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Optically sectioned imaging by oblique plane microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oblique Plane Microscopy (OPM) is a light sheet microscopy technique that combines oblique illumination with correction optics that tilt the focal plane of the collection system. OPM can be used to image conventionally mounted specimens on coverslips or tissue culture dishes and has low out-of-plane photobleaching and phototoxicity. No moving parts are required to achieve an optically sectioned image and so high speed optically sectioned imaging is possible. The first OPM results obtained using a high NA water immersion lens on a commercially available inverted microscope frame are presented, together with a measurement of the achievable optical resolution.

Kumar, Sunil; Lin, Ziduo; Lyon, Alex R.; MacLeod, Ken T.; Dunsby, Chris



Multi Bit Plane Image Steganography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses a novel steganography method for images. Most statistical steganalysis algorithms are strong to defeat\\u000a previous steganography algorithms. RS steganalysis and pixel difference histogram analysis are two well-known statistical\\u000a steganalysis algorithms which detect non-random changes caused by embedding a secret message into cover image. In this paper,\\u000a we first explain how two steganalysis algorithms exploit the effect of

Bui Cong Nguyen; Sang Moon Yoon; Heung-kyu Lee



Some Reflections on Plane Mirrors and Images.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the following questions based on the assumption that students' personal experiences and prior beliefs about plane mirrors can promote interesting discussions: (1) How mirror images are formed? (2) Why doesn't paper behave like a mirror? (3) Does a mirror left-right reverse objects? and (4) Why are corner images of two perpendicular…

Galili, Igal; And Others



Tilted planes in 3D image analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliable 3D wholebody scanners which output digitized 3D images of a complete human body are now commercially available. This paper describes a software package, called 3DM, being developed by researchers at Clemson University and which manipulates and extracts measurements from such images. The focus of this paper is on tilted planes, a 3DM tool which allows a user to define

Roy P. Pargas; Nancy J. Staples; Brian F. Malloy; Ken Cantrell; Murtuza Chhatriwala



Walking into Images: Virtual Plane Mosaics for Plenoptic Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective method of depth image based rendering is proposed by applying texture mapping onto virtual but pre-defined multiple planes in the scene, called virtual planes. The method allows the viewpoint either static or moving around, including crossing the plane of the source images. By this approach, the relief textures from depth images are mapped onto the virtual planes, and

Bin Sheng; Enhua Wu



Blue light dermal imaging of human skin.  


While the number of occurrences of skin cancer is constantly increasing, the medical industry relies on the same slow and invasive method of detection. Image processing techniques could prove to be a useful diagnostic tool. With a blue light laser, an optical system, and imaging techniques, a noninvasive detection method that produces immediate results could be developed. This paper analyzes the feasibility of developing such a detection device. The evaluation included the safety and effectiveness of using a blue laser for dermal imaging. The data came from research and a preliminary laboratory experiment. The analysis showed that this laser-based method of skin cancer detection is safe, effective, and continued research should be performed in this area. PMID:12085632

Kirkpatrick, Nathaniel; Donham, Dennis



Simulation of the in-plane-switching blue-phase liquid crystal using the director model.  


We analyze the non-uniform electric field distribution in an in-plane-switching blue phase liquid crystal (IPS-BPLC) cell and use the director model to simulate the electro-optical properties of an IPS-BPLC cell using a commercial simulator. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental data. PMID:23188361

Hu, Shui-Shang; Wu, Jin-Jei; Hsu, Chia-Chun; Chen, Tien-Jung; Lee, King-Lien



Target plane imager for inertial confinement fusion  

SciTech Connect

The Nova laser, completed in December 1984 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is being used to conduct inertial confinement fusion experiments. It is capable of focusing more than 100 kJ of energy on small fusion targets. This paper discusses an optical system called the target plane imager that is used during the beam alignment phase of these experiments. The TPI includes a three meter long periscope with a wide field of view, F/3 objective. The telescope relays images of the target focal plane to viewing optics and a video sensor located outside the target chamber. Operation of the system is possible at three wavelengths:,, and These are the three wavelengths at which the ten Nova laser beams can irradiate targets. Both nearfield and farfield images of the ten beams can be viewed with the TPI. This instrument is used to properly align the laser to the target before each target irradiation.

Swift, C.D.; Bliss, E.S.; Jones, W.A.; Seppala, L.G.



Refraction effect in an in-plane-switching blue phase liquid crystal cell.  


We develop a refraction model to analyze the electro-optic effects of an in-plane-switching blue phase liquid crystal (IPS-BPLC) cell. Good agreement with experiment is obtained. Based on this model, we optimize the parameters affecting the electro-optics of IPS-BPLC, such as electrode dimension, saturated induced birefringence, saturation electric field, and cell gap. An IPS-BPLC with low operation voltage (<10Vrms) and high transmittance (~80%) with single gamma curve can be achieved by optimizing the BPLC material and device structure. PMID:24150316

Xu, Daming; Chen, Yuan; Liu, Yifan; Wu, Shin-Tson



Nonpolar m-plane gallium Nitride-based Laser Diodes in the Blue Spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gallium nitride (GaN), together with its alloys with aluminum and indium, have revolutionized the solid-state optoelectronics market for their ability to emit a large portion of the visible electromagnetic spectrum from deep ultraviolet and into the infrared. GaN-based semiconductor laser diodes (LDs) with emission wavelengths in the violet, blue and green are already seeing widespread implementation in applications ranging from energy storage, lighting and displays. However, commercial GaN-based LDs use the basal c-plane orientation of the wurtzite crystal, which can suffer from large internal electric fields due to discontinuities in spontaneous and piezoelectric polarizations, limiting device performance. The nonpolar orientation of GaN benefits from the lack of polarization-induced electric field as well as enhanced gain. This dissertation discusses some of the benefits and limitations of m-plane oriented nonpolar GaN for LD applications in the true blue spectrum (450 nm). Topics include an overview of material growth by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), waveguide design and processing techniques for improving device performance for multiple lateral mode and single lateral mode ridge waveguides.

Kelchner, Kathryn M.


Metric Rectification for Perspective Images of Planes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the geometry, constraints and algorithmicimplementation for metric rectification of planes. The rectificationallows metric properties, such as angles and lengthratios, to be measured on the world plane from a perspectiveimage.The novel contributions are: first, that in a stratifiedcontext the various forms of providing metric information,which include a known angle, two equal though unknownangles, and a known length ratio; can

David Liebowitz; Andrew Zisserman



Multiplane transesophageal echocardiography: a basic oblique plane patient imaging sequence.  

PubMed Central

We have previously reported a standardized 10-step sequence of monoplane (transverse plane) transesophageal two-dimensional echocardiographic views and a standardized 7-step vertical plane examination, both suitable for expeditious intraoperative use by the beginning practitioner. A multiplane transesophageal examination involves transverse plane views, vertical plane views and the remaining "in-between" oblique plane views. This report describes a sequence of specific oblique views to be used as a framework for the completion of a multiplane transesophageal examination. Each of these steps is illustrated with a two-dimensional echocardiographic image, a matching diagram and a schematic representation of the corresponding axis of interrogation. This description of oblique plane imaging, therefore, completes the components of a multiplane transesophageal examination. Images Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16

Griffin, M.; Rafferty, T.



Focal-Plane Spatially Oversampling CMOS Image Compression Sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image compression algorithms employ computationally expensive spatial convolutional transforms. The CMOS image sensor performs spatially compressing image quantization on the focal plane yielding digital output at a rate proportional to the mere information rate of the video. A bank of column-parallel first-order incremental DeltaSigma-modulated analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) performs column-wise distributed focal-plane oversampling of up to eight adjacent pixels and concurrent

Ashkan Olyaei; Roman Genov



Confocal Blue Reflectance Imaging in Type 2 Idiopathic Macular Telangiectasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

METHODS. In a prospective observational cross-sectional study, both eyes of 33 patients with type 2 IMT were examined by means of fundus biomicroscopy, fundus photography, fluores- cein angiography, and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Confocal blue reflectance (CBR) imaging was performed using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (HRA2; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). To compare the results derived from different imaging modalities,

Peter Charbel Issa; Tos T. J. M. Berendschot; Giovanni Staurenghi; Frank G. Holz; Hendrik P. N. Scholl



Versatile dual focal plane imaging radiometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Dynamics Laboratory at Utah State University built an infrared imaging radiometer with dual, large-format detector arrays and a passively cooled telescope for low earth orbit. The confocal detector arrays include a 128 X 128 HgCdTe array operating from 4.5 to 7.5 micrometers and a 256 X 256 InSb array operating from 2.0 to 4.5 micrometers . These arrays

Gary L. Jensen



Versatile dual focal plane imaging radiometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Dynamics Laboratory at Utah State University built an infrared imaging radiometer with dual, large-format detector arrays and a passively cooled telescope for low earth orbit. The confocal detector arrays include a 128 X 128 HgCdTe array operating from 4.5 to 7.5 micrometers and a 256 X 256 InSb array operating from 2.0 to 4.5 micrometers . These arrays yield simultaneous dual-band images. A 13 cm aperture, passively cooled telescope with single- axis scan mirror gives high system sensitivity, excellent image quality, and precision tracking of targets and backgrounds without the usual complexity of cooled optics. High speed cryogenic filter wheels with 6 to 8 filters per detector provide for rapid band selection. A modular cooling system allows the detector arrays and filters to be cooled using either a mechanical cryocooler or a solid cryogen cryostat depending on mission requirements. An on-board calibration source performs pixel-to-pixel uniformity correction on- orbit.

Jensen, Gary L.



Two-Sided Coded Aperture Imaging Without a Detector Plane  

SciTech Connect

We introduce a novel design for a two-sided, coded-aperture, gamma-ray imager suitable for use in stand off detection of orphan radioactive sources. The design is an extension of an active-mask imager that would have three active planes of detector material, a central plane acting as the detector for two (active) coded-aperture mask planes, one on either side of the detector plane. In the new design the central plane is removed and the mask on the left (right) serves as the detector plane for the mask on the right (left). This design reduces the size, mass, complexity, and cost of the overall instrument. In addition, if one has fully position-sensitive detectors, then one can use the two planes as a classic Compton camera. This enhances the instrument's sensitivity at higher energies where the coded-aperture efficiency is decreased by mask penetration. A plausible design for the system is found and explored with Monte Carlo simulations.

Ziock, Klaus-Peter [ORNL; Cunningham, Mark F [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Fabris, Lorenzo [ORNL



Improved phase imaging from intensity measurements in multiple planes  

SciTech Connect

Problems stemming from quantitative phase imaging from intensity measurements play a key role in many fields of physics. Techniques based on the transport of intensity equation require an estimate of the axial derivative of the intensity to invert the problem. Derivation formulas in two adjacent planes are commonly used to experimentally compute the derivative of the irradiance. Here we propose a formula that improves the estimate of the derivative by using a higher number of planes and taking the noisy nature of the measurements into account. We also establish an upper and lower limit for the estimate error and provide the distance between planes that optimizes the estimate of the derivative.

Soto, Marcos; Acosta, Eva



Target plane imaging system for the Nova laser  

SciTech Connect

The Nova laser, in operation since December 1984, is capable of irradiating targets with light at 1.05, 0.53, and 0.35 Correct alignment of these harmonic beams uses a system called a target plane imager (TPI). It is a large microscope (four meters long, weighing one thousand kilograms) that relays images from the target chamber center to a video optics module located on the outside of the chamber. Several modes of operation are possible including: near-field viewing and far-field viewing at three magnifications and three wavelengths. In addition, the entire instrument can be scanned in X,Y,Z to examine various planes near chamber center. Performance of this system and its computer controls will be described.

Swift, C.D.; Bliss, E.S.; Jones, W.A.; Reeves, R.J.; Seppala, L.G.; Shelton, R.T.; VanArsdall, P.J.



Search Image Formation in the Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata).  


Blue jays trained to detect Catocala moths in slides were exposed to two types of slide series containing these moths: series of one species and series of two species intermixed. In one-species series, detection ability increased with successive encounters with one prey type. No similar effect occurred in two-species series. These results are a direct demonstration of a specific search image. PMID:17813172

Pietrewicz, A T; Kamil, A C



Image Denoising Using Similarities in the TimeScale Plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a de-noising method that recognizes similarities in the image through the time scale behaviour of wavelet\\u000a coefficients. Wavelet details are represented as linear combination of predefined atoms whose center of mass traces trajectories\\u000a in the time scale plane (from fine to coarse scale). These trajectories are the solution of a proper ordinary differential\\u000a equation and characterize atoms

Vittoria Bruni; Domenico Vitulano



Feature-aided multiple target tracking in the image plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vast quantities of EO and IR data are collected on airborne platforms (manned and unmanned) and terrestrial platforms (including fixed installations, e.g., at street intersections), and can be exploited to aid in the global war on terrorism. However, intelligent preprocessing is required to enable operator efficiency and to provide commanders with actionable target information. To this end, we have developed an image plane tracker which automatically detects and tracks multiple targets in image sequences using both motion and feature information. The effects of platform and camera motion are compensated via image registration, and a novel change detection algorithm is applied for accurate moving target detection. The contiguous pixel blob on each moving target is segmented for use in target feature extraction and model learning. Feature-based target location measurements are used for tracking through move-stop-move maneuvers, close target spacing, and occlusion. Effective clutter suppression is achieved using joint probabilistic data association (JPDA), and confirmed target tracks are indicated for further processing or operator review. In this paper we describe the algorithms implemented in the image plane tracker and present performance results obtained with video clips from the DARPA VIVID program data collection and from a miniature unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flight.

Brown, Andrew P.; Sullivan, Kevin J.; Miller, David J.



Achromatic Focal Plane Mask for Exoplanet Imaging Coronagraphy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in coronagraph technologies for exoplanet imaging have achieved contrasts close to 1e-10 at 4 ?/D and 1e-9 at 2 ?/D in monochromatic light. A remaining technological challenge is to achieve high contrast in broadband light; a challenge that is largely limited by chromaticity of the focal plane mask. The size of a star image, and therefore the inner working angle of a coronagraph, scales linearly with wavelength. Focal plane masks are typically the same size at all wavelengths, and must be sized for the longest wavelength to avoid starlight leakage. However, this blocks useful discovery space from the shorter wavelengths. We present here the design, development, and testing of an achromatic focal plane mask based on the concept of optical filtering by a diffractive optical element (DOE). The mask consists of an array of DOE cells, the combination of which functions as a wavelength filter with any desired amplitude and phase transmission. The effective size of the mask varies nearly linearly with wavelength, and allows significant improvement in the inner working angle of the coronagraph at shorter wavelengths. The design is applicable to almost any coronagraph configuration, and enables operation in a wider band of wavelengths than would otherwise be possible.

Newman, Kevin; Belikov, R.; Guyon, O.



High-resolution image recovery from image-plane arrays, using convex projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of reconstructing remotely obtained images from image-plane detector arrays is considered. Although the individual detectors may be larger than the blur spot of the imaging optics, high-resolution reconstructions can be obtained by scanning or rotating the image with respect to the detector. As an alternative to matrix inversion or least-squares estimation, the method of convex projections is proposed.

Henry Stark; Peyma Oskoui



Blue Marble - A Seamless Image Mosaic of the Earth (WMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This spectacular Blue Marble image is the most detailed true-color image of the entire Earth to date. Using a collection of satellite-based observations, scientists and visualizers stitched together months of observations of the land surface, oceans, sea ice, and clouds into a seamless, true-color mosaic of every square kilometer (.386 square mile) of our planet. Much of the information contained in this image came from a single remote-sensing device-NASAs Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. Flying over 700 km above the Earth onboard the Terra satellite, MODIS provides an integrated tool for observing a variety of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric features of the Earth. The land and coastal ocean portions of these images are based on surface observations collected from June through September 2001 and combined, or composited, every eight days to compensate for clouds that might block the sensors view of the surface on any single day. Two different types of ocean data were used in these images: shallow water true color data, and global ocean color (or chlorophyll) data. Topographic shading is based on the GTOPO 30 elevation dataset compiled by the U.S. Geological Surveys EROS Data Center.

Stockli, Reto; King, Michael



Photoacoustic lifetime imaging of dissolved oxygen using methylene blue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measuring distribution of dissolved oxygen in biological tissue is of prime interest for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy optimization. Tumor hypoxia indicates poor prognosis and resistance to radiotherapy. Despite its major clinical significance, no current imaging modality provides direct imaging of tissue oxygen. We present preliminary results demonstrating the potential of photoacoustic lifetime imaging (PALI) for noninvasive, 3-D imaging of tissue oxygen. The technique is based on photoacoustic probing of the excited state lifetime of methylene blue (MB) dye. MB is an FDA-approved water soluble dye with a peak absorption at 660 nm. A double pulse laser system (pump probe) is used to excite the dye and probe its transient absorption by detecting photoacoustic emission. The relaxation rate of MB depends linearly on oxygen concentration. Our measurements show high photoacoustic signal contrast at a probe wavelength of 810 nm, where the excited state absorption is more than four times higher than the ground state absorption. Imaging of a simple phantom is demonstrated. We conclude by discussing possible implementations of the technique in clinical settings and combining it with photodynamic therapy (PDT) for real-time therapy monitoring.

Ashkenazi, Shai



Evaluation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Coarctation of the Aorta: The Importance of Multiple Imaging Planes  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Coarctation of the aorta can be evaluated reliably and noninvasively by magnetic resonance imaging. However, the value of\\u000a different imaging planes in the evaluation of restenosis or aneurysm has not previously been studied. Our purpose was to study\\u000a the relative sensitivity for oblique coronal and oblique parasagittal magnetic resonance imaging to detect restenosis or aneurysm\\u000a formation in children following

S. B. Greenberg; L. A. Marks; E. E. Eshaghpour




SciTech Connect

We present the Multi-Array Galactic Plane Imaging Survey (MAGPIS), which maps portions of the first Galactic quadrant with an angular resolution, sensitivity and dynamic range that surpasses existing radio images of the Milky Way by more than an order of magnitude. The source detection threshold at 20 cm is in the range 1-2 mJy over the 85% of the survey region (5{sup o} < l < 32{sup o}, |b| < 0.8{sup o}) not covered by bright extended emission; the angular resolution is {approx} 6''. We catalog over 3000 discrete sources (diameters mostly < 30'') and present an atlas of {approx} 400 diffuse emission regions. New and archival data at 90 cm for the whole survey area are also presented. Comparison of our catalogs and images with the MSX mid-infrared data allow us to provide preliminary discrimination between thermal and non-thermal sources. We identify 49 high-probability supernova remnant candidates, increasing by a factor of seven the number of known remnants with diameters smaller than 50 in the survey region; several are pulsar wind nebula candidates and/or very small diameter remnants (D < 45''). We report the tentative identification of several hundred H II regions based on a comparison with the mid-IR data; they range in size from unresolved ultra-compact sources to large complexes of diffuse emission on scales of half a degree. In several of the latter regions, cospatial nonthermal emission illustrates the interplay between stellar death and birth. We comment briefly on plans for followup observations and our extension of the survey; when complemented by data from ongoing X-ray and mid-IR observations, we expect MAGPIS to provide an important contribution to our understanding of the birth and death of massive stars in the Milky Way.

Helfand, D J; Becker, R H; White, R L; Fallon, A; Tuttle, S



Virtual-image generation in 360-degree viewable image-plane disk-type multiplex holography.  


By shifting the rotational axis of the recording film and recording the individual image-plane holograms in reversed sequence with the real-image holographic system [Opt. Express 18, 14012 (2010)], the disk-type multiplex hologram can be made to generate virtual image for walk-around viewing if the recording reference source point is maintained on the symmetry axis of hologram disk. Theoretical formulation and numerical simulation show the characteristics of the reconstructed image. Experimental results are also shown for qualitative comparison. PMID:23609740

Cheng, Yih-Shyang; Chen, Zheng-Feng; Chen, Chih-Hung



Early Detection of Breast Cancer via Multi-Plane Correlation Breast Imaging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One major deficiency of standard mammography that limits its accuracy in detecting breast cancer is the camouflaging effect of overlapping structures in the projection images. To minimize this effect, we proposed Multi-plane Correlation Imaging (MCI) tech...

A. S. Chawla E. Samei



Two-sided coded-aperture imaging without a detector plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a novel design for a two-sided, coded-aperture, gamma-ray imager suitable for use in stand off detection of orphan radioactive sources. The design is an extension of an active-mask imager that would have three active planes of detector material, a central plane acting as the detector for two (active) coded-aperture mask planes, one on either side of the detector

K. P. Ziock; M. Cunningham; L. Fabris



Application of oblique plane microscopy to high speed live cell imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oblique Plane Microscopy (OPM) is a light sheet microscopy technique that combines oblique illumination with correction optics that tilt the focal plane of the collection system. OPM can be used to image conventionally mounted specimens on coverslips or tissue culture dishes and has low out-of-plane photobleaching and phototoxicity. No moving parts are required to achieve an optically sectioned image and so high speed optically sectioned imaging is possible. We present high speed 2D and 3D optically sectioned OPM imaging of live cells using a high NA water immersion lens.

Kumar, Sunil; Wilding, Dean; Sikkel, Markus B.; Lyon, Alexander R.; MacLeod, Ken T.; Dunsby, Chris



Statistical field correlations in the image plane of a ground-based telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The statistical field correlations in the image plane of a large ground-based telescope are essentially quite independent of the degree or form of atmospheric turbulence, depending principally on the diameter of the entrance pupil alone. Furthermore, the image field remains correlated over long distances inside the blurred image intensity profile. The correspondingly limited phase excursions of the image field have

Sudhakar Prasad



The CHROMA focal plane array: a large-format, low-noise detector optimized for imaging spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CHROMA (Configurable Hyperspectral Readout for Multiple Applications) is an advanced Focal Plane Array (FPA) designed for visible-infrared imaging spectroscopy. Using Teledyne's latest substrateremoved HgCdTe detector, the CHROMA FPA has very low dark current, low readout noise and high, stable quantum efficiency from the deep blue (390nm) to the cutoff wavelength. CHROMA has a pixel pitch of 30 microns and is available in array formats ranging from 320×480 to 1600×480 pixels. Users generally disperse spectra over the 480 pixel-length columns and image spatially over the n×160 pixellength rows, where n=2, 4, 8, 10. The CHROMA Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC) has Correlated Double Sampling (CDS) in pixel and generates its own internal bias signals and clocks. This paper presents the measured performance of the CHROMA FPA with 2.5 micron cutoff wavelength including the characterization of noise versus pixel gain, power dissipation and quantum efficiency.

Demers, Richard T.; Bailey, Robert; Beletic, James W.; Bernd, Steve; Bhargava, Sidharth; Herring, Jason; Kobrin, Paul; Lee, Donald; Pan, Jianmei; Petersen, Anders; Piquette, Eric; Starr, Brian; Yamamoto, Matthew; Zandian, Majid



Computation of the mid-sagittal plane in diffusion tensor MR brain images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a method for the automated computation of the mid-sagittal plane of the brain in diffusion tensor MR images. We estimate this plane as the one that best superposes the two hemispheres of the brain by reflection symmetry. This is done via the automated minimisation of a correlation-type global criterion over the tensor image. The minimisation is performed using the NEWUOA algorithm in a multiresolution framework. We validate our algorithm on synthetic diffusion tensor MR images. We quantitatively compare this computed plane with similar planes obtained from scalar diffusion images (such as FA and ADC maps) and from the B0 image (that is, without diffusion sensitisation). Finally, we show some results on real diffusion tensor MR images.

Prima, Sylvain; Wiest-Daesslé, Nicolas



The spatially resolved characterisation of Egyptian blue, Han blue and Han purple by photo-induced luminescence digital imaging.  


The photo-induced luminescence properties of Egyptian blue, Han blue and Han purple were investigated by means of near-infrared digital imaging. These pigments emit infrared radiation when excited in the visible range. The emission can be recorded by means of a modified commercial digital camera equipped with suitable glass filters. A variety of visible light sources were investigated to test their ability to excite luminescence in the pigments. Light-emitting diodes, which do not emit stray infrared radiation, proved an excellent source for the excitation of luminescence in all three compounds. In general, the use of visible radiation emitters with low emission in the infrared range allowed the presence of the pigments to be determined and their distribution to be spatially resolved. This qualitative imaging technique can be easily applied in situ for a rapid characterisation of materials. The results were compared to those for Egyptian green and for historical and modern blue pigments. Examples of the application of the technique on polychrome works of art are presented. PMID:19234690

Verri, G



System design of focal plane array based Millimeter-wave Imaging radiometer for concealed weapon detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we developed and experimented of the Wband 1-D focal plane array (FPA) passive imaging radiometer which was called by Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer Equipment (MIRAE). This consists of quasioptics including a dielectric aspheric lens and a metal mirror as a reflector, 30 channels FPA receiver based on the direct conversion type, scanner, image processor and displayer. To get

Won-Gyum Kim; Nam-Won Moon; Yu-Shin Chang; Mun-Kyo Lee; Sang-Won Jung; Jun-Ho Choi; Jin-Mi Jung; Yong-Hoon Kim



Image encryption algorithm based on bit-plane scrambling and multiple chaotic systems combination  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to realize the scrambling aim of combination of pixels position substitution and the pixels values change, and moreover, in order to make up this deficiency which the low security of image encryption using one-dimensional chaotic system to encrypt digital image, a digital image encryption algorithm based on bit plane scrambling and multiple chaotic systems combination is proposed. Firstly,

Huan Zhang; Ruhua Cai



Depth-enhanced integral imaging with multiple central depth planes using multilayered display device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integral imaging attracts much attention as an autostereoscopic three-dimensional display technique for its many advantages. However, the disadvantage of integral imaging is that the expressible depth of three-dimensional image is limited and the image can be displayed only around the central depth plane. This paper proposes a depth- enhanced integral imaging with multiple central depth planes using multilayered display devices. Transparent display devices using liquid crystal are located in parallel to each other and incorporated into an integral imaging system in place of a conventional display device. As a result, the proposed method has multiple central depth planes and permits the limitation of expressible depth to be overcome. The principle of the proposed method is explained, and some experimental results are presented.

Kim, Yunhee; Park, Jae-Hyeung; Choi, Heejin; Kim, Joohwan; Cho, Seong-Woo; Lee, Byoungho



InGaAs/InP focal plane arrays for visible light imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on recent results in using InGaAs/InP focal plane arrays for visible light imaging. We have fabricated substrate-removed backside illuminated InGaAs/InP focal plane arrays down to a 10 ?m pitch with high quantum efficiency from 0.4 ?m through 1.7 ?m. This focal plane array can be used for visible imaging as well as imaging eye-safe lasers. Using the InGaAs/InP materials system for visible imaging applications has several advantages over silicon based CMOS or CCD imagers including inherent radiation hardness, the ability to simultaneously achieve low crosstalk (less than 1%), and bandwidths exceeding 1 GHz, as well as the ability to image out to 1.7 ?m.

Martin, Tara J.; Cohen, Marshall J.; Dries, J. C.; Lange, Michael J.



Optical image encryption with a bit-plane separation method in phase-shifting digital holography  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a method for optical image encryption based on fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) and Arnold transform (ART) in phase-shifting digital holography. An input image is first divided into eight bit planes, and each bit plane is encrypted based on double random-phase masks and FRFT. Complex amplitude for the object is retrieved by phase-shifting digital holography in

Wen Chen; Chenggen Quan; Cho Jui Tay



Search Image Formation in the Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue jays trained to detect Catocala moths in slides were exposed to two types of slide series containing these moths: series of one species and series of two species intermixed. In one-species series, detection ability increased with successive encounters with one prey type. No similar effect occurred in two-species series. These results are a direct demonstration of a specific search

Alexandra T. Pietrewicz; Alan C. Kamil



CMOS image sensor camera with focal plane edge detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simple, yet robust, VLSI implementation of sampled-method edge detection. Our technique adopts the well-known correlated double sampling (CDS), usually used for fixed pattern noise (FPN) reduction, to perform a sampled differentiation of the captured image to detect visual edges. This circuit is usually an integral part of most CMOS image sensors; therefore no additional area is required

Muahel Tabet; Richard Hornsey



Rapid three-dimensional isotropic imaging of living cells using Bessel beam plane illumination  

PubMed Central

A key challenge when imaging living cells is how to noninvasively extract the most spatiotemporal information possible. Unlike popular wide-field and confocal methods, plane-illumination microscopy limits excitation to the information-rich vicinity of the focal plane, providing effective optical sectioning and high speed while minimizing out-of-focus background and premature photobleaching. Here we used scanned Bessel beams in conjunction with structured illumination and/or two-photon excitation to create thinner light sheets (<0.5 ?m) better suited to three-dimensional (3D) subcellular imaging. As demonstrated by imaging the dynamics of mitochondria, filopodia, membrane ruffles, intracellular vesicles and mitotic chromosomes in live cells, the microscope currently offers 3D isotropic resolution down to ~0.3 ?m, speeds up to nearly 200 image planes per second and the ability to noninvasively acquire hundreds of 3D data volumes from single living cells encompassing tens of thousands of image frames.

Planchon, Thomas A; Gao, Liang; Milkie, Daniel E; Davidson, Michael W; Galbraith, James A; Galbraith, Catherine G; Betzig, Eric



Low Voltage and High Transmittance Polymer-Stabilized Blue-Phase Liquid Crystal Device by Combined In-Plane and Oblique Electric Field along the Horizontal Direction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal (PS-BPLC) device with high transmittance and low driving voltage by designing the electrode structure. The electrodes are comprised with two interdigitated bottom pixel electrodes with opposite polarities and a top common electrode with 0 V, which is placed in the middle of the two bottom electrodes. Since these electrode structures could generate a strong horizontal electric field and induce a high Kerr effect, we could realize a lower driving voltage (30 V) and higher transmittance characteristics (20%) than those of conventional PS-BPLC cells with an in-plane switching electrode structure.

Bae, Kwang-Soo; Lee, You-Jin; Yu, Chang-Jae; Lee, Hyeokjin; Park, Jae-Hong; Kim, Jae-Hoon



Human gait recognition based on X-T plane energy images  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for gait recognition. Binarized silhouette of a motion object is first segmented from color image, and then, spatio-temporal (XYT) volume is constructed by using these binarized silhouettes, and cut at knee and hip height. Next, energy images are extracted by projecting these three individual XYT volumes onto X-T plane, respectively. Fourier transform

Guo-Chang Huang; Yun-Hong Wang



Full-color image-plane holographic video display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we have investigated real time calculation and display optics of full color hologram with full parallax. In our previous study, full color hologram was realized as the rainbow hologram which discards vertical parallax to reduce computation complexity. Since the color of the reconstructed image changes when observer moves to the vertical direction even a little, proper color reproduction can be obtained only from narrow viewing area. And this hologram has horizontal parallax only. In this study, we employ the image hologram for better color reproduction and full parallax reconstruction. When we calculate the image hologram, we use the virtual window to reduce the calculation amount. By using the virtual window, we could achieve 253 times faster the calculation speed compare with Fresnel hologram using the difference method. The full color hologram is displayed on the holographic television (HoloTV), which uses a part of original optics and LCoS panels of the conventional video projector (Cannon POWERPROJECTOR SX50) to separate and combine color components. From experimental results, computational speed of the full-color image hologram is almost same as the full-color rainbow hologram and color reproduction is better than that of the rainbow hologram. We also could achieve to reconstruct good quality animation.

Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Okabe, Gen; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi



Optical image encryption with a bit-plane separation method in phase-shifting digital holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a method for optical image encryption based on fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) and Arnold transform (ART) in phase-shifting digital holography. An input image is first divided into eight bit planes, and each bit plane is encrypted based on double random-phase masks and FRFT. Complex amplitude for the object is retrieved by phase-shifting digital holography in the hologram plane. The real and imaginary parts of the retrieved complex amplitudes for the 0th-7th bit planes are further encrypted using ART algorithm. Numerical results are shown to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed technique. The sensitivity of security parameters, such as function orders in FRFT and iteration number in ART method, is also analyzed.

Chen, Wen; Quan, Chenggen; Tay, Cho Jui



Coherent imaging with two-dimensional focal-plane arrays: design and applications  

SciTech Connect

Scanned, single-channel optical heterodyne detection has been used in a variety of lidar applications from ranging and velocity measurements to differential absorption spectroscopy. We describe the design of a coherent camera system that is based on a two-dimensional staring array of heterodyne receivers for coherent imaging applications. Experimental results with a single HgCdTe detector translated in the image plane to form a synthetic two-dimensional array demonstrate the ability to obtain passive heterodyne images of chemical vapor plumes that are invisible to normal video infrared cameras. We describe active heterodyne imaging experiments with use of focal-plane arrays that yield hard-body Doppler lidar images and also demonstrate spatial averaging to reduce speckle effects in static coherent images. {copyright} 1997 Optical Society of America

Simpson, M.L.; Bennett, C.A.; Emery, M.S.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Miller, G.H.; Richards, R.K.; Sitter, D.N. [Instrumentation and Controls Division, Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation, Building 3500, MS-6006, P. O. Box 2008, Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6004 (United States)



ViPro: Focal-Plane Spatially-Oversampling CMOS Image Compression Sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CMOS image sensor computes spatially-compressing convolutional transforms directly on the focal plane, yielding digital output at a rate proportional to the mere information rate of the video. A bank of column-parallel DeltaSigma-modulated analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) performs distributed columnwise focal-plane oversampling of a set of adjacent pixels and concurrent weighted average quantization. The number of samples per pixel and switched

Ashkan Olyaei; Roman Genov



A CCD\\/CMOS-based imager with integrated focal plane signal processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a CCD\\/CMOS technology, a fully parallel 4×4 focal plane processor, which performs image acquisition, smoothing, and segmentation, has been fabricated and characterized. In this chip, image brightness is converted into signal charge using charge-coupled-device (CCD) imaging techniques. The Gaussian smoothing operation is approximated by the repeated application of a simple nearest-neighbor binomial convolution mask, realizing the first known use

Craig L. Keast; Charles G. Sodini



Raman imaging of two orthogonal planes within cortical bone.  


The lamellar bone's strength is mainly affected by the organization of its mineralized collagen fibers and material composition. In the present study, Raman microspectroscopic and imaging analyses were employed to study a normal human femoral midshaft bone cube-like specimen with a spatial resolution of approximately 1-2 microm. Identical bone lamellae in both longitudinal and transverse directions were analyzed, which allowed us to separate out orientation and composition dependent Raman lines, depending on the polarization directions. This approach gives information about lamellar bone orientation and variation in bone composition. It is shown that the nu1 PO4 to amide I ratio mainly displays lamellar bone orientation; and nu2 PO4 to amide III and CO3 to nu2 PO4 ratios display variation in bone composition. The nu2 PO4 to amide III ratio is higher in the interstitial bone region, whereas the CO3 to nu2 PO4 ratio has lower values in the same region. The present study provides fresh insights into the organization of a lamellar bone tissue from two orthogonal orientations. PMID:17602910

Kazanci, M; Wagner, H D; Manjubala, N I; Gupta, H S; Paschalis, E; Roschger, P; Fratzl, P



Focal-Plane Processing Architectures for Real-Time Hyperspectral Image Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time image processing requires high computational and IyO throughputs obtained by use of opto- electronic system solutions. A novel architecture that uses focal-plane optoelectronic-area IyO with a fine-grain, low-memory, single-instruction-multiple-data ~SIMD! processor array is presented as an efficient computational solution for real-time hyperspectral image processing. The architecture is eval- uated by use of realistic workloads to determine data throughputs, processing

Sek M. Chai; Antonio Gentile; Wilfredo E. Lugo-Beauchamp; Javier Fonseca; D. Scott Wills



Undersurface photoacoustic imaging of plane solid specimens by the use of a line laser beam  

Microsoft Academic Search

A line laser beam focused on a solid plane specimen was used to image undersurface defect by photoacoustic microscope (PAM). A CT (computed tomography) technique was applied to the imaging of a line-shape undersurface defect fabricated at the welded region of two steel plates by drilling. The diameter of welded region is about 8mm and the steel thickness is 1.5mm

Tsutomu Hoshimiya; Manabu Suzuki



Out-of-plane photon compensation for 3-D SPECT image reconstruction with generalized matrix inverses  

SciTech Connect

A computationally efficient 3-D image reconstruction method which compensates for detected out-of-plane photons has been developed for SPECT image reconstruction with generalized matrix inverses (GMI). Fully 3-D image reconstruction is approximated by a series of coupled 2-D image reconstructions for projection data acquired with parallel hole collimators, significantly reducing computer memory requirements. In this method, projection data are compensated for detected scattered photons using dual energy window scatter subtraction (Step 1). An initial source activity estimate in each transverse plane is then made using line source response functions in the system matrix (Step 2). With these activity estimates the contributions of out-of-plane unscattered photons are modeled and subtracted from the projection data, and an updated source activity estimate is computed (Step 3). For noise-free projection data from a Monte Carlo simulated myocardial perfusion study, lesion contrast increases and activity spillover from the myocardium into the adjacent cardiac blood pool is reduced. For projection data with Poisson noise, activity estimates from Step 3 are inferior to those from Step 2. One reason is that the relative noise level of the projection data is substantially increased by subtracting the estimated out-of-plane contribution. The Step 3 activity estimation is also sensitive to the source activity distribution used for out-of-plane unscattered photon compensation. Though the out-of-plane compensation technique of Step 3 provides some benefit for noise-free projection data, this study suggests that it may not be well-suited for practical application to count-limited clinical SPECT studies.

Smith, M.F. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Dept. of Biomedical Engineering)




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A method to calibrate a pushbroom hyperspectral imaging system for "near-field" applications in agricultural and food safety has been demonstrated. The method consists of a modified geometric control point correction applied to a focal plane array to remove smile and keystone distortion from the sy...


Focal plane array infrared imaging: a new way to analyse leaf tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary • Here, a new approach to macromolecular imaging of leaf tissue using a multichannel focal plane array (FPA) infrared detector was compared with the proven method of infrared mapping with a synchrotron source, using transverse sections of leaves from a species of Eucalyptus . •A new histological method was developed, ideally suited to infrared spectroscopic analysis of leaf tissue.

Philip Heraud; Sally Caine; Gordon Sanson; Ros Gleadow; Bayden R. Wood; Don McNaughton



Dual-wavelength image-plane digital holography for dynamic measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dual-wavelength image-plane digital holography, combined with a windowed Fourier analysis, is presented for dynamic measurement of a vibrating object. In order to expand the range of the velocity measurement, the object is simultaneously illuminated by two lasers with different wavelengths. A sequence of digital holograms of a vibrating object is captured by a CCD camera and two wrapped phase

Yu Fu; Giancarlo Pedrini; Bryan M. Hennelly; Roger M. Groves; Wolfgang Osten



Fourier analysis of blurred images for the measurement of the in-plane dynamics of MEMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this paper is to use FFT imaging techniques to measure in-plane resonances of MEMS devices from blurred microphotographs where the presence of resonance is not visually discernable. A method is presented for measuring the high-frequency (in the 10s-100s of kHz range) response characteristics of MEMS devices using only standard optical microscope cameras (15-30 Hz frame rate) and applying Fourier analysis of camera images of periodic patterns on the oscillating devices. In the frequency domain, in-plane blurring acts as a low pass filter, attenuating all frequency components, but preferentially attenuating the higher order harmonics. A theoretical formula for the blur-induced attenuation of the harmonics of Fourier series components is derived and it is shown that it follows a Bessel curve. The theoretical predictions were verified experimentally using a series of camera microphotographs of three different variations of an electro-thermally driven pad suspended on springs. The predicted attenuations of harmonics were observed and verified. The analysis of the measured attenuation was able to (1) determine in-plane resonant frequencies, (2) measure submicron motions and (3) characterize the nonlinear dynamics (modeled by the Duffing equation). The amplitude uncertainty of the FFT method for detecting in-plane resonant peaks at 75 kHz and 3.5 V was found to be ±0.027 µm using a single image and ±0.011 µm using an average of 10 images.

Ellerington, Neil; Bschaden, Ben; Hubbard, Ted; Kujath, Marek



New scalable systolic array processor architecture for simultaneous discrete convolution of k different (n × n) filter coefficient planes with a single image plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new high-performance scalable systolic array processor architecture module is presented which can simultaneously convolute k different (n x n) Filter Coefficient (FC) planes with a single (i x j) pixel Input Image Plane (IP). The architecture will have the capability to simultaneously perform convolution of k different (n x n) FC planes on 600dpi (dot per inch) IPs of size 8 1/2 " x 11" at a rate such that k convoluted Output Image (OI) plane pixels are output each system clock cycle for a system clock cycle time of less than 10 nanoseconds. Bit-parallel arithmetic is used and each IP pixel is 8-bits in length and each FC plane coefficient is 6-bits in length. A new pipelined systolic type architecture module is first developed which can generate one convoluted OI plane pixel per system clock cycle using a level of 'r' hardware resources for the case of (n = 5). The architecture is then extended in a scalable and deeper pipelined manner to allow simultaneous convolution of a single IP pixel, with k different (n×n) FC planes for the case of (n = 5), within one system clock cycle, utilizing less than (k × r) hardware resources. Synthesis and post-implementation VHDL simulation results are shown for an experimental model of the architecture which validates the scalability and functionality of the architecture. Simulation results demonstrate the performance of the architecture to be directly proportional to pipeline depth.

Wong, Albert T.; Heath, J. R.; Lhamon, Michael E.



Reproducibility of Frankfort Horizontal Plane on 3D Multi-Planar Reconstructed MR Images  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy and reliability of Frankfort horizontal plane identification using displays of multi-planar reconstructed MRI images, and propose it as a sufficiently stable and standardized reference plane for craniofacial structures. Materials and Methods MRI images of 43 subjects were obtained from the longitudinal population based cohort study SHIP-2 using a T1-weighted 3D sequence. Five examiners independently identified the three landmarks that form FH plane. Intra-examiner reproducibility and inter-examiner reliability, correlation coefficients (ICC), coefficient of variability and Bland-Altman plots were obtained for all landmarks coordinates to assess reproducibility. Intra-examiner reproducibility and inter-examiner reliability in terms of location and plane angulation were also assessed. Results Intra- and inter-examiner reliabilities for X, Y and Z coordinates of all three landmarks were excellent with ICC values ranging from 0.914 to 0.998. Differences among examiners were more in X and Z than in Y dimensions. The Bland–Altman analysis demonstrated excellent intra- as well as inter-examiner agreement between examiners in all coordinates for all landmarks. Intra-examiner reproducibility and inter-examiner reliability of the three landmarks in terms of distance showed mean differences between 1.3 to 2.9 mm, Mean differences in plane angulation were between 1.0° to 1.5° among examiners. Conclusion This study revealed excellent intra-examiner reproducibility and inter-examiner reliability of Frankfort Horizontal plane through 3D landmark identification in MRI. Sufficiently stable landmark-based reference plane could be used for different treatments and studies.

Daboul, Amro; Schwahn, Christian; Schaffner, Grit; Soehnel, Silvia; Samietz, Stefanie; Aljaghsi, Ahmad; Habes, Mohammad; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Puls, Ralf; Klinke, Thomas; Biffar, Reiner



[Left ventricular short-axis plane for magnetic resonance imaging: its clinical importance and applications].  


