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1

Fourier plane imaging microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show how the image of an unresolved photonic crystal can be reconstructed using a single Fourier plane (FP) image obtained with a second camera that was added to a traditional compound microscope. We discuss how Fourier plane imaging microscopy is an application of a remarkable property of the obtained FP images: they contain more information about the photonic crystals than the images recorded by the camera commonly placed at the real plane of the microscope. We argue that the experimental results support the hypothesis that surface waves, contributing to enhanced resolution abilities, were optically excited in the studied photonic crystals.

Dominguez, Daniel; Alharbi, Nouf; Alhusain, Mdhaoui; Bernussi, Ayrton A.; Peralta, Luis Grave de

2014-09-01

2

Fourier plane imaging microscopy  

SciTech Connect

We show how the image of an unresolved photonic crystal can be reconstructed using a single Fourier plane (FP) image obtained with a second camera that was added to a traditional compound microscope. We discuss how Fourier plane imaging microscopy is an application of a remarkable property of the obtained FP images: they contain more information about the photonic crystals than the images recorded by the camera commonly placed at the real plane of the microscope. We argue that the experimental results support the hypothesis that surface waves, contributing to enhanced resolution abilities, were optically excited in the studied photonic crystals.

Dominguez, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.dominguez@ttu.edu; Peralta, Luis Grave de [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Nano Tech Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Alharbi, Nouf; Alhusain, Mdhaoui [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Bernussi, Ayrton A. [Nano Tech Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)

2014-09-14

3

Dual Plane Imaging  

E-print Network

We outline a technique called Dual Plane Imaging which should significantly improve images which would otherwise be blurred due to atmospheric turbulence. The technique involves capturing all the spatial, directional and temporal information about the arriving photons and processing the data afterwards to produce the sharpened images. The technique has particular relevance for imaging at around 400-1000nm on extremely large telescopes (ELTs).

Parry, Ian

2015-01-01

4

Fourier plane image amplifier  

DOEpatents

A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 .mu.m. A small portion of the laser is split off and generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only .about.1/10th the power of a competitive system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires much less laser power.

Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA); Hermann, Mark R. (San Ramon, CA); Dane, C. Brent (Livermore, CA); Tiszauer, Detlev H. (Tracy, CA)

1995-01-01

5

Fourier plane image amplifier  

DOEpatents

A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 {micro}m. A small portion of the laser is split off and generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only about 1/10th the power of a competitive system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires much less laser power. 1 fig.

Hackel, L.A.; Hermann, M.R.; Dane, C.B.; Tiszauer, D.H.

1995-12-12

6

Image plane sweep volume illumination.  

PubMed

In recent years, many volumetric illumination models have been proposed, which have the potential to simulate advanced lighting effects and thus support improved image comprehension. Although volume ray-casting is widely accepted as the volume rendering technique which achieves the highest image quality, so far no volumetric illumination algorithm has been designed to be directly incorporated into the ray-casting process. In this paper we propose image plane sweep volume illumination (IPSVI), which allows the integration of advanced illumination effects into a GPU-based volume ray-caster by exploiting the plane sweep paradigm. Thus, we are able to reduce the problem complexity and achieve interactive frame rates, while supporting scattering as well as shadowing. Since all illumination computations are performed directly within a single rendering pass, IPSVI does not require any preprocessing nor does it need to store intermediate results within an illumination volume. It therefore has a significantly lower memory footprint than other techniques. This makes IPSVI directly applicable to large data sets. Furthermore, the integration into a GPU-based ray-caster allows for high image quality as well as improved rendering performance by exploiting early ray termination. This paper discusses the theory behind IPSVI, describes its implementation, demonstrates its visual results and provides performance measurements. PMID:22034331

Sundén, Erik; Ynnerman, Anders; Ropinski, Timo

2011-12-01

7

Fuzzy logic color detection: Blue areas in melanoma dermoscopy images.  

PubMed

Fuzzy logic image analysis techniques were used to analyze three shades of blue (lavender blue, light blue, and dark blue) in dermoscopic images for melanoma detection. A logistic regression model provided up to 82.7% accuracy for melanoma discrimination for 866 images. With a support vector machines (SVM) classifier, lower accuracy was obtained for individual shades (79.9-80.1%) compared with up to 81.4% accuracy with multiple shades. All fuzzy blue logic alpha cuts scored higher than the crisp case. Fuzzy logic techniques applied to multiple shades of blue can assist in melanoma detection. These vector-based fuzzy logic techniques can be extended to other image analysis problems involving multiple colors or color shades. PMID:24786720

Lingala, Mounika; Stanley, R Joe; Rader, Ryan K; Hagerty, Jason; Rabinovitz, Harold S; Oliviero, Margaret; Choudhry, Iqra; Stoecker, William V

2014-07-01

8

Hybrid Image-Plane/Stereo Manipulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hybrid Image-Plane/Stereo (HIPS) manipulation is a method of processing image data, and of controlling a robotic manipulator arm in response to the data, that enables the manipulator arm to place an end-effector (an instrument or tool) precisely with respect to a target (see figure). Unlike other stereoscopic machine-vision-based methods of controlling robots, this method is robust in the face of calibration errors and changes in calibration during operation. In this method, a stereoscopic pair of cameras on the robot first acquires images of the manipulator at a set of predefined poses. The image data are processed to obtain image-plane coordinates of known visible features of the end-effector. Next, there is computed an initial calibration in the form of a mapping between (1) the image-plane coordinates and (2) the nominal three-dimensional coordinates of the noted end-effector features in a reference frame fixed to the main robot body at the base of the manipulator. The nominal three-dimensional coordinates are obtained by use of the nominal forward kinematics of the manipulator arm that is, calculated by use of the currently measured manipulator joint angles and previously measured lengths of manipulator arm segments under the assumption that the arm segments are rigid, that the arm lengths are constant, and that there is no backlash. It is understood from the outset that these nominal three-dimensional coordinates are likely to contain possibly significant calibration errors, but the effects of the errors are progressively reduced, as described next. As the end-effector is moved toward the target, the calibration is updated repeatedly by use of data from newly acquired images of the end-effector and of the corresponding nominal coordinates in the manipulator reference frame. By use of the updated calibration, the coordinates of the target are computed in manipulator-reference-frame coordinates and then used to the necessary manipulator joint angles to position and orient the end-effector at the target with respect to the same kinematic model from the calibration step. As the end-effector/target distance decreases, the computed coordinates of the end-effector and target become more nearly affected by the same errors, so that the differences between their coordinates become increasingly precise. When the end-effector reaches the target, the remaining effective position error is the distance that corresponds to more than about one pixel in the stereoscopic images of the target.

Baumgartner, Eric; Robinson, Matthew

2004-01-01

9

Target plane imager for inertial confinement fusion  

SciTech Connect

The Nova laser, completed in December 1984 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is being used to conduct inertial confinement fusion experiments. It is capable of focusing more than 100 kJ of energy on small fusion targets. This paper discusses an optical system called the target plane imager that is used during the beam alignment phase of these experiments. The TPI includes a three meter long periscope with a wide field of view, F/3 objective. The telescope relays images of the target focal plane to viewing optics and a video sensor located outside the target chamber. Operation of the system is possible at three wavelengths: 1.05..mu.., 0.527..mu.., and 0.351..mu... These are the three wavelengths at which the ten Nova laser beams can irradiate targets. Both nearfield and farfield images of the ten beams can be viewed with the TPI. This instrument is used to properly align the laser to the target before each target irradiation.

Swift, C.D.; Bliss, E.S.; Jones, W.A.; Seppala, L.G.

1985-01-30

10

Nonpolar m-plane gallium Nitride-based Laser Diodes in the Blue Spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gallium nitride (GaN), together with its alloys with aluminum and indium, have revolutionized the solid-state optoelectronics market for their ability to emit a large portion of the visible electromagnetic spectrum from deep ultraviolet and into the infrared. GaN-based semiconductor laser diodes (LDs) with emission wavelengths in the violet, blue and green are already seeing widespread implementation in applications ranging from energy storage, lighting and displays. However, commercial GaN-based LDs use the basal c-plane orientation of the wurtzite crystal, which can suffer from large internal electric fields due to discontinuities in spontaneous and piezoelectric polarizations, limiting device performance. The nonpolar orientation of GaN benefits from the lack of polarization-induced electric field as well as enhanced gain. This dissertation discusses some of the benefits and limitations of m-plane oriented nonpolar GaN for LD applications in the true blue spectrum (450 nm). Topics include an overview of material growth by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), waveguide design and processing techniques for improving device performance for multiple lateral mode and single lateral mode ridge waveguides.

Kelchner, Kathryn M.

11

MAGPIS: The Multi-Array Galactic Plane Imaging Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Multi-Array Galactic Plane Imaging Survey collects bits and pieces of the Galactic sky that have been imaged at high resolutions. It contains images from VLA, XMM Newton, GLIMPSE Spitzer and MSX. The website allows users to extract a section of an image from the different surveys at multiple frequencies. It also contains a publications page and catalogs constructed from radio images and other data.

White, Richard

2008-06-04

12

BATSE imaging survey of the Galactic plane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The burst and transient source experiment (BATSE) onboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) provides all sky monitoring capability, occultation analysis and occultation imaging which enables new and fainter sources to be searched for in relatively crowded fields. The occultation imaging technique is used in combination with an automated BATSE image scanner, allowing an analysis of large data sets of occultation images for detections of candidate sources and for the construction of source catalogs and data bases. This automated image scanner system is being tested on archival data in order to optimize the search and detection thresholds. The image search system, its calibration results and preliminary survey results on archival data are reported on. The aim of the survey is to identify a complete sample of black hole candidates in the galaxy and constrain the number of black hole systems and neutron star systems.

Grindlay, J. E.; Barret, D.; Bloser, P. F.; Zhang, S. N.; Robinson, C.; Harmon, B. A.

1997-01-01

13

Lower-Dark-Current, Higher-Blue-Response CMOS Imagers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several improved designs for complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated-circuit image detectors have been developed, primarily to reduce dark currents (leakage currents) and secondarily to increase responses to blue light and increase signal-handling capacities, relative to those of prior CMOS imagers. The main conclusion that can be drawn from a study of the causes of dark currents in prior CMOS imagers is that dark currents could be reduced by relocating p/n junctions away from Si/SiO2 interfaces. In addition to reflecting this conclusion, the improved designs include several other features to counteract dark-current mechanisms and enhance performance.

Pain, Bedabrata; Cunningham, Thomas; Hancock, Bruce

2008-01-01

14

Imaging performance of a THz focal plane array  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new broadband monolithic THz antenna design that covers the entire 0.6 - 1.2 THz band is developed as the imaging pixel of THz focal plane array (FPA). Heterostructure backward diodes are integrated monolithically with the THz antennas and are used as the detectors to reproduce digital images from the 2- dimensional received power distribution. A new simplified design is

Georgios C. Trichopoulos; Kagan Topalli; Kubilay Sertel

2011-01-01

15

MR imaging of the foot: utility of complex oblique imaging planes.  

PubMed

Successful MR imaging of the foot presents special challenges to the radiologist. Accurate and confident diagnosis presupposes the ability to produce high-resolution images of obliquely oriented, relatively small structures. Orienting the foot within an appropriate local coil to bring such structures into an orthogonal imaging plane, or even into a conventional oblique plane, may be impossible or intolerably uncomfortable for the patient. The frequent result is motion artifacts, which are accentuated when using a small field of view. However, when patients are comfortably positioned, the anatomy of interest often lies in a plane that is not orthogonal to any of the conventional imaging planes. Fortunately, commercially available MR imaging equipment can produce images in complex oblique planes with relative ease. In this pictorial essay, we discuss the technical considerations for expedient diagnostic MR imaging of the complex anatomy of the foot and illustrate our experiences with this technique. PMID:8615247

Rubin, D A; Towers, J D; Britton, C A

1996-05-01

16

Imaging callose at plasmodesmata using aniline blue: quantitative confocal microscopy.  

PubMed

Callose (?-1,3-glucan) is both structural and functional component of plasmodesmata (Pd). The turnover of callose at Pd controls the cell-to-cell diffusion rate of molecules through Pd. An accurate assessment of changes in levels of Pd-associated callose has become a first-choice experimental approach in the research of intercellular communication in plants.Here we describe a detailed and easy-to-perform procedure for imaging and quantification of Pd-associated callose using fixed plant tissue stained with aniline blue. We also introduce an automated image analysis protocol for non-biased quantification of callose levels at Pd from fluorescence images using ImageJ. Two experimental examples of Pd-callose quantification using the automated method are provided as well. PMID:25287199

Zavaliev, Raul; Epel, Bernard L

2015-01-01

17

Image plane interaction techniques in 3D immersive environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a set of interaction techniques for use in head- tracked immersive virtual environments. With these techniques, the user interacts with the 2D projections that 3D objects in the scene make on his image plane. The desktop analog is the use of a mouse to interact with objects in a 3D scene based on their projections on the

Jeffrey S. Pierce; Andrew S. Forsberg; Matthew J. Conway; Seung Hong; Robert C. Zeleznik; Mark R. Mine

1997-01-01

18

Prototype Focal-Plane-Array Optoelectronic Image Processor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prototype very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) planar array of optoelectronic processing elements combines speed of optical input and output with flexibility of reconfiguration (programmability) of electronic processing medium. Basic concept of processor described in "Optical-Input, Optical-Output Morphological Processor" (NPO-18174). Performs binary operations on binary (black and white) images. Each processing element corresponds to one picture element of image and located at that picture element. Includes input-plane photodetector in form of parasitic phototransistor part of processing circuit. Output of each processing circuit used to modulate one picture element in output-plane liquid-crystal display device. Intended to implement morphological processing algorithms that transform image into set of features suitable for high-level processing; e.g., recognition.

Fang, Wai-Chi; Shaw, Timothy; Yu, Jeffrey

1995-01-01

19

Blue Marble - A Seamless Image Mosaic of the Earth (WMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This spectacular Blue Marble image is the most detailed true-color image of the entire Earth to date. Using a collection of satellite-based observations, scientists and visualizers stitched together months of observations of the land surface, oceans, sea ice, and clouds into a seamless, true-color mosaic of every square kilometer (.386 square mile) of our planet. Much of the information contained in this image came from a single remote-sensing device-NASAs Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. Flying over 700 km above the Earth onboard the Terra satellite, MODIS provides an integrated tool for observing a variety of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric features of the Earth. The land and coastal ocean portions of these images are based on surface observations collected from June through September 2001 and combined, or composited, every eight days to compensate for clouds that might block the sensors view of the surface on any single day. Two different types of ocean data were used in these images: shallow water true color data, and global ocean color (or chlorophyll) data. Topographic shading is based on the GTOPO 30 elevation dataset compiled by the U.S. Geological Surveys EROS Data Center.

Reto Stockli

2004-02-16

20

Magnetic resonance imaging of the heart: positioning and gradient angle selection for optimal imaging planes  

SciTech Connect

Electrocardiographically gated magnetic resonance images were acquired in 20 subjects using a spin-echo pulse sequence. For optimizing the display of cardiac anatomy, a technique was developed which uses patients positioning in addition to alteration of gradient angle to select image planes. High-quality images were acquired in three basic cardiac projections: (1) the long axis of the left ventricle, through the aortic valve and apex, parallel to the interventricular septum, (2) the long axis of the left ventricle, perpendicular to the septum, and (3) the short axis of the left ventricle at multiple levels including outflow, papillary muscle, and apex. Images of the aorta included axial images at multiple levels and long-axis images oriented to display the plane of the aortic arch. Images of these planes are easily achieved and, in contrast to standard images orthogonal to the chest wall, provide a reproductible and logical display of cardiac anatomy.

Dinsmore, R.E.; Wismer, G.L.; Levine, R.A.; Okada, R.D.; Brady, T.J.

1984-12-01

21

Photoacoustic lifetime imaging of dissolved oxygen using methylene blue.  

PubMed

Measuring distribution of dissolved oxygen in biological tissue is of prime interest for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy optimization. Tumor hypoxia indicates poor prognosis and resistance to radiotherapy. Despite its major clinical significance, no current imaging modality provides direct imaging of tissue oxygen. We present preliminary results demonstrating the potential of photoacoustic lifetime imaging (PALI) for noninvasive, 3-D imaging of tissue oxygen. The technique is based on photoacoustic probing of the excited state lifetime of methylene blue (MB) dye. MB is an FDA-approved water soluble dye with a peak absorption at 660 nm. A double pulse laser system (pump probe) is used to excite the dye and probe its transient absorption by detecting photoacoustic emission. The relaxation rate of MB depends linearly on oxygen concentration. Our measurements show high photoacoustic signal contrast at a probe wavelength of 810 nm, where the excited state absorption is more than four times higher than the ground state absorption. Imaging of a simple phantom is demonstrated. We conclude by discussing possible implementations of the technique in clinical settings and combining it with photodynamic therapy (PDT) for real-time therapy monitoring. PMID:20799768

Ashkenazi, Shai

2010-01-01

22

Target plane imaging system for the Nova laser  

SciTech Connect

The Nova laser, in operation since December 1984, is capable of irradiating targets with light at 1.05 ..mu..m, 0.53 ..mu..m, and 0.35 ..mu..m. Correct alignment of these harmonic beams uses a system called a target plane imager (TPI). It is a large microscope (four meters long, weighing one thousand kilograms) that relays images from the target chamber center to a video optics module located on the outside of the chamber. Several modes of operation are possible including: near-field viewing and far-field viewing at three magnifications and three wavelengths. In addition, the entire instrument can be scanned in X,Y,Z to examine various planes near chamber center. Performance of this system and its computer controls will be described.

Swift, C.D.; Bliss, E.S.; Jones, W.A.; Reeves, R.J.; Seppala, L.G.; Shelton, R.T.; VanArsdall, P.J.

1985-12-12

23

Efficiency of image processing architectures near the focal plane array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the capabilities and efficiencies made possible by placing image processing functions near or on the Focal Plane Array (FPA). Recent work in advanced near FPA signal processing has shown that it is possible to migrate many of the heretofore off focal plane image processing tasks onto the Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC). The goals of this work are to describe and demonstrate the feasibility of "Activity Sensing" and the associated computational efficiency with this type of on FPA processing. Bottleneck reduction, intelligent information processing, and adaptive bandwidth compression are also key challenges of the next generation FPA architectures with on FPA processing. We report on the development and performance benefits expected from an Activity Sensing algorithm using recorded infrared (IR) Data from a large format 1024 × 1024 variable acuity Indium-Antimonide1 FPA sensor.

Caulfield, J. T.; McCarley, P. L.; Curzan, J. P.; Massie, M. A.

2006-05-01

24

Refraction effect in an in-plane-switching blue phase liquid crystal cell  

E-print Network

by optimizing the BPLC material and device structure. ©2013 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (160, and S. T. Wu, "Polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display. Lin, and S. T. Wu, "Optical rotatory power of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals," Appl

Wu, Shin-Tson

25

Terahertz imaging with Si MOSFET focal-plane arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on imaging at terahertz frequencies using a 3x5 Si MOSFET focal-plane array (FPA) processed by a 0.25-mum CMOS technology. Each pixel of the FPA consists of a 645-GHz patch antenna coupled to a FET detector and a 43-dB voltage amplifier with a 1.6-MHz bandwidth. We achieve a typical single-pixel responsivity of 80 kV\\/W and a noise-equivalent power (NEP)

A. Lisauskas; D. Glaab; H. G. Roskos; E. Oejefors; U. R. Pfeiffer

2009-01-01

26

Panoramic monocentric imaging using fiber-coupled focal planes.  

PubMed

Monocentric lenses provide high-resolution wide field of view imaging onto a hemispherical image surface, which can be coupled to conventional focal planes using fiber-bundle image transfer. We show the design and characterization of a 2-glass concentric F/1.0 lens, and describe integration of 5 Mpixel 1.75µm pitch back-side illuminated color CMOS sensors with 2.5µm pitch fiber bundles, then show the fiber-coupled lens compares favorably in both resolution and light collection to a 10x larger conventional F/4 wide angle photographic lens. We describe assembly of the monocentric lens and 6 adjacent sensors with focus optomechanics into an extremely compact 30Mpixel panoramic imager with a 126° "letterbox" format field of view. PMID:25607140

Stamenov, Igor; Arianpour, Ashkan; Olivas, Stephen J; Agurok, Ilya P; Johnson, Adam R; Stack, Ronald A; Morrison, Rick L; Ford, Joseph E

2014-12-29

27

Image-plane processing for improved computer vision  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proper combination of optical design with image plane processing, as in the mechanism of human vision, which allows to improve the performance of sensor array imaging systems for edge detection and location was examined. Two dimensional bandpass filtering during image formation, optimizes edge enhancement and minimizes data transmission. It permits control of the spatial imaging system response to tradeoff edge enhancement for sensitivity at low light levels. It is shown that most of the information, up to about 94%, is contained in the signal intensity transitions from which the location of edges is determined for raw primal sketches. Shading the lens transmittance to increase depth of field and using a hexagonal instead of square sensor array lattice to decrease sensitivity to edge orientation improves edge information about 10%.

Huck, F. O.; Fales, C. L.; Park, S. K.; Samms, R. W.

1984-01-01

28

Feature-aided multiple target tracking in the image plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vast quantities of EO and IR data are collected on airborne platforms (manned and unmanned) and terrestrial platforms (including fixed installations, e.g., at street intersections), and can be exploited to aid in the global war on terrorism. However, intelligent preprocessing is required to enable operator efficiency and to provide commanders with actionable target information. To this end, we have developed an image plane tracker which automatically detects and tracks multiple targets in image sequences using both motion and feature information. The effects of platform and camera motion are compensated via image registration, and a novel change detection algorithm is applied for accurate moving target detection. The contiguous pixel blob on each moving target is segmented for use in target feature extraction and model learning. Feature-based target location measurements are used for tracking through move-stop-move maneuvers, close target spacing, and occlusion. Effective clutter suppression is achieved using joint probabilistic data association (JPDA), and confirmed target tracks are indicated for further processing or operator review. In this paper we describe the algorithms implemented in the image plane tracker and present performance results obtained with video clips from the DARPA VIVID program data collection and from a miniature unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flight.

Brown, Andrew P.; Sullivan, Kevin J.; Miller, David J.

2006-05-01

29

Terahertz imaging with Si MOSFET focal-plane arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on imaging at terahertz frequencies using a 3x5 Si MOSFET focal-plane array (FPA) processed by a 0.25-?m CMOS technology. Each pixel of the FPA consists of a 645-GHz patch antenna coupled to a FET detector and a 43-dB voltage amplifier with a 1.6-MHz bandwidth. We achieve a typical single-pixel responsivity of 80 kV/W and a noise-equivalent power (NEP) of 300 pW/?Hz at 30-kHz. The performance data of these all-CMOS devices pave the way for the realization of broad-band THz detectors and FPAs for video-rate active imaging on the basis of established low-cost and integration-friendly CMOS technology.

Lisauskas, A.; Glaab, D.; Roskos, H. G.; Oejefors, E.; Pfeiffer, U. R.

2009-02-01

30

Advances in Focal Plane Wavefront Estimation for Directly Imaging Exoplanets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To image cold exoplanets directly in visible light, an instrument on a telescope needs to suppress starlight by about 9 orders of magnitude at small separations from the star. A coronagraph changes the point spread function to create regions of high contrast where exoplanets or disks can be seen. Aberrations on the optics degrade the contrast by several orders of magnitude, so all high-contrast imaging systems incorporate one or more deformable mirrors (DMs) to recover regions of high contrast. With a coronagraphic instrument planned for the WFIRST-AFTA space telescope, there is a pressing need for faster, more robust estimation and control schemes for the DMs. Non-common path aberrations limit conventional phase conjugation schemes to medium star-to-planet contrast ratios of about 1e-6. High-contrast imaging requires estimation and control of both phase and amplitude in the same beam path as the science camera. Field estimation is a challenge since only intensity is measured; the most common approach, including that planned for WFIRST-AFTA, is to use DMs to create diversity, via pairs of small probe shapes, thereby allowing disambiguation of the electric field. Most implementations of DM Diversity require at least five images per electric field estimate and require narrowband measurements. This paper describes our new estimation algorithms that improve the speed (by using fewer images) and bandwidth of focal plane wavefront estimation. For narrowband estimation, we are testing nonlinear, recursive algorithms such as an iterative extended Kalman filter (IEKF) to use three images each iteration and build better, more robust estimates. We are also exploring the use of broadband estimation without the need for narrowband sub-filters and measurements. Here we present simulations of these algorithms with realistic noise and small signals to show how they might perform for WFIRST-AFTA. Once validated in simulations, we will test these algorithms experimentally in Princeton's HCIL and in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL's) High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT). Developing these faster, more robust wavefront estimators is a crucial for increasing the science yield of the WFIRST-AFTA coronagraphic instrument.

Eldorado Riggs, A. J.; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Groff, Tyler Dean

2015-01-01

31

Multiplane transesophageal echocardiography. Imaging planes, echocardiographic anatomy, and clinical experience with a prototype phased array OmniPlane probe.  

PubMed

Multiplane transesophageal echocardiography is a new exciting development in echocardiography. We examined the methodology and echo-anatomic correlations of multiplane transesophageal echocardiography and its clinical applications in 100 patients. We used a 5-MHz phased array multiplane (OmniPlane) transesophageal probe. In this instrument, the transducer array can be steered through 180 degrees from any transducer location. This provides a vast assembly of imaging planes, allowing for detailed visualization of all dimensions of cardiac anatomy. This report presents our observations on the echocardiographic anatomy seen in various image planes and the unique clinical potential of multiplane transesophageal echocardiography in the diagnostic assessment of cardiovascular disorders. This technique appears to provide incremental diagnostic information that enhances the interpretative ability. Less esophageal probe manipulation is required with consequent decrease in patient discomfort. We conclude that multiplane transesophageal echocardiography enhances the versatility of transesophageal examination and offers many new avenues for developments such as three-dimensional echocardiography. PMID:10147803

Pandian, N G; Hsu, T L; Schwartz, S L; Weintraub, A; Cao, Q L; Schneider, A T; Gordon, G; England, M; Simonetti, J

1992-11-01

32

Combatting infrared focal plane array nonuniformity noise in imaging polarimeters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most significant challenges in performing infrared (IR) polarimetery is the focal plane array (FPA) nonuniformity (NU) noise that is inherent in virtually all IR photodetector technologies that operate in the midwave IR (MWIR) or long-wave IR (LWIR). NU noise results from pixel-to-pixel variations in the repsonsivity of the photodetectors. This problem is especially severy in the microengineered IR FPA materials like HgCdTe and InSb, as well as in uncooled IR microbolometer sensors. Such problems are largely absent from Si based visible spectrum FPAs. The pixel response is usually a variable nonlinear response function, and even when the response is linearized over some range of temperatures, the gain and offset of the resulting response is usually highly variable. NU noise is normally corrected by applying a linear calibration to the data, but the resulting imagery still retains residual nonuniformity due to the nonlinearity of the photodetector responses. This residual nonuniformity is particularly troublesome for polarimeters because of the addition and subtraction operations that must be performed on the images in order to construct the Stokes parameters or other polarization products. In this paper we explore the impact of NU noise on full stokes and linear-polarization-only IR polarimeters. We compare the performance of division of time, division of amplitude, and division of array polarimeters in the presence of both NU and temporal noise, and assess the ability of calibration-based NU correction schemes to clean up the data.

Ratliff, Bradley M.; Kumar, Rakesh; Black, Wiley; Boger, James K.; Tyo, J. Scott

2005-08-01

33

A novel design of focal plane array in PMMW imaging system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typical passive millimeter wave (PMMW) sensors with focal plane array (FPA) are placed on a rectangular grid to sample the image plane. Since the sensors must be made large enough to sense PMMW wavelengths, the sensor density that can be achieved is limited. In fact, the sensors may not be spaced closely enough to sample the image at Nyquist density.

Liang-chao Li; Jian-yu Yang; Zheng-mao Jiang; Xin Zheng

2008-01-01

34

Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome: imaging of small bowel lesions with peroral CT enterography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) is a rare entity that consists of multiple venous malformations involving several\\u000a organ systems, particularly the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. The diagnosis is based on clinical findings; however,\\u000a imaging is required to investigate the extent of involvement and complications. A 17-year-old patient, with multiple blue\\u000a skin nevus, was admitted to the emergency room

Senem Senturk; Aslan Bilici; Tugba Cezlan Miroglu; Senem Uysal Bilek

35

Broadly tunable UV-blue picosecond pulsed laser and its application for biological imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have achieved a rapid and random wavelength tuned picosecond pulsed laser and a widely tunable UV-blue picosecond pulsed\\u000a laser by using the intracavity second harmonic generation of the laser. The tuning range was from 384 to 434 nm with picosecond\\u000a pulse oscillation. In addition, we demonstrated biological imaging using a fluorescent protein excited by the widely tunable\\u000a UV-blue picosecond

Yasuhiro Maeda; Masaki Yumoto; Norihito Saito; Takayo Ogawa; Kazuo Kurokawa; Akihiko Nakano; Masafumi Yamashita; Satoshi Wada

2010-01-01

36

The CHROMA focal plane array: a large-format, low-noise detector optimized for imaging spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CHROMA (Configurable Hyperspectral Readout for Multiple Applications) is an advanced Focal Plane Array (FPA) designed for visible-infrared imaging spectroscopy. Using Teledyne's latest substrateremoved HgCdTe detector, the CHROMA FPA has very low dark current, low readout noise and high, stable quantum efficiency from the deep blue (390nm) to the cutoff wavelength. CHROMA has a pixel pitch of 30 microns and is available in array formats ranging from 320×480 to 1600×480 pixels. Users generally disperse spectra over the 480 pixel-length columns and image spatially over the n×160 pixellength rows, where n=2, 4, 8, 10. The CHROMA Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC) has Correlated Double Sampling (CDS) in pixel and generates its own internal bias signals and clocks. This paper presents the measured performance of the CHROMA FPA with 2.5 micron cutoff wavelength including the characterization of noise versus pixel gain, power dissipation and quantum efficiency.

Demers, Richard T.; Bailey, Robert; Beletic, James W.; Bernd, Steve; Bhargava, Sidharth; Herring, Jason; Kobrin, Paul; Lee, Donald; Pan, Jianmei; Petersen, Anders; Piquette, Eric; Starr, Brian; Yamamoto, Matthew; Zandian, Majid

2013-09-01

37

Breast imaging in coronal planes with simultaneous pulse echo and transmission ultrasound.  

PubMed

Clear delineation of breast architecture was achieved with compound pulse echo ultrasound imaging in which the images were acquired in the coronal planes used for quantitative transmission ultrasonic computed tomography. Since most connective tissue planes in the breast radiate toward the nipple, compound scans from the sides of the breast record normal interfaces more consistently and reveal greater symmetries in normal portions of relatively full breasts than do conventional scans in sagittal or transverse planes. Simultaneous acquisition of the pulse echo images and images representing the local ultrasound attenuation coefficient and speed of ultrasound suggested complementary role for reflection and through-transmission images in breast cancer detection. The high quality of pulse echo images in coronal planes provides the potential for more complete pulse echo diagnosis and the basis for spatial correlation of lesions viewed in pulse echo and ultrasonic computed tomograms. These observations may permit routine ultrasonic computed tomography of the breast in the clinical setting. PMID:7302585

Carson, P L; Meyer, C R; Scherzinger, A L; Oughton, T V

1981-12-01

38

The study on the image quality of varied line spacing plane grating by computer simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Varied line spacing plane gratings have the features of self-focusing , aberration-reduced and easy manufacturing ,which are widely applied in synchrotron radiation, plasma physics and space astronomy, and other fields. In the study of diffracting imaging , the optical path function is expanded into maclaurin series, aberrations are expressed by the coefficient of series, most of the aberration coefficients are similar and the category is more, can't directly reflects image quality in whole. The paper will study on diffraction imaging of the varied line spacing plane gratings by using computer simulation technology, for a method judging the image quality visibly. In this paper, light beam from some object points on the same object plane are analyzed and simulated by ray trace method , the evaluation function is set up, which can fully scale the image quality. In addition, based on the evaluation function, the best image plane is found by search algorithm .

Sun, Shouqiang; Zhang, Weiping; Liu, Lei; Yang, Qingyi

2014-11-01

39

Vectorial point spread function and optical transfer function in oblique plane imaging.  

PubMed

Oblique plane imaging, using remote focusing with a tilted mirror, enables direct two-dimensional (2D) imaging of any inclined plane of interest in three-dimensional (3D) specimens. It can image real-time dynamics of a living sample that changes rapidly or evolves its structure along arbitrary orientations. It also allows direct observations of any tilted target plane in an object of which orientational information is inaccessible during sample preparation. In this work, we study the optical resolution of this innovative wide-field imaging method. Using the vectorial diffraction theory, we formulate the vectorial point spread function (PSF) of direct oblique plane imaging. The anisotropic lateral resolving power caused by light clipping from the tilted mirror is theoretically analyzed for all oblique angles. We show that the 2D PSF in oblique plane imaging is conceptually different from the inclined 2D slice of the 3D PSF in conventional lateral imaging. Vectorial optical transfer function (OTF) of oblique plane imaging is also calculated by the fast Fourier transform (FFT) method to study effects of oblique angles on frequency responses. PMID:24921812

Kim, Jeongmin; Li, Tongcang; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

2014-05-01

40

Present and future status of flexible spectral imaging color enhancement and blue laser imaging technology.  

PubMed

The usefulness of flexible spectral imaging color enhancement (FICE) has been reported for evaluating the esophagus, stomach, and small and large intestine. Higher contrast is shown between cancer and the surrounding mucosa in the esophagus and stomach and may facilitate the detection of gastric cancers missed by white light imaging alone. The surface patterns of gastric mucosa are clearly visualized in non-malignant areas but are irregular and blurred in malignant areas, leading to clear demarcation. Capsule endoscopy with FICE detects angiodysplasia and erosions of the small intestine. The surface and vascular pattern with FICE is useful for the differential diagnosis of colorectal polyps. However, FICE remains somewhat poor at visualizing mucosal microvasculature on a tumor surface. Narrow-band imaging (NBI) is dark in observing whole gastric mucosa and poor at visualizing mucosal microstructure. Blue laser imaging (BLI) has the potential to resolve these limitations. Narrow-band laser light combined with white light shows irregular microvessels on both differentiated and undifferentiated gastric cancer similar to those using NBI. In addition, irregular surface patterns including minute white zones are clearly seen on the uneven surface of differentiated lesions, resulting in exclusion of undifferentiated lesions. Using both distant and close-up views, a high contrast between green intestinal metaplasia and brown gastric cancer may lead to early detection of gastric cancers and determination of a demarcation line. BLI produces high-contrast images in esophageal cancer with clear vision of intrapapillary capillary loops and also predicts the histopathological diagnosis and depth of invasion in colorectal neoplasms. PMID:24373002

Osawa, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Hironori

2014-01-01

41

Image interpolation and denoising for division of focal plane sensors using  

E-print Network

polarization imaging employ four different pixelated polarization filters, commonly referred to as division, 1710­721 (2014). #12;5. V. Gruev, R. Perkins, and T. Yor, "Ccd polarization imaging sensor division-of-focal-plane polarization imaging sensor," Journal of Biomedical Optics 17, 116001

Columbia University

42

A hyperspectral images compression algorithm based on 3D bit plane transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

According the analyses of the hyper-spectral images, a new compression algorithm based on 3-D bit plane transform is proposed. The spectral coefficient is higher than the spatial. The algorithm is proposed to overcome the shortcoming of 1-D bit plane transform for it can only reduce the correlation when the neighboring pixels have similar values. The algorithm calculates the horizontal, vertical

Lei Zhang; Libin Xiang; Sam Zhang; Shengxue Quan

2010-01-01

43

The application of digital image plane holography technology to identify Chinese herbal medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the imaging technology of digital image plane holography to identify the Chinese herbal medicine is studied. The optical experiment system of digital image plane holography which is the special case of pre-magnification digital holography was built. In the record system, one is an object light by using plane waves which illuminates the object, and the other one is recording hologram by using spherical light wave as reference light. There is a Micro objective lens behind the object. The second phase factor which caus ed by the Micro objective lens can be eliminated by choosing the proper position of the reference point source when digital image plane holography is recorded by spherical light. In this experiment, we use the Lygodium cells and Onion cells as the object. The experiment results with Lygodium cells and Onion cells show that digital image plane holography avoid the process of finding recording distance by using auto-focusing approach, and the phase information of the object can be reconstructed more accurately. The digital image plane holography is applied to the microscopic imaging of cells more effectively, and it is suit to apply for the identify of Chinese Herbal Medicine. And it promotes the application of digital holographic in practice.

Wang, Huaying; Guo, Zhongjia; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Zhihui

2011-11-01

44

The application of digital image plane holography technology to identify Chinese herbal medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the imaging technology of digital image plane holography to identify the Chinese herbal medicine is studied. The optical experiment system of digital image plane holography which is the special case of pre-magnification digital holography was built. In the record system, one is an object light by using plane waves which illuminates the object, and the other one is recording hologram by using spherical light wave as reference light. There is a Micro objective lens behind the object. The second phase factor which caus ed by the Micro objective lens can be eliminated by choosing the proper position of the reference point source when digital image plane holography is recorded by spherical light. In this experiment, we use the Lygodium cells and Onion cells as the object. The experiment results with Lygodium cells and Onion cells show that digital image plane holography avoid the process of finding recording distance by using auto-focusing approach, and the phase information of the object can be reconstructed more accurately. The digital image plane holography is applied to the microscopic imaging of cells more effectively, and it is suit to apply for the identify of Chinese Herbal Medicine. And it promotes the application of digital holographic in practice.

Wang, Huaying; Guo, Zhongjia; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Zhihui

2012-03-01

45

NIR-green-blue high-resolution digital images for assessement of winter cover crop biomass  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many small unmanned aerial systems use true-color digital cameras for remote sensing. For some cameras, only the red channel is sensitive to near-infrared (NIR) light; we attached a custom red-blocking filter to a digital camera to obtain NIR-green-blue digital images. One advantage of this low-co...

46

Uncooled bolometer-type Terahertz focal plane array and camera for real-time imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time Terahertz (THz) imaging technologies which make use of uncooled bolometer-type infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) and quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) will be reviewed. A description of how THz focal plane array and THz imagers have been developed on the basis of infrared technologies, especially the improvement in both THz sensitivity of bolometer-type FPA and THz transmittance of materials for

Naoki Oda

2010-01-01

47

Theoretical analysis of curved Bragg diffraction images from plane wave reference volume holograms.  

PubMed

We analyze the shape of Bragg diffraction images from plane wave reference volume holograms in a 4-f geometry. When the volume hologram is probed by out-of-plane probe beams, the diffraction images become curved lines. Exploiting the k-sphere formulation and Fourier optics analysis, we present both geometrical and analytical solutions of the curved shape, which are distorted ellipses. Parameters and conditions related to the curvature are characterized, and experimental evidence is presented. PMID:19881666

Oh, Se Baek; Watson, Jonathan M; Barbastathis, George

2009-11-01

48

Rapid three-dimensional isotropic imaging of living cells using Bessel beam plane illumination  

PubMed Central

A key challenge when imaging living cells is how to noninvasively extract the most spatiotemporal information possible. Unlike popular wide-field and confocal methods, plane-illumination microscopy limits excitation to the information-rich vicinity of the focal plane, providing effective optical sectioning and high speed while minimizing out-of-focus background and premature photobleaching. Here we used scanned Bessel beams in conjunction with structured illumination and/or two-photon excitation to create thinner light sheets (<0.5 ?m) better suited to three-dimensional (3D) subcellular imaging. As demonstrated by imaging the dynamics of mitochondria, filopodia, membrane ruffles, intracellular vesicles and mitotic chromosomes in live cells, the microscope currently offers 3D isotropic resolution down to ~0.3 ?m, speeds up to nearly 200 image planes per second and the ability to noninvasively acquire hundreds of 3D data volumes from single living cells encompassing tens of thousands of image frames. PMID:21378978

Planchon, Thomas A; Gao, Liang; Milkie, Daniel E; Davidson, Michael W; Galbraith, James A; Galbraith, Catherine G; Betzig, Eric

2012-01-01

49

Optical section imaging of the tilted planes by illumination-angle-scanning digital interference holography.  

PubMed

A new method of optical imaging that can generate the section images of arbitrarily tilted planes has been developed from illumination-angle-scanning digital interference holography. A set of complex object fields are reconstructed from the holograms captured as the illumination angle is varied with uniform intervals. After the complex fields are modified with phase ramps that match the tilt (relative to the hologram plane) of a desired observation plane, the image of the object sliced along the tilted plane is obtained from their superposition. The axial resolution of a system employing this method is measured with a step height standard, and it is applied to the tomographic inspection of a microelectromechanical system. PMID:20856285

Jeon, Yunseong; Hong, Chung Ki

2010-09-20

50

Quantitative Characterization of Super-Resolution Infrared Imaging Based on Time-Varying Focal Plane Coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution infrared image has been the goal of an infrared imaging system. In this paper, a super-resolution infrared imaging method using time-varying coded mask is proposed based on focal plane coding and compressed sensing theory. The basic idea of this method is to set a coded mask on the focal plane of the optical system, and the same scene could be sampled many times repeatedly by using time-varying control coding strategy, the super-resolution image is further reconstructed by sparse optimization algorithm. The results of simulation are quantitatively evaluated by introducing the Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), which illustrate that the effect of compressed measurement coefficient r and coded mask resolution m on the reconstructed image quality. Research results show that the proposed method will promote infrared imaging quality effectively, which will be helpful for the practical design of new type of high resolution ! infrared imaging systems.

Wang, X.; Yuan, Y.; Zhang, J.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, Y.

2014-10-01

51

Iterative phase-amplitude retrieval with multiple intensity images at output plane of gyrator transforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the iterative phase retrieval, multiple measured intensity images in output plane are only considered for accelerating the convergence. The amplitude and phase at the observed object plane of measurement system are unknown in this research. The observing system is composed of gyrator transform, in which several images are recorded by using several transform angles for the same input image. An amplitude-phase retrieval scheme is designed and tested. The numerical simulations have demonstrated that the amplitude and phase pattern within a very small error (less than 0.04 and 0.0005 for an 8-bit two-dimensional data) can be recovered after 1000 iterations.

Liu, Zhengjun; Guo, Cheng; Tan, Jiubin; Wu, Qun; Pan, Liqiang; Liu, Shutian

2015-02-01

52

Subelectron readout noise focal plane arrays for space imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Readout noise levels of under 1 electron have long been a goal for the FPA community. In the quest to enhance the FPA sensitivity, various approaches have been attempted ranging from the exotic Photo-multiplier tubes, Image Intensifier tubes, Avalanche photo diodes, and now the on-chip avalanche charge amplification technologies from the CCD manufacturers. While these techniques reduce the readout noise,

Gene Atlas; Mark Wadsworth

2004-01-01

53

Full-color image-plane holographic video display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we have investigated real time calculation and display optics of full color hologram with full parallax. In our previous study, full color hologram was realized as the rainbow hologram which discards vertical parallax to reduce computation complexity. Since the color of the reconstructed image changes when observer moves to the vertical direction even a little, proper color reproduction can be obtained only from narrow viewing area. And this hologram has horizontal parallax only. In this study, we employ the image hologram for better color reproduction and full parallax reconstruction. When we calculate the image hologram, we use the virtual window to reduce the calculation amount. By using the virtual window, we could achieve 253 times faster the calculation speed compare with Fresnel hologram using the difference method. The full color hologram is displayed on the holographic television (HoloTV), which uses a part of original optics and LCoS panels of the conventional video projector (Cannon POWERPROJECTOR SX50) to separate and combine color components. From experimental results, computational speed of the full-color image hologram is almost same as the full-color rainbow hologram and color reproduction is better than that of the rainbow hologram. We also could achieve to reconstruct good quality animation.

Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Okabe, Gen; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi

2007-02-01

54

Magnetic resonance imaging of the thorax: the advantages of coronal and sagittal planes  

SciTech Connect

A major advantage of MRI of the thorax is its ability to display sagittal and coronal planes without relying on cumbersome patient positioning or reformatting of multiple transverse slices as in CT. The vertical orientation of viscera and vessels within the mediastinum is ideally suited to imaging in these planes, which may be considered analogous to the standard radiographic posteroanterior (PA) and lateral views of the chest. Since radiologists and clinicians alike are thoroughly familiar with thoracic anatomay in these planes, it would seem desirable to adopt coronal and sagittal MR images as the standard projections for MRI of the thorax, reserving axial and oblique projections for situations in which they may provide additional information. To this end, the authors describe normal sagittal and coronal anatomy of the thorax and illustrate some examples of pathology in these planes.

O'Donovan, P.B.; Ross, J.S.; Sivak, E.D.; O'Donnell, J.K.; Meaney, T.F.

1984-12-01

55

A hyperspectral images compression algorithm based on 3D bit plane transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According the analyses of the hyper-spectral images, a new compression algorithm based on 3-D bit plane transform is proposed. The spectral coefficient is higher than the spatial. The algorithm is proposed to overcome the shortcoming of 1-D bit plane transform for it can only reduce the correlation when the neighboring pixels have similar values. The algorithm calculates the horizontal, vertical and spectral bit plane transform sequentially. As the spectral bit plane transform, the algorithm can be easily realized by hardware. In addition, because the calculation and encoding of the transform matrix of each bit are independent, the algorithm can be realized by parallel computing model, which can improve the calculation efficiency and save the processing time greatly. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves improved compression performance. With a certain compression ratios, the algorithm satisfies requirements of hyper-spectral images compression system, by efficiently reducing the cost of computation and memory usage.

Zhang, Lei; Xiang, Libin; Zhang, Sam; Quan, Shengxue

2010-10-01

56

A blue optical filter for narrow-band imaging in endoscopic capsules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the design, simulation, fabrication, and characterization of a thin-film Fabry-Perot resonator composed of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) thin-films. The optical filter is developed to be integrated with a light emitting diode (LED) for enabling narrow-band imaging (NBI) in endoscopy. The NBI is a high resolution imaging technique that uses spectrally centered blue light (415 nm) and green light (540 nm) to illuminate the target tissue. The light at 415 nm enhances the imaging of superficial veins due to their hemoglobin absorption, while the light at 540 nm penetrates deeper into the mucosa, thus enhances the sub-epithelial vessels imaging. Typically the endoscopes and endoscopic capsules use white light for acquiring images of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. However, implementing the NBI technique in endoscopic capsules enhances their capabilities for the clinical applications. A commercially available blue LED with a maximum peak intensity at 404 nm and Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM) of 20 nm is integrated with a narrow band blue filter as the NBI light source. The thin film simulations show a maximum spectral transmittance of 36 %, that is centered at 415 nm with FWHM of 13 nm for combined the blue LED and a Fabry Perot resonator system. A custom made deposition scheme was developed for the fabrication of the blue optical filter by RF sputtering. RF powered reactive sputtering at 200 W with the gas flows of argon and oxygen that are controlled for a 5:1 ratio gives the optimum optical conditions for TiO2 thin films. For SiO2 thin films, a non-reactive RF sputtering at 150 W with argon gas flow at 15 sccm results in the best optical performance. The TiO2 and SiO2 thin films were fully characterized by an ellipsometer in the wavelength range between 250 nm to 1600 nm. Finally, the optical performance of the blue optical filter is measured and presented.

Silva, M. F.; Ghaderi, M.; Goncalves, L. M.; de Graaf, G.; Wolffenbuttel, R. F.; Correia, J. H.

