithm to sub-nanometer level of correction, it is considered the best estimation technique to date. That said, there are several open questions that are presented in this paper regarding the relationship between coherent and incoherent light throughout correction runs. This estimation technique has been developed for a family of wavefront correction algorithms such as the EFC, 1 Energy Minimization8 and Stroke Minimization, 9 all requiring an estimate of the complex valued wavefront in the image plane. The EFC algorithm and the other image plane intensity measurements based correction algorithms require an estimate of the complex field in the science camera image plane in order to determine the commands of the deformable mirror to minimize the total intensity of light in a predetermined region in the image plane.1 The high contrast needed for Earth-like planet detection determines the requirements from the coronagraph and correction system. In order to avoid non-common path errors this estimation technique uses the deformable mirror (DM) to perturb the electric field (EF) at the DM's plane rather than using an additional optical path with an interferometer. 10 Moreover, a typical high contrast imaging coronagraph has masks along its optical path, as such, methods that require both forward and backward numerical propagation of the EF through the system suffer from non-uniqueness effects and/or large errors due to edge effects. The estimation method described in this paper uses only forward propagation of the EF through the coronagraph. Since the measured quantity at the science camera is the intensity of the EF, a perturbation of the EF is needed in order to retrieve the phase information that was lost. In the case presented here, we take a series of intensity measurements at the science camera plane with different changes to the DM surface (these changes to the EF are referred to as "probes" ) and estimate the EF at the science camera image plane. The modulation scheme we describe in this paper is a sequence of DM shapes with accompanying intensity measurements, each intended to exploit the nonlinear relationship of the intensity measurements to the additive EF due to the change in t he DM, which then allow determination of the EF before the probes were applied. Analogously to a phaseshifting interferometer, taking four intensity measurements with varying phase by multiples of ei1r 12 would allow unambiguous determination of the complex EF in the image plane from intensity measurements alone for every point in the plane simultaneously.1

  19. The study of blue LED to induce fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging for oral carcinoma detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Longjiang; Hu, Yuanting

    2009-07-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging diagnosis of malignant lesions provides us with a new method to diagnose diseases in precancerous stage. Early diagnosis of disease has significant importance in cancer treatment, because most cancers can be cured well in precancerous, especially when the diffusion of cancer is limited in a restricted region. In this study, Golden hamster models were applied to 5% 9, 10 dimethyl-1, 2-benzanthracene (DMBA) to induce hamster buccal cheek pouch carcinoma three times a week. Rose Bengal, which has been used in clinican for years and avoids visible side-effect to human was chosen as photosensitizer. 405 nm blue LED was used to induce the fluorescence of photosensitizer. After topical application of photosensitizer, characteristic red emission fluorescence peak was observed around 600nm. Similar, normal oral cavity has special luminescence around 480nm. Fluorescence spectroscopy technology is based on analysing emission peaks of photosensitizer in the areas of oral carcinoma, moreover, red-to-green (IR/IG) intensity ratio is also applied as a diagnostic algorithm. A CCD which is connected with a computer is used to take pictures at carcinoma areas through different filters. Fluorescence images from normal hamster buccal cheek pouch are compared with those from carcinogen-induced models of carcinoma, and morphological differences between normal and lesion tissue can be distinguished. The pictures are analyzed by Matlab and shown on the screen of computer. This paper demonstrates that Rose Bengal could be used as photosensitizer to detect oral carcinoma, and blue LED as excitation source could not only have a good effect to diagnose oral carcinoma, but also decrease cost greatly.

  20. Computational Problem in Three-Dimensional, Plane-wave Imaging with P to S Converted Waves Recorded by Broadband Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, G. L.; Yi, Z.

    2004-12-01

    We have developed a set of computer programs that implement the three-dimensional imaging methods described by Poppeliers and Pavlis [2003]. The original work developed the theoretical framework for this technique, but did not implement the fully three-dimensional version due to the requirement that efficient computational procedures are necessary to make the algorithm feasible. We implemented the concepts in two programs linked by a relational database. The first program implements a plane wave decomposition of the wavefield using the pseudostation stacking method to interpolate the wavefield onto a regular spatial grid. We then use a relational database to sort data into plane wave components linked to this interpolated, regular grid. Imaging is completed using sums of plane wave components in an integral equation derived from the inverse generalized Radon transform. This allows the image to accumulate incrementally as a weighted sum of plane wave components with the weights varying in space reducing the memory requirements to practical levels on modern, distributed-memory, parallel systems. This imaging algorithm is readily adaptable on massively parallel machines by distributing back propagation computations for plane wave components among processors and devoting one node to summing the components. The algorithm is built around a new object-oriented, C++ library for manipulating seismograms and the two and three-dimensional data objects that are intermediaries in the algorithm.

  1. Evaluation and display of polarimetric image data using long-wave cooled microgrid focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, David L.; Boger, James K.; Wellems, L. David; Black, Wiley T.; Ortega, Steve E.; Ratliff, Bradley M.; Fetrow, Matthew P.; Hubbs, John E.; Tyo, J. Scott

    2006-05-01

    Recent developments for Long Wave InfraRed (LWIR) imaging polarimeters include incorporating a microgrid polarizer array onto the focal plane array (FPA). Inherent advantages over typical polarimeters include packaging and instantaneous acquisition of thermal and polarimetric information. This allows for real time video of thermal and polarimetric products. The microgrid approach has inherent polarization measurement error due to the spatial sampling of a non-uniform scene, residual pixel to pixel variations in the gain corrected responsivity and in the noise equivalent input (NEI), and variations in the pixel to pixel micro-polarizer performance. The Degree of Linear Polarization (DoLP) is highly sensitive to these parameters and is consequently used as a metric to explore instrument sensitivities. Image processing and fusion techniques are used to take advantage of the inherent thermal and polarimetric sensing capability of this FPA, providing additional scene information in real time. Optimal operating conditions are employed to improve FPA uniformity and sensitivity. Data from two DRS Infrared Technologies, L.P. (DRS) microgrid polarizer HgCdTe FPAs are presented. One FPA resides in a liquid nitrogen (LN2) pour filled dewar with a 80K nominal operating temperature. The other FPA resides in a cryogenic (cryo) dewar with a 60 K nominal operating temperature.

  2. Plane-wave transverse oscillation for high-frame-rate 2-D vector flow imaging.

    PubMed

    Lenge, Matteo; Ramalli, Alessandro; Tortoli, Piero; Cachard, Christian; Liebgott, Hervé

    2015-12-01

    Transverse oscillation (TO) methods introduce oscillations in the pulse-echo field (PEF) along the direction transverse to the ultrasound propagation direction. This may be exploited to extend flow investigations toward multidimensional estimates. In this paper, the TOs are coupled with the transmission of plane waves (PWs) to reconstruct high-framerate RF images with bidirectional oscillations in the pulse-echo field. Such RF images are then processed by a 2-D phase-based displacement estimator to produce 2-D vector flow maps at thousands of frames per second. First, the capability of generating TOs after PW transmissions was thoroughly investigated by varying the lateral wavelength, the burst length, and the transmission frequency. Over the entire region of interest, the generated lateral wavelengths, compared with the designed ones, presented bias and standard deviation of -3.3 ± 5.7% and 10.6 ± 7.4% in simulations and experiments, respectively. The performance of the ultrafast vector flow mapping method was also assessed by evaluating the differences between the estimated velocities and the expected ones. Both simulations and experiments show overall biases lower than 20% when varying the beam-to-flow angle, the peak velocity, and the depth of interest. In vivo applications of the method on the common carotid and the brachial arteries are also presented. PMID:26670852

  3. [Research on the neas infrared focal plane array detector imaging technology used in the laser warning].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Bin; Huang, Yan-Fei; Wang, Yao-Li; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yan-Chao

    2014-04-01

    In order to achieve the incoming laser's accurate position, it is necessary to improve the detected laser's direction resolution. The InGaAs focal plane array detector with the type of FPA-320 x 256-C was selected as the core component of the diffraction grating laser warning device. The detection theory of laser wavelength and direction based on diffraction grating was introduced. The drive circuit was designed through the analysis of the detector's performance and parameters. Under the FPGA' s timing control, the detector's analog output was sampled by the high-speed AD. The data was cached to FPGA's extended SRAM, and then transferred to a PC through USB. Labview on a PC collects the raw data for processing and displaying. The imaging experiments were completed with the above method. With the wavelength of 1550 nm and 980 nm laser from different directions the diffraction images were detected. Through analysis the location of the zero order and one order can be determined. According to the grating diffraction theory, the wavelength and the direction of the two-dimensional angle can be calculated. It indicates that the wavelength error is less than 10 nm, and the angle error is less than 1 degrees. PMID:25007645

  4. Band-limited image plane masks for the Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph: materials and designs for broadband performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham

    2008-01-01

    Coronagraphs for detection and characterization of exosolar earthlike planets require accurate masks with broadband performance in the visible and near infrared spectrum. Design and fabrication of image plane masks capable of suppressing broadband starlight to 10-10 level contrast presents technical challenges. We discuss basic approaches, material choices, designs, and fabrication options for image plane masks with particular focus on material properties to obtain adequate spectral performance. Based on theoretical analysis, we show that metals such as Pt and Ni, and alloys such as Inconel, may be employed as promising mask materials that can meet broadband performance requirements.

  5. The basics of musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging: terminology, imaging sequences, image planes, and descriptions of basic pathologic change.

    PubMed

    Winter, Matthew D

    2012-12-01

    The usefulness of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the diagnosis of equine lameness is unquestionable. As with most imaging modalities, advances in technology happen quickly, and the information that can be obtained can seem limitless. An understanding of MR sequences, expected signal intensity of normal tissues, and the role of multiplanar imaging is the foundation for interpreting MR images. The rapid development of new techniques and sequences and the potential for biochemical changes to be indirectly assessed using MR spectroscopy offer possibilities for the continued development of this modality and ensure its continued application in the diagnosis of equine lameness. PMID:23177134

  6. Removal of Out-of-Plane Fluorescence for Single Cell Visualization and Quantification in Cryo-Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Steyer, Grant J.; Roy, Debashish; Salvado, Olivier; Stone, Meredith E.; Wilson, David L.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a cryo-imaging system, which alternates between sectioning (10–40 μm) and imaging bright field and fluorescence block-face image volumes with micronscale-resolution. For applications requiring single-cell detection of fluorescently labeled cells anywhere in a mouse, we are developing software for reduction of out-of-plane fluorescence. In mouse experiments, we imaged GFP-labeled cancer and stem cells, and cell-sized fluorescent microspheres. To remove out-of-plane fluorescence, we used a simplified model of light-tissue interaction whereby the next-image was scaled, blurred, and subtracted from the current image. We estimated scaling and blurring parameters by minimizing an objective function on subtracted images. Tissue-specific attenuation parameters [μT: heart (267 ± 47.6 cm−1), liver (218 ± 27.1 cm−1), brain (161 ± 27.4 cm−1)] were found to be within the range of estimates in the literature. “Next-image” processing removed out-of-plane fluorescence equally well across multiple tissues (brain, kidney, liver, etc.), and analysis of 200 microsphere images gave 97 ± 2% reduction of out-of-plane fluorescence. Next-image processing greatly improved axial-resolution, enabled high quality 3D volume renderings, and improved automated enumeration of single cells by up to 24%. The method has been used to identify metastatic cancer sites, determine homing of stem cells to injury sites, and show microsphere distribution correlated with blood flow patterns. PMID:19513848

  7. Ultracompact Blue Dwarf Galaxies: Hubble Space Telescope Imaging and Stellar Population Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbin, Michael R.; Vacca, William D.; Cid Fernandes, Roberto; Hibbard, John E.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Windhorst, Rogier A.

    2006-11-01

    We present deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys/High Resolution Channel U-, narrow-V-, and I-band images of nine ``ultracompact'' blue dwarf galaxies (UCBDs) selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We define UCBDs as local (z<0.01) star-forming galaxies having angular diameters less than 6" and physical diameters <1 kpc. They are also among the most metal-poor galaxies known, including objects having 12+log(O/H)<7.65, and are found to reside within voids. Both the HST images and the objects' SDSS optical spectra reveal that they are composites of young (~1-10 Myr) populations that dominate their light and older (~10 Gyr) populations that dominate their stellar masses, which we estimate to be ~107-108 Msolar. An intermediate-age (~107-109 yr) population is also indicated in most objects. The objects do not appear to be as dynamically disturbed as the prototype UCBD, POX 186, but the structure of several of them suggests that their current star formation has been triggered by the collisions/mergers of smaller clumps of stars. In one case, HS 0822+3542, the images resolve what may be two small (~100 pc) components that have recently collided, supporting this interpretation. In six of the objects much of the star formation is concentrated in young massive clusters, contributing to their compactness in ground-based images. The evidence that the galaxies consist mainly of ~10 Gyr old stars establishes that they are not protogalaxies, forming their first generation of stars. Their low metallicities are more likely to be the result of the escape of supernova ejecta, rather than youth.

  8. Raman imaging for determining the sequence of blue pen ink crossings.

    PubMed

    Braz, Andr; Lpez-Lpez, Mara; Garca-Ruiz, Carmen

    2015-04-01

    This manuscript presents a preliminary investigation on the applicability of Raman imaging for non-destructive and rapid analysis of blue crossing ink lines. The MCR method was used to facilitate visualization of the distribution of inks of the same colour and the most predominant Raman signature at the crossing was used to interpret the order of application of inks. Different pen ink types, different times separating the application of the two ink lines and different paper substrates were used. From the 90 Raman images examined, the correct order of application was determined in more than 60% by direct observation. The remainder cases were not as clear due to the uneven distribution of inks and the empty spaces similar to a net-like pattern observed at the crossing. This pattern was possibly caused by physical impediments (the first ink applied acting as a physical barrier) or chemical impediments (the two inks did not stick). Such impediments were more strongly observed in the crossings involving the U. Eye pen ink, causing the complete skipping of this ink line. Moreover, most crossings showed some mixing between the two inks and it was more accentuated when the times separating the application of the inks were shorter, since the ink was fresher. The use of white or certificate papers did not seem to influence in the inks distribution nor determining the order of the inks. Although this study provided useful insights regarding crossing ink lines, future statistic studies may be helpful for more objective examinations. PMID:25682497

  9. Visualization of peripheral vasodilative indices in human skin by use of red, green, blue images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishidate, Izumi; Tanaka, Noriyuki; Kawase, Tatsuya; Maeda, Takaaki; Yuasa, Tomonori; Aizu, Yoshihisa; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Niizeki, Kyuichi

    2013-06-01

    We propose a method to visualize the arterial inflow, the vascular resistance, and the venous capacitance in the skin tissue from red, green, blue (RGB) digital color images. The arterial inflow and the venous capacitance in the skin tissue are visualized based on an increase in the rate of change in the total blood concentration and the change of the total blood concentration during upper limb occlusion at a pressure of 50 mmHg. The resultant arterial inflow with the measured mean arterial pressure also provides an image of the vascular resistance in human skin. The arterial inflow, the vascular resistance, and the venous capacitance acquired by the method are well correlated with those obtained from the conventional strain-gauge plethysmograph. The correlation coefficients R between the estimated values by the method and the measurements by the SPG are calculated to be 0.83 (P<0.001) for the arterial inflow, 0.77 (P<0.01) for the vascular resistance, and 0.77 (P<0.01) for the venous capacitance. The arterial inflow and the venous capacitance in the skin tissue are significantly higher in active subjects compared with the sedentary subjects, whereas the vascular resistance was significantly lower in the active subjects compared with the sedentary subjects. The results of the present study indicate the possibility of using the proposed method for evaluating the peripheral vascular functions in human skin.

  10. Spatiotemporal object-based image analyses in the Blue Nile area using optical multispectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Abbas, Mustafa M.; Csaplovics, E.

    2012-10-01

    Considering the dramatic change occurred in the Blue Nile region of Sudan, this study is of great value for developing a method for identification of forestland cover extents, integrating rate of changes and causes. The study utilizes three consecutive optical multispectral images, two LANDSAT TM images of 1990 and 1999 as well as TERRA ASTER image of 2009 to evaluate forest cover dynamics during the period 1990 to 2009. The method adopted in this research consists in cross operation of classified images of different points in time, which utilizes the overlaying images to be compared for change detection. New layer of segments was created representing the change areas as well as the overlapped areas of each pair of classified images. Consequently, a series of optimized algorithms have been developed to estimate the change in Land Use Land Cover (LULC). At the fundamental stage, smooth and accurate classified images are very essential for any post-classification change detection technique, which were typically achieved by object-based approach (OB) with overall accuracy 91 %, 93 % and 95 % for the years 1990, 1999 and 2009 respectively. Nine LULC classes were generated from each, i.e. agriculture (Ag.), bare-land (Br.), crop-land (Cr.), dense-forest (DF), grassland (Gr.), orchard (Or.), scattered-forest (SF), settlements (St.) and water (W). Therefore, and considering the dramatic change observed in the area, the fusion operation of multi-temporal data results initially in quite numerous change "from-to" information classes, which allows for aggregation of these classes at any hierarchical level of details. Moreover, the developed approach allows the operator to effectively know the spatial pattern of change, trend and magnitude of the dynamics occurred in each of the classified LULC classes. While many change-detection techniques have been developed, a little has been done to assess the quality of these techniques. Hence, the change maps resulting from cross operation were assessed, which reveals that, the accuracies of the change maps for the two time intervals were consistently high.

  11. Ultrafast laser beam shaping for material processing at imaging plane by geometric masks using a spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Zheng; Li, Jiangning; Edwardson, Stuart; Perrie, Walter; Liu, Dun; Dearden, Geoff

    2015-07-01

    We have demonstrated an original ultrafast laser beam shaping technique for material processing using a spatial light modulator (SLM). Complicated and time-consuming diffraction far-field phase hologram calculations based on Fourier transformations are avoided, while simple and direct geometric masks are used to shape the incident beam at diffraction near-field. Various beam intensity shapes, such as square, triangle, ring and star, are obtained and then reconstructed at the imaging plane of an f-theta lens. The size of the shaped beam is approximately 20 ?m, which is comparable to the beam waist at the focal plane. A polished stainless steel sample is machined by the shaped beam at the imaging plane. The shape of the ablation footprint well matches the beam shape.

  12. Infrared hyperspectral imaging using a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser and microbolometer focal plane array

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Mark C.; Ho, Nicolas

    2008-02-04

    A versatile mid-infrared hyperspectral imaging system is demonstrated by combining a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser and a microbolometer focal plane array. The tunable mid-infrared laser provided high brightness illumination over a tuning range from 985 cm-1 to 1075 cm-1 (9.30-10.15 μm). Hypercubes containing images at 300 wavelengths separated by 0.3 cm 1 were obtained in 12 s. High spectral resolution chemical imaging of methanol vapor was demonstrated for both static and dynamic systems. The system was also used to image and characterize multiple component liquid and solid samples.

  13. Development of a Nile-blue based chemodosimeter for Hg2+ in aqueous solution and its application in biological imaging.

    PubMed

    Hu, Mingming; Yin, Jianhua; Li, Yahong; Zhao, Xiaofang

    2015-03-01

    A Nile blue-based chemodosimeter was newly synthesized. It can detect Hg(2+) in aqueous solution based on desulfurization reaction. Upon its addition into aqueous Hg(2+) ion solution, it exhibited a considerable blue-shift in its absorption and obvious fluorescence quenching. The detection mechanism was proved by mass spectrometry analysis and Gaussian calculations. Detection at an emission of 685 nm was extremely sensitive, with a detection limit of 2.5 × 10(-9) mol/L. The fluorescent images in living cells and zebrafish demonstrate its potential for studying the accumulation of mercury species in organism. PMID:25666716

  14. Infrared microspectroscopic imaging of biomineralized tissues using a mercury-cadmium-telluride focal-plane array detector.

    PubMed

    Marcott, C; Reeder, R C; Paschalis, E P; Tatakis, D N; Boskey, A L; Mendelsohn, R

    1998-02-01

    A 64 x 64 mercury-cadmium-telluride focal-plane array detector attached to a Fourier transform infrared microscope was used to spectroscopically image 5 microm sections of canine alveolar bone tissue in the fingerprint region of the infrared spectrum. By ratioing the relative intensities of specific bands across the images, it is possible to obtain spatial distributions of the mineral-to-matrix ratio and mineral maturity as a function of distance from an osteon. PMID:9551643

  15. A novel readout method for focal plane array imaging in the presence of large dark current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Changqing

    1999-08-01

    This research was an investigation of a novel readout method for focal plane array (FPA) optical imaging, especially for very sensitive detectors with large dark current. The readout method is based on periodically blocking the optical input enabling the removal of the dark current integration from the output. The research demonstrated that it is feasible to modulate the optical input with the designed readout circuit and thus achieve longer signal integration time to enhance the signal-to- noise ratio. Study of a proposed circuit model showed that in theory the correlated readout method could increase the output voltage swing and reduce the noise level by attenuating low frequency noise, thereby effectively improving the FPA dynamic range. Circuits based on standard CMOS circuitry were designed, simulated by PSpice, fabricated using Orbit 2μm n-well technology, and tested with a PI-4000 system. In the circuit evaluation, the output noise due to the clock switching phenomena, the gate signal feedthrough and the charge relaxation, was considered to be the critical problem. The most promising design for minimizing this problem had a CMOS current steering circuit at the input of a high CMRR operational amplifier. Simulation and test results showed that a modified capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) could subtract dark current output and reduce the output signal due to any difference between the frequencies of the optical input modulation signal and the switch modulation signal. In conclusion, the correlated readout circuit was shown to be a promising approach for advancing FPA technology.

  16. 320 x 256 Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector Focal Plane Array for Long-Wave Infrared Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Jean; Rafol, Sir B.; Soibel, Alexander; Khoskhlagh, Arezou; Ting, David Z.-Y.; Liu, John K.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2012-01-01

    A 320 x 256 Complementary Barrier Infrared (CBIRD) focal plane array for long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) imaging is reported. The arrays were grown by molecular beam expitaxy (MBE) with a 300 period 1.9 um thick absorber. The mean dark current density of 2.2 x 10-4 A/cm2 was measured at an operating bias of 128 mV with a long wavelength cutoff of 8.8 ?m observed at 50% of the peak. The maximum quantum efficiency was 54% measured at 5.6 ?m. Operating at T = 80K, the array yielded an 81% fill factor with 97% operability. Good imagery with a mean noise equivalent different temperature (NE?T) of 18.6 mK and a mean detectivity of D* = 1.3 x 1011 cm-Hz1/2/W was achieved. The substrate was thinned using mechanical lapping and neither an AR coating nor a passivation layer was applied. This article provides the details of the fabrication process for achieving low-dark current LWIR CBIRD arrays. Discussion for an effective hard mask for excellent pattern transfer is given and appropriate mounting techniques for good thermal contact during the dry etching process is described. The challenges and differences between etching large 200 ?m test diodes and small 28 ?m FPA pixels are given.

  17. Dual-view plane illumination microscopy for rapid and spatially isotropic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Abhishek; Wu, Yicong; Christensen, Ryan; Chandris, Panagiotis; Gandler, William; McCreedy, Evan; Bokinsky, Alexandra; Colón-Ramos, Daniel A; Bao, Zhirong; McAuliffe, Matthew; Rondeau, Gary; Shroff, Hari

    2015-01-01

    We describe the construction and use of a compact dual-view inverted selective plane illumination microscope (diSPIM) for time-lapse volumetric (4D) imaging of living samples at subcellular resolution. Our protocol enables a biologist with some prior microscopy experience to assemble a diSPIM from commercially available parts, to align optics and test system performance, to prepare samples, and to control hardware and data processing with our software. Unlike existing light sheet microscopy protocols, our method does not require the sample to be embedded in agarose; instead, samples are prepared conventionally on glass coverslips. Tissue culture cells and Caenorhabditis elegans embryos are used as examples in this protocol; successful implementation of the protocol results in isotropic resolution and acquisition speeds up to several volumes per s on these samples. Assembling and verifying diSPIM performance takes ~6 d, sample preparation and data acquisition take up to 5 d and postprocessing takes 3–8 h, depending on the size of the data. PMID:25299154

  18. Luminous blue variables: An imaging perspective on their binarity and near environment⋆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martayan, Christophe; Lobel, Alex; Baade, Dietrich; Mehner, Andrea; Rivinius, Thomas; Boffin, Henri M. J.; Girard, Julien; Mawet, Dimitri; Montagnier, Guillaume; Blomme, Ronny; Kervella, Pierre; Sana, Hugues; Štefl, Stanislav; Zorec, Juan; Lacour, Sylvestre; Le Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste; Martins, Fabrice; Mérand, Antoine; Patru, Fabien; Selman, Fernando; Frémat, Yves

    2016-03-01

    Context. Luminous blue variables (LBVs) are rare massive stars with very high luminosity. They are characterized by strong photometric and spectroscopic variability related to transient eruptions. The mechanisms at the origin of these eruptions is not well known. In addition, their formation is still problematic and the presence of a companion could help to explain how they form. Aims: This article presents a study of seven LBVs (about 20% of the known Galactic population), some Wolf-Rayet stars, and massive binaries. We probe the environments that surround these massive stars with near-, mid-, and far-infrared images, investigating potential nebula/shells and the companion stars. Methods: To investigate large spatial scales, we used seeing-limited and near diffraction-limited adaptive optics images to obtain a differential diagnostic on the presence of circumstellar matter and to determine their extent. From those images, we also looked for the presence of binary companions on a wide orbit. Once a companion was detected, its gravitational binding to the central star was tested. Tests include the chance projection probability, the proper motion estimates with multi-epoch observations, flux ratio, and star separations. Results: We find that two out of seven of LBVs may have a wide orbit companion. Most of the LBVs display a large circumstellar envelope or several shells. In particular, HD 168625, known for its rings, possesses several shells with possibly a large cold shell at the edge of which the rings are formed. For the first time, we have directly imaged the companion of LBV stars. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, under projects number 085.D-0625(C), 087.D-0426(C, D), and archival data 383.D-0323(A).The reduced NACO images are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/587/A115

  19. Integration of Multi-Plane Tissue Doppler and B-Mode Echocardiographic Images for Left Ventricular Motion Estimation.

    PubMed

    Porras, A R; Alessandrini, M; Mirea, O; D'hooge, J; Frangi, A F; Piella, G

    2016-01-01

    Although modern ultrasound acquisition systems allow recording of 3D echocardiographic images, tracking anatomical structures from them is still challenging. In addition, since these images are typically created from information obtained across several cardiac cycles, it is not yet possible to acquire high-quality 3D images from patients presenting varying heart rhythms. In this paper, we propose a method to estimate the motion field from multi-plane echocardiographic images of the left ventricle, which are acquired simultaneously during a single cardiac cycle. The method integrates tri-plane B-mode and tissue Doppler images acquired at different rotation angles around the long axis of the left ventricle. It uses a diffeomorphic continuous spatio-temporal transformation model with a spherical data representation for a better interpolation in the circumferential direction. This framework allows exploiting the spatial relation among the acquired planes. In addition, higher temporal resolution of the transformation in the beam direction is achieved by uncoupling the estimation of the different components of the velocity field. The method was validated using a realistic synthetic dataset including healthy and ischemic cases, obtaining errors of 0.14 0.09 mm for displacements, 0.96 1.03% for longitudinal strain and 3.94 4.38% for radial strain estimation. In addition, the method was also demonstrated on a healthy volunteer and two patients with ischemia. PMID:26186773

  20. Preoperative parathyroid localization by superimposed iodine-131 toluidine blue and technetium-99m pertechnetate imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Zwas, S.T.; Czerniak, A.; Boruchowsky, S.; Avigad, I.; Wolfstein, I.

    1987-03-01

    A new parathyroid scintigraphic localization study by a dual radioisotope technique using radioiodinated toluidine blue (RTB) for the parathyroids and /sup 99m/Tc for thyroid imaging is presented. A simple RTB labeling procedure achieving 99% tagging of the /sup 131/I-TB was used. The RTB was found to be a highly specific parathyroid radiotracer, consequently enabling superimposition of the delineated thyroid gland over the RTB avid parathyroid foci without a need for subtraction of the thyroid or vascular background. Forty-six patients with primary hyperparathyroidism underwent scintigraphic study prior to cervical (41 patients) or mediastinal (5 patients) exploration and 67 pathological parathyroid glands (34 adenomas and 33 hyperplasias) were excised. On follow-up, serum calcium level returned to normal in all patients. Correlation of the scintigraphic results with the surgical findings disclosed a sensitivity of 93%, with a specificity of 80% and an overall accuracy of 87%. This new simplified and specific RTB scintigraphic method justifies its use as a routine procedure for preoperative parathyroid scintigraphic localization in primary hyperparathyroidism.

  1. Computer-aided method for automated selection of optimal imaging plane for measurement of total cerebral blood flow by MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Pang-yu; Bagci, Ahmet Murat; Alperin, Noam

    2009-02-01

    A computer-aided method for finding an optimal imaging plane for simultaneous measurement of the arterial blood inflow through the 4 vessels leading blood to the brain by phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging is presented. The method performance is compared with manual selection by two observers. The skeletons of the 4 vessels for which centerlines are generated are first extracted. Then, a global direction of the relatively less curved internal carotid arteries is calculated to determine the main flow direction. This is then used as a reference direction to identify segments of the vertebral arteries that strongly deviates from the main flow direction. These segments are then used to identify anatomical landmarks for improved consistency of the imaging plane selection. An optimal imaging plane is then identified by finding a plane with the smallest error value, which is defined as the sum of the angles between the plane's normal and the vessel centerline's direction at the location of the intersections. Error values obtained using the automated and the manual methods were then compared using 9 magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) data sets. The automated method considerably outperformed the manual selection. The mean error value with the automated method was significantly lower than the manual method, 0.09+/-0.07 vs. 0.53+/-0.45, respectively (p<.0001, Student's t-test). Reproducibility of repeated measurements was analyzed using Bland and Altman's test, the mean 95% limits of agreements for the automated and manual method were 0.01~0.02 and 0.43~0.55 respectively.

  2. A low-cost demonstration kit for locating an image formed by a plane mirror integrated with a ray diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaewkhong, Kreetha; Chitaree, Ratchapak

    2015-08-01

    This article introduces a low-cost, easy to make apparatus that can be used to locate the position of an image formed by a plane mirror. The apparatus is combined with a method used to identify an image’s position by drawing a ray diagram, based on the principle of reflection, to show how an image is formed. An image’s distance and an object’s distance can be measured precisely. In addition, the size of an object and an image can be determined accurately.

  3. Imaging with a 90 frames/s microbolometer focal plane array and high-power terahertz free electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Dem'yanenko, M. A.; Esaev, D. G.; Knyazev, B. A.; Vinokurov, N. A.; Kulipanov, G. N.

    2008-03-31

    An uncooled microbolometer focal plane array (FPA) has been developed and used for imaging of objects illuminated by monochromatic coherent radiation of a free electron laser tunable in the range of 1.25-2.5 THz. A sensitivity threshold of 1.3x10{sup -3} W/cm{sup 2} was obtained for the FPA with a homemade absolute interferometric power meter. Videos up to 90 frames/s were recorded in both transmission and reflection/scattering modes. When objects were illuminated by laser radiation scattered by a rough metal surface, speckled images were observed. Good quality terahertz images were achieved through the fast rotation of the scatterer.

  4. Blue on Blues.

    PubMed

    Edlin, M

    1998-05-01

    Activists and regulators won't let Blue Cross & Blue Shield plans forget their roots. In fact, when these historic not-for-profits announce intentions to merge with other Blues or go for-profit, states demand repayment for years of foregone taxes. Charity has become the spoiler, dashing deal after deal. PMID:9646734

  5. Implications of image plane line-edge roughness requirements on extreme ultraviolet mask specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Naulleau, P. P.; George, Simi A.

    2009-02-13

    Line-edge roughness (LER) and the related effect of contact size variation remain as significant challenges facing the commercialization of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. LER is typically viewed as a resist problem; however, recent simulation results have shown that the mask can indeed be an important contributor. Problems arise from both mask absorber LER as well as mask multilayer roughness leading to random phase variations in the reflected beam (see Fig. 1). The latter effect is especially important as higher coherence off-axis illumination conditions are used and defocus is considered. Here we describe these effect in detail and explore how they will impact EUV mask requirements for the 22-nm half-pitch node and beyond. Figure 2 shows modeling results for 22-nm lines printed in a 0.32-numerical aperture system with 100-nm defocus assuming a mask with 0.24-nm rms multilayer roughness and no absorber edge roughness (unlike the example in Fig. 1). The impact of the phase roughness on the printed line-edge roughness is clearly evident and demonstrates the basic problem with mask roughness. The more detailed modeling-based analysis to be presented will account for performance throughout the process window as well as non-stochastic resist effects. We note that the mean-field resist effect is important to consider because, in practice, the resist is the limiting resolution element in the system and therefore dominates the mask-error enhancement factor (MEEF). As is typically the case with projection-optic-induced MEEF, the resist-induced MEEF will lead to even tighter mask requirements. Note that we do not consider resist stochastic effects since the purpose of this study is isolate mask-induced sources of image-plane roughness.

  6. An attempt to estimate out-of-plane lung nodule elongation in tomosynthesis images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chodorowski, Artur; Arvidsson, Jonathan; Söderman, Christina; Svalkvist, Angelica; Johnsson, Šse A.; Bâth, Magnus

    2015-03-01

    In chest tomosynthesis (TS) the most commonly used reconstruction methods are based on Filtered Back Projection (FBP) algorithms. Due to the limited angular range of x-ray projections, FBP reconstructed data is typically associated with a low spatial resolution in the out-of-plane dimension. Lung nodule measures that depend on depth information such as 3D shape and volume are therefore difficult to estimate. In this paper the relation between features from FBP reconstructed lung nodules and the true out-of-plane nodule elongation is investigated and a method for estimating the out-of-plane nodule elongation is proposed. In order to study these relations a number of steps that include simulation of spheroidal-shaped nodules, insertion into synthetic data volumes, construction of TS-projections and FBP-reconstruction were performed. In addition, the same procedure was used to simulate nodules and insert them into clinical chest TS projection data. The reconstructed nodule data was then investigated with respect to in-plane diameter, out-of-plane elongation, and attenuation coefficient. It was found that the voxel value in each nodule increased linearly with nodule elongation, for nodules with a constant attenuation coefficient. Similarly, the voxel value increased linearly with in-plane diameter. These observations indicate the possibility to predict the nodule elongation from the reconstructed voxel intensity values. Such a method would represent a quantitative approach to chest tomosynthesis that may be useful in future work on volume and growth rate estimation of lung nodules.

  7. Performance of an Achromatic Focal Plane Mask for Exoplanet Imaging Coronagraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Kevin; Belikov, Ruslan; Pluzhnik, Eugene; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Wilson, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Coronagraph technology combined with wavefront control is close to achieving the contrast and inner working angle requirements in the lab necessary to observe the faint signal of an Earth-like exoplanet in monochromatic light. An important remaining technological challenge is to achieve high contrast in broadband light. Coronagraph bandwidth is largely limited by chromaticity of the focal plane mask, which is responsible for blocking the stellar PSF. The size of a stellar PSF scales linearly with wavelength; ideally, the size of the focal plane mask would also scale with wavelength. A conventional hard-edge focal plane mask has a fixed size, normally sized for the longest wavelength in the observational band to avoid starlight leakage. The conventional mask is oversized for shorter wavelengths and blocks useful discovery space. Recently we presented a solution to the size chromaticity challenge with a focal plane mask designed to scale its effective size with wavelength. In this paper, we analyze performance of the achromatic size-scaling focal plane mask within a Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph. We present results from wavefront control around the achromatic focal plane mask, and demonstrate the size-scaling effect of the mask with wavelength. The edge of the dark zone, and therefore the inner working angle of the coronagraph, scale with wavelength. The achromatic mask enables operation in a wider band of wavelengths compared with a conventional hard-edge occulter.

  8. Fast, Accurate and Precise Mid-Sagittal Plane Location in 3D MR Images of the Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergo, Felipe P. G.; Falco, Alexandre X.; Yasuda, Clarissa L.; Ruppert, Guilherme C. S.

    Extraction of the mid-sagittal plane (MSP) is a key step for brain image registration and asymmetry analysis. We present a fast MSP extraction method for 3D MR images, based on automatic segmentation of the brain and on heuristic maximization of the cerebro-spinal fluid within the MSP. The method is robust to severe anatomical asymmetries between the hemispheres, caused by surgical procedures and lesions. The method is also accurate with respect to MSP delineations done by a specialist. The method was evaluated on 64 MR images (36 pathological, 20 healthy, 8 synthetic), and it found a precise and accurate approximation of the MSP in all of them with a mean time of 60.0 seconds per image, mean angular variation within a same image (precision) of 1.26o and mean angular difference from specialist delineations (accuracy) of 1.64o.

  9. jPOR: An ImageJ macro to quantify total optical porosity from blue-stained thin sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, Clayton; Jerram, Dougal A.

    2011-11-01

    A fast and effective method has been developed to measure total optical porosity (TOP) of blue resin-impregnated thin sections. This utilises a macro file (jPOR.txt) for ImageJ, which can be used on digital photomicrographs of thin sections. The method requires no specialised scientific equipment and can be run entirely using free to download software. Digital images are acquired from blue resin-impregnated thin sections using a conventional film scanner in the present study, though the technique can be applied to any high resolution colour digital acquired by different means (e.g., flat bed scanning, digital capture). Images are preprocessed using a newly developed custom 8-bit palette and analysed for porosity in ImageJ using the simple to use jPOR macro. Our method rapidly calculates TOP for batches of images with or without the option of user adjustment. Results are compared with conventional methods (e.g., to point counting), and tested with several users to estimate any user variability. jPOR provided comparable results to more time-consuming point counting, but with significantly less "counting error" and less interoperator variability than published point counting studies. The jPOR macro has been integrated into a macro tool set that can be configured to be run on ImageJ start up.

  10. Red-green-blue fluorescent hollow carbon nanoparticles isolated from chromatographic fractions for cellular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xiaojuan; Hu, Qin; Paau, Man Chin; Zhang, Yan; Shuang, Shaomin; Dong, Chuan; Choi, Martin M. F.

    2014-06-01

    An as-synthesised hollow carbon nanoparticle (HC-NP) sample has been proved to be a relatively complex mixture, and its complexity can be reduced significantly by high-performance liquid chromatography. An unprecedented reduction in such complexity can reveal fractions of HC-NP with unique luminescence properties. While the UV-vis absorption profile for the HC-NP mixture is featureless, the HC-NP fractions do possess unique absorption bands and specific emission wavelengths. The HC-NP fractions are fully anatomised by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry, displaying their fragmentation mass ion features. The shell thickness and crystal lattices of the selected HC-NP fractions are determined as 6.13, 8.31, 2.22, and 8.66 nm, and 0.37, 0.35, 0.33, and 0.32 nm by transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The fractionated HC-NP show profound differences in emission quantum yield, allowing for brighter HC-NP to be isolated from an apparent low quantum yield mixture. Finally, red, green and blue emissive HC-NP are isolated from the as-synthesised HC-NP sample. They show good photostability and have been demonstrated to be excellent probes for cellular imaging.An as-synthesised hollow carbon nanoparticle (HC-NP) sample has been proved to be a relatively complex mixture, and its complexity can be reduced significantly by high-performance liquid chromatography. An unprecedented reduction in such complexity can reveal fractions of HC-NP with unique luminescence properties. While the UV-vis absorption profile for the HC-NP mixture is featureless, the HC-NP fractions do possess unique absorption bands and specific emission wavelengths. The HC-NP fractions are fully anatomised by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry, displaying their fragmentation mass ion features. The shell thickness and crystal lattices of the selected HC-NP fractions are determined as 6.13, 8.31, 2.22, and 8.66 nm, and 0.37, 0.35, 0.33, and 0.32 nm by transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The fractionated HC-NP show profound differences in emission quantum yield, allowing for brighter HC-NP to be isolated from an apparent low quantum yield mixture. Finally, red, green and blue emissive HC-NP are isolated from the as-synthesised HC-NP sample. They show good photostability and have been demonstrated to be excellent probes for cellular imaging. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Plots of integrated PL intensity against absorbance of quinine sulfate and as-synthesised HC-NP product, UV-vis absorption, PL spectra and XRD of the as-synthesised HC-NP product, IR spectra of HC-NP mixture, glacial acetic acid and fractions 1-13, effect of MeOH content on HPLC separation, UV absorption and PL spectra at different excitation wavelengths of the as-prepared HC-NP product and fractions 1-13, expanded mass spectra of fractions 2, 4, 8, and 12, the time-dependence of fluorescent intensity and time-resolved spectra of the as-prepared HC-NP product and fractions 2, 4, 8, and 12, cytotoxicity test of the as-prepared HC-NP product on MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01453g

  11. Real-time 3D millimeter wave imaging based FMCW using GGD focal plane array as detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levanon, Assaf; Rozban, Daniel; Kopeika, Natan S.; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak; Abramovich, Amir

    2014-03-01

    Millimeter wave (MMW) imaging systems are required for applications in medicine, communications, homeland security, and space technology. This is because there is no known ionization hazard for biological tissue, and atmospheric attenuation in this range of the spectrum is relatively low. The lack of inexpensive room temperature imaging systems makes it difficult to give a suitable MMW system for many of the above applications. 3D MMW imaging system based on chirp radar was studied previously using a scanning imaging system of a single detector. The system presented here proposes to employ a chirp radar method with a Glow Discharge Detector (GDD) Focal Plane Array (FPA) of plasma based detectors. Each point on the object corresponds to a point in the image and includes the distance information. This will enable 3D MMW imaging. The radar system requires that the millimeter wave detector (GDD) will be able to operate as a heterodyne detector. Since the source of radiation is a frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW), the detected signal as a result of heterodyne detection gives the object's depth information according to value of difference frequency, in addition to the reflectance of the image. In this work we experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of implementing an imaging system based on radar principles and FPA of GDD devices. This imaging system is shown to be capable of imaging objects from distances of at least 10 meters.