Left ventricular short-axis images were obtained by ECG-gated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in nine patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and seven patients with chest pain, all of whom had diagnostic cardiac catheterization including angiography. The accuracy and usefulness of the short-axis image in MRI for measuring wall thickness and dimension and for calculating ejection fraction were evaluated. All patients were examined on an examination couch in the right anterior oblique position in optimal positions to obtain the left ventricular long-axis images in the Z-X plane (conventional coronal plane). Next, the paraxial mode was used to obtain the short-axis images by rotating the Y-Z plane (conventional sagittal plane) around the Y axis. The intervals between the trigger on the middle point of the upstroke of the R wave and the 90 degree pulse of saturation recovery spin echo sequence were 40 msec and 340 msec with a 34 msec echo delay time for the end-diastolic and end-systolic images, respectively. Short-axis images in MRI in end-diastole were utilized to measure wall thickness and dimension in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and the measurements obtained were compared with those of echocardiography. As for calculating ejection fraction in patients with chest pain, the length of the left ventricular long axis (L) was measured using the MRI long-axis image. The intraventricular sectional area at four levels (S1, S2, S3, S4) were measured using the MRI short-axis image in end-diastole and in end-systole. Left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were calculated using the following formula: V = 1/2 X (L -4.5) X S1 + 1.5 X (S1 + S2 + S3) + 1/3 X 1/2 X (L -4.5) X S4. Ejection fraction by MRI was compared with that by cardiac catheterization (single plane, area-length method). The measurements of wall thickness and dimension by MRI correlated well with those by echocardiography (r = 0.97, p less than 0.01). Ejection fraction calculated by MRI correlated significantly with that by cardiac catheterization (r = 0.82, p less than 0.05). We concluded that the left ventricular short-axis image in MRI is satisfactorily accurate for measuring wall thickness and dimension, and useful for evaluating the left ventricular ejection fraction. PMID:3448166

Suzuki, J; Sakamoto, T; Kawakubo, K; Hada, Y; Amano, K; Takenaka, K; Hasegawa, I; Shiota, T; Sugimoto, T; Nishikawa, J



[Self-adaptive beamforming method based on plane wave ultrasound imaging].  


In order to improve the resolution, contrast and frame rate of ultrasound imaging, it is necessary to design an adaptive beamforming method for plane wave ultrasound imaging. An optimized minimum variance algorithm that suits plane wave ultrasound imaging was proposed, based on the traditional minimum variance algorithm that combines with the subband beamforming as well as the forward-backward spatial smoothing method in the frequency domain. To verify the effectiveness of the improved algorithm, the matlab software was used. Simulation results showed that full width at half maximum and peak side-lobe level of Optimized MV, Conventional MV, DAS boxcar, and Linear scan methods were 0.08, 0.36, 0.92, 1.42 dB, and -41.1, - 37.3, -16.9, - 34.1 dB, respectively. The improved algorithm can significantly improve the image resolution and contrast, particularly applicable to plane wave ultrasound imaging, compared with the conventional minimum variance algorithm and traditional delay-and-sum method. PMID:24059068

Zhang, Longlong; Zhou, Hao; Zheng, Yinfei; Gong, Xiaohong; Wang, Jianping



Near-field imaging of ultrathin magnetic films with in-plane magnetization.  


A new approach to near-field magneto-optical imaging was developed capable of visualization of in-plane magnetization of ultrathin magnetic structures. The approach relies on the magneto-optical effect specific for thin magnetic layers and employs near-field transmission measurements of longitudinal and/or transverse magneto-optical effect arising from the presence of thin film interfaces. The near-field magneto-optical contrast of in-plane domain structure of ultrathin Co film has been demonstrated in different polarization configurations. PMID:12641761

Dickson, W; Takahashi, S; Pollard, R; Atkinson, R; Zayats, A V



Measuring Fractional Anisotropy of the Corpus Callosum Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging: MidSagittal versus Axial Imaging Planes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Many diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies of the corpus callosum (CC) have been performed with a relatively thick slice thickness in the axial plane, which may result in underestimating the fractional anisotropy (FA) of the CC due to a partial volume effect. We hypothesized that the FA of the CC can be more accurately measured by using mid-sagittal DTI.

Eung Yeop Kim; Hae-Jeong Park; Dong-Hyun Kim; Seung-Koo Lee; Jinna Kim



Methylene blue- and thiol-based oxygen depletion for super-resolution imaging.  


Anaerobic conditions are often required in solution-based bionanotechnological applications. Efficient oxygen depletion is essential for increasing photostability, optimizing fluorescence signals, and adjusting kinetics of fluorescence intermittency in single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy/microscopy, particularly for super-resolution imaging techniques. We characterized methylene blue (MB)- and thiol-based redox reactions with the aim of designing an oxygen scavenger system as an alternative to the established enzyme-based oxygen scavenging systems or purging procedures. Redox reactions of the chromophore methylene blue in aqueous solution, commonly visualized in the blue bottle experiment, deplete molecular oxygen as long as a sacrificial reduction component is present in excess concentrations. We demonstrate that methylene blue in combination with reducing compounds such as ?-mercaptoethylamine (MEA) can serve as fast and efficient oxygen scavenger. Efficient oxygen scavenging in aqueous solution is also possible with mere ?-mercaptoethylamine at mM concentrations. We present kinetic parameters of the relevant reactions, pH-stability of the MB/MEA-oxygen scavenging system, and its application in single-molecule based super-resolution imaging. PMID:23410003

Schäfer, Philip; van de Linde, Sebastian; Lehmann, Julian; Sauer, Markus; Doose, Sören



A device for examing the imaging plane's illumination nonuniformity of Wide FOV and short-focus optical imaging system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The imaging plane's illumination nonuniformity is an important parameter for wide FOV and short-focus optical imaging system.But now the imaging plane's illumination nonuniformity measurement device can not meet the requirements of wide FOV, high uniformity and wide dynamic range.A new device combined with assymmetric double-hemisphere technology was set up. It was composed of the special integrating sphere, CCD camera, precision displacement mechanism, image acquisition, and testing software.The CCD was pre-calibrated and the testing software realized a auto-correction,image acquisition, display and the illumination nonuniformity calulation.The light source was calibrated by the national standard color temperature lamp.The device can provide a Lambert object surface .The advantages of the device were that the FOV was as largely as 100°,and a wide illumination range of (10-3~103)Lx was achieved. An optimal simulation of assymmetric double-hemisphere was calculated by LightTools,it was proved that the illuminace nonuniformity at the outlet was better than 1.7%.Finally, the illumination nonuniformity of the integrating sphere and a wide FOV and short-focus lens were respectively measured.The results show that, the illumination uniformity of the integrating sphere is less than or equal to 1.49%,and the imaging plane's illumination nonuniformity of the lens is 10.24%.

Kang, Deng-kui; Jiang, Chang-lu; Yuan, Liang; Lin, Jia-ming; Yang, Hong; Zheng, Xue; Guo, Yu; Ma, Shi-bang



Image forces of screw dislocations in a magnetoelectroelastic layered half-plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two-dimensional analysis of elastic, electric, and magnetic fields induced by generalized screw dislocations embedded in a transversely isotropic magnetoelectroelastic layered half-plane is presented in this study. The results indicate that explicit solutions for this problem consist only of the simplest solutions for an infinite magnetoelectroelastic medium with a generalized screw dislocation. It is shown that the physical meaning of the solution is the image method. The mathematical method used in this study provides an automatic determination for the locations and magnitudes of image screw dislocations. From the generalized Peach-Koehler equation, the explicit forms of image forces exerted on a generalized screw dislocation in a layered half-plane are derived from the full-field solutions of the generalized stresses. Numerical results for the full-field distributions of the generalized stresses in the layered half-plane medium are presented. The image forces and equilibrium positions of one screw dislocation, two screw dislocations, and an array of screw dislocations are presented by numerical calculations and are discussed in detail.

Ma, Chien-Ching; Lee, Jui-Mu



A method for pulsed scannerless laser imaging using focal plane array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser imaging techniques have advantages for EMI (Electro Magnetic Interference) immunity and abundant image information. This contribution describes the research activity on the scannerless laser imaging detection technique using direct detection aimed at laser fuze applications. The technique using a pulsed laser to illuminate the target and a focal plane array can be used as a receiver. The range information is achieved by means of a direct time of light measurement. Information about the reflectivity of the target is gathered by recording the amplitude of the received pulse. In this paper a high-repetition-frequency, narrow pulse semiconductor laser floodlight emitting system is designed; corresponding optics is used to generate the homogenously illuminated FOI (field of illumination). The echo of laser is collected by receiving optical system fed to focal plane array. Some experiments were done with the emitting and receiving systems that had been designed. Experiments show the validity and rationality of this method. The scannerless structure is robust and provides instantaneous snapshot-type imaging. Avoiding any moving mechanical parts, scannerless laser imaging system have distinct characteristics such as small, compact, high frame rate, wide field of view and high reliability. It is an optimal approach to realize laser imaging fuze.

Zhang, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Ke-Yong; Deng, Jia-Hao; Hai, Yan



Automatic extraction of the midsagittal plane from volumetric magnetic resonance images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method is presented to automatically extract the midsagittal plane (MSP) from volumetric MR images. The MSP which generally approximates the interhemispheric fissure is the plane separating both hemispheres. It is meaningful for the brain segmentation, registration, quantification and pathology detection especially in Talairach space. The algorithm works based on the theory of the symmetry principal axis, the local searching method and minimizing the local symmetry coefficient. The proposed algorithm is validated on 20 T2-weighted MR data sets, which indicates that a clear MSP image can be extracted in the presence of relatively bigger distance error or angular deviation. This fully automatic algorithm is potentially useful in the clinical application and for research.

Fu, Yili; Zhang, Guangcai; Wang, Shuguo; Gao, Wenpeng; Liu, Hao



Recent progress in quantum well infrared photodetectors and focal plane arrays for IR imaging applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid progress in III–V semiconductor quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) has made it possible to develop large area, uniform, high performance GaAs\\/AlGaAs QWIP focal plane arrays (FPAs) for staring imaging arrays applications. This paper presents the recent developments of single- and multi-color QWIPs for detection in the 3–5?m and 8–14?m bands. A brief description of the basic device physics and

Sheng S Li



Power budget analysis of image-plane storage in spectral hole-burning materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the power requirements of a volumetric storage system based on hole-burning materials. We consider an image-plane architecture that uses ultra-fine wavelength addressing. We perform an optimization study in which hole-depth, material thickness, and spot size are selected to minimize the system power budget. We find that a data rate of 10Gbps and a latency of 10?s can be

Mark A Neifeld; W Randall Babbitt; R Krishna Mohan; Alan E Craig



Fast measurement of photonic stop bands by back focal plane imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Back focal plane imaging microscopy of the autofluorescence of a colloidal photonic crystal at fixed wavelength is used to visualize photonic stop bands. Emission angles of up to 74? against the crystals surface normal are detected. Structure and orientation of the crystal lattice, quality of the ordering, and the influence of defects on the optical properties can be probed at high spatial resolution. Exemplary results reveal domains with four-, six- and threefold symmetry, where the latter dominates, as expected for fcc lattices.

Wagner, Rebecca; Cichos, Frank



Fast Spheres, Shadows, Textures, Transparencies, and Image Enhancements in Pixel-Planes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pixel-planes is a logic-enhanced memory system for raster graphics and imaging. Although each pixel-memory is enhanced with a one-bit ALU, the system's real power comes from a tree of one-bit adders that can evaluate linear expressions can accept the results. We and others have begun to develop a variety of algorithms that exploit this fast linear expression evaluation capability. In

Henry Fuchs; Jack Goldfeather; Jeff P. Hultquist; Susan Spach; John D. Austin; Frederick P. Brooks Jr.; John G. Eyles; John Poulton



A thin film indium gallium arsenide focal plane array for visible and near infrared hyperspectral imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) focal plane arrays (FPAs) have proven useful in a wide variety of scientific, commercial, and military applications ranging from near infrared spectroscopy to night vision imaging. In a two-dimensional InGaAs FPA, an InGaAs photodiode array is hybrid-integrated to a silicon CMOS readout integrated circuit using indium bump-bonding techniques. The array is backside-illuminated with a long wavelength

Marshall J. Cohen; Michael J. Lange; Martin H. Ettenberg; Peter Dixon; G. H. Olsen



Fabrication of Prussian Blue modified ultramicroelectrode for GOD imaging using scanning electrochemical microscopy.  


A Prussian Blue (PB) film modified disk ultramicroelectrode (UME) was fabricated by electrochemical deposition technique on a Pt-disk UME. The electrocatalytical reductions of hydrogen peroxide derived from glucose oxidase (GOD) on this modified UME were investigated. The enzymatic biochemical reactivity was imaged by scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) utilizing the PB film modified UME. It is evident that sensitivity and spatial resolution for hydrogen peroxide measurement were improved obviously. SECM images obtained clearly revealed the concentration profile of the reaction products around the enzymes. The PB film modified microelectrode is in the nature of simple preparation, high catalytic activity on hydrogen peroxide and substrate selectivity for SECM etc. PMID:18203668

Li, Jianping; Yu, Jianguo



Fast functional imaging of multiple brain regions in intact zebrafish larvae using Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy.  


The optical transparency and the small dimensions of zebrafish at the larval stage make it a vertebrate model of choice for brain-wide in-vivo functional imaging. However, current point-scanning imaging techniques, such as two-photon or confocal microscopy, impose a strong limit on acquisition speed which in turn sets the number of neurons that can be simultaneously recorded. At 5 Hz, this number is of the order of one thousand, i.e., approximately 1-2% of the brain. Here we demonstrate that this limitation can be greatly overcome by using Selective-plane Illumination Microscopy (SPIM). Zebrafish larvae expressing the genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP3 were illuminated with a scanned laser sheet and imaged with a camera whose optical axis was oriented orthogonally to the illumination plane. This optical sectioning approach was shown to permit functional imaging of a very large fraction of the brain volume of 5-9-day-old larvae with single- or near single-cell resolution. The spontaneous activity of up to 5,000 neurons was recorded at 20 Hz for 20-60 min. By rapidly scanning the specimen in the axial direction, the activity of 25,000 individual neurons from 5 different z-planes (approximately 30% of the entire brain) could be simultaneously monitored at 4 Hz. Compared to point-scanning techniques, this imaging strategy thus yields a ?20-fold increase in data throughput (number of recorded neurons times acquisition rate) without compromising the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The extended field of view offered by the SPIM method allowed us to directly identify large scale ensembles of neurons, spanning several brain regions, that displayed correlated activity and were thus likely to participate in common neural processes. The benefits and limitations of SPIM for functional imaging in zebrafish as well as future developments are briefly discussed. PMID:23576959

Panier, Thomas; Romano, Sebastián A; Olive, Raphaël; Pietri, Thomas; Sumbre, Germán; Candelier, Raphaël; Debrégeas, Georges



Plane-based sampling for ray casting algorithm in sequential medical images.  


This paper proposes a plane-based sampling method to improve the traditional Ray Casting Algorithm (RCA) for the fast reconstruction of a three-dimensional biomedical model from sequential images. In the novel method, the optical properties of all sampling points depend on the intersection points when a ray travels through an equidistant parallel plan cluster of the volume dataset. The results show that the method improves the rendering speed at over three times compared with the conventional algorithm and the image quality is well guaranteed. PMID:23424608

Lin, Lili; Chen, Shengyong; Shao, Yan; Gu, Zichun



640x512 InGaAs focal plane array camera for visible and SWIR imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on our 640x512 pixel InGaAs/InP focal plane array camera for visible and short-wavelength infrared imaging. For this camera, we have fabricated a 640x512 element substrate-removed backside-illuminated InGaAs/InP photodiode array (PDA) with a 25 mm pixel pitch. The PDA is indium bump bonded to a silicon read out integrated circuit. Removing the InP substrate from the focal plane array allows visible wavelengths, which would otherwise be absorbed by the InP substrate due to its 920 nm wavelength cut-off, to reach the pixels' active region. The quantum efficiency is approximately 15% at 500 nm, 70% at 850 nm, 85% at 1310 nm, and 80% at 1550 nm. Features incorporated into this video-rate, 14-bit output camera include external triggering, windowing, individual pixel correction, 8 operational settings of gain and exposure time, and gamma correction. The readout circuit uses a gate-modulated pixel for high sensitivity imaging over a wide illumination range. This camera is useable for visible imaging as well as imaging eye-safe lasers and is of particular interest seeing laser designators and night vision as well as hyperspectral imaging.

Martin, Tara; Brubaker, Robert; Dixon, Peter; Gagliardi, Mari-Anne; Sudol, Tom



Multispectral Thermal Imager optical assembly performance and integration of the flight focal plane assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Multispectral Thermal Imager Optical Assembly (OA) has been fabricated, assembled, successfully performance tested, and integrated into the flight payload structure with the flight Focal Plane Assembly (FPA) integrated and aligned to it. This represents a major milestone achieved towards completion of this earth observing E-O imaging sensor that is to be operated in low earth orbit. The OA consists of an off- axis three mirror anastigmatic (TMA) telescope with a 36 cm unobscured clear aperture, a wide-field-of-view (WFOV) of 1.82 degrees along the direction of spacecraft motion and 1.38 degree across the direction of spacecraft motion. It also contains a comprehensive on-board radiometric calibration system. The OA is part of a multispectral pushbroom imaging sensor which employs a single mechanically cooled focal plane with 15 spectral bands covering a wavelength range from 0.45 to 10.7 micrometer. The OA achieves near diffraction-limited performance from visible to the long-wave infrared (LWIR) wavelengths. The two major design drivers for the OA are 80% enpixeled energy in the visible bands and radiometric stability. Enpixeled energy in the visible bands also drove the alignment of the FPA detectors to the OA image plane to a requirement of less than plus or minus 20 micrometer over the entire visible detector field of view (FOV). Radiometric stability requirements mandated a cold Lyot stop for stray light rejection and thermal background reduction. The Lyot stop is part of the FPA assembly and acts as the aperture stop for the imaging system. The alignment of the Lyot stop to the OA drove the centering and to some extent the tilt alignment requirements of the FPA to the OA.

Henson, Tammy D.; Krumel, Leslie; Blake, Richard J.; Bender, Steven C.; Byrd, Donald A.; Christensen, R. Wynn; Rappoport, William M.; Shen, GonYen



Simulation of High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Images on the IBM Blue Gene/L Supercomputer Using SIMRI  

PubMed Central

Medical imaging system simulators are tools that provide a means to evaluate system architecture and create artificial image sets that are appropriate for specific applications. We have modified SIMRI, a Bloch equation-based magnetic resonance image simulator, in order to successfully generate high-resolution 3D MR images of the Montreal brain phantom using Blue Gene/L systems. Results show that redistribution of the workload allows an anatomically accurate 2563 voxel spin-echo simulation in less than 5 hours when executed on an 8192-node partition of a Blue Gene/L system.

Baum, K. G.; Menezes, G.; Helguera, M.



Medical image compression using cubic spline interpolation with bit-plane compensation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a modified medical image compression algorithm using cubic spline interpolation (CSI) is presented for telemedicine applications. The CSI is developed in order to subsample image data with minimal distortion and to achieve compression. It has been shown in literatures that the CSI can be combined with the JPEG algorithms to develop a modified JPEG codec, which obtains a higher compression ratio and a better quality of reconstructed image than the standard JPEG. However, this modified JPEG codec will lose some high-frequency components of medical images during compression process. To minimize the drawback arose from loss of these high-frequency components, this paper further makes use of bit-plane compensation to the modified JPEG codec. The bit-plane compensation algorithm used in this paper is modified from JBIG2 standard. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme can increase 20~30% compression ratio of original JPEG medical data compression system with similar visual quality. This system can reduce the loading of telecommunication networks and is quite suitable for low bit-rate telemedicine applications.

Truong, Trieu-Kien; Chen, Shi-Huang; Lin, Tsung-Ching



Dual-plane stereo particle image velocimetry measurements of velocity gradient tensor fields in turbulent shear flow. I. Accuracy assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented from quantitative assessments of the accuracy of velocity gradients measured by a dual-plane stereo particle image velocimetry (DSPIV) technique that allows direct, highly resolved, nonintrusive measurements of all nine simultaneous components of the velocity gradient tensor fields ?ui/?xj at the quasi-universal intermediate and small scales of turbulent shear flows. The present results systematically determine the sources of errors in DSPIV measurements and the resulting accuracy of velocity gradients obtained from such measurements. Intrinsic errors resulting from asymmetric stereo imaging are found by synthetic particle imaging to be no larger than 0.8%. True particle imaging in finite-thickness light sheets is found from single-plane imaging tests to produce net errors in measured velocity differences of 6% for in-plane components and 10% for out-of-plane components. Further errors from limits on the accuracy of independent dual light sheet generation and positioning are found from coincident-plane imaging tests to produce overall errors of 9% and 16% in the in-plane and out-of-plane velocity differences. Practical DSPIV velocity gradient component measurements are found from separated-plane imaging tests in a turbulent shear flow to show excellent similarity in on-diagonal (i=j) and off-diagonal (i?j) components of ?ui/?xj, as well as mean-square gradient values showing agreement within 1%-4% of ideal isotropic limit values. The resulting measured divergence values are consistent with overall rms errors obtained from the coincident-plane imaging tests. Collectively, these results establish the accuracy with which all nine simultaneous components of the velocity gradient tensor fields ?ui/?xj can be obtained from DSPIV measurements at the quasi-universal intermediate and small scales of turbulent shear flows.

Mullin, John A.; Dahm, Werner J. A.



Diffusion tensor imaging and T2 relaxometry of bilateral lumbar nerve roots: feasibility of in-plane imaging.  


Lower back pain is a common problem frequently encountered without specific biomarkers that correlate well with an individual patient's pain generators. MRI quantification of diffusion and T2 relaxation properties may provide novel insight into the mechanical and inflammatory changes that occur in the lumbosacral nerve roots in patients with lower back pain. Accurate imaging of the spinal nerve roots is difficult because of their small caliber and oblique course in all three planes. Two-dimensional in-plane imaging of the lumbosacral nerve roots requires oblique coronal imaging with large field of view (FOV) in both dimensions, resulting in severe geometric distortions using single-shot echo planar imaging (EPI) techniques. The present work describes initial success using a reduced-FOV single-shot spin-echo EPI acquisition to obtain in-plane diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and T2 mapping of the bilateral lumbar nerve roots at the L4 level of healthy subjects, minimizing partial volume effects, breathing artifacts and geometric distortions. A significant variation in DTI and T2 mapping metrics is also reported along the course of the normal nerve root. The fractional anisotropy is statistically significantly lower in the dorsal root ganglia (0.287?±?0.068) than in more distal regions in the spinal nerve (0.402?±?0.040) (p?

Karampinos, Dimitrios C; Melkus, Gerd; Shepherd, Timothy M; Banerjee, Suchandrima; Saritas, Emine U; Shankaranarayanan, Ajit; Hess, Christopher P; Link, Thomas M; Dillon, William P; Majumdar, Sharmila



Complementary fluorescence-polarization microscopy using division-of-focal-plane polarization imaging sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence microscopy offers high sensitivity for disease diagnosis. However, little structural information is revealed by this method, requiring another technique to localize the source of fluorescence. We developed a complementary fluorescence-polarization microscope. We used a division-of-focal-plane charge coupled device polarization sensor to enable real-time video rate polarization imaging without any moving parts. The polarization information provided by the microscope enabled detection of structural element and complements the fluorescence information. Application of this multimodal system for cancer imaging using a tumor selective molecular probe revealed the association of diminished structural integrity of tumor tissue with high fluorescence of the imaging agent compared to surrounding normal tissue. This study demonstrates a new paradigm to improve cancer detection and diagnosis.

Liu, Yang; York, Timothy; Akers, Walter; Sudlow, Gail; Gruev, Viktor; Achilefu, Samuel



Discovery of Highly Dynamic Matter Enhancements along the Polar Axis and Equatorial Plane in the Luminous Blue Variable Binary HD 5980  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HD 5980 is a W-R+O eclipsing binary in the Small Magellanic Cloud that has attracted considerable attention since it underwent a luminous blue variable (LBV)-type outburst in 1994. Since then, intense spectroscopic and photometric monitoring have revealed the presence of periodic variability on a timescale of 6-7 hr that cannot be explained by our current understanding of the system. In this paper, we present the first results from our polarimetric observations around secondary eclipse when the assumed Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star passes in front of the assumed LBV component (phase ?=0.36). These data confirm the presence of stochastic polarimetric variability on a typical timescale of ~30 minutes, reaching a very high amplitude of almost 1% on our last of five nights. At that time, we also found that the mass loss, which is responsible for the polarimetric variability, presented fluctuations in axial symmetry ranging from very rapid density enhancements along the orbital plane to polar ejections. We propose that either a fast rotator model for the W-R star or the presence of a close orbiting neutron star could qualitatively explain the observed polarimetric, spectroscopic, and photometric behavior. The evidence presented in this paper is crucial for an understanding of the erratic behavior of this important binary and should be taken into account in any consistent model of the system.

Villar-Sbaffi, A.; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; St-Louis, N.



Detection of cracks under cladding using magneto-optic imaging and rotating in-plane magnetization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional nondestructive inspection (NDI) of steel components, using magnetic particle, flux-leakage or near surface ultrasonic methods, is rendered difficult by the presence of protective coatings such as paint or stainless- steel cladding. Thick-section nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs), having as-welded cladding up to 0.25 inches thick are a case in point. Here, magnetic particle techniques do not work and ultrasonic techniques are difficult to apply because of cladding roughens and variable elastic properties in the cladding and the weld interface. An NDI technique that is essentially unaffected by standard thicknesses of protective coatings would be a major advance. Magneto-optic imaging is one such technique. While conventional magneto-optic/eddy current imagers (MOIs) are a proven technology in the NDI of nonferromagnetic conductors, they do not possess a self-contained method for magnetizing steel. The purpose of this work was to develop methods for producing rotating, in-plane magnetization and then combine this technology with magneto-optic imaging to produce a self-contained instrument capable of real-time imaging of cracks in steel through protective coatings. We successfully demonstrated rotating in-plane magnetization using special 'quadrature' magnetic-yokes designed to accommodate both flat and cylindrical steel surfaces. The yokes were attached one at a time, to an MOI of reduced size, and the combined system was placed on a sample of the appropriate curvature containing cracks. A two-channel power amplifier was used to drive the yoke coils in quadrature. The resulting crack images were found to be much less sensitive to liftoff than conventional magnetic particle or flux-leakage NDI. In particular, cracks in steel were successfully imaged through 0.125 inches of stainless-steel cladding, making it likely that images of cracks in steel under even thicker cladding should be possible after further development of the technology. Unlike conventional magnetic particle or flux- leakage NDI, where crack orientation is important, rotating in-plane magnetization renders crack orientation irrelevant. Finally, because of these successes, the new NDI technology for steel should find many important applications.

Fitzpatrick, Gerald L.; Skaugset, Richard L.; Thome, David K.; Shih, William C.



GREGOR Fabry-Pérot interferometer and its companion the blue imaging solar spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GREGOR Fabry-Pérot Interferometer (GFPI) is one of three first-light instruments of the German 1.5-m GREGOR solar telescope at the Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain. The GFPI allows fast narrow-band imaging and postfactum image restoration. The retrieved physical parameters will be a fundamental building block for understanding the dynamic sun and its magnetic field at spatial scales down to ˜50 km on the solar surface. The GFPI is a tunable dual-etalon system in a collimated mounting. It is designed for spectrometric and spectropolarimetric observations between 530-860 nm and 580-660 nm, respectively, and possesses a theoretical spectral resolution of R?250,000. Large-format, high-cadence charged coupled device detectors with sophisticated computer hard- and software enable the scanning of spectral lines in time-spans equivalent to the evolution time of solar features. The field-of-view (FOV) of 50?×38? covers a significant fraction of the typical area of active regions in the spectroscopic mode. In case of Stokes-vector spectropolarimetry, the FOV reduces to 25?×38?. The main characteristics of the GFPI including advanced and automated calibration and observing procedures are presented. Improvements in the optical design of the instrument are discussed and first observational results are shown. Finally, the first concrete ideas for the integration of a second FPI, the blue imaging solar spectrometer, are laid out, which will explore the blue spectral region below 530 nm.

Puschmann, Klaus G.; Denker, Carsten; Balthasar, Horst; Louis, Rohan E.; Popow, Emil; Woche, Manfred; Beck, Christian; Seelemann, Thomas; Volkmer, Reiner



Small bowel involvement in blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome: MR imaging features.  


Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) is a rare condition which is characterized by multiple venous malformations that may affect several organs. Gastrointestinal lesions, which mostly involve the small bowel and distal colon, may be responsible for gastrointestinal bleeding, causing more frequently chronic anemia. We report herein two cases of BRBNS causing gastrointestinal bleeding which were investigated by means of MR imaging. All venous malformations showed markedly high signal intensity on fat-suppressed T2-weighted MR images. In addition, extraintestinal venous malformations displayed high signal intensity similar to that of small bowel venous malformations. Fat-suppressed T2-weighted TSE images show both small bowel and colonic involvement, thus providing useful information relative to the most appropriate therapeutic approach to be used. MR imaging is especially helpful when capsule endoscopy or enteroscopy are contraindicated or not feasible. In addition, because of lack of radiation, MR imaging can be performed repeatedly to assess the evolution of the disease before a planned surgery or endoscopic resection. Also, because BRBNS is by essence a multifocal condition with extraintestinal involvement, MR imaging appears as an appropriate imaging technique to investigate the multiple locations of the disease in one session, thus replacing multiple examinations. PMID:18414932

Mechri, Myriam; Soyer, Philippe; Boudiaf, Mourad; Duchat, Florent; Hamzi, Lounis; Rymer, Roland



Evaluation of an image-based tracking workflow with Kalman filtering for automatic image plane alignment in interventional MRI.  


Recently, a workflow for magnetic resonance (MR) image plane alignment based on tracking in real-time MR images was introduced. The workflow is based on a tracking device composed of 2 resonant micro-coils and a passive marker, and allows for tracking of the passive marker in clinical real-time images and automatic (re-)initialization using the microcoils. As the Kalman filter has proven its benefit as an estimator and predictor, it is well suited for use in tracking applications. In this paper, a Kalman filter is integrated in the previously developed workflow in order to predict position and orientation of the tracking device. Measurement noise covariances of the Kalman filter are dynamically changed in order to take into account that, according to the image plane orientation, only a subset of the 3D pose components is available. The improved tracking performance of the Kalman extended workflow could be quantified in simulation results. Also, a first experiment in the MRI scanner was performed but without quantitative results yet. PMID:24110350

Neumann, M; Cuvillon, L; Breton, E; de Matheli, M



Design of a CCD focal-plane codec preprocessor for lossless image compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the design of a CCD-based codec preprocessor (CP) integrated with an areal imager. 3 x 3 pixel neighborhood blocks, where the center pixel arrives first, are utilized for the lossless compression algorithm in the image coding scheme. A 256 x 256 buried-channel frame transfer device with 15 x 15 square microns pixels is employed as the imager. The neighborhood reconstruction is effected by means of both row regrouping and pixel resequencing operations. Four designs for CCD CP chips are described: two hybridized to the imager array, and two integrated with the imager. The chips operate at a 30 Hz frame rate with power dissipation at less than 10 uW. The size of the hybrid chips is 2.5 x 5.5 sq mm, and the focal-plane chips' CPs require an area of 250 x 400 square microns. The CPs provide differential output appropriate for lossless coding and compression to off-chip electronics when reorganization of the image data into local 3 x 3 neighborhood blocks is complete.

Kemeny, S. E.; Meadows, H.; Fossum, E. R.


Semiconductor detectors and focal plane arrays for far-infrared imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of far-infrared (far-IR) and sub-mm-wave radiation is resistant to the commonly employed techniques in the neighbouring microwave and IR frequency bands. In this wavelength detection range the use of solid state detectors has been hampered for the reasons of transit time of charge carriers being larger than the time of one oscillation period of radiation. Also the energy of radiation quanta is substantially smaller than the thermal energy at room temperature and even liquid nitrogen temperature. The realization of terahertz (THz) emitters and receivers is a challenge because the frequencies are too high for conventional electronics and the photon energies are too small for classical optics. Development of semiconductor focal plane arrays started in seventies last century and has revolutionized imaging systems in the next decades. This paper presents progress in far-IR and sub-mm-wave semiconductor detector technology of focal plane arrays during the past twenty years. Special attention is given on recent progress in the detector technologies for real-time uncooled THz focal plane arrays such as Schottky barrier arrays, field-effect transistor detectors, and microbolometers. Also cryogenically cooled silicon and germanium extrinsic photoconductor arrays, and semiconductor bolometer arrays are considered.

Rogalski, A.



Compensation of in-plane rigid motion for in vivo intracoronary ultrasound image sequence.  


Intracoronary ultrasound (ICUS) is an interventional imaging modality that is used to acquire a series of tomographic images from the vascular lumen, for diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery diseases in clinical settings. Motion artifacts caused by cardiac dynamics and the pulsatile blood flow within the vascular lumen, during continuous pullback (non-gated) ICUS image acquisition, hinder visualization of longitudinal cuts, assessment of arterial morphology and hemodynamics, and three-dimensional (3-D) vessel reconstruction. The aim of this study is to develop a method to compensate for in-plane rigid motion in non-gated in vivo ICUS sequences. The signals associated with cardiac motion are first detected from the gray-scale image sequence. They are represented with rigid motion parameters between luminal contours extracted from successive slices. Subsequently, the signals were filtered to separate the dynamic components caused by cardiac motion from those caused by the irregular morphology of the vascular lumen. Dynamic components were then compensated by performing a back transformation of related pixels within the vessel region in each frame. The method is validated by computer-simulation and using real ICUS image data. Possible sources of error are discussed based on the experimental results. PMID:23930801

Zheng, Sun; Jianjian, Wang



Sentinel lymph nodes detection with an imaging system using Patent Blue V dye as fluorescent tracer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the gold standard to detect metastatic invasion from primary breast cancer. This method can help patients avoid full axillary chain dissection, thereby decreasing the risk of morbidity. We propose an alternative to the traditional isotopic method, to detect and map the sentinel lymph nodes. Indeed, Patent Blue V is the most widely used dye in clinical routine for the visual detection of sentinel lymph nodes. A Recent study has shown the possibility of increasing the fluorescence quantum yield of Patent Blue V, when it is bound to human serum albumin. In this study we present a preclinical fluorescence imaging system to detect sentinel lymph nodes labeled with this fluorescent tracer. The setup is composed of a black and white CCD camera and two laser sources. One excitation source with a laser emitting at 635 nm and a second laser at 785 nm to illuminate the region of interest. The prototype is operated via a laptop. Preliminary experiments permitted to determine the device sensitivity in the ?mol.L-1 range as regards the detection of PBV fluorescence signals. We also present a preclinical evaluation performed on Lewis rats, during which the fluorescence imaging setup detected the accumulation and fixation of the fluorescent dye on different nodes through the skin.

Tellier, F.; Steibel, J.; Chabrier, R.; Rodier, J. F.; Pourroy, G.; Poulet, P.



Massively-parallel electrical-conductivity imaging of hydrocarbonsusing the Blue Gene/L supercomputer  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM)three-dimensional (3D) geophysical imaging is now receiving considerableattention for electrical conductivity mapping of potential offshore oiland gas reservoirs. To cope with the typically large computationalrequirements of the 3D CSEM imaging problem, our strategies exploitcomputational parallelism and optimized finite-difference meshing. Wereport on an imaging experiment, utilizing 32,768 tasks/processors on theIBM Watson Research Blue Gene/L (BG/L) supercomputer. Over a 24-hourperiod, we were able to image a large scale marine CSEM field data setthat previously required over four months of computing time ondistributed clusters utilizing 1024 tasks on an Infiniband fabric. Thetotal initial data misfit could be decreased by 67 percent within 72completed inversion iterations, indicating an electrically resistiveregion in the southern survey area below a depth of 1500 m below theseafloor. The major part of the residual misfit stems from transmitterparallel receiver components that have an offset from the transmittersail line (broadside configuration). Modeling confirms that improvedbroadside data fits can be achieved by considering anisotropic electricalconductivities. While delivering a satisfactory gross scale image for thedepths of interest, the experiment provides important evidence for thenecessity of discriminating between horizontal and verticalconductivities for maximally consistent 3D CSEM inversions.

Commer, M.; Newman, G.A.; Carazzone, J.J.; Dickens, T.A.; Green,K.E.; Wahrmund, L.A.; Willen, D.E.; Shiu, J.



Out-of-plane Stokes imaging polarimeter for early skin cancer diagnosis.  


Optimal treatment of skin cancer before it metastasizes critically depends on early diagnosis and treatment. Imaging spectroscopy and polarized remittance have been utilized in the past for diagnostic purposes, but valuable information can be also obtained from the analysis of skin roughness. For this purpose, we have developed an out-of-plane hemispherical Stokes imaging polarimeter designed to monitor potential skin neoplasia based on a roughness assessment of the epidermis. The system was utilized to study the rough surface scattering for wax samples and human skin. The scattering by rough skin-simulating phantoms showed behavior that is reasonably described by a facet scattering model. Clinical tests were conducted on patients grouped as follows: benign nevi, melanocytic nevus, melanoma, and normal skin. Images were captured and analyzed, and polarization properties are presented in terms of the principal angle of the polarization ellipse and the degree of polarization. In the former case, there is separation between different groups of patients for some incidence azimuth angles. In the latter, separation between different skin samples for various incidence azimuth angles is observed. PMID:22894497

Ghassemi, Pejhman; Lemaillet, Paul; Germer, Thomas A; Shupp, Jeffrey W; Venna, Suraj S; Boisvert, Marc E; Flanagan, Katherine E; Jordan, Marion H; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C



FISST Based Method for Multi-Target Tracking in the Image Plane of Optical Sensors  

PubMed Central

A finite set statistics (FISST)-based method is proposed for multi-target tracking in the image plane of optical sensors. The method involves using signal amplitude information in probability hypothesis density (PHD) filter which is derived from FISST to improve multi-target tracking performance. The amplitude of signals generated by the optical sensor is modeled first, from which the amplitude likelihood ratio between target and clutter is derived. An alternative approach is adopted for the situations where the signal noise ratio (SNR) of target is unknown. Then the PHD recursion equations incorporated with signal information are derived and the Gaussian mixture (GM) implementation of this filter is given. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves significantly better performance than the generic PHD filter. Moreover, our method has much lower computational complexity in the scenario with high SNR and dense clutter.

Xu, Yang; Xu, Hui; An, Wei; Xu, Dan



Measuring soft tissue elasticity by monitoring surface acoustic waves using image plane digital holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of tumors in soft tissues, such as breast cancer, is important to achieve at the earliest stages of the disease to improve patient outcome. Tumors often exhibit a greater elastic modulus compared to normal tissues. In this paper, we report our first study to measure elastic properties of soft tissues by mapping the surface acoustic waves (SAWs) with image plane digital holography. The experimental results show that the SAW velocity is proportional to the square root of elastic modulus over a range from 3.7-122kPa in homogeneous tissue phantoms, consistent with Rayleigh wave theory. This technique also permits detection of the interface of two-layer phantoms 10mm deep under surface and the interface depth by quantifying the SAW dispersion.

Li, Shiguang; Oldenburg, Amy L.



Blue-enhanced thin-film photodiode for dual-screen x-ray imaging  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on a-Si:H-based low-leakage blue-enhanced photodiodes for dual-screen x-ray imaging detectors. Doped nanocrystalline silicon was incorporated in both the n- and p-type regions to reduce absorption losses for light incoming from the top and bottom screens. The photodiode exhibits a dark current density of 900 pA/cm{sup 2} and an external quantum efficiency up to 90% at a reverse bias of 5 V. In the case of illumination through the tailored p-layer, the quantum efficiency of 60% at a 400 nm wavelength is almost double that for the conventional a-Si:H n-i-p photodiode.

Vygranenko, Y.; Vieira, M. [Department of Electronics, Telecommunications and Computer Engineering, ISEL, Lisbon 1949-014 (Portugal); Sazonov, A. [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo N2L 3G1 (Canada); Heiler, G.; Tredwell, T. [Carestream Health, Inc., Rochester, New York 14652-3487 (United States); Nathan, A. [London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom)



Seismic Imaging Reveals Deep-Penetrating Fault Planes in the Wharton Basin Oceanic Mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present images from a deep multi-channel seismic reflection survey acquired in 2006 over the oceanic lithosphere of the Wharton Basin offshore northern Sumatra, NW of Simeulue island. The main ~230-km long seismic profile is roughly parallel to the trench at ~32-66 km distance from the subduction front and crosses (at oblique angles to both flow line and isochron directions) an entire segment of 55-57 my-old fast-spread crust formed at the extinct Wharton spreading center, as well as two bounding ~N5°E trending fracture zones near its extremities; complementary data is provided by the oceanic portions of two margin-crossing profiles on either side shot during the same survey. This high-quality, 12-km streamer dataset acquired for deep reflection imaging (10000 cu in tuned airgun array and 15-m source and streamer depths) reveals the presence of mostly SE-dipping (20 to 40 degrees dip) events cutting across and extending below the oceanic Moho, down to a maximum depth below seafloor of ~37 km, at ~5 km spacing along the trench-parallel profile. Similar dipping mantle events are imaged on the oceanic portion of another long-offset profile acquired in 2009 offshore central Sumatra south of Pagai island, which will also be presented. Such events are unlikely to be imaging artefacts of the 2D acquisition, such as out-of-plane energy originating from sharp, buried basement reliefs trending obliquely to the profile. Due to their geometry, they do not seem to be associated with plate bending at the trench outer-rise, which has a relatively modest expression at the seafloor and within the incoming sedimentary section north of the Simeulue elbow. We propose that these deep-penetrating dipping reflectors are fossil fault planes formed due to compressive stresses at the beginning of the continent-continent collision between India and Eurasia, the early stages of which were responsible for the cessation of seafloor spreading at the Wharton ridge at ca 40 Ma.

Carton, H. D.; Singh, S. C.; Dyment, J.; Hananto, N. D.; Chauhan, A.



Automated Analysis Pipelines For The Galactic Plane Infrared Polarization Survey: From Basic Image Processing To Crowded-field, Variable-PSF, Imaging Polarimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Galactic Plane Infrared Polarization Survey (GPIPS) is being conducted on the 1.83m Perkins telescope outside Flagstaff, Arizona using the Mimir instrument configured as a near-infrared imaging polarimeter. The 10x10 arcmin field of view captures H-band (1.6 um) images of thousands of stars in every image. GPIPS collects over 50,000 of these images each year and when completed, will have

Dan P. Clemens; M. Pavel; A. Pinnick




Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the embryonic development of laboratory-reared blue king crab, Paralithodes platypus, from the Pribilof Islands in the eastern Bering Sea is described. Developing embryos were removed from a female crab at various intervals, digitally photographed under a compound microscope and analyzed using Image-Pro Plus. Nine morphometric parameters were used, including seven measurements (total area, yolk area, embryo length




Band-limited image plane masks for the Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph: materials and designs for broadband performance.  


Coronagraphs for detection and characterization of exosolar earthlike planets require accurate masks with broadband performance in the visible and near infrared spectrum. Design and fabrication of image plane masks capable of suppressing broadband starlight to 10(-10) level contrast presents technical challenges. We discuss basic approaches, material choices, designs, and fabrication options for image plane masks with particular focus on material properties to obtain adequate spectral performance. Based on theoretical analysis, we show that metals such as Pt and Ni, and alloys such as Inconel, may be employed as promising mask materials that can meet broadband performance requirements. PMID:18188191

Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham



Pupil plane interferometry in the near infrared. II - Phase recovery and image reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a 2D method to extract the phase of turbulence-blurred near-IR interferograms in the plane of the telescope pupil. The instrument and its principle have been described by Mariotti et al. (1992). The phase data are obtained from near-IR interference fringes produced by a Michelson interferometer in the image of the telescope pupil. We have developed an equivalent of the Knox-Thompson algorithm, using the spatial correlation of the phase over the pupil to recover the actual 2D phase of the complex visibility function. We compute and average the spatial gradients of the instantaneous phase, and a minimal norm least squares method is then used to recover the actual phase over the pupil. The modulus and the phase can be used to recover diffraction-limited images. We present an application of the method on a simulated binary system, together with first results on some astronomical data recently obtained at the 4.20-m William Herschel Telescope of the Royal Greenwich Observatory at La Palma. Tentative deconvolutions are presented.