2014-05-01

57

640x512 InGaAs focal plane array camera for visible and SWIR imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on our 640x512 pixel InGaAs\\/InP focal plane array camera for visible and short-wavelength infrared imaging. For this camera, we have fabricated a 640x512 element substrate-removed backside-illuminated InGaAs\\/InP photodiode array (PDA) with a 25 mm pixel pitch. The PDA is indium bump bonded to a silicon read out integrated circuit. Removing the InP substrate from the focal plane array

Tara Martin; Robert Brubaker; Peter Dixon; Mari-Anne Gagliardi; Tom Sudol

2005-01-01

58

Simple 3-D Image Synthesis Techniques From Serial Planes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several techniques now well established in computer graphics and graphic animation are combined in this work to develop a realistic presentation of anatomic structures. A rudimentary type of ray tracing is implemented for routine clinical CT exams. In particular, we describe our method in the context of a standardized cross-reference set of multiplanar reformatted CT pictures. In addition, an image coherence technique is briefly outlined that speeds rendering of a series of 3-D views. This paper describes a method by which object surface information from an existing view is used to help predict where ray tracing can begin to search for ray object intersections in the subsequent view. This method is shown to reduce the computational expense of finding ray-object intersections by beginning this search in the proximity of object surfaces. Finally, we have casted shadows in the scene of objects rendered by our method. Several example images illustrate our results.

Rhodes, Michael L.; Kuo, Yu-Ming

1988-06-01

59

Pupil imaging with a high sensitivity, LWIR focal plane array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an integrated sensor assembly serving as both a component technology demonstration and a potential means of detecting distant point sources of infrared radiation. The objective of the demonstration was to show that usefully long integration times could be achieved with a low-background and well capacity, LWIR focal plane array optimized for use with cooled optics in space. The system controls extraneous background radiation with a small (150 ?m) cooled pinhole that nevertheless transmits all the radiation of a point source collected by the fore-optic. Broad waveband response (~3 to 12 ?m) results from optimization of the fore-optic for both MW and LWIR, as well as from a broadband anti-reflection coating on the field lens that is used at the pinhole to reimage the entrance aperture and its surrounding cold stop. Integration times in excess of 10 msec have been achieved for room temperature backgrounds with the FPA cold stage operated at 50 Kelvin, and noise performance has been bracketed with single frames of data collected over several integration times and over several minutes duration. However, anomalous signal behavior has been observed as the temperature of a remote blackbody increases. Although operation to date has been with a lower operability, engineering grade FPA, plans are to eventually upgrade to a higher quality device.

LeVan, Paul D.; Hubbs, John E.; Pratt, Quinn T.

2014-10-01

60

NESP: Nonlinear enhancement and selection of plane for optimal segmentation and recognition of scene word images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report a breakthrough result on the difficult task of segmentation and recognition of coloured text from the word image dataset of ICDAR robust reading competition challenge 2: reading text in scene images. We split the word image into individual colour, gray and lightness planes and enhance the contrast of each of these planes independently by a power-law transform. The discrimination factor of each plane is computed as the maximum between-class variance used in Otsu thresholding. The plane that has maximum discrimination factor is selected for segmentation. The trial version of Omnipage OCR is then used on the binarized words for recognition. Our recognition results on ICDAR 2011 and ICDAR 2003 word datasets are compared with those reported in the literature. As baseline, the images binarized by simple global and local thresholding techniques were also recognized. The word recognition rate obtained by our non-linear enhancement and selection of plance method is 72.8% and 66.2% for ICDAR 2011 and 2003 word datasets, respectively. We have created ground-truth for each image at the pixel level to benchmark these datasets using a toolkit developed by us. The recognition rate of benchmarked images is 86.7% and 83.9% for ICDAR 2011 and 2003 datasets, respectively.

Kumar, Deepak; Anil Prasad, M. N.; Ramakrishnan, A. G.

2013-01-01

61

Large-format InGaAs focal plane arrays for SWIR imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FLIR Electro Optical Components will present our latest developments in large InGaAs focal plane arrays, which are used for low light level imaging in the short wavelength infrared (SWIR) regime. FLIR will present imaging from their latest small pitch (15 ?m) focal plane arrays in VGA and High Definition (HD) formats. FLIR will present characterization of the FPA including dark current measurements as well as the use of correlated double sampling to reduce read noise. FLIR will show imagery as well as FPA-level characterization data.

Hood, Andrew D.; MacDougal, Michael H.; Manzo, Juan; Follman, David; Geske, Jonathan C.

2012-06-01

62

Image plane detector spectrophotometer - Application to O2 atmospheric band nightglow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new variety of low resolution spectrometer is described. This device, an image plane detector spectrophotometer, has high sensitivity and modest resolution sufficient to determine the rotational temperature and brightness of molecular band emissions. It uses an interference filter as a dispersive element and a multichannel image plane detector as the photon collecting device. The data analysis technqiue used to recover the temperature of the emitter and the emission brightness is presented. The atmospheric band of molecular oxygen is used to illustrate the use of the device.

Luo, Mingzhao; Yee, Jeng-Hwa; Hays, Paul B.

1988-01-01

63

HST images of very compact blue galaxies at z approximately 0.2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the results of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide-Field Camera (WFC) imaging of seven very compact, very blue galaxies with B less than or equal to 21 and redshifts z approximately 0.1 to 0.35. Based on deconvolved images, we estimate typical half-light diameters of approximately 0.65 sec, corresponding to approximately 1.4 h(exp -1) kpc at redshifts z approximately 0.2. The average rest frame surface brightness within this diameter is mu(sub v) approximately 20.5 mag arcsec(exp -2), approximately 1 mag brighter than that of typical late-type blue galaxies. Ground-based spectra show strong, narrow emission lines indicating high ionization; their very blue colors suggest recent bursts of star-formation; their typical luminosities are approximately 4 times fainter than that of field galaxies. These characteristics suggest H II galaxies as likely local counterparts of our sample, though our most luminous targets appear to be unusually compact for their luminosities.

Koo, David C.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Wirth, Gregory D.; Stanford, S. Adam; Majewski, Steven R.

1994-01-01

64

The CFA BATSE IMAGE SEARCH (CBIS) as used for a Galactic plane survey  

SciTech Connect

The CFA BATSE IMAGE SEARCH (CBIS) system allows automated analysis of large sets of BATSE images. CBIS is being used to conduct a deep survey of the Galactic plane to search for faint transients ({approx}100 mCrab) in the archival data [2]. Furthermore, together with the earth occultation technique [3], CBIS is now applied to a real time imaging survey of the plane to discover new transients and monitor known sources. The CBIS processing is made of two sequential steps: First, the images are scanned to search for excesses. Second, the positions of all these excesses are cross-correlated to produce a list of candidate sources. In this paper, we will detail the algorithms of the scanner and the cross-correlator.

Barret, D. [Centre d'Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, CNRS-UPS, Toulouse (France); Grindlay, J. E.; Bloser, P. F.; Monnelly, G. P. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Maryland (United States); Harmon, B. A. [Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama (United States); Robinson, C. R.; Zhang, S. N. [Universities Space Research Association, Huntsville, Alabama (United States)

1997-05-10

65

Identification and classification of chemicals using terahertz reflective spectroscopic focal-plane imaging system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present terahertz (THz) reflective spectroscopic focal-plane imaging of four explosive and bio-chemical materials (2, 4-DNT, Theophylline, RDX and Glutamic Acid) at a standoff imaging distance of 0.4 m. The 2 dimension (2-D) nature of this technique enables a fast acquisition time and is very close to a camera-like operation, compared to the most commonly used point emission-detection and raster

Hua Zhong; Albert Redo-Sanchez; X.-C. Zhang

2006-01-01

66

Significant bit-plane clustering technique for JPEG2000 image coding  

E-print Network

Significant bit-plane clustering technique for JPEG2000 image coding T.T. Lu and P.C. Chang The bit of JPEG2000, which results in an improvement of 6.88% bit- rate reduction at 0.1 bpp on average over JPEG2000. Introduction: The JPEG2000 standard [1] has shown better perfor- mance than the widely used JPEG

Chang, Pao-Chi

67

Chemical imaging of cotton fibers using an infrared microscope and a focal-plane array detector  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this presentation, the chemical imaging of cotton fibers with an infrared microscope and a Focal-Plane Array (FPA) detector will be discussed. Infrared spectroscopy can provide us with information on the structure and quality of cotton fibers. In addition, FPA detectors allow for simultaneous spe...

68

Photo-acoustic imaging of blue nanoparticle targeted brain tumor for intra-operative glioma delineation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distinguishing the tumor from the background neo-plastic tissue is challenging for cancer surgery such as surgical resection of glioma. Attempts have been made to use visible or fluorescent markers to delineate the tumors during surgery. However, the systemic injection of the dyes requires high dose, resulting in negative side effects. A novel method to delineate rat brain tumors intra-operatively, as well as post-operatively, using a highly sensitive photoacoustic imaging technique enhanced by tumor targeting blue nanoparticle as contrast agent is demonstrated. The nanoparticles are made of polyacrylamide (PAA) matrix with covalently linked Coomassie-Blue dye. They contain 7.0% dye and the average size is 80nm. Their surface was conjugated with F3 peptide for active tumor targeting. These nanoparticles are nontoxic, chemically inert and have long plasma circulation lifetime, making them suitable as nanodevices for imaging using photoacoustics. Experiments on phantoms and rat brains tumors ex-vivo demonstrate the high sensitivity of photoacoustic imaging in delineating the tumor, containing contrast agent at concentrations too low to be visualized by eye. The control tumors without nanoparticles did not show any enhanced signal. This study shows that photoacoustic imaging facilitated with the nanoparticle contrast agent could contribute to future surgical procedures for glioma.

Ray, Aniruddha; Wang, Xueding; Koo Lee, Yong-Eun; Hah, HoeJin; Kim, Gwangseong; Chen, Thomas; Orrienger, Daniel; Sagher, Oren; Kopelman, Raoul

2011-07-01

69

Learning-based scan plane identification from fetal head ultrasound images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acquisition of a clinically acceptable scan plane is a pre-requisite for ultrasonic measurement of anatomical features from B-mode images. In obstetric ultrasound, measurement of gestational age predictors, such as biparietal diameter and head circumference, is performed at the level of the thalami and cavum septum pelucidi. In an accurate scan plane, the head can be modeled as an ellipse, the thalami looks like a butterfly, the cavum appears like an empty box and the falx is a straight line along the major axis of a symmetric ellipse inclined either parallel to or at small angles to the probe surface. Arriving at the correct probe placement on the mother's belly to obtain an accurate scan plane is a task of considerable challenge especially for a new user of ultrasound. In this work, we present a novel automated learning-based algorithm to identify an acceptable fetal head scan plane. We divide the problem into cranium detection and a template matching to capture the composite "butterfly" structure present inside the head, which mimics the visual cues used by an expert. The algorithm uses the stateof- the-art Active Appearance Models techniques from the image processing and computer vision literature and tie them to presence or absence of the inclusions within the head to automatically compute a score to represent the goodness of a scan plane. This automated technique can be potentially used to train and aid new users of ultrasound.

Liu, Xiaoming; Annangi, Pavan; Gupta, Mithun; Yu, Bing; Padfield, Dirk; Banerjee, Jyotirmoy; Krishnan, Kajoli

2012-03-01

70

Spatially isotropic four-dimensional imaging with dual-view plane illumination microscopy  

PubMed Central

Optimal four-dimensional imaging requires high spatial resolution in all dimensions, high speed and minimal photobleaching and damage. We developed a dual-view, plane illumination microscope with improved spatiotemporal resolution by switching illumination and detection between two perpendicular objectives in an alternating duty cycle. Computationally fusing the resulting volumetric views provides an isotropic resolution of 330 nm. As the sample is stationary and only two views are required, we achieve an imaging speed of 200 images/s (i.e., 0.5 s for a 50-plane volume). Unlike spinning-disk confocal or Bessel beam methods, which illuminate the sample outside the focal plane, we maintain high spatiotemporal resolution over hundreds of volumes with negligible photobleaching. To illustrate the ability of our method to study biological systems that require high-speed volumetric visualization and/or low photobleaching, we describe microtubule tracking in live cells, nuclear imaging over 14 h during nematode embryogenesis and imaging of neural wiring during Caenorhabditis elegans brain development over 5 h. PMID:24108093

Wu, Yicong; Wawrzusin, Peter; Senseney, Justin; Fischer, Robert S; Christensen, Ryan; Santella, Anthony; York, Andrew G; Winter, Peter W; Waterman, Clare M; Bao, Zhirong; Colón-Ramos, Daniel A; McAuliffe, Matthew; Shroff, Hari

2014-01-01

71

Out-of-plane light-scattering polarimetric imaging of a thread surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel polarimetric measurement based on hemispherical light-scattering for the assessment of superficial screw is presented. The optical system is capable of capturing polarized light images. The effect of the thread surface backscattering is estimated with the use of in-plane and out-of-plane illumination. The angular distributions of polarized light scattered by the ISO metric screws are measured for light incident from a green laser. A partial Stokes vector imaging detector is mounted on a motorized rotating arm at an oblique angle to the sample normal and consists of a 10-bit scientific camera, an object lens, and a polarizer. The partial Stokes vector images of light scattered towards the camera are generated for each direction and a useful decomposition of the partial Stokes vector is presented. The thread surface effects can be minimized using out-of-plane polarized illumination in conjunction with polarized images. The experimental result may provide a new polarized imaging technique for using visible light to inspect the key features of a screw in automated optical inspection system.

Liu, Cheng-Yang; Chang, Li-Jen

2014-12-01

72

Maximum likelihood blind image separation using nonsymmetrical half-plane Markov random fields.  

PubMed

This paper presents a maximum likelihood approach for blindly separating linear instantaneous mixtures of images. The spatial autocorrelation within each image is described using nonsymmetrical half-plane (NSHP) Markov random fields in order to simplify the joint probability density functions of the source images. A first implementation assuming stationary sources is presented. It is then extended to a more realistic nonstationary image model: two approaches, respectively based on blocking and kernel smoothing, are proposed to cope with the nonstationarity of the images. The estimation of the mixing matrix is performed using an iterative equivariant version of the Newton-Raphson algorithm. Moreover, score functions, required for the computation of the updating rule, are approximated at each iteration by parametric polynomial estimators. Results achieved with artificial mixtures of both artificial and real-world images, including an astrophysical application, clearly prove the high performance of our methods, as compared to classical algorithms. PMID:19596636

Guidara, Rima; Hosseini, Shahram; Deville, Yannick

2009-11-01

73

Design of a multi-spectral TDICCD focal plane imaging and processing system based on FPGA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-spectral time delay and integration charge couple device(TDICCD) focal plane imaging and processing system is introduced in this paper. FPGA is the core logic control of the system. The main hardware component of the system and the implementation method of FPGA are described and the diagrams of main modules are presented. Software workflow and a variety of image processing methods are also given. Test results show that the design achieves data transfer speed of 4.48Gbps and realizes real-time processing of image for high-speed multi-channel TDICCD camera so that meets the system requirement.

Zhai, Guo-fang; Zhang, Jing-jing; Wang, Dong; Han, Zhi-xue; Cheng, Yun

2014-11-01

74

Electric Field Reconstruction in the Image Plane of a High-Contrast Coronagraph Using a Set of Pinholes around the Lyot Plane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a setup similar to the self coherent camera, we have added a set of pinholes in the diffraction ring of the Lyot plane in a high-contrast stellar Lyot coronagraph. We describe a novel complex electric field reconstruction from image plane intensity measurements consisting of light in the coronagraph's dark hole interfering with light from the pinholes. The image plane field is modified by letting light through one pinhole at a time. In addition to estimation of the field at the science camera, this method allows for self-calibration of the probes by letting light through the pinholes in various permutations while blocking the main Lyot opening. We present results of estimation and calibration from the High Contrast Imaging Testbed along with a comparison to the pair-wise deformable mirror diversity based estimation technique. Tests are carried out in narrow-band light and over a composite 10% bandpass.

Giveona, Amir; Shaklan, Stuart; Kern, Brian; Noecker, Charley; Kendrick, Steve; Wallace, Kent

2012-01-01

75

Image interpolation and denoising for division of focal plane sensors using Gaussian processes.  

PubMed

Image interpolation and denoising are important techniques in image processing. These methods are inherent to digital image acquisition as most digital cameras are composed of a 2D grid of heterogeneous imaging sensors. Current polarization imaging employ four different pixelated polarization filters, commonly referred to as division of focal plane polarization sensors. The sensors capture only partial information of the true scene, leading to a loss of spatial resolution as well as inaccuracy of the captured polarization information. Interpolation is a standard technique to recover the missing information and increase the accuracy of the captured polarization information. Here we focus specifically on Gaussian process regression as a way to perform a statistical image interpolation, where estimates of sensor noise are used to improve the accuracy of the estimated pixel information. We further exploit the inherent grid structure of this data to create a fast exact algorithm that operates in ????(N(3/2)) (vs. the naive ???? (N³)), thus making the Gaussian process method computationally tractable for image data. This modeling advance and the enabling computational advance combine to produce significant improvements over previously published interpolation methods for polarimeters, which is most pronounced in cases of low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We provide the comprehensive mathematical model as well as experimental results of the GP interpolation performance for division of focal plane polarimeter. PMID:24977618

Gilboa, Elad; Cunningham, John P; Nehorai, Arye; Gruev, Viktor

2014-06-16

76

Comparison of kinoform synthesis methods for image reconstruction in Fourier plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kinoform is synthesized phase diffractive optical element which allows to reconstruct image by its illumination with plane wave. Kinoforms are used in image processing systems. For tasks of kinoform synthesis iterative methods had become wide-spread because of relatively small error of resulting intensity distribution. There are articles in which two or three iterative methods are compared but they use only one or several test images. The goal of this work is to compare iterative methods by using many test images of different types. Images were reconstructed in Fourier plane from synthesized kinoforms displayed on phase-only LCOS SLM. Quality of reconstructed images and computational resources of the methods were analyzed. For kinoform synthesis four methods were implemented in programming environment: Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (GS), Fienup algorithm (F), adaptive-additive algorithm (AA) and Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm with weight coefficients (GSW). To compare these methods 50 test images with different characteristics were used: binary and grayscale, contour and non-contour. Resolution of images varied from 64×64 to 1024×1024. Occupancy of images ranged from 0.008 to 0.89. Quantity of phase levels of synthesized kinoforms was 256 which is equal to number of phase levels of SLM LCOS HoloEye PLUTO VIS. Under numerical testing it was found that the best quality of reconstructed images provides the AA method. The GS, F and GSW methods showed worse results but roughly similar between each other. Execution time of single iteration of the analyzed methods is minimal for the GS method. The F method provides maximum execution time. Synthesized kinoforms were optically reconstructed using phase-only LCOS SLM HoloEye PLUTO VIS. Results of optical reconstruction were compared to the numerical ones. The AA method showed slightly better results than other methods especially in case of gray-scale images.

Cheremkhin, Pavel A.; Evtikhiev, Nikolay N.; Krasnov, Vitaly V.; Porshneva, Liudmila A.; Rodin, Vladislav G.; Starikov, Sergey N.

2014-05-01

77

Exoplanet detection with simultaneous spectral differential imaging: effects of out-of-pupil-plane optical aberrations  

SciTech Connect

Imaging faint companions (exoplanets and brown dwarfs) around nearby stars is currently limited by speckle noise. To efficiently attenuate this noise, a technique called simultaneous spectral differential imaging (SSDI) can be used. This technique consists of acquiring simultaneously images of the field of view in several adjacent narrow bands and in combining these images to suppress speckles. Simulations predict that SSDI can achieve, with the acquisition of three wavelengths, speckle noise attenuation of several thousands. These simulations are usually performed using the Fraunhofer approximation, i.e. considering that all aberrations are located in the pupil plane. We have performed wavefront propagation simulations to evaluate how out-of-pupil-plane aberrations affect SSDI speckle noise attenuation performance. The Talbot formalism is used to give a physical insight of the problem; results are confirmed using a proper wavefront propagation algorithm. We will show that near-focal-plane aberrations can significantly reduce SSDI speckle noise attenuation performance at several {lambda}/D separation. It is also shown that the Talbot effect correctly predicts the PSF chromaticity. Both differential atmospheric refraction effects and the use of a coronagraph will be discussed.

Marois, C; Phillion, D W; Macintosh, B

2006-05-02

78

Exoplanet detection with simultaneous spectral differential imaging: effects of out-of-pupil-plane optical aberrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging faint companions (exoplanets and brown dwarfs) around nearby stars is currently limited by speckle noise. To efficiently attenuate this noise, a technique called simultaneous spectral differential imaging (SSDI) can be used. This technique consists of acquiring simultaneously images of the field of view in several adjacent narrow bands and in combining these images to suppress speckles. Simulations predict that SSDI can achieve, with the acquisition of three wavelengths, speckle noise attenuation of several thousands. These simulations are usually performed using the Fraunhofer approximation, i.e. considering that all aberrations are located in the pupil plane. We have performed wavefront propagation simulations to evaluate how out-of-pupil-plane aberrations affect SSDI speckle noise attenuation performance. The Talbot formalism is used to give a physical insight of the problem; results are confirmed using a proper wavefront propagation algorithm. We will show that near-focal-plane aberrations can significantly reduce SSDI speckle noise attenuation performance at several ?/D separation. It is also shown that the Talbot effect correctly predicts the PSF chromaticity. Both differential atmospheric refraction effects and the use of a coronagraph will be discussed.

Marois, Christian; Phillion, Don W.; Macintosh, Bruce

2006-06-01

79

Sentinel lymph nodes detection with an imaging system using Patent Blue V dye as fluorescent tracer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the gold standard to detect metastatic invasion from primary breast cancer. This method can help patients avoid full axillary chain dissection, thereby decreasing the risk of morbidity. We propose an alternative to the traditional isotopic method, to detect and map the sentinel lymph nodes. Indeed, Patent Blue V is the most widely used dye in clinical routine for the visual detection of sentinel lymph nodes. A Recent study has shown the possibility of increasing the fluorescence quantum yield of Patent Blue V, when it is bound to human serum albumin. In this study we present a preclinical fluorescence imaging system to detect sentinel lymph nodes labeled with this fluorescent tracer. The setup is composed of a black and white CCD camera and two laser sources. One excitation source with a laser emitting at 635 nm and a second laser at 785 nm to illuminate the region of interest. The prototype is operated via a laptop. Preliminary experiments permitted to determine the device sensitivity in the ?mol.L-1 range as regards the detection of PBV fluorescence signals. We also present a preclinical evaluation performed on Lewis rats, during which the fluorescence imaging setup detected the accumulation and fixation of the fluorescent dye on different nodes through the skin.

Tellier, F.; Steibel, J.; Chabrier, R.; Rodier, J. F.; Pourroy, G.; Poulet, P.

2013-03-01

80

Near Real-Time Imaging of the Galactic Plane with BATSE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The discovery of new transient or persistent sources in the hard X-ray regime with the BATSE Earth occultation Technique has been limited previously to bright sources of about 200 mCrab or more. While monitoring known source locations is not a problem to a daily limiting sensitivity of about 75 mCrab, the lack of a reliable background model forces us to use more intensive computer techniques to find weak, previously unknown emission from hard X-ray/gamma sources. The combination of Radon transform imaging of the galactic plane in 10 by 10 degree fields and the Harvard/CFA-developed Image Search (CBIS) allows us to straightforwardly search the sky for candidate sources in a +/- 20 degree latitude band along the plane. This procedure has been operating routinely on a weekly basis since spring 1997. We briefly describe the procedure, then concentrate on the performance aspects of the technique and candidate source results from the search.

Harmon, B. A.; Zhang, S. N.; Robinson, C. R.; Paciesas, W. S.; Barret, D.; Grindlay, J.; Bloser, P.; Monnelly, C.

1997-01-01

81

Uncooled bolometer-type Terahertz focal plane array and camera for real-time imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time Terahertz (THz) imaging technologies which make use of uncooled bolometer-type infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) and quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) will be reviewed. A description of how THz focal plane array and THz imagers have been developed on the basis of infrared technologies, especially the improvement in both THz sensitivity of bolometer-type FPA and THz transmittance of materials for lens and vacuum package window will be given. Characteristics of 320×240 THz-FPA, such as relation of noise equivalent power (NEP) to wavelength and real-time THz imageries will be presented. One of the imageries indicates that THz technology is promising for label-free detection of reaction of small molecules with proteins.

Oda, Naoki

2010-08-01

82

Use of Fluorescence Imaging in Combination with Patent Blue Dye versus Patent Blue Dye Alone in Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Near-infrared fluorescence imaging with indocyanine green (ICG) has the potential to improve sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping in breast cancer. In this clinical trial, we compared the potential value of ICG combined with blue dye with that of blue dye alone for detecting SLNs. Methods Patients undergoing SLN biopsy (SLNB) between November 2010 and November 2013 were included. Up to December 2011, SLNs were detected by using patent blue (PB) alone, and since January 2012, by using PB in combination with ICG. The patients were divided into the following two groups: group A (ICG-PB; n=96) and group B (PB; n=73), and SLN detection parameters were compared between the groups. All patients underwent level I and II axillary dissections after SLNB. Results In group A, the SLN detection rate was 96.9% (93/96), the accuracy of detection was 98.9% (92/93), and the false-negative rate (FNR) was 3.4% (1/29). In group B, the SLN detection rate was 84.9% (62/73), the accuracy of detection was 96.8% (60/62), and the FNR was 11.1% (2/18). The ICG-PB group showed significantly superior results compared to the PB group for SLN detection (p=0.005) and a greatly improved FNR. Conclusion The combined fluorescence and blue dye-based tracer technique was superior to the use of blue dye alone for identifying SLNs, and for predicting axillary lymph node status in patients with breast cancer; in addition, the combined technique had reduced false-negative results. PMID:25320623

Tong, Meng; Gao, Wei

2014-01-01

83

Comparative evaluation of methylene blue and demeclocycline for enhancing optical contrast of gliomas in optical images.  

PubMed

Contrast agents have shown to be useful in the detection of cancers. The goal of this study was to compare enhancement of brain cancer contrast using reflectance and fluorescence confocal imaging of two fluorophores, methylene blue (MB) and demeclocycline (DMN). MB absorbs light in the red spectral range and fluoresces in the near-infrared. It is safe for in vivo staining of human skin and breast tissue. However, its safety for staining human brain is questionable. Thus, DMN, which absorbs light in the violet spectral range and fluoresces between 470 and 570 nm, could provide a safer alternative to MB. Fresh human gliomas, obtained from surgeries, were cut in half and stained with aqueous solutions of MB and DMN, respectively. Stained tissues were imaged using multimodal confocal microscopy. Resulting reflectance and fluorescence optical images were compared with hematoxylin and eosin histopathology, processed from each imaged tissue. Results indicate that images of tissues stained with either stain exhibit comparable contrast and resolution of morphological detail. Further studies are required to establish the safety and efficacy of these contrast agents for use in human brain. PMID:25239672

Wirth, Dennis; Snuderl, Matija; Curry, William; Yaroslavsky, Anna

2014-09-01

84

Comparative evaluation of methylene blue and demeclocycline for enhancing optical contrast of gliomas in optical images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contrast agents have shown to be useful in the detection of cancers. The goal of this study was to compare enhancement of brain cancer contrast using reflectance and fluorescence confocal imaging of two fluorophores, methylene blue (MB) and demeclocycline (DMN). MB absorbs light in the red spectral range and fluoresces in the near-infrared. It is safe for in vivo staining of human skin and breast tissue. However, its safety for staining human brain is questionable. Thus, DMN, which absorbs light in the violet spectral range and fluoresces between 470 and 570 nm, could provide a safer alternative to MB. Fresh human gliomas, obtained from surgeries, were cut in half and stained with aqueous solutions of MB and DMN, respectively. Stained tissues were imaged using multimodal confocal microscopy. Resulting reflectance and fluorescence optical images were compared with hematoxylin and eosin histopathology, processed from each imaged tissue. Results indicate that images of tissues stained with either stain exhibit comparable contrast and resolution of morphological detail. Further studies are required to establish the safety and efficacy of these contrast agents for use in human brain.

Wirth, Dennis; Snuderl, Matija; Curry, William; Yaroslavsky, Anna

2014-09-01

85

Fast functional imaging of multiple brain regions in intact zebrafish larvae using Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy  

PubMed Central

The optical transparency and the small dimensions of zebrafish at the larval stage make it a vertebrate model of choice for brain-wide in-vivo functional imaging. However, current point-scanning imaging techniques, such as two-photon or confocal microscopy, impose a strong limit on acquisition speed which in turn sets the number of neurons that can be simultaneously recorded. At 5 Hz, this number is of the order of one thousand, i.e., approximately 1–2% of the brain. Here we demonstrate that this limitation can be greatly overcome by using Selective-plane Illumination Microscopy (SPIM). Zebrafish larvae expressing the genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP3 were illuminated with a scanned laser sheet and imaged with a camera whose optical axis was oriented orthogonally to the illumination plane. This optical sectioning approach was shown to permit functional imaging of a very large fraction of the brain volume of 5–9-day-old larvae with single- or near single-cell resolution. The spontaneous activity of up to 5,000 neurons was recorded at 20 Hz for 20–60 min. By rapidly scanning the specimen in the axial direction, the activity of 25,000 individual neurons from 5 different z-planes (approximately 30% of the entire brain) could be simultaneously monitored at 4 Hz. Compared to point-scanning techniques, this imaging strategy thus yields a ?20-fold increase in data throughput (number of recorded neurons times acquisition rate) without compromising the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The extended field of view offered by the SPIM method allowed us to directly identify large scale ensembles of neurons, spanning several brain regions, that displayed correlated activity and were thus likely to participate in common neural processes. The benefits and limitations of SPIM for functional imaging in zebrafish as well as future developments are briefly discussed. PMID:23576959

Panier, Thomas; Romano, Sebastián A.; Olive, Raphaël; Pietri, Thomas; Sumbre, Germán; Candelier, Raphaël; Debrégeas, Georges

2013-01-01

86

Precision, accuracy, and image plane uniformity in NMR relaxation time imaging on a 1.5 T whole-body MR imaging system.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate the accuracy, precision and image plane uniformity a phantom study was undertaken on a 1.5 T whole-body MR imaging system (Philips Gyroscan S15 HP). The manufacturers algorithm for obtaining relaxation time images was used. This method uses Ratios and Least Squares (RLSQ-algorithm) on data obtained from a combination of a multi-echo (CPMG) and an inversion recovery pulse sequence, yielding a calculated T1-, T2- and a proton density image simultaneously. T1 and T2 accuracy was measured in phantoms consisting of CuSO4 and MnCl2 in aqueous solution in different concentrations. The results were compared to a reference T1 and T2 obtained by spectroscopy. The accuracy error over the entire relaxation time range was expressed as the root mean square of the modulus of the difference between the reference and the image measurement and was 2.3% for T1 and 4.1% for T2. Precision or reproducibility was measured by 11 double estimations on 11 samples. The precision error was 0.35% for both T1 and T2. Image plane uniformity, i.e., the homogeneity of pixel values throughout the image plane, was measured by 3 consecutive image readings from a phantom of 19 cm in diam. in 8 directions 45 degrees apart and 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 cm from the center. Errors in the imaging plane were expressed as the deviation from the center value. For both T1 and T2 the maximum deviation was less than 5% over the entire image in the transverse plane. It is concluded that when the pulse sequence timings are carefully optimized, the mixed imaging sequence in combination with the RLSQ algorithm used in this MRI system is a reliable and precise means of obtaining relaxation time data. PMID:7934664

Andersen, C; Jensen, F T

1994-01-01

87

Computer-assisted scheme for automated determination of imaging planes in cervical spinal cord MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a computerized scheme to assist MRI operators in accurate and rapid determination of sagittal sections for MRI exam of cervical spinal cord. The algorithm of the proposed scheme consisted of 6 steps: (1) extraction of a cervical vertebra containing spinal cord from an axial localizer image; (2) extraction of spinal cord with sagittal image from the extracted vertebra; (3) selection of a series of coronal localizer images corresponding to various, involved portions of the extracted spinal cord with sagittal image; (4) generation of a composite coronal-plane image from the obtained coronal images; (5) extraction of spinal cord from the obtained composite image; (6) determination of oblique sagittal sections from the detected location and gradient of the extracted spinal cord. Cervical spine images obtained from 25 healthy volunteers were used for the study. A perceptual evaluation was performed by five experienced MRI operators. Good agreement between the automated and manual determinations was achieved. By use of the proposed scheme, average execution time was reduced from 39 seconds/case to 1 second/case. The results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can assist MRI operators in performing cervical spinal cord MRI exam accurately and rapidly.

Tsurumaki, Masaki; Tsai, Du-Yih; Lee, Yongbum; Sekiya, Masaru; Kazama, Kiyoko

2009-02-01

88

Midsagittal plane extraction from brain images based on 3D SIFT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Midsagittal plane (MSP) extraction from 3D brain images is considered as a promising technique for human brain symmetry analysis. In this paper, we present a fast and robust MSP extraction method based on 3D scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT). Unlike the existing brain MSP extraction methods, which mainly rely on the gray similarity, 3D edge registration or parameterized surface matching to determine the fissure plane, our proposed method is based on distinctive 3D SIFT features, in which the fissure plane is determined by parallel 3D SIFT matching and iterative least-median of squares plane regression. By considering the relative scales, orientations and flipped descriptors between two 3D SIFT features, we propose a novel metric to measure the symmetry magnitude for 3D SIFT features. By clustering and indexing the extracted SIFT features using a k-dimensional tree (KD-tree) implemented on graphics processing units, we can match multiple pairs of 3D SIFT features in parallel and solve the optimal MSP on-the-fly. The proposed method is evaluated by synthetic and in vivo datasets, of normal and pathological cases, and validated by comparisons with the state-of-the-art methods. Experimental results demonstrated that our method has achieved a real-time performance with better accuracy yielding an average yaw angle error below 0.91° and an average roll angle error no more than 0.89°.

Wu, Huisi; Wang, Defeng; Shi, Lin; Wen, Zhenkun; Ming, Zhong

2014-03-01

89

Medical image compression using cubic spline interpolation with bit-plane compensation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a modified medical image compression algorithm using cubic spline interpolation (CSI) is presented for telemedicine applications. The CSI is developed in order to subsample image data with minimal distortion and to achieve compression. It has been shown in literatures that the CSI can be combined with the JPEG algorithms to develop a modified JPEG codec, which obtains a higher compression ratio and a better quality of reconstructed image than the standard JPEG. However, this modified JPEG codec will lose some high-frequency components of medical images during compression process. To minimize the drawback arose from loss of these high-frequency components, this paper further makes use of bit-plane compensation to the modified JPEG codec. The bit-plane compensation algorithm used in this paper is modified from JBIG2 standard. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme can increase 20~30% compression ratio of original JPEG medical data compression system with similar visual quality. This system can reduce the loading of telecommunication networks and is quite suitable for low bit-rate telemedicine applications.

Truong, Trieu-Kien; Chen, Shi-Huang; Lin, Tsung-Ching

2007-03-01

90

Blue-enhanced thin-film photodiode for dual-screen x-ray imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reports on a-Si:H-based low-leakage blue-enhanced photodiodes for dual-screen x-ray imaging detectors. Doped nanocrystalline silicon was incorporated in both the n- and p-type regions to reduce absorption losses for light incoming from the top and bottom screens. The photodiode exhibits a dark current density of 900 pA/cm2 and an external quantum efficiency up to 90% at a reverse bias of 5 V. In the case of illumination through the tailored p-layer, the quantum efficiency of 60% at a 400 nm wavelength is almost double that for the conventional a-Si:H n-i-p photodiode.

Vygranenko, Y.; Sazonov, A.; Heiler, G.; Tredwell, T.; Vieira, M.; Nathan, A.

2009-12-01

91

The pressure-dependent performance of a substrate-free focal plane array in an uncooled infrared imaging system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uncooled focal plane arrays (FPAs) are being developed for a wide range of infrared imaging applications. A substrate-free FPA for optical readout infrared imaging is fabricated with a pixel pitch of 120 mum. The pressure dependences of thermal conductance of a FPA with\\/without substrate are studied by modeling analysis. Infrared imaging experiments are performed to validate the modeling analysis. At

Zhiming Xiong; Qingchuan Zhang; Jie Gao; Xiaoping Wu; Dapeng Chen; Binbin Jiao

2007-01-01

92

Complementary fluorescence-polarization microscopy using division-of-focal-plane polarization imaging sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence microscopy offers high sensitivity for disease diagnosis. However, little structural information is revealed by this method, requiring another technique to localize the source of fluorescence. We developed a complementary fluorescence-polarization microscope. We used a division-of-focal-plane charge coupled device polarization sensor to enable real-time video rate polarization imaging without any moving parts. The polarization information provided by the microscope enabled detection of structural element and complements the fluorescence information. Application of this multimodal system for cancer imaging using a tumor selective molecular probe revealed the association of diminished structural integrity of tumor tissue with high fluorescence of the imaging agent compared to surrounding normal tissue. This study demonstrates a new paradigm to improve cancer detection and diagnosis.

Liu, Yang; York, Timothy; Akers, Walter; Sudlow, Gail; Gruev, Viktor; Achilefu, Samuel

2012-11-01

93

Identification and classification of chemicals using terahertz reflective spectroscopic focal-plane imaging system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present terahertz (THz) reflective spectroscopic focal-plane imaging of four explosive and bio-chemical materials (2, 4-DNT, Theophylline, RDX and Glutamic Acid) at a standoff imaging distance of 0.4 m. The 2 dimension (2-D) nature of this technique enables a fast acquisition time and is very close to a camera-like operation, compared to the most commonly used point emission-detection and raster scanning configuration. The samples are identified by their absorption peaks extracted from the negative derivative of the reflection coefficient respect to the frequency (-dr/dv) of each pixel. Classification of the samples is achieved by using minimum distance classifier and neural network methods with a rate of accuracy above 80% and a false alarm rate below 8%. This result supports the future application of THz time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) in standoff distance sensing, imaging, and identification.

Zhong, Hua; Redo-Sanchez, Albert; Zhang, X.-C.

2006-10-01

94

The study of blue LED to induce fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging for oral carcinoma detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging diagnosis of malignant lesions provides us with a new method to diagnose diseases in precancerous stage. Early diagnosis of disease has significant importance in cancer treatment, because most cancers can be cured well in precancerous, especially when the diffusion of cancer is limited in a restricted region. In this study, Golden hamster models were applied to 5% 9, 10 dimethyl-1, 2-benzanthracene (DMBA) to induce hamster buccal cheek pouch carcinoma three times a week. Rose Bengal, which has been used in clinican for years and avoids visible side-effect to human was chosen as photosensitizer. 405 nm blue LED was used to induce the fluorescence of photosensitizer. After topical application of photosensitizer, characteristic red emission fluorescence peak was observed around 600nm. Similar, normal oral cavity has special luminescence around 480nm. Fluorescence spectroscopy technology is based on analysing emission peaks of photosensitizer in the areas of oral carcinoma, moreover, red-to-green (IR/IG) intensity ratio is also applied as a diagnostic algorithm. A CCD which is connected with a computer is used to take pictures at carcinoma areas through different filters. Fluorescence images from normal hamster buccal cheek pouch are compared with those from carcinogen-induced models of carcinoma, and morphological differences between normal and lesion tissue can be distinguished. The pictures are analyzed by Matlab and shown on the screen of computer. This paper demonstrates that Rose Bengal could be used as photosensitizer to detect oral carcinoma, and blue LED as excitation source could not only have a good effect to diagnose oral carcinoma, but also decrease cost greatly.

Zheng, Longjiang; Hu, Yuanting

2009-07-01

95

Detection of cracks under cladding using magneto-optic imaging and rotating in-plane magnetization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional nondestructive inspection (NDI) of steel components, using magnetic particle, flux-leakage or near surface ultrasonic methods, is rendered difficult by the presence of protective coatings such as paint or stainless- steel cladding. Thick-section nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs), having as-welded cladding up to 0.25 inches thick are a case in point. Here, magnetic particle techniques do not work and ultrasonic techniques are difficult to apply because of cladding roughens and variable elastic properties in the cladding and the weld interface. An NDI technique that is essentially unaffected by standard thicknesses of protective coatings would be a major advance. Magneto-optic imaging is one such technique. While conventional magneto-optic/eddy current imagers (MOIs) are a proven technology in the NDI of nonferromagnetic conductors, they do not possess a self-contained method for magnetizing steel. The purpose of this work was to develop methods for producing rotating, in-plane magnetization and then combine this technology with magneto-optic imaging to produce a self-contained instrument capable of real-time imaging of cracks in steel through protective coatings. We successfully demonstrated rotating in-plane magnetization using special 'quadrature' magnetic-yokes designed to accommodate both flat and cylindrical steel surfaces. The yokes were attached one at a time, to an MOI of reduced size, and the combined system was placed on a sample of the appropriate curvature containing cracks. A two-channel power amplifier was used to drive the yoke coils in quadrature. The resulting crack images were found to be much less sensitive to liftoff than conventional magnetic particle or flux-leakage NDI. In particular, cracks in steel were successfully imaged through 0.125 inches of stainless-steel cladding, making it likely that images of cracks in steel under even thicker cladding should be possible after further development of the technology. Unlike conventional magnetic particle or flux- leakage NDI, where crack orientation is important, rotating in-plane magnetization renders crack orientation irrelevant. Finally, because of these successes, the new NDI technology for steel should find many important applications.

Fitzpatrick, Gerald L.; Skaugset, Richard L.; Thome, David K.; Shih, William C.

1996-11-01

96

The study of characteristics of the beam scanning for millimeter-wave focal plane array imaging systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent progress in millimeter-wavelength optics, antennas, receivers and other components permits greatly enhanced system performance in a wide range of applications. Arrays of detectors in the focal plane offer a major avenue for increasing the data rate of millimeter-wave imaging systems. All-reflective systems with focal-plane arrays of monolithic elements promise major improvements in millimeter-wave imaging applications. In this review we

Zhang Yong; Li Xingguo

1998-01-01

97

A statistical framework for the registration of 3D knee implant components to single-plane X-ray images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Registration of 3D knee implant components to single-plane X-ray image sequences provides insight into implanted knee kinematics. In this paper a maximum likelihood approach is proposed to align the pose-related occluding contour of an object with edge segments extracted from a single-plane X-ray image. This leads to an expectation maximization algorithm which simultaneously determines the objectpsilas pose, estimates point correspondences

J. Hermans; J. Bellemans; F. Maes; D. Vandermeulen; P. Suetens

2008-01-01

98

Automated detection of midsagittal plane in MR images of the head  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fully automated and robust method is presented for dividing MR 3D images of the human brain into two hemispheres. The method is developed specifically to deal with pathologically affected brains or brains in which the longitudinal fissure (LF) is significantly widened due to ageing or atrophy associated with neuro-degenerative processes. To provide a definitive estimate of the mid- sagittal plane, the method combines longitudinal fissure lines detected in both axial and corona slices of T1- weighted MR images and then fit these lines to a 3D plane. The method was applied to 36 brain MR image data sets (15 of them arising from subjects with probable Alzheimer's disease) all exhibiting some degrees of widened fissures and/or significant asymmetry due to pathology. Visual inspection of the results revealed that the separation was highly accurate and satisfactory. In some cases (5 in total), there were minor degrees of asymmetry in the posterior fossa structures despite successful splitting of cerebral cortex.

Wang, Deming; Chalk, Jonathan B.; Doddrell, David M.; Semple, James

2001-07-01

99

Summary of the operational land imager focal plane array for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Landsat missions are the longest continuous record of changes in the Earth's surface as seen from space. The next follow-on activity is the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). The LDCM objective is to extend the ability to detect and quantitatively characterize changes on the global land surface at a scale where natural and man-made causes of change can be detected and differentiated. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) is one of two instruments on the LDCM spacecraft. OLI will produce science data for the reflective bands, which include 6 visible and near-infrared (VNIR) and 3 short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands. The OLI instrument utilizes a pushbroom design with 15.5 degree field of view. As a result, the OLI Focal Plane Array (FPA) cross track dimension is large, and the FPA is a critical technology for the success of the mission. The FPA contains 14 critically aligned Focal Plane Modules (FPM) and consists of 6916 imaging pixels in each of the 8 multi-spectral bands, and 13,832 imaging pixels in the panchromatic band. Prior to integration into the FPA, the FPMs were characterized for radiometric, spectral, and spatial performance. The Flight FPA has been built and its performance has also been characterized. In this paper, the critical attributes of the FPMs and FPA are highlighted. Detailed description of the FPM and FPA test sets are provided. The performance results that demonstrate compliance to the science mission requirements are presented.

Lindahl, Kirk A.; Burmester, William; Malone, Kevin; Schrein, Ronald J.; Irwin, Ronda; Donley, Eric; Collins, Sandra R.

2011-10-01

100

EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT AND MORPHOMETRY IN THE BLUE KING CRAB PARALITHODES PLATYPUS STUDIED BY USING IMAGE AND CLUSTER ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the embryonic development of laboratory-reared blue king crab, Paralithodes platypus, from the Pribilof Islands in the eastern Bering Sea is described. Developing embryos were removed from a female crab at various intervals, digitally photographed under a compound microscope and analyzed using Image-Pro Plus. Nine morphometric parameters were used, including seven measurements (total area, yolk area, embryo length

BRADLEY G. STEVENS

2006-01-01

101

Evaluation of aortic regurgitation by using PC MRI: A comparison of the accuracies at different image plane locations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this study is to determine which imaging location on phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC MRI) best correlates with echocardiography to enable the severity of aortic regurgitation to be accurately evaluated by using PC MRI. The subjects were 34 patients with aortic regurgitation confirmed by echocardiography and cardiac MRI. Two velocity distribution images were obtained by positioning image planes above and below the aortic valve in the PC MRI. Using the acquired images, regurgitation fractions were calculated by calculating the average forward and reverse blood flows. The severity of aortic regurgitation was then evaluated and compared with the severity as determined by using echocardiography. When image planes were positioned above the aortic valve, the regurgitation fraction obtained by using PC MRI was 44.5 ± 18.7%, and when planes were positioned below the valve, the regurgitation fraction was 34.8 ± 15.9%. Regarding agreement with echocardiographic findings, concurrence was shown to be 50% when image planes sections were positioned above the valve and 85.3% when they were positioned below the valve. The present study shows that if image planes are positioned below the valve rather than above the valve, provides as accurate evaluation of the severity of aortic regurgitation.

Kim, Byeong-Gull; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soon-Bae; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Park, Yong-Soon

2012-12-01

102

Hyperspectral image compression using distributed arithmetic coding and bit-plane coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyperspectral images are of very large data size and highly correlated in neighboring bands, therefore, it is necessary to realize the efficient compression performance on the condition of low encoding complexity. In this paper, we propose a method based on both partitioning embedded block and lossless adaptive-distributed arithmetic coding (LADAC). Combined with three-dimensional wavelet transform and SW-SPECK algorithm, LADAC is adopted according to the correlation between the adjacent bit-plane. Experimental results show that our proposed algorithm outperforms 3D-SPECK, furthermore, our method need not take the inter-band prediction or transform into account, so the complexity is small relatively.

