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1

Fourier plane image amplifier  

DOEpatents

A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 {micro}m. A small portion of the laser is split off and generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only about 1/10th the power of a competitive system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires much less laser power. 1 fig.

Hackel, L.A.; Hermann, M.R.; Dane, C.B.; Tiszauer, D.H.

1995-12-12

2

Fourier plane image amplifier  

DOEpatents

A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 .mu.m. A small portion of the laser is split off and generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only .about.1/10th the power of a competitive system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires much less laser power.

Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA); Hermann, Mark R. (San Ramon, CA); Dane, C. Brent (Livermore, CA); Tiszauer, Detlev H. (Tracy, CA)

1995-01-01

3

Image plane coded aperture for terahertz imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the absence of detector arrays, a single pixel coupled with an image plane coded aperture has been shown to be a practical solution to imaging problems in the terahertz and sub-millimeter wave domains. The authors demonstrate two laboratory, real-time, two-dimensional, sub-millimeter wave imagers that are based on an image plane coded aperture. These active imaging systems consist of a heterodyne source and receiver pair, image forming optics, a coded aperture, data acquisition hardware, and image reconstruction software. In one of the configurations, the target is measured in transmission, while in the other it is measured in reflection. In both configurations, images of the targets are formed on the coded aperture, and linear measurements of the image are acquired as the aperture patterns change. Once a sufficient number of linearly independent measurements are obtained, the image is reconstructed by solving a system of linear equations that is generated from the aperture patterns and the corresponding measurements. The authors show that for image sizes envisioned for many current applications, this image reconstruction technique is computationally efficient and can be implemented in real time. Measurements are collected with these systems, and the reconstruction results are presented and discussed.

Furxhi, Orges; Jacobs, Eddie L.; Preza, Chrysanthe

2012-09-01

4

Tilted planes in 3D image analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliable 3D wholebody scanners which output digitized 3D images of a complete human body are now commercially available. This paper describes a software package, called 3DM, being developed by researchers at Clemson University and which manipulates and extracts measurements from such images. The focus of this paper is on tilted planes, a 3DM tool which allows a user to define a plane through a scanned image, tilt it in any direction, and effectively define three disjoint regions on the image: the points on the plane and the points on either side of the plane. With tilted planes, the user can accurately take measurements required in applications such as apparel manufacturing. The user can manually segment the body rather precisely. Tilted planes assist the user in analyzing the form of the body and classifying the body in terms of body shape. Finally, titled planes allow the user to eliminate extraneous and unwanted points often generated by a 3D scanner. This paper describes the user interface for tilted planes, the equations defining the plane as the user moves it through the scanned image, an overview of the algorithms, and the interaction of the tilted plane feature with other tools in 3DM.

Pargas, Roy P.; Staples, Nancy J.; Malloy, Brian F.; Cantrell, Ken; Chhatriwala, Murtuza

1998-03-01

5

Reconnaissance with slant plane circular SAR imaging.  

PubMed

This paper presents a method for imaging from the slant plane data collected by a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) over the full rotation or a partial segment of a circular flight path. A Fourier analysis for the Green's function of the imaging system is provided. This analysis is the basis of an inversion for slant plane circular SAR data. The reconstruction algorithm and resolution for this SAR system are outlined. It is shown that the slant plane circular SAR, unlike the slant plane linear SAR, has the capability to extract three-dimensional imaging information of a target scene. The merits of the algorithm are demonstrated via a simulated target whose ultra wideband foliage penetrating (FOPEN) or ground penetrating (GPEN) ultrahigh frequency (UHF) radar signature varies with the radar's aspect angle. PMID:18285213

Soumekh, M

1996-01-01

6

Architectures for focal plane image processing.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Architectures for focal plane image processing are discussed. On-chip image preprocessing for solid-state imagers using analog CCD circuits is described for low, medium, and high density detector arrays. A spatially parallel architecture for low density, high throughput applications is described. For sparse illumination or event detection, a content-addressable architecture is proposed. A new pipelined vector pixel processor architecture for medium density infrared staring focal plane arrays is described. Neighborhood reconstruction during serial readout of high density TV-quality imagers for a pixel processor is considered using delay and analog frame memory techniques. The potential of on-chip read/write analog frame memory for image transformation and frame-to-frame processing is discussed.

Fossum, E. R.

1989-08-01

7

Focal plane imaging systems for millimeter wavelengths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors discuss critical aspects of imaging system design and describe several different imaging systems employing focal plane array receivers operating in the 3-mm-2-mm wavelength range. Recent progress in millimeter-wavelength optics, antennas, receivers and other components permits greatly enhanced system performance in a wide range of applications. A radiometric camera for all-weather autonomous aircraft landing capability and a high sensitivity

P. F. Goldsmith; C.-T. Hsieh; G. R. Huguenin; J. Kapitzky; E. L. Moore

1993-01-01

8

Reconstruction-Free Parallel Planes Identification from Uncalibrated Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new method for identifying parallel planes in a scene from three or more uncalibrated images. By using the fact that parallel planes intersect at infinity, we were able to devise a linear relationship between the inter-image homographies of the parallel planes and the plane at infinity. This relationship is combined with the so-called modulus constraint for

Adlane Habed; Amirhasan Amintabar; Boubakeur Boufama

2010-01-01

9

Hybrid Image-Plane/Stereo Manipulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hybrid Image-Plane/Stereo (HIPS) manipulation is a method of processing image data, and of controlling a robotic manipulator arm in response to the data, that enables the manipulator arm to place an end-effector (an instrument or tool) precisely with respect to a target (see figure). Unlike other stereoscopic machine-vision-based methods of controlling robots, this method is robust in the face of calibration errors and changes in calibration during operation. In this method, a stereoscopic pair of cameras on the robot first acquires images of the manipulator at a set of predefined poses. The image data are processed to obtain image-plane coordinates of known visible features of the end-effector. Next, there is computed an initial calibration in the form of a mapping between (1) the image-plane coordinates and (2) the nominal three-dimensional coordinates of the noted end-effector features in a reference frame fixed to the main robot body at the base of the manipulator. The nominal three-dimensional coordinates are obtained by use of the nominal forward kinematics of the manipulator arm that is, calculated by use of the currently measured manipulator joint angles and previously measured lengths of manipulator arm segments under the assumption that the arm segments are rigid, that the arm lengths are constant, and that there is no backlash. It is understood from the outset that these nominal three-dimensional coordinates are likely to contain possibly significant calibration errors, but the effects of the errors are progressively reduced, as described next. As the end-effector is moved toward the target, the calibration is updated repeatedly by use of data from newly acquired images of the end-effector and of the corresponding nominal coordinates in the manipulator reference frame. By use of the updated calibration, the coordinates of the target are computed in manipulator-reference-frame coordinates and then used to the necessary manipulator joint angles to position and orient the end-effector at the target with respect to the same kinematic model from the calibration step. As the end-effector/target distance decreases, the computed coordinates of the end-effector and target become more nearly affected by the same errors, so that the differences between their coordinates become increasingly precise. When the end-effector reaches the target, the remaining effective position error is the distance that corresponds to more than about one pixel in the stereoscopic images of the target.

Baumgartner, Eric; Robinson, Matthew

2004-01-01

10

Fuzzy logic color detection: Blue areas in melanoma dermoscopy images.  

PubMed

Fuzzy logic image analysis techniques were used to analyze three shades of blue (lavender blue, light blue, and dark blue) in dermoscopic images for melanoma detection. A logistic regression model provided up to 82.7% accuracy for melanoma discrimination for 866 images. With a support vector machines (SVM) classifier, lower accuracy was obtained for individual shades (79.9-80.1%) compared with up to 81.4% accuracy with multiple shades. All fuzzy blue logic alpha cuts scored higher than the crisp case. Fuzzy logic techniques applied to multiple shades of blue can assist in melanoma detection. These vector-based fuzzy logic techniques can be extended to other image analysis problems involving multiple colors or color shades. PMID:24786720

Lingala, Mounika; Joe Stanley, R; Rader, Ryan K; Hagerty, Jason; Rabinovitz, Harold S; Oliviero, Margaret; Choudhry, Iqra; Stoecker, William V

2014-07-01

11

Refraction effect in an in-plane-switching blue phase liquid crystal cell.  

PubMed

We develop a refraction model to analyze the electro-optic effects of an in-plane-switching blue phase liquid crystal (IPS-BPLC) cell. Good agreement with experiment is obtained. Based on this model, we optimize the parameters affecting the electro-optics of IPS-BPLC, such as electrode dimension, saturated induced birefringence, saturation electric field, and cell gap. An IPS-BPLC with low operation voltage (<10V(rms)) and high transmittance (~80%) with single gamma curve can be achieved by optimizing the BPLC material and device structure. PMID:24150316

Xu, Daming; Chen, Yuan; Liu, Yifan; Wu, Shin-Tson

2013-10-21

12

Seismic imaging with offset plane-waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Migration is commonly used as a wavefield focussing tool in the study of the variation of reflection amplitude with offset (AVO), or with angle of incidence at reflectors. Migrations are typically applied to common offset or common incident angle sections. In many processing systems, common angle sections are formed by simple 1-d transformations from offset to angle of common midpoint (CMP) gathers based on ray tracing. In this paper, we provide a wave-equation framework for migrating common incidence angle sections that have been formed from Radon transforms over offset in CMP gathers. Radon transformation of the scalar wave equation results in an independent wave equation for each offset plane wave. The offset plane wave equation is nearly equivalent to the zero offset wave equation, except for an additional term related to dip in the mid-point direction, and to offset ray parameter (angle of incidence at the surface). Within this framework, finite difference, pseudo- spectral, and Kirchhoff migrations for common angle sections can be easily adapted from existing algorithms. The availability of a wave equation for common angle sections allows rigorous and efficient application of wave equation techniques for AVO studies and complex structural imaging problems.

Mosher, Charles C.; Foster, Douglas J.; Hassanzadeh, Siamak

1996-10-01

13

Automatic determination of the imaging plane in lumbar MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe a method for assisting radiological technologists in their routine work to automatically determine the imaging plane in lumbar MRI. The method is first to recognize the spinal cord and the intervertebral disk (ID) from the lumbar vertebra 3-plane localizer image, and then the imaging plane is automatically determined according to the recognition results. To determine the imaging plane, the spinal cord and the ID are automatically recognized from the lumbar vertebra 3-plane localizer image with a series of image processing techniques. The proposed method consists of three major steps. First, after removing the air and fat regions from the 3-plane localizer image by use of histogram analysis, the rachis region is specified with Sobel edge detection filter. Second, the spinal cord and the ID were respectively extracted from the specified rachis region making use of global thresholding and the line detection filter. Finally, the imaging plane is determined by finding the straight line between the spinal cord and the ID with the Hough transform. Image data of 10 healthy volunteers were used for investigation. To validate the usefulness of our proposed method, manual determination of the imaging plane was also conducted by five experienced radiological technologists. Our experimental results showed that the concordance rate between the manual setting and automatic determination reached to 90%. Moreover, a remarkable reduction in execution time for imaging-plane determination was also achieved.

Masaki, Tsurumaki; Lee, Yongbum; Tsai, Du-Yih; Sekiya, Masaru; Kazama, Kiyoko

2006-03-01

14

Imaging Cold Dust in the Galactic Plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Images of continuum emission at wavelengths of 850 and 1200? m from a section of the Galactic Plane near longitude 44o are presented. These data were obtained with the JCMT and SEST bolometer array receivers with beamwidths of about 14 and 22 arcsec respectively, and cover a total area of 2 square degrees. They constitute the first extensive observations of emission primarily from cold dust in a representative part of the Galaxy outside the Galactic Center. We employed complementary techniques at the two telescopes - chop/scan using SCUBA at the JCMT, and Fastscanning (direct detection) with SIMBA at the SEST - which together allow us to assess the reality of emission features where necessary. Since interstellar dust is optically thin at mm/sub-mm wavelengths these observations provide a census of dense cold dust clumps throughout the Galaxy in this direction. Twenty-seven such objects are detected in the present survey, most of which can be identified with regions of star formation. In this paper we use complementary 13CO data from the BU-FCRAO Galactic Ring Survey to determine the kinematic distances of these sources, and compare these data with images obtained in the infrared by the MSX mission. These observations presage the potential of large-scale surveys with forthcoming instrumentation, such as SCUBA2 and HARP/ACSIS at the JCMT.

Matthews, H. E.; Weferling, B.; Evans, A.; Cohen, M.; Jackson, J.; Shah, R.; Simon, R.; Jenness, T.; Davis, G. R.; Pierce-Price, D.; Dent, W. R. F.; Johnstone, D.; Richer, J. S.; Fuller, G. A.; Rathborne, J.

2004-12-01

15

Metric Rectification for Perspective Images of Planes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the geometry, constraints and algorithmicimplementation for metric rectification of planes. The rectificationallows metric properties, such as angles and lengthratios, to be measured on the world plane from a perspectiveimage.The novel contributions are: first, that in a stratifiedcontext the various forms of providing metric information,which include a known angle, two equal though unknownangles, and a known length ratio; can

David Liebowitz; Andrew Zisserman

1998-01-01

16

Vergence and accommodation to multiple-image-plane stereoscopic displays: 'Real world' responses with practical image-plane separations?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional stereoscopic displays present images on a single focal plane. The resulting mismatch between the stimuli to the eyes' focusing response (accommodation) and to convergence causes fatigue and poor stereo performance. One promising solution is to distribute image intensity across a number of relatively widely spaced image planes - a technique referred to as depth filtering. Previously, we found this elicits accurate, continuous monocular accommodation responses with image-plane separations as large as 1.1 Diopters, suggesting that a relatively small (i.e. practical) number of image planes is sufficient to eliminate vergence-accommodation conflicts over a large range of simulated distances. However, accommodation responses have been found to overshoot systematically when the same stimuli are viewed binocularly. Here, we examined the minimum image-plane spacing required for accurate accommodation to binocular depth-filtered images. We compared accommodation and vergence responses to step changes in depth for depth-filtered stimuli, using image-plane separations of 0.6-1.2 D, and equivalent real stimuli. Accommodation responses to real and depth-filtered stimuli were equivalent for image-plane separations of ~0.6-0.9 D, but inaccurate thereafter. We conclude that depth filtering can be used to precisely match accommodation and vergence demand in a practical stereoscopic display, using a relatively small number of image planes.

MacKenzie, K. J.; Dickson, R. A.; Watt, S. J.

2011-02-01

17

Vergence and accommodation to multiple-image-plane stereoscopic displays: ``real world'' responses with practical image-plane separations?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional stereoscopic displays present images on a single focal plane. The resulting mismatch between the stimuli to the eyes' focusing response (accommodation) and to convergence causes fatigue and poor stereo performance. One solution is to distribute image intensity across a number of widely spaced image planes--a technique referred to as depth filtering. Previously, we found this elicits accurate, continuous monocular accommodation responses with image-plane separations as large as 1.1 Diopters (D, the reciprocal of distance in meters), suggesting that a small number of image planes could eliminate vergence-accommodation conflicts over a large range of simulated distances. Evidence exists, however, of systematic differences between accommodation responses to binocular and monocular stimuli when the stimulus to accommodation is degraded, or at an incorrect distance. We examined the minimum image-plane spacing required for accurate accommodation to binocular depth-filtered images. We compared accommodation and vergence responses to changes in depth specified by depth filtering, using image-plane separations of 0.6 to 1.2 D, and equivalent real stimuli. Accommodation responses to real and depth-filtered stimuli were equivalent for image-plane separations of ~0.6 to 0.9 D, but differed thereafter. We conclude that depth filtering can be used to precisely match accommodation and vergence demand in a practical stereoscopic display.

MacKenzie, Kevin J.; Dickson, Ruth A.; Watt, Simon J.

2012-01-01

18

Steganalysis using difference images and bit-plane splitting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steganalysis, in contrast to steganography, is a method that focuses on detecting secret messages hidden in carrier media. In this paper, a blind steganalysis method for digital images is proposed. We describe the statistical characteristics of the difference image, and the statistical characteristics of the images in bit-plane to exploit features. Then we use the multi-layer perceptron (MLP) to classify

Yukun Zhaol; Tae-Hee Park; Bo Gyu Jeong; Il Kyu Eom

2011-01-01

19

CCD Architectures for Focal-Plane Image Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Architectures,for focal-plane,image,processing,using,CCD circuits are discussed.,The choice,of architecture,depends,on imager,density,and,required,throughput.,High-density imagers,require,the reconstruction,of local neighborhoods,prior to image,processing.,Lower density,imagers,can utilize spatial parallelism,to improve,throughput.,The use of three-dimensional structures,can provide,additional real-estate for processing,circuitry.

Eric R. Fossum

20

General image method in a plane-layered elastostatic medium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general-image method presently used to obtain the elastostatic fields in plane-layered media relies on the use of potentials in order to represent elastic fields. For the case of a single interface, this method yields the displacement field in closed form, and is applicable to antiplane, plane, and three-dimensional problems. In the case of multiplane interfaces, the image method generates the displacement fields in terms of infinite series whose convergences can be accelerated to improve method efficiency.

Fares, N.; Li, V. C.

1988-01-01

21

Off-plane anastigmatic imaging in Offner spectrometers.  

PubMed

In this paper, the imaging performance of an Offner concentric imaging spectrometer is analyzed when the spectrometer entrance slit is disposed arbitrarily on the plane that is parallel to the grating grooves and contains the common center of curvature. Astigmatism-corrected designs are obtained for off-plane incidence on the grating if one point on the slit is located on the Rowland circle of the primary mirror. In this case, the combined system of primary mirror plus diffraction grating provides two astigmatic line images oriented parallel and orthogonal to the plane of diffraction, with the former located on the same plane as the slit. Consequently, these images can be brought to a single focus on this plane by the tertiary mirror if its radius of curvature is chosen properly. In addition, coma aberration is simultaneously removed. These results can be applied to the design of two-mirror or three-mirror spectrometers, generalizing the concept of the best imaging circle and providing solutions to get anastigmatic imaging for two object points and two wavelengths. PMID:22048301

Prieto-Blanco, Xesús; González-Nuñez, Héctor; de la Fuente, Raúl

2011-11-01

22

Imaging performance of a THz focal plane array  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new broadband monolithic THz antenna design that covers the entire 0.6 - 1.2 THz band is developed as the imaging pixel of THz focal plane array (FPA). Heterostructure backward diodes are integrated monolithically with the THz antennas and are used as the detectors to reproduce digital images from the 2- dimensional received power distribution. A new simplified design is

Georgios C. Trichopoulos; Kagan Topalli; Kubilay Sertel

2011-01-01

23

Lower-Dark-Current, Higher-Blue-Response CMOS Imagers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several improved designs for complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated-circuit image detectors have been developed, primarily to reduce dark currents (leakage currents) and secondarily to increase responses to blue light and increase signal-handling capacities, relative to those of prior CMOS imagers. The main conclusion that can be drawn from a study of the causes of dark currents in prior CMOS imagers is that dark currents could be reduced by relocating p/n junctions away from Si/SiO2 interfaces. In addition to reflecting this conclusion, the improved designs include several other features to counteract dark-current mechanisms and enhance performance.

Pain, Bedabrata; Cunningham, Thomas; Hancock, Bruce

2008-01-01

24

CCD focal-plane image reorganization processors for lossless image compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four image reorganization ICs that enable real-time difference encoding for hierarchical lossless image compression are reported. Two image reorganization processors are realized on the focal-plane and two are designed for hybridization to a separate imager IC. The two focal-plane ICs represent the first integration of a 256×256 buried-channel frame-transfer CCD image sensor with additional charge-domain circuitry to enable image reformatting

Sabrina E. Kemeny; Habib H. Torbey; Henry E. Meadows; Richard A. Bredthauer; Melanie A. La Shell; Eric R. Fossum

1992-01-01

25

Image plane interaction techniques in 3D immersive environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a set of interaction techniques for use in head- tracked immersive virtual environments. With these techniques, the user interacts with the 2D projections that 3D objects in the scene make on his image plane. The desktop analog is the use of a mouse to interact with objects in a 3D scene based on their projections on the

Jeffrey S. Pierce; Andrew S. Forsberg; Matthew J. Conway; Seung Hong; Robert C. Zeleznik; Mark R. Mine

1997-01-01

26

Broad-source image plane holography as a confocal imaging process.  

PubMed

The process of image plane holography with incoherent illumination has many significant properties. The process can produce extremely high-quality, low-noise images, section slicing, image formation through inhomogeneities, and high-resolution image formation through small apertures. The process of confocal imaging has similar properties. We describe the similarities and differences between the two processes. PMID:20862054

Sun, P C; Leith, E N

1994-02-01

27

Navigating solid medical images by pencils of sectioning planes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beyond their involvement in ordinary surface rendering, the boundaries of organs in medical images have differential properties that make them quite useful for quantitative understanding. In particular, their geometry affords a framework for navigating the original solid, representing its R3 contents quite flexibility as multiple pseudovolumes R2 x T, where T is ar eal-valued parameter standing for screen time. A navigation is a smoothly parameterized series of image sections characterized by normal direction, centerpoint, scale and orientation. Such filmstrips represent a radical generalization of conventional medical image dynamics. The lances encountered in these navigations can be represented by constructs from classic differential geometry. Sequences of plane sections can be formalized as continuous pencils of planes, sets of cardinality (infinity) 1 that are sometimes explicitly characterized by a real-value parameter and sometimes defined implicitly as the intersection (curve of common elements) of a pair of bundles of (infinity) 2 planes. An example of the first type of navigation is the pencil of planes through the tangent line at one point of a curve; of the second type, the cone of planes through a point tangent to a surface. The further enhancements of centering, orienting, and rescaling in the medical context are intended to leave landmark points or boundary intersections invariant on the screen. Edgewarp, a publicly available software package, allows free play with pencils of planes like these as they section one single enormous medical data resource, the Visible Human data sets from the National Library of Medicine. This paper argues the relative merits of such visualizations over conventional surface-rendered flybys for understanding and communication of associated anatomical knowledge.

Bookstein, Fred L.; Athey, Brian D.; Green, William D.; Wetzel, Arthur W.

2000-10-01

28

Improved digital image correlation for in-plane displacement measurement.  

PubMed

Electronic speckle photography (ESP) for in-plane displacement (IPD) and deformation measurements is well known with its more modern form, digital image correlation (DIC). Two speckle images of an optically rough surface before and after deformation, called reference and test images, are recorded and processed for IPD or deformation measurement of the test image with respect to the reference image. The reliability of ESP in measurements depends strongly on the postprocessing of the two images by DIC, which we have referred to as conventional DIC. In this paper, we are proposing a small but useful modification in the existing DIC methods by introducing some additional steps, which drastically improves the results obtained with the existing techniques. The modification to the conventional DIC method has been referred to as modified DIC. Computer-simulated and experimental results have been presented to validate the superiority of modified DIC over conventional DIC methods. PMID:24663278

Mudassar, Asloob Ahmad; Butt, Saira

2014-02-10

29

Blue Marble - A Seamless Image Mosaic of the Earth (WMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This spectacular Blue Marble image is the most detailed true-color image of the entire Earth to date. Using a collection of satellite-based observations, scientists and visualizers stitched together months of observations of the land surface, oceans, sea ice, and clouds into a seamless, true-color mosaic of every square kilometer (.386 square mile) of our planet. Much of the information contained in this image came from a single remote-sensing device-NASAs Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. Flying over 700 km above the Earth onboard the Terra satellite, MODIS provides an integrated tool for observing a variety of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric features of the Earth. The land and coastal ocean portions of these images are based on surface observations collected from June through September 2001 and combined, or composited, every eight days to compensate for clouds that might block the sensors view of the surface on any single day. Two different types of ocean data were used in these images: shallow water true color data, and global ocean color (or chlorophyll) data. Topographic shading is based on the GTOPO 30 elevation dataset compiled by the U.S. Geological Surveys EROS Data Center.

Stockli, Reto; King, Michael

2004-02-16

30

Target plane imaging system for the Nova laser  

SciTech Connect

The Nova laser, in operation since December 1984, is capable of irradiating targets with light at 1.05 ..mu..m, 0.53 ..mu..m, and 0.35 ..mu..m. Correct alignment of these harmonic beams uses a system called a target plane imager (TPI). It is a large microscope (four meters long, weighing one thousand kilograms) that relays images from the target chamber center to a video optics module located on the outside of the chamber. Several modes of operation are possible including: near-field viewing and far-field viewing at three magnifications and three wavelengths. In addition, the entire instrument can be scanned in X,Y,Z to examine various planes near chamber center. Performance of this system and its computer controls will be described.

Swift, C.D.; Bliss, E.S.; Jones, W.A.; Reeves, R.J.; Seppala, L.G.; Shelton, R.T.; VanArsdall, P.J.

1985-12-12

31

Image based modeling via plane sweep based surface growing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a multi-view stereo based shaped modeling method. Using images captured from different viewpoints, our approach can provide objects' 3d models with high fidelity details automatically and efficiently. We firstly use a strict plane based sweep stereo method via GPU to compute quasi-dense depth maps which usually have many holes. Then, a simplified patch based surface

Bo Shu; Xianjie Qiu; Zhaoqi Wang

2009-01-01

32

Stolt's f-k migration for plane wave ultrasound imaging.  

PubMed

Ultrafast ultrasound is an emerging modality that offers new perspectives and opportunities in medical imaging. Plane wave imaging (PWI) allows one to attain very high frame rates by transmission of planar ultrasound wave-fronts. As a plane wave reaches a given scatterer, the latter becomes a secondary source emitting upward spherical waves and creating a diffraction hyperbola in the received RF signals. To produce an image of the scatterers, all the hyperbolas must be migrated back to their apexes. To perform beamforming of plane wave echo RFs and return high-quality images at high frame rates, we propose a new migration method carried out in the frequency-wavenumber (f-k) domain. The f-k migration for PWI has been adapted from the Stolt migration for seismic imaging. This migration technique is based on the exploding reflector model (ERM), which consists in assuming that all the scatterers explode in concert and become acoustic sources. The classical ERM model, however, is not appropriate for PWI. We showed that the ERM can be made suitable for PWI by a spatial transformation of the hyperbolic traces present in the RF data. In vitro experiments were performed to outline the advantages of PWI with Stolt's f-k migration over the conventional delay-and-sum (DAS) approach. The Stolt's f-k migration was also compared with the Fourier-based method developed by J.-Y. Lu. Our findings show that multi-angle compounded f-k migrated images are of quality similar to those obtained with a stateof- the-art dynamic focusing mode. This remained true even with a very small number of steering angles, thus ensuring a highly competitive frame rate. In addition, the new FFT-based f-k migration provides comparable or better contrast-to-noise ratio and lateral resolution than the Lu's and DAS migration schemes. Matlab codes for the Stolt's f-k migration for PWI are provided. PMID:24626107

Garcia, Damien; Le Tarnec, Louis; Muth, Stéphan; Montagnon, Emmanuel; Porée, Jonathan; Cloutier, Guy

2013-09-01

33

Imaging MDCK cysts with a single (selective) plane illumination microscope.  

PubMed

In modern biology, most optical imaging technologies are applied to two-dimensional cell culture systems. However, investigation of physiological context requires specimens that display the complex three-dimensional (3D) relationship of cells that occurs in tissue sections and in naturally developing organisms. The imaging of highly scattering multicellular specimens presents a number of challenges, including limited optical penetration depth, phototoxicity, and fluorophore bleaching. Light-sheet-based fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) overcomes many drawbacks of conventional fluorescence microscopy by using an orthogonal/azimuthal fluorescence arrangement with independent sets of lenses for illumination and detection. The specimen is illuminated from the side with a thin light sheet that overlaps with the focal plane of a wide-field fluorescence microscope. Optical sectioning and minimal phototoxic damage or photobleaching outside a small volume close to the focal plane are intrinsic properties of LSFM. The principles of LSFM are implemented in the single (or selective) plane illumination microscope (SPIM). Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cysts grown in extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogels provide a useful model system for studies of 3D cell biology. Here, we describe protocols for growing MDCK cysts within 3D type I collagen or reconstituted basement membrane (Matrigel) and for imaging these cysts by SPIM. PMID:24371325

Swoger, Jim; Pampaloni, Francesco; Stelzer, Ernst H K

2014-01-01

34

Imaging cellular spheroids with a single (selective) plane illumination microscope.  

PubMed

In modern biology, most optical imaging technologies are applied to two-dimensional cell culture systems. However, investigation of physiological context requires specimens that display the complex three-dimensional (3D) relationship of cells that occurs in tissue sections and in naturally developing organisms. The imaging of highly scattering multicellular specimens presents a number of challenges, including limited optical penetration depth, phototoxicity, and fluorophore bleaching. Light-sheet-based fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) overcomes many drawbacks of conventional fluorescence microscopy by using an orthogonal/azimuthal fluorescence arrangement with independent sets of lenses for illumination and detection. The specimen is illuminated from the side with a thin light sheet that overlaps with the focal plane of a wide-field fluorescence microscope. Optical sectioning and minimal phototoxic damage or photobleaching outside a small volume close to the focal plane are intrinsic properties of LSFM. The principles of LSFM are implemented in the single (or selective) plane illumination microscope (SPIM). Cellular spheroids are spherical aggregations of hundreds to thousands of cells and they provide a useful model system for studies of 3D cell biology. Here we describe a protocol for imaging cellular spheroids by SPIM. PMID:24371324

Swoger, Jim; Pampaloni, Francesco; Stelzer, Ernst H K

2014-01-01

35

3D pupil plane imaging of opaque targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Correlography is a technique that allows image formation from non-imaged speckle patterns via their relationship to the autocorrelation of the scene. Algorithms designed to form images from this type of data represent a particular type of phase retrieval algorithm since the autocorrelation function is related to the Fourier magnitude of the scene but not the Fourier phase. Methods for forming 2-D images from far field intensity measurements have been explored previously, but no 3-D methods have been put forward for forming range images of a scene from this kind of measurement. Farfield intensity measurements are attractive large focusing optics are not required to form images. Pupil plane intensity imaging is also attractive due to the fact that the effects of atmospheric turbulence close to the imaging system are mitigated by the cancelation of phase errors in the intensity operation. This paper suggests a method for obtaining 3-D images of a scene through the use of successive 2-D pupil plane intensity measurements sampled with an APD (Avalanche Photo-Diode) array. The 2-D array samples the returning pulse from a laser at a fast enough rate to avoid aliasing of the pulse shape in time. The spatial pattern received by the array allows the Autocorrelation of the scene to be determined as a function of time. The temporal autocorrelation function contains range information to each point in the scene illuminated by the pulsed laser. The proposed algorithm uses a model for the LADAR pulse and its relation to the autocorrelation of the scene as a function of time to estimate the range to every point in the reconstructed scene assuming that all surfaces are opaque (meaning a second return from the same point in the scene is not anticipated). The method is demonstrated using a computer simulation.

Cain, Stephen C.

2010-08-01

36

Edge detection - Image-plane versus digital processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To optimize edge detection with the familiar Laplacian-of-Gaussian operator, it has become common to implement this operator with a large digital convolution mask followed by some interpolation of the processed data to determine the zero crossings that locate edges. It is generally recognized that this large mask causes substantial blurring of fine detail. It is shown that the spatial detail can be improved by a factor of about four with either the Wiener-Laplacian-of-Gaussian filter or an image-plane processor. The Wiener-Laplacian-of-Gaussian filter minimizes the image-gathering degradations if the scene statistics are at least approximately known and also serves as an interpolator to determine the desired zero crossings directly. The image-plane processor forms the Laplacian-of-Gaussian response by properly combining the optical design of the image-gathering system with a minimal three-by-three lateral-inhibitory processing mask. This approach, which is suggested by Marr's model of early processing in human vision, also reduces data processing by about two orders of magnitude and data transmission by up to an order of magnitude.

Huck, Friedrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Park, Stephen K.; Triplett, Judith A.

1987-01-01

37

High-resolution image recovery from image-plane arrays, using convex projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of reconstructing remotely obtained images from image-plane detector arrays is considered. Although the individual detectors may be larger than the blur spot of the imaging optics, high-resolution reconstructions can be obtained by scanning or rotating the image with respect to the detector. As an alternative to matrix inversion or least-squares estimation, the method of convex projections is proposed.

Henry Stark; Peyma Oskoui

1989-01-01

38

Concurrent Monitoring of In-plane Strain and Out-of-plane Displacement of Tire Using Digital Image Correlation Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to improve performance of anti lock brake system (ABS) and detect condition of road surface, intelligent tires that monitor strain of interior surface and rolling radius of tire are demanded. However, the high stiffness of an attached sensor like a strain gauge causes debonding of sensors from tire rubber. In the present study, noncontact concurrent monitoring method is proposed using digital image correlation method (DICM) and spotlight projection. In-plane strain and out-of-plane displacement (rolling radius) are calculated by using image processing with an image of interior surface of tire that is taken with a single CCD camera fixed on wheel rim. New monitoring system is applied to Al beam and commercially available radial tire. As a result, this monitoring system is proved to be able to measure in-plane strain and out-of-plane displacement with high accuracy, and confirmed to be effective for concurrent monitoring of tires.

Hiraoka, Naoki; Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Todoroki, Akira

39

Wavelet image compression based on bit-plane context and its application to remote sensing images  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel wavelet image compression scheme is proposed in this paper. The scheme is based on bit-plane context and adaptive arithmetic coding. Parent coefficient and parent neighboring coefficients of current coding coefficient are used to construct context models besides its neighboring coefficients. Higher order entropy is sufficiently employed. Experimental results show that the scheme is among the best image coders

Qingyuan Wang; Runhai Jiao; Yuancheng Li; Bo Li

2005-01-01

40

Automatic Detection of Blue-White Veil and Related Structures in Dermoscopy Images  

PubMed Central

Dermoscopy is a non-invasive skin imaging technique, which permits visualization of features of pigmented melanocytic neoplasms that are not discernable by examination with the naked eye. One of the most important features for the diagnosis of melanoma in dermoscopy images is the blue-white veil (irregular, structureless areas of confluent blue pigmentation with an overlying white “ground-glass” film). In this article, we present a machine learning approach to the detection of blue-white veil and related structures in dermoscopy images. The method involves contextual pixel classification using a decision tree classifier. The percentage of blue-white areas detected in a lesion combined with a simple shape descriptor yielded a sensitivity of 69.35% and a specificity of 89.97% on a set of 545 dermoscopy images. The sensitivity rises to 78.20% for detection of blue veil in those cases where it is a primary feature for melanoma recognition.

Celebi, M. Emre; Iyatomi, Hitoshi; Stoecker, William V.; Moss, Randy H.; Rabinovitz, Harold S.; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Soyer, H. Peter

2011-01-01

41

Virtual-image generation in 360-degree viewable image-plane disk-type multiplex holography.  

PubMed

By shifting the rotational axis of the recording film and recording the individual image-plane holograms in reversed sequence with the real-image holographic system [Opt. Express 18, 14012 (2010)], the disk-type multiplex hologram can be made to generate virtual image for walk-around viewing if the recording reference source point is maintained on the symmetry axis of hologram disk. Theoretical formulation and numerical simulation show the characteristics of the reconstructed image. Experimental results are also shown for qualitative comparison. PMID:23609740

Cheng, Yih-Shyang; Chen, Zheng-Feng; Chen, Chih-Hung

2013-04-22

42

Application of bit-plane decomposition steganography to wavelet encoded images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a steganography method based on a lossy wavelet compression scheme and bit-plane complexity segmentation (BPCS) steganography. This method utilizes the embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) compression scheme, where wavelet coefficients of an image are quantized into a bit-plane structure. The proposed steganography enables us to use lossy compressed images as dummy files in bit-plane-based steganographic algorithms. Large embedding

Jeremiah Spaulding; Hideki Noda; Mahdad Nouri Shirazi; Michiharu Niimi; Eiji Kawaguchi

2002-01-01

43

Application of bit-plane decomposition steganography to wavelet encoded images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a steganography method based on a lossy wavelet compression scheme and bit-plane complex- ity segmentation (BPCS) steganography. This method uti- lizes the embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) compression scheme, where wavelet coefficients of an image are quan- tized into a bit-plane structure. The proposed steganogra- phy enables us to use lossy compressed images as dummy files in bit-plane-based

H. Noda; J. Spaulding; Mahdad Nouri Shirazi; E. Kawaguchi

2002-01-01

44

Automatic in-plane rotation for doubly-oblique cardiac imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

FOV. Materials and Methods: The equations for in-plane rota- tion were formulated for doubly-oblique imaging of a cylin- drical body with elliptical cross-section. Based on this for- mulation, automatic in-plane rotation was implemented and tested on a commercial scanner using nominal values for ellipticity of the body. Results: Short axis, doubly oblique, cardiac imaging were acquired with and without in-plane

Peter Kellman; J. Andrew Derbyshire; Elliot R. McVeigh

2003-01-01

45

Digital image correlation for whole field out-of-plane displacement measurement using a single camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital image correlation (DIC) using a single camera has been widely used for in-plane displacement and strain measurement. However, in order to obtain out-of-plane displacement, one should employ stereo vision systems which enable multiple directions detection. In this paper, we develop a simple method for whole field out-of-plane displacement measurement using only one camera. The proposed method employs digital image

C. J. Tay; C. Quan; Y. H. Huang; Y. Fu

2005-01-01

46

Imaging of the Blue, Green, and Red Fluorescence Emission of Plants: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is given on the fluorescence imaging of plants. Emphasis is laid upon multispectral fluorescence imaging in the maxima of the fluorescence emission bands of leaves, i.e., in the blue (440 nm), green (520 nm), red (690 nm), and far-red (740 nm) spectral regions. Details on the origin of these four fluorescence bands are presented including emitting substances and

C. Buschmann; G. Langsdorf; H. K. Lichtenthaler

2000-01-01

47

Future directions in focal-plane signal processing for space-borne scientific imagers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential of focal-plane signal processing for space-borne scientific imagers is discussed. Significant improvement in image quality and consequent scientific return may be enabled through the utilization of focal-plane signal processing techniques. The possible application of focal-plane signal processing to readout noise reduction, cosmic ray circumvention, non-uniformity correction, and throughput enhancement is described. On-focal-plane analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion and micromotion stabilization are also discussed. It is the intention of this paper to stimulate further thought and efforts in this field.

Fossum, Eric R.

1991-01-01

48

Vectorial point spread function and optical transfer function in oblique plane imaging.  

PubMed

Oblique plane imaging, using remote focusing with a tilted mirror, enables direct two-dimensional (2D) imaging of any inclined plane of interest in three-dimensional (3D) specimens. It can image real-time dynamics of a living sample that changes rapidly or evolves its structure along arbitrary orientations. It also allows direct observations of any tilted target plane in an object of which orientational information is inaccessible during sample preparation. In this work, we study the optical resolution of this innovative wide-field imaging method. Using the vectorial diffraction theory, we formulate the vectorial point spread function (PSF) of direct oblique plane imaging. The anisotropic lateral resolving power caused by light clipping from the tilted mirror is theoretically analyzed for all oblique angles. We show that the 2D PSF in oblique plane imaging is conceptually different from the inclined 2D slice of the 3D PSF in conventional lateral imaging. Vectorial optical transfer function (OTF) of oblique plane imaging is also calculated by the fast Fourier transform (FFT) method to study effects of oblique angles on frequency responses. PMID:24921812

Kim, Jeongmin; Li, Tongcang; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

2014-05-01

49

3D pupil plane imaging of opaque targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correlography is a technique that allows image formation from non-imaged speckle patterns via their relationship to the autocorrelation of the scene. Algorithms designed to form images from this type of data represent a particular type of phase retrieval algorithm since the autocorrelation function is related to the Fourier magnitude of the scene but not the Fourier phase. Methods for forming

Stephen C. Cain

2010-01-01

50

Fast plane detection for SLAM from noisy range images in both structured and unstructured environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on fast plane detection in noisy range images. First, two improvements to the state-of-the-art region growing algorithm are presented to make it faster without losing precision for unstructured environments. One is to add the seed selection procedure based on local shape information to avoid blind growth. The other is to simplify the plane fitting mean square error

Junhao Xiao; Jianhua Zhang; Jianwei Zhang; Houxiang Zhang; Hans Petter Hildre

2011-01-01

51

Single bit plane based block truncation coding for color image compression in LCD overdrive  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an improved block truncation coding (BTC) for color image compression in LCD overdrive. To improve the BTC, single bit plane is used to represent the R, G and B bit planes and correct the two representative levels. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can significantly improve the compression ratio of the BTC from 4:1 to 6:1

Jun Wang; Lin-bo Luo; Kyeong-yuk Min; Yeun-Cheul Jeung; Jong-wha Chong

2010-01-01

52

A hyperspectral images compression algorithm based on 3D bit plane transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

According the analyses of the hyper-spectral images, a new compression algorithm based on 3-D bit plane transform is proposed. The spectral coefficient is higher than the spatial. The algorithm is proposed to overcome the shortcoming of 1-D bit plane transform for it can only reduce the correlation when the neighboring pixels have similar values. The algorithm calculates the horizontal, vertical

Lei Zhang; Libin Xiang; Sam Zhang; Shengxue Quan

2010-01-01

53

Present and future status of flexible spectral imaging color enhancement and blue laser imaging technology.  

PubMed

The usefulness of flexible spectral imaging color enhancement (FICE) has been reported for evaluating the esophagus, stomach, and small and large intestine. Higher contrast is shown between cancer and the surrounding mucosa in the esophagus and stomach and may facilitate the detection of gastric cancers missed by white light imaging alone. The surface patterns of gastric mucosa are clearly visualized in non-malignant areas but are irregular and blurred in malignant areas, leading to clear demarcation. Capsule endoscopy with FICE detects angiodysplasia and erosions of the small intestine. The surface and vascular pattern with FICE is useful for the differential diagnosis of colorectal polyps. However, FICE remains somewhat poor at visualizing mucosal microvasculature on a tumor surface. Narrow-band imaging (NBI) is dark in observing whole gastric mucosa and poor at visualizing mucosal microstructure. Blue laser imaging (BLI) has the potential to resolve these limitations. Narrow-band laser light combined with white light shows irregular microvessels on both differentiated and undifferentiated gastric cancer similar to those using NBI. In addition, irregular surface patterns including minute white zones are clearly seen on the uneven surface of differentiated lesions, resulting in exclusion of undifferentiated lesions. Using both distant and close-up views, a high contrast between green intestinal metaplasia and brown gastric cancer may lead to early detection of gastric cancers and determination of a demarcation line. BLI produces high-contrast images in esophageal cancer with clear vision of intrapapillary capillary loops and also predicts the histopathological diagnosis and depth of invasion in colorectal neoplasms. PMID:24373002

Osawa, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Hironori

2014-01-01

54

Biofunctionalized gadolinium-containing prussian blue nanoparticles as multimodal molecular imaging agents.  

PubMed

Molecular imaging agents enable the visualization of phenomena with cellular and subcellular level resolutions and therefore have enormous potential in improving disease diagnosis and therapy assessment. In this article, we describe the synthesis, characterization, and demonstration of core-shell, biofunctionalized, gadolinium-containing Prussian blue nanoparticles as multimodal molecular imaging agents. Our multimodal nanoparticles combine the advantages of MRI and fluorescence. The core of our nanoparticles consists of a Prussian blue lattice with gadolinium ions located within the lattice interstices that confer high relaxivity to the nanoparticles providing MRI contrast. The relaxivities of our nanoparticles are nearly nine times those observed for the clinically used Magnevist. The nanoparticle MRI core is biofunctionalized with a layer of fluorescently labeled avidin that enables fluorescence imaging. Biotinylated antibodies are attached to the surface avidin and confer molecular specificity to the nanoparticles by targeting cell-specific biomarkers. We demonstrate our nanoparticles as multimodal molecular imaging agents in an in vitro model consisting of a mixture of eosinophilic cells and squamous epithelial cells. Our nanoparticles specifically detect eosinophilic cells and not squamous epithelial cells, via both fluorescence imaging and MRI in vitro. These results suggest the potential of our biofunctionalized Prussian blue nanoparticles as multimodal molecular imaging agents in vivo. PMID:24328306

Dumont, Matthieu F; Hoffman, Hilary A; Yoon, Pryscilla R S; Conklin, Laurie S; Saha, Shanta R; Paglione, Johnpierre; Sze, Raymond W; Fernandes, Rohan

2014-01-15

55

On spatial resolution of quasi-optical focal plane antenna array imagers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial resolution of millimeter wave (MMW), submillimeter wave (SMMW) and infrared (IR) quasi-optical imagers based on the usage of focal plane antenna arrays (FPAA) is limited by several common factors. Analytical expressions for the point spread functions (PSF) of FPAA imagers are derived for both coherent and spatially incoherent imaging. The possibility of developing advanced super-resolution imaging algorithms using PSFs determined to a high accuracy is discussed.

Volkov, Leonid V.; Voronko, Alexander I.; Volkova, Natalie L.