Monin, J.-L.; Mariotti, J.-M.; Ghez, P.; Perrier, C.; Desbat, L.



Evaluation and display of polarimetric image data using long-wave cooled microgrid focal plane arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments for Long Wave InfraRed (LWIR) imaging polarimeters include incorporating a microgrid polarizer array onto the focal plane array (FPA). Inherent advantages over typical polarimeters include packaging and instantaneous acquisition of thermal and polarimetric information. This allows for real time video of thermal and polarimetric products. The microgrid approach has inherent polarization measurement error due to the spatial sampling of a non-uniform scene, residual pixel to pixel variations in the gain corrected responsivity and in the noise equivalent input (NEI), and variations in the pixel to pixel micro-polarizer performance. The Degree of Linear Polarization (DoLP) is highly sensitive to these parameters and is consequently used as a metric to explore instrument sensitivities. Image processing and fusion techniques are used to take advantage of the inherent thermal and polarimetric sensing capability of this FPA, providing additional scene information in real time. Optimal operating conditions are employed to improve FPA uniformity and sensitivity. Data from two DRS Infrared Technologies, L.P. (DRS) microgrid polarizer HgCdTe FPAs are presented. One FPA resides in a liquid nitrogen (LN2) pour filled dewar with a 80°K nominal operating temperature. The other FPA resides in a cryogenic (cryo) dewar with a 60° K nominal operating temperature.

Bowers, David L.; Boger, James K.; Wellems, L. David; Black, Wiley T.; Ortega, Steve E.; Ratliff, Bradley M.; Fetrow, Matthew P.; Hubbs, John E.; Tyo, J. Scott



Ultracompact Blue Dwarf Galaxies: Hubble Space Telescope Imaging and Stellar Population Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys/High Resolution Channel U-, narrow-V-, and I-band images of nine ``ultracompact'' blue dwarf galaxies (UCBDs) selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We define UCBDs as local (z<0.01) star-forming galaxies having angular diameters less than 6" and physical diameters <1 kpc. They are also among the most metal-poor galaxies known, including objects having 12+log(O/H)<7.65, and are found to reside within voids. Both the HST images and the objects' SDSS optical spectra reveal that they are composites of young (~1-10 Myr) populations that dominate their light and older (~10 Gyr) populations that dominate their stellar masses, which we estimate to be ~107-108 Msolar. An intermediate-age (~107-109 yr) population is also indicated in most objects. The objects do not appear to be as dynamically disturbed as the prototype UCBD, POX 186, but the structure of several of them suggests that their current star formation has been triggered by the collisions/mergers of smaller clumps of stars. In one case, HS 0822+3542, the images resolve what may be two small (~100 pc) components that have recently collided, supporting this interpretation. In six of the objects much of the star formation is concentrated in young massive clusters, contributing to their compactness in ground-based images. The evidence that the galaxies consist mainly of ~10 Gyr old stars establishes that they are not protogalaxies, forming their first generation of stars. Their low metallicities are more likely to be the result of the escape of supernova ejecta, rather than youth.

Corbin, Michael R.; Vacca, William D.; Cid Fernandes, Roberto; Hibbard, John E.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Windhorst, Rogier A.



Visualization of peripheral vasodilative indices in human skin by use of red, green, blue images.  


We propose a method to visualize the arterial inflow, the vascular resistance, and the venous capacitance in the skin tissue from red, green, blue (RGB) digital color images. The arterial inflow and the venous capacitance in the skin tissue are visualized based on an increase in the rate of change in the total blood concentration and the change of the total blood concentration during upper limb occlusion at a pressure of 50 mmHg. The resultant arterial inflow with the measured mean arterial pressure also provides an image of the vascular resistance in human skin. The arterial inflow, the vascular resistance, and the venous capacitance acquired by the method are well correlated with those obtained from the conventional strain-gauge plethysmograph. The correlation coefficients R between the estimated values by the method and the measurements by the SPG are calculated to be 0.83 (P < 0.001) for the arterial inflow, 0.77 (P < 0.01) for the vascular resistance, and 0.77 (P < 0.01) for the venous capacitance. The arterial inflow and the venous capacitance in the skin tissue are significantly higher in active subjects compared with the sedentary subjects, whereas the vascular resistance was significantly lower in the active subjects compared with the sedentary subjects. The results of the present study indicate the possibility of using the proposed method for evaluating the peripheral vascular functions in human skin. PMID:23264964

Nishidate, Izumi; Tanaka, Noriyuki; Kawase, Tatsuya; Maeda, Takaaki; Yuasa, Tomonori; Aizu, Yoshihisa; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Niizeki, Kyuichi



Visualization of peripheral vasodilative indices in human skin by use of red, green, blue images.  


We propose a method to visualize the arterial inflow, the vascular resistance, and the venous capacitance in the skin tissue from red, green, blue (RGB) digital color images. The arterial inflow and the venous capacitance in the skin tissue are visualized based on an increase in the rate of change in the total blood concentration and the change of the total blood concentration during upper limb occlusion at a pressure of 50 mmHg. The resultant arterial inflow with the measured mean arterial pressure also provides an image of the vascular resistance in human skin. The arterial inflow, the vascular resistance, and the venous capacitance acquired by the method are well correlated with those obtained from the conventional strain-gauge plethysmograph. The correlation coefficients R between the estimated values by the method and the measurements by the SPG are calculated to be 0.83 (P<0.001) for the arterial inflow, 0.77 (P<0.01) for the vascular resistance, and 0.77 (P<0.01) for the venous capacitance. The arterial inflow and the venous capacitance in the skin tissue are significantly higher in active subjects compared with the sedentary subjects, whereas the vascular resistance was significantly lower in the active subjects compared with the sedentary subjects. The results of the present study indicate the possibility of using the proposed method for evaluating the peripheral vascular functions in human skin. PMID:23748701

Nishidate, Izumi; Tanaka, Noriyuki; Kawase, Tatsuya; Maeda, Takaaki; Yuasa, Tomonori; Aizu, Yoshihisa; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Niizeki, Kyuichi



Spatiotemporal object-based image analyses in the Blue Nile area using optical multispectral imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considering the dramatic change occurred in the Blue Nile region of Sudan, this study is of great value for developing a method for identification of forestland cover extents, integrating rate of changes and causes. The study utilizes three consecutive optical multispectral images, two LANDSAT TM images of 1990 and 1999 as well as TERRA ASTER image of 2009 to evaluate forest cover dynamics during the period 1990 to 2009. The method adopted in this research consists in cross operation of classified images of different points in time, which utilizes the overlaying images to be compared for change detection. New layer of segments was created representing the change areas as well as the overlapped areas of each pair of classified images. Consequently, a series of optimized algorithms have been developed to estimate the change in Land Use Land Cover (LULC). At the fundamental stage, smooth and accurate classified images are very essential for any post-classification change detection technique, which were typically achieved by object-based approach (OB) with overall accuracy 91 %, 93 % and 95 % for the years 1990, 1999 and 2009 respectively. Nine LULC classes were generated from each, i.e. agriculture (Ag.), bare-land (Br.), crop-land (Cr.), dense-forest (DF), grassland (Gr.), orchard (Or.), scattered-forest (SF), settlements (St.) and water (W). Therefore, and considering the dramatic change observed in the area, the fusion operation of multi-temporal data results initially in quite numerous change "from-to" information classes, which allows for aggregation of these classes at any hierarchical level of details. Moreover, the developed approach allows the operator to effectively know the spatial pattern of change, trend and magnitude of the dynamics occurred in each of the classified LULC classes. While many change-detection techniques have been developed, a little has been done to assess the quality of these techniques. Hence, the change maps resulting from cross operation were assessed, which reveals that, the accuracies of the change maps for the two time intervals were consistently high.

El-Abbas, Mustafa M.; Csaplovics, E.



Infrared hyperspectral imaging using a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser and microbolometer focal plane array  

SciTech Connect

A versatile mid-infrared hyperspectral imaging system is demonstrated by combining a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser and a microbolometer focal plane array. The tunable mid-infrared laser provided high brightness illumination over a tuning range from 985 cm-1 to 1075 cm-1 (9.30-10.15 ?m). Hypercubes containing images at 300 wavelengths separated by 0.3 cm 1 were obtained in 12 s. High spectral resolution chemical imaging of methanol vapor was demonstrated for both static and dynamic systems. The system was also used to image and characterize multiple component liquid and solid samples.

Phillips, Mark C.; Ho, Nicolas



Multi-beam confocal microscopy based on a custom image sensor with focal-plane pinhole array effect.  


Multi-beam confocal microscopy without any physical pinhole was demonstrated. As a key device, a custom CMOS image sensor realizing a focal-plane pinhole array effect by special pixel addressing and discarding of the unwanted photocarriers was developed. The axial resolution in the confocal mode measured by FWHM for a planar mirror was 8.9 ?m, which showed that the confocality has been achieved with the proposed CMOS image sensor. PMID:23389123

Kagawa, Keiichiro; Seo, Min-Woong; Yasutomi, Keita; Terakawa, Susumu; Kawahito, Shoji



The nonuniformity measurement and image processing algorithm evaluation for uncooled microbolometer infrared focal plane arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The great achievements were achieved in the manufacturing of uncooled microbolometer infrared focal plane arrays(UFPA). By this technique infrared system can be made in the formation of small volume, light weight, low price and being portable. It promotes greatly the utilization of infrared system in many fields. The main disadvantage of UFPA is non-uniformity. Despite non-uniformity of UFPA has been greatly improved, non-uniformity still restricts the performance of uncooled infrared system. In this paper, the attention is focused on the technology and methods measuring the non-uniformity of UFPA. The system that can measure the non-uniformity of UFPA and evaluate the image processing algorithms is developed. The measurement system consists of blackbody, infrared optics, control units, processing circuit, high-speed A/D converter, computer and software. To obtain the output signals of UFPA, the drive circuit and control circuit of thermoelectric stabilizer(TEC) of UFPA are developed. In the drive circuit, the CPLD device is employed to insure a small size circuit. In the TEC circuit, a kind of highly integrated and cost-effective, high-effiency, switch-mode driver is used to insure temperature stability of 0.01°C. The system is used to measure non-uniformity of microbolometer detectors which are produced by ULIS company. It can also present the evaluation of algorithm. The results are given and analyzed.

Qian, Yunsheng; Chang, BenKang; Zhang, Junju; Xing, Suxia; Yu, Shuizhong; Yang, Ji



Noninvasive Vascular Displacement Estimation for Relative Elastic Modulus Reconstruction in Transversal Imaging Planes  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerotic plaque rupture can initiate stroke or myocardial infarction. Lipid-rich plaques with thin fibrous caps have a higher risk to rupture than fibrotic plaques. Elastic moduli differ for lipid-rich and fibrous tissue and can be reconstructed using tissue displacements estimated from intravascular ultrasound radiofrequency (RF) data acquisitions. This study investigated if modulus reconstruction is possible for noninvasive RF acquisitions of vessels in transverse imaging planes using an iterative 2D cross-correlation based displacement estimation algorithm. Furthermore, since it is known that displacements can be improved by compounding of displacements estimated at various beam steering angles, we compared the performance of the modulus reconstruction with and without compounding. For the comparison, simulated and experimental RF data were generated of various vessel-mimicking phantoms. Reconstruction errors were less than 10%, which seems adequate for distinguishing lipid-rich from fibrous tissue. Compounding outperformed single-angle reconstruction: the interquartile range of the reconstructed moduli for the various homogeneous phantom layers was approximately two times smaller. Additionally, the estimated lateral displacements were a factor of 2–3 better matched to the displacements corresponding to the reconstructed modulus distribution. Thus, noninvasive elastic modulus reconstruction is possible for transverse vessel cross sections using this cross-correlation method and is more accurate with compounding.

Hansen, Hendrik H.G.; Richards, Michael S.; Doyley, Marvin M.; de Korte, Chris L.



Blue laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This has been a development program to design a low noise, moderate power, blue, hollow cathode laser used for imaging on photoconductors for on-demand color printing. Descriptions of the construction, processing, and testing of experimental unit are presented with recommendations for design improvements.

Griffin, G. R.



Plane Groups  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lengthy PDF document (60 pages+) about plane groups and symmetry. It includes colorful images of each of the 17 plane groups, in several different forms. Additionally, there are some summarizing graphics that show unit cells, lattices, symmetry elements, etc. There is lots here to choose from -- I doubt that anyone will want to use all of the images. Studying plane groups is a good way to introduce crystal systems, point groups, lattices, symmetry operators, etc. All is in 2-D, but it is easy to tell students that the principles are the same in 3-D. For those who like to make changes, the PDF document was created from individual EPS files. This means that the files can be opened in Adobe Illustrator, Corel Draw, etc., and modified to fit your own needs.

Perkins, Dexter


Ability of a novel blue laser imaging system for the diagnosis of colorectal polyps.  


BACKGROUND: A new endoscope system with a laser light source, blue laser imaging (BLI), has been developed by Fujifilm that allows for narrow-band light observation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of BLI for the diagnosis of colorectal polyps. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 314 colorectal polyps that were examined with BLI observation at Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine between September 2011 and January 2013. The surface and vascular patterns of polyps detected by published narrow-band imaging magnification: Hiroshima classification were used. Correlations were determined between the classifications and the histopathological diagnoses. Additionally, the ability of BLI without magnification to differentiate between neoplastic or non-neoplastic polyps was analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 41 hyperplastic polyps, 168 adenomas, 80 intramucosal cancer, 11 shallowly invaded submucosal cancer, and 14 deeply invaded submucosal cancer were analyzed.Hyperplastic polyp was observed in 100% of Type A lesions (39 lesions), adenoma was observed in 89.3% of Type B lesions (159 lesions), intramucosal cancer and shallowly invaded submucosal cancer was observed in 69.6% of Type C1 (92 lesions) and in 84.6% of Type C2 (13 lesions), and deeply invaded submucosal cancer was observed in 81.8% of Type C3 lesions (11 lesions). The overall diagnostic accuracy of BLI with magnification was 84.3%. Additionally, the diagnostic accuracy of BLI without magnification for differentiating between neoplastic and non-neoplastic polyps <10?mm in diameter was 95.2%, which was greater than that of white light (83.2%). CONCLUSION: BLI was useful for the diagnosis of colorectal polyps. PMID:23731034

Yoshida, Naohisa; Yagi, Nobuaki; Inada, Yutaka; Kugai, Munehiro; Okayama, Tetsuya; Kamada, Kazuhiro; Katada, Kazuhiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Handa, Osamu; Takagi, Tomohisa; Konishi, Hideyuki; Kokura, Satoshi; Yanagisawa, Akio; Naito, Yuji



Computer-aided method for automated selection of optimal imaging plane for measurement of total cerebral blood flow by MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer-aided method for finding an optimal imaging plane for simultaneous measurement of the arterial blood inflow through the 4 vessels leading blood to the brain by phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging is presented. The method performance is compared with manual selection by two observers. The skeletons of the 4 vessels for which centerlines are generated are first extracted. Then, a global direction of the relatively less curved internal carotid arteries is calculated to determine the main flow direction. This is then used as a reference direction to identify segments of the vertebral arteries that strongly deviates from the main flow direction. These segments are then used to identify anatomical landmarks for improved consistency of the imaging plane selection. An optimal imaging plane is then identified by finding a plane with the smallest error value, which is defined as the sum of the angles between the plane's normal and the vessel centerline's direction at the location of the intersections. Error values obtained using the automated and the manual methods were then compared using 9 magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) data sets. The automated method considerably outperformed the manual selection. The mean error value with the automated method was significantly lower than the manual method, 0.09+/-0.07 vs. 0.53+/-0.45, respectively (p<.0001, Student's t-test). Reproducibility of repeated measurements was analyzed using Bland and Altman's test, the mean 95% limits of agreements for the automated and manual method were 0.01~0.02 and 0.43~0.55 respectively.

Teng, Pang-Yu; Bagci, Ahmet Murat; Alperin, Noam



High Brightness Blue InGaN\\/GaN Light Emitting Diode on Nonpolar m-plane Bulk GaN Substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved nonpolar m-plane (1\\\\bar{1}00) light emitting diode (LED) with a thick InGaN active layer of 8 nm and a thick GaN barrier layer of 37.5 nm for multi-quantum-well (MQW) structure have been fabricated on low extended defect bulk m-plane GaN substrates using metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The peak wavelength of the electroluminescence (EL) emission from the packaged LED

Kenji Iso; Hisashi Yamada; Hirohiko Hirasawa; Natalie Fellows; Makoto Saito; Kenji Fujito; Steven P. DenBaars; James S. Speck; Shuji Nakamura



Implications of image plane line-edge roughness requirements on extreme ultraviolet mask specifications  

SciTech Connect

Line-edge roughness (LER) and the related effect of contact size variation remain as significant challenges facing the commercialization of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. LER is typically viewed as a resist problem; however, recent simulation results have shown that the mask can indeed be an important contributor. Problems arise from both mask absorber LER as well as mask multilayer roughness leading to random phase variations in the reflected beam (see Fig. 1). The latter effect is especially important as higher coherence off-axis illumination conditions are used and defocus is considered. Here we describe these effect in detail and explore how they will impact EUV mask requirements for the 22-nm half-pitch node and beyond. Figure 2 shows modeling results for 22-nm lines printed in a 0.32-numerical aperture system with 100-nm defocus assuming a mask with 0.24-nm rms multilayer roughness and no absorber edge roughness (unlike the example in Fig. 1). The impact of the phase roughness on the printed line-edge roughness is clearly evident and demonstrates the basic problem with mask roughness. The more detailed modeling-based analysis to be presented will account for performance throughout the process window as well as non-stochastic resist effects. We note that the mean-field resist effect is important to consider because, in practice, the resist is the limiting resolution element in the system and therefore dominates the mask-error enhancement factor (MEEF). As is typically the case with projection-optic-induced MEEF, the resist-induced MEEF will lead to even tighter mask requirements. Note that we do not consider resist stochastic effects since the purpose of this study is isolate mask-induced sources of image-plane roughness.

Naulleau, P. P.; George, Simi A.



On an adaptive scene-based gray super-resolution technique of infrared focal plane array imaging system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When infrared focal plane array imaging system detects targets, especially small targets, there is the problem of low gray resolution. In this paper, an adaptive scene-based gray super-resolution technique is proposed, aiming to solve the problem. The paper gives a detailed description on the method of image gray super-resolution by adjusting the signal sample range in infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) imaging system. The method contains the following three parts: extracting the effective gray range from the scene, and obtaining the basis of super-resolution adjustment; providing the adjusting parameters after filter-predicting the basis of adjustment, combining with the adaptive LMS-based filtering algorithm; and completing gray super-resolution by controlling the parameters in super-resolution circuit. Finally, the total solution is experiment validated. The experiment in infrared focal plane array imaging system has proven the feasibility and effectiveness of this method, and the improvement of super-resolution. Then test set shows the MRTD can be increased more than one time.

He, Ming; Zhang, Tian-yi; Liu, Wei-xin; Zhang, Cheng-bin; Zhang, Jin-hao



Fast, Accurate and Precise Mid-Sagittal Plane Location in 3D MR Images of the Brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extraction of the mid-sagittal plane (MSP) is a key step for brain image registration and asymmetry analysis. We present a fast MSP extraction method for 3D MR images, based on automatic segmentation of the brain and on heuristic maximization of the cerebro-spinal fluid within the MSP. The method is robust to severe anatomical asymmetries between the hemispheres, caused by surgical procedures and lesions. The method is also accurate with respect to MSP delineations done by a specialist. The method was evaluated on 64 MR images (36 pathological, 20 healthy, 8 synthetic), and it found a precise and accurate approximation of the MSP in all of them with a mean time of 60.0 seconds per image, mean angular variation within a same image (precision) of 1.26o and mean angular difference from specialist delineations (accuracy) of 1.64o.

Bergo, Felipe P. G.; Falcão, Alexandre X.; Yasuda, Clarissa L.; Ruppert, Guilherme C. S.


Integrated 585GHz Hot-Electron Mixer Focal-Plane Arrays Based on Annular Slot Antennas for Imaging Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed 585-GHz quasi-optical mixers and focal-plane arrays (FPAs) comprised of planar annular slot antennas (ASAs) with integrated niobium hot-electron bolometers for imaging applications. In order to optimize the single-element mixer design, the embedding impedance of the single ASA presented to the bolometer is analyzed using the induced electromotive force (EMF) method by including the antenna feed contribution. This

Lei Liu; Haiyong Xu; Arthur W. Lichtenberger; Robert M. Weikle II



Three-Dimensional Image Mosaicking Using Multiple Projection Planes for 3-D Visualization of Roadside Standing Buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel image-mosaicking technique suitable for 3D visualization of roadside buildings on Web sites or mobile systems is proposed. Our method was tested on a roadside building scene taken using a side-looking video camera employing a continuous set of vertical-textured planar faces. A vertical plane approximation of the scene geometry for each frame was calculated using sparsely distributed feature points

Jaechoon Chon; Takashi Fuse; Eihan Shimizu; Ryosuke Shibasaki



Epipolar-plane image analysis: An approach to determining structure from motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a technique for building a three-dimensional description of a static scene from a dense se- quence of images. These images are taken in such rapid succession that they form a solid block of data in which the temporal continuity from image to image is approximately equal to the spatial continuity in an individual image. The technique utilizes knowledge

Robert C. Bolles; H. Harlyn Baker; David H. Marimont



Photometric-based recovery of illuminant-free color images using a red-green-blue digital camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Albedo estimation has traditionally been used to make computational simulations of real objects under different conditions, but as yet no device is capable of measuring albedo directly. The aim of this work is to introduce a photometric-based color imaging framework that can estimate albedo and can reproduce the appearance both indoors and outdoors of images under different lights and illumination geometry. Using a calibration sample set composed of chips made of the same material but different colors and textures, we compare two photometric-stereo techniques, one of them avoiding the effect of shadows and highlights in the image and the other ignoring this constraint. We combined a photometric-stereo technique and a color-estimation algorithm that directly relates the camera sensor outputs with the albedo values. The proposed method can produce illuminant-free images with good color accuracy when a three-channel red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera is used, even outdoors under solar illumination.

Luis Nieves, Juan; Plata, Clara; Valero, Eva M.; Romero, Javier



A new inversion method of plasma density distribution of plasmasphere in the geomagnetic equatorial plane from IMAGE data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plasma density distribution of plasmasphere in the geomagnetic equatorial plane can help us study the magnetosphere like plasmasphere, ionosphere and their kinetics. In this paper, we introduce a new inversion method, GE-ART, to calculate the plasma density distribution in the geomagnetic equatorial plane from the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) data of IMAGE satellite under the assumption that the plasma density is constant along each geomagnetic field line. The new GE-ART algorithm was derived from the traditional Algebraic Reconstruction Techniques (ART) in Computed Tomography (CT) which was different from the several existing methods. In this new method, each value of the EUV image data was back-projected evenly to the geomagnetic field lines intersected by this EUV sight. A 3-D inversion matrix was produced by the contributions of all the voxels contained in the plasmasphere covered by the EUV sensor. That is, we considered that each value of the EUV image data was relative to the plasma densities of all the voxels passed through by the corresponding EUV radiation, which is the biggest difference to all the existing inversion methods. Finally, the GE-ART algorithm was evaluated by the real EUV data from the IMAGE satellite.

Li, Liang; Chen, Zhiqiang; Xu, Ronglan; Huang, Ya



New optical modalities utilizing curved focal plane imaging detector devices and large arrays for terrestrial and spaceborne telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As terrestrial and spaceborne astronomical telescopes advance in multi-functional design sophistication, incorporating greater spectral resolutions, the utilization of curved focal plane ccd and cmos imaging detectors, contoured to match the telescope's Petzval field of curvature, provides a fundamental and novel optical simplicity facilitating new imaging frontiers in astronomical research. For space based telescopes, curved focal plane detector devices require significantly fewer optics than their flat counterparts, which require field flattening optics, in achieving maximum imaging resolutions for adjoining spectrometers or imaging cameras. consequently, with fewer optics comes greater room to place other optics within the same space to accomplish other tasks, providing much greater diversification of observing functions and techniques reserved simultaneously for the telescope. Included within this is the operational capability of producing multi-wavelength spectrometers gathering data concurrently at a multitude of selected wavelengths, with greater sensitivity, reliability, size reduction, and operational longevity of the restructured optical system. Specialized applications involving optical interferometry are also achievable with further enhancements when the curved detectors are applied specifically to refine or maximize detection of fringes, and when employing occulting mask algorithms for existing light paths. for planetary surface mapping space probes, curved focal plane detection provides real-time 3D multi-perspective image acquisition for streaming 3D data sets, replacing onboard or remote computationally intensive 3D reconstructions used for examining terrestrial surface features performed with corresponding flat detectors. For earth based telescopes, where mass of the telescope's optics are not so constrained, more degrees of freedom are also part of the benefits introduced by curved focal plane detector device optimization. Associated with the very large Petzval radii of curvature for very large and extreme telescopes within this class are wide field spatial distortions which are instantaneously corrected when arrays of curved CCD's or CMOS devices are joined homogeneously and precisely together along the converging field of curvature, without field flattening optics, insuring complete full field detection superior to flat facet detectors which compromise the telescope's imaging field curvature detection abilities.

Mark, David



A double-line image of a dislocation in a silicon single crystal observed by X-ray plane wave topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an asymmetric Bragg reflection, dislocation images in a silicon crystal were taken by X-ray plane wave topography with(+, ?) setting. For the Si 220 reflection by Mo K?1 radiation, the angular width of the plane wave is 0.3?. A dislocation which gives a double-line imago on a plane wave topograph was investigated. From computer simulations based on the dynamical

Kohtaro Ishida; Akio Ootuka; Satio Takagi



Exact Image Method for Field Calculation in Horizontally Layered Medium Above a Conducting Ground Plane.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In layered medium performing the Mittag-Leffler expansion for the Fourier domain reflection coefficient, it is shown that the inverse Laplace transform of it can be easily derived in geometries where between infinite halfspace and ground plane there are l...

E. Alanen I. V. Lindell



Development of a Sparse Aperture Test-Bed Utilizing Pupil-Plane Imaging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sparse aperture imaging provides the opportunity to achieve high resolutions image with groups of smaller apertures rather than a large single aperture. Eliminating large monolithic apertures provides both a cost and weight reduction among other possible ...

D. Jameson D. Rabb J. Roche



An abuttable CCD imager for visible and X-ray focal plane arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

A frame-transfer silicon charge-coupled-device (CCD) imager has been developed that can be closely abutted to other imagers on three sides of the imaging array. It is intended for use in multichip arrays. The device has 420 x 420 pixels in the imaging and frame-store regions and is constructed using a three-phase triple-polysilicon process. Particular emphasis has been placed on achieving

Barry E. Burke; David C. Harrison; Marshall W. Bautz; John P. Doty



An abuttable CCD imager for visible and X-ray focal plane arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

A frame-transfer silicon charge-coupled-device (CCD) imager has been developed that can be closely abutted to other imagers on three sides of the imaging array. It is intended for use in multichip arrays. The device has 420×420 pixels in the imaging and frame-store regions and is constructed using a three-phase triple-polysilicon process. Particular emphasis has been placed on achieving low-noise charge

Barry E. Burke; David C. Harrison; Marshall W. Bautz; John P. Doty; George R. Ricker; Peter J. Daniels



InGaAs focal plane arrays and cameras for man-portable near-infrared imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During this presentation, the status of the technology will be described and prototype applications will be demonstrated and discussed. Included in the discussion will be: (1) the ability to distinguish camouflage from the surrounding environment, (2) the ability to see through fog that is opaque to visible imagers, (3) the ability to image eye-safe lasers for range-finding and target-acquisition, and (4) the use in conjunction with NIR flood lights for both covert surveillance and search and rescue operations. The high room-temperature D* makes indium gallium arsenide focal plane arrays excellent candidates for inclusion in small, light-weight, low-power, and low-cost NIR imaging modules. This type of development will enable additional applications such as the use in gun sights and micro-unmanned aerial vehicle surveillance. The presentation will conclude with the discussion of ongoing development activities.

Ettenberg, Martin H.; Cohen, Marshall J.; Olsen, Gregory H.; Kennedy, James J.



Portable sequential multicolor thermal imager based on a MCT 384 x 288 focal plane array  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM has developed a sequential multicolor thermal imager to provide customers with a test system to realize real-time spectral selective thermal imaging. In contrast to existing PC based laboratory units, the system is miniaturized with integrated signal processing like non-uniformity correction and post processing functions such as image subtraction of different colors to allow field tests in military applications like

Rainer Breiter; Wolfgang A. Cabanski; Karl-Heinz Mauk; Werner Rode; Johann Ziegler



SPECT imaging (140-364 keV): Influence of photon scattering and penetration on backprojected noise within tomographic plane  

SciTech Connect

In functional imaging with SPECT, differential uptake measurements within the tomographic plane are important. In many investigations, a distributed source or multiple sources within this plane are imaged. Backprojected noise may be significant, influencing differential uptake. Noise factors, apart from backprojection algorithms include photon scattering and collimator photon penetration. The influence of noise on differential uptake within the transverse plane was empirically evaluated for Tc-99m (140 keV), Ga-67, 993,184 keV) and I-131 (364 keV). A Picker International SPECT system, equipped with LEC and thick septa MEC and Iodine collimators (theoretical leakage for both<3%), was employed, to minimize photon penetration. A dual concentric ring (contrast) phantom was scanned and results of higher photon emitters compared to Tc-99m data. The activity in the outer/inner ring was 3:1, to critically evaluate noise within the transverse plane. Acquired counts were large (>20 x 10/sup 6/) to minimize statistical (unstructed) noise. For given acquisition and filter parameters, the noise level for Ga-67 was approximately three times greater than the Tc-99m, the latter attributed to scatter contribution to the lower energy window. This noise was non-uniform and degraded differential uptake measurements. The noise level for I-131 was approximately twice that for Tc-99m and was more uniform than Ga-67. The noise was attributed, in part, to photon penetration. Despite difference in collimation, data suggest that provided collimator sensitivity can be reduced, the limiting noise factor is photon scattering where multiple peaks are involved.

Saw, C.B.; Clarke, L.P.; Hourani, M.; Leong, L.; Gentili, A.; Sfakianakis, G.; Serafini, A.



Automated Analysis Pipelines For The Galactic Plane Infrared Polarization Survey: From Basic Image Processing To Crowded-field, Variable-PSF, Imaging Polarimetry.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Galactic Plane Infrared Polarization Survey (GPIPS) is being conducted on the 1.83m Perkins telescope outside Flagstaff, Arizona using the Mimir instrument configured as a near-infrared imaging polarimeter. The 10x10 arcmin field of view captures H-band (1.6 um) images of thousands of stars in every image. GPIPS collects over 50,000 of these images each year and when completed, will have over 300,000 images. Automated methods of basic data processing, including astrometry, flat, dark, and linearity corrections must be applied with a minimum of human intervention. Advanced analyses, including removal of atmospheric transmission variations, registration and averaging of dither-offset images, high precision photometry, removal of instrumental polarization effects, and final computation of linear polarizations must find and preserve the best signal-to-noise present in the data. Achieving the GPIPS science goals requires being able to extract useful polarization information for around 200 stars per image, for images with a variety of PSF sizes, PSF quality, and stellar crowding. Also challenging is to achieve similarly consistent analyses of image fields toward infrared polarimetric standards, which are exceedingly sparse, and globular clusters, used to establish polarization nulls across the field of view. This poster will highlight the steps in our automated pipelines and some of the lessons learned in developing, testing, and using these pipelines for milli-mag level, crowded-field, infrared imaging polarimetry. Supported by NSF grants AST 06-07500 and AST 09-07790

Clemens, Dan P.; Pavel, M.; Pinnick, A.



Design of a dual field-of-view imaging system for infrared focal plane arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the design of a dual field-of-view optical system for 3-5 micrometers infra-red focal-plane arrays is described. Preliminary calculations are done to determine the first-order parameters of the narrow and the wide-field modes. To achieve a switchable dual field-of-view system, two different optical configurations, one based on the axial motion of a lens group and the other based

Muhammad N. Akram



Arrayed waveguide gratings beyond communication: utilization of entire image-plane of output star-coupler for spectroscopy and sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conventional Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) has been tailored for non-conventional applications such as Astro-Photonics, Life-science and spectroscopy where the input signal can have information over the full continuum of light/spectrum, compared to discrete optical channels in optical communication systems. The material system chosen for the AWG design is silicon-nitride/SiO2/Si (Si3N4-SiO2-Si) for it's relatively high refractive index, which for a given channel spacing allowing a more compact device than Silicon-on-Silica. While existing conventional AWGs cannot be utilized in spectroscopy when the input is a continuum, due to the fixed output waveguides where the centre wavelength ?c and therefore rest of the wavelength channels have been assigned to predetermined output waveguides, the device under development has no output waveguides permitting to utilize the entire-image plane of the output star-coupler. The output of the AWG can then be re-imaged onto a detector array to sample the entire output spectrum, such as the 2-D infrared arrays used in astronomy. The designed AWG can resolve up to 40 spectral channels with wavelength spacing 0.4nm (50GHz), adjacent channel cross-talk level < -25dB at the ITU grid (25GHz) and non-uniformity ~ 2.5dB. The modeled mean spectral resolving power, R, at the flat image-plane is ~ 12,200.

Fernando, Harendra N. J.; Stoll, Andreas; Boggio, Jose C.; Haynes, Roger; Roth, Martin M.



New Methods for Precision Radio Imaging: Field of View Control Using Convolution Functions in the u,v Plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future radio telescope arrays, such as the Square Kilometer Array (SKA), will implement large numbers of small diameter dishes configured over large areas. This has the advantage of a naturally large field of view (FOV), and increased image fidelity and dynamic range. However, a major problem for these large arrays is varying instrumental response to radio sources across the FOV, as well as significant responses to sources outside the intended FOV. These effects can degrade image quality and sensitivity at the primary location of interest. One approach to this problem is to apply a convolution function to the uncalibrated visibility data in the time/frequency plane on a baseline-by-baseline basis, corresponding to a convolution function of uniform size and shape in the (u,v) plane. This provides precise, dynamic control over the FOV in the image plane in an internally consistent manner throughout the (u,v) data set. The effect is to reduce the sidelobe confusion contributions from secondary sources, as well as constituting intelligent time and frequency averaging as a means of reducing data volumes. The effectiveness of this method was tested on observational data using the MERLIN array in the United Kingdom. Using an updated version of the MIT Array Performance Simulator (MAPS), a simulated data set modeling the actual data set was generated for comparison. The performance of the convolution method on an actual data set is compared against the results on the simulated data set. The robustness of the method is also investigated by simulating large portions of lost or corrupted data. The results show that the use of convolution functions on uncalibrated (u,v) data is a promising method for limiting instrumental response to sources outside a user-defined FOV. This project was supported through an NSF/REU grant at MIT Haystack Observatory.

Foight, Dillon; Fish, V.; Lonsdale, C.



Lateral modulation boosts image quality in single plane illumination fluorescence microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new microscope combines optical sectioning by fluorophore excitation using a single light sheet with structured illumination. Several images with laterally intensity-modulated light sheets are recorded from scattering fluorescent specimens. By applying a simple data processing scheme, the nonmodulated volumes are identified. The blurred features become dark, and the resultant images are improved in terms of contrast and resolution. Hence, the instrument is capable of discriminating against contributions to the image that are induced by the optical properties of the specimen. The new microscope's capabilities are demonstrated by imaging the internals of the head of an adult Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) expressing green fluorescent protein-labeled polycomb proteins.

Breuninger, Tobias; Greger, Klaus; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.



Multiperspective-Modelling in the Process of Constructing and Understanding Physical Theories Using the Example of the Plane Mirror Image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teaching physics goes along with explaining natural phenomena. The modelling process during the acquisition of physical knowledge plays an important role in developing understanding and deeper insight. Novices, however, have problems with this modelling process, in particular because they do not understand that teachers are talking about models of reality and not about reality itself. Physical theories are described with linguistic and mathematical symbols; hence there exist at least two perspectives of modelling, physical and mathematical modelling. According to Greca and Moreira (2001) [2] understanding of physics in school is achieved if it is possible to predict a physical phenomenon from its physical models. Yet, apart from the physical and the mathematical perspective of modelling other perspectives of modelling are necessary for understanding complex physical phenomena. To prevent confusion for the learner it is essential to differentiate between these different perspectives of modelling. This process of differentiation between various perspectives of modelling will be referred to as `Multiperspective-Modelling'. Prior studies (F. Goldberg and L. McDermott, (1986), Wiesner 1992) [1, 5] on how individual students think about images in plane mirrors revealed that the learners have misconceptions. Based on the idea of `Multiperspective-Modelling' we developed and evaluated a special training for the learner. This training differentiates physical, mathematical and `human' perspectives of modelling of the plane mirror phenomenon. The purposes of this study were to investigate the understanding of the plane mirror phenomenon of novices, before and after the special training.

Böhm, U.; Pospiech, G.; Körndle, H.; Narciss, S.



A CMOS image sensor for focal-plane low-power motion vector estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a CMOS image sensor which captures intermediate pictures at 480 frames\\/s and a fully accumulated picture at 30 frames\\/s. The CMOS image sensor is for integrating a low-power motion vector estimation (MVE) engine using the iterative block matching algorithm proposed by the authors

D. Handoko; S. Kawahito; Y. Takokoro; M. Kumahara; A. Matsuzawa



Inverse-synthetic-aperture imaging of trees over a ground plane  

SciTech Connect

Recent data collections with the Sandia VHF-UHF synthetic-aperture radar have yielded surprising results; trees appear brighter in the images than expected! In an effort to understand this phenomenon, various small trees have been measured on the Sandia folded compact range with the inverse-synthetic-aperture imaging system. A compilation of these measurements is contained in this report.

Zittel, D.H.; Brock, B.C.; Littlejohn, J.H.; Patitz, W.E.



Optical image compression based on segmentation of the Fourier plane: new approaches and critical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new optical image compression approach based on spectral selection and using a segmented filter. In order to identify the method offering the best quality of reconstruction of the optically compressed images, we investigated several spectral segmentation methods. The compression is carried out in the spectral domain and results in a compound spectrum referred to as the segmented

S. Soualmi; A. Alfalou; H. Hamam



320x240 pixel InGaAs/InP focal plane array for short-wave infrared and visible light imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the recent production release of our 320x240 pixel InGaAs/InP focal plane array and camera for visible and short-wavelength infrared light imaging. For this camera, we have fabricated a substrate-removed backside-illuminated InGaAs/InP photodiode array hybridized to a silicon read out integrated circuit (ROIC). Removing the InP substrate from the focal plane array allows visible wavelengths, which would otherwise be absorbed by the InP substrate due to its 920 nm wavelength cut-off, to reach the pixels" active region. Quantum efficiency is approximately 15% at 500 nm, 70% at 850 nm, 85% at 1310 nm and 80% at 1550 nm. This focal plane array is useable for visible imaging as well as imaging eye-safe lasers and is of particular interest for day and low light level imaging as well as hyperspectral imaging.

Martin, Tara; Dixon, Peter; Gagliardi, Mari-Anne; Masaun, Navneet



Efficient Algorithms for Determining 3-D Bi-Plane Imaging Geometry*  

PubMed Central

Biplane projection imaging is one of the primary methods for imaging and visualizing the cardiovascular system in medicine. A key problem in such a technique is to determine the imaging geometry (i.e., the relative rotation and translation) of two projections so that the interested 3-D structures can be accurately reconstructed. Based on interesting observations and efficient geometric techniques, we present in this paper new algorithmic solutions for this problem. Comparing with existing optimization-based approaches, our techniques yield better accuracy, have bounded execution time, and thus are more suitable for on-line applications. Our techniques can easily detect outliers to further improve the accuracy.

Xu, Jinhui; Xu, Guang; Chen, Zhenming; Singh, Vikas; Hoffmann, Kenneth R.



Instantaneous three-dimensional visualization of concentration distributions in turbulent flows with crossed-plane laser-induced fluorescence imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laser-based technique for measuring instantaneous three-dimensional species concentration distributions in turbulent flows is presented. The laser beam from a single laser is formed into two crossed light sheets that illuminate the area of interest. The laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) signal emitted from excited species within both planes is detected with a single camera via a mirror arrangement. Image processing enables the reconstruction of the three-dimensional data set in close proximity to the cutting line of the two light sheets. Three-dimensional intensity gradients are computed and compared to the two-dimensional projections obtained from the two directly observed planes. Volume visualization by digital image processing gives unique insight into the three-dimensional structures within the turbulent processes. We apply this technique to measurements of toluene-LIF in a turbulent, non-reactive mixing process of toluene and air and to hydroxyl (OH) LIF in a turbulent methane-air flame upon excitation at 248 nm with a tunable KrF excimer laser.

Hoffmann, A.; Zimmermann, F.; Scharr, H.; Krömker, S.; Schulz, C.



Performances and reliability tests of AlGaN based focal plane array for deep-UV imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some 2D imagers based on AlGaN materials have been developed in the framework of a CNES founded research program to sustain visible blind imagers devoted to solar physics. We have already presented several prototypes of focal plane arrays extending the range of detection from near UV to deep UV [1, 2]. It consists in an array of 320x256 pixels of Schottky photodiodes with a pitch of 30 ?m. AlGaN is grown on a silicon substrate instead of sapphire substrate only transparent down to 200 nm. The use of honeycomb structure has straightened the membrane after hybridization, maintained membrane integrity but decreases the filling factor. After a preliminary study to optimize substrate and AlGaN window layer elimination, 12 focal plane arrays have been fabricated in order to achieve aging and reliability tests based on thermal cycling. Technological analyses such as cross-section, profilometry, microscopy and electrical measurements are presented without showing any ageing effect. We present here the final results with a complete evaluation of quantum efficiency on all the spectral range of interest. A large intrinsic absorption in AlGaN takes place in the 100 nm range where the quantum efficiency decreases down to 1%. Several growth parameters are identified as a key component to avoid cracks in the epitaxial structure and surface electrical traps affecting the quantum efficiency.

Reverchon, J.-L.; Lehoucq, G.; Lyoret, C.; Truffer, J.-P.; Costard, E.; Frayssinet, E.; Brault, J.; Duboz, J.-Y.; Giuliani, A.; Réfrégier, M.; Idir, M.



Plane Wave: Step Scattering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Plane Wave: Step Scattering model simulates the time evolution of a free-particle plane wave in position space when it is incident on a potential energy step.  The position-space wave functions are depicted using three colors on the graph: black depicting the absolute square of the wave function, blue depicting the real part of the wave function, and red depicting the imaginary part of the wave function. The user may change the height of the potential step or the plane wave energy by dragging circles on the energy graph. Also shown is the calculated transmission and reflection coefficients. The Plane Wave: Step Scattering model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_qm_plane_step.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Palop, Jose I.