Wu, Jiaji; Wang, Minli; Fang, Yong; Jeong, Jechang; Jiao, Licheng

2010-08-01

103

Spatiotemporal object-based image analyses in the Blue Nile area using optical multispectral imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considering the dramatic change occurred in the Blue Nile region of Sudan, this study is of great value for developing a method for identification of forestland cover extents, integrating rate of changes and causes. The study utilizes three consecutive optical multispectral images, two LANDSAT TM images of 1990 and 1999 as well as TERRA ASTER image of 2009 to evaluate forest cover dynamics during the period 1990 to 2009. The method adopted in this research consists in cross operation of classified images of different points in time, which utilizes the overlaying images to be compared for change detection. New layer of segments was created representing the change areas as well as the overlapped areas of each pair of classified images. Consequently, a series of optimized algorithms have been developed to estimate the change in Land Use Land Cover (LULC). At the fundamental stage, smooth and accurate classified images are very essential for any post-classification change detection technique, which were typically achieved by object-based approach (OB) with overall accuracy 91 %, 93 % and 95 % for the years 1990, 1999 and 2009 respectively. Nine LULC classes were generated from each, i.e. agriculture (Ag.), bare-land (Br.), crop-land (Cr.), dense-forest (DF), grassland (Gr.), orchard (Or.), scattered-forest (SF), settlements (St.) and water (W). Therefore, and considering the dramatic change observed in the area, the fusion operation of multi-temporal data results initially in quite numerous change "from-to" information classes, which allows for aggregation of these classes at any hierarchical level of details. Moreover, the developed approach allows the operator to effectively know the spatial pattern of change, trend and magnitude of the dynamics occurred in each of the classified LULC classes. While many change-detection techniques have been developed, a little has been done to assess the quality of these techniques. Hence, the change maps resulting from cross operation were assessed, which reveals that, the accuracies of the change maps for the two time intervals were consistently high.

El-Abbas, Mustafa M.; Csaplovics, E.

2012-10-01

104

Visualization of peripheral vasodilative indices in human skin by use of red, green, blue images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a method to visualize the arterial inflow, the vascular resistance, and the venous capacitance in the skin tissue from red, green, blue (RGB) digital color images. The arterial inflow and the venous capacitance in the skin tissue are visualized based on an increase in the rate of change in the total blood concentration and the change of the total blood concentration during upper limb occlusion at a pressure of 50 mmHg. The resultant arterial inflow with the measured mean arterial pressure also provides an image of the vascular resistance in human skin. The arterial inflow, the vascular resistance, and the venous capacitance acquired by the method are well correlated with those obtained from the conventional strain-gauge plethysmograph. The correlation coefficients R between the estimated values by the method and the measurements by the SPG are calculated to be 0.83 (P<0.001) for the arterial inflow, 0.77 (P<0.01) for the vascular resistance, and 0.77 (P<0.01) for the venous capacitance. The arterial inflow and the venous capacitance in the skin tissue are significantly higher in active subjects compared with the sedentary subjects, whereas the vascular resistance was significantly lower in the active subjects compared with the sedentary subjects. The results of the present study indicate the possibility of using the proposed method for evaluating the peripheral vascular functions in human skin.

Nishidate, Izumi; Tanaka, Noriyuki; Kawase, Tatsuya; Maeda, Takaaki; Yuasa, Tomonori; Aizu, Yoshihisa; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Niizeki, Kyuichi

2013-06-01

105

Visualization of peripheral vasodilative indices in human skin by use of red, green, blue images.  

PubMed

We propose a method to visualize the arterial inflow, the vascular resistance, and the venous capacitance in the skin tissue from red, green, blue (RGB) digital color images. The arterial inflow and the venous capacitance in the skin tissue are visualized based on an increase in the rate of change in the total blood concentration and the change of the total blood concentration during upper limb occlusion at a pressure of 50 mmHg. The resultant arterial inflow with the measured mean arterial pressure also provides an image of the vascular resistance in human skin. The arterial inflow, the vascular resistance, and the venous capacitance acquired by the method are well correlated with those obtained from the conventional strain-gauge plethysmograph. The correlation coefficients R between the estimated values by the method and the measurements by the SPG are calculated to be 0.83 (P < 0.001) for the arterial inflow, 0.77 (P < 0.01) for the vascular resistance, and 0.77 (P < 0.01) for the venous capacitance. The arterial inflow and the venous capacitance in the skin tissue are significantly higher in active subjects compared with the sedentary subjects, whereas the vascular resistance was significantly lower in the active subjects compared with the sedentary subjects. The results of the present study indicate the possibility of using the proposed method for evaluating the peripheral vascular functions in human skin. PMID:23264964

Nishidate, Izumi; Tanaka, Noriyuki; Kawase, Tatsuya; Maeda, Takaaki; Yuasa, Tomonori; Aizu, Yoshihisa; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Niizeki, Kyuichi

2013-06-01

106

Automatic standard plane adjustment on mobile C-Arm CT images of the calcaneus using atlas-based feature registration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intraarticular fractures of the calcaneus are routinely treated by open reduction and internal fixation followed by intraoperative imaging to validate the repositioning of bone fragments. C-Arm CT offers surgeons the possibility to directly verify the alignment of the fracture parts in 3D. Although the device provides more mobility, there is no sufficient information about the device-to-patient orientation for standard plane reconstruction. Hence, physicians have to manually align the image planes in a position that intersects with the articular surfaces. This can be a time-consuming step and imprecise adjustments lead to diagnostic errors. We address this issue by introducing novel semi-/automatic methods for adjustment of the standard planes on mobile C-Arm CT images. With the semi-automatic method, physicians can quickly adjust the planes by setting six points based on anatomical landmarks. The automatic method reconstructs the standard planes in two steps, first SURF keypoints (2D and newly introduced pseudo-3D) are generated for each image slice; secondly, these features are registered to an atlas point set and the parameters of the image planes are transformed accordingly. The accuracy of our method was evaluated on 51 mobile C-Arm CT images from clinical routine with manually adjusted standard planes by three physicians of different expertise. The average time of the experts (46s) deviated from the intermediate user (55s) by 9 seconds. By applying 2D SURF key points 88% of the articular surfaces were intersected correctly by the transformed standard planes with a calculation time of 10 seconds. The pseudo-3D features performed even better with 91% and 8 seconds.

Brehler, Michael; Görres, Joseph; Wolf, Ivo; Franke, Jochen; von Recum, Jan; Grützner, Paul A.; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Nabers, Diana

2014-03-01

107

Methylene blue microbubbles as a model dual-modality contrast agent for ultrasound and activatable photoacoustic imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging are highly complementary modalities since both use ultrasonic detection for operation. Increasingly, photoacoustic and ultrasound have been integrated in terms of hardware instrumentation. To generate a broadly accessible dual-modality contrast agent, we generated microbubbles (a standard ultrasound contrast agent) in a solution of methylene blue (a standard photoacoustic dye). This MB2 solution was formed effectively and was optimized as a dual-modality contrast solution. As microbubble concentration increased (with methylene blue concentration constant), photoacoustic signal was attenuated in the MB2 solution. When methylene blue concentration increased (with microbubble concentration held constant), no ultrasonic interference was observed. Using an MB2 solution that strongly attenuated all photoacoustic signal, high powered ultrasound could be used to burst the microbubbles and dramatically enhance photoacoustic contrast (>800-fold increase), providing a new method for spatiotemporal control of photoacoustic signal generation.

Jeon, Mansik; Song, Wentao; Huynh, Elizabeth; Kim, Jungho; Kim, Jeesu; Helfield, Brandon L.; Leung, Ben Y. C.; Goertz, David E.; Zheng, Gang; Oh, Jungtaek; Lovell, Jonathan F.; Kim, Chulhong

2014-01-01

108

Mosaicing with interferometers: An Efficient Algorithm for Imaging and Image Plane Corrections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The imaging dynamic range of an aperture synthesis telescope for mosaicing and for fields with significant flux throughout the antenna primary beams can be limited by the knowledge of the individual primary beams projected on the sky. For high dynamic range imaging of such fields, one requires an accurate measurement of the shape of the primary beams and the pointing offsets as a function of time. The effect of antenna pointing errors remain separable in the visibility domain. With at least two, well separated sources along the RA and Dec axis each to constrain the solutions, it is possible to solve for these errors in an antenna based fashion in the visibility domain. Here we describe an algorithm to solve for these errors using a model for the sky brightness distribution. For a typical L-band eVLA simulation with typical pointing errors for the VLA antennas, the RMS noise can be reduced by a factor of ˜ 10 using this algorithm. The improvement in the image fidelity is even larger.

Bhatnagar, S.; Golap, K.; Cornwell, T. J.

2005-12-01

109

Magnetic Prussian blue nanoparticles for targeted photothermal therapy under magnetic resonance imaging guidance.  

PubMed

This paper reported a core-shell nanotheranostic agent by growing Prussian blue (PB) nanoshells of 3-6 nm around superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanocores for targeted photothermal therapy of cancer under magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments proved that the Fe3O4@PB core-shell nanoparticles showed significant contrast enhancement for T2-weighted MRI with the relaxivity value of 58.9 mM(-1)·s(-1). Simultaneously, the composite nanoparticles exhibited a high photothermal effect under irradiation of a near-infrared laser due to the strong absorption of PB nanoshells, which led to more than 80% death of HeLa cells with only 0.016 mg·mL(-1) of the nanoparticles with the aid of the magnetic targeting effect. Using tumor-bearing nude mice as the model, the near-infrared laser light ablated the tumor effectively in the presence of the Fe3O4@PB nanoparticles and the tumor growth inhibition was evaluated to be 87.2%. Capabilities of MRI, magnetic targeting, and photothermal therapy were thus integrated into a single agent to allow efficient MRI-guided targeted photothermal therapy. Most importantly, both PB and Fe3O4 nanoparticles were already clinically approved drugs, so the Fe3O4@PB nanoparticles as a theranostic nanomedicine would be particularly promising for clinical applications in the human body due to the reliable biosafety. PMID:25109612

Fu, Guanglei; Liu, Wei; Li, Yanyan; Jin, Yushen; Jiang, Lingdong; Liang, Xiaolong; Feng, Shanshan; Dai, Zhifei

2014-09-17

110

An Image-plane Algorithm for JWST's Non-redundant Aperture Mask Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high angular resolution technique of non-redundant masking (NRM) or aperture masking interferometry (AMI) has yielded images of faint protoplanetary companions of nearby stars from the ground. AMI on James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)'s Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS) has a lower thermal background than ground-based facilities and does not suffer from atmospheric instability. NIRISS AMI images are likely to have 90%-95% Strehl ratio between 2.77 and 4.8 ?m. In this paper we quantify factors that limit the raw point source contrast of JWST NRM. We develop an analytic model of the NRM point spread function which includes different optical path delays (pistons) between mask holes and fit the model parameters with image plane data. It enables a straightforward way to exclude bad pixels, is suited to limited fields of view, and can incorporate effects such as intra-pixel sensitivity variations. We simulate various sources of noise to estimate their effect on the standard deviation of closure phase, ?CP (a proxy for binary point source contrast). If ?CP < 10-4 radians—a contrast ratio of 10 mag—young accreting gas giant planets (e.g., in the nearby Taurus star-forming region) could be imaged with JWST NIRISS. We show the feasibility of using NIRISS' NRM with the sub-Nyquist sampled F277W, which would enable some exoplanet chemistry characterization. In the presence of small piston errors, the dominant sources of closure phase error (depending on pixel sampling, and filter bandwidth) are flat field errors and unmodeled variations in intra-pixel sensitivity. The in-flight stability of NIRISS will determine how well these errors can be calibrated by observing a point source. Our results help develop efficient observing strategies for space-based NRM.

Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Pueyo, Laurent; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Lacour, Sylvestre

2015-01-01

111

Focal-plane wave front sensing strategies for high contrast imaging: experimental validations on SPHERE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct detection and spectral characterization of extra-solar planets is one of the most exciting but also challenging areas in modern astronomy. The challenge is due to the very large contrast between the host star and the planet at very small angular separations. SPHERE (Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet Research in Europe [1]) is a secondgeneration instrument for the ESO VLT dedicated to this scientific objective. It combines an extreme adaptive optics system [2], various coronagraphic devices and a suite of focal instruments providing imaging, integral field spectroscopy and polarimetric capabilities in the visible and near-infrared spectral ranges. The limitation of such a high contrast imaging system is mainly driven by the presence of intensity residual in the scientific focal plane, caused by uncorrected quasi-static optical aberrations upstream of the coronagraphic mask. The measurement and compensation of these aberrations is mandatory in order to reach the level of contrast requested by exoplanet imaging. We present in this paper the final experimental validation of the baseline method developed in the framework of SPHERE instrument for the conpensation of NCPA. The method is based on a differential measurement with phase diversity, and a compensation with an optimised modification of reference slopes.

Sauvage, Jean-François; Fusco, Thierry; Petit, Cyril; Mugnier, Laurent; Paul, Baptiste; Costille, Anne

2012-07-01

112

FISST Based Method for Multi-Target Tracking in the Image Plane of Optical Sensors  

PubMed Central

A finite set statistics (FISST)-based method is proposed for multi-target tracking in the image plane of optical sensors. The method involves using signal amplitude information in probability hypothesis density (PHD) filter which is derived from FISST to improve multi-target tracking performance. The amplitude of signals generated by the optical sensor is modeled first, from which the amplitude likelihood ratio between target and clutter is derived. An alternative approach is adopted for the situations where the signal noise ratio (SNR) of target is unknown. Then the PHD recursion equations incorporated with signal information are derived and the Gaussian mixture (GM) implementation of this filter is given. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves significantly better performance than the generic PHD filter. Moreover, our method has much lower computational complexity in the scenario with high SNR and dense clutter. PMID:22736984

Xu, Yang; Xu, Hui; An, Wei; Xu, Dan

2012-01-01

113

Impact of biplane versus single-plane imaging on radiation dose, contrast load and procedural time in coronary angioplasty  

PubMed Central

Coronary angioplasties can be performed with either single-plane or biplane imaging techniques. The aim of this study was to determine whether biplane imaging, in comparison to single-plane imaging, reduces radiation dose and contrast load and shortens procedural time during (i) primary and elective coronary angioplasty procedures, (ii) angioplasty to the main vascular territories and (iii) procedures performed by operators with various levels of experience. This prospective observational study included a total of 504 primary and elective single-vessel coronary angioplasty procedures utilising either biplane or single-plane imaging. Radiographic and clinical parameters were collected from clinical reports and examination protocols. Radiation dose was measured by a dose–area–product (DAP) meter intrinsic to the angiography system. Our results showed that biplane imaging delivered a significantly greater radiation dose (181.4±121.0 Gycm2) than single-plane imaging (133.6±92.8 Gycm2, p<0.0001). The difference was independent of case type (primary or elective) (p = 0.862), vascular territory (p = 0.519) and operator experience (p = 0.903). No significant difference was found in contrast load between biplane (166.8±62.9 ml) and single-plane imaging (176.8±66.0 ml) (p = 0.302). This non-significant difference was independent of case type (p = 0.551), vascular territory (p = 0.308) and operator experience (p = 0.304). Procedures performed with biplane imaging were significantly longer (55.3±27.8 min) than those with single-plane (48.9±24.2 min, p = 0.010) and, similarly, were not dependent on case type (p = 0.226), vascular territory (p = 0.642) or operator experience (p = 0.094). Biplane imaging resulted in a greater radiation dose and a longer procedural time and delivered a non-significant reduction in contrast load than single-plane imaging. These findings did not support the commonly perceived advantages of using biplane imaging in single-vessel coronary interventional procedures. PMID:20019175

Sadick, V; Reed, W; Collins, L; Sadick, N; Heard, R; Robinson, J

2010-01-01

114

Portable sequential multicolor thermal imager based on a MCT 384 x 288 focal plane array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AIM has developed a sequential multicolor thermal imager to provide customers with a test system to realize real-time spectral selective thermal imaging. In contrast to existing PC based laboratory units, the system is miniaturized with integrated signal processing like non-uniformity correction and post processing functions such as image subtraction of different colors to allow field tests in military applications like detection of missile plumes or camouflaged targets as well as commercial applications like detection of chemical agents, pollution control, etc. The detection module used is a 384 X 288 mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) focal plane array (FPA) available in the mid wave (MWIR) or long wave spectral band LWIR). A compact command and control electronics (CCE) provides clock and voltage supply for the detector as well as 14 bit deep digital conversion of the analog detector output. A continuous rotating wheel with four facets for filters provides spectral selectivity. The customer can choose between various types of filter characteristics, e.g. a 4.2 micrometer bandpass filter for CO2 detection in the MWIR band. The rotating wheel can be synchronized to an external source giving the rotation speed, typical 25 l/s. A position sensor generates the four frame start signals for synchronous operation of the detector -- 100 Hz framerate for the four frames per rotation. The rotating wheel is exchangeable for different configurations and also plates for a microscanner operation to improve geometrical resolution are available instead of a multicolor operation. AIM's programmable MVIP image processing unit is used for signal processing like non- uniformity correction and controlling the detector parameters. The MVIP allows to output the four subsequent images as four quarters of the video screen to prior to any observation task set the integration time for each color individually for comparable performance in each spectral color and after that also to determine separate NUC coefficients for each filter position. This procedure allows to really evaluate the pay off of spectral selectivity in the IR. The display part of the MVIP allows linear look up tables (LUT) for dynamic reduction as well as histogram equalization for automatic LUT optimization. Parallel to the video output a digital interface is provided for digital recording of the 14 bit corrected detector data. The architecture of the thermal imager with its components is presented in this paper together with some aspects on multicolor thermal imaging.

Breiter, Rainer; Cabanski, Wolfgang A.; Mauk, Karl-Heinz; Rode, Werner; Ziegler, Johann

2001-10-01

115

Blue-Light Reflectance Imaging of Macular Pigment in Infants and Children  

PubMed Central

Purpose. While the role of the macular pigment carotenoids in the prevention of age-related macular degeneration has been extensively studied in adults, comparatively little is known about the physiology and function of lutein and zeaxanthin in the developing eye. We therefore developed a protocol using a digital video fundus camera (RetCam) to measure macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and distributions in premature infants and in children. Methods. We used blue light reflectance to image the macular pigment in premature babies at the time of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening and in children aged under 7 years who were undergoing examinations under anesthesia for other reasons. We correlated the MPOD with skin carotenoid levels measured by resonance Raman spectroscopy, serum carotenoids measured by HPLC, and dietary carotenoid intake. Results. We enrolled 51 infants and children ranging from preterm to age 7 years. MPOD correlated significantly with age (r = 0.36; P = 0.0142), with serum lutein + zeaxanthin (r = 0.44; P = 0.0049) and with skin carotenoid levels (r = 0.42; P = 0.0106), but not with dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake (r = 0.13; P = 0.50). All premature infants had undetectable macular pigment, and most had unusually low serum and skin carotenoid concentrations. Conclusions. Our most remarkable finding is the undetectable MPOD in premature infants. This may be due in part to foveal immaturity, but the very low levels of serum and skin carotenoids suggest that these infants are carotenoid insufficient as a consequence of low dietary intake and/or severe oxidative stress. The potential value of carotenoid supplementation in the prevention of ROP and other disorders of prematurity should be a fruitful direction for further investigation. PMID:23652486

Bernstein, Paul S.; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Liu, Aihua; Ermakov, Igor; Nelson, Kelly; Sheng, Xiaoming; Panish, Cynthia; Carlstrom, Bonnie; Hoffman, Robert O.; Gellermann, Werner

2013-01-01

116

Infrared hyperspectral imaging using a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser and microbolometer focal plane array  

SciTech Connect

A versatile mid-infrared hyperspectral imaging system is demonstrated by combining a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser and a microbolometer focal plane array. The tunable mid-infrared laser provided high brightness illumination over a tuning range from 985 cm-1 to 1075 cm-1 (9.30-10.15 ?m). Hypercubes containing images at 300 wavelengths separated by 0.3 cm 1 were obtained in 12 s. High spectral resolution chemical imaging of methanol vapor was demonstrated for both static and dynamic systems. The system was also used to image and characterize multiple component liquid and solid samples.

Phillips, Mark C.; Ho, Nicolas

2008-02-04

117

TOPICAL REVIEW: Two-dimensional digital image correlation for in-plane displacement and strain measurement: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a practical and effective tool for quantitative in-plane deformation measurement of a planar object surface, two-dimensional digital image correlation (2D DIC) is now widely accepted and commonly used in the field of experimental mechanics. It directly provides full-field displacements to sub-pixel accuracy and full-field strains by comparing the digital images of a test object surface acquired before and after

Bing Pan; Kemao Qian; Huimin Xie; Anand Asundi

2009-01-01

118

Prussian Blue  

MedlinePLUS

... Tools CDC Response, Japan 2011 Specific Hazards Prussian Blue Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir What is ... can I get Prussian blue? What is Prussian blue? Prussian blue is a pill that can help ...

119

Magnetic Microscopy and Imaging II John Chapman, Chairman Study of in-plane magnetic domains with magnetic transmission  

E-print Network

scanning near-field optical microscopies SNOM or Kerr microscopies and force microscopies like magneticMagnetic Microscopy and Imaging II John Chapman, Chairman Study of in-plane magnetic domains with magnetic transmission x-ray microscopy P. Fischer,a) T. Eimu¨ller, and G. Schu¨tz University of Wu

Bayreuther, Günther

120

Influence of Fresnel diffraction on numerical propagation and correction of tilted image planes in digital holographic microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to achieve high resolution quantitative imaging in digital holographic microscopy (DHM) typically microscope lenses with a high numerical aperture are applied. This results in a low depth of field (DOF) of the optical imaging system. Thus, for example, surfaces and specimens that cannot be imaged in parallel with the hologram recording device are recorded partly defocused. We explored the compensation of such defocusing effects by partial numerical propagation of the complex wave fields that are retrieved from digitally recorded off-axis holograms. The numerical propagation of small wave field parts with low pixel numbers is strongly affected by Fresnel diffraction and aliasing. Thus, the influence of these effects was quantified and used in an adapted algorithm for numerical refocusing of tilted image planes that considers the DOF of the applied optical imaging system. Results from simulations and experimental investigations show that typical numerical propagation artifacts origin from Fresnel diffraction which efficiently can be suppressed by an adequate adaptation of the numerical propagation. Data from the application of the resulting algorithm demonstrates that images planes with a tilt of up to 80 degrees to the hologram plane can be compensated.

Schlichthaber, Frank; von Bally, Gert; Kemper, Björn

2012-04-01

121

Image-plane Analysis of n-point-mass Lens Critical Curves and Caustics  

E-print Network

The interpretation of gravitational microlensing events caused by planetary systems or multiple stars is based on the n-point mass lens model. The first planets detected by microlensing were well described by the two-point-mass model of a star with one planet. By the end of 2014, four events involving three-point-mass lenses had been announced. Two of the lenses were stars with two planetary companions each; two were binary stars with a planet orbiting one component. While the two-point-mass model is well understood, the same cannot be said for lenses with three or more components. Even the range of possible critical-curve topologies and caustic geometries of the three-point-mass lens remains unknown. In this paper we provide new tools for mapping the critical-curve topology and caustic cusp number in the parameter space of n-point-mass lenses. We perform our analysis in the image plane of the lens. We show that all contours of the Jacobian are critical curves of re-scaled versions of the lens configuration. ...

Danek, Kamil

2015-01-01

122

Intensity profile distortion at the processing image plane of a focused femtosecond laser below the critical power: Analysis and counteraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Femtosecond laser surface processing of materials allows for precise micro or sub-micrometer machining with restricted detrimental side effects. Thus, fine control of the laser intensity distribution (repeatability) in the processing plane is of outmost importance for industrial implementation. In this paper, we study the influence on non-linear effects on the machining quality. We experimentally study the profiles of cavities machined at the image plane of a focused femtosecond laser for a large set of fluences on stainless steel below the critical power. A strong distortion of the cavities is observed for high energetic levels. A beam analysis performed in the machining conditions reveals that the cavity profile follows the laser beam profile even at high fluences where the beam undergoes an increasing distortion. Numerical calculations of the laser beam distribution taking a Kerr effect into account are presented showing a good agreement with the experimental laser profile. To counteract the beam distortion at high fluences, we propose and successfully employ a robust solution consisting in geometrically forming the image processing plane before the laser focusing point. This ensures a beam profile free of distortion even at high fluences. Experimental evidence is made, showing a significant quality increase of the cavity profiles with an image plane placed before the focus point.

Pietroy, David; Baubeau, Emmanuel; Faure, Nicolas; Mauclair, Cyril

2015-03-01

123

Imaging with a 90 frames/s microbolometer focal plane array and high-power terahertz free electron laser  

SciTech Connect

An uncooled microbolometer focal plane array (FPA) has been developed and used for imaging of objects illuminated by monochromatic coherent radiation of a free electron laser tunable in the range of 1.25-2.5 THz. A sensitivity threshold of 1.3x10{sup -3} W/cm{sup 2} was obtained for the FPA with a homemade absolute interferometric power meter. Videos up to 90 frames/s were recorded in both transmission and reflection/scattering modes. When objects were illuminated by laser radiation scattered by a rough metal surface, speckled images were observed. Good quality terahertz images were achieved through the fast rotation of the scatterer.

Dem'yanenko, M. A.; Esaev, D. G. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Knyazev, B. A.; Vinokurov, N. A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Kulipanov, G. N. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2008-03-31

124

Computer-aided method for automated selection of optimal imaging plane for measurement of total cerebral blood flow by MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer-aided method for finding an optimal imaging plane for simultaneous measurement of the arterial blood inflow through the 4 vessels leading blood to the brain by phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging is presented. The method performance is compared with manual selection by two observers. The skeletons of the 4 vessels for which centerlines are generated are first extracted. Then, a global direction of the relatively less curved internal carotid arteries is calculated to determine the main flow direction. This is then used as a reference direction to identify segments of the vertebral arteries that strongly deviates from the main flow direction. These segments are then used to identify anatomical landmarks for improved consistency of the imaging plane selection. An optimal imaging plane is then identified by finding a plane with the smallest error value, which is defined as the sum of the angles between the plane's normal and the vessel centerline's direction at the location of the intersections. Error values obtained using the automated and the manual methods were then compared using 9 magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) data sets. The automated method considerably outperformed the manual selection. The mean error value with the automated method was significantly lower than the manual method, 0.09+/-0.07 vs. 0.53+/-0.45, respectively (p<.0001, Student's t-test). Reproducibility of repeated measurements was analyzed using Bland and Altman's test, the mean 95% limits of agreements for the automated and manual method were 0.01~0.02 and 0.43~0.55 respectively.

Teng, Pang-yu; Bagci, Ahmet Murat; Alperin, Noam

2009-02-01

125

Image interpolation and denoising for division of focal plane sensors using  

E-print Network

imaging sensors. Current polarization imaging employ four different pixelated polarization filters imaging; (120.5410) Polarimetry; (230.5440) Polarization-selective devices; (250.5430) Polarization, "Ccd polarization imaging sensor with aluminum nanowire optical filters," Opt. Express 18, 19087

Nehorai, Arye

126

Plane Groups  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lengthy PDF document (60 pages+) about plane groups and symmetry. It includes colorful images of each of the 17 plane groups, in several different forms. Additionally, there are some summarizing graphics that show unit cells, lattices, symmetry elements, etc. There is lots here to choose from -- I doubt that anyone will want to use all of the images. Studying plane groups is a good way to introduce crystal systems, point groups, lattices, symmetry operators, etc. All is in 2-D, but it is easy to tell students that the principles are the same in 3-D. For those who like to make changes, the PDF document was created from individual EPS files. This means that the files can be opened in Adobe Illustrator, Corel Draw, etc., and modified to fit your own needs.

Perkins, Dexter

127

Dual-plane stereoscopic particle image velocimetry: system set-up and its application on a lobed jet mixing flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technical basis and system set-up of a dual-plane stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) system, which can obtain the flow velocity (all three components) fields at two spatially separated planes simultaneously, is summarized. The simultaneous measurements were achieved by using two sets of double-pulsed Nd:Yag lasers with additional optics to illuminate the objective fluid flow with two orthogonally linearly polarized laser sheets at two spatially separated planes, as proposed by Kaehler and Kompenhans in 1999. The light scattered by the tracer particles illuminated by laser sheets with orthogonal linear polarization were separated by using polarizing beam-splitter cubes, then recorded by high-resolution CCD cameras. A three-dimensional in-situ calibration procedure was used to determine the relationships between the 2-D image planes and three-dimensional object fields for both position mapping and velocity three-component reconstruction. Unlike conventional two-component PIV systems or single-plane stereoscopic PIV systems, which can only get one-component of vorticity vectors, the present dual-plane stereoscopic PIV system can provide all the three components of the vorticity vectors and various auto-correlation and cross-correlation coefficients of flow variables instantaneously and simultaneously. The present dual-plane stereoscopic PIV system was applied to measure an air jet mixing flow exhausted from a lobed nozzle. Various vortex structures in the lobed jet mixing flow were revealed quantitatively and instantaneously. In order to evaluate the measurement accuracy of the present dual-plane stereoscopic PIV system, the measurement results were compared with the simultaneous measurement results of a laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) system. It was found that both the instantaneous data and ensemble-averaged values of the stereoscopic PIV measurement results and the LDV measurement results agree well. For the ensemble-averaged values of the out-of-plane velocity component at comparison points, the differences between the stereoscopic PIV and LDV measurement results were found to be less than 2%.

Hu, H.; Saga, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Taniguchi, N.; Yasuki, M.

128

Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane arrays for three-dimensional imaging LADAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the development of focal plane arrays (FPAs) employing two-dimensional arrays of InGaAsP-based Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GmAPDs). These FPAs incorporate InP/InGaAs(P) Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GmAPDs) to create pixels that detect single photons at shortwave infrared wavelengths with high efficiency and low dark count rates. GmAPD arrays are hybridized to CMOS read-out integrated circuits (ROICs) that enable independent laser radar (LADAR) time-of-flight measurements for each pixel, providing three-dimensional image data at frame rates approaching 200 kHz. Microlens arrays are used to maintain high fill factor of greater than 70%. We present full-array performance maps for two different types of sensors optimized for operation at 1.06 ?m and 1.55 ?m, respectively. For the 1.06 ?m FPAs, overall photon detection efficiency of >40% is achieved at <20 kHz dark count rates with modest cooling to ~250 K using integrated thermoelectric coolers. We also describe the first evalution of these FPAs when multi-photon pulses are incident on single pixels. The effective detection efficiency for multi-photon pulses shows excellent agreement with predictions based on Poisson statistics. We also characterize the crosstalk as a function of pulse mean photon number. Relative to the intrinsic crosstalk contribution from hot carrier luminescence that occurs during avalanche current flows resulting from single incident photons, we find a modest rise in crosstalk for multi-photon incident pulses that can be accurately explained by direct optical scattering.

Itzler, Mark A.; Entwistle, Mark; Owens, Mark; Patel, Ketan; Jiang, Xudong; Slomkowski, Krystyna; Rangwala, Sabbir; Zalud, Peter F.; Senko, Tom; Tower, John; Ferraro, Joseph

2010-09-01

129

QWIP focal plane arrays on InP substrates for single and dual band thermal imagers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alternative material systems on InP substrate provide certain advantages for mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR), long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) and dual band MWIR/LWIR quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane arrays (FPAs). While InP/InGaAs and InP/InGaAsP LWIR QWIPs provide much higher responsivity when compared to the AlGaAs/GaAs QWIPs, AlInAs/InGaAs system facilitates completely lattice matched single band MWIR and dual band MWIR/LWIR FPAs. We present an extensive review of the studies on InP based single and dual band QWIPs. While reviewing the characteristics of InP/InGaAs and InP/InGaAsP LWIR QWIPs at large format FPA level, we experimentally demonstrate that the cut-off wavelength of AlInAs/InGaAs QWIPs can be tuned in a sufficiently large range in the MWIR atmospheric window by only changing the quantum well (QW) width at the lattice matched composition. The cut-off wavelength can be shifted up to ˜5.0 ?m with a QW width of 22 Å in which case very broad spectral response (? ?/ ?p = ˜30%) and a reasonably high peak detectivity are achievable leading to a noise equivalent temperature difference as low as 14 mK ( f/2) with 25 ?m pitch in a 640 × 512 FPA. We also present the characteristics of InP based two-stack QWIPs with wavelengths properly tuned in the MWIR and LWIR bands for dual color detection. The results clearly demonstrate that InP based material systems display high potential for dual band MWIR/LWIR QWIP FPAs needed by third generation thermal imagers.

Eker, S. U.; Arslan, Y.; Kaldirim, M.; Besikci, C.

2009-11-01

130

The WIYN one degree imager 2014: performance of the partially populated focal plane and instrument upgrade path  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The One Degree Imager (ODI) was deployed during the summer of 2012 at the WIYN 3.5m telescope, located on Kitt Peak near Tucson, AZ (USA). ODI is an optical imager designed to deliver atmosphere-limited image quality (? 0.4" FWHM) over a one degree field of view, and uses Orthogonal Transfer Array (OTA) detectors to also allow for on-chip tip/tilt image motion compensation. At this time, the focal plane is partially populated ("pODI") with 13 out of 64 OTA detectors, providing a central scientifically usable field of view of about 24' x 24'; four of the thirteen detectors are installed at outlying positions to probe image quality at all field angles. The image quality has been verified to be indeed better than 0.4'' FWHM over the full field when atmospheric conditions allow. Based on over one year of operations, we summarize pODIs performance and lessons learned. As pODI has proven the viability of the ODI instrument, the WIYN consortium is engaging in an upgrade project to add 12 more detectors to the focal plane enlarging the scientifically usable field of view to about 40' x 40'. A design change in the new detectors has successfully addressed a low light level charge transfer inefficiency.

Harbeck, Daniel R.; Boroson, Todd; Lesser, Michael; Rajagopal, Jayadev; Yeatts, Andrey; Corson, Charles; Liu, Wilson; Dell'Antonio, Ian; Kotulla, Ralf; Ouellette, David; Hooper, Eric; Smith, Mike; Bredthauer, Richard; Martin, Pierre; Muller, Gary; Knezek, Patricia; Hunten, Mark

2014-07-01

131

Real-time 3D millimeter wave imaging based FMCW using GGD focal plane array as detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Millimeter wave (MMW) imaging systems are required for applications in medicine, communications, homeland security, and space technology. This is because there is no known ionization hazard for biological tissue, and atmospheric attenuation in this range of the spectrum is relatively low. The lack of inexpensive room temperature imaging systems makes it difficult to give a suitable MMW system for many of the above applications. 3D MMW imaging system based on chirp radar was studied previously using a scanning imaging system of a single detector. The system presented here proposes to employ a chirp radar method with a Glow Discharge Detector (GDD) Focal Plane Array (FPA) of plasma based detectors. Each point on the object corresponds to a point in the image and includes the distance information. This will enable 3D MMW imaging. The radar system requires that the millimeter wave detector (GDD) will be able to operate as a heterodyne detector. Since the source of radiation is a frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW), the detected signal as a result of heterodyne detection gives the object's depth information according to value of difference frequency, in addition to the reflectance of the image. In this work we experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of implementing an imaging system based on radar principles and FPA of GDD devices. This imaging system is shown to be capable of imaging objects from distances of at least 10 meters.

Levanon, Assaf; Rozban, Daniel; Kopeika, Natan S.; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak; Abramovich, Amir

2014-03-01

132

Simulation of crosstalk and quantum efficiency in high-resolution UV-blue imaging arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current development of UV-Blue sensitive photo-detectors has lead to investigations with the polywell-stacked gradient poly-homojunction (StaG) configuration. Backwall illumination is of interest due to increased fill factor and pixel wavelength band tailoring. The StaG architecture has benefits. However, for benefit to backwall illumination the space charge region needs to be depleted to the backwall, possibly dispensing with the need for the StaG multi-layer. This research is an initial investigation of the benefit to crosstalk and sensitivity of the deep single well in high resolution, 5 ?m pitch, photodiode arrays. The results indicate that geometries that are of fabricatable morphology can benefit backwall illumination especially in the U/V-blue wavelength spectrum.

Jansz, Paul V.; Hinckley, Steven

2011-12-01

133

Small bowel involvement in blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome: MR imaging features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) is a rare condition which is characterized by multiple venous malformations that may\\u000a affect several organs. Gastrointestinal lesions, which mostly involve the small bowel and distal colon, may be responsible\\u000a for gastrointestinal bleeding, causing more frequently chronic anemia. We report herein two cases of BRBNS causing gastrointestinal\\u000a bleeding which were investigated by means of

Myriam Mechri; Philippe Soyer; Mourad Boudiaf; Florent Duchat; Lounis Hamzi; Roland Rymer

2009-01-01

134

Three-component velocity field measurement in confined liquid flows with high-speed digital image plane holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last years, several techniques have been developed for the measurement of the three velocity components in a fluid plane or volume. Techniques as stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) or tomographic PIV need a complex set-up and present serious restrictions when applied to confined liquid flows. Other like digital holographic PIV has some limitations in the particle concentration that can be measured. In this work, high-speed digital image plane holography has been applied for the measurement of the three velocity components in a complex geometry brain aneurysm model, using a two-cavity high-speed laser, one double frame camera and normal visualization, like in regular PIV. A portable and compact system has been built for adapting the high-speed laser short coherence length to the measurement of larger areas.

Palero, Virginia R.; Lobera, Julia; Arroyo, M. Pilar

2010-08-01

135

Integrated 585GHz Hot-Electron Mixer Focal-Plane Arrays Based on Annular Slot Antennas for Imaging Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed 585-GHz quasi-optical mixers and focal-plane arrays (FPAs) comprised of planar annular slot antennas (ASAs) with integrated niobium hot-electron bolometers for imaging applications. In order to optimize the single-element mixer design, the embedding impedance of the single ASA presented to the bolometer is analyzed using the induced electromotive force (EMF) method by including the antenna feed contribution. This

Lei Liu; Haiyong Xu; Arthur W. Lichtenberger; Robert M. Weikle II

2010-01-01

136

Imaging with a 90 frames\\/s microbolometer focal plane array and high-power terahertz free electron laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

An uncooled microbolometer focal plane array (FPA) has been developed and used for imaging of objects illuminated by monochromatic coherent radiation of a free electron laser tunable in the range of 1.25-2.5 THz. A sensitivity threshold of 1.3×10-3 W\\/cm2 was obtained for the FPA with a homemade absolute interferometric power meter. Videos up to 90 frames\\/s were recorded in both

M. A. Dem'yanenko; D. G. Esaev; B. A. Knyazev; G. N. Kulipanov; N. A. Vinokurov

2008-01-01

137

Imaging with a 90 frames?s microbolometer focal plane array and high-power terahertz free electron laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

An uncooled microbolometer focal plane array (FPA) has been developed and used for imaging of objects illuminated by monochromatic coherent radiation of a free electron laser tunable in the range of 1.25–2.5 THz. A sensitivity threshold of 1.3×10?3 W?cm2 was obtained for the FPA with a homemade absolute interferometric power meter. Videos up to 90 frames?s were recorded in both

M. A. Dem’yanenko; D. G. Esaev; B. A. Knyazev; G. N. Kulipanov; N. A. Vinokurov

2008-01-01

138

Laboratory and field imaging test results on single-color and dual-band QWIP focal plane arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on recent laboratory and field measurements on quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane arrays (FPAs). The results of laboratory measurements of imaging performance such as noise-equivalent temperature difference (NE?T), minimum resolvable temperature, conversion efficiency, uniformity of response and dark current and their dependence on operating temperature are presented on large format (640×480 pixels) single-color long-wavelength infrared (LWIR)

Arnold Goldberg; Theodore Fischer; Stephen Kennerly; William Beck; Vincent Ramirez; Ken Garner

2001-01-01

139

Exoplanet detection with simultaneous spectral differential imaging: effects of out-of-pupil-plane optical aberrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imaging faint companions (exoplanets and brown dwarfs) around nearby stars is currently limited by speckle noise. To efficiently attenuate this noise, a technique called simultaneous spectral differential imaging (SSDI) can be used. This technique consists of acquiring simultaneously images of the field of view in several adjacent narrow bands and in combining these images to suppress speckles. Simulations predict that

Christian Marois; Don W. Phillion; Bruce Macintosh

2006-01-01

140

Red, green, and blue gray-value shift-based approach to whole-field imaging for tissue diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identification of abnormal pathology in situ remains one of the challenges of medicine. The interpretation of tissue conditions relies mainly on optical assessment, which can be difficult due to inadequate visual differences or poor color delineation. We propose a methodology to identify regions of abnormal tissue in a targeted area based on red, green, blue (RGB) shift analysis employing a simple CCD color camera and light-emitting diode illumination in a whole-field-imaging scheme. The concept involves analysis of RGB components in an image with respect to a reference set of RGB values under different illumination wavelengths. The magnitude of the gray value shift is estimated by calculating the Euclidean distance between their normalized RGB coordinates. The shift values obtained using these concepts are thereafter used to construct pseudo-colored images with high contrast, enabling easy identification of abnormal areas in the tissue. Images processed from experiments conducted with excised Wistar rat colon sample (lightly doped with Alexafluor 488) and with simulated tumor (cancer cell pellet placed on colon) showed clear localization of tumor region. This proposed approach and methodology is expected to find potential applications for the in vivo diagnosis of disease.

Valiyambath Krishnan, Mohankumar; Vadakke Matham, Murukeshan; Krishnan, Sathiyamoorthy; Parasuraman, Padmanabhan; Joseph, James; Bhakoo, Kishore

2012-07-01

141

mm wave and THz imaging using very inexpensive neon-indicator lamp detector focal-plane arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of focal plane arrays (FPA) for mm wavelength and THz radiation is presented in this paper. The FPA is based upon inexpensive neon indicator lamp Glow Discharge Detectors (GDDs) that serve as pixels in the FPA. It was shown in previous investigations that inexpensive neon indicator lamps GDDs are quite sensitive to mm wavelength and THz radiation. The diameter of GDD lamps are typically 3-6 mm and thus the FPA can be diffraction limited. Development of an FPA using such devices as detectors is advantageous since the costs of such a lamp is around 30-50 cents per lamp, and it is a room temperature detector sufficiently fast for video frame rates. Recently a new 8×8 GDD FPA VLSI board was designed, constructed, and experimentally tested. First THz images as well as DSP methods using this GDD FPA are demonstrated. Super resolution was achieved by moving the 8×8 pixel board appropriately in the image plane so that 32X32 pixel images are also obtained and shown here, with much improved image quality because of much reduced pixelization distortion.

Rozban, D.; Levanon, A.; Akram, A.; Abramovich, A.; Kopeika, N. S.; Joseph, H.; Yitzthaky, Y.; Belenky, A.; Yadid-Pecht, O.

2011-10-01

142

InGaAs focal plane arrays and cameras for man-portable near-infrared imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During this presentation, the status of the technology will be described and prototype applications will be demonstrated and discussed. Included in the discussion will be: (1) the ability to distinguish camouflage from the surrounding environment, (2) the ability to see through fog that is opaque to visible imagers, (3) the ability to image eye-safe lasers for range-finding and target-acquisition, and (4) the use in conjunction with NIR flood lights for both covert surveillance and search and rescue operations. The high room-temperature D* makes indium gallium arsenide focal plane arrays excellent candidates for inclusion in small, light-weight, low-power, and low-cost NIR imaging modules. This type of development will enable additional applications such as the use in gun sights and micro-unmanned aerial vehicle surveillance. The presentation will conclude with the discussion of ongoing development activities.

Ettenberg, Martin H.; Cohen, Marshall J.; Olsen, Gregory H.; Kennedy, James J.

1999-07-01

143

Active hyperspectral imaging using a quantum cascade laser (QCL) array and digital-pixel focal plane array (DFPA) camera.  

PubMed

We demonstrate active hyperspectral imaging using a quantum-cascade laser (QCL) array as the illumination source and a digital-pixel focal-plane-array (DFPA) camera as the receiver. The multi-wavelength QCL array used in this work comprises 15 individually addressable QCLs in which the beams from all lasers are spatially overlapped using wavelength beam combining (WBC). The DFPA camera was configured to integrate the laser light reflected from the sample and to perform on-chip subtraction of the passive thermal background. A 27-frame hyperspectral image was acquired of a liquid contaminant on a diffuse gold surface at a range of 5 meters. The measured spectral reflectance closely matches the calculated reflectance. Furthermore, the high-speed capabilities of the system were demonstrated by capturing differential reflectance images of sand and KClO3 particles that were moving at speeds of up to 10 m/s. PMID:24977536

Goyal, Anish; Myers, Travis; Wang, Christine A; Kelly, Michael; Tyrrell, Brian; Gokden, B; Sanchez, Antonio; Turner, George; Capasso, Federico

2014-06-16

144

Automatic Bilateral Symmetry Midsagittal Plane Extraction from Pathological 3D Neuroradiological Images  

E-print Network

, bleed, stroke of the human brain can be determined by a symmetry-based analysis of neural scans showing the brain's 3D internal structure. Detecting departures of this internal structure from its normal bilateral the ideal symmetry plane midsagittalwith respect to which the brain is invariant under re ection

145

Inexpensive THz Focal Plane Array Imaging Using Miniature Neon Indicator Lamps as Detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of focal plane arrays (FPAs) for mm wavelength and THz radiation is presented in this paper. The FPA is based upon inexpensive neon indicator lamp Glow Discharge Detectors (GDDs) that serve as pixels in the FPA. It was shown in previous investigations that inexpensive neon indicator lamp GDDs are quite sensitive to mm wavelength and THz radiation. The diameters

Daniel Rozban; Assaf Levanon; Hezi Joseph; Avihai Akram; Amir Abramovich; Natan S. Kopeika; Yitzhak Yitzhaky; Alexander Belenky; Orly Yadid-Pecht

2011-01-01

146

A focal-plane array of dielectric rod antennas for THz imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the radiation performance of dielectric rod antennas in a focal plane array. Mutual coupling between the rods is analysed as a function of spacing for Ean d Hplane coupling. We show that the coupling is significant in densely packed arrays for rods with spacings less than 0.5? especially for rods coupling in the Eplane. I. INTRODUCTION The technical

Stephen M. Hanham; Trevor S. Bird

2011-01-01

147

Arrayed waveguide gratings beyond communication: utilization of entire image-plane of output star-coupler for spectroscopy and sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conventional Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) has been tailored for non-conventional applications such as Astro-Photonics, Life-science and spectroscopy where the input signal can have information over the full continuum of light/spectrum, compared to discrete optical channels in optical communication systems. The material system chosen for the AWG design is silicon-nitride/SiO2/Si (Si3N4-SiO2-Si) for it's relatively high refractive index, which for a given channel spacing allowing a more compact device than Silicon-on-Silica. While existing conventional AWGs cannot be utilized in spectroscopy when the input is a continuum, due to the fixed output waveguides where the centre wavelength ?c and therefore rest of the wavelength channels have been assigned to predetermined output waveguides, the device under development has no output waveguides permitting to utilize the entire-image plane of the output star-coupler. The output of the AWG can then be re-imaged onto a detector array to sample the entire output spectrum, such as the 2-D infrared arrays used in astronomy. The designed AWG can resolve up to 40 spectral channels with wavelength spacing 0.4nm (50GHz), adjacent channel cross-talk level < -25dB at the ITU grid (25GHz) and non-uniformity ~ 2.5dB. The modeled mean spectral resolving power, R, at the flat image-plane is ~ 12,200.

Fernando, Harendra N. J.; Stoll, Andreas; Boggio, Jose C.; Haynes, Roger; Roth, Martin M.