2004-08-01

56

Using Satellite Images for Wireless Network Planing in Baku City  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is a well known fact that the Information-Telecommunication and Space research technologies are the fields getting much more benefits from the achievements of the scientific and technical progress. In many cases, these areas supporting each other have improved the conditions for their further development. For instance, the intensive development in the field of the mobile communication has caused the rapid progress of the Space research technologies and vice versa.Today it is impossible to solve one of the most important tasks of the mobile communication as Radio Frecance planning without the 2D and 3D digital maps. The compiling of such maps is much more efficient by means of the space images. Because the quality of the space images has been improved and developed, especially at the both spectral and spatial resolution points. It has been possible to to use 8 Band images with the spatial resolution of 50 sm. At present, in relation to the function 3G of mobile communications one of the main issues facing mobile operator companies is a high-precision 3D digital maps. It should be noted that the number of mobile phone users in the Republic of Azerbaijan went forward other Community of Independent States Countries. Of course, using of aerial images for 3D mapping would be optimal. However, depending on a number of technical and administrative problems aerial photography cannot be used. Therefore, the experience of many countries shows that it will be more effective to use the space images with the higher resolution for these issues. Concerning the fact that the mobile communication within the city of Baku has included 3G function there were ordered stereo images wih the spatial resolution of 50 cm for the 150 sq.km territory occupying the central part of the city in order to compile 3D digital maps. The images collected from the WorldView-2 satellite are 4-Band Bundle(Pan+MS1) stereo images. Such kind of imagery enable to automatically classificate some required clutter classes.Meanwhile, there were created 12 GPS points in the territory and there have been held some appropriate observations in these points for the geodesic reference of the space images in the territory. Moreover, it would like to mention that there have been constructed 37 permanently acting GPS stations in the territory of Azerbaijan at present. It significantly facilitates the process of the geodesic reference of the space images in order to accomplish such kind of mentioned projects. The processing of the collected space images was accomplished by means of Erdas LPS 10 program. In the first stage there was created the main component of the 3D maps- Digital Elevevation Model. In this model the following clutter classes are presented: Open; Open areas in urban; Airport, Sea, Inland water; Forest; Parks in urban; Semi Open Area; Open Wet Area; Urban/Urban Mean; Dense urban, Villages, Industrial/Commercial, Residential/Suburban; Dense residential/Suburban; Block of BUILDINGS; Dense Urban High; Buildings, Urban Mixed, Mixed dense urban

Gojamanov, M.; Ismayilov, J.

2013-04-01

57

IR imager based on a 128x128 HgCdTe staring focal plane array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IR imager have been developed and investigated. IR imager consists of mercury cadmium telluride 128 X 128 staring focal plane array bonded by indium bumps with silicon MOS- multiplexer, split-Stirling cooler, electronic signal processor. Noise equivalent temperature difference NETD is less than 0.1 K.

Boltar, K. O.; Bovina, L. A.; Saginov, L. D.; Stafeev, Vitaly I.; Gibin, Igor S.; Maleev, V. M.

1999-06-01

58

The Canadian Galactic Plane Survey: Arcminute Imaging of Polarization Structure at 1.4 GHz  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (CGPS) we have imaged the polarized emission at 1420 MHz. Using the Synthesis Telescope at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO), we have obtained coverage of all spatial structures from 1 to 30 arcminutes. The sensitivity in the Stokes Q and U images is 300 microJanskys per beam. Coverage of the Galactic

T. L. Landecker; R. I. Reid; M. Wolleben; W. Reich; R. Kothes; D. Del Rizzo; B. Uyaniker; A. D. Gray; A. R. Taylor

2006-01-01

59

Achromatic imaging of distant objects in selected wavelength bands with plane and concave holographic gratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of a plane grating and a spherically concave holographic grating is studied and optimized for the imaging of distant objects in selected wavelength bands with a high degree of chromatic correction. The recording conditions for the holographic grating are given and the aberrations of the image are studied. The arrangement comprises a new type of diffracting telescope. The

Peter Lindblom; Jarl Dahlbacka

1978-01-01

60

Enhancing diffraction efficiency and resolution of the optical fiber image plane hologram  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is proved theoretically and experimentally in this paper that the diffraction efficiency and resolution of optical fiber image plane hologram can be enhanced by decreasing the single fiber core diameter of image-carrying optical fiber bundle and increasing the unit area fiber number.

Zhu Yu; Wei Song; Guangyu He; Defa Man

1996-01-01

61

A hyperspectral images compression algorithm based on 3D bit plane transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According the analyses of the hyper-spectral images, a new compression algorithm based on 3-D bit plane transform is proposed. The spectral coefficient is higher than the spatial. The algorithm is proposed to overcome the shortcoming of 1-D bit plane transform for it can only reduce the correlation when the neighboring pixels have similar values. The algorithm calculates the horizontal, vertical and spectral bit plane transform sequentially. As the spectral bit plane transform, the algorithm can be easily realized by hardware. In addition, because the calculation and encoding of the transform matrix of each bit are independent, the algorithm can be realized by parallel computing model, which can improve the calculation efficiency and save the processing time greatly. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves improved compression performance. With a certain compression ratios, the algorithm satisfies requirements of hyper-spectral images compression system, by efficiently reducing the cost of computation and memory usage.

Zhang, Lei; Xiang, Libin; Zhang, Sam; Quan, Shengxue

2010-05-01

62

BiPlane cardiac strain imaging: A study on valvular aortic stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the first preliminary results are reported of a beagle study on valvular aortic stenosis using BiPlane strain imaging. A previously reported strain method was applied to BiPlane RF-data of the heart of four beagles. A window-level tracking algorithm was devised, using a neighbour-based regularization force and a weighting factor that is highly depended on the cross-correlation values.

R. G. P. Lopata; M. M. Nillesen; I. H. Gerrits; L. Kapusta; J. M. Thijssen; C. L. de Korte

2008-01-01

63

Manganese-containing Prussian blue nanoparticles for imaging of pediatric brain tumors  

PubMed Central

Pediatric brain tumors (PBTs) are a leading cause of death in children. For an improved prognosis in patients with PBTs, there is a critical need to develop molecularly-specific imaging agents to monitor disease progression and response to treatment. In this paper, we describe manganese-containing Prussian blue nanoparticles as agents for molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescence-based imaging of PBTs. Our core-shell nanoparticles consist of a core lattice structure that incorporates and retains paramagnetic Mn2+ ions, and generates MRI contrast (both negative and positive). The biofunctionalized shell is comprised of fluorescent avidin, which serves the dual purpose of enabling fluorescence imaging and functioning as a platform for the attachment of biotinylated ligands that target PBTs. The surfaces of our nanoparticles are modified with biotinylated antibodies targeting neuron-glial antigen 2 or biotinylated transferrin. Both neuron-glial antigen 2 and the transferrin receptor are protein markers overexpressed in PBTs. We describe the synthesis, biofunctionalization, and characterization of these multimodal nanoparticles. Further, we demonstrate the MRI and fluorescence imaging capabilities of manganese-containing Prussian blue nanoparticles in vitro. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of these nanoparticles as PBT imaging agents by measuring their organ and brain biodistribution in an orthotopic mouse model of PBTs using ex vivo fluorescence imaging.

Dumont, Matthieu F; Yadavilli, Sridevi; Sze, Raymond W; Nazarian, Javad; Fernandes, Rohan

2014-01-01

64

Manganese-containing Prussian blue nanoparticles for imaging of pediatric brain tumors.  

PubMed

Pediatric brain tumors (PBTs) are a leading cause of death in children. For an improved prognosis in patients with PBTs, there is a critical need to develop molecularly-specific imaging agents to monitor disease progression and response to treatment. In this paper, we describe manganese-containing Prussian blue nanoparticles as agents for molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescence-based imaging of PBTs. Our core-shell nanoparticles consist of a core lattice structure that incorporates and retains paramagnetic Mn(2+) ions, and generates MRI contrast (both negative and positive). The biofunctionalized shell is comprised of fluorescent avidin, which serves the dual purpose of enabling fluorescence imaging and functioning as a platform for the attachment of biotinylated ligands that target PBTs. The surfaces of our nanoparticles are modified with biotinylated antibodies targeting neuron-glial antigen 2 or biotinylated transferrin. Both neuron-glial antigen 2 and the transferrin receptor are protein markers overexpressed in PBTs. We describe the synthesis, biofunctionalization, and characterization of these multimodal nanoparticles. Further, we demonstrate the MRI and fluorescence imaging capabilities of manganese-containing Prussian blue nanoparticles in vitro. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of these nanoparticles as PBT imaging agents by measuring their organ and brain biodistribution in an orthotopic mouse model of PBTs using ex vivo fluorescence imaging. PMID:24920896

Dumont, Matthieu F; Yadavilli, Sridevi; Sze, Raymond W; Nazarian, Javad; Fernandes, Rohan

2014-01-01

65

NESP: Nonlinear enhancement and selection of plane for optimal segmentation and recognition of scene word images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report a breakthrough result on the difficult task of segmentation and recognition of coloured text from the word image dataset of ICDAR robust reading competition challenge 2: reading text in scene images. We split the word image into individual colour, gray and lightness planes and enhance the contrast of each of these planes independently by a power-law transform. The discrimination factor of each plane is computed as the maximum between-class variance used in Otsu thresholding. The plane that has maximum discrimination factor is selected for segmentation. The trial version of Omnipage OCR is then used on the binarized words for recognition. Our recognition results on ICDAR 2011 and ICDAR 2003 word datasets are compared with those reported in the literature. As baseline, the images binarized by simple global and local thresholding techniques were also recognized. The word recognition rate obtained by our non-linear enhancement and selection of plance method is 72.8% and 66.2% for ICDAR 2011 and 2003 word datasets, respectively. We have created ground-truth for each image at the pixel level to benchmark these datasets using a toolkit developed by us. The recognition rate of benchmarked images is 86.7% and 83.9% for ICDAR 2011 and 2003 datasets, respectively.

Kumar, Deepak; Anil Prasad, M. N.; Ramakrishnan, A. G.

2013-01-01

66

Noninvasive vascular elastography using plane-wave and sparse-array imaging.  

PubMed

Stroke may occur when an atherosclerotic plaque ruptures in the carotid artery. Noninvasive vascular elastography (NIVE) visualizes the strain distribution within the carotid artery, which is related to its mechanical properties that govern plaque rupture. Strain elastograms obtained from the transverse plane of the carotid artery are difficult to interpret, because strain is estimated in Cartesian coordinates. Sparsearray (SA) elastography overcomes this problem by transforming shear and normal strain to polar coordinates. However, the SA's transmit power may be too weak to produce useful elastograms in the clinical setting. Consequently, we are exploring other imaging methods to solve this potential problem. This study evaluated the quality of elastograms produced with SA imaging, plane-wave (PW) imaging, and compounded-plane-wave (CPW) imaging. We performed studies on simulated and physical vessel phantoms, and the carotid artery of a healthy volunteer. All echo imaging was performed with a linear transducer array that contained 128 elements, operating at 5 MHz. In SA imaging, 7 elements were fired during transmission, but all 128 elements were active during reception. In PW imaging, all 128 elements were active during both transmission and reception. We created CPW images by steering the acoustic beam within the range of -15° to 15° in increments of 5°. SA radial and circumferential strain elastograms were comparable to those produced using PW and CPW imaging. Additionally, side-lobe levels incurred during SA imaging were 20 dB lower than those produced during PW imaging, and 10 dB lower than those computed using CPW imaging. Overall, SA imaging performs well in vivo; therefore, we plan to improve the technique and perform preclinical studies. PMID:23357907

Korukonda, Sanghamithra; Nayak, Rohit; Carson, Nancy; Schifitto, Giovanni; Dogra, Vikram; Doyley, Marvin M

2013-02-01

67

Correcting out-of-plane errors in two-dimensional imaging using nonimage-related information.  

PubMed

Two-dimensional imaging with a single camera assumes that the motion occurs in a calibrated plane perpendicular to the camera axis. It is well known that kinematic errors result if the object fails to remain in this plane and that if both the distance to the calibration plane from the camera and the distance out-of-plane are known, an analytical correction for the out-of-plane error can be made. Less well appreciated is that out-of-plane distance can frequently be acquired from other, nonimage-related information. In the two examples given, the mediolateral center of pressure coordinate of the foot measured from a force plate and the measured landing point of a shot put throw were used. In both cases, the resulting out-of-plane correction improved the accuracy of the 2-D kinematic data dramatically. These examples also demonstrate that the use of nonimage-related data can increase the accuracy of kinematic data without an increase in the complexity of the experiment. PMID:11165291

Sih, B L; Hubbard, M; Williams, K R

2001-02-01

68

Autofocusing method for tilted image plane detection in digital holographic microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rapid autofocusing technique is a fundamental element for a vast range of applications of digital holography. In this paper we propose a new autofocusing method that permits to detect a tilted optimal focus plane. The method is based on estimation of focusing condition of the optical field by evaluating the sharpness in its amplitude distribution. The developed algorithm is fully automated. It consists of two major steps, first the rotation axis is localized from the map of local sharpness and then the angular orientation of the image plane is derived by maximizing the focus of optical fields reconstructed in many subsequent tilted planes. In our study six image sharpness quantification methods are investigated and the numerical propagation between inclined planes is performed with an efficient band limited angular spectrum algorithm. The utility of the proposed method for autofocusing to a tilted image plane is experimentally confirmed in a digital holographic microscopy setup by carrying out a successful reconstruction of holograms of the exemplary amplitude (the 1951 USAF positive target) and phase (a matrix of microlenses) objects.

Kostencka, Julianna; Kozacki, Tomasz; Li?ewski, Kamil

2013-06-01

69

Sharp and rectified imaging of plane test objects in diffractive grazing incidence interferometers.  

PubMed

Fine-ground plane surfaces can be interferometrically tested in grazing incidence with laser illumination in the visible. Since the roughness of the surfaces is in the micrometer-range, the incidence angle of the probing wave front is very close to 90°, causing a strong anamorphic distortion of the length of the test sample on an imaging detector. In contrast to this the width of the sample remains undistorted in the image plane. Here, the case of a diffractive grazing incidence solution will be discussed. In particular, the rectification of the anamorphic distortion combined with sharp imaging of the whole length of the test sample will be described together with solutions for matching the illuminating and imaging beam cross section to the lateral extension of the sample. PMID:24663281

Schwider, J

2014-02-10

70

HST images of very compact blue galaxies at z approximately 0.2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the results of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide-Field Camera (WFC) imaging of seven very compact, very blue galaxies with B less than or equal to 21 and redshifts z approximately 0.1 to 0.35. Based on deconvolved images, we estimate typical half-light diameters of approximately 0.65 sec, corresponding to approximately 1.4 h(exp -1) kpc at redshifts z approximately 0.2. The average rest frame surface brightness within this diameter is mu(sub v) approximately 20.5 mag arcsec(exp -2), approximately 1 mag brighter than that of typical late-type blue galaxies. Ground-based spectra show strong, narrow emission lines indicating high ionization; their very blue colors suggest recent bursts of star-formation; their typical luminosities are approximately 4 times fainter than that of field galaxies. These characteristics suggest H II galaxies as likely local counterparts of our sample, though our most luminous targets appear to be unusually compact for their luminosities.

Koo, David C.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Wirth, Gregory D.; Stanford, S. Adam; Majewski, Steven R.

1994-01-01

71

Laser-induced fluorescence images of NO distribution after needle-plane pulsed negative corona discharge  

SciTech Connect

Images showing the spatial distribution of nitric oxide (NO) following propagation of a 30 ns pulsed, negative streamer between needle-plane electrodes, in 25 parts per million (ppm) NO seeded air, are reported. The images were generated using laser-induced fluorescence, and show uniform destruction of 10 ppm NO between the cathode and anode. This evidence shows that processes associated with the propagating streamer are responsible for uniform destruction of NO throughout the electrode gap.

Roth, G.J.; Gundersen, M.A. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1999-02-01

72

Focal-Plane Imaging of Crossed Beams in Nonlinear Optics Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An application of focal-plane imaging that can be used as a real time diagnostic of beam crossing in various optical techniques is reported. We discuss two specific versions and demonstrate the capability of maximizing system performance with an example in a combined dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering interferometric Rayleigh scattering experiment (CARS-IRS). We find that this imaging diagnostic significantly reduces beam alignment time and loss of CARS-IRS signals due to inadvertent misalignments.

Bivolaru, Daniel; Herring, G. C.

2007-01-01

73

Achieving near-correct focus cues in a 3D display using multiple image planes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Focus cues specify inappropriate 3-D scene parameters in conventional displays because the light comes from a single surface, independent of the depth relations in the portrayed scene. This can lead to distortions in perceived depth, as well as discomfort and fatigue due to the differing demands on accommodation and vergence. Here we examine the efficacy of a stereo-display prototype designed to minimize these problems by using multiple image planes to present near-correct focus cues. Each eye"s view is the sum of several images presented at different focal distances. Image intensities are assigned based on the dioptric distance of each image plane from the portrayed object, determined along visual lines. The stimulus to accommodation is more consistent with the portrayed depth than with conventional displays, but it still differs from the stimulus in equivalent real scenes. Compared to a normal, fixed-distance display, observers showed improved stereoscopic performance in different psychophysical tasks including speed of fusing stereoscopic images, precision of depth discrimination, and accuracy of perceived depth estimates. The multiple image-planes approach provides a practical solution for some shortcomings of conventional displays.

Watt, Simon J.; Akeley, Kurt; Girshick, Ahna R.; Banks, Martin S.

2005-03-01

74

Hard X-ray imaging survey of the Galactic plane with the Caltech gamma-ray imaging payload GRIP-2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a two-day balloon flight during October 1995, the Caltech coded aperture gamma ray imaging payload (GRIP-2) imaged various fields in the Galactic plane and center in the 25 to 600 keV energy band. The large phoswich detector, the 15 deg field of view, the 30 arcmin angular resolution and 6 arcmin point source localization capability of GRIP-2 provides the possibility of surveying the accreting binary population of the Galaxy at high energy. The instrument is described and preliminary imaging results are reported on. The capabilities of this instrument for hard X-ray/gamma ray imaging are demonstrated.

Corbel, S.; Cook, W. R.; Harrison, F. A.; Prince, T. A.; Schindler, S. M.; Wang, S.

1997-01-01

75

Learning-based scan plane identification from fetal head ultrasound images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acquisition of a clinically acceptable scan plane is a pre-requisite for ultrasonic measurement of anatomical features from B-mode images. In obstetric ultrasound, measurement of gestational age predictors, such as biparietal diameter and head circumference, is performed at the level of the thalami and cavum septum pelucidi. In an accurate scan plane, the head can be modeled as an ellipse, the thalami looks like a butterfly, the cavum appears like an empty box and the falx is a straight line along the major axis of a symmetric ellipse inclined either parallel to or at small angles to the probe surface. Arriving at the correct probe placement on the mother's belly to obtain an accurate scan plane is a task of considerable challenge especially for a new user of ultrasound. In this work, we present a novel automated learning-based algorithm to identify an acceptable fetal head scan plane. We divide the problem into cranium detection and a template matching to capture the composite "butterfly" structure present inside the head, which mimics the visual cues used by an expert. The algorithm uses the stateof- the-art Active Appearance Models techniques from the image processing and computer vision literature and tie them to presence or absence of the inclusions within the head to automatically compute a score to represent the goodness of a scan plane. This automated technique can be potentially used to train and aid new users of ultrasound.

Liu, Xiaoming; Annangi, Pavan; Gupta, Mithun; Yu, Bing; Padfield, Dirk; Banerjee, Jyotirmoy; Krishnan, Kajoli

2012-02-01

76

Reproducibility of Frankfort Horizontal Plane on 3D Multi-Planar Reconstructed MR Images  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy and reliability of Frankfort horizontal plane identification using displays of multi-planar reconstructed MRI images, and propose it as a sufficiently stable and standardized reference plane for craniofacial structures. Materials and Methods MRI images of 43 subjects were obtained from the longitudinal population based cohort study SHIP-2 using a T1-weighted 3D sequence. Five examiners independently identified the three landmarks that form FH plane. Intra-examiner reproducibility and inter-examiner reliability, correlation coefficients (ICC), coefficient of variability and Bland-Altman plots were obtained for all landmarks coordinates to assess reproducibility. Intra-examiner reproducibility and inter-examiner reliability in terms of location and plane angulation were also assessed. Results Intra- and inter-examiner reliabilities for X, Y and Z coordinates of all three landmarks were excellent with ICC values ranging from 0.914 to 0.998. Differences among examiners were more in X and Z than in Y dimensions. The Bland–Altman analysis demonstrated excellent intra- as well as inter-examiner agreement between examiners in all coordinates for all landmarks. Intra-examiner reproducibility and inter-examiner reliability of the three landmarks in terms of distance showed mean differences between 1.3 to 2.9 mm, Mean differences in plane angulation were between 1.0° to 1.5° among examiners. Conclusion This study revealed excellent intra-examiner reproducibility and inter-examiner reliability of Frankfort Horizontal plane through 3D landmark identification in MRI. Sufficiently stable landmark-based reference plane could be used for different treatments and studies.

Daboul, Amro; Schwahn, Christian; Schaffner, Grit; Soehnel, Silvia; Samietz, Stefanie; Aljaghsi, Ahmad; Habes, Mohammad; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Puls, Ralf; Klinke, Thomas; Biffar, Reiner

2012-01-01

77

a Multi-View Image Matching Method for Feature Points Based on the Moving Z-Plane Constraint  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Focusing on the serious occlusion problem in city images, this paper makes full use of the advantage of multi-view image matching, and proposes a reliable multi-view image matching method based on the moving Z-Plane constraint. It supposes a fictitious plane in the object space, and the plane is divided to regular grid cell (small plane element) by a certain interval (? image resolution). By moving the plane to different elevation positions, this algorithm makes feature point projection ray in overall images intersect with the plane, and constrains the candidate points by grid cells in the plane. Feature points which come from different images projection ray in the same grid cell on the plane may be regarded as the matching candidates. It selects the images which matching candidate points by gray similarity constraint to avoid the effect from occlusion image. According to the number of projection ray in the grid cell, this algorithm adopts hierarchy matching strategy of "the best candidate will be matched in the first instant", and uses initial matching results as constraint condition in the latter matching process. Finally, the validity of the algorithm proposed in this paper is verified by the experiments using four UltraCamX (UCX) digital aerial images and the algorithm is shown to have reliable matching results.

Wang, J.; Song, W.; Bu, F.

2012-07-01

78

Spatially isotropic four-dimensional imaging with dual-view plane illumination microscopy.  

PubMed

Optimal four-dimensional imaging requires high spatial resolution in all dimensions, high speed and minimal photobleaching and damage. We developed a dual-view, plane illumination microscope with improved spatiotemporal resolution by switching illumination and detection between two perpendicular objectives in an alternating duty cycle. Computationally fusing the resulting volumetric views provides an isotropic resolution of 330 nm. As the sample is stationary and only two views are required, we achieve an imaging speed of 200 images/s (i.e., 0.5 s for a 50-plane volume). Unlike spinning-disk confocal or Bessel beam methods, which illuminate the sample outside the focal plane, we maintain high spatiotemporal resolution over hundreds of volumes with negligible photobleaching. To illustrate the ability of our method to study biological systems that require high-speed volumetric visualization and/or low photobleaching, we describe microtubule tracking in live cells, nuclear imaging over 14 h during nematode embryogenesis and imaging of neural wiring during Caenorhabditis elegans brain development over 5 h. PMID:24108093

Wu, Yicong; Wawrzusin, Peter; Senseney, Justin; Fischer, Robert S; Christensen, Ryan; Santella, Anthony; York, Andrew G; Winter, Peter W; Waterman, Clare M; Bao, Zhirong; Colón-Ramos, Daniel A; McAuliffe, Matthew; Shroff, Hari

2013-11-01

79

[Self-adaptive beamforming method based on plane wave ultrasound imaging].  

PubMed

In order to improve the resolution, contrast and frame rate of ultrasound imaging, it is necessary to design an adaptive beamforming method for plane wave ultrasound imaging. An optimized minimum variance algorithm that suits plane wave ultrasound imaging was proposed, based on the traditional minimum variance algorithm that combines with the subband beamforming as well as the forward-backward spatial smoothing method in the frequency domain. To verify the effectiveness of the improved algorithm, the matlab software was used. Simulation results showed that full width at half maximum and peak side-lobe level of Optimized MV, Conventional MV, DAS boxcar, and Linear scan methods were 0.08, 0.36, 0.92, 1.42 dB, and -41.1, - 37.3, -16.9, - 34.1 dB, respectively. The improved algorithm can significantly improve the image resolution and contrast, particularly applicable to plane wave ultrasound imaging, compared with the conventional minimum variance algorithm and traditional delay-and-sum method. PMID:24059068

Zhang, Longlong; Zhou, Hao; Zheng, Yinfei; Gong, Xiaohong; Wang, Jianping

2013-08-01

80

Spatially isotropic four-dimensional imaging with dual-view plane illumination microscopy  

PubMed Central

Optimal four-dimensional imaging requires high spatial resolution in all dimensions, high speed and minimal photobleaching and damage. We developed a dual-view, plane illumination microscope with improved spatiotemporal resolution by switching illumination and detection between two perpendicular objectives in an alternating duty cycle. Computationally fusing the resulting volumetric views provides an isotropic resolution of 330 nm. As the sample is stationary and only two views are required, we achieve an imaging speed of 200 images/s (i.e., 0.5 s for a 50-plane volume). Unlike spinning-disk confocal or Bessel beam methods, which illuminate the sample outside the focal plane, we maintain high spatiotemporal resolution over hundreds of volumes with negligible photobleaching. To illustrate the ability of our method to study biological systems that require high-speed volumetric visualization and/or low photobleaching, we describe microtubule tracking in live cells, nuclear imaging over 14 h during nematode embryogenesis and imaging of neural wiring during Caenorhabditis elegans brain development over 5 h.

Wu, Yicong; Wawrzusin, Peter; Senseney, Justin; Fischer, Robert S; Christensen, Ryan; Santella, Anthony; York, Andrew G; Winter, Peter W; Waterman, Clare M; Bao, Zhirong; Colon-Ramos, Daniel A; McAuliffe, Matthew; Shroff, Hari

2014-01-01

81

Bi-plane correlation imaging for improved detection of lung nodules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bi-plane correlation imaging (BCI) is a new imaging approach that utilizes angular information from a bi-plane digital acquisition in conjunction with computer assisted detection (CAD) to reduce the degrading influence of anatomical noise in the detection of subtle lesions in planar images. An anthropomorphic chest phantom, supplemented with added nodule phantoms (5-13 mm at the image plane), was imaged from different posterior projections within a +/-12° range by moving the x-ray tube vertically and horizontally with respect to the detector. Each image was analyzed using a basic front-end single-view CAD algorithm. The correlation of the suspect lesions from the PA view with those from each of the oblique views was examined using a priori knowledge of the acquisition geometry. The correlated suspect lesions were registered as positive. Using an optimum 3° vertical geometry and processing parameters, BCI resulted in 62.5% sensitivity, 1.5 FP/image, and 0.885 PPV. The corresponding values from the observer experiment were 56% sensitivity, 10.8 FP/image, and 0.45 PPV, respectively. Compared to single-view CAD results, the BCI reduced sensitivity by 20%. However, the corresponding reduction in FPs was notably higher (94%) leading to 140% improvement in the PPV. Changes in processing parameters could result in higher PPV and lower FP/image at the expense of lower sensitivity. Similar findings were indicated for small (5-9 mm) and large (9-13 mm) nodules, but the relative improvement was significantly higher for smaller nodules. (The research was supported by a grant from the NIH, R21CA91806.)

Samei, Ehsan; Catarious, David M., Jr.; Baydush, Alan H.; Floyd, Carey E., Jr.; Vargas-Voracek, Rene

2003-06-01

82

Maximum likelihood blind image separation using nonsymmetrical half-plane Markov random fields.  

PubMed

This paper presents a maximum likelihood approach for blindly separating linear instantaneous mixtures of images. The spatial autocorrelation within each image is described using nonsymmetrical half-plane (NSHP) Markov random fields in order to simplify the joint probability density functions of the source images. A first implementation assuming stationary sources is presented. It is then extended to a more realistic nonstationary image model: two approaches, respectively based on blocking and kernel smoothing, are proposed to cope with the nonstationarity of the images. The estimation of the mixing matrix is performed using an iterative equivariant version of the Newton-Raphson algorithm. Moreover, score functions, required for the computation of the updating rule, are approximated at each iteration by parametric polynomial estimators. Results achieved with artificial mixtures of both artificial and real-world images, including an astrophysical application, clearly prove the high performance of our methods, as compared to classical algorithms. PMID:19596636

Guidara, Rima; Hosseini, Shahram; Deville, Yannick

2009-11-01

83

Electric Field Reconstruction in the Image Plane of a High-Contrast Coronagraph Using a Set of Pinholes around the Lyot Plane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a setup similar to the self coherent camera, we have added a set of pinholes in the diffraction ring of the Lyot plane in a high-contrast stellar Lyot coronagraph. We describe a novel complex electric field reconstruction from image plane intensity measurements consisting of light in the coronagraph's dark hole interfering with light from the pinholes. The image plane field is modified by letting light through one pinhole at a time. In addition to estimation of the field at the science camera, this method allows for self-calibration of the probes by letting light through the pinholes in various permutations while blocking the main Lyot opening. We present results of estimation and calibration from the High Contrast Imaging Testbed along with a comparison to the pair-wise deformable mirror diversity based estimation technique. Tests are carried out in narrow-band light and over a composite 10% bandpass.

Giveona, Amir; Shaklan, Stuart; Kern, Brian; Noecker, Charley; Kendrick, Steve; Wallace, Kent

2012-01-01

84

Statistical analysis of cross-talk noise and storage capacity in volume holographic memory: image plane holograms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the cross-talk noise in optical storage based on angle-multiplexed image plane volume holograms. Simple expressions for the signal-to-noise ratio and the storage density are obtained. The cross-talk noise is found to limit the size of the pixels and the number of recorded holograms. The cross-talk-limited storage density of image plane holographic storage is found to be close to that of Fourier plane holographic storage.

Yi, Xianmin; Campbell, Scott; Yeh, Pochi; Gu, Claire

1995-04-01

85

Image interpolation and denoising for division of focal plane sensors using Gaussian processes.  

PubMed

Image interpolation and denoising are important techniques in image processing. These methods are inherent to digital image acquisition as most digital cameras are composed of a 2D grid of heterogeneous imaging sensors. Current polarization imaging employ four different pixelated polarization filters, commonly referred to as division of focal plane polarization sensors. The sensors capture only partial information of the true scene, leading to a loss of spatial resolution as well as inaccuracy of the captured polarization information. Interpolation is a standard technique to recover the missing information and increase the accuracy of the captured polarization information. Here we focus specifically on Gaussian process regression as a way to perform a statistical image interpolation, where estimates of sensor noise are used to improve the accuracy of the estimated pixel information. We further exploit the inherent grid structure of this data to create a fast exact algorithm that operates in (N3/2) (vs. the naive (N3)), thus making the Gaussian process method computationally tractable for image data. This modeling advance and the enabling computational advance combine to produce significant improvements over previously published interpolation methods for polarimeters, which is most pronounced in cases of low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We provide the comprehensive mathematical model as well as experimental results of the GP interpolation performance for division of focal plane polarimeter. PMID:24977618

Gilboa, Elad; Cunningham, John P; Nehorai, Arye; Gruev, Viktor

2014-06-16

86

Fourier transform spectroscopic imaging using an infrared focal-plane array detector.  

PubMed

A powerful new mid-infrared spectroscopic chemical imaging technique combining step-scan Fourier transform Michelson interferometry with indium antimonide focal-plane array (FPA) image detection is described. The coupling of an infrared focal-plane array detector to an interferometer provides an instrumental multiplex/multichannel advantage. Specifically, the multiple detector elements enable spectra at all pixels to be collected simultaneously, while the interferometer portion of the system allows all the spectral frequencies to be measured concurrently. With this method of mid-infrared spectroscopic imaging, the fidelity of the generated spectral images is limited only by the number of pixels on the FPA detector, and only several seconds of starting time is required for spectral image acquisition. This novel, high-definition technique represents the future of infrared chemical imaging analysis, a new discipline within the chemical and material sciences, which combines the capability of spectroscopy for molecular analysis with the power of visualization. In particular, chemical imaging is broadly applicable for noninvasive, molecular characterization of heterogeneous materials, since all solid-state materials exhibit chemical nonuniformity that exists either by design or by development during the course of material preparation or fabrication. Imaging, employing Raman and infrared spectroscopy, allows the precise characterization of the chemical composition, domain structure, and chemical architecture of a variety of substances. This information is often crucial to a wide range of activities, extending from the fabrication of new materials to a basic understanding of biological samples. In this study, step-scan imaging principles, instrument design details, and infrared chemical imaging results are presented. Since the prospect of performing high-resolution and high-definition mid-infrared chemical imaging very rapidly has been achieved with the step-scan approach, the implications for the chemical analysis of materials are many and varied. PMID:8686889

Lewis, E N; Treado, P J; Reeder, R C; Story, G M; Dowrey, A E; Marcott, C; Levin, I W

1995-10-01

87

A method for pulsed scannerless laser imaging using focal plane array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser imaging techniques have advantages for EMI (Electro Magnetic Interference) immunity and abundant image information. This contribution describes the research activity on the scannerless laser imaging detection technique using direct detection aimed at laser fuze applications. The technique using a pulsed laser to illuminate the target and a focal plane array can be used as a receiver. The range information is achieved by means of a direct time of light measurement. Information about the reflectivity of the target is gathered by recording the amplitude of the received pulse. In this paper a high-repetition-frequency, narrow pulse semiconductor laser floodlight emitting system is designed; corresponding optics is used to generate the homogenously illuminated FOI (field of illumination). The echo of laser is collected by receiving optical system fed to focal plane array. Some experiments were done with the emitting and receiving systems that had been designed. Experiments show the validity and rationality of this method. The scannerless structure is robust and provides instantaneous snapshot-type imaging. Avoiding any moving mechanical parts, scannerless laser imaging system have distinct characteristics such as small, compact, high frame rate, wide field of view and high reliability. It is an optimal approach to realize laser imaging fuze.

Zhang, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Ke-Yong; Deng, Jia-Hao; Hai, Yan

2011-06-01

88

Robust real time extraction of plane segments from time-of-flight camera images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method that extracts plane segments from images of a time-of-flight camera. Future driver assistance systems rely on an accurate description of the vehicle's environment. Time-of-flight cameras can be used for environment perception and for the reconstruction of the environment. Since most structures in urban environments are planar, extracted plane segments from single camera images can be used for the creation of a global map. We present a method for real time detection of planar surface structures from time-of-flight camera data. The concept is based on a planar surface segmentation that serves as the fundament for a subsequent global planar surface extraction. The evaluation demonstrates the ability of the described algorithm to detect planar surfaces form depth data of complex scenarios in real time. We compare our methods to state of the art planar surface extraction algorithms.

Dalbah, Yosef; Koltermann, Dirk; Wahl, Friedrich M.

2014-04-01

89

Near Real-Time Imaging of the Galactic Plane with BATSE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The discovery of new transient or persistent sources in the hard X-ray regime with the BATSE Earth occultation Technique has been limited previously to bright sources of about 200 mCrab or more. While monitoring known source locations is not a problem to a daily limiting sensitivity of about 75 mCrab, the lack of a reliable background model forces us to use more intensive computer techniques to find weak, previously unknown emission from hard X-ray/gamma sources. The combination of Radon transform imaging of the galactic plane in 10 by 10 degree fields and the Harvard/CFA-developed Image Search (CBIS) allows us to straightforwardly search the sky for candidate sources in a +/- 20 degree latitude band along the plane. This procedure has been operating routinely on a weekly basis since spring 1997. We briefly describe the procedure, then concentrate on the performance aspects of the technique and candidate source results from the search.

Harmon, B. A.; Zhang, S. N.; Robinson, C. R.; Paciesas, W. S.; Barret, D.; Grindlay, J.; Bloser, P.; Monnelly, C.

1997-01-01

90

A thin film indium gallium arsenide focal plane array for visible and near infrared hyperspectral imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) focal plane arrays (FPAs) have proven useful in a wide variety of scientific, commercial, and military applications ranging from near infrared spectroscopy to night vision imaging. In a two-dimensional InGaAs FPA, an InGaAs photodiode array is hybrid-integrated to a silicon CMOS readout integrated circuit using indium bump-bonding techniques. The array is backside-illuminated with a long wavelength

Marshall J. Cohen; Michael J. Lange; Martin H. Ettenberg; Peter Dixon; G. H. Olsen

1999-01-01

91

3D Guide Wire Navigation from Single Plane Fluoroscopic Images in Abdominal Catheterizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, abdominal catheterizations are mainly guided by 2D fluoroscopic imaging from one view, which complicates this task due to missing depth information, vessel invisibility, and patient motion. We propose a new technique for 3D navigation of guide wires based on single-plane 2D fluoroscopic views and a previously extracted 3D model of the vasculature. In order to relate the guide wire,

Martin Groher; Frederik Bender; Ali Khamene; Wolfgang Wein; Tim Hauke Heibel; Nassir Navab

2009-01-01

92

Fast Spheres, Shadows, Textures, Transparencies, and Image Enhancements in Pixel-Planes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pixel-planes is a logic-enhanced memory system for raster graphics and imaging. Although each pixel-memory is enhanced with a one-bit ALU, the system's real power comes from a tree of one-bit adders that can evaluate linear expressions can accept the results. We and others have begun to develop a variety of algorithms that exploit this fast linear expression evaluation capability. In

Henry Fuchs; Jack Goldfeather; Jeff P. Hultquist; Susan Spach; John D. Austin; Frederick P. Brooks Jr.; John G. Eyles; John Poulton

1985-01-01

93

Sentinel lymph nodes detection with an imaging system using Patent Blue V dye as fluorescent tracer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the gold standard to detect metastatic invasion from primary breast cancer. This method can help patients avoid full axillary chain dissection, thereby decreasing the risk of morbidity. We propose an alternative to the traditional isotopic method, to detect and map the sentinel lymph nodes. Indeed, Patent Blue V is the most widely used dye in clinical routine for the visual detection of sentinel lymph nodes. A Recent study has shown the possibility of increasing the fluorescence quantum yield of Patent Blue V, when it is bound to human serum albumin. In this study we present a preclinical fluorescence imaging system to detect sentinel lymph nodes labeled with this fluorescent tracer. The setup is composed of a black and white CCD camera and two laser sources. One excitation source with a laser emitting at 635 nm and a second laser at 785 nm to illuminate the region of interest. The prototype is operated via a laptop. Preliminary experiments permitted to determine the device sensitivity in the ?mol.L-1 range as regards the detection of PBV fluorescence signals. We also present a preclinical evaluation performed on Lewis rats, during which the fluorescence imaging setup detected the accumulation and fixation of the fluorescent dye on different nodes through the skin.

Tellier, F.; Steibel, J.; Chabrier, R.; Rodier, J. F.; Pourroy, G.; Poulet, P.

2013-03-01

94

Mosaicing of single plane illumination microscopy images using groupwise registration and fast content-based image fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single Plane Illumination Microscopy (SPIM; Huisken et al., Nature 305(5686):1007-1009, 2004) is an emerging microscopic technique that enables live imaging of large biological specimens in their entirety. By imaging the living biological sample from multiple angles SPIM has the potential to achieve isotropic resolution throughout even relatively large biological specimens. For every angle, however, only a relatively shallow section of the specimen is imaged with high resolution, whereas deeper regions appear increasingly blurred. In order to produce a single, uniformly high resolution image, we propose here an image mosaicing algorithm that combines state of the art groupwise image registration for alignment with content-based image fusion to prevent degrading of the fused image due to regional blurring of the input images. For the registration stage, we introduce an application-specific groupwise transformation model that incorporates per-image as well as groupwise transformation parameters. We also propose a new fusion algorithm based on Gaussian filters, which is substantially faster than fusion based on local image entropy. We demonstrate the performance of our mosaicing method on data acquired from living embryos of the fruit fly, Drosophila, using four and eight angle acquisitions.

Preibisch, Stephan; Rohlfing, Torsten; Hasak, Michael P.; Tomancak, Pavel

2008-04-01

95

Fast functional imaging of multiple brain regions in intact zebrafish larvae using Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy  

PubMed Central

The optical transparency and the small dimensions of zebrafish at the larval stage make it a vertebrate model of choice for brain-wide in-vivo functional imaging. However, current point-scanning imaging techniques, such as two-photon or confocal microscopy, impose a strong limit on acquisition speed which in turn sets the number of neurons that can be simultaneously recorded. At 5 Hz, this number is of the order of one thousand, i.e., approximately 1–2% of the brain. Here we demonstrate that this limitation can be greatly overcome by using Selective-plane Illumination Microscopy (SPIM). Zebrafish larvae expressing the genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP3 were illuminated with a scanned laser sheet and imaged with a camera whose optical axis was oriented orthogonally to the illumination plane. This optical sectioning approach was shown to permit functional imaging of a very large fraction of the brain volume of 5–9-day-old larvae with single- or near single-cell resolution. The spontaneous activity of up to 5,000 neurons was recorded at 20 Hz for 20–60 min. By rapidly scanning the specimen in the axial direction, the activity of 25,000 individual neurons from 5 different z-planes (approximately 30% of the entire brain) could be simultaneously monitored at 4 Hz. Compared to point-scanning techniques, this imaging strategy thus yields a ?20-fold increase in data throughput (number of recorded neurons times acquisition rate) without compromising the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The extended field of view offered by the SPIM method allowed us to directly identify large scale ensembles of neurons, spanning several brain regions, that displayed correlated activity and were thus likely to participate in common neural processes. The benefits and limitations of SPIM for functional imaging in zebrafish as well as future developments are briefly discussed.

Panier, Thomas; Romano, Sebastian A.; Olive, Raphael; Pietri, Thomas; Sumbre, German; Candelier, Raphael; Debregeas, Georges

2013-01-01

96

Sentinel lymph nodes fluorescence detection and imaging using Patent Blue V bound to human serum albumin.  

PubMed

Patent Blue V (PBV), a dye used clinically for sentinel lymph node detection, was mixed with human serum albumin (HSA). After binding to HSA, the fluorescence quantum yield increased from 5 × 10(-4) to 1.7 × 10(-2), which was enough to allow fluorescence detection and imaging of its distribution. A detection threshold, evaluated in scattering test objects, lower than 2.5 nmol × L(-1) was obtained, using a single-probe setup with a 5-mW incident light power. The detection sensitivity using a fluorescence imaging device was in the µmol × L(-1) range, with a noncooled CCD camera. Preclinical evaluation was performed on a rat model and permitted to observe inflamed nodes on all animals. PMID:23024922

Tellier, Franklin; Steibel, Jérôme; Chabrier, Renée; Blé, François Xavier; Tubaldo, Hervé; Rasata, Ravelo; Chambron, Jacques; Duportail, Guy; Simon, Hervé; Rodier, Jean-François; Poulet, Patrick

2012-09-01

97

In-plane displacement and strain measurements using a camera phone and digital image correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-plane displacement and strain measurements of planar objects by processing the digital images captured by a camera phone using digital image correlation (DIC) are performed in this paper. As a convenient communication tool for everyday use, the principal advantages of a camera phone are its low cost, easy accessibility, and compactness. However, when used as a two-dimensional DIC system for mechanical metrology, the assumed imaging model of a camera phone may be slightly altered during the measurement process due to camera misalignment, imperfect loading, sample deformation, and temperature variations of the camera phone, which can produce appreciable errors in the measured displacements. In order to obtain accurate DIC measurements using a camera phone, the virtual displacements caused by these issues are first identified using an unstrained compensating specimen and then corrected by means of a parametric model. The proposed technique is first verified using in-plane translation and out-of-plane translation tests. Then, it is validated through a determination of the tensile strains and elastic properties of an aluminum specimen. Results of the present study show that accurate DIC measurements can be conducted using a common camera phone provided that an adequate correction is employed.

Yu, Liping; Pan, Bing

2014-05-01

98

Linear current mode image sensor with focal plane spatial image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linear current mode CMOS image sensor that performs spatial convolution during pixel readout using low power analog circuitry is presented. The image sensor has 128 by 109 pixel array, digital scanning registers, pixel selection circuitry, and digitally programmable analog processing unit. An intensity image in parallel with two convolved images is provided outside the chip at 60 frames per second.

Raphael Njuguna; Viktor Gruev

2010-01-01

99

640x512 InGaAs focal plane array camera for visible and SWIR imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on our 640x512 pixel InGaAs/InP focal plane array camera for visible and short-wavelength infrared imaging. For this camera, we have fabricated a 640x512 element substrate-removed backside-illuminated InGaAs/InP photodiode array (PDA) with a 25 mm pixel pitch. The PDA is indium bump bonded to a silicon read out integrated circuit. Removing the InP substrate from the focal plane array allows visible wavelengths, which would otherwise be absorbed by the InP substrate due to its 920 nm wavelength cut-off, to reach the pixels' active region. The quantum efficiency is approximately 15% at 500 nm, 70% at 850 nm, 85% at 1310 nm, and 80% at 1550 nm. Features incorporated into this video-rate, 14-bit output camera include external triggering, windowing, individual pixel correction, 8 operational settings of gain and exposure time, and gamma correction. The readout circuit uses a gate-modulated pixel for high sensitivity imaging over a wide illumination range. This camera is useable for visible imaging as well as imaging eye-safe lasers and is of particular interest seeing laser designators and night vision as well as hyperspectral imaging.

Martin, Tara; Brubaker, Robert; Dixon, Peter; Gagliardi, Mari-Anne; Sudol, Tom

2005-05-01

100

Massively-parallel electrical-conductivity imaging of hydrocarbonsusing the Blue Gene/L supercomputer  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM)three-dimensional (3D) geophysical imaging is now receiving considerableattention for electrical conductivity mapping of potential offshore oiland gas reservoirs. To cope with the typically large computationalrequirements of the 3D CSEM imaging problem, our strategies exploitcomputational parallelism and optimized finite-difference meshing. Wereport on an imaging experiment, utilizing 32,768 tasks/processors on theIBM Watson Research Blue Gene/L (BG/L) supercomputer. Over a 24-hourperiod, we were able to image a large scale marine CSEM field data setthat previously required over four months of computing time ondistributed clusters utilizing 1024 tasks on an Infiniband fabric. Thetotal initial data misfit could be decreased by 67 percent within 72completed inversion iterations, indicating an electrically resistiveregion in the southern survey area below a depth of 1500 m below theseafloor. The major part of the residual misfit stems from transmitterparallel receiver components that have an offset from the transmittersail line (broadside configuration). Modeling confirms that improvedbroadside data fits can be achieved by considering anisotropic electricalconductivities. While delivering a satisfactory gross scale image for thedepths of interest, the experiment provides important evidence for thenecessity of discriminating between horizontal and verticalconductivities for maximally consistent 3D CSEM inversions.

