Sample records for blue image planes

  1. Fourier plane imaging microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.dominguez@ttu.edu; Peralta, Luis Grave de [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Nano Tech Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Alharbi, Nouf; Alhusain, Mdhaoui [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Bernussi, Ayrton A. [Nano Tech Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)

    2014-09-14

    We show how the image of an unresolved photonic crystal can be reconstructed using a single Fourier plane (FP) image obtained with a second camera that was added to a traditional compound microscope. We discuss how Fourier plane imaging microscopy is an application of a remarkable property of the obtained FP images: they contain more information about the photonic crystals than the images recorded by the camera commonly placed at the real plane of the microscope. We argue that the experimental results support the hypothesis that surface waves, contributing to enhanced resolution abilities, were optically excited in the studied photonic crystals.

  2. Fourier plane image amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, L.A.; Hermann, M.R.; Dane, C.B.; Tiszauer, D.H.

    1995-12-12

    A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 {micro}m. A small portion of the laser is split off and generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only about 1/10th the power of a competitive system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires much less laser power. 1 fig.

  3. Fourier plane image amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA); Hermann, Mark R. (San Ramon, CA); Dane, C. Brent (Livermore, CA); Tiszauer, Detlev H. (Tracy, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 .mu.m. A small portion of the laser is split off and generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only .about.1/10th the power of a competitive system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires much less laser power.

  4. Out-of-plane doppler imaging based on ultrafast plane wave imaging.

    PubMed

    Osmanski, Bruno-Felix; Montaldo, Gabriel; Tanter, Mickael

    2015-04-01

    Retrieving the out-of-plane blood flow velocity vector from two-dimensional transverse acquisitions of large vessels could improve the quantification of flow rate and maximum speed. The in-plane vector flow component can be computed easily using the Doppler frequency shift. The main problem is estimating the angle between the probe imaging plane and the vessel axis to derive the out-of-plane component from in-plane measurements. In this article, we study the case in which the velocity vector can be decomposed on two directions: the out-of-plane direction and the in-plane depth direction. We explore the combination of a technique called intrinsic spectral broadening with ultrafast plane wave imaging to retrieve the out-of-plane component of the flow velocity vector. Using a one-time probe calibration of this intrinsic spectral broadening, out-of-plane angle and flow speed can be recovered easily, thus avoiding approximations of a complex theoretical analysis. For the calibration step, ultrafast plane wave imaging permits a fast calibration procedure for the Doppler intrinsic spectral broadening. In vitro experimental validations are performed on a homogeneous flow phantom and a Poiseuille flow; the absolute speed was retrieved with 6% error. The potential of the technique is demonstrated in vivo on the human carotid artery. Combined with in-plane vector flow approaches, this out-of-plane Doppler imaging method paves the way to threedimensional vector flow imaging using only conventional onedimensional probe technology. PMID:25881341

  5. Reconnaissance with slant plane circular SAR imaging.

    PubMed

    Soumekh, M

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a method for imaging from the slant plane data collected by a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) over the full rotation or a partial segment of a circular flight path. A Fourier analysis for the Green's function of the imaging system is provided. This analysis is the basis of an inversion for slant plane circular SAR data. The reconstruction algorithm and resolution for this SAR system are outlined. It is shown that the slant plane circular SAR, unlike the slant plane linear SAR, has the capability to extract three-dimensional imaging information of a target scene. The merits of the algorithm are demonstrated via a simulated target whose ultra wideband foliage penetrating (FOPEN) or ground penetrating (GPEN) ultrahigh frequency (UHF) radar signature varies with the radar's aspect angle. PMID:18285213

  6. Simulation of the in-plane-switching blue-phase liquid crystal using the director model.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shui-Shang; Wu, Jin-Jei; Hsu, Chia-Chun; Chen, Tien-Jung; Lee, King-Lien

    2012-10-01

    We analyze the non-uniform electric field distribution in an in-plane-switching blue phase liquid crystal (IPS-BPLC) cell and use the director model to simulate the electro-optical properties of an IPS-BPLC cell using a commercial simulator. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental data. PMID:23188361

  7. Hybrid Image-Plane/Stereo Manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgartner, Eric; Robinson, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Hybrid Image-Plane/Stereo (HIPS) manipulation is a method of processing image data, and of controlling a robotic manipulator arm in response to the data, that enables the manipulator arm to place an end-effector (an instrument or tool) precisely with respect to a target (see figure). Unlike other stereoscopic machine-vision-based methods of controlling robots, this method is robust in the face of calibration errors and changes in calibration during operation. In this method, a stereoscopic pair of cameras on the robot first acquires images of the manipulator at a set of predefined poses. The image data are processed to obtain image-plane coordinates of known visible features of the end-effector. Next, there is computed an initial calibration in the form of a mapping between (1) the image-plane coordinates and (2) the nominal three-dimensional coordinates of the noted end-effector features in a reference frame fixed to the main robot body at the base of the manipulator. The nominal three-dimensional coordinates are obtained by use of the nominal forward kinematics of the manipulator arm that is, calculated by use of the currently measured manipulator joint angles and previously measured lengths of manipulator arm segments under the assumption that the arm segments are rigid, that the arm lengths are constant, and that there is no backlash. It is understood from the outset that these nominal three-dimensional coordinates are likely to contain possibly significant calibration errors, but the effects of the errors are progressively reduced, as described next. As the end-effector is moved toward the target, the calibration is updated repeatedly by use of data from newly acquired images of the end-effector and of the corresponding nominal coordinates in the manipulator reference frame. By use of the updated calibration, the coordinates of the target are computed in manipulator-reference-frame coordinates and then used to the necessary manipulator joint angles to position and orient the end-effector at the target with respect to the same kinematic model from the calibration step. As the end-effector/target distance decreases, the computed coordinates of the end-effector and target become more nearly affected by the same errors, so that the differences between their coordinates become increasingly precise. When the end-effector reaches the target, the remaining effective position error is the distance that corresponds to more than about one pixel in the stereoscopic images of the target.