Compact reconnaissance imaging spectrometer for Mars (CRISM): characterization results for instrument and focal plane subsystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) will launch in 2005 on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) mission, with its primary science objective to characterize sites with aqueous mineral deposits hyperspectrally at high spatial resolution. CRISM\\

Peter R. Silverglate; Kevin J. Heffernan; Peter D. Bedini; John D. Boldt; Peter J. Cavender; Edward H. Darlington; Erik T. Donald; Melissa J. Fasold; Dennis E. Fort; Reid S. Gurnee; Allen T. Hayes; John R. Hayes; James B. Hemler; David C. Humm; Noam R. Izenberg; Robert E. Lee; William J. Lees; David A. Lohr; Scott L. Murchie; Graham A. Murphy; Ralph A. Reiter; Edigio Rossano; Gordon G. Seagrave; Edward D. Schaefer; Kim Strohbehn; Howard W. Taylor; Patrick L. Thompson; Barry E. Tossman; Paul Wilson IV; Mark S. Robinson; Robert Green; Steven E. Mitchell



An abuttable CCD imager for visible and X-ray focal plane arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large multichip arrays for close-abutted CCDs (charged-coupled devices) are needed for surveillance applications in the visible band and for X-ray astronomy missions such as the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility and the ASTRO-D satellite. A 420*420 pixel frame-transfer CCD imager which is designed to be abutted to other imagers on three sides so that arrays of 2*N chips can be constructed

B. Burke; D. Harrison; J. Reinold; C. Doherty; G. Ricker; M. Bautz; J. Doty



Brown-Roberts-Wells Stereotactic Frame Modifications to Accomplish Magnetic Resonance Imaging Guidance in Three Planes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Brown-Roberts-Wells (BRW) computer tomography (CT) stereotactic guidance system has been modified to accommodate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A smaller head ring, which fits in standard MRI head coils, is constructed of a non-ferromagnetic aluminum ring that is split to prevent eddy currents and anodized to prevent MRI image distortion and resolution degradation. A new localizing device has been designed

M. Peter Heilbrun; Peter M. Sunderland; Paul R. McDonald; Trent H. Wells Jr.; Eric Cosman; Edward Ganz



Galactic Plane image sharpness as a check on cosmic microwave background mapmaking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The largest uncollapsed inhomogeneity in the observable Universe is statistically represented in the quadrupole signal of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) sky maps as observed by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). The constant temporal offset of -25.6~ms between the timestamps of the spacecraft attitude and observational data records in the time-ordered data (TOD) of the WMAP observations was suspected to imply that previously derived all-sky CMB maps are erroneous, and that the quadrupole is in large part an artefact. The optimal focussing of bright objects in the Galactic Plane plays a key role in showing that no error occurred at the step of mapmaking from the calibrated TOD. Instead, the error had an effect when the uncalibrated TOD were calibrated. Estimates of the high-latitude quadrupole based on the wrongly calibrated WMAP maps are overestimated by about 15--60%.

Roukema, B. F.



The high resolution X-ray imaging detector planes for the MIRAX mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MIRAX X-ray observatory, the first Brazilian-led astrophysics space mission, is designed to perform an unprecedented wide-field, wide-band hard X-ray (5-200 keV) survey of Galactic X-ray transient sources. In the current configuration, MIRAX will carry a set of four coded-masks telescopes with high spatial resolution Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detector planes, each one consisting of an array of 64 closely tiled CZT pixelated detectors. Taken together, the four telescopes will have a total detection area of 959 cm2, a large field of view (60° × 60° FWHM), high angular resolution for this energy range (6 arcmin) and very good spectral resolution ( ~ 2 keV @ 60 keV). A stratospheric balloon-borne prototype of one of the MIRAX telescopes has been developed, tested and flown by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) as part of the ProtoEXIST program. In this paper we show results of validation and calibration tests with individual CZT detectors of the ProtoEXIST second generation experiment (P2). Each one of 64 detector units of the P2 detector plane consists of an ASIC, developed by Caltech for the NuSTAR telescope, hybridized to a CZT crystal with 0.6 mm pixel size. The performance of each detector was evaluated using radioactive sources in the laboratory. The calibration results show that the P2 detectors have average energy resolution of ~ 2.1 keV @ 60 keV and 2.3 @ 122 keV. P2 was also successfully tested on near-space environment on a balloon flight, demonstrating the detector unit readiness for integration on a space mission telescope, as well as satisfying all MIRAX mission requirements.

Rodrigues, B. H. G.; Grindlay, J. E.; Allen, B.; Hong, J.; Barthelmy, S.; Braga, J.; D'Amico, F.; Rothschild, R. E.



Red, green, and blue gray-value shift-based approach to whole-field imaging for tissue diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identification of abnormal pathology in situ remains one of the challenges of medicine. The interpretation of tissue conditions relies mainly on optical assessment, which can be difficult due to inadequate visual differences or poor color delineation. We propose a methodology to identify regions of abnormal tissue in a targeted area based on red, green, blue (RGB) shift analysis employing a simple CCD color camera and light-emitting diode illumination in a whole-field-imaging scheme. The concept involves analysis of RGB components in an image with respect to a reference set of RGB values under different illumination wavelengths. The magnitude of the gray value shift is estimated by calculating the Euclidean distance between their normalized RGB coordinates. The shift values obtained using these concepts are thereafter used to construct pseudo-colored images with high contrast, enabling easy identification of abnormal areas in the tissue. Images processed from experiments conducted with excised Wistar rat colon sample (lightly doped with Alexafluor 488) and with simulated tumor (cancer cell pellet placed on colon) showed clear localization of tumor region. This proposed approach and methodology is expected to find potential applications for the in vivo diagnosis of disease.

Valiyambath Krishnan, Mohankumar; Vadakke Matham, Murukeshan; Krishnan, Sathiyamoorthy; Parasuraman, Padmanabhan; Joseph, James; Bhakoo, Kishore



Subcellular biochemical investigation of purkinje neurons using synchrotron radiation fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging with a focal plane array detector.  


Coupling Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with focal plane array detectors at synchrotron radiation sources (SR-FTIR-FPA) has provided a rapid method to simultaneously image numerous biochemical markers in situ at diffraction limited resolution. Since cells and nuclei are well resolved at this spatial resolution, a direct comparison can be made between FTIR functional group images and the histology of the same section. To allow histological analysis of the same section analyzed with infrared imaging, unfixed air-dried tissue sections are typically fixed (after infrared spectroscopic analysis is completed) via immersion fixation. This post fixation process is essential to allow histological staining of the tissue section. Although immersion fixation is a common practice in this filed, the initial rehydration of the dehydrated unfixed tissue can result in distortion of subcellular morphology and confound correlation between infrared images and histology. In this study, vapor fixation, a common choice in other research fields where postfixation of unfixed tissue sections is required, was employed in place of immersion fixation post spectroscopic analysis. This method provided more accurate histology with reduced distortions as the dehydrated tissue section is fixed in vapor rather than during rehydration in an aqueous fixation medium. With this approach, accurate correlation between infrared images and histology of the same section revealed that Purkinje neurons in the cerebellum are rich in cytosolic proteins and not depleted as once thought. In addition, we provide the first direct evidence of intracellular lactate within Purkinje neurons. This highlights the significant potential for future applications of SR-FTIR-FPA imaging to investigate cellular lactate under conditions of altered metabolic demand such as increased brain activity and hypoxia or ischemia. PMID:23638613

Hackett, Mark J; Borondics, Ferenc; Brown, Devin; Hirschmugl, Carol; Smith, Shari E; Paterson, Phyllis G; Nichol, Helen; Pickering, Ingrid J; George, Graham N



High frame-rate blood vector velocity imaging using plane waves: Simulations and preliminary experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional ultrasound methods for acquiring color images of blood velocity are limited by a relatively low frame-rate and are restricted to give velocity estimates along the ultrasound beam direction only. To circumvent these limitations, the method presented in this paper uses 3 techniques: 1) The ultrasound is not focused during the transmissions of the ultrasound signals; 2) A 13 -bit

Jesper Udesen; Fredrik Gran; Kristoffer Lindskov Hansen; Jørgen Arendt Jensen; Carsten Thomsen; Michael Bachmann Nielsen



Focal-Plane Image and Beam Quality Sensors for Adaptive Optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control of adaptive optical elements for real-time wavefront phase distortion compen- sation is a rapidly growing field of research and technology development. Wavefront cor- rection is essential for reliable long distance, near-ground laser communication as well as for imaging extended objects over large distances. Crucial to adaptively correcting the wavefront is a performance metric that can be directly evaluated from

Marc Cohent; Gert Cauwenberghst; Mikhail Vorontsovt; Gary Carhart



Changing Images of the Inclined Plane: A Case Study of a Revolution in American Science Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between 1880 and 1920 the way science was taught in American High Schools changed dramatically. The old "lecture/demonstration" method, where information was presented to essentially passive students, was replaced by the "laboratory" method, where students performed their own experiments in specially constructed student laboratories. National leadership in education was generally weak during this period, and the new method required significant investments by the schools, but within a few decades American science education was rapidly and completely transformed. Previous studies of this fundamental change have concentrated on the activities of organizations like the NEA, the Bureau of Education and a few major universities, but the way in which these groups were able to effect actual changes in classroom practice is not completely clear. This article attempts to broaden the existing narrative by integrating the rich and largely ignored material culture of science education—such things as textbooks, lab manuals, student notebooks, science teaching instruments and scientific instrument catalogs. Surprisingly, much of this story can be seen in changes to the depiction of a single, venerable and otherwise unremarkable teaching instrument: the inclined plane.

Turner, Steven C.



Design of a dual field-of-view imaging system for infrared focal plane arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the design of a dual field-of-view optical system for 3-5 micrometers infra-red focal-plane arrays is described. Preliminary calculations are done to determine the first-order parameters of the narrow and the wide-field modes. To achieve a switchable dual field-of-view system, two different optical configurations, one based on the axial motion of a lens group and the other based on a rotate-in motion of two separated lens groups, are studied and compared. Diffractive and conic surfaces are used to control the color and the monochromatic aberrations with less number of total lenses used. Paraxial and real-ray modeling of the Narcissus effect is described. It is shown that the rotate- in scheme achieves better optical performance in both the narrow and the wide-field modes. The axial-motion scheme suffers from poor lateral color in the wide-angle mode. The final optical designs along with their aberrations curves and MTF plots are presented showing excellent performance.

Akram, Muhammad N.



Blue Cards, Blue Prospects?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the European Commission has proposed to introduce a new mi- gration policy instrument - Blue Cards - to attract highly skilled workers from abroad by lifting labour market restrictions, offering financial and housing ben- efits. The excludability character of human capital suggests that what is benefi- cial for receiving countries might be harmful for sending countries. This article investigates

dArtis Kancs; Pavel Ciaian



Focal Plane Detectors for the Advanced Gamma-Ray Imaging System (AGIS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Gamma-Ray Imaging System (AGIS) is a concept for the next generation observatory in ground-based very high energy gamma-ray astronomy. It is being designed to achieve a significant improvement in sensitivity compared to current Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescope (IACT) Arrays. One of the main requirements in order that AGIS fulfill this goal will be to achieve higher angular resolution than current IACTs. Simulations show that a substantial improvement in angular resolution may be achieved if the pixel size is reduced to less than 0.05 deg, i.e. two to three times smaller than the pixel size of current IACT cameras. With finer pixelation and the plan to deploy on the order of 100 telescopes in the AGIS array, the channel count will exceed 1,000,000 imaging pixels. High uniformity and long mean time-to-failure will be important aspects of a successful photodetector technology choice. Here we present alternatives being considered for AGIS, including both silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) and multi-anode photomultipliers (MAPMTs). Results from laboratory testing of MAPMTs and SiPMs are presented along with results from the first incorporation of these devices in cameras on test bed Cherenkov telescopes.

Wagner, Robert G.; AGIS Photodetector Group; Byrum, K.; Drake, G.; Falcone, A.; Funk, S.; Horan, D.; Mukherjee, R.; Tajima, H.; Williams, D.



Snakes in the Plane: Direct Imaging of Magnetized Turbulence in the Interstellar Medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interstellar medium (ISM) of the Milky Way consists of gas and dust at a range of temperatures and pressures, and provides the raw material from which stars and planets form. Astronomers have developed a sophisticated understanding of the ISM as a multi-phase, magnetized, turbulent medium. However, observations have lacked the sensitivity and resolution to directly image the small-scale structure associated with turbulent motions in the diffuse ISM. Radio polarimetry is a promising avenue for further progress, because Faraday rotation of linearly polarized radio signals provides a very sensitive probe of fluctuations in magnetic field and ionized gas density. Here we present a new way of processing images of linearly polarized radio emission from the ISM, in which we derive the gradient of the Stokes vector (Q,U). This provides the first direct image of supersonic turbulence in the ISM, manifested as a complex filamentary web of sharp density jumps. Application of the polarization gradient to both simulations and observations can allow the measurement of currently unconstrained parameters of interstellar turbulence such as the Mach number, Reynolds number and magnetic field strength.

Gaensler, Bryan M.; Haverkorn, M.; Burkhart, B.; Newton-McGee, K. J.; Ekers, R. D.; Lazarian, A.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Robishaw, T.; Dickey, J. M.; Green, A. J.



State of Detector Development for the WIYN One Degree Imager: Deploying a Partially Populated Focal Plane in Summer 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deployment of the WIYN One Degree Imager (ODI) was delayed due to issues with the production of its Orthogonal Transfer Array (OTA) detectors. OTA detectors allow moving charge in the detector area during an ongoing science integration to compensate for image motion caused by either telescope guide errors or atmospheric turbulence. In 2011 a small experimental foundry run with a modified design has yielded at least 14 devices that meet science requirements for conventional static imaging mode. Active correction of telescope guide errors by the detectors will be achievable with some precautions during operation, whereas atmospheric motion correction will remain limited to a technical demonstration due to persistent amplifier glow. In this poster we describe the characteristics of these devices and present a plan for the deployment of ODI with a partially populated focal plane (pODI) at the WIYN telescope in the second half of 2012. pODI will be used to characterize the performance of the ODI instrument and will be used for science operations while the future development options for OTA detectors are considered.

Harbeck, Daniel R.; Boroson, T.; Lesser, M.



Inverted selective plane illumination microscopy (iSPIM) enables coupled cell identity lineaging and neurodevelopmental imaging in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

The Caenorhabditis elegans embryo is a powerful model for studying neural development, but conventional imaging methods are either too slow or phototoxic to take full advantage of this system. To solve these problems, we developed an inverted selective plane illumination microscopy (iSPIM) module for noninvasive high-speed volumetric imaging of living samples. iSPIM is designed as a straightforward add-on to an inverted microscope, permitting conventional mounting of specimens and facilitating SPIM use by development and neurobiology laboratories. iSPIM offers a volumetric imaging rate 30× faster than currently used technologies, such as spinning-disk confocal microscopy, at comparable signal-to-noise ratio. This increased imaging speed allows us to continuously monitor the development of C, elegans embryos, scanning volumes every 2 s for the 14-h period of embryogenesis with no detectable phototoxicity. Collecting ?25,000 volumes over the entirety of embryogenesis enabled in toto visualization of positions and identities of cell nuclei. By merging two-color iSPIM with automated lineaging techniques we realized two goals: (i) identification of neurons expressing the transcription factor CEH-10/Chx10 and (ii) visualization of their neurodevelopmental dynamics. We found that canal-associated neurons use somal translocation and amoeboid movement as they migrate to their final position in the embryo. We also visualized axon guidance and growth cone dynamics as neurons circumnavigate the nerve ring and reach their targets in the embryo. The high-speed volumetric imaging rate of iSPIM effectively eliminates motion blur from embryo movement inside the egg case, allowing characterization of dynamic neurodevelopmental events that were previously inaccessible.

Wu, Yicong; Ghitani, Alireza; Christensen, Ryan; Santella, Anthony; Du, Zhuo; Rondeau, Gary; Bao, Zhirong; Colon-Ramos, Daniel; Shroff, Hari



Near-infrared fluorescence imaging of a solitary fibrous tumor of the pancreas using methylene blue  

PubMed Central

A 67-year-old female presented with unexplained abdominal pain. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan of the abdomen incidentally revealed a mass in the uncinate process of the pancreas. This mass was resected and based on histopathological findings, diagnosed as a solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the pancreas. A SFT is an extremely rare benign mesenchymal tumor that in 65% of cases affects the visceral pleura but can also affect extra-pleural sites. The intraoperative demarcation of pancreatic tumors, such as SFTs, can be challenging. In this report, the first clear intraoperative identification of a SFT of the pancreas in a human was shown using near-infrared fluorescence and methylene blue.

van der Vorst, Joost R; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L; Hutteman, Merlijn; Bosse, Tjalling; Smit, Vincent THBM; van de Velde, Cornelis JH; Frangioni, John V; Bonsing, Bert A



Near-infrared fluorescence imaging of a solitary fibrous tumor of the pancreas using methylene blue.  


A 67-year-old female presented with unexplained abdominal pain. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan of the abdomen incidentally revealed a mass in the uncinate process of the pancreas. This mass was resected and based on histopathological findings, diagnosed as a solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the pancreas. A SFT is an extremely rare benign mesenchymal tumor that in 65% of cases affects the visceral pleura but can also affect extra-pleural sites. The intraoperative demarcation of pancreatic tumors, such as SFTs, can be challenging. In this report, the first clear intraoperative identification of a SFT of the pancreas in a human was shown using near-infrared fluorescence and methylene blue. PMID:22905287

van der Vorst, Joost R; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L; Hutteman, Merlijn; Bosse, Tjalling; Smit, Vincent T H B M; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Frangioni, John V; Bonsing, Bert A



In-plane strain measurements on a microscopic scale by coupling digital image correlation and an in situ SEM technique  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to present a method based on the correlation of digital images obtained on a microscopic scale. A specific grainy pattern has been developed. The use of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) allowed the determination of full-field 2D displacements on an object surface with a spatial resolution of about 1 {mu}m. Validation tests were performed in order to quantify performances and limits of this method. An example of its application is presented for a Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy. Results show that it is possible to obtain in-plane displacement values on the object surface with efficient spatial resolution and accuracy. Thus, such a technique can be used to highlight on a relevant scale the role of the microstructure in material deformation processes.

Lagattu, Fabienne [Laboratoire de Mecanique et de Physique des Materiaux, ENSMA, BP40109, 86961 Futuroscope (France)]. E-mail:; Bridier, Florent [Laboratoire de Mecanique et de Physique des Materiaux, ENSMA, BP40109, 86961 Futuroscope (France); Villechaise, Patrick [Laboratoire de Mecanique et de Physique des Materiaux, ENSMA, BP40109, 86961 Futuroscope (France); Brillaud, Jean [Laboratoire de Mecanique et de Physique des Materiaux, ENSMA, BP40109, 86961 Futuroscope (France)



Dose reduction and image quality assessment in MDCT using AEC (D-DOM & Z-DOM) and in-plane bismuth shielding.  


Since computed tomography (CT) was introduced about 40 y ago, its use has continuously grown, resulting in the increase of the CT dose. Therefore, an awareness of the CT dose and its potential complications has led to the development of several dose-reduction strategies. One of the strategies is automatic exposure control (AEC), which modulates radiation intensity depending on the patient size, z-axis thickness (Z-DOM) or angular thickness (D-DOM). Another dose-reduction method is the in-plane bismuth shield which attenuates radiation to reduce the CT doses of the tissues underneath the shield. We evaluated and compared the dose reduction and image quality of CT for various dose-reduction techniques. The result showed that both AEC and the in-plane shield reduced the CT dose effectively and the combined method of AEC and in-plane shielding reduced the CT dose more than the single use of AEC or in-plane shields. The dose reduction using Z-DOM was normally higher than that using D-DOM. The image quality of CT dramatically degraded when the in-plane shield was directly attached to the phantom without using AEC. In order to effectively reduce CT dose without the significant degradation of the image quality, the in-plane shield should be placed 1 cm apart from the patient with applying AEC control. PMID:20511402

Lee, Kibaek; Lee, Wonho; Lee, Junhyup; Lee, Boram; Oh, Gyubum



AlGaN-based focal plane arrays for selective UV imaging at 310nm and 280nm and route toward deep UV imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fast development of nitrides has given the opportunity to investigate AlGaN as a material for ultraviolet detection. Such camera present an intrinsic spectral selectivity and an extremely low dark current at room temperature. It can compete with technologies based on photocathodes, MCP intensifiers, back thinned CCD or hybrid CMOS focal plane arrays (FPA) for low flux measurements. AlGaN based cameras allow UV imaging without filters or with simplified ones in harsh solar blind conditions. Few results on camera have been shown in the last years, but the ultimate performances of AlGaN photodiodes couldn't be achieved due to parasitic illumination of multiplexers, responsivity of p layers in p-i-n structures, or use of cooled readout circuit. Such issues have prevented up to now a large development of this technology. We present results on focal plane array of 320x256 pixels with a pitch of 30?m for which Schottky photodiodes are multiplexed with a readout circuit protected by black matrix at room temperature. Theses focal plane present a peak reponsivity around 280nm and 310nm with a rejection of visible light of four decades only limited by internal photoemission in contact. Then we will show the capability to outdoor measurements. The noise figure is due to readout noise of the multiplexer and we will investigate the ultimate capabilities of Schottky diodes or Metal- Semiconductor-Metal (MSM) technologies to detect extremely low signal. Furthermore, we will consider deep UV measurements on single pixels MSM from 32nm to 61nm in a front side illumination configuration. Finally, we will define technology process allowing backside illumination and deep UV imaging.

Reverchon, Jean-Luc; Robo, Jean-Alexandre; Truffer, Jean-Patrick; Caumes, Jean-Pascal; Mourad, Idir; Brault, Julien; Duboz, Jean-Yves



Searching image in blue jays: Facilitation and interference in sequential priming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated exposure to a single target type (sequential priming) during visual search for multiple cryptic targets commonly\\u000a improves performance on subsequent presentations of that target. It appears to be an attentional phenomenon, a component of\\u000a the searching image effect. It has been argued, however, that if searching image is an attentional process, sequential priming\\u000a should also interfere with performance on

Alan B. Bond; Alan C. Kamil



Synchrotron infrared confocal microspectroscopic spatial resolution or a customized synchrotron/focal plane array system enhances chemical imaging of biological tissue or cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroscopy and spatially resolved chemical imaging of biological materials using an infrared microscope is greatly enhanced with confocal image plane masking to 5-6 ?m with a third generation microspectrometer and illumination with a synchrotron radiation source compared to globar illuminated and array detection or singly masked system. Steps toward this instrumental achievement are illustrated with spectra and images of biological tissue sections, including single cells, brain, aorta, and grain specimens. A recent, customized synchrotron infrared microspectrometer installation enables focal plane array detection to achieve both rapid and high definition chemical imaging. Localization of the ester carbonyl population in single modified starch granules was used to provide direct comparison of the two advanced imaging capabilities.

Wetzel, David L.; Nasse, Michael J.



TOPICAL REVIEW: Two-dimensional digital image correlation for in-plane displacement and strain measurement: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a practical and effective tool for quantitative in-plane deformation measurement of a planar object surface, two-dimensional digital image correlation (2D DIC) is now widely accepted and commonly used in the field of experimental mechanics. It directly provides full-field displacements to sub-pixel accuracy and full-field strains by comparing the digital images of a test object surface acquired before and after deformation. In this review, methodologies of the 2D DIC technique for displacement field measurement and strain field estimation are systematically reviewed and discussed. Detailed analyses of the measurement accuracy considering the influences of both experimental conditions and algorithm details are provided. Measures for achieving high accuracy deformation measurement using the 2D DIC technique are also recommended. Since microscale and nanoscale deformation measurement can easily be realized by combining the 2D DIC technique with high-spatial-resolution microscopes, the 2D DIC technique should find more applications in broad areas.

Pan, Bing; Qian, Kemao; Xie, Huimin; Asundi, Anand



Elasticity imaging of arterial wall with transcutaneous ultrasound both in longitudinal-axis and short-axis planes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for measuring regional elasticity of tissue surrounding atherosclerotic plaque is described. An ultrasonic beam was scanned with a conventional linear-type probe, and multiple layers were preset from luminal surface to adventitia of the common carotid artery (CCA) with intervals of 375 ?m. By applying the method [IEEE Trans. UFFC 46, 1229-1241 (1999)], a minute decrease of several tenths of a micrometer in thickness of each layer resulting from arrival of the pressure wave was determined. By assuming that the arterial wall is incompressible and that the blood pressure is applied normal to each layer, the elastic modulus in the circumferential direction of each layer was estimated at intervals of 75 ?m in the radial direction and 150-300 ?m in longitudinal direction. On the other hand, by designing the directions of ultrasonic beams so that each beam always passes through the center of the artery, the cross-sectional elasticity image in the short-axis plane was also obtained. Based on the elasticity library determined by comparing the elasticity distribution and their pathological images, each point was statistically categorized as lipid, a mixture of smooth muscle and collagen fiber, or other. By applying the method to the CCAs, soft inclusion of lipid was found for plaques.

Kanai, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Hideyuki



Breathing Blue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this demonstration of chemical change, the presenter blows breath into a methylene blue solution releasing carbon dioxide which acidifies the water and changes it from a bright blue color to green.





SciTech Connect

M31 RV is a red transient that erupted in 1988 in the Andromeda bulge, reaching a luminosity intermediate between novae and supernovae. It was cool throughout its outburst, unlike a normal classical nova. In 2006, Bond and Siegel examined archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) optical images of the M31 RV site, obtained in 1999. We found only old red giants at the site and no stars of unusual color. However, Shara et al. recently claimed to have detected (1) a bright UV source within the error box in HST UV images taken in 1995, (2) a hot (T{sub eff} > 40, 000 K) optical source in the same 1999 images that we examined, and (3) cooling of this source from 1999 to 2008. Shara et al. argue that this source's behavior is consistent with a classical-nova outburst occurring on a low-mass white dwarf. I have re-examined all of the HST frames, including new ones obtained in 2009-2010. I find that (1) the bright 1995 UV source reported by Shara et al. was actually due to cosmic rays striking the same pixel in two successive exposures; (2) the claim that an optically bright star in the error box is very hot is actually due to misinterpretation of red-giant colors in the STmagnitude system; (3) there is no evidence for variability of any source within the error box from 1999 to 2010; and (4) there are no stars of unusually blue or red color in the error box. Our 2006 conclusions remain valid: either M31 RV had faded below HST detectability by 1999, or its remnant is an unresolved companion of a red giant in the field, or the remnant is one of the red giants.

Bond, Howard E., E-mail: [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)



The ability of a novel blue laser imaging system for the diagnosis of invasion depth of colorectal neoplasms.  


BACKGROUND: Fujifilm has developed a novel endoscope system with two kinds of lasers that enables us to allow narrow-band light observation with blue laser imaging (BLI). The aim of this study was to evaluate BLI magnification in comparison with narrow-band imaging (NBI) magnification for the diagnosis of colorectal neoplasms. METHODS: This was a multicenter open study. A total of 104 colorectal neoplasms were examined with BLI and NBI magnifications in Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine and Fukuoka University Chikushi Hospital. Vascular and surface patterns of tumors under BLI magnification were compared with those under NBI magnification, using a published NBI classification. The main outcome was the correlation between the NBI classification diagnosed by BLI or NBI magnification and the histopathological analyses. RESULTS: Sixty-two cases of adenoma, 34 cases of intramucosal cancer and shallowly invaded submucosal cancer, and eight cases of deeply invaded submucosal cancer were diagnosed. The diagnostic accuracy of BLI magnification in the NBI classification was 74.0 % (77/104), similar to that of NBI magnification (77.8 %). The consistency rate between BLI and NBI magnification in the NBI classification was 74.0 %. Concerning image evaluation, the interobserver variability of two expert endoscopists (N.Y. and T.H.) in BLI magnification was ? = 0.863. On the other hand, the intraobserver variability of the two endoscopists was ? = 0.893 (N.Y.) and 0.851 (T.H.). CONCLUSIONS: BLI magnification by laser source could predict histopathological diagnosis and invasion depth of colorectal neoplasms. The diagnostic effectiveness of this method was similar to that of NBI magnification. PMID:23494646

Yoshida, Naohisa; Hisabe, Takashi; Inada, Yutaka; Kugai, Munehiro; Yagi, Nobuaki; Hirai, Fumihito; Yao, Kenshi; Matsui, Toshiyuki; Iwashita, Akinori; Kato, Mototsugu; Yanagisawa, Akio; Naito, Yuji



Noninvasive imaging of human skin hemodynamics using a digital red-green-blue camera.  


In order to visualize human skin hemodynamics, we investigated a method that is specifically developed for the visualization of concentrations of oxygenated blood, deoxygenated blood, and melanin in skin tissue from digital RGB color images. Images of total blood concentration and oxygen saturation can also be reconstructed from the results of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. Experiments using tissue-like agar gel phantoms demonstrated the ability of the developed method to quantitatively visualize the transition from an oxygenated blood to a deoxygenated blood in dermis. In vivo imaging of the chromophore concentrations and tissue oxygen saturation in the skin of the human hand are performed for 14 subjects during upper limb occlusion at 50 and 250 mm Hg. The response of the total blood concentration in the skin acquired by this method and forearm volume changes obtained from the conventional strain-gauge plethysmograph were comparable during the upper arm occlusion at pressures of both 50 and 250 mm Hg. The results presented in the present paper indicate the possibility of visualizing the hemodynamics of subsurface skin tissue. PMID:21895324

Nishidate, Izumi; Tanaka, Noriyuki; Kawase, Tatsuya; Maeda, Takaaki; Yuasa, Tomonori; Aizu, Yoshihisa; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Niizeki, Kyuichi




SciTech Connect

We have used the Very Large Array to image the H I 21 cm line emission in the edge-on Sd galaxy IC 2233 and the blue compact dwarf NGC 2537. We also present new optical B, R, and H{alpha} imaging of IC 2233 obtained with the WIYN telescope. Despite evidence of localized massive star formation in the form of prominent H II regions and shells, supergiant stars, and a blue integrated color, IC 2233 is a low surface brightness system with a very low global star formation rate ({approx}<0.05 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}), and we detect no significant 21 cm radio continuum emission from the galaxy. The H I and ionized gas disks of IC 2233 are clumpy and vertically distended, with scale heights comparable to that of the young stellar disk. Both the stellar and H I disks of IC 2233 appear flared, and we also find a vertically extended, rotationally anomalous component of H I extending to {approx} 2.4d{sub 10} kpc from the midplane. The H I disk exhibits a mild lopsidedness as well as a global corrugation pattern with a period of {approx}7d{sub 10} kpc and an amplitude of {approx}150d{sub 10} pc. To our knowledge, this is the first time corrugations of the gas disk have been reported in an external galaxy; these undulations may be linked to bending instabilities or to underlying spiral structure and suggest that the disk is largely self-gravitating. Lying at a projected distance of 16'.7 from IC 2233, NGC 2537 has an H I disk with a bright, tilted inner ring and a flocculent, dynamically cold outer region that extends to {approx}3.5 times the extent of the stellar light (D{sub 25}). Although NGC 2537 is rotationally-dominated, we measure H I velocity dispersions as high as {sigma}{sub V.HI}{approx}25 km s{sup -1} near its center, indicative of significant turbulent motions. The inner rotation curve rises steeply, implying a strong central mass concentration. Our data indicate that IC 2233 and NGC 2537 do not constitute a bound pair and most likely lie at different distances. We also find no compelling evidence of a recent minor merger in either IC 2233 or NGC 2537, suggesting that both are examples of small disk galaxies evolving in relative isolation.

Matthews, Lynn D. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-42, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Uson, Juan M., E-mail:, E-mail: [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)



Far-Field Optical Microscope with a Nanometer-Scale Resolution Based on the In-Plane Image Magnification by Surface Plasmon Polaritons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A far-field optical microscope capable of reaching nanometer-scale resolution using the in-plane image magnification by surface plasmon polaritons is presented. The microscope utilizes a microscopy technique based on the optical properties of a metal-diel...

I. I. Smolyaninov C. C. Davis



A 158MS/s JPEG 2000 Codec with a Bit-Plane and Pass Parallel Embedded Block Coder for Low Delay Image Transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a 158MS/s JPEG 2000 codec with an embedded block coder (EBC) based on bit-plane and pass-parallel architecture. The EBC contains bit-plane coders (BPCs) corresponding to each bit-plane in a code-block. The upper and the lower bit-plane coding overlap in time with a 1-stripe and 1-column gap. The bit-modeling passes in the bit-plane coding also overlap in time with the same gap. These methods increase throughput by 30 times in comparison with the conventional. In addition, the methods support not only vertically causal mode, but also regular mode, which enhances the image quality. Furthermore, speculative decoding is adopted to increase throughput. This codec LSI was designed using 0.18?m process. The core area is 4.7×4.7mm2 and the frequency is 160MHz. A system including the codec enables image transmission of PC desktop with 8ms delay.

Miyama, Masayuki; Inoie, Yuusuke; Kasuga, Takafumi; Inada, Ryouichi; Nakao, Masashi; Matsuda, Yoshio


A Proposal of New Reference System for the Standard Axial, Sagittal, Coronal Planes of Brain Based on the Serially-Sectioned Images  

PubMed Central

Sectional anatomy of human brain is useful to examine the diseased brain as well as normal brain. However, intracerebral reference points for the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes of brain have not been standardized in anatomical sections or radiological images. We made 2,343 serially-sectioned images of a cadaver head with 0.1 mm intervals, 0.1 mm pixel size, and 48 bit color and obtained axial, sagittal, and coronal images based on the proposed reference system. This reference system consists of one principal reference point and two ancillary reference points. The two ancillary reference points are the anterior commissure and the posterior commissure. And the principal reference point is the midpoint of two ancillary reference points. It resides in the center of whole brain. From the principal reference point, Cartesian coordinate of x, y, z could be made to be the standard axial, sagittal, and coronal planes.

Park, Jin Seo; Park, Hyo Seok; Shin, Dong Sun; Har, Dong-Hwan; Cho, Zang-Hee; Kim, Young-Bo; Han, Jae-Yong; Chi, Je-Geun



coordinate plane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Become familiar with the coordinate plane. Learn the quadrants and how to graph points and read points on a coordinate plane. You are required to do the assignment and take the quiz. The other resources are to help prepare you for the quiz and book assignment. This is a quick review of the lesson.The Coordinate Plane This is a game to practice plotting and reading points.coordinates game *Assignment: Watch Powerpoint 3.3 and fill in your ...




Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of the Outburst Site of M31 RV. II. No Blue Remnant in Quiescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

M31 RV is a red transient that erupted in 1988 in the Andromeda bulge, reaching a luminosity intermediate between novae and supernovae. It was cool throughout its outburst, unlike a normal classical nova. In 2006, Bond & Siegel examined archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) optical images of the M31 RV site, obtained in 1999. We found only old red giants at the site and no stars of unusual color. However, Shara et al. recently claimed to have detected (1) a bright UV source within the error box in HST UV images taken in 1995, (2) a hot (T eff > 40, 000 K) optical source in the same 1999 images that we examined, and (3) cooling of this source from 1999 to 2008. Shara et al. argue that this source's behavior is consistent with a classical-nova outburst occurring on a low-mass white dwarf. I have re-examined all of the HST frames, including new ones obtained in 2009-2010. I find that (1) the bright 1995 UV source reported by Shara et al. was actually due to cosmic rays striking the same pixel in two successive exposures; (2) the claim that an optically bright star in the error box is very hot is actually due to misinterpretation of red-giant colors in the STmagnitude system; (3) there is no evidence for variability of any source within the error box from 1999 to 2010; and (4) there are no stars of unusually blue or red color in the error box. Our 2006 conclusions remain valid: either M31 RV had faded below HST detectability by 1999, or its remnant is an unresolved companion of a red giant in the field, or the remnant is one of the red giants. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained by the Space Telescope Science Institute, and from the data archive at STScI. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

Bond, Howard E.



Blue lesions.  


Blue color is found in a wide range of malignant and benign melanocytic and nonmelanocytic lesions and in lesions that result from penetration of exogenous materials, such as radiation or amalgam tattoo or traumatic penetration of particles. Discriminating between different diagnostic entities that display blue color relies on careful patient examination and lesion assessment. Dermoscopically, the extent, distribution, and patterns created by blue color can help diagnose lesions with specificity and differentiate between benign and malignant entities. This article provides an overview of the main diagnoses whereby blue color can be found, providing simple management rules for these lesions. PMID:24075551

Longo, Caterina; Scope, Alon; Lallas, Aimilios; Zalaudek, Iris; Moscarella, Elvira; Gardini, Stefano; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Pellacani, Giovanni



Dual-plane stereo particle image velocimetry (DSPIV) for measuring velocity gradient fields at intermediate and small scales of turbulent flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-frequency dual-plane stereo particle image velocimetry (DSPIV) technique is described for highly resolved measurements of the complete nine-component velocity gradient tensor field ?ui/?xj on the quasi-universal intermediate and small scales of turbulent flows. The method is based on two simultaneous, independent stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements in two differentially spaced light sheet planes, with light sheet characterization measurements demonstrating the required sheet thicknesses, separation, and two-axis parallelism that determine the measurement resolution and accuracy. The present approach uses an asymmetric forward forward scatter configuration with two different laser frequencies in conjunction with filters to separate the scattered light onto the individual stereo camera pairs, allowing solid metal oxide particles to be used as seed particles to permit measurements in nonreacting as well as exothermic reacting turbulent flows.

Mullin, John A.; Dahm, Werner J. A.



Dual-plane stereo particle image velocimetry measurements of velocity gradient tensor fields in turbulent shear flow. II. Experimental results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented from highly resolved dual-plane stereo particle image velocimetry (DSPIV) measurements for the structure, statistics, similarity, and scaling of all nine simultaneous components of the velocity gradient tensor fields ?ui/?xj on the quasi-universal intermediate and small scales of turbulent shear flows. Measurements were obtained at three combinations of the outer-scale Reynolds number Re? and the local mean shear rate S in the fully developed self-similar far field of a turbulent jet, and thus reflect the combined effects of the large-scale structure, spatial inhomogeneities, and anisotropies inherent in such a flow. Conditions addressed in this study correspond to local outer-scale Reynolds numbers Re?=6,000 and 30,000 and local mean shear values S?/uc=0 and 1.7, corresponding to Taylor-scale Reynolds numbers Re?~44 and 113 and shear rates Sk/?=0 and 2.1. Gradient fields investigated here include the individual velocity gradient component fields, the strain rate component fields and the associated principal strain rates, the vorticity component fields and their orientations with respect to the principal strain axes, the enstrophy and enstrophy production rate fields, and the true kinetic energy dissipation rate field. Results normalized on both inner- and outer-scale variables are presented to allow interpretation relative to the similarity and scaling implied by classical turbulence theory. For both Re? values at S=0, results show that most aspects of these gradient fields are essentially in agreement with the predictions from homogeneous isotropic turbulence, while for S?0 there are significant and consistent departures from isotropy. Results also provide direct measurements of the exponential scaling factors in the left and right tails of the velocity gradient distributions, as well as quantification of the inner (viscous) length scales in the enstrophy and dissipation rate fields. In addition, strong evidence for multifractal scale similarity at length scales greater than about twice the viscous length ?? is found in both the enstrophy and dissipation rate fields.

Mullin, John A.; Dahm, Werner J. A.



Dissection of the thoracic aorta: pre- and postoperative findings on turbo-FLASH MR images obtained in the plane of the aortic arch.  


This pictorial essay illustrates the pre- and postoperative findings seen in patients with aortic dissections on contrast-enhanced turbo-fast low-angle shot (FLASH) MR images obtained in the plane of the aortic arch. Contrast-enhanced images provide morphologic and functional information not normally available with conventional spin-echo (SE) MR imaging or dynamic CT. Preoperative examination of the acute dissection is often troubled by cardiovascular insufficiency and motion artifacts. Therefore most of our patients were examined postoperatively. The main reason for postsurgical imaging is the evaluation of the flow in the different lumina and the detection of complications (i.e., aneurysms or progress of dissection). PMID:7976876

Fischer, U; Vosshenrich, R; Kopka, L; Keating, D; Oestmann, J W; Grabbe, E



SNAP focal plane  

SciTech Connect

The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square-degree field sensitive in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. We describe the requirements for the instrument suite and the evolution of the focal plane design to the present concept in which all the instrumentation--visible and near-infrared imagers, spectrograph, and star guiders--share one common focal plane.

Lampton, Michael L.; Kim, A.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Berkovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.E.; DiGennaro,R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Holland, S.E.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Linder,E.V.; Loken, S.C.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto, E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch,A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.



Advancing Optical Imaging for Breast Margin Assessment: An Analysis of Excisional Time, Cautery, and Patent Blue Dye on Underlying Sources of Contrast  

PubMed Central

Breast conserving surgery (BCS) is a recommended treatment for breast cancer patients where the goal is to remove the tumor and a surrounding rim of normal tissue. Unfortunately, a high percentage of patients return for additional surgeries to remove all of the cancer. Post-operative pathology is the gold standard for evaluating BCS margins but is limited due to the amount of tissue that can be sampled. Frozen section analysis and touch-preparation cytology have been proposed to address the surgical needs but also have sampling limitations. These issues represent an unmet clinical need for guidance in resecting malignant tissue intra-operatively and for pathological sampling. We have developed a quantitative spectral imaging device to examine margins intra-operatively. The context in which this technology is applied (intra-operative or post-operative setting) is influenced by time after excision and surgical factors including cautery and the presence of patent blue dye (specifically Lymphazurin™, used for sentinel lymph node mapping). Optical endpoints of hemoglobin ([THb]), fat ([?-carotene]), and fibroglandular content via light scattering (<µs’>) measurements were quantified from diffuse reflectance spectra of lumpectomy and mastectomy specimens using a Monte Carlo model. A linear longitudinal mixed-effects model was used to fit the optical endpoints for the cautery and kinetics studies. Monte Carlo simulations and tissue mimicking phantoms were used for the patent blue dye experiments. [THb], [?-carotene], and <µs’> were affected by <3.3% error with <80 µM of patent blue dye. The percent change in [?-carotene], <µs’>, and [?-carotene]/<µs’> was <14% in 30 minutes, while percent change in [THb] was >40%. [?-carotene] and [?-carotene]/<µs’> were the only parameters not affected by cautery. This work demonstrates the importance of understanding the post-excision kinetics of ex-vivo tissue and the presence of cautery and patent blue dye for breast tumor margin assessment, to accurately interpret data and exploit underling sources of contrast.

Bydlon, Torre M.; Barry, William T.; Kennedy, Stephanie A.; Brown, J. Quincy; Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Wilke, Lee G.; Geradts, Joseph; Ramanujam, Nimmi



Modulation transfer function measurement of an infrared focal plane array by use of the self-imaging property of a canted periodic target.  


We present a new technique for measuring the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a focal plane array (FPA). The main idea is to project a periodic pattern of thin lines that are canted with respect to the sensor's columns. Practically, one aims the projection by using the self-imaging property of a periodic target. The technique, called the canted periodic target test, has been validated experimentally on a specific infrared FPA, leading to MTF evaluation to as great as five times the Nyquist frequency. PMID:18305656

Guérineau, N; Primot, J; Tauvy, M; Caes, M



Integrating Spray Plane-Based Remote Sensing and Rapid Image Processing with Variable-Rate Aerial Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A remote sensing and variable rate application system was configured for agricultural aircraft. This combination system has the potential of providing a completely integrated solution for all aspects of aerial site-specific application and includes remote sensing, image processing and georegistration, prescription generation, and variable-rate application. A missing link has been the ability to rapidly process and georeference images obtained during

Steven J. Thomson; Randy R. Price; Lowrey A. Smith


Coordinate Plane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

5th Grade Math State core Standard 3, Objective 2a: Locate points defined by ordered pairs of integers. Congratulations for earning a game day in the computer lab! Remember that even though it is game day I expect you to stay on task and follow directions. We have been talking in math about graphing integers on the coordinate plane. The games for today require that ...