Commer, M.; Newman, G.A.; Carazzone, J.J.; Dickens, T.A.; Green,K.E.; Wahrmund, L.A.; Willen, D.E.; Shiu, J.

2007-05-16

101

Midsagittal plane extraction from brain images based on 3D SIFT.  

PubMed

Midsagittal plane (MSP) extraction from 3D brain images is considered as a promising technique for human brain symmetry analysis. In this paper, we present a fast and robust MSP extraction method based on 3D scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT). Unlike the existing brain MSP extraction methods, which mainly rely on the gray similarity, 3D edge registration or parameterized surface matching to determine the fissure plane, our proposed method is based on distinctive 3D SIFT features, in which the fissure plane is determined by parallel 3D SIFT matching and iterative least-median of squares plane regression. By considering the relative scales, orientations and flipped descriptors between two 3D SIFT features, we propose a novel metric to measure the symmetry magnitude for 3D SIFT features. By clustering and indexing the extracted SIFT features using a k-dimensional tree (KD-tree) implemented on graphics processing units, we can match multiple pairs of 3D SIFT features in parallel and solve the optimal MSP on-the-fly. The proposed method is evaluated by synthetic and in vivo datasets, of normal and pathological cases, and validated by comparisons with the state-of-the-art methods. Experimental results demonstrated that our method has achieved a real-time performance with better accuracy yielding an average yaw angle error below 0.91° and an average roll angle error no more than 0.89°. PMID:24583964

Wu, Huisi; Wang, Defeng; Shi, Lin; Wen, Zhenkun; Ming, Zhong

2014-03-21

102

Simultaneous in-and-out-of-plane displacement measurements using fringe projection and digital image correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combination of fringe projection (FP) and two-dimensional digital image correlation (2D-DIC) has been proposed in previous work [1] as an alternative method to obtain displacement maps in the three spatial directions. However, if a telecentric lens is not employed in the experimental setup, the in-plane displacements obtained with 2D-DIC are influenced by the out-of-plane displacements occurring during deformation. Nevertheless, this error can be corrected if the out-of-plane displacements are known, for instance from measurements using the FP technique. In this paper a novel methodology based on the combination of FP and 2D-DIC is employed to perform the correction of the in-plane displacements, and is applied to several experimental examples. Results are compared and validated with those obtained using a commercial 3D-DIC system showing an average displacement error of 4% for X-displacements and 6.5% for Y-displacements.

Felipe-Sesé, Luis; Siegmann, Philip; Díaz, Francisco A.; Patterson, Eann A.

2014-01-01

103

Bead-based mosaicing of single plane illumination microscopy images using geometric local descriptor matching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single Plane Illumination Microscopy (SPIM) is an emerging microscopic technique that enables live imaging of large biological specimens in their entirety. By imaging the biological sample from multiple angles, SPIM has the potential to achieve isotropic resolution throughout relatively large biological specimens. For every angle, however, only a shallow section of the specimen is imaged with high resolution, whereas deeper regions appear increasingly blurred. Existing intensity-based registration techniques still struggle to robustly and accurately align images that are characterized by limited overlap and/or heavy blurring. To be able to register such images, we add sub-resolution fluorescent beads to the rigid agarose medium in which the imaged specimen is embedded. For each segmented bead, we store the relative location of its n nearest neighbors in image space as rotation-invariant geometric local descriptors. Corresponding beads between overlapping images are identified by matching these descriptors. The bead correspondences are used to simultaneously estimate the globally optimal transformation for each individual image. The final output image is created by combining all images in an angle-independent output space, using volume injection and local content-based weighting of contributing images. We demonstrate the performance of our approach on data acquired from living embryos of Drosophila and fixed adult C.elegans worms. Bead-based registration outperformed intensity-based registration in terms of computation speed by two orders of magnitude while producing bead registration errors below 1 ?m (about 1 pixel). It, therefore, provides an ideal tool for processing of long term time-lapse recordings of embryonic development consisting of hundreds of time points.

Preibisch, Stephan; Saalfeld, Stephan; Rohlfing, Torsten; Tomancak, Pavel

2009-02-01

104

Simultaneous optical trapping of microparticles in multiple planes by a modified self-imaging effect on a chip  

SciTech Connect

The authors propose a three-dimensional (3D) optical trapping of microparticles in multiple planes simultaneously based on a modified self-imaging effect. Similar to the Talbot self-imaging effect, the modified self-imaging effect is induced by a layer of trapped particles and it is subsequently used as a periodic grating structure to generate its own self-imaging pattern in 3D. Based on this secondary layer-by-layer self-imaging effect, optical trapping of silica and polystyrene colloidal particles at different planes in a microchamber are demonstrated experimentally.

Sun, Y. Y.; Bu, J.; Ong, L. S.; Yuan, X.-C. [College of Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

2007-07-30

105

Simultaneous optical trapping of microparticles in multiple planes by a modified self-imaging effect on a chip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors propose a three-dimensional (3D) optical trapping of microparticles in multiple planes simultaneously based on a modified self-imaging effect. Similar to the Talbot self-imaging effect, the modified self-imaging effect is induced by a layer of trapped particles and it is subsequently used as a periodic grating structure to generate its own self-imaging pattern in 3D. Based on this secondary layer-by-layer self-imaging effect, optical trapping of silica and polystyrene colloidal particles at different planes in a microchamber are demonstrated experimentally.

Sun, Y. Y.; Bu, J.; Ong, L. S.; Yuan, X.-C.

2007-07-01

106

Diffusion tensor imaging and T2 relaxometry of bilateral lumbar nerve roots: feasibility of in-plane imaging.  

PubMed

Lower back pain is a common problem frequently encountered without specific biomarkers that correlate well with an individual patient's pain generators. MRI quantification of diffusion and T2 relaxation properties may provide novel insight into the mechanical and inflammatory changes that occur in the lumbosacral nerve roots in patients with lower back pain. Accurate imaging of the spinal nerve roots is difficult because of their small caliber and oblique course in all three planes. Two-dimensional in-plane imaging of the lumbosacral nerve roots requires oblique coronal imaging with large field of view (FOV) in both dimensions, resulting in severe geometric distortions using single-shot echo planar imaging (EPI) techniques. The present work describes initial success using a reduced-FOV single-shot spin-echo EPI acquisition to obtain in-plane diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and T2 mapping of the bilateral lumbar nerve roots at the L4 level of healthy subjects, minimizing partial volume effects, breathing artifacts and geometric distortions. A significant variation in DTI and T2 mapping metrics is also reported along the course of the normal nerve root. The fractional anisotropy is statistically significantly lower in the dorsal root ganglia (0.287?±?0.068) than in more distal regions in the spinal nerve (0.402?±?0.040) (p?

Karampinos, Dimitrios C; Melkus, Gerd; Shepherd, Timothy M; Banerjee, Suchandrima; Saritas, Emine U; Shankaranarayanan, Ajit; Hess, Christopher P; Link, Thomas M; Dillon, William P; Majumdar, Sharmila

2013-06-01

107

Intraoperative epicardial echocardiography with a miniature high-frequency transducer: imaging techniques and scanning planes.  

PubMed

Intraoperative Doppler echocardiography has the potential to provide anatomic and functional information but is hindered by the large size of standard transducers. We describe new scanning planes accessible through the application of a new 5 MHz miniature transducer with imaging, Doppler, and color-flow capability. Epicardial echocardiography was performed in 15 adults undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting. Standard parasternal equivalent, subcostal equivalent, aortopulmonary sulcus and aortosuperior vena caval views were obtained. Previously unobtainable apical four-chamber, five-chamber, and long-axis views were possible by positioning the transducer at the apex. The transducer has a broad bandwidth, allowing high-quality imaging at different depths and could be maneuvered laterally, posteriorly, and over the aorta and pulmonary arteries to provide off-axis views. The proximal-mid coronary arteries were imaged on the beating heart with a standoff medium. Transducer miniaturization should expand the role of epicardial ultrasonography in the surgical management of heart disorders. PMID:8185958

Kenny, A; Cary, N R; Murphy, D; Shapiro, L M

1994-01-01

108

A Design of Focal-plane Compensation of Aviation Imaging Equipment Based on MS5534C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes an auto-compensation method for defocusing distance caused by temperature and pressure in aviation imaging equipment. As the host computer, the TMS320F2812 is the core controller and the digital pressure sensor MS5534C from Intersema Company is used as slave computer. The controller acquires the output of the temperature and the pressure from the sensor through MCBSP interface. By the change of temperature and pressure which results in defocusing distance, the software is adopted to compensate the defocusing distance and thereby keeps the stabilization of focal plane in aviation imaging equipment. The design proposal and the software flow is shown in the paper, furthermore the new system has simple interface, small size and real-time function. With many flight tests, the defocusing distance after the compensation of temperature and pressure is far less than the half focal depth of the optical system and it is fully satisfied with the requirements of imaging.

Lina, Zheng; Xue, Leng; Jiufei, Zhou; Yong, He; Jinbao, Fu

109

Identification and classification of chemicals using terahertz reflective spectroscopic focal-plane imaging system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present terahertz (THz) reflective spectroscopic focal-plane imaging of four explosive and bio-chemical materials (2, 4-DNT, Theophylline, RDX and Glutamic Acid) at a standoff imaging distance of 0.4 m. The 2 dimension (2-D) nature of this technique enables a fast acquisition time and is very close to a camera-like operation, compared to the most commonly used point emission-detection and raster scanning configuration. The samples are identified by their absorption peaks extracted from the negative derivative of the reflection coefficient respect to the frequency (-dr/dv) of each pixel. Classification of the samples is achieved by using minimum distance classifier and neural network methods with a rate of accuracy above 80% and a false alarm rate below 8%. This result supports the future application of THz time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) in standoff distance sensing, imaging, and identification.

Zhong, Hua; Redo-Sanchez, Albert; Zhang, X.-C.

2006-10-01

110

An Approach to Finding and Refinement Planes in 3D Points Cloud, Obtained Under 3D Recovery from Image Set  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm of structure analysis of an input 3D points cloud and planes discrimination is proposed. The algorithm is based on the hierarchical and randomized Hough transform. The algorithm al- lows detecting image regions corresponding to planes instead of separate points, and partially converting 3D model from cloud of points to refined mesh.

Ekaterina V. Semeikina; Dmitry V. Yurin

111

Blue-enhanced thin-film photodiode for dual-screen x-ray imaging  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on a-Si:H-based low-leakage blue-enhanced photodiodes for dual-screen x-ray imaging detectors. Doped nanocrystalline silicon was incorporated in both the n- and p-type regions to reduce absorption losses for light incoming from the top and bottom screens. The photodiode exhibits a dark current density of 900 pA/cm{sup 2} and an external quantum efficiency up to 90% at a reverse bias of 5 V. In the case of illumination through the tailored p-layer, the quantum efficiency of 60% at a 400 nm wavelength is almost double that for the conventional a-Si:H n-i-p photodiode.

Vygranenko, Y.; Vieira, M. [Department of Electronics, Telecommunications and Computer Engineering, ISEL, Lisbon 1949-014 (Portugal); Sazonov, A. [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo N2L 3G1 (Canada); Heiler, G.; Tredwell, T. [Carestream Health, Inc., Rochester, New York 14652-3487 (United States); Nathan, A. [London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom)

2009-12-28

112

Automated detection of midsagittal plane in MR images of the head  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fully automated and robust method is presented for dividing MR 3D images of the human brain into two hemispheres. The method is developed specifically to deal with pathologically affected brains or brains in which the longitudinal fissure (LF) is significantly widened due to ageing or atrophy associated with neuro-degenerative processes. To provide a definitive estimate of the mid- sagittal plane, the method combines longitudinal fissure lines detected in both axial and corona slices of T1- weighted MR images and then fit these lines to a 3D plane. The method was applied to 36 brain MR image data sets (15 of them arising from subjects with probable Alzheimer's disease) all exhibiting some degrees of widened fissures and/or significant asymmetry due to pathology. Visual inspection of the results revealed that the separation was highly accurate and satisfactory. In some cases (5 in total), there were minor degrees of asymmetry in the posterior fossa structures despite successful splitting of cerebral cortex.

Wang, Deming; Chalk, Jonathan B.; Doddrell, David M.; Semple, James

2001-07-01

113

Interferometric measurements in a turbine cascade using image-plane holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A holographic technique used to produce image plane interferograms with white light reconstruction is described. This was used to study the transonic flow in a passage of a turbine stator cascade at a typical Reynolds number, Mach number, and free stream to blade surface temperature ratio. Both absolute holographic interferograms (fringes of constant flow density) and differential holographic interferograms (changes of density in 100 microsecs) are presented showing fine details in the boundary layer flow, trailing edge shocks, and wake structure. By counting the fringes on the interferograms, the free stream and surface Mach numbers and boundary layer temperature gradients can be determined.

Bryanston-Cross, P. J.; Lang, T.; Oldfield, M. L. G.; Norton, R. J. G.

1980-03-01

114

Hyperspectral image compression using distributed arithmetic coding and bit-plane coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyperspectral images are of very large data size and highly correlated in neighboring bands, therefore, it is necessary to realize the efficient compression performance on the condition of low encoding complexity. In this paper, we propose a method based on both partitioning embedded block and lossless adaptive-distributed arithmetic coding (LADAC). Combined with three-dimensional wavelet transform and SW-SPECK algorithm, LADAC is adopted according to the correlation between the adjacent bit-plane. Experimental results show that our proposed algorithm outperforms 3D-SPECK, furthermore, our method need not take the inter-band prediction or transform into account, so the complexity is small relatively.

Wu, Jiaji; Wang, Minli; Fang, Yong; Jeong, Jechang; Jiao, Licheng

2010-08-01

115

Focal plane array nonlinearity and nonuniformity impacts to target detection with thermal infrared imaging spectrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have demonstrated the potential for spectrally discriminating low contrast ground-based military targets in the thermal infrared for day/night reconnaissance, surveillance, and targeting applications. Although the underlying spectral features have been found to be very subtle in most cases, good detection performance is achievable due to the generally high band-to-band spectral correlation of terrestrial backgrounds. Recently, attempts have been made to develop imaging spectrometers of sufficient quality to preserve this high background spectral correlation and, in the process, provide robust target detection capabilities. One key issue which must be addressed in the sensor design is the impact of focal plane nonlinearity and nonuniformity on spectral correlation. In this paper, we present the details of a Monte-Carlo model which was developed to quantify this impact as a function of focal plane array characteristics for three sensing modalities: a dispersive spectrometer, a temporal Fourier transform spectrometer, and a spatial Fourier transform spectrometer. The results illustrate distinct differences in how these focal plane error sources propagate into the spectral domain and perturb the measured spectral statistics.

Eismann, Michael T.; Schwartz, Craig R.

1997-06-01

116

Semiconductor detectors and focal plane arrays for far-infrared imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of far-infrared (far-IR) and sub-mm-wave radiation is resistant to the commonly employed techniques in the neighbouring microwave and IR frequency bands. In this wavelength detection range the use of solid state detectors has been hampered for the reasons of transit time of charge carriers being larger than the time of one oscillation period of radiation. Also the energy of radiation quanta is substantially smaller than the thermal energy at room temperature and even liquid nitrogen temperature. The realization of terahertz (THz) emitters and receivers is a challenge because the frequencies are too high for conventional electronics and the photon energies are too small for classical optics. Development of semiconductor focal plane arrays started in seventies last century and has revolutionized imaging systems in the next decades. This paper presents progress in far-IR and sub-mm-wave semiconductor detector technology of focal plane arrays during the past twenty years. Special attention is given on recent progress in the detector technologies for real-time uncooled THz focal plane arrays such as Schottky barrier arrays, field-effect transistor detectors, and microbolometers. Also cryogenically cooled silicon and germanium extrinsic photoconductor arrays, and semiconductor bolometer arrays are considered.

Rogalski, A.

2013-12-01

117

The effect of out-of-plane motion on 2D and 3D digital image correlation measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of out-of-plane motion (including out-of-plane translation and rotation) on two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) digital image correlation measurements is demonstrated using basic theoretical pinhole image equations and experimentally through synchronized, multi-system measurements. Full-field results obtained during rigid body, out-of-plane motion using a single-camera vision system with (a-1) a standard f55mm Nikon lens and (a-2) a single Schneider–Kreuznach Xenoplan

M. A. Sutton; J. H. Yan; V. Tiwari; H. W. Schreier; J. J. Orteu

2008-01-01

118

Improving the Speckle Noise Attenuation of Simultaneous Spectral Differential Imaging with a Focal Plane Holographic Diffuser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct exoplanet detection is limited by speckle noise in the point-spread function (PSF) of the central star. This noise can be reduced by subtracting PSF images obtained simultaneously in adjacent narrow spectral bands using a multichannel camera (MCC), but only to a limit imposed by differential optical aberrations in the MCC. To alleviate this problem, we suggest the introduction of a holographic diffuser at the focal plane of the MCC to convert the PSF image into an incoherent illumination scene that is then re-imaged with the MCC. The re-imaging is equivalent to a convolution of the scene with the PSF of each spectral channel of the camera. Optical aberrations in the MCC affect only the convolution kernel of each channel and not the PSF globally, resulting in better-correlated images. We report laboratory measurements with a dual-channel prototype (1.575 and 1.625 ?m) to validate this approach. A speckle noise suppression factor of 12-14 was achieved, an improvement by a factor ~5 over that obtained without the holographic diffuser. Simulations of exoplanet populations for three representative target samples show that the increase in speckle noise attenuation achieved in the laboratory would roughly double the number of planets that could be detected with current adaptive optics systems on 8 m telescopes.

Lafrenière, David; Doyon, René; Nadeau, Daniel; Artigau, Étienne; Marois, Christian; Beaulieu, Mathilde

2007-06-01

119

Detection of moving objects in image plane for robot navigation using monocular vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents an algorithm for moving object detection (MOD) in robot visual simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). This MOD algorithm is designed based on the defining epipolar constraint for the corresponding feature points on image plane. An essential matrix obtained using the state estimator is utilized to represent the epipolar constraint. Meanwhile, the method of speeded-up robust feature (SURF) is employed in the algorithm to provide a robust detection for image features as well as a better description of landmarks and of moving objects in visual SLAM system. Experiments are carried out on a hand-held monocular camera to verify the performances of the proposed algorithm. The results show that the integration of MOD and SURF is efficient for robot navigating in dynamic environments.

Wang, Yin-Tien; Sun, Chung-Hsun; Chiou, Ming-Jang

2012-12-01

120

Determination of an image point on a surface based on a plane-based algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Constitutive models of particulate materials often rely on distances between the current stress state in stress space and various surfaces. Examples of these surfaces include the bounding surface and the dilatancy surface. This paper proposes a rigorous method for determination of distance to a surface in stress space. It starts by examining operations on stress variables defined in the plane. Algorithms for determination of an image point on a surface are then presented as a function of the location of the current stress state with respect to the surface. For points within the surface, the bisection method is used; otherwise, the secant method is used. The paper shows that implementation of the proposed algorithm locates the image point on a surface in stress space with accuracy and rigor, providing an accurate measure of the distance to the surface that can be used in hardening or flow rules.

Woo, Sang Inn; Salgado, Rodrigo

2014-05-01

121

Solid-state image sensor with focal-plane digital photon-counting pixel array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A photosensitive layer such as a-Si for a UV/visible wavelength band is provided for low light level imaging with at least a separate CMOS amplifier directly connected to each PIN photodetector diode to provide a focal-plane array of NxN pixels, and preferably a separate photon-counting CMOS circuit directly connected to each CMOS amplifier, although one row of counters may be time shared for reading out the photon flux rate of each diode in the array, together with a buffer memory for storing all rows of the NxN image frame before transfer to suitable storage. All CMOS circuitry is preferably fabricated in the same silicon layer as the PIN photodetector diode for a monolithic structure, but when the wavelength band of interest requires photosensitive material different from silicon, the focal-plane array may be fabricated separately on a different semiconductor layer bump-bonded or otherwise bonded for a virtually monolithic structure with one free terminal of each diode directly connected to the input terminal of its CMOS amplifier and digital counter for integration of the photon flux rate at each photodetector of the array.

Fossum, Eric R. (inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (inventor)

1995-01-01

122

Vibration measurement of a miniature component by high-speed image-plane digital holographic microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Measuring deformation of vibrating specimens whose dimensions are in the submillimeter range introduces a number of difficulties using laser interferometry. Normal interferometry is not suitable because of a phase ambiguity problem. In addition, the noise effect is much more serious in the measurement of small objects because a high-magnification lens is used. We present a method for full-field measurement of displacement, velocity, and acceleration of a vibrating miniature object based on image-plane digital holographic microscopy. A miniature cantilever beam is excited by a piezoelectric transducer stage with a sinusoidal configuration. A sequence of digital holograms is captured using a high-speed digital holographic microscope. Windowed Fourier analysis is applied in the spatial and spatiotemporal domains to extract the displacement, velocity and acceleration. The result shows that a combination of image-plane digital holographic microscopy and windowed Fourier analyses can be used to study vibration without encountering a phase ambiguity problem, and one can obtain instantaneous kinematic parameters on each point.

Fu Yu; Shi Hongjian; Miao Hong

2009-04-10

123

Multifrequency Study of the Blue Compact Dwarf Haro 2: NIR Imaging and Optical Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out near infrared (NIR) imaging of the BCD Haro 2 in J and H bands which confirms that the J-H color is typical of a slightly blue S0 galaxy. The absence of asymmetries in the central NIR light distribution is similar to what is seen in unperturbed early-type galaxies, in spite of being a gas rich galaxy (in both HI and CO), with a high SFR. To better understand this peculiar object we obtained medium-resolution optical spectroscopy, which suggests continuous star formation over the past few ×10^8 yr. This age for the burst is consistent with the observed oxygen abundance and with the nitrogen to oxygen ratio. We reanalyze VLA HI data which, compared with the NIR images and CO(1-0) maps, confirm a major gas accretion event, most likely the result of an interaction with a gas rich companion. Our observations indicate that Haro 2 is likely a dwarf elliptical which suffered a fly-by interaction a few times 10^8 years ago; this resulted in the accretion of a substantial amount of gas and the subsequent triggering of star formation.

Bravo-Alfaro, H.; Coziol, R.; Brinks, E.

2006-10-01

124

Automatic standard plane adjustment on mobile C-Arm CT images of the calcaneus using atlas-based feature registration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intraarticular fractures of the calcaneus are routinely treated by open reduction and internal fixation followed by intraoperative imaging to validate the repositioning of bone fragments. C-Arm CT offers surgeons the possibility to directly verify the alignment of the fracture parts in 3D. Although the device provides more mobility, there is no sufficient information about the device-to-patient orientation for standard plane reconstruction. Hence, physicians have to manually align the image planes in a position that intersects with the articular surfaces. This can be a time-consuming step and imprecise adjustments lead to diagnostic errors. We address this issue by introducing novel semi-/automatic methods for adjustment of the standard planes on mobile C-Arm CT images. With the semi-automatic method, physicians can quickly adjust the planes by setting six points based on anatomical landmarks. The automatic method reconstructs the standard planes in two steps, first SURF keypoints (2D and newly introduced pseudo-3D) are generated for each image slice; secondly, these features are registered to an atlas point set and the parameters of the image planes are transformed accordingly. The accuracy of our method was evaluated on 51 mobile C-Arm CT images from clinical routine with manually adjusted standard planes by three physicians of different expertise. The average time of the experts (46s) deviated from the intermediate user (55s) by 9 seconds. By applying 2D SURF key points 88% of the articular surfaces were intersected correctly by the transformed standard planes with a calculation time of 10 seconds. The pseudo-3D features performed even better with 91% and 8 seconds.

Brehler, Michael; Görres, Joseph; Wolf, Ivo; Franke, Jochen; von Recum, Jan; Grützner, Paul A.; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Nabers, Diana

2014-03-01

125

Simultaneous quantification of flow and tissue velocities based on multi-angle plane wave imaging.  

PubMed

A quantitative angle-independent 2-D modality for flow and tissue imaging based on multi-angle plane wave acquisition was evaluated. Simulations of realistic flow in a carotid artery bifurcation were used to assess the accuracy of the vector Doppler (VD) technique. Reduction in root mean square deviation from 27 cm/s to 6 cm/s and 7 cm/s to 2 cm/s was found for the lateral (vx) and axial (vz) velocity components, respectively, when the ensemble size was increased from 8 to 50. Simulations of a Couette flow phantom (vmax = 2.7 cm/s) gave promising results for imaging of slowly moving tissue, with root mean square deviation of 4.4 mm/s and 1.6 mm/s for the x- and z-components, respectively. A packet acquisition scheme providing both B-mode and vector Doppler RF data was implemented on a research scanner, and beamforming and further post-processing was done offline. In vivo results of healthy volunteers were in accordance with simulations and gave promising results for flow and tissue vector velocity imaging. The technique was also tested in patients with carotid artery disease. Using the high ensemble vector Doppler technique, blood flow through stenoses and secondary flow patterns were better visualized than in ordinary color Doppler. Additionally, the full velocity spectrum could be obtained retrospectively for arbitrary points in the image. PMID:23549533

Ekroll, Ingvild Kinn; Swillens, Abigail; Segers, Patrick; Dahl, Torbjørn; Torp, Hans; Lovstakken, Lasse

2013-04-01

126

THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. II. CATALOG OF THE IMAGE DATA  

SciTech Connect

We present a catalog of 8358 sources extracted from images produced by the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS). The BGPS is a survey of the millimeter dust continuum emission from the northern Galactic plane. The catalog sources are extracted using a custom algorithm, Bolocat, which was designed specifically to identify and characterize objects in the large-area maps generated from the Bolocam instrument. The catalog products are designed to facilitate follow-up observations of these relatively unstudied objects. The catalog is 98% complete from 0.4 Jy to 60 Jy over all object sizes for which the survey is sensitive (<3.'5). We find that the sources extracted can best be described as molecular clumps-large dense regions in molecular clouds linked to cluster formation. We find that the flux density distribution of sources follows a power law with dN/dS {proportional_to} S {sup -2.4{+-}0.1} and that the mean Galactic latitude for sources is significantly below the midplane: (b) = (-0.{sup 0}095 {+-} 0.{sup 0}001).

Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna BC, V1V 1V7 (Canada); Dunham, Miranda K.; Evans, Neal J.; Harvey, Paul [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Ginsburg, Adam; Bally, John; Battersby, Cara; Glenn, Jason; Stringfellow, Guy S. [CASA, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Bradley, E. Todd [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Aguirre, James [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Cyganowski, Claudia [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Dowell, Darren [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91104 (United States); Drosback, Meredith [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Walawender, Josh [Institute for Astronomy, 640 N. Aohoku Pl., Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Williams, Jonathan P., E-mail: erik.rosolowsky@ubc.c [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

2010-05-15

127

Out-of-plane Stokes imaging polarimeter for early skin cancer diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimal treatment of skin cancer before it metastasizes critically depends on early diagnosis and treatment. Imaging spectroscopy and polarized remittance have been utilized in the past for diagnostic purposes, but valuable information can be also obtained from the analysis of skin roughness. For this purpose, we have developed an out-of-plane hemispherical Stokes imaging polarimeter designed to monitor potential skin neoplasia based on a roughness assessment of the epidermis. The system was utilized to study the rough surface scattering for wax samples and human skin. The scattering by rough skin--simulating phantoms showed behavior that is reasonably described by a facet scattering model. Clinical tests were conducted on patients grouped as follows: benign nevi, melanocytic nevus, melanoma, and normal skin. Images were captured and analyzed, and polarization properties are presented in terms of the principal angle of the polarization ellipse and the degree of polarization. In the former case, there is separation between different groups of patients for some incidence azimuth angles. In the latter, separation between different skin samples for various incidence azimuth angles is observed.

Ghassemi, Pejhman; Lemaillet, Paul; Germer, Thomas A.; Shupp, Jeffrey W.; Venna, Suraj S.; Boisvert, Marc E.; Flanagan, Katherine E.; Jordan, Marion H.; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

2012-07-01

128

Focal-plane wave front sensing strategies for high contrast imaging: experimental validations on SPHERE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct detection and spectral characterization of extra-solar planets is one of the most exciting but also challenging areas in modern astronomy. The challenge is due to the very large contrast between the host star and the planet at very small angular separations. SPHERE (Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet Research in Europe [1]) is a secondgeneration instrument for the ESO VLT dedicated to this scientific objective. It combines an extreme adaptive optics system [2], various coronagraphic devices and a suite of focal instruments providing imaging, integral field spectroscopy and polarimetric capabilities in the visible and near-infrared spectral ranges. The limitation of such a high contrast imaging system is mainly driven by the presence of intensity residual in the scientific focal plane, caused by uncorrected quasi-static optical aberrations upstream of the coronagraphic mask. The measurement and compensation of these aberrations is mandatory in order to reach the level of contrast requested by exoplanet imaging. We present in this paper the final experimental validation of the baseline method developed in the framework of SPHERE instrument for the conpensation of NCPA. The method is based on a differential measurement with phase diversity, and a compensation with an optimised modification of reference slopes.

Sauvage, Jean-François; Fusco, Thierry; Petit, Cyril; Mugnier, Laurent; Paul, Baptiste; Costille, Anne

2012-07-01

129

Rapid and accurate assessment of aortic arch atherosclerosis using simultaneous multi-plane imaging by transesophageal echocardiography.  

PubMed

Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is widely used for the evaluation of aortic arch atherosclerosis which carries an increased risk of ischemic stroke. We investigated the feasibility of simultaneous multi-plane imaging by real-time 3-D TEE for the assessment of aortic arch plaques. In 152 patients, we assessed aortic arch plaques and measured their maximum thickness by both conventional TEE imaging and multi-plane TEE imaging. There was excellent correlation and good agreement between the two methods in the measurement of the maximum thickness of arch plaques (r = 0.95, mean difference, -0.1 ± 0.5 mm). The mean image acquisition time required for aortic arch assessment by multi-plane imaging was significantly shorter than that required for conventional imaging in all patients (p < 0.001), especially those with complex plaques. These findings suggest that simultaneous multi-plane TEE imaging enables rapid and accurate evaluation of arch plaques and is therefore a useful tool for the assessment of aortic arch plaques in the clinical setting. PMID:23711502

Ito, Asahiro; Sugioka, Kenichi; Matsumura, Yoshiki; Fujita, Suwako; Iwata, Shinichi; Hanatani, Akihisa; Hozumi, Takeshi; Ueda, Makiko; Yoshiyama, Minoru

2013-08-01

130

Vitamin b1 derived blue and green fluorescent carbon nanoparticles for cell-imaging application.  

PubMed

A carbon-based fluorescent nanoparticle is considered to be a new generation nontoxic nanoprobe suitable for various bioimaging and sensing applications. However, the synthesis of such a high-quality nanoparticle is challenging, and its application potential is mostly unexplored. Here we report a vitamin B1 carbonization-based approach for blue and green fluorescent carbon nanoparticles of <10 nm size with a fluorescence quantum of up to 76%. We found that carbonization of vitamin B1 in the presence of phosphate salt at ?90-130 °C for about 2 h produces highly fluorescent carbon nanoparticles of 1-6 nm size. The particle size and fluorescence property can be controlled by varying the reaction temperature and nature of phosphate salt. Elemental analysis shows the incorporation of a large percentage (up to 48 wt %) of other elements (such as nitrogen, oxygen, phophorus, and sulfur) in the carbon matrix. The chemical structure of vitamin B1 (thiamine) is unique in a sense that it consists of a large number of heteroatoms along with unsaturated bonds and offers low-temperature carbonization with the formation of a nanoparticle having an optimum ratio of sp(2) and sp(3) carbon atoms. These carbon nanoparticles have high colloidal stability and stable fluorescence and have been used as fluorescent imaging probes. PMID:24697797

Bhunia, Susanta Kumar; Pradhan, Nibedita; Jana, Nikhil R

2014-05-28

131

InGaAs NIR focal plane arrays for imaging and DWDM applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indigo Systems Corporation has recently developed a line of high performance NIR devices and cameras based upon InGaAs detector arrays. The InGaAs detector arrays are fabricated at Indigo Systems Detector Operations facility and include 640x512 and 320x256 staring focal plane arrays which are utilized in three camera configurations ranging from the miniature alpha camera to the Merlin and Phoenix high performance cameras. The InGaAs detector arrays are very high performance devices with operability routinely exceeding 99.9%. In addition to the staring arrays for imaging applications, two varieties of linear arrays are also being produced at Indigo Systems Detector Operations including a 512 element and 1024 element devices. The linear arrays are intended for use in telecommunications for DWDM applications and are provided in industry standard packages for insertion into DWDM systems. All linear arrays require 100% perfect operability and this is routinely achieved.

Barton, Jeffrey B.; Cannata, Robert F.; Petronio, Susan M.

2002-08-01

132

FISST based method for multi-target tracking in the image plane of optical sensors.  

PubMed

A finite set statistics (FISST)-based method is proposed for multi-target tracking in the image plane of optical sensors. The method involves using signal amplitude information in probability hypothesis density (PHD) filter which is derived from FISST to improve multi-target tracking performance. The amplitude of signals generated by the optical sensor is modeled first, from which the amplitude likelihood ratio between target and clutter is derived. An alternative approach is adopted for the situations where the signal noise ratio (SNR) of target is unknown. Then the PHD recursion equations incorporated with signal information are derived and the Gaussian mixture (GM) implementation of this filter is given. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves significantly better performance than the generic PHD filter. Moreover, our method has much lower computational complexity in the scenario with high SNR and dense clutter. PMID:22736984

Xu, Yang; Xu, Hui; An, Wei; Xu, Dan

2012-01-01

133

Measuring soft tissue elasticity by monitoring surface acoustic waves using image plane digital holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of tumors in soft tissues, such as breast cancer, is important to achieve at the earliest stages of the disease to improve patient outcome. Tumors often exhibit a greater elastic modulus compared to normal tissues. In this paper, we report our first study to measure elastic properties of soft tissues by mapping the surface acoustic waves (SAWs) with image plane digital holography. The experimental results show that the SAW velocity is proportional to the square root of elastic modulus over a range from 3.7-122kPa in homogeneous tissue phantoms, consistent with Rayleigh wave theory. This technique also permits detection of the interface of two-layer phantoms 10mm deep under surface and the interface depth by quantifying the SAW dispersion.

Li, Shiguang; Oldenburg, Amy L.

2011-03-01

134

Impact of biplane versus single-plane imaging on radiation dose, contrast load and procedural time in coronary angioplasty  

PubMed Central

Coronary angioplasties can be performed with either single-plane or biplane imaging techniques. The aim of this study was to determine whether biplane imaging, in comparison to single-plane imaging, reduces radiation dose and contrast load and shortens procedural time during (i) primary and elective coronary angioplasty procedures, (ii) angioplasty to the main vascular territories and (iii) procedures performed by operators with various levels of experience. This prospective observational study included a total of 504 primary and elective single-vessel coronary angioplasty procedures utilising either biplane or single-plane imaging. Radiographic and clinical parameters were collected from clinical reports and examination protocols. Radiation dose was measured by a dose–area–product (DAP) meter intrinsic to the angiography system. Our results showed that biplane imaging delivered a significantly greater radiation dose (181.4±121.0 Gycm2) than single-plane imaging (133.6±92.8 Gycm2, p<0.0001). The difference was independent of case type (primary or elective) (p = 0.862), vascular territory (p = 0.519) and operator experience (p = 0.903). No significant difference was found in contrast load between biplane (166.8±62.9 ml) and single-plane imaging (176.8±66.0 ml) (p = 0.302). This non-significant difference was independent of case type (p = 0.551), vascular territory (p = 0.308) and operator experience (p = 0.304). Procedures performed with biplane imaging were significantly longer (55.3±27.8 min) than those with single-plane (48.9±24.2 min, p = 0.010) and, similarly, were not dependent on case type (p = 0.226), vascular territory (p = 0.642) or operator experience (p = 0.094). Biplane imaging resulted in a greater radiation dose and a longer procedural time and delivered a non-significant reduction in contrast load than single-plane imaging. These findings did not support the commonly perceived advantages of using biplane imaging in single-vessel coronary interventional procedures.

Sadick, V; Reed, W; Collins, L; Sadick, N; Heard, R; Robinson, J

2010-01-01

135

Portable sequential multicolor thermal imager based on a MCT 384 x 288 focal plane array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AIM has developed a sequential multicolor thermal imager to provide customers with a test system to realize real-time spectral selective thermal imaging. In contrast to existing PC based laboratory units, the system is miniaturized with integrated signal processing like non-uniformity correction and post processing functions such as image subtraction of different colors to allow field tests in military applications like detection of missile plumes or camouflaged targets as well as commercial applications like detection of chemical agents, pollution control, etc. The detection module used is a 384 X 288 mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) focal plane array (FPA) available in the mid wave (MWIR) or long wave spectral band LWIR). A compact command and control electronics (CCE) provides clock and voltage supply for the detector as well as 14 bit deep digital conversion of the analog detector output. A continuous rotating wheel with four facets for filters provides spectral selectivity. The customer can choose between various types of filter characteristics, e.g. a 4.2 micrometer bandpass filter for CO2 detection in the MWIR band. The rotating wheel can be synchronized to an external source giving the rotation speed, typical 25 l/s. A position sensor generates the four frame start signals for synchronous operation of the detector -- 100 Hz framerate for the four frames per rotation. The rotating wheel is exchangeable for different configurations and also plates for a microscanner operation to improve geometrical resolution are available instead of a multicolor operation. AIM's programmable MVIP image processing unit is used for signal processing like non- uniformity correction and controlling the detector parameters. The MVIP allows to output the four subsequent images as four quarters of the video screen to prior to any observation task set the integration time for each color individually for comparable performance in each spectral color and after that also to determine separate NUC coefficients for each filter position. This procedure allows to really evaluate the pay off of spectral selectivity in the IR. The display part of the MVIP allows linear look up tables (LUT) for dynamic reduction as well as histogram equalization for automatic LUT optimization. Parallel to the video output a digital interface is provided for digital recording of the 14 bit corrected detector data. The architecture of the thermal imager with its components is presented in this paper together with some aspects on multicolor thermal imaging.

Breiter, Rainer; Cabanski, Wolfgang A.; Mauk, Karl-Heinz; Rode, Werner; Ziegler, Johann

2001-10-01

136

Computational Problem in Three-Dimensional, Plane-wave Imaging with P to S Converted Waves Recorded by Broadband Arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a set of computer programs that implement the three-dimensional imaging methods described by Poppeliers and Pavlis [2003]. The original work developed the theoretical framework for this technique, but did not implement the fully three-dimensional version due to the requirement that efficient computational procedures are necessary to make the algorithm feasible. We implemented the concepts in two programs linked by a relational database. The first program implements a plane wave decomposition of the wavefield using the pseudostation stacking method to interpolate the wavefield onto a regular spatial grid. We then use a relational database to sort data into plane wave components linked to this interpolated, regular grid. Imaging is completed using sums of plane wave components in an integral equation derived from the inverse generalized Radon transform. This allows the image to accumulate incrementally as a weighted sum of plane wave components with the weights varying in space reducing the memory requirements to practical levels on modern, distributed-memory, parallel systems. This imaging algorithm is readily adaptable on massively parallel machines by distributing back propagation computations for plane wave components among processors and devoting one node to summing the components. The algorithm is built around a new object-oriented, C++ library for manipulating seismograms and the two and three-dimensional data objects that are intermediaries in the algorithm.

Pavlis, G. L.; Yi, Z.

2004-12-01

137

Comparative analysis on viewing angle change in Fresnel and Fourier holographic images reconstructed by a tilted plane wave.  

PubMed

We carry out a comparative analysis on a viewing angle change in Fresnel and Fourier holographic images reconstructed by a tilted plane wave. A tilted plane wave illuminating an on-axis hologram generates a diffractive wave carrying the holographic image in a paraxial region of a new diffraction axis. The reconstructed image in the Fresnel hologram is deformed along the new viewing direction, which is well described as Affine transformation. In the Fourier holographic image, the replica of the image is formed without its deformation when the hologram is placed in the front focal plane of the lens, whereas in the case of a hologram that is located at a distance different from a focal length, image deformation arises. This property is investigated through numerical simulation based on a wide-angle diffraction phenomenon. We also perform a similar interpretation for high-order diffraction images appearing in the sampled Fourier hologram and discuss a method for enlarging the viewing angle of the holographic image. PMID:24922205

Chae, Byung Gyu

2014-05-20

138

[Research on the neas infrared focal plane array detector imaging technology used in the laser warning].  

PubMed

In order to achieve the incoming laser's accurate position, it is necessary to improve the detected laser's direction resolution. The InGaAs focal plane array detector with the type of FPA-320 x 256-C was selected as the core component of the diffraction grating laser warning device. The detection theory of laser wavelength and direction based on diffraction grating was introduced. The drive circuit was designed through the analysis of the detector's performance and parameters. Under the FPGA' s timing control, the detector's analog output was sampled by the high-speed AD. The data was cached to FPGA's extended SRAM, and then transferred to a PC through USB. Labview on a PC collects the raw data for processing and displaying. The imaging experiments were completed with the above method. With the wavelength of 1550 nm and 980 nm laser from different directions the diffraction images were detected. Through analysis the location of the zero order and one order can be determined. According to the grating diffraction theory, the wavelength and the direction of the two-dimensional angle can be calculated. It indicates that the wavelength error is less than 10 nm, and the angle error is less than 1 degrees. PMID:25007645

Wang, Zhi-Bin; Huang, Yan-Fei; Wang, Yao-Li; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yan-Chao

2014-04-01

139

Modulate chopper technique used in pyroelectric uncooled focal plane array thermal imager  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pyroelectric uncooled focal plane array (FPA) thermal imager has the advantages of low cost, small size, high responsibility and can work under room temperature, so it has great progress in recent years. As a matched technique, the modulate chopper has become one of the key techniques in uncooled FPA thermal imaging system. Now the Archimedes spiral cord chopper technique is mostly used. When it works, the chopper pushing scans the detector's pixel array, thus makes the pixels being exposed continuously. This paper simulates the shape of this kind of chopper, analyses the exposure time of the detector's every pixel, and also analyses the whole detector pixels' exposure sequence. From the analysis we can get the results: the parameter of Archimedes spiral cord, the detector's thermal time constant, the detector's geometrical dimension, the relative position of the detector to the chopper's spiral cord are the system's important parameters, they will affect the chopper's exposure efficiency and uniformity. We should design the chopper's relevant parameter according to the practical request to achieve the chopper's appropriate structure.

He, Yuqing; Jin, Weiqi; Liu, Guangrong; Gao, Zhiyun; Wang, Xia; Wang, Lingxue

2002-09-01

140

Blue-Light Reflectance Imaging of Macular Pigment in Infants and Children  

PubMed Central

Purpose. While the role of the macular pigment carotenoids in the prevention of age-related macular degeneration has been extensively studied in adults, comparatively little is known about the physiology and function of lutein and zeaxanthin in the developing eye. We therefore developed a protocol using a digital video fundus camera (RetCam) to measure macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and distributions in premature infants and in children. Methods. We used blue light reflectance to image the macular pigment in premature babies at the time of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening and in children aged under 7 years who were undergoing examinations under anesthesia for other reasons. We correlated the MPOD with skin carotenoid levels measured by resonance Raman spectroscopy, serum carotenoids measured by HPLC, and dietary carotenoid intake. Results. We enrolled 51 infants and children ranging from preterm to age 7 years. MPOD correlated significantly with age (r = 0.36; P = 0.0142), with serum lutein + zeaxanthin (r = 0.44; P = 0.0049) and with skin carotenoid levels (r = 0.42; P = 0.0106), but not with dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake (r = 0.13; P = 0.50). All premature infants had undetectable macular pigment, and most had unusually low serum and skin carotenoid concentrations. Conclusions. Our most remarkable finding is the undetectable MPOD in premature infants. This may be due in part to foveal immaturity, but the very low levels of serum and skin carotenoids suggest that these infants are carotenoid insufficient as a consequence of low dietary intake and/or severe oxidative stress. The potential value of carotenoid supplementation in the prevention of ROP and other disorders of prematurity should be a fruitful direction for further investigation.