2012-06-01

148

Use digital subtraction images of blue-light and near-infrared autofluorescence for the assessment of irregular foveal contour.  

PubMed

The aims of this study are to generate subtraction images of blue-light autofluorescence (BL-AF) and near-infrared autofluorescence (NIR-AF) from normal eyes, eyes with full thickness macular holes, and eyes with irregular foveal contour, and to compare their autofluorescence patterns. This retrospective study included 44 normal eyes of 22 health individuals, 32 eyes with full thickness macular holes of 32 patients, and 36 eyes with irregular foveal contour of 36 patients. BL-AF and NIR-AF were obtained from all patients and used to generate subtraction images using the Image J software. The decreased signal of central patch was recorded. The central foveal thickness (CFT) and outer nucleus layer (ONL) thickness of fovea were measured to calculate the ONL thickness/CFT ratio. The subtraction images showed regularly increased signal in the central macula of all normal eyes. In contrast, decreased signal of central patch was detected in all full thickness macular holes eyes and 26 out of 36 eyes with irregular foveal contour. No significant difference of the ONL thickness/CFT ratio (F?=?2.32, P?=?0.113) was observed between normal and irregular foveal contour eyes with or without decreased signal of central patch. Both regularly increased signal and decreased signal of central patch were detected in the eyes with irregular foveal contour. Our results suggest that subtraction images are useful for the assessment of certain macular conditions by providing supplementary information to the green-light autofluorescence and BL-AF. PMID:25429774

Hua, Rui; Gangwani, Rita; Liu, Limin; Chen, Lei

2015-01-01

149

Multiperspective-Modelling in the Process of Constructing and Understanding Physical Theories Using the Example of the Plane Mirror Image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teaching physics goes along with explaining natural phenomena. The modelling process during the acquisition of physical knowledge plays an important role in developing understanding and deeper insight. Novices, however, have problems with this modelling process, in particular because they do not understand that teachers are talking about models of reality and not about reality itself. Physical theories are described with linguistic and mathematical symbols; hence there exist at least two perspectives of modelling, physical and mathematical modelling. According to Greca and Moreira (2001) [2] understanding of physics in school is achieved if it is possible to predict a physical phenomenon from its physical models. Yet, apart from the physical and the mathematical perspective of modelling other perspectives of modelling are necessary for understanding complex physical phenomena. To prevent confusion for the learner it is essential to differentiate between these different perspectives of modelling. This process of differentiation between various perspectives of modelling will be referred to as `Multiperspective-Modelling'. Prior studies (F. Goldberg and L. McDermott, (1986), Wiesner 1992) [1, 5] on how individual students think about images in plane mirrors revealed that the learners have misconceptions. Based on the idea of `Multiperspective-Modelling' we developed and evaluated a special training for the learner. This training differentiates physical, mathematical and `human' perspectives of modelling of the plane mirror phenomenon. The purposes of this study were to investigate the understanding of the plane mirror phenomenon of novices, before and after the special training.

Böhm, U.; Pospiech, G.; Körndle, H.; Narciss, S.

2010-07-01

150

LEARNING-BASED SCAN PLANE IDENTIFICATION FROM FETAL HEAD ULTRASOUND IMAGES  

E-print Network

of anatomical features from B-mode images. In obstetric ultrasound, measurement of gestational age predictors in the determination of gestational age (GA), assessment of growth patterns, and identification of anomalies. In order to get accurate and reproducible gestational age estimates, each of these image acquisitions

151

Digital pixel CMOS focal plane array with on-chip multiply accumulate units for low-latency image processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A digital pixel CMOS focal plane array has been developed to enable low latency implementations of image processing systems such as centroid trackers, Shack-Hartman wavefront sensors, and Fitts correlation trackers through the use of in-pixel digital signal processing (DSP) and generic parallel pipelined multiply accumulate (MAC) units. Light intensity digitization occurs at the pixel level, enabling in-pixel DSP and noiseless data transfer from the pixel array to the peripheral processing units. The pipelined processing of row and column image data prior to off chip readout reduces the required output bandwidth of the image sensor, thus reducing the latency of computations necessary to implement various image processing systems. Data volume reductions of over 80% lead to sub 10?s latency for completing various tracking and sensor algorithms. This paper details the architecture of the pixel-processing imager (PPI) and presents some initial results from a prototype device fabricated in a standard 65nm CMOS process hybridized to a commercial off-the-shelf short-wave infrared (SWIR) detector array.

Little, Jeffrey W.; Tyrrell, Brian M.; D'Onofrio, Richard; Berger, Paul J.; Fernandez-Cull, Christy

2014-06-01

152

Impacts of Cross-Platform Vicarious Calibration on the Deep Blue Aerosol Retrievals for Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aboard Terra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The retrieval of aerosol properties from spaceborne sensors requires highly accurate and precise radiometric measurements, thus placing stringent requirements on sensor calibration and characterization. For the Terra/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spedroradiometer (MODIS), the characteristics of the detectors of certain bands, particularly band 8 [(B8); 412 nm], have changed significantly over time, leading to increased calibration uncertainty. In this paper, we explore a possibility of utilizing a cross-calibration method developed for characterizing the Terral MODIS detectors in the ocean bands by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ocean Biology Processing Group to improve aerosol retrieval over bright land surfaces. We found that the Terra/MODIS B8 reflectance corrected using the cross calibration method resulted in significant improvements for the retrieved aerosol optical thickness when compared with that from the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer, Aqua/MODIS, and the Aerosol Robotic Network. The method reported in this paper is implemented for the operational processing of the Terra/MODIS Deep Blue aerosol products.

Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Hsu, N. Christina; Kwiatkowska, Ewa J.; Franz, Bryan A.; Meister, Gerhard; Salustro, Clare E.

2012-01-01

153

QWIP focal plane arrays on InP substrates for single and dual band thermal imagers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative material systems on InP substrate provide certain advantages for mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR), long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) and dual band MWIR\\/LWIR quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane arrays (FPAs). While InP\\/InGaAs and InP\\/InGaAsP LWIR QWIPs provide much higher responsivity when compared to the AlGaAs\\/GaAs QWIPs, AlInAs\\/InGaAs system facilitates completely lattice matched single band MWIR and dual band MWIR\\/LWIR FPAs.We present

S. U. Eker; Y. Arslan; M. Kaldirim; C. Besikci

2009-01-01

154

Volume-scanning three-dimensional display that uses an inclined image plane.  

PubMed

A novel three-dimensional display based on a volume-scanning method that uses an inclined light-source array and a mirror scanner is proposed. With this technique it is possible to display three-dimensional images that satisfy all factors for human stereoscopic vision. Three-dimensional images of 8 x 8 x 8 pixels, 40 mm x 40 mm x 40 mm in size, with a frame rate of 12.7 Hz were obtained as real images through an experimental system that uses a galvanometer mirror and a LED array. PMID:18360359

Miyazaki, D; Matsushita, K

2001-07-10

155

Breathing Blue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this demonstration of chemical change, the presenter blows breath into a methylene blue solution releasing carbon dioxide which acidifies the water and changes it from a bright blue color to green.

2009-08-16

156

Direct path planning in image plane and tracking for visual servoing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The image-based visual servoing would lead to image singularities that might cause control instabilities, and there exit other constraints such as the object should remain in the camera field of view and avoid obstacles. This problem can be solved by coupling path planning and image-based control. The trajectory is planned directly in the image space in our strategy to avoid the 3D estimation of the object, which is required in the motion space based path planning method. In the presented method, the initial path is given using the artificial potential field method without considering the constraints and then genetic algorithm based method is used to check and modify the initial path. This method can achieve satisfactory task while decrease the computation. The proposed method is used to align the micro peg and hole, and the simulation results show that the object can reach its desired position accurately without violation these constrains.

Wang, Junping; Liu, An; Cho, Hyungsuck

2007-10-01

157

Compact reconnaissance imaging spectrometer for Mars (CRISM): characterization results for instrument and focal plane subsystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) will launch in 2005 on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) mission, with its primary science objective to characterize sites with aqueous mineral deposits hyperspectrally at high spatial resolution. CRISM\\

Peter R. Silverglate; Kevin J. Heffernan; Peter D. Bedini; John D. Boldt; Peter J. Cavender; Edward H. Darlington; Erik T. Donald; Melissa J. Fasold; Dennis E. Fort; Reid S. Gurnee; Allen T. Hayes; John R. Hayes; James B. Hemler; David C. Humm; Noam R. Izenberg; Robert E. Lee; William J. Lees; David A. Lohr; Scott L. Murchie; Graham A. Murphy; Ralph A. Reiter; Edigio Rossano; Gordon G. Seagrave; Edward D. Schaefer; Kim Strohbehn; Howard W. Taylor; Patrick L. Thompson; Barry E. Tossman; Paul Wilson IV; Mark S. Robinson; Robert Green; Steven E. Mitchell

2004-01-01

158

Noninvasive imaging of human skin hemodynamics using a digital red-green-blue camera.  

PubMed

In order to visualize human skin hemodynamics, we investigated a method that is specifically developed for the visualization of concentrations of oxygenated blood, deoxygenated blood, and melanin in skin tissue from digital RGB color images. Images of total blood concentration and oxygen saturation can also be reconstructed from the results of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. Experiments using tissue-like agar gel phantoms demonstrated the ability of the developed method to quantitatively visualize the transition from an oxygenated blood to a deoxygenated blood in dermis. In vivo imaging of the chromophore concentrations and tissue oxygen saturation in the skin of the human hand are performed for 14 subjects during upper limb occlusion at 50 and 250 mm Hg. The response of the total blood concentration in the skin acquired by this method and forearm volume changes obtained from the conventional strain-gauge plethysmograph were comparable during the upper arm occlusion at pressures of both 50 and 250 mm Hg. The results presented in the present paper indicate the possibility of visualizing the hemodynamics of subsurface skin tissue. PMID:21895324

Nishidate, Izumi; Tanaka, Noriyuki; Kawase, Tatsuya; Maeda, Takaaki; Yuasa, Tomonori; Aizu, Yoshihisa; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Niizeki, Kyuichi

2011-08-01

159

HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING OF THE OUTBURST SITE OF M31 RV. II. NO BLUE REMNANT IN QUIESCENCE  

SciTech Connect

M31 RV is a red transient that erupted in 1988 in the Andromeda bulge, reaching a luminosity intermediate between novae and supernovae. It was cool throughout its outburst, unlike a normal classical nova. In 2006, Bond and Siegel examined archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) optical images of the M31 RV site, obtained in 1999. We found only old red giants at the site and no stars of unusual color. However, Shara et al. recently claimed to have detected (1) a bright UV source within the error box in HST UV images taken in 1995, (2) a hot (T{sub eff} > 40, 000 K) optical source in the same 1999 images that we examined, and (3) cooling of this source from 1999 to 2008. Shara et al. argue that this source's behavior is consistent with a classical-nova outburst occurring on a low-mass white dwarf. I have re-examined all of the HST frames, including new ones obtained in 2009-2010. I find that (1) the bright 1995 UV source reported by Shara et al. was actually due to cosmic rays striking the same pixel in two successive exposures; (2) the claim that an optically bright star in the error box is very hot is actually due to misinterpretation of red-giant colors in the STmagnitude system; (3) there is no evidence for variability of any source within the error box from 1999 to 2010; and (4) there are no stars of unusually blue or red color in the error box. Our 2006 conclusions remain valid: either M31 RV had faded below HST detectability by 1999, or its remnant is an unresolved companion of a red giant in the field, or the remnant is one of the red giants.

Bond, Howard E., E-mail: bond@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

2011-08-10

160

Colorful reconstructions from a thin multi-plane phase hologram.  

PubMed

A new technique of design and reconstruction of a color hologram is presented. The design is based on an iterative multi-plane optimization algorithm. It allows to encode three different images for a reconstruction at various distances measured from the hologram plane. The distances are calculated in order to obtain a fine color compound image when the hologram is illuminated by three laser beams of RGB colors. A single light phase modulator is used instead of three. The reconstructed red, green and blue component images remain in an exact match in size and position. The 2-D color image is reconstructed at a pre-assumed distance and its color pattern can be easily controlled by the choice of the three input component images. PMID:18648483

Makowski, Michal; Sypek, Maciej; Kolodziejczyk, Andrzej

2008-07-21

161

Large scale rock slope release planes imaged by differential ground based InSAR at Randa, Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In April and May of 1991 a steep rock slope above the village of Randa (Valais, Switzerland) failed in two events, releasing a total rock volume of 30 million m3. The rock mass behind the back scarp contains several million cubic meters of unstable gneisses and schists which are moving with a maximum rate of about 2 cm/yr. Different geodetic, geotechnical and geophysical techniques were applied to monitor this new instability and to determine its spatial extent. However, the boundaries of the instability could only be roughly estimated so far. For this reason five ground based differential InSAR surveys (GB-DInSAR) were carried out between 2005 and 2007 from the opposite valley flank at a distance to target of 1.3 to 1.9 km. These surveys provide displacements maps of four different time intervals with a spatial resolution of 2 to 6 m and an accuracy of less than 1 mm. These datasets reveal interesting new insights into the spatial distribution of displacements and significantly contribute to the kinematic interpretation of the ongoing movements. We found that the lower boundary of the instability is a narrow rupture plane which coincides with a primary lithological boundary on the slope. The intersection line between this basal rupture plane and the steep rock cliff extents over at least 200 m meters. It is possible to identify this structure on helicopter-based high resolution images and a LiDAR DTM of the failure surface. The eastern boundary of the instability also presents itself as a sharp line separating stable bedrock from a strongly fractured rock mass moving about 1 cm/yr along the line of sight. This lateral release plane is formed by a steeply east dipping tectonic fault plane, with subhorizontal striations and an exposed surface area of about 10'000 square meters. In the north-east of the instability the lateral boundaries crop out on surfaces that have an acute angle to the line of sight or lie in the shadow of the radar. Here the boundaries of the instability most probably correlate with faults which were mapped on the surface or can be seen on the DTM. Inside the moving rock mass several discrete structures can be identified along which active movements take place. In this contribution we discuss the ability of GB-DInSAR to detect release planes and active fractures of large scale landslides in fractured rock masses, which is not possible with any other method in inaccessible terrain. The identification of such structures provides essential information for kinematic analysis and the understanding of failure mechanisms in fractured rock masses.

Gischig, V.; Loew, S.; Kos, A.; Raetzo, H.

2009-04-01

162

The high resolution X-ray imaging detector planes for the MIRAX mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MIRAX X-ray observatory, the first Brazilian-led astrophysics space mission, is designed to perform an unprecedented wide-field, wide-band hard X-ray (5-200 keV) survey of Galactic X-ray transient sources. In the current configuration, MIRAX will carry a set of four coded-masks telescopes with high spatial resolution Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detector planes, each one consisting of an array of 64 closely tiled CZT pixelated detectors. Taken together, the four telescopes will have a total detection area of 959 cm2, a large field of view (60° × 60° FWHM), high angular resolution for this energy range (6 arcmin) and very good spectral resolution ( ~ 2 keV @ 60 keV). A stratospheric balloon-borne prototype of one of the MIRAX telescopes has been developed, tested and flown by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) as part of the ProtoEXIST program. In this paper we show results of validation and calibration tests with individual CZT detectors of the ProtoEXIST second generation experiment (P2). Each one of 64 detector units of the P2 detector plane consists of an ASIC, developed by Caltech for the NuSTAR telescope, hybridized to a CZT crystal with 0.6 mm pixel size. The performance of each detector was evaluated using radioactive sources in the laboratory. The calibration results show that the P2 detectors have average energy resolution of ~ 2.1 keV @ 60 keV and 2.3 @ 122 keV. P2 was also successfully tested on near-space environment on a balloon flight, demonstrating the detector unit readiness for integration on a space mission telescope, as well as satisfying all MIRAX mission requirements.

Rodrigues, B. H. G.; Grindlay, J. E.; Allen, B.; Hong, J.; Barthelmy, S.; Braga, J.; D'Amico, F.; Rothschild, R. E.

2013-09-01

163

TraP: Transients discovery pipeline for image-plane surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TraP is a pipeline for detecting and responding to transient and variable sources in a stream of astronomical images. Images are initially processed using a pure-Python source-extraction package, PySE, which is bundled with the TraP. Source positions and fluxes are then loaded into a SQL database for association and variability detection. The database structure allows for estimation of past upper limits on newly detected sources, and for forced fitting of previously detected sources which have since dropped below the blind-extraction threshold. Developed with LOFAR data in mind, the TraP has been used with data from other radio observatories.

TraP contributors

2014-12-01

164

Focal-Plane Image and Beam Quality Sensors for Adaptive Optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control of adaptive optical elements for real-time wavefront phase distortion compen- sation is a rapidly growing field of research and technology development. Wavefront cor- rection is essential for reliable long distance, near-ground laser communication as well as for imaging extended objects over large distances. Crucial to adaptively correcting the wavefront is a performance metric that can be directly evaluated from

Marc Cohent; Gert Cauwenberghst; Mikhail Vorontsovt; Gary Carhart

2001-01-01

165

Electrostatics of a Point Charge between Intersecting Planes: Exact Solutions and Method of Images  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this work, the authors present a commonly used example in electrostatics that could be solved exactly in a conventional manner, yet expressed in a compact form, and simultaneously work out special cases using the method of images. Then, by plotting the potentials and electric fields obtained from these two methods, the authors demonstrate that…

Mei, W. N.; Holloway, A.

2005-01-01

166

Perspectives in the design of monolithic focal plane arrays for terahertz active spectroscopic imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active spectroscopic imaging is based on arrays of broadband, short-response-time detectors observing a scene illuminated by a number of THz sources. Here we present the system design, the fabrication process and the single-pixel test for three detector technologies: GaAs Schottky diodes, GaN transistors, Nb bolometers.

M. Ortolani; E. Giovine; A. Di Gaspare; S. Cibella; R. Leoni; G. Torrioli; F. Evangelisti; V. Foglietti; M. S. Vitiello; G. Scamarcio; A. Cetronio; C. Lanzieri; M. Peroni; A. Doria; E. Giovenale; A. Petralia; G. P. Gallerano

2010-01-01

167

The Imaging Properties of the Gas Pixel Detector as a Focal Plane Polarimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-rays are particularly suited to probing the physics of extreme objects. However, despite the enormous improvements of X-ray astronomy in imaging, spectroscopy, and timing, polarimetry remains largely unexplored. We propose the photoelectric polarimeter Gas Pixel Detector (GPD) as a candidate instrument to fill the gap created by more than 30 yr without measurements. The GPD, in the focus of a telescope, will increase the sensitivity of orders of magnitude. Moreover, since it can measure the energy, the position, the arrival time, and the polarization angle of every single photon, it allows us to perform polarimetry of subsets of data singled out from the spectrum, the light curve, or an image of the source. The GPD has an intrinsic, very fine imaging capability, and in this work we report on the calibration campaign carried out in 2012 at the PANTER X-ray testing facility of the Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik of Garching (Germany) in which, for the first time, we coupled it with a JET-X optics module with a focal length of 3.5 m and an angular resolution of 18 arcsec at 4.5 keV. This configuration was proposed in 2012 aboard the X-ray Imaging Polarimetry Explorer (XIPE) in response to the ESA call for a small mission. We derived the imaging and polarimetric performance for extended sources like pulsar wind nebulae and supernova remnants as case studies for the XIPE configuration and also discuss possible improvements by coupling the detector with advanced optics that have a finer angular resolution and larger effective areas to study extended objects with more detail.

Fabiani, S.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Muleri, F.; Soffitta, P.; Rubini, A.; Bellazzini, R.; Brez, A.; de Ruvo, L.; Minuti, M.; Pinchera, M.; Sgró, C.; Spandre, G.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Pareschi, G.; Basso, S.; Citterio, O.; Burwitz, V.; Burkert, W.; Menz, B.; Hartner, G.

2014-06-01

168

320x240 pixel InGaAs\\/InP focal plane array for short-wave infrared and visible light imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the recent production release of our 320x240 pixel InGaAs\\/InP focal plane array and camera for visible and short-wavelength infrared light imaging. For this camera, we have fabricated a substrate-removed backside-illuminated InGaAs\\/InP photodiode array hybridized to a silicon read out integrated circuit (ROIC). Removing the InP substrate from the focal plane array allows visible wavelengths, which would otherwise

Tara Martin; Peter Dixon; Mari-Anne Gagliardi; Navneet Masaun

2005-01-01

169

Measurement of Water Distribution in through-plane Direction in a PEFC using a Neutron Image Intensifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen gas and air are supplied to a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). The air and the hydrogen form water and condensation may occur in the cathode side. The generated water may affect the fuel cell performance because of blocking the oxygen from reaching cathode reaction area. An imaging system with a neutron image intensifier (NII) was used for visualizing the water behaviour in the PEFC. The water distributions in the proton exchange membrane (PEM) and the gas diffusion layers (GDL) were measured by the imaging system. Visualization experiments were performed during the PEFC operation in order to clarify the water distributions in the experiments with different utilization. The generated water was discharged into the channel after the amount of water thickness in the GDL increased to a certain value of about 600 ?m in thickness in the through-plane direction. The discharged water formed water drops in the channel. The effects of the water drops in the channel on the fuel cell performance could be observed clearly. It was shown that the cell voltage increased when the water was evacuated.

Sugimoto, K.; Murakawa, H.; Miyata, K.; Asano, H.; Takenaka, N.; Yasuda, R.

170

Real-time focal-plane wavefront sensing for compact imaging phased-array telescopes: numerical and experimental demonstration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phase retrieval and phase diversity are wavefront sensing techniques fed by focal-plane data. In phase retrieval, the incoming wavefront is estimated from a single (near-) focal image of an unresolved source. In phase diversity, from at least two images of the same (complex) object recorded in presence of a known optical aberration (e,g., defocus), both the unknown incoming wavefront and the observed object can be derived. These two techniques have many advantages: the hardware is limited to (or can be merged in) the usual imaging sensor, the number of estimated modes can be continuously tuned and both are among the very few methods enabling the measurement of differential pistons/tip/tilts on segmented or divided apertures. The counterpart is that complexity is reported to digital processing, which is either iterative and long, or fast but limited to a first-order phase expansion. Based on an innovative physical approach and mathematical inversion, new simple, analytical and exact algorithms have been recently derived for phase retrieval and diversity. Conjugated with recent detector and processor advances, these algorithms can be implemented in adaptive/active optics loops, or even provide a purely-digital on-the-fly alternative. In this paper, for the first time, we present experimental validation of these algorithms with the cophasing of a segmented mirror.

Denolle, B.; Cassaing, F.; Montri, J.; Lisowski, J.; Amans, J. P.

2013-05-01

171

State of Detector Development for the WIYN One Degree Imager: Deploying a Partially Populated Focal Plane in Summer 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deployment of the WIYN One Degree Imager (ODI) was delayed due to issues with the production of its Orthogonal Transfer Array (OTA) detectors. OTA detectors allow moving charge in the detector area during an ongoing science integration to compensate for image motion caused by either telescope guide errors or atmospheric turbulence. In 2011 a small experimental foundry run with a modified design has yielded at least 14 devices that meet science requirements for conventional static imaging mode. Active correction of telescope guide errors by the detectors will be achievable with some precautions during operation, whereas atmospheric motion correction will remain limited to a technical demonstration due to persistent amplifier glow. In this poster we describe the characteristics of these devices and present a plan for the deployment of ODI with a partially populated focal plane (pODI) at the WIYN telescope in the second half of 2012. pODI will be used to characterize the performance of the ODI instrument and will be used for science operations while the future development options for OTA detectors are considered.

Harbeck, Daniel R.; Boroson, T.; Lesser, M.

2012-01-01

172

Hyperspectral image compression using distributed arithmetic coding and bit-plane coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperspectral images are of very large data size and highly correlated in neighboring bands, therefore, it is necessary to realize the efficient compression performance on the condition of low encoding complexity. In this paper, we propose a method based on both partitioning embedded block and lossless adaptive-distributed arithmetic coding (LADAC). Combined with three-dimensional wavelet transform and SW-SPECK algorithm, LADAC is

Jiaji Wu; Minli Wang; Yong Fang; Jechang Jeong; Licheng Jiao

2010-01-01

173

The imaging properties of the Gas Pixel Detector as a focal plane polarimeter  

E-print Network

X-rays are particularly suited to probe the physics of extreme objects. However, despite the enormous improvements of X-ray Astronomy in imaging, spectroscopy and timing, polarimetry remains largely unexplored. We propose the photoelectric polarimeter Gas Pixel Detector (GPD) as an instrument candidate to fill the gap of more than thirty years of lack of measurements. The GPD, in the focus of a telescope, will increase the sensitivity of orders of magnitude. Moreover, since it can measure the energy, the position, the arrival time and the polarization angle of every single photon, allows to perform polarimetry of subsets of data singled out from the spectrum, the light curve or the image of source. The GPD has an intrinsic very fine imaging capability and in this work we report on the calibration campaign carried out in 2012 at the PANTER X-ray test facility of the Max-Planck-Institut f\\"ur extraterrestrische Physik of Garching (Germany) in which, for the first time, we coupled it to a JET-X optics module wit...

Fabiani, S; Del Monte, E; Muleri, F; Soffitta, P; Rubini, A; Bellazzini, R; Brez, A; de Ruvo, L; Minuti, M; Pinchera, M; Sgrò, C; Spandre, G; Spiga, D; Tagliaferri, G; Pareschi, G; Basso, S; Citterio, O; Burwitz, V; Burkert, W; Menz, B; Hartner, G

2014-01-01

174

Blue Note  

ScienceCinema

Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

Murray Gibson

2010-01-08

175

Blue Note  

SciTech Connect

Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

Murray Gibson

2007-04-27

176

Calculation of right ventricular stroke volume in short-axis MR images using the equation of the tricuspid plane.  

PubMed

Short-axis (SA) magnetic resonance (MR) images are commonly planned parallel to the left atrioventricular valve. This orientation leads to oblique slices of the right ventricle (RV) with subsequent difficulties in separating the RV from the right atrium in the SA images. The insertion points of the tricuspid valve (TV) in the myocardium can be clearly identified in the right ventricle long axis (RVLA) and four-chamber (4CH) views. The purpose of this study was to develop a method that transfers the position of the tricuspid plane, as seen in the RVLA and 4CH views, to the SA images to facilitate the separation of the RV from the atrium. This methodology, termed Dissociating the Right Atrium from the Ventricle Volume (DRAW), was applied in 20 patients for calculations of right ventricular stroke volume (RVSV). The RVSV using DRAW (RVSV(DRAW)) was compared to left ventricular stroke volumes (LVSV) obtained from flow measurements in the ascending aorta. The RVSV was also determined using the conventional method (RVSV(CONV)) where the stack of images from the SA views are summarized, and a visual decision is made of the most basal slice to be included in the RV. The mean difference between RVSV(DRAW) and LVSV was 0·1 ± 12·7 ml, while the mean difference between RVSV(CONV) and LVSV was 0·33 ± 14·3 ml. Both the intra- and interobserver variability were small using the DRAW methodology, 0·6 ± 3·5 and 1·7 ± 2·7 ml, respectively. In conclusion, the DRAW method can be used to facilitate the separation of the RV and the atrium. PMID:22152073

Jorstig, Stina Hellstrandh; Kähäri, Anders; Emilsson, Kent; Thunberg, Per

2012-01-01

177

Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of the Outburst Site of M31 RV. II. No Blue Remnant in Quiescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

M31 RV is a red transient that erupted in 1988 in the Andromeda bulge, reaching a luminosity intermediate between novae and supernovae. It was cool throughout its outburst, unlike a normal classical nova. In 2006, Bond & Siegel examined archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) optical images of the M31 RV site, obtained in 1999. We found only old red giants at the site and no stars of unusual color. However, Shara et al. recently claimed to have detected (1) a bright UV source within the error box in HST UV images taken in 1995, (2) a hot (T eff > 40, 000 K) optical source in the same 1999 images that we examined, and (3) cooling of this source from 1999 to 2008. Shara et al. argue that this source's behavior is consistent with a classical-nova outburst occurring on a low-mass white dwarf. I have re-examined all of the HST frames, including new ones obtained in 2009-2010. I find that (1) the bright 1995 UV source reported by Shara et al. was actually due to cosmic rays striking the same pixel in two successive exposures; (2) the claim that an optically bright star in the error box is very hot is actually due to misinterpretation of red-giant colors in the STmagnitude system; (3) there is no evidence for variability of any source within the error box from 1999 to 2010; and (4) there are no stars of unusually blue or red color in the error box. Our 2006 conclusions remain valid: either M31 RV had faded below HST detectability by 1999, or its remnant is an unresolved companion of a red giant in the field, or the remnant is one of the red giants. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained by the Space Telescope Science Institute, and from the data archive at STScI. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

Bond, Howard E.

2011-08-01

178

In-plane vibration characterization of microelectromechanical systems using acousto-optic modulated partially incoherent stroboscopic imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique using acousto-optic modulated partially incoherent stroboscopic imaging for measurement of in-plane motion of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is presented. Vibration measurement is allowed by using flashes of the partially incoherent light source to freeze the positions of the microstructure at 12 equally spaced phases of the vibration period. The first-order diffracted beam taken out by an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) from the light beam of a laser is made partially incoherent by a rotating diffuser and then serves as the stroboscopic light source. Both the MEMS excitation signal and the flash control signal are provided by a dual-channel function generator. The main advantage of this measurement method is the absence of a stroboscopic generator and a high speed digital camera. Microscale prototypes are fabricated and tested. Quantitative estimates of the harmonic responses of the prototypes are obtained from the recorded images. The results agree with those obtained with a commercial MEMS motion analyzer TM with relative errors less than 2%.

Wang, Dung-An; Sheu, Fang-Wen; Chiu, Yen-Sih

2011-07-01

179

A novel Region of Interest (ROI) imaging technique for biplane imaging in interventional suites: high-resolution small field-of-view imaging in the frontal plane and dose-reduced, large field-of-view standard-resolution imaging in the lateral plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Endovascular-Image-Guided-Interventional (EIGI) treatment of neuro-vascular conditions such as aneurysms, stenosed arteries, and vessel thrombosis make use of treatment devices such as stents, coils, and balloons which have very small feature sizes, 10's of microns to a few 100's of microns, and hence demand a high resolution imaging system. The current state-of-the-art flat panel detector (FPD) has about a 200-um pixel size with the Nyquist of 2.5 lp/mm. For higher-resolution imaging a charge-coupled device (CCD) based Micro-Angio - Fluoroscope (MAF-CCD) with a pixel size of 35um (Nyquist of 11 lp/mm) was developed and previously reported. Although the detector addresses the high resolution needs, the Field-Of-View (FOV) is limited to 3.5 cm x 3.5 cm, which is much smaller than current FPDs. During the use of the MAF-CCD for delicate parts of the intervention, it may be desirable to have real-time monitoring outside the MAF FOV with a low dose, and lower, but acceptable, quality image. To address this need, a novel imaging technique for biplane imaging systems has been developed, using an MAFCCD in the frontal plane and a dose-reduced standard large FOV imager in the lateral plane. The dose reduction is achieved by using a combination of ROI fluoroscopy and spatially different temporal filtering, a technique that has been previously presented. In order to evaluate this technique, a simulation using images acquired during an actual EIGI treatment on a patient, followed by an actual implementation on phantoms is presented.

Swetadri Vasan, Setlur Nagesh; Ionita, C.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, Stephen

2014-03-01

180

A novel Region of Interest (ROI) imaging technique for biplane imaging in interventional suites: high-resolution small field-of-view imaging in the frontal plane and dose-reduced, large field-of-view standard-resolution imaging in the lateral plane.  

PubMed

Endovascular-Image-Guided-Interventional (EIGI) treatment of neuro-vascular conditions such as aneurysms, stenosed arteries, and vessel thrombosis make use of treatment devices such as stents, coils, and balloons which have very small feature sizes, 10's of microns to a few 100's of microns, and hence demand a high resolution imaging system. The current state-of-the-art flat panel detector (FPD) has about a 200-um pixel size with the Nyquist of 2.5 lp/mm. For higher-resolution imaging a charge-coupled device (CCD) based Micro-Angio -Fluoroscope (MAF-CCD) with a pixel size of 35um (Nyquist of 11 lp/mm) was developed and previously reported. Although the detector addresses the high resolution needs, the Field-Of-View (FOV) is limited to 3.5 cm × 3.5 cm, which is much smaller than current FPDs. During the use of the MAF-CCD for delicate parts of the intervention, it may be desirable to have real-time monitoring outside the MAF FOV with a low dose, and lower, but acceptable, quality image. To address this need, a novel imaging technique for biplane imaging systems has been developed, using an MAF-CCD in the frontal plane and a dose-reduced standard large FOV imager in the lateral plane. The dose reduction is achieved by using a combination of ROI fluoroscopy and spatially different temporal filtering, a technique that has been previously presented. In order to evaluate this technique, a simulation using images acquired during an actual EIGI treatment on a patient, followed by an actual implementation on phantoms is presented. PMID:25302001

Swetadri Vasan, S N; Ionita, C; Bednarek, D R; Rudin, S

2014-03-19

181

A novel Region of Interest (ROI) imaging technique for biplane imaging in interventional suites: high-resolution small field-of-view imaging in the frontal plane and dose-reduced, large field-of-view standard-resolution imaging in the lateral plane  

PubMed Central

Endovascular-Image-Guided-Interventional (EIGI) treatment of neuro-vascular conditions such as aneurysms, stenosed arteries, and vessel thrombosis make use of treatment devices such as stents, coils, and balloons which have very small feature sizes, 10's of microns to a few 100's of microns, and hence demand a high resolution imaging system. The current state-of-the-art flat panel detector (FPD) has about a 200-um pixel size with the Nyquist of 2.5 lp/mm. For higher-resolution imaging a charge-coupled device (CCD) based Micro-Angio -Fluoroscope (MAF-CCD) with a pixel size of 35um (Nyquist of 11 lp/mm) was developed and previously reported. Although the detector addresses the high resolution needs, the Field-Of-View (FOV) is limited to 3.5 cm × 3.5 cm, which is much smaller than current FPDs. During the use of the MAF-CCD for delicate parts of the intervention, it may be desirable to have real-time monitoring outside the MAF FOV with a low dose, and lower, but acceptable, quality image. To address this need, a novel imaging technique for biplane imaging systems has been developed, using an MAF-CCD in the frontal plane and a dose-reduced standard large FOV imager in the lateral plane. The dose reduction is achieved by using a combination of ROI fluoroscopy and spatially different temporal filtering, a technique that has been previously presented. In order to evaluate this technique, a simulation using images acquired during an actual EIGI treatment on a patient, followed by an actual implementation on phantoms is presented. PMID:25302001

Swetadri Vasan, S.N; Ionita, C.; Bednarek, D.R; Rudin, S.

2014-01-01

182

Focal Plane Detectors for the Advanced Gamma-Ray Imaging System (AGIS)  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Gamma-Ray Imaging System (AGIS) is a concept for the next generation observatory in ground-based very high energy gamma-ray astronomy. Design goals are ten times better sensitivity, higher angular resolution, and a lower energy threshold than existing Cherenkov telescopes. Simulations show that a substantial improvement in angular resolution may be achieved if the pixel diameter is reduced to the order of 0.05 deg, i.e. two to three times smaller than the pixel diameter of current Cherenkov telescope cameras. At these dimensions, photon detectors with smaller physical dimensions can be attractive alternatives to the classical photomultiplier tube (PMT). Furthermore, the operation of an experiment with the size of AGIS requires photon detectors that are among other things more reliable, more durable, and possibly higher efficiency photon detectors. Alternative photon detectors we are considering for AGIS include both silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) and multi-anode photomultipliers (MAPMTs). Here we present results from laboratory testing of MAPMTs and SiPMs along with results from the first incorporation of these devices into cameras on test bed Cherenkov telescopes.

Otte, A. N.; Williams, D. A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (United States); Byrum, K.; Drake, G.; Horan, D.; Smith, A.; Wagner, R. G. [Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Falcone, A. [Pennsylvania State University (United States); Funk, S.; Tajima, H. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (United States); Mukherjee, R. [Barnard College (United States)

2008-12-24

183

Determining the Instrumental Rotation Rate of MWO's 60' Tower Image Plane and Its Impact on Results from Ring-Diagram Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time series of full-disk Dopplergrams were acquired at the 60-Foot Solar tower of the Mount Wilson Observatory every year between 1987 and 2009. The 60-Foot Tower was designed by George Ellery Hale to provide an image plane that did not rotate throughout each observing day. However, preliminary analyses of a portion of this archive, carried out in 2007, suggested that the focal plane of the Tower might actually be rotating slowly. If confirmed, such an instrumental rotation would suggest that the alignment of the optics has changed slightly over the years since 1907. This possible rotation of the image plane was uncovered through the computation of subsurface flow maps using the ring-diagram method of local helioseismology. Some of the initial MWO flow maps appeared to show evidence for a so-called “washing machine” effect similar to the pattern that was seen in the initial GONG flow maps. We have been working to confirm the early estimates of the focal plane rotation. The purpose of this paper is to report on the status of this endeavor as well as explore the ramifications of a rotating image plane on our anticipated meridional and zonal flow results.

Pinkerton I., S. F.; Rhodes, E. J., Jr.; Bogart, R. S.; Orr, M.; Martin, G.; Spinella, A.

2013-12-01

184

Imaging, photophysical properties and DFT calculations of manganese blue (barium manganate(vi) sulphate) - a modern pigment.  

PubMed

Manganese blue is a synthetic barium manganate(vi) sulphate compound that was produced from 1935 to the 1990s and was used both as a blue pigment in works of art and by conservators in the restoration of paintings. The photophysical properties of the compound are described as well as the setup needed to record the spatial distribution of the pigment in works of art. PMID:25051118

Accorsi, Gianluca; Verri, Giovanni; Acocella, Angela; Zerbetto, Francesco; Lerario, Giovanni; Gigli, Giuseppe; Saunders, David; Billinge, Rachel

2014-12-18

185

Miniaturized imaging spectrometer based on Fabry-Perot MOEMS filters and HgCdTe infrared focal plane arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging spectrometry can be utilized in the midwave infrared (MWIR) and long wave infrared (LWIR) bands to detect, identify and map complex chemical agents based on their rotational and vibrational emission spectra. Hyperspectral datasets are typically obtained using grating or Fourier transform spectrometers to separate the incoming light into spectral bands. At present, these spectrometers are large, cumbersome, slow and expensive, and their resolution is limited by bulky mechanical components such as mirrors and gratings. As such, low-cost, miniaturized imaging spectrometers are of great interest. Microfabrication of micro-electro-mechanicalsystems (MEMS)-based components opens the door for producing low-cost, reliable optical systems. We present here our work on developing a miniaturized IR imaging spectrometer by coupling a mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe)-based infrared focal plane array (FPA) with a MEMS-based Fabry-Perot filter (FPF). The two membranes are fabricated from silicon-oninsulator (SOI) wafers using bulk micromachining technology. The fixed membrane is a standard silicon membrane, fabricated using back etching processes. The movable membrane is implemented as an X-beam structure to improve mechanical stability. The geometries of the distributed Bragg reflector (DBR)-based tunable FPFs are modeled to achieve the desired spectral resolution and wavelength range. Additionally, acceptable fabrication tolerances are determined by modeling the spectral performance of the FPFs as a function of DBR surface roughness and membrane curvature. These fabrication non-idealities are then mitigated by developing an optimized DBR process flow yielding high-performance FPF cavities. Zinc Sulfide (ZnS) and Germanium (Ge) are chosen as the low and the high index materials, respectively, and are deposited using an electron beam process. Simulations are presented showing the impact of these changes and non-idealities in both a device and systems level.

Velicu, S.; Buurma, C.; Bergeson, J. D.; Kim, Tae Sung; Kubby, J.; Gupta, N.

2014-05-01

186

First operation of 8×8 glow discharge detector VLSI focal plane array toward mm wave and THz radiation video rate imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new kind of 8×8 focal plane array (FPA) based on glow discharge detector (GDD) elements was constructed and tested experimentally. First THz images of this FPA are presented. The data acquisition of this system is performed with a special VLSI board designed for this system. Previously, signal detection of the FPA elements was based upon a lock in amplifier

N. S. Kopeika; A. Abramovich; H. Joseph; A. Akram; O. Yadid-Pecht; A. Belenky; S. Lineykin

2009-01-01

187

Intraoperative two-dimensional echocardiography and color flow Doppler imaging: a basic transesophageal single plane patient examination sequence.  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in technology have allowed application of transesophageal echocardiography to intraoperative care of critically ill patients. Early clinical application primarily involved evaluation of left ventricular regional wall motion. However, valid intraoperative use of transesophageal echocardiography should also encompass systematic assessment of the entire heart as well as the great vessels. This report describes a 10-step sequence of single plane, two-dimensional echocardiographic views which constitute a basic patient examination capable of being performed by a practitioner whose primary responsibility is the delivery of anesthesia care. A 5-step color flow Doppler examination sequence is also presented. These views complement the two-dimensional echocardiographic steps. Representations of methods for grading Doppler-defined valvular regurgitation complete the report. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 PMID:7825339

Rafferty, T. D.; Lippmann, H.

1993-01-01

188

640x512 pixels long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP) imaging focal plane array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have exploited the artificial atom-like properties of epitaxially grown self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) for the development of high operating temperature long wavelength infrared (LWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs). QD infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) are expected to outperform quantum well infrared detectors (QWIPs) and are expected to offer significant advantages over II-VI material based FPAs. We have used molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) technology to grow multi-layer LWIR Dot-in-a-Well (DWELL) structures based on the InAs/InGaAs/GaAs material system. This hybrid quantum dot/quantum well device offers additional control in wavelength tuning via control of dot-size and/or quantum well sizes. DWELL QDIPs were also experimentally shown to absorb both 45o and normally incident light. Thus we have employed a reflection grating structure to further enhance the quantum efficiency. The most recent devices exhibit peak responsivity out to 8.1 microns. Peak detectivity of the 8.1 ?m devices has reached ~ 1 x 1010 Jones at 77 K. Furthermore, we have fabricated the first long-wavelength 640x512 pixels QDIP imaging FPA. This QDIP FPA has produced excellent infrared imagery with noise equivalent temperature difference of 40 mK at 60K operating temperature.

Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Hill, C. J.; Ting, D. Z.; Liu, J. K.; Rafol, S. B.; Blazejewski, E. R.; Mumolo, J. M.; Keo, S. A.; Krishna, S.; Chang, Y.-C.; Shott, C. A.

2006-09-01

189

Demonstration of 640 × 512 pixels long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP) imaging focal plane array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have exploited the artificial atom-like properties of epitaxially grown self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) for the development of high operating temperature long wavelength infrared (LWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs). QD infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) are expected to outperform quantum well infrared detectors (QWIPs) and are expected to offer significant advantages over II-VI material based FPAs. We have used molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) technology to grow multi-layer LWIR dot-in-a-well (DWELL) structures based on the InAs/InGaAs/GaAs material system. This hybrid quantum dot/quantum well device offers additional control in wavelength tuning via control of dot-size and/or quantum well sizes. DWELL QDIPs were also experimentally shown to absorb both 45° and normally incident light. Thus we have employed a reflection grating structure to further enhance the quantum efficiency. The most recent devices exhibit peak responsivity out to 8.1 ?m. Peak detectivity of the 8.1 ?m devices has reached ˜1 × 10 10 Jones at 77 K. Furthermore, we have fabricated the first long-wavelength 640 × 512 pixels QDIP imaging FPA. This QDIP FPA has produced excellent infrared imagery with noise equivalent temperature difference of 40 mK at 60 K operating temperature.

Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Hill, C. J.; Ting, D. Z.; Liu, J. K.; Rafol, S. B.; Blazejewski, E. R.; Mumolo, J. M.; Keo, S. A.; Krishna, S.; Chang, Y.-C.; Shott, C. A.

2007-04-01

190

Eleven fetal echocardiographic planes using 4-dimensional ultrasound with spatio-temporal image correlation (STIC): a logical approach to fetal heart volume analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Theoretically, a cross-sectional image of any cardiac planes can be obtained from a STIC fetal heart volume dataset. We described a method to display 11 fetal echocardiographic planes from STIC volumes. Methods Fetal heart volume datasets were acquired by transverse acquisition from 200 normal fetuses at 15 to 40 weeks of gestation. Analysis of the volume datasets using the described technique to display 11 echocardiographic planes in the multiplanar display mode were performed offline. Results Volume datasets from 18 fetuses were excluded due to poor image resolution. The mean visualization rates for all echocardiographic planes at 15-17, 18-22, 23-27, 28-32 and 33-40 weeks of gestation fetuses were 85.6% (range 45.2-96.8%, N = 31), 92.9% (range 64.0-100%, N = 64), 93.4% (range 51.4-100%, N = 37), 88.7%(range 54.5-100%, N = 33) and 81.8% (range 23.5-100%, N = 17) respectively. Conclusions Overall, the applied technique can favorably display the pertinent echocardiographic planes. Description of the presented method provides a logical approach to explore the fetal heart volumes. PMID:20843340

2010-01-01

191

Pixel Color Clustering of Multi-Temporally Acquired Digital Photographs of a Rice Canopy by Luminosity-Normalization and Pseudo-Red-Green-Blue Color Imaging  

PubMed Central

Red-green-blue (RGB) channels of RGB digital photographs were loaded with luminosity-adjusted R, G, and completely white grayscale images, respectively (RGwhtB method), or R, G, and R + G (RGB yellow) grayscale images, respectively (RGrgbyB method), to adjust the brightness of the entire area of multi-temporally acquired color digital photographs of a rice canopy. From the RGwhtB or RGrgbyB pseudocolor image, cyan, magenta, CMYK yellow, black, L*, a*, and b* grayscale images were prepared. Using these grayscale images and R, G, and RGB yellow grayscale images, the luminosity-adjusted pixels of the canopy photographs were statistically clustered. With the RGrgbyB and the RGwhtB methods, seven and five major color clusters were given, respectively. The RGrgbyB method showed clear differences among three rice growth stages, and the vegetative stage was further divided into two substages. The RGwhtB method could not clearly discriminate between the second vegetative and midseason stages. The relative advantages of the RGrgbyB method were attributed to the R, G, B, magenta, yellow, L*, and a* grayscale images that contained richer information to show the colorimetrical differences among objects than those of the RGwhtB method. The comparison of rice canopy colors at different time points was enabled by the pseudocolor imaging method. PMID:25302325

Doi, Ryoichi; Arif, Chusnul

2014-01-01

192

Pixel color clustering of multi-temporally acquired digital photographs of a rice canopy by luminosity-normalization and pseudo-red-green-blue color imaging.  