Zilles, Miss



Blue Water  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St-Laurent has a mechanical system that creates bubbles that rise to the surface and push ice away from the ship's hull. It also happens to churn the water into an amazing shade of blue....




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twenty-four blue honeysuckle, Lonicera caerulea L., cultivars available to North America are described. The origin, description and uses of the cultivars are presented. The majority of the cultivars were released from Russia but two were released from Canada. These cultivars have fruits which look l...


A New Model of Ultrasonic Imaging System Based on Plane Wave Transmission and Angular Spectrum Propagation Principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A kind of high frame rate (HFR) 2D and 3D imaging method based on array beams, which belong to limited diffraction beams family, was developed about several years ago. Because only one transmission is required to construct an image, this method can reach an ultra high frame rate. Compared with conventional delay-and-sum (dynamic focusing) method, the HFR system is simple

Hu Peng



Tomographic imaging of macroscopic biomedical objects in high resolution and three dimensions using orthogonal-plane fluorescence optical sectioning.  


A new optical-fluorescence microscopy technique, called HR-OPFOS, is discussed and situated among similar OPFOS-implementations. OPFOS stands for orthogonal-plane fluorescence optical sectioning and thus is categorized as a laser light sheet based fluorescence microscopy method. HR-OPFOS is used to make tomographic recordings of macroscopic biomedical specimens in high resolution. It delivers cross sections through the object under study with semi-histological detail, which can be used to create three-dimensional computer models for finite-element modeling or anatomical studies. The general innovation of this class of microscopy setup consists of the separation of the illumination and observation axes, but now in our setup combined with focal line scanning to improve sectioning resolution. HR-OPFOS is demonstrated on gerbil hearing organs and on mouse and bird brains. The necessary specimen preparation is discussed. PMID:19209207

Buytaert, Jan A N; Dirckx, Joris J J



PtSi Schottky-Barrier Focal Plane Arrays for Multispectral Imaging in Ultraviolet, Visible, and Infrared Spectral Bands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

PtSi Schottky-barrier detectors, which are conventionally used in t he back-illumination mode for thermal imaging in the 3-5 micron infrared (IR) spectral band, are shown to exhibit excellent photoresponse in the near-ultraviolet and visible regions when ...

B. Y. Tsaur C. K. Chen J. P. Mattia



The Next Generation Blue Marble  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomena is a full yearÂs worth of NASA satellite data of Earth's land surface, coastal oceans, sea ice, and clouds that has been organized into a seamless, photo-like mosaic of our planet The image beneath the title "The Next Generation Blue Marble" features an animation. Click the image to begin the animation.


Blue Sky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this optics activity, learners explore why the sky is blue and the sunset is red, using a simple setup comprising a transparent plastic box, water, and powdered milk. Learners use a flashlight to shine a beam of light through the container. Learners look at the beam from the side of the container and then from the end of the tank, and compare the colors that they see. Learners also examine a narrower beam of light. Use this activity to introduce learners to the light spectrum, wavelengths, frequency, scattering, and how all this effects what we see in the sky at different times of the day.

Exploratorium, The



Blue Whales  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this two-minute sound segment, a professor of physics and astronomy describes the communication ability of the blue whale. He says that pitch discrimination with whales is incredibly accurate. The whales produce this call always at exactly four octaves below middle C, based on measurements of 6,000 whale calls. This site is from an archive of a daily radio program called Pulse of the Planet, which provides its listeners with a portrait of Planet Earth, tracking the rhythms of nature, culture and science worldwide and blending interviews and extraordinary natural sound. The site also provides a written transcript of the broadcast.



National Geographic: Blue Whales  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a cameraman leans in to get a shot of a blue whale, this massive creature glides through the water off of Costa Rica. That's the opening photograph that visitors to this interactive article from National Geographic are presented with, and it's a rather amazing image. This interactive article and feature is derived from a March 2009 feature in the print edition of National Geographic magazine, and it features the photography of Flip Nicklin and the writing of Ken Brower. The article offers an in-depth look into the recovery of the blue whale population off the coast of Costa Rica in recent years, and along the way visitors can stop off to take a look at a special photo gallery, take a quiz on these remarkable creatures, and also watch a video the provides the story behind one of Nicklin's photographs.

Brower, Ken; Nicklin, Flip


Color plane interpolation using alternating projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most commercial digital cameras use color filter arrays to sample red, green, and blue colors according to a specific pattern. At the location of each pixel only one color sample is taken, and the values of the other colors must be interpolated using neighboring samples. This color plane interpolation is known as demosaicing; it is one of the important tasks

Bahadir K. Gunturk; Yucel Altunbasak; Russell M. Mersereau



Methylene blue diffusion in skin tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of Methylene Blue penetration in both skin and subcutaneous fat is presented. Experiments have been carried out with both rat skin and human adipose tissue in vitro at room temperature. Microscopic analysis with digital imaging system has been applied for visualizing and investigation of the Methylene Blue diffusion in the epidermal, dermal and adipose tissue. Diffusion coefficient of Methylene Blue in skin in vitro has been estimated.

Genina, Elina A.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Tuchin, Valery V.



Color vision: retinal blues.  


Two complementary studies have resolved the circuitry underlying green-blue color discrimination in the retina. A blue-sensitive interneuron provides the inhibitory signal required for computing green-blue color opponency. PMID:22917511

Johnston, Jamie; Esposti, Federico; Lagnado, Leon



The Blue Bottle Revisited.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a modification of the classic Blue Bottle demonstration that involves the alkaline glucose reduction of methylene blue. Uses other indicators in the classic Blue Bottle to produce a rainbow of colors. (JRH)

Vandaveer, Walter R., IV; Mosher, Mel



Methylene blue diffusion in skin tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of Methylene Blue penetration in both skin and subcutaneous fat is presented. Experiments have been carried out with both rat skin and human adipose tissue in vitro at room temperature. Microscopic analysis with digital imaging system has been applied for visualizing and investigation of the Methylene Blue diffusion in the epidermal, dermal and adipose tissue. Diffusion coefficient of

Elina A. Genina; Alexey N. Bashkatov; Valery V. Tuchin



Why is the sky blue? (Tyndall Effect)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides an answer to the common question of âWhy is the sky blue?â The page uses drawings and images to explain how Tyndall Effect causes the blue color we see. Similar topics like Sunsets and âWhy is Mars sky red?â are also addressed.



Blue light hazard and aniridia.  

PubMed Central

The fundi of three patients with aniridia were photographed with a 470 nm illuminating light source. No apparent change in contrast was observable throughout the macular region. This would suggest an absence of the macular pigment. The likelihood of aniridics being more susceptible than normal persons to blue light damage is discussed. Images

Abadi, R. V.; Dickinson, C. M.



Crystal habit of liquid-crystal blue phase I  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-facetted monocrystals of blue phase I are grown and observed in coexistence with the isotropic liquid. Observations of this three-dimensional polyhedral habit, combined with a conjecture that facets perpendicular to screw axes are absent, are compatible with the I(4132) space group for blue phase I. The (200) planes Bragg reflect approximately the same wavelength as the cholesteric spiral indicating that the blue phase I lattice constant is the cholesteric pitch even very close to the isotropic phase.

Barbet-Massin, R.; Cladis, P. E.; Pieranski, P.



[Evaluating the left ventricular global systolic function of patients with diabetes mellitus by the real-time three-plane speckle tracking imaging].  


Our study was aimed to evaluate the left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal systolic function of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) using real-time three-plane speckle tracking imaging (RT-3P STI). The case group was the patients of type 2 DM with normal LV ejection fraction (EF). Then according to glycated hemoglobin (HbAlc) control level, the case group was divided into two groups, including DM1 (HbAlc<7%, n=31) and DM2 (HbAlc >or=7%, n= 37); 63 matched volunteers were chosen as control group. Conventional measurements of the LV size and function were performed. We then applied the automatic function imaging to analyze the global longitudinal systolic peak strain (GLPS) of the three apical views online, including the GLPS of apical four chamber view (GLPS-A4C), the GLPS of apical two chamber view (GLPS-A2C), the GLPS of apical long axis view (GLPS-LAX), and then generating the average GLPS (GLPS-Avg). The experimental results showed that there was no statistical difference in clinical baseline characteristics among the three groups (P>0.05). However, there were statistical differences in the ventricular wall thickness and the LV mass index of the DM1 and DM2 groups compared with that of the control (P<0. 05). No significant differences were found in LV diameters, volumes, LVEF among the three studied groups (P>0. 05). We also found significant differences in GLPS-LAX, GLPS-A2C, GLPS-Avg when we compared DM2 group with those of the DM1 group or the control (P<0. 05). We found a statistical difference in GLPS-A4C only when we compared the DM2 group with the control(P<0. 05), and no statistical difference in the strains of the three views between DM1 group and control (P>0. 05). RT-3P STI could not only accurately be used to evaluate the LV global longitudinal systolic function, but could also reflect the reduction of sub-clilical systolic function in DM patients with poor blood glucose control in the early stage. PMID:23865310

Zhang, Xiaoling; Wei, Xin; Kong, Lingqiu; Liu, Min; Tang, Hong



Physics-based colour image segmentation for scenes containing vegetation and soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colour segmentation of images containing vegetation and soil is the theme of this work. Physics-based reflection models are used to develop an algorithm for separating object pixel clusters in the three-dimensional red, green and blue colour space. The dichromatic reflection model that is used as the basis for this algorithm, defines a plane in which the pixels from an object

Christine M. Onyango; John A. Marchant



Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Alabama  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Alabama BlueCross and BlueShield Medical Information Server, located and developed by the University of Alabama at Birmingham Department of Computer and Information Sciences, through a grant from Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Alabama for the express purpose of providing Internet access to medical information for all physicians and other health care providers in the state of Alabama. It provides links to a broad range of medical information resources located throughout the Internet. Menus provide information on diseases and disorders, patient care and medical practice, medical specialties, journals and newsletters, health care reform, and other medical information.



Mosaic Focal Plane Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in systems engineering, applied sciences, and manufacturing technologies have enabled the development of large ground based and spaced based astronomical instruments having a large Field of View (FOV) to capture a large portion of the universe in a single image. A larger FOV can be accomplished using light weighted optical elements, improved support structures, and the development of mosaic Focal Plane Assemblies (mFPA). A mFPA designed for astronomy can use multiple Charged Coupled Devices (CCD) mounted onto a single camera baseplate integrated at the instrument plane of focus. Examples of current, or proposed, missions utilizing mFPA technology include FAME, GEST, Kepler, GAIA, LSST, and SNAP. The development of a mFPA mandates tighter control on the design trades, component development, CCD characterization, component integration, and performance verification testing. This paper addresses the capability Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company's (LMSSC) Advanced Technology Center (ATC) has developed to perform CCD characterization, mFPA assembly and alignment, and mFPA system level testing.

Mason, David L.; Horner, Scott D.; Aamodt, Earl K.



Mosaic Focal Plane Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in manufacturing and applied sciences have enabled the development of large ground and spaced based astronomical instruments having a Field of View (FOV) large enough to capture a large portion of the universe in a single image. A large FOV can be accomplished using light weighted optics, improved structures, and the development of mosaic Focal Plane Assemblies (mFPAs). A mFPA comprises multiple Charged Coupled Devices (CCD) mounted onto a single baseplate integrated at the focus plane of the instrument. Examples of current, or proposed, missions utilizing mFPA technology include FAME, GEST, Kepler, GAIA, LSST, and SNAP. The development of a mFPA mandates tight control on the design trades of component development, CCD definition and characterization, component integration, and performance verification testing. This paper addresses the results of the Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC), Advanced Technology Center (ATC) developed mFPA. The design trades and performance characterization are services provided by the LMSSC ATC but not detailed in this paper.

Mason, D.; Horner, S.; Aamodt, E.


A study of velocity gradient fields at intermediate and small scales of turbulent shear flows via dual-plane stereo particle image velocimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study has developed the first highly-resolved dual-plane stereo particle image velocimetry (DSPIV) technique to measure velocity gradient fields ?u(x,t) on the quasi-universal intermediate and small scales of turbulent shear flows, and has applied this new diagnostic capability to provide the first direct, nonintrusive, highly-resolved, simultaneous measurements of the structure, statistics, and scaling for the complete nine-component velocity gradient tensor field in turbulent flows. Extensive quantitative assessments are presented that clearly demonstrate the accuracy of the velocity gradient fields obtained with this new measurement technique. The technique has been applied to obtain highly-resolved velocity gradient measurements in the fully-developed self-similar far-field of a turbulent shear flow. The results thereby reflect the effects of the large-scale structure, inhomogeneities and anisotropies inherent in such a flow, corresponding to conditions far exceeding those that are currently addressable by DNS of turbulent shear flows. Velocity gradient results and associated turbulence fields are presented at three different combinations of the local outer-scale Reynolds number Redelta and the local mean strain rate S to determine the extent to which the similarity and scaling implied by classical turbulence theory describe various gradient fields. Conditions correspond to Redelta = 6,000 and 30,000, with Taylor-scale Reynolds numbers Relambda = 44 and 113, and to strain rates S = 0 and 1.2. Results presented with normalization on both local inner- and outer-scale variables show good agreement with the Redelta-scalings from classical turbulence theory for the two S = 0 cases, and for S ? 0 show departures consistent with a preferred alignment of the vorticity with the local mean strain rate field. Collectively, the results from this study provide new insights relevant to modeling of the quasi-universal intermediate and small scales of turbulence, which can be used for the development of improved physically-based subgrid-scale models for large-eddy simulation of turbulent flows.

Mullin, John Andrew


Greening the Blue Bottle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new formulation is reported for the Blue Bottle demonstration. The new formulation uses methylene blue and O2 as in the classical Blue Bottle, but ascorbic acid replaces glucose. Instead of half-molar KOH, the solution has a pH of 3. Copper serves as the catalyst.

Wellman, Whitney E.; Noble, Mark E.



The Blue Flame Cafe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online biographical encyclopedia of the blues contains entries on almost all of the "great blues singers and singers of the blues." Entries include the pioneers and foundational figures such as Bessie Smith, Robert Johnson, and T-Bone Walker; their lesser-known (outside the Blues community) contemporaries; and their more recent musical heirs such as Stevie Ray Vaughan and Eric Clapton. Each singer's entry includes a concise overview of their influences, career, and musical legacy. Most are also accompanied by a tantalizingly short (only ten seconds) song excerpt in .wav format. A collection of blues links and an internal search engine round out the site.


Imaging the fault plane and asperities of the 1995 southern Hyogo (Kobe) earthquake (M7.3) by double-difference tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of the large slip areas (asperities) of the fault is uncertain. Asperities are common in the case of some large or moderate-sized interplate recurrent earthquake pairs along the plate boundary in NE Japan (Okada et al., 2003, Yamanaka and Kikuchi, 2003, Hasegawa et al., 2004, Matsuzawa et al., 2004). These observations suggest that the asperities are persistent features that would reflect some physical properties on the fault plane. To study this phenomenon, we obtained the seismic velocity structure around the fault plane of the 1995 southern Hyogo (Kobe) earthquake (M7.3) in southwestern Japan. We adopted the double-difference (DD) tomography method (Zhang and Thurber, 2003), which has the advantage of obtaining the high-resolution seismic velocity structure in and around the focal area. The inversion uses 23,228 P-wave and 18,902 S-wave arrival times from 915 earthquakes recorded by a dense temporary seismic network (Hirata et al., 1996) for aftershocks and seismic networks routinely operated by Kyoto University, University of Tokyo and Kochi University. We inverted the velocity model with a grid interval of 3 km in and around the focal area. Obtained results are summarized as follows: (1) Low velocity zones of a few kilometers wide are distributed along the fault or along the aftershock alignment. This suggests that the fault plane of the present earthquake is located in a low velocity zone. (2) The velocities of this low velocity zone vary along the strike of the fault plane. We compared the seismic velocity distribution along the fault plane with the slip distribution obtained by seismic and geodetic inversions (Yoshida et al., 1996). Large slip areas (asperities) correspond to relatively high velocity areas on the fault plane. We also have obtained the seismic velocity model in and around the focal area of other two large shallow inland earthquakes (2000 M7.3 western Tottori and 2003 M6.4 northern Miyagi earthquakes) that occurred recently in Japan, using DD tomography. The correspondence between asperities and high velocity zones was also observed for these two events.

Okada, T.; Hasegawa, A.; Suganomata, J.; Zhao, D.; Zhang, H.; Thurber, C.



Impact of The Number of Image Planes of Real-Time Three-Dimensional Echocardiography on the Accuracy of Left Atrial and Ventricular Volume Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography (RT-3DE) has emerged as a new technique in measuring left atrial and ventricular volume. However, the impact of cutting planes of RT-3DE on the accuracy of volume measurement in patients with a normal or enlarged heart is still unknown. We enrolled 30 normal subjects (control group) and 30 patients with heart failure (patient group). RT-3DE was

Fang Li; Qian Wang; Gui Hua Yao; Peng Fei Zhang; Zhi Ming Ge; Mei Zhang; Yun Zhang



Crystal habit of liquid-crystal blue phase I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-facetted monocrystals of blue phase I are grown and observed in coexistence with the isotropic liquid. Observations of this three-dimensional polyhedral habit, combined with a conjecture that facets perpendicular to screw axes are absent, are compatible with the I(4132) space group for blue phase I. The (200) planes Bragg reflect approximately the same wavelength as the cholesteric spiral indicating that

R. Barbet-Massin; P. E. Cladis; P. Pieranski



MRI image plane nonuniformity in evaluation of ferrous sulphate dosimeter gel (FeGel) by means of T 1-relaxation time  

Microsoft Academic Search

MR image nonuniformity can vary significantly with the spin-echo pulse sequence repetition time. When MR images with different nonuniformity shapes are used in a T1-calculation the resulting T1-image becomes nonuniform. As shown in this work the uniformity TR-dependence of the spin-echo pulse sequence is a critical property for T1 measurements in general and for ferrous sulfate dosimeter gel (FeGel) applications

Peter Magnusson; Sven Å. J. Bäck; Lars E. Olsson



The numerical inversion of functions from the plane to the plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contains a description of a program designed to nd all the solutions of systems of two real equations in two real unknowns which uses detailed information about the critical set of the associated function from the plane to the plane. It turns out that the critical set and its image are highly structured, and this is employed in

Iaci Malta; Nicolau C. Saldanha; Carlos Tomei



Cook-Coordinate Plane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Become familiar with the coordinate plane. Learn the quadrants and how to graph points and read points on a coordinate plane. You are required to do the assignment and take the quiz. The other resources are to help prepare you for the quiz and book assignment. This is a quick review of the lesson.The Coordinate Plane This is a game to practice plotting and reading points.coordinates game *Assignment: Watch Powerpoint 3.3 and fill in your ...

Cook, Miss



The coloured quantum plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the quantum plane associated to the coloured quantum group GLq?,?(2) and solve the problem of constructing the corresponding differential geometric structure. This is achieved within the /R-matrix framework generalising the Wess-Zumino formalism and leads to the concept of coloured quantum space. Both the coloured Manin plane as well as the bicovariant differential calculus exhibit the colour exchange symmetry. The coloured /h-plane corresponding to the coloured Jordanian quantum group GLh?,?(2) is also obtained by contraction of the coloured /q-plane.

Parashar, Deepak



Angular dependent reflections of a monodomain blue phase liquid crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The angular dependent reflection of a monodomain blue phase liquid crystal (BPLC) is investigated. Unlike a cholesteric liquid crystal with single twist structure, a monodomain BPLC exhibits several reflection orders from different crystal planes. As incident angle increases, the first order reflection experiences a blue shift while the second order experiences a red shift. We analyze the physical mechanism of the reflection from six (110) crystal planes. Good agreement between calculated and experimental results is obtained. Undoubtedly, this angular dependency would affect the performance of BPLC photonic devices that require an oblique incidence.

Yan, Jin; Chen, Yuan; Xu, Daming; Wu, Shin-Tson



Plane displacement measurement of rigid body by laser speckle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A measurement system of plane displacement in rigid body was designed. Plane displacement was calculated by the cross-correlation of speckle image. Measurement results showed that the absolute-error and the opposite-error of the plane displacement less than +/-14?m and +/-6.25% respectively, under the displacement range of 300?m.

Zhong, Chuan; Shen, Changyu; Lin, Zhaoxiang; Li, Ke



Plane displacement measurement of rigid body by laser speckle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A measurement system of plane displacement in rigid body was designed. Plane displacement was calculated by the cross-correlation of speckle image. Measurement results showed that the absolute-error and the opposite-error of the plane displacement less than +\\/-14mum and +\\/-6.25% respectively, under the displacement range of 300mum.

Chuan Zhong; Changyu Shen; Zhaoxiang Lin; Ke Li



Plane displacement measurement of rigid body by laser speckle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A measurement system of plane displacement in rigid body was designed. Plane displacement was calculated by the cross-correlation of speckle image. Measurement results showed that the absolute-error and the opposite-error of the plane displacement less than ±14 ?m and ±6.25% respectively, under the displacement range of 300 ?m.

Chuan Zhong; Changyu Shen; Linzhao Xiang; Ke Li



Equivalent Crystal Planes Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a 3-D animation of equivalent crystal planes. It shows the Miller indices linking nodes as a corresponding binary family within braces. This animation is approximately 13 seconds in length and would be useful for understanding the conceptual/imaginary planes have on the crystal behavior.



New plane shear flows  

SciTech Connect

A classical problem in fluid dynamics is the study of the stability of plane Couette flow. This flow experimentally sustains turbulence for Reynolds numbers greater than 1440 {+-} 40. (The Reynolds number is based on channel width and wall velocity difference). Since plane Couette flow is linearly stable for all Reynolds numbers, obtaining non-trivial mathematical solutions to the plane Couette flow equations is difficult. However, M. Nagata finds a non-trivial number solution of the plane Couette flow equations at low Reynolds number. We confirm these solutions. We compute the minimum Reynolds number at which they exist. We study their stability. We also study the effect of a Coriolis force on plane Poiseuille flow.

Conley, A.



From blue jeans to blue genes.  


Cutaneous venous anomalies are common. They are blue and vary in size, number, and location and account for most consultations at specialized interdisciplinary clinics for vascular anomalies. Venous lesions are clinically important because they cause pain, dysfunction, destruction of adjacent tissues, and esthetic concern. Only resection and sclerotherapy are helpful, although not always curative. Understanding etiopathogenesis could help design animal models and develop novel therapeutic approaches. John B. Mulliken, MD, envisioned a project to uncover the genetic basis of an inherited form of venous malformation in a large New England family. Recruitment of 2 young fellows resulted in a collaborative project that unraveled the searched-for gene and its mutation. This was an opening for a new era in vascular anomalies. Two blue genes' mutations were discovered, which account for most, if not all, of the inherited forms of venous anomalies, but other genes as well, for rheologically diverse lesions. Differential diagnosis and management has improved, and animal models are being made. This was achieved through the help of Dr Mulliken, who inspired 2 young investigators in blue jeans to find 2 blue genes. PMID:19190503

Boon, Laurence M; Vikkula, Miikka




PubMed Central

Cutaneous venous anomalies are common. They are blue in color and vary in size, number and location, and account for the majority of consultations at specialized interdisciplinary clinics for vascular anomalies. Venous lesions are clinically important as they cause pain, dysfunction, destruction of adjacent tissues and esthetic concern. Only resection and sclerotherapy are helpful, although not always curative. Understanding etiopathogenesis could help design animal models and develop novel therapeutic approaches. Dr Mulliken envisioned a project to uncover the genetic basis of an inherited form of venous malformation in a large New England family. Recruitment of two young fellows resulted in a collaborative project that unraveled the searched-for-gene and its mutation. This was an opening for a new era in the field of vascular anomalies. Two blue genes’ mutations were discovered, which account for the majority, if not all, of the inherited forms of venous anomalies, but other genes as well, for rheologically diverse lesions. Differential diagnosis and management has improved, and animal models are being made. This was achieved thanks to Dr Mulliken, who inspired two young investigators in blue jeans to find two blue genes.

Boon, Laurence M.; Vikkula, Miikka



The imaging photopolarimeter experiment on pioneer 11.  


For 2 weeks continuous imaging, photometry, and polarimetry observations were made of Jupiter and the Galilean satellites in red and blue light from Pioneer 11. Measurements of Jupiter's north and south polar regions were possible because the spacecraft trajectory was highly inclined to the planet's equatorial plane. One of the highest resolution images obtained is presented here along with a comparison of a sample of our photometric and polarimetric data with a simple model. The data seem consistent with increased molecular scattering at high latitudes. PMID:17734364

Baker, A L; Baker, L R; Beshore, E; Blenman, C; Castillo, N D; Chen, Y P; Doose, L R; Elston, J P; Fountain, J W; Gehrels, T; Kendall, J H; Kenknight, C E; Norden, R A; Swindell, W; Tomasko, M G; Coffeen, D L



Ground-based CCD astrometry with wide field imagers. IV. An improved geometric-distortion correction for the blue prime-focus camera at the LBT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High precision astrometry requires an accurate geometric-distortion solution. In this work, we present an average correction for the blue camera of the Large Binocular Telescope which enables a relative astrometric precision of ~15 mas for the BBessel and VBessel broad-band filters. The result of this effort is used in two companion papers: the first to measure the absolute proper motion of the open cluster M 67 with respect to the background galaxies; the second to decontaminate the color-magnitude of M 67 from field objects, enabling the study of the end of its white dwarf cooling sequence. Many other applications might find this distortion correction useful. Based on data acquired using the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) at Mt. Graham, Arizona, under the Commissioning of the Large Binocular Blue Camera. The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are: The University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; The Ohio State University, and The Research Corporation, on behalf of The University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota and University of Virginia.Visiting Ph.D. Student at STScI under the “2008 graduate research assistantship” program.

Bellini, A.; Bedin, L. R.



Staining of water trees with methylene blue explained  

Microsoft Academic Search

Staining with a methylene blue solution, a popular technique for achieving the required high contrast images of water trees, was carried out at 70°C. It is shown that methylene blue stains the complete tree, which justifies water tree length measurements after staining. The water tree is not stained exclusively, but rather faster and probably to a higher degree than the

R. Ross; J. J. Smit; P. Aukema



Blue ocean strategy.  


Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades. PMID:15559577

Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée



SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development  

SciTech Connect

The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R&D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics.

Bebek, C.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bercovitz, J.; Bergstrom, L.; Berstein, G.P.; Bester, M.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.; Emmett, W.; Eriksson, M.; Fouchez,D.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Johnson, W.; Kadel, R.; Karcher,A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureaux, J.; Lampton, M.; Lefevre, O.; Levi, M.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Mazure, A.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Morgan, N.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Roe, N.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Prieto, E.; Rabinowitz,D.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Schubnell, M.; Sholl, M.; Smadja, G.; Smith, R.; Smoot, G.; Snyder, J.; Spadafora, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tarle,G.; Taylor, K.; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, A.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J-P.; Wang, G.



SNAP satellite focal plane development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R&D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics.

Bebek, Christopher; Akerlof, Carl W.; Aldering, Greg; Amanullah, R.; Astier, Pierre; Baltay, Charles; Barrelet, E.; Basa, Stephane; Bercovitz, John; Bergstrom, Lars; Berstein, Gary; Bester, Manfred; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Bonissent, Alain; Bower, Charles R.; Campbell, Myron; Carithers, William C., Jr.; Commins, Eugene D.; Day, C.; Deustua, Susana E.; DiGennaro, Richard S.; Ealet, Anne; Ellis, Richard S.; Emmett, William; Eriksson, Mikael; Fouchez, D.; Fruchter, Andrew; Genat, Jean-Francois; Goldhaber, Gerson; Goobar, Ariel; Groom, Donald E.; Heetderks, Henry D.; Holland, Stephen E.; Huterer, Dragan; Johnston, William E.; Kadel, Richard W.; Karcher, Armin; Kim, Alex G.; Kolbe, William F.; Lafever, Robin E.; Lamoureux, J. I.; Lampton, Michael L.; Le Fèvre, Oliver; Levi, Michael E.; Levin, Daniel S.; Linder, Eric V.; Loken, Stewart C.; Malina, Roger; Mazure, Alain; McKay, Timothy A.; McKee, Shawn P.; Miquel, Ramon; Morgan, Nicholas; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, Stuart; Musser, J. A.; Roe, Natalie A.; Nugent, Peter E.; Oluseyi, Hakeem M.; Pain, Reynald; Palaio, Nicholas P.; Pankow, David H.; Perlmutter, Saul; Prieto, Eric; Rabinowitz, David; Refregier, Alexandre; Rhodes, Jason; Schubnell, Michael S.; Sholl, Michael; Smadja, G.; Smith, R.; Smoot, George F.; Snyder, Jeffrey A.; Spadafora, Anthony; Szymkowiak, Andrew; Tarle, Gregory; Taylor, Keith; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, Andrew D.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, Henrik; Walder, Jean-Pierre; Wang, Guobin



Beautiful Blue Nile  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students learn about the Blue Nile and compare it to rivers in the United States. They discuss their experiences with rivers and what they think it would be like to travel down a river that rapidly descends from the mountains to the plains. After looking at a map of Ethiopia, students describe what they would see in the area around the Blue Nile. They will witness a demonstration of a river running over flat versus mountainous terrain and view photos of the Blue Nile to describe the terrain.


Identification of a Possible Blue Progenitor for the Nearby Type Ib SN iPTF13bvn in HST Archival Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We obtained H-Band LGS AO imaging of iPTF13bvn (ATels #5137 ,#5142 ,#5151) on 2013-07-19 UT using the OSIRIS Imager mounted on the Keck I Telescope. Comparing these images with archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ACS/WFC F435W, F555W, and F814W images from 2005-03-10 UT (HST proposal 10187, PI: Smartt), we find that the SN position is coincident with star 3 from our previous report (ATel #5140; see

Arcavi, I.; Ofek, E.; Cao, Y.; Gelino, C.; Yaron, O.; Vreeswijk, P.; Gal-Yam, A.; Cenko, S. B.; Kong, A. K. H.; Li, K. L.



Event-plane correlators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Correlators between event planes of different harmonics in relativistic heavy-ion collisions have the potential to provide crucial information on the initial state of the matter formed in these collisions. We present a new procedure for analyzing such correlators, which is less demanding in terms of detector acceptance than the one used recently by the ATLAS Collaboration to measure various two-plane and three-plane correlators in Pb-Pb collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It can also be used unambiguously for quantitative comparison between theory and data. We use this procedure to carry out realistic simulations within a multiphase transport (AMPT) model. Our theoretical results are in excellent agreement with the ATLAS data, in contrast with previous hydrodynamic calculations which only achieved qualitative agreement. We present predictions for new correlators, in particular four-plane correlators, which can easily be analyzed with our new method.

Bhalerao, Rajeev S.; Ollitrault, Jean-Yves; Pal, Subrata



Just Plane Simple  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to three of the six simple machines used by many engineers. These machines include the inclined plane, the wedge and the screw. In general, engineers use the inclined plane to lift heavy loads, the wedge to cut materials apart, and the screw to convert rotational motion into linear movement. Furthermore, the mechanical advantage describes how easily each machine can do work and is determined by its physical dimensions.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program


USSR aerospace plane program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The requirements and benefits of a Soviet aerospace plane program are examined by analyzing the available technologies, prospective missions, and ongoing projects. Attention is given to the Burlak spacecraft with the Maks orbiter, the fully reusable AN 225/HOTOL carrier aircraft, and to the orbit/payload analyses of reusable aerospace systems. The primary conclusions of the overview are that international cooperation in space commercialization is important for aerospace plane development and that the optimization of technologies is an initial goal.

Zagainov, G. I.; Plokhikh, V. P.




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW SOUTH, INCLINE PLANE CAR, INCLINE PLANE TRACK, UPPER STATION. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA


Blue Cone Monochromacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue cone monochromacy (BCM) is an X-linked ocular disorder in which affected males have normal short-wavelength-sensitive\\u000a (blue) cone and rod function but lack medium-(green) and long-wavelength-sensitive (red) cone function. Affected males characteristically\\u000a have visual acuities of 20\\/100 to 20\\/200, myopia, nystagmus, and minimal foveal granularity with otherwise normal fundus findings.1

Radha Ayyagari; Laura E. Kakuk; Yumiko Toda; Caraline L. Coats; Eve L. Bingham; Janet J. Szczesny; Joost Felius; Paul A. Sieving


A 0.8-?m CMOS two-dimensional programmable mixed-signal focal-plane array processor with on-chip binary imaging and instructions storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a CMOS chip for the parallel acquisition and concurrent analog processing of two-dimensional (2-D) binary images. Its processing function is determined by a reduced set of 19 analog coefficients whose values are programmable with 7-b accuracy. The internal programming signals are analog, but the external control interface is fully digital. On-chip nonlinear digital-to-analog converters (DAC's) map digitally

R. Dominguez-Castro; S. Espejo; A. Rodriguez-Vazquez; R. A. Carmona; P. Foldesy; A. Zarandy; P. Szolgay; T. Sziranyi; T. Roska



A 0.8- m CMOS Two-Dimensional Programmable Mixed-Signal Focal-Plane Array Processor with On-Chip Binary Imaging and Instructions Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a CMOS chip for the parallel acquisition and concurrent analog processing of two-dimensional (2-D) binary images. Its processing function is determined by a reduced set of 19 analog coefficients whose values are pro- grammable with 7-b accuracy. The internal programming signals are analog, but the external control interface is fully digital. On- chip nonlinear digital-to-analog converters (DAC's)

Rafael Dom ´ inguez-Castro; Servando Espejo; Angel Rodr ´ iguez-Vazquez; Ricardo A. Carmona; Akos Zar; Tamas Roska



Evolution in Plane Sight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners model directed evolution by making paper fly. Learners construct and fly paper airplanes. During the first round, they calculate the average distance the planes fly and then recreate the planes that flew the furthest. Learners repeat this process several times, observe how the average distance of flight changes, and eventually identify the ideal flyer. This activity can be used to introduce learners to genetic random mutations and how scientists are using directed evolution to engineer new proteins with enhanced properties.

Yu, Julie



An application of pattern mapping to plane motion  

SciTech Connect

A new, highly automated method for measuring plane motion, pattern mapping, has been developed for rigid-body motion and strain analysis. Pattern mapping employs image processing and syntactic pattern recognition principles to recognize a known pattern before and after motion. In this paper, the Lagrangian definition of motion was used to map points in the two images, and the map was used to determine plane motion. Full-image analysis is thoroughly demonstrated. 22 refs.

Fail, R.W.; Taylor, C.E. (Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Eglin AFB, FL (USA) Florida Univ., Gainesville (USA))



Deployable Ground Plane Antenna.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A deployable ground plane antenna for use aboard a satellite or the like, with the antenna and erection mechanism being compactly stowable within the confines of a launch vehicle prior to and during launch thereof is described. After ejection of the satel...

L. Schwerdtfeger



Beamlet focal plane diagnostic  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the major optical and mechanical design features of the Beamlet Focal Plane Diagnostic system as well as measurements of the system performance, and typical data obtained to date. We also discuss the NIF requirements on the focal spot that we are interested in measuring, and some of our plans for future work using this system.

Caird, J.A.; Nielsen, N.D.; Patton, H.G.; Seppala, L.G.; Thompson, C.E.; Wegner, P.J.



Focal-Plane Polarimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preferential spin orientation of a particle in the final state of a nuclear reaction is an observable which carries information about the underlying reaction mechanism. In this introductory lecture I will discuss the basic principles of polarimetry of spin 1/2 particles, focal-plane proton polarimeter and the extraction of the proton recoil polarization.

Strauch, Steffen



Coordinate Plane Set Detective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes an activity in which students plot collections of ordered pairs according to prescribed set conditions. The coordinate plane sets can have rich variety, and their construction fosters critical thinking, attention to detail, and algebraic reasoning. (Contains 3 figures.)|

Beigie, Darin



Focal Plane Metrology for the LSST Camera  

SciTech Connect

Meeting the science goals for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) translates into a demanding set of imaging performance requirements for the optical system over a wide (3.5{sup o}) field of view. In turn, meeting those imaging requirements necessitates maintaining precise control of the focal plane surface (10 {micro}m P-V) over the entire field of view (640 mm diameter) at the operating temperature (T {approx} -100 C) and over the operational elevation angle range. We briefly describe the hierarchical design approach for the LSST Camera focal plane and the baseline design for assembling the flat focal plane at room temperature. Preliminary results of gravity load and thermal distortion calculations are provided, and early metrological verification of candidate materials under cold thermal conditions are presented. A detailed, generalized method for stitching together sparse metrology data originating from differential, non-contact metrological data acquisition spanning multiple (non-continuous) sensor surfaces making up the focal plane, is described and demonstrated. Finally, we describe some in situ alignment verification alternatives, some of which may be integrated into the camera's focal plane.

A Rasmussen, Andrew P.; Hale, Layton; Kim, Peter; Lee, Eric; Perl, Martin; Schindler, Rafe; Takacs, Peter; Thurston, Timothy; /SLAC



Development of Host Crystals for Ce(+3) Blue and Blue-Green Solid-State Lasers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Blue-green lasers operating at equivalent 480 nm, a region of sea water transparency, could become an integral part of undersea and air-to-sea communication and imaging systems. During Phase I of this program, wide band gap oxides were examined which coul...

R. D. Rauh A. N. Scoville



Study on key technologies of uncooled infrared focal plane array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With its high density, good performance and low cost, non-cold infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) has become the key point at present of studying infrared imaging technology. It will be restricted by such various technological problems as material performance, output circuit, performance parameter test, and image quality to develop non-cold infrared focal plane array detector with big area and even performance. Focusing on the working principle, structure and form, imaging quality of non-cold infrared focal plane array, considering the present achievements, this paper describes the key technological problems of the newest study hot-spots in details.

Wang, Rui Feng; Xian, Jiang Yang; E, Ai Jun; Wu, Wei Dong; Xiao, Bo



Comparative dermatology: blue nevus.  


There are elements in nature that may be compared to some dermatological lesions, such as the black pearl, which is very similar to a cellular blue nevus observed in the gluteus region of a 31-year-old male patient. PMID:22892793

Barros, Jefferson Alfredo de; Kafler, Cristiane Calcidoni; Barros, Juliano Cesar de; Proto, Rodrigo Sestito; Priscila dos Santos, Costa; Machado Filho, Carlos D'Apparecida


Blue Crab Education Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Information compiled by the Virginia Institute of Marine Science on the anatomy, life cycle, ecology, and fisheries of the blue crab. Data, research reports, and instructions on eating crabs are all available. Educational resources include lesson plans, teaching tools, and access to online publications. Site serves as an exceptional resource for both beginners and experts.


Large Blue Butterflies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page deals with research being done on the parasitism of the "blue butterfly" group Maculinea. These species are well known for taking advantage of ants by chemically convincing ants that they are one of their own larvae. This page has some lovely photos, and a nice generalized life history table. Other links deal with aspects of the research including population genetics and communication.



Blue Crab Education Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Information compiled by the Virginia Institute of Marine Science on the anatomy, life cycle, ecology, and fisheries of the blue crab. Data, research reports, and instructions on eating crabs are all available. Educational resources include lesson plans, teaching tools, and access to online publications. Site serves as an exceptional resource for both beginners and experts.



The Blue Angel Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Blue Angel is a hibonite-rich calcite-bearing CAI from Murchison that has condensation textures. We have measured Al-Mg isotopic systematics by ion probe and find a good isochron with (^26Al\\/^27Al)_0 = 5 × 10 - 5. Implications are discussed.

G. J. Wasserburg; G. R. Huss; D. P. Papanastassiou



The Blue Angel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milan Uhde, born in 1936, is a Czech essayist, poet and playwright. He has also written extensively for radio, film and television, and fringe theatres in Brno, where he still lives. Since 1969 his work has appeared only in samizdat or abroad.His ‘monodrama’ The Blue Angel was purposely written in the most simple theatrical form to allow performance without a

Milan Uhde



The Blue Angel Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Blue Angel is a hibonite-rich calcite-bearing CAI from Murchison that has condensation textures. We have measured Al-Mg isotopic systematics by ion probe and find a good isochron with (^26Al/^27Al)_0 = 5 × 10 - 5. Implications are discussed.

Wasserburg, G. J.; Huss, G. R.; Papanastassiou, D. P.



Intraoperative tracking of aortic valve plane.  


The main objective of this work is to track the aortic valve plane in intra-operative fluoroscopic images in order to optimize and secure Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) procedure. This paper is focused on the issue of aortic valve calcifications tracking in fluoroscopic images. We propose a new method based on the Tracking-Learning-Detection approach, applied to the aortic valve calcifications in order to determine the position of the aortic valve plane in intra-operative TAVI images. This main contribution concerns the improvement of object detection by updating the recursive tracker in which all features are tracked jointly. The approach has been evaluated on four patient databases, providing an absolute mean displacement error less than 10 pixels (?2mm). Its suitability for the TAVI procedure has been analyzed. PMID:24110703

Nguyen, Dlh; Garreau, M; Auffret, V; Le Breton, H; Verhoye, Jp; Haigron, P



Conversion of red fluorescent protein into a bright blue probe  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY We utilized a red chromophore formation pathway, in which the anionic red chromophore is formed from the neutral blue intermediate, to suggest a novel rational design strategy to develop blue fluorescent proteins with a tyrosine-based chromophore. The strategy was applied to red fluorescent proteins of the different genetic background such as TagRFP, mCherry, HcRed1, M355NA, and mKeima, which were converted into blue probes. Further improvement of a blue variant of TagRFP using random mutagenesis resulted in an enhanced monomeric protein, mTagBFP, characterized by substantially higher brightness, faster chromophore maturation and higher pH stability than blue fluorescence proteins with a histidine in the chromophore. Detailed biochemical and photochemical analysis indicates mTagBFP is the true monomeric protein tag for multicolor and lifetime imaging as well as the outstanding donor for green fluorescent proteins in FRET applications.

Subach, Oksana M; Gundorov, Illia S.; Yoshimura, Masami; Subach, Fedor V.; Zhang, Jinghang; Gruenwald, David; Souslova, Ekaterina A.; Chudakov, Dmitriy M.; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.



Lensfree color imaging on a nanostructured chip using compressive decoding.  


We demonstrate subpixel level color imaging capability on a lensfree incoherent on-chip microscopy platform. By using a nanostructured substrate, the incoherent emission from the object plane is modulated to create a unique far-field diffraction pattern corresponding to each point at the object plane. These lensfree diffraction patterns are then sampled in the far-field using a color sensor-array, where the pixels have three different types of color filters at red, green, and blue (RGB) wavelengths. The recorded RGB diffraction patterns (for each point on the structured substrate) form a basis that can be used to rapidly reconstruct any arbitrary multicolor incoherent object distribution at subpixel resolution, using a compressive sampling algorithm. This lensfree computational imaging platform could be quite useful to create a compact fluorescent on-chip microscope that has color imaging capability. PMID:21173866

Khademhosseinieh, Bahar; Biener, Gabriel; Sencan, Ikbal; Ozcan, Aydogan



Lensfree color imaging on a nanostructured chip using compressive decoding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate subpixel level color imaging capability on a lensfree incoherent on-chip microscopy platform. By using a nanostructured substrate, the incoherent emission from the object plane is modulated to create a unique far-field diffraction pattern corresponding to each point at the object plane. These lensfree diffraction patterns are then sampled in the far-field using a color sensor-array, where the pixels have three different types of color filters at red, green, and blue (RGB) wavelengths. The recorded RGB diffraction patterns (for each point on the structured substrate) form a basis that can be used to rapidly reconstruct any arbitrary multicolor incoherent object distribution at subpixel resolution, using a compressive sampling algorithm. This lensfree computational imaging platform could be quite useful to create a compact fluorescent on-chip microscope that has color imaging capability.