  12. Automatic Recognition of Fetal Facial Standard Plane in Ultrasound Image via Fisher Vector

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Baiying; Tan, Ee-Leng; Chen, Siping; Zhuo, Liu; Li, Shengli; Ni, Dong; Wang, Tianfu

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition of the standard plane is the prerequisite of biometric measurement and diagnosis during the ultrasound (US) examination. In this paper, a new algorithm is developed for the automatic recognition of the fetal facial standard planes (FFSPs) such as the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes. Specifically, densely sampled root scale invariant feature transform (RootSIFT) features are extracted and then encoded by Fisher vector (FV). The Fisher network with multi-layer design is also developed to extract spatial information to boost the classification performance. Finally, automatic recognition of the FFSPs is implemented by support vector machine (SVM) classifier based on the stochastic dual coordinate ascent (SDCA) algorithm. Experimental results using our dataset demonstrate that the proposed method achieves an accuracy of 93.27% and a mean average precision (mAP) of 99.19% in recognizing different FFSPs. Furthermore, the comparative analyses reveal the superiority of the proposed method based on FV over the traditional methods. PMID:25933215

  13. Focal plane generation of multi-resolution and multi-scale image representation for low-power vision applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Berni, J.; Carmona-Galán, R.; Carranza-González, L.; Zarándy, A.; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Á.

    2011-06-01

    Early vision stages represent a considerably heavy computational load. A huge amount of data needs to be processed under strict timing and power requirements. Conventional architectures usually fail to adhere to the specifications in many application fields, especially when autonomous vision-enabled devices are to be implemented, like in lightweight UAVs, robotics or wireless sensor networks. A bioinspired architectural approach can be employed consisting of a hierarchical division of the processing chain, conveying the highest computational demand to the focal plane. There, distributed processing elements, concurrent with the photosensitive devices, influence the image capture and generate a pre-processed representation of the scene where only the information of interest for subsequent stages remains. These focal-plane operators are implemented by analog building blocks, which may individually be a little imprecise, but as a whole render the appropriate image processing very efficiently. As a proof of concept, we have developed a 176x144-pixel smart CMOS imager that delivers lighter but enriched representations of the scene. Each pixel of the array contains a photosensor and some switches and weighted paths allowing reconfigurable resolution and spatial filtering. An energy-based image representation is also supported. These functionalities greatly simplify the operation of the subsequent digital processor implementing the high level logic of the vision algorithm. The resulting figures, 5.6mW@30fps, permit the integration of the smart image sensor with a wireless interface module (Imote2 from Memsic Corp.) for the development of vision-enabled WSN applications.

  14. Simultaneous in-plane and out-of-plane displacement measurement based on a dual-camera imaging system and its application to inspection of large-scale space structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ri, Shien; Tsuda, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Takeshi; Umebayashi, Takashi; Sato, Akiyoshi; Sato, Eiichi

    2015-07-01

    Optical methods providing full-field deformation data have potentially enormous interest for mechanical engineers. In this study, an in-plane and out-of-plane displacement measurement method based on a dual-camera imaging system is proposed. The in-plane and out-of-plane displacements are determined simultaneously using two measured in-plane displacement data observed from two digital cameras at different view angles. The fundamental measurement principle and experimental results of accuracy confirmation are presented. In addition, we applied this method to the displacement measurement in a static loading and bending test of a solid rocket motor case (CFRP material; 2.2 m diameter and 2.3 m long) for an up-to-date Epsilon rocket developed by JAXA. The effectiveness and measurement accuracy is confirmed by comparing with conventional displacement sensor. This method could be useful to diagnose the reliability of large-scale space structures in the rocket development.

  15. Enhancement of Optical Polarization Anisotropy of a-Plane InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Well Structure from Violet to Blue-Green Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Sheng-Han; Huang, Shyh-Jer; Su, Yan-Kuin; Hsu, Hsiao-Chiu

    2013-01-01

    A nonpolar a-plane (1120) InGaN/GaN epitaxial layer was grown on r-plane (1012) sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). In this work, a set of step-stage multiple quantum wells (MQWs) is inserted between underlying GaN and overlying high indium-content MQWs to investigate its influence on the optical properties of the active region. The step-stage MQWs were deposited by varying growth temperature at fixed precursor flow rate. Optical properties were investigated by the measurement of temperature-dependent photoluminescence (TD-PL). The optical polarization ratio, activation energy, and the smile-like curve in full width at half maximum (FWHM) of PL were analyzed in detail.

  16. Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) Focal Planes for Long Wave Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, S.; Liu, J. K.; Bandara, S. V.; Hong, W.; Maker, P. D.; Muller, R. E.; Krabach, T. N.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the development of very sensitive long wavelength infrared GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) based on bound-to-quasibound intersubband transition, fabrication of light coupling schemes for efficient light coupling, and demonstration of several long wavelength infrared cameras based on QWIP focal plane arrays.

  17. mm wave and THz imaging using very inexpensive neon-indicator lamp detector focal-plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozban, D.; Levanon, A.; Akram, A.; Abramovich, A.; Kopeika, N. S.; Joseph, H.; Yitzthaky, Y.; Belenky, A.; Yadid-Pecht, O.

    2011-10-01

    Development of focal plane arrays (FPA) for mm wavelength and THz radiation is presented in this paper. The FPA is based upon inexpensive neon indicator lamp Glow Discharge Detectors (GDDs) that serve as pixels in the FPA. It was shown in previous investigations that inexpensive neon indicator lamps GDDs are quite sensitive to mm wavelength and THz radiation. The diameter of GDD lamps are typically 3-6 mm and thus the FPA can be diffraction limited. Development of an FPA using such devices as detectors is advantageous since the costs of such a lamp is around 30-50 cents per lamp, and it is a room temperature detector sufficiently fast for video frame rates. Recently a new 88 GDD FPA VLSI board was designed, constructed, and experimentally tested. First THz images as well as DSP methods using this GDD FPA are demonstrated. Super resolution was achieved by moving the 88 pixel board appropriately in the image plane so that 32X32 pixel images are also obtained and shown here, with much improved image quality because of much reduced pixelization distortion.

  18. Terahertz Wide-Angle Imaging and Analysis on Plane-wave Criteria Based on Inverse Synthetic Aperture Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jing Kun; Qin, Yu Liang; Deng, Bin; Wang, Hong Qiang; Li, Jin; Li, Xiang

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents two parts of work around terahertz imaging applications. The first part aims at solving the problems occurred with the increasing of the rotation angle. To compensate for the nonlinearity of terahertz radar systems, a calibration signal acquired from a bright target is always used. Generally, this compensation inserts an extra linear phase term in the intermediate frequency (IF) echo signal which is not expected in large-rotation angle imaging applications. We carried out a detailed theoretical analysis on this problem, and a minimum entropy criterion was employed to estimate and compensate for the linear-phase errors. In the second part, the effects of spherical wave on terahertz inverse synthetic aperture imaging are analyzed. Analytic criteria of plane-wave approximation were derived in the cases of different rotation angles. Experimental results of corner reflectors and an aircraft model based on a 330-GHz linear frequency-modulated continuous wave (LFMCW) radar system validated the necessity and effectiveness of the proposed compensation. By comparing the experimental images obtained under plane-wave assumption and spherical-wave correction, it also showed to be highly consistent with the analytic criteria we derived.

  19. Terahertz Wide-Angle Imaging and Analysis on Plane-wave Criteria Based on Inverse Synthetic Aperture Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jing Kun; Qin, Yu Liang; Deng, Bin; Wang, Hong Qiang; Li, Jin; Li, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents two parts of work around terahertz imaging applications. The first part aims at solving the problems occurred with the increasing of the rotation angle. To compensate for the nonlinearity of terahertz radar systems, a calibration signal acquired from a bright target is always used. Generally, this compensation inserts an extra linear phase term in the intermediate frequency (IF) echo signal which is not expected in large-rotation angle imaging applications. We carried out a detailed theoretical analysis on this problem, and a minimum entropy criterion was employed to estimate and compensate for the linear-phase errors. In the second part, the effects of spherical wave on terahertz inverse synthetic aperture imaging are analyzed. Analytic criteria of plane-wave approximation were derived in the cases of different rotation angles. Experimental results of corner reflectors and an aircraft model based on a 330-GHz linear frequency-modulated continuous wave (LFMCW) radar system validated the necessity and effectiveness of the proposed compensation. By comparing the experimental images obtained under plane-wave assumption and spherical-wave correction, it also showed to be highly consistent with the analytic criteria we derived.

  20. 1024 x 1024 pixel mid-wavelength and long-wavelength infrared QWIP focal plane arrays for imaging applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Hill, C. J.; Rafol, S. B.; Mumolo, J. M.; Trinh, J. T.; Tidrow, M. Z.; LeVan, P. D.

    2005-01-01

    Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 10(24) x 10(24) pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NEAT) of 17 mK at a 95 K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300 K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NEAT of 13 mK at a 70 K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR detector array after the subtraction of system noise. Both MWIR and LWIR focal planes have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90 K and 70 K operating temperatures respectively, with similar optical and background conditions. In this paper, we will discuss the performance in terms of quantum efficiency, NE(delta)T, uniformity, operability and modulation transfer functions.

  1. 1024 1024 pixel mid-wavelength and long-wavelength infrared QWIP focal plane arrays for imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Hill, C. J.; Rafol, S. B.; Mumolo, J. M.; Trinh, J. T.; Tidrow, M. Z.; LeVan, P. D.

    2005-05-01

    Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024 1024 pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NE?T) of 17 mK at a 95 K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300 K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NE?T of 13 mK at a 70 K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR detector array after the subtraction of system noise. Both MWIR and LWIR focal planes have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90 K and 70 K operating temperatures respectively, with similar optical and background conditions. In this paper, we will discuss the performance in terms of quantum efficiency, NE?T, uniformity, operability and modulation transfer functions.

  2. Real-time imaging with THz fully-customized uncooled amorphous-silicon microbolometer focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoens, F.; Meilhan, J.; Delplanque, B.; Gidon, S.; Lasfargues, G.; Lalanne Dera, J.; Nguyen, D. T.; Ouvrier-Buffet, J. L.; Pocas, S.; Maillou, T.; Cathabard, O.; Barbieri, S.

    2012-05-01

    Terahertz uncooled antenna-coupled microbolometer focal plane arrays are being developed at CEA-LETI for THz imaging and sensing. This detector technology relies on amorphous silicon bolometer know-how and aims at opening the way to real-time video rate 2D imaging, with potential low cost either in fabrication and in operation. First prototypes of 320x240 pixel arrays have been designed for 1-3 THz sensing. Sensors have been fabricated monolithically above CMOS Integrated Circuits while applying only full Si standard silicon processes. We present the results of extensive work of characterization and simulations made to estimate the sensitivity and spectral absorption of these prototypes. Tests of latest real-time imaging with active illumination by QCLs are then reported while explosives samples were placed in an optical set-up in reflection configuration.

  3. An abuttable CCD imager for visible and X-ray focal plane arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Barry E.; Mountain, Robert W.; Harrison, David C.; Bautz, Marshall W.; Doty, John P.

    1991-01-01

    A frame-transfer silicon charge-coupled-device (CCD) imager has been developed that can be closely abutted to other imagers on three sides of the imaging array. It is intended for use in multichip arrays. The device has 420 x 420 pixels in the imaging and frame-store regions and is constructed using a three-phase triple-polysilicon process. Particular emphasis has been placed on achieving low-noise charge detection for low-light-level imaging in the visible and maximum energy resolution for X-ray spectroscopic applications. Noise levels of 6 electrons at 1-MHz and less than 3 electrons at 100-kHz data rates have been achieved. Imagers have been fabricated on 1000-Ohm-cm material to maximize quantum efficiency and minimize split events in the soft X-ray regime.

  4. Transport of Intensity phase imaging by intensity spectrum fitting of exponentially spaced defocus planes.

    PubMed

    Jingshan, Zhong; Claus, Rene A; Dauwels, Justin; Tian, Lei; Waller, Laura

    2014-05-01

    We propose an alternative method for solving the Transport of Intensity equation (TIE) from a stack of through-focus intensity images taken by a microscope or lensless imager. Our method enables quantitative phase and amplitude imaging with improved accuracy and reduced data capture, while also being computationally efficient and robust to noise. We use prior knowledge of how intensity varies with propagation in the spatial frequency domain in order to constrain a fitting algorithm [Gaussian process (GP) regression] for estimating the axial intensity derivative. Solving the problem in the frequency domain inspires an efficient measurement scheme which captures images at exponentially spaced focal steps, significantly reducing the number of images required. Low-frequency artifacts that plague traditional TIE methods can be suppressed without an excessive number of captured images. We validate our technique experimentally by recovering the phase of human cheek cells in a brightfield microscope. PMID:24921767

  5. Low-power focal-plane dynamic texture segmentation based on programmable image binning and diffusion hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernndez-Berni, Jorge; Carmona-Galn, Ricardo

    2009-05-01

    Stand-alone applications of vision are severely constrained by their limited power budget. This is one of the main reasons why vision has not yet been widely incorporated into wireless sensor networks. For them, image processing should be suscribed to the sensor node in order to reduce network traffic and its associated power consumption. In this scenario, operating the conventional acquisition-digitization-processing chain is unfeasible under tight power limitations. A bio-inspired scheme can be followed to meet the timing requirements while maintaining a low power consumption. In our approach, part of the low-level image processing is conveyed to the focal-plane thus speeding up system operation. Moreover, if a moderate accuracy is permissible, signal processing is realized in the analog domain, resulting in a highly efficient implementation. In this paper we propose a circuit to realize dynamic texture segmentation based on focal-plane spatial bandpass filtering of image subdivisions. By the appropriate binning, we introduce some constrains into the spatial extent of the targeted texture. By running time-controlled linear diffusion within each bin, a specific band of spatial frequencies can be highlighted. Measuring the average energy of the components in that band at each image bin the presence of a targeted texture can be detected and quantified. The resulting low-resolution representation of the scene can be then employed to track the texture along an image flow. An application specific chip, based on this analysis, is being developed for natural spaces monitoring by means of a network of low-power vision systems.

  6. Inverse-synthetic-aperture imaging of trees over a ground plane

    SciTech Connect

    Zittel, D.H.; Brock, B.C.; Littlejohn, J.H.; Patitz, W.E.

    1995-11-01

    Recent data collections with the Sandia VHF-UHF synthetic-aperture radar have yielded surprising results; trees appear brighter in the images than expected! In an effort to understand this phenomenon, various small trees have been measured on the Sandia folded compact range with the inverse-synthetic-aperture imaging system. A compilation of these measurements is contained in this report.

  7. Infrared imaging of cotton fibers using a focal-plane array detector

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vibrational spectroscopy studies can be used to examine the quality and structure of cotton fibers. An emerging area of research relates to the imaging of cotton fibers. Herein, we report the use of a Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microscope to image developing cotton fibers. Studies were perfor...

  8. Multiperspective-Modelling in the Process of Constructing and Understanding Physical Theories Using the Example of the Plane Mirror Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, U.; Pospiech, G.; Körndle, H.; Narciss, S.

    2010-07-01

    Teaching physics goes along with explaining natural phenomena. The modelling process during the acquisition of physical knowledge plays an important role in developing understanding and deeper insight. Novices, however, have problems with this modelling process, in particular because they do not understand that teachers are talking about models of reality and not about reality itself. Physical theories are described with linguistic and mathematical symbols; hence there exist at least two perspectives of modelling, physical and mathematical modelling. According to Greca and Moreira (2001) [2] understanding of physics in school is achieved if it is possible to predict a physical phenomenon from its physical models. Yet, apart from the physical and the mathematical perspective of modelling other perspectives of modelling are necessary for understanding complex physical phenomena. To prevent confusion for the learner it is essential to differentiate between these different perspectives of modelling. This process of differentiation between various perspectives of modelling will be referred to as `Multiperspective-Modelling'. Prior studies (F. Goldberg and L. McDermott, (1986), Wiesner 1992) [1, 5] on how individual students think about images in plane mirrors revealed that the learners have misconceptions. Based on the idea of `Multiperspective-Modelling' we developed and evaluated a special training for the learner. This training differentiates physical, mathematical and `human' perspectives of modelling of the plane mirror phenomenon. The purposes of this study were to investigate the understanding of the plane mirror phenomenon of novices, before and after the special training.

  9. Real-time, continuous-wave terahertz imaging using a microbolometer focal-plane array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Qing (Inventor); Min Lee, Alan W. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention generally provides a terahertz (THz) imaging system that includes a source for generating radiation (e.g., a quantum cascade laser) having one or more frequencies in a range of about 0.1 THz to about 10 THz, and a two-dimensional detector array comprising a plurality of radiation detecting elements that are capable of detecting radiation in that frequency range. An optical system directs radiation from the source to an object to be imaged. The detector array detects at least a portion of the radiation transmitted through the object (or reflected by the object) so as to form a THz image of that object.

  10. Volume-scanning three-dimensional display that uses an inclined image plane.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, D; Matsushita, K

    2001-07-10

    A novel three-dimensional display based on a volume-scanning method that uses an inclined light-source array and a mirror scanner is proposed. With this technique it is possible to display three-dimensional images that satisfy all factors for human stereoscopic vision. Three-dimensional images of 8 x 8 x 8 pixels, 40 mm x 40 mm x 40 mm in size, with a frame rate of 12.7 Hz were obtained as real images through an experimental system that uses a galvanometer mirror and a LED array. PMID:18360359

  11. In vivo imaging of scattering and absorption properties of exposed brain using a digital red-green-blue camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishidate, Izumi; Yoshida, Keiichiro; Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Sato, Manabu

    2014-03-01

    We investigate a method to estimate the spectral images of reduced scattering coefficients and the absorption coefficients of in vivo exposed brain tissues in the range from visible to near-infrared wavelength (500-760 nm) based on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy using a digital RGB camera. In the proposed method, the multi-spectral reflectance images of in vivo exposed brain are reconstructed from the digital red, green blue images using the Wiener estimation algorithm. The Monte Carlo simulation-based multiple regression analysis for the absorbance spectra is then used to specify the absorption and scattering parameters of brain tissue. In this analysis, the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin and that of deoxygenated hemoglobin are estimated as the absorption parameters whereas the scattering amplitude a and the scattering power b in the expression of ?s'=a?-b as the scattering parameters, respectively. The spectra of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients are reconstructed from the absorption and scattering parameters, and finally, the spectral images of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients are estimated. The estimated images of absorption coefficients were dominated by the spectral characteristics of hemoglobin. The estimated spectral images of reduced scattering coefficients showed a broad scattering spectrum, exhibiting larger magnitude at shorter wavelengths, corresponding to the typical spectrum of brain tissue published in the literature. In vivo experiments with exposed brain of rats during CSD confirmed the possibility of the method to evaluate both hemodynamics and changes in tissue morphology due to electrical depolarization.

  12. Digital pixel CMOS focal plane array with on-chip multiply accumulate units for low-latency image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Jeffrey W.; Tyrrell, Brian M.; D'Onofrio, Richard; Berger, Paul J.; Fernandez-Cull, Christy

    2014-06-01

    A digital pixel CMOS focal plane array has been developed to enable low latency implementations of image processing systems such as centroid trackers, Shack-Hartman wavefront sensors, and Fitts correlation trackers through the use of in-pixel digital signal processing (DSP) and generic parallel pipelined multiply accumulate (MAC) units. Light intensity digitization occurs at the pixel level, enabling in-pixel DSP and noiseless data transfer from the pixel array to the peripheral processing units. The pipelined processing of row and column image data prior to off chip readout reduces the required output bandwidth of the image sensor, thus reducing the latency of computations necessary to implement various image processing systems. Data volume reductions of over 80% lead to sub 10?s latency for completing various tracking and sensor algorithms. This paper details the architecture of the pixel-processing imager (PPI) and presents some initial results from a prototype device fabricated in a standard 65nm CMOS process hybridized to a commercial off-the-shelf short-wave infrared (SWIR) detector array.

  13. Radiation Channels Close to a Plasmonic Nanowire Visualized by Back Focal Plane Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Nicolai; Piatkowski, Dawid; Ciesielski, Richard; Mackowski, Sebastian; Hartschuh, Achim

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the angular radiation patterns, a key characteristic of an emitting system, from individual silver nanowires decorated with rare earth ion-doped nanocrystals. Back focal plane radiation patterns of the nanocrystal photoluminescence after local two-photon excitation can be described by two emission channels: Excitation of propagating surface plasmons in the nanowire followed by leakage radiation and direct dipolar emission observed also in the absence of the nanowire. Theoretical modeling reproduces the observed radiation patterns which strongly depend on the position of excitation along the nanowire. Our analysis allows to estimate the branching ratio into both emission channels and to determine the diameter dependent surface plasmon quasi-momentum, important parameters of emitter-plasmon structures. PMID:24131299

  14. Baroclinic turbulence on a polar beta-plane by Altimetric Imaging Velocimetry: laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyev, Yakov; Rhines, Peter; Lindahl, Eric

    2006-11-01

    A new method of optical altimetry with color coding was designed for measuring the slopes of the free surface elevation field and calculation of geostrophic velocity field. The examples of baroclinic flows on a rapidly rotating turntable will be demonstrated and discussed. The flows are created by releasing lighter fluid on the surface of the rotating layer or at the interface between the two layers. The surface of the rapidly rotating layer is of the form of a paraboloid which creates a dynamical effect of a polar beta-plane. The evolving turbulent flows include vortices, beta gyres, multiple zonal jets and Rossby waves. The geostrophic velocity, vorticity and surface elevation are measured by AIV with very high resolution of typically several million vectors. Two-dimensional spectra are documented and the features of these flows are discussed.

  15. TraP: Transients discovery pipeline for image-plane surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TraP contributors

    2014-12-01

    The TraP is a pipeline for detecting and responding to transient and variable sources in a stream of astronomical images. Images are initially processed using a pure-Python source-extraction package, PySE, which is bundled with the TraP. Source positions and fluxes are then loaded into a SQL database for association and variability detection. The database structure allows for estimation of past upper limits on newly detected sources, and for forced fitting of previously detected sources which have since dropped below the blind-extraction threshold. Developed with LOFAR data in mind, the TraP has been used with data from other radio observatories.

  16. Electrostatics of a Point Charge between Intersecting Planes: Exact Solutions and Method of Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mei, W. N.; Holloway, A.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, the authors present a commonly used example in electrostatics that could be solved exactly in a conventional manner, yet expressed in a compact form, and simultaneously work out special cases using the method of images. Then, by plotting the potentials and electric fields obtained from these two methods, the authors demonstrate that…

  17. Automated Breast Volume Scanning: Identifying 3-D Coronal Plane Imaging Features May Help Categorize Complex Cysts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Yan; Jiang, Yu-Xin; Zhu, Qing-Li; Zhang, Jing; Xiao, Meng-Su; Liu, He; Dai, Qing; Li, Jian-Chu; Sun, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    The study described here sought to identify specific ultrasound (US) automated breast volume scanning (ABVS) features that distinguish benign from malignant lesions. Medical records of 750 patients with 792 breast lesions were retrospectively reviewed. Of the 750 patients, 101 with 122 cystic lesions were included in this study, and the results ABVS results were compared with biopsy pathology results. These lesions were classified into six categories based on ABVS sonographic features: type I=simple cyst; type II=clustered cyst; type III=cystic masses with thin septa; type IV=complex cyst; type V=predominantly cystic masses; and type VI=predominantly solid masses. Comparisons were conducted between the ABVS coronal plane features of the lesions and histopathology results, and the positive predictive value (PPV) was calculated for each feature. Of the 122 lesions, 90 (73.8%) were classified as benign, and 32 (26.2%) were classified as malignant. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy associated with ABVS features for cystic lesions were 78.1%, 74.4% and 75.4%, respectively. The 11 cases (8.9%) of type I-IV cysts were all benign. Of the 22 (18.0%) type V cysts, 16 (13.1%) were benign and 6 (4.9%) were malignant. Of the 89 (72.9%) type VI cysts, 63 (51.7%) were benign and 26 (21.3%) were malignant. The typical symptoms of malignancy on ABVS include retraction (PPV=100%, p<0.05), hyper-echoic halos (PPV=85.7%, p<0.05), microcalcification (PPV=66.7%, p<0.05), thick walls or thick septa (PPV=62.5%, p<0.05), irregular shape (PPV: 51.2%, p<0.05), indistinct margin (PPV: 48.6%, p<0.05) and predominantly solid masses with eccentric cystic foci (PPV=46.8%, p<0.05). ABVS can reveal sonographic features of the lesions along the coronal plane, which may be of benefit in the detection of malignant, predominantly cystic masses and provide high clinical values. PMID:26742895

  18. THE IMAGING PROPERTIES OF THE GAS PIXEL DETECTOR AS A FOCAL PLANE POLARIMETER

    SciTech Connect

    Fabiani, S.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Muleri, F.; Soffitta, P.; Rubini, A.; Bellazzini, R.; Brez, A.; De Ruvo, L.; Minuti, M.; Pinchera, M.; Sgr, C.; Spandre, G.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Pareschi, G.; Basso, S.; Citterio, O.; Burwitz, V.; Burkert, W.; and others

    2014-06-01

    X-rays are particularly suited to probing the physics of extreme objects. However, despite the enormous improvements of X-ray astronomy in imaging, spectroscopy, and timing, polarimetry remains largely unexplored. We propose the photoelectric polarimeter Gas Pixel Detector (GPD) as a candidate instrument to fill the gap created by more than 30yr without measurements. The GPD, in the focus of a telescope, will increase the sensitivity of orders of magnitude. Moreover, since it can measure the energy, the position, the arrival time, and the polarization angle of every single photon, it allows us to perform polarimetry of subsets of data singled out from the spectrum, the light curve, or an image of the source. The GPD has an intrinsic, very fine imaging capability, and in this work we report on the calibration campaign carried out in 2012 at the PANTER X-ray testing facility of the Max-Planck-Institut fr extraterrestrische Physik of Garching (Germany) in which, for the first time, we coupled it with a JET-X optics module with a focal length of 3.5m and an angular resolution of 18 arcsec at 4.5keV. This configuration was proposed in 2012 aboard the X-ray Imaging Polarimetry Explorer (XIPE) in response to the ESA call for a small mission. We derived the imaging and polarimetric performance for extended sources like pulsar wind nebulae and supernova remnants as case studies for the XIPE configuration and also discuss possible improvements by coupling the detector with advanced optics that have a finer angular resolution and larger effective areas to study extended objects with more detail.

  19. Changing Images of the Inclined Plane: A Case Study of a Revolution in American Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Steven C.

    2010-11-01

    Between 1880 and 1920 the way science was taught in American High Schools changed dramatically. The old "lecture/demonstration" method, where information was presented to essentially passive students, was replaced by the "laboratory" method, where students performed their own experiments in specially constructed student laboratories. National leadership in education was generally weak during this period, and the new method required significant investments by the schools, but within a few decades American science education was rapidly and completely transformed. Previous studies of this fundamental change have concentrated on the activities of organizations like the NEA, the Bureau of Education and a few major universities, but the way in which these groups were able to effect actual changes in classroom practice is not completely clear. This article attempts to broaden the existing narrative by integrating the rich and largely ignored material culture of science educationsuch things as textbooks, lab manuals, student notebooks, science teaching instruments and scientific instrument catalogs. Surprisingly, much of this story can be seen in changes to the depiction of a single, venerable and otherwise unremarkable teaching instrument: the inclined plane.

  20. Subcellular Biochemical Investigation of Purkinje Neurons Using Synchrotron Radiation Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging with a Focal Plane Array Detector

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Coupling Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with focal plane array detectors at synchrotron radiation sources (SR-FTIR-FPA) has provided a rapid method to simultaneously image numerous biochemical markers in situ at diffraction limited resolution. Since cells and nuclei are well resolved at this spatial resolution, a direct comparison can be made between FTIR functional group images and the histology of the same section. To allow histological analysis of the same section analyzed with infrared imaging, unfixed air-dried tissue sections are typically fixed (after infrared spectroscopic analysis is completed) via immersion fixation. This post fixation process is essential to allow histological staining of the tissue section. Although immersion fixation is a common practice in this filed, the initial rehydration of the dehydrated unfixed tissue can result in distortion of subcellular morphology and confound correlation between infrared images and histology. In this study, vapor fixation, a common choice in other research fields where postfixation of unfixed tissue sections is required, was employed in place of immersion fixation post spectroscopic analysis. This method provided more accurate histology with reduced distortions as the dehydrated tissue section is fixed in vapor rather than during rehydration in an aqueous fixation medium. With this approach, accurate correlation between infrared images and histology of the same section revealed that Purkinje neurons in the cerebellum are rich in cytosolic proteins and not depleted as once thought. In addition, we provide the first direct evidence of intracellular lactate within Purkinje neurons. This highlights the significant potential for future applications of SR-FTIR-FPA imaging to investigate cellular lactate under conditions of altered metabolic demand such as increased brain activity and hypoxia or ischemia. PMID:23638613

  1. Snakes in the Plane: Direct Imaging of Magnetized Turbulence in the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaensler, Bryan M.; Haverkorn, M.; Burkhart, B.; Newton-McGee, K. J.; Ekers, R. D.; Lazarian, A.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Robishaw, T.; Dickey, J. M.; Green, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    The interstellar medium (ISM) of the Milky Way consists of gas and dust at a range of temperatures and pressures, and provides the raw material from which stars and planets form. Astronomers have developed a sophisticated understanding of the ISM as a multi-phase, magnetized, turbulent medium. However, observations have lacked the sensitivity and resolution to directly image the small-scale structure associated with turbulent motions in the diffuse ISM. Radio polarimetry is a promising avenue for further progress, because Faraday rotation of linearly polarized radio signals provides a very sensitive probe of fluctuations in magnetic field and ionized gas density. Here we present a new way of processing images of linearly polarized radio emission from the ISM, in which we derive the gradient of the Stokes vector (Q,U). This provides the first direct image of supersonic turbulence in the ISM, manifested as a complex filamentary web of sharp density jumps. Application of the polarization gradient to both simulations and observations can allow the measurement of currently unconstrained parameters of interstellar turbulence such as the Mach number, Reynolds number and magnetic field strength.

  2. Kinematic Measurement of Knee Prosthesis from Single-Plane Projection Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirokawa, Shunji; Ariyoshi, Shogo; Takahashi, Kenji; Maruyama, Koichi

    In this paper, the measurement of 3D motion from 2D perspective projections of knee prosthesis is described. The technique reported by Banks and Hodge was further developed in this study. The estimation was performed in two steps. The first-step estimation was performed on the assumption of orthogonal projection. Then, the second-step estimation was subsequently carried out based upon the perspective projection to accomplish more accurate estimation. The simulation results have demonstrated that the technique archived sufficient accuracies of position/orientation estimation for prosthetic kinematics. Then we applied our algorithm to the CCD images, thereby examining the influences of various artifacts, possibly incorporated through an imaging process, on the estimation accuracies. We found that accuracies in the experiment were influenced mainly by the geometric discrepancies between the prosthesis component and computer generated model and by the spacial inconsistencies between the coordinate axes of the positioner and that of the computer model. However, we verified that our algorithm could achieve proper and consistent estimation even for the CCD images.

  3. Fractional Fourier plane image encryption technique using radial hilbert-, and Jigsaw transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Madhusudan; Shakher, Chandra; Singh, Kehar

    2010-07-01

    A new method for image encryption using integral order radial Hilbert transform (RHT) filter in the fractional Fourier transform (FRT) domain has been proposed. The technique is implemented using the popular double random phase encoding method in the fractional Fourier domain. The random phase masks (RPMs), integral orders of the RHT, fractional orders of FRT, and indices of the Jigsaw transform (JT) have been used as keys for encryption and decryption. Simulation results have been presented and the schematic representation for optical implementation has been proposed. The mean-square-error and signal-to-noise ratio between the decrypted image and the input image have been calculated for the correct as well as incorrect orders of the RHT. Effect of occlusion and noise on the performance of the proposed scheme has also been studied. The robustness of the technique has been verified against attack using partial windows of the correct random phase masks. Similar investigations have also been carried out for the chosen-, and the known-plain-text attacks.

  4. Complex environmental beta-plane turbulence: laboratory experiments with altimetric imaging velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matulka, A. M.; Zhang, Y.; Afanasyev, Y. D.

    2015-11-01

    Results from the spectral analyses of the flows in two experiments where turbulent flows were generated in a rotating tank with topographic ?-effect, are presented. The flows were forced either by heating water from below or supplying fresh water at the top of saline layer. The flow was essentially barotropic in the first experiment and baroclinic in the second experiment. The gradient of the surface elevation was measured using optical altimetry (Altimetric Imaging Velocimetry). Multiple zonal jets of alternating direction were observed in both experiments. Turbulent cascades of energy exhibit certain universal properties in spite of the different nature of flows in the experiments.

  5. Spectral dispersion modeling of virtually imaged phased array by using angular spectrum of plane waves.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xinrong; Sun, Qiang; Li, Jing; Li, Chun; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2015-01-12

    We present an analytical treatment for the relatively new spectral disperser termed virtually imaged phased array (VIPA). Angular spectrum representation of the input Gaussian beam helps us obtain an exact analytic dispersion model and a dispersion law for a general VIPA by using the principle of multiple-beam interference. The consideration of the optical aberrations caused by refractions makes our model more accurate and practical than previous models. The validity of the proposed dispersion law has been validated theoretically by comparing with previous results. Some considerations of using a VIPA are also provided. PMID:25835648

  6. Complex environmental β-plane turbulence: laboratory experiments with altimetric imaging velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matulka, A. M.; Zhang, Y.; Afanasyev, Y. D.

    2016-01-01

    Results from the spectral analyses of the flows in two experiments where turbulent flows were generated in a rotating tank with a topographic β-effect are presented. The flows were forced either by heating water from below or supplying fresh water at the top of a saline layer. The flow was essentially barotropic in the first experiment and baroclinic in the second experiment. The gradient of the surface elevation was measured using optical altimetry (altimetric imaging velocimetry). Multiple zonal jets of alternating direction were observed in both experiments. Turbulent cascades of energy exhibit certain universal properties in spite of the different natures of flows in the experiments.

  7. Measurement of Water Distribution in through-plane Direction in a PEFC using a Neutron Image Intensifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, K.; Murakawa, H.; Miyata, K.; Asano, H.; Takenaka, N.; Yasuda, R.

    Hydrogen gas and air are supplied to a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). The air and the hydrogen form water and condensation may occur in the cathode side. The generated water may affect the fuel cell performance because of blocking the oxygen from reaching cathode reaction area. An imaging system with a neutron image intensifier (NII) was used for visualizing the water behaviour in the PEFC. The water distributions in the proton exchange membrane (PEM) and the gas diffusion layers (GDL) were measured by the imaging system. Visualization experiments were performed during the PEFC operation in order to clarify the water distributions in the experiments with different utilization. The generated water was discharged into the channel after the amount of water thickness in the GDL increased to a certain value of about 600 ?m in thickness in the through-plane direction. The discharged water formed water drops in the channel. The effects of the water drops in the channel on the fuel cell performance could be observed clearly. It was shown that the cell voltage increased when the water was evacuated.

  8. Back focal plane imaging of directional emission from dye molecules coupled to one-dimensional photonic crystals

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Douguo; Badugu, Ramachandram; Chen, Yikai; Yu, Sisheng; Yao, Peijun; Wang, Pei; Ming, Hai; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Bloch surface waves (BSWs) on one-dimensional photonic crystals (1DPC) have been used to beam the fluorescence emission from the dye molecules. All dielectric 1DPC displays its low propagating loss, narrow resonance and the absence of absorption or quenching. In this letter, back focal plane imaging reveals that in addition to the BSW mode, a guided mode and cavity mode also exist in the 1DPC which all couple with the excited dye molecules. The appearance of these modes is sensitive to the wavelength of the fluorescence and alters the beaming effect by the 1DPC. Numerical simulations verify the existence of these modes which are consistent with the experimental results. Comparisons between the Bloch surface wave-coupled emission (BWCE) and surface plasmon-coupled emission (SPCE) are also presented for a more clear understanding of the multilayered film-enabled directional emission. PMID:24621990

  9. 640 x 512 Pixels Long-Wavelength Infrared (LWIR) Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetector (QDIP) Imaging Focal Plane Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath D.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Hill, Cory J.; Ting, David Z.; Liu, John K.; Rafol, Sir B.; Blazejewski, Edward R.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Keo, Sam A.; Krishna, Sanjay; Chang, Y. -C.; Shott, Craig A.

    2007-01-01

    Epitaxially grown self-assembled. InAs-InGaAs-GaAs quantum dots (QDs) are exploited for the development of large-format long-wavelength infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs). The dot-in-a-well (DWELL) structures were experimentally shown to absorb both 45 degrees and normal incident light, therefore, a reflection grating structure was used to enhance the quantum efficiency. The devices exhibit peak responsivity out to 8.1 micrometers, with peak detectivity reaching approximately 1 X 10(exp 10) Jones at 77 K. The devices were fabricated into the first long-wavelength 640 x 512 pixel QD infrared photodetector imaging FPA, which has produced excellent infrared imagery with noise equivalent temperature difference of 40 mK at 60-K operating temperature.

  10. Estimation of the Elevational Distance between Image Planes by Analysis of Ultrasonic Echoes from Point Scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Atsuhiro; Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2011-07-01

    There are two approaches to three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction using a 1D array ultrasonic transducer: mechanical linear scanning and free-hand scanning. Mechanical scanning employs a motorized mechanism to translate the transducer linearly. However, the large size and weight of the scanning system sometimes make it inconvenient to use. In free-hand scanning, a sensor (e.g., electromagnetic or optical) is attached to the ultrasonic transducer to measure the position and orientation of the transducer. These techniques are sensitive to the usage environment. Recently, sensorless free-hand scanning techniques have been developed. Seabra et al. reported sensorless free-hand techniques for the carotid artery by monitoring the velocity of the ultrasound probe [J. C. R. Seabra, L. M. Pedro, and J. F. Ferandes: IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 56 (2009) 1442]. This system achieved an accuracy of 2.5 mm [root mean square (RMS) error] of the location. To develop accurate sensorless measurement, we propose a novel method using the phase shift between ultrasonic RF echoes. In this study, we measured the transmit-receive directivity of a linear-array transducer using a silicone phantom and estimated the elevational distance between two 2D US images using the phase shift. An accuracy of 49.9 m in RMS, which is less than that of the previous sensorless free-hand method, could be achieved by the proposed method.

  11. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging of a solitary fibrous tumor of the pancreas using methylene blue.

    PubMed

    van der Vorst, Joost R; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L; Hutteman, Merlijn; Bosse, Tjalling; Smit, Vincent T H B M; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Frangioni, John V; Bonsing, Bert A

    2012-07-27

    A 67-year-old female presented with unexplained abdominal pain. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan of the abdomen incidentally revealed a mass in the uncinate process of the pancreas. This mass was resected and based on histopathological findings, diagnosed as a solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the pancreas. A SFT is an extremely rare benign mesenchymal tumor that in 65% of cases affects the visceral pleura but can also affect extra-pleural sites. The intraoperative demarcation of pancreatic tumors, such as SFTs, can be challenging. In this report, the first clear intraoperative identification of a SFT of the pancreas in a human was shown using near-infrared fluorescence and methylene blue. PMID:22905287

  12. Prussian Blue

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Resources for Emergency Health Professionals Training and Education Social Media What CDC is Doing Blog: Public Health ... blue work? Who can take Prussian blue? How is Prussian blue given? What are the side effects of Prussian blue? Where can I get Prussian ...