  8. Fuzzy logic color detection: Blue areas in melanoma dermoscopy images.

    PubMed

    Lingala, Mounika; Stanley, R Joe; Rader, Ryan K; Hagerty, Jason; Rabinovitz, Harold S; Oliviero, Margaret; Choudhry, Iqra; Stoecker, William V

    2014-07-01

    Fuzzy logic image analysis techniques were used to analyze three shades of blue (lavender blue, light blue, and dark blue) in dermoscopic images for melanoma detection. A logistic regression model provided up to 82.7% accuracy for melanoma discrimination for 866 images. With a support vector machines (SVM) classifier, lower accuracy was obtained for individual shades (79.9-80.1%) compared with up to 81.4% accuracy with multiple shades. All fuzzy blue logic alpha cuts scored higher than the crisp case. Fuzzy logic techniques applied to multiple shades of blue can assist in melanoma detection. These vector-based fuzzy logic techniques can be extended to other image analysis problems involving multiple colors or color shades. PMID:24786720

  9. Target plane imager for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, C.D.; Bliss, E.S.; Jones, W.A.; Seppala, L.G.

    1985-01-30

    The Nova laser, completed in December 1984 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is being used to conduct inertial confinement fusion experiments. It is capable of focusing more than 100 kJ of energy on small fusion targets. This paper discusses an optical system called the target plane imager that is used during the beam alignment phase of these experiments. The TPI includes a three meter long periscope with a wide field of view, F/3 objective. The telescope relays images of the target focal plane to viewing optics and a video sensor located outside the target chamber. Operation of the system is possible at three wavelengths: 1.05..mu.., 0.527..mu.., and 0.351..mu... These are the three wavelengths at which the ten Nova laser beams can irradiate targets. Both nearfield and farfield images of the ten beams can be viewed with the TPI. This instrument is used to properly align the laser to the target before each target irradiation.

  10. Transflective Blue-Phase Liquid Crystal Display Using an Etched In-Plane Switching Structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-Peng Cui; Feng Zhou; Qiong-Hua Wang; Di Wu; Da-Hai Li

    2011-01-01

    A transflective polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal display (BP-LCD) using an etched in-plane switching (IPS) structure is proposed. To balance the optical phase retar- dation between the transmissive - and reflective -regions, IPS electrodes are formed with the same dimensions in both - and -regions, and the substrate between the electrodes is etched for generating double-penetrating fringe fields only in the

  11. Scanned Image Projection System Employing Intermediate Image Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeJong, Christian Dean (Inventor); Hudman, Joshua M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    In imaging system, a spatial light modulator is configured to produce images by scanning a plurality light beams. A first optical element is configured to cause the plurality of light beams to converge along an optical path defined between the first optical element and the spatial light modulator. A second optical element is disposed between the spatial light modulator and a waveguide. The first optical element and the spatial light modulator are arranged such that an image plane is created between the spatial light modulator and the second optical element. The second optical element is configured to collect the diverging light from the image plane and collimate it. The second optical element then delivers the collimated light to a pupil at an input of the waveguide.

  12. Measurement of image plane illumination uniformity of photoelectric imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Deng-kui; Yang, Hong; Sha, Ding-guo; Jiang, Chang-lu; Chen, Min; Zhong, Xing-hui; Ma, Shi-bang; Yuan, Liang

    2014-09-01

    The image plane illumination nonuniformity caused by optical system or detector will affect the detection precision of photoelectric imaging system, especially in image guidance, positioning and recognition. An image plane illumination uniformity measurement device was set up, which was characteristiced of high uniformity and wide dynamic range. The device was composed of an asymmetric integrating sphere?the image collection and processing system, as well as the electrical control system.The asymmetric integrating sphere had two different radius,which was respectively 800mm and 1000mm.The spectral region was ?0.4~1.1??m, the illumination range was (1×10-4~2×104)lx. The image collection and processing system had two different acquisition card,which were respectively used for analog and digital signals. The software can process for dynamic image or static image. The TracePro software was used to make a internal ray tracing of integrating sphere, the illumination uniformity at the export was simulated for the size of 330mm×230mm and ? 100mm export, the results were respectively 97.95% and 98.33%. Then,an illuminometer was used to measure the actual illumination uniformity of integrating sphere, the result was shown the actual illumination uniformity was 98.8%. Finally, a visible photoelectric imaging system was tested ,and three different uniformity indicators results were given.

  13. Automatic determination of the imaging plane in lumbar MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaki, Tsurumaki; Lee, Yongbum; Tsai, Du-Yih; Sekiya, Masaru; Kazama, Kiyoko

    2006-03-01

    In this paper we describe a method for assisting radiological technologists in their routine work to automatically determine the imaging plane in lumbar MRI. The method is first to recognize the spinal cord and the intervertebral disk (ID) from the lumbar vertebra 3-plane localizer image, and then the imaging plane is automatically determined according to the recognition results. To determine the imaging plane, the spinal cord and the ID are automatically recognized from the lumbar vertebra 3-plane localizer image with a series of image processing techniques. The proposed method consists of three major steps. First, after removing the air and fat regions from the 3-plane localizer image by use of histogram analysis, the rachis region is specified with Sobel edge detection filter. Second, the spinal cord and the ID were respectively extracted from the specified rachis region making use of global thresholding and the line detection filter. Finally, the imaging plane is determined by finding the straight line between the spinal cord and the ID with the Hough transform. Image data of 10 healthy volunteers were used for investigation. To validate the usefulness of our proposed method, manual determination of the imaging plane was also conducted by five experienced radiological technologists. Our experimental results showed that the concordance rate between the manual setting and automatic determination reached to 90%. Moreover, a remarkable reduction in execution time for imaging-plane determination was also achieved.