Bernstein, Paul S.; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Liu, Aihua; Ermakov, Igor; Nelson, Kelly; Sheng, Xiaoming; Panish, Cynthia; Carlstrom, Bonnie; Hoffman, Robert O.; Gellermann, Werner

2013-01-01

141

Frequency Domain Waveform Tomography with Plane Wave Sources: Implications for Teleseismic Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waveform tomography, sometimes referred to as waveform inversion, seeks to reconstruct an accurate velocity model of the subsurface from recorded seismic data. Through an iterative, gradient descent method, the misfit between observed waveforms and forward-modelled synthetic waveforms is minimized. In the frequency domain, this technique requires starting models accurate to within one-half period of the lowest inverted data frequency to avoid convergence to a local minimum. Implementation of both the forward and inverse problem in the frequency domain allows the solution to focus on low data frequencies in the early stages of the inversion, increasing the likelihood of convergence to a global minimum due to the increased linearity of the problem. With care and sufficient data preconditioning, waveform tomography has the capability of recovering the subsurface velocity structure of the Earth to wavelength scale resolution. At present, the majority of published applications of waveform tomography have used controlled source seismic data. An extension of the method to the inversion of teleseismic data seems straightforward, as the hypocenter of individual earthquakes could be treated as point sources. However, when the recording instruments are located at teleseismic distances from such hypocenters, the computational cost of the problem increases to an impractical level. Large models, discretized with a large number of grid points, would be required in order to adequately resolve the subsurface velocity structure. Consequently, an alternate approach would be to invoke a “far-field” approximation in which the wavefronts radiating from the hypocenters are considered to be locally planar by the time they reach a distant and much smaller model, local to the surface seismometers. The plane waves incident on the edges of such a velocity model can be simulated by the superposition of wavefields calculated along a horizontal line of excitation points (e.g., Green's functions). For a plane wave with a given angle of incidence, the phase of each discrete wavefield can be adjusted before summation. While simple, this approach allows for the required forward modelling of plane wavefields for a given velocity model. Similar adaptations of the waveform inversion algorithm show promise in the inversion of teleseismic data for the subsurface velocity structure. We evaluate the suitability of frequency domain full waveform inversion to recover subsurface velocity structure from teleseismic data with both synthetic “resolution tests” and geologically realistic models (e.g., suture zones and Moho topography). Our results are encouraging, demonstrating the efficacy of applying waveform tomography to teleseismic imaging.

van Kooten, P. B.; Pratt, R. G.

2009-12-01

142

The additional value of an oblique image plane for MRI of the anterior and posterior distal tibiofibular syndesmosis  

PubMed Central

Objective The optimal MRI scan planes of collateral ligaments of the ankle have been described extensively, with the exception of the syndesmotic ligaments. We assessed the optimal scan plane for depicting the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis. Materials and Methods In order to determine the optimal oblique caudal-cranial and lateral-medial MRI scan plane, two fresh frozen cadaveric ankles were used. The angle of the scan plane that demonstrated the anterior and posterior distal tibiofibular ligament uninterrupted in their full length was determined. In a prospective study this oblique scan plane was then used in addition to the axial and coronal planes, for MRI scans of both ankles in 21 healthy volunteers. Two observers independently evaluated the anterior tibiofibular ligament (ATIFL) and posterior tibiofibular ligament (PTIFL) regarding the continuity of the individual fascicles, thickness and wavy contour of the ligaments in both the axial and the oblique plane. Kappa was calculated to determine the interobserver agreement. McNemar’s test was used to statistically quantify the significance of the two scan planes. Results In the axial plane the ATIFL was in 31% (13/42) partly and in 69% (29/42) completely discontinuous; in the oblique plane the ATIFL was continuous in 88% (37/42) and partly discontinuous in 12% (5/42). Compared with the axial plane, the oblique plane demonstrated significantly less discontinuity (p?plane the PTIFL was continuous in 76% (32/42), partially discontinuous in 19% (8/42) and completely discontinuous in 5% (2/42); in the oblique plane the PTIFL was continuous in 100% (42/42). Compared with the axial plane, the oblique plane demonstrated significantly less discontinuity (p?=?0.002), but not significantly less thickening (p?=?1.00) or less wavy contour (p?=?0.50) of the PTIFL. The interobserver agreement score and kappa (?) regarding the continuity for the ATIFL in the axial and oblique planes was 91% (??=?0.79) and 91% (??=?0.55) respectively; for the PTIFL it was 86% (??=?0.65) and 100% (? = not defined). Conclusion The ATIFL and PTIFL are routinuely scanned in the orthogonal planes. The advantage of MRI scanning in an oblique image plane of about 45 degrees permits a better evaluation of the ligaments compared with the axial plane, particularly a better interpretation of ligament continuity, thickening and wavy contour. This may lead to a reduction in false-positive results, especially regarding partial or complete ligament ruptures. This can be of considerable aid in therapeutic management. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00256-010-0938-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

Ginai, Abida Z.; Wentink, Noortje; Hop, Wim C. J.; Beumer, Annechien

2010-01-01

143

TOPICAL REVIEW: Two-dimensional digital image correlation for in-plane displacement and strain measurement: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a practical and effective tool for quantitative in-plane deformation measurement of a planar object surface, two-dimensional digital image correlation (2D DIC) is now widely accepted and commonly used in the field of experimental mechanics. It directly provides full-field displacements to sub-pixel accuracy and full-field strains by comparing the digital images of a test object surface acquired before and after

Bing Pan; Kemao Qian; Huimin Xie; Anand Asundi

2009-01-01

144

Calculation of the Radiation Pattern of an Antenna Over a Semiconducting Plane by a Modified Method of Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an algorithm for finding the electromagnetic field produced by an antenna located near a semiconducting plane by the method of images. The results of calculating the radiation pattern of an X-shaped antenna system with four inclined beams, which is located in immediate proximity of the Earth's surface, are presented.

Belashov, V. Yu.; Dmitriev, I. A.

2014-03-01

145

Design and performance of single photon APD focal plane arrays for 3-D LADAR imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

×We describe the design, fabrication, and performance of focal plane arrays (FPAs) for use in 3-D LADAR imaging applications requiring single photon sensitivity. These 32 × 32 FPAs provide high-efficiency single photon sensitivity for three-dimensional LADAR imaging applications at 1064 nm. Our GmAPD arrays are designed using a planarpassivated avalanche photodiode device platform with buried p-n junctions that has demonstrated excellent performance uniformity, operational stability, and long-term reliability. The core of the FPA is a chip stack formed by hybridizing the GmAPD photodiode array to a custom CMOS read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) and attaching a precision-aligned GaP microlens array (MLA) to the back-illuminated detector array. Each ROIC pixel includes an active quenching circuit governing Geiger-mode operation of the corresponding avalanche photodiode pixel as well as a pseudo-random counter to capture per-pixel time-of-flight timestamps in each frame. The FPA has been designed to operate at frame rates as high as 186 kHz for 2 ?s range gates. Effective single photon detection efficiencies as high as 40% (including all optical transmission and MLA losses) are achieved for dark count rates below 20 kHz. For these planar-geometry diffused-junction GmAPDs, isolation trenches are used to reduce crosstalk due to hot carrier luminescence effects during avalanche events, and we present details of the crosstalk performance for different operating conditions. Direct measurement of temporal probability distribution functions due to cumulative timing uncertainties of the GmAPDs and ROIC circuitry has demonstrated a FWHM timing jitter as low as 265 ps (standard deviation is ~100 ps).

Itzler, Mark A.; Entwistle, Mark; Owens, Mark; Patel, Ketan; Jiang, Xudong; Slomkowski, Krystyna; Rangwala, Sabbir; Zalud, Peter F.; Senko, Tom; Tower, John; Ferraro, Joseph

2010-08-01

146

Noninvasive Vascular Displacement Estimation for Relative Elastic Modulus Reconstruction in Transversal Imaging Planes  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerotic plaque rupture can initiate stroke or myocardial infarction. Lipid-rich plaques with thin fibrous caps have a higher risk to rupture than fibrotic plaques. Elastic moduli differ for lipid-rich and fibrous tissue and can be reconstructed using tissue displacements estimated from intravascular ultrasound radiofrequency (RF) data acquisitions. This study investigated if modulus reconstruction is possible for noninvasive RF acquisitions of vessels in transverse imaging planes using an iterative 2D cross-correlation based displacement estimation algorithm. Furthermore, since it is known that displacements can be improved by compounding of displacements estimated at various beam steering angles, we compared the performance of the modulus reconstruction with and without compounding. For the comparison, simulated and experimental RF data were generated of various vessel-mimicking phantoms. Reconstruction errors were less than 10%, which seems adequate for distinguishing lipid-rich from fibrous tissue. Compounding outperformed single-angle reconstruction: the interquartile range of the reconstructed moduli for the various homogeneous phantom layers was approximately two times smaller. Additionally, the estimated lateral displacements were a factor of 2–3 better matched to the displacements corresponding to the reconstructed modulus distribution. Thus, noninvasive elastic modulus reconstruction is possible for transverse vessel cross sections using this cross-correlation method and is more accurate with compounding.

Hansen, Hendrik H.G.; Richards, Michael S.; Doyley, Marvin M.; de Korte, Chris L.

2013-01-01

147

Organic photodetectors and their applications for hemispherical imaging focal plane arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Softness of organic semiconducting materials holds promise for fabricating optoelectronic devices and circuits on nonplanar surfaces. The low growth temperature of organic small molecules also allows for the deposition onto a plastic substrate, which has the potential for significantly lowering the fabrication cost. However, the softness of organic small molecules can become problematic. Most of the well-established patterning techniques in the semiconductor industry are not suitable for patterning organic-based devices. High temperatures, high pressures, exposure to wet chemicals or high-energy particles that may exist in the conventional patterning approaches can damage the organic active layers. Although methods for large area patterning of organic electronics onto planar substrates have been demonstrated, in this thesis we extend the patterning capability to curved surfaces by using a novel three dimensional (3D) cold welding method. We use 3D cold welding to fabricate a hemispherical focal plane array (FPA) for compact imaging systems that mimic the architecture and function of the human eye. A 10 kilopixel organic photodetector FPA is thus demonstrated on a 1 cm radius hemisphere. By patterning brittle yet transparent indium tin oxide anodes instead of semitransparent metal anodes on the hemispheres, the detectivity of the FPA is improved. We introduce a sensitive hybrid photodetector employing a carbon nanotube/small molecular organic junction with a broad spectral response extending into the near infrared. Since the photodetector array shows an increased noise level with the array size, integrated arrays of organic photodetectors and thin film transistors as switches are demonstrated.

Xu, Xin

148

Light Blue - Dark Blue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem provides students the opportunity to explore fractions in a practical context as well as identify and explain patterns and justify their ideas. Solvers are shown a sequence of five squares shaded light blue and dark blue and are asked to find what fraction of the total area of each square is covered by light blue. They are also asked to work out what the next two squares would look like if they followed the pattern. The Teachers' Notes page offers rationale, suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, and ideas for extension and support.

2003-04-01

149

Plane Groups  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lengthy PDF document (60 pages+) about plane groups and symmetry. It includes colorful images of each of the 17 plane groups, in several different forms. Additionally, there are some summarizing graphics that show unit cells, lattices, symmetry elements, etc. There is lots here to choose from -- I doubt that anyone will want to use all of the images. Studying plane groups is a good way to introduce crystal systems, point groups, lattices, symmetry operators, etc. All is in 2-D, but it is easy to tell students that the principles are the same in 3-D. For those who like to make changes, the PDF document was created from individual EPS files. This means that the files can be opened in Adobe Illustrator, Corel Draw, etc., and modified to fit your own needs.

Perkins, Dexter

150

Prussian blue nanoparticles operate as a contrast agent for enhanced photoacoustic imaging.  

PubMed

Prussian blue nanoparticles were explored for the first time as an excellent contrast agent for enhancing photoacoustic tomography in vitro and in vivo due to their superior absorption efficiency of near-infrared laser pulses at a wavelength of 765 nm. PMID:23884328

Liang, Xiaolong; Deng, Zijian; Jing, Lijia; Li, Xiaoda; Dai, Zhifei; Li, Changhui; Huang, Maomao

2013-12-01

151

QWIP focal plane arrays on InP substrates for single and dual band thermal imagers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alternative material systems on InP substrate provide certain advantages for mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR), long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) and dual band MWIR/LWIR quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane arrays (FPAs). While InP/InGaAs and InP/InGaAsP LWIR QWIPs provide much higher responsivity when compared to the AlGaAs/GaAs QWIPs, AlInAs/InGaAs system facilitates completely lattice matched single band MWIR and dual band MWIR/LWIR FPAs. We present an extensive review of the studies on InP based single and dual band QWIPs. While reviewing the characteristics of InP/InGaAs and InP/InGaAsP LWIR QWIPs at large format FPA level, we experimentally demonstrate that the cut-off wavelength of AlInAs/InGaAs QWIPs can be tuned in a sufficiently large range in the MWIR atmospheric window by only changing the quantum well (QW) width at the lattice matched composition. The cut-off wavelength can be shifted up to ˜5.0 ?m with a QW width of 22 Å in which case very broad spectral response (? ?/ ?p = ˜30%) and a reasonably high peak detectivity are achievable leading to a noise equivalent temperature difference as low as 14 mK ( f/2) with 25 ?m pitch in a 640 × 512 FPA. We also present the characteristics of InP based two-stack QWIPs with wavelengths properly tuned in the MWIR and LWIR bands for dual color detection. The results clearly demonstrate that InP based material systems display high potential for dual band MWIR/LWIR QWIP FPAs needed by third generation thermal imagers.

Eker, S. U.; Arslan, Y.; Kaldirim, M.; Besikci, C.

2009-11-01

152

Image-preprocessing method for near-wall particle image velocimetry (PIV) image interrogation with very large in-plane displacement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements very near the wall are still a great challenge. The problem is compounded by the very large in-plane displacement on PIV images commonly encountered in measurements in hypersonic boundary layers. An improved image-preprocessing method is presented in this paper which expands the traditional window deformation iterative multigrid scheme to PIV images with very large displacement. Before the interrogation, stationary artificial particles of uniform size are added homogeneously in the wall region. The mean squares of the intensities of signals in the flow and in the wall region are postulated to be equal when half the initial interrogation window overlaps the wall region. The initial estimation near the wall is then smoothed by data from both sides of the shear layer to reduce the large random uncertainties. Interrogations in the following iterative steps then converge to the correct results to provide accurate predictions for particle tracking velocimetries. Significant improvement is seen in Monte Carlo simulations and experimental tests. The algorithm successfully extracted the small flow structures of the second-mode wave in the hypersonic boundary layer from PIV images with low signal-noise-ratios when the traditional method was not successful.

Zhu, Yiding; Yuan, Huijing; Zhang, Chuanhong; Lee, Cunbiao

2013-12-01

153

Enhancement of Optical Polarization Anisotropy of a-Plane InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Well Structure from Violet to Blue-Green Light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nonpolar a-plane (11\\bar{2}0) InGaN/GaN epitaxial layer was grown on r-plane (10\\bar{1}2) sapphire substrates by metal--organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). In this work, a set of step-stage multiple quantum wells (MQWs) is inserted between underlying GaN and overlying high indium-content MQWs to investigate its influence on the optical properties of the active region. The step-stage MQWs were deposited by varying growth temperature at fixed precursor flow rate. Optical properties were investigated by the measurement of temperature-dependent photoluminescence (TD-PL). The optical polarization ratio, activation energy, and the smile-like curve in full width at half maximum (FWHM) of PL were analyzed in detail.

Su, Sheng-Han; Huang, Shyh-Jer; Su, Yan-Kuin; Hsu, Hsiao-Chiu

2013-01-01

154

Influence of area focal plane arrays on the deterioration of interference modulation for Fourier transform spectral imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS) is the temporal modulated Michelson interferometer in which a single-element detector is replaced by an area focal plane arrays. Each pixel of detector arrays records observed area radiation and then yield the corresponding spectrum by Fourier transforms. While, area focal plane arrays improve spatial resolution and expand area coverage. However, this innovation technology has many technical challenges to be overcome. In this paper, the challenges caused by area focal plane arrays are discussed. The simulations of interference modulation (IM) of Fourier transform spectral imaging are presented. The IM changes as the extensions of pixel are simulated and analyzed. And a phenomenon that interference modulation deteriorates with spectral resolution improvement is discussed. The results show that, the off-axis pixels are sampled at slightly shorter OPDs, compared with the pixel in the center. The decrease of interference modulation caused by area focal plane arrays is related to both the position of each pixel and maximum optical path difference. Interference modulation decline in the format of a quadratic function as the pixel position extends. And this decrease in short waveband is more significant than that in long waveband. It is noticed that there is a key spectral resolution for IFTS interference modulation. When the spectral resolution is set below the key point, the IM decrease smoothly and slowly at the high level. However, if the spectral resolution keeps improving over the key point, the modulation will decline abruptly.

Guo, Xiarui; Li, Yan; Fan, Dongdong

2012-10-01

155

Three-dimensional analysis of scattering by pressure-release plane surfaces and the validity of the image solution.  

PubMed

Because of the complexity of the scattering integrals in three dimensions, numerous approximations are used to obtain closed-form solutions. By considering the scattering by an infinite, pressure-release plane surface, the effects of various phase approximations and source directivity approximations can be examined independently of the surface roughness. Calculations are carried out using the Fraunhofer and Fresnel phase approximations, and two directivity approximations. It has been shown experimentally that the image solution is valid for the reflection of an acoustic beam by an infinite, pressure-release plane surface if the plane is in the farfield of the source. Consequently, the image solution is used to compare analytical solutions obtained using various phase and directivity approximations, and it is found that both the Fresnel phase approximation and a realistic directivity approximation are required to achieve a good fit. The solution produced by the Fraunhofer phase approximation is obtained as an asymptotic limit of the modified Fresnel solution. Criteria for the validity of the Fraunhofer and Fresnel phase approximations are developed. The Fresnel phase approximation is valid under fairly broad conditions, but the Fraunhofer phase approximation is never valid for an infinite plane surface that must be in the farfield of the source. PMID:22280572

Welton, P J

2012-01-01

156

Simulation of crosstalk and quantum efficiency in high-resolution UV-blue imaging arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current development of UV-Blue sensitive photo-detectors has lead to investigations with the polywell-stacked gradient poly-homojunction (StaG) configuration. Backwall illumination is of interest due to increased fill factor and pixel wavelength band tailoring. The StaG architecture has benefits. However, for benefit to backwall illumination the space charge region needs to be depleted to the backwall, possibly dispensing with the need for the StaG multi-layer. This research is an initial investigation of the benefit to crosstalk and sensitivity of the deep single well in high resolution, 5 ?m pitch, photodiode arrays. The results indicate that geometries that are of fabricatable morphology can benefit backwall illumination especially in the U/V-blue wavelength spectrum.

Jansz, Paul V.; Hinckley, Steven

2011-12-01

157

Epipolar-plane image analysis: An approach to determining structure from motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a technique for building a three-dimensional description of a static scene from a dense se- quence of images. These images are taken in such rapid succession that they form a solid block of data in which the temporal continuity from image to image is approximately equal to the spatial continuity in an individual image. The technique utilizes knowledge

Robert C. Bolles; H. Harlyn Baker; David H. Marimont

1987-01-01

158

Prussian blue coated gold nanoparticles for simultaneous photoacoustic/CT bimodal imaging and photothermal ablation of cancer.  

PubMed

The combination of CT imaging and photoacoustic (PA) imaging represents not only high resolution and ease of forming 3D visual image for locating tissues of interest, but also good soft tissue contrast and excellent high sensitivity, which is very beneficial to the precise guidance for photothermal therapy (PTT). The near infrared (NIR) absorbing Au nanostructures take advantages to operate as a CT contrast agent due to high absorption coefficient of X-ray and outstanding biocompatibility, but show obvious deficiency for PA imaging and PTT because of low photostability. Attacking this problem head on, the Au nanoparticles (NPs) were coated with Prussian blue (PB) which is a typical FDA-approved drug in clinic for safe and effective treatment of radioactive exposure. The obtained core/shell NPs of Au@PB NPs of 17.8 ± 2.3 nm were found to be an excellent photoabsorbing agent for both PTT and PA imaging due to high photostability and high molar extinction coefficient in NIR region. Their gold core of 9.1 ± 0.64 nm ensured a remarkable contrast enhancement for CT imaging. Through a one-time treatment of NIR laser irradiation after intravenous injection of Au@PB NPs, 100 mm(3) sized tumors in nude mice could be completely ablated without recurrence. Such versatile nanoparticles integrating effective cancer diagnosis with noninvasive therapy might bring opportunities to future cancer therapy. PMID:24746962

Jing, Lijia; Liang, Xiaolong; Deng, Zijian; Feng, Shanshan; Li, Xiaoda; Huang, Maomao; Li, Changhui; Dai, Zhifei

2014-07-01

159

Enhanced Feeds in Focal Plane Imaging Array Systems: Off Focus Configurations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performances of focal plane arrays that implement multi-beam coverage from a single reflector antenna are usually reduced by conflicting requirements on the feed elements. Dense packing is required to minimize the beam separation, while typically large apertures provide the high feed directivity which in turn translates in low spill over losses from the reflector. In this paper the use

M. Bonnedal; N. Llombart; A. Neto; G. Gerini; Maagt de PJI

2007-01-01

160

Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) Focal Planes for Long Wave Imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we discuss the development of very sensitive long wavelength infrared GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) based on bound-to-quasibound intersubband transition, fabrication of light coupling schemes for efficient light coupling, and demonstration of several long wavelength infrared cameras based on QWIP focal plane arrays.

Gunapala, S.; Liu, J. K.; Bandara, S. V.; Hong, W.; Maker, P. D.; Muller, R. E.; Krabach, T. N.

1998-01-01

161

Infrared spectroscopic imaging using focal plane arrays: applications to tissue analysis and histopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared imaging spectroscopy has been used to investigate several biological systems. The imaging instrument is comprised of IR sensitive array detectors coupled with a step-scan interferometer and microscope. Each pixel on the array simultaneously measures an IR spectrum in frequency ranges that depend only on the type of array employed. As image contrast is provided solely by spatial variations in

L. H. Kidder; I. W. Levin; E. Neil Lewis

1997-01-01

162

1024 x 1024 pixel mid-wavelength and long-wavelength infrared QWIP focal plane arrays for imaging applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 10(24) x 10(24) pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NEAT) of 17 mK at a 95 K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300 K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NEAT of 13 mK at a 70 K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR detector array after the subtraction of system noise. Both MWIR and LWIR focal planes have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90 K and 70 K operating temperatures respectively, with similar optical and background conditions. In this paper, we will discuss the performance in terms of quantum efficiency, NE(delta)T, uniformity, operability and modulation transfer functions.

Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Hill, C. J.; Rafol, S. B.; Mumolo, J. M.; Trinh, J. T.; Tidrow, M. Z.; LeVan, P. D.

2005-01-01

163

Real-time imaging with THz fully-customized uncooled amorphous-silicon microbolometer focal plane arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz uncooled antenna-coupled microbolometer focal plane arrays are being developed at CEA-LETI for THz imaging and sensing. This detector technology relies on amorphous silicon bolometer know-how and aims at opening the way to real-time video rate 2D imaging, with potential low cost either in fabrication and in operation. First prototypes of 320x240 pixel arrays have been designed for 1-3 THz sensing. Sensors have been fabricated monolithically above CMOS Integrated Circuits while applying only full Si standard silicon processes. We present the results of extensive work of characterization and simulations made to estimate the sensitivity and spectral absorption of these prototypes. Tests of latest real-time imaging with active illumination by QCLs are then reported while explosives samples were placed in an optical set-up in reflection configuration.

Simoens, F.; Meilhan, J.; Delplanque, B.; Gidon, S.; Lasfargues, G.; Lalanne Dera, J.; Nguyen, D. T.; Ouvrier-Buffet, J. L.; Pocas, S.; Maillou, T.; Cathabard, O.; Barbieri, S.

2012-05-01

164

Active hyperspectral imaging using a quantum cascade laser (QCL) array and digital-pixel focal plane array (DFPA) camera.  

PubMed

We demonstrate active hyperspectral imaging using a quantum-cascade laser (QCL) array as the illumination source and a digital-pixel focal-plane-array (DFPA) camera as the receiver. The multi-wavelength QCL array used in this work comprises 15 individually addressable QCLs in which the beams from all lasers are spatially overlapped using wavelength beam combining (WBC). The DFPA camera was configured to integrate the laser light reflected from the sample and to perform on-chip subtraction of the passive thermal background. A 27-frame hyperspectral image was acquired of a liquid contaminant on a diffuse gold surface at a range of 5 meters. The measured spectral reflectance closely matches the calculated reflectance. Furthermore, the high-speed capabilities of the system were demonstrated by capturing differential reflectance images of sand and KClO3 particles that were moving at speeds of up to 10 m/s. PMID:24977536

Goyal, Anish; Myers, Travis; Wang, Christine A; Kelly, Michael; Tyrrell, Brian; Gokden, B; Sanchez, Antonio; Turner, George; Capasso, Federico

2014-06-16

165

Can Axial-Based Nodal Size Criteria Be Used in Other Imaging Planes to Accurately Determine "Enlarged" Head and Neck Lymph Nodes?  

PubMed Central

Objective. We evaluate if axial-based lymph node size criteria can be applied to coronal and sagittal planes. Methods. Fifty pretreatment computed tomographic (CT) neck exams were evaluated in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCCa) and neck lymphadenopathy. Axial-based size criteria were applied to all 3 imaging planes, measured, and classified as “enlarged” if equal to or exceeding size criteria. Results. 222 lymph nodes were “enlarged” in one imaging plane; however, 53.2% (118/222) of these were “enlarged” in all 3 planes. Classification concordance between axial versus coronal/sagittal planes was poor (kappa?=??0.09 and ?0.07, resp., P < 0.05). The McNemar test showed systematic misclassification when comparing axial versus coronal (P < 0.001) and axial versus sagittal (P < 0.001) planes. Conclusion. Classification of “enlarged” lymph nodes differs between axial versus coronal/sagittal imaging planes when axial-based nodal size criteria are applied independently to all three imaging planes, and exclusively used without other morphologic nodal data.

Bartlett, Eric S.; Walters, Thomas D.; Yu, Eugene

2013-01-01

166

Noninvasive imaging of human skin hemodynamics using a digital red-green-blue camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to visualize human skin hemodynamics, we investigated a method that is specifically developed for the visualization of concentrations of oxygenated blood, deoxygenated blood, and melanin in skin tissue from digital RGB color images. Images of total blood concentration and oxygen saturation can also be reconstructed from the results of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. Experiments using tissue-like agar gel

Izumi Nishidate; Noriyuki Tanaka; Tatsuya Kawase; Takaaki Maeda; Tomonori Yuasa; Yoshihisa Aizu; Tetsuya Yuasa; Kyuichi Niizeki

2011-01-01

167

Transport of Intensity phase imaging by intensity spectrum fitting of exponentially spaced defocus planes.  

PubMed

We propose an alternative method for solving the Transport of Intensity equation (TIE) from a stack of through-focus intensity images taken by a microscope or lensless imager. Our method enables quantitative phase and amplitude imaging with improved accuracy and reduced data capture, while also being computationally efficient and robust to noise. We use prior knowledge of how intensity varies with propagation in the spatial frequency domain in order to constrain a fitting algorithm [Gaussian process (GP) regression] for estimating the axial intensity derivative. Solving the problem in the frequency domain inspires an efficient measurement scheme which captures images at exponentially spaced focal steps, significantly reducing the number of images required. Low-frequency artifacts that plague traditional TIE methods can be suppressed without an excessive number of captured images. We validate our technique experimentally by recovering the phase of human cheek cells in a brightfield microscope. PMID:24921767

Jingshan, Zhong; Claus, Rene A; Dauwels, Justin; Tian, Lei; Waller, Laura

2014-05-01

168

Lateral modulation boosts image quality in single plane illumination fluorescence microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new microscope combines optical sectioning by fluorophore excitation using a single light sheet with structured illumination. Several images with laterally intensity-modulated light sheets are recorded from scattering fluorescent specimens. By applying a simple data processing scheme, the nonmodulated volumes are identified. The blurred features become dark, and the resultant images are improved in terms of contrast and resolution. Hence, the instrument is capable of discriminating against contributions to the image that are induced by the optical properties of the specimen. The new microscope's capabilities are demonstrated by imaging the internals of the head of an adult Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) expressing green fluorescent protein-labeled polycomb proteins.

Breuninger, Tobias; Greger, Klaus; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.

2007-07-01

169

Real-time imaging using a 4.3THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 \\/spl times\\/ 240 microbolometer focal-plane array  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the use of a ~50-mW peak power 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser (QCL) as an illumination source for real-time imaging with a 320 times 240 element room-temperature microbolometer focal-plane array detector. The QCL is modulated synchronously with the focal-plane array for differential imaging. Signal-to-noise ratios of ~340 are achieved at a 20-frame\\/s acquisition rate, and the optical noise equivalent

Alan W. M. Lee; Benjamin S. Williams; Sushil Kumar; Qing Hu; John L. Reno

2006-01-01

170

Focal-plane-arrays and CMOS readout techniques of infrared imaging systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion of CMOS readout technologies for infrared (IR) imaging systems is presented. First, the description of various types of IR detector materials and structures is given. The advances of detector fabrication technology and microelectronics process technology have led to the development of large format array of IR imaging detectors. For such large IR FPAs which is the critical component

Chih-Cheng Hsieh; Chung-Yu Wu; Far-Wen Jih; Tai-Ping Sun

1997-01-01

171

Inverse-synthetic-aperture imaging of trees over a ground plane  

SciTech Connect

Recent data collections with the Sandia VHF-UHF synthetic-aperture radar have yielded surprising results; trees appear brighter in the images than expected! In an effort to understand this phenomenon, various small trees have been measured on the Sandia folded compact range with the inverse-synthetic-aperture imaging system. A compilation of these measurements is contained in this report.

Zittel, D.H.; Brock, B.C.; Littlejohn, J.H.; Patitz, W.E.

1995-11-01

172

320x240 pixel InGaAs/InP focal plane array for short-wave infrared and visible light imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the recent production release of our 320x240 pixel InGaAs/InP focal plane array and camera for visible and short-wavelength infrared light imaging. For this camera, we have fabricated a substrate-removed backside-illuminated InGaAs/InP photodiode array hybridized to a silicon read out integrated circuit (ROIC). Removing the InP substrate from the focal plane array allows visible wavelengths, which would otherwise be absorbed by the InP substrate due to its 920 nm wavelength cut-off, to reach the pixels" active region. Quantum efficiency is approximately 15% at 500 nm, 70% at 850 nm, 85% at 1310 nm and 80% at 1550 nm. This focal plane array is useable for visible imaging as well as imaging eye-safe lasers and is of particular interest for day and low light level imaging as well as hyperspectral imaging.

Martin, Tara; Dixon, Peter; Gagliardi, Mari-Anne; Masaun, Navneet

2005-04-01

173

Intra-frame Depth Image Compression Based on Anisotropic Partition Scheme and Plane Approximation  

Microsoft Academic Search

D video can be represented by color 2D video sequence accompanied by gray-scale dense depth map (depth image) sequence. In this paper, we describe a novel method for intra- frame compression of the depth modality of such representation. Our method takes into account specific features of depth images, i.e. the presence of large smooth regions delineated by sharp discontinuities (edges).

Nikolay Ponomarenko; Vladimir Lukin; Atanas Gotchev; Karen Egiazarian

174

Breathing Blue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this demonstration of chemical change, the presenter blows breath into a methylene blue solution releasing carbon dioxide which acidifies the water and changes it from a bright blue color to green.

Wosu

2009-08-20

175

Impacts of Cross-Platform Vicarious Calibration on the Deep Blue Aerosol Retrievals for Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aboard Terra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The retrieval of aerosol properties from spaceborne sensors requires highly accurate and precise radiometric measurements, thus placing stringent requirements on sensor calibration and characterization. For the Terra/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spedroradiometer (MODIS), the characteristics of the detectors of certain bands, particularly band 8 [(B8); 412 nm], have changed significantly over time, leading to increased calibration uncertainty. In this paper, we explore a possibility of utilizing a cross-calibration method developed for characterizing the Terral MODIS detectors in the ocean bands by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ocean Biology Processing Group to improve aerosol retrieval over bright land surfaces. We found that the Terra/MODIS B8 reflectance corrected using the cross calibration method resulted in significant improvements for the retrieved aerosol optical thickness when compared with that from the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer, Aqua/MODIS, and the Aerosol Robotic Network. The method reported in this paper is implemented for the operational processing of the Terra/MODIS Deep Blue aerosol products.

Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Hsu, N. Christina; Kwiatkowska, Ewa J.; Franz, Bryan A.; Meister, Gerhard; Salustro, Clare E.

2012-01-01

176

The study of blue LED to induce fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging for oral carcinoma detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging diagnosis of malignant lesions provides us with a new method to diagnose diseases in precancerous stage. Early diagnosis of disease has significant importance in cancer treatment, because most cancers can be cured well in precancerous, especially when the diffusion of cancer is limited in a restricted region. In this study, Golden hamster models were applied

Longjiang Zheng; Yuanting Hu

2009-01-01

177

Galactic Plane image sharpness as a check on cosmic microwave background mapmaking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The largest uncollapsed inhomogeneity in the observable Universe is statistically represented in the quadrupole signal of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) sky maps as observed by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). The constant temporal offset of -25.6~ms between the timestamps of the spacecraft attitude and observational data records in the time-ordered data (TOD) of the WMAP observations was suspected to imply that previously derived all-sky CMB maps are erroneous, and that the quadrupole is in large part an artefact. The optimal focussing of bright objects in the Galactic Plane plays a key role in showing that no error occurred at the step of mapmaking from the calibrated TOD. Instead, the error had an effect when the uncalibrated TOD were calibrated. Estimates of the high-latitude quadrupole based on the wrongly calibrated WMAP maps are overestimated by about 15--60%.

Roukema, B. F.

2010-12-01

178

The high resolution X-ray imaging detector planes for the MIRAX mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MIRAX X-ray observatory, the first Brazilian-led astrophysics space mission, is designed to perform an unprecedented wide-field, wide-band hard X-ray (5-200 keV) survey of Galactic X-ray transient sources. In the current configuration, MIRAX will carry a set of four coded-masks telescopes with high spatial resolution Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detector planes, each one consisting of an array of 64 closely tiled CZT pixelated detectors. Taken together, the four telescopes will have a total detection area of 959 cm2, a large field of view (60° × 60° FWHM), high angular resolution for this energy range (6 arcmin) and very good spectral resolution ( ~ 2 keV @ 60 keV). A stratospheric balloon-borne prototype of one of the MIRAX telescopes has been developed, tested and flown by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) as part of the ProtoEXIST program. In this paper we show results of validation and calibration tests with individual CZT detectors of the ProtoEXIST second generation experiment (P2). Each one of 64 detector units of the P2 detector plane consists of an ASIC, developed by Caltech for the NuSTAR telescope, hybridized to a CZT crystal with 0.6 mm pixel size. The performance of each detector was evaluated using radioactive sources in the laboratory. The calibration results show that the P2 detectors have average energy resolution of ~ 2.1 keV @ 60 keV and 2.3 @ 122 keV. P2 was also successfully tested on near-space environment on a balloon flight, demonstrating the detector unit readiness for integration on a space mission telescope, as well as satisfying all MIRAX mission requirements.

Rodrigues, B. H. G.; Grindlay, J. E.; Allen, B.; Hong, J.; Barthelmy, S.; Braga, J.; D'Amico, F.; Rothschild, R. E.

2013-09-01

179

Plane Wave: Step Scattering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Plane Wave: Step Scattering model simulates the time evolution of a free-particle plane wave in position space when it is incident on a potential energy step.  The position-space wave functions are depicted using three colors on the graph: black depicting the absolute square of the wave function, blue depicting the real part of the wave function, and red depicting the imaginary part of the wave function. The user may change the height of the potential step or the plane wave energy by dragging circles on the energy graph. Also shown is the calculated transmission and reflection coefficients. The Plane Wave: Step Scattering model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_qm_plane_step.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Palop, Jose I.

2010-12-13

180

High frame-rate blood vector velocity imaging using plane waves: Simulations and preliminary experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional ultrasound methods for acquiring color images of blood velocity are limited by a relatively low frame-rate and are restricted to give velocity estimates along the ultrasound beam direction only. To circumvent these limitations, the method presented in this paper uses 3 techniques: 1) The ultrasound is not focused during the transmissions of the ultrasound signals; 2) A 13 -bit

Jesper Udesen; Fredrik Gran; Kristoffer Lindskov Hansen; Jørgen Arendt Jensen; Carsten Thomsen; Michael Bachmann Nielsen

2008-01-01

181

Electrostatics of a Point Charge between Intersecting Planes: Exact Solutions and Method of Images  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this work, the authors present a commonly used example in electrostatics that could be solved exactly in a conventional manner, yet expressed in a compact form, and simultaneously work out special cases using the method of images. Then, by plotting the potentials and electric fields obtained from these two methods, the authors demonstrate that…

Mei, W. N.; Holloway, A.

2005-01-01

182

Real-Time Terahertz Imaging Using a Quantum Cascade Laser and Uncooled Microbolometer Focal Plane Array.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Real-time imaging in the terahertz (THz) spectral range was achieved using an uncooled, 160 120 pixel infrared microbolometer camera and a milliwatt- scale quantum cascade laser (QCL). By replacing the camera's original focusing optics with a Tsurupica-ba...

B. N. Behnken

2008-01-01

183

Image method for the derivation of point sources in elastostatic problems with plane interfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An image method algorithm is presented for the derivation of point sources of elastostatics in multilayered media assuming the infinite space point source is known. Specific cases were worked out and shown to coincide with well known solutions in the literature.

Fares, Nabil; Li, Victor C.

1986-01-01

184

Subcellular Biochemical Investigation of Purkinje Neurons Using Synchrotron Radiation Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging with a Focal Plane Array Detector  

PubMed Central

Coupling Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with focal plane array detectors at synchrotron radiation sources (SR-FTIR-FPA) has provided a rapid method to simultaneously image numerous biochemical markers in situ at diffraction limited resolution. Since cells and nuclei are well resolved at this spatial resolution, a direct comparison can be made between FTIR functional group images and the histology of the same section. To allow histological analysis of the same section analyzed with infrared imaging, unfixed air-dried tissue sections are typically fixed (after infrared spectroscopic analysis is completed) via immersion fixation. This post fixation process is essential to allow histological staining of the tissue section. Although immersion fixation is a common practice in this filed, the initial rehydration of the dehydrated unfixed tissue can result in distortion of subcellular morphology and confound correlation between infrared images and histology. In this study, vapor fixation, a common choice in other research fields where postfixation of unfixed tissue sections is required, was employed in place of immersion fixation post spectroscopic analysis. This method provided more accurate histology with reduced distortions as the dehydrated tissue section is fixed in vapor rather than during rehydration in an aqueous fixation medium. With this approach, accurate correlation between infrared images and histology of the same section revealed that Purkinje neurons in the cerebellum are rich in cytosolic proteins and not depleted as once thought. In addition, we provide the first direct evidence of intracellular lactate within Purkinje neurons. This highlights the significant potential for future applications of SR-FTIR-FPA imaging to investigate cellular lactate under conditions of altered metabolic demand such as increased brain activity and hypoxia or ischemia.

2013-01-01

185

Subcellular biochemical investigation of purkinje neurons using synchrotron radiation fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging with a focal plane array detector.  

PubMed

Coupling Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with focal plane array detectors at synchrotron radiation sources (SR-FTIR-FPA) has provided a rapid method to simultaneously image numerous biochemical markers in situ at diffraction limited resolution. Since cells and nuclei are well resolved at this spatial resolution, a direct comparison can be made between FTIR functional group images and the histology of the same section. To allow histological analysis of the same section analyzed with infrared imaging, unfixed air-dried tissue sections are typically fixed (after infrared spectroscopic analysis is completed) via immersion fixation. This post fixation process is essential to allow histological staining of the tissue section. Although immersion fixation is a common practice in this filed, the initial rehydration of the dehydrated unfixed tissue can result in distortion of subcellular morphology and confound correlation between infrared images and histology. In this study, vapor fixation, a common choice in other research fields where postfixation of unfixed tissue sections is required, was employed in place of immersion fixation post spectroscopic analysis. This method provided more accurate histology with reduced distortions as the dehydrated tissue section is fixed in vapor rather than during rehydration in an aqueous fixation medium. With this approach, accurate correlation between infrared images and histology of the same section revealed that Purkinje neurons in the cerebellum are rich in cytosolic proteins and not depleted as once thought. In addition, we provide the first direct evidence of intracellular lactate within Purkinje neurons. This highlights the significant potential for future applications of SR-FTIR-FPA imaging to investigate cellular lactate under conditions of altered metabolic demand such as increased brain activity and hypoxia or ischemia. PMID:23638613

Hackett, Mark J; Borondics, Ferenc; Brown, Devin; Hirschmugl, Carol; Smith, Shari E; Paterson, Phyllis G; Nichol, Helen; Pickering, Ingrid J; George, Graham N

2013-07-17

186

HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING OF THE OUTBURST SITE OF M31 RV. II. NO BLUE REMNANT IN QUIESCENCE  

SciTech Connect

M31 RV is a red transient that erupted in 1988 in the Andromeda bulge, reaching a luminosity intermediate between novae and supernovae. It was cool throughout its outburst, unlike a normal classical nova. In 2006, Bond and Siegel examined archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) optical images of the M31 RV site, obtained in 1999. We found only old red giants at the site and no stars of unusual color. However, Shara et al. recently claimed to have detected (1) a bright UV source within the error box in HST UV images taken in 1995, (2) a hot (T{sub eff} > 40, 000 K) optical source in the same 1999 images that we examined, and (3) cooling of this source from 1999 to 2008. Shara et al. argue that this source's behavior is consistent with a classical-nova outburst occurring on a low-mass white dwarf. I have re-examined all of the HST frames, including new ones obtained in 2009-2010. I find that (1) the bright 1995 UV source reported by Shara et al. was actually due to cosmic rays striking the same pixel in two successive exposures; (2) the claim that an optically bright star in the error box is very hot is actually due to misinterpretation of red-giant colors in the STmagnitude system; (3) there is no evidence for variability of any source within the error box from 1999 to 2010; and (4) there are no stars of unusually blue or red color in the error box. Our 2006 conclusions remain valid: either M31 RV had faded below HST detectability by 1999, or its remnant is an unresolved companion of a red giant in the field, or the remnant is one of the red giants.

Bond, Howard E., E-mail: bond@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

2011-08-10

187

The Imaging Properties of the Gas Pixel Detector as a Focal Plane Polarimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-rays are particularly suited to probing the physics of extreme objects. However, despite the enormous improvements of X-ray astronomy in imaging, spectroscopy, and timing, polarimetry remains largely unexplored. We propose the photoelectric polarimeter Gas Pixel Detector (GPD) as a candidate instrument to fill the gap created by more than 30 yr without measurements. The GPD, in the focus of a telescope, will increase the sensitivity of orders of magnitude. Moreover, since it can measure the energy, the position, the arrival time, and the polarization angle of every single photon, it allows us to perform polarimetry of subsets of data singled out from the spectrum, the light curve, or an image of the source. The GPD has an intrinsic, very fine imaging capability, and in this work we report on the calibration campaign carried out in 2012 at the PANTER X-ray testing facility of the Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik of Garching (Germany) in which, for the first time, we coupled it with a JET-X optics module with a focal length of 3.5 m and an angular resolution of 18 arcsec at 4.5 keV. This configuration was proposed in 2012 aboard the X-ray Imaging Polarimetry Explorer (XIPE) in response to the ESA call for a small mission. We derived the imaging and polarimetric performance for extended sources like pulsar wind nebulae and supernova remnants as case studies for the XIPE configuration and also discuss possible improvements by coupling the detector with advanced optics that have a finer angular resolution and larger effective areas to study extended objects with more detail.

Fabiani, S.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Muleri, F.; Soffitta, P.; Rubini, A.; Bellazzini, R.; Brez, A.; de Ruvo, L.; Minuti, M.; Pinchera, M.; Sgró, C.; Spandre, G.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Pareschi, G.; Basso, S.; Citterio, O.; Burwitz, V.; Burkert, W.; Menz, B.; Hartner, G.

2014-06-01

188

In-Plane Displacement Measurement Using Digital Image Correlation with Lens Distortion Correction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-dimensional displacement measurement using digital image correlation with lens distortion correction is described in this paper. A single cross-grating is used as a calibration reference. Using two-dimensional Fourier transform, the phases of the grating pattern are analyzed and lens distortion distribution is obtained from the unwrapped phase maps. After detecting lens distortion, the coefficients of lens distortion are determined using the least-squares method. Then, the displacement distributions without the lens distortion are obtained. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by applying the proposed method to the rigid body translation test and the uniaxial tension test. The results show that the proposed distortion correction method removes the effect of lens distortion from the measured displacements. By the proposed method, accurate measurements can be performed even if images are deformed by lens distortion.

Yoneyama, Satoru; Kitagawa, Akikazu; Kitamura, Koji; Kikuta, Hisao

189

Hyperspectral image compression using distributed arithmetic coding and bit-plane coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperspectral images are of very large data size and highly correlated in neighboring bands, therefore, it is necessary to realize the efficient compression performance on the condition of low encoding complexity. In this paper, we propose a method based on both partitioning embedded block and lossless adaptive-distributed arithmetic coding (LADAC). Combined with three-dimensional wavelet transform and SW-SPECK algorithm, LADAC is

Jiaji Wu; Minli Wang; Yong Fang; Jechang Jeong; Licheng Jiao

2010-01-01

190

In-Plane Displacement Measurement Using Digital Image Correlation with Lens Distortion Correction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-dimensional displacement measurement using digital image correlation with lens distortion correction is described in this paper. A single cross-grating is used as a calibration reference. Using two-dimensional Fourier transform, the phases of the grating pattern are analyzed and lens distortion distribution is obtained from the unwrapped phase maps. After detecting lens distortion, the coefficients of lens distortion are determined using

Satoru Yoneyama; Akikazu Kitagawa; Koji Kitamura; Hisao Kikuta

2006-01-01

191

Micro and Nanoscale Deformation Measurement of Surface and Internal Planes via Digital Image Correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The digital image correlation (DIC) technique is successfully applied across multiple length scales through the generation\\u000a of a suitable speckle pattern at each size scale. For microscale measurements, a random speckle pattern of paint is created\\u000a with a fine point airbrush. Nanoscale displacement resolution is achieved with a speckle pattern formed by solution deposition\\u000a of fluorescent silica nanoparticles. When excited,

T. A. Berfield; J. K. Patel; R. G. Shimmin; P. V. Braun; J. Lambros; N. R. Sottos

2007-01-01

192

Snakes in the Plane: Direct Imaging of Magnetized Turbulence in the Interstellar Medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interstellar medium (ISM) of the Milky Way consists of gas and dust at a range of temperatures and pressures, and provides the raw material from which stars and planets form. Astronomers have developed a sophisticated understanding of the ISM as a multi-phase, magnetized, turbulent medium. However, observations have lacked the sensitivity and resolution to directly image the small-scale structure associated with turbulent motions in the diffuse ISM. Radio polarimetry is a promising avenue for further progress, because Faraday rotation of linearly polarized radio signals provides a very sensitive probe of fluctuations in magnetic field and ionized gas density. Here we present a new way of processing images of linearly polarized radio emission from the ISM, in which we derive the gradient of the Stokes vector (Q,U). This provides the first direct image of supersonic turbulence in the ISM, manifested as a complex filamentary web of sharp density jumps. Application of the polarization gradient to both simulations and observations can allow the measurement of currently unconstrained parameters of interstellar turbulence such as the Mach number, Reynolds number and magnetic field strength.