  13. Polyhydroxyalkanoate granules quantification in mixed microbial cultures using image analysis: Sudan Black B versus Nile Blue A staining.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Daniela P; Amaral, A Lus; Leal, Cristiano; Oehmen, Adrian; Reis, Maria A M; Ferreira, Eugnio C

    2015-03-20

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) can be produced and intracellularly accumulated as inclusions by mixed microbial cultures (MMC) for bioplastic production and in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems. Classical methods for PHA quantification use a digestion step prior to chromatography analysis, rendering them labor intensive and time-consuming. The present work investigates the use of two quantitative image analysis (QIA) procedures specifically developed for PHA inclusions identification and quantification. MMC obtained from an EBPR system were visualized by bright-field and fluorescence microscopy for PHA inclusions detection, upon Sudan Black B (SBB) and Nile Blue A (NBA) staining, respectively. The captured color images were processed by QIA techniques and the image analysis data were further treated using multivariate statistical analysis. Partial least squares (PLS) regression coefficients of 0.90 and 0.86 were obtained between QIA parameters and PHA concentrations using SBB and NBA, respectively. It was found that both staining procedures might be seen as alternative methodologies to classical PHA determination. PMID:25732579

  14. AlGaN-based focal plane arrays for selective UV imaging at 310nm and 280nm and route toward deep UV imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverchon, Jean-Luc; Robo, Jean-Alexandre; Truffer, Jean-Patrick; Caumes, Jean-Pascal; Mourad, Idir; Brault, Julien; Duboz, Jean-Yves

    2007-10-01

    The fast development of nitrides has given the opportunity to investigate AlGaN as a material for ultraviolet detection. Such camera present an intrinsic spectral selectivity and an extremely low dark current at room temperature. It can compete with technologies based on photocathodes, MCP intensifiers, back thinned CCD or hybrid CMOS focal plane arrays (FPA) for low flux measurements. AlGaN based cameras allow UV imaging without filters or with simplified ones in harsh solar blind conditions. Few results on camera have been shown in the last years, but the ultimate performances of AlGaN photodiodes couldn't be achieved due to parasitic illumination of multiplexers, responsivity of p layers in p-i-n structures, or use of cooled readout circuit. Such issues have prevented up to now a large development of this technology. We present results on focal plane array of 320x256 pixels with a pitch of 30?m for which Schottky photodiodes are multiplexed with a readout circuit protected by black matrix at room temperature. Theses focal plane present a peak reponsivity around 280nm and 310nm with a rejection of visible light of four decades only limited by internal photoemission in contact. Then we will show the capability to outdoor measurements. The noise figure is due to readout noise of the multiplexer and we will investigate the ultimate capabilities of Schottky diodes or Metal- Semiconductor-Metal (MSM) technologies to detect extremely low signal. Furthermore, we will consider deep UV measurements on single pixels MSM from 32nm to 61nm in a front side illumination configuration. Finally, we will define technology process allowing backside illumination and deep UV imaging.

  15. Focal Plane Detectors for the Advanced Gamma-Ray Imaging System (AGIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Otte, A. N.; Williams, D. A.; Byrum, K.; Drake, G.; Horan, D.; Smith, A.; Wagner, R. G.; Falcone, A.; Funk, S.; Tajima, H.; Mukherjee, R.

    2008-12-24

    The Advanced Gamma-Ray Imaging System (AGIS) is a concept for the next generation observatory in ground-based very high energy gamma-ray astronomy. Design goals are ten times better sensitivity, higher angular resolution, and a lower energy threshold than existing Cherenkov telescopes. Simulations show that a substantial improvement in angular resolution may be achieved if the pixel diameter is reduced to the order of 0.05 deg, i.e. two to three times smaller than the pixel diameter of current Cherenkov telescope cameras. At these dimensions, photon detectors with smaller physical dimensions can be attractive alternatives to the classical photomultiplier tube (PMT). Furthermore, the operation of an experiment with the size of AGIS requires photon detectors that are among other things more reliable, more durable, and possibly higher efficiency photon detectors. Alternative photon detectors we are considering for AGIS include both silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) and multi-anode photomultipliers (MAPMTs). Here we present results from laboratory testing of MAPMTs and SiPMs along with results from the first incorporation of these devices into cameras on test bed Cherenkov telescopes.

  16. An Indium Gallium Arsenide Visible/SWIR Focal Plane Array for Low Light Level Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marshall J.; Ettenberg, Martin H.; Lange, Michael J.; Olsen, Gregory H.

    1999-01-01

    PIN photodiodes fabricated from indium gallium arsenide lattice-matched to indium phosphide substrates (In(.53)Ga(.47)As/InP) exhibit low reverse saturation current densities (JD < 10(exp -8) A/sq cm), and high shunt resistance-area products (RoA > 10(exp 6) omega-sq cm) at T=290K. Backside-illuminated, hybrid-integrated InGaAs FPAs are sensitive from 0.9 micrometers to 1.7 micrometers. 290K detectivities, D(*), greater than 10(exp 14) cm-(square root of Hz/W) are demonstrated. This represents the highest room temperature detectivity of any infrared material. The long wavelength cutoff (1.7 micrometers) makes In(.53)Ga(.47)As an idea match to the available airglow that has major peaks at 1.3 micrometers and 1.6 micrometers. The short wavelength 'cut-on' at 0.9 micrometers is due to absorption in the InP substrate. We will report on new InGaAs FPA epitaxial structures and processing techniques. These have resulted in improved performance in the form of a 10 x increase in detectivity and visible response via removal of the InP substrate. The resulting device features visible and SWIR response with greater than 15% quantum efficiency at 0.5 micrometers while maintaining the long wavelength cutoff. Imaging has been demonstrated under overcast starlight/urban glow conditions with cooling provided by a single stage thermoelectric cooler. Details on the material structure and device fabrication, quantitative characterization of spectral response and detectivity, as well as examples of night vision imagery are presented.

  17. In-plane measurements of microelectromechanical systems vibrations with nanometer resolution using the correlation of synchronous images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serio, B.; Hunsinger, J. J.; Cretin, B.

    2004-10-01

    We report on the development of a versatile vibrometer for characterizing in-plane microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) motion. It combines conventional optical components (microscope objective or macrozoom lens) and a home-made light-emitting diode (LED) stroboscope with incremental phase shifts. The system drives a digital charge-coupled device camera to record a video sequence of the moving MEMS "frozen" by the strobe LED at four equally spaced phases. The periodic motion of the specimen is accurately estimated by computing the values of displacements between successive images. We obtained the subpixel accuracy using an interpolation and correlation motion estimation algorithm. By using this technique, we analyzed vibrations of a silicon microprobe made for scanning probe microscopy. We determined both its natural vibration and mode shapes. The nanometer resolution of the displacement is reached using a microscope, and the mode shapes are imaged using a macrolens with a large field of view (10 mm). The experiments showed a good agreement with analytical predictions.

  18. Synchrotron Infrared Confocal Microspectroscopic Spatial Resolution or a Customized Synchrotron/focal Plane Array System Enhances Chemical Imaging of Biological Tissue or Cells

    SciTech Connect

    D Wetzel; M Nasse; =

    2011-12-31

    Spectroscopy and spatially resolved chemical imaging of biological materials using an infrared microscope is greatly enhanced with confocal image plane masking to 5-6 {mu} with a third generation microspectrometer and illumination with a synchrotron radiation source compared to globar illuminated and array detection or singly masked system. Steps toward this instrumental achievement are illustrated with spectra and images of biological tissue sections, including single cells, brain, aorta, and grain specimens. A recent, customized synchrotron infrared microspectrometer installation enables focal plane array detection to achieve both rapid and high definition chemical imaging. Localization of the ester carbonyl population in single modified starch granules was used to provide direct comparison of the two advanced imaging capabilities.

  19. Miniaturized imaging spectrometer based on Fabry-Perot MOEMS filters and HgCdTe infrared focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velicu, S.; Buurma, C.; Bergeson, J. D.; Kim, Tae Sung; Kubby, J.; Gupta, N.

    2014-05-01

    Imaging spectrometry can be utilized in the midwave infrared (MWIR) and long wave infrared (LWIR) bands to detect, identify and map complex chemical agents based on their rotational and vibrational emission spectra. Hyperspectral datasets are typically obtained using grating or Fourier transform spectrometers to separate the incoming light into spectral bands. At present, these spectrometers are large, cumbersome, slow and expensive, and their resolution is limited by bulky mechanical components such as mirrors and gratings. As such, low-cost, miniaturized imaging spectrometers are of great interest. Microfabrication of micro-electro-mechanicalsystems (MEMS)-based components opens the door for producing low-cost, reliable optical systems. We present here our work on developing a miniaturized IR imaging spectrometer by coupling a mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe)-based infrared focal plane array (FPA) with a MEMS-based Fabry-Perot filter (FPF). The two membranes are fabricated from silicon-oninsulator (SOI) wafers using bulk micromachining technology. The fixed membrane is a standard silicon membrane, fabricated using back etching processes. The movable membrane is implemented as an X-beam structure to improve mechanical stability. The geometries of the distributed Bragg reflector (DBR)-based tunable FPFs are modeled to achieve the desired spectral resolution and wavelength range. Additionally, acceptable fabrication tolerances are determined by modeling the spectral performance of the FPFs as a function of DBR surface roughness and membrane curvature. These fabrication non-idealities are then mitigated by developing an optimized DBR process flow yielding high-performance FPF cavities. Zinc Sulfide (ZnS) and Germanium (Ge) are chosen as the low and the high index materials, respectively, and are deposited using an electron beam process. Simulations are presented showing the impact of these changes and non-idealities in both a device and systems level.

  20. Identification and Quantification of Microplastics in Wastewater Using Focal Plane Array-Based Reflectance Micro-FT-IR Imaging.

    PubMed

    Tagg, Alexander S; Sapp, Melanie; Harrison, Jesse P; Ojeda, Jesús J

    2015-06-16

    Microplastics (<5 mm) have been documented in environmental samples on a global scale. While these pollutants may enter aquatic environments via wastewater treatment facilities, the abundance of microplastics in these matrices has not been investigated. Although efficient methods for the analysis of microplastics in sediment samples and marine organisms have been published, no methods have been developed for detecting these pollutants within organic-rich wastewater samples. In addition, there is no standardized method for analyzing microplastics isolated from environmental samples. In many cases, part of the identification protocol relies on visual selection before analysis, which is open to bias. In order to address this, a new method for the analysis of microplastics in wastewater was developed. A pretreatment step using 30% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was employed to remove biogenic material, and focal plane array (FPA)-based reflectance micro-Fourier-transform (FT-IR) imaging was shown to successfully image and identify different microplastic types (polyethylene, polypropylene, nylon-6, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene). Microplastic-spiked wastewater samples were used to validate the methodology, resulting in a robust protocol which was nonselective and reproducible (the overall success identification rate was 98.33%). The use of FPA-based micro-FT-IR spectroscopy also provides a considerable reduction in analysis time compared with previous methods, since samples that could take several days to be mapped using a single-element detector can now be imaged in less than 9 h (circular filter with a diameter of 47 mm). This method for identifying and quantifying microplastics in wastewater is likely to provide an essential tool for further research into the pathways by which microplastics enter the environment. PMID:25986938

  1. Multi-color imaging of the bacterial nucleoid and division proteins with blue, orange, and near-infrared fluorescent proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fabai; Van Rijn, Erwin; Van Schie, Bas G. C.; Dekker, Cees

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the spatiotemporal protein dynamics within live bacterial cells impose a strong demand for multi-color imaging. Despite the increasingly large collection of fluorescent protein (FP) variants engineered to date, only a few of these were successfully applied in bacteria. Here, we explore the performance of recently engineered variants with the blue (TagBFP), orange (TagRFP-T, mKO2), and far-red (mKate2) spectral colors by tagging HU, LacI, MinD, and FtsZ for visualizing the nucleoid and the cell division process. We find that, these FPs outperformed previous versions in terms of brightness and photostability at their respective spectral range, both when expressed as cytosolic label and when fused to native proteins. As this indicates that their folding is sufficiently fast, these proteins thus successfully expand the applicable spectra for multi-color imaging in bacteria. A near-infrared protein (eqFP670) is found to be the most red-shifted protein applicable to bacteria so far, with brightness and photostability that are advantageous for cell-body imaging, such as in microfluidic devices. Despite the multiple advantages, we also report the alarming observation that TagBFP directly interacts with TagRFP-T, causing interference of localization patterns between their fusion proteins. Our application of diverse FPs for endogenous tagging provides guidelines for future engineering of fluorescent fusions in bacteria, specifically: (1) The performance of newly developed FPs should be quantified in vivo for their introduction into bacteria; (2) spectral crosstalk and inter-variant interactions between FPs should be carefully examined for multi-color imaging; and (3) successful genomic fusion to the 5′-end of a gene strongly depends on the translational read-through of the inserted coding sequence. PMID:26136737

  2. Real-Time Intraoperative Detection of Breast Cancer using Near-infrared Fluorescence Imaging and Methylene Blue

    PubMed Central

    Tummers, Quirijn R.J.G.; Verbeek, Floris P.R.; Schaafsma, Boudewijn E.; Boonstra, Martin C.; van der Vorst, Joost R.; Liefers, Gerrit-Jan; van de Velde, Cornelis J.H.; Frangioni, John V.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite recent developments in preoperative breast cancer imaging, intraoperative localization of tumor tissue can be challenging, resulting in tumor-positive resection margins during breast-conserving surgery. Based on certain physicochemical similarities between Technetium(99mTc)-sestamibi (MIBI), a SPECT radiodiagnostic with a sensitivity of 8390% to detect breast cancer preoperatively, and the near-infrared (NIR) fluorophore Methylene Blue (MB), we hypothesized that MB might detect breast cancer intraoperatively using NIR fluorescence imaging. Methods Twenty-four patients with breast cancer, planned for surgical resection, were included. Patients were divided in 2 administration groups, which differed with respect to the timing of MB administration. N = 12 patients per group were administered 1.0 mg/kg MB intravenously either immediately or 3 h before surgery. The mini-FLARE imaging system was used to identify the NIR fluorescent signal during surgery and on post-resected specimens transferred to the pathology department. Results were confirmed by NIR fluorescence microscopy. Results 20/24 (83%) of breast tumors (carcinoma in N=21 and ductal carcinoma in situ in N=3) were identified in the resected specimen using NIR fluorescence imaging. Patients with non-detectable tumors were significantly older. No significant relation to receptor status or tumor grade was seen. Overall tumor-to-background ratio (TBR) was 2.4 0.8. There was no significant difference between TBR and background signal between administration groups. In 2/4 patients with positive resection margins, breast cancer tissue identified in the wound bed during surgery would have changed surgical management. Histology confirmed the concordance of fluorescence signal and tumor tissue. Conclusions This feasibility study demonstrated an overall breast cancer identification rate using MB of 83%, with real-time intraoperative guidance having the potential to alter patient management. PMID:24862545

  3. Compact plane illumination plugin device to enable light sheet fluorescence imaging of multi-cellular organisms on an inverted wide-field microscope.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zeyi; Lee, Juhyun; Jiang, Hao; Dong, Siyan; Jen, Nelson; Hsiai, Tzung; Ho, Chih-Ming; Fei, Peng

    2016-01-01

    We developed a compact plane illumination plugin (PIP) device which enabled plane illumination and light sheet fluorescence imaging on a conventional inverted microscope. The PIP device allowed the integration of microscope with tunable laser sheet profile, fast image acquisition, and 3-D scanning. The device is both compact, measuring approximately 15 by 5 by 5 cm, and cost-effective, since we employed consumer electronics and an inexpensive device molding method. We demonstrated that PIP provided significant contrast and resolution enhancement to conventional microscopy through imaging different multi-cellular fluorescent structures, including 3-D branched cells in vitro and live zebrafish embryos. Imaging with the integration of PIP greatly reduced out-of-focus contamination and generated sharper contrast in acquired 2-D plane images when compared with the stand-alone inverted microscope. As a result, the dynamic fluid domain of the beating zebrafish heart was clearly segmented and the functional monitoring of the heart was achieved. Furthermore, the enhanced axial resolution established by thin plane illumination of PIP enabled the 3-D reconstruction of the branched cellular structures, which leads to the improvement on the functionality of the wide field microscopy. PMID:26819828

  4. Compact plane illumination plugin device to enable light sheet fluorescence imaging of multi-cellular organisms on an inverted wide-field microscope

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Zeyi; Lee, Juhyun; Jiang, Hao; Dong, Siyan; Jen, Nelson; Hsiai, Tzung; Ho, Chih-Ming; Fei, Peng

    2015-01-01

    We developed a compact plane illumination plugin (PIP) device which enabled plane illumination and light sheet fluorescence imaging on a conventional inverted microscope. The PIP device allowed the integration of microscope with tunable laser sheet profile, fast image acquisition, and 3-D scanning. The device is both compact, measuring approximately 15 by 5 by 5 cm, and cost-effective, since we employed consumer electronics and an inexpensive device molding method. We demonstrated that PIP provided significant contrast and resolution enhancement to conventional microscopy through imaging different multi-cellular fluorescent structures, including 3-D branched cells in vitro and live zebrafish embryos. Imaging with the integration of PIP greatly reduced out-of-focus contamination and generated sharper contrast in acquired 2-D plane images when compared with the stand-alone inverted microscope. As a result, the dynamic fluid domain of the beating zebrafish heart was clearly segmented and the functional monitoring of the heart was achieved. Furthermore, the enhanced axial resolution established by thin plane illumination of PIP enabled the 3-D reconstruction of the branched cellular structures, which leads to the improvement on the functionality of the wide field microscopy. PMID:26819828

  5. Impacts of Cross-Platform Vicarious Calibration on the Deep Blue Aerosol Retrievals for Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aboard Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Hsu, N. Christina; Kwiatkowska, Ewa J.; Franz, Bryan A.; Meister, Gerhard; Salustro, Clare E.

    2012-01-01

    The retrieval of aerosol properties from spaceborne sensors requires highly accurate and precise radiometric measurements, thus placing stringent requirements on sensor calibration and characterization. For the Terra/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spedroradiometer (MODIS), the characteristics of the detectors of certain bands, particularly band 8 [(B8); 412 nm], have changed significantly over time, leading to increased calibration uncertainty. In this paper, we explore a possibility of utilizing a cross-calibration method developed for characterizing the Terral MODIS detectors in the ocean bands by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ocean Biology Processing Group to improve aerosol retrieval over bright land surfaces. We found that the Terra/MODIS B8 reflectance corrected using the cross calibration method resulted in significant improvements for the retrieved aerosol optical thickness when compared with that from the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer, Aqua/MODIS, and the Aerosol Robotic Network. The method reported in this paper is implemented for the operational processing of the Terra/MODIS Deep Blue aerosol products.

  6. Perfluoropentane-encapsulated hollow mesoporous prussian blue nanocubes for activated ultrasound imaging and photothermal therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaoqing; Cai, Xiaojun; Chen, Yu; Wang, Shige; Xu, Huixiong; Zhang, Kun; Ma, Ming; Wu, Huixia; Shi, Jianlin; Chen, Hangrong

    2015-03-01

    Hollow mesoporous nanomaterials have gained tremendous attention in the fields of nanomedicine and nanobiotechnology. Herein, n-perfluoropentane (PFP)-encapsulated hollow mesoporous Prussian blue (HPB) nanocubes (HPB-PFP) with excellent colloidal stability have been synthesized for concurrent in vivo tumor diagnosis and regression. The HPB shell shows excellent photothermal conversion efficiency that can absorb near-infrared (NIR) laser light and convert it into heat. The generated heat can not only cause tumor ablation by raising the temperature of tumor tissue but also promote the continuous gasification and bubbling of encapsulated liquid PFP with low boiling point. These formed PFP bubbles can cause tissue impedance mismatch, thus apparently enhancing the signal of B-mode ultrasound imaging in vitro and generating an apparent echogenicity signal for tumor tissues of nude mice in vivo. Without showing observable in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity, the designed biocompatible HPB-PFP nanotheranostics with high colloidal stability and photothermal efficiency are anticipated to find various biomedical applications in activated ultrasound imaging-guided tumor detection and therapy. PMID:25646576

  7. Determining the Instrumental Rotation Rate of MWO's 60' Tower Image Plane and Its Impact on Results from Ring-Diagram Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton I., S. F.; Rhodes, E. J., Jr.; Bogart, R. S.; Orr, M.; Martin, G.; Spinella, A.

    2013-12-01

    Time series of full-disk Dopplergrams were acquired at the 60-Foot Solar tower of the Mount Wilson Observatory every year between 1987 and 2009. The 60-Foot Tower was designed by George Ellery Hale to provide an image plane that did not rotate throughout each observing day. However, preliminary analyses of a portion of this archive, carried out in 2007, suggested that the focal plane of the Tower might actually be rotating slowly. If confirmed, such an instrumental rotation would suggest that the alignment of the optics has changed slightly over the years since 1907. This possible rotation of the image plane was uncovered through the computation of subsurface flow maps using the ring-diagram method of local helioseismology. Some of the initial MWO flow maps appeared to show evidence for a so-called washing machine effect similar to the pattern that was seen in the initial GONG flow maps. We have been working to confirm the early estimates of the focal plane rotation. The purpose of this paper is to report on the status of this endeavor as well as explore the ramifications of a rotating image plane on our anticipated meridional and zonal flow results.

  8. A novel Region of Interest (ROI) imaging technique for biplane imaging in interventional suites: high-resolution small field-of-view imaging in the frontal plane and dose-reduced, large field-of-view standard-resolution imaging in the lateral plane

    PubMed Central

    Swetadri Vasan, S.N; Ionita, C.; Bednarek, D.R; Rudin, S.

    2014-01-01

    Endovascular-Image-Guided-Interventional (EIGI) treatment of neuro-vascular conditions such as aneurysms, stenosed arteries, and vessel thrombosis make use of treatment devices such as stents, coils, and balloons which have very small feature sizes, 10's of microns to a few 100's of microns, and hence demand a high resolution imaging system. The current state-of-the-art flat panel detector (FPD) has about a 200-um pixel size with the Nyquist of 2.5 lp/mm. For higher-resolution imaging a charge-coupled device (CCD) based Micro-Angio -Fluoroscope (MAF-CCD) with a pixel size of 35um (Nyquist of 11 lp/mm) was developed and previously reported. Although the detector addresses the high resolution needs, the Field-Of-View (FOV) is limited to 3.5 cm 3.5 cm, which is much smaller than current FPDs. During the use of the MAF-CCD for delicate parts of the intervention, it may be desirable to have real-time monitoring outside the MAF FOV with a low dose, and lower, but acceptable, quality image. To address this need, a novel imaging technique for biplane imaging systems has been developed, using an MAF-CCD in the frontal plane and a dose-reduced standard large FOV imager in the lateral plane. The dose reduction is achieved by using a combination of ROI fluoroscopy and spatially different temporal filtering, a technique that has been previously presented. In order to evaluate this technique, a simulation using images acquired during an actual EIGI treatment on a patient, followed by an actual implementation on phantoms is presented. PMID:25302001

  9. A novel Region of Interest (ROI) imaging technique for biplane imaging in interventional suites: high-resolution small field-of-view imaging in the frontal plane and dose-reduced, large field-of-view standard-resolution imaging in the lateral plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swetadri Vasan, Setlur Nagesh; Ionita, C.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Endovascular-Image-Guided-Interventional (EIGI) treatment of neuro-vascular conditions such as aneurysms, stenosed arteries, and vessel thrombosis make use of treatment devices such as stents, coils, and balloons which have very small feature sizes, 10's of microns to a few 100's of microns, and hence demand a high resolution imaging system. The current state-of-the-art flat panel detector (FPD) has about a 200-um pixel size with the Nyquist of 2.5 lp/mm. For higher-resolution imaging a charge-coupled device (CCD) based Micro-Angio - Fluoroscope (MAF-CCD) with a pixel size of 35um (Nyquist of 11 lp/mm) was developed and previously reported. Although the detector addresses the high resolution needs, the Field-Of-View (FOV) is limited to 3.5 cm x 3.5 cm, which is much smaller than current FPDs. During the use of the MAF-CCD for delicate parts of the intervention, it may be desirable to have real-time monitoring outside the MAF FOV with a low dose, and lower, but acceptable, quality image. To address this need, a novel imaging technique for biplane imaging systems has been developed, using an MAFCCD in the frontal plane and a dose-reduced standard large FOV imager in the lateral plane. The dose reduction is achieved by using a combination of ROI fluoroscopy and spatially different temporal filtering, a technique that has been previously presented. In order to evaluate this technique, a simulation using images acquired during an actual EIGI treatment on a patient, followed by an actual implementation on phantoms is presented.

  10. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING OF THE OUTBURST SITE OF M31 RV. II. NO BLUE REMNANT IN QUIESCENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Howard E.

    2011-08-10

    M31 RV is a red transient that erupted in 1988 in the Andromeda bulge, reaching a luminosity intermediate between novae and supernovae. It was cool throughout its outburst, unlike a normal classical nova. In 2006, Bond and Siegel examined archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) optical images of the M31 RV site, obtained in 1999. We found only old red giants at the site and no stars of unusual color. However, Shara et al. recently claimed to have detected (1) a bright UV source within the error box in HST UV images taken in 1995, (2) a hot (T{sub eff} > 40, 000 K) optical source in the same 1999 images that we examined, and (3) cooling of this source from 1999 to 2008. Shara et al. argue that this source's behavior is consistent with a classical-nova outburst occurring on a low-mass white dwarf. I have re-examined all of the HST frames, including new ones obtained in 2009-2010. I find that (1) the bright 1995 UV source reported by Shara et al. was actually due to cosmic rays striking the same pixel in two successive exposures; (2) the claim that an optically bright star in the error box is very hot is actually due to misinterpretation of red-giant colors in the STmagnitude system; (3) there is no evidence for variability of any source within the error box from 1999 to 2010; and (4) there are no stars of unusually blue or red color in the error box. Our 2006 conclusions remain valid: either M31 RV had faded below HST detectability by 1999, or its remnant is an unresolved companion of a red giant in the field, or the remnant is one of the red giants.

  11. Blue Mode Imaging may Improve the Detection and Visualization of Small-Bowel Lesions: A Capsule Endoscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdelaal, Usama M.; Morita, Eijiro; Nouda, Sadaharu; Kuramoto, Takanori; Miyaji, Katsuhiko; Fukui, Hideo; Tsuda, Yasuhiro; Fukuda, Akira; Murano, Mitsuyuki; Tokioka, Satoshi; Umegaki, Eiji; Arfa, Usama A.; Higuchi, Kazuhide

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Diagnostic miss rate and time consumption are the two challenging limitations of small-bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE). In this study, we aimed to know whether using of the blue mode (BM) combined with QuickView (QV) at a high reviewing speed could influence SBCE interpretation and accuracy. Materials and Methods: Seventy CE procedures were totally reviewed in four different ways; (1) using the conventional white light, (2) using the BM, [on a viewing speed at 10 frames per second (fps)], (3) using white light, and (4) using the BM (on a viewing speed at 20 fps). In study A, the results of (1) were compared with those of (2), and in study B, the results of (3) and (4) were separately compared with those of (1). Results: In study A, the total number of the vascular (P < 0.001) and the inflammatory lesions (P = 0.005) detected by BM was significantly higher than that detected by the white light. No lesion was found using the white light that was not detected by the BM. Moreover, the BM highly improved the image quality of all the vascular lesions and the erythematous ones from the nonvascular lesions. In study B, the total number of only the vascular lesions, detected by the BM on a rapid speed of viewing at 20 fps was significantly higher than that detected by the white light (P = 0.035). However, the true miss rate for the BM was 4%. Conclusion: BM imaging is a new method that improved the detection and visualization of the vascular and erythematous nonvascular lesions of SB as compared with the conventional white light imaging. Using of the BM at a slow viewing speed, markedly reduced the diagnostic miss rate of CE. PMID:26655139

  12. An Evaluation of the Instruction Carried out with Printed Laboratory Materials Designed in Accordance with 5E Model: Reflection of Light and Image on a Plane Mirror

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayvaci, Hakan Sevki; Yildiz, Mehmet; Bakirci, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    This study employed a print laboratory material based on 5E model of constructivist learning approach to teach reflection of light and Image on a Plane Mirror. The effect of the instruction which conducted with the designed print laboratory material on academic achievements of prospective science and technology teachers and their attitudes towards

  13. An Evaluation of the Instruction Carried out with Printed Laboratory Materials Designed in Accordance with 5E Model: Reflection of Light and Image on a Plane Mirror

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayvaci, Hakan Sevki; Yildiz, Mehmet; Bakirci, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    This study employed a print laboratory material based on 5E model of constructivist learning approach to teach reflection of light and Image on a Plane Mirror. The effect of the instruction which conducted with the designed print laboratory material on academic achievements of prospective science and technology teachers and their attitudes towards…

  14. Colloidal quantum dot Vis-SWIR imaging: demonstration of a focal plane array and camera prototype (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klem, Ethan J. D.; Gregory, Christopher W.; Temple, Dorota S.; Lewis, Jay S.

    2015-08-01

    RTI has developed a photodiode technology based on solution-processed PbS colloidal quantum dots (CQD). These devices are capable of providing low-cost, high performance detection across the Vis-SWIR spectral range. At the core of this technology is a heterojunction diode structure fabricated using techniques well suited to wafer-scale fabrication, such as spin coating and thermal evaporation. This enables RTI's CQD diodes to be processed at room temperature directly on top of read-out integrated circuits (ROIC), without the need for the hybridization step required by traditional SWIR detectors. Additionally, the CQD diodes can be fabricated on ROICs designed for other detector material systems, effectively allowing rapid prototype demonstrations of CQD focal plane arrays at low cost and on a wide range of pixel pitches and array sizes. We will show the results of fabricating CQD arrays directly on top of commercially available ROICs. Specifically, the ROICs are a 640 x 512 pixel format with 15 µm pitch, originally developed for InGaAs detectors. We will show that minor modifications to the surface of these ROICs make them suitable for use with our CQD detectors. Once completed, these FPAs are then assembled into a demonstration camera and their imaging performance is evaluated. In addition, we will discuss recent advances in device architecture and processing resulting in devices with room temperature dark currents of 2-5 nA/cm^2 and sensitivity from 350 nm to 1.7 μm. This combination of high performance, dramatic cost reduction, and multi-band sensitivity is ideally suited to expand the use of SWIR imaging in current applications, as well as to address applications which require a multispectral sensitivity not met by existing technologies.

  15. Axial Plane Optical Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tongcang; Ota, Sadao; Kim, Jeongmin; Wong, Zi Jing; Wang, Yuan; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    We present axial plane optical microscopy (APOM) that can, in contrast to conventional microscopy, directly image a sample's cross-section parallel to the optical axis of an objective lens without scanning. APOM combined with conventional microscopy simultaneously provides two orthogonal images of a 3D sample. More importantly, APOM uses only a single lens near the sample to achieve selective-plane illumination microscopy, as we demonstrated by three-dimensional (3D) imaging of fluorescent pollens and brain slices. This technique allows fast, high-contrast, and convenient 3D imaging of structures that are hundreds of microns beneath the surfaces of large biological tissues. PMID:25434770

  16. Real-time out-of-plane artifact subtraction tomosynthesis imaging using prior CT for scanning beam digital x-ray system

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Meng; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: The scanning beam digital x-ray system (SBDX) is an inverse geometry fluoroscopic system with high dose efficiency and the ability to perform continuous real-time tomosynthesis in multiple planes. This system could be used for image guidance during lung nodule biopsy. However, the reconstructed images suffer from strong out-of-plane artifact due to the small tomographic angle of the system. Methods: The authors propose an out-of-plane artifact subtraction tomosynthesis (OPAST) algorithm that utilizes a prior CT volume to augment the run-time image processing. A blur-and-add (BAA) analytical model, derived from the project-to-backproject physical model, permits the generation of tomosynthesis images that are a good approximation to the shift-and-add (SAA) reconstructed image. A computationally practical algorithm is proposed to simulate images and out-of-plane artifacts from patient-specific prior CT volumes using the BAA model. A 3D image registration algorithm to align the simulated and reconstructed images is described. The accuracy of the BAA analytical model and the OPAST algorithm was evaluated using three lung cancer patients’ CT data. The OPAST and image registration algorithms were also tested with added nonrigid respiratory motions. Results: Image similarity measurements, including the correlation coefficient, mean squared error, and structural similarity index, indicated that the BAA model is very accurate in simulating the SAA images from the prior CT for the SBDX system. The shift-variant effect of the BAA model can be ignored when the shifts between SBDX images and CT volumes are within ±10 mm in the x and y directions. The nodule visibility and depth resolution are improved by subtracting simulated artifacts from the reconstructions. The image registration and OPAST are robust in the presence of added respiratory motions. The dominant artifacts in the subtraction images are caused by the mismatches between the real object and the prior CT volume. Conclusions: Their proposed prior CT-augmented OPAST reconstruction algorithm improves lung nodule visibility and depth resolution for the SBDX system.

  17. Real-time out-of-plane artifact subtraction tomosynthesis imaging using prior CT for scanning beam digital x-ray system

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Meng; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The scanning beam digital x-ray system (SBDX) is an inverse geometry fluoroscopic system with high dose efficiency and the ability to perform continuous real-time tomosynthesis in multiple planes. This system could be used for image guidance during lung nodule biopsy. However, the reconstructed images suffer from strong out-of-plane artifact due to the small tomographic angle of the system. Methods: The authors propose an out-of-plane artifact subtraction tomosynthesis (OPAST) algorithm that utilizes a prior CT volume to augment the run-time image processing. A blur-and-add (BAA) analytical model, derived from the project-to-backproject physical model, permits the generation of tomosynthesis images that are a good approximation to the shift-and-add (SAA) reconstructed image. A computationally practical algorithm is proposed to simulate images and out-of-plane artifacts from patient-specific prior CT volumes using the BAA model. A 3D image registration algorithm to align the simulated and reconstructed images is described. The accuracy of the BAA analytical model and the OPAST algorithm was evaluated using three lung cancer patients CT data. The OPAST and image registration algorithms were also tested with added nonrigid respiratory motions. Results: Image similarity measurements, including the correlation coefficient, mean squared error, and structural similarity index, indicated that the BAA model is very accurate in simulating the SAA images from the prior CT for the SBDX system. The shift-variant effect of the BAA model can be ignored when the shifts between SBDX images and CT volumes are within 10 mm in the x and y directions. The nodule visibility and depth resolution are improved by subtracting simulated artifacts from the reconstructions. The image registration and OPAST are robust in the presence of added respiratory motions. The dominant artifacts in the subtraction images are caused by the mismatches between the real object and the prior CT volume. Conclusions: Their proposed prior CT-augmented OPAST reconstruction algorithm improves lung nodule visibility and depth resolution for the SBDX system. PMID:25370638

  18. Identification of anthropogenic and natural dust sources using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Deep Blue level 2 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginoux, Paul; Garbuzov, Dmitri; Hsu, N. Christina

    2010-03-01

    Mineral dust interacts with radiation and impacts both the regional and global climate. The relative contribution of natural and anthropogenic dust sources, however, remains largely uncertain. Although human activities disturb soils and therefore enhance wind erosion, their contribution to global dust emission has never been directly evaluated because of a lack of data. The retrieval of aerosol properties over land, including deserts, using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Deep Blue algorithm makes the first direct characterization of the origin of individual sources possible. In order to separate freshly emitted dust from other aerosol types and aged dust particles, the spectral dependence of the single scattering albedo and the Angstrom wavelength exponent are used. Four years of data from the eastern part of West Africa, which includes one of the most active natural dust sources and the highest population density on the continent, are processed. Sources are identified on the basis of the persistence of significant aerosol optical depth from freshly emitted dust, and the origin is characterized as natural or anthropogenic on the basis of a land use data set. Our results indicate that although anthropogenic dust is observed less frequently and with lower optical depth than dust from natural sources in this particular region, it occupies a large area covering most of northern Nigeria and southern Chad, around Lake Chad. In addition, smaller anthropogenic sources are found as far south as 5 of latitude north, well outside the domain of most dust source inventories.

  19. In vivo multispectral imaging of the absorption and scattering properties of exposed brain using a digital red-green-blue camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Keiichiro; Ishizuka, Tomohiro; Mizushima, Chiharu; Nishidate, Izumi; Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Sato, Manabu

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate multi-spectral images of the absorption and scattering properties in the cerebral cortex of rat brain, we investigated spectral reflectance images estimated by the Wiener estimation method using a digital red-green-blue camera. A Monte Carlo simulation-based multiple regression analysis for the corresponding spectral absorbance images at nine wavelengths (500, 520, 540, 560, 570, 580, 600, 730, and 760 nm) was then used to specify the absorption and scattering parameters. The spectral images of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients were reconstructed from the absorption and scattering parameters. We performed in vivo experiments on exposed rat brain to confirm the feasibility of this method. The estimated images of the absorption coefficients were dominated by hemoglobin spectra. The estimated images of the reduced scattering coefficients had a broad scattering spectrum, exhibiting a larger magnitude at shorter wavelengths, corresponding to the typical spectrum of brain tissue published in the literature.

  20. Blue Note

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2010-01-08

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  1. Blue Note

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  2. Ultrasensitive protein detection and imaging: comparison of Lumitein™, ProteoSilver™, SYPRO(®) Ruby, and Coomassie (®) Brilliant Blue gel stains.

    PubMed

    Ren, Guang; Okerberg, Carl K; Mathews, Suresh T

    2012-01-01

    Following sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, proteins can be visualized by various methods of detection and imaging. Traditional methods of protein gel detection and imaging have been improved and expanded through technological advancement. Today, the detection of proteins, resolved on gels, can be accomplished with a variety of stains with various sensitivities. Digital cameras used in the imaging of protein gels are not only more sensitive than their film precursors, but they can be used in combination with imaging software that offers a host of useful applications. Here we describe the UVP BioImaging System in combination with LabWorks Image and Acquisition software to provide a comparison of four different protein gel stains: Lumitein™, ProteoSilver™, SYPRO(®) Ruby, and Coomassie(®) Brilliant Blue. We demonstrate that the detection sensitivity limit appears to be between 100 and 500 ng/protein band of protein with Coomassie(®) Brilliant Blue, 10-50 ng/protein band with Lumitein™ and SYPRO(®) Ruby, and as little as 5 ng/protein band with the ProteoSilver™ stain. PMID:22585528

  3. Can noninvasive imaging tools potentially predict the risk of ulceration in invasive melanomas showing blue and black colors?

    PubMed

    Longo, Caterina; Farnetani, Francesca; Moscarella, Elvira; de Pace, Barbara; Ciardo, Silvana; Ponti, Giovanni; Piana, Simonetta; Cesinaro, Anna M; Cota, Carlo; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Rosendahl, Cliff; Pellacani, Giovanni; Zalaudek, Iris

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reflectance microscopy and histopathologic correlates of dermoscopic blue and black color (BB) in a series of melanomas. We searched our database for dermoscopic images of histopathologically diagnosed pigmented nodular melanomas (pNM), superficial spreading melanomas with a nodular component (SSM+Nod), and melanoma metastasis (METs). All cases were assessed for the presence of dermoscopic BB. Confocal microscopy findings were then compared with those of histopathology. A total of 17 BB-positive tumors including eight pNMs, five SSM+Nod, and four METs were included in the study. We identified two different dermoscopic patterns associated with black color, namely, large black blotches and irregular black dots/globules, which corresponded to two different confocal and histopathologic findings. Black blotches resulted from a total filling of the epidermis by an upward migration of melanocyte nests and pagetoid melanocytes as single cells and clusters, whereas black dots/globules also corresponded to the upward migration of melanocyte nests in the epidermis and pagetoid spread, but with sparing of intervening areas of epidermis. Interestingly, two pNM and two METs showing black color lacked any epidermal involvement and, instead, they were characterized by upward-bulging dermal masses of atypical melanocytes covered by an highly attenuated epidermis. In both cases, black color corresponded to pigment-containing melanocytes in close proximity to the surface of the skin. Our study suggests that black color results not only from epidermal melanin but also from a dense dermal proliferation of pigmented melanocytes under a thinned epidermis. It seems reasonable to suggest that a bulging proliferation of dermal melanocytes beneath a thin epidermal layer could precede ulceration. As ulceration is a very significant prognostic factor, speculation arising from this study that dermoscopic black color may in some cases indicate incipient ulceration is worthy of further study. PMID:23358425

  4. X-ray Microbeam Three-Dimensional Topography Imaging and Strain Analysis of Basal-Plane Dislocations and Threading Edge Dislocations in 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanuma, Ryohei; Mori, Daisuke; Kamata, Isaho; Tsuchida, Hidekazu

    2012-06-01

    This paper demonstrates the X-ray microbeam three-dimensional (3D) topography of basal-plane dislocations (BPDs) and threading edge dislocations (TEDs) in 4H-SiC. Stereographic images showing the propagation of BPDs from a substrate to an epilayer and the conversion of BPDs into TEDs near the epilayer/substrate interface are successfully obtained. The narrowing of BPD images is observed just before the BPD-TED conversion points. The images of effective misorientations ?? provide a spatial resolution of 1-2 m for a TED, and the range of ?? corresponds to strains on the order of +/-10-5. We also discuss the image-formation mechanism in 3D topography.