  14. Vergence and accommodation to multiple-image-plane stereoscopic displays: 'Real world' responses with practical image-plane separations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenzie, K. J.; Dickson, R. A.; Watt, S. J.

    2011-03-01

    Conventional stereoscopic displays present images on a single focal plane. The resulting mismatch between the stimuli to the eyes' focusing response (accommodation) and to convergence causes fatigue and poor stereo performance. One promising solution is to distribute image intensity across a number of relatively widely spaced image planes - a technique referred to as depth filtering. Previously, we found this elicits accurate, continuous monocular accommodation responses with image-plane separations as large as 1.1 Diopters, suggesting that a relatively small (i.e. practical) number of image planes is sufficient to eliminate vergence-accommodation conflicts over a large range of simulated distances. However, accommodation responses have been found to overshoot systematically when the same stimuli are viewed binocularly. Here, we examined the minimum image-plane spacing required for accurate accommodation to binocular depth-filtered images. We compared accommodation and vergence responses to step changes in depth for depth-filtered stimuli, using image-plane separations of 0.6-1.2 D, and equivalent real stimuli. Accommodation responses to real and depth-filtered stimuli were equivalent for image-plane separations of ~0.6-0.9 D, but inaccurate thereafter. We conclude that depth filtering can be used to precisely match accommodation and vergence demand in a practical stereoscopic display, using a relatively small number of image planes.

  15. Metric Rectification for Perspective Images of Planes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Liebowitz; Andrew Zisserman

    1998-01-01

    We describe the geometry, constraints and algorithmicimplementation for metric rectification of planes. The rectificationallows metric properties, such as angles and lengthratios, to be measured on the world plane from a perspectiveimage.The novel contributions are: first, that in a stratifiedcontext the various forms of providing metric information,which include a known angle, two equal though unknownangles, and a known length ratio; can

  16. Confocal Blue Reflectance Imaging in Type 2 Idiopathic Macular Telangiectasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Charbel Issa; Tos T. J. M. Berendschot; Giovanni Staurenghi; Frank G. Holz; Hendrik P. N. Scholl

    2008-01-01

    METHODS. In a prospective observational cross-sectional study, both eyes of 33 patients with type 2 IMT were examined by means of fundus biomicroscopy, fundus photography, fluores- cein angiography, and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Confocal blue reflectance (CBR) imaging was performed using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (HRA2; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). To compare the results derived from different imaging modalities,

  17. Vergence and accommodation to multiple-image-plane stereoscopic displays: ``real world'' responses with practical image-plane separations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenzie, Kevin J.; Dickson, Ruth A.; Watt, Simon J.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional stereoscopic displays present images on a single focal plane. The resulting mismatch between the stimuli to the eyes' focusing response (accommodation) and to convergence causes fatigue and poor stereo performance. One solution is to distribute image intensity across a number of widely spaced image planes--a technique referred to as depth filtering. Previously, we found this elicits accurate, continuous monocular accommodation responses with image-plane separations as large as 1.1 Diopters (D, the reciprocal of distance in meters), suggesting that a small number of image planes could eliminate vergence-accommodation conflicts over a large range of simulated distances. Evidence exists, however, of systematic differences between accommodation responses to binocular and monocular stimuli when the stimulus to accommodation is degraded, or at an incorrect distance. We examined the minimum image-plane spacing required for accurate accommodation to binocular depth-filtered images. We compared accommodation and vergence responses to changes in depth specified by depth filtering, using image-plane separations of 0.6 to 1.2 D, and equivalent real stimuli. Accommodation responses to real and depth-filtered stimuli were equivalent for image-plane separations of ~0.6 to 0.9 D, but differed thereafter. We conclude that depth filtering can be used to precisely match accommodation and vergence demand in a practical stereoscopic display.

  18. Digital image stabilizing algorithms based on bit-plane matching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung-Jea Ko; Sung-Hee Lee; Kyung-Hoon Lee

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new digital image stabilization (DIS) scheme based on bit-plane matching (BPM). The proposed DIS system performs motion estimation using 1-bit planes which are extracted from a video sequence. This motion estimation technique can be realized using only Boolean functions which have significantly reduced computational complexity, while the accuracy of motion estimation is maintained. In

  19. General image method in a plane-layered elastostatic medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fares, N.; Li, V. C.

    1988-01-01

    The general-image method presently used to obtain the elastostatic fields in plane-layered media relies on the use of potentials in order to represent elastic fields. For the case of a single interface, this method yields the displacement field in closed form, and is applicable to antiplane, plane, and three-dimensional problems. In the case of multiplane interfaces, the image method generates the displacement fields in terms of infinite series whose convergences can be accelerated to improve method efficiency.

  20. Image encryption by using fractional Fourier transform and jigsaw transform in image bit planes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aloka Sinha; Kehar Singh

    2005-01-01

    We propose a new method for image encryption and decryption in which the image is broken up into bit planes. Each bit plane undergoes a jigsaw transform. The transformed bit planes are combined together and then encrypted using random phase masks and fractional Fourier transforms. The different fractional parameters, the random phase codes, and the jigsaw transform index form the

  1. Quantum image Gray-code and bit-plane scrambling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ri-Gui; Sun, Ya-Juan; Fan, Ping

    2015-03-01

    With the rapid development of multimedia technology, the image scrambling for information hiding and digital watermarking is crucial. But, in quantum image processing field, the study on image scrambling is still few. Several quantum image scrambling schemes are basically position space scrambling strategies; however, the quantum image scrambling focused on the color space does not exist. Therefore, in this paper, the quantum image Gray-code and bit-plane (GB) scrambling scheme, an entire color space scrambling strategy, is proposed boldly. On the strength of a quantum image representation NEQR, several different quantum scrambling methods using GB knowledge are designed. Not only can they change the histogram distribution of the image dramatically, some designed schemes can almost make the image histogram flush, enhance the anti-attack ability of digital image, but also their cost or complexity is very low. The simulation experiments result also shows a good performance and indicates the particular advantage of GB scrambling in quantum image processing field.