PubMed

Red-green-blue (RGB) channels of RGB digital photographs were loaded with luminosity-adjusted R, G, and completely white grayscale images, respectively (RGwhtB method), or R, G, and R + G (RGB yellow) grayscale images, respectively (RGrgbyB method), to adjust the brightness of the entire area of multi-temporally acquired color digital photographs of a rice canopy. From the RGwhtB or RGrgbyB pseudocolor image, cyan, magenta, CMYK yellow, black, L*, a*, and b* grayscale images were prepared. Using these grayscale images and R, G, and RGB yellow grayscale images, the luminosity-adjusted pixels of the canopy photographs were statistically clustered. With the RGrgbyB and the RGwhtB methods, seven and five major color clusters were given, respectively. The RGrgbyB method showed clear differences among three rice growth stages, and the vegetative stage was further divided into two substages. The RGwhtB method could not clearly discriminate between the second vegetative and midseason stages. The relative advantages of the RGrgbyB method were attributed to the R, G, B, magenta, yellow, L*, and a* grayscale images that contained richer information to show the colorimetrical differences among objects than those of the RGwhtB method. The comparison of rice canopy colors at different time points was enabled by the pseudocolor imaging method. PMID:25302325

Doi, Ryoichi; Arif, Chusnul; Setiawan, Budi Indra; Mizoguchi, Masaru

2014-01-01

193

Axial Plane Optical Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present axial plane optical microscopy (APOM) that can, in contrast to conventional microscopy, directly image a sample's cross-section parallel to the optical axis of an objective lens without scanning. APOM combined with conventional microscopy simultaneously provides two orthogonal images of a 3D sample. More importantly, APOM uses only a single lens near the sample to achieve selective-plane illumination microscopy, as we demonstrated by three-dimensional (3D) imaging of fluorescent pollens and brain slices. This technique allows fast, high-contrast, and convenient 3D imaging of structures that are hundreds of microns beneath the surfaces of large biological tissues.

Li, Tongcang; Ota, Sadao; Kim, Jeongmin; Wong, Zi Jing; Wang, Yuan; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

2014-12-01

194

Voyager 1 'Blue Movie'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the original Voyager 'Blue Movie' (so named because it was built from Blue filter images). It records the approach of Voyager 1 during a period of over 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storms shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

2000-01-01

195

Nile-red and Nile-blue-based near-infrared fluorescent probes for in-cellulo imaging of hydrogen sulfide.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide has recently been identified as a biologically responsive species. The design and synthesis of fluorescence probes, which are constructed with Nile-red or Nile-blue fluorophores and a fluorescence-controllable dinitrophenyl group, for hydrogen sulfide are reported in this paper. The Nile-red-dinitrophenyl-ether-group-based probe (1a) is essentially non-fluorescent because of the inhibition of the photo-induced electron-transfer process; when the dinitrobenzene moiety is removed by nucleophilic substitution with the hydrosulfide anion, probe 1a is converted into hydroxy Nile red, eliciting a H2S-induced fluorescence turn-on signal. Furthermore, probe 1a has high selectivity and sensitivity for the hydrosulfide anion, and its potential for biological applications was confirmed by using it for real-time fluorescence imaging of hydrogen sulfide in live HeLa cells. The Nile-blue-dinitrobenzene-based probe (1b) has gradually diminishing brightness in the red-emission channel with increased hydrogen-sulfide concentration. Thus, this paper reports a comparative study of Nile-red and Nile-blue-based hydrogen-sulfide probes. PMID:25258280

Liu, Xiao-Dong; Fan, Chen; Sun, Ru; Xu, Yu-Jie; Ge, Jian-Feng

2014-11-01

196

On Seeing Reddish Green and Yellowish Blue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stabilization of the retinal image of the boundary between a pair of red/green or yellow/blue stripes, but not their outer edges, results in the entire region being perceived simultaneously as both red/green or yellow/blue. This suggests that the percepts of reddish-green/yellowish-blue apparently are possible in corticocortical color vision…

Crane, Hewitt D.; Piantanida, Thomas P.

1983-01-01

197

The Blues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Noted bluesman Willie Dixon once said, "The blues are the roots; everything else is the fruits". Wise words indeed, and the quote informs the spirit of Martin Scorsese's PBS documentary series "The Blues". This interactive website provides users with some great material about this seven part series, which features segments by Clint Eastwood, Wim Wenders, and of course, Mr. Scorsese. On the site, visitors can watch previews of each segment and learn more about the artists profiled in each one. In "The Songs & the Artists" area, visitors can read musician biographies and even check out the accompanying radio series which was released in conjunction with the documentary. Those who like to travel should click on the "Blues Road Trip" area. Here they will have the opportunity to take a musical journey from the Deep South to Memphis, St. Louis, and Chicago via song, photographs, and maps. The site is rounded out by the "Blues Classroom" area, which is designed for educators. Interested parties can view lesson plans, look over a blues glossary, and read several background essays.

198

A DIGITAL IMAGE WATERMARKING TECHNIQUE USING MODULATED PASCAL'S TRIANGLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A watermarking process introduces imperceptible changes to a digital image that can be next detected by a computer program. In this paper we present an algorithm that embeds a binary representation of a modulated Pascal's triangle into the blue channel of color images by modifying one of the Bit planes. The proposed technique aims at the protection of the rights

I. Kostopoulos; M. Xenos

2003-01-01

199

CTMRedit: a Matlab-Based Tool for Segmenting and Interpolating MRI and CT Images in Three Orthogonal Planes  

E-print Network

CTMRedit: a Matlab-Based Tool for Segmenting and Interpolating MRI and CT Images in Three Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Los Angeles, CA 90095 2 Imaging Medical Group, Cedars-Sinai Medical needed image segmentation tools. Good medical image segmentation tools exist (e.g. NIH image [1

Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark

200

Blue Pork  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: The Chinese have a centuries-old love affair with pork. It constitutes 70% of the meat in their diet. Mao Zedong even called pork a "national treasure." However, that pork was the "the other white meat," not phosphorescent blue...

Hacker, Randi; Boyd, David

2011-05-29

201

Dissection of the thoracic aorta: pre- and postoperative findings on turbo-FLASH MR images obtained in the plane of the aortic arch.  

PubMed

This pictorial essay illustrates the pre- and postoperative findings seen in patients with aortic dissections on contrast-enhanced turbo-fast low-angle shot (FLASH) MR images obtained in the plane of the aortic arch. Contrast-enhanced images provide morphologic and functional information not normally available with conventional spin-echo (SE) MR imaging or dynamic CT. Preoperative examination of the acute dissection is often troubled by cardiovascular insufficiency and motion artifacts. Therefore most of our patients were examined postoperatively. The main reason for postsurgical imaging is the evaluation of the flow in the different lumina and the detection of complications (i.e., aneurysms or progress of dissection). PMID:7976876

Fischer, U; Vosshenrich, R; Kopka, L; Keating, D; Oestmann, J W; Grabbe, E

1994-11-01

202

BLUE STRAGGLERS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER 47 TUCANAE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The core of globular cluster 47 Tucanae is home to many blue stragglers, rejuvenated stars that glow with the blue light of young stars. A ground-based telescope image (on the left) shows the entire crowded core of 47 Tucanae, located 15,000 light-years away in the constellation Tucana. Peering into the heart of the globular cluster's bright core, the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 separated the dense clump of stars into many individual stars (image on right). Some of these stars shine with the light of old stars; others with the blue light of blue stragglers. The yellow circles in the Hubble telescope image highlight several of the cluster's blue stragglers. Analysis for this observation centered on one massive blue straggler. Astronomers theorize that blue stragglers are formed either by the slow merger of stars in a double-star system or by the collision of two unrelated stars. For the blue straggler in 47 Tucanae, astronomers favor the slow merger scenario. This image is a 3-color composite of archival Hubble Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 images in the ultraviolet (blue), blue (green), and violet (red) filters. Color tables were assigned and scaled so that the red giant stars appear orange, main-sequence stars are white/green, and blue stragglers are appropriately blue. The ultraviolet images were taken on Oct. 25, 1995, and the blue and violet images were taken on Sept. 1, 1995. Credit: Rex Saffer (Villanova University) and Dave Zurek (STScI), and NASA

2002-01-01

203

Assessment of the Rotation Motion at the Papillary Muscle Short-Axis Plane with Normal Subjects by Two-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Imaging: A Basic Clinical Study  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to observe the rotation patterns at the papillary muscle plane in the Left Ventricle(LV) with normal subjects using two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging(2D-STI). Methods We acquired standard of the basal, the papillary muscle and the apical short-axis images of the LV in 64 subjects to estimate the LV rotation motion by 2D-STI. The rotational degrees at the papillary muscle short-axis plane were measured at 15 different time points in the analysis of two heart cycles. Results There were counterclockwise rotation, clockwise rotation, and counterclockwise to clockwise rotation at the papillary muscle plane in the LV with normal subjects, respectively. The ROC analysis of the rotational degrees was performed at the papillary muscle short-axis plane at the peak LV torsion for predicting whether the turnaround point of twist to untwist motion pattern was located at the papillary muscle level. Sensitivity and specificity were 97% and 67%, respectively, with a cut-off value of 0.34°, and an area under the ROC curve of 0.8. At the peak LV torsion, there was no correlation between the rotational degrees at the papillary muscle short-axis plane and the LVEF in the normal subjects(r?=?0.000, p?=?0.998). Conclusions In the study, we conclude that there were three rotation patterns at the papillary muscle short-axis levels, and the transition from basal clockwise rotation to apical counterclockwise rotation is located at the papillary muscle level. PMID:24376634

Ni, Xian-Da; Huang, Jun; Hu, Yuan-Ping; Xu, Rui; Yang, Wei-Yu; Zhou, Li-Ming

2013-01-01

204

Least squares restoration of multichannel images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multichannel restoration using both within- and between-channel deterministic information is considered. A multichannel image is a set of image planes that exhibit cross-plane similarity. Existing optimal restoration filters for single-plane images yield suboptimal results when applied to multichannel images, since between-channel information is not utilized. Multichannel least squares restoration filters are developed using the set theoretic and the constrained optimization approaches. A geometric interpretation of the estimates of both filters is given. Color images (three-channel imagery with red, green, and blue components) are considered. Constraints that capture the within- and between-channel properties of color images are developed. Issues associated with the computation of the two estimates are addressed. A spatially adaptive, multichannel least squares filter that utilizes local within- and between-channel image properties is proposed. Experiments using color images are described.

Galatsanos, Nikolas P.; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K.; Chin, Roland T.; Hillery, Allen D.

1991-01-01

205

Morphological observation and analysis using automated image cytometry for the comparison of trypan blue and fluorescence-based viability detection method.  

PubMed

The ability to accurately determine cell viability is essential to performing a well-controlled biological experiment. Typical experiments range from standard cell culturing to advanced cell-based assays that may require cell viability measurement for downstream experiments. The traditional cell viability measurement method has been the trypan blue (TB) exclusion assay. However, since the introduction of fluorescence-based dyes for cell viability measurement using flow or image-based cytometry systems, there have been numerous publications comparing the two detection methods. Although previous studies have shown discrepancies between TB exclusion and fluorescence-based viability measurements, image-based morphological analysis was not performed in order to examine the viability discrepancies. In this work, we compared TB exclusion and fluorescence-based viability detection methods using image cytometry to observe morphological changes due to the effect of TB on dead cells. Imaging results showed that as the viability of a naturally-dying Jurkat cell sample decreased below 70 %, many TB-stained cells began to exhibit non-uniform morphological characteristics. Dead cells with these characteristics may be difficult to count under light microscopy, thus generating an artificially higher viability measurement compared to fluorescence-based method. These morphological observations can potentially explain the differences in viability measurement between the two methods. PMID:24643390

Chan, Leo Li-Ying; Kuksin, Dmitry; Laverty, Daniel J; Saldi, Stephanie; Qiu, Jean

2014-03-19

206

Sodium cholate-templated blue light-emitting ag subnanoclusters: in vivo toxicity and imaging in zebrafish embryos.  

PubMed

We report a novel green chemical approach for the synthesis of blue light-emitting and water-soluble Ag subnanoclusters, using sodium cholate (NaC) as a template at a concentration higher than the critical micelle concentration (CMC) at room temperature. However, under photochemical irradiation, small anisotropic and spherically shaped Ag nanoparticles (3-11 nm) were obtained upon changing the concentration of NaC from below to above the CMC. The matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight and electrospray ionization mass spectra showed that the cluster sample was composed of Ag4 and Ag6. The optical properties of the clusters were studied by UV-visible and luminescence spectroscopy. The lifetime of the synthesized fluorescent Ag nanoclusters (AgNCs) was measured using a time-correlated single-photon counting technique. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to assess the size of clusters and nanoparticles. A protocol for transferring nanoclusters to organic solvents is also described. Toxicity and bioimaging studies of NaC templated AgNCs were conducted using developmental stage zebrafish embryos. From the survival and hatching experiment, no significant toxic effect was observed at AgNC concentrations of up to 200 ?L/mL, and the NC-stained embryos exhibited blue fluorescence with high intensity for a long period of time, which shows that AgNCs are more stable in living system. PMID:25552345

Chandirasekar, Shanmugam; Chandrasekaran, Chandramouli; Muthukumarasamyvel, Thangavel; Sudhandiran, Ganapasam; Rajendiran, Nagappan

2015-01-28

207

The Blue Marble  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This spectacular Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 'blue marble' image is based on the most detailed collection of true-color imagery of the entire Earth to date. Using a collection of satellite-based observations, scientists and visualizers stitched together months of observations of the land surface, oceans, sea ice, and clouds into a seamless, true-color mosaic of every square kilometer (.386 square mile) of our planet. Most of the information contained in this image came from MODIS, illustrating MODIS' outstanding capacity to act as an integrated tool for observing a variety of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric features of the Earth. The land and coastal ocean portions of this image is based on surface observations collected from June through September 2001 and combined, or composited, every eight days to compensate for clouds that might block the satellite's view on any single day. Global ocean color (or chlorophyll) data was used to simulate the ocean surface. MODIS doesn't measure 3-D features of the Earth, so the surface observations were draped over topographic data provided by the U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center. MODIS observations of polar sea ice were combined with observations of Antarctica made by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's AVHRR sensor-the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The cloud image is a composite of two days of MODIS imagery collected in visible light wavelengths and a third day of thermal infra-red imagery over the poles. A large collection of imagery based on the blue marble in a variety of sizes and formats, including animations and the full (1 km) resolution imagery, is available at the Blue Marble page. Image by Reto Stockli, Render by Robert Simmon. Based on data from the MODIS Science Team

2002-01-01

208

CTIO 1.5m CCD image of SuWt 2 red = [N II]+H#, blue = [O III  

E-print Network

of the double­lined binary show that both stars have masses of at least 2.5 M# ; thus they are main the startling fact that the binary is double lined, consisting of two A­type stars, one with slightly broadened plane and perpendicularly to it. The 14th­mag central star has been found to be an eclipsing binary

Bond, Howard E.

209

The Next Generation Blue Marble  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomena is a full year?s worth of NASA satellite data of Earth's land surface, coastal oceans, sea ice, and clouds that has been organized into a seamless, photo-like mosaic of our planet The image beneath the title "The Next Generation Blue Marble" features an animation. Click the image to begin the animation.

210

mm wave and THz imaging using very inexpensive neon-indicator lamp detector focal-plane arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of focal plane arrays (FPA) for mm wavelength and THz radiation is presented in this paper. The FPA is based upon inexpensive neon indicator lamp Glow Discharge Detectors (GDDs) that serve as pixels in the FPA. It was shown in previous investigations that inexpensive neon indicator lamps GDDs are quite sensitive to mm wavelength and THz radiation. The diameter

D. Rozban; A. Levanon; A. Akram; A. Abramovich; N. S. Kopeika; H. Joseph; Y. Yitzthaky; A. Belenky; O. Yadid-Pecht

2011-01-01

211

Dual-plane stereoscopic particle image velocimetry: system set-up and its application on a lobed jet mixing flow  

E-print Network

PIV system was applied to mea- sure an air jet mixing ¯ow exhausted from a lobed nozzle. Various jet mixing flow H. Hu, T. Saga, T. Kobayashi, N. Taniguchi, M. Yasuki Abstract The technical basis-correlation coef®cients of ¯ow variables instantaneously and simultaneously. The present dual-plane stereoscopic

Hu, Hui

212

THE DEEP BLUE COLOR OF HD 189733b: ALBEDO MEASUREMENTS WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH AT VISIBLE WAVELENGTHS  

SciTech Connect

We present a secondary eclipse observation for the hot Jupiter HD 189733b across the wavelength range 290-570 nm made using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. We measure geometric albedos of A{sub g} = 0.40 {+-} 0.12 across 290-450 nm and A{sub g} < 0.12 across 450-570 nm at 1{sigma} confidence. The albedo decrease toward longer wavelengths is also apparent when using six wavelength bins over the same wavelength range. This can be interpreted as evidence for optically thick reflective clouds on the dayside hemisphere with sodium absorption suppressing the scattered light signal beyond {approx}450 nm. Our best-fit albedo values imply that HD 189733b would appear a deep blue color at visible wavelengths.

Evans, Thomas M.; Aigrain, Suzanne; Barstow, Joanna K. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Pont, Frederic; Sing, David K. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, EX4 4QL Exeter (United Kingdom); Desert, Jean-Michel; Knutson, Heather A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gibson, Neale [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Heng, Kevin [University of Bern, Center for Space and Habitability, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Lecavelier des Etangs, Alain, E-mail: tom.evans@astro.ox.ac.uk [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

2013-08-01

213

Composite x-ray image assembly for large-field digital mammography with one- and two-dimensional positioning of a focal plane array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To demonstrate the feasibility of a novel large-field digital mammography technique, a 1024 x 1024 pixel Loral charge-coupled device (CCD) focal plane array (FPA) was positioned in a mammographic field with one- and two-dimensional scan sequences to obtain 950 x 1800 pixel and 3600 x 3600 pixel composite images, respectively. These experiments verify that precise positioning of FPAs produced seamless composites and that the CCD mosaic concept has potential for high-resolution, large-field imaging. The proposed CCD mosaic concept resembles a checkerboard pattern with spacing left between the CCDs for the driver and readout electronics. To obtain a complete x-ray image, the mosaic must be repositioned four times, with an x-ray exposure at each position. To reduce the patient dose, a lead shield with appropriately patterned holes is placed between the x-ray source and the patient. The high-precision motorized translation stages and the fiber-coupled-scintillating-screen-CCD sensor assembly were placed in the position usually occupied by the film cassette. Because of the high mechanical precision, seamless composites were constructed from the subimages. This paper discusses the positioning, image alignment procedure, and composite image results. The paper only addresses the formation of a seamless composite image from subimages and will not consider the effects of the lead shield, multiple CCDs, or the speed of motion.

Halama, G.; McAdoo, J.; Liu, H.

1998-01-01

214

National Geographic: Blue Whales  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a cameraman leans in to get a shot of a blue whale, this massive creature glides through the water off of Costa Rica. That's the opening photograph that visitors to this interactive article from National Geographic are presented with, and it's a rather amazing image. This interactive article and feature is derived from a March 2009 feature in the print edition of National Geographic magazine, and it features the photography of Flip Nicklin and the writing of Ken Brower. The article offers an in-depth look into the recovery of the blue whale population off the coast of Costa Rica in recent years, and along the way visitors can stop off to take a look at a special photo gallery, take a quiz on these remarkable creatures, and also watch a video the provides the story behind one of Nicklin's photographs.

Brower, Ken

215

Integrating Spray Plane-Based Remote Sensing and Rapid Image Processing with Variable-Rate Aerial Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A remote sensing and variable rate application system was configured for agricultural aircraft. This combination system has the potential of providing a completely integrated solution for all aspects of aerial site-specific application and includes remote sensing, image processing and georegistration, prescription generation, and variable-rate application. A missing link has been the ability to rapidly process and georeference images obtained during

Steven J. Thomson; Randy R. Price; Lowrey A. Smith

216

Mongolian blue spots  

MedlinePLUS

Mongolian spots are flat, blue, or blue-gray skin markings near the buttocks that appear at birth or shortly thereafter. ... Mongolian blue spots are common among persons who are of Asian, East Indian, and African descent.

217

Blue nightshade poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Blue nightshade poisoning occurs when someone eats parts of the blue nightshade plant. This is for information only and ... The poison is found in the blue nightshade (Solanum dulcamara) plant, especially in the fruit and leaves.

218

A compact thermal infrared imaging radiometer with high spatial resolution and wide swath for a small satellite using a large format uncooled infrared focal plane array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a feasibility study for the potential of a high spatial resolution and wide swath thermal infrared (TIR) imaging radiometer for a small satellite using a large format uncooled infrared focal plane array (IR-FPA). The preliminary TIR imaging radiometer designs were performed. One is a panchromatic (mono-band) imaging radiometer (8-12?m) with a large format 2000 x 1000 pixels uncooled IR-FPA with a pixel pitch of 15 ?m. The other is a multiband imaging radiometer (8.8?m, 10.8?m, 11.4?m). This radiometer is employed separate optics and detectors for each wave band. It is based on the use of a 640 x 480 pixels uncooled IR-FPA with a pixel pitch of 25 ?m. The thermal time constant of an uncooled IR-FPA is approximately 10-16ms, and introduces a constraint to the satellite operation to achieve better signal-to-noise ratio, MTF and linearity performances. The study addressed both on-ground time-delayintegration binning and staring imaging solutions, although a staring imaging was preferred after trade-off. The staring imaging requires that the line of sight of the TIR imaging radiometer gazes at a target area during the acquisition time of the image, which can be obtained by rotating the satellite or a steering mirror around the pitch axis. The single band radiometer has been designed to yield a 30m ground sample distance over a 30km swath width from a satellite altitude of 500km. The radiometric performance, enhanced with staring imaging, is expected to yield a NETD less than 0.5K for a 300K ground scene. The multi-band radiometer has three spectral bands with spatial resolution of 50m and swath width of 24km. The radiometric performance is expected to yield a NETD less than 0.85K. We also showed some preliminary simulation results on volcano, desert/urban scenes, and wildfire.

Tatsumi, Kenji; Sakuma, Fumihiro; Kikuchi, Masakuni; Tanii, Jun; Kawanishi, Toneo; Ueno, Shinichi; Kuga, Hideki

2014-10-01

219

Why is the sky blue? (Tyndall Effect)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides an answer to the common question of âWhy is the sky blue?â The page uses drawings and images to explain how Tyndall Effect causes the blue color we see. Similar topics like Sunsets and âWhy is Mars sky red?â are also addressed.

2007-06-22

220

Blue light hazard and aniridia.  

PubMed Central

The fundi of three patients with aniridia were photographed with a 470 nm illuminating light source. No apparent change in contrast was observable throughout the macular region. This would suggest an absence of the macular pigment. The likelihood of aniridics being more susceptible than normal persons to blue light damage is discussed. Images PMID:3978071

Abadi, R. V.; Dickinson, C. M.

1985-01-01

221

First operation of 8×8 glow discharge detector VLSI focal plane array toward mm wave and THz radiation video rate imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new kind of 8×8 focal plane array (FPA) based on glow discharge detector (GDD) elements was constructed and tested experimentally. First THz images of this FPA are presented. The data acquisition of this system is performed with a special VLSI board designed for this system. Previously, signal detection of the FPA elements was based upon a lock in amplifier (LIA) which limited the rate of image formation. This was in order to detect weak signals required for stand-off remote detection. Switching mode is necessary in order to save energy but stabilization time of the GDD found to be 0.5 sec. Recent investigations proved that it is possible to overcome the above timing limitations. It was shown that heterodyne detection yielded 40 times more sensitivity than the direct detection, thus in many circumstances obviating the need for a LIA. Moreover, GDD stabilization time of less than 1 msec was achieved. These developments should enable video rate THz imaging using GDD FPAs.

Kopeika, N. S.; Abramovich, A.; Joseph, H.; Akram, A.; Yadid-Pecht, O.; Belenky, A.; Lineykin, S.

2009-09-01

222

Synchrotron based infrared imaging and spectroscopy via focal plane array on live fibroblasts in D2O enriched medium  

SciTech Connect

We tested the viability of using synchrotron based infrared imaging to study biochemical processes inside living cells. As a model system, we studied fibroblast cells exposed to a medium highly enriched with D2O. We could show that the experimental technique allows us to reproduce at the cellular level measurements that are normally performed on purified biological molecules. We can obtain information about lipid conformation and distribution, kinetics of hydrogen/deuterium exchange, and the formation of concentration gradients of H and O isotopes in water that are associated with cell metabolism. The implementation of the full field technique in a sequential imaging format gives a description of cellular biochemistry and biophysics that contains both spatial and temporal information.

Quaroni, Luca; Zlateva, Theodora; Sarafimov, Blagoj; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Wehbe, Katia; Hegg, Eric L.; Cinque, Gianfelice

2014-03-26

223

InSb focal plane array chemical imaging enables assessment of unit process efficiency for milling operation.  

PubMed

In the dry milling of wheat flour, each unit process (roller mill, purifier, sifter, etc.) produces a mixture with varying amounts of wheat endosperm and non-endosperm byproducts. Chemical images with 82 000 pixels of each intermediate product stream issuing from an individual processing machine are readily analyzed in terms of the relative amount of endosperm and non-endosperm. Approximately three minutes is required to produce an image of each intermediate product stream. Applying partial least squares (PLS) chemometric software to identify individual pixels, which enables calculation of the relative amount of endosperm and non-endosperm, is not a time-limiting factor. When relative flow rates are known for each stream, mass balance can be calculated from each intermediate stream in terms of the product (endosperm content) and the lower value non-endosperm byproduct. Data is presented from a purifier in a commercial flour mill. Intermediate streams collected from a run with optimized operational parameters were compared to those of another run before adjustment. The endosperm (product) mass balance profile for each run enabled assessment of operational efficiency. The devised chemical imaging analysis system would be particularly useful in commissioning of a new mill or to optimize existing wheat milling systems. Also, when raw material differs from that for which previous optimization was established, a new optimization may be in order. The ability to acquire a large number of spectra from a specimen and apply multivariate statistics to identify each pixel and subsequently count pixels accommodates heterogeneity and reports the results from averaging a very large number of individual spectra. A second illustration of the utility of the imaging method is presented centering on streams from the first and second break unit operations at the beginning of the roller mill process. PMID:21144147

Wetzel, David L; Posner, Elieser S; Dogan, Hulya

2010-12-01

224

UV detectors and focal plane array imagers based on AlGaN p-i-n photodiodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful development of both discrete UV photodiodes and large-format UV imaging arrays consisting of 128·128 and 320·256 AlGaN p-i-n photodiodes is reported. Detectors and detector arrays have been successfully developed to sense radiation in the 300ñ365 nm visible-blind and 240ñ285 nm solar-blind portions of the UV spectral region. Details of the de- vice synthesis and processing are discussed, including

J. P. LONG; S. VARADARAAJAN; J. MATTHEWS; J. F. SCHETZINA

225

Real-time video rate imaging with a 1k-pixel THz CMOS focal plane array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future submillimeter-wave and THz (300GHz-3THz) imaging applications will require low-cost portable systems operating at room-temperature with a video-rate speed and capable of delivering acceptable sensitivity at the very low-power consumption levels to become attractive for truly commercial applications. In particular, CMOS technologies are of interest due to their high integration level offered at a high yield that is capable of massive cost reduction of currently existing THz systems. It has been recently demonstrated that CMOS direct detectors achieve the performance comparable or even superior to the today's existing classical THz devices for active imaging operating at room-temperature. So far, however, only single pixels have been used, allowing only a raster-scan operation. To address this obstacle, we present the very initial work on a 1k-pixel camera chip with a completely integrated readout circuitry and with a full video-rate capability at a power consumption of 2.5?W/pixel. The chip is fully compliant with an industrial bulk CMOS technology and it is intended for active imaging applications. It exhibits a pixel pitch of 80?m, defined by a novel on-chip wire ring antenna, and is designed to accommodate silicon hyper-hemispherical lens for a wide operation bandwidth of at least 0.7-1.1 THz.

Grzyb, J.; Sherry, H.; Zhao, Y.; Al Hadi, R.; Cathelin, A.; Kaiser, A.; Pfeiffer, U.

2012-06-01

226

A critical evaluation of the ability of the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) thermal infrared red-green-blue rendering to identify dust events: Theoretical analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a combination of idealized radiative transfer simulations and a case study from the first field campaign of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) in southern Morocco, this paper provides a systematic assessment of the limitations of the widely used Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) red-green-blue (RGB) thermal infrared dust product. Both analyses indicate that the ability of the product to identify dust, via its characteristic pink coloring, is strongly dependent on the column water vapor, the lower tropospheric lapse rate, and dust altitude. In particular, when column water vapor exceeds ˜20-25 mm, dust presence, even for visible optical depths of the order 0.8, is effectively masked. Variability in dust optical properties also has a marked impact on the imagery, primarily as a result of variability in dust composition. There is a moderate sensitivity to the satellite viewing geometry, particularly in moist conditions. The underlying surface can act to confound the signal seen through variations in spectral emissivity, which are predominantly manifested in the 8.7?m SEVIRI channel. In addition, if a temperature inversion is present, typical of early morning conditions over the Sahara and Sahel, an increased dust loading can actually reduce the pink coloring of the RGB image compared to pristine conditions. Attempts to match specific SEVIRI observations to simulations using SAMUM measurements are challenging because of high uncertainties in surface skin temperature and emissivity. Recommendations concerning the use and interpretation of the SEVIRI RGB imagery are provided on the basis of these findings.

Brindley, Helen; Knippertz, Peter; Ryder, Claire; Ashpole, Ian

2012-04-01

227

The outlook for blue-phase LCDs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal (BPLC) has become an increasingly important technology trend for information display and photonic applications. BPLC exhibits several attractive features, such as reasonably wide temperature range, submillisecond gray-to-gray response time, no need for alignment layer, optically isotropic voltageoff state, and large cell gap tolerance when an in-plane switching (IPS) cell is employed. Fast response time not only suppresses image blurs, improves the overall transmittance but also enables color sequential display without noticeable color breakup. With time sequential RGB LED colors, the spatial color filters can be eliminated so that both optical efficiency and resolution density are tripled. High optical efficiency helps to reduce power consumption while high resolution density is particularly desirable for the future Ultra High Definition Television. However, some bottlenecks such as high operation voltage, hysteresis, low relaxation frequency, residual birefringence, image sticking, charging issue due to the large capacitance, and relatively low transmittance for the IPS mode, remain to be overcome before widespread application of BPLC can be realized. To reduce operation voltage, both new BPLC materials and new device structures have been investigated. In this paper, we highlight some recent advances in large Kerr constant, fast response time BPLC material development, and new device structures. Especially, we will focus on new BP LCDs with low operation voltage, submillisecond response time, high transmittance, and negligible hysteresis and residual birefringence. The sunrise for BP LCD is near.

Chen, Yuan; Wu, Shin-Tson

2014-02-01

228

A high-NA solid immersion objective for imaging a Blue-ray disc and investigating subsurface damage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nano-scale resolution in miniature optical systems has been realized in the optical data storage industry. Numerical apertures greater than unity have been achieved in by utilizing the high index material of a hemispherical Solid Immersion Lens (SIL), which increases the resolution of the backing objective by a factor that is related to the refractive index of the SIL. In this research, a custom Hyper-Blu-Disc (HBD) NA=1.4 SIL objective is utilized for high-fidelity readout of data pits beneath a 100?m thick cover layer on an optical Blu-Ray Disc. If realized commercially, the increase in data density could be 3X today's Blu-Ray technology. A distinct difference between this work and other work with SILs in optical data storage is the relatively thick cover layer of 100?m. Recently, there has been interest in discovering new ways to apply the technology and methods used in optical data storage for other means. The inherent design of the HBD objective to image through a shallow layer of dielectric material may lend itself to be used as an effective means for characterizing subsurface damage in optical materials. This research will furthermore investigate the HBD objective as a means of detecting subsurface damage.

Densmore, Victor; Kim, Young Sik; Milster, Tom; Watson, Matt; Kwok, Dolaphine

2014-09-01

229

Streaking images that appear only in the plane of diffraction in undoped GaAs single crystals: Diffraction imaging (topography) by monochromatic synchrotron radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Streaking images restricted to the direction of the diffraction (scattering) vector have been observed on transmission through undoped GaAs. These disruption images (caused by the reduction of diffraction in the direction of observation) appear both in the forward and in Bragg diffracted directions in monochromatic synchrontron radiation diffraction imaging. This previously unobserved phenomenon can be explained in terms of planar defects (interfaces) or platelets which affects the absorption coefficient in anomalous transmission. Such regions of the crystal look perfect despite the presence of imperfections when the scattering vector is not perpendicular to the normal of the platelets. The observed crystallographic orientation of these interfaces strongly indicates that they are antiphase boundaries.

Kuriyama, Masao; Steiner, Bruce; Dobbyn, Ronald C.; Laor, Uri; Larson, David; Brown, Margaret

1988-01-01

230

[Anaphylaxis to blue dyes].  

PubMed

In medicine, vital blue dyes are mainly used for the evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes in oncologic surgery. Perioperative anaphylaxis to blue dyes is a rare but significant complication. Allergic reactions to blue dyes are supposedly IgE-mediated and mainly caused by triarylmethanes (patent blue and isosulfane blue) and less frequently by methylene blue. These substances usually do not feature on the anesthesia record and should not be omitted from the list of suspects having caused the perioperative reaction, in the same manner as latex and chlorhexidine. The diagnosis of hypersensitivity to vital blue dyes can be established by skin test. We illustrate this topic with three clinical cases. PMID:24834647

Langner-Viviani, F; Chappuis, S; Bergmann, M M; Ribi, C

2014-04-16

231

Preparation of multi-coloured different sized fluorescent gold clusters from blue to NIR, structural analysis of the blue emitting Au7 cluster, and cell-imaging by the NIR gold cluster.  

PubMed

Blue, green, orange-red, red and NIR emitting gold quantum clusters have been prepared in aqueous media by using a bioactive peptide glutathione (reduced) at physiological pH. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analyses show that the core structure sizes of the five different gold clusters are Au7 (blue), Au16 (green), Au19 (orange-red), Au21 (red) and Au22 (NIR). The photo-stability and pH-stability of these quantum clusters have been measured, and these are photo-stable against continuous UV irradiation for a few hours. They also exhibit moderate to good pH-stability within the pH range of 5-12.5. A computational study reveals the organisation of gold atoms in the thiolate-protected blue quantum cluster and its several structural parameters, including the mode of interaction of ligand molecules with Au atoms in the Au7 cluster. Interestingly, it has been found that NIR emitting gold quantum cluster can easily be internalized into the adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cell line (A549 cell line). Moreover, a MTT assay indicates that our NIR emitting gold quantum cluster show very low cytotoxicy to A549 cancer cells. PMID:25529745

Roy, Subhasish; Baral, Abhishek; Bhattacharjee, Rameswar; Jana, Batakrishna; Datta, Ayan; Ghosh, Surajit; Banerjee, Arindam

2015-01-22

232

Blue And Gigantic Jets From Taiwan 2007 TLE Campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue and gigantic jets are believed to be blue luminous phenomena. In Taiwan 2007 TLE campaign, a multi- wavelength imaging system was deployed with the aim to elucidate the physical and chemical characteristics of TLEs. On 22 July 2007, twenty blue\\/gigantic jets and four sprites were observed to occur over a frontal system in Fujian province of China, about 400km

J. Chou; L. Tsai; C. Kuo; Y. Lee; Y. Chen; C. Hu; A. B. Chen; H. Su; R. Hsu; L. Lee

2007-01-01

233

Recognition of blue movies by fusion of audio and video  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along with the explosive growth of the Internet, comes the proliferation of pornography. Compared with the pornographic texts and images, blue movies can do much harm to children, due to the greater realism and voyeurism of blue movies. In this paper, a framework for recognizing blue movies by fusing the audio and video information is described. A one-class Gaussian mixture

Haiqiang Zuo; Ou Wu; Weiming Hu; Bo Xu

2008-01-01

234

Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Alabama  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Alabama BlueCross and BlueShield Medical Information Server, located and developed by the University of Alabama at Birmingham Department of Computer and Information Sciences, through a grant from Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Alabama for the express purpose of providing Internet access to medical information for all physicians and other health care providers in the state of Alabama. It provides links to a broad range of medical information resources located throughout the Internet. Menus provide information on diseases and disorders, patient care and medical practice, medical specialties, journals and newsletters, health care reform, and other medical information.

1997-01-01

235

Image processing and roughness analysis of exposed bedrock fault planes as a tool for paleoseismological analysis: results from the Campo Felice fault (central Apennines, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morphologic investigations along the Campo Felice (CF) fault (central Apennines, Italy) have been made in order to develop a procedure for the paleoseismological analysis of bedrock fault scarps. The CF fault has been responsible for the formation of an impressive limestone fault scarp. Geomorphologic work on the CF basin and related fault indicated that the scarp originated from tectonic fault displacements. Three morphologic units have been distinguished along the fault scarp and defined as morphosome M1 (lowest part of the scarp), M2 and M3 (the uppermost part). These units display different karstic features, which are the result of their different duration of exposure to weathering. Micromorphologic analyses focused on the morphosome M1, along which the CF fault plane is exposed for a height ranging between 4 and 7 m. These analyses were aimed at defining differently weathered bands located at various heights, and parallel to the fault scarp top and base. The presence of these bands suggests repeated fault movements. The exposed fault surface displays a low-grade biokarstic weathering due to the action of epilithic and endolithic organisms. The biokarst distribution is, however, inhomogeneous and conditioned by the presence of nourishing elements, moisture and by light intensity. An area preferentially affected by the biokarstic processes develops as a band at the bedrock-soil contact at the base of the scarp. Roughness and colour analyses were made to identify uplifted bands which previously formed at the bedrock-soil contact. The roughness analysis was made using a microroughness-meter along 20-cm long horizontal transects repeated each 20 cm of fault height for the entire morphosome M1, at various sites along the scarp. The roughness variance data, plotted vs. the fault height, failed to identify differently weathered bands of paleoseismological interest. This result is probably due to the complex distribution of biokarst along the investigated fault plane. More reliable results have been obtained by areal analysis of the variation of the colour rendering of the rocks exposed along the fault plane at different sites. Photographic images of large portions of fault surfaces have been processed with standard graphic computer programs. The variations of colour indicated the presence of bands at various heights along the fault plane. Two uplifted bands have been recognised at all the investigated sites suggesting two displacement events (E1 and E2). A preliminary chronological framework for these two events, the youngest of which affected the CF fault, can be derived from the paleoseismological data available for the southernmost branch of the regional fault system that includes the CF fault. According to these data, E1 may have occurred between 860 and 1300 AD, while E2 may have occurred at about 1900 BC. Work is in progress to define surface exposure ages of different parts of the fault plane by means of in situ produced cosmogenic 36Cl. This procedure will give further chronological constraints for the age of E1 and E2 and will also permit to test the validity of the micromorphologic analysis of bedrock fault scarps for paleoseismological aims.

Giaccio, B.; Galadini, F.; Sposato, A.; Messina, P.; Moro, M.; Zreda, M.; Cittadini, A.; Salvi, S.; Todero, A.

2003-01-01

236

Preparation of multi-coloured different sized fluorescent gold clusters from blue to NIR, structural analysis of the blue emitting Au7 cluster, and cell-imaging by the NIR gold cluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blue, green, orange-red, red and NIR emitting gold quantum clusters have been prepared in aqueous media by using a bioactive peptide glutathione (reduced) at physiological pH. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analyses show that the core structure sizes of the five different gold clusters are Au7 (blue), Au16 (green), Au19 (orange-red), Au21 (red) and Au22 (NIR). The photo-stability and pH-stability of these quantum clusters have been measured, and these are photo-stable against continuous UV irradiation for a few hours. They also exhibit moderate to good pH-stability within the pH range of 5-12.5. A computational study reveals the organisation of gold atoms in the thiolate-protected blue quantum cluster and its several structural parameters, including the mode of interaction of ligand molecules with Au atoms in the Au7 cluster. Interestingly, it has been found that NIR emitting gold quantum cluster can easily be internalized into the adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cell line (A549 cell line). Moreover, a MTT assay indicates that our NIR emitting gold quantum cluster show very low cytotoxicy to A549 cancer cells.Blue, green, orange-red, red and NIR emitting gold quantum clusters have been prepared in aqueous media by using a bioactive peptide glutathione (reduced) at physiological pH. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analyses show that the core structure sizes of the five different gold clusters are Au7 (blue), Au16 (green), Au19 (orange-red), Au21 (red) and Au22 (NIR). The photo-stability and pH-stability of these quantum clusters have been measured, and these are photo-stable against continuous UV irradiation for a few hours. They also exhibit moderate to good pH-stability within the pH range of 5-12.5. A computational study reveals the organisation of gold atoms in the thiolate-protected blue quantum cluster and its several structural parameters, including the mode of interaction of ligand molecules with Au atoms in the Au7 cluster. Interestingly, it has been found that NIR emitting gold quantum cluster can easily be internalized into the adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cell line (A549 cell line). Moreover, a MTT assay indicates that our NIR emitting gold quantum cluster show very low cytotoxicy to A549 cancer cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: material, instrumentation, cellular uptake studies, cytotoxicity studies, synthesis of gold clusters, UV-Vis, fluorescence, plots, reaction details in tabulated form, ESI videos. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04338c

Roy, Subhasish; Baral, Abhishek; Bhattacharjee, Rameswar; Jana, Batakrishna; Datta, Ayan; Ghosh, Surajit; Banerjee, Arindam

2015-01-01

237

Method to measure the 3D angular orientation of the aortic valve plane from a single image of a valvuloplasty balloon: Findings of a large animal proof of concept experiment.  

PubMed

Abstract During transcatheter aortic valve replacement procedures, alignment of the interventional x-ray beam with the aortic valve plane is required to guide valve placement. The purpose of this work was to develop methods to measure x-ray beam angles which are aligned with the aortic valve plane from a single x-ray image of a valvuloplasty balloon inflated across the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT). A custom valvuloplasty balloon and image analytics were developed. In-vivo pig experiments demonstrated that the angular orientation of the LVOT can be measured with precision less than 3°, including the influence of cardiac motion during rapid pacing. Using these methods, the angular orientation of the LVOT of a large mammal can be measured precisely and the continuous range of x-ray projection angles which are aligned with the aortic valve plane can be calculated. PMID:25431321

Fetterly, Kenneth A; Mathew, Verghese

2015-02-01

238

Plane Segment Finder : Algorithm, Implementation and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of a plane segment finder, which is able to detect three-dimensional planar surfaces from input images in real-time. We propose an algorithm for detecting plane segments, that includes: 1) plane segment candidate extraction using the 3D Hough transform from depth map information; and 2) fitting the plane segment candidates to the depth map in order

Kei Okada; Satoshi Kagami; Masayuki Inaba; Hirochika Inoue

2001-01-01

239

Blue cures blue but be cautious  

PubMed Central

Methemoglobinemia is a disorder characterized by the presence of >1% methemoglobin (metHb) in the blood. Spontaneous formation of methemoglobin is normally counteracted by protective enzyme systems, for example, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) methemoglobin reductase. Methemoglobinemia is treated with supplemental oxygen and methylene blue (1–2 mg/kg) administered slow intravenously, which acts by providing an artificial electron acceptor for NADPH methemoglobin reductase. But known or suspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a relative contraindication to the use of methylene blue because G6PD is the key enzyme in the formation of NADPH through pentose phosphate pathway and G6PD-deficient individuals generate insufficient NADPH to efficiently reduce methylene blue to leukomethylene blue, which is necessary for the activation of the NADPH-dependent methemoglobin reductase system. So, we should be careful using methylene blue in methemoglobinemia patient before G6PD levels. PMID:22219589

Sikka, Pranav; Bindra, V. K.; Kapoor, Seema; Jain, Vivek; Saxena, K. K.

2011-01-01

240

The Blue Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes some of the advantages of an elementary science activity in which students discover that blowing through a straw into a bromthymol blue solution changes the color to yellow. Directions are provided for preparing the bromthymol blue solution. (JR)

Berger, J. Joel

1973-01-01

241

Methylene blue test  

MedlinePLUS

The methylene blue test is a test to determine the type of methemoglobinemia (a blood disorder). ... are removed. A dark green powder called methylene blue goes through the tube into your vein. The ...

242

Greening the Blue Bottle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the revised Blue Bottle formulation to the classical Blue Bottle. Indicates that the revised formulation gives a somewhat bluer solution, but initially slower reduction when compared to the classical formulation. (Author/KHR)

Wellman, Whitney E.; Noble, Mark E.

2003-01-01

243

Blue-light imagery and photometry of sprites  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have obtained blue (350–475 nm) video images and simultaneous high-time resolution narrow-band blue (415–435 nm) photometry records of four sprite events. The brightest blue images show a sustained tendril geometry and a nearly constant intensity of emission over the entire vertical extent of the sprite (from 35–90 km altitude). Photometer light curves display an exponential decay with a 0.3

David M. Suszcynsky; Robert Roussel-Dupré; Walter A. Lyons; Russell A. Armstrong

1998-01-01

244

Quantum wells to quantum dots: 640x512 pixels Long-Wavelength Infrared (LWIR) Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetector (QDIP) imaging focal plane array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have exploited the artificial atom-like properties of epitaxially grown self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) for the development of high operating temperature long wavelength infrared (LWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs). QD infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) are expected to outperform quantum well infrared detectors (QWIPs) and are expected to offer significant advantages over II-VI material based FPAs. We have used molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) technology to grow multi-layer LWIR Dot-in-a-Well (DWELL) structures based on the InAs/InGaAs/GaAs material system. This hybrid quantum dot/quantum well device offers additional control in wavelength tuning via control of dot-size and/or quantum well sizes. DWELL QDIPs were also experimentally shown to absorb both 45o and normally incident light. Thus we have employed a reflection grating structure to further enhance the quantum efficiency. The most recent devices exhibit peak responsivity out to 8.1 microns. Peak detectivity of the 8.1 ?m devices has reached ~ 1 x 1010 Jones at 77 K. Furthermore, we have fabricated the first long-wavelength 640x512 pixels QDIP imaging FPA. This QDIP FPA has produced excellent infrared imagery with noise equivalent temperature difference of 40 mK at 60K operating temperature.

Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Hill, C. J.; Ting, D. Z.; Liu, J. K.; Rafol, S. B.; Blazejewski, E. R.; Mumolo, J. M.; Keo, S. A.; Krishna, S.; Chang, Y.-C.; Shott, C. A.

2006-08-01

245

The Blue Flame Cafe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online biographical encyclopedia of the blues contains entries on almost all of the "great blues singers and singers of the blues." Entries include the pioneers and foundational figures such as Bessie Smith, Robert Johnson, and T-Bone Walker; their lesser-known (outside the Blues community) contemporaries; and their more recent musical heirs such as Stevie Ray Vaughan and Eric Clapton. Each singer's entry includes a concise overview of their influences, career, and musical legacy. Most are also accompanied by a tantalizingly short (only ten seconds) song excerpt in .wav format. A collection of blues links and an internal search engine round out the site.

246

Super-resolution imaging of lateral distribution for the blue-light emission of an InGaN single-quantum-well structure utilizing the stimulated emission depletion effect.  