  5. Full-range in-plane rotation measurement for image recognition with hybrid digital-optical correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Tianxiang; Cao, Liangcai; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid digital-optical correlator (HDOC) based on volume holographic memory is able to compute the correlation of images at a high speed. HDOC is suitable for real-time image processing and has potential usage in big data processing areas. A 7500-channel HDOC system is experimentally set up, and the target image is correlated with all the channels. The large number of parallel correlation channels could contribute to the precise rotation measurement as well as the translation measurement. In the image recognition applications, the target image involves rotation distortion with respect to the template images. A method with two coarse-fine steps is proposed to measure the rotation at a full range of 360 deg. In the coarse step, the target image is rotated 36 times at an increment of 10 deg. The 36 new images are sent into the HDOC to compute with the template images. Each new image corresponds to a correlation matrix. By searching the smallest value throughout the 36 minimums of the 36 correlation matrixes, the rotation of the target image is narrowed into 5 deg. In the fine step, the new image is rotated another 10 times at an increment of 1 deg. The rotation measurement error is <0.3 deg.

  6. Pixel Color Clustering of Multi-Temporally Acquired Digital Photographs of a Rice Canopy by Luminosity-Normalization and Pseudo-Red-Green-Blue Color Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Ryoichi; Arif, Chusnul

    2014-01-01

    Red-green-blue (RGB) channels of RGB digital photographs were loaded with luminosity-adjusted R, G, and completely white grayscale images, respectively (RGwhtB method), or R, G, and R + G (RGB yellow) grayscale images, respectively (RGrgbyB method), to adjust the brightness of the entire area of multi-temporally acquired color digital photographs of a rice canopy. From the RGwhtB or RGrgbyB pseudocolor image, cyan, magenta, CMYK yellow, black, L*, a*, and b* grayscale images were prepared. Using these grayscale images and R, G, and RGB yellow grayscale images, the luminosity-adjusted pixels of the canopy photographs were statistically clustered. With the RGrgbyB and the RGwhtB methods, seven and five major color clusters were given, respectively. The RGrgbyB method showed clear differences among three rice growth stages, and the vegetative stage was further divided into two substages. The RGwhtB method could not clearly discriminate between the second vegetative and midseason stages. The relative advantages of the RGrgbyB method were attributed to the R, G, B, magenta, yellow, L*, and a* grayscale images that contained richer information to show the colorimetrical differences among objects than those of the RGwhtB method. The comparison of rice canopy colors at different time points was enabled by the pseudocolor imaging method. PMID:25302325

  7. Voyager 1 'Blue Movie'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This is the original Voyager 'Blue Movie' (so named because it was built from Blue filter images). It records the approach of Voyager 1 during a period of over 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storms shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  8. Composite x-ray image assembly for large-field digital mammography with one- and two-dimensional positioning of a focal plane array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halama, G.; McAdoo, J.; Liu, H.

    1998-01-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of a novel large-field digital mammography technique, a 1024 x 1024 pixel Loral charge-coupled device (CCD) focal plane array (FPA) was positioned in a mammographic field with one- and two-dimensional scan sequences to obtain 950 x 1800 pixel and 3600 x 3600 pixel composite images, respectively. These experiments verify that precise positioning of FPAs produced seamless composites and that the CCD mosaic concept has potential for high-resolution, large-field imaging. The proposed CCD mosaic concept resembles a checkerboard pattern with spacing left between the CCDs for the driver and readout electronics. To obtain a complete x-ray image, the mosaic must be repositioned four times, with an x-ray exposure at each position. To reduce the patient dose, a lead shield with appropriately patterned holes is placed between the x-ray source and the patient. The high-precision motorized translation stages and the fiber-coupled-scintillating-screen-CCD sensor assembly were placed in the position usually occupied by the film cassette. Because of the high mechanical precision, seamless composites were constructed from the subimages. This paper discusses the positioning, image alignment procedure, and composite image results. The paper only addresses the formation of a seamless composite image from subimages and will not consider the effects of the lead shield, multiple CCDs, or the speed of motion.

  9. On Seeing Reddish Green and Yellowish Blue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Hewitt D.; Piantanida, Thomas P.

    1983-01-01

    Stabilization of the retinal image of the boundary between a pair of red/green or yellow/blue stripes, but not their outer edges, results in the entire region being perceived simultaneously as both red/green or yellow/blue. This suggests that the percepts of reddish-green/yellowish-blue apparently are possible in corticocortical color vision…

  10. On Seeing Reddish Green and Yellowish Blue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Hewitt D.; Piantanida, Thomas P.

    1983-01-01

    Stabilization of the retinal image of the boundary between a pair of red/green or yellow/blue stripes, but not their outer edges, results in the entire region being perceived simultaneously as both red/green or yellow/blue. This suggests that the percepts of reddish-green/yellowish-blue apparently are possible in corticocortical color vision

  11. A study of the feasibility and performance of an active/passive imager using silicon focal plane arrays and incoherent continuous wave laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmerhausen, Richard H.

    This dissertation describes an active/passive imager (API) that provides reliable, nighttime, target acquisition in a man-portable package with effective visual range of about 4 kilometers. The reflective imagery is easier to interpret than currently used thermal imagery. Also, in the active mode, the API provides performance equivalent to the big-aperture, thermal systems used on weapons platforms like tanks and attack helicopters. This dissertation describes the research needed to demonstrate both the feasibility and utility of the API. Part of the research describes implementation of a silicon focal plane array (SFPA) capable of both active and passive imaging. The passive imaging mode exceeds the nighttime performance of currently fielded, man-portable sensors. Further, when scene illumination is insufficient for passive imaging, the low dark current of SFPA makes it possible to use continuous wave laser diodes (CWLD) to add an active imaging mode. CWLD have advantages of size, efficiency, and improved eye safety when compared to high peak-power diodes. Because of the improved eye safety, the API provides user-demanded features like video output and extended range gates in the active as well as passive imaging modes. Like any other night vision device, the API depends on natural illumination of the scene for passive operation. Although it has been known for decades that "starlight" illumination is actually from diffuse airglow emissions, the research described in this dissertation provides the first estimates of the global and temporal variation of ground illumination due to airglow. A third related element of the current research establishes the impact of atmospheric aerosols on API performance. We know from day experience that atmospheric scattering of sunlight into the imager line-of-sight can blind the imager and drastically degrade performance. Atmospheric scattering of sunlight is extensively covered in the literature. However, previous literature did not cover the impact of atmospheric scattering when the target is diffusely illuminated by airglow.

  12. BLUE HONEYSUCKLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-four blue honeysuckle, Lonicera caerulea L., cultivars available to North America are described. The origin, description and uses of the cultivars are presented. The majority of the cultivars were released from Russia but two were released from Canada. These cultivars have fruits which look l...

  13. Blue Water

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St-Laurent has a mechanical system that creates bubbles that rise to the surface and push ice away from the ship's hull. It also happens to churn the water into an amazing shade of blue....

  14. Acoustic televiewer log images of natural fractures and bedding planes in the Toa Baja Borehole, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Goldberg, David

    Although borehole conditions made acoustic televiewer logging difficult in the Toa Baja borehole, more than 180 meters of continuous, acceptable quality televiewer logs were obtained in the intervals from 730 to 880 meters and from 2,515 to 2,675 meters in depth, indicating the presence of fractures that appear to be open in situ. Most of the largest, possibly open fractures in these intervals are either nearly parallel to directions given by the dipmeter log and may represent solution openings or minor washouts along bedding planes, or dip steeply to the south or southwest across bedding. The televiewer log confirms the presence of an apparently open set of fractures near 867 meters in depth, where circulation was lost during drilling, and in the interval from 2,600 to 2,650 meters in depth, where the temperature log indicates anomalous heat flow in the surrounding formation.

  15. Acoustic televiewer log images of natural fractures and bedding planes in the Toa Baja borehole, Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Paillet, F.L.; Goldberg, D. )

    1991-03-01

    Although borehole conditions made acoustic televiewer logging difficult in the Toa Baja borehole, more than 180 meters of continuous, acceptable quality televiewer logs were obtained in the intervals from 730 to 880 meters and from 2,515 to 2,675 meters in depth, indicating the presence of fractures in these intervals are either nearly parallel to directions given by the dipmeter log and may represent solution openings or minor washouts along bedding planes, or dip steeply to the south or southwest across bedding. The televiewer log confirms the presence of an apparently open set of fractures near 867 meters in depth, where circulation was lost during drilling, and in the interval from 2,600 to 2,650 meters in depth, where the temperature log indicates anomalous heat flow in the surrounding formation.

  16. The Q/U Imaging Experiment: Polarization Measurements of the Galactic Plane at 43 and 95 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruud, T. M.; Fuskeland, U.; Wehus, I. K.; Vidal, M.; Araujo, D.; Bischoff, C.; Buder, I.; Chinone, Y.; Cleary, K.; Dumoulin, R. N.; Kusaka, A.; Monsalve, R.; Næss, S. K.; Newburgh, L. B.; Reeves, R. A.; Zwart, J. T. L.; Bronfman, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R.; Dickinson, C.; Eriksen, H. K.; Gaier, T.; Gundersen, J. O.; Hasegawa, M.; Hazumi, M.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jones, M. E.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leitch, E. M.; Limon, M.; Miller, A. D.; Pearson, T. J.; Piccirillo, L.; Radford, S. J. E.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Samtleben, D.; Seiffert, M.; Shepherd, M. C.; Staggs, S. T.; Tajima, O.; Thompson, K. L.; QUIET Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    We present polarization observations of two Galactic plane fields centered on Galactic coordinates (l, b) = (0°, 0°) and (329°, 0°) at both Q (43 GHz) and W bands (95 GHz), covering between 301 and 539 square degrees depending on frequency and field. These measurements were made with the QUIET instrument between 2008 October and 2010 December, and include a total of 1263 hr of observations. The resulting maps represent the deepest large-area Galactic polarization observations published to date at the relevant frequencies with instrumental rms noise varying between 1.8 and 2.8 μK deg, 2.3-6 times deeper than corresponding WMAP and Planck maps. The angular resolution is 27.‧3 and 12.‧8 FWHM at Q and W bands, respectively. We find excellent agreement between the QUIET and WMAP maps over the entire fields, and no compelling evidence for significant residual instrumental systematic errors in either experiment, whereas the Planck 44 GHz map deviates from these in a manner consistent with reported systematic uncertainties for this channel. We combine QUIET and WMAP data to compute inverse-variance-weighted average maps, effectively retaining small angular scales from QUIET and large angular scales from WMAP. From these combined maps, we derive constraints on several important astrophysical quantities, including a robust detection of polarized synchrotron spectral index steepening of ≈0.2 off the plane, as well as the Faraday rotation measure toward the Galactic center (RM = -4000 ± 200 rad m-2), all of which are consistent with previously published results. Both the raw QUIET and the co-added QUIET+WMAP maps are made publicly available together with all necessary ancillary information.

  17. Integrating Spray Plane-Based Remote Sensing and Rapid Image Processing with Variable-Rate Aerial Application.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A remote sensing and variable rate application system was configured for agricultural aircraft. This combination system has the potential of providing a completely integrated solution for all aspects of aerial site-specific application and includes remote sensing, image processing and georegistratio...

  18. Least squares restoration of multichannel images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galatsanos, Nikolas P.; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K.; Chin, Roland T.; Hillery, Allen D.

    1991-01-01

    Multichannel restoration using both within- and between-channel deterministic information is considered. A multichannel image is a set of image planes that exhibit cross-plane similarity. Existing optimal restoration filters for single-plane images yield suboptimal results when applied to multichannel images, since between-channel information is not utilized. Multichannel least squares restoration filters are developed using the set theoretic and the constrained optimization approaches. A geometric interpretation of the estimates of both filters is given. Color images (three-channel imagery with red, green, and blue components) are considered. Constraints that capture the within- and between-channel properties of color images are developed. Issues associated with the computation of the two estimates are addressed. A spatially adaptive, multichannel least squares filter that utilizes local within- and between-channel image properties is proposed. Experiments using color images are described.

  19. Sodium cholate-templated blue light-emitting Ag subnanoclusters: in vivo toxicity and imaging in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Chandirasekar, Shanmugam; Chandrasekaran, Chandramouli; Muthukumarasamyvel, Thangavel; Sudhandiran, Ganapasam; Rajendiran, Nagappan

    2015-01-28

    We report a novel green chemical approach for the synthesis of blue light-emitting and water-soluble Ag subnanoclusters, using sodium cholate (NaC) as a template at a concentration higher than the critical micelle concentration (CMC) at room temperature. However, under photochemical irradiation, small anisotropic and spherically shaped Ag nanoparticles (3-11 nm) were obtained upon changing the concentration of NaC from below to above the CMC. The matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight and electrospray ionization mass spectra showed that the cluster sample was composed of Ag4 and Ag6. The optical properties of the clusters were studied by UV-visible and luminescence spectroscopy. The lifetime of the synthesized fluorescent Ag nanoclusters (AgNCs) was measured using a time-correlated single-photon counting technique. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to assess the size of clusters and nanoparticles. A protocol for transferring nanoclusters to organic solvents is also described. Toxicity and bioimaging studies of NaC templated AgNCs were conducted using developmental stage zebrafish embryos. From the survival and hatching experiment, no significant toxic effect was observed at AgNC concentrations of up to 200 ?L/mL, and the NC-stained embryos exhibited blue fluorescence with high intensity for a long period of time, which shows that AgNCs are more stable in living system. PMID:25552345

  20. Blue Halite.

    PubMed

    Howard, C L; Kerr, P F

    1960-12-23

    Remarkable deep blue and occasionally purple forms of halite (rock salt) have long been known. These occur associated with potassium minerals in the Zechstein basin of northern Germany, elsewhere in Europe, and in North America. In recent laboratory studies, data have been developed which confirm the hypothesis that this coloration in natural salt may be attributed to gamma-ray bombardment by associated potassium-40 from sylvite, accompanied or followed by structural deformation. PMID:17733316

  1. Synchrotron based infrared imaging and spectroscopy via focal plane array on live fibroblasts in D2O enriched medium

    SciTech Connect

    Quaroni, Luca; Zlateva, Theodora; Sarafimov, Blagoj; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Wehbe, Katia; Hegg, Eric L.; Cinque, Gianfelice

    2014-03-26

    We tested the viability of using synchrotron based infrared imaging to study biochemical processes inside living cells. As a model system, we studied fibroblast cells exposed to a medium highly enriched with D2O. We could show that the experimental technique allows us to reproduce at the cellular level measurements that are normally performed on purified biological molecules. We can obtain information about lipid conformation and distribution, kinetics of hydrogen/deuterium exchange, and the formation of concentration gradients of H and O isotopes in water that are associated with cell metabolism. The implementation of the full field technique in a sequential imaging format gives a description of cellular biochemistry and biophysics that contains both spatial and temporal information.

  2. InSb focal plane array chemical imaging enables assessment of unit process efficiency for milling operation.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, David L; Posner, Elieser S; Dogan, Hulya

    2010-12-01

    In the dry milling of wheat flour, each unit process (roller mill, purifier, sifter, etc.) produces a mixture with varying amounts of wheat endosperm and non-endosperm byproducts. Chemical images with 82 000 pixels of each intermediate product stream issuing from an individual processing machine are readily analyzed in terms of the relative amount of endosperm and non-endosperm. Approximately three minutes is required to produce an image of each intermediate product stream. Applying partial least squares (PLS) chemometric software to identify individual pixels, which enables calculation of the relative amount of endosperm and non-endosperm, is not a time-limiting factor. When relative flow rates are known for each stream, mass balance can be calculated from each intermediate stream in terms of the product (endosperm content) and the lower value non-endosperm byproduct. Data is presented from a purifier in a commercial flour mill. Intermediate streams collected from a run with optimized operational parameters were compared to those of another run before adjustment. The endosperm (product) mass balance profile for each run enabled assessment of operational efficiency. The devised chemical imaging analysis system would be particularly useful in commissioning of a new mill or to optimize existing wheat milling systems. Also, when raw material differs from that for which previous optimization was established, a new optimization may be in order. The ability to acquire a large number of spectra from a specimen and apply multivariate statistics to identify each pixel and subsequently count pixels accommodates heterogeneity and reports the results from averaging a very large number of individual spectra. A second illustration of the utility of the imaging method is presented centering on streams from the first and second break unit operations at the beginning of the roller mill process. PMID:21144147

  3. Imaging Fos-Jun Transcription Factor Mobility and Interaction in Live Cells by Single Plane Illumination-Fluorescence Cross Correlation Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pernu, Agata; Langowski, Jrg

    2015-01-01

    We collected mobility and interaction maps of c-Fos-eGFP and c-Jun-mRFP1 transcription factors within living cell nuclei. c-Fos dimerizes with c-Jun to form the transcription activator protein-1 (AP-1) which binds to the specific recognition site. To monitor this process, we used fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy on a single plane illumination microscope (SPIM-FCCS), which provides diffusion coefficient and protein-protein interaction data in the whole image plane simultaneously, instead of just one point on conventional confocal FCS. We find a strong correlation between diffusional mobility and interaction: regions of strong interaction show slow mobility. Controls containing either an eGFP-mRFP dimer, separately expressing eGFP and mRPF, or c-Fos-eGFP and c-Jun-mRFP1 mutants lacking dimerization and DNA-binding domains, showed no such correlation. These results extend our earlier findings from confocal FCCS to include spatial information. PMID:25875593

  4. Characterizing the transplanar and in-plane water transport of textiles with gravimetric and image analysis technique: Spontaneous Uptake Water Transport Tester.

    PubMed

    Tang, K P M; Wu, Y S; Chau, K H; Kan, C W; Fan, J T

    2015-01-01

    Water absorption and transport property of textiles is important since it affects wear comfort, efficiency of treatment and functionality of product. This paper introduces an accurate and reliable measurement tester, which is based on gravimetric and image analysis technique, for characterising the transplanar and in-plane wicking property of fabrics. The uniqueness of this instrument is that it is able to directly measure the water absorption amount in real-time, monitor the direction of water transport and estimate the amount of water left on skin when sweating. Throughout the experiment, water supply is continuous which simulates profuse sweating. Testing automation could even minimise variation caused by subjective manipulation, thus enhancing testing accuracy. This instrument is versatile in terms of the fabrics could be tested. A series of shirting fabrics made by different fabric structure and yarn were investigated and the results show that the proposed method has high sensitivity in differentiating fabrics with varying geometrical differences. Fabrics with known hydrophobicity were additionally tested to examine the sensitivity of the instrument. This instrument also demonstrates the flexibility to test on high performance moisture management fabrics and these fabrics were found to have excellent transplanar and in-plane wicking properties. PMID:25875329

  5. Characterizing the transplanar and in-plane water transport of textiles with gravimetric and image analysis technique: Spontaneous Uptake Water Transport Tester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, K. P. M.; Wu, Y. S.; Chau, K. H.; Kan, C. W.; Fan, J. T.

    2015-04-01

    Water absorption and transport property of textiles is important since it affects wear comfort, efficiency of treatment and functionality of product. This paper introduces an accurate and reliable measurement tester, which is based on gravimetric and image analysis technique, for characterising the transplanar and in-plane wicking property of fabrics. The uniqueness of this instrument is that it is able to directly measure the water absorption amount in real-time, monitor the direction of water transport and estimate the amount of water left on skin when sweating. Throughout the experiment, water supply is continuous which simulates profuse sweating. Testing automation could even minimise variation caused by subjective manipulation, thus enhancing testing accuracy. This instrument is versatile in terms of the fabrics could be tested. A series of shirting fabrics made by different fabric structure and yarn were investigated and the results show that the proposed method has high sensitivity in differentiating fabrics with varying geometrical differences. Fabrics with known hydrophobicity were additionally tested to examine the sensitivity of the instrument. This instrument also demonstrates the flexibility to test on high performance moisture management fabrics and these fabrics were found to have excellent transplanar and in-plane wicking properties.

  6. Characterizing the transplanar and in-plane water transport of textiles with gravimetric and image analysis technique: Spontaneous Uptake Water Transport Tester

    PubMed Central

    Tang, K. P. M.; Wu, Y. S.; Chau, K. H.; Kan, C. W.; Fan, J. T.

    2015-01-01

    Water absorption and transport property of textiles is important since it affects wear comfort, efficiency of treatment and functionality of product. This paper introduces an accurate and reliable measurement tester, which is based on gravimetric and image analysis technique, for characterising the transplanar and in-plane wicking property of fabrics. The uniqueness of this instrument is that it is able to directly measure the water absorption amount in real-time, monitor the direction of water transport and estimate the amount of water left on skin when sweating. Throughout the experiment, water supply is continuous which simulates profuse sweating. Testing automation could even minimise variation caused by subjective manipulation, thus enhancing testing accuracy. This instrument is versatile in terms of the fabrics could be tested. A series of shirting fabrics made by different fabric structure and yarn were investigated and the results show that the proposed method has high sensitivity in differentiating fabrics with varying geometrical differences. Fabrics with known hydrophobicity were additionally tested to examine the sensitivity of the instrument. This instrument also demonstrates the flexibility to test on high performance moisture management fabrics and these fabrics were found to have excellent transplanar and in-plane wicking properties. PMID:25875329

  7. The Blue Marble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This spectacular Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 'blue marble' image is based on the most detailed collection of true-color imagery of the entire Earth to date. Using a collection of satellite-based observations, scientists and visualizers stitched together months of observations of the land surface, oceans, sea ice, and clouds into a seamless, true-color mosaic of every square kilometer (.386 square mile) of our planet. Most of the information contained in this image came from MODIS, illustrating MODIS' outstanding capacity to act as an integrated tool for observing a variety of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric features of the Earth. The land and coastal ocean portions of this image is based on surface observations collected from June through September 2001 and combined, or composited, every eight days to compensate for clouds that might block the satellite's view on any single day. Global ocean color (or chlorophyll) data was used to simulate the ocean surface. MODIS doesn't measure 3-D features of the Earth, so the surface observations were draped over topographic data provided by the U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center. MODIS observations of polar sea ice were combined with observations of Antarctica made by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's AVHRR sensor-the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The cloud image is a composite of two days of MODIS imagery collected in visible light wavelengths and a third day of thermal infra-red imagery over the poles. A large collection of imagery based on the blue marble in a variety of sizes and formats, including animations and the full (1 km) resolution imagery, is available at the Blue Marble page. Image by Reto Stockli, Render by Robert Simmon. Based on data from the MODIS Science Team

  8. First operation of 88 glow discharge detector VLSI focal plane array toward mm wave and THz radiation video rate imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeika, N. S.; Abramovich, A.; Joseph, H.; Akram, A.; Yadid-Pecht, O.; Belenky, A.; Lineykin, S.

    2009-09-01

    A new kind of 88 focal plane array (FPA) based on glow discharge detector (GDD) elements was constructed and tested experimentally. First THz images of this FPA are presented. The data acquisition of this system is performed with a special VLSI board designed for this system. Previously, signal detection of the FPA elements was based upon a lock in amplifier (LIA) which limited the rate of image formation. This was in order to detect weak signals required for stand-off remote detection. Switching mode is necessary in order to save energy but stabilization time of the GDD found to be 0.5 sec. Recent investigations proved that it is possible to overcome the above timing limitations. It was shown that heterodyne detection yielded 40 times more sensitivity than the direct detection, thus in many circumstances obviating the need for a LIA. Moreover, GDD stabilization time of less than 1 msec was achieved. These developments should enable video rate THz imaging using GDD FPAs.

  9. THE DEEP BLUE COLOR OF HD 189733b: ALBEDO MEASUREMENTS WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH AT VISIBLE WAVELENGTHS

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Thomas M.; Aigrain, Suzanne; Barstow, Joanna K.; Pont, Frederic; Sing, David K.; Desert, Jean-Michel; Knutson, Heather A.; Gibson, Neale; Heng, Kevin; Lecavelier des Etangs, Alain

    2013-08-01

    We present a secondary eclipse observation for the hot Jupiter HD 189733b across the wavelength range 290-570 nm made using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. We measure geometric albedos of A{sub g} = 0.40 {+-} 0.12 across 290-450 nm and A{sub g} < 0.12 across 450-570 nm at 1{sigma} confidence. The albedo decrease toward longer wavelengths is also apparent when using six wavelength bins over the same wavelength range. This can be interpreted as evidence for optically thick reflective clouds on the dayside hemisphere with sodium absorption suppressing the scattered light signal beyond {approx}450 nm. Our best-fit albedo values imply that HD 189733b would appear a deep blue color at visible wavelengths.

  10. Streaking images that appear only in the plane of diffraction in undoped GaAs single crystals: Diffraction imaging (topography) by monochromatic synchrotron radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuriyama, Masao; Steiner, Bruce; Dobbyn, Ronald C.; Laor, Uri; Larson, David; Brown, Margaret

    1988-01-01

    Streaking images restricted to the direction of the diffraction (scattering) vector have been observed on transmission through undoped GaAs. These disruption images (caused by the reduction of diffraction in the direction of observation) appear both in the forward and in Bragg diffracted directions in monochromatic synchrontron radiation diffraction imaging. This previously unobserved phenomenon can be explained in terms of planar defects (interfaces) or platelets which affects the absorption coefficient in anomalous transmission. Such regions of the crystal look perfect despite the presence of imperfections when the scattering vector is not perpendicular to the normal of the platelets. The observed crystallographic orientation of these interfaces strongly indicates that they are antiphase boundaries.

  11. Schlumberger seismic vessel Geco Searcher provides unprecedented images of the Great Andaman Sumatra earthquake megathrust rupture plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, H.; Singh, S. C.; Hananto, N.; Hartoyo, D.; Chauhan, A.; Tapponnier, P.; White, N.; Bunting, T.; Christie, P.; Lubis, H.; Martin, J.

    2006-12-01

    From July 13 to 27, 2006, we carried out a deep seismic reflection survey along two lines on board the WesternGeco seismic vessel Geco Searcher. The vessel was equipped with one 12 km and one 5.5 km Q- Marine streamers. The long streamer was towed at 15 m depth, providing low frequency signal for deep targets, and the short streamer was towed at 7.5 m depth for high-resolution imaging of shallow sediments. The Q-Marine technology, developed by Schlumberger, is the most advanced technology available in seismic industry where individual hydrophones spaced at 3.125 m intervals sample and transmit data continuously back to the vessel. These data are then decimated to the appropriate trace interval, in this case 12.5m, after application of a digital spatial anti-alias filter, providing 960 channels of data. An array of 48 air guns provided a 10,170 cubic inch source with approximately 330 bar-m output. The shot interval was 50 m, providing 120 fold data at 6.25 m CMP intervals. The long streamer would allow us to remove seafloor multiples whereas high fold coverage would be extremely valuable for removing noise. Two deep seismic reflection lines were shot. The first line is 255 km long and runs close to the epicenter of the 26th December event, traversing the subduction front, a narrow accretionary wedge, the Simeulue plateau and the Simeulue forearc basin. The second line is 455 km long and located 255 km farther west: it traverses the whole margin, from the oceanic basin on the Indian plate up to the Andaman Sea, running across the the deformation front, the accretionary wedge, the West-Andaman Fault, the Aceh forearc basin, the submarine Sumatran fault and volcanic arc. Onboard processing of these data shows reflectors down to 18 s two-way travel time (TWTT), i.e. down to about 50-60 km depth. The subducting oceanic crust, including the oceanic Moho, could be seen down to 12 s TWTT. The megathrust that produced the earthquake could be followed from the source region at about 30 km depth to the surface near the subduction front. Extensive processing is under way and should provide unprecedented reflection images of this megathrust and hence insight about the nature of the tsunamigenic Great Andaman- Sumatra earthquake.

  12. Microbubble Void Imaging: A Non-invasive Technique for Flow Visualisation and Quantification of Mixing in Large Vessels Using Plane Wave Ultrasound and Controlled Microbubble Contrast Agent Destruction.

    PubMed

    Leow, Chee Hau; Iori, Francesco; Corbett, Richard; Duncan, Neill; Caro, Colin; Vincent, Peter; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing recognition of the influence of the flow field on the physiology of blood vessels and their development of pathology. Preliminary work is reported on a novel non-invasive technique, microbubble void imaging, which is based on ultrasound and controlled destruction of microbubble contrast agents, permitting flow visualisation and quantification of flow-induced mixing in large vessels. The generation of microbubble voids can be controlled both spatially and temporally using ultrasound parameters within the safety limits. Three different model vessel geometries-straight, planar-curved and helical-with known effects on the flow field and mixing were chosen to evaluate the technique. A high-frame-rate ultrasound system with plane wave transmission was used to acquire the contrast-enhanced ultrasound images, and an entropy measure was calculated to quantify mixing. The experimental results were cross-compared between the different geometries and with computational fluid dynamics. The results indicated that the technique is able to quantify the degree of mixing within the different configurations, with a helical geometry generating the greatest mixing, and a straight geometry, the lowest. There is a high level of concordance between the computational fluid dynamics and experimental results. The technique could also serve as a flow visualisation tool. PMID:26297515

  13. Designing Theranostic Agents Based on Pluronic Stabilized Gold Nanoaggregates Loaded with Methylene Blue for Multimodal Cell Imaging and Enhanced Photodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Simon, Timea; Potara, Monica; Gabudean, Ana-Maria; Licarete, Emilia; Banciu, Manuela; Astilean, Simion

    2015-08-01

    At present, multifunctional noble metal-based nanocomposites are extensively investigated for their potential in performing cellular imaging, diagnostics, and therapy by integration of unique plasmonic properties with the spectroscopic expression and therapeutic activity of appropriate drug. In this work, we report the fabrication of 3-dimensional (3-D) close-packed nanoassemblies of gold nanoparticles by controlling the aggregation of individual nanoparticles in solution and subsequent stabilization of formed aggregates by Pluronic block copolymer (F127) coating. Besides conferring high stability, Pluronic mediates the loading of Methylene Blue (MB) molecules which exhibit interesting spectroscopic and photochemical properties to be employed as both optical label and photosensitizing drug. Indeed, here we demonstrate the pertinence of the fabricated nanoassemblies to provide optical imaging of murine colon carcinoma cells (C-26) via both Raman and fluorescence signals collected from MB molecules, specifically by using scanning confocal surface-enhanced resonant raman spectroscopy (SERRS) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) techniques. The specific configuration of as fabricated nanoassemblies allows a small population of MB molecules to be located in very small areas between the aggregated nanoparticles ("hot spots") to provide SERRS signal while the other population remains captured in Pluronic coating and preserves both its fluorescence signal and singlet-oxygen generation capability. Remarkably, we demonstrate an enhanced photodynamic therapeutic activity of MB-loaded gold nanoaggregates against murine colon carcinoma cells (C-26), as compared to the free photosensitizer. To our knowledge, this is the first report on plasmonic nanoplatforms conveying photosensitizing drug into cells to operate as optical label via both SER(R)S and FLIM and to perform enhanced photodynamic therapy. PMID:26151097

  14. Mongolian blue spots

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are a kind of birthmark that are flat, blue, or blue-gray. They appear at birth or in the ... Mongolian blue spots are common among persons who are of Asian, Native American, Hispanic, East Indian, and African descent. ...

  15. Blue nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Blue nightshade poisoning occurs when someone eats parts of the blue nightshade plant. This is for information only and ... The poison is found in the blue nightshade (Solanum dulcamara) plant, especially in the fruit and leaves.

  16. The Blue Bottle Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandaveer, Walter R., IV; Mosher, Mel

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modification of the classic Blue Bottle demonstration that involves the alkaline glucose reduction of methylene blue. Uses other indicators in the classic Blue Bottle to produce a rainbow of colors. (JRH)

  17. Color vision: retinal blues.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jamie; Esposti, Federico; Lagnado, Leon

    2012-08-21

    Two complementary studies have resolved the circuitry underlying green-blue color discrimination in the retina. A blue-sensitive interneuron provides the inhibitory signal required for computing green-blue color opponency. PMID:22917511

  18. Methylene blue diffusion in skin tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genina, Elina A.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2004-07-01

    The study of Methylene Blue penetration in both skin and subcutaneous fat is presented. Experiments have been carried out with both rat skin and human adipose tissue in vitro at room temperature. Microscopic analysis with digital imaging system has been applied for visualizing and investigation of the Methylene Blue diffusion in the epidermal, dermal and adipose tissue. Diffusion coefficient of Methylene Blue in skin in vitro has been estimated.

  19. Delayed Methylene Blue Improves Lesion Volume, Multi-Parametric Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measurements, and Behavioral Outcome after Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Talley Watts, Lora; Long, Justin Alexander; Boggs, Robert Cole; Manga, Hemanth; Huang, Shiliang; Shen, Qiang; Duong, Timothy Q

    2016-01-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a primary cause of death and disability in both civilian and military populations worldwide. There is a critical need for the development of neuroprotective agents that can circumvent damage and provide functional recovery. We previously showed that methylene blue (MB), a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-grandfathered drug with energy-enhancing and antioxidant properties, given 1 and 3 h post-TBI, had neuroprotective effects in rats. This study aimed to further investigate the neuroprotection of delayed MB treatment (24 h postinjury) post-TBI as measured by lesion volume and functional outcomes. Comparisons were made with vehicle and acute MB treatment. Multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging and behavioral studies were performed at 1 and 3 h and 2, 7, and 14 days after an impact to the primary forelimb somatosensory cortex. We found that delaying MB treatment 24 h postinjury still minimized lesion volume and functional deficits, compared to vehicle-treated animals. The data further support the potential for MB as a neuroprotective treatment, especially when medical teatment is not readily available. MB has an excellent safety profile and is clinically approved for other indications. MB clinical trials on TBI can thus be readily explored. PMID:25961471

  20. A critical evaluation of the ability of the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) thermal infrared red-green-blue rendering to identify dust events: Theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brindley, Helen; Knippertz, Peter; Ryder, Claire; Ashpole, Ian

    2012-04-01

    Using a combination of idealized radiative transfer simulations and a case study from the first field campaign of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) in southern Morocco, this paper provides a systematic assessment of the limitations of the widely used Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) red-green-blue (RGB) thermal infrared dust product. Both analyses indicate that the ability of the product to identify dust, via its characteristic pink coloring, is strongly dependent on the column water vapor, the lower tropospheric lapse rate, and dust altitude. In particular, when column water vapor exceeds 20-25 mm, dust presence, even for visible optical depths of the order 0.8, is effectively masked. Variability in dust optical properties also has a marked impact on the imagery, primarily as a result of variability in dust composition. There is a moderate sensitivity to the satellite viewing geometry, particularly in moist conditions. The underlying surface can act to confound the signal seen through variations in spectral emissivity, which are predominantly manifested in the 8.7?m SEVIRI channel. In addition, if a temperature inversion is present, typical of early morning conditions over the Sahara and Sahel, an increased dust loading can actually reduce the pink coloring of the RGB image compared to pristine conditions. Attempts to match specific SEVIRI observations to simulations using SAMUM measurements are challenging because of high uncertainties in surface skin temperature and emissivity. Recommendations concerning the use and interpretation of the SEVIRI RGB imagery are provided on the basis of these findings.

  1. The outlook for blue-phase LCDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuan; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2014-02-01

    Polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal (BPLC) has become an increasingly important technology trend for information display and photonic applications. BPLC exhibits several attractive features, such as reasonably wide temperature range, submillisecond gray-to-gray response time, no need for alignment layer, optically isotropic voltageoff state, and large cell gap tolerance when an in-plane switching (IPS) cell is employed. Fast response time not only suppresses image blurs, improves the overall transmittance but also enables color sequential display without noticeable color breakup. With time sequential RGB LED colors, the spatial color filters can be eliminated so that both optical efficiency and resolution density are tripled. High optical efficiency helps to reduce power consumption while high resolution density is particularly desirable for the future Ultra High Definition Television. However, some bottlenecks such as high operation voltage, hysteresis, low relaxation frequency, residual birefringence, image sticking, charging issue due to the large capacitance, and relatively low transmittance for the IPS mode, remain to be overcome before widespread application of BPLC can be realized. To reduce operation voltage, both new BPLC materials and new device structures have been investigated. In this paper, we highlight some recent advances in large Kerr constant, fast response time BPLC material development, and new device structures. Especially, we will focus on new BP LCDs with low operation voltage, submillisecond response time, high transmittance, and negligible hysteresis and residual birefringence. The sunrise for BP LCD is near.

  2. Designing the focal plane spacing for multifocal plane microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tahmasbi, Amir; Ram, Sripad; Chao, Jerry; Abraham, Anish V; Tang, Felix W; Ward, E Sally; Ober, Raimund J

    2014-07-14

    Multifocal plane microscopy (MUM) has made it possible to study subcellular dynamics in 3D at high temporal and spatial resolution by simultaneously imaging distinct planes within the specimen. MUM allows high accuracy localization of a point source along the z-axis since it overcomes the depth discrimination problem of conventional single plane microscopy. An important question in MUM experiments is how the number of focal planes and their spacings should be chosen to achieve the best possible localization accuracy along the z-axis. Here, we propose approaches based on the Fisher information matrix and report spacing scenarios called strong coupling and weak coupling which yield an appropriate 3D localization accuracy. We examine the effect of numerical aperture, magnification, photon count, emission wavelength and extraneous noise on the spacing scenarios. In addition, we investigate the effect of changing the number of focal planes on the 3D localization accuracy. We also introduce a new software package that provides a user-friendly framework to find appropriate plane spacings for a MUM setup. These developments should assist in optimizing MUM experiments. PMID:25090489

  3. Preparation of multi-coloured different sized fluorescent gold clusters from blue to NIR, structural analysis of the blue emitting Au7 cluster, and cell-imaging by the NIR gold cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Subhasish; Baral, Abhishek; Bhattacharjee, Rameswar; Jana, Batakrishna; Datta, Ayan; Ghosh, Surajit; Banerjee, Arindam

    2015-01-01

    Blue, green, orange-red, red and NIR emitting gold quantum clusters have been prepared in aqueous media by using a bioactive peptide glutathione (reduced) at physiological pH. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analyses show that the core structure sizes of the five different gold clusters are Au7 (blue), Au16 (green), Au19 (orange-red), Au21 (red) and Au22 (NIR). The photo-stability and pH-stability of these quantum clusters have been measured, and these are photo-stable against continuous UV irradiation for a few hours. They also exhibit moderate to good pH-stability within the pH range of 5-12.5. A computational study reveals the organisation of gold atoms in the thiolate-protected blue quantum cluster and its several structural parameters, including the mode of interaction of ligand molecules with Au atoms in the Au7 cluster. Interestingly, it has been found that NIR emitting gold quantum cluster can easily be internalized into the adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cell line (A549 cell line). Moreover, a MTT assay indicates that our NIR emitting gold quantum cluster show very low cytotoxicy to A549 cancer cells.Blue, green, orange-red, red and NIR emitting gold quantum clusters have been prepared in aqueous media by using a bioactive peptide glutathione (reduced) at physiological pH. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analyses show that the core structure sizes of the five different gold clusters are Au7 (blue), Au16 (green), Au19 (orange-red), Au21 (red) and Au22 (NIR). The photo-stability and pH-stability of these quantum clusters have been measured, and these are photo-stable against continuous UV irradiation for a few hours. They also exhibit moderate to good pH-stability within the pH range of 5-12.5. A computational study reveals the organisation of gold atoms in the thiolate-protected blue quantum cluster and its several structural parameters, including the mode of interaction of ligand molecules with Au atoms in the Au7 cluster. Interestingly, it has been found that NIR emitting gold quantum cluster can easily be internalized into the adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cell line (A549 cell line). Moreover, a MTT assay indicates that our NIR emitting gold quantum cluster show very low cytotoxicy to A549 cancer cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: material, instrumentation, cellular uptake studies, cytotoxicity studies, synthesis of gold clusters, UV-Vis, fluorescence, plots, reaction details in tabulated form, ESI videos. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04338c

  4. Code Blue: The Blues as Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdy, W. Randolph

    1994-01-01

    Explores the basic features and background of "the blues" as a musical tool, or archetype, for understanding the universal condition of human suffering, for confronting diseases of disability and separation, and for coping or adapting to such suffering. Offers the blues as a method for looking at the spirit of human tragedy and potentially

  5. Blue-green algae

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Talk with your health provider.Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Blue-green algae might slow blood clotting. Taking blue-green algae along with medications that ...

  6. Greening the Blue Bottle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Whitney E.; Noble, Mark E.

    2003-01-01

    Compares the revised Blue Bottle formulation to the classical Blue Bottle. Indicates that the revised formulation gives a somewhat bluer solution, but initially slower reduction when compared to the classical formulation. (Author/KHR)

  7. Methylene blue test

    MedlinePLUS

    The methylene blue test is a test to determine the type of methemoglobinemia , a blood disorder. ... tourniquet are removed. A dark green powder called methylene blue goes through the tube into your vein. The ...