Gaensler, Bryan M.; Haverkorn, M.; Burkhart, B.; Newton-McGee, K. J.; Ekers, R. D.; Lazarian, A.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Robishaw, T.; Dickey, J. M.; Green, A. J.

2012-01-01

193

An uncooled 1280 x 1024 InGaAs focal plane array for small platform, shortwave infrared imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing demand for short wave infrared (SWIR) imaging technology for soldier-based and unmanned platforms requires camera systems where size, weight and power consumption are minimized without loss of performance. Goodrich, Sensors Unlimited Inc. reports on the development of a novel focal plane (FPA) array for DARPA's MISI (Micro-Sensors for Imaging) Program. This large format (1280 x 1024) array is optimized for day/night imaging in the wavelength region from 0.4 ?m to 1.7 ?m and consists of an InGaAs detector bump bonded to a capacitance transimpedance amplifier (CTIA)-based readout integrated circuit (ROIC) on a compact 15 ?m pixel pitch. Two selectable integration capacitors provide for high dynamic range with low (< 50 electrons) noise, and expanded onchip ROIC functionality includes analog-to-digital conversion and temperature sensing. The combination of high quality, low dark current InGaAs with temperature-parameterized non-uniformity correction allows operation at ambient temperatures while eliminating the need for thermoelectric cooling. The resulting lightweight, low power implementation is suitable for man-portable and UAV-mounted applications.

Battaglia, J.; Blessinger, M.; Enriquez, M.; Ettenberg, M.; Evans, M.; Flynn, K.; Lin, M.; Passe, J.; Stern, M.; Sudol, T.

2009-05-01

194

State of Detector Development for the WIYN One Degree Imager: Deploying a Partially Populated Focal Plane in Summer 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deployment of the WIYN One Degree Imager (ODI) was delayed due to issues with the production of its Orthogonal Transfer Array (OTA) detectors. OTA detectors allow moving charge in the detector area during an ongoing science integration to compensate for image motion caused by either telescope guide errors or atmospheric turbulence. In 2011 a small experimental foundry run with a modified design has yielded at least 14 devices that meet science requirements for conventional static imaging mode. Active correction of telescope guide errors by the detectors will be achievable with some precautions during operation, whereas atmospheric motion correction will remain limited to a technical demonstration due to persistent amplifier glow. In this poster we describe the characteristics of these devices and present a plan for the deployment of ODI with a partially populated focal plane (pODI) at the WIYN telescope in the second half of 2012. pODI will be used to characterize the performance of the ODI instrument and will be used for science operations while the future development options for OTA detectors are considered.

Harbeck, Daniel R.; Boroson, T.; Lesser, M.

2012-01-01

195

Inverted selective plane illumination microscopy (iSPIM) enables coupled cell identity lineaging and neurodevelopmental imaging in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

The Caenorhabditis elegans embryo is a powerful model for studying neural development, but conventional imaging methods are either too slow or phototoxic to take full advantage of this system. To solve these problems, we developed an inverted selective plane illumination microscopy (iSPIM) module for noninvasive high-speed volumetric imaging of living samples. iSPIM is designed as a straightforward add-on to an inverted microscope, permitting conventional mounting of specimens and facilitating SPIM use by development and neurobiology laboratories. iSPIM offers a volumetric imaging rate 30× faster than currently used technologies, such as spinning-disk confocal microscopy, at comparable signal-to-noise ratio. This increased imaging speed allows us to continuously monitor the development of C, elegans embryos, scanning volumes every 2 s for the 14-h period of embryogenesis with no detectable phototoxicity. Collecting ?25,000 volumes over the entirety of embryogenesis enabled in toto visualization of positions and identities of cell nuclei. By merging two-color iSPIM with automated lineaging techniques we realized two goals: (i) identification of neurons expressing the transcription factor CEH-10/Chx10 and (ii) visualization of their neurodevelopmental dynamics. We found that canal-associated neurons use somal translocation and amoeboid movement as they migrate to their final position in the embryo. We also visualized axon guidance and growth cone dynamics as neurons circumnavigate the nerve ring and reach their targets in the embryo. The high-speed volumetric imaging rate of iSPIM effectively eliminates motion blur from embryo movement inside the egg case, allowing characterization of dynamic neurodevelopmental events that were previously inaccessible.

Wu, Yicong; Ghitani, Alireza; Christensen, Ryan; Santella, Anthony; Du, Zhuo; Rondeau, Gary; Bao, Zhirong; Colon-Ramos, Daniel; Shroff, Hari

2011-01-01

196

640 x 512 Pixels Long-Wavelength Infrared (LWIR) Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetector (QDIP) Imaging Focal Plane Array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Epitaxially grown self-assembled. InAs-InGaAs-GaAs quantum dots (QDs) are exploited for the development of large-format long-wavelength infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs). The dot-in-a-well (DWELL) structures were experimentally shown to absorb both 45 degrees and normal incident light, therefore, a reflection grating structure was used to enhance the quantum efficiency. The devices exhibit peak responsivity out to 8.1 micrometers, with peak detectivity reaching approximately 1 X 10(exp 10) Jones at 77 K. The devices were fabricated into the first long-wavelength 640 x 512 pixel QD infrared photodetector imaging FPA, which has produced excellent infrared imagery with noise equivalent temperature difference of 40 mK at 60-K operating temperature.

Gunapala, Sarath D.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Hill, Cory J.; Ting, David Z.; Liu, John K.; Rafol, Sir B.; Blazejewski, Edward R.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Keo, Sam A.; Krishna, Sanjay; Chang, Y. -C.; Shott, Craig A.

2007-01-01

197

In-plane strain measurements on a microscopic scale by coupling digital image correlation and an in situ SEM technique  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to present a method based on the correlation of digital images obtained on a microscopic scale. A specific grainy pattern has been developed. The use of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) allowed the determination of full-field 2D displacements on an object surface with a spatial resolution of about 1 {mu}m. Validation tests were performed in order to quantify performances and limits of this method. An example of its application is presented for a Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy. Results show that it is possible to obtain in-plane displacement values on the object surface with efficient spatial resolution and accuracy. Thus, such a technique can be used to highlight on a relevant scale the role of the microstructure in material deformation processes.

Lagattu, Fabienne [Laboratoire de Mecanique et de Physique des Materiaux, ENSMA, BP40109, 86961 Futuroscope (France)]. E-mail: lagattu@lmpm.ensma.fr; Bridier, Florent [Laboratoire de Mecanique et de Physique des Materiaux, ENSMA, BP40109, 86961 Futuroscope (France); Villechaise, Patrick [Laboratoire de Mecanique et de Physique des Materiaux, ENSMA, BP40109, 86961 Futuroscope (France); Brillaud, Jean [Laboratoire de Mecanique et de Physique des Materiaux, ENSMA, BP40109, 86961 Futuroscope (France)

2006-01-15

198

Identification of anthropogenic and natural dust sources using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Deep Blue level 2 data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral dust interacts with radiation and impacts both the regional and global climate. The relative contribution of natural and anthropogenic dust sources, however, remains largely uncertain. Although human activities disturb soils and therefore enhance wind erosion, their contribution to global dust emission has never been directly evaluated because of a lack of data. The retrieval of aerosol properties over land, including deserts, using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Deep Blue algorithm makes the first direct characterization of the origin of individual sources possible. In order to separate freshly emitted dust from other aerosol types and aged dust particles, the spectral dependence of the single scattering albedo and the Angstrom wavelength exponent are used. Four years of data from the eastern part of West Africa, which includes one of the most active natural dust sources and the highest population density on the continent, are processed. Sources are identified on the basis of the persistence of significant aerosol optical depth from freshly emitted dust, and the origin is characterized as natural or anthropogenic on the basis of a land use data set. Our results indicate that although anthropogenic dust is observed less frequently and with lower optical depth than dust from natural sources in this particular region, it occupies a large area covering most of northern Nigeria and southern Chad, around Lake Chad. In addition, smaller anthropogenic sources are found as far south as 5° of latitude north, well outside the domain of most dust source inventories.

Ginoux, Paul; Garbuzov, Dmitri; Hsu, N. Christina

2010-03-01

199

Blue Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Information is presented on Blue Moons, including what they are, where the expression and name came from, and which months have the most Blue Moons. A calculator is provided to see when past and future Blue Moons have and will occur. In addition, moon phases are charted for the next and last month, year, and Metonic Cycles. General Moon information is included, along with links for further information.

Harper, David; Stockman, Lynne

200

Blue Note  

ScienceCinema

Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

Murray Gibson

2010-01-08

201

Blue Note  

SciTech Connect

Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

Murray Gibson

2007-04-27

202

Synchrotron Infrared Confocal Microspectroscopic Spatial Resolution or a Customized Synchrotron/focal Plane Array System Enhances Chemical Imaging of Biological Tissue or Cells  

SciTech Connect

Spectroscopy and spatially resolved chemical imaging of biological materials using an infrared microscope is greatly enhanced with confocal image plane masking to 5-6 {mu} with a third generation microspectrometer and illumination with a synchrotron radiation source compared to globar illuminated and array detection or singly masked system. Steps toward this instrumental achievement are illustrated with spectra and images of biological tissue sections, including single cells, brain, aorta, and grain specimens. A recent, customized synchrotron infrared microspectrometer installation enables focal plane array detection to achieve both rapid and high definition chemical imaging. Localization of the ester carbonyl population in single modified starch granules was used to provide direct comparison of the two advanced imaging capabilities.

D Wetzel; M Nasse; =

2011-12-31

203

Focal Plane Detectors for the Advanced Gamma-Ray Imaging System (AGIS)  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Gamma-Ray Imaging System (AGIS) is a concept for the next generation observatory in ground-based very high energy gamma-ray astronomy. Design goals are ten times better sensitivity, higher angular resolution, and a lower energy threshold than existing Cherenkov telescopes. Simulations show that a substantial improvement in angular resolution may be achieved if the pixel diameter is reduced to the order of 0.05 deg, i.e. two to three times smaller than the pixel diameter of current Cherenkov telescope cameras. At these dimensions, photon detectors with smaller physical dimensions can be attractive alternatives to the classical photomultiplier tube (PMT). Furthermore, the operation of an experiment with the size of AGIS requires photon detectors that are among other things more reliable, more durable, and possibly higher efficiency photon detectors. Alternative photon detectors we are considering for AGIS include both silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) and multi-anode photomultipliers (MAPMTs). Here we present results from laboratory testing of MAPMTs and SiPMs along with results from the first incorporation of these devices into cameras on test bed Cherenkov telescopes.

Otte, A. N.; Williams, D. A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (United States); Byrum, K.; Drake, G.; Horan, D.; Smith, A.; Wagner, R. G. [Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Falcone, A. [Pennsylvania State University (United States); Funk, S.; Tajima, H. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (United States); Mukherjee, R. [Barnard College (United States)

2008-12-24

204

In-plane vibration characterization of microelectromechanical systems using acousto-optic modulated partially incoherent stroboscopic imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique using acousto-optic modulated partially incoherent stroboscopic imaging for measurement of in-plane motion of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is presented. Vibration measurement is allowed by using flashes of the partially incoherent light source to freeze the positions of the microstructure at 12 equally spaced phases of the vibration period. The first-order diffracted beam taken out by an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) from the light beam of a laser is made partially incoherent by a rotating diffuser and then serves as the stroboscopic light source. Both the MEMS excitation signal and the flash control signal are provided by a dual-channel function generator. The main advantage of this measurement method is the absence of a stroboscopic generator and a high speed digital camera. Microscale prototypes are fabricated and tested. Quantitative estimates of the harmonic responses of the prototypes are obtained from the recorded images. The results agree with those obtained with a commercial MEMS motion analyzer TM with relative errors less than 2%.

Wang, Dung-An; Sheu, Fang-Wen; Chiu, Yen-Sih

2011-07-01

205

Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of the Outburst Site of M31 RV. II. No Blue Remnant in Quiescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

M31 RV is a red transient that erupted in 1988 in the Andromeda bulge, reaching a luminosity intermediate between novae and supernovae. It was cool throughout its outburst, unlike a normal classical nova. In 2006, Bond & Siegel examined archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) optical images of the M31 RV site, obtained in 1999. We found only old red giants at the site and no stars of unusual color. However, Shara et al. recently claimed to have detected (1) a bright UV source within the error box in HST UV images taken in 1995, (2) a hot (T eff > 40, 000 K) optical source in the same 1999 images that we examined, and (3) cooling of this source from 1999 to 2008. Shara et al. argue that this source's behavior is consistent with a classical-nova outburst occurring on a low-mass white dwarf. I have re-examined all of the HST frames, including new ones obtained in 2009-2010. I find that (1) the bright 1995 UV source reported by Shara et al. was actually due to cosmic rays striking the same pixel in two successive exposures; (2) the claim that an optically bright star in the error box is very hot is actually due to misinterpretation of red-giant colors in the STmagnitude system; (3) there is no evidence for variability of any source within the error box from 1999 to 2010; and (4) there are no stars of unusually blue or red color in the error box. Our 2006 conclusions remain valid: either M31 RV had faded below HST detectability by 1999, or its remnant is an unresolved companion of a red giant in the field, or the remnant is one of the red giants. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained by the Space Telescope Science Institute, and from the data archive at STScI. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

Bond, Howard E.

2011-08-01

206

Comments on the Effect of a Deformed, Plane Parallel Glass Plate in the Image Plane of an Objective on Its Distortion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods for computing optical compensation plates in the case of oblique image observation. Advantages and drawbacks of the methods under discussion are explained by way of a practical example. (Author)

W. Dannberg G. Wuertz

1965-01-01

207

A novel Region of Interest (ROI) imaging technique for biplane imaging in interventional suites: high-resolution small field-of-view imaging in the frontal plane and dose-reduced, large field-of-view standard-resolution imaging in the lateral plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Endovascular-Image-Guided-Interventional (EIGI) treatment of neuro-vascular conditions such as aneurysms, stenosed arteries, and vessel thrombosis make use of treatment devices such as stents, coils, and balloons which have very small feature sizes, 10's of microns to a few 100's of microns, and hence demand a high resolution imaging system. The current state-of-the-art flat panel detector (FPD) has about a 200-um pixel size with the Nyquist of 2.5 lp/mm. For higher-resolution imaging a charge-coupled device (CCD) based Micro-Angio - Fluoroscope (MAF-CCD) with a pixel size of 35um (Nyquist of 11 lp/mm) was developed and previously reported. Although the detector addresses the high resolution needs, the Field-Of-View (FOV) is limited to 3.5 cm x 3.5 cm, which is much smaller than current FPDs. During the use of the MAF-CCD for delicate parts of the intervention, it may be desirable to have real-time monitoring outside the MAF FOV with a low dose, and lower, but acceptable, quality image. To address this need, a novel imaging technique for biplane imaging systems has been developed, using an MAFCCD in the frontal plane and a dose-reduced standard large FOV imager in the lateral plane. The dose reduction is achieved by using a combination of ROI fluoroscopy and spatially different temporal filtering, a technique that has been previously presented. In order to evaluate this technique, a simulation using images acquired during an actual EIGI treatment on a patient, followed by an actual implementation on phantoms is presented.

Swetadri Vasan, Setlur Nagesh; Ionita, C.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, Stephen

2014-03-01

208

Determining the Instrumental Rotation Rate of MWO's 60' Tower Image Plane and Its Impact on Results from Ring-Diagram Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time series of full-disk Dopplergrams were acquired at the 60-Foot Solar tower of the Mount Wilson Observatory every year between 1987 and 2009. The 60-Foot Tower was designed by George Ellery Hale to provide an image plane that did not rotate throughout each observing day. However, preliminary analyses of a portion of this archive, carried out in 2007, suggested that the focal plane of the Tower might actually be rotating slowly. If confirmed, such an instrumental rotation would suggest that the alignment of the optics has changed slightly over the years since 1907. This possible rotation of the image plane was uncovered through the computation of subsurface flow maps using the ring-diagram method of local helioseismology. Some of the initial MWO flow maps appeared to show evidence for a so-called “washing machine” effect similar to the pattern that was seen in the initial GONG flow maps. We have been working to confirm the early estimates of the focal plane rotation. The purpose of this paper is to report on the status of this endeavor as well as explore the ramifications of a rotating image plane on our anticipated meridional and zonal flow results.

Pinkerton I., S. F.; Rhodes, E. J., Jr.; Bogart, R. S.; Orr, M.; Martin, G.; Spinella, A.

2013-12-01

209

A Proposal of New Reference System for the Standard Axial, Sagittal, Coronal Planes of Brain Based on the Serially-Sectioned Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sectional anatomy of human brain is useful to examine the diseased brain as well as normal brain. However, intracerebral reference points for the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes of brain have not been standardized in anatomical sections or radi- ological images. We made 2,343 serially-sectioned images of a cadaver head with 0.1 mm intervals, 0.1 mm pixel size, and 48

Jin Seo Park; Min Suk Chung; Hyo Seok Park; Dong Sun Shin; Dong-Hwan Har; Zang-Hee Cho; Young-Bo Kim; Jae-Yong Han; Je-Geun Chi

2010-01-01

210

Far-Field Optical Microscope with a Nanometer-Scale Resolution Based on the In-Plane Image Magnification by Surface Plasmon Polaritons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A far-field optical microscope capable of reaching nanometer-scale resolution using the in-plane image magnification by surface plasmon polaritons is presented. The microscope utilizes a microscopy technique based on the optical properties of a metal-diel...

I. I. Smolyaninov C. C. Davis

2005-01-01

211

Automated system for the production of image-planed white-light-viewable holograms by pulsed laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present details of a compact highly automated pulsed holographic camera system designed for the rapid production of image-planed white-light-viewable reflection holograms up to a size of 40 X 60 cm. The camera operates in two modes: Mastering and Copying. In the mastering mode a holographic plate (40 cm X 60 cm VRP-M Slavich) is placed in a special plate holder at the front of the main camera unit and two diffusers either side of this plate illuminate the object/subject to be holographed. The reference beam exits from the back of the main camera unit and is directed onto the plate by two small overhead mirrors. In copying mode, a processed holographic master is placed in a special rig and a new plate (VRP-M Slavich) having a size up to 40 cm X 60 cm is placed opposite and parallel to this master. In this mode two beams exit the main camera body at opposite sides and are directed by small tripod-mounted mirrors to illuminate the master and copy plates. The camera system is highly automated, providing instant switch-over from copying to mastering modes and permits digital electronic setting of all beam ratios. Machine options currently under development are discussed which include high-speed film copying and a digital mastering interface.

Grichine, Mikhail V.; Rodin, Alexey M.; Ratcliffe, David B.; Skokov, Gleb R.

1999-03-01

212

Voyager 1 'Blue Movie'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the original Voyager 'Blue Movie' (so named because it was built from Blue filter images). It records the approach of Voyager 1 during a period of over 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storms shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

2000-01-01

213

The Blues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Noted bluesman Willie Dixon once said, "The blues are the roots; everything else is the fruits". Wise words indeed, and the quote informs the spirit of Martin Scorsese's PBS documentary series "The Blues". This interactive website provides users with some great material about this seven part series, which features segments by Clint Eastwood, Wim Wenders, and of course, Mr. Scorsese. On the site, visitors can watch previews of each segment and learn more about the artists profiled in each one. In "The Songs & the Artists" area, visitors can read musician biographies and even check out the accompanying radio series which was released in conjunction with the documentary. Those who like to travel should click on the "Blues Road Trip" area. Here they will have the opportunity to take a musical journey from the Deep South to Memphis, St. Louis, and Chicago via song, photographs, and maps. The site is rounded out by the "Blues Classroom" area, which is designed for educators. Interested parties can view lesson plans, look over a blues glossary, and read several background essays.

214

Advancing Optical Imaging for Breast Margin Assessment: An Analysis of Excisional Time, Cautery, and Patent Blue Dye on Underlying Sources of Contrast  

PubMed Central

Breast conserving surgery (BCS) is a recommended treatment for breast cancer patients where the goal is to remove the tumor and a surrounding rim of normal tissue. Unfortunately, a high percentage of patients return for additional surgeries to remove all of the cancer. Post-operative pathology is the gold standard for evaluating BCS margins but is limited due to the amount of tissue that can be sampled. Frozen section analysis and touch-preparation cytology have been proposed to address the surgical needs but also have sampling limitations. These issues represent an unmet clinical need for guidance in resecting malignant tissue intra-operatively and for pathological sampling. We have developed a quantitative spectral imaging device to examine margins intra-operatively. The context in which this technology is applied (intra-operative or post-operative setting) is influenced by time after excision and surgical factors including cautery and the presence of patent blue dye (specifically Lymphazurin™, used for sentinel lymph node mapping). Optical endpoints of hemoglobin ([THb]), fat ([?-carotene]), and fibroglandular content via light scattering (<µs’>) measurements were quantified from diffuse reflectance spectra of lumpectomy and mastectomy specimens using a Monte Carlo model. A linear longitudinal mixed-effects model was used to fit the optical endpoints for the cautery and kinetics studies. Monte Carlo simulations and tissue mimicking phantoms were used for the patent blue dye experiments. [THb], [?-carotene], and <µs’> were affected by <3.3% error with <80 µM of patent blue dye. The percent change in [?-carotene], <µs’>, and [?-carotene]/<µs’> was <14% in 30 minutes, while percent change in [THb] was >40%. [?-carotene] and [?-carotene]/<µs’> were the only parameters not affected by cautery. This work demonstrates the importance of understanding the post-excision kinetics of ex-vivo tissue and the presence of cautery and patent blue dye for breast tumor margin assessment, to accurately interpret data and exploit underling sources of contrast.

Bydlon, Torre M.; Barry, William T.; Kennedy, Stephanie A.; Brown, J. Quincy; Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Wilke, Lee G.; Geradts, Joseph; Ramanujam, Nimmi

2012-01-01

215

On Seeing Reddish Green and Yellowish Blue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stabilization of the retinal image of the boundary between a pair of red/green or yellow/blue stripes, but not their outer edges, results in the entire region being perceived simultaneously as both red/green or yellow/blue. This suggests that the percepts of reddish-green/yellowish-blue apparently are possible in corticocortical color vision…

Crane, Hewitt D.; Piantanida, Thomas P.

1983-01-01

216

coordinate plane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Become familiar with the coordinate plane. Learn the quadrants and how to graph points and read points on a coordinate plane. You are required to do the assignment and take the quiz. The other resources are to help prepare you for the quiz and book assignment. This is a quick review of the lesson.The Coordinate Plane This is a game to practice plotting and reading points.coordinates game *Assignment: Watch Powerpoint 3.3 and fill in your ...

Olsen

2010-10-07

217

Folate grafted Prussian Blue entrapped with gadolinium(III) as a new contrast agent for tumor-targeted magnetic resonant imaging.  

PubMed

A new generation of magnetic resonant imaging (MRI) contrast agents will simultaneously possess characteristics of high relaxivity, biotargeting ability and nontoxicity, referring that they are helpful to acquire better contrast imaging in the region of interest (e.g., tumors) without health risks. Colloidal Prussian blue with quasi-zeolite structure was introduced as a new type of nanosized scaffold to entrap Gd(III) ions via ion exchange and folate, one kind of cancer-targeting ligand, was intentionally grafted on its surface. The nanoparticulate contrast agent has T1 relaxivity of up to 23.9 mM(-1) s(-1). In vivo MRI illustrated a clear contrast enhancement specifically on the ovarian tumors transplanted on mice at a low dose. Furthermore, the contrast agent is stable and free of cytotoxicity. Therefore it might be a promising new MRI contrast agent for clinical applications. PMID:23882747

Song, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Zhi-Jun; Tang, Qun

2013-08-01

218

Assessment of the Rotation Motion at the Papillary Muscle Short-Axis Plane with Normal Subjects by Two-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Imaging: A Basic Clinical Study  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to observe the rotation patterns at the papillary muscle plane in the Left Ventricle(LV) with normal subjects using two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging(2D-STI). Methods We acquired standard of the basal, the papillary muscle and the apical short-axis images of the LV in 64 subjects to estimate the LV rotation motion by 2D-STI. The rotational degrees at the papillary muscle short-axis plane were measured at 15 different time points in the analysis of two heart cycles. Results There were counterclockwise rotation, clockwise rotation, and counterclockwise to clockwise rotation at the papillary muscle plane in the LV with normal subjects, respectively. The ROC analysis of the rotational degrees was performed at the papillary muscle short-axis plane at the peak LV torsion for predicting whether the turnaround point of twist to untwist motion pattern was located at the papillary muscle level. Sensitivity and specificity were 97% and 67%, respectively, with a cut-off value of 0.34°, and an area under the ROC curve of 0.8. At the peak LV torsion, there was no correlation between the rotational degrees at the papillary muscle short-axis plane and the LVEF in the normal subjects(r?=?0.000, p?=?0.998). Conclusions In the study, we conclude that there were three rotation patterns at the papillary muscle short-axis levels, and the transition from basal clockwise rotation to apical counterclockwise rotation is located at the papillary muscle level.

Ni, Xian-Da; Huang, Jun; Hu, Yuan-Ping; Xu, Rui; Yang, Wei-Yu; Zhou, Li-Ming

2013-01-01

219

BLUE STRAGGLERS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER 47 TUCANAE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The core of globular cluster 47 Tucanae is home to many blue stragglers, rejuvenated stars that glow with the blue light of young stars. A ground-based telescope image (on the left) shows the entire crowded core of 47 Tucanae, located 15,000 light-years away in the constellation Tucana. Peering into the heart of the globular cluster's bright core, the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 separated the dense clump of stars into many individual stars (image on right). Some of these stars shine with the light of old stars; others with the blue light of blue stragglers. The yellow circles in the Hubble telescope image highlight several of the cluster's blue stragglers. Analysis for this observation centered on one massive blue straggler. Astronomers theorize that blue stragglers are formed either by the slow merger of stars in a double-star system or by the collision of two unrelated stars. For the blue straggler in 47 Tucanae, astronomers favor the slow merger scenario. This image is a 3-color composite of archival Hubble Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 images in the ultraviolet (blue), blue (green), and violet (red) filters. Color tables were assigned and scaled so that the red giant stars appear orange, main-sequence stars are white/green, and blue stragglers are appropriately blue. The ultraviolet images were taken on Oct. 25, 1995, and the blue and violet images were taken on Sept. 1, 1995. Credit: Rex Saffer (Villanova University) and Dave Zurek (STScI), and NASA

2002-01-01

220

Chromogenic sensing of biogenic amines using a chameleon probe and the red-green-blue readout of digital camera images.  

PubMed

We report on sensing spots containing an amine reactive chromogenic probe and a green fluorescent (amine insensitive) reference dye incorporated in a hydrogel matrix on a solid support. Such spots enable rapid and direct determination of primary amines and, especially, biogenic amines (BA). A distinct color change from blue to red occurs on dipping the test spots into a pH 9.0 sample containing primary amines. BAs can be determined in the concentration range from 0.01 to 10 mM within 15 min, enabling rapid, qualitative, and semiquantitative evaluation. In the “photographic” approach, the typically 4-7.5-fold increase in fluorescence intensity of the probe at 620 nm along with the constant green fluorescence at 515 nm of a reference dye are used for quantitation of BAs. The sensing spots are photoexcited with high-power 505 nm light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in a black box. A digital picture is acquired with a commercially available digital camera, and the color information is extracted via red-green-blue (RGB) readout. The ratio of the intensities of the red (signal) channel and the green (reference) channel yields pseudocolor pictures and calibration plots. PMID:21500419

Steiner, Mark-Steven; Meier, Robert J; Duerkop, Axel; Wolfbeis, Otto S

2010-10-15

221

Tomographic imaging of an ultrasonic field in a plane by use of a linear array: theory and experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative ultrasonic characterization of inhomogeneous and anisotropic materials is often difficult due to undesired phenomena such as beam steering and phase aberration of the insonifying field. We introduce a method based on tomographic reconstruction techniques for the visualization of an ultrasonic field using a linear array rotated in a plane. Tomographic reconstruction of the ultrasonic field is made possible through

Kendall R. Waters; Patrick H. Johnston

2005-01-01

222

Modeling and imaging asperities on a fault plane and characterizing spatial and temporal patterns of precursory seismicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

First, quasi-static models were used to explore the failure of a strong stuck asperity on an otherwise creeping fault plane. They produced the temporal scaling observed at Parkfield. However such scaling requires the constant density of unit asperities within the cluster. It rules out the Cantor dust fractal model suggested at Parkfield. Although the average stress drop for asperity models

Youlin Chen

2004-01-01

223

The Blue Marble  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This spectacular Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 'blue marble' image is based on the most detailed collection of true-color imagery of the entire Earth to date. Using a collection of satellite-based observations, scientists and visualizers stitched together months of observations of the land surface, oceans, sea ice, and clouds into a seamless, true-color mosaic of every square kilometer (.386 square mile) of our planet. Most of the information contained in this image came from MODIS, illustrating MODIS' outstanding capacity to act as an integrated tool for observing a variety of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric features of the Earth. The land and coastal ocean portions of this image is based on surface observations collected from June through September 2001 and combined, or composited, every eight days to compensate for clouds that might block the satellite's view on any single day. Global ocean color (or chlorophyll) data was used to simulate the ocean surface. MODIS doesn't measure 3-D features of the Earth, so the surface observations were draped over topographic data provided by the U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center. MODIS observations of polar sea ice were combined with observations of Antarctica made by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's AVHRR sensor-the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The cloud image is a composite of two days of MODIS imagery collected in visible light wavelengths and a third day of thermal infra-red imagery over the poles. A large collection of imagery based on the blue marble in a variety of sizes and formats, including animations and the full (1 km) resolution imagery, is available at the Blue Marble page. Image by Reto Stockli, Render by Robert Simmon. Based on data from the MODIS Science Team

2002-01-01

224

Full-range in-plane rotation measurement for image recognition with hybrid digital-optical correlator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hybrid digital-optical correlator (HDOC) based on volume holographic memory is able to compute the correlation of images at a high speed. HDOC is suitable for real-time image processing and has potential usage in big data processing areas. A 7500-channel HDOC system is experimentally set up, and the target image is correlated with all the channels. The large number of parallel correlation channels could contribute to the precise rotation measurement as well as the translation measurement. In the image recognition applications, the target image involves rotation distortion with respect to the template images. A method with two coarse-fine steps is proposed to measure the rotation at a full range of 360 deg. In the coarse step, the target image is rotated 36 times at an increment of 10 deg. The 36 new images are sent into the HDOC to compute with the template images. Each new image corresponds to a correlation matrix. By searching the smallest value throughout the 36 minimums of the 36 correlation matrixes, the rotation of the target image is narrowed into ±5 deg. In the fine step, the new image is rotated another 10 times at an increment of 1 deg. The rotation measurement error is <0.3 deg.

Zheng, Tianxiang; Cao, Liangcai; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

2014-01-01

225

Liquid Phase Epitaxial Growth of (Bi, Lu)3(Fe, Ga)5O12 Films with In-Plane Anisotropy for Magneto-Optical Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The key factors in the liquid phase epitaxial growth of (Bi, Lu)3(Fe, Ga)5O12 garnet films with in-plane anisotropy for magneto-optical imaging, MOI, have been investigated. The role of stress induced magnetic anisotropy caused by the lattice misfit between the film and substrate, in particular, was examined. We found that it was necessary to control precisely the lattice misfit in the operating temperature region of the MOI indicator. The (100) orientation of Gd3Ga5O12(GGG) substrates is preferable to the (111) orientation for the fabrication of in-plane films in case of the same saturation magnetization. By using the film, magnetic flux penetration through the grain boundaries of an Y-Ba-Cu-O bulk sample was observed clearly with high resolution.

Iida, Kazumasa; Kawamae, Norio; Hoshi, Saburo; Machi, Takato; Kono, Takeshi; Yoshioka-Kato, Junko; Chikumoto, Noriko; Koshizuka, Naoki; Adachi, Nobuyasu; Okuda, Takashi

2005-04-01

226

The Next Generation Blue Marble  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomena is a full yearÂs worth of NASA satellite data of Earth's land surface, coastal oceans, sea ice, and clouds that has been organized into a seamless, photo-like mosaic of our planet The image beneath the title "The Next Generation Blue Marble" features an animation. Click the image to begin the animation.

227

Least squares restoration of multichannel images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multichannel restoration using both within- and between-channel deterministic information is considered. A multichannel image is a set of image planes that exhibit cross-plane similarity. Existing optimal restoration filters for single-plane images yield suboptimal results when applied to multichannel images, since between-channel information is not utilized. Multichannel least squares restoration filters are developed using the set theoretic and the constrained optimization approaches. A geometric interpretation of the estimates of both filters is given. Color images (three-channel imagery with red, green, and blue components) are considered. Constraints that capture the within- and between-channel properties of color images are developed. Issues associated with the computation of the two estimates are addressed. A spatially adaptive, multichannel least squares filter that utilizes local within- and between-channel image properties is proposed. Experiments using color images are described.

Galatsanos, Nikolas P.; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K.; Chin, Roland T.; Hillery, Allen D.

1991-01-01

228

Vector alkaline phophatase substrate Blue III: one substrate for brightfield histochemistry and high-resolution fluorescence imaging by confocal laser scanning microscopy.  

PubMed

A number of histochemical chromogenic substrates for alkaline phosphatase are commercially available and give reaction products with a range of colours for brightfield examination. Some of these reaction products are also fluorescent, exhibiting a wide excitation range and a broad emission peak. We report here that one of these substrates, Vector Blue III, yields a stable, strongly fluorescent reaction product with an excitation peak around 500 nm and a large Stokes shift to an emission peak at 680 nm. The reaction product can be excited using a mercury lamp with a fluorescein excitation filter or an argon ion laser at 488 nm or 568 nm, and the emission detected using a long-pass filter designed for Cy-5. Thus, a single substrate is suitable for brightfield imaging of tissue sections and high-resolution analysis of subcellular detail, using a confocal laser scanning microscope, in the same specimen. PMID:9792276

Hollinshead, M; Sanderson, J; Vaux, D J

1998-08-01

229

THE DEEP BLUE COLOR OF HD 189733b: ALBEDO MEASUREMENTS WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH AT VISIBLE WAVELENGTHS  

SciTech Connect

We present a secondary eclipse observation for the hot Jupiter HD 189733b across the wavelength range 290-570 nm made using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. We measure geometric albedos of A{sub g} = 0.40 {+-} 0.12 across 290-450 nm and A{sub g} < 0.12 across 450-570 nm at 1{sigma} confidence. The albedo decrease toward longer wavelengths is also apparent when using six wavelength bins over the same wavelength range. This can be interpreted as evidence for optically thick reflective clouds on the dayside hemisphere with sodium absorption suppressing the scattered light signal beyond {approx}450 nm. Our best-fit albedo values imply that HD 189733b would appear a deep blue color at visible wavelengths.

Evans, Thomas M.; Aigrain, Suzanne; Barstow, Joanna K. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Pont, Frederic; Sing, David K. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, EX4 4QL Exeter (United Kingdom); Desert, Jean-Michel; Knutson, Heather A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gibson, Neale [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Heng, Kevin [University of Bern, Center for Space and Habitability, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Lecavelier des Etangs, Alain, E-mail: tom.evans@astro.ox.ac.uk [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

2013-08-01

230

Blue Whales  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this two-minute sound segment, a professor of physics and astronomy describes the communication ability of the blue whale. He says that pitch discrimination with whales is incredibly accurate. The whales produce this call always at exactly four octaves below middle C, based on measurements of 6,000 whale calls. This site is from an archive of a daily radio program called Pulse of the Planet, which provides its listeners with a portrait of Planet Earth, tracking the rhythms of nature, culture and science worldwide and blending interviews and extraordinary natural sound. The site also provides a written transcript of the broadcast.

2007-06-05

231

Demonstration of 640 × 512 pixels long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP) imaging focal plane array  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have exploited the artificial atom-like properties of epitaxially grown self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) for the development of high operating temperature long wavelength infrared (LWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs). QD infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) are expected to outperform quantum well infrared detectors (QWIPs) and are expected to offer significant advantages over II–VI material based FPAs. We have used molecular beam epitaxy

S. D. Gunapala; S. V. Bandara; C. J. Hill; D. Z. Ting; J. K. Liu; S. B. Rafol; E. R. Blazejewski; J. M. Mumolo; S. A. Keo; S. Krishna; Y.-C. Chang; C. A. Shott

2007-01-01

232

640x512 pixels long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP) imaging focal plane array  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have exploited the artificial atom-like properties of epitaxially grown self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) for the development of high operating temperature long wavelength infrared (LWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs). QD infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) are expected to outperform quantum well infrared detectors (QWIPs) and are expected to offer significant advantages over II-VI material based FPAs. We have used molecular beam epitaxy

S. D. Gunapala; S. V. Bandara; C. J. Hill; D. Z. Ting; J. K. Liu; S. B. Rafol; E. R. Blazejewski; J. M. Mumolo; S. A. Keo; S. Krishna; Y.-C. Chang; C. A. Shott

2006-01-01

233

640 $\\\\,\\\\times\\\\,$ 512 Pixels Long-Wavelength Infrared (LWIR) Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetector (QDIP) Imaging Focal Plane Array  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epitaxially grown self-assembled InAs-InGaAs- GaAs quantum dots (QDs) are exploited for the development of large-format long-wavelength infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs). The dot-in-a-well (DWELL) structures were experimentally shown to absorb both 45 and normal incident light, therefore, a reflection grating structure was used to enhance the quantum effi- ciency. The devices exhibit peak responsivity out to 8.1 m, with peak

Sarath D. Gunapala; Sumith V. Bandara; Cory J. Hill; David Z. Ting; John K. Liu; B. Rafol; Edward R. Blazejewski; Jason M. Mumolo; Sam A. Keo; Sanjay Krishna; Y.-C. Chang; Craig A. Shott

2007-01-01

234

Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of the Ultracompact Blue Dwarf Galaxy HS 0822+3542: An Assembling Galaxy in a Local Void?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present deep U-band, narrow V-band, and I-band images and photometry of the ultracompact blue dwarf galaxy HS 0822+3542 obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys/High Resolution Channel of the Hubble Space Telescope. This object is also extremely metal-poor [12+log(O/H)=7.45] and resides in a nearby void. The images resolve it into two physically separate components that were previously described as star clusters in a single galaxy. The primary component is only ~100 pc in maximum extent and consists of a starburst region surrounded by a ringlike structure of relatively redder stars. The secondary component is ~50 pc in size and lies at a projected distance of ~80 pc away from the primary, and is also actively star-forming. We estimate masses of ~107 and ~106 Msolar for the two components based on their luminosities, with an associated dynamical timescale for the system of a few megayears. This timescale and the structure of the components suggest that a collision between them triggered their starbursts. The spectral energy distributions of both components can be fitted by the combination of a recent (a few megayears old) starburst and an evolved (several gigayears old) underlying stellar population, similar to larger blue compact dwarf galaxies. This indicates that despite its metal deficiency, the object is not forming its first generation of stars. However, the small sizes and masses of the two components suggest that HS 0822+3542 represents a dwarf galaxy in the process of assembling from clumps of stars intermediate in size between globular clusters and objects previously classified as galaxies. Its relatively high ratio of neutral gas mass to stellar mass (~1) and high specific star formation rate, log(SFR/Msolar)~=-9.2, also suggest that it is still converting much of its gas to stars.

Corbin, Michael R.; Vacca, William D.; Hibbard, John E.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Windhorst, Rogier A.

2005-08-01

235

Composite x-ray image assembly for large-field digital mammography with one- and two-dimensional positioning of a focal plane array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To demonstrate the feasibility of a novel large-field digital mammography technique, a 1024 x 1024 pixel Loral charge-coupled device (CCD) focal plane array (FPA) was positioned in a mammographic field with one- and two-dimensional scan sequences to obtain 950 x 1800 pixel and 3600 x 3600 pixel composite images, respectively. These experiments verify that precise positioning of FPAs produced seamless composites and that the CCD mosaic concept has potential for high-resolution, large-field imaging. The proposed CCD mosaic concept resembles a checkerboard pattern with spacing left between the CCDs for the driver and readout electronics. To obtain a complete x-ray image, the mosaic must be repositioned four times, with an x-ray exposure at each position. To reduce the patient dose, a lead shield with appropriately patterned holes is placed between the x-ray source and the patient. The high-precision motorized translation stages and the fiber-coupled-scintillating-screen-CCD sensor assembly were placed in the position usually occupied by the film cassette. Because of the high mechanical precision, seamless composites were constructed from the subimages. This paper discusses the positioning, image alignment procedure, and composite image results. The paper only addresses the formation of a seamless composite image from subimages and will not consider the effects of the lead shield, multiple CCDs, or the speed of motion.

Halama, G.; McAdoo, J.; Liu, H.

1998-01-01

236

National Geographic: Blue Whales  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a cameraman leans in to get a shot of a blue whale, this massive creature glides through the water off of Costa Rica. That's the opening photograph that visitors to this interactive article from National Geographic are presented with, and it's a rather amazing image. This interactive article and feature is derived from a March 2009 feature in the print edition of National Geographic magazine, and it features the photography of Flip Nicklin and the writing of Ken Brower. The article offers an in-depth look into the recovery of the blue whale population off the coast of Costa Rica in recent years, and along the way visitors can stop off to take a look at a special photo gallery, take a quiz on these remarkable creatures, and also watch a video the provides the story behind one of Nicklin's photographs.

Brower, Ken; Nicklin, Flip

237

Research on Quantification of AC Corona Discharge Intensity of Rod-Plane Gap Based on UV Digital Image Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A measuring and analytical platform of corona discharge combining CoroCAM -V+ with the virtual instrument programming environment - Labview 8.0 - was designed. Selecting the proper algorithm and flowchart of the digital image processing, the area percentage of the UV image within the discharge zone was defined as the characterizing parameter of quantifying the intensity of corona discharge with processing

Wenjun Zhou; Jianbin Wu; Minghua Mao; Bin Ma; Xiao Yi

2009-01-01

238

A study of the feasibility and performance of an active/passive imager using silicon focal plane arrays and incoherent continuous wave laser diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation describes an active/passive imager (API) that provides reliable, nighttime, target acquisition in a man-portable package with effective visual range of about 4 kilometers. The reflective imagery is easier to interpret than currently used thermal imagery. Also, in the active mode, the API provides performance equivalent to the big-aperture, thermal systems used on weapons platforms like tanks and attack helicopters. This dissertation describes the research needed to demonstrate both the feasibility and utility of the API. Part of the research describes implementation of a silicon focal plane array (SFPA) capable of both active and passive imaging. The passive imaging mode exceeds the nighttime performance of currently fielded, man-portable sensors. Further, when scene illumination is insufficient for passive imaging, the low dark current of SFPA makes it possible to use continuous wave laser diodes (CWLD) to add an active imaging mode. CWLD have advantages of size, efficiency, and improved eye safety when compared to high peak-power diodes. Because of the improved eye safety, the API provides user-demanded features like video output and extended range gates in the active as well as passive imaging modes. Like any other night vision device, the API depends on natural illumination of the scene for passive operation. Although it has been known for decades that "starlight" illumination is actually from diffuse airglow emissions, the research described in this dissertation provides the first estimates of the global and temporal variation of ground illumination due to airglow. A third related element of the current research establishes the impact of atmospheric aerosols on API performance. We know from day experience that atmospheric scattering of sunlight into the imager line-of-sight can blind the imager and drastically degrade performance. Atmospheric scattering of sunlight is extensively covered in the literature. However, previous literature did not cover the impact of atmospheric scattering when the target is diffusely illuminated by airglow.

Vollmerhausen, Richard H.

239

Real-time, continuous-wave terahertz imaging by use of a microbolometer focal-plane array  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time, continuous-wave terahertz imaging is demonstrated with a 10 mW, 2.52 THz (118.8 µm) far-infrared gas laser and a 160×120 element microbolometer camera. The microbolometer camera is designed for wavelengths of 7.5-14 µm but retains sensitivity at terahertz (THz) frequencies. The setup has no moving parts, and transmission-mode THz images can be obtained at the video rate of 60 frames\\/s.

Alan Wei Min Lee; Qing Hu

2005-01-01

240

Coordinate Plane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

5th Grade Math State core Standard 3, Objective 2a: Locate points defined by ordered pairs of integers. Congratulations for earning a game day in the computer lab! Remember that even though it is game day I expect you to stay on task and follow directions. We have been talking in math about graphing integers on the coordinate plane. The games for today require that ...