PubMed

We have observed a remarkable decrease in photoluminescence (PL) from a blue-light emitting InGaN single-quantum-well (SQW) structure under the radiation of a green laser due to the stimulated emission depletion (STED) phenomenon. By extending the observed STED effect, super-resolution imaging of the blue-light emission lateral distribution was demonstrated for the InGaN-SQW structure through co-irradiation using a doughnut-shaped green light beam and a Gaussian-shaped violet excitation light beam. We measured point-spread functions (PSFs) to evaluate the spatial resolution of the system by imaging a small emission area. A lateral PSF size of ~150 nm was confirmed, which was approximately 40% smaller than that without the STED beam. This demonstrates that the STED technique is applicable for PL imaging of semiconductor quantum structures. The present approach may make possible a new strategy for characterizing and investigating the spatial inhomogeneity of emission properties and carrier dynamics in InGaN-based quantum wells, as well as in other semiconductor materials exhibiting quantum confinement effects. PMID:25321726

Kozawa, Yuichi; Kusama, Yuta; Sato, Shunichi; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki

2014-09-22

247

Blue jets, blue starters and other blue luminous events observed by ISUAL payload on the FORMOSAT-2 satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blue jets and blue starters were first discovered in 1994 (Wescott, et. al. GRL, 22, 1209, 1995; GRL, 23, 2153, 1996). During 2000 STEPS campaign, other blue luminous events were also observed to emerge directly from cloud-top and were named gnomes and pixies (Lyons, et. al. BAMS, 445, 2003). The spectroscopic properties of blue starters were investigated in EXL98 campaign and no 2PN2 emission was detected. However using 1NN2+ images at 427.8nm and color TV images, the degree of ionization was estimated to be 3% (Wescott, et. al. JGR, 106, 21549, 2001). Among the thousands of TLEs registered by ISUAL payload onboard the FORMOSAT-2 (Chern et. al. JASTP 65, 647, 2003), more than two hundreds of them were identified as blue luminous events. These events have significant blue channel (370-450nm) signals in the ISUAL array photometer (AP), but have no red channel (530-650nm) emission. In the ISUAL spectrophotometer (SP), they also have strong 2PN2 (337nm) and 1NN2+ (391.4nm) emissions; but only a few also have N2-LBH (150-290nm) or N2 1PG (608.9-753.4nm) emissions and none has SP#5 channel (777.4nm) signal. The AP and SP spectrophometric data indicates that these blue luminous events are not related to lightning. The ISUAL ICCD images, which were taken through the red filter (633-750nm), show that some dim red emissions are emitted from the bottom of these blue luminous events near the cloud-top elevation; for some events the dim red emission can extend for >10km. Based the current spectroscopic information and their luminous duration (<200ms), these events are very similar to the blue jets, blue starters, gnomes or pixies. In this paper, the brightness, the characteristic and average electron energies of these events will be presented. The meteorological conditions for these blue luminous events to occur will also be discussed.

Su, H.; Hsu, R.; Kuo, C.; Chen, A. B.; Lee, Y.; Chiang, P.; Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.; Takahashi, Y.; Fukunishi, H.; Lee, L.

2005-12-01

248

Blue Crab Fisheries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A comprehensive resource on the commercial and recreational blue crab fishery in the Maryland and Virginia waters of the Chesapeake Bay. Explore regulation information for both states, as well as the different gear and methods for catching blue crabs. Though most information pertains to MD and VA, there is an abundance of links to additional information that is not area-specific.

2010-12-01

249

Optimal focal-plane restoration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Image restoration can be implemented efficiently by calculating the convolution of the digital image and a small kernel during image acquisition. Processing the image in the focal-plane in this way requires less computation than traditional Fourier-transform-based techniques such as the Wiener filter and constrained least-squares filter. Here, the values of the convolution kernel that yield the restoration with minimum expected mean-square error are determined using a frequency analysis of the end-to-end imaging system. This development accounts for constraints on the size and shape of the spatial kernel and all the components of the imaging system. Simulation results indicate the technique is effective and efficient.

Reichenbach, Stephen E.; Park, Stephen K.

1989-01-01

250

Uncovering Blue Diffuse Dwarf Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs) and the star-formation within their chemically pristine environments are fundamental to our understanding of the galaxy formation process at early times. However, traditional emission-line surveys detect only the brightest metal-poor galaxies where star-formation occurs in compact, starbursting environments, and thereby give us only a partial view of the dwarf galaxy population. To avoid such biases, we have developed a new search algorithm based on the morphological, rather then spectral, properties of XMPs and have applied to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database of images. Using this novel approach, we have discovered ~100 previously undetected, faint blue galaxies, each with isolated HII regions embedded in a diffuse continuum. In this talk I will present the first results from follow-up optical spectroscopy of this sample, which reveals these blue diffuse dwarfs (BDDs) to be young, very metal-poor and actively forming stars despite their intrinsically low luminosities. I will present evidence showing that BDDs appear to bridge the gap between quiescent dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxies and blue compact galaxies (BCDs) and as such offer an ideal opportunity to assess how star-formation occurs in more `normal' metal-poor systems.

James, Bethan; Koposov, Sergey; Stark, Daniel; Belokurov, Vasily; Pettini, Max; Olszewski, Edward W.

2015-01-01

251

Image Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calibrate_Image calibrates images obtained from focal plane arrays so that the output image more accurately represents the observed scene. The function takes as input a degraded image along with a flat field image and a dark frame image produced by the focal plane array and outputs a corrected image. The three most prominent sources of image degradation are corrected for: dark current accumulation, gain non-uniformity across the focal plane array, and hot and/or dead pixels in the array. In the corrected output image the dark current is subtracted, the gain variation is equalized, and values for hot and dead pixels are estimated, using bicubic interpolation techniques.

Peay, Christopher S.; Palacios, David M.

2011-01-01

252

Blue Shark Adventure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, Jonathan joins Charlie Donilon on his shark charter boat in Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and learns about how shark tagging has shed light on the biology of and behavior of Blue sharks. Tagging has shown that these incredible swimmers actually migrate completely across the Atlantic ocean. Jonathan tries his hand at tagging a shark and then swims with Blue sharks. We also learn that Blue sharks are not nearly as vicious as they have been reputed to be, and the divers are actually able to pet the sharks! Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

Productions, Jonathan B.

2007-03-01

253

Beautiful Blue Nile  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students learn about the Blue Nile and compare it to rivers in the United States. They discuss their experiences with rivers and what they think it would be like to travel down a river that rapidly descends from the mountains to the plains. After looking at a map of Ethiopia, students describe what they would see in the area around the Blue Nile. They will witness a demonstration of a river running over flat versus mountainous terrain and view photos of the Blue Nile to describe the terrain.

254

Points, Lines, and Planes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will define the important basics of Geometry: Points, Lines, and Planes Let's take notes on our first lesson! Click on the link below to get started: Points, Lines, and Planes Now, here is an activity to check your understanding: Points, Lines and Planes Activity OK! Now, here is a quiz to really see if you got it: Points, Lines, and Planes Quiz! Good Job! Now, your homework can be found on your Canvas account or my website calendar on ...

Neubert, Mrs.

2011-08-18

255

Fourier plane filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electrically addressed liquid crystal Fourier plane filter capable of real time optical image processing is described. The filter consists of two parts: a wedge filter having forty 9 deg segments and a ring filter having twenty concentric rings in a one inch diameter active area. Transmission of the filter in the off (transparent) state exceeds fifty percent. By using polarizing optics, contrast as high as 10,000:1 can be achieved at voltages compatible with FET switching technology. A phenomenological model for the dynamic scattering is presented for this special case. The filter is designed to be operated from a computer and is addressed by a seven bit binary word which includes an on or off command and selects any one of the twenty rings or twenty wedge pairs. The overall system uses addressable latches so that once an element is in a specified state, it will remain there until a change of state command is received. The drive for the liquid crystal filter is ? 30 V peak at 30 Hz to 70 Hz. These parameters give a rise time for the scattering of 20 msec and a decay time of 80 to 100 msec.

Oliver, D. S.; Aldrich, R. E.; Krol, F. T.

1972-01-01

256

IBM Research: Blue Gene  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the home page of an IBM research and development project that is designing a supercomputer, called Blue Gene/L, capable of 200 trillion floating point operations per second. According to the Web site, this specification "is larger than the total computing power of the top 500 supercomputers in the world today." Working in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, IBM expects the project to be completed by 2005. There are a few publications and presentations given about the status of the project and its uses. There is also a fact sheet and several industry links about protein folding, which is the main application of Blue Gene/L.

1999-01-01

257

TWO-COLOR FLUORESCENCE (CROSS-)CORRELATION SPECTROSCOPY ON A SELECTIVE PLANE ILLUMINATION MICROSCOPE  

E-print Network

TWO-COLOR FLUORESCENCE (CROSS-)CORRELATION SPECTROSCOPY ON A SELECTIVE PLANE ILLUMINATION: Imaging fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy, selective plane illumination microscopy, quantitative imaging, EMCCD camera ABSTRACT: Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a useful technology

Garbe, Christoph S.

258

Powers of Ten with the Blue Morpho Butterfly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, introduces students to the concepts of scale and magnification using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image of a Blue Morpho butterfly wing. If educators do not have access to an SEM,  images is included with the activity. This lesson will prompt students to think about nanoscale, biomimicry, SEM technology, and measurement. Students will examine the nanostructures of the butterfly's wings using either the images or the SEM (if available). Included in this lab are: teacher guide, student worksheet, and an image of a Blue Morpho butterfly.

2014-09-02

259

Imaging anatomy of the head and spine. A photographic color atlas of MRI, CT, gross and microscopic anatomy in axial, coronal, and sagittal planes  

SciTech Connect

This book presents a correlative display of horizontal, coronal, and sagittal sections of the head and spine with a wide array of MRI images, CT scans, and conventional radiographs. Superb full color illustrations of serial dissections emphasize such clinically important areas as the temporal bone, orbit, and cervical spine. The MRI images included are state of the art, and only the highest resolution CT scans appear.

Schnitzlein, H.N.; Murtagh, F.R.

1985-01-01

260

Calculation for computer generated hologram using ray-sampling plane.  

PubMed

We introduce a new algorithm for calculating computer generated hologram (CGH) using ray-sampling (RS) plane. RS plane is set at near the object and the light-rays emitted by the object are sampled at the plane. Then the light-rays are transformed into the wavefront with using the Fourier transforms. The wavefront on the CGH plane is calculated by wavefront propagation simulation from RS plane to CGH plane. The proposed method enables to reproduce high resolution image for deep 3D scene with angular reflection properties such as gloss appearance. PMID:21643163

Wakunami, Koki; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

2011-05-01

261

Blue And Gigantic Jets From Taiwan 2007 TLE Campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blue and gigantic jets are believed to be blue luminous phenomena. In Taiwan 2007 TLE campaign, a multi- wavelength imaging system was deployed with the aim to elucidate the physical and chemical characteristics of TLEs. On 22 July 2007, twenty blue/gigantic jets and four sprites were observed to occur over a frontal system in Fujian province of China, about 400km away from our observation site at Lulin Observatory, Taiwan. All the observed jets showed little blue band (380-510nm) emissions but had easily recognizable signals in red band (570-2700nm). This result indicates that jets observed from ground are reddish and most of the blue emissions are extinct. One of the jets was observed to propagate upward to ~75km elevation, thus it can be identified as a GJ and is similar to the GJ-event observed by Pasko et al (2001). This GJ was launched 200ms after a small jet from the same cloud top. This implies that the smaller jet could be regarded as the leader of this GJ, similar to the stepped/dart leader in a CG flash. Since the blue luminous events in ISUAL data (Su, et. al. 2005 AGU) have similar features as the jets in this ground observation. Thus, we can conclude that the ISUAL blue luminous events also are blue jets or blue starters. Even though blue jets and blue starter have different ISUAL SP2 (N2 2P, 337.0nm), SP3 (N2 1N, 391.4nm) and SP6 (250-390nm) intensities, but the peak ratio between SP2 and SP6 are ~ 0.5 and the peak ratio between SP3 and SP2 are ~ 0.07. This means blue jets and starters possess the same spectral properties and the same degree of ionization. Finally, the relation between jets and the nearby lightning will also be addressed.

Chou, J.; Tsai, L.; Kuo, C.; Lee, Y.; Chen, Y.; Hu, C.; Chen, A. B.; Su, H.; Hsu, R.; Lee, L.

2007-12-01

262

The Effect of Wedge Tip Angles on Stress Intensity Factors in the Contact Problem between Tilted Wedge and a Half Plane with an Edge Crack Using Digital Image Correlation  

E-print Network

The first and second mode stress intensity factors (SIFs) of a contact problem between a half-plane with an edge crack and an asymmetric tilted wedge were obtained using experimental method of Digital Image Correlation (DIC). In this technique, displacement and strain fields can be measured using two digital images of the same sample at different stages of loading. However, several images were taken consequently in each stage of this experiment to avoid the noise effect. A pair of images of each stage was compared to each other. Then, the correlation coefficients between them were studied using a computer code. The pairs with the correlation coefficient higher than 0.8 were selected as the acceptable match for displacement measurements near the crack tip. Subsequently, the SIFs of specimens were calculated using displacement fields obtained from DIC method. The effect of wedge tips angle on their SIFs was also studied. Moreover, the results of DIC method were compared with the results of photoelasticity metho...

Khaleghian, Seyedmeysam; Yadegari, Mohammad; Soltani, Nasser

2015-01-01

263

Blue Mosque Istanbul, Turkey  

E-print Network

· · · · / · #12;V1 Blue Mosque Istanbul, Turkey 156 Cradle Of History V1 PRSRTSTD U Greece, Israel, Cyprus and Turkey. Depart Athens for Agios Nikolaos and admire its rich beauty that island of Rhodes, with its wealth of ancient archaeological monuments. Sail to Turkey and visit the ruins

Liu, Taosheng

264

Blue Crab Education Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Information compiled by the Virginia Institute of Marine Science on the anatomy, life cycle, ecology, and fisheries of the blue crab. Data, research reports, and instructions on eating crabs are all available. Educational resources include lesson plans, teaching tools, and access to online publications. Site serves as an exceptional resource for both beginners and experts.

265

Visualization of microvascular proliferation as a tumor infiltration structure in rat glioma specimens using the diffraction-enhanced imaging in-plane CT technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to study potent microenvironments of malignant gliomas with a high- resolution x-ray imaging technique, an injection orthotopic glioma model was made using the Sprague-Dawley rat. Total brain tissue, taken out as an ex vivo model, was examined with diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) computed tomography (CT) acquired with a 35 keV monochromatic x-ray. In the convolution-reconstructed 2D/3D images with a spatial resolution of 12.5 × 12.5 × 25 µm, distinction among necrosis, typical ring-shaped viable tumors, edemas and healthy tissues was clearly observed near the frontal lobe in front of the rat's caudate nucleus. Multiple microvascular proliferations (MVPs) were observed surrounding peritumoral edemas as a tumor infiltration structure. Typical dimensions of tubular MVPs were 130 (diameter) ×250 (length) µm with a partial sprout structure revealed in the 3D reconstructed image. Hyperplasia of cells around vessel walls was revealed with tumor cell infiltration along the perivascular space in microscopic observations of mild MVP during histological analysis. In conclusion, DEI-CT is capable of imaging potent tumor-infiltrating MVP structures surrounding high-grade gliomas.

Seo, Seung-Jun; Sunaguchi, Naoki; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Huo, Qingkai; Ando, Masami; Choi, Gi-Hwan; Kim, Hong-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hong; Jeong, Eun-Ju; Chang, Won-Seok; Kim, Jong-Ki

2012-03-01

266

The Blue Whale, Balaenoptera musculus  

E-print Network

The Blue Whale, Balaenoptera musculus SALLY A. MIZROCH, DALE W. RICE, and JEFFREY M. BREIWICK Introduction The blue whale, Balaenoptera mus- culus (Linnaeus, 1758), is not only the largest of the whales

267

Why is the Sky Blue?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This hands on lab helps explain why the color of our sky/upper atmosphere appears blue in color. Students will be able to simulate how light from the sun is scattered by our atmosphere to create blue light.

268

Course Syllabus Plane Trigonometry  

E-print Network

Course Syllabus MTH 163.14 Plane Trigonometry Fall 2008 Location: LDB 209 Time and Days: Tuesday the study of trigonometry in the plane, including the graphs and inverses of all trigonometric functions: Trigonometry 6th Edition, by McKeague and Turner. Thom- son Brooks/Cole. Required Supplies: A graphing

Garcia-Puente, Luis David

269

New Plane Shear Flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A classical problem in fluid dynamics is the study of the stability of plane Couette flow. This flow experimentally sustains turbulence for Reynolds numbers greater than 1440 +/- 40 (see (3), (1)). (The Reynolds number is based on channel width and wall velocity difference.) Since plane Couette flow is linearly stable for all Reynolds numbers, obtaining non-trivial mathematical solutions to the plane Couette flow equations is difficult. However, M. Nagata (2) finds a non-trivial numerical solution of the plane Couette flow equations at low Reynolds number. We confirm these solutions. We compute the minimum Reynolds number at which they exist. We study their stability. We also study the effect of a Coriolis force on plane Poiseuille flow.

Conley, Andrew

270

SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development  

SciTech Connect

The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R&D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics.

Bebek, C.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bercovitz, J.; Bergstrom, L.; Berstein, G.P.; Bester, M.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.; Emmett, W.; Eriksson, M.; Fouchez,D.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Johnson, W.; Kadel, R.; Karcher,A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureaux, J.; Lampton, M.; Lefevre, O.; Levi, M.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Mazure, A.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Morgan, N.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Roe, N.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Prieto, E.; Rabinowitz,D.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Schubnell, M.; Sholl, M.; Smadja, G.; Smith, R.; Smoot, G.; Snyder, J.; Spadafora, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tarle,G.; Taylor, K.; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, A.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J-P.; Wang, G.

2003-07-07

271

The Blue Emu  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary goal in designing the Blue Emu was to provide an airline with a cost efficient and profitable means of transporting passengers between the major cities in Aeroworld. The design attacks the market where a demand for inexpensive transportation exists and for this reason the Blue Emu is an attractive investment for any airline. In order to provide a profitable aircraft, special attention was paid to cost and economics. For example, in manufacturing, simplicity was stressed in structural design to reduce construction time and cost. Aerodynamic design employed a tapered wing which reduced the induced drag coefficient while also reducing the weight of the wing. Even the propulsion system was selected with cost effectiveness in mind, yet also to maintain the marketability of the aircraft. Thus, in every aspect of the design, consideration was given to economics and marketability of the final product.

Descalzi, Doug; Gillett, John; Gordon, Carlton; Keener, ED; Novak, Ken; Puente, Laura

1993-01-01

272

Blue Sky Innovation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chicago Tribune has broken new ground with this ambitious initiative to gather news, analysis, and events related to innovation and entrepreneurship. As the site indicates, "Blue Sky informs, inspires and connects an audience that looks at businessâ¦in new ways." Visitors can get started by looking over the short-form news stories on the homepage. Recent pieces have covered the curious barge built by Google, the financial stability of Groupon, and the transformation of event planning via mobile apps. Visitors can look over the event calendar, which brings together information about ongoing activities such as mobile app contests and networking events. The Innovation Hub area is a good place to look around, as it features content gathered from organizations recognized for expertise in the field of innovation. Finally, visitors can sign up to receive updates from Blue Sky via Facebook, Google+, or email.

273

Blue emitting undecaplatinum clusters.  

PubMed

A blue luminescent 11-atom platinum cluster showing step-like optical features and the absence of plasmon absorption was synthesized. The cluster was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) suggest a composition, Pt11(BBS)8, which was confirmed by a range of other experimental tools. The cluster is highly stable and compatible with many organic solvents. PMID:24975972

Chakraborty, Indranath; Bhuin, Radha Gobinda; Bhat, Shridevi; Pradeep, T

2014-08-01

274

Blue Crab Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This easy to navigate and well-written site is packed with information and excellent photos about the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) and its fishery. Biology section covers: species profile, anatomy, life cycle, reproduction, larval development, life cycle and more. Industry and trade section includes recipes and tips for catching or buying hard and soft shell crabs, and fishery information. Also offers news, discussion forum, links, a glossary, and reference lists.

275

Development of ultra-low dark current, high performance 3-5 quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) for focal plane arrays staring imaging sensor systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specific achievements include: (1) development of the first bound-to-miniband (BTM) transition GaAs/GaAlAs QWIP for 8-12 micrometers detection - large area (128x128, 256x256, and 512x512) focal plane arrays (FPAs) based on the BTM QWIP structure have been demonstrated by Martin Marietta with excellent imagery; (2) development of a normal incidence type-II AlAs/AlGaAs QWIP grown on (110) GaAs substrate for multicolor detection in the 3-5 and 8-14 micrometers spectral windows; (3) design of 2-D metal grating couplers for efficient coupling of normal incidence IR radiation in n-type QWIPs; and (4) development of two new normal incidence p-type strained-layer III-V QWIPs for 3-5 and 8-12 micrometers detection. An ultra-low dark current p-type tensile strained-layer (PTSL) In(0.3)Ga(0.7)As/In(0.52)Al(0.48)As QWIP grown on InP by MBE for 8-12 micrometers detection has been developed with BLIP condition for T less than 100 K. The BLIP detectivity for this PTSL-QWIP was found to be 5.9 x 10(exp 10) Jones at 8.1 micrometers, V(sub b) = 2 V, and T = 77 K. A new p-type compressive strained-layer (PCSL) In(0.4)Ga(0.6)As/GaAs QWIP grown on GaAs substrate for 3-5 and 8-14 micrometers was demonstrated for the first time. Detectivity for this PCSL-QWIP was found to be 4.0 x 10(exp 9) Jones at 8.9 micrometers, V(sub b) = 0.3 V, and T = 75 K.

Li, Sheng S.

1995-02-01

276

Just Plane Simple  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to three of the six simple machines used by many engineers. These machines include the inclined plane, the wedge and the screw. In general, engineers use the inclined plane to lift heavy loads, the wedge to cut materials apart, and the screw to convert rotational motion into linear movement. Furthermore, the mechanical advantage describes how easily each machine can do work and is determined by its physical dimensions.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

277

Fixed sagittal plane imbalance.  

PubMed

Study Design?Literature review. Objective?To discuss the evaluation and management of fixed sagittal plane imbalance. Methods?A comprehensive literature review was performed on the preoperative evaluation of patients with sagittal plane malalignment, as well as the surgical strategies to address sagittal plane deformity. Results?Sagittal plane imbalance is often caused by de novo scoliosis or iatrogenic flat back deformity. Understanding the etiology and magnitude of sagittal malalignment is crucial in realignment planning. Objective parameters have been developed to guide surgeons in determining how much correction is needed to achieve favorable outcomes. Currently, the goals of surgery are to restore a sagittal vertical axis?plane malalignment is an increasingly recognized cause of pain and disability. Treatment of sagittal plane imbalance varies according to the etiology, location, and severity of the deformity. Fixed sagittal malalignment often requires complex reconstructive procedures that include osteotomy correction. Reestablishing harmonious spinopelvic alignment is associated with significant improvement in health-related quality-of-life outcome measures and patient satisfaction. PMID:25396111

Savage, Jason W; Patel, Alpesh A

2014-12-01

278

A Flat Focal Plane for LSST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LSST is a wide field (10 sq. deg) survey instrument with active optics control and will provide better than 0.2 arcsecond instrumental contribution to imaging across the field. A principle requirement for achieving this is a very flat focal plane ( 10 microns PV) comprised of nearly 200 individual sensors, together with active feedback derived from 4 curvature wavefront sensors at the corners of the focal plane. We present our plans for building up a modular, flat focal plane for LSST and how flatness under operational conditions will be assured. The importance for delivering a flat focal plane will be underscored by discussing the specific structure of the LSST beam in the presence of residual wavefront error, and what sorts of systematics to the point spread function can be tolerated, given LSST's weak lensing mission.

Rasmussen, Andrew; Chang, C.; Kahn, S. M.; O'Connor, P.; Takacs, P.; Schindler, R.; Nordby, M.; LSST Camera Team

2009-01-01

279

Development of ultra-low noise, high performance 3 to 5 Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (QWIPs) for focal plane array staring image sensor systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During this reporting period (02-01-94 to 04-30-94) we have continued to make excellent progress. We report two new normal incidence p-type strained-layer III-V quantun well infrared photodetectors (QWIP's) for 3-5 and 8-14 um detection. An ultra-low dark current p-type tensile strained-layer (PTSL) In(0.3)Ga(0.7)As / In(0.52)Al(0.48)As QWIP grown on InP by MBE for 8-14 um detection has been developed. It shows BLIP for T less than 100 K. Due to a 1.5% lattice mismatch between the substrate and quantum well, a biaxial tensile strain was created in the well layers. As a result, the light-hole state becomes the ground state for the free hole with small effective mass. The dramatic increase of optical absorption can be attributed to the large in-plane density of states and small light-hole effective mass due to the heavy- and light-hole state inversion. The BLIP detectivity for the PTSL-QWIP was found to be 5.9x10(exp 10) Jones at 8.1 um, V(sub b) = 2V andT = 77 K. A new p-type compressive strained-layer (PCSL) In(0.4)Ga(0.6)As/GaAs QWIP grown on GaAs substrate for 3-5 and 8-14 um has also been developed for the first time. This PCSL-QWIP shows a double-peak response between 8 and 9 um wavelength by utilizing the resonant transport coupling mechanism between the heavy-hole type-I states and the light-hole type-II states. Using the compressive strain in the quantum well, normal incident absorption was greatly enhanced by the reduction of heavy-hole effective mass and the increase in the off-zone center density of states. Detectivity at 8.9 um was found to be 4.0x10(exp 9) Jones at V(sub b) = 0.3 V and T = 75 K for this PCSL-QWIP.

Li, Sheng S.

1994-05-01

280

Structure analysis for plane geometry figures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As there are increasing numbers of digital documents for education purpose, we realize that there is not a retrieval application for mathematic plane geometry images. In this paper, we propose a method for retrieving plane geometry figures (PGFs), which often appear in geometry books and digital documents. First, detecting algorithms are applied to detect common basic geometry shapes from a PGF image. Based on all basic shapes, we analyze the structural relationships between two basic shapes and combine some of them to a compound shape to build the PGF descriptor. Afterwards, we apply matching function to retrieve candidate PGF images with ranking. The great contribution of the paper is that we propose a structure analysis method to better describe the spatial relationships in such image composed of many overlapped shapes. Experimental results demonstrate that our analysis method and shape descriptor can obtain good retrieval results with relatively high effectiveness and efficiency.

Feng, Tianxiao; Lu, Xiaoqing; Liu, Lu; Li, Keqiang; Tang, Zhi

2013-12-01

281

A Panel of Trypanosoma brucei Strains Tagged with Blue and Red-Shifted Luciferases for Bioluminescent Imaging in Murine Infection Models  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic engineering with luciferase reporter genes allows monitoring Trypanosoma brucei (T.b.) infections in mice by in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Until recently, luminescent T.b. models were based on Renilla luciferase (RLuc) activity. Our study aimed at evaluating red-shifted luciferases for in vivo BLI in a set of diverse T.b. strains of all three subspecies, including some recently isolated from human patients. Methodology/Principal findings We transfected T.b. brucei, T.b. rhodesiense and T.b. gambiense strains with either RLuc, click beetle red (CBR) or Photinus pyralis RE9 (PpyRE9) luciferase and characterised their in vitro luciferase activity, growth profile and drug sensitivity, and their potential for in vivo BLI. Compared to RLuc, the red-shifted luciferases, CBR and PpyRE9, allow tracking of T.b. brucei AnTaR 1 trypanosomes with higher details on tissue distribution, and PpyRE9 allows detection of the parasites with a sensitivity of at least one order of magnitude higher than CBR luciferase. With CBR-tagged T.b. gambiense LiTaR1, T.b. rhodesiense RUMPHI and T.b. gambiense 348 BT in an acute, subacute and chronic infection model respectively, we observed differences in parasite tropism for murine tissues during in vivo BLI. Ex vivo BLI on the brain confirmed central nervous system infection by all luminescent strains of T.b. brucei AnTaR 1, T.b. rhodesiense RUMPHI and T.b. gambiense 348 BT. Conclusions/Significance We established a genetically and phenotypically diverse collection of bioluminescent T.b. brucei, T.b. gambiense and T.b. rhodesiense strains, including drug resistant strains. For in vivo BLI monitoring of murine infections, we recommend trypanosome strains transfected with red-shifted luciferase reporter genes, such as CBR and PpyRE9. Red-shifted luciferases can be detected with a higher sensitivity in vivo and at the same time they improve the spatial resolution of the parasites in the entire body due to the better kinetics of their substrate D-luciferin. PMID:25144573

Van Reet, Nick; Van de Vyver, Hélène; Pyana, Patient Pati; Van der Linden, Anne Marie; Büscher, Philippe

2014-01-01

282

Eta Carinae: Orientation of The Orbital Plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence continues to build that Eta Carinae is a massive binary system with a hidden hot companion in a highly elliptical orbit. We present imaging and spectroscopic evidence that provide clues to the orientation of the orbital plane. The circumstellar ejecta, known as the Homunculus and Little Homunculus, are hourglass-shaped structures, one encapsulated within the other, tilted at about 45

T. R. Gull; K. E. Nielsen; S. Ivarsson; M. F. Corcoran; E. Verner; J. D. Hillier

2005-01-01

283

Diffractive centrosymmetric 3D-transmission phase gratings positioned at the image plane of optical systems transform lightlike 4D-WORLD as tunable resonators into spectral metrics...  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffractive 3D phase gratings of spherical scatterers dense in hexagonal packing geometry represent adaptively tunable 4D-spatiotemporal filters with trichromatic resonance in visible spectrum. They are described in the (lambda) - chromatic and the reciprocal (nu) -aspects by reciprocal geometric translations of the lightlike Pythagoras theorem, and by the direction cosine for double cones. The most elementary resonance condition in the lightlike Pythagoras theorem is given by the transformation of the grating constants gx, gy, gz of the hexagonal 3D grating to (lambda) h1h2h3 equals (lambda) 111 with cos (alpha) equals 0.5. Through normalization of the chromaticity in the von Laue-interferences to (lambda) 111, the (nu) (lambda) equals (lambda) h1h2h3/(lambda) 111-factor of phase velocity becomes the crucial resonance factor, the 'regulating device' of the spatiotemporal interaction between 3D grating and light, space and time. In the reciprocal space equal/unequal weights and times in spectral metrics result at positions of interference maxima defined by hyperbolas and circles. A database becomes built up by optical interference for trichromatic image preprocessing, motion detection in vector space, multiple range data analysis, patchwide multiple correlations in the spatial frequency spectrum, etc.

Lauinger, Norbert

1999-08-01

284

Blue ocean leadership.  

PubMed

Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets. PMID:24956870

Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

2014-05-01

285

Evolution in Plane Sight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners model directed evolution by making paper fly. Learners construct and fly paper airplanes. During the first round, they calculate the average distance the planes fly and then recreate the planes that flew the furthest. Learners repeat this process several times, observe how the average distance of flight changes, and eventually identify the ideal flyer. This activity can be used to introduce learners to genetic random mutations and how scientists are using directed evolution to engineer new proteins with enhanced properties.

Julie Yu

2009-01-01

286

The Coordinate Plane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a set of three, one-page problems about how astronomers use coordinate systems. Learners will plot a constellation on a coordinate plane and/or plot the route of Mars Science Lab (MSL aka Curiosity) on the surface of Mars. Options are presented so that students may learn about the MSL mission through a NASA press release or about the coordinate plane by viewing a NASA eClips video [7 min.]. This activity is part of the Space Math multi-media modules that integrate NASA press releases, NASA archival video, and mathematics problems targeted at specific math standards commonly encountered in middle school.

2014-03-19

287

DENTAL INSURANCE ANTHEM BLUE CROSS AND BLUE SHIELD  

E-print Network

Payments To assist in reducing your insurance premium costs, your share of dental insurance premiums can be paid with pre-tax dollars under the CHEIBA Trust Pre-Tax Insurance Premium Payments Account under- 28 - DENTAL INSURANCE ANTHEM BLUE CROSS AND BLUE SHIELD Your two choices are: After enrollment

288

The Pennsylvania State University Marching Blue Band Blue Band Office  

E-print Network

Director vcc2@psu.edu orb1@psu.edu gad157@psu.edu (814) 865 - 3982 #12;History of the Blue Band uniforms were issued on the basis of ability and rank. Photos from 1924 show a select group of blue in photo spreads published in Vogue and W magazines during Fall 2005, including a photo by world

Maroncelli, Mark

289

Ground-Plane Based Projective Reconstruction for Surveillance Camera Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the task of calibrating a network of security cameras of arbitrary topology utilizing a common ground-plane to simplify the geometry. The method of chaining ground-plane homographies is employed to overcome the necessity that a common region is visible in all images of the ground-plane. We show that this method of recovering a projective reconstruction is ideal for

David N. R. McKinnon; Ruan Lakemond; Clinton Fookes; Sridha Sridharan

290

Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX): Galactic Plane Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) completed its survey of the Galactic plane in the near-ultraviolet during 2012. Although preliminary data were released shortly after the completion of the survey, the full dataset was reanalyzed during 2014 using refined attitude correction techniques that yield angular resolution-limited images. The GALEX Galactic plane survey includes more than 75% of the sky between 10 > b > -10 degrees. The initial photon dataset contains about 400 individual scans, each of which is a vertical slice of the Galactic plane. Each slice spans 1500-1700 seconds, during which the 1.24 degree diameter field of view performed a double-pass sweep across the Galactic plane. The Galactic Plane survey was the only time this non-standard, high scan rate acquisition mode was exercised during the mission, and required specialized processing and astrometric refinement to produce high quality sky maps. We present the first high-resolution map of the Galactic plane in the near-ultraviolet as well as a catalogue of thousands of sources for follow-up with HST. This work was partially supported by the Keck Institute for Space Studies.

Lemley, Cameron; Mohammed, Steven; Schiminovich, David; Tam, Benjamin; Seibert, Mark; Martin, Christopher D.; GALEX Science Team

2015-01-01

291

The European Galactic Plane Surveys: EGAPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: The European Galactic Plane Surveys (EGAPS) will for the first time ever map the complete galactic plane (10x360 degrees) down to 21st magnitude in u', g', r', i' and H-alpha and partly in He I 5875. It will complete a database of ~1 billion objects. The aim of EGAPS is to study populations of short-lived stellar and binary phases in our Galaxy and combine these population studies with stellar and binary evolutionary codes to vastly improve our understanding of crucial phases of stellar evolution. Target populations include Wolf-Rayet stars, planetary nebulae, white dwarfs (in binaries), cataclysmic variables and other mass-transferring binaries. Methods: EGAPS is using the INT+WFC on La Palma for the Northern Hemisphere and will use the VST+Omegacam in the Southern Hemisphere. Results: The Northern red survey (IPHAS, using r', i', and Halpha) has started in 2003 and is currently 70% complete. The northern blue survey (UVEX; u',g',r' and HeI) has started in June 2006. Results include the detection of a number of rare planetary nebulae, cataclysmic variables, red-dwarf white dwarf binaries in clusters, a possible AM CVn candidate, and a deep photometric and spectroscopic investigation of the Cyg X region. Discussion: EGAPS will revolutionize the field of galactic stellar astrophysics by completing the first ever digital, multicolour survey of the Galactic Plane.

Groot, P. J.; Drew, J.; Greimel, R.; Gaensicke, B.; Knigge, C.; Irwin, M.; Mampaso, A.; Augusteijn, T.; Morales-Rueda, L.; Barlow, M.; Iphas Collaboration; Uvex Collaboration; Vphas+ Collaboration

2006-08-01

292

Focal plane scanner with reciprocating spatial window  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A focal plane scanner having a front objective lens, a spatial window for selectively passing a portion of the image therethrough, and a CCD array for receiving the passed portion of the image. All embodiments have a common feature whereby the spatial window and CCD array are mounted for simultaneous relative reciprocating movement with respect to the front objective lens, and the spatial window is mounted within the focal plane of the front objective. In a first embodiment, the spatial window is a slit and the CCD array is one-dimensional, and successive rows of the image in the focal plane of the front objective lens are passed to the CCD array by an image relay lens interposed between the slit and the CCD array. In a second embodiment, the spatial window is a slit, the CCD array is two-dimensional, and a prism-grating-prism optical spectrometer is interposed between the slit and the CCD array so as to cause the scanned row to be split into a plurality of spectral separations onto the CCD array. In a third embodiment, the CCD array is two-dimensional and the spatial window is a rectangular linear variable filter (LVF) window, so as to cause the scanned rows impinging on the LVF to be bandpass filtered into spectral components onto the CCD array through an image relay lens interposed between the LVF and the CCD array.

Mao, Chengye (Inventor)

2000-01-01

293

75 FR 65525 - Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Training Administration [TA-W-74,327] Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations...applicable to workers and former workers of Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services,...

2010-10-25

294

Blue Mountain Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at Princeton University, the Blue Mountain Project encompasses the work of scholars, librarians, curators, and digital humanities researchers whose "mission is to create a freely available digital repository of important, rare, and fragile texts that both chronicle and embody the emergence of cultural modernity in the West." The materials here are contained within 5 sections, including The Archive, The Journals, and Our Partners. Within The Journals area, visitors can make their way through over 35 selected works, including "Dada," "Broom: An International Magazine of the Arts," and "Bruno's Weekly." Moving along, The Archive provides a brief overview of the digital guidelines for creating and maintaing the project's collection. Users can learn more about its recent work via their blog or by signing up for the project's newsletter.

295

Melanoma and satellite blue papule  

PubMed Central

The colors that are seen in dermoscopy depend on the anatomic level of the skin at which the chromophores are seen. Blue color can be found in a variety of melanocytic and nonmelanocytic lesions. An 89-year-old man presented with a 3-year history of a slow-growing, hyperpigmented patch located on the distal third of the right arm. Dermoscopy showed an atypical network, irregularly distributed globules, pigmented internal streaks and a milky-red area. Based on these findings a diagnosis of slow-growing malignant melanoma was made. Simultaneously, a well-defined blue papule was seen on the proximal third of the same arm. Dermoscopy disclosed a homogeneous blue pattern. After clinical and dermoscopic correlation our differential diagnosis for this blue lesion included cutaneous melanoma metastasis, blue nevus and foreign body reaction. The patient recalled its onset 75 years ago after a grenade explosion. We also discuss the blue lesion appearance under reflectance confocal microscopy and high-definition optical coherence tomography. Histopathological examination after excision of the hyperpigmented patch and blue papule revealed a melanoma in situ and a foreign body reaction, respectively. The diagnostic evaluation of a blue lesion should always rely on the integration of all data, especially clinical and dermoscopic features. Other non-invasive techniques, like reflectance confocal microscopy and high-definition optical coherence tomography can also be important aids for its differential diagnosis. PMID:25126462

Oliveira, André; Arzberger, Edith; Massone, Cesare; Zalaudek, Iris; Fink-Puches, Regina; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer

2014-01-01

296

Solar System Portrait - Earth as 'Pale Blue Dot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This narrow-angle color image of the Earth, dubbed 'Pale Blue Dot', is a part of the first ever 'portrait' of the solar system taken by Voyager 1. The spacecraft acquired a total of 60 frames for a mosaic of the solar system from a distance of more than 4 billion miles from Earth and about 32 degrees above the ecliptic. From Voyager's great distance Earth is a mere point of light, less than the size of a picture element even in the narrow-angle camera. Earth was a crescent only 0.12 pixel in size. Coincidentally, Earth lies right in the center of one of the scattered light rays resulting from taking the image so close to the sun. This blown-up image of the Earth was taken through three color filters -- violet, blue and green -- and recombined to produce the color image. The background features in the image are artifacts resulting from the magnification.

1990-01-01

297

Stereo Imaging Miniature Endoscope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stereo imaging requires two different perspectives of the same object and, traditionally, a pair of side-by-side cameras would be used but are not feasible for something as tiny as a less than 4-mm-diameter endoscope that could be used for minimally invasive surgeries or geoexploration through tiny fissures or bores. The proposed solution here is to employ a single lens, and a pair of conjugated, multiple-bandpass filters (CMBFs) to separate stereo images. When a CMBF is placed in front of each of the stereo channels, only one wavelength of the visible spectrum that falls within the passbands of the CMBF is transmitted through at a time when illuminated. Because the passbands are conjugated, only one of the two channels will see a particular wavelength. These time-multiplexed images are then mixed and reconstructed to display as stereo images. The basic principle of stereo imaging involves an object that is illuminated at specific wavelengths, and a range of illumination wavelengths is time multiplexed. The light reflected from the object selectively passes through one of the two CMBFs integrated with two pupils separated by a baseline distance, and is focused onto the imaging plane through an objective lens. The passband range of CMBFs and the illumination wavelengths are synchronized such that each of the CMBFs allows transmission of only the alternate illumination wavelength bands. And the transmission bandwidths of CMBFs are complementary to each other, so that when one transmits, the other one blocks. This can be clearly understood if the wavelength bands are divided broadly into red, green, and blue, then the illumination wavelengths contain two bands in red (R1, R2), two bands in green (G1, G2), and two bands in blue (B1, B2). Therefore, when the objective is illuminated by R1, the reflected light enters through only the left-CMBF as the R1 band corresponds to the transmission window of the left CMBF at the left pupil. This is blocked by the right CMBF. The transmitted band is focused on the focal plane array (FPA).

Bae, Youngsam; Manohara, Harish; White, Victor; Shcheglov, Kirill V.; Shahinian, Hrayr

2011-01-01

298

Ascorbic Acid and Methylene Blue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The WebWare molecules of the month for May are featured in several articles in this issue. "Arsenic: Not So Evil After All?" discusses the pharmaceutical uses of methylene blue and its development as the first synthetic drug used against a specific disease. The JCE Classroom Activity "Out of the Blue" and the article "Greening the Blue Bottle" feature methylene blue and ascorbic acid as two key ingredients in the formulation of the blue bottle. You can also see a colorful example of these two molecules in action on the cover. "Sailing on the 'C': A Vitamin Titration with a Twist" describes an experiment to determine the vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content of citrus fruits and challenges students, as eighteenth-century sea captains, to decide the best fruit to take on a long voyage.

299

CCD photometry in the globular cluster NGC 288. I - Blue stragglers and main-sequence binary stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photometry based on a mosaic of CCD images in B and V is presented for the globular cluster NGC 288. The spatial coverage ranges from the cluster core to about 6 core radii, and stars have been measured over the absolute visual magnitude range -1.2 to 8.4. The cluster is shown to contain a significant number of blue straggler stars in the central regions, and there is an excess of objects brighter and redder than the single-star main-sequence in the color-magnitude plane. These objects are interpreted as a population of main-sequence binary stars. With this interpretation, the explicity measured fraction of binary stars is 10 percent, which sets a lower limit for the total binary population.

Bolte, Michael

1992-01-01

300

Mongolian Spot (Blue-Gray Spot)  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Mongolian Spot (Blue-Gray Spot) A parent's guide for infants and babies A A A Blue-gray spots (Mongolian spots) appear as gray to blue colored, flat, "bruise-like" areas of skin. Overview ...

301

Hyperspectral Fluorescence and Reflectance Imaging Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The system is a single hyperspectral imaging instrument that has the unique capability to acquire both fluorescence and reflectance high-spatial-resolution data that is inherently spatially and spectrally registered. Potential uses of this instrument include plant stress monitoring, counterfeit document detection, biomedical imaging, forensic imaging, and general materials identification. Until now, reflectance and fluorescence spectral imaging have been performed by separate instruments. Neither a reflectance spectral image nor a fluorescence spectral image alone yields as much information about a target surface as does a combination of the two modalities. Before this system was developed, to benefit from this combination, analysts needed to perform time-consuming post-processing efforts to co-register the reflective and fluorescence information. With this instrument, the inherent spatial and spectral registration of the reflectance and fluorescence images minimizes the need for this post-processing step. The main challenge for this technology is to detect the fluorescence signal in the presence of a much stronger reflectance signal. To meet this challenge, the instrument modulates artificial light sources from ultraviolet through the visible to the near-infrared part of the spectrum; in this way, both the reflective and fluorescence signals can be measured through differencing processes to optimize fluorescence and reflectance spectra as needed. The main functional components of the instrument are a hyperspectral imager, an illumination system, and an image-plane scanner. The hyperspectral imager is a one-dimensional (line) imaging spectrometer that includes a spectrally dispersive element and a two-dimensional focal plane detector array. The spectral range of the current imaging spectrometer is between 400 to 1,000 nm, and the wavelength resolution is approximately 3 nm. The illumination system consists of narrowband blue, ultraviolet, and other discrete wavelength light-emitting-diode (LED) sources and white-light LED sources designed to produce consistently spatially stable light. White LEDs provide illumination for the measurement of reflectance spectra, while narrowband blue and UV LEDs are used to excite fluorescence. Each spectral type of LED can be turned on or off depending on the specific remote-sensing process being performed. Uniformity of illumination is achieved by using an array of LEDs and/or an integrating sphere or other diffusing surface. The image plane scanner uses a fore optic with a field of view large enough to provide an entire scan line on the image plane. It builds up a two-dimensional image in pushbroom fashion as the target is scanned across the image plane either by moving the object or moving the fore optic. For fluorescence detection, spectral filtering of a narrowband light illumination source is sometimes necessary to minimize the interference of the source spectrum wings with the fluorescence signal. Spectral filtering is achieved with optical interference filters and absorption glasses. This dual spectral imaging capability will enable the optimization of reflective, fluorescence, and fused datasets as well as a cost-effective design for multispectral imaging solutions. This system has been used in plant stress detection studies and in currency analysis.

Ryan, Robert E.; O'Neal, S. Duane; Lanoue, Mark; Russell, Jeffrey

2008-01-01

302

Astronomical imaging by pupil plane interferometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comparing rotational shear interferometry to standard speckle interferometry, it is found that it is easier in the first case to separate the atmospheric phases from the object transform phases. Phase closure and blind deconvolution should be directly applicable. Laboratory simulations were conducted to verify theoretical predictions and computer simulations for the phase closure case, and preliminary results show promise.

Ribak, Erez

1989-01-01

303

2012 BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee. BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee, Inc., an Independent Licensee of the BlueCross BlueShield Association.  

E-print Network

© 2012 BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee. BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee, Inc., an Independent and individual rates must be filed and approved by Tennessee Department of Commerce and Insurance. Minimum loss ratio requirements in Tennessee prior to health care reform: None for group 55% for most Individual

Hong, Don

304

Blue-Fluorescent Antibodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The forte of catalytic antibodies has resided in the control of the ground-state reaction coordinate. A principle and method are now described in which antibodies can direct the outcome of photophysical and photochemical events that take place on excited-state potential energy surfaces. The key component is a chemically reactive optical sensor that provides a direct report of the dynamic interplay between protein and ligand at the active site. To illustrate the concept, we used a trans-stilbene hapten to elicit a panel of monoclonal antibodies that displayed a range of fluorescent spectral behavior when bound to a trans-stilbene substrate. Several antibodies yielded a blue fluorescence indicative of an excited-state complex or ``exciplex'' between trans-stilbene and the antibody. The antibodies controlled the isomerization coordinate of trans-stilbene and dynamically coupled this manifold with an active-site residue. A step was taken toward the use of antibody-based photochemical sensors for diagnostic and clinical applications.

Simeonov, Anton; Matsushita, Masayuki; Juban, Eric A.; Thompson, Elizabeth H. Z.; Hoffman, Timothy Z.; Beuscher, Albert E.; Taylor, Matthew J.; Wirsching, Peter; Rettig, Wolfgang; McCusker, James K.; Stevens, Raymond C.; Millar, David P.; Schultz, Peter G.; Lerner, Richard A.; Janda, Kim D.