Khademhosseinieh, Bahar; Biener, Gabriel; Sencan, Ikbal; Ozcan, Aydogan



State of blue-green laser diodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the Zn(Se,Te) graded contact scheme to p-ZnSe is found to be effective in supporting the room-temperature CW operation of blue-green (508 nm) laser diodes with a threshold voltage of about 5 volts. Factors contributing to device degradation are analyzed by electroluminescence and plan-view TEM imaging. Both the nucleation\\/growth of the extended structural defects and the presence of

Jung Han; Robert L. Gunshor; Arto V. Nurmikko



Blue metal-poor stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the discovery of blue metal-poor (BMP) stars and the resolution of this population into blue stragglers and intermediate-age Main-Sequence stars by use of binary fractions. We show that the specific frequencies of blue stragglers in the halo field and in globular clusters differ by an order of magnitude. We attribute this difference to the different modes of production of these two populations. We report carbon and s-process enrichment among very metal-poor field blue stragglers and discuss how this result can be used to further resolve field blue stragglers into groups formed during RGB and AGB evolution of their erstwhile primary companions.

Preston, George W.; Sneden, Christopher



Smart focal plane technologies for ELT instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smart Focal Planes are devices that enable the efficient sampling of a telescope's focal plane to feed spectroscopic and imaging instruments. Examples are integral field units (fiber and image slicers), cryogenic beam manipulators, and MOEMS (micro-opto-electromechanical systems) such as miniature slit shutters. These technologies are critical in making best use of the current 8m class telescopes for key science goals such as spectroscopic surveys of high redshift galaxies, and will be even more important for Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) instruments. In fact, the density of pixels in an ELT focal plane with several milliarcsecond resolution will mean that sub-sampling of the field will be needed even for imaging. We have proposed a joint European project to develop these technologies, building on expertise from partners in the UK, France, the Netherlands, Spain, Germany and others, and led by the UK. We describe the current status of these technologies, showing how they will contribute to the feasibility and performance of proposed instruments for ELTs, and concentrating on capabilities within Europe. We then outline the proposed future developments, highlighting the technical challenges, such as the difficulties of manufacturing and verifying complex image slicers with thousands of optical surfaces, and building highly reliable cryogenic mechanisms such as pick-off arms, beam steering mirrors and reconfigurble slit mechanisms.

Cunningham, Colin R.; Ramsay-Howat, Suzanne K.; Garzon, Francisco; Parry, Ian R.; Prieto, Eric; Robertson, David J.; Zamkotsian, Frederic



Investigation for optoelectronic characteristics and imaging performance of InAs quantum dot covered with In0.1Ga0.9As/GaAs multilayer based focal plane array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a structure prepared by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and molecular beam epitaxy techniques incorporated with a standard process of compound semiconductor to achieve In0.1Ga0.9As/InAs/In0.1Ga0.9As quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP)-based focal plane array. For investigating the mechanism of carrier transport and optoelectronic behavior, the photoresponse spectra and dark current were measured in agreement with the theoretical simulations. Furthermore, a model is proposed with the systematic analyses and explained for designing high-performance QDIPs based on the calculations of thermal activation energy and detectivity. For QDIP photoresponse measurements, the photovoltaic photoresponse is achieved, which can be attributed to the asymmetric morphology of quantum dot epitaxy. With increasing bias, the photoresponse spectra exhibit a redshift due to band bending that generates a thinner triangle barrier which increases the escape possibility of the excited carriers situated at lower excited-state levels. The trapezoid-edged scheme enhances infrared coupling and increases the photoresponse intensity. A single-sided gradient AlxGa1-xAs (x = 0.25-->0) barrier can suppress the dark-current under bias efficiently. The infrared imaging performance of InGaAs QDIP based on 320×256 FPA is also demonstrated in this paper.

Chen, Tzu-Chiang; Lai, Jian-Hao



Toluidine blue color perception in identification of oral mucosal lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to examine observer agreement on the rank of the color tones after toluidine blue staining\\u000a of a mucosal lesion. Cohort study with repeated measures is the design of the study. Twenty observers ranked and scored 8\\u000a specified areas on the color images of a lesion before and after toluidine blue application in two sessions.

Pelin Güneri; Joel B. Epstein; Selin Ergün; Hayal Boyacio?lu



Jonathan Bird's Blue World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Jonathan Bird's Blue World Collection is based on a public television science adventure series and offers science curriculum based videos, lesson plans, activities and the capacity to search by topic, NSES, and geography. These materials illustrate topics such as sound, osmosis and pH with videos of sperm whales, mangroves and coral reefs. These resources can be used by learners of all ages in formal and informal settings.



Blue native PAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue native PAGE (BN-PAGE) can be used for one-step isolation of protein complexes from biological membranes and total cell and tissue homogenates. It can also be used to determine native protein masses and oligomeric states and to identify physiological protein–protein interactions. Native complexes are recovered from gels by electroelution or diffusion and are used for 2D crystallization and electron microscopy

Ilka Wittig; Hans-Peter Braun; Hermann Schägger



Blue Crab Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This easy to navigate and well-written site is packed with information and excellent photos about the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) and its fishery. Biology section covers: species profile, anatomy, life cycle, reproduction, larval development, life cycle and more. Industry and trade section includes recipes and tips for catching or buying hard and soft shell crabs, and fishery information. Also offers news, discussion forum, links, a glossary, and reference lists.



State of blue-green laser diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of the Zn(Se,Te) graded contact scheme to p-ZnSe is found to be effective in supporting the room-temperature CW operation of blue-green (508 nm) laser diodes with a threshold voltage of about 5 volts. Factors contributing to device degradation are analyzed by electroluminescence and plan-view TEM imaging. Both the nucleation/growth of the extended structural defects and the presence of point defects within the active region are responsible for the observed degradation. The more recent exploratory effort on blue-green surface emitting lasers and deep blue (edge emitting) lasers will be reported. Surface emitting laser operation at room temperature at (lambda) equals 496 nm by pulsed optical injection has been demonstrated in a II-VI separate confinement heterostructure cavity. By increasing the energy gaps of the cladding, waveguiding, and quantum well layers, pulsed operation of a 460-nm edge-emitting laser at room temperature was also demonstrated. Electrically, p-type doping of ZnMgSSe is complicated by an apparent increase in the activation energy caused by a mechanism very much like that of the DX center in n-type III-V alloys. These factors must be addressed for II- VI light emitting devices to reach the deep blue part of the spectrum.

Han, Jung; Gunshor, Robert L.; Nurmikko, Arto V.



MTI Focal Plane Assembly Design and Performance  

SciTech Connect

The focal plane assembly for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) consists of sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure. Sensor chip assemblies, composed of linear detector arrays and readout integrated circuits, provide spatial resolution in the cross-track direction for the pushbroom imager. Optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 {micro}m to 10.7 {micro}m. All the detector arrays are mounted on a single focal plane and are designed to operate at 75 K. Three pairs of sensor chip assemblies (SCAs) are required to provide cross-track coverage in all 15 spectral bands. Each pair of SCAs includes detector arrays made from silicon, iridium antimonide, and mercury cadmium telluride. Read out integrated circuits multiplex the signals from the detectors to 18 separate video channels. Optical filter assemblies defining the spectral bands are mounted over the linear detector arrays. Each filter assembly consists of several filter strips bonded together side-by-side. The MTI focal plane assembly has been integrated with the rest of the payload and has undergone detailed testing and calibration. This paper includes representative test data for the various spectral bands and the overall performance of the focal plane assembly.

Ballard, M.; Rienstra, J.L.



KNbO3 temperature-tuned blue laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the properties of a tunable blue laser obtained from a laser-diode (LD)-pumped Cr:LiSAF solid state laser doubled by KNbO3 (KN) crystal. We show the calculations for KN crystal phase matching in the xy, yz, and xz planes, the effective nonlinear coefficient and the noncritical phase-matching temperature tuning. We analyze the practicality of a temperature-tuned and LD-pumped blue laser that uses KN and investigate the relation between the output wavelength of a KN-doubling Cr:LiSAF laser and the temperature variation. The temperature-tuned blue laser with continuous output from 423.5 to 446 nm is obtained with a temperature range of -5 to 100 degree(s)C.

Liu, Liqiang; Nagashima, Kenji



Blue semiconductor nanocrystal laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate tunable room-temperature amplified spontaneous emission and lasing from blue-emitting core-shell CdS/ZnS nanocrystals (NCs) stabilized in a sol-gel derived silica matrix. Variable stripe length measurements show that these NC-silica composites have a modal gain of ~100 cm-1 at room temperature. Coating microspheres with a NC-silica composite film via a facile process resulted in uniform resonators that exhibit room-temperature lasing over long periods of continuous excitation. This work opens up a spectral window for emission tunable, microscale NC-based lasers.

Chan, Yinthai; Steckel, Jonathan S.; Snee, Preston T.; Caruge, J.-Michel; Hodgkiss, Justin M.; Nocera, Daniel G.; Bawendi, Moungi G.



Phase-error correction for multiple planes using a sharpness metric.  


Phase errors in multiple planes create an anisoplanatic (space-variant) blur in an image. We show how phase errors in multiple planes can be corrected with the use of a sharpness metric for heterodyne or holographic imaging. We derive the theoretical framework necessary for this anisoplanatic imaging situation. A digital simulation and results are presented. We demonstrate the success of this nonlinear optimization technique for phase errors in two planes. PMID:19252598

Tippie, Abbie E; Fienup, James R



Light plane calibration from a single view  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combination of a sheet of light (laser plane, slit ray, etc.) and a camera provides an interesting tool for accurate contact free measurements of physical dimensions. The analysis of the images is substantially simplified by the depth of an observation being uniquely defined by its position in the image. This article shows that, by defining the object coordinate system appropriately, the transformation from object to image coordinates can be expressed as a 3 by 3 homogeneous transformation matrix, also when the object is rotated relative to the light plane. The transformation matrix can be computed from a minimum of four calibration points on a known, roof-shaped calibration object observed from a single view. The inverse matrix gives object coordinates as a function of image coordinates. The 3D camera coordinates of an observation can be obtained from its image coordinates by a homogeneous 4 by 3 transformation matrix. The article shows how the elements of this matrix can be extracted from the 3 by 3 matrix.

Melen, Trond; Sommerfelt, Arne



Materials, devices, techniques, and applications for Z-plane focal plane array technology II; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 12, 13, 1990  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various papers on materials, devices, techniques, and applications for X-plane focal plane array technology are presented. Individual topics addressed include: application of Z-plane technology to the remote sensing of the earth from GEO, applications of smart neuromorphic focal planes, image-processing of Z-plane technology, neural network Z-plane implementation with very high interconnection rates, using a small IR surveillance satellite for tactical applications, establishing requirements for homing applications, Z-plane technology. Also discussed are: on-array spike suppression signal processing, algorithms for on-focal-plane gamma circumvention and time-delay integration, current HYMOSS Z-technology, packaging of electrons for on- and off-FPA signal processing, space/performance qualification of tape automated bonded devices, automation in tape automated bonding, high-speed/high-volume radiometric testing of Z-technology focal planes, 128-layer HYMOSS-module fabrication issues, automation of IRFPA production processes.

Carson, John C.



Plant blue-light receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants have several blue-light receptors, which regulate different aspects of growth and development. Recent studies have identified three such receptors: cryptochrome 1, cryptochrome 2 and phototropin. Cryptochromes 1 and 2 are photolyase-like receptors that regulate hypocotyl growth and flowering time; phototropin mediates phototropism in response to blue light. In addition, phytochrome A has also been found to mediate various blue-light

Chentao Lin



Tunable blue laser diode  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A harmonic generator laser system which features a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) or distributed feedback (DFB) tunable diode laser coupled to a quasi-phasematched (QPM) waveguide of optically nonlinear material. Tuning of the DBR laser may be achieved either thermally or via current injection, or both, halving the wavelength of a red laser into the visible blue spectral band. Thermal tuning may provide a coarse tuning adjustment, while injected current may provide fine tuning accessible to a user. Separately or in combination with current tuning, a modulation signal may be applied to the DBR laser for achieving an intensity modulated or a pulsed output. In another embodiment, modulation may be achieved by frequency modulation of the laser. A very compact tunable blue laser is formed. In yet another embodiment a double clad fiber amplifier is disposed between the tunable laser and the waveguide. The fiber amplifier is pumped by a high power laser, while the core guides light to be frequency doubled in the nonlinear material from a continuously tunable laser.



Project Blue Revolution  

SciTech Connect

In June of 1992, the National Science Foundation and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration sponsored a strategic planning workshop, involving 35 ocean technologists representing the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific marine communities, to develop a proactive plan for the commercialization of national Exclusive Economic Zone resources. This meeting was the culmination of a series of gatherings held over the past decade, each treating specific ocean applications. The blue-ribbon panel recommended the consolidation of all ocean resource development activities within the federal government,a nd named the Department of Commerce as the ideal agency to manage this office, congressional oversight hearings to reestablish ocean priorities,a nd a broad spectrum of major ocean enterprises for the 21st century. During this same period, an international workshop was held in Hawaii with 50 invited specialists from six countries to discuss the merits of a cooperative program identified as Project Blue Revolution. The attendees determined that a 1 ha (100,000 sq ft) floating platform powered by ocean thermal energy conversion and at a projected cost of $500,000,000 to serve as an incubator for facilitating the commercialization of ocean resources and supporting marine science research, was a feasible venture.

Takahashi, P.K. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). Hawaii Natural Energy Inst.



Dwarf galaxies in the Coma cluster - II. Spectroscopic and photometric fundamental planes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of the Fundamental Plane (FP) for a sample of 71 dwarf galaxies in the core of the Coma cluster in the magnitude range -21 < MI < -15. Taking advantage of the high-resolution DEIMOS spectrograph on Keck II for measuring the internal velocity dispersion of galaxies and high-resolution imaging of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/ACS, which allows an accurate surface brightness modelling, we extend the FP of galaxies to luminosities of ˜1 mag fainter than all the previous studies of the FP in the Coma cluster. We find that the scatter about the FP depends on the faint-end luminosity cut-off, such that the scatter increases for fainter galaxies. The residual from the FP correlates with the galaxy colour, with bluer galaxies showing larger residuals from the FP. We find M/L ? M-0.15±0.22 in the F814W band, indicating that in faint dwarf ellipticals, the M/L ratio is insensitive to the mass. We find that less massive dwarf ellipticals are bluer than their brighter counterparts, possibly indicating ongoing star formation activity. Although tidal encounters and harassment can play a part in removing stars and dark matter from the galaxy, we believe that the dominant effect will be the stellar wind associated with the star formation, which will remove material from the galaxy, resulting in larger M/L ratios. We attribute the deviation of a number of faint blue dwarfs from the FP of brighter ellipticals to this effect. We also study other scaling relations involving galaxy photometric properties including the Photometric Plane. We show that compared to the FP, the scatter about the Photometric Plane is smaller at the faint end.

Kourkchi, E.; Khosroshahi, H. G.; Carter, D.; Mobasher, B.



Three-dimensional modeling of blue jets and blue starters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blue jets are narrow cones of blue light propagating upward from the apparent cloud tops at speeds of the order of 100 km/s to a terminal altitude of about 40 km [Wescott et al., GRL, 22, 1209, 1995]. Blue starters are distinguished from blue jets by a much lower terminal altitude. They protrude upward from the cloud top (17-18 km) to a maximum 25.5 km in altitude [Wescott et al., GRL, 23, 2153, 1996]. It has recently been suggested that blue jets correspond qualitatively to the development of the streamer zone of a positive leader and therefore should be filled with a branching structure of streamer channels [Petrov and Petrova, Tech. Phys., 44, 472, 1999]. In our talk we will discuss the physical concept proposed by Petrov and Petrova [1999] as well as will demonstrate a role of blue jets and blue starters in the large-scale atmospheric electric circuit. We will also discuss specific physical reasons and required circumstances for occurrence of blue jets and starters above thundercloud tops and will support our arguments with results from a new three-dimensional model. The model simulates the propagation of branching streamer channels constituting blue jets and starters as a three dimensional growth of fractal trees in a self-consistent electric field created by thundercloud charges. The model is based on a phenomenological probabilistic approach proposed in [Niemeyer et al., IEEE Trans. Electr. Insul., 24, 309, 1989] and is a straightforward expansion of the previously developed two-dimensional version [Pasko et al., GRL, 27, 497, 2000]. The model results indicate that blue jets and starters can be formed by a fast ( ~1 sec) accumulation of 110-150 C of positive thundercloud charge distributed in a volume with effective radius 3 km near the cloud top at 15 km. The obtained results closely resemble characteristics of blue jets and blue starters observed by Wescott et al. [1995; 1996] in terms of their altitude extents, transverse dimensions and conical structure, and support the suggestion of Wescott et al. [1996] that blue starters are related to the initial phases of blue jets.

Pasko, V. P.; George, J. J.



Blue screen matting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A classical problem of imaging—the matting problem—is sepa- ration of a non-rectangular foreground image from a (usually) rectangular background image—for example, in a film frame, extraction of an actor from a background scene to allow substitu- tion of a different background. Of the several attacks on this diffi- cult and persistent problem, we discuss here only the special case of

Alvy Ray Smith; James F. Blinn



Nile blue A as a fluorescent stain for poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate.  

PubMed Central

Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate granules exhibited a strong orange fluorescence when stained with Nile blue A. Heat-fixed cells were treated with 1% Nile blue A for 10 min and were observed at an excitation wavelength of 460 nm. Glycogen and polyphosphate did not stain. Nile blue A appears to be a more specific stain for poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate than Sudan black B. Images

Ostle, A G; Holt, J G



Using Plane + Parallax for Calibrating Dense Camera Arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

A light field consists of images of a scene taken from different viewpoints. Light fields are used in computer graphics for image-based rendering and synthetic aper- ture photography, and in vision for recovering shape. In this paper, we describe a simple procedure to cali- brate camera arrays used to capture light fields using a plane + parallax framework. Specifically, for

Vaibhav Vaish; Bennett Wilburn; Neel Joshi; Marc Levoy



Plane-dependent error diffusion on a GPU  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study a plane-dependent technique that reduces dot-on-dot printing in color images, and apply this technique to a GPU-based error diffusion halftoning algorithm. We design image quality metrics to preserve mean color and minimize colorant overlaps. We further use randomized intra-plane error filter weights to break periodic structures. Our GPU implementation achieves a processing speed of 200 MegaPixels/second for RGB color images, and a speedup of 30 - 37x over a multi-threaded implementation on a dual-core CPU. Since the GPU implementation is memory bound, we essentially get the image quality benefits for free by adding arithmetic complexities for inter-plane dependency and error filter weights randomization.

Zhang, Yao; Recker, John L.; Ulichney, Robert; Tastl, Ingeborg; Owens, John D.



Blue Light Perception in Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on the blue light responses in bacteria and on the bacterial proteins which have been demonstrated to function as blue light receptors. Results of the previous years reveal that different types of photoreceptors have already evolved in prokaryotes. However, for most of these photoreceptors the exact biological functions and the mechanisms of signaling to downstream components are

Stephan Braatsch; Gabriele Klug



Auditory spatial resolution in horizontal, vertical, and diagonal planes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minimum audible angle (MAA) and minimum audible movement angle (MAMA) thresholds were measured for stimuli in horizontal, vertical, and diagonal (60°) planes. A pseudovirtual technique was employed in which signals were recorded through KEMAR's ears and played back to subjects through insert earphones. Thresholds were obtained for wideband, high-pass, and low-pass noises. Only 6 of 20 subjects obtained wideband vertical-plane MAAs less than 10°, and only these 6 subjects were retained for the complete study. For all three filter conditions thresholds were lowest in the horizontal plane, slightly (but significantly) higher in the diagonal plane, and highest for the vertical plane. These results were similar in magnitude and pattern to those reported by Perrott and Saberi [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 87, 1728-1731 (1990)] and Saberi and Perrott [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 88, 2639-2644 (1990)], except that these investigators generally found that thresholds for diagonal planes were as good as those for the horizontal plane. The present results are consistent with the hypothesis that diagonal-plane performance is based on independent contributions from a horizontal-plane system (sensitive to interaural differences) and a vertical-plane system (sensitive to pinna-based spectral changes). Measurements of the stimuli recorded through KEMAR indicated that sources presented from diagonal planes can produce larger interaural level differences (ILDs) in certain frequency regions than would be expected based on the horizontal projection of the trajectory. Such frequency-specific ILD cues may underlie the very good performance reported in previous studies for diagonal spatial resolution. Subjects in the present study could apparently not take advantage of these cues in the diagonal-plane condition, possibly because they did not externalize the images to their appropriate positions in space or possibly because of the absence of a patterned visual field.

Grantham, D. Wesley; Hornsby, Benjamin W. Y.; Erpenbeck, Eric A.



Ascorbic Acid and Methylene Blue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The WebWare molecules of the month for May are featured in several articles in this issue. "Arsenic: Not So Evil After All?" discusses the pharmaceutical uses of methylene blue and its development as the first synthetic drug used against a specific disease. The JCE Classroom Activity "Out of the Blue" and the article "Greening the Blue Bottle" feature methylene blue and ascorbic acid as two key ingredients in the formulation of the blue bottle. You can also see a colorful example of these two molecules in action on the cover. "Sailing on the 'C': A Vitamin Titration with a Twist" describes an experiment to determine the vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content of citrus fruits and challenges students, as eighteenth-century sea captains, to decide the best fruit to take on a long voyage.


Simultaneous out-of-plane and in-plane displacements measurement by using digital holography around a hole or indentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A measurement prototype based on digital holography for the simultaneous measurement of out-of-plane and radial in-plane displacement fields is shown. This prototype enables recording two holograms at the same time with a single image taken by a digital camera and evaluating separately in-plane and out-of-plane displacement components. An axicon-type diffractive optical element (DOE) is used for the illumination of the object, which causes radial sensitivity vectors. Blind holes as well as spherical indentations were preformed over a welded steel plate (containing residual stresses). By using the digital holography setup, typical out-of-plane and in-plane displacement fields, generated when the hole was introduced into the stresses material, were measured and compared with theoretical ones. Good agreement was found between them. In addition, a mature digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI) setup was used to measure only the in-plane component around the hole. Good agreement between both systems was also found. Finally, displacements fields were measured around indentation marks. In this case, preliminary results show that out-of-plane displacements are larger than in-plane ones, enabling its use for residual stress computation or maybe material properties determination.

Viotti, Matias R.; Kohler, Christian; Albertazzi, Armando, Jr.



Chameleon Graphing: The Coordinate Plane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web unit introduces the coordinate plane with the help of Sam the Chameleon, who illustrates how to find points on a number line and graph points in the coordinate plane. A link to a Java applet for graphing with Sam is included.

Whitcher, Ursula



Fundamentals of the dwarf fundamental plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: Star-forming dwarfs are studied to elucidate the physical underpinnings of their fundamental plane. Processes controlling dynamics are evaluated, connections between quiescent and bursting dwarfs are examined, and the viability of using structural properties of dwarfs to determine distances is assessed. Methods: Deep surface photometry in Ks is presented for 19 star-forming dwarfs. The data are amalgamated with previously published observations to create a sample of 66 galaxies suitable for exploring how global properties and kinematics are connected. Results: It is confirmed that residuals in the Tully-Fisher relation are correlated with surface brightness, but that even after accomodating the surface brightness dependence through the dwarf fundamental plane, residuals in absolute magnitude are far larger than expected from observational errors. Rather, a morefundamental plane is identified which connects the potential to HI line width and surface brightness. Residuals correlate with the axis ratio in a way which can be accommodated by recognizing the galaxies to be oblate spheroids viewed at varying angles. Correction of surface brightnesses to face-on leads to a correlation among the potential, line width, and surface brightness for which residuals are entirely attributable to observational uncertainties. The mean mass-to-light ratio of the diffuse component of the galaxies is constrained to be 0.88 ± 0.20 in Ks. Blue compact dwarfs lie in the same plane as dwarf irregulars. The dependence of the potential on line width is less strong than expected for virialized systems, but this may be because surface brightness is acting as a proxy for variations in the mass-to-light ratio from galaxy to galaxy. Altogether, the observations suggest that gas motions are predominantly disordered and isotropic, that they are a consequence of gravity, not turbulence, and that the mass and scale of dark matter haloes scale with the amount and distribution of luminous matter. The tight relationship between the potential and observables offers the promise of determining distances to unresolved star-forming dwarfs to an accuracy comparable to that provided by the Tully-Fisher relation for spirals. Based on observations acquired from CFHT, CTIO, ESO, OAN-SPM, and SAAO.

McCall, M. L.; Vaduvescu, O.; Pozo Nunez, F.; Barr Dominguez, A.; Fingerhut, R.; Unda-Sanzana, E.; Li, B.; Albrecht, M.



Multifocal planes head-mounted displays.  


Stereoscopic head-mounted displays (HMD's) provide an effective capability to create dynamic virtual environments. For a user of such environments, virtual objects would be displayed ideally at the appropriate distances, and natural concordant accommodation and convergence would be provided. Under such image display conditions, the user perceives these objects as if they were objects in a real environment. Current HMD technology requires convergent eye movements. However, it is currently limited by fixed visual accommodation, which is inconsistent with real-world vision. A prototype multiplanar volumetric projection display based on a stack of laminated planes was built for medical visualization as discussed in a paper presented at a 1999 Advanced Research Projects Agency workshop (Sullivan, Advanced Research Projects Agency, Arlington, Va., 1999). We show how such technology can be engineered to create a set of virtual planes appropriately configured in visual space to suppress conflicts of convergence and accommodation in HMD's. Although some scanning mechanism could be employed to create a set of desirable planes from a two-dimensional conventional display, multiplanar technology accomplishes such function with no moving parts. Based on optical principles and human vision, we present a comprehensive investigation of the engineering specification of multiplanar technology for integration in HMD's. Using selected human visual acuity and stereoacuity criteria, we show that the display requires at most 27 equally spaced planes, which is within the capability of current research and development display devices, located within a maximal 26-mm-wide stack. We further show that the necessary in-plane resolution is of the order of 5 microm. PMID:18349886

Rolland, J P; Krueger, M W; Goon, A



ExPlanes: exploring planes in triplet data.  


Many methods for the analysis of gene expression-, protein- or metabolite-data focus on the investigation of binary relationships, while the underlying biological processes creating this data may generate relations of higher than bivariate complexity. We give a novel method ExPlanes that helps to explore certain types of ternary relationships in a statistically robust, Bayesian framework. To arrive at an characterization of the data structure contained in triplet data we investigate 2-dimensional planes being the only linear structures that cannot be inferred from projections of the data. The key part of our methodology is the definition of a robust, Bayesian plane posterior under the assumption of an invariant prior and a Gaussian error model. A numerical representation of the plane posterior can be explored interactively. Beyond this purely Bayesian approach we can use the plane posterior to construct a family of posterior-based test statistics that allow testing the data for different plane related hypotheses. To demonstrate practicability we queried triplets of metabolic data from a plant crossing experiment for the presence of plane-, line- and point-structures by using posterior-based test statistics and were able to show their distinctiveness. PMID:20375455

Schwenk, Bruno B; Selbig, Joachim; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Holschneider, Matthias



AMI Galactic Plane Survey at 16GHz. I. (Perrott+, 2013)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AMI Galactic Plane survey is being made with the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager (AMI) Small Array at 15.7GHz and with resolution of approximately 3arcmin. This is the first data release, covering ~868deg2 of the Northern Galactic plane between |b|~+/-5° and above ?=40° with a noise level of ~3mJy/beam away from bright sources. The source catalogue contains a total of 3503 sources. (1 data file).

Perrott, Y. C.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Green, D. A.; Davies, M. L.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Grainge, K. J. B.; Hobson, M. P.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Lasenby, A. N.; Olamaie, M.; Pooley, G. G.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, C.; Rumsey, C.; Saunders, R. D. E.; Schammel, M. P.; Scott, P. F.; Shimwell, T. W.; Titterington, D. J.; Waldram, E. M.



Chandra Multi-wavelength Plane Survey Towards the Galactic Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been conducting the Chandra Multi-wavelength Plane Survey (ChaMPlane) for the last decade. ChaMPlane is designed to survey the point X-ray sources discovered by the Chandra X-ray Observatory in the galactic plane in order to constrain the X-ray binary population in the Galaxy. This survey includes the data from the Chandra achieve, and the optical and infrared images and spectroscopes we obtained. So far we have observed 74 ChaMPlane fields which cover about 25 square degrees and 295 ACIS observations in the galactic plane (AO1-10). This paper reports our findings towards the Galactic Center.

Zhao, Ping; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Hong, Jaesub; Koenig, Xavier; van den Berg, Maureen; Laycock, Silas



Blue upconversion thulium laser  

SciTech Connect

Upconversion has been an active area of research for at least two decades, mainly because of its wide ranging applications from infrared quantum counters, visible-emitting phosphors, to upconversion lasers. The upconversion lasers have recently become attractive with the advent of semiconductor laser diodes as the pump source. In an upconversion laser, the laser active ion is excited by internal upconversion of near-ir or red light via multiphoton excitation or cooperative processes and emits anti-Stokes visible light. Since the laser diode output wavelength can be composition turned to match the upconversion laser ion absorption lines, a substantial fraction of the ions can be driven into higher energy levels, thus enhancing the upconversion process. These upconversion solid-state lasers offer a potentially simple and compact source of visible coherent light with semiconductor laser diode excitation. We recently reported a novel upconversion thulium laser that emits blue light at 77 K. In this paper additional data on this 77 K upconversion laser as well as preliminary results on the room temperature upconversion laser are presented. In these demonstrations, dye lasers were used instead of diode lasers because they were more readily available than high power semiconductor laser diodes and their wavelengths could be adjusted easily. 14 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Nguyen, D.C.; Faulkner, G.E.; Weber, M.E.; Dulick, M.



Coordinates and the Cartesian Plane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The lesson begins with a short refresher lecture on how points are written in (x,y) format and orientation with the Cartesian plane axes. The lecture also covers which directions are positive and which are negative on an x-y plane. Students learn about what it means for a relation to be a function and how to determine domain and range of a set of data points. Prerequisite knowledge: Familiarity with the coordinate plane, coordinates, and equations are helpful, but not required.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,; Mckelvey, Aubrey



Observation of Dislocation in a Silicon Single Crystal by X-Ray Plane Wave Topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an asymmetric reflection of Si 220 by Mo-Kalpha1, images of lattice defects in a nearly perfect Silicon crystal were observed by plane-wave X-ray topography with parallel (n, -n) setting. Notable differences between defect images in this plane-wave topograph and in the Lang traverse topograph are reported.

Satio Takagi; Kohtaro Ishida; Akio Ootuka



Characterization of post-correction uniformity on infrared focal plane arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increased requirements for better performance being placed on thermal imaging systems, new characterization figures of merit are being developed to assess infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) attributes. Post correction uniformity (PCU) is a parameter that determines how successfully a thermal imaging system can eliminate spatial noise from scanning and staring focal plane arrays. Requirements on PCU, particularly for the

John J. O'Neill; Christopher R. Costanzo; David R. Kaplan



Characterization of DECam focal plane detectors  

SciTech Connect

DECam is a 520 Mpix, 3 square-deg FOV imager being built for the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO. This facility instrument will be used for the 'Dark Energy Survey' of the southern galactic cap. DECam has chosen 250 ?m thick CCDs, developed at LBNL, with good QE in the near IR for the focal plane. In this work we present the characterization of these detectors done by the DES team, and compare it to the DECam technical requirements. The results demonstrate that the detectors satisfy the needs for instrument.

Diehl, H.Thomas; Angstadt, Robert; Campa, Julia; Cease, Herman; Derylo, Greg; Emes, John H.; Estrada, Juan; Kibik, Donna; Flaugher, Brenna L.; Holland, Steve E.; Jonas, Michelle; /Fermilab /Madrid, CIEMAT /LBL, Berkeley /Argonne /Pennsylvania U.



Blue tits are ultraviolet tits  

PubMed Central

The blue tit (Parus caeruleus) has been classified as sexually monochromatic. This classification is based on human colour perception yet, unlike humans, most birds have four spectrally distinct classes of cone and are visually sensitive to wavelengths in the near-ultraviolet (300 to 400 nm). Reflectance spectrophotometry reveals that blue tit plumage shows considerable reflection of UV light. For example, the blue crest shows peak reflectance at wavelengths around 352 nm. Furthermore, the blue tit is sexually dichromatic for multiple regions of plumage, including the crest. Choice trials performed in the laboratory indicate that females prefer males with the brightest crests. This study has implications for both intra- and interspecific studies of sexual selection, as well as future classification of dichromatism, which should not ignore the possibility of variation in reflectance in the UV.

Hunt, S.; Bennett, A. T. D.; Cuthill, I. C.; Griffiths, R.



Hazards of solar blue light  

SciTech Connect

Short-wavelength visible light (blue light) of the Sun has caused retinal damage in people who have stared fixedly at the Sun without adequate protection. The author quantified the blue-light hazard of the Sun according to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines by measuring the spectral radiance of the Sun. The results showed that the exposure limit for blue light can be easily exceeded when people view the Sun and that the solar blue-light hazard generally increases with solar elevation, which is in accordance with a model of the atmospheric extinction of sunlight. Viewing the Sun can be very hazardous and therefore should be avoided except at very low solar elevations.

Okuno, Tsutomu



Laponite blue: dissolving the insoluble.  


The neutral organic dye indigo forms an inorganic-organic hybrid material with nanoclays (see picture; blue circles on disks symbolizing indigo, spheres indicating liberated cations) and can thus be transferred into aqueous solution. Solids recovered from these solutions resemble the ancient Maya Blue pigment. The method can also be applied to other hydrophobic species and may open the gate for novel solution chemistry, including photonic and catalytic applications. PMID:22952053

Lezhnina, Marina M; Grewe, Tobias; Stoehr, Hardo; Kynast, Ulrich



Integrated Focal Plane Star Sensor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A theoretical analysis on the detectors suitable for the Infrared Space Observer (ISO) Integrated Focal Plane Star Sensor (IFPSS) design are presented, together with system configuration concepts. A simplified configuration with respect to the electronic ...

G. Borghi M. Carboncini M. Stagi



On Homomorphisms of Projectile Planes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the study one has defined a homomorphism between two projective planes mapping a line into finitely many collinear points. This homomorphism induces a homomorphism between their ternary rings. Using the ternary ring homomorphism it has been shown that ...

B. B. Mehra



Anatomical planes: are we teaching accurate surface anatomy?  


Anatomical planes used in clinical practice and teaching anatomy are largely derived from cadaver studies. Numerous inconsistencies in clinically important surface markings exist between and within anatomical reference texts. The aim of this study was to reassess the accuracy of common anatomical planes in vivo using computed tomographic (CT) imaging. CT scans of the trunk in supine adults at end tidal inspiration were analyzed by dual consensus reporting to determine the anatomy of five anatomical planes: sternal angle, transpyloric, subcostal, supracristal, and the plane of the pubic crest. Patients with kyphosis, scoliosis, or abnormal lordosis, distorting space-occupying lesions, or visceromegaly were excluded. Among 153 thoracic CT scans (mean age 63 years, 53% female), the sternal angle was most common at T4 (females) or T4/5 (males) vertebral level, and the tracheal bifurcation, aortic arch, and pulmonary trunk were most often below this plane. In 108 abdominal CT scans (mean age 60 years, 59% female), the subcostal and supracristal planes were most often at L2 (58%) and L4 (69%), respectively. In 52 thoracoabdominal CT scans (mean age 61 years, 56% female), the transpyloric plane was between lower L1 and upper L2 (75%); in this plane were the superior mesenteric artery (56%), formation of the portal vein (53%), tip of the ninth rib (60%), and the left renal hilum (54%), but the right renal hilum and gallbladder fundus were more often below. The surface anatomy of anatomical planes needs revising in the light of results from living subjects using modern imaging techniques. PMID:22674662

Mirjalili, S Ali; McFadden, Sarah L; Buckenham, Tim; Wilson, Ben; Stringer, Mark D



Plane Electromagnetic Wave in PEMC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plane electromagnetic wave propagating in perfect electromagnetic conductor\\u000a(PEMC) is considered. Its wave number has no connection with the frequency. An\\u000ainterface is introduced between an ordinary isotropic medium and PEMC. The wave\\u000ain PEMC is matched to plane electromagnetic wave incident normally on the\\u000ainterface from the ordinary medium and reflected from it. Then the\\u000aplane-parallel slab made of

Bernard Jancewicz



Allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates in disposable blue diathermy pads.  

PubMed Central

We report 2 cases of elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates from disposable blue diathermy pads used on patients who underwent routine surgery. Their reactions were severe, and took approximately 5 weeks to resolve. Both patients gave a prior history of finger tip dermatitis following the use of artificial sculptured acrylic nails, which is a common, but poorly reported, cause of acrylate allergy. Patch testing subsequently confirmed allergies to multiple acrylates present in both the conducting gel of disposable blue diathermy pads, and artificial sculptured acrylic nails. We advocate careful history taking prior to surgery to avoid unnecessary exposure to acrylates in patients already sensitized. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

Sidhu, S. K.; Shaw, S.



Classification of Ultra Blue Sources in the Kepler Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our study focused on a sample of ~200 ultra blue sources in the Kepler Field extracted from the Howell-Everett UBV survey. Utilizing data from this survey, the KIC, 2MASS, GALEX, and WISE, we generated spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for every object. We compared these SEDs with known SEDs of a variety of standard blue sources as well as visually examining HEASARC, UBV, DSS, 2MASS, and WISE image data. We were able to categorize our sources as stars, white dwarfs, cataclysmic variables, active galactic nuclei, x-ray binaries, planetary nebula nuclei, or other. We will present examples of our classification process and a table of results.

Odden, Caroline; Seebode, S.; Childers, J. M.; Melton, C.; McCutcheon, M.; Ciardi, D.; Howell, S. B.



Automatic location of microscopic focal planes for computerized stereology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When applying design-based stereology to biological tissue, there are two primary applications for an auto-focusing function in the software of computerized stereology system. The system must first locate the in-focus optical planes at the upper and lower surfaces of stained tissue sections, thus identifying the top and bottom as well as the thickness of the tissue. Second, the system must find the start and end along the Z-axis of stained objects within a Z-stack of images through tissue sections. In contrast to traditional autofocus algorithms that seek a global maximum or peak on the focus curve, the goal of this study was to find the two "knees" of the focus curve that represent the "just out-of-focus" focal planes. The upper surface of the tissue section is defined as the image just before focus is detected moving down the Z-stack. Continuing down, the lower surface is defined as the first image of the last set of adjacent images where focus is no longer detected. The performance of seven focus algorithms in locating the top and bottom focal planes of tissue sections was analyzed by comparing each algorithm on 34 Z-stacks including a total of 828 images. The Thresholded Absolute Gradient algorithm outperformed all others, correctly identifying the top or bottom focal plane within an average of 1 ?m on the training data as well as the test data.

Elozory, Daniel T.; Bonam, Om Pavithra; Kramer, Kurt; Goldgof, Dmitry B.; Hall, Lawrence O.; Mangual, Osvaldo; Mouton, Peter R.



Simultaneous measurement of in-plane and out-of-plane displacement derivatives using dual-wavelength digital holographic interferometry.  


The paper introduces a method for simultaneously measuring the in-plane and out-of-plane displacement derivatives of a deformed object in digital holographic interferometry. In the proposed method, lasers of different wavelengths are used to simultaneously illuminate the object along various directions such that a unique wavelength is used for a given direction. The holograms formed by multiple reference-object beam pairs of different wavelengths are recorded by a 3-color CCD camera with red, green, and blue channels. Each channel stores the hologram related to the corresponding wavelength and hence for the specific direction. The complex reconstructed interference field is obtained for each wavelength by numerical reconstruction and digital processing of the recorded holograms before and after deformation. Subsequently, the phase derivative is estimated for a given wavelength using two-dimensional pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution and the in-plane and out-of-plane components are obtained from the estimated phase derivatives using the sensitivity vectors of the optical configuration. PMID:22193002

Rajshekhar, Gannavarpu; Gorthi, Sai Siva; Rastogi, Pramod



Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low-voltage (< 10 V), high-transmittance (> 80%), submillisecond-response, and hysteresis-free polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal (BPLC) device with vertical field switching (VFS) and oblique incident light are demonstrated experimentally. Unlike the commonly employed in-plane switching in which the electric field is primarily in lateral direction and not uniform spatially, the VFS mode has uniform longitudinal field. As a result, the operating voltage is reduced by ~ 3.2 × which in turn helps to eliminate hysteresis. The VFS mode is a promising candidate for the emerging BPLC display and photonic devices.

Cheng, Hui-Chuan; Yan, Jin; Ishinabe, Takahiro; Wu, Shin-Tson



Enhanced Deep Blue aerosol retrieval algorithm: The second generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aerosol products retrieved using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) collection 5.1 Deep Blue algorithm have provided useful information about aerosol properties over bright-reflecting land surfaces, such as desert, semiarid, and urban regions. However, many components of the C5.1 retrieval algorithm needed to be improved; for example, the use of a static surface database to estimate surface reflectances. This is particularly important over regions of mixed vegetated and nonvegetated surfaces, which may undergo strong seasonal changes in land cover. In order to address this issue, we develop a hybrid approach, which takes advantage of the combination of precalculated surface reflectance database and normalized difference vegetation index in determining the surface reflectance for aerosol retrievals. As a result, the spatial coverage of aerosol data generated by the enhanced Deep Blue algorithm has been extended from the arid and semiarid regions to the entire land areas. In this paper, the changes made in the enhanced Deep Blue algorithm regarding the surface reflectance estimation, aerosol model selection, and cloud screening schemes for producing the MODIS collection 6 aerosol products are discussed. A similar approach has also been applied to the algorithm that generates the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Deep Blue products. Based upon our preliminary results of comparing the enhanced Deep Blue aerosol products with the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measurements, the expected error of the Deep Blue aerosol optical thickness (AOT) is estimated to be better than 0.05 + 20%. Using 10 AERONET sites with long-term time series, 79% of the best quality Deep Blue AOT values are found to fall within this expected error.

Hsu, N. C.; Jeong, M.-J.; Bettenhausen, C.; Sayer, A. M.; Hansell, R.; Seftor, C. S.; Huang, J.; Tsay, S.-C.