  2. Lower-Dark-Current, Higher-Blue-Response CMOS Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata; Cunningham, Thomas; Hancock, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Several improved designs for complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated-circuit image detectors have been developed, primarily to reduce dark currents (leakage currents) and secondarily to increase responses to blue light and increase signal-handling capacities, relative to those of prior CMOS imagers. The main conclusion that can be drawn from a study of the causes of dark currents in prior CMOS imagers is that dark currents could be reduced by relocating p/n junctions away from Si/SiO2 interfaces. In addition to reflecting this conclusion, the improved designs include several other features to counteract dark-current mechanisms and enhance performance.

  3. Improved phase imaging from intensity measurements in multiple planes

    SciTech Connect

    Soto, Marcos; Acosta, Eva

    2007-11-20

    Problems stemming from quantitative phase imaging from intensity measurements play a key role in many fields of physics. Techniques based on the transport of intensity equation require an estimate of the axial derivative of the intensity to invert the problem. Derivation formulas in two adjacent planes are commonly used to experimentally compute the derivative of the irradiance. Here we propose a formula that improves the estimate of the derivative by using a higher number of planes and taking the noisy nature of the measurements into account. We also establish an upper and lower limit for the estimate error and provide the distance between planes that optimizes the estimate of the derivative.

  4. Search Image Formation in the Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata).

    PubMed

    Pietrewicz, A T; Kamil, A C

    1979-06-22

    Blue jays trained to detect Catocala moths in slides were exposed to two types of slide series containing these moths: series of one species and series of two species intermixed. In one-species series, detection ability increased with successive encounters with one prey type. No similar effect occurred in two-species series. These results are a direct demonstration of a specific search image. PMID:17813172

  5. Refraction effect in an in-plane-switching blue phase liquid crystal cell

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    . Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, "Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases," Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64, and S. T. Wu, "Polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113505 (2010). 8

  6. Extracting Plane Graphs from Images Emilie Samuel1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    once built, involving edit distances [17] or graph matching [14]. Moreover, databases of syntheticallyExtracting Plane Graphs from Images ´Emilie Samuel1 , Colin de la Higuera2 , and Jean techniques from graph-based pat- tern recognition, a first necessary step consists in extracting a graph

  7. Imaging callose at plasmodesmata using aniline blue: quantitative confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zavaliev, Raul; Epel, Bernard L

    2015-01-01

    Callose (?-1,3-glucan) is both structural and functional component of plasmodesmata (Pd). The turnover of callose at Pd controls the cell-to-cell diffusion rate of molecules through Pd. An accurate assessment of changes in levels of Pd-associated callose has become a first-choice experimental approach in the research of intercellular communication in plants.Here we describe a detailed and easy-to-perform procedure for imaging and quantification of Pd-associated callose using fixed plant tissue stained with aniline blue. We also introduce an automated image analysis protocol for non-biased quantification of callose levels at Pd from fluorescence images using ImageJ. Two experimental examples of Pd-callose quantification using the automated method are provided as well. PMID:25287199

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of the heart: positioning and gradient angle selection for optimal imaging planes

    SciTech Connect

    Dinsmore, R.E.; Wismer, G.L.; Levine, R.A.; Okada, R.D.; Brady, T.J.

    1984-12-01

    Electrocardiographically gated magnetic resonance images were acquired in 20 subjects using a spin-echo pulse sequence. For optimizing the display of cardiac anatomy, a technique was developed which uses patients positioning in addition to alteration of gradient angle to select image planes. High-quality images were acquired in three basic cardiac projections: (1) the long axis of the left ventricle, through the aortic valve and apex, parallel to the interventricular septum, (2) the long axis of the left ventricle, perpendicular to the septum, and (3) the short axis of the left ventricle at multiple levels including outflow, papillary muscle, and apex. Images of the aorta included axial images at multiple levels and long-axis images oriented to display the plane of the aortic arch. Images of these planes are easily achieved and, in contrast to standard images orthogonal to the chest wall, provide a reproductible and logical display of cardiac anatomy.

  9. Target plane imaging system for the Nova laser

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, C.D.; Bliss, E.S.; Jones, W.A.; Reeves, R.J.; Seppala, L.G.; Shelton, R.T.; VanArsdall, P.J.

    1985-12-12

    The Nova laser, in operation since December 1984, is capable of irradiating targets with light at 1.05 ..mu..m, 0.53 ..mu..m, and 0.35 ..mu..m. Correct alignment of these harmonic beams uses a system called a target plane imager (TPI). It is a large microscope (four meters long, weighing one thousand kilograms) that relays images from the target chamber center to a video optics module located on the outside of the chamber. Several modes of operation are possible including: near-field viewing and far-field viewing at three magnifications and three wavelengths. In addition, the entire instrument can be scanned in X,Y,Z to examine various planes near chamber center. Performance of this system and its computer controls will be described.