  8. SU-C-18C-02: Specifcation of X-Ray Projection Angles Which Are Aligned with the Aortic Valve Plane From a Planar Image of a Valvuloplasty Balloon Inflated Across the Aortic Valve

    SciTech Connect

    Fetterly, K; Mathew, V

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) procedures provide a method to implant a prosthetic aortic valve via a minimallyinvasive, catheter-based procedure. TAVR procedures require use of interventional fluoroscopy c-arm projection angles which are aligned with the aortic valve plane to minimize prosthetic valve positioning error due to x-ray imaging parallax. The purpose of this work is to calculate the continuous range of interventional fluoroscopy c-arm projection angles which are aligned with the aortic valve plane from a single planar image of a valvuloplasty balloon inflated across the aortic valve. Methods: Computational methods to measure the 3D angular orientation of the aortic valve were developed. Required inputs include a planar x-ray image of a known valvuloplasty balloon inflated across the aortic valve and specifications of x-ray imaging geometry from the DICOM header of the image. A-priori knowledge of the species-specific typical range of aortic orientation is required to specify the sign of the angle of the long axis of the balloon with respect to the x-ray beam. The methods were validated ex-vivo and in a live pig. Results: Ex-vivo experiments demonstrated that the angular orientation of a stationary inflated valvuloplasty balloon can be measured with precision less than 1 degree. In-vivo pig experiments demonstrated that cardiac motion contributed to measurement variability, with precision less than 3 degrees. Error in specification of x-ray geometry directly influences measurement accuracy. Conclusion: This work demonstrates that the 3D angular orientation of the aortic valve can be calculated precisely from a planar image of a valvuloplasty balloon inflated across the aortic valve and known x-ray geometry. This method could be used to determine appropriate c-arm angular projections during TAVR procedures to minimize x-ray imaging parallax and thereby minimize prosthetic valve positioning errors.

  9. Super-resolution imaging of lateral distribution for the blue-light emission of an InGaN single-quantum-well structure utilizing the stimulated emission depletion effect.

    PubMed

    Kozawa, Yuichi; Kusama, Yuta; Sato, Shunichi; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-22

    We have observed a remarkable decrease in photoluminescence (PL) from a blue-light emitting InGaN single-quantum-well (SQW) structure under the radiation of a green laser due to the stimulated emission depletion (STED) phenomenon. By extending the observed STED effect, super-resolution imaging of the blue-light emission lateral distribution was demonstrated for the InGaN-SQW structure through co-irradiation using a doughnut-shaped green light beam and a Gaussian-shaped violet excitation light beam. We measured point-spread functions (PSFs) to evaluate the spatial resolution of the system by imaging a small emission area. A lateral PSF size of ~150 nm was confirmed, which was approximately 40% smaller than that without the STED beam. This demonstrates that the STED technique is applicable for PL imaging of semiconductor quantum structures. The present approach may make possible a new strategy for characterizing and investigating the spatial inhomogeneity of emission properties and carrier dynamics in InGaN-based quantum wells, as well as in other semiconductor materials exhibiting quantum confinement effects. PMID:25321726

  10. Fourier plane filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, D. S.; Aldrich, R. E.; Krol, F. T.

    1972-01-01

    An electrically addressed liquid crystal Fourier plane filter capable of real time optical image processing is described. The filter consists of two parts: a wedge filter having forty 9 deg segments and a ring filter having twenty concentric rings in a one inch diameter active area. Transmission of the filter in the off (transparent) state exceeds fifty percent. By using polarizing optics, contrast as high as 10,000:1 can be achieved at voltages compatible with FET switching technology. A phenomenological model for the dynamic scattering is presented for this special case. The filter is designed to be operated from a computer and is addressed by a seven bit binary word which includes an on or off command and selects any one of the twenty rings or twenty wedge pairs. The overall system uses addressable latches so that once an element is in a specified state, it will remain there until a change of state command is received. The drive for the liquid crystal filter is ? 30 V peak at 30 Hz to 70 Hz. These parameters give a rise time for the scattering of 20 msec and a decay time of 80 to 100 msec.

  11. Plane Transformations in a Complex Setting II: Isometries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana-Picard, Thierry

    2007-01-01

    This paper is the second part of a study of plane transformations using a complex setting. The first part was devoted to homotheties and translations, now attention is turned towards plane isometries. The group theoretic properties of plane isometries are easy to derive and images of classical geometrical objects by these transformations are

  12. Templated blue phases.

    PubMed

    Ravnik, Miha; Fukuda, Jun-ichi

    2015-11-21

    Cholesteric blue phases of a chiral liquid crystal are interesting examples of self-organised three-dimensional nanostructures formed by soft matter. Recently it was demonstrated that a polymer matrix introduced by photopolymerization inside a bulk blue phase not only stabilises the host blue phase significantly, but also serves as a template for blue phase ordering. We show with numerical modelling that the transfer of the orientational order of the blue phase to the surfaces of the polymer matrix, together with the resulting surface anchoring, can account for the templating behaviour of the polymer matrix inducing the blue phase ordering of an achiral nematic liquid crystal. Furthermore, tailoring the anchoring conditions of the polymer matrix surfaces can bring about orientational ordering different from those of bulk blue phases, including an intertwined complex of the polymer matrix and topological line defects of orientational order. Optical Kerr response of templated blue phases is explored, finding large Kerr constants in the range of K = 2-10 10(-9) m V(-2) and notable dependence on the surface anchoring strength. More generally, the presented numerical approach is aimed to clarify the role and actions of templating polymer matrices in complex chiral nematic fluids, and further to help design novel template-based materials from chiral liquid crystals. PMID:26412643

  13. List 47: blue honeysuckle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This summary presents the descriptions of a newly released blue honeysuckle (Lonicera cerulea L.) cultivar for the List of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars. This blue honeysuckle cultivar was released in Canada in 2012 and has pending Plant Breeders Rights Certification with Agriculture Canada. The cult...

  14. Blue Willow Story Plates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  15. FROM BLUE JEANS TO BLUE GENES

    PubMed Central

    Boon, Laurence M.; Vikkula, Miikka

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous venous anomalies are common. They are blue in color and vary in size, number and location, and account for the majority of consultations at specialized interdisciplinary clinics for vascular anomalies. Venous lesions are clinically important as they cause pain, dysfunction, destruction of adjacent tissues and esthetic concern. Only resection and sclerotherapy are helpful, although not always curative. Understanding etiopathogenesis could help design animal models and develop novel therapeutic approaches. Dr Mulliken envisioned a project to uncover the genetic basis of an inherited form of venous malformation in a large New England family. Recruitment of two young fellows resulted in a collaborative project that unraveled the searched-for-gene and its mutation. This was an opening for a new era in the field of vascular anomalies. Two blue genes mutations were discovered, which account for the majority, if not all, of the inherited forms of venous anomalies, but other genes as well, for rheologically diverse lesions. Differential diagnosis and management has improved, and animal models are being made. This was achieved thanks to Dr Mulliken, who inspired two young investigators in blue jeans to find two blue genes. PMID:19190503

  16. Nanoparticles of gadolinium-incorporated Prussian blue with PEG coating as an effective oral MRI contrast agent for gastrointestinal tract imaging.

    PubMed

    Perera, Vindya S; Chen, Guojun; Cai, Qing; Huang, Songping D

    2016-03-01

    Biocompatible nanoparticles of gadolinium-incorporated Prussian blue with the empirical formula K0.94Gd0.02Fe[Fe(CN)6] exhibit extremely high stability against the release of Gd(3+) and CN(-) ions under the acidic conditions similar to stomach juice. The high r1 relaxivity, low cytotoxicity and the ability of such nanoparticles to penetrate the cell membrane suggest that this coordination-polymer structural platform offers a unique opportunity for developing the next generation of T1-weighted oral cellular MRI probes for the early detection of tumors in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26890149

  17. HST Observations of the Uranian Ring Plane Crossing: Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showalter, Mark R.; Lissauer, J. J.; French, R. G.; Hamilton, D. P.; Nicholson, P. D.; de Pater, I.

    2007-10-01

    Between early May and mid-August 2007, Earth was on the north side of the Uranian ring plane while the Sun was still shining on the rings southern face. This has provided an exceedingly rare opportunity to view the ring system via transmitted light. The ? ring, which typically out-shines every other component of the inner ring-moon system, has been rendered essentially invisible. We have been conducting regular imaging of the Uranian system throughout this period with the Wide Field/Planetary Camera on HST to address numerous scientific goals. (1) To search the inner Uranian system for the "shepherding moons long believed to confine the narrow rings; (2) to study the packing density of the main rings via direct observations of their vertical thickness; (3) to search for the inner dust rings that appeared in a few Voyager images; (4) to determine the vertical thickness of the faint outer rings ? and ? (5) to obtain the most sensitive determinations of the outer rings colors and try to understand why ring ? is red but ring ? is blue; (6) to search for additional outer dust rings under optimal viewing geometry; and (7) to continue monitoring the seemingly chaotic orbital variations of the inner Uranian moons, particularly Mab. HST observations span mid-May to mid-September. We will present our initial results from this observing program.

  18. Visualization of microvascular proliferation as a tumor infiltration structure in rat glioma specimens using the diffraction-enhanced imaging in-plane CT technique.

    PubMed

    Seo, Seung-Jun; Sunaguchi, Naoki; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Huo, Qingkai; Ando, Masami; Choi, Gi-Hwan; Kim, Hong-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hong; Jeong, Eun-Ju; Chang, Won-Seok; Kim, Jong-Ki

    2012-03-01

    In order to study potent microenvironments of malignant gliomas with a high- resolution x-ray imaging technique, an injection orthotopic glioma model was made using the Sprague-Dawley rat. Total brain tissue, taken out as an ex vivo model, was examined with diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) computed tomography (CT) acquired with a 35 keV monochromatic x-ray. In the convolution-reconstructed 2D/3D images with a spatial resolution of 12.5נ12.5נ25 m, distinction among necrosis, typical ring-shaped viable tumors, edemas and healthy tissues was clearly observed near the frontal lobe in front of the rat's caudate nucleus. Multiple microvascular proliferations (MVPs) were observed surrounding peritumoral edemas as a tumor infiltration structure. Typical dimensions of tubular MVPs were 130 (diameter)250 (length) m with a partial sprout structure revealed in the 3D reconstructed image. Hyperplasia of cells around vessel walls was revealed with tumor cell infiltration along the perivascular space in microscopic observations of mild MVP during histological analysis. In conclusion, DEI-CT is capable of imaging potent tumor-infiltrating MVP structures surrounding high-grade gliomas. PMID:22330695

  19. Uncovering Blue Diffuse Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Bethan; Koposov, Sergey; Stark, Daniel; Belokurov, Vasily; Pettini, Max; Olszewski, Edward W.

    2015-01-01

    Extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs) and the star-formation within their chemically pristine environments are fundamental to our understanding of the galaxy formation process at early times. However, traditional emission-line surveys detect only the brightest metal-poor galaxies where star-formation occurs in compact, starbursting environments, and thereby give us only a partial view of the dwarf galaxy population. To avoid such biases, we have developed a new search algorithm based on the morphological, rather then spectral, properties of XMPs and have applied to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database of images. Using this novel approach, we have discovered ~100 previously undetected, faint blue galaxies, each with isolated HII regions embedded in a diffuse continuum. In this talk I will present the first results from follow-up optical spectroscopy of this sample, which reveals these blue diffuse dwarfs (BDDs) to be young, very metal-poor and actively forming stars despite their intrinsically low luminosities. I will present evidence showing that BDDs appear to bridge the gap between quiescent dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxies and blue compact galaxies (BCDs) and as such offer an ideal opportunity to assess how star-formation occurs in more `normal' metal-poor systems.

  20. A simple framework to generate 3D patient-specific model of coronary artery bifurcation from single-plane angiographic images.

    PubMed

    Auricchio, Ferdinando; Conti, Michele; Ferrazzano, Carolina; Sgueglia, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Although computer-based simulations, such as structural finite element analysis, have proven their usefulness to support procedural planning of coronary stenting, the link between the clinical practice and these engineering techniques is still limited to research test-cases. A key point to further promote such an interaction is to generate in a fast and effective manner the computational grids from the medical images. Hence, the present study proposes a simple framework to generate 3D meshes of coronary bifurcations from a pair of planar angiographic images obtained by X-ray angiography, which is the gold standard technique for the diagnosis of coronary artery stenosis. PMID:24377693

  1. SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bebek, C.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bercovitz, J.; Bergstrom, L.; Berstein, G.P.; Bester, M.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.; Emmett, W.; Eriksson, M.; Fouchez,D.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Johnson, W.; Kadel, R.; Karcher,A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureaux, J.; Lampton, M.; Lefevre, O.; Levi, M.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Mazure, A.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Morgan, N.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Roe, N.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Prieto, E.; Rabinowitz,D.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Schubnell, M.; Sholl, M.; Smadja, G.; Smith, R.; Smoot, G.; Snyder, J.; Spadafora, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tarle,G.; Taylor, K.; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, A.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J-P.; Wang, G.

    2003-07-07

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R&D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics.

  2. Blue ocean strategy.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Rene

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades. PMID:15559577

  3. Fixed Sagittal Plane Imbalance

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Jason W.; Patel, Alpesh A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Literature review. Objective To discuss the evaluation and management of fixed sagittal plane imbalance. Methods A comprehensive literature review was performed on the preoperative evaluation of patients with sagittal plane malalignment, as well as the surgical strategies to address sagittal plane deformity. Results Sagittal plane imbalance is often caused by de novo scoliosis or iatrogenic flat back deformity. Understanding the etiology and magnitude of sagittal malalignment is crucial in realignment planning. Objective parameters have been developed to guide surgeons in determining how much correction is needed to achieve favorable outcomes. Currently, the goals of surgery are to restore a sagittal vertical axis < 5 cm, pelvic tilt < 20 degrees, and lumbar lordosis equal to pelvic incidence ± 9 degrees. Conclusion Sagittal plane malalignment is an increasingly recognized cause of pain and disability. Treatment of sagittal plane imbalance varies according to the etiology, location, and severity of the deformity. Fixed sagittal malalignment often requires complex reconstructive procedures that include osteotomy correction. Reestablishing harmonious spinopelvic alignment is associated with significant improvement in health-related quality-of-life outcome measures and patient satisfaction. PMID:25396111

  4. Vector image method for the derivation of elastostatic solutions for point sources in a plane layered medium. Part 1: Derivation and simple examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fares, Nabil; Li, Victor C.

    1986-01-01

    An image method algorithm is presented for the derivation of elastostatic solutions for point sources in bonded halfspaces assuming the infinite space point source is known. Specific cases were worked out and shown to coincide with well known solutions in the literature.

  5. Image Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peay, Christopher S.; Palacios, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Calibrate_Image calibrates images obtained from focal plane arrays so that the output image more accurately represents the observed scene. The function takes as input a degraded image along with a flat field image and a dark frame image produced by the focal plane array and outputs a corrected image. The three most prominent sources of image degradation are corrected for: dark current accumulation, gain non-uniformity across the focal plane array, and hot and/or dead pixels in the array. In the corrected output image the dark current is subtracted, the gain variation is equalized, and values for hot and dead pixels are estimated, using bicubic interpolation techniques.

  6. Thermodynamically Stable Blue Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castles, F.; Morris, S. M.; Terentjev, E. M.; Coles, H. J.

    2010-04-01

    We show theoretically that flexoelectricity stabilizes blue phases in chiral liquid crystals. Induced internal polarization reduces the elastic energy cost of splay and bend deformations surrounding singular lines in the director field. The energy of regions of double twist is unchanged. This in turn reduces the free energy of the blue phase with respect to that of the chiral nematic phase, leading to stability over a wider temperature range. The theory explains the discovery of large temperature range blue phases in highly flexoelectric bimesogenic and bent-core materials, and predicts how this range may be increased further.

  7. Analysis of the Maillard reaction in human hair using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging and a focal-plane array detector.

    PubMed

    Jung, In-Keun; Park, Sang-Chul; Bin, Sung-Ah; Roh, Young Sup; Lee, John Hwan; Kim, Boo-Min

    2016-03-01

    The Maillard reaction has been well researched and used in the food industry and the fields of environmental science and organic chemistry. Here, we induced the Maillard reaction inside human hair and analyzed its effects by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with a focal-plane array (FTIR-FPA) detector. We used arginine (A), glycine (G), and D-xylose (X) to generate the Maillard reaction by dissolving them in purified water and heating it to 150 °C. This label-free process generated a complex compound (named AGX after its ingredients) with a monomer structure, which was determined by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and FTIR-FPA. This compound was stable in hair and substantially increased its tensile strength. To our knowledge, we are the first to report the formation of this monomer in human hair, and our study provides insights into a new method that could be used to improve the condition of damaged or aging hair. PMID:26905862

  8. GLAMER - II. Multiple-plane gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkova, Margarita; Metcalf, R. Benton; Giocoli, Carlo

    2014-12-01

    We present an extension to multiple planes of the gravitational lensing code GLAMER. The method entails projecting the mass in the observed light-cone on to a discrete number of lens planes and inverse ray-shooting from the image to the source plane. The mass on each plane can be represented as haloes, simulation particles, a projected mass map extracted form a numerical simulation or any combination of these. The image finding is done in a source-oriented fashion, where only regions of interest are iteratively refined on an initially coarse image plane grid. The calculations are performed in parallel on shared memory machines. The code is able to handle different types of analytic haloes (NFW, NSIE, power law, etc.), haloes extracted from numerical simulations and clusters constructed from semi-analytic models (MOKA). Likewise, there are several different options for modelling the source(s) which can be distributed throughout the light-cone. The distribution of matter in the light-cone can be either taken from a pre-existing N-body numerical simulations, from halo catalogues, or are generated from an analytic mass function. We present several tests of the code and demonstrate some of its applications such as generating mock images of galaxy and galaxy cluster lenses.

  9. 2. VIEW SOUTH, INCLINE PLANE CAR, INCLINE PLANE TRACK, UPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH, INCLINE PLANE CAR, INCLINE PLANE TRACK, UPPER STATION. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  10. Image forces for a point-like dipole near a plane metal surface: An account of the spatial dispersion of dielectric permittivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabovich, Alexander M.; Li, Mai Suan; Szymczak, Henryk; Voitenko, Alexander I.

    2012-02-01

    Image-force energy profiles were calculated for a constant point-like dipole located in a dispersionless semi-infinite medium adjacent to a medium with the spatial dispersion of its dielectric permittivity. Three models for the substrate were considered: classical (dispersionless), Thomas-Fermi (classical, but taking non-local screening effects into account), and Schulze-Unger (the approximation to the quantum-mechanical non-local Lindhard dependence, reproducing short-range spatial asymptotics correctly). The results obtained taking into account the non-local character of charge-carrier screening differ drastically from those obtained in the classical limit. Hence, classical electrostatics is inadequate, when being applied to analyze the dipole energy at the interface between two polarizable media. In particular, non-local screening results in finite values of the dipole image force energies at the interfaces.

  11. Pluto’s Blue Haze - Duration: 88 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    The sky on Pluto is blue! Kind of. This is Pluto in an Minute. So it’s not exactly the case that the sky on Pluto is blue, rather, what the New Horizons science team has found in recent images do...

  12. 50-kHz-rate 2D imaging of temperature and H2O concentration at the exhaust plane of a J85 engine using hyperspectral tomography.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lin; Li, Xuesong; Sanders, Scott T; Caswell, Andrew W; Roy, Sukesh; Plemmons, David H; Gord, James R

    2013-01-14

    This paper describes a novel laser diagnostic and its demonstration in a practical aero-propulsion engine (General Electric J85). The diagnostic technique, named hyperspectral tomography (HT), enables simultaneous 2-dimensional (2D) imaging of temperature and water-vapor concentration at 225 spatial grid points with a temporal response up to 50 kHz. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such sensing capabilities have been reported. This paper introduces the principles of the HT techniques, reports its operation and application in a J85 engine, and discusses its perspective for the study of high-speed reactive flows. PMID:23389008

  13. Wispy Blue Clouds Over Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    These are more wispy blue clouds from Sol 39 as seen by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). The bright clouds near the bottom are about 10 degrees above the horizon. The clouds are believed to be at an altitude of 10 to 15 km, and are thought to be made of small water ice particles. The picture was taken about 40 minutes before sunrise.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  14. Multispectral imaging of absorption and scattering properties of in vivo exposed rat brain using a digital red-green-blue camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Keiichiro; Nishidate, Izumi; Ishizuka, Tomohiro; Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Sato, Manabu

    2015-05-01

    In order to estimate multispectral images of the absorption and scattering properties in the cerebral cortex of in vivo rat brain, we investigated spectral reflectance images estimated by the Wiener estimation method using a digital RGB camera. A Monte Carlo simulation-based multiple regression analysis for the corresponding spectral absorbance images at nine wavelengths (500, 520, 540, 560, 570, 580, 600, 730, and 760 nm) was then used to specify the absorption and scattering parameters of brain tissue. In this analysis, the concentrations of oxygenated hemoglobin and that of deoxygenated hemoglobin were estimated as the absorption parameters, whereas the coefficient a and the exponent b of the reduced scattering coefficient spectrum approximated by a power law function were estimated as the scattering parameters. The spectra of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients were reconstructed from the absorption and scattering parameters, and the spectral images of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients were then estimated. In order to confirm the feasibility of this method, we performed in vivo experiments on exposed rat brain. The estimated images of the absorption coefficients were dominated by the spectral characteristics of hemoglobin. The estimated spectral images of the reduced scattering coefficients had a broad scattering spectrum, exhibiting a larger magnitude at shorter wavelengths, corresponding to the typical spectrum of brain tissue published in the literature. The changes in the estimated absorption and scattering parameters during normoxia, hyperoxia, and anoxia indicate the potential applicability of the method by which to evaluate the pathophysiological conditions of in vivo brain due to the loss of tissue viability.

  15. Multispectral imaging of absorption and scattering properties of in vivo exposed rat brain using a digital red-green-blue camera.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Keiichiro; Nishidate, Izumi; Ishizuka, Tomohiro; Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Sato, Manabu

    2015-05-01

    In order to estimate multispectral images of the absorption and scattering properties in the cerebral cortex of in vivo rat brain, we investigated spectral reflectance images estimated by the Wiener estimation method using a digital RGB camera. A Monte Carlo simulation-based multiple regression analysis for the corresponding spectral absorbance images at nine wavelengths (500, 520, 540, 560, 570, 580, 600, 730, and 760 nm) was then used to specify the absorption and scattering parameters of brain tissue. In this analysis, the concentrations of oxygenated hemoglobin and that of deoxygenated hemoglobin were estimated as the absorption parameters, whereas the coefficient a and the exponent b of the reduced scattering coefficient spectrum approximated by a power law function were estimated as the scattering parameters. The spectra of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients were reconstructed from the absorption and scattering parameters, and the spectral images of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients were then estimated. In order to confirm the feasibility of this method, we performed in vivo experiments on exposed rat brain. The estimated images of the absorption coefficients were dominated by the spectral characteristics of hemoglobin. The estimated spectral images of the reduced scattering coefficients had a broad scattering spectrum, exhibiting a larger magnitude at shorter wavelengths, corresponding to the typical spectrum of brain tissue published in the literature. The changes in the estimated absorption and scattering parameters during normoxia, hyperoxia, and anoxia indicate the potential applicability of the method by which to evaluate the pathophysiological conditions of in vivo brain due to the loss of tissue viability. PMID:25614979

  16. Detector and readout performance goals for quantum well and strained layer superlattice focal plane arrays imaging under tactical and strategic backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandara, Sumith V.

    2009-11-01

    Advancements in III-V semiconductor based, Quantum-well infrared photodetector (QWIP) and Type-II Strained-Layer Superlattice detector (T2SLS) technologies have yielded highly uniform, large-format long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) QWIP FPAs and high quantum efficiency (QE), small format, LWIR T2SLS FPAs. In this article, we have analyzed the QWIP and T2SLS detector level performance requirements and readout integrated circuit (ROIC) noise levels for several staring array long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) imaging applications at various background levels. As a result of lower absorption QE and less than unity photoconductive gain, QWIP FPAs are appropriate for high background tactical applications. However, if the application restricts the integration time, QWIP FPA performance may be limited by the read noise of the ROIC. Rapid progress in T2SLS detector material has already demonstrated LWIR detectors with sufficient performance for tactical applications and potential for strategic applications. However, significant research is needed to suppress surface leakage currents in order to reproduce performances at pixel levels of T2SLS FPAs.

  17. High speed multi focal plane optical system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minott, P. O. (inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for eliminating beamsplitter generated optical aberrations in a pupil concentric optical system providing a plurality of spatially separated images on different focal planes or surfaces is presented. The system employs a buried surface beamsplitter having spherically curved entrance and exit faces which are concentric to a system aperture stop with the entrance face being located in the path of a converging light beam directed there from an image forming objective element which is also concentric to the aperture stop.

  18. Uncovering blue diffuse dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Bethan L.; Koposov, Sergey; Stark, Daniel P.; Belokurov, Vasily; Pettini, Max; Olszewski, Edward W.

    2015-04-01

    Extremely metal poor (XMP) galaxies are known to be very rare, despite the large numbers of low-mass galaxies predicted by the local galaxy luminosity function. This paper presents a subsample of galaxies that were selected via a morphology-based search on Sloan Digital Sky Survey images with the aim of finding these elusive XMP galaxies. By using the recently discovered XMP galaxy, Leo P, as a guide, we obtained a collection of faint, blue systems, each with isolated H II regions embedded in a diffuse continuum, that have remained optically undetected until now. Here we show the first results from optical spectroscopic follow-up observations of 12 of 100 of these blue diffuse dwarf (BDD) galaxies yielded by our search algorithm. Oxygen abundances were obtained via the direct method for eight galaxies, and found to be in the range 7.45 < 12 + log (O/H) < 8.0, with two galaxies being classified as XMPs. All BDDs were found to currently have a young star-forming population (<10 Myr) and relatively high ionization parameters of their H II regions. Despite their low luminosities (-11 ? MB ? -18) and low surface brightnesses (23-25 mag arcsec-2), the galaxies were found to be actively star forming, with current star formation rates between 0.0003 and 0.078 M? yr-1. From our current subsample, BDD galaxies appear to be a population of non-quiescent dwarf irregular galaxies, or the diffuse counterparts to blue compact galaxies and as such may bridge the gap between these two populations. Our search algorithm demonstrates that morphology-based searches are successful in uncovering more diffuse metal-poor star-forming galaxies, which traditional emission-line-based searches overlook.

  19. Determining the Ice-binding Planes of Antifreeze Proteins by Fluorescence-based Ice Plane Affinity

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Koli; Garnham, Christopher P.; Nishimiya, Yoshiyuki; Tsuda, Sakae; Braslavsky, Ido; Davies, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are expressed in a variety of cold-hardy organisms to prevent or slow internal ice growth. AFPs bind to specific planes of ice through their ice-binding surfaces. Fluorescence-based ice plane affinity (FIPA) analysis is a modified technique used to determine the ice planes to which the AFPs bind. FIPA is based on the original ice-etching method for determining AFP-bound ice-planes. It produces clearer images in a shortened experimental time. In FIPA analysis, AFPs are fluorescently labeled with a chimeric tag or a covalent dye then slowly incorporated into a macroscopic single ice crystal, which has been preformed into a hemisphere and oriented to determine the a- and c-axes. The AFP-bound ice hemisphere is imaged under UV light to visualize AFP-bound planes using filters to block out nonspecific light. Fluorescent labeling of the AFPs allows real-time monitoring of AFP adsorption into ice. The labels have been found not to influence the planes to which AFPs bind. FIPA analysis also introduces the option to bind more than one differently tagged AFP on the same single ice crystal to help differentiate their binding planes. These applications of FIPA are helping to advance our understanding of how AFPs bind to ice to halt its growth and why many AFP-producing organisms express multiple AFP isoforms. PMID:24457629

  20. An application of pattern mapping to plane motion

    SciTech Connect

    Fail, R.W.; Taylor, C.E. Florida Univ., Gainesville )

    1990-12-01

    A new, highly automated method for measuring plane motion, pattern mapping, has been developed for rigid-body motion and strain analysis. Pattern mapping employs image processing and syntactic pattern recognition principles to recognize a known pattern before and after motion. In this paper, the Lagrangian definition of motion was used to map points in the two images, and the map was used to determine plane motion. Full-image analysis is thoroughly demonstrated. 22 refs.

  1. Focal Plane Metrology for the LSST Camera

    SciTech Connect

    A Rasmussen, Andrew P.; Hale, Layton; Kim, Peter; Lee, Eric; Perl, Martin; Schindler, Rafe; Takacs, Peter; Thurston, Timothy; /SLAC

    2007-01-10

    Meeting the science goals for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) translates into a demanding set of imaging performance requirements for the optical system over a wide (3.5{sup o}) field of view. In turn, meeting those imaging requirements necessitates maintaining precise control of the focal plane surface (10 {micro}m P-V) over the entire field of view (640 mm diameter) at the operating temperature (T {approx} -100 C) and over the operational elevation angle range. We briefly describe the hierarchical design approach for the LSST Camera focal plane and the baseline design for assembling the flat focal plane at room temperature. Preliminary results of gravity load and thermal distortion calculations are provided, and early metrological verification of candidate materials under cold thermal conditions are presented. A detailed, generalized method for stitching together sparse metrology data originating from differential, non-contact metrological data acquisition spanning multiple (non-continuous) sensor surfaces making up the focal plane, is described and demonstrated. Finally, we describe some in situ alignment verification alternatives, some of which may be integrated into the camera's focal plane.

  2. Study of the nucleation and growth of antibiotic labeled Au NPs and blue luminescent Au8 quantum clusters for Hg(2+) ion sensing, cellular imaging and antibacterial applications.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Puneet; Singh, Dheeraj K; Sadhu, Subha; Poddar, Pankaj

    2015-12-21

    Herein, we report a detailed experimental study supported by DFT calculations to understand the mechanism behind the synthesis of cefradine (CFD - an antibiotic) labeled gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) by employing CFD as both a mild reducing and capping agent. The analysis of the effect of growth conditions reveals that a higher concentration of HAuCl4 results in the formation of an increasing fraction of anisotropic structures, higher temperature leads to the formation of quasi-spherical particles instead of anisotropic ones, and larger pH leads to the formation of much smaller particles. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) results show that when the pH of the reaction medium increases from 4 to 6, the reduction potential of CFD increases which leads to the synthesis of nanoparticles (in a pH 4 reaction) to quantum clusters (in a pH 6 reaction). The MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry results of supernatant of the pH 6 reaction indicate the formation of [Au8(CFD)2S6] QCs which show fluorescence at ca. 432 nm with a Stokes shift of ca. 95 nm. The blue luminescence from Au8 QCs was applied for sensing of Hg(2+) ions on the basis of an aggregation-induced fluorescence quenching mechanism and offers good selectivity and a high sensitivity with a limit of detection ca. 2 nM which is lower than the detection requirement of 10 nM by the U.S. EPA and 30 nM by WHO for drinking water. We have also applied the sensing probe to detect Hg(2+) ions in bacterial samples. Further, we have investigated the antibacterial property of as-synthesized Au NPs using MIC, growth curve and cell survival assay. The results show that Au NPs could reduce the cell survival very efficiently rather than the cell growth in comparison to the antibiotic itself. The scanning electron microscopy study shows the degradation and blebbing of the bacterial cell wall upon exposure with Au NPs which was further supported by fluorescence microscopy results. These Au NPs did not show reactive oxygen species generation. We believe that the bacterial cytotoxicity is due to the direct contact of the Au NPs with bacterial cells. PMID:26564987

  3. Comparative dermatology: blue nevus.

    PubMed

    Barros, Jefferson Alfredo de; Kafler, Cristiane Calcidoni; Barros, Juliano Cesar de; Proto, Rodrigo Sestito; Priscila dos Santos, Costa; Machado Filho, Carlos D'Apparecida

    2012-01-01

    There are elements in nature that may be compared to some dermatological lesions, such as the black pearl, which is very similar to a cellular blue nevus observed in the gluteus region of a 31-year-old male patient. PMID:22892793

  4. Blue honeysuckle list 47

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript summarizes descriptions for two newly released Lonicera caerulea L., blue honeysuckle, cultivars released for northern production. This fruit is popular in Russia and in Japan, particularly Hokkaido. It has possibility as a new fruit cultivar for North America. The University of Sask...

  5. Great Blue Heron

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Great Blue Herons are found throughout much of North America, but are always associated with water. Because they fish by sight, they need relatively shallow water. Release of too much water through the canals north of the Everglades can interfere with their ability to find food....

  6. Study of the nucleation and growth of antibiotic labeled Au NPs and blue luminescent Au8 quantum clusters for Hg2+ ion sensing, cellular imaging and antibacterial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, Puneet; Singh, Dheeraj K.; Sadhu, Subha; Poddar, Pankaj

    2015-11-01

    Herein, we report a detailed experimental study supported by DFT calculations to understand the mechanism behind the synthesis of cefradine (CFD - an antibiotic) labeled gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) by employing CFD as both a mild reducing and capping agent. The analysis of the effect of growth conditions reveals that a higher concentration of HAuCl4 results in the formation of an increasing fraction of anisotropic structures, higher temperature leads to the formation of quasi-spherical particles instead of anisotropic ones, and larger pH leads to the formation of much smaller particles. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) results show that when the pH of the reaction medium increases from 4 to 6, the reduction potential of CFD increases which leads to the synthesis of nanoparticles (in a pH 4 reaction) to quantum clusters (in a pH 6 reaction). The MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry results of supernatant of the pH 6 reaction indicate the formation of [Au8(CFD)2S6] QCs which show fluorescence at ca. 432 nm with a Stokes shift of ca. 95 nm. The blue luminescence from Au8 QCs was applied for sensing of Hg2+ ions on the basis of an aggregation-induced fluorescence quenching mechanism and offers good selectivity and a high sensitivity with a limit of detection ca. 2 nM which is lower than the detection requirement of 10 nM by the U.S. EPA and 30 nM by WHO for drinking water. We have also applied the sensing probe to detect Hg2+ ions in bacterial samples. Further, we have investigated the antibacterial property of as-synthesized Au NPs using MIC, growth curve and cell survival assay. The results show that Au NPs could reduce the cell survival very efficiently rather than the cell growth in comparison to the antibiotic itself. The scanning electron microscopy study shows the degradation and blebbing of the bacterial cell wall upon exposure with Au NPs which was further supported by fluorescence microscopy results. These Au NPs did not show reactive oxygen species generation. We believe that the bacterial cytotoxicity is due to the direct contact of the Au NPs with bacterial cells.Herein, we report a detailed experimental study supported by DFT calculations to understand the mechanism behind the synthesis of cefradine (CFD - an antibiotic) labeled gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) by employing CFD as both a mild reducing and capping agent. The analysis of the effect of growth conditions reveals that a higher concentration of HAuCl4 results in the formation of an increasing fraction of anisotropic structures, higher temperature leads to the formation of quasi-spherical particles instead of anisotropic ones, and larger pH leads to the formation of much smaller particles. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) results show that when the pH of the reaction medium increases from 4 to 6, the reduction potential of CFD increases which leads to the synthesis of nanoparticles (in a pH 4 reaction) to quantum clusters (in a pH 6 reaction). The MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry results of supernatant of the pH 6 reaction indicate the formation of [Au8(CFD)2S6] QCs which show fluorescence at ca. 432 nm with a Stokes shift of ca. 95 nm. The blue luminescence from Au8 QCs was applied for sensing of Hg2+ ions on the basis of an aggregation-induced fluorescence quenching mechanism and offers good selectivity and a high sensitivity with a limit of detection ca. 2 nM which is lower than the detection requirement of 10 nM by the U.S. EPA and 30 nM by WHO for drinking water. We have also applied the sensing probe to detect Hg2+ ions in bacterial samples. Further, we have investigated the antibacterial property of as-synthesized Au NPs using MIC, growth curve and cell survival assay. The results show that Au NPs could reduce the cell survival very efficiently rather than the cell growth in comparison to the antibiotic itself. The scanning electron microscopy study shows the degradation and blebbing of the bacterial cell wall upon exposure with Au NPs which was further supported by fluorescence microscopy results. These Au NPs did not show reactive oxygen species generation. We believe that the bacterial cytotoxicity is due to the direct contact of the Au NPs with bacterial cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05619e

  7. Focal plane scanner with reciprocating spatial window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Chengye (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A focal plane scanner having a front objective lens, a spatial window for selectively passing a portion of the image therethrough, and a CCD array for receiving the passed portion of the image. All embodiments have a common feature whereby the spatial window and CCD array are mounted for simultaneous relative reciprocating movement with respect to the front objective lens, and the spatial window is mounted within the focal plane of the front objective. In a first embodiment, the spatial window is a slit and the CCD array is one-dimensional, and successive rows of the image in the focal plane of the front objective lens are passed to the CCD array by an image relay lens interposed between the slit and the CCD array. In a second embodiment, the spatial window is a slit, the CCD array is two-dimensional, and a prism-grating-prism optical spectrometer is interposed between the slit and the CCD array so as to cause the scanned row to be split into a plurality of spectral separations onto the CCD array. In a third embodiment, the CCD array is two-dimensional and the spatial window is a rectangular linear variable filter (LVF) window, so as to cause the scanned rows impinging on the LVF to be bandpass filtered into spectral components onto the CCD array through an image relay lens interposed between the LVF and the CCD array.

  8. Intraoperative tracking of aortic valve plane

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Duc Long Hung; Garreau, Mireille; Auffret, Vincent; Le Breton, Herv; Verhoye, Jean-Philippe; Haigron, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to track the aortic valve plane in intra-operative fluoroscopic images in order to optimize and secure Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) procedure. This paper is focused on the issue of aortic valve calcifications tracking in fluoroscopic images. We propose a new method based on the Tracking-Learning-Detection approach, applied to the aortic valve calcifications in order to determine the position of the aortic valve plane in intra-operative TAVI images. This main contribution concerns the improvement of object detection by updating the recursive tracker in which all features are tracked jointly. The approach has been evaluated on four patient databases, providing an absolute mean displacement error less than 10 pixels ? 2mm). Its suitability for the TAVI procedure has been analyzed. PMID:24110703

  9. Spatial frequency filtering in the pellicle plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Bruce W.; Kang, Hoyoung

    2000-07-01

    An approach to spatial frequency filtering is described where 'zero order' mask diffraction information is reduced, enhancing imaging performance. This method of resolution enhancement is accomplished by filtering in an alternative pupil plane of the objective lens, specifically near or beyond the mask pellicle plane. By introducing an angular specific transmission filter into the Fraunhofer diffraction field of the mask, user accessibility is introduced, allowing for a practical approach to frequency filtering. This is accomplished using a specifically designed interference filter coated over a transparent substrate. Analysis of the approach is given along with result from experiments for contact features using a full field high NA 148nm exposure tool.

  10. The Blues at a crossroads.

    PubMed

    Kenkel, P J

    1992-12-14

    The nation's Blue Cross and Blue Shield plans may be facing the greatest challenges in the association's 60-year history with the prospects of radical changes in the nation's healthcare system. The Blues, still the nation's largest insurer despite consolidation and growing competition, are dealing with such thorny issues as negative publicity over the operation of some plans and disputes over public ownership of Blues affiliates. PMID:10122596

  11. The Aerodynamic Plane Table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A F

    1924-01-01

    This report gives the description and the use of a specially designed aerodynamic plane table. For the accurate and expeditious geometrical measurement of models in an aerodynamic laboratory, and for miscellaneous truing operations, there is frequent need for a specially equipped plan table. For example, one may have to measure truly to 0.001 inch the offsets of an airfoil at many parts of its surface. Or the offsets of a strut, airship hull, or other carefully formed figure may require exact calipering. Again, a complete airplane model may have to be adjusted for correct incidence at all parts of its surfaces or verified in those parts for conformance to specifications. Such work, if but occasional, may be done on a planing or milling machine; but if frequent, justifies the provision of a special table. For this reason it was found desirable in 1918 to make the table described in this report and to equip it with such gauges and measures as the work should require.

  12. The Blue Emu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Descalzi, Doug; Gillett, John; Gordon, Carlton; Keener, ED; Novak, Ken; Puente, Laura

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal in designing the Blue Emu was to provide an airline with a cost efficient and profitable means of transporting passengers between the major cities in Aeroworld. The design attacks the market where a demand for inexpensive transportation exists and for this reason the Blue Emu is an attractive investment for any airline. In order to provide a profitable aircraft, special attention was paid to cost and economics. For example, in manufacturing, simplicity was stressed in structural design to reduce construction time and cost. Aerodynamic design employed a tapered wing which reduced the induced drag coefficient while also reducing the weight of the wing. Even the propulsion system was selected with cost effectiveness in mind, yet also to maintain the marketability of the aircraft. Thus, in every aspect of the design, consideration was given to economics and marketability of the final product.

  13. Astronomical imaging by pupil plane interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribak, Erez

    1989-01-01

    Comparing rotational shear interferometry to standard speckle interferometry, it is found that it is easier in the first case to separate the atmospheric phases from the object transform phases. Phase closure and blind deconvolution should be directly applicable. Laboratory simulations were conducted to verify theoretical predictions and computer simulations for the phase closure case, and preliminary results show promise.