Zilles, Miss

2007-10-31

241

The Blue Bottle Revisited.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a modification of the classic Blue Bottle demonstration that involves the alkaline glucose reduction of methylene blue. Uses other indicators in the classic Blue Bottle to produce a rainbow of colors. (JRH)

Vandaveer, Walter R., IV; Mosher, Mel

1997-01-01

242

Blue nightshade poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Blue nightshade poisoning occurs when someone eats parts of the blue nightshade plant. This is for information only and ... The poison is found in the blue nightshade (Solanum dulcamara) plant, especially in the fruit and leaves.

243

Mongolian blue spots  

MedlinePLUS

Mongolian spots are flat, blue, or blue-gray skin markings near the buttocks that appear at birth or shortly thereafter. ... Mongolian blue spots are common among persons who are of Asian, East Indian, and African descent.

244

Real-time, continuous-wave terahertz imaging by use of a microbolometer focal-plane array.  

PubMed

Real-time, continuous-wave terahertz imaging is demonstrated with a 10 mW, 2.52 THz (118.8 microm) far-infrared gas laser and a 160 x 120 element microbolometer camera. The microbolometer camera is designed for wavelengths of 7.5-14 microm but retains sensitivity at terahertz (THz) frequencies. The setup has no moving parts, and transmission-mode THz images can be obtained at the video rate of 60 frames/s. The peak signal-to-noise ratio is estimated to be 13 dB for a single frame of video, acquired in 16 ms. With this setup, THz imaging through a FedEx envelope is demonstrated, showing the feasibility of real-time mail screening. PMID:16208900

Lee, Alan Wei Min; Hu, Qing

2005-10-01

245

Matching a curved focal plane with CCD's - Wide field imaging of glancing incidence X-ray telescopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of a wide field imaging camera suitable for use with a glancing incidence X-ray telescope is complicated by the sharply concave nature of the optimum focal surface of such a telescope. Such a camera made up of a mosaic of CCDs is being designed which is intended for flight aboard the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). The design rationale and tradeoffs are discussed, and the layout for the imaging CCD array is presented. The related issue of optimizing performance of transmission objective gratings is also discussed, and the array of CCD orientations suitable for this problem is presented.

Nousek, J. A.; Garmire, G. P.; Ricker, G. R.; Bautz, M. W.; Levine, A. M.; Collins, S. A.

1987-01-01

246

Characteristics of a-Plane Green Light-Emitting Diode Grown on r-Plane Sapphire  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we have successfully grown a-plane green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on r-plane sapphire and investigated the device characteristics of a-plane green LEDs. The apparent emission polarization anisotropy was observed and the polarization degree was as high as 67.4%. In addition, the electroluminescence (EL) spectra first revealed a wavelength blue-shift with increasing drive current to 20 mA, which could

Shih-Chun Ling; Te-Chung Wang; Jun-Rong Chen; Po-Chun Liu; Tsung-Shine Ko; Bao-Yao Chang; Tien-Chang Lu; Hao-Chung Kuo; Shing-Chung Wang; Jenq-Dar Tsay

2009-01-01

247

Semiconducting layered blue phosphorus: a computational study.  

PubMed

We investigate a previously unknown phase of phosphorus that shares its layered structure and high stability with the black phosphorus allotrope. We find the in-plane hexagonal structure and bulk layer stacking of this structure, which we call "blue phosphorus," to be related to graphite. Unlike graphite and black phosphorus, blue phosphorus displays a wide fundamental band gap. Still, it should exfoliate easily to form quasi-two-dimensional structures suitable for electronic applications. We study a likely transformation pathway from black to blue phosphorus and discuss possible ways to synthesize the new structure. PMID:24836265

Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David

2014-05-01

248

Semiconducting Layered Blue Phosphorus: A Computational Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate a previously unknown phase of phosphorus that shares its layered structure and high stability with the black phosphorus allotrope. We find the in-plane hexagonal structure and bulk layer stacking of this structure, which we call "blue phosphorus," to be related to graphite. Unlike graphite and black phosphorus, blue phosphorus displays a wide fundamental band gap. Still, it should exfoliate easily to form quasi-two-dimensional structures suitable for electronic applications. We study a likely transformation pathway from black to blue phosphorus and discuss possible ways to synthesize the new structure.

Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David

2014-05-01

249

The MSX Galactic Plane Survey : A Cinematic Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Galactic Plane Survey by the SPIRIT III telescope aboard the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) imaged the entire Galactic plane for |b| < 5 degrees in five mid-infrared passbands between 4 and 26 ? m. The resolution of the survey is 18 arcseconds and the sensitivity is comparable to or better than previous mid-infrared surveys. The MSX Galactic plane survey is the highest resolution full survey of the plane in the mid-infrared. In anticipation of the upcoming public release of the data, we present an overview of the results of this survey in the form of a three-color movie of the plane. The three colors correspond to MSX band A (6.8 - 10.8 ? m = blue), the sum of MSX bands C and D (11.1 - 16.9 ? m = green) and band E (18.2 - 25.1 ? m = red). Visible in the movie are numerous rings, filaments and shells due to star forming regions, supernova remants, circumstellar shells and planetary nebula. Also distinguishable are patches which are dark in the mid-infrared. These objects are now known to be large, cold molecular cores. The entire plane is pervaded by diffuse emission in Band A most likely due to cationic PAHs. Changes in dust properties and excitation are evident in the color variations color in the movie. In addition to being a unique dataset, this data will undoubtably be useful in interpretating ISO investigations in the plane and for preparing future observations with SIRTF and SOFIA.

Price, S. D.; Egan, M. P.; Mizuno, D. R.; Kuchar, T. A.; Carey, S. J.

1999-12-01

250

Synchrotron based infrared imaging and spectroscopy via focal plane array on live fibroblasts in D2O enriched medium.  

PubMed

We successfully tested the viability of using synchrotron-based full-field infrared imaging to study biochemical processes inside living cells. As a model system, we studied fibroblast cells exposed to a medium highly enriched with D2O. We could show that the experimental technique allows us to reproduce at the cellular level measurements that are normally performed on purified biological molecules. We can obtain information about lipid conformation and distribution, kinetics of hydrogen/deuterium exchange, and the formation of concentration gradients of H and O isotopes in water that are associated with cell metabolism. The implementation of the full field technique in a sequential imaging format gives a description of cellular biochemistry and biophysics that contains both spatial and temporal information. PMID:24747675

Quaroni, Luca; Zlateva, Theodora; Sarafimov, Blagoj; Kreuzer, Helen W; Wehbe, Katia; Hegg, Eric L; Cinque, Gianfelice

2014-05-01

251

The Blue Comet: A Railroad's Astronomical Heritage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1929 February 21 and 1941 September 27, the Central New Jersey Railroad operated a luxury passenger train between Jersey City and Atlantic City. Named The Blue Comet, the locomotive, tender, and coaches sported a unique royal blue paint scheme designed to evoke images of celestial bodies speeding through space. Inside each car were etched window panes and lampshades featuring

Kenneth S. Rumstay

2009-01-01

252

InSb focal plane array chemical imaging enables assessment of unit process efficiency for milling operation.  

PubMed

In the dry milling of wheat flour, each unit process (roller mill, purifier, sifter, etc.) produces a mixture with varying amounts of wheat endosperm and non-endosperm byproducts. Chemical images with 82 000 pixels of each intermediate product stream issuing from an individual processing machine are readily analyzed in terms of the relative amount of endosperm and non-endosperm. Approximately three minutes is required to produce an image of each intermediate product stream. Applying partial least squares (PLS) chemometric software to identify individual pixels, which enables calculation of the relative amount of endosperm and non-endosperm, is not a time-limiting factor. When relative flow rates are known for each stream, mass balance can be calculated from each intermediate stream in terms of the product (endosperm content) and the lower value non-endosperm byproduct. Data is presented from a purifier in a commercial flour mill. Intermediate streams collected from a run with optimized operational parameters were compared to those of another run before adjustment. The endosperm (product) mass balance profile for each run enabled assessment of operational efficiency. The devised chemical imaging analysis system would be particularly useful in commissioning of a new mill or to optimize existing wheat milling systems. Also, when raw material differs from that for which previous optimization was established, a new optimization may be in order. The ability to acquire a large number of spectra from a specimen and apply multivariate statistics to identify each pixel and subsequently count pixels accommodates heterogeneity and reports the results from averaging a very large number of individual spectra. A second illustration of the utility of the imaging method is presented centering on streams from the first and second break unit operations at the beginning of the roller mill process. PMID:21144147

Wetzel, David L; Posner, Elieser S; Dogan, Hulya

2010-12-01

253

Autofocus technique for three-dimensional imaging, direct-detection laser radar using Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal-plane array.  

PubMed

An autofocus technique is proposed for a three-dimensional imaging, direct-detection laser radar system that uses a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane array (GmAPD-FPA). This technique is implemented by pointing laser pulses on a target of interest and observing its scattered photon distribution on a GmAPD-FPA. Measuring the standard deviation of the photon distribution on a GmAPD-FPA enables the best focus condition to be found. The feasibility of this technique is demonstrated experimentally by employing a 1 × 8 pixel GmAPD-FPA. It is shown that the spatial resolution improves when the GmAPD-FPA is located in the best focus position found by the autofocus technique. PMID:21165141

Oh, Min Seok; Kong, Hong Jin; Kim, Tae Hoon; Jo, Sung Eun

2010-12-15

254

R&D in photosensors and data acquisition systems for a new generation of Cosmic Ray Cherenkov and Fluorescence Imaging focal planes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present the design, first prototypes and experimental R&D activities on the development of novel imaging cameras for Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov and Fluorescence Telescopes. The baseline solution for the focal plane is based on a photosensor architecture instrumented with Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). To decrease the trigger threshold and improve the signal-to-noise ratio for low-energy events, the Photon Counting technique is used. For very bright events the conventional Charge Integration approach is retained. The large number of channels requires a compact and modular design with minimal cabling and distance between the photosensors and the frontend. Other design requirements are an efficient light concentration system treated with an anti-reflective coating, a liquid cooling system able to keep the SiPMs at a temperature of -20 °C to -10 °C, a low-power frontend electronics down to 1 kW/m2 and an easy field maintenance, high reliability data acquisition and trigger system. In the baseline design, the data acquisition system is partitioned in on-board frontend and off-detector high-level trigger electronics. Extensive use of mixed-signal ASICs and low-power FPGAs for early data reduction (Level 1 trigger), compatible with a liquid cooling sub-system for temperature control is adopted. The off-detector data acquisition and higher trigger (Level 2 and Level 3) architecture is based on the VME64X standard. The boards are connected by multi-Gbps optical links to the focal plane camera. Trigger primitives are sent asynchronously to the trigger boards via data links running at their own clocks. Data and slow-control data streams are also sent over the same links with the parallel VME64X backplane kept for trigger board configuration, slow-control and final data readout. Each 8-slot 6U crate can process up to about 3.6×104 SiPM channels.

Assis, Pedro; Brogueira, Pedro; Catalano, Osvaldo; Ferreira, Miguel; Lorenz, Eckart; Mendes, Luís; Pimenta, Mário; Rodrigues, Pedro; Schweizer, Thomas

2012-12-01

255

Streaking images that appear only in the plane of diffraction in undoped GaAs single crystals: Diffraction imaging (topography) by monochromatic synchrotron radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Streaking images restricted to the direction of the diffraction (scattering) vector have been observed on transmission through undoped GaAs. These disruption images (caused by the reduction of diffraction in the direction of observation) appear both in the forward and in Bragg diffracted directions in monochromatic synchrontron radiation diffraction imaging. This previously unobserved phenomenon can be explained in terms of planar defects (interfaces) or platelets which affects the absorption coefficient in anomalous transmission. Such regions of the crystal look perfect despite the presence of imperfections when the scattering vector is not perpendicular to the normal of the platelets. The observed crystallographic orientation of these interfaces strongly indicates that they are antiphase boundaries.

Kuriyama, Masao; Steiner, Bruce; Dobbyn, Ronald C.; Laor, Uri; Larson, David; Brown, Margaret

1988-01-01

256

Modeling and imaging asperities on a fault plane and characterizing spatial and temporal patterns of precursory seismicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First, quasi-static models were used to explore the failure of a strong stuck asperity on an otherwise creeping fault plane. They produced the temporal scaling observed at Parkfield. However such scaling requires the constant density of unit asperities within the cluster. It rules out the Cantor dust fractal model suggested at Parkfield. Although the average stress drop for asperity models decreases with earthquake size, it is significantly lower over the entire rupture area, equivalent to that estimated from spectral analysis. The fracture energy is estimated to be G ? 10 7 J/m2, near the upper limit of estimates on the San Andreas Fault. Next, the rupture process of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake was explored from high-frequency near-field strong-motion seismograms. The entire mainshock was resolved into a sequence of distinct bursts in high frequency, each of which corresponds to a sub-event from an asperity. Their origin times, locations and magnitudes were determined from a pre-determined Chelungpu fault. The first appeared sub-events follow the Chelungpu rupture propagation at a velocity of 2.0 km/s. Later sub-events can be interpreted as aftershocks that begin before the rupture has terminated. These sub-events have the Gutenberg-Richter b-value of 1.0. Spatially, the larger sub-events are located at greater depth, while the small sub-events are only located at shallower depths. Overall, they accord with results of waveform inversions. Finally, the Gutenberg-Richter a- and b-values, cluster statistics, and the migration of seismicity were measured as functions of magnitude, space, and time before the 1992 Landers California earthquake using raw and declustered catalogs. The pronounced increase in a-value for distances less than 120km to the Landers as well as its un-correlation with changes in b-value indicate an increase of events at all magnitudes. More and larger clusters were formed with time before the Landers mainshock, which reflected smoother and more spatially correlated regional stress fields before a large event. Foreshock migration towards the Landers mainshock was observed in the active stress lobes defined in the stress recovery model, but not in randomly selected regions.

Chen, Youlin

257

The outlook for blue-phase LCDs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal (BPLC) has become an increasingly important technology trend for information display and photonic applications. BPLC exhibits several attractive features, such as reasonably wide temperature range, submillisecond gray-to-gray response time, no need for alignment layer, optically isotropic voltageoff state, and large cell gap tolerance when an in-plane switching (IPS) cell is employed. Fast response time not only suppresses image blurs, improves the overall transmittance but also enables color sequential display without noticeable color breakup. With time sequential RGB LED colors, the spatial color filters can be eliminated so that both optical efficiency and resolution density are tripled. High optical efficiency helps to reduce power consumption while high resolution density is particularly desirable for the future Ultra High Definition Television. However, some bottlenecks such as high operation voltage, hysteresis, low relaxation frequency, residual birefringence, image sticking, charging issue due to the large capacitance, and relatively low transmittance for the IPS mode, remain to be overcome before widespread application of BPLC can be realized. To reduce operation voltage, both new BPLC materials and new device structures have been investigated. In this paper, we highlight some recent advances in large Kerr constant, fast response time BPLC material development, and new device structures. Especially, we will focus on new BP LCDs with low operation voltage, submillisecond response time, high transmittance, and negligible hysteresis and residual birefringence. The sunrise for BP LCD is near.

Chen, Yuan; Wu, Shin-Tson

2014-02-01

258

Schlumberger seismic vessel Geco Searcher provides unprecedented images of the Great Andaman Sumatra earthquake megathrust rupture plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From July 13 to 27, 2006, we carried out a deep seismic reflection survey along two lines on board the WesternGeco seismic vessel Geco Searcher. The vessel was equipped with one 12 km and one 5.5 km Q- Marine streamers. The long streamer was towed at 15 m depth, providing low frequency signal for deep targets, and the short streamer was towed at 7.5 m depth for high-resolution imaging of shallow sediments. The Q-Marine technology, developed by Schlumberger, is the most advanced technology available in seismic industry where individual hydrophones spaced at 3.125 m intervals sample and transmit data continuously back to the vessel. These data are then decimated to the appropriate trace interval, in this case 12.5m, after application of a digital spatial anti-alias filter, providing 960 channels of data. An array of 48 air guns provided a 10,170 cubic inch source with approximately 330 bar-m output. The shot interval was 50 m, providing 120 fold data at 6.25 m CMP intervals. The long streamer would allow us to remove seafloor multiples whereas high fold coverage would be extremely valuable for removing noise. Two deep seismic reflection lines were shot. The first line is 255 km long and runs close to the epicenter of the 26th December event, traversing the subduction front, a narrow accretionary wedge, the Simeulue plateau and the Simeulue forearc basin. The second line is 455 km long and located 255 km farther west: it traverses the whole margin, from the oceanic basin on the Indian plate up to the Andaman Sea, running across the the deformation front, the accretionary wedge, the West-Andaman Fault, the Aceh forearc basin, the submarine Sumatran fault and volcanic arc. Onboard processing of these data shows reflectors down to 18 s two-way travel time (TWTT), i.e. down to about 50-60 km depth. The subducting oceanic crust, including the oceanic Moho, could be seen down to 12 s TWTT. The megathrust that produced the earthquake could be followed from the source region at about 30 km depth to the surface near the subduction front. Extensive processing is under way and should provide unprecedented reflection images of this megathrust and hence insight about the nature of the tsunamigenic Great Andaman- Sumatra earthquake.

Carton, H.; Singh, S. C.; Hananto, N.; Hartoyo, D.; Chauhan, A.; Tapponnier, P.; White, N.; Bunting, T.; Christie, P.; Lubis, H.; Martin, J.

2006-12-01

259

Color plane interpolation using alternating projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most commercial digital cameras use color filter arrays to sample red, green, and blue colors according to a specific pattern. At the location of each pixel only one color sample is taken, and the values of the other colors must be interpolated using neighboring samples. This color plane interpolation is known as demosaicing; it is one of the important tasks

Bahadir K. Gunturk; Yucel Altunbasak; Russell M. Mersereau

2002-01-01

260

Forward modelling to determine the observational signatures of white-light imaging and interplanetary scintillation for the propagation of an interplanetary shock in the ecliptic plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent coordinated observations of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) from the EISCAT, MERLIN, and STELab, and stereoscopic white-light imaging from the two heliospheric imagers (HIs) onboard the twin STEREO spacecraft are significant to continuously track the propagation and evolution of solar eruptions throughout interplanetary space. In order to obtain a better understanding of the observational signatures in these two remote-sensing techniques, the magnetohydrodynamics of the macro-scale interplanetary disturbance and the radio-wave scattering of the micro-scale electron-density fluctuation are coupled and investigated using a newly constructed multi-scale numerical model. This model is then applied to a case of an interplanetary shock propagation within the ecliptic plane. The shock could be nearly invisible to an HI, once entering the Thomson-scattering sphere of the HI. The asymmetry in the optical images between the western and eastern HIs suggests the shock propagation off the Sun-Earth line. Meanwhile, an IPS signal, strongly dependent on the local electron density, is insensitive to the density cavity far downstream of the shock front. When this cavity (or the shock nose) is cut through by an IPS ray-path, a single speed component at the flank (or the nose) of the shock can be recorded; when an IPS ray-path penetrates the sheath between the shock nose and this cavity, two speed components at the sheath and flank can be detected. Moreover, once a shock front touches an IPS ray-path, the derived position and speed at the irregularity source of this IPS signal, together with an assumption of a radial and constant propagation of the shock, can be used to estimate the later appearance of the shock front in the elongation of the HI field of view. The results of synthetic measurements from forward modelling are helpful in inferring the in-situ properties of coronal mass ejection from real observational data via an inverse approach.

Xiong, Ming; Breen, A. R.; Bisi, M. M.; Owens, M. J.; Fallows, R. A.; Dorrian, G. D.; Davies, J. A.; Thomasson, P.

2011-06-01

261

EHD Flow and Collection Efficiency of a DBD ESP in Wire-to-Plane and Plane-to-Plane Configurations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, particle velocity fields inside three electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are investigated experimentally using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The reference case is a typical wire-to-plane ESP under negative and positive dc high voltages. The two other ESPs use an ac high voltage to generate a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in wire-to-plane and plane-to- plane configurations. The main objective of

Noureddine Zouzou; Boni Dramane; Eric Moreau; Gérard Touchard

2011-01-01

262

Methylene blue test  

MedlinePLUS

The methylene blue test is a test to determine the type of methemoglobinemia (a blood disorder). ... are removed. A dark green powder called methylene blue goes through the tube into your vein. The ...

263

Greening the Blue Bottle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the revised Blue Bottle formulation to the classical Blue Bottle. Indicates that the revised formulation gives a somewhat bluer solution, but initially slower reduction when compared to the classical formulation. (Author/KHR)

Wellman, Whitney E.; Noble, Mark E.

2003-01-01

264

Focal Plane Array Concept and Technologies for the X-Ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer on the Advanced X-ray Spectroscopic Imaging Observatory (AXSIO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing large-format arrays of x-ray microcalorimeters to enable high-resolution, imaging X-ray imaging spectroscopy that meet the needs of the AXSIO mission. This mission requires microcalorimeter focal plane with an overall field of view of of 4x4 arcmin and an energy resolution of better then 3 eV (or, a spectral resolving power of > 2000 at 6 keV) over part of the array. To achieve this, we are developing technologies to implement an overall array that consists of three components: a small, central inner array with very small pixels to purposely over-sample the x-ray beam to provide high spectral resolution (< 2eV) of nearby point sources, an intermediate array that has 6 arcsec pixels with better than 3 eV resolution, and an outer array that also has has 6 arcsec pixels, but where multiple absorbers are read out by a single thermal sensor with better than 6 eV resolution for each pixel. Such a scheme will provide a field of view that will address the scientific requirements for extended sources and high spectral resolution with high throughput for bright sources, and compatible with existing cryogenic dewar technologies and capabilities. The technologies underlying this array approach are fully monolithic transition edge sensor microcalorimeters and multiplexed SQUID systems. We present device characterization of these array technologies, including uniformity of performance, sensitivity to environmental conditions, and thermal designs to minimize thermal cross-talk. We will describe our latest results in reading out these arrays using both time-domain and code-division multiplexing, and our strategy to use these technologies to design the microcalorimeter instrument for AXSIO with optimal performance and engineering margin.

Bandler, Simon; Adams, J. D.; Busch, S. E.; Chervenak, J. A.; Eckart, M. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kilbourne, C.; Lee, S.; Porter, F. S.; Porst, J.; Sadleir, J. E.; Smith, S. J.; Doriese, W. B.; Fowler, J. W.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K.; Reintsema, C. D.; Ullom, J. N.

2013-04-01

265

The Blue Flame Cafe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online biographical encyclopedia of the blues contains entries on almost all of the "great blues singers and singers of the blues." Entries include the pioneers and foundational figures such as Bessie Smith, Robert Johnson, and T-Bone Walker; their lesser-known (outside the Blues community) contemporaries; and their more recent musical heirs such as Stevie Ray Vaughan and Eric Clapton. Each singer's entry includes a concise overview of their influences, career, and musical legacy. Most are also accompanied by a tantalizingly short (only ten seconds) song excerpt in .wav format. A collection of blues links and an internal search engine round out the site.

266

Blue-light imagery and photometry of sprites  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have obtained blue (350–475 nm) video images and simultaneous high-time resolution narrow-band blue (415–435 nm) photometry records of four sprite events. The brightest blue images show a sustained tendril geometry and a nearly constant intensity of emission over the entire vertical extent of the sprite (from 35–90 km altitude). Photometer light curves display an exponential decay with a 0.3

David M. Suszcynsky; Robert Roussel-Dupré; Walter A. Lyons; Russell A. Armstrong

1998-01-01

267

Image enhancement for fluid lens camera based on color correlation.  

PubMed

The novel field of fluid lens cameras introduces unique image processing challenges. Intended for surgical applications, these fluid optics systems have a number of advantages over traditional glass lens systems. These advantages include improved miniaturization and no moving parts while zooming. However, the liquid medium creates two forms of image degradation: image distortion, which warps the image such that straight lines appear curved, and nonuniform color blur, which degrades the image such that certain color planes appear sharper than others. We propose the use of image processing techniques to reduce these degradations. To deal with image warping, we employ a conventional method that models the warping process as a degree-six polynomial in order to invert the effect. For image blur, we propose an adapted perfect reconstruction filter bank that uses high frequency sub-bands of sharp color planes to improve blurred color planes. The algorithm adjusts the number of levels in the decomposition and alters a prefilter based on crude knowledge of the blurring channel characteristics. While this paper primarily considers the use of a sharp green color plane to improve a blurred blue color plane, these methods can be applied to improve the red color plane as well, or more generally adapted to any system with high edge correlation between two images. PMID:19278917

Tzeng, Jack; Nguyen, Truong Q

2009-04-01

268

Blue Crab Fisheries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A comprehensive resource on the commercial and recreational blue crab fishery in the Maryland and Virginia waters of the Chesapeake Bay. Explore regulation information for both states, as well as the different gear and methods for catching blue crabs. Though most information pertains to MD and VA, there is an abundance of links to additional information that is not area-specific.

2010-12-01

269

Blue Willow Story Plates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

Fontes, Kris

2009-01-01

270

Blue Ribbon Art Show.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the process of selecting judges for a Blue Ribbon Art Show (Springfield, Missouri). Used adults (teachers, custodians, professional artists, parents, and principals) chosen by the Willard South Elementary School art teacher to judge student artwork. States that nominated students received blue ribbons. (CMK)

Bowen, Judy Domeny

2002-01-01

271

Optimal focal-plane restoration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Image restoration can be implemented efficiently by calculating the convolution of the digital image and a small kernel during image acquisition. Processing the image in the focal-plane in this way requires less computation than traditional Fourier-transform-based techniques such as the Wiener filter and constrained least-squares filter. Here, the values of the convolution kernel that yield the restoration with minimum expected mean-square error are determined using a frequency analysis of the end-to-end imaging system. This development accounts for constraints on the size and shape of the spatial kernel and all the components of the imaging system. Simulation results indicate the technique is effective and efficient.

Reichenbach, Stephen E.; Park, Stephen K.

1989-01-01

272

Focal plane location in digital holography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correlation coefficient method is introduced to locate the focal plane in digital particle holography. It uses the fact that the correlation coefficient is maximum at the focal plane. The factors influencing this method are discussed with a numerical simulation of holograms. For real holograms, the Wiener filter was first proposed to process both recorded holograms and reconstructed images. The

Yan Yang; Bo-seon Kang; Yeon-jun Choo

2007-01-01

273

Planing of Watercraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present report deals with the processes accompanying the planing of a planing boat or a seaplane on water . The study is largely based upon theoretical investigations; mathematical problems and proofs are not discussed. To analyze theoreticaly actual planing processes, giving due consideration to all aspects of the problem, is probably not possible. The theories therefore treat various simple limiting cases, which in their entirety give a picture of the planing processes and enable the interpretation of the experimental results. The discussion is concerned with the stationary planing attitude: the boat planes at a constant speed V on an originally smooth surface.

Wagner, Herbert

1948-01-01

274

Angular dependent reflections of a monodomain blue phase liquid crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The angular dependent reflection of a monodomain blue phase liquid crystal (BPLC) is investigated. Unlike a cholesteric liquid crystal with single twist structure, a monodomain BPLC exhibits several reflection orders from different crystal planes. As incident angle increases, the first order reflection experiences a blue shift while the second order experiences a red shift. We analyze the physical mechanism of the reflection from six (110) crystal planes. Good agreement between calculated and experimental results is obtained. Undoubtedly, this angular dependency would affect the performance of BPLC photonic devices that require an oblique incidence.

Yan, Jin; Chen, Yuan; Xu, Daming; Wu, Shin-Tson

2013-09-01

275

Blue ocean strategy.  

PubMed

Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades. PMID:15559577

Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

2004-10-01

276

Blue Shark Adventure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, Jonathan joins Charlie Donilon on his shark charter boat in Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and learns about how shark tagging has shed light on the biology of and behavior of Blue sharks. Tagging has shown that these incredible swimmers actually migrate completely across the Atlantic ocean. Jonathan tries his hand at tagging a shark and then swims with Blue sharks. We also learn that Blue sharks are not nearly as vicious as they have been reputed to be, and the divers are actually able to pet the sharks! Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

Productions, Jonathan B.

2007-03-01

277

Experiments with planing surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments with planing surfaces are fundamental, hydrodynamic researches for the purpose of obtaining the most favorable forms for planing boats, flying boats, and seaplane floats, with respect to water resistance and seaworthiness.

Sottorf, W

1932-01-01

278

Points, Lines, and Planes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will define the important basics of Geometry: Points, Lines, and Planes Let's take notes on our first lesson! Click on the link below to get started: Points, Lines, and Planes Now, here is an activity to check your understanding: Points, Lines and Planes Activity OK! Now, here is a quiz to really see if you got it: Points, Lines, and Planes Quiz! Good Job! Now, your homework can be found on your Canvas account or my website calendar on ...

Neubert, Mrs.

2011-08-18

279

Methylene blue unresponsive methemoglobinemia  

PubMed Central

Acquired methemoglobinemia is an uncommon blood disorder induced by exposure to certain oxidizing agents and drugs. Although parents may not give any history of toxin ingestion; with the aid of pulse-oximetry and blood gas analysis, we can diagnose methemoglobinemia. Prompt recognition of this condition is required in emergency situations to institute early methylene blue therapy. We report an unusual case of severe toxic methemoglobinemia, which did not respond to methylene blue, but was successfully managed with exchange transfusion.

Patnaik, Sibabratta; Natarajan, Manivachagan Muthappa; James, Ebor Jacob; Ebenezer, Kala

2014-01-01

280

Identification of a Possible Blue Progenitor for the Nearby Type Ib SN iPTF13bvn in HST Archival Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We obtained H-Band LGS AO imaging of iPTF13bvn (ATels #5137 ,#5142 ,#5151) on 2013-07-19 UT using the OSIRIS Imager mounted on the Keck I Telescope. Comparing these images with archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ACS/WFC F435W, F555W, and F814W images from 2005-03-10 UT (HST proposal 10187, PI: Smartt), we find that the SN position is coincident with star 3 from our previous report (ATel #5140; see http://goo.gl/0V69m).

Arcavi, I.; Ofek, E.; Cao, Y.; Gelino, C.; Yaron, O.; Vreeswijk, P.; Gal-Yam, A.; Cenko, S. B.; Kong, A. K. H.; Li, K. L.

2013-06-01

281

Pulmonary blue bodies.  

PubMed

Pulmonary blue bodies are intra-alveolar laminated basophilic concretions of uncertain etiology. Blue bodies were studied in lung biopsy specimens from 10 patients. The patients ranged in age from 47 to 69 years and were predominantly men. Three had a history of overt exposure to environmental dusts such as sawdust and asbestos, and two showed occasional ferruginous bodies in the lung, raising the possibility of pneumoconiosis. In eight cases there was interstitial pneumonitis, which resembled desquamative interstitial pneumonia by light microscopy but which was often seen to be patchy and asymmetrically distributed in the lung by chest x-ray examination. Of two other patients, one had xanthogranulomatous inflammation and the other, necrotizing granulomatous inflammation. Light and electron microscopic, histochemical, microchemical, and x-ray diffraction studies of blue bodies were also performed. Calcium carbonate is a major component of blue bodies and is responsible for their birefringence in unstained sections and ready solubility in acid solutions. Blue bodies also contain a mucopolysaccharide matrix and iron. We offer the hypothesis that blue bodies (calcium carbonate) are a product of histiocytic catabolism. PMID:6164627

Koss, M N; Johnson, F B; Hochholzer, L

1981-03-01

282

Quantum wells to quantum dots: 640x512 pixels Long-Wavelength Infrared (LWIR) Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetector (QDIP) imaging focal plane array  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have exploited the artificial atom-like properties of epitaxially grown self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) for the development of high operating temperature long wavelength infrared (LWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs). QD infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) are expected to outperform quantum well infrared detectors (QWIPs) and are expected to offer significant advantages over II-VI material based FPAs. We have used molecular beam epitaxy

S. D. Gunapala; S. V. Bandara; C. J. Hill; D. Z. Ting; J. K. Liu; S. B. Rafol; E. R. Blazejewski; J. M. Mumolo; S. A. Keo; S. Krishna; Y.-C. Chang; C. A. Shott

2006-01-01

283

In Situ Nanoscale In-Plane Deformation Studies of Ultrathin Polymeric Films During Tensile Deformation Using Atomic Force Microscopy and Digital Image Correlation Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The local, nanoscale deformation behavior of ultrathin polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) films used as substrates in magnetic tapes was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and digital image correlation (DIC) techniques. A custom-designed tensile stage was integrated with the AFM to perform uniaxial tension tests on the polymeric films in situ where the film surfaces were imaged

Xiaodong Li; Weijie Xu; Michael A. Sutton; Michael Mello

2007-01-01

284

Experimental Investigations on Applicable Criterion for AC Corona Discharge Evolvement of Rod-plane Gap Based on UV Digital Image Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A measuring and analytical platform of corona discharge combining CoroCAM IV+ with the virtual instrument programming environment - Labview 8.0 - was designed. Selecting the proper algorithm and flowchart of the digital image processing, the Area Percentage of the UV image within the discharge zone was defined as the characterizing parameter of quantifying the intensity of corona discharge with processing

Bin Ma; Wenjun Zhou; Tao Wang; Xiao Yi; Changcheng Zhu

2008-01-01

285

Fourier plane filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electrically addressed liquid crystal Fourier plane filter capable of real time optical image processing is described. The filter consists of two parts: a wedge filter having forty 9 deg segments and a ring filter having twenty concentric rings in a one inch diameter active area. Transmission of the filter in the off (transparent) state exceeds fifty percent. By using polarizing optics, contrast as high as 10,000:1 can be achieved at voltages compatible with FET switching technology. A phenomenological model for the dynamic scattering is presented for this special case. The filter is designed to be operated from a computer and is addressed by a seven bit binary word which includes an on or off command and selects any one of the twenty rings or twenty wedge pairs. The overall system uses addressable latches so that once an element is in a specified state, it will remain there until a change of state command is received. The drive for the liquid crystal filter is ? 30 V peak at 30 Hz to 70 Hz. These parameters give a rise time for the scattering of 20 msec and a decay time of 80 to 100 msec.

Oliver, D. S.; Aldrich, R. E.; Krol, F. T.

1972-01-01

286

Cook-Coordinate Plane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Become familiar with the coordinate plane. Learn the quadrants and how to graph points and read points on a coordinate plane. You are required to do the assignment and take the quiz. The other resources are to help prepare you for the quiz and book assignment. This is a quick review of the lesson.The Coordinate Plane This is a game to practice plotting and reading points.coordinates game *Assignment: Watch Powerpoint 3.3 and fill in your ...

Cook, Miss

2010-10-12

287

The evolution of early-type galaxies in nearby clusters: breaking the age-metallicity degeneracy with Spitzer IRS Blue Peak-Up Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have shown with Cycle 1 observations that Spitzer has the capability of disentangling age and metallicity in old stellar populations. By looking to the broad emission feature left by dust enshrouded asymptotic giant branch stars above 9.7 microns, Spitzer IRS can provide direct evidence that the colour- magnitude relation of Virgo ellipticals is mainly driven by metallicity. However, with the IRS spectrograph we can only probe the bright tail of the colour-magnitude relation, and only in the nearest cluster. We propose to use IRS Blue Peak-Up, the only Spitzer band that looks directly in the core of that spectral feature, to reach fainter galaxies. We will perform a thorough investigation of early type galaxies along the colour-magnitude relation in Virgo and in Coma clusters. These observations, when coupled with already existing IRAC and Optical-NIR observations, will allow a) an unbiased census of the stellar populations in cluster early type galaxies; b) an estimate of the AGB material recycled into the ISM in these systems; c) a direct check of the universality of the colour- magnitude relation on a wide range of magnitudes; d) a spatial study of the stellar populations within the galaxies, e.g. investigating differences between bulge and disk populations within S0; e) the most secure reference frame with which to compare the evolution of early type galaxies in other environments (groups and field).

Bressan, Alessandro; Buson, Lucio; Clemens, Marcel; Danese, Luigi; Granato, Gian Luigi; Panuzzo, Pasquale; Rampazzo, Roberto; Silva, Laura; Valdes, Jose Ramon

2005-06-01

288

Focal plane metrology for the LSST camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meeting the science goals for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) translates into a demanding set of imaging performance requirements for the optical system over a wide (3.5°) field of view. In turn, meeting those imaging requirements necessitates maintaining precise control of the focal plane surface (10 mum P-V) over the entire field of view (640 mm diameter) at the

Andrew P. Rasmussen; Layton Hale; Peter Kim; Eric Lee; Martin Perl; Rafe Schindler; Peter Takacs; Timothy Thurston

2006-01-01

289

Web White & Blue 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released earlier this year, Web White & Blue 2000 is intended to "help voters, journalists, and others use the Internet to learn more about the presidential candidates, their campaigns, their scheduled debates this fall as well as the way the online resources are impacting politics in this presidential election year." The Best of the Best section provides links to election coverage and campaign material from a wide range of sources on the Internet. Beginning on October 1, the Rolling Cyber Debate is intended to provide a forum for candidates and their campaigns to continue debates online between the televised ones. Web White and Blue 2000 is supported by the Markle Foundation.

290

Plane Transformations in a Complex Setting II: Isometries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is the second part of a study of plane transformations using a complex setting. The first part was devoted to homotheties and translations, now attention is turned towards plane isometries. The group theoretic properties of plane isometries are easy to derive and images of classical geometrical objects by these transformations are…

Dana-Picard, Thierry

2007-01-01

291

Photoacoustic microscopy using Evans Blue dye as a contrast agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complete and continuous imaging of microvascular networks is crucial for a wide variety of biomedical applications. Photoacoustic tomography can provide high resolution microvascular imaging using hemoglobin within red blood cells (RBC) as an endogenous contrast agent. However, intermittent RBC flow in capillaries results in discontinuous and fragmentary capillary images. To overcome this problem, we used Evans Blue (EB) dye as

Junjie Yao; Konstantin I. Maslov; Song Hu; Lihong V. Wang

2010-01-01

292

Experiments with planing surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A previous report discusses the experimental program of a systematic exploration of all questions connected with the planing problem as well as the first fundamental results of the investigation of a flat planing surface. The present report is limited to the conversion of the model test data to full scale.

Sottorf, W

1934-01-01

293

Equivalent Crystal Planes Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a 3-D animation of equivalent crystal planes. It shows the Miller indices linking nodes as a corresponding binary family within braces. This animation is approximately 13 seconds in length and would be useful for understanding the conceptual/imaginary planes have on the crystal behavior.

2009-07-22

294

Visualization of microvascular proliferation as a tumor infiltration structure in rat glioma specimens using the diffraction-enhanced imaging in-plane CT technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to study potent microenvironments of malignant gliomas with a high- resolution x-ray imaging technique, an injection orthotopic glioma model was made using the Sprague-Dawley rat. Total brain tissue, taken out as an ex vivo model, was examined with diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) computed tomography (CT) acquired with a 35 keV monochromatic x-ray. In the convolution-reconstructed 2D/3D images with a spatial resolution of 12.5 × 12.5 × 25 µm, distinction among necrosis, typical ring-shaped viable tumors, edemas and healthy tissues was clearly observed near the frontal lobe in front of the rat's caudate nucleus. Multiple microvascular proliferations (MVPs) were observed surrounding peritumoral edemas as a tumor infiltration structure. Typical dimensions of tubular MVPs were 130 (diameter) ×250 (length) µm with a partial sprout structure revealed in the 3D reconstructed image. Hyperplasia of cells around vessel walls was revealed with tumor cell infiltration along the perivascular space in microscopic observations of mild MVP during histological analysis. In conclusion, DEI-CT is capable of imaging potent tumor-infiltrating MVP structures surrounding high-grade gliomas.

Seo, Seung-Jun; Sunaguchi, Naoki; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Huo, Qingkai; Ando, Masami; Choi, Gi-Hwan; Kim, Hong-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hong; Jeong, Eun-Ju; Chang, Won-Seok; Kim, Jong-Ki

2012-03-01

295

Blue-Green Laser.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application concerns a blue-green solid state laser which operates at room temperature and uses as its active medium an LiYf4 crystal as the host material for the trivalent rare earth ion Tb(3+). High Tb concentrations, 20% or more, are employe...

H. P. Jensen

1974-01-01

296

Large Blue Butterflies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page deals with research being done on the parasitism of the "blue butterfly" group Maculinea. These species are well known for taking advantage of ants by chemically convincing ants that they are one of their own larvae. This page has some lovely photos, and a nice generalized life history table. Other links deal with aspects of the research including population genetics and communication.

0002-11-30

297

Comparative dermatology: blue nevus.  

PubMed

There are elements in nature that may be compared to some dermatological lesions, such as the black pearl, which is very similar to a cellular blue nevus observed in the gluteus region of a 31-year-old male patient. PMID:22892793

Barros, Jefferson Alfredo de; Kafler, Cristiane Calcidoni; Barros, Juliano Cesar de; Proto, Rodrigo Sestito; Priscila dos Santos, Costa; Machado Filho, Carlos D'Apparecida

2012-01-01

298

The Blue Tube.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 'Blue Tube' is a 2-part academic package developed at the U.S. Air Force Academy consisting of an English course in communication and writing skills and a management course in advertising and marketing: the two courses are interrelated through student...

B. Wallisch B. Taylor

1979-01-01

299

Blue Crab Education Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Information compiled by the Virginia Institute of Marine Science on the anatomy, life cycle, ecology, and fisheries of the blue crab. Data, research reports, and instructions on eating crabs are all available. Educational resources include lesson plans, teaching tools, and access to online publications. Site serves as an exceptional resource for both beginners and experts.

300

Great Blue Heron  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Great Blue Herons are found throughout much of North America, but are always associated with water. Because they fish by sight, they need relatively shallow water. Release of too much water through the canals north of the Everglades can interfere with their ability to find food....

2009-12-11

301

Comparison of MRI Alpha Angle Measurement Planes in Femoroacetabular Impingement  

PubMed Central

Insufficient femoral head-neck offset is common in femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and reflected by the alpha angle, a validated measurement for quantifying this anatomic deformity in patients with FAI. We compared the alpha angle determined on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) oblique axial plane images with the maximal alpha angle value obtained using radial images. The MRIs of 41 subjects with clinically suspected FAI were reviewed and alpha angle measurements were performed on both oblique axial plane images parallel to the long axis of the femoral neck and radial images obtained using the center of the femoral neck as the axis of rotation. The mean oblique axial plane and mean maximal radial alpha angle values were 53.4° and 70.5°, respectively. In 54% of subjects, the alpha angle was less than 55° on the conventional oblique axial plane image but 55° or greater on the radial plane images. Radial images yielded higher alpha angle values than oblique axial images. Patients with clinically suspected FAI may have a substantial contour abnormality that can be underestimated or missed if only oblique axial plane images are reviewed. Radial plane imaging should be considered in the MRI investigation of FAI. Level of Evidence: Level III, diagnostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Sheikh, Adnan M.; Allen, David; Beaule, Paul E.

2008-01-01

302

Superstring scattering from O-planes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We write the vertex operators of massless NS–NS and RR states of Type II superstring theory in the presence of orientifold p-planes. They include the usual vertex operators of Type II theory and their images. We then calculate the two-point functions of these vertex operators at the projective plane PR2 level. We show that the result can be written in

Mohammad R. Garousi

2007-01-01

303

Blue And Gigantic Jets From Taiwan 2007 TLE Campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blue and gigantic jets are believed to be blue luminous phenomena. In Taiwan 2007 TLE campaign, a multi- wavelength imaging system was deployed with the aim to elucidate the physical and chemical characteristics of TLEs. On 22 July 2007, twenty blue/gigantic jets and four sprites were observed to occur over a frontal system in Fujian province of China, about 400km away from our observation site at Lulin Observatory, Taiwan. All the observed jets showed little blue band (380-510nm) emissions but had easily recognizable signals in red band (570-2700nm). This result indicates that jets observed from ground are reddish and most of the blue emissions are extinct. One of the jets was observed to propagate upward to ~75km elevation, thus it can be identified as a GJ and is similar to the GJ-event observed by Pasko et al (2001). This GJ was launched 200ms after a small jet from the same cloud top. This implies that the smaller jet could be regarded as the leader of this GJ, similar to the stepped/dart leader in a CG flash. Since the blue luminous events in ISUAL data (Su, et. al. 2005 AGU) have similar features as the jets in this ground observation. Thus, we can conclude that the ISUAL blue luminous events also are blue jets or blue starters. Even though blue jets and blue starter have different ISUAL SP2 (N2 2P, 337.0nm), SP3 (N2 1N, 391.4nm) and SP6 (250-390nm) intensities, but the peak ratio between SP2 and SP6 are ~ 0.5 and the peak ratio between SP3 and SP2 are ~ 0.07. This means blue jets and starters possess the same spectral properties and the same degree of ionization. Finally, the relation between jets and the nearby lightning will also be addressed.

Chou, J.; Tsai, L.; Kuo, C.; Lee, Y.; Chen, Y.; Hu, C.; Chen, A. B.; Su, H.; Hsu, R.; Lee, L.

2007-12-01

304

Dominant Plane Detection Using Optical Flow and Independent Component Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Dominant plane is an area which occupies the largest domain in an image. Estimation of the dominant plane is an essential\\u000a task for the autonomous navigation and the path planning of the mobile robot equipped with a vision system, since the robot\\u000a moves on the dominant plane. In this paper, we develop an algorithm for dominant plane detection using optical

Naoya Ohnishi; Atsushi Imiya

2005-01-01

305

Vector image method for the derivation of elastostatic solutions for point sources in a plane layered medium. Part 1: Derivation and simple examples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An image method algorithm is presented for the derivation of elastostatic solutions for point sources in bonded halfspaces assuming the infinite space point source is known. Specific cases were worked out and shown to coincide with well known solutions in the literature.