  10. Blue Marble - A Seamless Image Mosaic of the Earth (WMS)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Reto Stockli

    2004-02-16

    This spectacular Blue Marble image is the most detailed true-color image of the entire Earth to date. Using a collection of satellite-based observations, scientists and visualizers stitched together months of observations of the land surface, oceans, sea ice, and clouds into a seamless, true-color mosaic of every square kilometer (.386 square mile) of our planet. Much of the information contained in this image came from a single remote-sensing device-NASAs Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. Flying over 700 km above the Earth onboard the Terra satellite, MODIS provides an integrated tool for observing a variety of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric features of the Earth. The land and coastal ocean portions of these images are based on surface observations collected from June through September 2001 and combined, or composited, every eight days to compensate for clouds that might block the sensors view of the surface on any single day. Two different types of ocean data were used in these images: shallow water true color data, and global ocean color (or chlorophyll) data. Topographic shading is based on the GTOPO 30 elevation dataset compiled by the U.S. Geological Surveys EROS Data Center.

  11. Animation rendering with Population Monte Carlo image-plane sampler

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Chi Lai; Stephen Chenney; Feng Liu; Yuzhen Niu; Shaohua Fan

    2010-01-01

    Except for the first frame, a population Monte Carlo image plane (PMC-IP) sampler renders with a start-up kernel function\\u000a learned from previous results by using motion analysis techniques in the vision community to explore the temporal coherence\\u000a existing among kernel functions. The predicted kernel function can shift part of the uniformly distributed samples from regions\\u000a with low visual variance to

  12. Blue Fluorescent cGMP Sensor for Multiparameter Fluorescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Niino, Yusuke; Hotta, Kohji; Oka, Kotaro

    2010-01-01

    Cyclic GMP (cGMP) regulates many physiological processes by cooperating with the other signaling molecules such as cyclic AMP (cAMP) and Ca2+. Genetically encoded sensors for cGMP have been developed based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between fluorescent proteins. However, to analyze the dynamic relationship among these second messengers, combined use of existing sensors in a single cell is inadequate because of the significant spectral overlaps. A single wavelength indicator is an effective alternative to avoid this problem, but color variants of a single fluorescent protein-based biosensor are limited. In this study, to construct a new color fluorescent sensor, we converted the FRET-based sensor into a single wavelength indicator using a dark FRET acceptor. We developed a blue fluorescent cGMP biosensor, which is spectrally compatible with a FRET-based cAMP sensor using cyan and yellow fluorescent proteins (CFP/YFP). We cotransfected them and loaded a red fluorescent probe for Ca2+ into cells, and accomplished triple-parameter fluorescence imaging of these cyclic nucleotides and Ca2+, confirming the applicability of this combination to individually monitor their dynamics in a single cell. This blue fluorescent sensor and the approach using this FRET pair would be useful for multiparameter fluorescence imaging to understand complex signal transduction networks. PMID:20161796

  13. Image-plane processing for improved computer vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, F. O.; Fales, C. L.; Park, S. K.; Samms, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    The proper combination of optical design with image plane processing, as in the mechanism of human vision, which allows to improve the performance of sensor array imaging systems for edge detection and location was examined. Two dimensional bandpass filtering during image formation, optimizes edge enhancement and minimizes data transmission. It permits control of the spatial imaging system response to tradeoff edge enhancement for sensitivity at low light levels. It is shown that most of the information, up to about 94%, is contained in the signal intensity transitions from which the location of edges is determined for raw primal sketches. Shading the lens transmittance to increase depth of field and using a hexagonal instead of square sensor array lattice to decrease sensitivity to edge orientation improves edge information about 10%.

  14. Panoramic monocentric imaging using fiber-coupled focal planes.

    PubMed

    Stamenov, Igor; Arianpour, Ashkan; Olivas, Stephen J; Agurok, Ilya P; Johnson, Adam R; Stack, Ronald A; Morrison, Rick L; Ford, Joseph E

    2014-12-29

    Monocentric lenses provide high-resolution wide field of view imaging onto a hemispherical image surface, which can be coupled to conventional focal planes using fiber-bundle image transfer. We show the design and characterization of a 2-glass concentric F/1.0 lens, and describe integration of 5 Mpixel 1.75µm pitch back-side illuminated color CMOS sensors with 2.5µm pitch fiber bundles, then show the fiber-coupled lens compares favorably in both resolution and light collection to a 10x larger conventional F/4 wide angle photographic lens. We describe assembly of the monocentric lens and 6 adjacent sensors with focus optomechanics into an extremely compact 30Mpixel panoramic imager with a 126° "letterbox" format field of view. PMID:25607140

  15. Photoacoustic lifetime imaging of dissolved oxygen using methylene blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenazi, Shai

    2010-07-01

    Measuring distribution of dissolved oxygen in biological tissue is of prime interest for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy optimization. Tumor hypoxia indicates poor prognosis and resistance to radiotherapy. Despite its major clinical significance, no current imaging modality provides direct imaging of tissue oxygen. We present preliminary results demonstrating the potential of photoacoustic lifetime imaging (PALI) for noninvasive, 3-D imaging of tissue oxygen. The technique is based on photoacoustic probing of the excited state lifetime of methylene blue (MB) dye. MB is an FDA-approved water soluble dye with a peak absorption at 660 nm. A double pulse laser system (pump probe) is used to excite the dye and probe its transient absorption by detecting photoacoustic emission. The relaxation rate of MB depends linearly on oxygen concentration. Our measurements show high photoacoustic signal contrast at a probe wavelength of 810 nm, where the excited state absorption is more than four times higher than the ground state absorption. Imaging of a simple phantom is demonstrated. We conclude by discussing possible implementations of the technique in clinical settings and combining it with photodynamic therapy (PDT) for real-time therapy monitoring.