  14. The blue brain project.

    PubMed

    Markram, Henry

    2006-02-01

    IBM's Blue Gene supercomputer allows a quantum leap in the level of detail at which the brain can be modelled. I argue that the time is right to begin assimilating the wealth of data that has been accumulated over the past century and start building biologically accurate models of the brain from first principles to aid our understanding of brain function and dysfunction. PMID:16429124

  15. Smart focal plane technologies for ELT instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Colin R.; Ramsay-Howat, Suzanne K.; Garzon, Francisco; Parry, Ian R.; Prieto, Eric; Robertson, David J.; Zamkotsian, Frederic

    2004-07-01

    Smart Focal Planes are devices that enable the efficient sampling of a telescope's focal plane to feed spectroscopic and imaging instruments. Examples are integral field units (fiber and image slicers), cryogenic beam manipulators, and MOEMS (micro-opto-electromechanical systems) such as miniature slit shutters. These technologies are critical in making best use of the current 8m class telescopes for key science goals such as spectroscopic surveys of high redshift galaxies, and will be even more important for Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) instruments. In fact, the density of pixels in an ELT focal plane with several milliarcsecond resolution will mean that sub-sampling of the field will be needed even for imaging. We have proposed a joint European project to develop these technologies, building on expertise from partners in the UK, France, the Netherlands, Spain, Germany and others, and led by the UK. We describe the current status of these technologies, showing how they will contribute to the feasibility and performance of proposed instruments for ELTs, and concentrating on capabilities within Europe. We then outline the proposed future developments, highlighting the technical challenges, such as the difficulties of manufacturing and verifying complex image slicers with thousands of optical surfaces, and building highly reliable cryogenic mechanisms such as pick-off arms, beam steering mirrors and reconfigurble slit mechanisms.

  16. The Three Planes of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Gloria

    1999-01-01

    Currently, the language sciences place together four different forms of mental activity on one plane of language, which results in confusion. This paper presents arguments from metaphysics, hermeneutics, and semiotics to demonstrate that there are actually three planes of language (a biologically-based information processing plane, a literal

  17. Techniques for identifying dust devils in mars pathfinder images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metzger, S.M.; Carr, J.R.; Johnson, J. R.; Parker, T.J.; Lemmon, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    Image processing methods used to identify and enhance dust devil features imaged by IMP (Imager for Mars Pathfinder) are reviewed. Spectral differences, visible red minus visible blue, were used for initial dust devil searches, driven by the observation that Martian dust has high red and low blue reflectance. The Martian sky proved to be more heavily dust-laden than pre-Pathfinder predictions, based on analysis of images from the Hubble Space Telescope. As a result, these initial spectral difference methods failed to contrast dust devils with background dust haze. Imager artifacts (dust motes on the camera lens, flat-field effects caused by imperfections in the CCD, and projection onto a flat sensor plane by a convex lens) further impeded the ability to resolve subtle dust devil features. Consequently, reference images containing sky with a minimal horizon were first subtracted from each spectral filter image to remove camera artifacts and reduce the background dust haze signal. Once the sky-flat preprocessing step was completed, the red-minus-blue spectral difference scheme was attempted again. Dust devils then were successfully identified as bright plumes. False-color ratios using calibrated IMP images were found useful for visualizing dust plumes, verifying initial discoveries as vortex-like features. Enhancement of monochromatic (especially blue filter) images revealed dust devils as silhouettes against brighter background sky. Experiments with principal components transformation identified dust devils in raw, uncalibrated IMP images and further showed relative movement of dust devils across the Martian surface. A variety of methods therefore served qualitative and quantitative goals for dust plume identification and analysis in an environment where such features are obscure.

  18. MTI Focal Plane Assembly Design and Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, M.; Rienstra, J.L.

    1999-06-17

    The focal plane assembly for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) consists of sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure. Sensor chip assemblies, composed of linear detector arrays and readout integrated circuits, provide spatial resolution in the cross-track direction for the pushbroom imager. Optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 {micro}m to 10.7 {micro}m. All the detector arrays are mounted on a single focal plane and are designed to operate at 75 K. Three pairs of sensor chip assemblies (SCAs) are required to provide cross-track coverage in all 15 spectral bands. Each pair of SCAs includes detector arrays made from silicon, iridium antimonide, and mercury cadmium telluride. Read out integrated circuits multiplex the signals from the detectors to 18 separate video channels. Optical filter assemblies defining the spectral bands are mounted over the linear detector arrays. Each filter assembly consists of several filter strips bonded together side-by-side. The MTI focal plane assembly has been integrated with the rest of the payload and has undergone detailed testing and calibration. This paper includes representative test data for the various spectral bands and the overall performance of the focal plane assembly.

  19. A Panel of Trypanosoma brucei Strains Tagged with Blue and Red-Shifted Luciferases for Bioluminescent Imaging in Murine Infection Models

    PubMed Central

    Van Reet, Nick; Van de Vyver, Hélène; Pyana, Patient Pati; Van der Linden, Anne Marie; Büscher, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic engineering with luciferase reporter genes allows monitoring Trypanosoma brucei (T.b.) infections in mice by in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Until recently, luminescent T.b. models were based on Renilla luciferase (RLuc) activity. Our study aimed at evaluating red-shifted luciferases for in vivo BLI in a set of diverse T.b. strains of all three subspecies, including some recently isolated from human patients. Methodology/Principal findings We transfected T.b. brucei, T.b. rhodesiense and T.b. gambiense strains with either RLuc, click beetle red (CBR) or Photinus pyralis RE9 (PpyRE9) luciferase and characterised their in vitro luciferase activity, growth profile and drug sensitivity, and their potential for in vivo BLI. Compared to RLuc, the red-shifted luciferases, CBR and PpyRE9, allow tracking of T.b. brucei AnTaR 1 trypanosomes with higher details on tissue distribution, and PpyRE9 allows detection of the parasites with a sensitivity of at least one order of magnitude higher than CBR luciferase. With CBR-tagged T.b. gambiense LiTaR1, T.b. rhodesiense RUMPHI and T.b. gambiense 348 BT in an acute, subacute and chronic infection model respectively, we observed differences in parasite tropism for murine tissues during in vivo BLI. Ex vivo BLI on the brain confirmed central nervous system infection by all luminescent strains of T.b. brucei AnTaR 1, T.b. rhodesiense RUMPHI and T.b. gambiense 348 BT. Conclusions/Significance We established a genetically and phenotypically diverse collection of bioluminescent T.b. brucei, T.b. gambiense and T.b. rhodesiense strains, including drug resistant strains. For in vivo BLI monitoring of murine infections, we recommend trypanosome strains transfected with red-shifted luciferase reporter genes, such as CBR and PpyRE9. Red-shifted luciferases can be detected with a higher sensitivity in vivo and at the same time they improve the spatial resolution of the parasites in the entire body due to the better kinetics of their substrate D-luciferin. PMID:25144573

  20. Surface anatomy and anatomical planes in the adult turkish population.

    PubMed

    Uzun, C; Atman, E D; Ustuner, E; Mirjalili, S A; Oztuna, D; Esmer, T S

    2016-03-01

    Surface anatomy and anatomical planes are widely used in education and clinical practice. The planes are largely derived from cadaveric studies and their projections on the skin show discrepancies between and within anatomical reference textbooks. In this study, we reassessed the accuracy of common thoracic and abdominopelvic anatomical planes using computed tomography (CT) imaging in the live adult Turkish population. After patients with distorting pathologies had been excluded, CT images of 150 supine patients at the end tidal inspiration were analyzed. Sternal angle, transpyloric, subcostal, supracristal and pubic crest planes and their relationships to anatomical structures were established by dual consensus. The tracheal bifurcation, azygos vein/superior vena cava (SVC) junction and pulmonary bifurcation were usually below the sternal angle while the concavity of the aortic arch was generally within the plane. The tip of the tenth rib, the superior mesenteric artery and the portal vein were usually within the transpyloric plane while the renal hila and the fundus of the gallbladder were below it. The inferior mesenteric artery was below the subcostal plane and the aortic bifurcation was below the supracristal plane in most adults. Projectional surface anatomy is fundamental to medical education and clinical practice. Modern cross-sectional imaging techniques allow large groups of live patients to be examined. Classic textbook information regarding anatomy needs to be reviewed and updated using the data gathered from these recent studies, taking ethnic differences into consideration. Clin. Anat. 29:183-190, 2016. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26403267

  1. Detection of buried land mines using a dual-band LWIR/LWIR QWIP focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Arnold; Uppal, Parvez N.; Winn, Michael

    2003-10-01

    We report on the development and testing of a new dual-band infrared focal plane array (FPA) specifically designed to detect buried land mines. The detector response spectra were tailored to take advantage of the sharp spectral features associated with disturbed soils. The goal was to have a "blue" channel with peak response near 9.2 ?m and a "red" channel with maximum response at 10.5 ?m. The quantum well infrared photodetector is particularly suited for this application because of the flexibility available in designing the peak wavelength of the detector and the relatively narrow width of the response spectrum. FPAs were produced and tested under the US Army Research Laboratory's Advanced Sensors Collaborative Research Alliance in co-operation with the Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate. We report on laboratory measurements of the response spectra, the dark current as a function of operating temperature, and the conversion efficiency in both the blue and red channels. Imagery was taken in the field of buried anti-tank mines. The images were analyzed by combining the data from the two channels into single fused images.

  2. Development of a dual-band LWIR/LWIR QWIP focal plane array for detection of buried land mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Arnold C.; Fischer, Theodore; Derzko, Zenon I.; Uppal, Parvez N.; Winn, Michael L.

    2002-08-01

    We report on the development and testing of a new dual-band infrared (IR) focal plane array (FPA) specifically designed to detect buried land mines. The detector response spectra were tailored to take advantage of the sharp spectral features associated with disturbed soils. The goal was to have a blue channel with peak response near 9.2 micrometers and a red channel with maximum response at 10.5 micrometers . The quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) is particularly suited for this application because of the flexibility available in designing the peak wavelength of the detector and the relatively narrow width of the response spectrum. FPAs were produced and tested under the U. S. Army Research Laboratory's Advanced Sensors Collaborative Research Alliance in co-operation with the Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate. We report on laboratory measurements of the response spectra, the dark current as a function of operating temperature, and the conversion efficiency in both the blue and red channels. Imagery was taken in the field of buried anti-tank mines. The images were analyzed by combining the data from the two channels into single fused images.

  3. Infrared Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strong, Roger L.; Kinch, Michael A.

    2014-08-01

    HgCdTe infrared focal plane array (FPA) operability is usually limited not by dark current defects but by noise defects. Pixels with high 1/ f noise should produce a tail in the root-mean-square (RMS) noise distribution. Integration time normalization reveals that RMS noise tails are, in fact, a result of 1/ f noise. An accurate means of quantifying the magnitude of the RMS noise tail thus provides a useful measure of an FPA's 1/ f noise. The skew of the RMS noise distribution is the simplest measure of an array's 1/ f noise, and is shown to be fairly quantitative when FPA operability exceeds 90%. Models for 1/ f noise from external surfaces and from internal surfaces (dislocations) correctly predict the observed temperature dependence from FPAs with systemic 1/ f noise that affects all pixels and from FPAs with isolated defect 1/ f noise that affects fewer than 1% of the pixels. The RMS noise distribution's skew is shown to increase with increasing dislocation density. The 1/ f noise tail of the RMS noise distribution increases more rapidly with temperature as the dislocation density increases.

  4. Blue ocean leadership.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets. PMID:24956870

  5. Toward 16 megapixel focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Hill, C. J.; Ting, D. Z.; Kurth, E.; Woolaway, J.; LeVan, P. D.; Tidrow, M. Z.

    2007-09-01

    Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024x1024 pixel InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs based quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NE?T) of 17 mK at a 95K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NE?T of 13 mK at a 70K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR detector array after the subtraction of system noise. Both MWIR and LWIR focal planes have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90K and 70K operating temperatures respectively, with similar optical and background conditions. It is well known that III-V compound semiconductor materials such as GaAs, InP, etc. are easy to grow and process into devices. In addition, III-V compound semiconductors are available in large diameter wafers, up to 8-inches. Thus, III-V compound semiconductor based infrared focal plane technologies such as QWIP, InSb, and strain layer superlattices (SLS) are potential candidates for the development of large format focal planes such as 4096x4096 pixels and larger. In this paper, we will discuss the possibility of extending the infrared detector array size up to 16 megapixels.

  6. Towards dualband megapixel QWIP focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Hill, C. J.; Rafol, S. B.; Salazar, D.; Woolaway, J.; LeVan, P. D.; Tidrow, M. Z.

    2007-04-01

    Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024 1024 pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NE?T) of 17 mK at a 95 K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300 K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NE?T of 13 mK at a 70 K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR detector array after the subtraction of system noise. Both MWIR and LWIR focal planes have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90 K and 70 K operating temperatures respectively, with similar optical and background conditions. In addition, we have demonstrated MWIR and LWIR pixel co-registered simultaneously readable dualband QWIP focal plane arrays. In this paper, we will discuss the performance in terms of quantum efficiency, NE?T, uniformity, operability, and modulation transfer functions of the 1024 1024 pixel arrays and the progress of dualband QWIP focal plane array development work.

  7. Toward dualband megapixel QWIP focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Hill, C. J.; Kurth, E.; Woolaway, J.; LeVan, P. D.; Tidrow, M. Z.

    2007-04-01

    Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024x1024 pixel InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs based quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NE?T) of 17 mK at a 95K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NE?T of 13 mK at a 70K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR detector array after the subtraction of system noise. Both MWIR and LWIR focal planes have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90K and 70K operating temperatures respectively, with similar optical and background conditions. It is well known that III-V compound semiconductor materials such as GaAs, InP, etc. are easy to grow and process into devices. In addition, III-V compound semiconductors are available in large diameter wafers, up to 8-inches. Thus, III-V compound semiconductor based infrared focal plane technologies such as QWIP, InSb, and strain layer superlattices (SLS) are potential candidates for the development of large format focal planes such as 4096x4096 pixels and larger. In this paper, we will discuss the possibility of extending the infrared detector array size up to 16 megapixels.

  8. Towards Dualband Megapixel QWIP Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Hill, C. J.; Rafol, S. B.; Salazar, D.; Woolaway, J.; LeVan, P. D.; Tidrow, M. Z.

    2006-01-01

    Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024 x 1024 pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NEDT) of 17 mK at a 95 K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300 K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NEDT of 13 mK at a 70 K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR detector array after the subtraction of system noise. Both MWIR and LWIR focal planes have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90 K and 70 K operating temperatures respectively, with similar optical and background conditions. In addition, we have demonstrated MWIR and LWIR pixel co-registered simultaneously readable dualband QWIP focal plane arrays. In this paper, we will discuss the performance in terms of quantum efficiency, NEDT, uniformity, operability, and modulation transfer functions of the 1024 x 1024 pixel arrays and the progress of dualband QWIP focal plane array development work.

  9. Dwarf galaxies in the Coma cluster - II. Spectroscopic and photometric fundamental planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourkchi, E.; Khosroshahi, H. G.; Carter, D.; Mobasher, B.

    2012-03-01

    We present a study of the Fundamental Plane (FP) for a sample of 71 dwarf galaxies in the core of the Coma cluster in the magnitude range -21 < MI < -15. Taking advantage of the high-resolution DEIMOS spectrograph on Keck II for measuring the internal velocity dispersion of galaxies and high-resolution imaging of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/ACS, which allows an accurate surface brightness modelling, we extend the FP of galaxies to luminosities of 1 mag fainter than all the previous studies of the FP in the Coma cluster. We find that the scatter about the FP depends on the faint-end luminosity cut-off, such that the scatter increases for fainter galaxies. The residual from the FP correlates with the galaxy colour, with bluer galaxies showing larger residuals from the FP. We find M/L ? M-0.150.22 in the F814W band, indicating that in faint dwarf ellipticals, the M/L ratio is insensitive to the mass. We find that less massive dwarf ellipticals are bluer than their brighter counterparts, possibly indicating ongoing star formation activity. Although tidal encounters and harassment can play a part in removing stars and dark matter from the galaxy, we believe that the dominant effect will be the stellar wind associated with the star formation, which will remove material from the galaxy, resulting in larger M/L ratios. We attribute the deviation of a number of faint blue dwarfs from the FP of brighter ellipticals to this effect. We also study other scaling relations involving galaxy photometric properties including the Photometric Plane. We show that compared to the FP, the scatter about the Photometric Plane is smaller at the faint end.

  10. Adolescent Development: Body Blues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Alayne; Brodkin, Adele M.

    1994-01-01

    When early adolescents equate body image with self-image, they risk eating and exercise disorders, with dangerous results. Interviews with two experts present information to help middle school teachers understand the problem and intervene with students whose preoccupation with appearance or prowess can, taken to the extreme, be fatal. (SM)

  11. Jupiter in blue, ultraviolet and near infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These three images of Jupiter, taken through the narrow angle camera of NASA's Cassini spacecraft from a distance of 77.6 million kilometers (48.2 million miles) on October 8, reveal more than is apparent to the naked eye through a telescope.

    The image on the left was taken through the blue filter. The one in the middle was taken in the ultraviolet. The one on the right was taken in the near infrared.

    The blue-light filter is within the part of the electromagnetic spectrum detectable by the human eye. The appearance of Jupiter in this image is, consequently, very familiar. The Great Red Spot (below and to the right of center) and the planet's well-known banded cloud lanes are obvious. The brighter bands of clouds are called zones and are probably composed of ammonia ice particles. The darker bands are called belts and are made dark by particles of unknown composition intermixed with the ammonia ice.

    Jupiter's appearance changes dramatically in the ultraviolet and near infrared images. These images are near negatives of each other and illustrate the way in which observations in different wavelength regions can reveal different physical regimes on the planet.

    All gases scatter sunlight efficiently at short wavelengths; this is why the sky appears blue on Earth. The effect is even more pronounced in the ultraviolet. The gases in Jupiter's atmosphere, above the clouds, are no different. They scatter strongly in the ultraviolet, making the deep banded cloud layers invisible in the middle image. Only the very high altitude haze appears dark against the bright background. The contrast is reversed in the near infrared, where methane gas, abundant on Jupiter but not on Earth, is strongly absorbing and therefore appears dark. Again the deep clouds are invisible, but now the high altitude haze appears relatively bright against the dark background. High altitude haze is seen over the poles and the equator.

    The Great Red Spot, prominent in all images, is obviously a feature whose influence extends high in the atmosphere. As the Cassini cameras continue to return images of Jupiter, it will be possible to construct a three-dimensional picture of how clouds form and evolve by watching the changing appearance of Jupiter in different spectral regions.

    JPL manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPl is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  12. Stereo Imaging Miniature Endoscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bae, Youngsam; Manohara, Harish; White, Victor; Shcheglov, Kirill V.; Shahinian, Hrayr

    2011-01-01

    Stereo imaging requires two different perspectives of the same object and, traditionally, a pair of side-by-side cameras would be used but are not feasible for something as tiny as a less than 4-mm-diameter endoscope that could be used for minimally invasive surgeries or geoexploration through tiny fissures or bores. The proposed solution here is to employ a single lens, and a pair of conjugated, multiple-bandpass filters (CMBFs) to separate stereo images. When a CMBF is placed in front of each of the stereo channels, only one wavelength of the visible spectrum that falls within the passbands of the CMBF is transmitted through at a time when illuminated. Because the passbands are conjugated, only one of the two channels will see a particular wavelength. These time-multiplexed images are then mixed and reconstructed to display as stereo images. The basic principle of stereo imaging involves an object that is illuminated at specific wavelengths, and a range of illumination wavelengths is time multiplexed. The light reflected from the object selectively passes through one of the two CMBFs integrated with two pupils separated by a baseline distance, and is focused onto the imaging plane through an objective lens. The passband range of CMBFs and the illumination wavelengths are synchronized such that each of the CMBFs allows transmission of only the alternate illumination wavelength bands. And the transmission bandwidths of CMBFs are complementary to each other, so that when one transmits, the other one blocks. This can be clearly understood if the wavelength bands are divided broadly into red, green, and blue, then the illumination wavelengths contain two bands in red (R1, R2), two bands in green (G1, G2), and two bands in blue (B1, B2). Therefore, when the objective is illuminated by R1, the reflected light enters through only the left-CMBF as the R1 band corresponds to the transmission window of the left CMBF at the left pupil. This is blocked by the right CMBF. The transmitted band is focused on the focal plane array (FPA).

  13. Are There Blue, Massive Elliptical Galaxies at z < 1?: Kinematics of Blue Spheroidal Galaxy Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, M.; DEEP Team

    2001-11-01

    Several recent studies find that 10 - 50% of morphologically selected field early-type galaxies at redshifts z < 1 have blue colors indicative of recent star formation. Such ``blue spheroids'' might be massive early-type galaxies with active star formation, perhaps induced by recent merger events. Alternatively, they could be starbursting, low-mass spheroids. To distinguish between these two choices, we have selected 10 ``Blue Spheroid Candidates'' (hereafter, BSCs) from a quantitatively selected E/S0 sample, and study their properties, including kinematics from Keck spectra obtained as part of the DEEP Groth Strip Survey. Most BSCs (70%) turn out to belong to two broad categories, while the remaining objects are likely to be misclassified objects. Type-1 BSCs have underlying red stellar components with bluer inner components. Type-2 BSCs do not show an obvious sign of the underlying red stellar component, and their overall colors are quite blue ((U-B)rest < 0). Both Type-1 and Type-2 BSCs have internal velocity dispersions measured from emission lines ? < ~ 80 km sec-1 and estimated dynamical masses of only a few 1010Msolar or less. For Type-1 BSCs, we estimate ? of the red component using the fundamental plane relation of distant field absorption-line galaxies and find that these ? estimates are similar to the ? measured from emission lines. Overall, we conclude that our Type-1 and Type-2 BSCs are more likely to be star-forming low mass spheroids than star-forming, massive, early-type galaxies. Funding for DEEP is provided by NSF grant AST-9529098. Support for this work was also provided by NASA through a grant, HST-AR-08767.04-A, from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  14. The Blue Comet: A Railroad's Astronomical Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumstay, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01

    Between 1929 February 21 and 1941 September 27, the Central New Jersey Railroad operated a luxury passenger train between Jersey City and Atlantic City. Named The Blue Comet, the locomotive, tender, and coaches sported a unique royal blue paint scheme designed to evoke images of celestial bodies speeding through space. Inside each car were etched window panes and lampshades featuring stars and comets. And each coach sported the name of a famous comet on its side; these comets were of course named for their discoverers. Some of the astronomers honored in this unique fashion remain famous to this day, or at least their comets do. The names D'Arrest, Barnard, Encke, Faye, Giacobini, Halley, Olbers, Temple, Tuttle, and Westphal are familiar ones. But Biela, Brorsen, deVico, Spitaler, and Winnecke have now largely faded into obscurity; their stories are recounted here. Although more than sixty years have elapsed since its last run, The Blue Comet, perhaps the most famous passenger train in American history, lives on in the memories of millions of passengers and railfans. This famous train returned to the attention of millions of television viewers on the evening of 2007 June 3, in an episode of the HBO series The Sopranos. This work was supported by a faculty development grant from Valdosta State University.

  15. CCD photometry in the globular cluster NGC 288. I - Blue stragglers and main-sequence binary stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolte, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Photometry based on a mosaic of CCD images in B and V is presented for the globular cluster NGC 288. The spatial coverage ranges from the cluster core to about 6 core radii, and stars have been measured over the absolute visual magnitude range -1.2 to 8.4. The cluster is shown to contain a significant number of blue straggler stars in the central regions, and there is an excess of objects brighter and redder than the single-star main-sequence in the color-magnitude plane. These objects are interpreted as a population of main-sequence binary stars. With this interpretation, the explicity measured fraction of binary stars is 10 percent, which sets a lower limit for the total binary population.

  16. Complex amplitudes reconstructed in multiple output planes with a phase-only hologram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Liang; Cheng, Shubo; Tao, Shaohua

    2015-12-01

    An iterative beam-shaping algorithm is proposed to generate a phase-only hologram that reconstructs an output beam with the desired complex amplitudes in different output planes. As all the output planes are imposed by complex amplitude constraints, both the amplitudes and phases of the beam in different imaging planes can be controlled simultaneously. As an example, three optical curve beams with desired phase gradients in the corresponding output planes are generated with a phase-only hologram in the simulations and experiments. The proposed algorithm has many potential applications such as in multi-plane optical tweezers, micromachining, and optical imaging.

  17. Active point out-of-plane ultrasound calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Alexis; Guo, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Haichong K.; Kang, Hyunjae; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Boctor, Emad M.

    2015-03-01

    Image-guided surgery systems are often used to provide surgeons with informational support. Due to several unique advantages such as ease of use, real-time image acquisition, and no ionizing radiation, ultrasound is a common intraoperative medical imaging modality used in image-guided surgery systems. To perform advanced forms of guidance with ultrasound, such as virtual image overlays or automated robotic actuation, an ultrasound calibration process must be performed. This process recovers the rigid body transformation between a tracked marker attached to the transducer and the ultrasound image. Point-based phantoms are considered to be accurate, but their calibration framework assumes that the point is in the image plane. In this work, we present the use of an active point phantom and a calibration framework that accounts for the elevational uncertainty of the point. Given the lateral and axial position of the point in the ultrasound image, we approximate a circle in the axial-elevational plane with a radius equal to the axial position. The standard approach transforms all of the imaged points to be a single physical point. In our approach, we minimize the distances between the circular subsets of each image, with them ideally intersecting at a single point. We simulated in noiseless and noisy cases, presenting results on out-of-plane estimation errors, calibration estimation errors, and point reconstruction precision. We also performed an experiment using a robot arm as the tracker, resulting in a point reconstruction precision of 0.64mm.

  18. Design study of the accessible focal plane telescope for shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The design and cost analysis of an accessible focal plane telescope for Spacelab is presented in blueprints, tables, and graphs. Topics covered include the telescope tube, the telescope mounting, the airlock plus Spacelab module aft plate, the instrument adapter, and the instrument package. The system allows access to the image plane with instrumentation that can be operated by a scientist in a shirt sleeve environment inside a Spacelab module.

  19. Blue moons and Martian sunsets.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Kurt; Chakrabarty, Rajan; Moosmller, Hans

    2014-03-20

    The familiar yellow or orange disks of the moon and sun, especially when they are low in the sky, and brilliant red sunsets are a result of the selective extinction (scattering plus absorption) of blue light by atmospheric gas molecules and small aerosols, a phenomenon explainable using the Rayleigh scattering approximation. On rare occasions, dust or smoke aerosols can cause the extinction of red light to exceed that for blue, resulting in the disks of the sun and moon to appear as blue. Unlike Earth, the atmosphere of Mars is dominated by micron-size dust aerosols, and the sky during sunset takes on a bluish glow. Here we investigate the role of dust aerosols in the blue Martian sunsets and the occasional blue moons and suns on Earth. We use the Mie theory and the Debye series to calculate the wavelength-dependent optical properties of dust aerosols most commonly found on Mars. Our findings show that while wavelength selective extinction can cause the sun's disk to appear blue, the color of the glow surrounding the sun as observed from Mars is due to the dominance of near-forward scattering of blue light by dust particles and cannot be explained by a simple, Rayleigh-like selective extinction explanation. PMID:24663457

  20. Blue ellipticals in compact groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zepf, Stephen E.; Whitmore, Bradley C.

    1990-01-01

    By studying galaxies in compact groups, the authors examine the hypothesis that mergers of spiral galaxies make elliptical galaxies. The authors combine dynamical models of the merger-rich compact group environment with stellar evolution models and predict that roughly 15 percent of compact group ellipticals should be 0.15 mag bluer in B - R color than normal ellipticals. The published colors of these galaxies suggest the existence of this predicted blue population, but a normal distribution with large random errors can not be ruled out based on these data alone. However, the authors have new ultraviolet blue visual data which confirm the blue color of the two ellipticals with blue B - R colors for which they have their own colors. This confirmation of a population of blue ellipticals indicates that interactions are occurring in compact groups, but a blue color in one index alone does not require that these ellipticals are recent products of the merger of two spirals. The authors demonstrate how optical spectroscopy in the blue may distinguish between a true spiral + spiral merger and the swallowing of a gas-rich system by an already formed elliptical. The authors also show that the sum of the luminosity of the galaxies in each group is consistent with the hypothesis that the final stage in the evolution of compact group is an elliptical galaxy.

  1. Ground plane insulating coating for proximity focused devices

    DOEpatents

    Power, G.D.

    1998-07-14

    A thin layer of alumina (aluminum oxide) is coated onto the ground plane of a microchannel plate (MCP) without covering the pores of the MCP so it does not effect the performance. The coating is sputtered onto the ground plane at a very steep angle. The addition of the thin dielectric coating of alumina greatly improves the spatial resolution of proximity focused image intensifiers using a narrow gap between the phosphor screen and the MCP. With the coating on the ground plane and the same gap the phosphor screen can be ran at 9000 volts, as compared to 3 kV without the coating. 3 figs.

  2. Ground plane insulating coating for proximity focused devices

    DOEpatents

    Power, Gary D. (Manteca, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A thin layer of alumina (aluminum oxide) is coated onto the ground plane of a microchannel plate (MCP) without covering the pores of the MCP so it does not effect the performance. The coating is sputtered onto the ground plane at a very steep angle. The addition of the thin dielectric coating of alumina greatly improves the spatial resolution of proximity focused image intensifiers using a narrow gap between the phosphor screen and the MCP. With the coating on the ground plane and the same gap the phosphor screen can be ran at 9000 volts, as compared to 3 kV without the coating.

  3. Two Planes of Satellites in the Centaurus A Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tully, R. Brent; Libeskind, Noam I.; Karachentsev, Igor D.; Karachentseva, Valentina E.; Rizzi, Luca; Shaya, Edward J.

    2015-04-01

    Tip of the red giant branch measurements based on Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based imaging have resulted in accurate distances to 29 galaxies in the nearby Centaurus A Group. All but 2 of the 29 galaxies lie in either of two thin planes roughly parallel with the supergalactic equator. The planes are only slightly tilted from the line of sight, leaving little ambiguity regarding the morphology of the structure. The planes have characteristic rms long axis dimensions of ?300 kpc and short axis dimensions of ?60 kpc, hence axial ratios ?0.2, and are separated in the short axis direction by 303 kpc.

  4. Blue-Fluorescent Antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonov, Anton; Matsushita, Masayuki; Juban, Eric A.; Thompson, Elizabeth H. Z.; Hoffman, Timothy Z.; Beuscher, Albert E.; Taylor, Matthew J.; Wirsching, Peter; Rettig, Wolfgang; McCusker, James K.; Stevens, Raymond C.; Millar, David P.; Schultz, Peter G.; Lerner, Richard A.; Janda, Kim D.

    2000-10-01

    The forte of catalytic antibodies has resided in the control of the ground-state reaction coordinate. A principle and method are now described in which antibodies can direct the outcome of photophysical and photochemical events that take place on excited-state potential energy surfaces. The key component is a chemically reactive optical sensor that provides a direct report of the dynamic interplay between protein and ligand at the active site. To illustrate the concept, we used a trans-stilbene hapten to elicit a panel of monoclonal antibodies that displayed a range of fluorescent spectral behavior when bound to a trans-stilbene substrate. Several antibodies yielded a blue fluorescence indicative of an excited-state complex or ``exciplex'' between trans-stilbene and the antibody. The antibodies controlled the isomerization coordinate of trans-stilbene and dynamically coupled this manifold with an active-site residue. A step was taken toward the use of antibody-based photochemical sensors for diagnostic and clinical applications.

  5. Images

    Cancer.gov

    Home News and Events Multimedia Library Images Images: Cancer Biology Image:Cell with DNA72 DPI|300 DPIDrawing depicting DNA molecule unwinding from a chromosome inside the nucleus of a cell. NHGRI>>View All Cancer Pathology/Imaging Image:Female

  6. Blue metal complex pigments involved in blue flower color.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kosaku

    2006-05-01

    The blue pigment of cornflower, protocyanin, has been investigated for a long time, but its precise structure was not entirely explained until recently. The molecular structure of the pigment was recently shown to be a metal complex of six molecules each of anthocyanin and flavone glycoside, with one ferric iron, one magnesium and two calcium ions by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The studies provided the answer to the question posed in the early part of the last century, "why is the cornflower blue and rose red when both flowers contain the same anthocyanin?" This work was achieved on the basis of the results of long years of the studies made by many researchers. In this review, the author focuses on the investigations of the blue metal complex pigments involved in the bluing of flowers, commelinin from Commelina commusis, protocyanin from Centaurea cyanus, protodelphin from Salvia patens and hydrangea blue pigment. PMID:25792777

  7. Blue metal complex pigments involved in blue flower color

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Kosaku

    2006-01-01

    The blue pigment of cornflower, protocyanin, has been investigated for a long time, but its precise structure was not entirely explained until recently. The molecular structure of the pigment was recently shown to be a metal complex of six molecules each of anthocyanin and flavone glycoside, with one ferric iron, one magnesium and two calcium ions by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The studies provided the answer to the question posed in the early part of the last century, why is the cornflower blue and rose red when both flowers contain the same anthocyanin? This work was achieved on the basis of the results of long years of the studies made by many researchers. In this review, the author focuses on the investigations of the blue metal complex pigments involved in the bluing of flowers, commelinin from Commelina commusis, protocyanin from Centaurea cyanus, protodelphin from Salvia patens and hydrangea blue pigment. PMID:25792777

  8. Hyperspectral Fluorescence and Reflectance Imaging Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert E.; O'Neal, S. Duane; Lanoue, Mark; Russell, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    The system is a single hyperspectral imaging instrument that has the unique capability to acquire both fluorescence and reflectance high-spatial-resolution data that is inherently spatially and spectrally registered. Potential uses of this instrument include plant stress monitoring, counterfeit document detection, biomedical imaging, forensic imaging, and general materials identification. Until now, reflectance and fluorescence spectral imaging have been performed by separate instruments. Neither a reflectance spectral image nor a fluorescence spectral image alone yields as much information about a target surface as does a combination of the two modalities. Before this system was developed, to benefit from this combination, analysts needed to perform time-consuming post-processing efforts to co-register the reflective and fluorescence information. With this instrument, the inherent spatial and spectral registration of the reflectance and fluorescence images minimizes the need for this post-processing step. The main challenge for this technology is to detect the fluorescence signal in the presence of a much stronger reflectance signal. To meet this challenge, the instrument modulates artificial light sources from ultraviolet through the visible to the near-infrared part of the spectrum; in this way, both the reflective and fluorescence signals can be measured through differencing processes to optimize fluorescence and reflectance spectra as needed. The main functional components of the instrument are a hyperspectral imager, an illumination system, and an image-plane scanner. The hyperspectral imager is a one-dimensional (line) imaging spectrometer that includes a spectrally dispersive element and a two-dimensional focal plane detector array. The spectral range of the current imaging spectrometer is between 400 to 1,000 nm, and the wavelength resolution is approximately 3 nm. The illumination system consists of narrowband blue, ultraviolet, and other discrete wavelength light-emitting-diode (LED) sources and white-light LED sources designed to produce consistently spatially stable light. White LEDs provide illumination for the measurement of reflectance spectra, while narrowband blue and UV LEDs are used to excite fluorescence. Each spectral type of LED can be turned on or off depending on the specific remote-sensing process being performed. Uniformity of illumination is achieved by using an array of LEDs and/or an integrating sphere or other diffusing surface. The image plane scanner uses a fore optic with a field of view large enough to provide an entire scan line on the image plane. It builds up a two-dimensional image in pushbroom fashion as the target is scanned across the image plane either by moving the object or moving the fore optic. For fluorescence detection, spectral filtering of a narrowband light illumination source is sometimes necessary to minimize the interference of the source spectrum wings with the fluorescence signal. Spectral filtering is achieved with optical interference filters and absorption glasses. This dual spectral imaging capability will enable the optimization of reflective, fluorescence, and fused datasets as well as a cost-effective design for multispectral imaging solutions. This system has been used in plant stress detection studies and in currency analysis.

  9. Characterization of DECam focal plane detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Diehl, H.Thomas; Angstadt, Robert; Campa, Julia; Cease, Herman; Derylo, Greg; Emes, John H.; Estrada, Juan; Kibik, Donna; Flaugher, Brenna L.; Holland, Steve E.; Jonas, Michelle; /Fermilab /Madrid, CIEMAT /LBL, Berkeley /Argonne /Pennsylvania U.

    2008-06-01

    DECam is a 520 Mpix, 3 square-deg FOV imager being built for the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO. This facility instrument will be used for the 'Dark Energy Survey' of the southern galactic cap. DECam has chosen 250 ?m thick CCDs, developed at LBNL, with good QE in the near IR for the focal plane. In this work we present the characterization of these detectors done by the DES team, and compare it to the DECam technical requirements. The results demonstrate that the detectors satisfy the needs for instrument.

  10. The solar system's invariable plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souami, D.; Souchay, J.

    2012-07-01

    Context. The dynamics of solar system objects, such as dwarf planets and asteroids, has become a well-established field of celestial mechanics in the past thirty years, owing to the improvements that have been made in observational techniques and numerical studies. In general, the ecliptic is taken as the reference plane in these studies, although there is no dynamical reason for doing so. In contrast, the invariable plane as originally defined by Laplace, seems to be a far more natural choice. In this context, the latest study of this plane dates back to Burkhardt. Aims: We define and determine the orientation of the invariable plane of the solar system with respect to both the ICRF and the equinox-ecliptic of J2000.0, and evaluate the accuracy of our determination. Methods: Using the long-term numerical ephemerides DE405, DE406, and INPOP10a over their entire available time span, we computed the total angular momentum of the solar system, as well as the individual contribution to it made by each of the planets, the dwarf planets Pluto and Ceres, and the two asteroids Pallas and Vesta. We then deduced the orientation of the invariable plane from these ephemerides. Results: We update the previous results on the determination of the orientation of the invariable plane with more accurate data, and a more complete analysis of the problem, taking into account the effect of the dwarf planet (1) Ceres as well as two of the biggest asteroids, (4) Vesta and (2) Pallas. We show that the inclusion of these last three bodies significantly improves the accuracy of determination of the invariable plane, whose orientation over a 100 y interval does not vary more than 0.1 mas in inclination, and 0.3 mas in longitude of the ascending node. Moreover, we determine the individual contributions of each body to the total angular momentum of the solar system, as well as the inclination and longitude of the node with respect to this latter plane. Conclusions: Owing to the high accuracy of its determination and its fundamental dynamical meaning, the invariable plane provides a permanent natural reference plane that should be used when studying solar system dynamics, instead of the ecliptic. Since it is fixed in an isolated solar system, whereas the ecliptic alters with time, we recommend referring to it when working on long-term dynamics.

  11. Hubble Views Saturn Ring-Plane Crossing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This sequence of images from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope documents a rare astronomical alignment -- Saturn's magnificent ring system turned edge-on. This occurs when the Earth passes through Saturn's ring plane, as it does approximately every 15 years.

    These pictures were taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on 22 May 1995, when Saturn was at a distance of 919 million miles (1.5 billion kilometers) from Earth. At Saturn, Hubble can see details as small as 450 miles (725 km) across. In each image, the dark band across Saturn is the ring shadow cast by the Sun which is still 2.7 degrees above Saturn's ring plane. The box around the western portion of the rings (to the right of Saturn) in each image indicates the area in which the faint light from the rings has been multiplied through image processing (by a factor of 25) to make the rings more visible.

    [Top] -

    This image was taken while the Earth was above the lit face of the rings. The moons Tethys and Dione are visible to the east (left) of Saturn; Janus is the bright spot near the center of the ring portion in the box, and Pandora is faintly visible just inside the left edge of this box. Saturn's atmosphere shows remarkable detail: multiple banding in both the northern and southern hemispheres, wispy structure at the north edge of the equatorial zone, and a bright area above the ring shadow that is caused by sunlight scattered off the rings onto the atmosphere. There is evidence of a faint polar haze over the north pole of Saturn and a fainter haze over the south.

    [Center] -

    This image was taken close to the time of ring-plane crossing. The rings are 75% fainter than in the top image, though they do not disappear completely because the vertical face of the rings still reflects sunlight when the rings are edge-on. Rhea is visible to the east of Saturn, Enceladus is the bright satellite in the rings to the west, and Janus is the fainter blip to its right. Pandora is just to the left of Enceladus, but is not visible because Enceladus is too bright. An oval-shaped atmospheric feature has just rotated into view (near the eastern limb, at the northern edge of the equatorial zone), and appears to be a local circulation pattern that is not penetrated by the bright clouds that are deflected around it.

    [Bottom] -

    This image was taken approximately 96 minutes (one Hubble orbit) after the center image. The rings are 10% brighter than they were in that image. Rhea is visible just off the eastern limb of Saturn, and casts a shadow on the south face of Saturn. During this exposure, the Earth and Sun were on opposite sides of Saturn's ring plane (they remain in this configuration until 10 August 1995). The atmospheric circulation pattern has rotated to just past the center of the planet's disk, and is followed by more wispy structure in the bright band of clouds, reminiscent of the structure seen during the Saturn storm observed in 1990.

    These images will be used to determine the time of ring-plane crossing and the thickness of the main rings and to search for as yet undiscovered satellites. Knowledge of the exact time of ring-plane crossing will lead to an improved determination of the rate at which Saturn 'wobbles' about its axis (polar precession).