2000-10-01

305

“Anting” in Blue Jays  

PubMed Central

Summary Anting, the plumage-dipping behavior to which ants (mostly formicines) are commonly subjected by birds (mostly passerines), is shown in tests with hand-raised Blue Jays (Cyanocitta cristata) and the ant Formica exsectoides to be instinctive: the birds displayed typical renditions of the behavior on the first occasion that they encountered ants. Evidence is presented supportive of the view that anting is a strategy by which birds render ants fit for ingestion. Formicine ants are ordinarily protected by their formic acid-containing spray. Being wiped into the bird’s plumage causes them to discharge that spray, without harm to the bird, to the point of almost total emptying of the glandular sac in which the secretion is stored. The ants are therefore essentially secretion-free by the time they are swallowed. Further evidence indicates that it is the ant’s possession of the acid sac that triggers the anting behavior in the bird. If F. exsectoides are surgically deprived of their acid sac, they are eaten by the birds without first being subjected to anting. Data are also presented indicating that the ant’s crop, which is especially capacious in formicines (its contents may amount to over 30% of the formicine’s mass), and which appears to survive the anting procedure intact, constitutes, at least when laden, a valuable component of the trophic package that the bird accesses by anting. PMID:19169379

Eisner, Thomas; Aneshansley, Daniel

2008-01-01

306

Theory of Polar Blue Phases  

E-print Network

In liquid crystals, if flexoelectric couplings between polar order and director gradients are strong enough, the uniform nematic phase can become unstable to formation of a modulated polar phase. Previous theories have predicted two types of modulation, twist-bend and splay-bend; the twist-bend phase has been found in recent experiments. Here, we investigate other types of modulation, using lattice simulations and Landau theory. In addition to twist-bend and splay-bend, we also find polar blue phases, with 2D or 3D modulations of both director and polar order. We compare polar blue phases with chiral blue phases, and discuss opportunities for observing them experimentally.

Shaikh M. Shamid; David W. Allender; Jonathan V. Selinger

2014-05-22

307

Blue Compact Dwarfs: Young-to-Old Ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared imaging and color-magnitude diagram analysis show that Blue Compact Dwarfs (BCDs), once thought to be young galaxies, contain an old stellar population. But, how large is the contribution of the old population? We are proposing to obtain the data necessary to determine the relative contribution of the young (younger than 1 Gyr) and old (older than 1 Gyr) stellar

Akihiko Tomita; Deidre Hunter; Tsutomu T. Takeuchi; Kohji Yoshikawa; Hiroyuki Hirashita

2002-01-01

308

Blue Crabs in the Chesapeake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classroom unit and data activity focusing on juvenile and adult blue crab distribution in the Chesapeake Bay. Includes background on crab biology, anatomy, life cycle, and fisheries. Authentic data tables provided for in-class analysis, discussion questions guide inquiry.

309

Geometry of moving planes  

E-print Network

The concept of number and its generalization has played a central role in the development of mathematics over many centuries and many civilizations. Noteworthy milestones in this long and arduous process were the developments of the real and complex numbers which have achieved universal acceptance. Serious attempts have been made at further extensions, such as Hamiltons quaternions, Grassmann's exterior algebra and Clifford's geometric algebra. By examining the geometry of moving planes, we show how new mathematics is within reach, if the will to learn these powerful methods can be found.

Garret Sobczyk

2007-09-29

310

Stimulation of Cell Division by Croton Oil in Blue-Green Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The potent tumor-promoting agent croton oil, which has been shown previously to be strongly mitogenic in mammalian cells, stimulates cell division in snake mutants of the blue-green bacterium Agmenellum quadruplicatum. Images PMID:4196260

Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal; Fisher, W. D.

1973-01-01

311

BLUE WHALE-SIZED MOUTHFULS MAKE FORAGING  

E-print Network

Inside JEB i BLUE WHALE-SIZED MOUTHFULS MAKE FORAGING SUPER EFFICIENT When a blue whale dives from the University of British Columbia, Canada, explains that blue whales may be able to dive, measuring the energetics of blue whale lunges at depth seemed almost impossible until Shadwick and his

Martin, Paul R.

312

21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultramarine blue. 73.50 Section 73.50 Food and...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.50 Ultramarine blue. (a) Identity. The color additive ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by...

2010-04-01

313

Usage patterns of blue flower color representation by Encyclopedia of Life content providers  

PubMed Central

Abstract Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) is a resource for community-driven biodiversity data, focusing on species information and images. Research into blue flowers to compare color ('blueness') at different elevations revealed that data content providers describe flowers as blue for any color hue in the range from blue to magenta. We propose methods for standardizing color values and color searching within EOL by means of an expanded color vocabulary and improved access to image metadata, in order to improve the research capacity of this valuable resource. PMID:25197234

Wright, Chantal-Marie

2014-01-01

314

Blue Planet Biomes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This innovative educational website was created by Elisabeth Benders-Hyde, a science aide at the West Tisbury School in Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts. The site was originally inspired by a biome project developed by West Tisbury 6th grade teachers Ann and Karl Nelson, and incorporates information generated from independent student research. The site offers great information about the world's biomes including Tundra, Chaparral, Deciduous Forest, Alpine, Rainforest, and more. Biome profiles include general background information with separate sections for biome-specific plants, animals, and climates. This site has an artful lay-out with colorful maps denoting specific biomes, and images of biome landscapes, animals, and plants.

Benders-Hyde, Elisabeth

315

Carbon monoxide:methylene blue oxidoreductase from Pseudomonas carboxydovorans.  

PubMed Central

The enzyme carbon monoxide:methylene blue oxidoreductase from CO autotrophically grown cells of Pseudomonas carboxydovorans strain OM5, was purified to homogeneity. The enzyme was obtained in 26% yield and was purified 36-fold. The enzyme was stable for at least 6 days, had a molecular weight of 230,000, gave a single protein and activity band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and was homogeneous by the criterion of sedimentation equilibrium. Sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis revealed a single band of molecular weight 107,000. Carbon monoxide:methylene blue oxidoreductase did not catalyze reduction of pyridine or flavin nucleotides but catalyzed the oxidation of CO to CO2 in the presence of methylene blue, thionine, toluylene blue, dichlorophenolindophenol, or pyocyanine under strictly anaerobic conditions. The visible spectrum revealed maxima at 405 and 470 nm. The millimolar extinction coefficients were 43.9 (405 nm) and 395.5 (275 nm), respectively. Absorption at 470 nm decreased in the presence of dithionite, and the spectrum was not affected by the substrate CO. Maximum reaction rates were found at pH 7.0 and 63 degrees C; temperature dependence followed the Arrhenius equation, with an activation energy (delta H degree) of 36.8 kJ/mol (8.8 kcal/mol). The apparent Km was 53 microM for CO. The purified enzyme was incapable of oxidizing methane, methanol, or formaldehyde in the presence of methylene blue as electron acceptor. Images PMID:7354006

Meyer, O; Schlegel, H G

1980-01-01

316

Blue phase liquid crystals stabilized by linear photo-polymerization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stabilizing a photopolymer-embedded blue phase liquid crystal precursor with linearly polarized UV light is investigated experimentally. When the UV polarization axis is perpendicular to the stripe electrodes of an in-plane-switching cell, anisotropic polymer networks are formed through the linear photo-polymerization process and the electrostriction effect is suppressed. As a result, the measured hysteresis is dramatically reduced from 6.95% to 0.36% and the response time shortened by ˜2× compared to unpolarized UV exposure. To induce larger anisotropy in polymer networks for mitigating the electrostriction effect, high-intensity linearly polarized UV exposure is preferred.

Xu, Daming; Yuan, Jiamin; Schadt, Martin; Wu, Shin-Tson

2014-08-01

317

Crater Lake: blue through time  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Blue is the color of constancy, hence the term true blue. The unearthly blueness of Crater Lake reflects its pristine character and gives scientists a focal point for studying human impacts on aquatic environments over long periods of time. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), National Park Service, and Oregon State University have systematically studied the lake for the last two decades. Long-term monitoring of this lake is a priority of Crater Lake National Park and will continue far into the future.

Larson, Gary L.; Buktenica, Mark; Collier, Robert

2003-01-01

318

The blue-collar brain.  

PubMed

Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

2012-01-01

319

Blue-green upconversion laser  

DOEpatents

A blue-green laser (450--550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm[sup 3+]. The Tm[sup 3+] is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP. 3 figs.

Nguyen, D.C.; Faulkner, G.E.

1990-08-14

320

Blue-green upconversion laser  

DOEpatents

A blue-green laser (450-550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm.sup.3+. The Tm.sup.+ is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP.

Nguyen, Dinh C. (Los Alamos, NM); Faulkner, George E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01

321

Blue light emitting thiogallate phosphor  

DOEpatents

A crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor of the formula RGa.sub.2 S.sub.4 :Ce.sub.x where R is selected from the group consisting of calcium, strontium, barium and zinc, and x is from about 1 to 10 atomic percent, the phosphor characterized as having a crystalline microstructure on the size order of from about 100 .ANG. to about 10,000 .ANG. is provided together with a process of preparing a crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor by depositing on a substrate by CVD and resultant thin film electroluminescent devices including a layer of such deposited phosphor on an ordinary glass substrate.

Dye, Robert C. (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, David C. (Los Alamos, NM); King, Christopher N. (Portland, OR); Tuenge, Richard T. (Hillsboro, OR)

1998-01-01

322

The Blue-Collar Brain  

PubMed Central

Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body’s tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

2012-01-01

323

Blue Polar Dunes In False Color  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

The small dunes in this image are 'bluer' than the rest of the layered ice/dust units to the left.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 84.5, Longitude 206.6 East (153.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2005-01-01

324

Comparison of MRI Alpha Angle Measurement Planes in Femoroacetabular Impingement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insufficient femoral head-neck offset is common in femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and reflected by the alpha angle, a\\u000a validated measurement for quantifying this anatomic deformity in patients with FAI. We compared the alpha angle determined\\u000a on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) oblique axial plane images with the maximal alpha angle value obtained using radial images.\\u000a The MRIs of 41 subjects with clinically

Kawan S. Rakhra; Adnan M. Sheikh; David Allen; Paul E. Beaulé

2009-01-01

325

Ground plane insulating coating for proximity focused devices  

DOEpatents

A thin layer of alumina (aluminum oxide) is coated onto the ground plane of a microchannel plate (MCP) without covering the pores of the MCP so it does not effect the performance. The coating is sputtered onto the ground plane at a very steep angle. The addition of the thin dielectric coating of alumina greatly improves the spatial resolution of proximity focused image intensifiers using a narrow gap between the phosphor screen and the MCP. With the coating on the ground plane and the same gap the phosphor screen can be ran at 9000 volts, as compared to 3 kV without the coating.

Power, Gary D. (Manteca, CA)

1998-01-01

326

Ground plane insulating coating for proximity focused devices  

DOEpatents

A thin layer of alumina (aluminum oxide) is coated onto the ground plane of a microchannel plate (MCP) without covering the pores of the MCP so it does not effect the performance. The coating is sputtered onto the ground plane at a very steep angle. The addition of the thin dielectric coating of alumina greatly improves the spatial resolution of proximity focused image intensifiers using a narrow gap between the phosphor screen and the MCP. With the coating on the ground plane and the same gap the phosphor screen can be ran at 9000 volts, as compared to 3 kV without the coating. 3 figs.

Power, G.D.

1998-07-14

327

Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) is a rare disease characterized by the presence of cutaneous and gastrointestinal (GI) hemangiomas. These BRBNS-associated hemangiomas, possibly numbering into the hundreds, may also be identified in multiple visceral locations.Although the presence of benign cutaneous lesions is of small concern, GI lesions are cause for bleeding. Heavy visceral organ involvement can lead to intravascular

Karen Having; Stephani Bullock

2008-01-01

328

Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case and the family pedigree with the dominant genodermatosis blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) are described. It is shown that the mode of inheritance is autosomal dominant with good penetrance and that the affected individuals examined all are healthy apart from the skin disease.Copyright © 1989 S. Karger AG, Basel

M. Munkvad

1983-01-01

329

Blue Crabs in the Chesapeake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a classroom unit and data activity focusing on juvenile and adult blue crab distribution in the Chesapeake Bay. The pdf includes background on crab biology, anatomy, life cycle, and fisheries. Authentic data tables are provided for in-class analysis and discussion questions guide inquiry.

Clark, Vicki P.; Lawrence, Lisa; Musick, Susanna; Van Montfrans, Jacques

2011-06-13

330

Singing' the Black and Blues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is so obvious that the sky is blue in the daytime and black at night, but it took the smartest humans thousands of years of observation, thought, discussion, conjecture, and analysis to finally come up with answers that make scientific sense as to why the sky is these colors. This article discusses light and the scientific research…

Fisher, Diane

2004-01-01

331

Optically Modulatable Blue Fluorescent Proteins  

PubMed Central

Blue fluorescent proteins (BFPs) offer visualization of protein location and behavior, but often suffer from high autofluorescent background and poor signal discrimination. Through dual-laser excitation of bright and photoinduced dark states, mutations to the residues surrounding the BFP chromophore enable long-wavelength optical modulation of BFP emission. Such dark state engineering enables violet-excited blue emission to be increased upon lower energy, green co-illumination. Turning this green co-illumination on and off at a specific frequency dynamically modulates collected blue fluorescence without generating additional background. Interpreted as transient photoconversion between neutral cis- and anionic trans- chromophoric forms, mutations tune photoisomerization and ground state tautomerizations to enable long-wavelength depopulation of the millisecond-lived, spectrally shifted dark states. Single mutations to the tyrosine-based blue fluorescent protein T203V/S205V exhibit enhanced modulation depth and varied frequency. Importantly, analogous single point mutations in the non-modulatable BFP, mKalama1, creates a modulatable variant. Building modulatable BFPs offers opportunities for improved BFP signal discrimination vs. background, greatly enhancing their utility. PMID:24099419

Jablonski, Amy E.; Vegh, Russell B.; Hsiang, Jung-Cheng; Bommarius, Bettina; Chen, Yen-Cheng; Solntsev, Kyril M.; Bommarius, Andreas S.; Tolbert, Laren M.; Dickson, Robert M.

2014-01-01

332

Blue Sky and Rayleigh Scattering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Georgia State University explains why we see the sky as blue. It describes Rayleigh scattering, which refers to the scattering of light off of the molecules of the air, and Mie scattering, which refers to the scattering of light by larger particles.

Carl R. (Rod) Nave

333

Baby T (Blue) (Size: Medium)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.

1900-01-01

334

Baby T (Blue) (Size: Small)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.

1900-01-01

335

Baby T (Blue) (Size: Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.

1900-01-01

336

Why is the Sky Blue?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use a flashlight, a glass of water, and some milk to examine why the sky is blue and sunsets are red. Learners will discover that the sky appears a different color depending on the position of the sun as well as molecules and particles in the air that cause the scattering of light.

Csiro

2006-01-01

337

Blue Marble Eastern Hemisphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Drawing on data from multiple satellite missions (not all collected at the same time), a team of NASA scientists and graphic artists created layers of global data for everything from the land surface, to polar sea ice, to the light reflected by the chlorophyll in the billions of microscopic plants that grow in the ocean. They wrapped these layers around a globe, set it against a black background, and simulated the hazy edge of the Earth's atmosphere (the limb) that appears in astronaut photography of the Earth. The land surface layer is based on photo-like surface reflectance observations (reflected sunlight) measured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite in July 2004. The sea ice layer near the poles comes from Terra MODIS observations of daytime sea ice observed between August 28 and September 6, 2001. The ocean layer is a composite. In shallow water areas, the layer shows surface reflectances observed by Terra MODIS in July 2004. In the open ocean, the photo-like layer is overlaid with observations of the average ocean chlorophyll content for 2004. NASA's Aqua MODIS collected the chlorophyll data. The cloud layer shows a single-day snapshot of clouds observed by Terra MODIS across the planet on July 29, 2001. City lights on Earth's night side are visualized from data collected by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program mission between 1994-1995. The topography layer is based on radar data collected by the Space Shuttle Endeavour during an 11-day mission in February of 2000. Topography over Antarctica comes from the Radarsat Antarctic Mapping Project, version 2.

2002-01-01

338

Blue Marble Western Hemisphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Drawing on data from multiple satellite missions (not all collected at the same time), a team of NASA scientists and graphic artists created layers of global data for everything from the land surface, to polar sea ice, to the light reflected by the chlorophyll in the billions of microscopic plants that grow in the ocean. They wrapped these layers around a globe, set it against a black background, and simulated the hazy edge of the Earth's atmosphere (the limb) that appears in astronaut photography of the Earth. The land surface layer is based on photo-like surface reflectance observations (reflected sunlight) measured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite in July 2004. The sea ice layer near the poles comes from Terra MODIS observations of daytime sea ice observed between August 28 and September 6, 2001. The ocean layer is a composite. In shallow water areas, the layer shows surface reflectances observed by Terra MODIS in July 2004. In the open ocean, the photo-like layer is overlaid with observations of the average ocean chlorophyll content for 2004. NASA's Aqua MODIS collected the chlorophyll data. The cloud layer shows a single-day snapshot of clouds observed by Terra MODIS across the planet on July 29, 2001. City lights on Earth's night side are visualized from data collected by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program mission between 1994-1995. The topography layer is based on radar data collected by the Space Shuttle Endeavour during an 11-day mission in February of 2000. Topography over Antarctica comes from the Radarsat Antarctic Mapping Project, version 2.

2002-01-01

339

Lattice Planes and Miller Indices  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website will help students visualize and understand lattice planes and Miller indices. The site has a sequence of interactive visualizations and animations which allow students to view movies which show the orientation of planes within in a mineral lattice in a step-by-step sequence. The site includes an embedded glossary of terms and requires Macromedia Flash Player version 8 or later.

Metallurgy, Department O.; Cambridge, University O.

340

Chameleon Graphing: The Coordinate Plane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web unit introduces the coordinate plane with the help of Sam the Chameleon, who illustrates how to find points on a number line and graph points in the coordinate plane. A link to a Java applet for graphing with Sam is included.

Ursula Whitcher

2000-01-01

341

William Blue College of Hospitality Management  

E-print Network

William Blue College of Hospitality Management UAC 2013­14 Guide 441UAC 2013­14 Guide 441 NORTH SYDNEY CAMPUS CRICOS provider number 00246M postal enquiries William Blue College of Hospitality Management Level 9, 171 Pacific Highway North Sydney NSW 2060 in person William Blue College of Hospitality

New South Wales, University of

342

Inside JetBlue's Privacy Policy Violations  

Microsoft Academic Search

JetBlue Airways (JetBlue) gave five million customers' travel records to a USA Department of Defense contractor. The authors' analysis reveals that JetBlue's privacy policy might pose additional significant threats to customer privacy and that the USA Department of Homeland Security anti-terrorism exercise has adversely affected personal privacy.

Annie I. Antón; Qingfeng He; David L. Baumer

2004-01-01

343

Cell viability analysis using trypan blue: manual and automated methods.  

PubMed

One of the traditional methods of cell viability analysis is the use of trypan blue dye exclusion staining. This technique has been the standard methodology used in academic research laboratories and industrial biotechnology plants. Cells were routinely counted manually with a hemocytometer. In recent years, modern automated instrumentation has been introduced to supplement this traditional technique with the efficiency and reproducibility of computer control, advanced imaging, and automated sample handling. PMID:21468962

Louis, Kristine S; Siegel, Andre C

2011-01-01

344

Blue Lobster Bowl 2013: Team Intent Form Preparations are underway for the Blue Lobster Bowl  

E-print Network

Blue Lobster Bowl 2013: Team Intent Form Preparations are underway for the Blue Lobster Bowl Forms will be requested at a later date. Up to 24 student teams can compete in the Blue Lobster Lobster Bowl The Blue Lobster Bowl is an annual academic competition that encourages high school

Entekhabi, Dara

345

49 CFR 218.23 - Blue signal display.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blue signal display. 218.23 Section 218...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Blue Signal Protection of Workers § 218.23 Blue signal display. (a) Blue signals...

2010-10-01

346

A Comparison of Blue Light and Caffeine Effects on Cognitive Function and Alertness in Humans  

PubMed Central

The alerting effects of both caffeine and short wavelength (blue) light have been consistently reported. The ability of blue light to enhance alertness and cognitive function via non-image forming neuropathways have been suggested as a non-pharmacological countermeasure for drowsiness across a range of occupational settings. Here we compare and contrast the alerting and psychomotor effects of 240 mg of caffeine and a 1-h dose of ~40 lx blue light in a non-athletic population. Twenty-one healthy subjects performed a computer-based psychomotor vigilance test before and after each of four randomly assigned trial conditions performed on different days: white light/placebo; white light/240 mg caffeine; blue light/placebo; blue light/240 mg caffeine. The Karolinska Sleepiness Scale was used to assess subjective measures of alertness. Both the caffeine only and blue light only conditions enhanced accuracy in a visual reaction test requiring a decision and an additive effect was observed with respect to the fastest reaction times. However, in a test of executive function, where a distraction was included, caffeine exerted a negative effect on accuracy. Furthermore, the blue light only condition consistently outperformed caffeine when both congruent and incongruent distractions were presented. The visual reactions in the absence of a decision or distraction were also enhanced in the blue light only condition and this effect was most prominent in the blue-eyed participants. Overall, blue light and caffeine demonstrated distinct effects on aspects of psychomotor function and have the potential to positively influence a range of settings where cognitive function and alertness are important. Specifically, despite the widespread use of caffeine in competitive sporting environments, the possible impact of blue light has received no research attention. PMID:24282477

Beaven, C. Martyn; Ekström, Johan

2013-01-01

347

Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir  

SciTech Connect

This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

Not Available

1990-09-01

348

Food habits of blue grouse  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The food habits of Blue Grouse vary from a simple winter diet that is made up predominantly of coniferous needles to a complex diet during the summer months, characterized by great variety of foods including green leaves, fruits and seeds, flowers, animal matter and coniferous needles. The spring and fall, which represent the transition periods between these two, are characterized by feeding habits that are generally intermediate. The diets of the two species of Blue Grouse, Dendrugapus obscurus and Dendragapus juliginosus, are quite similar as far as major types of food are concerned, but they differ considerably in the species that are taken. Such differences reflect differences in the vegetation within the ecologic and geographic ranges occupied by the two species.

Stewart, R.E.

1944-01-01

349

The Physics of the Blues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In looking at the commonalities between music and science, one sees that the musician's palette is based on the principles of physics. The pitch of a musical note is determined by the frequency of the sound wave. The scales that musicians use to create and play music can be viewed as a set of rules. What makes music interesting is how musicians develop those rules and create ambiguity with them. I will discuss the evolution of western musical scales in this context. As a particular example, ``Blue'' notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale. The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting. Live keyboard demonstrations will be used. Beyond any redeeming entertainment value the talk will emphasize the serious connections between science and art in music. Nevertheless tips will be accepted.

Gibson, J. Murray

2009-03-01

350

Models of Individual Blue Stragglers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter describes the current state of models of individual blue stragglers. Stellar collisions, binary mergers (or coalescence), and partial or ongoing mass transfer have all been studied in some detail. The products of stellar collisions retain memory of their parent stars and are not fully mixed. Very high initial rotation rates must be reduced by an unknown process to allow the stars to collapse to the main sequence. The more massive collision products have shorter lifetimes than normal stars of the same mass, while products between low mass stars are long-lived and look very much like normal stars of their mass. Mass transfer can result in a merger, or can produce another binary system with a blue straggler and the remnant of the original primary. The products of binary mass transfer cover a larger portion of the colour-magnitude diagram than collision products for two reasons: there are more possible configurations which produce blue stragglers, and there are differing contributions to the blended light of the system. The effects of rotation may be substantial in both collision and merger products, and could result in significant mixing unless angular momentum is lost shortly after the formation event. Surface abundances may provide ways to distinguish between the formation mechanisms, but care must be taken to model the various mixing mechanisms properly before drawing strong conclusions. Avenues for future work are outlined.

Sills, Alison

351

Ultrafast vascular strain compounding using plane wave transmission.  

PubMed

Deformations of the atherosclerotic vascular wall induced by the pulsating blood can be estimated using ultrasound strain imaging. Because these deformations indirectly provide information on mechanical plaque composition, strain imaging is a promising technique for differentiating between stable and vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. This paper first explains 1-D radial strain estimation as applied intravascularly in coronary arteries. Next, recent methods for noninvasive vascular strain estimation in a transverse imaging plane are discussed. Finally, a compounding technique that our group recently developed is explained. This technique combines motion estimates of subsequently acquired focused ultrasound images obtained at various insonification angles. However, because the artery moves and deforms during the multi-angle acquisition, errors are introduced when compounding. Recent advances in computational power have enabled plane wave ultrasound acquisition, which allows 100 times faster image acquisition and thus might resolve the motion artifacts. In this paper the performance of strain imaging using plane wave compounding is investigated using simulations of an artery with a vulnerable plaque and experimental data of a two-layered vessel phantom. The results show that plane wave compounding outperforms 0° focused strain imaging. For the simulations, the root mean squared error reduced by 66% and 50% for radial and circumferential strain, respectively. For the experiments, the elastographic signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratio (SNR(e) and CNR(e)) increased with 2.1 dB and 3.7 dB radially, and 5.6 dB and 16.2dB circumferentially. Because of the high frame rate, the plane wave compounding technique can even be further optimized and extended to 3D in future. PMID:24484646

Hansen, H H G; Saris, A E C M; Vaka, N R; Nillesen, M M; de Korte, C L

2014-03-01

352

76 FR 22923 - Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data Management Team...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...895, et al.] Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data Management Team Including...TA-W-74,895 Wellpoint, Inc., D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, Enterprise Provider Data...

2011-04-25

353

76 FR 19466 - Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, et al.; Amended Certification Regarding...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...895, et al.] Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, et al.; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility...TA-W-74,895 Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data...

2011-04-07

354

The performance of the blue prime focus Large Binocular Camera at the Large Binocular Telescope  

E-print Network

We present the characteristics and some early scientific results of the first instrument at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), the Large Binocular Camera (LBC). Each LBT telescope unit will be equipped with similar prime focus cameras. The blue channel is optimized for imaging in the UV-B bands and the red channel for imaging in the VRIz bands. The corrected field-of-view of each camera is approximately 30 arcminutes in diameter, and the chip area is equivalent to a 23x23 arcmin2 field. In this paper we also present the commissioning results of the blue channel. The scientific and technical performance of the blue channel was assessed by measurement of the astrometric distortion, flat fielding, ghosts, and photometric calibrations. These measurements were then used as input to a data reduction pipeline applied to science commissioning data. The measurements completed during commissioning show that the technical performance of the blue channel is in agreement with original expectations. Since the red camera is very similar to the blue one we expect similar performance from the commissioning that will be performed in the following months in binocular configuration. Using deep UV image, acquired during the commissioning of the blue camera, we derived faint UV galaxy-counts in a ~500 sq. arcmin. sky area to U(Vega)=26.5. These galaxy counts imply that the blue camera is the most powerful UV imager presently available and in the near future in terms of depth and extent of the field-of-view. We emphasize the potential of the blue camera to increase the robustness of the UGR multicolour selection of Lyman break galaxies at redshift z~3.

E. Giallongo; R. Ragazzoni; A. Grazian; A. Baruffolo; G. Beccari; C. De Santis; E. Diolaiti; A. Di Paola; J. Farinato; A. Fontana; S. Gallozzi; F. Gasparo; G. Gentile; R. Green; J. Hill; O. Kuhn; F. Pasian; F. Pedichini; M. Radovich; P. Salinari; R. Smareglia; R. Speziali; V. Testa; D. Thompson; E. Vernet; R. M. Wagner

2008-03-13

355

Polish Terms for "Blue" in the Perspective of Vantage Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Polish set of terms for blue includes, inter alia, the following adjectives: "niebieski" "blue", "blekitny" "(sky) blue", "granatowy" "navy blue", "lazurowy" "azure", "modry" "(intense) blue" and "siny" "(grey) violet-blue". The adjective "niebieski" is the basic term; however, it shares some of its functions with "blekitny", which is…

Stanulewicz, Danuta

2010-01-01

356

Symmetry planes of Paleozoic crinoids  

E-print Network

- crinida, whereas the other, Tram pidocrinus, is placed with equal certainty in the order Sageno- crinida. Consequently, these flexible crinoids, dis- tinguished by a homocrinid type of symmetry, are not judged to be closely related, even though both have a..., illustrated by Galateacrinus (after Moore, 1962). 2. Homocrinid (E-EC) symmetry plane (after Ubaghs, 1953). 3. Heterocrinid (D-AB) symmetry plane (after Ubaghs, 1953). 4 -5. Infrabasal, basal, and radial circlets of Permian flex- ible crinoids, Tram pidocrinus...

Lane, N. G.; Webster, G. D.

1967-11-30

357

(100) Crystal Plane of Silicon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation, created by Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME), "illustrates the crystal growth of silicon using a seed crystal (or unit cell) positioned to the (100) plane. The silicon crystal grows into a large ingot which is sliced into silicon wafers. To verify the (100) plane of the wafer, the wafer is broken or cleaved causing it to break at 90 degree angles." The supporting Crystallography Learning Module and activities can be downloaded from the SCME website under Educational Materials.

2014-07-24

358

High-resolution color images of Io  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Color versions of the highest resolution Voyager images of Io were produced by combining the low resolution color images with the high resolution, clear filter images. High resolution versions of the orange, blue, and violet filter images are produced by: orange = high-res clear * low-res orange / low-res clear blue = high-res clear * low-res blue / low-res clear violet = high-res clear * low-res violet / low-res clear. The spectral responses of the high and low resolution clear filter images cancel, leaving the color, while the spatial frequencies of the two low resolution images cancel, leaving the high resolution.

Mcewen, A. S.; Soderblom, L. A.

1984-01-01

359

A method of plane geometry primitive presentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Point feature and line feature are basic elements in object feature sets, and they play an important role in object matching and recognition. On one hand, point feature is sensitive to noise; on the other hand, there are usually a huge number of point features in an image, which makes it complex for matching. Line feature includes straight line segment and curve. One difficulty in straight line segment matching is the uncertainty of endpoint location, the other is straight line segment fracture problem or short straight line segments joined to form long straight line segment. While for the curve, in addition to the above problems, there is another difficulty in how to quantitatively describe the shape difference between curves. Due to the problems of point feature and line feature, the robustness and accuracy of target description will be affected; in this case, a method of plane geometry primitive presentation is proposed to describe the significant structure of an object. Firstly, two types of primitives are constructed, they are intersecting line primitive and blob primitive. Secondly, a line segment detector (LSD) is applied to detect line segment, and then intersecting line primitive is extracted. Finally, robustness and accuracy of the plane geometry primitive presentation method is studied. This method has a good ability to obtain structural information of the object, even if there is rotation or scale change of the object in the image. Experimental results verify the robustness and accuracy of this method.

Jiao, Anbo; Luo, Haibo; Chang, Zheng; Hui, Bin

2014-11-01

360

Mathematical Foundation for Plane Covering Using Hexagons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work is to indicate the development and mathematical underpinnings of the algorithms previously developed for covering the plane and the addressing of the elements of the covering. The algorithms are of interest in that they provides a simple systematic way of increasing or decreasing resolution, in the sense that if we have the covering in place and there is an image superimposed upon the covering, then we may view the image in a rough form or in a very detailed form with minimal effort. Such ability allows for quick searches of crude forms to determine a class in which to make a detailed search. In addition, the addressing algorithms provide an efficient way to process large data sets that have related subsets. The algorithms produced were based in part upon the work of D. Lucas "A Multiplication in N Space" which suggested a set of three vectors, any two of which would serve as a bases for the plane and also that the hexagon is the natural geometric object to be used in a covering with a suggested bases. The second portion is a refinement of the eyeball vision system, the globular viewer.

Johnson, Gordon G.

1999-01-01

361

Modeling and 3D local estimation for in-plane and out-of-plane motion guidance by 2D ultrasound-based visual servoing  

E-print Network

and perturbations. Index Terms-- Visual servoing, ultrasound, model-free con- trol, image moments, medical roboticsModeling and 3D local estimation for in-plane and out-of-plane motion guidance by 2D ultrasound a new model-free visual ser- voing that is able to servo a robotized 2D ultrasound probe that interacts

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

362

Improved wheal detection from skin prick test images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Skin prick test is a commonly used method for diagnosis of allergic diseases (e.g., pollen allergy, food allergy, etc.) in allergy clinics. The results of this test are erythema and wheal provoked on the skin where the test is applied. The sensitivity of the patient against a specific allergen is determined by the physical size of the wheal, which can be estimated from images captured by digital cameras. Accurate wheal detection from these images is an important step for precise estimation of wheal size. In this paper, we propose a method for improved wheal detection on prick test images captured by digital cameras. Our method operates by first localizing the test region by detecting calibration marks drawn on the skin. The luminance variation across the localized region is eliminated by applying a color transformation from RGB to YCbCr and discarding the luminance channel. We enhance the contrast of the captured images for the purpose of wheal detection by performing principal component analysis on the blue-difference (Cb) and red-difference (Cr) color channels. We finally, perform morphological operations on the contrast enhanced image to detect the wheal on the image plane. Our experiments performed on images acquired from 36 different patients show the efficiency of the proposed method for wheal detection from skin prick test images captured in an uncontrolled environment.

Bulan, Orhan

2014-03-01

363

Impact Of Focal Plane Technologies On IR System Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Since the mid 1970's focal plane array technologies have been investigated to develop prototypes for a new generation of high sensitivity infra red equipements such as thermal imaging and surveillance systems and missile seekers. These technologies involve to use new design rules in the system conceptiontrade off between state of the art in detector and processing electronic technology, optics, cryogenic and mecanical constraints should be made. In this paper we develop our ideas on system design using focal plane arrays both in 3-5 microns and in 8-10 microns wavelength ranges : focal plane architectural design (scanning versus starring), new optical concept to reduce the backround photon flux, frame averager, digital or analog signal processing in image restoration. Some examples based on our experiences in this field are given".

Chatard, J. P.; Sirieix, M.

1983-11-01

364

Relationship of acupuncture points and meridians to connective tissue planes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acupuncture meridians traditionally are believed to constitute channels connecting the surface of the body to internal organs. We hypothesize that the network of acupuncture points and meridians can be viewed as a representation of the network formed by interstitial connective tissue. This hypothesis is supported by ultrasound images showing connective tissue cleavage planes at acupuncture points in normal human subjects.

Helene M. Langevin; Jason A. Yandow

2002-01-01

365

Experimental study of collisional granular flows down an inclined plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collisional flow of a slightly inelastic granular material down a rough inclined plane is usually described by kinetic theories. We present an experimental study aimed at analysing the assumptions and the quantitative predictions of such theories. A two-dimensional channel coupled to a model granular material and image analysis allow detailed and complete measurement of the kinematics and structure of

Emmanuel Azanza; François Chevoir; Pascal Moucheront

1999-01-01

366

Lair of the Blue Falcon  

E-print Network

to attract the best." Vader's voice deepened. "And the worst." "A...a...description, My Lord?" Pactella stammered. "The ship is Corellian," The breath screen hissed. "Post the pilot as a Corellian national. 1.8 meters. 79.6 kilograms. Brown hair. Brown eyes..., to free the galaxy of the vile Imperial network which was strangling the very existence of a free universe. His pale, blue eyes reflecting the anger within, he thought of the two fine people who had taken him in and raised him as their own. He would avenge...

Berger, J.A.

1995-01-01

367

Blue and UV Semiconductor Lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite many technological difficulties the group III nitrides: GaN, AlN and InN and their alloys are primary candidates for electro-optical coherent light sources. In the recent years the research and technology of the nitride based continuous wave (CW) laser diodes (LDs) led to creation of blue-violet coherent light sources of power up to 200 mW. The progress has been attained by using various ways to attack the main obstacles in the technology of these devices such as insufficient size of high quality lattice matched substrates, low p-doping efficiency of Mg acceptor, poor contact to p-type semiconductor and low efficiency of radiative recombination. The two different approaches were used to overcome the substrate problem: hetero-epitaxy and homoepitaxy. Homoepitaxy used high pressure GaN high quality crystals. Heteroepitaxy used sapphire, SiC or GaAs substrates and very sophisticated techniques of reduction of the dislocation density. The low p-doping efficiency by using Mg acceptor is related to creation of Mg--H complexes due to hydrogen presence during the growth of laser diode quantum structures. In addition, Mg acceptor has low efficiency due to its high energy. High Mg concentrations can be obtained by using either MOCVD or ammonia source MBE growth. An alternative route is to use hydrogen-free plasma activated MBE (PA-MBE) method. The recent advances and the prospects of both approaches will be discussed. Solid AlGaInN solution offers a possibility to cover wide spectral range, starting from near UV to blue, green and red. Arsenide based laser diodes (LDs) are efficient coherent red light sources. Therefore, nitride based LDs are considered to be devices of choice for green, blue and UV spectral range. So far only blue and violet laser has been realized. The progress toward green and UV lasers is far less spectacular. The results in all these areas and future prospects will be discussed.

Krukowski, S.; Skierbiszewski, C.; Perlin, P.; Leszczynski, M.; Bockowski, M.; Porowski, S.

2006-04-01

368

The Laplace Planes of Uranus and Pluto  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite orbits close to an oblate planet precess about its equatorial plane, while distant satellites precess around the plane of the planet's heliocentric orbit. In between, satellites in nearly circular orbits precess about a warped intermediate surface called the Laplace 'plane.' Herein we derive general formulas for locating the Laplace plane. Because Uranus and Pluto have high obliquities, their Laplace planes are severely warped. We present maps of these Laplace planes, of interest in telescopic searches for new satellites. The Laplace plane of the Solar System as a whole is similarly distorted, but comets in the inner Oort cloud precess too slowly to sense the Laplace plane.

Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.

1993-01-01

369

Images  

Cancer.gov

Images can be a powerful and direct means of communicating ideas and feelings about an organization and can create a personal connection with an audience. Imagery used for the main NCI website has been selected to give a consistent look throughout the site. Here are some recommended attributes for NCI website imagery.

370

Explosive plane-wave lens  

DOEpatents

An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Marsh, S.P.

1987-03-12

371

Plane waves as tractor beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that in a large class of systems, plane waves act as tractor beams: i.e., an incident plane wave can exert a pulling force on the scatterer. The underlying physical mechanism for the pulling force is due to the sufficiently strong scattering of the incoming wave into another mode carrying more momentum, in which case excess momentum is created behind the scatterer. This tractor beam or negative radiation pressure (NRP) effect, is found to be generic in systems with multiple scattering channels. In a birefringent medium, electromagnetic plane waves incident on a thin plate exert NRP of the same order of magnitude as optical radiation pressure, while in artificial dielectrics (metamaterials), the magnitude of NRP can even be macroscopic. In two dimensions, we study various scattering situations on vortices, and NRP is shown to occur by the scattering of heavy baryons into light leptons off cosmic strings, and by neutron scattering off vortices in the XY model.

Forgács, Péter; Lukács, Árpád; Roma?czukiewicz, Tomasz

2013-12-01

372

Explosive plane-wave lens  

DOEpatents

An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 4 figs.

Marsh, S.P.

1988-03-08

373

2-Tier In-Plane Motion Correction and Out-of-Plane Motion Filtering for Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound  

E-print Network

D,|| and Andrew C. Kummel, PhD¶ Objectives: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) cines of focal liver lesions (FLLs indication. However, CEUS cines acquired free- hand and during free breathing cause nonuniform in be corrected by image registration in 2-dimensional CEUS and degrades the quality of in-plane motion correction

Kummel, Andrew C.

374

Morphological responses of wheat to blue light  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Blue light significantly increased tillering in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants grown at the same photosynthetic photon flux (PPF). Plants were grown under two levels of blue light (400-500 nm) in a controlled environment with continuous irradiation. Plants received either 50 micromoles m-2 s-1 of blue light or 2 micromoles m-2 s-1 blue light from filtered metal halide lamps at a total irradiance of 200 micromoles m-2 s-1 PPF (400-700 nm). Plants tillered an average of 25% more under the higher level of blue light. Blue light also caused a small, but consistent, increase in main culm development, measured as Haun stage. Leaf length was reduced by higher levels of blue light, while plant dry-mass was not significantly affected by blue light. Applying the principle of equivalent light action, the results suggest that tillering and leaf elongation are mediated by the blue-UV light receptor(s) because phytochrome photoequilibrium for each treatment were nearly identical.

Barnes, C.; Bugbee, B.

1992-01-01

375

I was six years old when Voyager sent its final images of the solar system. I was enchanted by the dramatic, mysterious blues of Neptune and the icy volcanoes of  

E-print Network

Voyager spacecraft carried a record titled the Sounds of Earth, filled with music, images, and greetings. This is a vision that still inspires me and drives me, one that experience and education have refined but never the benefits of modern science. I also know that scientists must always remember that we work within a larger

Richardson Jr., James E.

376

Blue Light Eliminates Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Infected Mouse Skin Abrasions  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background and objective: Bacterial skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) affect millions of individuals annually in the United States. Treatment of SSTI has been significantly complicated by the increasing emergence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strains. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of blue light (415±10?nm) therapy for eliminating CA-MRSA infections in skin abrasions of mice. Methods: The susceptibilities of a CA-MRSA strain (USA300LAC) and human keratinocytes (HaCaT) to blue light inactivation were compared by in vitro culture studies. A mouse model of skin abrasion infection was developed using bioluminescent USA300LAC::lux. Blue light was delivered to the infected mouse skin abrasions at 30?min (acute) and 24?h (established) after the bacterial inoculation. Bioluminescence imaging was used to monitor in real time the extent of infection in mice. Results: USA300LAC was much more susceptible to blue light inactivation than HaCaT cells (p=0.038). Approximately 4.75-log10 bacterial inactivation was achieved after 170?J/cm2 blue light had been delivered, but only 0.29 log10 loss of viability in HaCaT cells was observed. Transmission electron microscopy imaging of USA300LAC cells exposed to blue light exhibited disruption of the cytoplasmic content, disruption of cell walls, and cell debris. In vivo studies showed that blue light rapidly reduced the bacterial burden in both acute and established CA-MRSA infections. More than 2-log10 reduction of bacterial luminescence in the mouse skin abrasions was achieved when 41.4 (day 0) and 108?J/cm2 (day 1) blue light had been delivered. Bacterial regrowth was observed in the mouse wounds at 24?h after the blue light therapy. Conclusions: There exists a therapeutic window of blue light for bacterial infections where bacteria are selectively inactivated by blue light while host tissue cells are preserved. Blue light therapy has the potential to rapidly reduce the bacterial load in SSTI. PMID:23406384

Dai, Tianhong; Gupta, Asheesh; Huang, Ying-Ying; Sherwood, Margaret E.; Murray, Clinton K.; Vrahas, Mark S.; Kielian, Tammy

2013-01-01

377

1) Anthem Blue Dental PPO Plus 2) Anthem Blue Dental PPO  

E-print Network

your insurance premium costs, your share of dental insurance premiums can be paid with pre-tax dollars under the CHEIBA Trust Pre-Tax Insurance Premium Payments Account under the Flexible Benefit Plan- 35 - 1) Anthem Blue Dental PPO Plus 2) Anthem Blue Dental PPO DENTAL INSURANCE ANTHEM BLUE CROSS

378

An Introduction to Inclined Planes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the concept of simple tools and how they can make difficult or impossible tasks easier. They begin by investigating the properties of inclined planes and how implementing them can reduce the force necessary to lift objects off the ground.

Engineering K-Phd Program

379

Affine Contractions on the Plane  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contractions play a considerable role in the theory of fractals. However, it is not easy to find contractions which are not similitudes. In this study, it is shown by counter examples that an affine transformation of the plane carrying a given triangle onto another triangle may not be a contraction even if it contracts edges, heights or medians.…

Celik, D.; Ozdemir, Y.; Ureyen, M.

2007-01-01

380

Plane and parabolic solar panels  

E-print Network

We present a plane and parabolic collector that absorbs radiant energy and transforms it in heat. Therefore we have a panel to heat water. We study how to increment this capture of solar beams onto the panel in order to increase its efficiency in heating water.

J. H. O. Sales; A. T. Suzuki

2009-05-14

381

Plane and parabolic solar panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a plane and parabolic collector that absorbs radiant energy and transforms it in heat. Therefore we have a panel to heat water. We study how to increment this capture of solar beams onto the panel in order to increase its efficiency in heating water.

J. H. O. Sales; A. T. Suzuki

2009-01-01

382

Plane and parabolic solar panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a plane and parabolic collector that absorbs radiant energy and\\u000atransforms it in heat. Therefore we have a panel to heat water. We study how to\\u000aincrement this capture of solar beams onto the panel in order to increase its\\u000aefficiency in heating water.

J. H. O. Sales; A. T. Suzuki

2009-01-01

383

LWIR/MWIR adaptive focal plane array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Adaptive Focal Plane Array (AFPA) device that enables a "chip scale" imaging spectrometer is being developed. The AFPA device consists of an array of MEMS tunable filters that is intimately coupled to a dual band IR FPA. The MEMS filters provide narrowband tuning in the LWIR and simultaneous broadband imaging in the MWIR. Each filter element can be independently tuned. In the current design, each filter tunes the wavelength of pixel subarrays. Ultimately, filter size will be reduced to achieve independent wavelength tunability for each pixel element. This unique architecture of an AFPA device enables adaptive spectral analysis of the scene. Rather than collecting the complete hyperspectral cube, methods being developed will enable selection of spatially optimized spectral band sets for a variety of targets and materials that are selected "on-the-fly" to maximize the contrast between the local background and the target or material to be identified. The analyzed LWIR spectral information may then be overlaid with a pixel registered high resolution MWIR image.

Gunning, William J.; Johnson, Jeffrey L.; DeNatale, Jeffrey F.

2004-12-01

384

Stokes problems for moving half-planes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations are obtained for the unbounded and bounded oscillatory and impulsive tangential edgewise motion of touching half-infinite plates in their own plane. In contrast to Stokes classical solutions for the harmonic and impulsive motion of an infinite plane wall, where the solutions are separable or have a simple similarity form, the present solutions have a two-dimensional structure in the near region of the contact between the half-infinite plates. Nevertheless, it is possible to obtain relatively simple closed-form solutions for the flow field in each case by defining new variables which greatly simplify the r- and theta- dependence of the solutions in the vicinity of the contact region. These solutions for flow in a half-infinite space are then extended to bounded flows in a channel using an image superposition technique. The impulsive motion has application to the motion near geophysical faults, whereas the oscillatory motion has arisen in the design of a novel oscillating half-plate flow chamber for examining the effect of fluid shear stress on cultured cell monolayers.

Zeng, Y.; Weinbaum, S.; Cowin, S. C. (Principal Investigator)

1995-01-01

385

Sliding Down an Incline Plane Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Sliding Down an Incline Plane model shows a stone block is lying on an inclined plane. Initially, the component of gravity along the plane surface, Ft, is compensated by the force of static friction Fsf, which is proportional to the normal to the plane, N. Because the modulus of this force cannot exceed a limit value of ?|N| (? is the static friction coefficient between the block and the plane). When the user increases the slope of the plane by dragging the double arrow at the plane top, Ft ends up being larger than this limit and the block slides down the plane The Sliding Down an Incline Plane model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_murcia_mech_SlidingDownAnInclinePlane.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Franciscouembre

2010-04-16

386

Size Dependent Cation Channel in Nanoporous Prussian Blue Lattice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cation and/or molecule transfer within nanoporous materials can be utilized in, for example, electrochromic devices, hydrogen storage, molecular sensors, and molecular filters. Here, we investigated the mobilities of cations, Na+, K+, and Rb+, in vacancy-controlled Prussian blue film, NaxCo[Fe(CN)6]1-vzH2O (v is vacancy concentration) with a jungle gym structure. We found that only the smallest Na+ ions pass through the cubic planes of the lattice, while the larger cations, i.e., K+ and Rb+, take a detour channel along the [Fe(CN)6] vacancy. The size-dependent cation channel is well understood in terms of the potential curve derived by an ab initio total energy calculation.