  16. Photoacoustic lifetime imaging of dissolved oxygen using methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Ashkenazi, Shai

    2010-01-01

    Measuring distribution of dissolved oxygen in biological tissue is of prime interest for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy optimization. Tumor hypoxia indicates poor prognosis and resistance to radiotherapy. Despite its major clinical significance, no current imaging modality provides direct imaging of tissue oxygen. We present preliminary results demonstrating the potential of photoacoustic lifetime imaging (PALI) for noninvasive, 3-D imaging of tissue oxygen. The technique is based on photoacoustic probing of the excited state lifetime of methylene blue (MB) dye. MB is an FDA-approved water soluble dye with a peak absorption at 660 nm. A double pulse laser system (pump probe) is used to excite the dye and probe its transient absorption by detecting photoacoustic emission. The relaxation rate of MB depends linearly on oxygen concentration. Our measurements show high photoacoustic signal contrast at a probe wavelength of 810 nm, where the excited state absorption is more than four times higher than the ground state absorption. Imaging of a simple phantom is demonstrated. We conclude by discussing possible implementations of the technique in clinical settings and combining it with photodynamic therapy (PDT) for real-time therapy monitoring. PMID:20799768

  17. Feature-aided multiple target tracking in the image plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Andrew P.; Sullivan, Kevin J.; Miller, David J.

    2006-05-01

    Vast quantities of EO and IR data are collected on airborne platforms (manned and unmanned) and terrestrial platforms (including fixed installations, e.g., at street intersections), and can be exploited to aid in the global war on terrorism. However, intelligent preprocessing is required to enable operator efficiency and to provide commanders with actionable target information. To this end, we have developed an image plane tracker which automatically detects and tracks multiple targets in image sequences using both motion and feature information. The effects of platform and camera motion are compensated via image registration, and a novel change detection algorithm is applied for accurate moving target detection. The contiguous pixel blob on each moving target is segmented for use in target feature extraction and model learning. Feature-based target location measurements are used for tracking through move-stop-move maneuvers, close target spacing, and occlusion. Effective clutter suppression is achieved using joint probabilistic data association (JPDA), and confirmed target tracks are indicated for further processing or operator review. In this paper we describe the algorithms implemented in the image plane tracker and present performance results obtained with video clips from the DARPA VIVID program data collection and from a miniature unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flight.

  18. Achromatic Focal Plane Mask for Exoplanet Imaging Coronagraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Kevin Edward; Belikov, Ruslan; Guyon, Olivier; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Wilson, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in coronagraph technologies for exoplanet imaging have achieved contrasts close to 1e10 at 4 lambda/D and 1e-9 at 2 lambda/D in monochromatic light. A remaining technological challenge is to achieve high contrast in broadband light; a challenge that is largely limited by chromaticity of the focal plane mask. The size of a star image scales linearly with wavelength. Focal plane masks are typically the same size at all wavelengths, and must be sized for the longest wavelength in the observational band to avoid starlight leakage. However, this oversized mask blocks useful discovery space from the shorter wavelengths. We present here the design, development, and testing of an achromatic focal plane mask based on the concept of optical filtering by a diffractive optical element (DOE). The mask consists of an array of DOE cells, the combination of which functions as a wavelength filter with any desired amplitude and phase transmission. The effective size of the mask scales nearly linearly with wavelength, and allows significant improvement in the inner working angle of the coronagraph at shorter wavelengths. The design is applicable to almost any coronagraph configuration, and enables operation in a wider band of wavelengths than would otherwise be possible. We include initial results from a laboratory demonstration of the mask with the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization coronagraph.

  19. Radiometric infrared focal plane array imaging system for thermographic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, B. J.; Mccafferty, N.; Brown, R.; Tower, J. R.; Kosonocky, W. F.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes research performed under the Radiometric Infrared Focal Plane Array Imaging System for Thermographic Applications contract. This research investigated the feasibility of using platinum silicide (PtSi) Schottky-barrier infrared focal plane arrays (IR FPAs) for NASA Langley's specific radiometric thermal imaging requirements. The initial goal of this design was to develop a high spatial resolution radiometer with an NETD of 1 percent of the temperature reading over the range of 0 to 250 C. The proposed camera design developed during this study and described in this report provides: (1) high spatial resolution (full-TV resolution); (2) high thermal dynamic range (0 to 250 C); (3) the ability to image rapid, large thermal transients utilizing electronic exposure control (commandable dynamic range of 2,500,000:1 with exposure control latency of 33 ms); (4) high uniformity (0.5 percent nonuniformity after correction); and (5) high thermal resolution (0.1 C at 25 C background and 0.5 C at 250 C background).

  20. High-resolution image recovery from image-plane arrays, using convex projections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry Stark; Peyma Oskoui

    1989-01-01

    The problem of reconstructing remotely obtained images from image-plane detector arrays is considered. Although the individual detectors may be larger than the blur spot of the imaging optics, high-resolution reconstructions can be obtained by scanning or rotating the image with respect to the detector. As an alternative to matrix inversion or least-squares estimation, the method of convex projections is proposed.

  1. Pupil-plane imager for scintillometry over long horizontal paths.

    PubMed

    Hughes, W M; Holmes, R B

    2007-10-10

    A pupil plane imaging (PPI) system has been designed and implemented to measure scintillation induced by atmospheric turbulence and to estimate key parameters of atmospheric turbulence. A high-speed, high-resolution camera images the pupil of a telescope. The process of estimating normalized intensity variance and the underlying rationale is discussed. Experimental results are presented for data taken at North Oscura Peak in southern New Mexico from light originating at Salinas Peak or an aircraft, over near-horizontal paths of approximately 50 km. Strong scintillation is often observed. The results are compared to those of other instruments operating in parallel, and systematic and random errors are discussed. The primary goal is to accurately estimate scintillation strength using PPI in order to assess adaptive optics performance as a function of such scintillation. PMID:17932516

  2. Imaging Polarimetry With Polarization-Sensitive Focal Planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobiev, Dmitry; Ninkov, Z.