SciTech Connect

As part of the WIYN High Image Quality Indiana-Irvine (WHIQII) survey, we present 123 spectra of faint emission-line galaxies, selected to focus on intermediate redshift (0.4 approx< z approx< 0.8) galaxies with blue colors that appear physically compact on the sky. The sample includes 15 true Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies (LCBGs) and an additional 27 slightly less extreme emission-line systems. These galaxies represent a highly evolving class that may play an important role in the decline of star formation since z approx 1, but their exact nature and evolutionary pathways remain a mystery. Here, we use emission lines to determine metallicities and ionization parameters, constraining their intrinsic properties and state of star formation. Some LCBG metallicities are consistent with a 'bursting dwarf' scenario, while a substantial fraction of others are not, further confirming that LCBGs are a highly heterogeneous population but are broadly consistent with the intermediate redshift field. In agreement with previous studies, we observe overall evolution in the luminosity-metallicity relation at intermediate redshift. Our sample, and particularly the LCBGs, occupies a region in the empirical R{sub 23}-O{sub 32} plane that differs from luminous local galaxies and is more consistent with dwarf irregulars at the present epoch, suggesting that cosmic 'downsizing' is observable in even the most fundamental parameters that describe star formation. These properties for our sample are also generally consistent with lying between local galaxies and those at high redshift, as expected by this scenario. Surprisingly, our sample exhibits no detectable correlation between compactness and metallicity, strongly suggesting that at these epochs of rapid star formation, the morphology of compact star-forming galaxies is largely transient.

Tollerud, Erik J.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Cooke, Jeff [Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Van Zee, Liese [Astronomy Department, Indiana University, 727 East 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)



An Analytical Method of Determining the Plane Based on Dual Ellipse Equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the spot is elliptical when the cylindrical laser comes to the spatial plane, it proves that the laser spots in the CCD images, which are acquired by binocular stereo vision, are also elliptical. Through image edge extraction in image processing, it can obtain space equations of imaging ellipse edge by least square ellipse fitting, which can be transformed into

Xinglong Zhu; Xiaojun Yang; Junjun Zhu; Ying Zhang; Jjping Zhou



Explosive plane-wave lens  


An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive.

Marsh, Stanley P. (Los Alamos, NM)



Monte Carlo Simulations of Supercoiled DNAs Confined to a Plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in atomic force microscopy (AFM) have enabled researchers to obtain images of supercoiled DNAs deposited on mica surfaces in buffered aqueous milieux. Confining a supercoiled DNA to a plane greatly restricts its configurational freedom, and could conceivably alter certain structural properties, such as its twist and writhe. A program that was originally written to perform Monte Carlo simulations

Bryant S. Fujimoto; J. Michael Schurr



Pose determination and plane measurement using a trapezium  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new affine invariant of trapezia is introduced, and the projection of trapezia is deduced from this invariant. Known the lengths of the two parallel sides of a trapezium, pose estimation and plane measurement can be realized in a very simple way from the projection of the trapezium. Experiments on simulated and real images show that the

Fuqing Duan; Fuchao Wu; Zhanyi Hu



Progress towards a ``blue'' potassium MOT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One difficulty when preparing quantum degenerate gases of potassium 40 is the low efficiency of sub-Doppler cooling. In this talk, we discuss how we are attempting to circumvent this problem by implementing a ``blue'' MOT for ^40K on the non-cycling 4S1/2->5P3/2 transition, which has a wavelength of 404.53nm and a decay rate of 1.17MHz. The Doppler temperature should be 27?K, which is a factor of five improvement over the D2 transition at 767nm. This lower temperature would also facilitate in-situ imaging of atoms in optical lattices. The laser setup consists of a cooled diode injection locked to an external cavity diode laser. The master laser is in turn locked to ^39K saturation spectroscopy in a heated vapor cell. The proximity of this 4S-5P transition to the wavelength used in ``Blu-ray'' technology provides a relatively inexpensive source of laser diodes with powers up to 150mW. A dual MOT will be implemented using dichroic mirrors and waveplates for loading and capture with 767nm, followed by a switch to a ``blue'' MOT for late-stage cooling before loading into a magnetic trap. We will also present results on the spectroscopy of the ^40K 5P3/2 hyperfine levels using our setup.

McKay, David; Fine, Dan; Jervis, Dylan; Edge, Graham; Thywissen, Joseph



Spectroscopy and Interferometry of Luminous Blue Variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the preliminary results of a three-year monitoring campaign of Galactic and Magellanic luminous blue variables with both moderate and high resolution spectroscopy. We have collected more than 500 moderate-resolution spectra of 20 stars in the red portion of the optical spectrum, which includes the wind-sensitive transitions of H? and He I at 5876 and 6678 Å. We summarize our detailed study of 15 years of high resolution H? spectroscopy of the prototypical luminous blue variable, P Cygni. We report on the discovery of discrete absorption components in P Cygni's H? profile, and we discuss their relationship to structure in the wind. These results are compared to our recent high resolution interferometric imaging of the H-band emitting region surrounding the star. We discuss recent observations of ? Car, highlighting its unusual recovery from the previous periastron passage. Our results on HDE 326823 indicate that the star has a short period binary orbit, with Roche lobe overflow onto an unseen massive companion.

Richardson, N. D.; Gies, D. R.; Morrison, N. D.; Schaefer, G.; ten Brummelaar, T.; Monnier, J. D.; Parks, J. R.



The Blue-Collar Brain  

PubMed Central

Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body’s tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior.

Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian



Blue-green upconversion laser  


A blue-green laser (450-550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm{sup 3+}. The Tm{sup 3+} is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconducting laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP.

Nguyen, Dinh C.; Faulkner, G.E.



Locating hydraulically active fracture planes  

SciTech Connect

If analysis of the microseismicity accompanying fluid injections is to be of maximum use in predicting hot dry rock (HDR) reservoir performance, it should lead to the determination of both the rock volume and active flowing surface area of the reservoir. In the granitic rock at the HDR geothermal site at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, the micro-earthquakes located during hydraulic fracturing occur in large three-dimensional volumes called seismic clouds. Cores cut from the region prior to fracturing show numerous planar fractures, some mineral-filled, at virtually random orientations. Evidence supports the hypothesis that only a few of these planes make up the flow path between wells for most of the injected fluid. If this is indeed the case, then it is necessary to be able to distinguish between fractures that accept flow from those which do not. We accomplish this by defining “flow-probable” planes to be those which have seismicity located relatively farther away from lines where other planes intersect. We show that these flow probable planes intercept wellbores at locations where other data confirm the presence of hydraulically active fractures.

Malzahn, Mark; Dreesen, Donald; Fehler, Michael



Three-Dimensional Digital Planes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Definitions of 3D digital surface and plane are introduced. Many geometric properties of these objects are examined. In particular, it is shown that digital convexity is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for a digital surface element to be a ...

C. E. Kim



An Introduction to Inclined Planes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the concept of simple tools and how they can make difficult or impossible tasks easier. They begin by investigating the properties of inclined planes and how implementing them can reduce the force necessary to lift objects off the ground.

Engineering K-Ph.d. Program


Graphing and the Coordinate Plane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to graphing coordinates and lines in the Cartesian coordinate plane. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to graphing as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one.



The plane with parallel coordinates  

Microsoft Academic Search

By means ofParallel Coordinates planar “graphs” of multivariate relations are obtained. Certain properties of the relationship correspond tothe geometrical properties of its graph. On the plane a point ?? line duality with several interesting properties is induced. A new duality betweenbounded and unbounded convex sets and hstars (a generalization of hyperbolas) and between Convex Unions and Intersections is found. This

Alfred Inselberg



Coordinates and the Cartesian Plane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A brief refresher on the Cartesian plane includes how points are written in (x,y) format and oriented to the axes, and which directions are positive and negative. Then students learn about what it means for a relation to be a function and how to determine domain and range of a set of data points.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,


Pinball Wizard: Levers and Planes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on engineering project, kids use two simple machines, levers and inclined planes, to construct their own pinball machines. Using the engineering design process and easy-to-find materials like straws and cardboard, kids can create an endless variety of games.




Intersection of Two Quadrilaterals in a Plane.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The intersection of two quadrilaterals lying in a plane uses the concept that any side of one quadrilateral cuts the plane into two halves, the open half plane and the closed half plane; then, by checking the nodes of the other quadrilateral and vice vers...

D. Bryan A. G. Armstrong



Photoacoustic microscopy using Evans Blue dye as a contrast agent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complete and continuous imaging of microvascular networks is crucial for a wide variety of biomedical applications. Photoacoustic tomography can provide high resolution microvascular imaging using hemoglobin within red blood cells (RBC) as an endogenous contrast agent. However, intermittent RBC flow in capillaries results in discontinuous and fragmentary capillary images. To overcome this problem, we used Evans Blue (EB) dye as a contrast agent for in vivo photoacoustic imaging. EB has strong optical absorption at 610 nm and distributes uniformly in the blood stream by chemically binding to albumin. By intravenous injection of EB (6%, 200 ?L), complete and continuous microvascular networks-especially capillaries-of the ears of nude mice were imaged. The diffusion of EB (3%, 100 ?L) leaving the blood stream was monitored for 2 hours. At lower administration dose of EB (3%, 50 ?L), the clearance of the EB-albumin complex was imaged for 10 days and quantitatively investigated using a two-compartment model.

Yao, Junjie; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Hu, Song; Wang, Lihong V.



Big Blue Bump in Seyfert nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the nuclear magnitude in the optical, inferred from the decomposition of the high-resolution optical image of HST WFPC1/2, and the ultraviolet flux, observed by IUE, the power law spectral index (?) (F?~?-?) of Big Blue Bump (BBB) emission is measured for the Seyfert galactic nuclei. The average value of them is -0.55, less than the value of composite spectral index (0.46) of SDSS, close to the expected value (-0.3) of the spectral index for classic accretion disk emission in the same spectral region. Compared to the ?T, the BBB spectral index, measured from the total emission of galaxy, the above index ? has a lower value for most Seyfert objects in our sample, although still with a wider distribution. Additionally, we conjecture that some type II Seyfert objects have abnormal decrease, compared to type I, due to the ultraviolet emission of galactic disk without proper deduction from the total galactic emission.

Huang, Shuang-An; Wang, Ting-Gui; Zhou, You-Yuan



Baby T (Blue) (Size: Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.



Baby T (Blue) (Size: Small)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.



Baby T (Blue) (Size: Medium)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.



The Blue Whale, Balaenoptera musculus  

Microsoft Academic Search

pers. They are members of the family Balaenopteridae, all of which have fringed baleen plates rather than teeth. Baleen whales graze through swarms of small crustaceans known as krill, and capture the krill in their baleen as water is filtered through. Like most balaenopterids, blue whales exhibit no well defined social or schooling structure, and in most of their range



Striatal neuroprotection with methylene blue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent literature indicates that low-dose Methylene Blue (MB), an autoxidizable dye with powerful antioxidant and metabolic enhancing properties, might prevent neurotoxin-induced neural damage and associated functional deficits. This study evaluated whether local MB may counteract the anatomical and functional effects of the intrastriatal infusion of the neurotoxin rotenone (Rot) in the rat. To this end, stereological analyses of striatal lesion

J. C. Rojas; N. Simola; B. A. Kermath; J. R. Kane; T. Schallert; F. Gonzalez-Lima



Scientific Blue-Water Diving.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this book is to open the world of blue-water diving to a larger scientific community, without compromising the safety of the procedure. It is not meant to impose excessive restrictions on the methodology, but to provide guidelines for conducti...

J. N. Heine S. H. D. Haddock



Blue Crabs in the Chesapeake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a classroom unit and data activity focusing on juvenile and adult blue crab distribution in the Chesapeake Bay. The pdf includes background on crab biology, anatomy, life cycle, and fisheries. Authentic data tables are provided for in-class analysis and discussion questions guide inquiry.

Clark, Vicki P.; Musick, Susanna; Lawrence, Lisa; Van Montfrans, Jacques



Singing' the Black and Blues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is so obvious that the sky is blue in the daytime and black at night, but it took the smartest humans thousands of years of observation, thought, discussion, conjecture, and analysis to finally come up with answers that make scientific sense as to why the sky is these colors. This article discusses light and the scientific research…

Fisher, Diane



Sliding Down an Incline Plane Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Sliding Down an Incline Plane model shows a stone block is lying on an inclined plane. Initially, the component of gravity along the plane surface, Ft, is compensated by the force of static friction Fsf, which is proportional to the normal to the plane, N. Because the modulus of this force cannot exceed a limit value of ?|N| (? is the static friction coefficient between the block and the plane). When the user increases the slope of the plane by dragging the double arrow at the plane top, Ft ends up being larger than this limit and the block slides down the plane The Sliding Down an Incline Plane model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_murcia_mech_SlidingDownAnInclinePlane.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.




Normal shoulder: MR imaging  

SciTech Connect

Relatively poor spatial resolution has been obtained in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the shoulder because the shoulder can only be placed in the periphery of the magnetic field. The authors have devised an anatomically shaped surface coil that enables MR to demonstrate normal shoulder anatomy in different planes with high spatial resolution. In the axial plane anatomy analogous to that seen on computed tomographic (CT) scans can be demonstrated. Variations in scapular position (produced by patient positioning) may make reproducibility of sagittal and coronal plane images difficult by changing the relationship of the plane to the shoulder anatomy. Oblique planes, for which the angle is chosen from the axial image, have the advantage of easy reproducibility. Obliquely oriented structures and relationships are best seen in oblique plane images and can be evaluated in detail.

Kieft, G.J.; Bloem, J.L.; Obermann, W.R.; Verbout, A.J.; Rozing, P.M.; Doornbos, J.



LWIR/MWIR adaptive focal plane array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Adaptive Focal Plane Array (AFPA) device that enables a "chip scale" imaging spectrometer is being developed. The AFPA device consists of an array of MEMS tunable filters that is intimately coupled to a dual band IR FPA. The MEMS filters provide narrowband tuning in the LWIR and simultaneous broadband imaging in the MWIR. Each filter element can be independently tuned. In the current design, each filter tunes the wavelength of pixel subarrays. Ultimately, filter size will be reduced to achieve independent wavelength tunability for each pixel element. This unique architecture of an AFPA device enables adaptive spectral analysis of the scene. Rather than collecting the complete hyperspectral cube, methods being developed will enable selection of spatially optimized spectral band sets for a variety of targets and materials that are selected "on-the-fly" to maximize the contrast between the local background and the target or material to be identified. The analyzed LWIR spectral information may then be overlaid with a pixel registered high resolution MWIR image.

Gunning, William J.; Johnson, Jeffrey L.; DeNatale, Jeffrey F.



An evaluation of in-plane shields during thoracic CT.  


The object of this study was to compare organ dose and image quality effects of using bismuth and barium vinyl in-plane shields with standard and low tube current thoracic CT protocols. A RANDO phantom was scanned using a 64-slice CT scanner and three different thoracic protocols. Thermoluminescent dosemeters were positioned in six locations to record surface and absorbed breast and lung doses. Image quality was assessed quantitatively using region of interest measurements. Scanning was repeated using bismuth and barium vinyl in-plane shields to cover the breasts and the results were compared with standard and reduced dose protocols. Dose reductions were most evident in the breast, skin and anterior lung when shielding was used, with mean reductions of 34, 33 and 10 % for bismuth and 23, 18 and 11 % for barium, respectively. Bismuth was associated with significant increases in both noise and CT attenuation values for all the three protocols, especially anteriorly and centrally. Barium shielding had a reduced impact on image quality. Reducing the overall tube current reduced doses in all the locations by 20-27 % with similar increases in noise as shielding, without impacting on attenuation values. Reducing the overall tube current best optimises dose with minimal image quality impact. In-plane shields increase noise and attenuation values, while reducing anterior organ doses primarily. Shielding remains a useful optimisation tool in CT and barium is an effective alternative to bismuth especially when image quality is of concern. PMID:23460031

Foley, S J; McEntee, M F; Rainford, L A



Secure Bit-Plane Based Steganography for Secret Communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A secure method for steganography is proposed. Pixel-value differencing (PVD) steganography and bit-plane complexity segmentation (BPCS) steganography have the weakness of generating blocky effects and noise in smooth areas and being detectable with steganalysis. To overcome these weaknesses, a secure bit-plane based steganography method on the spatial domain is presented, which uses a robust measure to select noisy blocks for embedding messages. A matrix embedding technique is also applied to reduce the change of cover images. Given that the statistical property of cover images is well preserved in stego-images, the proposed method is undetectable by steganalysis that uses RS analysis or histogram-based analysis. The proposed method is compared with the PVD and BPCS steganography methods. Experimental results confirm that the proposed method is secure against potential attacks.

Bui, Cong-Nguyen; Lee, Hae-Yeoun; Joo, Jeong-Chun; Lee, Heung-Kyu


Sex differences in response to red and blue light in human primary visual cortex: a bold fMRI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies using a variety of investigative methods, including functional brain imaging and electroencephalography (EEG), have suggested that changes in central nervous system (CNS) dopamine function result in altered visual system processing. The discovery of abnormal retinal blue cone, but not red cone, electroretinogram in association with cocaine withdrawal and Parkinson's disease suggests that visual system response to blue light might

Ronald L Cowan; Blaise de. B Frederick; M Rainey; Jonathan M Levin; Luis C Maas; J Bang; John Hennen; Scott E Lukas; Perry F Renshaw



Dual plane in-line digital holographic microscopy.  


We report a dual plane in-line digital holographic microscopy technique that exploits the method of subtraction of average intensity of the entire hologram to suppress the zero-order diffracted wave. Two interferograms are recorded at different planes to eliminate the conjugate image. The experimental results demonstrate successful reconstruction of phase objects as well as of amplitude objects. The two interferograms can be recorded simultaneously, using two CCD or CMOS sensors, in order to increase the acquisition rate. This enhanced acquisition rate, together with the improved reconstruction capability of the proposed method, may find applications in biomedical research for visualization of rapid dynamic processes at the cellular level. PMID:20967088

Das, Bhargab; Yelleswarapu, Chandra S



Eight plane IPND mechanical testing.  

SciTech Connect

A mechanical test of an 8 plane IPND mechanical prototype, which was constructed using extrusions from the testing/tryout of the 16 cell prototype extrusion die in Argonne National Laboratory, was conducted. There were 4 vertical and 4 horizontal planes in this 8 plane IPND prototype. Each vertical plane had four 16 cell extrusions, while each horizontal plane had six 16 cell extrusions. Each plane was glued together using the formulation of Devcon adhesive, Devcon 60. The vertical extrusions used in the vertical planes shares the same dimensions as the horizontal extrusions in the horizontal planes with the average web thickness of 2.1 mm and the average wall thickness of 3.1 mm. This mechanical prototype was constructed with end-seals on the both ends of the vertical extrusions. The gaps were filled with epoxy between extrusions and end-seals. The overall dimension of IPND is 154.8 by 103.1 by 21.7 inches with the weight of approximately 1200 kg, as shown in a figure. Two similar mechanical tests of 3 layer and 11 layer prototypes have been done in order to evaluate the strength of the adhesive joint between extrusions in the NOvA detector. The test showed that the IPND prototype was able to sustain under the loading of weight of itself and scintillator. Two FEA models were built to verify the measurement data from the test. The prediction from FEA slice model seems correlated reasonably well to the test result, even under a 'rough' estimated condition for the wall thickness (from an untuned die) and an unknown property of 'garage type' extrusion. A full size of FEA 3-D model also agrees very well with the test data from strain gage readings. It is worthy to point out that the stress distribution of the structure is predominantly determined by the internal pressure, while the buckling stability relies more on the loading weight from the extrusions themselves and scintillate. Results of conducted internal pressure tests, including 3- cell, 11-cell and the IPND prototypes, have been correlated to the FEA analysis very well. The authors believe they have quite good understanding of response of the NOvA structures subjected to the internal pressure, while the understanding of buckling stability is far behind. Therefore, more effect should be laid to improve the buckling considering that the FEA analysis usually is not able accurately modeling the stability as good as the stress analysis. The IPND structure was mostly built using 'scrape' piece extrusions (whatever available in shop). Therefore, a future test should be more focus on by using a actual real extrusions, for example like Nova -27 (if a final choice is made) and extrusion from a tuned die (very important). The authors should/will repeat 11 layers test with an actual thicker piece for the vertical to verify the adhesive joint and similar large scale prototype with a symmetry case, either 9 or 11 layers with the dial indicator on the both side.

Zhao, A.; Guarino, V.; Wood, K.; Nephew, T.; Ayres, D.; Lee, A.; High Energy Physics; FNAL



The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) is a 1.1 mm continuum survey of the northern Galactic Plane made with Bolocam and the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. The coverage totals 170 square degrees, comprised of a contiguous range from -10.5° ? l ? 90.5°, -0.5° ? b ? 0.5°, with extended coverage in b in selected regions, and four targeted regions in the outer Galaxy, including: IC1396, toward the Perseus arm at l ? 111°, W3/4/5, and Gem OB1. Depths of the maps range from 30 to 60 mJy beam-1. Approximately 8,400 sources were detected and the maps and source catalog have been made publicly available. Millimeter-wave thermal dust emission reveals dense regions within molecular clouds, thus the BGPS serves as a database for studies of the dense interstellar medium and star formation within the Milky Way.

Glenn, J.; Aguirre, J.; Bally, J.; Battersby, C.; Bradley, E. T.; Cyganowski, C.; Dowell, D.; Drosback, M.; Dunham, M. K.; Evans, N. J., II; Ginsburg, A.; Harvey, P.; Rosolowsky, E.; Schlingman, W.; Shirley, Y. L.; Stringfellow, G. S.; Walawender, J.; Williams, J.



Cell viability analysis using trypan blue: manual and automated methods.  


One of the traditional methods of cell viability analysis is the use of trypan blue dye exclusion staining. This technique has been the standard methodology used in academic research laboratories and industrial biotechnology plants. Cells were routinely counted manually with a hemocytometer. In recent years, modern automated instrumentation has been introduced to supplement this traditional technique with the efficiency and reproducibility of computer control, advanced imaging, and automated sample handling. PMID:21468962

Louis, Kristine S; Siegel, Andre C



Topological Derivatives in Plane Elasticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method for construction of the topological derivatives in plane elasticity. It is assumed that a hole is created\\u000a in the subdomain of the elastic body which is filled out with isotropic material. The asymptotic analysis of elliptic boundary\\u000a value problems in singularly perturbed geometrical domains is used in order to derive the asymptotics of the shape functionals

Jan Sokolowski; Antoni Zochowski



Airis Hyperspectral Imaging Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Adaptive Infrared Imaging Sectroradiometer (AIRIS) is a hyperspectral imaging system comprising a low order tunable Fabry Perot etalon coupled to an IR focal plane array. A MWIR AIRIS system utilizing an InSb focal plane was developed by Physical Scie...

C. M. Gittins W. J. Marinelli A. J. Ratkowski



Platinum blue as an alternative to uranyl acetate for staining in transmission electron microscopy.  


This paper introduces an aqueous solution of platinum blue (Pt-blue) as an alternative to uranyl acetate (UA) for staining in transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Pt-blue was prepared from a reaction of cis-dichlorodiamine-platinum (II) (cis-platin) with thymidine. When Pt-blue was dried on a microgrid and observed by TEM it showed a uniform appearance with tiny particles less than 1 nm in diameter. The effect of Pt-blue as an electron stain was then examined not only for positive staining of conventional ultrathin resin sections and counterstaining of post-embedding immuno-electron microscopy but also for negative staining. In ultrathin sections of the rat liver and renal glomerulus, Pt-blue provided good contrast images, especially in double staining combined with a lead stain (Pb). Almost all cell organelles were clearly observed with high contrast in these sections. Glycogen granules in the hepatic parenchymal cells were particularly electron dense in Pt-blue stained sections compared with those treated with UA. In longitudinal and transverse sections of budding influenza A viruses, a specific arrangement of rod-like structures, which correspond to the ribonucleoprotein complexes, was clearly shown in each virion stained with Pt-blue and Pb. When post-embedding immunoelectron microscopy was performed in ultrathin sections of HeLa cells embedded in Lowicryl K4M, the localization of Ki-67 protein was sufficiently detected even after Pt-blue and Pb staining. The present study also revealed that Pt-blue could be used for the negative staining of E. coli, allowing the visualization of a flagellum. These findings indicate that Pt-blue is a useful, safe, and easily obtainable electron stain that is an alternative to UA for TEM preparations. PMID:17558143

Inaga, Sumire; Katsumoto, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Keiichi; Kameie, Toshio; Nakane, Hironobu; Naguro, Tomonori



Quality factor of an electrically small antenna radiating close to a conducting plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expressions are derived for the smallest achievable radiation quality factor (Q) of an electrically small antenna in front of a conducting plane. Applying the low-frequency approximation to the source region involving an electric or a magnetic point dipole plus their images behind the plane, an expression is formed for the field in the radiation zone. The contribution of non-propagating energy

J. C.-E. Sten; A. Hujanen; P. K. Koivisto



Regularizing seismic inverse problems by model reparameterization using plane-wave construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define plane-wave construction PWC, an operator for generating data aligned along predefined locally variable slopes, as the inverse of plane-wave destruction, an operator used for measuring the slopes. PWC can be applied for effi- cient regularization of seismic estimation problems. Using simple examples, we demonstrate how PWC enhances the coherency of seismic images, improves velocity estimation methods, and separates

Sergey Fomel; Antoine Guitton



Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir  

SciTech Connect

This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

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The Physics of the Blues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In looking at the commonalities between music and science, one sees that the musician's palette is based on the principles of physics. The pitch of a musical note is determined by the frequency of the sound wave. The scales that musicians use to create and play music can be viewed as a set of rules. What makes music interesting is how musicians develop those rules and create ambiguity with them. I will discuss the evolution of western musical scales in this context. As a particular example, ``Blue'' notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale. The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting. Live keyboard demonstrations will be used. Beyond any redeeming entertainment value the talk will emphasize the serious connections between science and art in music. Nevertheless tips will be accepted.

Gibson, J. Murray



A Comparison of Intermediate Redshift Compact Blue Galaxies: Blue Nucleated Galaxies and Compact Narrow Emission-Line Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of the photometric analysis of two samples of compact blue emission-line galaxies at intermediate redshift (0.1images, we establish the characteristics of Compact Narrow Emission-Line Galaxies (CNELGs, Koo et al. 1994) and Blue Nucleated Galaxies (BNGs, Schade et al. 1995). Using a parameter space defined by fundamental photometric properties -- surface brightness, color, image concentration, and luminosity -- we then explore the relationship of BNGs and CNELGs to local samples. Both BNGs and CNELGs are classes of faint field galaxies with very blue colors and irregular morphologies; the preponderance of evidence indicates they are undergoing a major starburst. The CNELGS are distinguished by their small sizes (half-light radii of order 0.3 arcsec), and may constitute a subclass of extremely compact BNGs. Starbursts triggered by mergers temporarily produce blue, strongly concentrated galaxies (Mihos & Hernquist 1994). Given their morphology, both CNELGs and BNGs are plausibly examples of recent mergers or interactions -- perhaps tracers of a physical process driving the evolution of blue galaxies. We explore what will happen to the BNG and CNELG samples if their star formation ceases; using galaxy evolution models to predict the reddening and fading of aging stellar populations, we infer the photometric properties of BNGs and CNELGs as they fade until the current time.

Jangren, A.; Bershady, M. A.



III-nitride blue microdisplays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prototype blue microdisplays have been fabricated from InGaN\\/GaN quantum wells. The device has a dimension of 0.5×0.5 mm2 and consists of 10×10 pixels 12 mum in diameter. Emission properties such as electroluminescence spectra, output power versus forward current (L-I) characteristic, viewing angle, and uniformity have been measured. Due to the unique properties of III-nitride wide-band-gap semiconductors, microdisplays fabricated from III

H. X. Jiang; S. X. Jin; J. Li; J. Shakya; J. Y. Lin



Once in a Blue Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will demonstrate an understanding of the moon's features by creating an art or writing project about it. They will learn the concept of a "Blue Moon", which occurs in months with two full moons. They will also understand that the moon is smaller than the Earth, has no light of its own, has no air or water, and has a dusty brown surface marked with craters.



The Blue Crab's Chesapeake Journey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this data collection activity about crabs, learners use data from the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) trawl survey to determine the areas of the Chesapeake Bay that are being used by blue crabs during different life stages. Learners work in groups and use the data to construct hypotheses which explain the location of the crabs based on factors such as water chemistry, currents, season, human impact, etc.

Clark, Vicki



Electrochemical degradation of methylene blue  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed to compare the direct and indirect electrochemical oxidation of a synthetic solution containing methylene blue. The direct electrolysis was carried out using boron-doped diamond, while the indirect electrolyses were mediated by active chlorine electrogenerated on a TiRuO2 oxide anode. The effects of the operating factors that influence COD and colour removal were investigated for each type

Marco Panizza; Antonio Barbucci; Rico Ricotti; Giacomo Cerisola



The detection of cryptic prey by blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata) I: the effects of travel time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behaviour of blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata) hunting for dispersed, cryptic prey was investigated in an operant simulation in which jays were trained to search projected images for noctuid moths. Each image contained either a single moth or no moth. Each trial was structured so as to simulate travelling between patches, searching within patches, and attacking and handling each moth




Comparison of algorithms for out-of-plane artifacts removal in digital tomosynthesis reconstructions.  


Digital tomosynthesis is a method of limited angle reconstruction of tomographic images produced at variable heights, on the basis of a set of angular projections taken in an arc around human anatomy. Reconstructed tomograms from unprocessed original projection images, however, are invariably affected by tomographic noise such as blurred images of objects lying outside the plane of interest and superimposed on the focused image of the fulcrum plane. The present work investigates the performance of two approaches for generation of tomograms with a reduced noise: a generalised post-processing method, based on constructing a noise mask from all planes in the reconstructed volume, and its subsequent subtraction from the in-focus plane and a filtered Multiple Projection Algorithm. The comparison between the two algorithms shows that the first method provides reconstructions with very good quality in case of high contrast features, especially for those embedded into a heterogeneous background. PMID:22056810

Bliznakova, K; Bliznakov, Z; Buliev, I



X-ray evolving universe spectroscopy mission (XEUS): requirements of the x-ray focal plane instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The requirement set for the focal plane instruments on XEUS area addressed. The rationale for the selection of three focal plane instruments, a wide field imager with modest spectral resolution and tow narrow field imagers with high spectral resolution, is given. The principles and designs of all three instrument are shortly explained and their expected performances given. The cooling of

Piet A. de Korte; Markos Bavdaz; Lionel Duband; Andrew D. Holland; Anthony J. Peacock; Lothar Strueder



Greenâs Functions for a Bimaterial Consisting of Two Orthotropic Quarter Planes Subjected to an Antiplane Force and a Screw Dislocation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The image singularity approach is employed to construct the Greenâs function for a quarter plane and a bimaterial that consists of two quarter planes bonded together. The material is orthotropic, and is subjected to an antiplane force f and a screw dislocation with magnitude b. Explicit expressions are obtained for the antiplane forces and screw dislocations that are applied at the image singularities.

Ting, T. C.



Application of morphological bit planes in retinal blood vessel extraction.  


The appearance of the retinal blood vessels is an important diagnostic indicator of various clinical disorders of the eye and the body. Retinal blood vessels have been shown to provide evidence in terms of change in diameter, branching angles, or tortuosity, as a result of ophthalmic disease. This paper reports the development for an automated method for segmentation of blood vessels in retinal images. A unique combination of methods for retinal blood vessel skeleton detection and multidirectional morphological bit plane slicing is presented to extract the blood vessels from the color retinal images. The skeleton of main vessels is extracted by the application of directional differential operators and then evaluation of combination of derivative signs and average derivative values. Mathematical morphology has been materialized as a proficient technique for quantifying the retinal vasculature in ocular fundus images. A multidirectional top-hat operator with rotating structuring elements is used to emphasize the vessels in a particular direction, and information is extracted using bit plane slicing. An iterative region growing method is applied to integrate the main skeleton and the images resulting from bit plane slicing of vessel direction-dependent morphological filters. The approach is tested on two publicly available databases DRIVE and STARE. Average accuracy achieved by the proposed method is 0.9423 for both the databases with significant values of sensitivity and specificity also; the algorithm outperforms the second human observer in terms of precision of segmented vessel tree. PMID:22832895

Fraz, M M; Basit, A; Barman, S A



Relationships between Black Males and Females in Rhythm and Blues Music of the 1960s and 1970s.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the functions of rhythm and blues music in Black culture, specifically its treatment of male-female relationships and family formation. A change is noted from the idealism of the 1960s to more realistic images. (RLV)

Stewart, James B.



Kauffman bracket of plane curves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We lower the Kauffman bracket for links in a solid torus (see [16]) to generic plane fronts. It turns out that the bracket can be entirely defined in terms of a front itself without using the Legendrian lifting. We show that all the coefficients of the lowered bracket are in fact Vassilev type invariants of Arnold's J +-theory [3, 4]. We calculate their weight systems. As a corollary we obtain that the first coefficient is essentially the quantum deformation of the Bennequin invariant introduced recently by M. Polyak [19].

Chmutov, S.; Goryunov, V.



The polarized emission from the galactic plane at arcminute angular resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (CGPS) we have imaged the polarized emission from the plane of the Milky Way at 1420 MHz, covering 1200 square degrees with arc-minute resolution. Structure on all scales is represented by combining aperture-synthesis data with single-antenna data. The survey depicts the Magneto-Ionic Medium at a resolution that matches images of other components

Tom L. Landecker; W. Reich; R. I. Reid; P. Reich; M. Wolleben; R. Kothes; D. Del Rizzo; B. Uyaniker; A. D. Gray; E. Fürst; A. R. Taylor; R. Wielebinski



Plant Morphogenesis: Life on a different plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arabidopsis ton mutant cells do not make the bands of microtubules that normally predict cell-division planes; the planes are irregular, yet seedlings develop to maturity. Is cellular morphogenesis important for plant form?

Clive Lloyd



Robust algorithms for anatomic plane primitive detection in MR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of primary challenges in the medical image data analysis is the ability to handle abnormal, irregular and/or partial cases. In this paper, we present two different robust algorithms towards the goal of automatic planar primitive detection in 3D volumes. The overall algorithm is a bottoms-up approach starting with the anatomic point primitives (or landmarks) detection. The robustness in computing the planar primitives is built in through both a novel consensus-based voting approach, and a random sampling-based weighted least squares regression method. Both these approaches remove inconsistent landmarks and outliers detected in the landmark detection step. Unlike earlier approaches focused towards a particular plane, the presented approach is generic and can be easily adapted to computing more complex primitives such as ROIs or surfaces. To demonstrate the robustness and accuracy of our approach, we present extensive results for automatic plane detection (Mig-Sagittal and Optical Triangle planes) in brain MR-images. In comparison to ground truth, our approach has marginal errors on about 90 patients. The algorithm also works really well under adverse conditions of arbitrary rotation and cropping of the 3D volume. In order to exhibit generalization of the approach, we also present preliminary results on intervertebrae-plane detection for 3D spine MR application.

Dewan, Maneesh; Zhan, Yiqiang; Peng, Zhigang; Zhou, Xiang Sean



Cataclysmic Variables from the Chandra Multi-wavelength Plane Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the Cataclysmic Variables discovered from the Chandra Multi-wavelength Plane Survey (ChaMPlane). ChaMPlane is designed to survey the point X-ray sources discovered by the Chandra X-ray Observatory in the galactic plane in order to constrain the X-ray binary population in the Galaxy. We have been conducting the ChaMPlane survey since year 2000. The survey includes the data from the Chandra achieve, as well as the optical and infrared images and spectroscopes. CV candidates are first identified from the Chandra and optical imaging in the deep V, I, R, H-alpha bands. Then optical spectroscopic follow-ups are conducted to confirm their status. CVs are identified by their hydrogen Balmer and helium emission lines, often broadened and double peaked due to the accretion disk rotation around the primary. We present the spectra of 20 CVs obtained from the Magellan, CTIO-4m and WIYN telescopes.

Zhao, Ping; Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.; Servillat, M.; van den Berg, M.; Laycock, S.



Photothermal therapy of cancer cells mediated by blue hydrogel nanoparticles.  


Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the utility of biologically compatible, nontoxic and cell-specific targetable hydrogel nanoparticles (NPs), which have Coomassie(®) Brilliant Blue G dye (Sigma-Aldrich, MO, USA) covalently linked into their polyacrylamide matrix, as candidates for photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer cells. Materials & methods: Hydrogel NPs with Coomassie Brilliant Blue G dye covalently linked into their polyacrylamide matrix were fabricated using a reverse micelle microemulsion polymerization method and were found to be 80-95 nm in diameter, with an absorbance value of 0.52. PTT-induced hyperthermia/thermolysis was achieved at 37°C using an inexpensive, portable, light-emitting diode array light source (590 nm, 25 mW/cm(2)). Results & conclusion: Hydrogel NPs with Coomassie Brilliant Blue G dye linked into their polyacrylamide matrix are effective in causing PTT-induced thermolysis in immortalized human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) cells for varying NP concentrations and treatment times. These multifunctional particles have previously been used in cancer studies to enable delineation, for glioma surgery and in photoacoustic imaging studies. The addition of the PTT function would enable a three-pronged theranostic approach to cancer medicine, such as guided tumor surgery with intra-operative photoacoustic imaging and intra-operative PTT. Original submitted 21 May 2012; Revised submitted 13 September 2012. PMID:23432340

Curry, Taeyjuana; Epstein, Tamir; Smith, Ron; Kopelman, Raoul



Ultrasound-guided femoral catheter placement: a randomised comparison of the in-plane and out-of-plane techniques.  


In-plane vs out-of-plane needle-probe alignment for perineural catheter placement remains controversial. Patients presenting for major knee surgery were randomly assigned to out-of-plane (n = 42) or in-plane (n = 39) needle-probe alignment for femoral nerve catheter placement, with both techniques using short-axis nerve imaging. Twenty millilitres of ropivacaine 0.5% was administered via the catheter followed by a ropivacaine elastomeric infusion incorporating on-demand boluses. All patients received pre-operative single-injection sciatic and obturator blocks and general anaesthesia. The primary outcome, numerically rated worst pain on movement (0-10) during the first 24 h, demonstrated equivalence within two points of the scale at a 5% significance level using two one-sided tests (corresponding 90% CI -1.2 to 0.6). There were no differences between groups for all secondary outcomes, including numerically rated worst rest pain, ropivacaine bolus and tramadol consumption. These results suggest that for ultrasound-guided femoral catheter placement using short-axis nerve imaging, operators should use the needle-probe alignment technique with which they are most familiar. PMID:23286932

Fredrickson, M J; Danesh-Clough, T K



Focal-Plane and Multiple Chip VLSI Approaches to CNNs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, three alternative VLSI analog implementations of CNNs are described, which have been devised to perform image processing and vision tasks: a programmable low-power CNN with embedded photo-sensors, a compact fixed-template CNN based on unipolar current-mode signals, and basic CMOS circuits to implement an extended CNN model using spikes. The first two VLSI approaches are intended for focal-plane

M. Anguita; F. J. Pelayo; E. Ros; D. Palomar; A. Prieto




Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new method for automatic 3D building reconstruction using plane-roof structures. A boundary representation (b-rep) of a coarse building hypothesis is constructed in a bottom-up approach from simple geometric primitives in image domain to more complex geometric primitives (roof structure) in object domain. Subsequently, a hypothesis model verification is performed in a top-down approach by back projecting

Babak Ameri; Dieter Fritsch



Calibration of structured light stripe system using plane with slits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structured light stripe systems are widely used in industrial applications for acquiring three-dimensional (3-D) information. Calibration is the first necessary step and traditional algorithms compute the 4×3 transformation matrix from image to world. Therefore, 3-D information can be obtained with respect to the camera's coordinate system, and it cannot be transformed into the laser coordinate system. We propose a new calibration algorithm of a structured light system that can compute the relative pose of the laser coordinate system with respect to the camera coordinate system. We can convert 3-D information either to the laser coordinate system or to the camera coordinate system. The proposed algorithm uses two planes where one plane with multiple slits is set perpendicular to the other plane. We can easily compute the position and rotation of the laser coordinate system using proposed calibration structure. Also, we can solve the extrinsic calibration using just one shot of an image while conventional algorithms require more than two images under different poses. Experiments under various configurations show the feasibility of proposed algorithm.

Ha, Jong-Eun; Her, Kang-Wook



Snakes Out of the Plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a new computational model of elastic rods, taking into account shear and full rotational dynamics, as well as friction, adhesion, and collision. This model is used to study the movement of snakes in different environments. By applying different muscular activation patterns to the snake, we observe many different patterns of motion, from planar undulation to sudden strikes. Many of the most interesting behaviors involve the snake rising out of the horizontal plane in the vertical direction. Such behaviors include a sand snake sidewinding over the hot desert sand and a cobra rearing up into a defensive striking position. Experimental videos of live snakes are analyzed and compared with computational results. We identify and explain a new form of movement previously unobserved: ``collateral locomotion.''

McCormick, Andrew; Young, Bruce A.; Mahadevan, L.



Thermodynamics of black plane solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We obtain a new phantom black plane solution in 4 D of the Einstein-Maxwell theory coupled with a cosmological constant. We analyse their basic properties, as well as its causal structure, and obtain the extensive and intensive thermodynamic variables, as well as the specific heat and the first law. Through the specific heat and the so-called geometric methods, we analyse in detail their thermodynamic properties, the extreme and phase transition limits, as well as the local and global stabilities of the system. The normal case is shown with an extreme limit and the phantom one with a phase transition only for null mass, which is physically inaccessible. The systems present local and global stabilities for certain values of the entropy density with respect to the electric charge, for the canonical and grand canonical ensembles.

Rodrigues, Manuel E.; Jardim, Deborah F.; Houndjo, Stéphane J. M.; Myrzakulov, Ratbay



Thermodynamics of black plane solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We obtain a new phantom black plane solution in D of the Einstein-Maxwell theory coupled with a cosmological constant. We analyse their basic properties, as well as its causal structure, and obtain the extensive and intensive thermodynamic variables, as well as the specific heat and the first law. Through the specific heat and the so-called geometric methods, we analyse in detail their thermodynamic properties, the extreme and phase transition limits, as well as the local and global stabilities of the system. The normal case is shown with an extreme limit and the phantom one with a phase transition only for null mass, which is physically inaccessible. The systems present local and global stabilities for certain values of the entropy density with respect to the electric charge, for the canonical and grand canonical ensembles.

Rodrigues, Manuel E.; Jardim, Deborah F.; Houndjo, Stéphane J. M.; Myrzakulov, Ratbay



Research on scene-based Narcissus correction algorithm in infrared focal plane arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cooled infrared focal plane array (Cooled IRFPA) has been applied widely in military and civil fields. In the cooled focal plane array detector infrared imaging systems, narcissus as a unique defect has a degenerate effect on the image quality of cooled infrared imaging systems, such as blocky, annular or "corner heat" fixed pattern noise in infrared images. Therefore, the correction of narcissus effect using image processing method is important to infrared imaging systems. Through analyzing manifestation of narcissus effect by statistical approach, a cooled infrared imaging system model considering narcissus effect is established, by which a self-adaptive narcissus correction algorithm based on scene statistic and radial compute is presented. From the simulation and the experiment on an actual cooled IRFPA module, this algorithm is proved very effective on correcting narcissus effect and improving image quality. Moreover, the peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) also increases obviously.

Cao, Yang; Jin, Wei-Qi; Liu, Chong-Liang; Liu, Xiu; Li, Fu-Wen; Chen, Wei-Li



Simultaneous angular multiplexing optical projection tomography at shifted focal planes.  