Fares, Nabil; Li, Victor C.

1986-01-01

306

SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development  

SciTech Connect

The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R&D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics.

Bebek, C.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bercovitz, J.; Bergstrom, L.; Berstein, G.P.; Bester, M.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.; Emmett, W.; Eriksson, M.; Fouchez,D.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Johnson, W.; Kadel, R.; Karcher,A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureaux, J.; Lampton, M.; Lefevre, O.; Levi, M.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Mazure, A.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Morgan, N.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Roe, N.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Prieto, E.; Rabinowitz,D.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Schubnell, M.; Sholl, M.; Smadja, G.; Smith, R.; Smoot, G.; Snyder, J.; Spadafora, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tarle,G.; Taylor, K.; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, A.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J-P.; Wang, G.

2003-07-07

307

Study on key technologies of uncooled infrared focal plane array  

Microsoft Academic Search

With its high density, good performance and low cost, non-cold infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) has become the key point at present of studying infrared imaging technology. It will be restricted by such various technological problems as material performance, output circuit, performance parameter test, and image quality to develop non-cold infrared focal plane array detector with big area and even

Rui Feng Wang; Jiang Yang Xian; Ai Jun E; Wei Dong Wu; Bo Xiao

2009-01-01

308

A novel method for measuring and monitoring monobloc distraction osteogenesis using three-dimensional computed tomography rendered images with the "biporion-dorsum sellae" plane. Part II: comparison of measurements before and after distraction.  

PubMed

The aim was to assess the stability of monobloc distraction osteogenesis using three-dimensional computed tomographic (CT) scan volume-rendered images with the "biporion-dorsum sellae" plane. This was a prospective study of patients undergoing monobloc internal distraction osteogenesis at the International Craniofacial Institute, Dallas, TX. Measurements were made of the perpendicular distance of 8 skeletal facial points to the static "biporion-dorsum sellae" plane. The statistical analyses were performed with the paired-samples t test in SPSS. Three male patients were included in the study. Of these patients, 2 had Apert syndrome (A, B) and 1 had Carpenter syndrome (C). The mean age was 73 (range 30-112) months, and the mean follow up was 14 (range 8-12) months. The consolidation period was 17, 23, and 28 weeks in each patient, respectively. In patient A, the paired-samples t test of matched points was P = 0.022. Further analysis of the three-dimensional lateral profile revealed an obvious relapse, and predistractor removal CT scans (at 17 weeks) also showed deficient bone growth across the distraction gaps at the anterior cranial fossae and the temporal bones. In contrast, patients B and C showed a stable outcome after distraction and after removal of distraction devices. On analysis of the predistractor removal three-dimensional CT scans (23 and 28 weeks, respectively), there was more bone growth across the distraction gaps at the anterior cranial fossa and temporal bones. The "biporion-dorsum sellae" plane was used to assess the results of monobloc distraction osteogenesis. Relapse was associated with inadequate bone growth across the anterior cranial fossa and temporal bone. The findings seem to point the way for an increased consolidation period and more detailed examination of the CT scans before removal of internal distraction devices. PMID:18362713

Salyer, Kenneth E; Por, Yong-Chen; Genecov, David G; Barcelo, Carlos Raul

2008-03-01

309

Event-plane correlators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Correlators between event planes of different harmonics in relativistic heavy-ion collisions have the potential to provide crucial information on the initial state of the matter formed in these collisions. We present a new procedure for analyzing such correlators, which is less demanding in terms of detector acceptance than the one used recently by the ATLAS Collaboration to measure various two-plane and three-plane correlators in Pb-Pb collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It can also be used unambiguously for quantitative comparison between theory and data. We use this procedure to carry out realistic simulations within a multiphase transport (AMPT) model. Our theoretical results are in excellent agreement with the ATLAS data, in contrast with previous hydrodynamic calculations which only achieved qualitative agreement. We present predictions for new correlators, in particular four-plane correlators, which can easily be analyzed with our new method.

Bhalerao, Rajeev S.; Ollitrault, Jean-Yves; Pal, Subrata

2013-08-01

310

Blue Fermi flat spectrum radio quasars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many blazars detected by the Fermi satellite, observed spectroscopically in the optical, are line-less, and have been classified as BL Lac objects. Optical-ultraviolet (UV) photometry of nearly 100 of them allowed us to determine the redshift for a handful of objects and redshift upper limits in the great majority. A few of these are candidates to be 'blue quasars', namely flat spectrum radio quasars whose broad emission lines are hidden by an overwhelming synchrotron emission peaking in the UV. This implies that the emitting electrons have high energies. In turn, this requires relatively weak radiative cooling, a condition that can be met if the main radiative dissipation of the jet power occurs outside the broad-line region. We confirm this hypothesis by studying and modelling the spectral energy distributions of the four 'blue quasars' recently discovered. Furthermore, we discuss the distribution of Fermi blazars in the ?-ray spectral index-?-ray luminosity plane, and argue that 'blue quasars' objects are a minority within the blazar populations.

Ghisellini, G.; Tavecchio, F.; Foschini, L.; Sbarrato, T.; Ghirlanda, G.; Maraschi, L.

2012-09-01

311

Teachers' Domain: Breathing Blue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 3-minute video demonstrates chemical reaction as a presenter exhales into "bromothymol blue", a chemical indicator for acids and bases. His breath releases carbon dioxide, which acidifies the solution and changes it from a bright blue color to yellow-green. Resource also includes teacher's guide and assessment. Editor's Note: In a chemical reaction, properties of the original substances change as new substances with different properties are formed. The molecular structure of the substances is altered irreversibly. This video is part of "Lessons in Matter and Energy" by WOSU Public Media. See related materials for a link to the full collection, also available for iTunes viewing. Teachers' Domain is a growing collection of more than 1,000 free educational resources compiled by researchers and experienced teachers to promote the use of digital resources in the classroom.

2011-06-23

312

The Blue Emu  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary goal in designing the Blue Emu was to provide an airline with a cost efficient and profitable means of transporting passengers between the major cities in Aeroworld. The design attacks the market where a demand for inexpensive transportation exists and for this reason the Blue Emu is an attractive investment for any airline. In order to provide a profitable aircraft, special attention was paid to cost and economics. For example, in manufacturing, simplicity was stressed in structural design to reduce construction time and cost. Aerodynamic design employed a tapered wing which reduced the induced drag coefficient while also reducing the weight of the wing. Even the propulsion system was selected with cost effectiveness in mind, yet also to maintain the marketability of the aircraft. Thus, in every aspect of the design, consideration was given to economics and marketability of the final product.

Descalzi, Doug; Gillett, John; Gordon, Carlton; Keener, ED; Novak, Ken; Puente, Laura

1993-01-01

313

Blue Sky Innovation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chicago Tribune has broken new ground with this ambitious initiative to gather news, analysis, and events related to innovation and entrepreneurship. As the site indicates, "Blue Sky informs, inspires and connects an audience that looks at businessâ¦in new ways." Visitors can get started by looking over the short-form news stories on the homepage. Recent pieces have covered the curious barge built by Google, the financial stability of Groupon, and the transformation of event planning via mobile apps. Visitors can look over the event calendar, which brings together information about ongoing activities such as mobile app contests and networking events. The Innovation Hub area is a good place to look around, as it features content gathered from organizations recognized for expertise in the field of innovation. Finally, visitors can sign up to receive updates from Blue Sky via Facebook, Google+, or email.

314

Just Plane Simple  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to three of the six simple machines used by many engineers. These machines include the inclined plane, the wedge and the screw. In general, engineers use the inclined plane to lift heavy loads, the wedge to cut materials apart, and the screw to convert rotational motion into linear movement. Furthermore, the mechanical advantage describes how easily each machine can do work and is determined by its physical dimensions.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

315

Blue Crab Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This easy to navigate and well-written site is packed with information and excellent photos about the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) and its fishery. Biology section covers: species profile, anatomy, life cycle, reproduction, larval development, life cycle and more. Industry and trade section includes recipes and tips for catching or buying hard and soft shell crabs, and fishery information. Also offers news, discussion forum, links, a glossary, and reference lists.

316

The blue brain project.  

PubMed

IBM's Blue Gene supercomputer allows a quantum leap in the level of detail at which the brain can be modelled. I argue that the time is right to begin assimilating the wealth of data that has been accumulated over the past century and start building biologically accurate models of the brain from first principles to aid our understanding of brain function and dysfunction. PMID:16429124

Markram, Henry

2006-02-01

317

[The "blue man"].  

PubMed

The authors present the case of a 63-year-old man who was evaluated for symptoms of lung fibrosis, blue face and epithelopathy affecting both eyes. All these symptoms could be attributed to the adverse effects of amiodarone. Thyroid disorders, which are the most common side-effects of amiodarone treatment were absent. The authors want to draw attention to the potential side effects of amiodarone. PMID:24334136

Lakatos, Gergely; Nádházi, Zoltán; Igaz, Péter; Rácz, Károly

2013-12-22

318

Jonathan Bird's Blue World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Jonathan Bird's Blue World Collection is based on a public television science adventure series and offers science curriculum based videos, lesson plans, activities and the capacity to search by topic, NSES, and geography. These materials illustrate topics such as sound, osmosis and pH with videos of sperm whales, mangroves and coral reefs. These resources can be used by learners of all ages in formal and informal settings.

2012-08-06

319

2. VIEW SOUTH, INCLINE PLANE CAR, INCLINE PLANE TRACK, UPPER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW SOUTH, INCLINE PLANE CAR, INCLINE PLANE TRACK, UPPER STATION. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

320

Structure analysis for plane geometry figures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As there are increasing numbers of digital documents for education purpose, we realize that there is not a retrieval application for mathematic plane geometry images. In this paper, we propose a method for retrieving plane geometry figures (PGFs), which often appear in geometry books and digital documents. First, detecting algorithms are applied to detect common basic geometry shapes from a PGF image. Based on all basic shapes, we analyze the structural relationships between two basic shapes and combine some of them to a compound shape to build the PGF descriptor. Afterwards, we apply matching function to retrieve candidate PGF images with ranking. The great contribution of the paper is that we propose a structure analysis method to better describe the spatial relationships in such image composed of many overlapped shapes. Experimental results demonstrate that our analysis method and shape descriptor can obtain good retrieval results with relatively high effectiveness and efficiency.

Feng, Tianxiao; Lu, Xiaoqing; Liu, Lu; Li, Keqiang; Tang, Zhi

2013-12-01

321

Digital in-plane electronic speckle pattern shearing interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel implementation of the method for obtaining the partial derivatives of in-plane and out-of-plane displacement fields in the in-plane electronic speckle pattern shearing interferometry (ESPSI) configuration is described. Lateral shear interferograms of object image fields generated by individual symmetrical illuminating beams are recorded independently. The phases are calculated using the temporal phase-stepping method and their digital subtraction/addition gives required in-plane/out-of-plane displacement derivatives, respectively. Phase stepping is readily performed in the setup using fiber optics and modulated laser diode illumination without any mechanical movement of the components.

Patorski, Krzysztof; Olszak, Artur G.

1997-07-01

322

[Standardized sectional planes of the locomotor apparatus].  

PubMed

Comparable to the standardized ultrasound screening of newborns and infants according to Graf's method, the standardized ultrasound examination of the locomotor apparatus has become an important feature in the evaluation of many acute and chronic diseases. The standardized ultrasound examination technique according to the guidelines of DEGUM and DGOOC helps the experienced and inexperienced user to avoid diagnostic mistakes by reproducibly displaying anatomical landmarks. Specific individual planes can be necessary in certain indications. The main advantage in comparison to other diagnostic means (i.e., computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) lies in the possibility of dynamic examination, which allows excellent imaging especially in rotator cuff affections. In cases without pathological findings, two standardized planes have to be documented. Otherwise, the pathological finding has to be documented in two standardized planes. The standardized procedure is a useful means for assuring and improving the quality of sonographic examinations of articular and periarticular structures. PMID:11963477

Konermann, W; Gruber, G

2002-02-01

323

Evolution in Plane Sight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners model directed evolution by making paper fly. Learners construct and fly paper airplanes. During the first round, they calculate the average distance the planes fly and then recreate the planes that flew the furthest. Learners repeat this process several times, observe how the average distance of flight changes, and eventually identify the ideal flyer. This activity can be used to introduce learners to genetic random mutations and how scientists are using directed evolution to engineer new proteins with enhanced properties.

Yu, Julie

2009-01-01

324

High speed multi focal plane optical system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus for eliminating beamsplitter generated optical aberrations in a pupil concentric optical system providing a plurality of spatially separated images on different focal planes or surfaces is presented. The system employs a buried surface beamsplitter having spherically curved entrance and exit faces which are concentric to a system aperture stop with the entrance face being located in the path of a converging light beam directed there from an image forming objective element which is also concentric to the aperture stop.

Minott, P. O. (inventor)

1983-01-01

325

Focal Plane Metrology for the LSST Camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meeting the science goals for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) translates into a demanding set of imaging performance requirements for the optical system over a wide (3.5{sup o}) field of view. In turn, meeting those imaging requirements necessitates maintaining precise control of the focal plane surface (10 μm P-V) over the entire field of view (640 mm diameter) at

Andrew P. A Rasmussen; Layton Hale; Peter Kim; Eric Lee; Martin Perl; Rafe Schindler; Peter Takacs; Timothy Thurston

2007-01-01

326

Quantum Dot Based Infrared Focal Plane Arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past decade, there has been active research on infrared detectors based on intersubband transitions in self-assembled quantum dots (QDs). In the past two years, at least four research groups have independently demonstrated focal plane arrays based on this technology. In this paper, the progress from the first raster scanned image obtained with a QD detector to the demonstration

Sanjay Krishna; Sarath D. Gunapala; Sumith V. Bandara; Cory Hill; David Z. Ting

2007-01-01

327

Dual band QWIP focal plane array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) that provides two-color image sensing. Two different quantum wells are configured to absorb two different wavelengths. The QWIPs are arrayed in a focal plane array (FPA). The two-color QWIPs are selected for readout by selective electrical contact with the two different QWIPs or by the use of two different wavelength sensitive gratings.

Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor); Choi, Kwong Kit (Inventor); Bandara, Sumith V. (Inventor)

2005-01-01

328

Blue ocean leadership.  

PubMed

Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets. PMID:24956870

Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

2014-05-01

329

Aerial plane inspection for advanced photomask defect detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new methodology - Aerial Plane Inspection (API) - has been developed to inspect advanced photomasks used for the 45 nm node and beyond. Utilizing images from a high resolution mask inspection system, a mask image is recovered by combining the transmitted and reflected images. A software transformation is then performed to replicate the aerial image planes produced in a photolithography exposure system. These aerial images are used to compare adjacent die in a Die-Die inspection mode in order to find critical defects on the photomask. The mask recovery process and modeling of the aerial plane image allows flexibility to simulate a wide range of lithographic exposure systems, including immersion lithography. Any source shape, Sigma, and numerical aperture (NA) can be used at all common lithographic wavelengths. Sensitivity of the inspection can be fully adjusted to match photomask specifications for CD control, lineend shortening, OPC features, and for small and large defective areas. An additional adaptive sensitivity option can be utilized to automatically adjust sensitivity as a function of MEEF. Using the Aerial Plane Inspection to compare pattern images has the benefit of filtering out non-printing defects, while detecting very small printing defects. In addition, defects that are not printing at ideal exposure condition, but may be reducing the lithographic process window, can also be detected. Performing defect detection at the aerial image plane is more tolerant to small Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs) that are difficult to inspect at the reticle image plane.

Kim, Won Sun; Park, Jin Hyung; Chung, Dong Hoon; Jeon, Chan Uk; Cho, Han Ku; Hutchinson, Trent; Lee, Oscar; Huang, William; Dayal, Aditya

2009-10-01

330

Determining the ice-binding planes of antifreeze proteins by fluorescence-based ice plane affinity.  

PubMed

Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are expressed in a variety of cold-hardy organisms to prevent or slow internal ice growth. AFPs bind to specific planes of ice through their ice-binding surfaces. Fluorescence-based ice plane affinity (FIPA) analysis is a modified technique used to determine the ice planes to which the AFPs bind. FIPA is based on the original ice-etching method for determining AFP-bound ice-planes. It produces clearer images in a shortened experimental time. In FIPA analysis, AFPs are fluorescently labeled with a chimeric tag or a covalent dye then slowly incorporated into a macroscopic single ice crystal, which has been preformed into a hemisphere and oriented to determine the a- and c-axes. The AFP-bound ice hemisphere is imaged under UV light to visualize AFP-bound planes using filters to block out nonspecific light. Fluorescent labeling of the AFPs allows real-time monitoring of AFP adsorption into ice. The labels have been found not to influence the planes to which AFPs bind. FIPA analysis also introduces the option to bind more than one differently tagged AFP on the same single ice crystal to help differentiate their binding planes. These applications of FIPA are helping to advance our understanding of how AFPs bind to ice to halt its growth and why many AFP-producing organisms express multiple AFP isoforms. PMID:24457629

Basu, Koli; Garnham, Christopher P; Nishimiya, Yoshiyuki; Tsuda, Sakae; Braslavsky, Ido; Davies, Peter

2014-01-01

331

Deployable Ground Plane Antenna.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A deployable ground plane antenna for use aboard a satellite or the like, with the antenna and erection mechanism being compactly stowable within the confines of a launch vehicle prior to and during launch thereof is described. After ejection of the satel...

L. Schwerdtfeger

1977-01-01

332

Focal plane metrology for the LSST camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meeting the science goals for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) translates into a demanding set of imaging performance requirements for the optical system over a wide (3.5°) field of view. In turn, meeting those imaging requirements necessitates maintaining precise control of the focal plane surface (10 ?m P-V) over the entire field of view (640 mm diameter) at the operating temperature (T ~ -100°C) and over the operational elevation angle range. We briefly describe the heirarchical design approach for the LSST Camera focal plane and the baseline design for assembling the flat focal plane at room temperature. Preliminary results of gravity load and thermal distortion calculations are provided, and early metrological verification of candidate materials under cold thermal conditions are presented. A detailed, generalized method for stitching together sparse metrology data originating from differential, non-contact metrological data acquisition spanning multiple (non-continuous) sensor surfaces making up the focal plane, is described and demonstrated. Finally, we describe some in situ alignment verification alternatives, some of which may be integrated into the camera's focal plane.

Rasmussen, Andrew P.; Hale, Layton; Kim, Peter; Lee, Eric; Perl, Martin; Schindler, Rafe; Takacs, Peter; Thurston, Timothy

2006-06-01

333

Three-dimensional modeling of blue jets and blue starters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blue jets are narrow cones of blue light propagating upward from the apparent cloud tops at speeds of the order of 100 km/s to a terminal altitude of about 40 km [Wescott et al., GRL, 22, 1209, 1995]. Blue starters are distinguished from blue jets by a much lower terminal altitude. They protrude upward from the cloud top (17-18 km) to a maximum 25.5 km in altitude [Wescott et al., GRL, 23, 2153, 1996]. It has recently been suggested that blue jets correspond qualitatively to the development of the streamer zone of a positive leader and therefore should be filled with a branching structure of streamer channels [Petrov and Petrova, Tech. Phys., 44, 472, 1999]. In our talk we will discuss the physical concept proposed by Petrov and Petrova [1999] as well as will demonstrate a role of blue jets and blue starters in the large-scale atmospheric electric circuit. We will also discuss specific physical reasons and required circumstances for occurrence of blue jets and starters above thundercloud tops and will support our arguments with results from a new three-dimensional model. The model simulates the propagation of branching streamer channels constituting blue jets and starters as a three dimensional growth of fractal trees in a self-consistent electric field created by thundercloud charges. The model is based on a phenomenological probabilistic approach proposed in [Niemeyer et al., IEEE Trans. Electr. Insul., 24, 309, 1989] and is a straightforward expansion of the previously developed two-dimensional version [Pasko et al., GRL, 27, 497, 2000]. The model results indicate that blue jets and starters can be formed by a fast ( ~1 sec) accumulation of 110-150 C of positive thundercloud charge distributed in a volume with effective radius 3 km near the cloud top at 15 km. The obtained results closely resemble characteristics of blue jets and blue starters observed by Wescott et al. [1995; 1996] in terms of their altitude extents, transverse dimensions and conical structure, and support the suggestion of Wescott et al. [1996] that blue starters are related to the initial phases of blue jets.

Pasko, V. P.; George, J. J.

2001-12-01

334

Focal plane scanner with reciprocating spatial window  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A focal plane scanner having a front objective lens, a spatial window for selectively passing a portion of the image therethrough, and a CCD array for receiving the passed portion of the image. All embodiments have a common feature whereby the spatial window and CCD array are mounted for simultaneous relative reciprocating movement with respect to the front objective lens, and the spatial window is mounted within the focal plane of the front objective. In a first embodiment, the spatial window is a slit and the CCD array is one-dimensional, and successive rows of the image in the focal plane of the front objective lens are passed to the CCD array by an image relay lens interposed between the slit and the CCD array. In a second embodiment, the spatial window is a slit, the CCD array is two-dimensional, and a prism-grating-prism optical spectrometer is interposed between the slit and the CCD array so as to cause the scanned row to be split into a plurality of spectral separations onto the CCD array. In a third embodiment, the CCD array is two-dimensional and the spatial window is a rectangular linear variable filter (LVF) window, so as to cause the scanned rows impinging on the LVF to be bandpass filtered into spectral components onto the CCD array through an image relay lens interposed between the LVF and the CCD array.

Mao, Chengye (Inventor)

2000-01-01

335

Intraoperative tracking of aortic valve plane  

PubMed Central

The main objective of this work is to track the aortic valve plane in intra-operative fluoroscopic images in order to optimize and secure Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) procedure. This paper is focused on the issue of aortic valve calcifications tracking in fluoroscopic images. We propose a new method based on the Tracking-Learning-Detection approach, applied to the aortic valve calcifications in order to determine the position of the aortic valve plane in intra-operative TAVI images. This main contribution concerns the improvement of object detection by updating the recursive tracker in which all features are tracked jointly. The approach has been evaluated on four patient databases, providing an absolute mean displacement error less than 10 pixels ? 2mm). Its suitability for the TAVI procedure has been analyzed.

Nguyen, Duc Long Hung; Garreau, Mireille; Auffret, Vincent; Le Breton, Herve; Verhoye, Jean-Philippe; Haigron, Pascal

2013-01-01

336

Ground-Plane Based Projective Reconstruction for Surveillance Camera Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the task of calibrating a network of security cameras of arbitrary topology utilizing a common ground-plane to simplify the geometry. The method of chaining ground-plane homographies is employed to overcome the necessity that a common region is visible in all images of the ground-plane. We show that this method of recovering a projective reconstruction is ideal for

David N. R. McKinnon; Ruan Lakemond; Clinton Fookes; Sridha Sridharan

337

The SIRTF Galactic Plane Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to image the inner galaxy from 10 to 70 degrees on either side of the Galactic center and one degree above and below the plane (240 square degrees) in all IRAC and MIPS bands. The survey will be fully sampled in all bands except at 160 µm. It will reach the three natural sensitivity limits: the saturation limit at wavelengths 70 µm and longer; the background limit at 24 µm; and, the confusion limit in the IRAC bands. This survey will be as good as can be obtained with SIRTF or any other telescope regardless of the integration time or observing strategy. It will require less than 20% of the time set aside for SIRTF Legacy programs. This SIRTF survey will: 1) produce a complete census of star formation in the inner galaxy; 2) measure the stellar disk scale length; 3) delineate the stellar structure of the molecular ring, inner spiral arms and bar as traced by the distributions of stars and star formation regions; 4) determine the luminosity and initial mass functions of all nearby star formation regions and clusters down to the stellar limit; 5) detect all young O and B stars still embedded in their natal clouds; 6) detect and identify young stellar objects (surrounded by circumstellar disks) in nearby star forming regions; 7) determine the interstellar extinction law in dense regions for the first time; 8) investigate the nature of Photo Dissociation Regions and the density structure within the interstellar medium; and, 9) detect a host of other types of stars and nebulae such as supernovae, planetary nebulae, hidden galaxies, OH/IR stars, etc. that will be of interest to a large fraction of the community. An additional value of a large, unbiased Galactic plane survey is its potential for new discoveries that might otherwise be missed by piecemeal imaging of selected regions.

Churchwell, Ed; Watson, Christer; Bania, Thomas; Benjamin, Robert; Cassinelli, Joseph; Clemens, Daniel; Dickey, John; Jackson, James; Kobulnicky, Henry; Lazarian, Alexander; Mathis, John; Seager, Sara; Whitney, Barbara; Wolff, Mike; Wolfire, Mark

2004-09-01

338

Respiration induced by blue light.  

PubMed

The high rate of respiration in Chlorella which is found after feeding with glucose or after a longer period of photosynthesis, declines in the dark in the course of hours to about a quarter of its original value. Blue-green light (?<550 m?) specifically counteracts this decline and maintains the high rate. This blue light effect is independent of photosynthesis. PMID:24557830

Kowallik, W; Gaffron, H

1966-03-01

339

75 FR 65525 - Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Training Administration [TA-W-74,327] Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations...applicable to workers and former workers of Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services,...

2010-10-25

340

The tail plane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report deals with the calculation of the equilibrium, statistical stability, and damping of the tail plane. The author has simplified the present theory of longitudinal stability for the particular purpose of obtaining one definite coefficient characteristics of the effect of the tail plane. This coefficient is obtained by substituting certain aerodynamic characteristics and some dimensions of the airplane in a comparatively simple mathematical expression. Care has been taken to confine all aerodynamical information necessary for the calculation of the coefficient to the well-known curves representing the qualities of the wing section. This is done by making use of the present results of modern aerodynamics. All formulas and relations necessary for the calculation are contained in the paper. They give in some cases only an approximation of the real values. An example of calculation is added in order to illustrate the application of the method. The coefficient indicates not only whether the effect of the tail plane is great enough, but also whether it is not too great. It appears that the designer has to avoid a certain critical length of the fuselage, which inevitably gives rise to periodical oscillations of the airplane. The discussion also shows the way and in what direction to carry out experimental work.

Munk, Max M

1923-01-01

341

Jupiter in blue, ultraviolet and near infrared  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These three images of Jupiter, taken through the narrow angle camera of NASA's Cassini spacecraft from a distance of 77.6 million kilometers (48.2 million miles) on October 8, reveal more than is apparent to the naked eye through a telescope.

The image on the left was taken through the blue filter. The one in the middle was taken in the ultraviolet. The one on the right was taken in the near infrared.

The blue-light filter is within the part of the electromagnetic spectrum detectable by the human eye. The appearance of Jupiter in this image is, consequently, very familiar. The Great Red Spot (below and to the right of center) and the planet's well-known banded cloud lanes are obvious. The brighter bands of clouds are called zones and are probably composed of ammonia ice particles. The darker bands are called belts and are made dark by particles of unknown composition intermixed with the ammonia ice.

Jupiter's appearance changes dramatically in the ultraviolet and near infrared images. These images are near negatives of each other and illustrate the way in which observations in different wavelength regions can reveal different physical regimes on the planet.

All gases scatter sunlight efficiently at short wavelengths; this is why the sky appears blue on Earth. The effect is even more pronounced in the ultraviolet. The gases in Jupiter's atmosphere, above the clouds, are no different. They scatter strongly in the ultraviolet, making the deep banded cloud layers invisible in the middle image. Only the very high altitude haze appears dark against the bright background. The contrast is reversed in the near infrared, where methane gas, abundant on Jupiter but not on Earth, is strongly absorbing and therefore appears dark. Again the deep clouds are invisible, but now the high altitude haze appears relatively bright against the dark background. High altitude haze is seen over the poles and the equator.

The Great Red Spot, prominent in all images, is obviously a feature whose influence extends high in the atmosphere. As the Cassini cameras continue to return images of Jupiter, it will be possible to construct a three-dimensional picture of how clouds form and evolve by watching the changing appearance of Jupiter in different spectral regions.

JPL manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPl is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2000-01-01

342

Ascorbic Acid and Methylene Blue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The WebWare molecules of the month for May are featured in several articles in this issue. "Arsenic: Not So Evil After All?" discusses the pharmaceutical uses of methylene blue and its development as the first synthetic drug used against a specific disease. The JCE Classroom Activity "Out of the Blue" and the article "Greening the Blue Bottle" feature methylene blue and ascorbic acid as two key ingredients in the formulation of the blue bottle. You can also see a colorful example of these two molecules in action on the cover. "Sailing on the 'C': A Vitamin Titration with a Twist" describes an experiment to determine the vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content of citrus fruits and challenges students, as eighteenth-century sea captains, to decide the best fruit to take on a long voyage.

343

Affine camera calibration from homographies of parallel planes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the problem of retrieving the affine structure of a scene from two or more images of parallel planes. We propose a new approach that is solely based on plane homographies, calculated from point correspondences, and that does not require the recovery of the 3D structure of the scene. Neither vanishing points nor lines need to be

Adlane Habed; Amirhasan Amintabar; Boubakeur Boufama

2010-01-01

344

Mongolian Spot (Blue-Gray Spot)  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Mongolian Spot (Blue-Gray Spot) A parent's guide for infants and babies A A A Blue-gray spots (Mongolian spots) appear as gray to blue colored, flat, "bruise-like" areas of skin. Overview ...

345

The Blue Comet: A Railroad's Astronomical Heritage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between 1929 February 21 and 1941 September 27, the Central New Jersey Railroad operated a luxury passenger train between Jersey City and Atlantic City. Named The Blue Comet, the locomotive, tender, and coaches sported a unique royal blue paint scheme designed to evoke images of celestial bodies speeding through space. Inside each car were etched window panes and lampshades featuring stars and comets. And each coach sported the name of a famous comet on its side; these comets were of course named for their discoverers. Some of the astronomers honored in this unique fashion remain famous to this day, or at least their comets do. The names D'Arrest, Barnard, Encke, Faye, Giacobini, Halley, Olbers, Temple, Tuttle, and Westphal are familiar ones. But Biela, Brorsen, deVico, Spitaler, and Winnecke have now largely faded into obscurity; their stories are recounted here. Although more than sixty years have elapsed since its last run, The Blue Comet, perhaps the most famous passenger train in American history, lives on in the memories of millions of passengers and railfans. This famous train returned to the attention of millions of television viewers on the evening of 2007 June 3, in an episode of the HBO series The Sopranos. This work was supported by a faculty development grant from Valdosta State University.

Rumstay, Kenneth S.

2009-01-01

346

Solar System Portrait - Earth as 'Pale Blue Dot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This narrow-angle color image of the Earth, dubbed 'Pale Blue Dot', is a part of the first ever 'portrait' of the solar system taken by Voyager 1. The spacecraft acquired a total of 60 frames for a mosaic of the solar system from a distance of more than 4 billion miles from Earth and about 32 degrees above the ecliptic. From Voyager's great distance Earth is a mere point of light, less than the size of a picture element even in the narrow-angle camera. Earth was a crescent only 0.12 pixel in size. Coincidentally, Earth lies right in the center of one of the scattered light rays resulting from taking the image so close to the sun. This blown-up image of the Earth was taken through three color filters -- violet, blue and green -- and recombined to produce the color image. The background features in the image are artifacts resulting from the magnification.

1990-01-01

347

Astronomical imaging by pupil plane interferometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comparing rotational shear interferometry to standard speckle interferometry, it is found that it is easier in the first case to separate the atmospheric phases from the object transform phases. Phase closure and blind deconvolution should be directly applicable. Laboratory simulations were conducted to verify theoretical predictions and computer simulations for the phase closure case, and preliminary results show promise.

Ribak, Erez

1989-01-01

348

Focal Plane Instruments onboard HII/L2 Mission (SPICA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current idea of focal plane instruments onboard HII/L2 (SPICA) mission is described. To squeeze out maximum scientific output, the instruments cover 2-200 micron, in both imaging mode and spectroscopic mode.

Ueno, M.; Matsuhara, H.; Murakami, H.; Nakagawa, T.

2000-12-01

349

Smart focal plane technologies for ELT instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smart Focal Planes are devices that enable the efficient sampling of a telescope's focal plane to feed spectroscopic and imaging instruments. Examples are integral field units (fiber and image slicers), cryogenic beam manipulators, and MOEMS (micro-opto-electromechanical systems) such as miniature slit shutters. These technologies are critical in making best use of the current 8m class telescopes for key science goals such as spectroscopic surveys of high redshift galaxies, and will be even more important for Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) instruments. In fact, the density of pixels in an ELT focal plane with several milliarcsecond resolution will mean that sub-sampling of the field will be needed even for imaging. We have proposed a joint European project to develop these technologies, building on expertise from partners in the UK, France, the Netherlands, Spain, Germany and others, and led by the UK. We describe the current status of these technologies, showing how they will contribute to the feasibility and performance of proposed instruments for ELTs, and concentrating on capabilities within Europe. We then outline the proposed future developments, highlighting the technical challenges, such as the difficulties of manufacturing and verifying complex image slicers with thousands of optical surfaces, and building highly reliable cryogenic mechanisms such as pick-off arms, beam steering mirrors and reconfigurble slit mechanisms.

Cunningham, Colin R.; Ramsay-Howat, Suzanne K.; Garzon, Francisco; Parry, Ian R.; Prieto, Eric; Robertson, David J.; Zamkotsian, Frederic

2004-07-01

350

Blue ellipticals in compact groups  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By studying galaxies in compact groups, the authors examine the hypothesis that mergers of spiral galaxies make elliptical galaxies. The authors combine dynamical models of the merger-rich compact group environment with stellar evolution models and predict that roughly 15 percent of compact group ellipticals should be 0.15 mag bluer in B - R color than normal ellipticals. The published colors of these galaxies suggest the existence of this predicted blue population, but a normal distribution with large random errors can not be ruled out based on these data alone. However, the authors have new ultraviolet blue visual data which confirm the blue color of the two ellipticals with blue B - R colors for which they have their own colors. This confirmation of a population of blue ellipticals indicates that interactions are occurring in compact groups, but a blue color in one index alone does not require that these ellipticals are recent products of the merger of two spirals. The authors demonstrate how optical spectroscopy in the blue may distinguish between a true spiral + spiral merger and the swallowing of a gas-rich system by an already formed elliptical. The authors also show that the sum of the luminosity of the galaxies in each group is consistent with the hypothesis that the final stage in the evolution of compact group is an elliptical galaxy.

Zepf, Stephen E.; Whitmore, Bradley C.

1990-01-01

351

Blue upconversion thulium laser  

SciTech Connect

Upconversion has been an active area of research for at least two decades, mainly because of its wide ranging applications from infrared quantum counters, visible-emitting phosphors, to upconversion lasers. The upconversion lasers have recently become attractive with the advent of semiconductor laser diodes as the pump source. In an upconversion laser, the laser active ion is excited by internal upconversion of near-ir or red light via multiphoton excitation or cooperative processes and emits anti-Stokes visible light. Since the laser diode output wavelength can be composition turned to match the upconversion laser ion absorption lines, a substantial fraction of the ions can be driven into higher energy levels, thus enhancing the upconversion process. These upconversion solid-state lasers offer a potentially simple and compact source of visible coherent light with semiconductor laser diode excitation. We recently reported a novel upconversion thulium laser that emits blue light at 77 K. In this paper additional data on this 77 K upconversion laser as well as preliminary results on the room temperature upconversion laser are presented. In these demonstrations, dye lasers were used instead of diode lasers because they were more readily available than high power semiconductor laser diodes and their wavelengths could be adjusted easily. 14 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Nguyen, D.C.; Faulkner, G.E.; Weber, M.E.; Dulick, M.

1990-01-01

352

Listing Triconnected Rooted Plane Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A plane graph is a drawing of a planar graph in the plane such that no two edges cross each other. A rooted plane graph has\\u000a a designated outer vertex. For given positive integers n???1 and g???3, let G3(n,g){\\\\cal G}_3(n,g) denote the set of all triconnected rooted plane graphs with exactly n vertices such that the size of each inner

Bingbing Zhuang; Hiroshi Nagamochi

2010-01-01

353

MTI focal plane assembly design and performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focal plane assembly for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) consists of sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure. Sensor chip assemblies, composed of linear detector arrays and readout integrated circuits, provide spatial resolution in the cross-track direction for the pushbroom imager. Optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 micrometer to 10.7 micrometer. All the detector arrays are mounted on a single focal plane and are designed to operate at 75 K. Three pairs of sensor chip assemblies (SCAs) are required to provide cross-track coverage in all 15 spectral bands. Each pair of SCAs includes detector arrays made from silicon, indium antimonide, and mercury cadmium telluride. Readout integrated circuits multiplex the signals from the detectors to 18 separate video channels. Optical filter assemblies defining the spectral bands are mounted over the linear detector arrays. Each filter assembly consists of several filter strips bonded together side-by- side. The MTI focal plane assembly has been integrated with the rest of the payload and has undergone detailed testing and calibration. This paper includes representative test data for the various spectral bands and the overall performance of the focal plane assembly.

Rienstra, Jeffrey L.; Ballard, Mary

1999-10-01

354

MTI Focal Plane Assembly Design and Performance  

SciTech Connect

The focal plane assembly for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) consists of sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure. Sensor chip assemblies, composed of linear detector arrays and readout integrated circuits, provide spatial resolution in the cross-track direction for the pushbroom imager. Optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 {micro}m to 10.7 {micro}m. All the detector arrays are mounted on a single focal plane and are designed to operate at 75 K. Three pairs of sensor chip assemblies (SCAs) are required to provide cross-track coverage in all 15 spectral bands. Each pair of SCAs includes detector arrays made from silicon, iridium antimonide, and mercury cadmium telluride. Read out integrated circuits multiplex the signals from the detectors to 18 separate video channels. Optical filter assemblies defining the spectral bands are mounted over the linear detector arrays. Each filter assembly consists of several filter strips bonded together side-by-side. The MTI focal plane assembly has been integrated with the rest of the payload and has undergone detailed testing and calibration. This paper includes representative test data for the various spectral bands and the overall performance of the focal plane assembly.

Ballard, M.; Rienstra, J.L.

1999-06-17

355

The Aerodynamic Plane Table  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report gives the description and the use of a specially designed aerodynamic plane table. For the accurate and expeditious geometrical measurement of models in an aerodynamic laboratory, and for miscellaneous truing operations, there is frequent need for a specially equipped plan table. For example, one may have to measure truly to 0.001 inch the offsets of an airfoil at many parts of its surface. Or the offsets of a strut, airship hull, or other carefully formed figure may require exact calipering. Again, a complete airplane model may have to be adjusted for correct incidence at all parts of its surfaces or verified in those parts for conformance to specifications. Such work, if but occasional, may be done on a planing or milling machine; but if frequent, justifies the provision of a special table. For this reason it was found desirable in 1918 to make the table described in this report and to equip it with such gauges and measures as the work should require.

Zahm, A F

1924-01-01

356

The Three Planes of Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Currently, the language sciences place together four different forms of mental activity on one plane of language, which results in confusion. This paper presents arguments from metaphysics, hermeneutics, and semiotics to demonstrate that there are actually three planes of language (a biologically-based information processing plane, a literal…

Sampson, Gloria

1999-01-01

357

STREPTOMYCES SPECIES COMPRISING THE BLUE-SPORE SERIES  

PubMed Central

Trejo, W. H. (Squibb Institute for Medical Research, New Brunswick, N.J.) and R. E. Bennett. Streptomyces species comprising the blue-spore series. J. Bacteriol. 85:676–690. 1963.—The objective of this study was to define and delimit the streptomycetes of the blue-spored (Viridochromogenes) series. The series, as defined in this study, includes 11 blue and blue-green species. The green-spored species were excluded on the basis of morphology as well as color. It was proposed that NRRL B-1511 be designated as the neotype strain of Streptomyces viridochromogenes (Krainsky) Waksman and Henrici, and that IMRU 3761 be designated as the neotype for Streptomyces cyaneus (Krassilnikov) Waksman. Evidence was presented to show that physiological criteria cannot be used to differentiate these organisms below the series level. The major characteristics of the Viridochromogenes series are blue to blue-green spores borne in spirals, and chromogenicity (melanin-positive). Reverse color and spore morphology provide a basis for separation below the series level. Images

Trejo, W. H.; Bennett, R. E.

1963-01-01

358

Alexandrite solid state blue laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1991 an alexandrite based blue laser was developed with its wavelength locked to the cesium (Cs) absorption line at 455.6 nm. The device was used to successfully demonstrate two-way airplane-submarine communications.

Kenrick R. Leslie

1995-01-01

359

Blue Crabs in the Chesapeake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classroom unit and data activity focusing on juvenile and adult blue crab distribution in the Chesapeake Bay. Includes background on crab biology, anatomy, life cycle, and fisheries. Authentic data tables provided for in-class analysis, discussion questions guide inquiry.

360

Hazards of solar blue light  

SciTech Connect

Short-wavelength visible light (blue light) of the Sun has caused retinal damage in people who have stared fixedly at the Sun without adequate protection. The author quantified the blue-light hazard of the Sun according to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines by measuring the spectral radiance of the Sun. The results showed that the exposure limit for blue light can be easily exceeded when people view the Sun and that the solar blue-light hazard generally increases with solar elevation, which is in accordance with a model of the atmospheric extinction of sunlight. Viewing the Sun can be very hazardous and therefore should be avoided except at very low solar elevations.

Okuno, Tsutomu

2008-06-01

361

Blue jets, blue starters and other blue luminous events observed by ISUAL payload on the FORMOSAT-2 satellite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue jets and blue starters were first discovered in 1994 (Wescott, et. al. GRL, 22, 1209, 1995; GRL, 23, 2153, 1996). During 2000 STEPS campaign, other blue luminous events were also observed to emerge directly from cloud-top and were named gnomes and pixies (Lyons, et. al. BAMS, 445, 2003). The spectroscopic properties of blue starters were investigated in EXL98 campaign

H. Su; R. Hsu; C. Kuo; A. B. Chen; Y. Lee; P. Chiang; H. U. Frey; S. B. Mende; Y. Takahashi; H. Fukunishi; L. Lee

2005-01-01

362

Blue holes: Definition and genesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue holes are karst features that were initially described from Bahamian islands and banks, which have been documented for\\u000a over 100 years. They are water-filled vertical openings in the carbonate rock that exhibit complex morphologies, ecologies,\\u000a and water chemistries. Their deep blue color, for which they are named, is the result of their great depth, and they may lead\\u000a to

John E. Mylroie; James L. Carew; Audra I. Moore

1995-01-01

363

Prototypical colors of skin, green plant, and blue sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colors of skin, green plant, and blue sky of digital photographic images were studied for modeling and detection of these three important memory color regions. The color modeling of these three regions in CIELAB and CAM02-UCS was presented, and the properties of these three color groups were investigated.

Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

2013-02-01

364

Then Why Do They Call Earth the Blue Planet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

While the most common photographs of Earth taken from space show the planet covered in blue water, NASA has managed to produce detailed color images, using satellite imagery, that show the remarkable variation of colors that actually make up the oceanic s...

2005-01-01

365

Wafer plane inspection for advanced reticle defects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Readiness of new mask defect inspection technology is one of the key enablers for insertion & transition of the next generation technology from development into production. High volume production in mask shops and wafer fabs demands a reticle inspection system with superior sensitivity complemented by a low false defect rate to ensure fast turnaround of reticle repair and defect disposition (W. Chou et al 2007). Wafer Plane Inspection (WPI) is a novel approach to mask defect inspection, complementing the high resolution inspection capabilities of the TeraScanHR defect inspection system. WPI is accomplished by using the high resolution mask images to construct a physical mask model (D. Pettibone et al 1999). This mask model is then used to create the mask image in the wafer aerial plane. A threshold model is applied to enhance the inspectability of printing defects. WPI can eliminate the mask restrictions imposed on OPC solutions by inspection tool limitations in the past. Historically, minimum image restrictions were required to avoid nuisance inspection stops and/or subsequent loss of sensitivity to defects. WPI has the potential to eliminate these limitations by moving the mask defect inspections to the wafer plane. This paper outlines Wafer Plane Inspection technology, and explores the application of this technology to advanced reticle inspection. A total of twelve representative critical layers were inspected using WPI die-to-die mode. The results from scanning these advanced reticles have shown that applying WPI with a pixel size of 90nm (WPI P90) captures all the defects of interest (DOI) with low false defect detection rates. In validating CD predictions, the delta CDs from WPI are compared against Aerial Imaging Measurement System (AIMS), where a good correlation is established between WPI and AIMSTM.

Nagpal, Rajesh; Ghadiali, Firoz; Kim, Jun; Huang, Tracy; Pang, Song

2008-06-01

366

Listing Triconnected Rooted Plane Graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A plane graph is a drawing of a planar graph in the plane such that no two edges cross each other. A rooted plane graph has a designated outer vertex. For given positive integers n ? 1 and g ? 3, let {\\cal G}_3(n,g) denote the set of all triconnected rooted plane graphs with exactly n vertices such that the size of each inner face is at most g. In this paper, we give an algorithm that enumerates all plane graphs in {\\cal G}_3(n,g). The algorithm runs in constant time per each by outputting the difference from the previous output.

Zhuang, Bingbing; Nagamochi, Hiroshi

367

Blue Heron Press Collection: Artists' Books  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Blue Heron Press is based in Avoca, Nebraska, and over the past several decades they have published a number of exquisite chapbooks and illustrated works. Recently, the University of Nebraska Digital Collections group placed a number of their more recent publications online here. The works include some elaborate pieces that utilize wooden covers with leather spine wraps, and visitors can search the collection for various works. There are a number of "alphabet" themed books that contain colorful images and creative renderings of these 26 letters. Visitors are welcome to view the images in high resolution, and they can also zoom in and out to get a finer appreciation for all of the artistic details.