    2014-01-01

    We present a compact, lightweight, snapshot imaging polarimeter designed for operation in the near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR). Flux, polarization and spectral energy distribution are the fundamental measurements through which we infer properties of the sources of radiation such as intensity, temperature, chemical composition, emission mechanisms and structure. In recent decades, many scientific fields that utilize radiometry and spectroscopy have benefited from revolutionary improvements in instrumentation, for example, charge-coupled devices, hybridized infrared arrays, multi-object spectrometers and adaptive optics. Advances in polarimetric instrumentation have been more modest. Recently, the fabrication of microgrid polarizer arrays (MGPAs), facilitated the development of polarization-sensitive focal planes. These devices have inherent capability to measure the degree and angle of polarization across a scene (i.e., imaging polarimetry) instantaneously, without the need for multiple exposures and moving optics or multiple detectors. MGPA-based devices are compact, lightweight, and mechanically robust and perfectly suited for deployment on space-based and airborne platforms. We describe the design, operation and expected performance of MGPA-based imaging polarimeters and identify the applications for which these polarimeters are best suited.

  3. Color image encryption based on paired interpermuting planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Yu, Hai; Zhu, Zhi-liang

    2015-03-01

    A number of chaos-based image encryption algorithms have been proposed in recent years, and most of them employ confusion-diffusion architecture. This paper presents a new confusion scheme based on paired interpermuting planes. In the proposed new confusion operation, an 'exchange and random access strategy' is employed to replace the traditional confusion operations. The efficiency of the proposed scheme was analyzed by evaluating its histogram distribution, its correlation coefficients, its ability to resist differential attacks, its ability to retain information (entropy analysis), its computational speed, and its ability to guarantee the security of its key scheme. Simulations have been carried out and the results confirmed the superior security and computing speed of our scheme compared to other comparable algorithms.

  4. Advances in Focal Plane Wavefront Estimation for Directly Imaging Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldorado Riggs, A. J.; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Groff, Tyler Dean

    2015-01-01

    To image cold exoplanets directly in visible light, an instrument on a telescope needs to suppress starlight by about 9 orders of magnitude at small separations from the star. A coronagraph changes the point spread function to create regions of high contrast where exoplanets or disks can be seen. Aberrations on the optics degrade the contrast by several orders of magnitude, so all high-contrast imaging systems incorporate one or more deformable mirrors (DMs) to recover regions of high contrast. With a coronagraphic instrument planned for the WFIRST-AFTA space telescope, there is a pressing need for faster, more robust estimation and control schemes for the DMs. Non-common path aberrations limit conventional phase conjugation schemes to medium star-to-planet contrast ratios of about 1e-6. High-contrast imaging requires estimation and control of both phase and amplitude in the same beam path as the science camera. Field estimation is a challenge since only intensity is measured; the most common approach, including that planned for WFIRST-AFTA, is to use DMs to create diversity, via pairs of small probe shapes, thereby allowing disambiguation of the electric field. Most implementations of DM Diversity require at least five images per electric field estimate and require narrowband measurements. This paper describes our new estimation algorithms that improve the speed (by using fewer images) and bandwidth of focal plane wavefront estimation. For narrowband estimation, we are testing nonlinear, recursive algorithms such as an iterative extended Kalman filter (IEKF) to use three images each iteration and build better, more robust estimates. We are also exploring the use of broadband estimation without the need for narrowband sub-filters and measurements. Here we present simulations of these algorithms with realistic noise and small signals to show how they might perform for WFIRST-AFTA. Once validated in simulations, we will test these algorithms experimentally in Princeton's HCIL and in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL's) High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT). Developing these faster, more robust wavefront estimators is a crucial for increasing the science yield of the WFIRST-AFTA coronagraphic instrument.

  5. Image Data Encryption and Hiding Based on Wavelet Packet Transform and Bit Planes Decomposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zheng Wei; Cheng Zhi-Gang; Yue-li Cui

    2008-01-01

    A novel approach to encrypting and hiding gray scale images with wavelet packet transform and bit planes decomposition is proposed. The proposed strategy can be applied not only to encryption and hiding of a single image, but also to multi-frame images. In the strategy, wavelet packet transform is used to decompose a carrier image into sixteen sub-band images, and eight

  6. Through-Plane Water Transport Visualization in a PEMFC by Visible and Infrared Imaging

    E-print Network

    Kandlikar, Satish

    Through-Plane Water Transport Visualization in a PEMFC by Visible and Infrared Imaging M. M. Daino and thermal profile in the through-plane direction of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) gas membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is widely studied due to its impact on performance.1­4 A variety of imaging

  7. Detection of blue-white veil areas in dermoscopy images using machine learning techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celebi, M. E.; Kingravi, Hassan A.; Aslandogan, Y. A.; Stoecker, William V.

    2006-03-01

    As a result of the advances in skin imaging technology and the development of suitable image processing techniques, during the last decade, there has been a significant increase of interest in the computer-aided diagnosis of skin cancer. Dermoscopy is a non-invasive skin imaging technique which permits visualization of features of pigmented melanocytic neoplasms that are not discernable by examination with the naked eye. One of the useful features in dermoscopic diagnosis is the blue-white veil (irregular, structureless areas of confluent blue pigmentation with an overlying white "ground-glass" film) which is mostly associated with invasive melanoma. In this preliminary study, a machine learning approach to the detection of blue-white veil areas in dermoscopy images is presented. The method involves pixel classification based on relative and absolute color features using a decision tree classifier. Promising results were obtained on a set of 224 dermoscopy images.