    Technical Notes Each of these images is a 7-second exposure at 8922 Angstroms in a methane absorption band. North is up and east is to the left.

    The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

    This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

  12. Helicoidal plane of dental occlusion.

    PubMed

    Osborn, J W

    1982-03-01

    A helicoidal plane of postcanine occlusion has been patchily reported in many recent and fossil dentitions of man, and has been suggested as a taxonomic marker distinguishing between the dentitions of Homo and Australopithecines. The present paper describes the helicoidal plane in 19 out of 23 modern human (probably Indian) worn dentitions, in both gracile and robust Australopithecines and in extant anthropoids. It is suggested that tooth wear converts the plane of occlusion present in little-worn teeth, the Monson curve, into a helicoidal plane when 1) the diet is more abrasive, 2) the enamel is thinner and less abrasion resistant, and 3) a longer time separates the eruption of the three molar teeth in a jaw quadrant. A model demonstrates that during the power stroke of a chewing cycle the working side molars move in much the same direction whether the molar occlusal plan follows a Monson curve or a helicoidal plane. The difference is that in the former case the three molars work at the same time while in the latter case they work in sequence from anterior to posterior, thereby concentrating force on one tooth at a time. Because the occlusal plane changes during the life of individuals consuming an abrasive diet, the condition of most anthropoids and hominids, it is argued that the Monson curve has functional significance not because of its influence on occlusal relations and/or jaw movement but because the molar teeth are embedded in bone roughly perpendicular to it, a direction which resists tilting of the teeth during mastication. It is concluded that the helicoidal plane probably has little if any value as a taxonomic marker. PMID:6810702

  13. A method of plane geometry primitive presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Anbo; Luo, Haibo; Chang, Zheng; Hui, Bin

    2014-11-01

    Point feature and line feature are basic elements in object feature sets, and they play an important role in object matching and recognition. On one hand, point feature is sensitive to noise; on the other hand, there are usually a huge number of point features in an image, which makes it complex for matching. Line feature includes straight line segment and curve. One difficulty in straight line segment matching is the uncertainty of endpoint location, the other is straight line segment fracture problem or short straight line segments joined to form long straight line segment. While for the curve, in addition to the above problems, there is another difficulty in how to quantitatively describe the shape difference between curves. Due to the problems of point feature and line feature, the robustness and accuracy of target description will be affected; in this case, a method of plane geometry primitive presentation is proposed to describe the significant structure of an object. Firstly, two types of primitives are constructed, they are intersecting line primitive and blob primitive. Secondly, a line segment detector (LSD) is applied to detect line segment, and then intersecting line primitive is extracted. Finally, robustness and accuracy of the plane geometry primitive presentation method is studied. This method has a good ability to obtain structural information of the object, even if there is rotation or scale change of the object in the image. Experimental results verify the robustness and accuracy of this method.

  14. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, Stanley P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive.

  15. Plane waves as tractor beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgcs, Pter; Lukcs, rpd; Roma?czukiewicz, Tomasz

    2013-12-01

    It is shown that in a large class of systems, plane waves act as tractor beams: i.e., an incident plane wave can exert a pulling force on the scatterer. The underlying physical mechanism for the pulling force is due to the sufficiently strong scattering of the incoming wave into another mode carrying more momentum, in which case excess momentum is created behind the scatterer. This tractor beam or negative radiation pressure (NRP) effect, is found to be generic in systems with multiple scattering channels. In a birefringent medium, electromagnetic plane waves incident on a thin plate exert NRP of the same order of magnitude as optical radiation pressure, while in artificial dielectrics (metamaterials), the magnitude of NRP can even be macroscopic. In two dimensions, we study various scattering situations on vortices, and NRP is shown to occur by the scattering of heavy baryons into light leptons off cosmic strings, and by neutron scattering off vortices in the XY model.

  16. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, S.P.

    1988-03-08

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 4 figs.

  17. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, S.P.

    1987-03-12

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Antimicrobial blue light therapy for Candida albicans burn infection in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunsong; Wang, Yucheng; Murray, Clinton K.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Gu, Ying; Dai, Tianhong

    2015-05-01

    In this preclinical study, we investigated the utility of antimicrobial blue light therapy for Candida albicans infection in acutely burned mice. A bioluminescent strain of C. albicans was used. The susceptibilities to blue light inactivation were compared between C. albicans and human keratinocyte. In vitro serial passaging of C. albicans on blue light exposure was performed to evaluate the potential development of resistance to blue light inactivation. A mouse model of acute thermal burn injury infected with the bioluminescent strain of C. albicans was developed. Blue light (415 nm) was delivered to mouse burns for decolonization of C. albicans. Bioluminescence imaging was used to monitor in real time the extent of fungal infection in mouse burns. Experimental results showed that C. albicans was approximately 42-fold more susceptible to blue light inactivation in vitro than human keratinocyte (P=0.0022). Serial passaging of C. albicans on blue light exposure implied a tendency for the fungal susceptibility to blue light inactivation to decrease with the numbers of passages. Blue light reduced fungal burden by over 4-log10 (99.99%) in acute mouse burns infected with C. albicans in comparison to infected mouse burns without blue light therapy (P=0.015).

  19. Automatic location of microscopic focal planes for computerized stereology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elozory, Daniel T.; Bonam, Om Pavithra; Kramer, Kurt; Goldgof, Dmitry B.; Hall, Lawrence O.; Mangual, Osvaldo; Mouton, Peter R.

    2011-03-01

    When applying design-based stereology to biological tissue, there are two primary applications for an auto-focusing function in the software of computerized stereology system. The system must first locate the in-focus optical planes at the upper and lower surfaces of stained tissue sections, thus identifying the top and bottom as well as the thickness of the tissue. Second, the system must find the start and end along the Z-axis of stained objects within a Z-stack of images through tissue sections. In contrast to traditional autofocus algorithms that seek a global maximum or peak on the focus curve, the goal of this study was to find the two "knees" of the focus curve that represent the "just out-of-focus" focal planes. The upper surface of the tissue section is defined as the image just before focus is detected moving down the Z-stack. Continuing down, the lower surface is defined as the first image of the last set of adjacent images where focus is no longer detected. The performance of seven focus algorithms in locating the top and bottom focal planes of tissue sections was analyzed by comparing each algorithm on 34 Z-stacks including a total of 828 images. The Thresholded Absolute Gradient algorithm outperformed all others, correctly identifying the top or bottom focal plane within an average of 1 μm on the training data as well as the test data.

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates in disposable blue diathermy pads.

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, S. K.; Shaw, S.

    1999-01-01

    We report 2 cases of elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates from disposable blue diathermy pads used on patients who underwent routine surgery. Their reactions were severe, and took approximately 5 weeks to resolve. Both patients gave a prior history of finger tip dermatitis following the use of artificial sculptured acrylic nails, which is a common, but poorly reported, cause of acrylate allergy. Patch testing subsequently confirmed allergies to multiple acrylates present in both the conducting gel of disposable blue diathermy pads, and artificial sculptured acrylic nails. We advocate careful history taking prior to surgery to avoid unnecessary exposure to acrylates in patients already sensitized. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10364952

  1. The Laplace Planes of Uranus and Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.

    1993-01-01

    Satellite orbits close to an oblate planet precess about its equatorial plane, while distant satellites precess around the plane of the planet's heliocentric orbit. In between, satellites in nearly circular orbits precess about a warped intermediate surface called the Laplace 'plane.' Herein we derive general formulas for locating the Laplace plane. Because Uranus and Pluto have high obliquities, their Laplace planes are severely warped. We present maps of these Laplace planes, of interest in telescopic searches for new satellites. The Laplace plane of the Solar System as a whole is similarly distorted, but comets in the inner Oort cloud precess too slowly to sense the Laplace plane.

  2. "Clothed in triple blues": sorting out the Italian blues.

    PubMed

    Bimler, David; Uuskla, Mari

    2014-04-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of color perception and cognition often feature versions of the "similarity sorting" procedure. By interpreting the assignment of two color samples to different groups as an indication that the dissimilarity between them exceeds some threshold, sorting data can be regarded as low-resolution similarity judgments. Here we analyze sorting data from speakers of Italian, Russian, and English, applying multidimensional scaling to delineate the boundaries between perceptual categories while highlighting differences between the three populations. Stimuli were 55 color swatches, predominantly from the blue region. Results suggest that at least two Italian words for "blue" are basic, a similar situation to Russian, in contrast to English where a single "blue" term is basic. PMID:24695190

  3. Space-Plane Spreadsheet Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackall, Dale

    1993-01-01

    Basic Hypersonic Data and Equations (HYPERDATA) spreadsheet computer program provides data gained from three analyses of performance of space plane. Equations used to perform analyses derived from Newton's second law of physics, derivation included. First analysis is parametric study of some basic factors affecting ability of space plane to reach orbit. Second includes calculation of thickness of spherical fuel tank. Third produces ratio between volume of fuel and total mass for each of various aircraft. HYPERDATA intended for use on Macintosh(R) series computers running Microsoft Excel 3.0.

  4. MISR Stereo Imagery of Blue Mountain Fires in New South Wales, Australia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-12-17

    ... MISR Stereo Imagery of Blue Mountain Fires in New South Wales, Australia     View ... Va. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. Image Credit: NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team ...

  5. Fourier planes vs. Scheimpflug principle in microscopic and scatterometric devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahlweg, Cornelius; Zhao, Wenjing; Rothe, Hendrik

    2011-10-01

    The present paper is understood as a continuation of our paper on the utilization of the Scheimpflug-principle in scatterometric devices. Imaging scatterometers in principle gather the fourier image of the illuminated spot, which in microscopy would be the primary diffraction image. Therefore imaging scatterometers can be used as microscopes as well, which only requires an additional positive lens or equivalent mirror. It is obvious that combined designs are interesting in surface inspection: because of the loss of phase information in both direct and scatter image, there is still non redundant information besides the intersection set of both images. For the design of such combined devices it is of high interest to identify the fourier images. While a more or less paraxial dioptric device in orthogonal view has well defined fourier planes, in an off axis device with paraboloid or elliptical mirrors the fourier image is concerned by the Scheimpflug relations, which shall be subject of the present paper.

  6. Three Dimensional Sheaf of Ultrasound Planes Reconstruction (SOUPR) of Ablated Volumes

    PubMed Central

    Ingle, Atul; Varghese, Tomy

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for three dimensional reconstruction of tumor ablations using ultrasound shear wave imaging with electrode vibration elastography. Radiofrequency ultrasound data frames are acquired over imaging planes that form a subset of a sheaf of planes sharing a common axis of intersection. Shear wave velocity is estimated separately on each imaging plane using a piecewise linear function fitting technique with a fast optimization routine. An interpolation algorithm then computes velocity maps on a fine grid over a set of C-planes that are perpendicular to the axis of the sheaf. A full three dimensional rendering of the ablation can then be created from this stack of C-planes; hence the name “Sheaf Of Ultrasound Planes Reconstruction” or SOUPR. The algorithm is evaluated through numerical simulations and also using data acquired from a tissue mimicking phantom. Reconstruction quality is gauged using contrast and contrast-to-noise ratio measurements and changes in quality from using increasing number of planes in the sheaf are quantified. The highest contrast of 5 dB is seen between the stiffest and softest regions of the phantom. Under certain idealizing assumptions on the true shape of the ablation, good reconstruction quality while maintaining fast processing rate can be obtained with as few as 6 imaging planes suggesting that the method is suited for parsimonious data acquisitions with very few sparsely chosen imaging planes. PMID:24808405

  7. Affine Contractions on the Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, D.; Ozdemir, Y.; Ureyen, M.

    2007-01-01

    Contractions play a considerable role in the theory of fractals. However, it is not easy to find contractions which are not similitudes. In this study, it is shown by counter examples that an affine transformation of the plane carrying a given triangle onto another triangle may not be a contraction even if it contracts edges, heights or medians.

  8. Affine Contractions on the Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, D.; Ozdemir, Y.; Ureyen, M.

    2007-01-01

    Contractions play a considerable role in the theory of fractals. However, it is not easy to find contractions which are not similitudes. In this study, it is shown by counter examples that an affine transformation of the plane carrying a given triangle onto another triangle may not be a contraction even if it contracts edges, heights or medians.…

  9. The BlueSky Smoke Modeling Framework: Recent Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, D. C.; Larkin, N.; Raffuse, S. M.; Strand, T.; ONeill, S. M.; Leung, F. T.; Qu, J. J.; Hao, X.

    2012-12-01

    BlueSky systems—a set of decision support tools including SmartFire and the BlueSky Framework—aid public policy decision makers and scientific researchers in evaluating the air quality impacts of fires. Smoke and fire managers use BlueSky systems in decisions about prescribed burns and wildland firefighting. Air quality agencies use BlueSky systems to support decisions related to air quality regulations. We will discuss a range of recent improvements to the BlueSky systems, as well as examples of applications and future plans. BlueSky systems have the flexibility to accept basic fire information from virtually any source and can reconcile multiple information sources so that duplication of fire records is eliminated. BlueSky systems currently apply information from (1) the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Hazard Mapping System (HMS), which represents remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES); (2) the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) interagency project, which derives fire perimeters from Landsat 30-meter burn scars; (3) the Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Group (GeoMAC), which produces helicopter-flown burn perimeters; and (4) ground-based fire reports, such as the ICS-209 reports managed by the National Wildfire Coordinating Group. Efforts are currently underway to streamline the use of additional ground-based systems, such as states' prescribed burn databases. BlueSky systems were recently modified to address known uncertainties in smoke modeling associated with (1) estimates of biomass consumption derived from sparse fuel moisture data, and (2) models of plume injection heights. Additional sources of remotely sensed data are being applied to address these issues as follows: - The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis Real-Time (TMPA-RT) data set is being used to improve dead fuel moisture estimates. - EastFire live fuel moisture estimates, which are derived from NASA's MODIS direct broadcast, are being used to improve live fuel moisture estimates. - NASA's Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) stereo heights are being used to improve estimates of plume injection heights. Further, the Fire Location and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBÉ) model was incorporated into the BlueSky Framework as an alternative means of calculating fire emissions. FLAMBÉ directly estimates emissions on the basis of fire detections and radiance measures from NASA's MODIS and NOAA's GOES satellites. (The authors gratefully acknowledge NASA's Applied Sciences Program [Grant Nos. NN506AB52A and NNX09AV76G)], the USDA Forest Service, and the Joint Fire Science Program for their support.)

  10. Implementing hexaminolevulinate HCl blue light cystoscopy: a nursing perspective.

    PubMed

    Calvaresi, Anne E; Trabulsi, Edouard J; Sonzogni, Maryann; Gomella, Leonard G; Lallas, Costas D; Wachsmuth, Kristen S

    2014-11-01

    Hexaminolevulinate HCl is a diagnostic imaging agent used with blue light during cystoscopy to help detect non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Blue light cystoscopy performed using hexaminolevulinate HCl has been found to detect more papillary non-muscle-invasive bladder tumors than cystoscopy performed using standard white light. Because bladder instillation and retention requirements of hexaminolevulinate during cystoscopy can affect patient flow in the perioperative setting, this technique necessitates changes in nursing practice and care of patients with known or suspected non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Nursing personnel at one facility followed the AORN guidelines for preoperative patient care in the ambulatory setting to address staffing, preoperative nursing assessment, anesthesia evaluation, and preoperative teaching related to implementing blue light cystoscopy. PMID:25443119

  11. Double-twist cylinders in liquid crystalline cholesteric blue phases observed by transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Shu; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Kawata, Yuto; Kuwahara, Ryusuke; Nishi, Ryuji; Ozaki, Masanori

    2015-11-01

    Cholesteric blue phases are liquid crystalline phases in which the constituent rod-like molecules spontaneously form three-dimensional, helical structures. Despite theoretical predictions that they are composed of cylindrical substructures within which the liquid crystal molecules are doubly twisted, real space observation of the arrangement of such structures had not been performed. Through transmission electron microscopy of photopolymerized blue phases with controlled lattice plane orientations, we report real space observation and comparison of the lattice structures of blue phases I and II. The two systems show distinctly different contrasts, reflecting the theoretically predicted, body centred and simple cubic arrangement of the double-twist cylinders. Transmission electron microscopy also reveals different tendencies of the two blue phases to align on unidirectionally rubbed surfaces. We thus show that TEM observation of alignment-controlled, photopolymerized liquid crystals can be a powerful tool to investigate complex liquid crystalline order.

  12. Double-twist cylinders in liquid crystalline cholesteric blue phases observed by transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shu; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Kawata, Yuto; Kuwahara, Ryusuke; Nishi, Ryuji; Ozaki, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Cholesteric blue phases are liquid crystalline phases in which the constituent rod-like molecules spontaneously form three-dimensional, helical structures. Despite theoretical predictions that they are composed of cylindrical substructures within which the liquid crystal molecules are doubly twisted, real space observation of the arrangement of such structures had not been performed. Through transmission electron microscopy of photopolymerized blue phases with controlled lattice plane orientations, we report real space observation and comparison of the lattice structures of blue phases I and II. The two systems show distinctly different contrasts, reflecting the theoretically predicted, body centred and simple cubic arrangement of the double-twist cylinders. Transmission electron microscopy also reveals different tendencies of the two blue phases to align on unidirectionally rubbed surfaces. We thus show that TEM observation of alignment-controlled, photopolymerized liquid crystals can be a powerful tool to investigate complex liquid crystalline order. PMID:26530779

  13. Double-twist cylinders in liquid crystalline cholesteric blue phases observed by transmission electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Shu; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Kawata, Yuto; Kuwahara, Ryusuke; Nishi, Ryuji; Ozaki, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Cholesteric blue phases are liquid crystalline phases in which the constituent rod-like molecules spontaneously form three-dimensional, helical structures. Despite theoretical predictions that they are composed of cylindrical substructures within which the liquid crystal molecules are doubly twisted, real space observation of the arrangement of such structures had not been performed. Through transmission electron microscopy of photopolymerized blue phases with controlled lattice plane orientations, we report real space observation and comparison of the lattice structures of blue phases I and II. The two systems show distinctly different contrasts, reflecting the theoretically predicted, body centred and simple cubic arrangement of the double-twist cylinders. Transmission electron microscopy also reveals different tendencies of the two blue phases to align on unidirectionally rubbed surfaces. We thus show that TEM observation of alignment-controlled, photopolymerized liquid crystals can be a powerful tool to investigate complex liquid crystalline order. PMID:26530779

  14. Crater Lake: blue through time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Gary L.; Buktenica, Mark; Collier, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Blue is the color of constancy, hence the term true blue. The unearthly blueness of Crater Lake reflects its pristine character and gives scientists a focal point for studying human impacts on aquatic environments over long periods of time. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), National Park Service, and Oregon State University have systematically studied the lake for the last two decades. Long-term monitoring of this lake is a priority of Crater Lake National Park and will continue far into the future.

  15. The blue-collar brain.

    PubMed

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

  16. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Dinh C. (Los Alamos, NM); Faulkner, George E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A blue-green laser (450-550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm.sup.3+. The Tm.sup.+ is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP.

  17. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, D.C.; Faulkner, G.E.

    1990-08-14

    A blue-green laser (450--550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm[sup 3+]. The Tm[sup 3+] is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP. 3 figs.

  18. Blue light emitting thiogallate phosphor

    DOEpatents

    Dye, Robert C. (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, David C. (Los Alamos, NM); King, Christopher N. (Portland, OR); Tuenge, Richard T. (Hillsboro, OR)

    1998-01-01

    A crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor of the formula RGa.sub.2 S.sub.4 :Ce.sub.x where R is selected from the group consisting of calcium, strontium, barium and zinc, and x is from about 1 to 10 atomic percent, the phosphor characterized as having a crystalline microstructure on the size order of from about 100 .ANG. to about 10,000 .ANG. is provided together with a process of preparing a crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor by depositing on a substrate by CVD and resultant thin film electroluminescent devices including a layer of such deposited phosphor on an ordinary glass substrate.

  19. The Blue-Collar Brain

    PubMed Central

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body’s tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

  20. THE WHIQII SURVEY: METALLICITIES AND SPECTROSCOPIC PROPERTIES OF LUMINOUS COMPACT BLUE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Tollerud, Erik J.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Cooke, Jeff; Van Zee, Liese

    2010-01-10

    As part of the WIYN High Image Quality Indiana-Irvine (WHIQII) survey, we present 123 spectra of faint emission-line galaxies, selected to focus on intermediate redshift (0.4 approx< z approx< 0.8) galaxies with blue colors that appear physically compact on the sky. The sample includes 15 true Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies (LCBGs) and an additional 27 slightly less extreme emission-line systems. These galaxies represent a highly evolving class that may play an important role in the decline of star formation since z approx 1, but their exact nature and evolutionary pathways remain a mystery. Here, we use emission lines to determine metallicities and ionization parameters, constraining their intrinsic properties and state of star formation. Some LCBG metallicities are consistent with a 'bursting dwarf' scenario, while a substantial fraction of others are not, further confirming that LCBGs are a highly heterogeneous population but are broadly consistent with the intermediate redshift field. In agreement with previous studies, we observe overall evolution in the luminosity-metallicity relation at intermediate redshift. Our sample, and particularly the LCBGs, occupies a region in the empirical R{sub 23}-O{sub 32} plane that differs from luminous local galaxies and is more consistent with dwarf irregulars at the present epoch, suggesting that cosmic 'downsizing' is observable in even the most fundamental parameters that describe star formation. These properties for our sample are also generally consistent with lying between local galaxies and those at high redshift, as expected by this scenario. Surprisingly, our sample exhibits no detectable correlation between compactness and metallicity, strongly suggesting that at these epochs of rapid star formation, the morphology of compact star-forming galaxies is largely transient.

  1. Strategic blue-green communication filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, W. J.

    1984-04-01

    The project began as an effort to construct narrowband, wide-field-of-view, large-aperture, plastic, birefringent filters suitable for blue-green communications. During the course of the study we investigated the use of crystalline materials in addition to plastic films, and we studied filter design theory in order to find designs more suitable to the blue-green system requirements. In addition, we constructed a quartz, 2A filter for the 1981 SLCAIR experiment. In this report we have included an introduction to the principles of narrowband, wide-field-of-view, birefringent filters. This section is included since the subject matter is not readily available except piecemeal in technical journals. Section 3 is a discussion of the materials which were considered during this study. It contains subsections devoted to crystals, plastics and analog element, respectively. A class of new lossless filter designs is described in Section 4. These designs are expected to provide a basis for high-transmission filters in the future. The operational SLCAIR-81 filter is described in Section 5. It was part of the successful experiment which demonstrated communication to the USN Dolphin, a research submarine. Finally, in Section 6 we describe the non-vignetting filter design which was discovered during this study. It represents a significant throughput advantage for crystal filters used in non-imaging applications.

  2. Blue Marble Eastern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Drawing on data from multiple satellite missions (not all collected at the same time), a team of NASA scientists and graphic artists created layers of global data for everything from the land surface, to polar sea ice, to the light reflected by the chlorophyll in the billions of microscopic plants that grow in the ocean. They wrapped these layers around a globe, set it against a black background, and simulated the hazy edge of the Earth's atmosphere (the limb) that appears in astronaut photography of the Earth. The land surface layer is based on photo-like surface reflectance observations (reflected sunlight) measured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite in July 2004. The sea ice layer near the poles comes from Terra MODIS observations of daytime sea ice observed between August 28 and September 6, 2001. The ocean layer is a composite. In shallow water areas, the layer shows surface reflectances observed by Terra MODIS in July 2004. In the open ocean, the photo-like layer is overlaid with observations of the average ocean chlorophyll content for 2004. NASA's Aqua MODIS collected the chlorophyll data. The cloud layer shows a single-day snapshot of clouds observed by Terra MODIS across the planet on July 29, 2001. City lights on Earth's night side are visualized from data collected by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program mission between 1994-1995. The topography layer is based on radar data collected by the Space Shuttle Endeavour during an 11-day mission in February of 2000. Topography over Antarctica comes from the Radarsat Antarctic Mapping Project, version 2.

  3. Blue Marble Western Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Drawing on data from multiple satellite missions (not all collected at the same time), a team of NASA scientists and graphic artists created layers of global data for everything from the land surface, to polar sea ice, to the light reflected by the chlorophyll in the billions of microscopic plants that grow in the ocean. They wrapped these layers around a globe, set it against a black background, and simulated the hazy edge of the Earth's atmosphere (the limb) that appears in astronaut photography of the Earth. The land surface layer is based on photo-like surface reflectance observations (reflected sunlight) measured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite in July 2004. The sea ice layer near the poles comes from Terra MODIS observations of daytime sea ice observed between August 28 and September 6, 2001. The ocean layer is a composite. In shallow water areas, the layer shows surface reflectances observed by Terra MODIS in July 2004. In the open ocean, the photo-like layer is overlaid with observations of the average ocean chlorophyll content for 2004. NASA's Aqua MODIS collected the chlorophyll data. The cloud layer shows a single-day snapshot of clouds observed by Terra MODIS across the planet on July 29, 2001. City lights on Earth's night side are visualized from data collected by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program mission between 1994-1995. The topography layer is based on radar data collected by the Space Shuttle Endeavour during an 11-day mission in February of 2000. Topography over Antarctica comes from the Radarsat Antarctic Mapping Project, version 2.

  4. Fast & Furious focal-plane wavefront sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkiakoski, Visa; Keller, Christoph U.; Doelman, Niek; Kenworthy, Matthew; Otten, Gilles; Verhaegen, Michel

    2014-07-01

    We present two complementary algorithms suitable for using focal-plane measurements to control a wavefront corrector with an extremely high spatial resolution. The algorithms use linear approximations to iteratively minimize the aberrations seen by the focal-plane camera. The first algorithm, Fast & Furious (FF), uses a weak-aberration assumption and pupil symmetries to achieve fast wavefront reconstruction. The second algorithm, an extension to FF, can deal with an arbitrary pupil shape; it uses a Gerchberg-Saxton style error reduction to determine the pupil amplitudes. Simulations and experimental results are shown for a spatial light modulator controlling the wavefront with a resolution of 170 x 170 pixels. The algorithms increase the Strehl ratio from ~0.75 to 0.98-0.99, and the intensity of the scattered light is reduced throughout the whole recorded image of 320 x 320 pixels. The remaining wavefront rms error is estimated to be ~0.15 rad with FF and ~0.10 rad with FF-GS.

  5. Fast & Furious focal-plane wavefront sensing.

    PubMed

    Korkiakoski, Visa; Keller, Christoph U; Doelman, Niek; Kenworthy, Matthew; Otten, Gilles; Verhaegen, Michel

    2014-07-10

    We present two complementary algorithms suitable for using focal-plane measurements to control a wavefront corrector with an extremely high-spatial resolution. The algorithms use linear approximations to iteratively minimize the aberrations seen by the focal-plane camera. The first algorithm, Fast & Furious (FF), uses a weak-aberration assumption and pupil symmetries to achieve fast wavefront reconstruction. The second algorithm, an extension to FF, can deal with an arbitrary pupil shape; it uses a Gerchberg-Saxton (GS)-style error reduction to determine the pupil amplitudes. Simulations and experimental results are shown for a spatial-light modulator controlling the wavefront with a resolution of 170170??pixels. The algorithms increase the Strehl ratio from ?0.75 to 0.98-0.99, and the intensity of the scattered light is reduced throughout the whole recorded image of 320320??pixels. The remaining wavefront rms error is estimated to be ?0.15??rad with FF and ?0.10??rad with FF-GS. PMID:25090079

  6. Stokes problems for moving half-planes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeng, Y.; Weinbaum, S.; Cowin, S. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    New exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations are obtained for the unbounded and bounded oscillatory and impulsive tangential edgewise motion of touching half-infinite plates in their own plane. In contrast to Stokes classical solutions for the harmonic and impulsive motion of an infinite plane wall, where the solutions are separable or have a simple similarity form, the present solutions have a two-dimensional structure in the near region of the contact between the half-infinite plates. Nevertheless, it is possible to obtain relatively simple closed-form solutions for the flow field in each case by defining new variables which greatly simplify the r- and theta- dependence of the solutions in the vicinity of the contact region. These solutions for flow in a half-infinite space are then extended to bounded flows in a channel using an image superposition technique. The impulsive motion has application to the motion near geophysical faults, whereas the oscillatory motion has arisen in the design of a novel oscillating half-plate flow chamber for examining the effect of fluid shear stress on cultured cell monolayers.

  7. Optically Modulatable Blue Fluorescent Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, Amy E.; Vegh, Russell B.; Hsiang, Jung-Cheng; Bommarius, Bettina; Chen, Yen-Cheng; Solntsev, Kyril M.; Bommarius, Andreas S.; Tolbert, Laren M.; Dickson, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Blue fluorescent proteins (BFPs) offer visualization of protein location and behavior, but often suffer from high autofluorescent background and poor signal discrimination. Through dual-laser excitation of bright and photoinduced dark states, mutations to the residues surrounding the BFP chromophore enable long-wavelength optical modulation of BFP emission. Such dark state engineering enables violet-excited blue emission to be increased upon lower energy, green co-illumination. Turning this green co-illumination on and off at a specific frequency dynamically modulates collected blue fluorescence without generating additional background. Interpreted as transient photoconversion between neutral cis- and anionic trans- chromophoric forms, mutations tune photoisomerization and ground state tautomerizations to enable long-wavelength depopulation of the millisecond-lived, spectrally shifted dark states. Single mutations to the tyrosine-based blue fluorescent protein T203V/S205V exhibit enhanced modulation depth and varied frequency. Importantly, analogous single point mutations in the non-modulatable BFP, mKalama1, creates a modulatable variant. Building modulatable BFPs offers opportunities for improved BFP signal discrimination vs. background, greatly enhancing their utility. PMID:24099419

  8. Nobel Prize for blue LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2015-05-01

    A brief review of lighting technologies is presented. Unavoidable restrictions for incandescent light bulbs caused by the Planck distribution and properties of the human eye are illustrated. The efficiency and luminous efficacy of thermal radiation are calculated for various temperatures; the results clearly show the limitations for thermal radiators. The only way to overcome these limitations is using non-thermal radiators, such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unique advantages of LEDs undoubtedly made a revolution in this field. A crucial element of this progress is the blue LEDs (Nobel Prize 2014). Some experiments with a blue and a green LED are described: (i) the luminescence triggered in a green-yellow phosphor inside a white LED by the blue LED; (ii) radiant spectra and ‘efficiency droop’ in the LEDs; (iii) modulation of the blue LED up to 4 MHz; and (iv) the h/e ratio from the turn-on voltage of the green LED. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and usable as classroom demonstrations.

  9. Singing' the Black and Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Diane

    2004-01-01

    It is so obvious that the sky is blue in the daytime and black at night, but it took the smartest humans thousands of years of observation, thought, discussion, conjecture, and analysis to finally come up with answers that make scientific sense as to why the sky is these colors. This article discusses light and the scientific research…

  10. The Blues in Black Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Elizabeth

    1971-01-01

    The literature of black America repeatedly reflects a native rootlessness and its creators' yearning for a home. The black writer settles his work in an ethos, which has evolved from an older African heritage, primarily in response to an omnipresent white society. In this document, one of these ethnic expressions--the blues--is examined as a means

  11. Singing' the Black and Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Diane

    2004-01-01

    It is so obvious that the sky is blue in the daytime and black at night, but it took the smartest humans thousands of years of observation, thought, discussion, conjecture, and analysis to finally come up with answers that make scientific sense as to why the sky is these colors. This article discusses light and the scientific research

  12. Eight plane IPND mechanical testing.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, A.; Guarino, V.; Wood, K.; Nephew, T.; Ayres, D.; Lee, A.; High Energy Physics; FNAL

    2008-03-18

    A mechanical test of an 8 plane IPND mechanical prototype, which was constructed using extrusions from the testing/tryout of the 16 cell prototype extrusion die in Argonne National Laboratory, was conducted. There were 4 vertical and 4 horizontal planes in this 8 plane IPND prototype. Each vertical plane had four 16 cell extrusions, while each horizontal plane had six 16 cell extrusions. Each plane was glued together using the formulation of Devcon adhesive, Devcon 60. The vertical extrusions used in the vertical planes shares the same dimensions as the horizontal extrusions in the horizontal planes with the average web thickness of 2.1 mm and the average wall thickness of 3.1 mm. This mechanical prototype was constructed with end-seals on the both ends of the vertical extrusions. The gaps were filled with epoxy between extrusions and end-seals. The overall dimension of IPND is 154.8 by 103.1 by 21.7 inches with the weight of approximately 1200 kg, as shown in a figure. Two similar mechanical tests of 3 layer and 11 layer prototypes have been done in order to evaluate the strength of the adhesive joint between extrusions in the NOvA detector. The test showed that the IPND prototype was able to sustain under the loading of weight of itself and scintillator. Two FEA models were built to verify the measurement data from the test. The prediction from FEA slice model seems correlated reasonably well to the test result, even under a 'rough' estimated condition for the wall thickness (from an untuned die) and an unknown property of 'garage type' extrusion. A full size of FEA 3-D model also agrees very well with the test data from strain gage readings. It is worthy to point out that the stress distribution of the structure is predominantly determined by the internal pressure, while the buckling stability relies more on the loading weight from the extrusions themselves and scintillate. Results of conducted internal pressure tests, including 3- cell, 11-cell and the IPND prototypes, have been correlated to the FEA analysis very well. The authors believe they have quite good understanding of response of the NOvA structures subjected to the internal pressure, while the understanding of buckling stability is far behind. Therefore, more effect should be laid to improve the buckling considering that the FEA analysis usually is not able accurately modeling the stability as good as the stress analysis. The IPND structure was mostly built using 'scrape' piece extrusions (whatever available in shop). Therefore, a future test should be more focus on by using a actual real extrusions, for example like Nova -27 (if a final choice is made) and extrusion from a tuned die (very important). The authors should/will repeat 11 layers test with an actual thicker piece for the vertical to verify the adhesive joint and similar large scale prototype with a symmetry case, either 9 or 11 layers with the dial indicator on the both side.

  13. Plane Wave and Coulomb Asymptotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, P. G.; Crothers, D. S. F.

    2004-01-01

    A simple plane wave solution of the Schrdinger Helmholtz equation is a quantum eigenfunction obeying both energy and linear momentum correspondence principles. Inclusion of the outgoing wave with scattering amplitude f obeys unitarity and the optical theorem. By closely considering the standard asymptotic development of the plane wave, we show that there is a problem with angular momentum when we consider forward scattering at the point of closest approach and at large impact parameter given semiclassically by (l + 1/2)/k where l is the azimuthal quantum number and may be large (J Leech et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 257901 (2002)). The problem is resolved via non-uniform, non-standard analysis involving the Heaviside step function, unifying classical, semiclassical and quantum mechanics, and the treatment is extended to the case of pure Coulomb scattering.

  14. Out-of-plane displacement field measurement by shearography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Pengxiang; Zhu, Feipeng; He, Xiaoyuan

    2015-10-01

    Existing shearography systems measuring out-of-plane displacements suffer from boundary-constraint or reference surface requirements. Therefore, we propose an accurate non-uniform out-of-plane displacement field measurement method based on a modified shearography system and two-step integration method. The proposed method combines high-resolution interferometry with the advantage of relaxing the environmental stability requirements. The modified shearography system adopts three beam splitters and two switches when compared with conventional optical configurations. The three beam splitters are used to construct a modified Michelson interferometer that shears the image along two orthogonal directions, and the shearing direction can be switched by the two hardware switches between the orthogonal directions. With phase shifting performed on the recorded images, the out-of-plane displacement gradients along the orthogonal directions are extracted sequentially. In general, without boundary restrictions on the object surface, it is difficult to directly extract out-of-plane displacement from a single displacement gradient field. Accordingly, the two-step integration method is proposed and applied to the orthogonal displacement gradients to extract the relative out-of-plane displacement field without any boundary conditions of the object surface provided. Experiments are performed on a clamped circular plate with uniform loading, and the results are compared with electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) results to validate the proposed method.

  15. The blue luminous events observed by ISUAL payload on board FORMOSAT-2 satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, C. L.; Su, H. T.; Hsu, R. R.

    2015-11-01

    We report the blue luminous events observed by the Imager of Sprite/Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL) payload on board the FORMOSAT-2 satellite. The ISUAL 427.8 nm filtered Imager campaign was conducted near Australia in the summer of the Southern Hemisphere during February-March 2008. On 18 February 2008, the 427.8 nm filtered Imager recorded a series of blue luminous events. One blue starter and nine smaller blue starters were recorded in 2 min and 34 s in a localized region with the radius < 4 km over the cloud top. The average time interval between subsequent blue luminous events was ~ 17 s. The occurrence rate of blue luminous events was 3.5 events per minute, slightly lower than the occurrence rate of pixies (4.2 events per minute) but higher than the occurrence rate of gnomes and blue jets in the previous observations. The recorded first blue starter lasted up to 2-3 frame times (60-90 ms) and extended its altitude about 8 0.3 km with a width of ~2-4 km over the cloud top. After the first blue starter, subsequent nine smaller blue starters had the decreased heights of ~2-4 km, and their optical duration was shorter and is down to 1 ms. But their major emissions were 2PN2 and 1NN2+, without lightning OI 777.4 nm emission. The ISUAL recorded blue smaller starters had the spatial average brightness of 130 kR for the 427.8 nm filtered Imager with exposure time (29 ms) and 1.2 MR for the spectrophotometer (337 nm). Using the spectrophotometer, the emission time of blue starters was 1 ms. It is estimated that the 1NN2+ emission was ~ 22 MR and the 2PN2 emission was ~ 132 MR. We can estimate the degree of ionization was 10-11-10-12 in these blue luminous events using the 427.8 nm filtered Imager measured 1NN2+ (0,1) emission.

  16. Blue Polar Dunes In False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    The small dunes in this image are 'bluer' than the rest of the layered ice/dust units to the left.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 84.5, Longitude 206.6 East (153.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. SETI in the Ecliptic Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conn Henry, Richard; Kilston, S.; Shostak, S.

    2008-05-01

    The strong advantages of SETI searches in the ecliptic plane have been pointed out by Kilston, Shostak, and Henry (2008). In our poster we show one possible history of civilizations in the galaxy, from birth, through galactic colonization, up to death - and even beyond. Should this scenario be correct, the pattern suggests that the best hope for success in SETI is exploration of the possibility that there are a few extremely ancient but non-colonizing civilizations; civilizations that, aeons ago, detected the existence of Earth (oxygen, and hence life) and of its Moon (stabilizing Earth's rotation) via observations of transits of the Sun (hence, ecliptic, which is stable over millions of years [Laskar et al. 2004]), and have been beaming voluminous information in our direction ever since, in their faint hope (now realized) that a technological "receiving” species would appear. To maintain such a targeted broadcast would be extremely cheap for an advanced civilization. A search of a swath centered on our ecliptic plane should easily find such civilizations, if they exist. We hope to carry out such a search, using the Allen Telescope Array. http://henry.pha.jhu.edu/poster.SETI.pdf References: Kilston, Steven; Shostak, Seth; & Henry, Richard Conn; "Who's Looking at You, Kid?: SETI Advantages near the Ecliptic Plane," AbSciCon 2008, April 14-17, Santa Clara, CA.; Laskar, J., et al., A&A 428, 261, 2004 This work was supported by Maryland Space Grant Consortium.

  18. Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKenzie, Patrick M.

    2003-01-01

    Lockheed Martin has been an active participant in NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI) programs over the past several years. SLI, part of NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan (ISTP), was restructured in November of 2002 to focus the overall theme of safer, more afford-able space transportation along two paths - the Orbital Space Plane Program and the Next Generation Launch Technology programs. The Orbital Space Plane Program has the goal of providing rescue capability from the International Space Station by 2008 and transfer capability for crew (and limited cargo) by 2012. The Next Generation Launch Technology program is combining research and development efforts from the 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2GRLV) program with cutting-edge, advanced space transportation programs (previously designated 3rd Generation) into one program aimed at enabling safe, reliable, cost-effective reusable launch systems by the middle of the next decade. Lockheed Martin is one of three prime contractors working to bring Orbital Space Plane system concepts to a system definition level of maturity by December of 2003. This paper and presentation will update the international community on the progress of the' OSP program, from an industry perspective, and provide insights into Lockheed Martin's role in enabling the vision of a safer, more affordable means of taking people to and from space.