We describe an angular multiplexing technique for optical projection tomography that improves resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and imaging speed by ameliorating the trade-off between spatial resolution and depth of field and improving the light collection efficiency. Here we demonstrate that imaging at two orthogonal angular projections simultaneously, focused on shifted planes in the sample, improves the average spatial resolution by ~20% and the light collection efficiency by a factor of ~4, thereby enabling increased acquisition speed and reduced light dose. PMID:23503237

Chen, Lingling; Andrews, Natalie; Kumar, Sunil; Frankel, Paul; McGinty, James; French, Paul M W



Selective plane illumination microscopy techniques in developmental biology  

PubMed Central

Summary Selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM) and other fluorescence microscopy techniques in which a focused sheet of light serves to illuminate the sample have become increasingly popular in developmental studies. Fluorescence light-sheet microscopy bridges the gap in image quality between fluorescence stereomicroscopy and high-resolution imaging of fixed tissue sections. In addition, high depth penetration, low bleaching and high acquisition speeds make light-sheet microscopy ideally suited for extended time-lapse experiments in live embryos. This review compares the benefits and challenges of light-sheet microscopy with established fluorescence microscopy techniques such as confocal microscopy and discusses the different implementations and applications of this easily adaptable technology.

Huisken, Jan; Stainier, Didier Y. R.



Blue Light Eliminates Community-Acquired Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Infected Mouse Skin Abrasions.  


Abstract Background and objective: Bacterial skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) affect millions of individuals annually in the United States. Treatment of SSTI has been significantly complicated by the increasing emergence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strains. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of blue light (415±10?nm) therapy for eliminating CA-MRSA infections in skin abrasions of mice. Methods: The susceptibilities of a CA-MRSA strain (USA300LAC) and human keratinocytes (HaCaT) to blue light inactivation were compared by in vitro culture studies. A mouse model of skin abrasion infection was developed using bioluminescent USA300LAC::lux. Blue light was delivered to the infected mouse skin abrasions at 30?min (acute) and 24?h (established) after the bacterial inoculation. Bioluminescence imaging was used to monitor in real time the extent of infection in mice. Results: USA300LAC was much more susceptible to blue light inactivation than HaCaT cells (p=0.038). Approximately 4.75-log(10) bacterial inactivation was achieved after 170?J/cm(2) blue light had been delivered, but only 0.29 log(10) loss of viability in HaCaT cells was observed. Transmission electron microscopy imaging of USA300LAC cells exposed to blue light exhibited disruption of the cytoplasmic content, disruption of cell walls, and cell debris. In vivo studies showed that blue light rapidly reduced the bacterial burden in both acute and established CA-MRSA infections. More than 2-log(10) reduction of bacterial luminescence in the mouse skin abrasions was achieved when 41.4 (day 0) and 108?J/cm(2) (day 1) blue light had been delivered. Bacterial regrowth was observed in the mouse wounds at 24?h after the blue light therapy. Conclusions: There exists a therapeutic window of blue light for bacterial infections where bacteria are selectively inactivated by blue light while host tissue cells are preserved. Blue light therapy has the potential to rapidly reduce the bacterial load in SSTI. PMID:23406384

Dai, Tianhong; Gupta, Asheesh; Huang, Ying-Ying; Sherwood, Margaret E; Murray, Clinton K; Vrahas, Mark S; Kielian, Tammy; Hamblin, Michael R



Multispectral Focal Plane Assembly for Satellite Remote Sensing  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories and several subsystem contractors are developing technologies applicable to multispectral remote sensing from space. A proof of concept multispectral sensor system is under development. The objective of building this sensor is to demonstrate and evaluate multispectral imaging technologies for various applications. The three major subsystems making up the sensor are the focal plane assembly (FPA), the cryocooler, and the telescope. This paper covers the focal plane assembly, which is the basis of the sensor system. The focal plane assembly includes sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure with cold shielding. Linear detector arrays provide spatial resolution in the cross-track direction for a pushbroom imager configuration. The optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 microns to 10.7 microns. All the detector arrays are mounted on a single focal plane and are designed to operate at 75 K. No beam splitters are used. The four spectral bands covering the visible to near infrared have roughly 2400 pixels each, and the remaining 11 spectral bands have roughly 600 pixels each. The average total rate of multispectral data from the FPA is approximately 15.4 megapixels per second. At the time this paper is being written, the multispectral focal plane assembly is in the fabrication phase. A thermal/mechanical mockup has been built and tested for the vibration environment and to determine the thermal load. Some of the sensor chip assemblies and filters have been built and tested. Several notable features of the design are covered in the paper as well as preliminary test data.

Rienstra, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ballard, M. [Santa Barbara Research Center, Goleta, CA (United States)



Photoluminescence of the inorganic pigments Egyptian blue, Han blue and Han purple  

Microsoft Academic Search

The room-temperature photoluminescence spectra of various samples of Egyptian blue (CaCuSi4O10) are presented, discussed and compared with those of recently synthesized compounds corresponding to the ancient pigments Han blue (BaCuSi4O10) and Han purple (BaCuSi2O6). All the samples of Egyptian blue show identical spectra, in spite of their very different origin. The spectra of Han blue and Han purple are significantly

Giorgio Pozza; David Ajò; Giacomo Chiari; Franco De Zuane; Marialuisa Favaro



Medium Containing Trypan Blue and Antibiotics for the Detection of Cryptococcus neoformans in Clinical Samples  

PubMed Central

A medium containing trypan blue, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol is introduced for the detection of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus species from clinical samples. Ten recently isolated strains of Cryptococcus species as well as several clinical isolates of C. neoformans incorporated trypan blue and produced dark blue colonies on this mycological medium, whereas other common yeasts were light blue. The laboratory diagnosis of two cases of cryptococcosis was accomplished by the isolation of C. neoformans on the antibiotic-dye-containing medium. Compared to conventional media supporting large numbers of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other gram-negative bacilli, the new medium was selective for yeasts. In one instance, the colonization of the respiratory tract by C. neoformans which led to fungemia was traced by the use of the antibiotic-dye medium. The antibiotic mixture, utilized herein, was more effective in suppressing bacteria contained in samples from patients than a medium containing cycloheximide and chloramphenicol. Images

Vickers, Richard M.; McElligott, James J.; Rihs, John D.; Postic, Bosko



MEMS Based Highly-Informative Image Display System for Visual Information Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rear projection optical system that performs enlarged projection from the primary image plane on the reduction side to the second image plane on the enlargement side without forming an intermediate real image

Sergey M. Shamaev




SciTech Connect

We describe a coronagraph approach where the performance of a Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph is improved by using a partially transmissive phase-shifting focal plane mask and a Lyot stop. This approach combines the low inner working angle offered by phase mask coronagraphy, the full throughput and uncompromized angular resolution of the PIAA approach, and the design flexibility of Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraph. A PIAA complex mask coronagraph (PIAACMC) is fully described by the focal plane mask size, or, equivalently, its complex transmission which ranges from 0 (opaque) to -1 (phase shifting). For all values of the transmission, the PIAACMC theoretically offers full on-axis extinction and 100% throughput at large angular separations. With a pure phase focal plane mask (complex transmission = -1), the PIAACMC offers 50% throughput at 0.64 {lambda}/D while providing total extinction of an on-axis point source. This performance is very close to the 'fundamental performance limit' of coronagraphy derived from first principles. For very high contrast level, imaging performance with PIAACMC is in practice limited by the angular size of the on-axis target (usually a star). We show that this fundamental limitation must be taken into account when choosing the optimal value of the focal plane mask size in the PIAACMC design. We show that the PIAACMC enables visible imaging of Jupiter-like planets at {approx}1.2 {lambda}/D from the host star, and can therefore offer almost three times more targets than a PIAA coronagraph optimized for this type of observation. We find that for visible imaging of Earth-like planets, the PIAACMC gain over a PIAA is probably much smaller, as coronagraphic performance is then strongly constrained by stellar angular size. For observations at 'low' contrast (below {approx} 10{sup 8}), the PIAACMC offers significant performance enhancement over PIAA. This is especially relevant for ground-based high contrast imaging systems in the near-IR, where PIAACMC enables high contrast high efficiency imaging within 1 {lambda}/D. Manufacturing tolerances for the focal plane mask are quantified for a few representative PIAACMC designs.

Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Subaru Telescope, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Belikov, Ruslan [NASA Ames Research Center, Mail Stop 204-2, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Soummer, Remi, E-mail: guyon@naoj.or [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218-2463 (United States)



NuSTAR Galactic Plane Survey Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NuSTAR Galactic Plane Survey program consists of several deep surveys and dedicated pointing observations. The survey of a 2x0.8 degree field near Sgr A* should detect hundreds of the sources uncovered by Chandra and help identify their nature by spectroscopy and timing analysis. A similar survey of the Norma region will be performed for comparative population studies. An observation of the Limiting Window, which holds a possible new class of CVs, will yield information on their nature. With NuSTAR's superb hard X-ray sensitivity, these surveys will detect and map the low energy extension of the diffuse gamma-ray background observed by INTEGRAL. NuSTAR will observe Sgr A*, in coordination with Chandra and other observatories, to search for hard X-ray flaring, and provide an image of the central few tens of parsecs of the Galaxy with more than an order of magnitude better sensitivity than INTEGRAL. NuSTAR plans to observe the G2 molecular cloud's infall to Sgr A* in the spring of 2013. NuSTAR will spatially resolve the hard X-ray emission in the molecular cloud Sgr B2. In addition, the 2x0.8 degree field survey will observe other giant molecular clouds such as Sgr A, B1 and C to help us understand their X-ray emission possibly due to a giant flare from Sgr A* in the past.

Mori, Kaya; Barriere, N.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W.; Christensen, F.; Dufour, F.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Grindlay, J. E.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F.; Helfand, D. J.; Hong, J.; Hornstrup, A.; Jakobsen, S.; Kaspi, V.; Krivonos, R.; Madsen, K.; Natalucci, L.; Perez, K.; Smith, D. M.; Stern, D.; Tomsick, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, W.; NuSTAR Team



A Collaborative Knowledge Plane for Autonomic Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autonomic networking aims to give network components self-managing capabilities. Several autonomic architectures have been proposed. Each of these architectures includes sort of a knowledge plane which is very important to mimic an autonomic behavior. Knowledge plane has a central role for self-functions by providing suitable knowledge to equipment and needs to learn new strategies for more accuracy.However, defining knowledge plane's architecture is still a challenge for researchers. Specially, defining the way cognitive supports interact each other in knowledge plane and implementing them. Decision making process depends on these interactions between reasoning and learning parts of knowledge plane. In this paper we propose a knowledge plane's architecture based on machine learning (inductive logic programming) paradigm and situated view to deal with distributed environment. This architecture is focused on two self-functions that include all other self-functions: self-adaptation and self-organization. Study cases are given and implemented.

Mbaye, Maïssa; Krief, Francine


Double meaning in the popular negro blues  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a long acquaintance with negroes and negro songs, the author feels that there is no doubt as to the existence of double meanings, chiefly of a sex nature, in the popular blues songs, and bases his contention upon research into negro vulgar expressions, and the origin and development of the blues. The double meanings found pertain either to the

G. B. Johnson



Blue enhanced light sources: opportunities and risks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural daylight is characterized by high proportions of blue light. By proof of a third type of photoreceptor in the human eye which is only sensitive in this spectral region and by subsequent studies it has become obvious that these blue proportions are essential for human health and well being. In various studies beneficial effects of indoor lighting with higher blue spectral proportions have been proven. On the other hand with increasing use of light sources having enhanced blue light for indoor illumination questions are arising about potential health risks attributed to blue light. Especially LED are showing distinct emission characteristics in the blue. Recently the French agency for food, environmental and occupational health & safety ANSES have raised the question on health issues related to LED light sources and have claimed to avoid use of LED for lighting in schools. In this paper parameters which are relevant for potential health risks will be shown and their contribution to risk factors will quantitatively be discussed. It will be shown how to differentiate between photometric parameters for assessment of beneficial as well as hazardous effects. Guidelines will be discussed how blue enhanced light sources can be used in applications to optimally support human health and well being and simultaneously avoid any risks attributed to blue light by a proper design of lighting parameters. In the conclusion it will be shown that no inherent health risks are related to LED lighting with a proper lighting design.

Lang, Dieter



New ionomer membranes for blue energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue energy is energy gained from the difference between fresh and salt water. As this type of power generation does not consume fossil fuel, it belongs to the green energy sources, i.e. a type of sustainable energy. There are two methods of blue power generation: osmosis and reverse electrodialysis. Both types require membranes. The paper explains the background of this

R. Ross; J. Krijgsman



Fire Effects in Blue Oak Woodland1  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: Mortality and resprouting of shrubs and trees were assessed in one recent fire and 11 older burns in blue oak woodland in the southern Sierra Nevada foothills. This poster reported results for blue oak. Survival following fire was high; with a 93 percent two year postfire survival rate after one intensively studied fire, despite a large number of

Patricia K. Haggerty


Louisiana Blue Crab Production, Processing, and Markets,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The blue crab fishery, in view of its dockside value, is becoming an increasingly important component of the Louisiana fishing sector. Worth $20.1 million in 1987, the Louisiana blue crab fishery was exceeded in dockside value only by shrimp ($184.2 milli...

W. R. Keithly K. J. Roberts A. W. Liebzeit



Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available. Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of…

Liebl, Michael



Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available. Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of…

Liebl, Michael



Smart games: beyond the Deep Blue horizon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the Deep Blue chess computer defeated Garry Kasparov in May 1997, public interest in artificial intelligence has piqued once again. Many in the AI field see Deep Blue's victory as a major milestone in AI history. Indeed, the victory achieves one of the long-standing AI Grand Challenges-a computer beating the reigning world champion of chess

S. Hedberg



Morpho-blue reproduced by nanocasting lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The brilliant metallic blue in wings of Morpho butterflies has a mysterious feature. The blue luster is produced from the butterfly's scale, which does not contain a blue pigment at all. The origin of the coloration is then attributed to a microscopic structure that can also explain its high reflectivity. However, its optical characteristics on the scattered wavelength contradicts obviously the grating or multilayer, because it appears blue from wide angle. The mystery of the lack of multi-coloration has recently been explained using a model with a peculiar optical structure, and experimentally proven by fabricating the optical film by controlling the parameters in nanoscale. The reproduced Morpho-blue was found to be important from viewpoint of a wide variety of applications. However, the fabrication process of the nano- structure is too costly due to conventional lithography method. To solve the problem, nano-casting lithography (NCL) was newly applied using UV curable polymer to replicate the nanostructure and improve heat-resistance for the following process of deposition. After fabrication of the nano-patterned polymer structure by the NCL, TiO2 and SiO2 layers were deposited and the Morpho-blue structure was successfully replicated in low cost. The reflective characteristic of the replicated structure was found to reproduce the basic properties of the natural Morpho-blue, as well as the originally fabricated Morpho-blue.

Saito, Akira; Nakajima, Masaki; Miyamura, Yusuke; Sogo, Kenji; Ishikawa, Yoko; Hirai, Yoshihiko



Environmental labels—the German ‘Blue Angel’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental considerations are becoming increasingly important for consumers and producers. A credible environmental label can only be established if it is issued by a neutral or state organisation on the basis of scientifically derived criteria. This holds true for the German ‘Blue Angel’. A case study of emulsion lacquer paints labelled with the Blue Angel indicates that an environmental label

Jens Hemmelskamp; Karl Ludwig Brockmann



Crowding in the GAIA spectrograph focal plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superpositions of stellar tracings are present in every slitless spectrograph. The probability for such overlaps in the GAIA RVS spectrograph focal plane is estimated using photometric observations of 66 stellar fields, mostly close to the Galactic plane. It is shown that overlaps of bright stars (V<17) are common near the Galactic plane, and no spectrum is free from superpositions of faint star tracings. Most overlappers are of spectral type K.

Zwitter, T.; Henden, A. A.


Exoplanets as blue as Neptune  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polarimetry is a powerful technique for detecting directly exoplanetary atmospheres and exploring its geometry, chemistry, and thermodynamics. In addition, observed polarization variability exhibits the orbital period of the planet and reveal the inclination, eccentricity, and orientation of the orbit. Recently, we have started a polarimetric survey of nearby planetary systems with hot Jupiters closely orbiting their host stars. Here we will demonstrate how polarized scattered light reveals the presence of exoplanets in unresolved planetary systems and provides direct probes of their atmospheres. We identify a small group of inflated and highly reflective hot Jupiters, with albedo defined by Rayleigh scattering on, most probably, condensates in high altitude haze or clouds. The scattering results in the blue shine of these planets similar to Neptune.

Berdyugina, S.; Berdyugin, A.; Piirola, V.



Quantum Ghost Imaging through Turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the effect of turbulence on quantum ghost imaging. We use entangled photons and demonstrate that for a novel experimental configuration the effect of turbulence can be greatly diminished. By decoupling the entangled photon source from the ghost imaging central image plane, we are able to dramatically increase the ghost image quality. When imaging a test pattern through turbulence,

Gregory A. Howland; Kam Wai Clifford Chan; Colin O'Sullivan-Hale; Brandon Rodenburg; Nicholas D. Hardy; Jeffrey H. Shapiro; D. S. Simon; A. V. Sergienko; R. W. Boyd; John C. Howell



Quantum ghost imaging through turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the effect of turbulence on quantum ghost imaging. We use entangled photons and demonstrate that for a specific experimental configuration the effect of turbulence can be greatly diminished. By decoupling the entangled photon source from the ghost-imaging central image plane, we are able to dramatically increase the ghost-image quality. When imaging a test pattern through turbulence, this method

P. Ben Dixon; Gregory A. Howland; Kam Wai Clifford Chan; Colin O'Sullivan-Hale; Brandon Rodenburg; Nicholas D. Hardy; Jeffrey H. Shapiro; D. S. Simon; A. V. Sergienko; R. W. Boyd; John C. Howell



Blue Blobs in Compact Groups of Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the discovery of a population of young blue objects, similar to M81/M82 blue blobs (de Mello et al. 2008), outside galaxies in compact groups. These blue blobs were found using multiwavelength data (UV, HI, optical) for the compact groups of galaxies HCG 2, 7, 22, 23, 92, 100 and NGC 92 which are in different stages of interaction. We find that all three evolved groups, HCG92, HCG100 and NGC 92, contain a population of young blue objects consistent with having ages < 100 Myr. Moreover, they also show extended HI tails and peculiar velocity field. Our results indicate that the blue blobs are stellar clusters and/or dwarf galaxies formed in the intra-group HI clouds of groups in advanced stage of interaction .

De Mello, Duilia F.; Torres-Flores, S.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.



Electrostatic force acting on a spherically symmetric charge distribution in contact with a conductive plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spherically symmetric charge distribution is a useful, first-order model of a charged insulating particle, such as a toner particle used in electrostatic imaging technologies. The electrostatic force of adhesion between a spherically symmetric charge distribution in contact with a conductive ground plane is derived using the method of images. Finite element analysis is used, with the uniformly charged sphere

W. Stanley Czarnecki; L. B. Schein



Acquired lipidosis of marrow macrophages: birefringent blue crystals and Gaucher-like cells, sea-blue histiocytes, and grey-green crystals.  

PubMed Central

Three varieties of compound lipid inclusions occurring as a secondary phenomenon in marrow macrophages are detectable and distinguishable by Romanowsky staining, ultraviolet fluorescence, and polarised light. Birefringent blue crystals and Gaucher-like cells form one variety, sea-blue granules another, and grey-green crystals a third. All occur chiefly in myeloid leukaemias, either acute or chronic. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14

Hayhoe, F G; Flemans, R J; Cowling, D C



Analytical expressions for the circle of confusion induced by plane-parallel plate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article provides a detailed theoretical analysis of the imaging properties of a plane-parallel plate, including exact formulas derived for the calculation of the ray aberrations and the wave aberrations induced by the plane-parallel plate and formulas for the 3rd and 5th order aberration. Formulas for a diameter of the circle of confusion are derived for both the 3rd and the 5th order aberration, as well as relations for optimal location of the image point and shape of the optimal image surface.

Miks, Antonin; Pokorny, Petr




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO BLUE RIDGE TUNNEL (LEFT) FROM SOUTHEAST. ORIGINAL BLUE RIDGE R.R. (CROZET) TUNNEL IS VISIBLE AT RIGHT. - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Blue Ridge Tunnel, Highway 250 at Rockfish Gap, Afton, Nelson County, VA


Dominant cone dystrophy starting with blue cone involvement.  

PubMed Central

The results of ophthalmological and colour vision studies are reported on 13 patients from a family with a dominant cone dystrophy spanning seven generations. The onset of visual deterioration occurred in the third or fourth decade. In the early stages of the disease, when visual acuity is still close to normal, a severe defect in the blue sensitivity is already present, as measured by spectral sensitivity curves and other tests suitable for the detection of tritan defects. In our opinion this condition represents a distinct entity with autosomal dominant inheritance. Images

van Schooneveld, M J; Went, L N; Oosterhuis, J A



Normal shoulder: MR imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relatively poor spatial resolution has been obtained in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the shoulder because the shoulder can only be placed in the periphery of the magnetic field. The authors have devised an anatomically shaped surface coil that enables MR to demonstrate normal shoulder anatomy in different planes with high spatial resolution. In the axial plane anatomy analogous to

G. J. Kieft; J. L. Bloem; W. R. Obermann; A. J. Verbout; P. M. Rozing; J. Doornbos



Two-color quantum well infrared photodetector focal plane arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

QmagiQ LLC, has recently completed building and testing high operability two-color Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) focal plane arrays (FPAs). The 320 x 256 format dual-band FPAs feature 40-micron pixels of spatially registered QWIP detectors based on III-V materials. The vertically stacked detectors in this specific midwave/longwave (MW/LW) design are tuned to absorb in the respective 4-5 and 8-9 micron spectral ranges. The ISC0006 Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC) developed by FLIR Systems Inc. and used in these FPAs features direct injection (DI) input circuitry for high charge storage with each unit cell containing dual integration capacitors, allowing simultaneous scene sampling and readout for the two distinct wavelength bands. Initial FPAs feature pixel operabilities better than 99%. Focal plane array test results and sample images will be presented.

Bundas, Jason; Patnaude, Kelly; Dennis, Richard; Burrows, Douglas; Cook, Robert; Reisinger, Axel; Sundaram, Mani; Benson, Robert; Woolaway, James; Schlesselmann, John; Petronio, Susan



Next-Generation Packet Network Architectures with Decoupled Service Plane and Transport Plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerging packet network architectures with decoupled service plane and transport plane may play a prominent role in the future. Traditional packet network architectures are primarily concerned with providing quality \\

Indra Widjaja



Symmetrized plane waves: 3. nonsymmorphic space groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A procedure for systematically constructing symmetrized plane waves, or more generally, arbitrary Bloch-functions, is extended to the case of nonsymmorphic space groups. The technical part to compute those transformations coefficients that are necessary to determine symmetrized plane waves or Bloch-functions, is transferred to a correspondingly tailored software package.

Dirl, R.; Payer, K.; Davies, B. L.



The Crack Problem for a Nonhomogeneous Plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study considers the plane elasticity problem for a nonhomogeneous medium containing a crack. It is assumed that the Poisson's ratio of the medium is constant and the Young's modulus E varies exponentially with the coordinate parallel to the crack. First the half plane problem is formulated and the solution is given for arbitrary tractions along the boundary. Then, the

F. Delale; F. Erdogan



Slipping and Rolling on an Inclined Plane  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the first part of the paper, using a direct calculation two-dimensional motion of a particle sliding on an inclined plane is investigated for general values of friction coefficient ([mu]). A parametric equation for the trajectory of the particle is also obtained. In the second part of the paper, the motion of a sphere on the inclined plane is…

Aghamohammadi, Cina; Aghamohammadi, Amir



Out of Plane Analysis for Composite Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Simple two dimensional analysis techniques were developed to aid in the design of strong joints for integrally stiffened/bonded composite structures subjected to out of plane loads. It was found that most out of plane failures were due to induced stresses...

P. C. Paul C. R. Saff K. B. Sanger M. A. Mahler H. P. Kan




Microsoft Academic Search

The inclined plane method is one of a few other tests that prove the material resistance to erosion and tracking caused by surface discharges. In this paper the review of inclined plane tests and the influence of additional factors were shown. A simple method for evaluating the voltage source rigidity was proposed.

K. L. Chrzan


Atrioventricular plane displacement in female endurance athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

WISLØFF, U., J. HELGERUD, A. STØYLEN, and Ø. ELLINGSEN. Atrioventricular plane displacement in female endurance athletes. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 33, No. 9, 2001, pp. 1503-1510. Introduction: A novel hypothesis for increased ventricular pumping describes the heart as a displacement pump, in which atrioventricular plane displacement (AVPD) is an important mechanism. The hypothesis predicts that AVPD increases at high



Michigan State Applet Collection: Inclined Plane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a java applet with one mass resting on an inclined plane, and another one connected to it via a rope that runs over a pulley. The user can change both masses, the angle of the inclined plane, and the coefficients of static and kinetic friction to observe how the system changes.

Bauer, Wolfgang



Broken chiral symmetry on a null plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On a null-plane (light-front), all effects of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking are contained in the three Hamiltonians (dynamical Poincaré generators), while the vacuum state is a chiral invariant. This property is used to give a general proof of Goldstone's theorem on a null-plane. Focusing on null-plane QCD with N degenerate flavors of light quarks, the chiral-symmetry breaking Hamiltonians are obtained, and the role of vacuum condensates is clarified. In particular, the null-plane Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner formula is derived, and a general prescription is given for mapping all chiral-symmetry breaking QCD condensates to chiral-symmetry conserving null-plane QCD condensates. The utility of the null-plane description lies in the operator algebra that mixes the null-plane Hamiltonians and the chiral symmetry charges. It is demonstrated that in a certain non-trivial limit, the null-plane operator algebra reduces to the symmetry group SU(2N) of the constituent quark model.

Beane, Silas R.



Numerical Simulation of Compressible Plane Jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial direct numerical simulation of compressible plane jets exhausting into a parallel stream has been performed. The mathematical model is inviscid and captures large-scale mixing events, such as vortex roll-up and multiple pairings. These are the most dynamically important features, even in the fully developed turbulent region in free shear flows such as the plane jet. Application and performance of

R. S. Reichert; S. Biringen



Elastic nonlinearity imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work has demonstrated improved diagnostic performance of highly trained breast radiologists when provided with B-mode plus elastography images over B-mode images alone. In those studies we have observed that elasticity imaging can be difficult to perform if there is substantial motion of tissue out of the image plane. So we are extending our methods to 3D\\/4D elasticity imaging with

Timothy J. Hall; A. A. Oberait; Paul E. Barbone; Amy M. Sommer; Nachiket H. Gokhale; S. Goenezent; Jingfeng Jiang



In Virginia, Trigon and its opponents fight over how to split up the Blues' money. Trigon BlueCross BlueShield, Richmond, Va.  


Blue Cross/Blue Shield organizations around the country are all undergoing radical change, and not without controversy. A citizens group in California, for example, won a raucous public relations battle, getting the Blues to put $3.2 billion into two charitable trusts. Then, in Virginia, Trigon BlueCross BlueShield squared off against a citizens group when it, too, tried to reorganize itself. PMID:10162508


Optimization of reproduced Morpho-blue coloration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morpho butterfly's metallic blue luster, which is produced from the butterfly's scale, has a mysterious feature. Since the scale does not contain a blue pigment, the origin of the coloration is attributed to a microscopic structure that can also explain its high reflectivity. However, it appears blue from wide angular range, which contradicts obviously the grating or multilayer. The mystery of the lack of multi-coloration has recently been explained with a peculiar nano-structure, and experimentally proven by fabricating the optical film by controlling the parameters in nanoscale. The reproduced Morpho-blue was found to be important from viewpoint of a wide variety of applications. However, optical properties of the fabricated film were found to contain still some differences with that of the Morpho-butterfly, although the basic characteristics of the Morpho-blue itself was reproduced. In order to make the artificial Morpho-blue closer to the natural one than the prototype, we attempted to optimize the artificial film structure by controlling fabrication parameters. In this process, optical simulations and micro-structural observations were taken in account. By comparing a series of films fabricated with different nano-patterns, optimized parameters were semi-empirically obtained. Also the relationship between the structural parameters and the optical properties was analyzed. The reflective characteristics of the optimized film were found to reproduce the optical properties more closely to the natural Morpho-blue than the prototypes.

Saito, Akira; Ishikawa, Yoko; Miyamura, Yusuke; Akai-Kasaya, Megumi; Kuwahara, Yuji



Magnetoelectroelastic composite with poling parallel to plane of line crack under out-of-plane deformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three-dimensional field equations can in general be regarded as the sum of in-plane and out-of-plane deformation. The method for the general solution is the same for both although the boundary conditions could make a difference. If a particular solution in exact form may be found for the out-of-plane case, the same may not hold for the in-plane case. Hence,

C. P Spyropoulos; G. C Sih; Z. F Song



In-Plane\\/Out-of-Plane Librations of a Tethered System in Elliptical Orbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-plane\\/out-of-plane librations of a tethered system in elliptical orbits are investigated. It is aimed to clarify the fundamental characteristics of libration of the tethered system subjected to orbital motion and atmospheric drag. Periodic solutions and their stability of a simplified 3-DOF model are analyzed, in which in-plane\\/out-of-plane librations and longitudinal elongation of the tether are considered. It is shown that

Noboru Takeichi; M. C. Natori; Nobukatsu Okuizumi



New Kinematic Results for the Blue Metal-Poor Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preston, Beers, & Shectman (1994, AJ 108, 538) have identified a substantial number of blue metal-poor main sequence (BMP) stars within a few kpc of the Galactic plane. These stars, chosen to be blueward of the main-sequence turnoff of an old metal-deficient population, have been referred to in the past as halo blue stragglers. However, the BMPs appear in great numbers (on the order of 400 kpc(-3) ) relative to evolved members of the halo, and exhibit kinematics which do not seem to indicate membership in either the thick disk or halo population. Thus the identification with halo blue stragglers no longer seems viable. Rather, these authors submit that the BMPs are young metal-deficient stars shorn from collisions between dwarf galaxies and the disk of the Milky Way in the past 10 Gyrs. We present a kinematic analysis for 221 BMP stars (with [Fe/H] <= -1.0) chosen from the ongoing HK survey. The systemic rotation velocity is found to be Vrot = 105; +/- ; 17 km/s, somewhat lower than the value reported by Preston et al., but still consistent within the stated uncertainties. The velocity ellipsoid we derive for the enlarged sample of BMPs is also consistent with that obtained by Preston et al. (90 km/s for all three components). We search for changes in the kinematics of the BMPs with abundance, dividing the sample at a metallicity [Fe/H] = -2.2. We obtain Vrot = 132 ; +/- ; 19 km/s and Vrot = 8 +/- 31 km/s for the metal-richer and metal-poorer halves of this sample, respectively, though the velocity ellipsoids remain roughly the same. This behavior suggests that there may be a rapid change in the mixing fractions for the BMP sample at low metallicity, either due to mis-identification of halo FHB stars, or inclusion of true halo blue straggler stars. If the BMPs are confined to metallicities [Fe/H] > -2.2, as our results suggest, then stronger constraints can be placed on the nature of the accreted parent populations.

Wilhelm, R.; Beers, T. C.; Layden, A. C.



Study the Z-Plane Strip Capacitance  

SciTech Connect

The BaBaR detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is currently undergoing an upgrade to improve its muon and neutral hadron detection system. The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) that had been used till now have deteriorated in performance over the past few years and are being replaced by Limited Streamer Tube (LSTs). Each layer of the system consists of a set of up to 10 streamer tube modules which provide one coordinate ({phi} coordinate) and a single ''Z-plane'' which provides the Z coordinate of the hit. The large area Z-planes (up to 12m{sup 2}) are 1mm thick and contain 96 copper strips that detect the induced charge from avalanches created in the streamer tube wires. All the Z-planes needed for the upgrade have already been constructed, but only a third of the planes were installed last summer. After installing the 24 Z-planes last year, it was learned that 0.7% of the strips were dead when put inside the detector. This was mainly due to the delicate solder joint between the read-out cable and the strip, and since it is difficult to access or replace the Z-planes inside the detector, it is very important to perform various tests to make sure that the Z-planes will be efficient and effective in the long term. We measure the capacitance between the copper strips and the ground plane, and compare it to the theoretical value that we expect. Instead of measuring the capacitance channel by channel, which would be a very tedious job, we developed a more effective method of measuring the capacitance. Since all the Z-planes were built at SLAC, we also built a smaller 46 cm by 30 cm Z-plane with 12 strips just to see how they were constructed and to gain a better understanding about the solder joints.

Parikh, H.; /Illinois U., Urbana; Swain, S.; /SLAC



The invariable plane of the solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The invariable plane of the solar system is defined as the plane perpendicular to the total angular momentum of the system and passing through its centre of mass. The idea of using the invariable plane as a reference plane in the study of the dynamics of solar system bodies goes back at least to Laplace [3]. The latest study on this plane dates back to Burkhardt [2]. The aim of this work is to determine at best the orientation of the invariable plane with respect to both the ICRS and the equinox-ecliptic of J2000.0, and to evaluate the accuracy of its determination. Such a determination is of fundamental interest in the topic of solar system studies, as suggested by the WGCCRE 2009 [1] for the determination of planet's and satellites' rotational elements. Using the long-term numerical ephemerides DE405, DE406 [6] and INPOP10a[4] over their entire available time span, we compute the total angular momentum of the solar system, as well as the individual contribution of each planet. We then deduce the orientation of the invariable plane for each ephemeris, and establish their relative differences. Preliminary results can be found in [5]. Here we update them with more accurate data, and a more complete analysis of the problem, taking into account the effect of the dwarf planet (1) Ceres as well as two of the biggest asteroids, (4) Vesta and (2) Pallas. Moreover, we give the orbital elements (inclination, longitude of the ascending node) with respect to the invariable plane. As given its accuracy of determination, and its fundamental dynamical meaning, the invariable plane provides a permanent natural reference plane that should be used when studying solar system dynamics, instead of the ecliptic. Thus, we recommend referring to it when working on long-term dynamics.

Souami, D.; Souchay, J.



Structural colours in blue-banded bee  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Periodic, micro-textured biological materials are ubiquitous in nature. Electromagnetic waves at different frequencies are selectively reflected by such materials. This phenomenon is the origin of structural colours observed in variety of insects. In this work, we analyze the mechanisms that lead to the bluish-green colour of the blue-banded bee feathers. The reflection spectrum of the blue-banded bee feather was calculated by the transfer matrix method (TMM). The reflection peaks found are compatible within the experimental data. In addition to Bragg scattering, guided resonance has been observed in our theoretical calculation, which leads to a novel understanding of the structural colours in blue-banded bees.

Wan, Jones; Dai, Lixiin; Li, Jensen; Fung, Kwok-Kwong; Chan, Che-Ting



High-Efficiency Blue Emitting Phosphorescent OLEDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we will show our latest results on high-efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs). Effects of triplet exciton confinement, exciton energy transfer and charge trapping, and charge balance on iridium(III)bis [(4,6-di-fluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N,C2'] picolinate (FIrpic)-based blue PHOLEDs will be presented. By optimizing the aforementioned device parameters, a high-efficiency blue PHOLED with 59 cd\\/A (48 lm\\/W at 100 cd\\/m2) was

Neetu Chopra; Jaewon Lee; Jiangeng Xue; Franky So




SciTech Connect

The scientific motivation, data collection strategy, data reduction, and analysis methods are presented for the Galactic Plane Infrared Polarization Survey (GPIPS). The chief goal for the Survey was to reveal the nature of the magnetic field threading the Galactic disk, in particular through regions of low to moderate extinction (1-20 mag of A{sub V} ) and star formation in the cool interstellar medium. The Survey region spans 76 deg{sup 2} of the northern Milky Way disk, from l = 18 Degree-Sign to 56 Degree-Sign and b =-1 Degree-Sign to +1 Degree-Sign . Linear polarimetric imaging observations began in 2006 in the near-infrared H band (1.6 {mu}m) using the Mimir instrument on the 1.8 m Perkins telescope, located outside Flagstaff, AZ. Mimir used a cold, fixed wire grid and a rotateable cold, compound half-wave plate to obtain 'step-and-integrate' polarimetry over its full 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 arcmin field of view. The GPIPS bright and faint polarimetric limits are approximately 7th and 15th mag, respectively, set by saturation and photon noise. Polarimetric uncertainties track with stellar magnitude, from about 0.1% to 25%, on average, from the brightest to faintest stars. Across the 3237 field GPIPS region, approximately 0.5 million stars are estimated to show detectable linear polarization (P/{sigma}{sub P} > 3); most of these have m{sub H} < 12. This represents many orders of magnitude improvement in the number of polarization measurements across this region. GPIPS observations are more than 90% complete and should finish in 2012.

Clemens, Dan P.; Pinnick, A. F.; Pavel, M. D.; Taylor, B. W., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Ave, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)



Keck Infrared Observations of Jupiter's Ring System near Earth's 1997 Ring Plane Crossing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We imaged the jovian ring system at a wavelength of 2.27 ?m with the 10-m W. M. Keck telescope on August 14 and 15, 1997, when the ring plane was almost edge-on (opening angle ?=0.17°) and near opposition (phase angle ??1.1°). The resolution in the images is 0.6?=0.025RJ. We obtained the first images of the jovian halo and gossamer ring

Imke de Pater; Mark R. Showalter; Joseph A. Burns; Philip D. Nicholson; Michael C. Liu; Douglas P. Hamilton; James R. Graham



Optical Sectioning Deep Inside Live Embryos by Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large, living biological specimens present challenges to existing optical imaging techniques because of their absorptive and scattering properties. We developed selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM) to generate multidimensional images of samples up to a few millimeters in size. The system combines two-dimensional illumination with orthogonal camera-based detection to achieve high-resolution, optically sectioned imaging throughout the sample, with minimal photodamage and

Jan Huisken; Jim Swoger; Filippo Del Bene; Joachim Wittbrodt; Ernst H. K. Stelzer



Status of blue whale photo-identification from IWC IDCR\\/SOWER cruises 1987-1988 to 2007-2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 21,000 identification photographs of blue whales were collected during 19 IWC IDCR\\/SOWER Antarctic cruises conducted from 1987-1988 to 2007-2008. Archiving and analysis of these photographs has been undertaken at SWFSC to aid in the assessment of Southern Hemisphere blue whales. Photographs were obtained from all six IWC Management Areas and represent a minimum of 311 individuals. Film images from

Paula A. Olson


The design of infrared spaceborne remote sensing signal processing circuit for multi-spectral and multi-focal plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the rapid development of space cameras and remote-sensing application technology, photoelectric sensor of the remote sensing satellite have evolved from the single-spectral, single type, single focal plane to the multi-spectral, multi-type, multi-focal plane integration direction. At present, the manufacturing process of the infrared detector has a larger improvement, but compared to the CCD device, the resolution is still low. In order to improve the resolution of infrared imaging systems, infrared imaging system using jointing multi-focal plane array can increase the resolution of infrared imaging systems. At present, remote sensing satellite equipped with a visible light detector and infrared detector, and design of multi-spectral, multi-type, multi-focal plane imaging circuit has become a new challenge. For multi-spectral, multi-, multi-focal plane imaging characteristics of the circuit system, this paper analysis and design of the FPGA signal processing circuit for multi-spectral, multi-focal plane jointing infrared imaging system, which includes time base correction circuit, infrared detector timing control circuit, multi-channel analog signal delay correction circuit, multi-channel uncertainty calibration circuit, average filtering of over-sampling circuit, multi-channel image data reading and correction circuit. Details the various parts of the design ideas and methods, design, simulation and testing. The test results show that the design is correct and feasible to meet the design requirements.

Liu, Tao; Wang, Hua



Blue light and near-infrared fundus autofluorescence in acute Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/aimsTo investigate the characteristics of fundus autofluorescence (FAF) in acute Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada (VKH) disease.MethodsFAF photography with blue light (BL-FAF) and near-infrared light (NIR-FAF) was performed on 10 eyes of five patients using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope before and after treatment. The FAF images were followed for 6 months and retrospectively reviewed with comparisons of the other imaging modalities.ResultsAt presentation, four

Hideki Koizumi; Kazuichi Maruyama; Shigeru Kinoshita



Prussian Blue as a Prebiotic Reagent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ferrocyanide has been proposed as a potential prebiotic reagent and the complex salt Prussian Blue, Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3, might be an important reservoir of HCN, in the early Earth. HCN is considered the main precursor of amino acids and purine and pyrimidine bases under prebiotic conditions. Recently, we observed the formation of Prussian Blue in spark discharge experiments using saline solutions of ferrous chloride, FeCl2. Using Prussian Blue as starting material in ammonium suspensions, we obtained organic compounds containing nitrogen. These results seem to indicate that Prussian Blue could have been first, a sink of HCN, and then in subsequent reactions, triggered by pH fluctuations, it might have lead to organic life precursors.

Ruiz-Bermejo, M.; Menor-Salván, C.; Osuna-Esteban, S.; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, S.



Blue Ribbon Commission Tour of Hanford Site  


The Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future toured the Department of Energy's Hanford Site on July 14, 2010. Commission members, invited guests, and members of the public visited facilities that store high-level, radioactive waste.


Blue-Green Lasers and Electrodeless Flashlamps.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper addresses the questions of combining the technology of moderate pressure electrodeless discharge lamps with the efficiency of a resonantly pumped solid state laser to achieve an efficient, compact, and reliable blue green laser. The scheme is b...

F. W. Perkins



Random lasing in blue phase liquid crystals.  


Random lasing actions have been observed in optically isotropic pure blue-phase and polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals containing laser dyes. Scattering, interferences and recurrent multiple scatterings arising from disordered platelet texture as well as index mismatch between polymer and mesogen in these materials provide the optical feedbacks for lasing action. In polymer stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals, coherent random lasing could occur in the ordered blue phase with an extended temperature interval as well as in the isotropic liquid state. The dependence of lasing wavelength range, mode characteristics, excitation threshold and other pertinent properties on temperature and detailed make-up of the crystals platelets were obtained. Specifically, lasing wavelengths and mode-stability were found to be determined by platelet size, which can be set by controlling the cooling rate; lasing thresholds and emission spectrum are highly dependent on, and therefore can be tuned by temperature. PMID:23188364

Chen, Chun-Wei; Jau, Hung-Chang; Wang, Chun-Ta; Lee, Chun-Hong; Khoo, I C; Lin, Tsung-Hsien



Public Notification: “Japan Weight Loss Blue” Contains ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... [2-18-2012] The Food and Drug ... analysis confirmed that “Japan Weight Loss Blue” contains ... dietary supplements or conventional foods with hidden ... More results from


Blue-Green Algae and Rice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rising costs of the chemical fertilizers used to provide the combined nitrogen needed for rice production have prompted rice researchers to turn their attention to biological nitrogen sources such as blue-green (BGA). Although BGA produced nitrogen when i...

P. A. Roger S. A. Kulasooriya



Blue Matter: Strong Scaling of Molecular Dynamics on Blue Gene\\/L  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents strong scaling performance data for the Blue Mat- ter molecular dynamics framework using a novel n-body spatial decomposition and a collective communications technique implemented on both MPI and low level hardware interfaces. Using Blue Matter on Blue Gene\\/L, we have measured scalability through 16,384 nodes with measured time per time-step of under 2.3 milliseconds for a 43,222

Blake G. Fitch; Aleksandr Rayshubskiy; Maria Eleftheriou; T. J. Christopher Ward; Mark Giampapa; Yuriy Zhestkov; Michael Pitman; Frank Suits; Alan Grossfield; Jed W. Pitera; William C. Swope; Ruhong Zhou; Scott Feller; Robert S. Germain