368

Quantum dot blueing and blinking enables fluorescence nanoscopy.  

PubMed

We demonstrate superresolution fluorescence imaging of cells using bioconjugated CdSe/ZnS quantum dot markers. Fluorescence blueing of quantum dot cores facilitates separation of blinking markers residing closer than the diffraction barrier. The high number of successively emitted photons enables ground state depletion microscopy followed by individual marker return with a resolving power of the size of a single dot (?12 nm). Nanoscale imaging is feasible with a simple webcam. PMID:21128678

Hoyer, Patrick; Staudt, Thorsten; Engelhardt, Johann; Hell, Stefan W

2011-01-12

369

Sea blue histiocytosis: a common abnormality of the bone marrow in myelodysplastic syndromes.  

PubMed Central

AIMS--To determine whether myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are associated with sea blue histiocytosis in the bone marrow. METHODS--A retrospective review of bone marrow aspirates from 35 patients presenting consecutively with MDS and from 20 patients with each of the following: normal marrow appearance (routine staging for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma), polycythaemia rubra vera, immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) in chronic phase. RESULTS--Sea blue histiocytes were present in the marrow in 12 of 35 cases of MDS and occurred in large numbers in three of these cases. Sea blue histiocytes varied in the degree of cytoplasmic granularity and some cells were intermediate in appearance between classic sea blue histiocytes and pseudo-Gaucher cells. Sea blue histiocyte granules additionally stained positively with Sudan black and periodic acid schiff. Sea blue histiocytes occurred only in the presence of marrow hypercellularity. Their presence did not correlate with FAB subtype, degree of dyserythropoeisis, or megakaryocyte numbers. No sea blue histiocytes were found in the normal marrow or polycythaemia cases. In ITP sea blue histiocytes were seen in two of 20 cases and in chronic myeloid leukaemia in eight of 20 cases. CONCLUSIONS--Sea blue histiocytes are a common cytological feature in the bone marrow of patients with MDS. As other disorders frequently associated with marrow sea blue histiocytes are relatively rare MDS is probably the most common cause of this phenomenon in a northern European population. Images

Howard, M R; Kesteven, P J

1993-01-01

370

Materials, devices, techniques, and applications for Z-plane focal plane array technology II; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 12, 13, 1990  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various papers on materials, devices, techniques, and applications for X-plane focal plane array technology are presented. Individual topics addressed include: application of Z-plane technology to the remote sensing of the earth from GEO, applications of smart neuromorphic focal planes, image-processing of Z-plane technology, neural network Z-plane implementation with very high interconnection rates, using a small IR surveillance satellite for tactical applications, establishing requirements for homing applications, Z-plane technology. Also discussed are: on-array spike suppression signal processing, algorithms for on-focal-plane gamma circumvention and time-delay integration, current HYMOSS Z-technology, packaging of electrons for on- and off-FPA signal processing, space/performance qualification of tape automated bonded devices, automation in tape automated bonding, high-speed/high-volume radiometric testing of Z-technology focal planes, 128-layer HYMOSS-module fabrication issues, automation of IRFPA production processes.

Carson, John C.

1990-11-01

371

Photostability of Aniline Blue (CI 42755) and Methyl Blue (CI 42780)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercially available and purified samples of Aniline Blue and Methyl Blue (both dyes having the synonym “Cotton Blue”) in aqueous solution appeared to be reasonably photostable when subjected to simulated sunlight. The compounds were, however, degraded in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (100 vol.), the reaction following second order kinetics with Aniline Blue and first order kinetics with Methyl Blue.

K. Kotak; A. S. Schulte; J. Hay; J. K. Sugden

1997-01-01

372

Allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates in disposable blue diathermy pads.  

PubMed Central

We report 2 cases of elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates from disposable blue diathermy pads used on patients who underwent routine surgery. Their reactions were severe, and took approximately 5 weeks to resolve. Both patients gave a prior history of finger tip dermatitis following the use of artificial sculptured acrylic nails, which is a common, but poorly reported, cause of acrylate allergy. Patch testing subsequently confirmed allergies to multiple acrylates present in both the conducting gel of disposable blue diathermy pads, and artificial sculptured acrylic nails. We advocate careful history taking prior to surgery to avoid unnecessary exposure to acrylates in patients already sensitized. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

Sidhu, S. K.; Shaw, S.

1999-01-01

373

Classification of Ultra Blue Sources in the Kepler Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our study focused on a sample of ~200 ultra blue sources in the Kepler Field extracted from the Howell-Everett UBV survey. Utilizing data from this survey, the KIC, 2MASS, GALEX, and WISE, we generated spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for every object. We compared these SEDs with known SEDs of a variety of standard blue sources as well as visually examining HEASARC, UBV, DSS, 2MASS, and WISE image data. We were able to categorize our sources as stars, white dwarfs, cataclysmic variables, active galactic nuclei, x-ray binaries, planetary nebula nuclei, or other. We will present examples of our classification process and a table of results.

Odden, Caroline; Seebode, S.; Childers, J. M.; Melton, C.; McCutcheon, M.; Ciardi, D.; Howell, S. B.

2013-01-01

374

True blue: blue-emitting aluminum(III) quinolinolate complexes.  

PubMed

Blue-emitting heteroleptic aluminum(III) bis(2-methyl-8-quinolinolate)phenolate complexes were synthesized. A tunable, blue-to-green emission is achieved by attaching electron-withdrawing modulators to the emisssive quinaldinate ligand. The electronic nature of modulator substituents attached to the position of the highest HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital) density is used to modulate ligand HOMO levels to achieve effective emission tuning to obtain blue-emitting materials. Optical and electrochemical properties of the resulting complexes were investigated and compared to the results of density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP/6-31G*) studies. The resulting materials may find application as organic light-emitting device materials. PMID:17112247

Pérez-Bolívar, César; Montes, Victor A; Anzenbacher, Pavel

2006-11-27

375

Towards dualband megapixel QWIP focal plane arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024 × 1024 pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NE?T) of 17 mK at a 95 K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300 K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NE?T of 13 mK at a 70 K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR detector array after the subtraction of system noise. Both MWIR and LWIR focal planes have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90 K and 70 K operating temperatures respectively, with similar optical and background conditions. In addition, we have demonstrated MWIR and LWIR pixel co-registered simultaneously readable dualband QWIP focal plane arrays. In this paper, we will discuss the performance in terms of quantum efficiency, NE?T, uniformity, operability, and modulation transfer functions of the 1024 × 1024 pixel arrays and the progress of dualband QWIP focal plane array development work.

Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Hill, C. J.; Rafol, S. B.; Salazar, D.; Woolaway, J.; LeVan, P. D.; Tidrow, M. Z.

2007-04-01

376

Toward dualband megapixel QWIP focal plane arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024x1024 pixel InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs based quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NE?T) of 17 mK at a 95K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NE?T of 13 mK at a 70K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR detector array after the subtraction of system noise. Both MWIR and LWIR focal planes have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90K and 70K operating temperatures respectively, with similar optical and background conditions. It is well known that III-V compound semiconductor materials such as GaAs, InP, etc. are easy to grow and process into devices. In addition, III-V compound semiconductors are available in large diameter wafers, up to 8-inches. Thus, III-V compound semiconductor based infrared focal plane technologies such as QWIP, InSb, and strain layer superlattices (SLS) are potential candidates for the development of large format focal planes such as 4096x4096 pixels and larger. In this paper, we will discuss the possibility of extending the infrared detector array size up to 16 megapixels.

Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Hill, C. J.; Kurth, E.; Woolaway, J.; LeVan, P. D.; Tidrow, M. Z.

2007-05-01

377

Towards Dualband Megapixel QWIP Focal Plane Arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024 x 1024 pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NEDT) of 17 mK at a 95 K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300 K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NEDT of 13 mK at a 70 K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR detector array after the subtraction of system noise. Both MWIR and LWIR focal planes have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90 K and 70 K operating temperatures respectively, with similar optical and background conditions. In addition, we have demonstrated MWIR and LWIR pixel co-registered simultaneously readable dualband QWIP focal plane arrays. In this paper, we will discuss the performance in terms of quantum efficiency, NEDT, uniformity, operability, and modulation transfer functions of the 1024 x 1024 pixel arrays and the progress of dualband QWIP focal plane array development work.

Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Hill, C. J.; Rafol, S. B.; Salazar, D.; Woolaway, J.; LeVan, P. D.; Tidrow, M. Z.

2006-01-01

378

SIRTF focal plane technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) will have three science instruments, the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) which will obtain multispectral images between 1.8 micron and 26 microns, the Infrared Spectrometer (IRS) which is a set of two dispersive spectrometers covering the wavelength range between 2.5 and 200 microns, and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for SIRTF (MIPS) which is a general-purpose photometric instrument which operates between 30 and 1,200 microns. Taken together, the full wavelength range of these instruments extends from 1.8 micron to 1,200 microns, equivalent to nearly a factor of 700 in photon energy and diffraction limited image size. In addition to supporting this unprecedented spectral and optical coupling requirement, the SIRTF detectors must operate at lower temperatures than previously demonstrated and be optimized for new levels of performance in order to achieve the goals of the science mission. Thus, development of the detector arrays for the SIRTF instruments is one of the most challenging aspects of the instrument development activities.

Capps, Richard W.; Bothwell, Mary

1991-01-01

379

The BlueSky Smoke Modeling Framework: Recent Developments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BlueSky systems—a set of decision support tools including SmartFire and the BlueSky Framework—aid public policy decision makers and scientific researchers in evaluating the air quality impacts of fires. Smoke and fire managers use BlueSky systems in decisions about prescribed burns and wildland firefighting. Air quality agencies use BlueSky systems to support decisions related to air quality regulations. We will discuss a range of recent improvements to the BlueSky systems, as well as examples of applications and future plans. BlueSky systems have the flexibility to accept basic fire information from virtually any source and can reconcile multiple information sources so that duplication of fire records is eliminated. BlueSky systems currently apply information from (1) the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Hazard Mapping System (HMS), which represents remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES); (2) the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) interagency project, which derives fire perimeters from Landsat 30-meter burn scars; (3) the Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Group (GeoMAC), which produces helicopter-flown burn perimeters; and (4) ground-based fire reports, such as the ICS-209 reports managed by the National Wildfire Coordinating Group. Efforts are currently underway to streamline the use of additional ground-based systems, such as states' prescribed burn databases. BlueSky systems were recently modified to address known uncertainties in smoke modeling associated with (1) estimates of biomass consumption derived from sparse fuel moisture data, and (2) models of plume injection heights. Additional sources of remotely sensed data are being applied to address these issues as follows: - The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis Real-Time (TMPA-RT) data set is being used to improve dead fuel moisture estimates. - EastFire live fuel moisture estimates, which are derived from NASA's MODIS direct broadcast, are being used to improve live fuel moisture estimates. - NASA's Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) stereo heights are being used to improve estimates of plume injection heights. Further, the Fire Location and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBÉ) model was incorporated into the BlueSky Framework as an alternative means of calculating fire emissions. FLAMBÉ directly estimates emissions on the basis of fire detections and radiance measures from NASA's MODIS and NOAA's GOES satellites. (The authors gratefully acknowledge NASA's Applied Sciences Program [Grant Nos. NN506AB52A and NNX09AV76G)], the USDA Forest Service, and the Joint Fire Science Program for their support.)

Sullivan, D. C.; Larkin, N.; Raffuse, S. M.; Strand, T.; ONeill, S. M.; Leung, F. T.; Qu, J. J.; Hao, X.

2012-12-01

380

Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias) capturing fish at Seney National Wildlife Refuge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The image shows predation (piscivory) by a Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias) in a wetland complex Great Blue Herons typically forage for fish, frogs, and other animals at the edge of a body of water or in shallow marshes (wetlands). This image was taken at a National Wildlife Refuge, where wildlife management is undertaken for the goal of perpetuating and increasing wildlife (i.e., terrestrial vertebrate) abundances. As a result, species such as Great Blue Herons often benefit as they can use the habitat created by the refuge.

Lepczyk, Christopher

2010-02-16

381

Plane wave facing technique for ultrasonic elastography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A shear wave generation technique which exploits multiple plane waves facing with each other toward their center line is introduced. On this line, ultrasonic waves interfere constructively resulting two planar shear waves that propagate to the opposite directions parallel to the transducer instead of oblique wave from multiple point focused pushes due to the temporal inconsistency of the pushes. One advantage of the plane wave facing technique over an unfocused push beam is that it generates much larger shear waves because it actively takes advantage of constructive interference between waves and, moreover, a larger number of elements can be used without diffusing the beam pattern. Field II simulated intensity maps of the push beams using the proposed method are presented with those of multiple point focusing and unfocusing techniques for comparison. In the simulation, two plane waves are considered for the simplicity, and the number of elements, apodization, and steering angles for facing are varied as parameters. Also, elasticity images of CIRS 049A phantom are presented using the proposed technique with comb-shaped push beams, i.e. multiple push beams are used simultaneously at different locations. L7-4 transducer is used for the simulation and elasticity imaging.

Lee, Mingu; Shim, Hwan; Cheon, Byeong Geun; Jung, Yunsub

2014-03-01

382

The Blue-Collar Brain  

PubMed Central

Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body’s tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior.

Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

2012-01-01

383

The blue-collar brain.  

PubMed

Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

2012-01-01

384

Crater Lake: blue through time  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Blue is the color of constancy, hence the term true blue. The unearthly blueness of Crater Lake reflects its pristine character and gives scientists a focal point for studying human impacts on aquatic environments over long periods of time. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), National Park Service, and Oregon State University have systematically studied the lake for the last two decades. Long-term monitoring of this lake is a priority of Crater Lake National Park and will continue far into the future.

Larson, Gary L.; Buktenica, Mark; Collier, Robert

2003-01-01

385

Blue light emitting thiogallate phosphor  

DOEpatents

A crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor of the formula RGa.sub.2 S.sub.4 :Ce.sub.x where R is selected from the group consisting of calcium, strontium, barium and zinc, and x is from about 1 to 10 atomic percent, the phosphor characterized as having a crystalline microstructure on the size order of from about 100 .ANG. to about 10,000 .ANG. is provided together with a process of preparing a crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor by depositing on a substrate by CVD and resultant thin film electroluminescent devices including a layer of such deposited phosphor on an ordinary glass substrate.

Dye, Robert C. (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, David C. (Los Alamos, NM); King, Christopher N. (Portland, OR); Tuenge, Richard T. (Hillsboro, OR)

1998-01-01

386

Blue-green upconversion laser  

DOEpatents

A blue-green laser (450-550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm.sup.3+. The Tm.sup.+ is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP.

Nguyen, Dinh C. (Los Alamos, NM); Faulkner, George E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01

387

Blue-green upconversion laser  

DOEpatents

A blue-green laser (450--550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm[sup 3+]. The Tm[sup 3+] is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP. 3 figs.

Nguyen, D.C.; Faulkner, G.E.

1990-08-14

388

"Ancient" blue nevi (cellular blue nevi with degenerative stromal changes).  

PubMed

Ancient melanocytic nevi are benign melanocytic neoplasms that show degenerative and atypical changes, sometimes leading to a misdiagnosis of melanoma. We describe 6 patients (M:F ratio 4:2; age range, 15-84 years; median, 50 years) who presented with cellular blue nevi showing stromal changes resembling those of ancient melanocytic nevi. The lesions were located on the buttocks (4 patients) and on the trunk (2 patients) and clinically consisted of heavily pigmented nodules. Histology revealed the architectural pattern of cellular blue nevi. However, the architecture was strikingly altered by stromal changes like those seen in ancient melanocytic nevi, including increased number of large, dilated vessels with pseudoangiomatous features in 4 cases, hyaline angiopathy in 4 cases, myxoid changes, sclerosis or hyalinization of the stroma in all cases, and variable amounts of edema in 4 cases. In 2 cases, a large edematous area was present in the center of the lesion, and nests of ovoidal melanocytes and single dendritic melanocytes appeared to "float" in the stroma. Pleomorphic melanocytes were observed in all cases. Ancient blue nevi represent a morphologic variation of cellular blue nevi-Masson neuronevi with degenerative stromal changes. Recognition of these lesions can help prevent overdiagnosis of melanoma. PMID:18212535

Cerroni, Lorenzo; Borroni, Riccardo G; Massone, Cesare; Kerl, Helmut

2008-02-01

389

Evans blue dye-enhanced capillary-resolution photoacoustic microscopy in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complete and continuous imaging of microvascular networks is crucial for a wide variety of biomedical applications. Photoacoustic tomography can provide high resolution microvascular imaging using hemoglobin within red blood cells (RBCs) as an endogenic contrast agent. However, intermittent RBC flow in capillaries results in discontinuous and fragmentary capillary images. To overcome this problem, we use Evans blue (EB) dye as

Junjie Yao; Konstantin Maslov; Song Hu; Lihong V. Wang

2009-01-01

390

Carbon monoxide:methylene blue oxidoreductase from Pseudomonas carboxydovorans.  

PubMed Central

The enzyme carbon monoxide:methylene blue oxidoreductase from CO autotrophically grown cells of Pseudomonas carboxydovorans strain OM5, was purified to homogeneity. The enzyme was obtained in 26% yield and was purified 36-fold. The enzyme was stable for at least 6 days, had a molecular weight of 230,000, gave a single protein and activity band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and was homogeneous by the criterion of sedimentation equilibrium. Sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis revealed a single band of molecular weight 107,000. Carbon monoxide:methylene blue oxidoreductase did not catalyze reduction of pyridine or flavin nucleotides but catalyzed the oxidation of CO to CO2 in the presence of methylene blue, thionine, toluylene blue, dichlorophenolindophenol, or pyocyanine under strictly anaerobic conditions. The visible spectrum revealed maxima at 405 and 470 nm. The millimolar extinction coefficients were 43.9 (405 nm) and 395.5 (275 nm), respectively. Absorption at 470 nm decreased in the presence of dithionite, and the spectrum was not affected by the substrate CO. Maximum reaction rates were found at pH 7.0 and 63 degrees C; temperature dependence followed the Arrhenius equation, with an activation energy (delta H degree) of 36.8 kJ/mol (8.8 kcal/mol). The apparent Km was 53 microM for CO. The purified enzyme was incapable of oxidizing methane, methanol, or formaldehyde in the presence of methylene blue as electron acceptor. Images

Meyer, O; Schlegel, H G

1980-01-01

391

Strategic blue-green communication filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The project began as an effort to construct narrowband, wide-field-of-view, large-aperture, plastic, birefringent filters suitable for blue-green communications. During the course of the study we investigated the use of crystalline materials in addition to plastic films, and we studied filter design theory in order to find designs more suitable to the blue-green system requirements. In addition, we constructed a quartz, 2A filter for the 1981 SLCAIR experiment. In this report we have included an introduction to the principles of narrowband, wide-field-of-view, birefringent filters. This section is included since the subject matter is not readily available except piecemeal in technical journals. Section 3 is a discussion of the materials which were considered during this study. It contains subsections devoted to crystals, plastics and analog element, respectively. A class of new lossless filter designs is described in Section 4. These designs are expected to provide a basis for high-transmission filters in the future. The operational SLCAIR-81 filter is described in Section 5. It was part of the successful experiment which demonstrated communication to the USN Dolphin, a research submarine. Finally, in Section 6 we describe the non-vignetting filter design which was discovered during this study. It represents a significant throughput advantage for crystal filters used in non-imaging applications.

Rosenberg, W. J.

1984-04-01

392

Blue-ice and snow runways <  

NSF Publications Database

Concepts for such runways include "blue-ice" runways on glacier ice and runways on compacted snow. 2.2.1.2 Development of a blue-ice runway at the Pegasus site (Pegasus II) The concept for the Pegasus II runway is to develop a runway directly on exposed blue ice. 2.2.2.1 Development of a blue-ice runway at Mount Howe The closest potential blue-ice runway site to the South Pole is at Mount Howe, where the exposed blue-ice surface is suitable as a runway with relatively little smoothing.

393

Adsorption on Single Crystal Planes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A working instrument has been developed and tested for measuring work functions of perfect single crystal planes. The longstanding high work function value (6.0 eV) for emission from the (110) plane of tungsten was investigated using the new FN plus energ...

R. D. Young H. E. Clark

1967-01-01

394

Chameleon Graphing: The Coordinate Plane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web unit introduces the coordinate plane with the help of Sam the Chameleon, who illustrates how to find points on a number line and graph points in the coordinate plane. A link to a Java applet for graphing with Sam is included.

Whitcher, Ursula

2000-01-01

395

Measurement of out-of-plane deformation by combination of speckle photography and speckle shearing interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measure the derivative of out-of-plane deformation in presence of large in-plane rigid body displacement (RBD) by a combination of Electronic Speckle-Shearing Pattern Interferometry (ESSPI) and speckle photography. We use digital speckle photography in order to compensate for the in-plane RBD and eliminate any decorrelation effects. ESSPI techniques are then applied to the compensated speckle images to obtain the derivative of the out-of-plane deformation. The method is tested on an aluminum plate subjected to simultaneous out-of-plane deformation and large in-plane RBD. The results indicate that the proposed method preserves the fringe contrast observed in ESSPI.

Barrientos, B.; Martinez-Celorio, R. A.; Lopez, Luis Marti; Dirckx, J. J. Je; Cywiak, Moises

396

Neuromorphic infrared focal plane performs on-plane local contrast enhancement, spatial, and temporal filtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An infrared focal plane has been simulated, designed and fabricated which mimics the form and function of the vertebrate retina. The 'Neuromorphic' focal plane has the capability of performing real-time local contrast enhancement, much like the response of the human eye, and operates without saturation over an extremely wide dynamic range due to its logarithmic photoresponse. The device makes use of an indium antimonide detector array with a 3 - 5 micrometers spectral response, and a switched capacitor network to compute a real-time 2D spatial average. A gaussian subtraction method is used to produce the pixel output which when displayed produces an image with enhanced edges, representing spatial and temporal derivatives in the scene. The spatial and temporal responses of the device are tunable during operation, permitting the operator to 'peak up' the response of the array to spatial and temporally-varying signals. Such an array will adapt to ambient illumination conditions without loss of detection performance. The need to post-process infrared images using digital techniques is thus reduced; seekers making use of this technology could be made smaller due to the reduction of off-plane processing hardware. This paper will review the Neuromorphic infrared focal plane from initial operational simulations to detailed design characteristics, and will conclude with a presentation of preliminary operational data for the device.

Massie, Mark A.; Woolaway, James T.; Huynh, B. L.; Johnson, Greg A.; Curzan, J. P.

1993-01-01

397

Blue Sky and Rayleigh Scattering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Georgia State University explains why we see the sky as blue. It describes Rayleigh scattering, which refers to the scattering of light off of the molecules of the air, and Mie scattering, which refers to the scattering of light by larger particles.

Carl R. (Rod) Nave; University, Georgia S.

398

Baby T (Blue) (Size: Medium)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.

1900-01-01

399

Baby T (Blue) (Size: Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.

1900-01-01

400

Baby T (Blue) (Size: Small)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.

1900-01-01

401

LE BLUES ET SA MUSIQUE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blues, an original form of music, born in USA d uring the second half of the XIXth century, is being deeply questioned. D oes it come from the « share- cropping », system which replaced slavery in the de ep South ? Is it a reaction against racism, a statement of the black culture ? Concerni ng music, it

Bernard JOLIBERT

402

Singing' the Black and Blues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is so obvious that the sky is blue in the daytime and black at night, but it took the smartest humans thousands of years of observation, thought, discussion, conjecture, and analysis to finally come up with answers that make scientific sense as to why the sky is these colors. This article discusses light and the scientific research…

Fisher, Diane

2004-01-01

403

Design study of the accessible focal plane telescope for shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and cost analysis of an accessible focal plane telescope for Spacelab is presented in blueprints, tables, and graphs. Topics covered include the telescope tube, the telescope mounting, the airlock plus Spacelab module aft plate, the instrument adapter, and the instrument package. The system allows access to the image plane with instrumentation that can be operated by a scientist in a shirt sleeve environment inside a Spacelab module.

1976-01-01

404

Ground plane insulating coating for proximity focused devices  

DOEpatents

A thin layer of alumina (aluminum oxide) is coated onto the ground plane of a microchannel plate (MCP) without covering the pores of the MCP so it does not effect the performance. The coating is sputtered onto the ground plane at a very steep angle. The addition of the thin dielectric coating of alumina greatly improves the spatial resolution of proximity focused image intensifiers using a narrow gap between the phosphor screen and the MCP. With the coating on the ground plane and the same gap the phosphor screen can be ran at 9000 volts, as compared to 3 kV without the coating. 3 figs.

Power, G.D.

1998-07-14

405

Ground plane insulating coating for proximity focused devices  

DOEpatents

A thin layer of alumina (aluminum oxide) is coated onto the ground plane of a microchannel plate (MCP) without covering the pores of the MCP so it does not effect the performance. The coating is sputtered onto the ground plane at a very steep angle. The addition of the thin dielectric coating of alumina greatly improves the spatial resolution of proximity focused image intensifiers using a narrow gap between the phosphor screen and the MCP. With the coating on the ground plane and the same gap the phosphor screen can be ran at 9000 volts, as compared to 3 kV without the coating.

Power, Gary D. (Manteca, CA)

1998-01-01

406

Blue Marble: Remote Characterization of Habitable Planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study of the nature and distribution of habitable environments beyond the Solar System is a key area for Astrobiology research. At the present time, our Earth is the only habitable planet that can be characterized in the same way that we might characterize planets beyond the Solar System. Due to limitations in our current and near-future technology, it is likely that extra-solar planets will be observed as single-pixel objects. To understand this data, we must develop skills in analyzing and interpreting the radiation obtained from a single pixel. These skills must include the study of the time variation of the radiation, and the range of its photometric, spectroscopic and polarimetric properties. In addition, to understand whether we are properly analyzing the single pixel data, we need to compare it with a ground truth of modest resolution images in key spectral bands. This paper discusses the concept for a mission called Blue Marble that would obtain data of the Earth using a combination of spectropolarimetry, spectrophotometry, and selected band imaging. To obtain imagery of the proper resolution, it is desirable to place the Blue Marble spacecraft no closer than the outer region of cis-lunar space. This paper explores a conceptual mission design that takes advantage of low-cost launchers, bus designs and mission elements to provide a cost effective observing platform located at one of the stable Earth-moon Lagrangian points (L4, L5). The mission design allows for the development and use of novel technologies, such as a spinning moon sensor for attitude control, and leverages lessons-learned from previous low-cost spacecraft such as Lunar Prospector to yield a low-risk mission concept.

Woolf, Neville; Lewis, Brian; Chartres, James; Genova, Anthony

2009-01-01

407

iPlane: An Information Plane for Distributed Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the design, implementation, and evaluation of iPlane, a scalable service providing accu- rate predictions of Internet path performance for emerg- ing overlay services. Unlike the more common black box latency prediction techniques in use today, iPlane adopts a structural approach and predicts end-to-end path per- formance by composing the performance of measured segments of Internet

Harsha V. Madhyastha; Tomas Isdal; Michael Piatek; Colin Dixon; Thomas E. Anderson; Arvind Krishnamurthy; Arun Venkataramani

2006-01-01

408

Photoacoustic microscopy using Evans Blue dye as a contrast agent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complete and continuous imaging of microvascular networks is crucial for a wide variety of biomedical applications. Photoacoustic tomography can provide high resolution microvascular imaging using hemoglobin within red blood cells (RBC) as an endogenous contrast agent. However, intermittent RBC flow in capillaries results in discontinuous and fragmentary capillary images. To overcome this problem, we used Evans Blue (EB) dye as a contrast agent for in vivo photoacoustic imaging. EB has strong optical absorption at 610 nm and distributes uniformly in the blood stream by chemically binding to albumin. By intravenous injection of EB (6%, 200 ?L), complete and continuous microvascular networks-especially capillaries-of the ears of nude mice were imaged. The diffusion of EB (3%, 100 ?L) leaving the blood stream was monitored for 2 hours. At lower administration dose of EB (3%, 50 ?L), the clearance of the EB-albumin complex was imaged for 10 days and quantitatively investigated using a two-compartment model.

Yao, Junjie; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Hu, Song; Wang, Lihong V.

2010-02-01

409

Blue Light Regulation in Neurospora crassa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungusNeurospora crassahas been shown to be a paradigm for photobiological, biochemical, and genetic studies of blue light perception and signal transduction. Several different developmental and morphological processes ofNeurosporaare regulated by blue light and can be divided into early and late blue light responses. The characterization of two central regulator proteins of blue light signal transduction inNeurospora crassa,WC1 and WC2,

H. Linden; P. Ballario; G. Macino

1997-01-01

410

MUBs inequivalence and affine planes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are fairly large families of unitarily inequivalent complete sets of N + 1 mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) known in CN for various prime powers N. The number of such sets is not bounded above by any polynomial as a function of N. While it is standard that there is a superficial similarity between complete sets of MUBs and finite affine planes, there is an intimate relationship between these large families and affine planes. This note briefly summarizes ``old'' results that do not appear to be well known concerning known families of complete sets of MUBs and their associated planes.

Kantor, W. M.

2012-03-01

411

Coordinates and the Cartesian Plane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The lesson begins with a short refresher lecture on how points are written in (x,y) format and orientation with the Cartesian plane axes. The lecture also covers which directions are positive and which are negative on an x-y plane. Students learn about what it means for a relation to be a function and how to determine domain and range of a set of data points. Prerequisite knowledge: Familiarity with the coordinate plane, coordinates, and equations are helpful, but not required.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,; Mckelvey, Aubrey

2007-01-01

412

Multispectral linear array focal plane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is provided of a sensor chip array for a unified multispectral focal plane for the Multispectral Linear Array (MLA) instrument. The involved concept of sensing multispectral earth resources imagery through the use of spectral filters deposited directly on a single row of silicon charge-coupled device (CCD) chips has been considered for a number of years. A simplified focal plane was designed after a number of experiments. Technology considerations regarding the design of the multispectral focal plane are discussed. Experimental data are presented which show that the arising problems have been or can be solved.

Hall, J. A.; Blaha, F. C.; Mckee, R. C.

1982-01-01

413

Improving the Convergence of Shot-Profile Migration by Plane Wave Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Prestack depth migration may be accelerated by the synthesis of carefully-selected plane-wave virtual sources, and deliberate stacking of input shot records. Plane-wave migration drastically reduces the amount of computation required to generate an interpretable seismic image. Here we show quantitative measurements of the rate of convergence of plane-wave images and compare to traditional shot-profile migration.

Chad M. Hogan; Gary F. Margrave

2007-01-01

414

Multiple quantum well staring focal plane array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple quantum well (MQW) devices have evolved from single detectors to fully operational medium resolution (128 x 128 array) IR systems, such as long wave IR (LWIR) cameras capable of optical imaging. The required operating temperature has increased from 40 K to nearly 77 K, and dark current has been reduced from very high values to values that are manageable with processing electronics. This paper provides fabrication, modeling, test, and optimized multiplexing results to demonstrate the advantages of MQW IR staring focal plane array technology.

Gooden, C. E.; Leblanc, R. A.; Stokes, B.; Beck, W. A.; Faska, T.

1992-02-01

415

Navigation Using Optical Flow Fields: An Application of Dominant Plane Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video sequences capturing real scenes may be interpreted with respect to a dominant plane which is a planar surface covering 'a majority' of pixels in an image of a video sequence, i.e. that planar surface which is represented in the image by a maximum number of pixels. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for the detection of dominant planes

Kazuhiko Kawamoto; D aisuke Yamada; Atsushi Imiya; Reinhard Klette

416

A new rhythm for the Blues.  

PubMed

If 1994 was the year the nation's Blue Cross and Blue Shield plans surpassed their managed care competitors in enrollment, 1995 is shaping up to be the year the Blues lead the stampede to form integrated delivery systems. Plus, a look at the new BC/BS chief, Patrick Hays. PMID:7866438

Tokarski, C

1995-03-01

417

Removal of reactive blue 221 and acid blue 62 anionic dyes from aqueous solutions by sepiolite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of reactive blue 221 and acid blue 62 anionic dyes onto sepiolite from aqueous solutions has been investigated using parameters such as calcination temperature, pH, ionic strength and temperature. After 200°C calcination temperature, the specific surface area of sepiolite decreased with increasing calcination temperature. The amount adsorbed of reactive blue 221 and acid blue 62 on sepiolite increased

Mahir Alkan; Sermet Çelikçapa; Özkan Demirba?; Mehmet Do?an

2005-01-01

418

Methylene blue dye as an alternative to isosulfan blue dye for sentinel lymph node localization.  

PubMed

Isosulfan blue dye has been used with increasing frequency in localizing sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer patients. Few alternative types of dye have been investigated. In a prospective study of 30 patients, methylene blue dye was used instead of isosulfan blue dye to localize the sentinel lymph node. The methylene blue dye localization technique was successful in 90% of patients. These results are similar to those for isosulfan blue dye. This study describes methylene blue dye localization as a successful alternative to isosulfan dye in identifying the sentinel node in breast cancer patients. The methylene blue dye technique offers a substantial cost reduction. PMID:11469932

Simmons, R M; Smith, S M; Osborne, M P

2001-01-01

419

Plane Electromagnetic Wave in PEMC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plane electromagnetic wave propagating in perfect electromagnetic conductor\\u000a(PEMC) is considered. Its wave number has no connection with the frequency. An\\u000ainterface is introduced between an ordinary isotropic medium and PEMC. The wave\\u000ain PEMC is matched to plane electromagnetic wave incident normally on the\\u000ainterface from the ordinary medium and reflected from it. Then the\\u000aplane-parallel slab made of

Bernard Jancewicz

2006-01-01

420

The VLA Galactic Plane Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The VLA Galactic Plane Survey (VGPS) is a survey of HI and 21-cm continuum\\u000aemission in the Galactic plane between longitude 18 degrees 67 degr. with\\u000alatitude coverage from |b| < 1.3 degr. to |b| < 2.3 degr. The survey area was\\u000aobserved with the Very Large Array (VLA) in 990 pointings. Short-spacing\\u000ainformation for the HI line emission was

J. M. Stil; T. Rothwell; A. R. Taylor; J. M. Dickey; F. J. Lockman; P. G. Martin; A. I. Boothroyd; N. M. McClure-Griffiths

2006-01-01

421

Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir  

SciTech Connect

This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

Not Available

1990-09-01

422

49 CFR 218.23 - Blue signal display.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Blue signal display. 218.23 Section 218...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Blue Signal Protection of Workers § 218.23 Blue signal display. (a) Blue signals...

2009-10-01

423

49 CFR 218.23 - Blue signal display.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blue signal display. 218.23 Section 218...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Blue Signal Protection of Workers § 218.23 Blue signal display. (a) Blue signals...

2010-10-01

424

Hubble Views Saturn Ring-Plane Crossing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This sequence of images from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope documents a rare astronomical alignment -- Saturn's magnificent ring system turned edge-on. This occurs when the Earth passes through Saturn's ring plane, as it does approximately every 15 years.

These pictures were taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on 22 May 1995, when Saturn was at a distance of 919 million miles (1.5 billion kilometers) from Earth. At Saturn, Hubble can see details as small as 450 miles (725 km) across. In each image, the dark band across Saturn is the ring shadow cast by the Sun which is still 2.7 degrees above Saturn's ring plane. The box around the western portion of the rings (to the right of Saturn) in each image indicates the area in which the faint light from the rings has been multiplied through image processing (by a factor of 25) to make the rings more visible.

[Top] -

This image was taken while the Earth was above the lit face of the rings. The moons Tethys and Dione are visible to the east (left) of Saturn; Janus is the bright spot near the center of the ring portion in the box, and Pandora is faintly visible just inside the left edge of this box. Saturn's atmosphere shows remarkable detail: multiple banding in both the northern and southern hemispheres, wispy structure at the north edge of the equatorial zone, and a bright area above the ring shadow that is caused by sunlight scattered off the rings onto the atmosphere. There is evidence of a faint polar haze over the north pole of Saturn and a fainter haze over the south.

[Center] -

This image was taken close to the time of ring-plane crossing. The rings are 75% fainter than in the top image, though they do not disappear completely because the vertical face of the rings still reflects sunlight when the rings are edge-on. Rhea is visible to the east of Saturn, Enceladus is the bright satellite in the rings to the west, and Janus is the fainter blip to its right. Pandora is just to the left of Enceladus, but is not visible because Enceladus is too bright. An oval-shaped atmospheric feature has just rotated into view (near the eastern limb, at the northern edge of the equatorial zone), and appears to be a local circulation pattern that is not penetrated by the bright clouds that are deflected around it.

[Bottom] -

This image was taken approximately 96 minutes (one Hubble orbit) after the center image. The rings are 10% brighter than they were in that image. Rhea is visible just off the eastern limb of Saturn, and casts a shadow on the south face of Saturn. During this exposure, the Earth and Sun were on opposite sides of Saturn's ring plane (they remain in this configuration until 10 August 1995). The atmospheric circulation pattern has rotated to just past the center of the planet's disk, and is followed by more wispy structure in the bright band of clouds, reminiscent of the structure seen during the Saturn storm observed in 1990.

These images will be used to determine the time of ring-plane crossing and the thickness of the main rings and to search for as yet undiscovered satellites. Knowledge of the exact time of ring-plane crossing will lead to an improved determination of the rate at which Saturn 'wobbles' about its axis (polar precession).

Technical Notes Each of these images is a 7-second exposure at 8922 Angstroms in a methane absorption band. North is up and east is to the left.

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1995-01-01

425

Ol' Blue Eyes, in Focus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scholarly books with "identity" and "culture" in the title have loomed large on academic publishing lists for several years. Scholarly books with "Sinatra" in the title are a more recent phenomenon. Despite his six-decade career as the Voice (the 1940s), the Chairman of the Board (the 50s and 60s), and Ol' Blue Eyes (the 70s through his death, in…

Nelson, Michael

2009-01-01

426

Blue light regulated shade avoidance.  

PubMed

Most plants grow in dense vegetation with the risk of being out-competed by neighboring plants. These neighbors can be detected not only through the depletion in light quantity that they cause, but also through the change in light quality, which plants perceive using specific photoreceptors. Both the reduction of the red:far-red ratio and the depletion of blue light are signals that induce a set of phenotypic traits, such as shoot elongation and leaf hyponasty, which increase the likelihood of light capture in dense plant stands. This set of phenotypic responses are part of the so called shade avoidance syndrome (SAS). This addendum discusses recent findings on the regulation of the SAS of Arabidopsis thaliana upon blue light depletion. Keller et al. and Keuskamp et al. show that the low blue light attenuation induced shade avoidance response of seedling and rosette-stage A. thaliana plants differ in their hormonal regulation. These studies also show there is a regulatory overlap with the R:FR-regulated SAS. PMID:22499181

Keuskamp, Diederik H; Keller, Mercedes M; Ballaré, Carlos L; Pierik, Ronald

2012-04-01

427

The Cryptochrome Blue Light Receptors.  

PubMed

Cryptochromes are photolyase-like blue light receptors originally discovered in Arabidopsis but later found in other plants, microbes, and animals. Arabidopsis has two cryptochromes, CRY1 and CRY2, which mediate primarily blue light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and photoperiodic control of floral initiation, respectively. In addition, cryptochromes also regulate over a dozen other light responses, including circadian rhythms, tropic growth, stomata opening, guard cell development, root development, bacterial and viral pathogen responses, abiotic stress responses, cell cycles, programmed cell death, apical dominance, fruit and ovule development, seed dormancy, and magnetoreception. Cryptochromes have two domains, the N-terminal PHR (Photolyase-Homologous Region) domain that bind the chromophore FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide), and the CCE (CRY C-terminal Extension) domain that appears intrinsically unstructured but critical to the function and regulation of cryptochromes. Most cryptochromes accumulate in the nucleus, and they undergo blue light-dependent phosphorylation or ubiquitination. It is hypothesized that photons excite electrons of the flavin molecule, resulting in redox reaction or circular electron shuttle and conformational changes of the photoreceptors. The photoexcited cryptochrome are phosphorylated to adopt an open conformation, which interacts with signaling partner proteins to alter gene expression at both transcriptional and posttranslational levels and consequently the metabolic and developmental programs of plants. PMID:21841916

Yu, Xuhong; Liu, Hongtao; Klejnot, John; Lin, Chentao

2010-09-23

428

Identification of polymer stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal display by chromaticity diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reported an identification method of blue phase liquid crystal (BPLC) display status by using Commission International de l'Éclairage (CIE) chromaticity diagram. The BPLC was injected into in-plane-switch (IPS) cell, polymer stabilized (PS) by ultraviolet cured process and analyzed by luminance colorimeter. The results of CIE chromaticity diagram showed a remarkable turning point when polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal II (PSBPLC-II) formed in the IPS cell. A mechanism of CIE chromaticity diagram identify PSBPLC display status was proposed, and we believe this finding will be useful to application and production of PSBPLC display.

Lan, Yi-Fen; Tsai, Cheng-Yeh; Wang, Ling-Yung; Ku, Po-Jen; Huang, Tai-Hsiang; Liu, Chu-Yu; Sugiura, Norio

2012-04-01

429

Sex differences in response to red and blue light in human primary visual cortex: a bold fMRI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies using a variety of investigative methods, including functional brain imaging and electroencephalography (EEG), have suggested that changes in central nervous system (CNS) dopamine function result in altered visual system processing. The discovery of abnormal retinal blue cone, but not red cone, electroretinogram in association with cocaine withdrawal and Parkinson's disease suggests that visual system response to blue light might

Ronald L Cowan; Blaise de. B Frederick; M Rainey; Jonathan M Levin; Luis C Maas; J Bang; John Hennen; Scott E Lukas; Perry F Renshaw

2000-01-01

430

The solar system's invariable plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The dynamics of solar system objects, such as dwarf planets and asteroids, has become a well-established field of celestial mechanics in the past thirty years, owing to the improvements that have been made in observational techniques and numerical studies. In general, the ecliptic is taken as the reference plane in these studies, although there is no dynamical reason for doing so. In contrast, the invariable plane as originally defined by Laplace, seems to be a far more natural choice. In this context, the latest study of this plane dates back to Burkhardt. Aims: We define and determine the orientation of the invariable plane of the solar system with respect to both the ICRF and the equinox-ecliptic of J2000.0, and evaluate the accuracy of our determination. Methods: Using the long-term numerical ephemerides DE405, DE406, and INPOP10a over their entire available time span, we computed the total angular momentum of the solar system, as well as the individual contribution to it made by each of the planets, the dwarf planets Pluto and Ceres, and the two asteroids Pallas and Vesta. We then deduced the orientation of the invariable plane from these ephemerides. Results: We update the previous results on the determination of the orientation of the invariable plane with more accurate data, and a more complete analysis of the problem, taking into account the effect of the dwarf planet (1) Ceres as well as two of the biggest asteroids, (4) Vesta and (2) Pallas. We show that the inclusion of these last three bodies significantly improves the accuracy of determination of the invariable plane, whose orientation over a 100 y interval does not vary more than 0.1 mas in inclination, and 0.3 mas in longitude of the ascending node. Moreover, we determine the individual contributions of each body to the total angular momentum of the solar system, as well as the inclination and longitude of the node with respect to this latter plane. Conclusions: Owing to the high accuracy of its determination and its fundamental dynamical meaning, the invariable plane provides a permanent natural reference plane that should be used when studying solar system dynamics, instead of the ecliptic. Since it is fixed in an isolated solar system, whereas the ecliptic alters with time, we recommend referring to it when working on long-term dynamics.

Souami, D.; Souchay, J.

2012-07-01

431

76 FR 19466 - Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, et al.; Amended Certification Regarding...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...895, et al.] Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, et al.; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility...TA-W-74,895 Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data...

2011-04-07

432

76 FR 71355 - United States et al. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Montana, Inc. et al.; Proposed Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States et al. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Montana, Inc. et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive...Montana, Billings Division, in United States et al. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of...

2011-11-17

433

Automatic location of microscopic focal planes for computerized stereology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When applying design-based stereology to biological tissue, there are two primary applications for an auto-focusing function in the software of computerized stereology system. The system must first locate the in-focus optical planes at the upper and lower surfaces of stained tissue sections, thus identifying the top and bottom as well as the thickness of the tissue. Second, the system must find the start and end along the Z-axis of stained objects within a Z-stack of images through tissue sections. In contrast to traditional autofocus algorithms that seek a global maximum or peak on the focus curve, the goal of this study was to find the two "knees" of the focus curve that represent the "just out-of-focus" focal planes. The upper surface of the tissue section is defined as the image just before focus is detected moving down the Z-stack. Continuing down, the lower surface is defined as the first image of the last set of adjacent images where focus is no longer detected. The performance of seven focus algorithms in locating the top and bottom focal planes of tissue sections was analyzed by comparing each algorithm on 34 Z-stacks including a total of 828 images. The Thresholded Absolute Gradient algorithm outperformed all others, correctly identifying the top or bottom focal plane within an average of 1 ?m on the training data as well as the test data.

Elozory, Daniel T.; Bonam, Om Pavithra; Kramer, Kurt; Goldgof, Dmitry B.; Hall, Lawrence O.; Mangual, Osvaldo; Mouton, Peter R.

2011-03-01

434

Polish Terms for "Blue" in the Perspective of Vantage Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Polish set of terms for blue includes, inter alia, the following adjectives: "niebieski" "blue", "blekitny" "(sky) blue", "granatowy" "navy blue", "lazurowy" "azure", "modry" "(intense) blue" and "siny" "(grey) violet-blue". The adjective "niebieski" is the basic term; however, it shares some of its functions with "blekitny", which is…

Stanulewicz, Danuta

2010-01-01

435