Moritomo, Yutaka; Igarashi, Kazuhiro; Kim, Jungeun; Tanaka, Hiroshi

2009-08-01

387

Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Venous malformations of blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) may involve any area of the gastrointestinal tract.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Gastrointestinal blood loss and anemia brings these patients to the attention of gastroenterologists.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Effective treatment of these malformations throughout the gastrointestinal tract requires aggressive management to ultimately\\u000a decrease blood loss and restore the patient’s hemoglobin to a near-normal

John M. Andersen

2001-01-01

388

Methylthymol blue in Fricke gels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The initial trial of methylthymol blue (MTB) as a chelator for ferric iron in Fricke gel dosimeters, used for three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry in cancer radiotherapy, is reported. MTB is a structural analogue of the conventionally used xylenol orange (XO); however, the absorbance spectrum of the ferric-MTB complex is shifted to higher wavelengths, which should allow for lower amount of light scattering during gel scanning. In this study, two gelatin substrates, two sources of XO and one source of MTB have been compared. The MTB- containing gels exhibited similar dose response and diffusion coefficient to the XO-containing gels at their wavelengths of maximum absorption (620 and 585 nm, respectively). In addition, the MTB gels gave an excellent dose response at 633 nm, which is an important wavelength that is already used with other 3D dosimeters.

Penev, K. I.; Mequanint, K.

2015-01-01

389

Long-persistence blue phosphors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention relates to phosphors including long-persistence blue phosphors. Phosphors of the invention are represented by the general formula: MO . mAl.sub.2 O.sub.3 :Eu.sup.2+,R.sup.3+ wherein m is a number ranging from about 1.6 to about 2.2, M is Sr or a combination of Sr with Ca and Ba or both, R.sup.3+ is a trivalent metal ion or trivalent Bi or a mixture of these trivalent ions, Eu.sup.2+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M, and R.sup.3+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M. Phosphors of this invention include powders, ceramics, single crystals and single crystal fibers. A method of manufacturing improved phosphors and a method of manufacturing single crystal phosphors are also provided.

Yen, William M. (Inventor); Jia, Weiyi (Inventor); Lu, Lizhu (Inventor); Yuan, Huabiao (Inventor)

2000-01-01

390

Plane mixing layers with streamwise pressure gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments have been conducted to determine the effect of streamwise pressure gradient on the spatial development of a constant density, plane mixing layer. Velocity data and flow visualization images suggest that dP/dx influences the spreading rate of the mixing region indicated by the parameter delta (x), the vorticity thickness, through changes induced in the local value of the ratio of the mean velocities of the two freestreams. There is evidence which suggests that interactions between the primary spanwise vortex structures are enhanced in the presence of an adverse pressure gradient, i.e., dP/dx are O, and are suppressed in an accelerating flow. Application of the Abramovich-Sabin growth law to predict delta (x) appears adequately to account for the trends in measured deviations from linear mixing layer growth. The present data are interpreted on the basis of the vortex pairing model proposed by Winant and Brovand.

Masutani, S. M.; Kobayashi, H.; Azuhata, S.; Miyadera, H.; Hishinuma, Y.

391

Null-plane invariance of Hamiltonian null-plane dynamics.  

SciTech Connect

Relativistic Hamiltonian few-body dynamics [1,2] involves two unitary representations of the Poincare group on the Hilbert space H of physical states, with and without interactions. These two representations, U({Lambda}, a) and U{sub 0}({Lambda},a), coincide for a kinematic subgroup H. The ''Hamiltonians'' are the generators not in the Lie algebra of the kinematic subgroup. The kinematic subgroup of null-plane dynamics leaves the null-plane z {center_dot} x {triple_bond} x{sup 0} + x{sub 3} = 0 invariant. Few-body Hamiltonians satisfying the required commutation relations can be constructed as functions of a mass operator and kinematic quantities. For more than two particles there are nontrivial problems in satisfying cluster separability. [3] Consistency of electro-weak interactions with strong interactions also involves significant problems: Poincare covariance of current operators requires the construction of appropriate interaction currents.

Coester, F.

1998-07-29

392

Optical absorption and electron spin resonance in blue and green natural beryl  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparative study of blue and green beryl crystals (from the region of Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais, Brazil) using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical absorption (OA) spectroscopy is reported. The EPR spectra show that Fe3+ in blue beryl occupies a substitutional Al3+ site and in green beryl is localized in the structural channels between two O6 planes. On the other hand the infrared spectra show that the alkali content in the blue beryl is mostly at substitutional and/or interstitial sites and in green beryl is mostly in the structural channels. The OA spectra show two types of Fe2+. Thermal treatments above 200° C in green beryl cause the reduction of Fe3+ into Fe2+ accompanied by a change of color to blue. The blue beryl color does not change on heating. The kinetics of the thermal conversion of Fe3+ into Fe2+ is composed of two first order processes; the first one has an activation energy ? E 1=0.30 eV and the second one has an activation energy ? E 2=0.46 eV.

Blak, Ana Regina; Isotani, Sadao; Watanabe, Shigueo

1982-08-01

393

21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Identity. The color additive ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium...incorporated in the mixture in order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

2012-04-01

394

21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.  

...Identity. The color additive ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium...incorporated in the mixture in order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

2014-04-01

395

21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Identity. The color additive ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium...incorporated in the mixture in order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

2011-04-01

396

21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Identity. The color additive ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium...incorporated in the mixture in order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

2013-04-01

397

Original article Blue-stain fungi associated  

E-print Network

Original article Blue-stain fungi associated with Tomicus piniperda in Sweden and preliminary to determine the development of blue-staining of sapwood. Fungi were isolated from samples of inner bark isolated from trees attacked by T piniperda. Three species of fungi were rather frequent- ly isolated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

398

Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available. Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of…

Liebl, Michael

2010-01-01

399

Morpho-blue reproduced by nanocasting lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The brilliant metallic blue in wings of Morpho butterflies has a mysterious feature. The blue luster is produced from the butterfly's scale, which does not contain a blue pigment at all. The origin of the coloration is then attributed to a microscopic structure that can also explain its high reflectivity. However, its optical characteristics on the scattered wavelength contradicts obviously the grating or multilayer, because it appears blue from wide angle. The mystery of the lack of multi-coloration has recently been explained using a model with a peculiar optical structure, and experimentally proven by fabricating the optical film by controlling the parameters in nanoscale. The reproduced Morpho-blue was found to be important from viewpoint of a wide variety of applications. However, the fabrication process of the nano- structure is too costly due to conventional lithography method. To solve the problem, nano-casting lithography (NCL) was newly applied using UV curable polymer to replicate the nanostructure and improve heat-resistance for the following process of deposition. After fabrication of the nano-patterned polymer structure by the NCL, TiO II and SiO II layers were deposited and the Morpho-blue structure was successfully replicated in low cost. The reflective characteristic of the replicated structure was found to reproduce the basic properties of the natural Morpho-blue, as well as the originally fabricated Morpho-blue.

Saito, Akira; Nakajima, Masaki; Miyamura, Yusuke; Sogo, Kenji; Ishikawa, Yoko; Hirai, Yoshihiko

2006-08-01

400

Blue Marble Matches: Using Earth for Planetary Comparisons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to introduce students to planetary geologic features and processes. First, students will use NASA satellite images to identify geologic surface features on the "Blue Marble" (Earth), and will explore the connection between those features and the geologic processes that created them. Using that information, students will then compare and discuss similar features on images from other planets. Included are the following materials: teacher's guide (with reference and resource information), student's guide (with activity sheets), and multiple cards of planetary images. Note that the range of targeted grade levels is quite broad; however, explicit adaptations for younger students are highlighted throughout the teacher's guide. This lesson is part of the Expedition Earth and Beyond Education Program.

401

Greenâs Functions for a Bimaterial Consisting of Two Orthotropic Quarter Planes Subjected to an Antiplane Force and a Screw Dislocation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The image singularity approach is employed to construct the Greenâs function for a quarter plane and a bimaterial that consists of two quarter planes bonded together. The material is orthotropic, and is subjected to an antiplane force f and a screw dislocation with magnitude b. Explicit expressions are obtained for the antiplane forces and screw dislocations that are applied at the image singularities.

Ting, T. C.

2006-11-14

402

Featured Molecules: Ascorbic Acid and Methylene Blue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The WebWare molecules of the month for May are featured in several articles in this issue. "Arsenic: Not So Evil After All?" discusses the pharmaceutical uses of methylene blue and its development as the first synthetic drug used against a specific disease. The JCE Classroom Activity "Out of the Blue" and the article "Greening the Blue Bottle" feature methylene blue and ascorbic acid as two key ingredients in the formulation of the blue bottle. You can also see a colorful example of these two molecules in action on the cover. "Sailing on the 'C': A Vitamin Titration with a Twist" describes an experiment to determine the vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content of citrus fruits and challenges students, as eighteenth-century sea captains, to decide the best fruit to take on a long voyage. Fully manipulable (Chime) versions of these and other molecules are available at Only@JCE Online.

Coleman, William F.; Wildman, Randall J.

2003-05-01

403

MIPSGAL: A Survey of the Inner Galactic Plane at 24 and 70 mum  

Microsoft Academic Search

MIPSGAL is a 278 deg2 survey of the inner Galactic plane using the Multiband Infrared Photometer for Spitzer aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. The survey field was imaged in two passbands, 24 and 70 mum with resolutions of 6\\

S. J. Carey; A. Noriega-Crespo; D. R. Mizuno; S. Shenoy; R. Paladini; K. E. Kraemer; S. D. Price; N. Flagey; E. Ryan; J. G. Ingalls; T. A. Kuchar; Daniela Pinheiro Gonçalves; R. Indebetouw; N. Billot; F. R. Marleau; D. L. Padgett; L. M. Rebull; E. Bressert; Babar Ali; S. Molinari; P. G. Martin; G. B. Berriman; F. Boulanger; W. B. Latter; M. A. Miville-Deschenes; R. Shipman; L. Testi

2009-01-01

404

Wavelet Solution of Plane Elasticity Problem in the Upper Half-plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plane elasticity problem includes plane strain problem and plane stress problem which are widely applied in mechanics and engineering. In this article, we first reduce the plane elasticity problem in the upper half-plane into natural boundary integral equation and then apply wavelet-Galerkin method to deal with the numerical solution of the natural boundary integral equation. The test and trial

Youjian Shen

2002-01-01

405

76 FR 1608 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...Background: The President directed that the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's...

2011-01-11

406

76 FR 1607 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...Background: The President directed that the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's...

2011-01-11

407

76 FR 35909 - Temporary Concession Contract for Blue Ridge Parkway  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2410-OYC] Temporary Concession Contract for Blue Ridge Parkway AGENCY: National Park Service...award of temporary concession contracts for Blue Ridge Parkway, NC/VA...of certain visitor services within the Blue Ridge Parkway, North Carolina and...

2011-06-20

408

75 FR 36647 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...Background: The President directed that the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's...

2010-06-28

409

75 FR 81592 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...Background: The President directed that the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's...

2010-12-28

410

75 FR 25850 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...Background: The President directed that the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's...

2010-05-10

411

77 FR 55895 - Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...Notice of permanent closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ...it was permanently closing Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ), Cincinnati,...

2012-09-11

412

Eight plane IPND mechanical testing.  

SciTech Connect

A mechanical test of an 8 plane IPND mechanical prototype, which was constructed using extrusions from the testing/tryout of the 16 cell prototype extrusion die in Argonne National Laboratory, was conducted. There were 4 vertical and 4 horizontal planes in this 8 plane IPND prototype. Each vertical plane had four 16 cell extrusions, while each horizontal plane had six 16 cell extrusions. Each plane was glued together using the formulation of Devcon adhesive, Devcon 60. The vertical extrusions used in the vertical planes shares the same dimensions as the horizontal extrusions in the horizontal planes with the average web thickness of 2.1 mm and the average wall thickness of 3.1 mm. This mechanical prototype was constructed with end-seals on the both ends of the vertical extrusions. The gaps were filled with epoxy between extrusions and end-seals. The overall dimension of IPND is 154.8 by 103.1 by 21.7 inches with the weight of approximately 1200 kg, as shown in a figure. Two similar mechanical tests of 3 layer and 11 layer prototypes have been done in order to evaluate the strength of the adhesive joint between extrusions in the NOvA detector. The test showed that the IPND prototype was able to sustain under the loading of weight of itself and scintillator. Two FEA models were built to verify the measurement data from the test. The prediction from FEA slice model seems correlated reasonably well to the test result, even under a 'rough' estimated condition for the wall thickness (from an untuned die) and an unknown property of 'garage type' extrusion. A full size of FEA 3-D model also agrees very well with the test data from strain gage readings. It is worthy to point out that the stress distribution of the structure is predominantly determined by the internal pressure, while the buckling stability relies more on the loading weight from the extrusions themselves and scintillate. Results of conducted internal pressure tests, including 3- cell, 11-cell and the IPND prototypes, have been correlated to the FEA analysis very well. The authors believe they have quite good understanding of response of the NOvA structures subjected to the internal pressure, while the understanding of buckling stability is far behind. Therefore, more effect should be laid to improve the buckling considering that the FEA analysis usually is not able accurately modeling the stability as good as the stress analysis. The IPND structure was mostly built using 'scrape' piece extrusions (whatever available in shop). Therefore, a future test should be more focus on by using a actual real extrusions, for example like Nova -27 (if a final choice is made) and extrusion from a tuned die (very important). The authors should/will repeat 11 layers test with an actual thicker piece for the vertical to verify the adhesive joint and similar large scale prototype with a symmetry case, either 9 or 11 layers with the dial indicator on the both side.

Zhao, A.; Guarino, V.; Wood, K.; Nephew, T.; Ayres, D.; Lee, A.; High Energy Physics; FNAL

2008-03-18

413

The lizard celestial compass detects linearly polarized light in the blue.  

PubMed

The present study first examined whether ruin lizards, Podarcis sicula, are able to orientate using plane-polarized light produced by an LCD screen. Ruin lizards were trained and tested indoors, inside a hexagonal Morris water maze positioned under an LCD screen producing white polarized light with a single E-vector, which provided an axial cue. White polarized light did not include wavelengths in the UV. Lizards orientated correctly either when tested with E-vector parallel to the training axis or after 90 deg rotation of the E-vector direction, thus validating the apparatus. Further experiments examined whether there is a preferential region of the light spectrum to perceive the E-vector direction of polarized light. For this purpose, lizards reaching learning criteria under white polarized light were subdivided into four experimental groups. Each group was tested for orientation under a different spectrum of plane-polarized light (red, green, cyan and blue) with equalized photon flux density. Lizards tested under blue polarized light orientated correctly, whereas lizards tested under red polarized light were completely disoriented. Green polarized light was barely discernible by lizards, and thus insufficient for a correct functioning of their compass. When exposed to cyan polarized light, lizard orientation performances were optimal, indistinguishable from lizards detecting blue polarized light. Overall, the present results demonstrate that perception of linear polarization in the blue is necessary - and sufficient - for a proper functioning of the sky polarization compass of ruin lizards. This may be adaptively important, as detection of polarized light in the blue improves functioning of the polarization compass under cloudy skies, i.e. when the alternative celestial compass based on detection of the sun disk is rendered useless because the sun is obscured by clouds. PMID:22693032

Beltrami, Giulia; Parretta, Antonio; Petrucci, Ferruccio; Buttini, Paola; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Foà, Augusto

2012-09-15

414

Optimization of reproduced Morpho-blue coloration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morpho butterfly's metallic blue luster, which is produced from the butterfly's scale, has a mysterious feature. Since the scale does not contain a blue pigment, the origin of the coloration is attributed to a microscopic structure that can also explain its high reflectivity. However, it appears blue from wide angular range, which contradicts obviously the grating or multilayer. The mystery of the lack of multi-coloration has recently been explained with a peculiar nano-structure, and experimentally proven by fabricating the optical film by controlling the parameters in nanoscale. The reproduced Morpho-blue was found to be important from viewpoint of a wide variety of applications. However, optical properties of the fabricated film were found to contain still some differences with that of the Morpho-butterfly, although the basic characteristics of the Morpho-blue itself was reproduced. In order to make the artificial Morpho-blue closer to the natural one than the prototype, we attempted to optimize the artificial film structure by controlling fabrication parameters. In this process, optical simulations and micro-structural observations were taken in account. By comparing a series of films fabricated with different nano-patterns, optimized parameters were semi-empirically obtained. Also the relationship between the structural parameters and the optical properties was analyzed. The reflective characteristics of the optimized film were found to reproduce the optical properties more closely to the natural Morpho-blue than the prototypes.

Saito, Akira; Ishikawa, Yoko; Miyamura, Yusuke; Akai-Kasaya, Megumi; Kuwahara, Yuji

2007-09-01

415

Quantum Ghost Imaging through Turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the effect of turbulence on quantum ghost imaging. We use entangled photons and demonstrate that for a novel experimental configuration the effect of turbulence can be greatly diminished. By decoupling the entangled photon source from the ghost imaging central image plane, we are able to dramatically increase the ghost image quality. When imaging a test pattern through turbulence,

Gregory A. Howland; Kam Wai Clifford Chan; Colin O'Sullivan-Hale; Brandon Rodenburg; Nicholas D. Hardy; Jeffrey H. Shapiro; D. S. Simon; A. V. Sergienko; R. W. Boyd; John C. Howell

2011-01-01

416

Quantum ghost imaging through turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the effect of turbulence on quantum ghost imaging. We use entangled photons and demonstrate that for a specific experimental configuration the effect of turbulence can be greatly diminished. By decoupling the entangled photon source from the ghost-imaging central image plane, we are able to dramatically increase the ghost-image quality. When imaging a test pattern through turbulence, this method

P. Ben Dixon; Gregory A. Howland; Kam Wai Clifford Chan; Colin O'Sullivan-Hale; Brandon Rodenburg; Nicholas D. Hardy; Jeffrey H. Shapiro; D. S. Simon; A. V. Sergienko; R. W. Boyd; John C. Howell

2011-01-01

417

Size of the foveal blue scotoma related to the shape of the foveal pit but not to macular pigment.  

PubMed

When the eye is covered with a filter that transmits light below 480nm and a blue field is observed on a computer screen that is modulated in brightness at about 1Hz, the fovea is perceived as small irregular dark spot. It was proposed that the "foveal blue scotoma" results from the lack of S-cones in the foveal center. The foveal blue scotoma is highly variable among subjects. Possible factors responsible for the variability include differences in S-cone distribution, in foveal shape, and in macular pigment distribution. Nine young adult subjects were instructed to draw their foveal blue scotomas on a clear foil that was attached in front of the computer screen. The geometry of their foveal pit was measured in OCT images in two dimensions. Macular pigment distribution was measured in fundus camera images. Finally, blue scotomas were compared with Maxwell's spot which was visualized with a dichroic filter and is commonly assumed to reflect the macular pigment distribution. The diameters of the foveal blue scotomas varied from 15.8 to 76.4arcmin in the right eyes and 15.5 to 84.7arcmin in the left and were highly correlated in both eyes. It was found that the steeper the foveal slopes and the narrower the foveal pit, the larger the foveal blue scotoma. There was no correlation between foveal blue scotoma and macular pigment distribution or Maxwell's spot. The results are therefore in line with the assumption that the foveal blue scotoma is a consequence of the lack of S-cones in the foveal center. Unlike the foveal blue scotoma, Maxwell's spot is based on macular pigment as previously proposed. PMID:25449158

Chen, Yun; Lan, Weizhong; Schaeffel, Frank

2015-01-01

418

This image combines data from the DIRBE obtained at infrared wavelengths of 100, 140 and 240 Aum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image combines data from the DIRBE obtained at infrared wavelengths of 100, 140 and 240 Aum - the longest wavelengths measured by this instrument. The sky brightness at these wavelengths is represented respectively by blue, green, and red colors in the image. This image shows where there is more material (appears brighter) and where this material is coldest (appears redder). The plane of the Milky Way Galaxy lies horizontally across the middle of the image with the Galactic center at the center. Most of the infrared radiation seen in this image originates from cold dust (approximately 20 K, or 20 degrees Centigrade above absolute zero) located in clouds of gas and dust between the stars in the Milky Way Galaxy. The wispy-looking dust features are called 'infrared cirrus.' The region of the Orion Nebula with active star formation - approximately 1,500 light years distance from the Sun - appears on the right of the image below the plane of the Milky Way. Neighboring galaxies, the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, appear as faint 'blobs' below and slightly to the right of the Galactic center. Much of the picture appears to be the same color, indicating that there is not a large variation in the dust temperature. Because the brightness of the Solar System and Galaxy tends to decrease with increasing wavelength, these long wavelength DIRBE measurements are particularly valuable for searching for the cosmic infrared background.

2002-01-01

419

Signal processing on the focal plane array: an overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raytheon's Infrared Operations (RIO) has invented and developed a new class of focal plane arrays; the Adaptive IR Sensor (AIRS) and Thinfilm Analog Image Processor (TAIP). The AIRS FPA is based upon biologically inspired on-focal- plane circuitry, which adaptively removes detector and optic temperature drift and l/f induced fixed pattern noise. This third-generation multimode IRFPA, also called a Smart FPA, is a 256x256-array format capable of operation in four modes: 1) Direct Injection (DI), 2) Adaptive Non-uniformity Correction (NUC), 3) Motion/Edge Detection, and 4) Subframe Averaging. Also the 320x240 TAIP results have shown excellent image processing in the form of Spatial and Temporal processing.

Graham, Roger W.; Trautfield, Walter C.; Taylor, Scott M.; Murray, Mark P.; Mesh, Frank J.; Horn, Stuart B.; Finch, James A.; Dang, Khoa V.; Caulfield, John T.

2000-12-01

420

High-power blue/UV light-emitting diodes as excitation sources for sensitive detection.  

PubMed

With advances in III-V nitride manufacturing processes, high-power light-emitting diode (LED) chips in the blue and UV wavelengths are now commercially available at reasonable cost and can be used as excitation sources in optical sensing. We describe the use of these high-power blue and UV LEDs for sensitive fluorescence detection, including chip-based flow cytometry, capillary electrophoresis (CE), and single-molecule imaging. By using a blue LED with a focusable power of approximately 40 mW as the excitation source for fluorescent beads, we demonstrate a simple chip-based bead sorter capable of enriching the concentration of green fluorescent beads from 63% to 95%. In CE experiments, we show that a mixture of analyte solution containing 30 nM 6-carboxyrhodamine 6G and 10 nM fluorescein can be separated and detected with excellent signal-to-noise ratio (approximately 17 for 10 nM fluorescein) using the collimated emission from a blue LED; the estimated mass detection limit was approximately 200 zmol for fluorescein. We also demonstrated ultrasensitive fluorescence imaging of single rhodamine 123 molecules and individual lambda-DNA molecules. At a small fraction of the cost of an Ar+ laser, high-power blue and UV LEDs are effective alternatives for lasers and arc lamps in fluorescence applications that demand portability, low cost, and convenience. PMID:15565689

Kuo, Jason S; Kuyper, Christopher L; Allen, Peter B; Fiorini, Gina S; Chiu, Daniel T

2004-11-01

421

Development of Terahertz focal plane arrays and handy camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uncooled Terahertz (THz) focal plane array (FPA), 320x240 format-23.5 mum pitch, and THz imager were developed. There are two types of THz-FPAs, i.e., broad-band type and narrow-band type. Since broad-band type THz-FPA was developed, a couple of modifications have been made to improve Noise Equivalent Power. The narrow-band type THz-FPA has such a new structure that Si cover is put

Naoki Oda; Masahiko Sano; Ken'ichi Sonoda; Hajime Yoneyama; Seiji Kurashina; Masaru Miyoshi; Tokuhito Sasaki; Iwao Hosako; Norihiko Sekine; Takayuki Sudou; Shuichi Ohkubo

2011-01-01

422

Status of blue whale photo-identification from IWC IDCR\\/SOWER cruises 1987-1988 to 2007-2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 21,000 identification photographs of blue whales were collected during 19 IWC IDCR\\/SOWER Antarctic cruises conducted from 1987-1988 to 2007-2008. Archiving and analysis of these photographs has been undertaken at SWFSC to aid in the assessment of Southern Hemisphere blue whales. Photographs were obtained from all six IWC Management Areas and represent a minimum of 311 individuals. Film images from

Paula A. Olson

423

Blue Ribbon Commission Tour of Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future toured the Department of Energy's Hanford Site on July 14, 2010. Commission members, invited guests, and members of the public visited facilities that store high-level, radioactive waste.

Paul Saueressig

2010-07-14

424

A Clock Reaction Based on Molybdenum Blue  

E-print Network

Clock reactions are rare kinetic phenomena, so far limited mostly to systems with ionic oxoacids and oxoanions in water. We report a new clock reaction in cyclohexanol that forms molybdenum blue from a noncharged, yellow ...

Neuenschwander, Ulrich

425

Heparin sensing: Blue-chip binding  

E-print Network

Heparin is an anionic polysaccharide that has tremendous clinical importance as an anticoagulant. Several dyes have been developed that can detect heparin, and the latest example — named Mallard Blue — has now been shown ...

Shriver, Zachary H.

426

Phototherapy with turquoise versus blue light  

PubMed Central

Preterm jaundiced infants were treated by phototherapy with a new turquoise fluorescent lamp. This was more effective in reducing plasma total bilirubin in relation to light irradiance than the ubiquitously used blue fluorescent lamp. PMID:12937051

Ebbesen, F; Agati, G; Pratesi, R

2003-01-01

427

Subungual and periungual congenital blue naevus.  

PubMed

Subungual pigmented lesions should raise concern about malignant melanoma. Blue naevus of the nail apparatus is a rare entity, with only ten cases described in the literature. We report a 21-year-old Hispanic woman with a slowly enlarging 1.7 x 2.3-cm subungual and periungual pigmented plaque present since birth on her right second toe. Initial biopsy was consistent with a blue naevus of the cellular type and, given the recent clinical change and periungual extension, complete excision was recommended. The entire nail unit was resected down to periosteum with prior avulsion of the nail plate. Reconstruction was performed with a full-thickness skin graft. Follow up at 1 year revealed well-healed graft and donor sites with complete return of function. We present a case of a congenital subungual and periungual blue naevus of the cellular type and review the literature on this rare presentation of a congenital blue naevus. PMID:19397572

Gershtenson, Platina Coy; Krunic, Aleksandar; Chen, Helen; Konanahalli, Madhuri; Worobec, Sophie

2009-05-01

428

Phototherapy with turquoise versus blue light  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preterm jaundiced infants were treated by phototherapy with a new turquoise fluorescent lamp. This was more effective in reducing plasma total bilirubin in relation to light irradiance than the ubiquitously used blue fluorescent lamp.

F Ebbesen; G Agati; R Pratesi

2003-01-01

429

Cryptographic Hash Function BLUE MIDNIGHT WISH  

E-print Network

224 and BMW256 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 BWM384 and BMW512224 and BMW256 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 BWM384 and BMW512 for all variants of the BLUE MIDNIGHT WISH . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.1.1 BMW224 and BMW256

Kaminsky, Alan

430

Elementary Theorems Regarding Blue Isocurvature Perturbations  

E-print Network

Blue CDM-photon isocurvature perturbations are attractive in terms of observability and may be typical from the perspective of generic mass relations in supergravity. We present and apply three theorems useful for blue isocurvature perturbations arising from linear spectator scalar fields. In the process, we give a more precise formula for the blue spectrum associated with the axion model of 0904.3800, which can in a parametric corner give a factor of O(10) correction. We explain how a conserved current associated with Peccei-Quinn symmetry plays a crucial role and explicitly plot several example spectra including the breaks in the spectra. We also resolve a little puzzle arising from a naive multiplication of isocurvature expression that sheds light on the gravitational imprint of the adiabatic perturbations on the fields responsible for blue isocurvature fluctuations.

Daniel J. H. Chung; Hojin Yoo

2015-01-23

431

Painting Your Home Blue David Cypher  

E-print Network

;Painting Your Home Blue David Cypher Information Technology Laboratory #12;BluetoothTM Wireless Networking · 1250 µseconds TX/RX period · Channels (Asynchronous Connection-Less (ACL) and Synchronous-Oriented (SCO

432

Blue Ribbon Commission Tour of Hanford Site  

ScienceCinema

The Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future toured the Department of Energy's Hanford Site on July 14, 2010. Commission members, invited guests, and members of the public visited facilities that store high-level, radioactive waste.

Paul Saueressig

2010-09-01

433

Partial unilateral lentiginosis associated with blue naevi.  

PubMed

We report a patient with unilateral lentiginosis and blue naevi. This association has not been reported previously. Additional clinical features included right bundle branch block and lateral popliteal nerve palsy. PMID:8148284

Holder, J E; Graham-Brown, R A; Camp, R D

1994-03-01

434

Rays and souls in von Mangoldt planes  

E-print Network

We study rays and critical points of Busemann functions in von Mangoldt planes, which has applications to the structure of open complete manifolds with lower radial curvature bounds. We compute the set of souls for every von Mangoldt plane of nonnegative curvature. We show that each cone in the Euclidean 3-space can be smoothed to a von Mangoldt plane.

Belegradek, Igor

2011-01-01

435

MitoBlue: A Nontoxic and Photostable Blue-Emitting Dye That Selectively Labels Functional Mitochondria  

PubMed Central

We report the discovery of a fluorogenic dye, N1,N3-di(2-aminidonaphthalen-6-yl) propane-1,3-diamine, MitoBlue, which selectively stains functional mitochondria while displaying low toxicity, bright blue emission, and high resistance to photobleaching. Additionally, we show that a biotin-labeled MitoBlue derivative can be used as a handle for the delivery of streptavidin-tagged species to the mitochondria. PMID:25325672

2014-01-01

436

MitoBlue: A Nontoxic and Photostable Blue-Emitting Dye That Selectively Labels Functional Mitochondria.  

PubMed

We report the discovery of a fluorogenic dye, N(1),N(3)-di(2-aminidonaphthalen-6-yl) propane-1,3-diamine, MitoBlue, which selectively stains functional mitochondria while displaying low toxicity, bright blue emission, and high resistance to photobleaching. Additionally, we show that a biotin-labeled MitoBlue derivative can be used as a handle for the delivery of streptavidin-tagged species to the mitochondria. PMID:25325672

Sánchez, Mateo I; Martínez-Costas, José; Mascareñas, José L; Vázquez, M Eugenio

2014-12-19

437

Eta Carinae: Orientation of The Orbital Plane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evidence continues to build that Eta Carinae is a massive binary system with a hidden hot companion in a highly elliptical orbit. We present imaging and spectroscopic evidence that provide clues to the orientation of the orbital plane. The circumstellar ejecta, known as the Homunculus and Little Homunculus, are hourglass-shaped structures, one encapsulated within the other, tilted at about 45 degrees from the sky plane. A disk region lies between the bipolar lobes. Based upon their velocities and proper motions, Weigelt blobs B, C and D, very bright emission clumps 0.1 to 0.3" Northwest from Eta Carinae, lie in the disk. UV flux from the hot companion, Eta Car B, photoexcites the Weigelt blobs. Other clumps form a complete chain around the star, but are not significantly photoexcited. The strontium filament, a 'neutral' emission structure, lies in the same general direction as the Weigelt blobs and exhibits peculiar properties indicative that much mid-UV, but no hydrogen-ionizing radiation impinges on this structure. It is shielded by singly-ionized iron. P Cygni absorptions in Fe I I lines, seen directly in line of sight from Eta Carinae, are absent in the stellar light scattered by the Weigelt blobs. Rather than a strong absorption extending to -600 km/s, a low velocity absorption feature extends from -40 to -150 km/s. No absorbing Fe II exists between Eta Carinae and Weigelt D, but the outer reaches of the wind are intercepted in line of sight from Weigelt D to the observer. This indicates that the UV radiation is constrained by the dominating wind of Eta Car A to a small cavity carved out by the weaker wind of Eta Car B. Since the high excitation nebular lines are seen in the Weigelt blobs at most phases, the cavity, and hence the major axis of the highly elliptical orbit, must lie in the general direction of the Weigelt blobs. The evidence is compelling that the orbital major axis of Eta Carinae is projected at -45 degrees position angle on the sky. Moreover the milliarcsecond-scale extended structure of Eta Carinae, recently detected by VLTI, may be evidence of the binary companion in the disk plane, not necessarily of a single star as a prolate spheroid extending along the ejecta polar axis.

Gull, T. R.; Nielsen, K. E.; Ivarsson, S.; Corcoran, M. F.; Verner, E.; Hillier, J. D.

2006-01-01

438

Eta Carinae: Orientation of The Orbital Plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence continues to build that Eta Carinae is a massive binary system with a hidden hot companion in a highly elliptical orbit. We present imaging and spectroscopic evidence that provide clues to the orientation of the orbital plane. The circumstellar ejecta, known as the Homunculus and Little Homunculus, are hourglass-shaped structures, one encapsulated within the other, tilted at about 45 degrees from the sky plane. A disk region lies between the bipolar lobes. Based upon their velocities and proper motions, Weigelt blobs B, C and D, very bright emission clumps 0.1 to 0.3" Northwest from Eta Carinae, lie in the disk. UV flux from the hot companion, Eta Car B, photoexcites the Weigelt blobs. Other clumps form a complete chain around the star, but are not significantly photoexcited. The strontium filament, a 'neutral' emission structure, lies in the same general direction as the Weigelt blobs and exhibits peculiar properties indicative that much mid-UV, but no hydrogen-ionizing radiation impinges on this structure. It is shielded by singly-ionized iron. P Cygni absorptions in Fe II lines, seen directly in line of sight from Eta Carinae, are absent in the stellar light scattered by the Weigelt blobs. Rather than a strong absorption extending to -600 km/s, a low velocity absorption feature extends from -40 to -150 km/s. No absorbing Fe II exists between Eta Carinae and Weigelt D, but the outer reaches of the wind are intercepted in line of sight from Weigelt D to the observer. This indicates that the UV radiation is constrained by the dominating wind of Eta Car A to a small cavity carved out by the weaker wind of Eta Car B. Since the high excitation nebular lines are seen in the Weigelt blobs at most phases, the cavity, and hence the major axis of the highly elliptical orbit, must lie in the general direction of the Weigelt blobs. The evidence is compelling that the orbital major axis of Eta Carinae is projected at -45 degrees position angle on the sky. Moreover the milliarcsecond-scale extended structure of Eta Carinae, recently detected by VLTI, may be evidence of the binary companion in the disk plane, not necessarily of a single star as a prolate spheroid extending along the ejecta polar axis. Observations for this activity were accomplished with HST through the STScI and by funding from the STIS GTO and HST GO programs.

Gull, T. R.; Nielsen, K. E.; Ivarsson, S.; Corcoran, M. F.; Verner, E.; Hillier, J. D.

2005-12-01

439

Science Shorts: Nothing But Blue Skies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Why is the sky blue? Why are sunsets orange and red? These are some of children's favorite questions to ask, but answering them at a level appropriate for primary students' level of understanding can be tricky, even for veteran teachers. In order to understand why the sky is blue and other related questions, we need to know a bit about the makeup of Earth's atmosphere and the effects of light. This month's Science Shorts can help.

Adams, Barbara

2006-12-01

440

The Blue Obelisk - Interoperability in Chemical Informatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Blue Obelisk Movement (http:\\/\\/www.blueobelisk.org\\/) is the name used by a diverse Internet group promoting reusable chemistry via open source software development, consistent and complimentary chemoinformatics research, open data, and open standards. We outline recent examples of cooperation in the Blue Obelisk group:  a shared dictionary of algorithms and implementations in chemoinformatics algorithms drawing from our various software projects; a

Rajarshi Guha; Michael T. Howard; Geoffrey R. Hutchison; Peter Murray-rust; Henry S. Rzepa; Christoph Steinbeck; Jörg K. Wegner; Egon L. Willighagen

2006-01-01

441

A high-temperature blue LED  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of efficient high-temperature luminescence has made it possible to develop blue LED based on SiC-6H with an operating temperature of 500 C. The growth of epitaxial SiC-6H layers is described, and the high-temperature photoluminescence of the epitaxial layers is compared with the electroluminescence of p-n structures. Measurements of the parameters and characteristics of the high-temperature blue LED in

V. A. Dmitriev; I. Iu. Lin'kov; Ia. V. Morozenko; V. E. Chelnokov

1992-01-01

442

A List of New Blue Galaxies, 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new list of thirty-nine blue galaxies identified in spectroscopic emulsion 103aD, with filters UBV centered at R.A. Oh48m and Dec. +0 deg 30 min (1950) obtained with the 48" Schmidt Camera of Mount Palomar is presented. These plates were originally taken for the observational program of faint blue stars in the regions to the South Galactic Pole, by Haro and Luyten (1965).

Chavira, Enrique

1996-10-01

443

Hexagonal symmetry for smectic blue phases  

PubMed

Smectic blue phases are liquid crystalline phases which exhibit both three-dimensional-orientational order and smectic positional order. X-ray scattering experiments reveal that at least one of these phases is not cubic, as classical blue phases, but offers a hexagonal symmetry. A comparison of the experimental patterns with the scattering patterns given by smectic double twist tubes sketched by Kamien is proposed. PMID:11088502

Pansu; Grelet; Li; Nguyen

2000-07-01

444

Stylish or safe blue-block eyewear  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subject of modern, save and stylish eyewear is entertaining not only to people with unwell eyesight. Many people use glasses with anti-UV or blue-block coatings, glasses for driving or working with a computer. There were investigated the blue-block eyewear. There were analyzed reflected radiation at 300 - 400 nm wavelengths with cross- incidence. The traditional eyewear with classical or stylish frame may not protect sight against the UV radiation.

Ciosek, Jerzy

1998-10-01

445

Blue irradiance intercomparison in the medical field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents the results of a blue irradiance intercomparison among industrial laboratories of medical devices companies. This intercomparison aims to support the metrological issues of medical equipment manufactures regarding the blue irradiance infant phototherapy equipment requirements on the international standard IEC 60601-2-50:2000. The results showed a low agreement of participants' measurements according to normalized error criterion. The major explanation for this result is associated to an incorrect equipment choice and long recalibration period.

Ferreira, Antonio F. G.

2012-10-01

446

Blue code: Is it a real emergency?  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Cardiac arrests in hospital areas are common, and hospitals have rapid response teams or “blue code teams” to reduce preventable in-hospital deaths. Education about the rapid response team has been provided in all hospitals in Turkey, but true “blue code” activation is rare, and it is abused by medical personnel in practice. This study aimed to determine the cases of wrong blue codes and reasons of misuse. METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed the blue code reports issued by our hospital between January 1 and June 1 2012. A total of 89 “blue code” activations were recorded in 5 months. A “blue code” was defined as any patient with an unexpected cardiac or respiratory arrest requiring resuscitation and activation of a hospital alert. Adherence to this definition, each physician classified their collected activation forms as either a true or a wrong code. Then, patient data entered a database (Microsoft Excel 2007 software) which was pooled for analysis. The data were analyzed by using frequencies and the Chi-square test on SPSSv16.0. RESULTS: The patients were diagnosed with cardiopulmonary arrest (8), change in mental status (18), presyncope (11), chest pain (12), conversive disorder (18), and worry of the staff for the patient (22). Code activation was done by physicians in 76% of the patients; the most common reason for blue code was concern of staff for the patient. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study show that more research is needed to establish the overall effectiveness and optimal implementation of blue code teams. PMID:25215142

Eroglu, Serkan E.; Onur, Ozge; Urgan, O?uz; Denizbasi, Arzu; Akoglu, Haldun

2014-01-01

447

Red, White and Blue II Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry demonstration, learners investigate the rule "likes dissolve likes" by combining three, immiscible liquids to create a colorful density column. Learners are asked, "What color will result from mixing red, white, and blue?" They will be surprised by the answer as a beaker is revealed with red syrup on the bottom, white milk over the syrup and blue lamp oil on top. This is a perfect activity to use to demonstrate density and polarity, especially around the 4th of July.

House, The S.

2014-02-03

448

Barium Enhancement in NGC 6819 Blue Stragglers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Possible formation pathways for blue straggler stars include mergers in hierarchical triple systems, stellar collisions during dynamical encounters, and mass transfer from a giant companion. Extensive work on the blue stragglers in the old open cluster NGC 188 (7 Gyr) has led to exciting discoveries including a binary secondary mass distribution peaked at 0.5 MSolar and the detection of three young white dwarf binary companions. These indicate that mass transfer from an asymptotic giant branch star is the dominant mechanism for blue straggler formation in open clusters. Such mass transfer events should pollute the surface abundance of the blue straggler with nucleosynthesis products from the evolved donor. The other formation pathways, mergers and collisions, are predicted to produce no such enhancements. In an effort to move beyond NGC 188 and into other open clusters we present the first results of a surface abundance study of the blue stragglers in the intermediate-aged open cluster NGC 6819 (2.5 Gyr) using the Hydra multi-object spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope. This part of our study centers on the s-process element barium as a tracer of formation via mass transfer. We compare the blue straggler surface abundance of barium to that of a sample of main-sequence stars in NGC 6819 and find multiple blue stragglers with anomalous abundances. Surprising, most of the blue stragglers with barium anomalies show no radial-velocity evidence for a companion. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the National Science Foundation under grant AST- 0908082 and the Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium.

Milliman, Katelyn; Mathieu, Robert D.; Schuler, Simon C.

2015-01-01

449

BLUE VIEW VISION INSIGHT! Good news--your vision plan  

E-print Network

WELCOME TO BLUE VIEW VISION INSIGHT! Good news--your vision plan is flexible and easy to use, your discounts, and much more! Blue View Vision InsightSM University of California Student Health Insurance Plan (UC SHIP) 2013/14 Your Blue View Vision Insight Network Blue View Vision Insight offers you

California at Santa Cruz, University of

450

BLUE VIEW VISION INSIGHT! Good news--your vision plan  

E-print Network

WELCOME TO BLUE VIEW VISION INSIGHT! Good news--your vision plan is flexible and easy to use, your discounts, and much more! Blue View Vision InsightSM University of California Student Health Insurance Plan (UC SHIP) 2012/13 Your Blue View Vision Insight Network Blue View Vision Insight offers you

Barrett, Jeffrey A.

451

Petascale Debugging via Allinea DDT for IBM Blue Gene /P  

E-print Network

Petascale Debugging via Allinea DDT for IBM Blue Gene /P and IBM Blue Gene /Q Ian Lumb petascaling Allinea DDT Petascaling Allinea DDT for IBM Blue Gene /x Getting Started with Allinea DDT #12 for each core ­ No tree to help here: not fast within one I/O node! ­ The bottleneck of IBM Blue Gene /P

Kemner, Ken

452

Inhomogeneous problems Q. How do you kill a blue elephant?  

E-print Network

Inhomogeneous problems Q. How do you kill a blue elephant? A. With a blue elephant gun Q. How do you kill a pink elephant? A. Squeeze its trunk until it turns blue, and then shoot it with a blue elephant gun. Q. How do you kill a white elephant? A. Tickle it pink, then squeeze its trunk until it turns

DeTurck, Dennis

453

In-plane video force microscopy of morphogenesis in epithelia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Video force microscopy (VFM) is a technique that takes segmented time-lapse images as input and makes least-squares estimates for the cell-edge tensions and cell-internal pressures needed to drive observed changes in cell shape. VFM has previously been used to estimate the cell-level forces that drive invagination during Drosophila gastrulation. Doing so required time-lapse images containing entire cross-sections of the embryo. Here, we extend video force microscopy to in-plane images of epithelia -- including examples in which the images cover only a small region of a larger epithelium. This extension requires imposition of constraints on the average cell-internal pressure and the average stress external to the observed patch. We will demonstrate successful estimation of forces in exact models, as well as anomalous cases that prevent successful force estimation. We will then show applications of this technique for inferring the forces driving Drosophila germband retraction and wound healing.

Hutson, M. Shane; Mashburn, David; Copenhaver, Eric; McCleery, W. Tyler; Veldhuis, Jim; Kim, Steven; Brodland, G. Wayne

2013-03-01

454

Broken chiral symmetry on a null plane  

SciTech Connect

On a null-plane (light-front), all effects of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking are contained in the three Hamiltonians (dynamical Poincaré generators), while the vacuum state is a chiral invariant. This property is used to give a general proof of Goldstone’s theorem on a null-plane. Focusing on null-plane QCD with N degenerate flavors of light quarks, the chiral-symmetry breaking Hamiltonians are obtained, and the role of vacuum condensates is clarified. In particular, the null-plane Gell-Mann–Oakes–Renner formula is derived, and a general prescription is given for mapping all chiral-symmetry breaking QCD condensates to chiral-symmetry conserving null-plane QCD condensates. The utility of the null-plane description lies in the operator algebra that mixes the null-plane Hamiltonians and the chiral symmetry charges. It is demonstrated that in a certain non-trivial limit, the null-plane operator algebra reduces to the symmetry group SU(2N) of the constituent quark model. -- Highlights: •A proof (the first) of Goldstone’s theorem on a null-plane is given. •The puzzle of chiral-symmetry breaking condensates on a null-plane is solved. •The emergence of spin-flavor symmetries in null-plane QCD is demonstrated.

Beane, Silas R., E-mail: silas@physics.unh.edu

2013-10-15

455

Development status of the AIRS IR focal plane assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS) is a high resolution IR spectrometer (lambda/(Delta) (lambda) congruent 1200) which will map global temperatures and identify atmospheric aerosols from orbit by monitoring key atmospheric absorption lines. The focal plane consists of ten bilinear photovoltaic (PV) and two photoconductive (PC) HgCdTe detector arrays (modules) sampling a 3.7 to 15.4 micrometer spectral window in 15 bands. To attain the desired temperature accuracy, tight constraints on focal plane performance parameters such as linearity better than 0.1%, quantum efficiency (QE) on the order of 70%, low noise or noise equivalent quantum flux density (NEQFD), and no outages at key spectral lines have been imposed. Assessment of focal plane performance begins at the detector and readout levels where flight candidate detector arrays and CMOS readouts are selected. PV detector arrays and their readouts are hybridized (PC modules are wire-bonded directly) into modules which are then individually tested under simulated flight conditions. Five of the twelve module types are incorporated into an engineering-level (EM) focal plane upon which the module level tests are repeated as a prelude to the fabrication and testing of a separate, fully populated, flight-level (PFM) focal plane. Module testing has demonstrated that many difficult system requirements have been met, and work continues to optimize module performance. Lockheed Martin IR Imaging Systems' (LMIRIS) overall design of the infrared (IR) detector/Dewar assembly and focal plane development program is given, followed by a summary of PV and PC module data.

Libonate, G. Scott; Denley, Brian; Krueger, Eric E.; Rutter, James H., Jr.; Stobie, James A.; Terzis, C. L.

1997-10-01

456

78 FR 42451 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247 Copolymers; Confirmation of Effective Date...2-methyl-2-propenoic)ester (C.I. Reactive Blue 247) and additional copolymers of 1,4-bis...corrected the nomenclature for Reactive Blue 247 by inserting ``2- methyl''...

2013-07-16

457

78 FR 37962 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247 Copolymers; Confirmation of Effective Date...2-methyl-2-propenoic)ester (C.I. Reactive Blue 247) as color additives in contact lenses...Regarding CAP 1C0292 (C.I. Reactive Blue 247): Teresa Croce, Center for Food...

2013-06-25

458

76 FR 71355 - United States et al. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Montana, Inc. et al.; Proposed Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States et al. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Montana, Inc. et al.; Proposed Final Judgment...Montana, Billings Division, in United States et al. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Montana, Inc. et al.,...