  19. Blue Marble: Remote Characterization of Habitable Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolf, Neville; Lewis, Brian; Chartres, James; Genova, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The study of the nature and distribution of habitable environments beyond the Solar System is a key area for Astrobiology research. At the present time, our Earth is the only habitable planet that can be characterized in the same way that we might characterize planets beyond the Solar System. Due to limitations in our current and near-future technology, it is likely that extra-solar planets will be observed as single-pixel objects. To understand this data, we must develop skills in analyzing and interpreting the radiation obtained from a single pixel. These skills must include the study of the time variation of the radiation, and the range of its photometric, spectroscopic and polarimetric properties. In addition, to understand whether we are properly analyzing the single pixel data, we need to compare it with a ground truth of modest resolution images in key spectral bands. This paper discusses the concept for a mission called Blue Marble that would obtain data of the Earth using a combination of spectropolarimetry, spectrophotometry, and selected band imaging. To obtain imagery of the proper resolution, it is desirable to place the Blue Marble spacecraft no closer than the outer region of cis-lunar space. This paper explores a conceptual mission design that takes advantage of low-cost launchers, bus designs and mission elements to provide a cost effective observing platform located at one of the stable Earth-moon Lagrangian points (L4, L5). The mission design allows for the development and use of novel technologies, such as a spinning moon sensor for attitude control, and leverages lessons-learned from previous low-cost spacecraft such as Lunar Prospector to yield a low-risk mission concept.

  20. The Blues Poetry of Langston Hughes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Edward E.

    1971-01-01

    The author discusses the criteria of the blues as an American art form. He then shows how Langston Hughes captures the mood, the feeling, the rhythm and the impact of the blues in his poetry. (Author/LF)

  1. Lingual mandibular bony defects: CT in the buccolingual plane

    SciTech Connect

    Slasky, B.S.; Bar-Ziv, J.

    1996-05-01

    Our goal was to record the appearance of lingular mandibular bony defects (LMBD) on CT imaging of the mandible in the buccolingual plane. During the CT evaluation of patients planning to undergo dental implant surgery, five cases of LMBD were found. Axial 1.2 x 1.00 mm overlapping CT sections of the mandible and the maxilla were obtained. Then with use of specific software (DentaCT; Elscint), panoramic and cross-sectional (buccolingual) images of the mandible and maxilla were reformatted. Five cases of posterior LMBD were identified; one patient had both a posterior as well as the much rarer anterior LMBD. All cases were incidental findings and all were asymptomatic. CT features of LMBD were displayed it axial, panoramic, and buccolingual planes. The characteristic opening of the bony defect in the lingual aspect of the mandible was clearly displayed on the axial as well as the buccolingual images; however, this key feature was not manifest on the panoramic images; however, this key feature was not manifest on the panoramic images of the mandible. CT features of LMBD in the buccolingual plane are added to the known radiologic description of this entity. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Point-to-plane and plane-to-plane electrostatic charge injection atomization for insulating liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkawi, Ghazi

    An electrostatic charge injection atomizer was fabricated and used to introduce and study the electrostatic charge injection atomization methods for highly viscous vegetable oils and high conductivity low viscosity aviation fuel, JP8. The total, spray and leakage currents and spray breakup characteristics for these liquids were investigated and compared with Diesel fuel data. Jet breakup and spray atomization mechanism showed differences for vegetable oils and lower viscosity hydrocarbon fuels. For vegetable oils, a bending/spinning instability phenomenon was observed similar to the phenomenon found in liquid jets of high viscosity polymer solutions. The spray tip lengths and cone angles were presented qualitatively and quantitatively and correlated with the appropriate empirical formulas. The different stages of the breakup mechanisms for such oils, as a function of specific charges and flow rates, were discussed. In order to make this method of atomization more suitable for practical use in high flow rate applications, a blunt face electrode (plane-to-plane) was used as the charge emitter in place of a single pointed electrode (point-to-plane). This allowed the use of a multi-orifice emitter that maintained a specific charge with the flow rate increase which could not be achieved with the needle electrode. The effect of the nozzle geometry, liquid physical properties and applied bulk flow on the spray charge, total charge, maximum critical spray specific charge and electrical efficiency compared with the needle point-to-plane atomizer results was presented. Our investigation revealed that the electrical efficiency of the atomizer is dominated by the charge forced convection rate rather than charge transport by ion motilities and liquid motion by the electric field. As a result of the electric coulomb forces between the electrified jets, the multi-orifice atomizer provided a unique means of dispersing the fuel in a hollow cone with wide angles making the new method suitable for variety of combustion applications.

  3. Orbital Space Plane Program Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.

    2003-01-01

    The Orbital Space Plane Program is an integral part of NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Program (ISTP). The ISTP consists of three major programs: Space Shuttle, Orbital Space Plane, and Next Generation Launch Technology. The Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program will develop a new Crew Transfer Vehicle (CTV) with multipurpose utility for the Agency. The CTV will complement and back up the Space Shuttle by taking crews to and from the International Space Station (ISS), as well as enable a transition path to future reusable launch vehicle systems. In the CTV development cycle, around 2010 it will be used as a Crew Return Vehicle (CRV). The OSP will be launched on an Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV). NASA is in the process of establishing Level 1 Requirements and initiating concept studies. Ongoing flight demonstrators will continue, while new flight demonstrator projects will begin. The OSP Program contains two elements: (1) Technology and Demonstrations, and (2) Design, Development, and Production. The OSP Design, Development, and Production element will enter the Formulation Phase in FY03. Per NASA Procedures and Guidelines 7120.5B, the Formulation Phase will be utilized to establish the Program schedule and budget plans. Current budget planning is based on Phase A concept studies being conducted in FY03 and FY04, preliminary design activities conducted in FY04 and FY05, and a Preliminary Design Review in FY05. An OSP full-scale development decision will be made in FY05. At that point, a conclusion to proceed will result in the OSP Program transitioning from the Formulation Phase to the Development Phase.

  4. Orbital Space Plane Cost Credibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Steve

    2003-01-01

    NASA's largest new start development program is the Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program. The program is currently in the formulation stage. One of the critical issues to be resolved, prior to initiating full-scale development, is establishing cost credibility of NASA s budget estimates for development, production, and operations of the OSP. This paper will discuss the processes, tools, and methodologies that NASA, along with its industry partners, are implementing to assure cost credibility for the OSP program. Results of benchmarking of current tools and the development of new cost estimating capabilities and approaches will be discussed.

  5. Imaging.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, R

    1986-12-01

    Imaging of the musculoskeletal system includes many modalities and is an area that is changing rapidly. Selection of the most accurate techniques and avoidance of duplication are vital to both good patient care and cost containment. PMID:3466135

  6. Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Blue Shield Plan Physician Participation

    PubMed Central

    Yett, Donald E.; Der, William; Ernst, Richard L.; Hay, Joel W.

    1981-01-01

    Many Blue Shield Plans offer participation agreements to physicians that are structurally similar to the participation provisions of Medicaid programs. This paper examines physicians' participation decisions in two such Blue Shield Plans where the participation agreements were on an all-or-nothing basis. The major results show that increases in the Plans' reasonable fees or fee schedules significantly raise the probability of participation, and that physicians with characteristics associated with low quality are significantly more likely to participate than are physicians with characteristics associated with high quality. In this sense the results highlight the tradeoff that must be faced in administering governmental health insurance policy. On the one hand, restricting reasonable and scheduled fees is the principal current tool for containing expenditures on physicians' services. Yet these restrictions tend to depress physicians' willingness to participate in government programs, thereby reducing access to high quality care by the populations those programs were designed to serve. PMID:10309468

  8. The Physics of the Blues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, J. Murray

    2009-03-01

    In looking at the commonalities between music and science, one sees that the musician's palette is based on the principles of physics. The pitch of a musical note is determined by the frequency of the sound wave. The scales that musicians use to create and play music can be viewed as a set of rules. What makes music interesting is how musicians develop those rules and create ambiguity with them. I will discuss the evolution of western musical scales in this context. As a particular example, ``Blue'' notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale. The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting. Live keyboard demonstrations will be used. Beyond any redeeming entertainment value the talk will emphasize the serious connections between science and art in music. Nevertheless tips will be accepted.

  9. Ol' Blue Eyes, in Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Scholarly books with "identity" and "culture" in the title have loomed large on academic publishing lists for several years. Scholarly books with "Sinatra" in the title are a more recent phenomenon. Despite his six-decade career as the Voice (the 1940s), the Chairman of the Board (the 50s and 60s), and Ol' Blue Eyes (the 70s through his death, in

  10. Normal shoulder: MR imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kieft, G.J.; Bloem, J.L.; Obermann, W.R.; Verbout, A.J.; Rozing, P.M.; Doornbos, J.

    1986-06-01

    Relatively poor spatial resolution has been obtained in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the shoulder because the shoulder can only be placed in the periphery of the magnetic field. The authors have devised an anatomically shaped surface coil that enables MR to demonstrate normal shoulder anatomy in different planes with high spatial resolution. In the axial plane anatomy analogous to that seen on computed tomographic (CT) scans can be demonstrated. Variations in scapular position (produced by patient positioning) may make reproducibility of sagittal and coronal plane images difficult by changing the relationship of the plane to the shoulder anatomy. Oblique planes, for which the angle is chosen from the axial image, have the advantage of easy reproducibility. Obliquely oriented structures and relationships are best seen in oblique plane images and can be evaluated in detail.

  11. The Cryptochrome Blue Light Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xuhong; Liu, Hongtao; Klejnot, John; Lin, Chentao

    2010-01-01

    Cryptochromes are photolyase-like blue light receptors originally discovered in Arabidopsis but later found in other plants, microbes, and animals. Arabidopsis has two cryptochromes, CRY1 and CRY2, which mediate primarily blue light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and photoperiodic control of floral initiation, respectively. In addition, cryptochromes also regulate over a dozen other light responses, including circadian rhythms, tropic growth, stomata opening, guard cell development, root development, bacterial and viral pathogen responses, abiotic stress responses, cell cycles, programmed cell death, apical dominance, fruit and ovule development, seed dormancy, and magnetoreception. Cryptochromes have two domains, the N-terminal PHR (Photolyase-Homologous Region) domain that bind the chromophore FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide), and the CCE (CRY C-terminal Extension) domain that appears intrinsically unstructured but critical to the function and regulation of cryptochromes. Most cryptochromes accumulate in the nucleus, and they undergo blue light-dependent phosphorylation or ubiquitination. It is hypothesized that photons excite electrons of the flavin molecule, resulting in redox reaction or circular electron shuttle and conformational changes of the photoreceptors. The photoexcited cryptochrome are phosphorylated to adopt an open conformation, which interacts with signaling partner proteins to alter gene expression at both transcriptional and posttranslational levels and consequently the metabolic and developmental programs of plants. PMID:21841916

  12. Models of Individual Blue Stragglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sills, Alison

    This chapter describes the current state of models of individual blue stragglers. Stellar collisions, binary mergers (or coalescence), and partial or ongoing mass transfer have all been studied in some detail. The products of stellar collisions retain memory of their parent stars and are not fully mixed. Very high initial rotation rates must be reduced by an unknown process to allow the stars to collapse to the main sequence. The more massive collision products have shorter lifetimes than normal stars of the same mass, while products between low mass stars are long-lived and look very much like normal stars of their mass. Mass transfer can result in a merger, or can produce another binary system with a blue straggler and the remnant of the original primary. The products of binary mass transfer cover a larger portion of the colour-magnitude diagram than collision products for two reasons: there are more possible configurations which produce blue stragglers, and there are differing contributions to the blended light of the system. The effects of rotation may be substantial in both collision and merger products, and could result in significant mixing unless angular momentum is lost shortly after the formation event. Surface abundances may provide ways to distinguish between the formation mechanisms, but care must be taken to model the various mixing mechanisms properly before drawing strong conclusions. Avenues for future work are outlined.

  13. Modeling of Plane Couette Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manneville, Paul; Locher, Fabien

    1999-11-01

    The transition to turbulence of the plane Couette flow is made difficult to understand by the absence of linear instability mechanism, which implies a globally subcritical scenario(Dauchot and Manneville, J. Phys. II France 7) (1997) 371--389. involving nonlinear structures bifurcating from infinity. A mechanism sustaining such structures has been analyzed by Waleffe who derived a ``minimal box'' low-dimensional dynamical system.(Waleffe, Phys. Fluids 9) (1997) 883--900. Within the same assumptions of idealized stress-free boundary conditions we develop a model that generalizes it to the space-time domain by means of a cross-stream Galerkin expansion in terms of trigonometric functions whose coefficients remain functions of the in-plane coordinates. The derivation parallels that of generalized Swift--Hohenberg models for Rayleigh--Bnard convection.(Manneville, J. de Physique 44) (1983) 759--765. A set of three coupled partial differential equations for three variables is obtained. The three variables account for the vortical and potential components of the correction to the basic flow and for the vortical component of a supplementary irrotational drift flow.(Locher and Manneville, LadHyX preprint, 1999.) The result of pseudo-spectral simulations will be presented.

  14. The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, Jason; Aguirre, James; Bally, John; Battersby, Cara; Bradley, Eric Todd; Cyganowski, Claudia; Dowell, Darren; Drosback, Meredith; Dunham, Miranda K.; Evans, Neal J., II; Ginsburg, Adam; Harvey, Paul; Rosolowsky, Erik; Schlingman, Wayne; Shirley, Yancy L.; Stringfellow, Guy S.; Walawender, Josh; Williams, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) is a 1.1 millimeter continuum survey of the northern Galactic Plane made with Bolocam and the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. The coverage totals 170 square degrees, comprised of a contiguous range from -10.5 deg is less than or equal to 90.5 deg, 0.5 deg is less than or equal to b is less than or equal to 0.5 deg, with extended coverage in b in selected regions, and four targeted regions in the outer Galaxy, including: IC1396, toward the Perseus arm at l is approximately 111 deg, W3/4/5, and Gem OB1. Depths of the maps range from 30 to 60 mJy beam (sup 1). Approximately 8,400 sources were detected and the maps and source catalog have been made publicly available. Millimeter-wave thermal dust emission reveals dense regions within molecular clouds, thus the BGPS serves as a database for studies of the dense interstellar medium and star formation within the Milky Way.

  15. Small pixel oversampled IR focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulfield, John; Curzan, Jon; Lewis, Jay; Dhar, Nibir

    2015-06-01

    We report on a new high definition high charge capacity 2.1 Mpixel MWIR Infrared Focal Plane Array. This high definition (HD) FPA utilizes a small 5 um pitch pixel size which is below the Nyquist limit imposed by the optical systems Point Spread Function (PSF). These smaller sub diffraction limited pixels allow spatial oversampling of the image. We show that oversampling IRFPAs enables improved fidelity in imaging including resolution improvements, advanced pixel correlation processing to reduce false alarm rates, improved detection ranges, and an improved ability to track closely spaced objects. Small pixel HD arrays are viewed as the key component enabling lower size, power and weight of the IR Sensor System. Small pixels enables a reduction in the size of the systems components from the smaller detector and ROIC array, the reduced optics focal length and overall lens size, resulting in an overall compactness in the sensor package, cooling and associated electronics. The highly sensitive MWIR small pixel HD FPA has the capability to detect dimmer signals at longer ranges than previously demonstrated.

  16. Inflation and alternatives with blue tensor spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi; Xue, Wei E-mail: wei.xue@sissa.it

    2014-10-01

    We study the tilt of the primordial gravitational waves spectrum. A hint of blue tilt is shown from analyzing the BICEP2 and POLARBEAR data. Motivated by this, we explore the possibilities of blue tensor spectra from the very early universe cosmology models, including null energy condition violating inflation, inflation with general initial conditions, and string gas cosmology, etc. For the simplest G-inflation, blue tensor spectrum also implies blue scalar spectrum. In general, the inflation models with blue tensor spectra indicate large non-Gaussianities. On the other hand, string gas cosmology predicts blue tensor spectrum with highly Gaussian fluctuations. If further experiments do confirm the blue tensor spectrum, non-Gaussianity becomes a distinguishing test between inflation and alternatives.

  17. A Comparison of Blue Light and Caffeine Effects on Cognitive Function and Alertness in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Beaven, C. Martyn; Ekström, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The alerting effects of both caffeine and short wavelength (blue) light have been consistently reported. The ability of blue light to enhance alertness and cognitive function via non-image forming neuropathways have been suggested as a non-pharmacological countermeasure for drowsiness across a range of occupational settings. Here we compare and contrast the alerting and psychomotor effects of 240 mg of caffeine and a 1-h dose of ~40 lx blue light in a non-athletic population. Twenty-one healthy subjects performed a computer-based psychomotor vigilance test before and after each of four randomly assigned trial conditions performed on different days: white light/placebo; white light/240 mg caffeine; blue light/placebo; blue light/240 mg caffeine. The Karolinska Sleepiness Scale was used to assess subjective measures of alertness. Both the caffeine only and blue light only conditions enhanced accuracy in a visual reaction test requiring a decision and an additive effect was observed with respect to the fastest reaction times. However, in a test of executive function, where a distraction was included, caffeine exerted a negative effect on accuracy. Furthermore, the blue light only condition consistently outperformed caffeine when both congruent and incongruent distractions were presented. The visual reactions in the absence of a decision or distraction were also enhanced in the blue light only condition and this effect was most prominent in the blue-eyed participants. Overall, blue light and caffeine demonstrated distinct effects on aspects of psychomotor function and have the potential to positively influence a range of settings where cognitive function and alertness are important. Specifically, despite the widespread use of caffeine in competitive sporting environments, the possible impact of blue light has received no research attention. PMID:24282477

  18. A comparison of blue light and caffeine effects on cognitive function and alertness in humans.

    PubMed

    Beaven, C Martyn; Ekstrm, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The alerting effects of both caffeine and short wavelength (blue) light have been consistently reported. The ability of blue light to enhance alertness and cognitive function via non-image forming neuropathways have been suggested as a non-pharmacological countermeasure for drowsiness across a range of occupational settings. Here we compare and contrast the alerting and psychomotor effects of 240 mg of caffeine and a 1-h dose of ~40 lx blue light in a non-athletic population. Twenty-one healthy subjects performed a computer-based psychomotor vigilance test before and after each of four randomly assigned trial conditions performed on different days: white light/placebo; white light/240 mg caffeine; blue light/placebo; blue light/240 mg caffeine. The Karolinska Sleepiness Scale was used to assess subjective measures of alertness. Both the caffeine only and blue light only conditions enhanced accuracy in a visual reaction test requiring a decision and an additive effect was observed with respect to the fastest reaction times. However, in a test of executive function, where a distraction was included, caffeine exerted a negative effect on accuracy. Furthermore, the blue light only condition consistently outperformed caffeine when both congruent and incongruent distractions were presented. The visual reactions in the absence of a decision or distraction were also enhanced in the blue light only condition and this effect was most prominent in the blue-eyed participants. Overall, blue light and caffeine demonstrated distinct effects on aspects of psychomotor function and have the potential to positively influence a range of settings where cognitive function and alertness are important. Specifically, despite the widespread use of caffeine in competitive sporting environments, the possible impact of blue light has received no research attention. PMID:24282477

  19. Gigapixel Focal Plane Arrays for Large UVOIR Space Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebbets, Dennis; Blouke, M.; Warren, P.; Postman, M.; ATLAST Concept Study Team

    2009-01-01

    A large space telescope produces very sharp images near the wavelengths where it is diffraction-limited. If it also provides a wide field of view, the focal planes for its imaging instruments require a very large number of pixels. The 8m ATLAS-T telescope will have a FOV of 8 X 8 arc minutes for its wide field camera, with image quality expected to be near 30 milli-arc seconds FWHM in the visible. With Nyquist sampling of 2 pixels per Airy diameter, an FPA of 32K X 32K pixels is indicated. With 9 micron pixels, the active imaging area will be about 300 millimeters on a side. Such a device appears to be feasible. This poster will show a conceptual design for the visible wavelength focal plane, and will discuss mechanical, electrical, thermal and other engineering implications. The focal plane for the Kepler mission contains 96 Mpx, and represents the state of the art using current approaches. We will identify technologies whose development will enable a subsystem a factor ten larger.

  20. Polish Terms for "Blue" in the Perspective of Vantage Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanulewicz, Danuta

    2010-01-01

    The Polish set of terms for blue includes, inter alia, the following adjectives: "niebieski" "blue", "blekitny" "(sky) blue", "granatowy" "navy blue", "lazurowy" "azure", "modry" "(intense) blue" and "siny" "(grey) violet-blue". The adjective "niebieski" is the basic term; however, it shares some of its functions with "blekitny", which is

  1. Polish Terms for "Blue" in the Perspective of Vantage Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanulewicz, Danuta

    2010-01-01

    The Polish set of terms for blue includes, inter alia, the following adjectives: "niebieski" "blue", "blekitny" "(sky) blue", "granatowy" "navy blue", "lazurowy" "azure", "modry" "(intense) blue" and "siny" "(grey) violet-blue". The adjective "niebieski" is the basic term; however, it shares some of its functions with "blekitny", which is…

  2. Artificial impedance ground planes for low profile antenna applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMichael, Ian T.

    Recent interest in artificial impedance surfaces for low-profile antennas has led to extensive research with the goal of optimizing the ground plane's characteristics for a given antenna configuration and broadening the operational bandwidth, or alternatively creating a multi-band functionality. A method of determining the optimal reflection phase for a low-profile dipole antenna over an electromagnetic band gap (EBG) ground plane has been developed based on image theory and is presented with experimental and numerical validation. A new artificial impedance surface has also been developed, which is composed of an annular slot ring on a thin grounded dielectric. The main difference between the proposed ground plane and a conventional EBG is that the high impedance condition exists only in the vicinity of the slot and is therefore best suited for antennas with a current distribution that has a similar shape as the annular slot ring. It is shown that a loop antenna positioned closely over an annular slot loaded ground plane exhibits approximately the same gain as a loop antenna over a conventional EBG ground plane. The advantage of the new structure is its lack of periodicity, which significantly eases manufacturing. Additionally, it is shown that multiple concentric slot rings can be designed into the ground plane, which excites multiple resonances in low-profile wideband antennas. The result is a multi-band high impedance ground plane constructed using a simple arrangement of annular slots. Finally, a manufacturing technique is presented for the application of arbitrarily configured EBG antennas to handheld dual-sensor landmine detection systems. It is shown that creating an EBG antenna using very thin layers of metal will enable it to be used for ground penetrating radar (GPR) when it is co-located with a low frequency metal detector without compromising the operation of the metal detector. The potential benefit of such an antenna would be a lower profile sensor head with twice the efficiency as currently employed GPR antennas.

  3. The Blue Hook Populations of Massive Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    Blue hook stars are a class of hot { 35,000 K} subluminous horizontal branch stars that have been recently discovered using HST ultraviolet images of the globular clusters omega Cen and NGC 2808. These stars occupy a region of the HR diagram that is unexplained by canonical stellar evolution theory. Using new theoretical evolutionary and atmospheric models, we have shown that the blue hook stars are very likely the progeny of stars that undergo extensive internal mixing during a late helium core flash on the white dwarf cooling curve. This "flash mixing" produces an enormous enhancement of the surface helium and carbon abundances, which suppresses the flux in the far ultraviolet. Although flash mixing is more likely to occur in stars that are born with high helium abundances, a high helium abundance, by itself, does not explain the presence of a blue hook population - flash mixing of the envelope is required. We propose ACS ultraviolet {SBC/F150LP and HRC/F250W} observations of the five additional globular clusters for which the presence of blue hook stars is suspected from longer wavelength observations. Like omega Cen and NGC 2808, these five targets are also among the most massive globular clusters, because less massive clusters show no evidence for blue hook stars. Because our targets span 1.5 dex in metallicity, we will be able to test our prediction that flash-mixing should be less drastic in metal-rich blue hook stars. In addition, our observations will test the hypothesis that blue hook stars only form in globular clusters massive enough to retain the helium-enriched ejecta from the first stellar generation. If this hypothesis is correct, then our observations will yield important constraints on the chemical evolution and early formation history in globular clusters, as well as the role of helium self-enrichment in producing blue horizontal branch morphologies and multiple main sequence turnoffs. Finally, our observations will provide new insight into the formation of the hottest horizontal branch stars, with implications for the origin of the hot helium-rich subdwarfs in the Galactic field.

  4. Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by α-chitin nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Dhananasekaran, Solairaj; Palanivel, Rameshthangam; Pappu, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Expelling of dyestuff into water resource system causes major thread to the environment. Adsorption is the cost effective and potential method to remove the dyes from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the adsorption of dyestuff (Methylene Blue (MB), Bromophenol Blue (BPB) and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)) by α-chitin nanoparticles (CNP) prepared from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798) shell waste. On contrary to the most recognizable adsorption studies using chitin, this is the first study using unique nanoparticles of ⩽50 nm used for the dye adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption process increased with increase in the concentration of CNP, contact time and temperature with the dyestuff, whereas the adsorption process decreased with increase in the initial dye concentration and strong acidic pH. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed that the interaction between dyestuff and CNP involved physical adsorption. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir isotherm (R2 values were 0.992, 0.999 and 0.992 for MB, BPB and CBB, and RL value lies between 0 and 1 for all the three dyes) and pseudo second order kinetics (R2 values were 0.996, 0.999 and 0.996 for MB, BPB and CBB) more effectively. The isotherm and kinetic models confirmed that CNP can be used as a suitable adsorbent material for the removal of dyestuff from effluents. PMID:26843977

  5. Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by ?-chitin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dhananasekaran, Solairaj; Palanivel, Rameshthangam; Pappu, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Expelling of dyestuff into water resource system causes major thread to the environment. Adsorption is the cost effective and potential method to remove the dyes from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the adsorption of dyestuff (Methylene Blue (MB), Bromophenol Blue (BPB) and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)) by ?-chitin nanoparticles (CNP) prepared from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798) shell waste. On contrary to the most recognizable adsorption studies using chitin, this is the first study using unique nanoparticles of ?50nm used for the dye adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption process increased with increase in the concentration of CNP, contact time and temperature with the dyestuff, whereas the adsorption process decreased with increase in the initial dye concentration and strong acidic pH. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed that the interaction between dyestuff and CNP involved physical adsorption. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir isotherm (R (2) values were 0.992, 0.999 and 0.992 for MB, BPB and CBB, and RL value lies between 0 and 1 for all the three dyes) and pseudo second order kinetics (R (2) values were 0.996, 0.999 and 0.996 for MB, BPB and CBB) more effectively. The isotherm and kinetic models confirmed that CNP can be used as a suitable adsorbent material for the removal of dyestuff from effluents. PMID:26843977

  6. Inclined Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy An efficient microscopy method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutrale, Francesco

    There is a current need in biomedical sciences to perform live imaging with higher spatial and temporal resolution. To achieve this goal in a comprehensive manner, three-dimensional acquisitions are necessary. Ideal features of a modern microscope system should include high imaging speed, high contrast ratio, low photo-bleaching and photo-toxicity, good resolution in a 3D context and mosaic acquisition for large samples. Considering the importance of collecting data in live sample increases the technical challenges required to solve these issues. This work presents a practical ver- sion of a microscopy method, Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy re-introduced by Huisken et al in 2004. This method is gaining importance in the biomedical field, but has been limited by difficulties associated with unconventional microscope construction using two objectives and sample preparation. Based on the selective plane illumination principle but with a design similar to the Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence microscope,Dunsby demonstrated the Oblique Plane Microscope (OPM) using a single objective which uses conventional sample preparation protocols. However, the instrument of Dunsby was not intended to be part of a commercial microscope. In this work we describe a system with the advantages of OPM and that can be used as an adaptor to commonly used microscopes, such as IX-71 Olympus, simplifying the construction of the OPM and increasing performance of a conventional microscope. We named our design inclined Selective Plane Illumination Microscope (iSPIM).

  7. Influence of occlusal plane inclination and mandibular deviation on esthetics

    PubMed Central

    Corte, Cristiane Cherobini Dalla; da Silveira, Bruno Lopes; Marquezan, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the degree of perception of occlusal plane inclination and mandibular deviation in facial esthetics, assessed by laypeople, dentists and orthodontists. Methods: A woman with 5.88 of inclination and 5.54 mm of mandibular deviation was selected and, based on her original photograph, four new images were created correcting the deviations and creating more symmetric faces and smiles. Examiners assessed the images by means of a questionnaire. Their opinions were compared by qualitative and quantitative analyses. Results: A total of 45 laypeople, 27 dentists and 31 orthodontists filled out the questionnaires. All groups were able to perceive the asymmetry; however, orthodontists were more sensitive, identifying asymmetries as from 4.32 of occlusal plane inclination and 4.155 mm of mandibular deviation (p< 0.05). The other categories of evaluators identified asymmetries and assigned significantly lower grades, starting from 5.88 of occlusal plane inclination and 5.54 mm of mandibular deviation (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Occlusal plane inclination and mandibular deviation were perceived by all groups, but orthodontists presented higher perception of deviations. PMID:26560821

  8. Quantum-Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) Focal Plane Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, Murzy; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Ewin, Audrey J.; Hess, Larry A.; Hartmann, Thomas M.; La, Anh T.

    2012-01-01

    A paper describes the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), a QWIP-based instrument intended to supplement the Operational Land Imager (OLI) for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). The TIRS instrument is a far-infrared imager operating in the pushbroom mode with two IR channels: 10.8 and 12 microns. The focal plane will contain three 640x512 QWIP arrays mounted on a silicon substrate. The silicon substrate is a custom-fabricated carrier board with a single layer of aluminum interconnects. The general fabrication process starts with a 4-in. (approx.10-cm) diameter silicon wafer. The wafer is oxidized, a single substrate contact is etched, and aluminum is deposited, patterned, and alloyed. This technology development is aimed at incorporating three large-format infrared detecting arrays based on GaAs QWIP technology onto a common focal plane with precision alignment of all three arrays. This focal plane must survive the rigors of flight qualification and operate at a temperature of 43 K (-230 C) for five years while orbiting the Earth. The challenges presented include ensuring thermal compatibility among all the components, designing and building a compact, somewhat modular system and ensuring alignment to very tight levels. The multi-array focal plane integrated onto a single silicon substrate is a new application of both QWIP array development and silicon wafer scale integration. The Invar-based assembly has been tested to ensure thermal reliability.

  9. Are There Blue, Massive E/S0 Galaxies at z<1? Kinematics of Blue Spheroidal Galaxy Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Myungshin; Faber, S. M.; Gebhardt, Karl; Koo, David C.; Phillips, Andrew C.; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Simard, Luc; Willmer, Christopher N. A.

    2001-08-01

    Several recent studies find that 10%-50% of morphologically selected field early-type galaxies at redshifts z<~1 have blue colors indicative of recent star formation. Such ``blue spheroids'' might be massive early-type galaxies with active star formation, perhaps induced by recent merger events. Alternatively, they could be starbursting, low-mass spheroids. To distinguish between these two choices, we have selected 10 ``Blue Spheroid Candidates'' (BSCs) from a quantitatively selected E/S0 sample to study their properties, including kinematics from Keck spectra obtained as part of the DEEP Groth Strip Survey (GSS). Most BSCs (70%) turn out to belong to two broad categories, while the remaining objects are likely to be misclassified objects. Type 1 BSCs have underlying red stellar components with bluer inner components. Type 2 BSCs do not show an obvious sign of the underlying red stellar component, and their overall colors are quite blue [(U-B)rest<0]. Both type 1 and type 2 BSCs have internal velocity dispersions measured from emission lines ?<~80 km s-1 and estimated dynamical masses of only a few 1010 Msolar or less. For type 1 BSCs, we estimate ? of the red component using the fundamental plane relation of distant field absorption-line galaxies and find that these ? estimates are similar to the ? measured from emission lines. Overall, we conclude that our type 1 and type 2 BSCs are more likely to be star-forming low-mass spheroids than star-forming, massive, early-type galaxies.

  10. NICMOS flight focal plane assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Lloyd; Winters, Gregory S.

    1993-11-01

    This paper discusses the mechanical design and assembly of the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) focal plane assembly (FPA). The FPA consists of a mercury-cadmium-telluride (MCT) detector array hybridized to a silicon multiplexer (MUX), a sapphire carrier, an alumina ceramic multi-layer board (CMLB) including electrical components, a base plate, and flex cables. The FPA is designed for the following conditions; (1) shock and vibration during launch, (2) Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) of dissimilar materials at cryogenic temperature, (3) outgassing limitations to meet NASA's specifications, and (4) optical assembly tolerances. Also, the FPA is designed to be easily integrated into its dewar with provisions for mechanical as well as optical alignment. The FPA is assembled by building up two subassemblies in a parallel path, and then integrating the two subassemblies with the flex cables for the final assembly. These procedures are described in this paper, including alignment tolerances required and measured.

  11. Snakes Out of the Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, Andrew; Young, Bruce A.; Mahadevan, L.

    2012-02-01

    We develop a new computational model of elastic rods, taking into account shear and full rotational dynamics, as well as friction, adhesion, and collision. This model is used to study the movement of snakes in different environments. By applying different muscular activation patterns to the snake, we observe many different patterns of motion, from planar undulation to sudden strikes. Many of the most interesting behaviors involve the snake rising out of the horizontal plane in the vertical direction. Such behaviors include a sand snake sidewinding over the hot desert sand and a cobra rearing up into a defensive striking position. Experimental videos of live snakes are analyzed and compared with computational results. We identify and explain a new form of movement previously unobserved: ``collateral locomotion.''

  12. Broken chiral symmetry on a null plane

    SciTech Connect

    Beane, Silas R.

    2013-10-15

    On a null-plane (light-front), all effects of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking are contained in the three Hamiltonians (dynamical Poincaré generators), while the vacuum state is a chiral invariant. This property is used to give a general proof of Goldstone’s theorem on a null-plane. Focusing on null-plane QCD with N degenerate flavors of light quarks, the chiral-symmetry breaking Hamiltonians are obtained, and the role of vacuum condensates is clarified. In particular, the null-plane Gell-Mann–Oakes–Renner formula is derived, and a general prescription is given for mapping all chiral-symmetry breaking QCD condensates to chiral-symmetry conserving null-plane QCD condensates. The utility of the null-plane description lies in the operator algebra that mixes the null-plane Hamiltonians and the chiral symmetry charges. It is demonstrated that in a certain non-trivial limit, the null-plane operator algebra reduces to the symmetry group SU(2N) of the constituent quark model. -- Highlights: •A proof (the first) of Goldstone’s theorem on a null-plane is given. •The puzzle of chiral-symmetry breaking condensates on a null-plane is solved. •The emergence of spin-flavor symmetries in null-plane QCD is demonstrated.

  13. Changes in pattern induced flicker colors are mediated by the blue-yellow opponent process.

    PubMed

    Schramme, J

    1992-11-01

    The colors of Benham's Top [pattern induced flicker colors (PIFCs)] were matched with color stimuli provided by a computer aided color mixer. Subjects viewed a series of specifically modified black and white disks and matched the resulting subjective color with a comparison field containing the color generated by additive mixing. Different phase relations between the apparently colored ring and the surround were tested. The color loci of all PIFCs were found to lie on a plane in receptor three-space which is given by the axis of the shortwave receptor excitation and a vector given by combining the middle and long wave receptor excitation directions in a fixed ratio of nearly 1:1. From the orientation of this plane it can be deduced that the blue-yellow opponent process (the blue-on-center cells) alone accounts for the different PIFCs. PMID:1304090

  14. Exfoliation of Egyptian Blue and Han Blue, two alkali earth copper silicate-based pigments.

    PubMed

    Johnson-McDaniel, Darrah; Salguero, Tina T

    2014-01-01

    In a visualized example of the ancient past connecting with modern times, we describe the preparation and exfoliation of CaCuSi4O10 and BaCuSi4O10, the colored components of the historic Egyptian blue and Han blue pigments. The bulk forms of these materials are synthesized by both melt flux and solid-state routes, which provide some control over the crystallite size of the product. The melt flux process is time intensive, but it produces relatively large crystals at lower reaction temperatures. In comparison, the solid-state method is quicker yet requires higher reaction temperatures and yields smaller crystallites. Upon stirring in hot water, CaCuSi4O10 spontaneously exfoliates into monolayer nanosheets, which are characterized by TEM and PXRD. BaCuSi4O10 on the other hand requires ultrasonication in organic solvents to achieve exfoliation. Near infrared imaging illustrates that both the bulk and nanosheet forms of CaCuSi4O10 and BaCuSi4O10 are strong near infrared emitters. Aqueous CaCuSi4O10 and BaCuSi4O10 nanosheet dispersions are useful because they provide a new way to handle, characterize, and process these materials in colloidal form. PMID:24796494

  15. Exfoliation of Egyptian Blue and Han Blue, Two Alkali Earth Copper Silicate-based Pigments

    PubMed Central

    Johnson-McDaniel, Darrah; Salguero, Tina T.

    2014-01-01

    In a visualized example of the ancient past connecting with modern times, we describe the preparation and exfoliation of CaCuSi4O10 and BaCuSi4O10, the colored components of the historic Egyptian blue and Han blue pigments. The bulk forms of these materials are synthesized by both melt flux and solid-state routes, which provide some control over the crystallite size of the product. The melt flux process is time intensive, but it produces relatively large crystals at lower reaction temperatures. In comparison, the solid-state method is quicker yet requires higher reaction temperatures and yields smaller crystallites. Upon stirring in hot water, CaCuSi4O10 spontaneously exfoliates into monolayer nanosheets, which are characterized by TEM and PXRD. BaCuSi4O10 on the other hand requires ultrasonication in organic solvents to achieve exfoliation. Near infrared imaging illustrates that both the bulk and nanosheet forms of CaCuSi4O10 and BaCuSi4O10 are strong near infrared emitters. Aqueous CaCuSi4O10 and BaCuSi4O10 nanosheet dispersions are useful because they provide a new way to handle, characterize, and process these materials in colloidal form. PMID:24796494

  16. Spectroscopy of blue stellar objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, K. J.; Warnock, A., III; Nations, H. L.; Barden, S. C.

    1983-01-01

    Spectra have been obtained for the brightest objects from a list of blue stellar objects found in a Palomar Schmidt field centered on Kapteyn Selected Area 28. Four of the objects presented here comprise a complete sample of objects with UV excess and magnitudes brighter than or equal to B = 16.3 mag. The object with the largest UV excess is a previously undiscovered quasar of redshift 0.25 and cataloged B magnitude of 15.6 mag. The object shows some evidence of variability. Spectroscopy for one bright object in a companion field centered on Selected Area 29 is also presented.

  17. The mixing of blue stragglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafka, Stella; De Propris, Roberto

    2012-08-01

    We propose to obtain high resolution spectroscopy for a sample of 17 blue stragglers in M67, in order to measure abundances of Beryllium, Carbon, Oxygen and the Carbon isotope (13C/12C) abundance ratio. The main aim of this project is to measure indications of deep mixing and therefore elucidate the processes responsible for the formation of these stars, whether stellar collisions, WUMa type mass transfer or Algol-like binary evolution. The data will also allow us to measure the importance of magnetic fields and search for faint companions via their effect on other spectral lines

  18. A composite focal plane assembly for the GERB instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelms, Nick; Dowson, John; Blake, Oliver; Butcher, Gillian

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, we present the design and construction of a composite focal plane assembly (FPA) for the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) Earth observing, visible-infrared imaging radiometer. The FPA is a complex structure that incorporates a number of features aimed at reducing mass, power and volume. These include the use of silicon and ceramic substrates for high density tracking and temperature stabilisation, removable test structures for component verification prior to final assembly and high levels of integration.

  19. Improved wheal detection from skin prick test images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulan, Orhan

    2014-03-01

    Skin prick test is a commonly used method for diagnosis of allergic diseases (e.g., pollen allergy, food allergy, etc.) in allergy clinics. The results of this test are erythema and wheal provoked on the skin where the test is applied. The sensitivity of the patient against a specific allergen is determined by the physical size of the wheal, which can be estimated from images captured by digital cameras. Accurate wheal detection from these images is an important step for precise estimation of wheal size. In this paper, we propose a method for improved wheal detection on prick test images captured by digital cameras. Our method operates by first localizing the test region by detecting calibration marks drawn on the skin. The luminance variation across the localized region is eliminated by applying a color transformation from RGB to YCbCr and discarding the luminance channel. We enhance the contrast of the captured images for the purpose of wheal detection by performing principal component analysis on the blue-difference (Cb) and red-difference (Cr) color channels. We finally, perform morphological operations on the contrast enhanced image to detect the wheal on the image plane. Our experiments performed on images acquired from 36 different patients show the efficiency of the proposed method for wheal detection from skin prick test images captured in an uncontrolled environment.

  20. Robust Notion Vision For A Vehicle Moving On A Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moni, Shankar; Weldon, E. J.

    1987-05-01

    A vehicle equipped with a cemputer vision system moves on a plane. We show that subject to certain constraints, the system can determine the motion of the vehicle (one rotational and two translational degrees of freedom) and the depth of the scene in front of the vehicle. The constraints include limits on the speed of the vehicle, presence of texture on the plane and absence of pitch and roll in the vehicular motion. It is possible to decouple the problems of finding the vehicle's motion and the depth of the scene in front of the vehicle by using two rigidly connected cameras. One views a field with known depth (i.e. the ground plane) and estimates the motion parameters and the other determines the depth map knowing the motion parameters. The motion is constrained to be planar to increase robustness. We use a least squares method of fitting the vehicle motion to observer brightness gradients. With this method, no correspondence between image points needs to be established and information fran the entire image is used in calculating notion. The algorithm performs very reliably on real image sequences and these results have been included. The results compare favourably to the performance of the algorithm of Negandaripour and Horn [2] where six degrees of freedom are assumed.