  8. Search Image Formation in the Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra T. Pietrewicz; Alan C. Kamil

    1979-01-01

    Blue jays trained to detect Catocala moths in slides were exposed to two types of slide series containing these moths: series of one species and series of two species intermixed. In one-species series, detection ability increased with successive encounters with one prey type. No similar effect occurred in two-species series. These results are a direct demonstration of a specific search

  9. The CHROMA focal plane array: a large-format, low-noise detector optimized for imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, Richard T.; Bailey, Robert; Beletic, James W.; Bernd, Steve; Bhargava, Sidharth; Herring, Jason; Kobrin, Paul; Lee, Donald; Pan, Jianmei; Petersen, Anders; Piquette, Eric; Starr, Brian; Yamamoto, Matthew; Zandian, Majid

    2013-09-01

    The CHROMA (Configurable Hyperspectral Readout for Multiple Applications) is an advanced Focal Plane Array (FPA) designed for visible-infrared imaging spectroscopy. Using Teledyne's latest substrateremoved HgCdTe detector, the CHROMA FPA has very low dark current, low readout noise and high, stable quantum efficiency from the deep blue (390nm) to the cutoff wavelength. CHROMA has a pixel pitch of 30 microns and is available in array formats ranging from 320×480 to 1600×480 pixels. Users generally disperse spectra over the 480 pixel-length columns and image spatially over the n×160 pixellength rows, where n=2, 4, 8, 10. The CHROMA Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC) has Correlated Double Sampling (CDS) in pixel and generates its own internal bias signals and clocks. This paper presents the measured performance of the CHROMA FPA with 2.5 micron cutoff wavelength including the characterization of noise versus pixel gain, power dissipation and quantum efficiency.

  10. The study on the image quality of varied line spacing plane grating by computer simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shouqiang; Zhang, Weiping; Liu, Lei; Yang, Qingyi

    2014-11-01

    Varied line spacing plane gratings have the features of self-focusing , aberration-reduced and easy manufacturing ,which are widely applied in synchrotron radiation, plasma physics and space astronomy, and other fields. In the study of diffracting imaging , the optical path function is expanded into maclaurin series, aberrations are expressed by the coefficient of series, most of the aberration coefficients are similar and the category is more, can't directly reflects image quality in whole. The paper will study on diffraction imaging of the varied line spacing plane gratings by using computer simulation technology, for a method judging the image quality visibly. In this paper, light beam from some object points on the same object plane are analyzed and simulated by ray trace method , the evaluation function is set up, which can fully scale the image quality. In addition, based on the evaluation function, the best image plane is found by search algorithm .

  11. Vectorial point spread function and optical transfer function in oblique plane imaging.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongmin; Li, Tongcang; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2014-05-01

    Oblique plane imaging, using remote focusing with a tilted mirror, enables direct two-dimensional (2D) imaging of any inclined plane of interest in three-dimensional (3D) specimens. It can image real-time dynamics of a living sample that changes rapidly or evolves its structure along arbitrary orientations. It also allows direct observations of any tilted target plane in an object of which orientational information is inaccessible during sample preparation. In this work, we study the optical resolution of this innovative wide-field imaging method. Using the vectorial diffraction theory, we formulate the vectorial point spread function (PSF) of direct oblique plane imaging. The anisotropic lateral resolving power caused by light clipping from the tilted mirror is theoretically analyzed for all oblique angles. We show that the 2D PSF in oblique plane imaging is conceptually different from the inclined 2D slice of the 3D PSF in conventional lateral imaging. Vectorial optical transfer function (OTF) of oblique plane imaging is also calculated by the fast Fourier transform (FFT) method to study effects of oblique angles on frequency responses. PMID:24921812

  12. The application of digital image plane holography technology to identify Chinese herbal medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huaying; Guo, Zhongjia; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Zhihui

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, the imaging technology of digital image plane holography to identify the Chinese herbal medicine is studied. The optical experiment system of digital image plane holography which is the special case of pre-magnification digital holography was built. In the record system, one is an object light by using plane waves which illuminates the object, and the other one is recording hologram by using spherical light wave as reference light. There is a Micro objective lens behind the object. The second phase factor which caus ed by the Micro objective lens can be eliminated by choosing the proper position of the reference point source when digital image plane holography is recorded by spherical light. In this experiment, we use the Lygodium cells and Onion cells as the object. The experiment results with Lygodium cells and Onion cells show that digital image plane holography avoid the process of finding recording distance by using auto-focusing approach, and the phase information of the object can be reconstructed more accurately. The digital image plane holography is applied to the microscopic imaging of cells more effectively, and it is suit to apply for the identify of Chinese Herbal Medicine. And it promotes the application of digital holographic in practice.

  13. The application of digital image plane holography technology to identify Chinese herbal medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huaying; Guo, Zhongjia; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Zhihui

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, the imaging technology of digital image plane holography to identify the Chinese herbal medicine is studied. The optical experiment system of digital image plane holography which is the special case of pre-magnification digital holography was built. In the record system, one is an object light by using plane waves which illuminates the object, and the other one is recording hologram by using spherical light wave as reference light. There is a Micro objective lens behind the object. The second phase factor which caus ed by the Micro objective lens can be eliminated by choosing the proper position of the reference point source when digital image plane holography is recorded by spherical light. In this experiment, we use the Lygodium cells and Onion cells as the object. The experiment results with Lygodium cells and Onion cells show that digital image plane holography avoid the process of finding recording distance by using auto-focusing approach, and the phase information of the object can be reconstructed more accurately. The digital image plane holography is applied to the microscopic imaging of cells more effectively, and it is suit to apply for the identify of Chinese Herbal Medicine. And it promotes the application of digital holographic in practice.

  14. InGaAs/InP focal plane arrays for visible light imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Tara J.; Cohen, Marshall J.; Dries, J. C.; Lange, Michael J.

    2004-08-01

    We report on recent results in using InGaAs/InP focal plane arrays for visible light imaging. We have fabricated substrate-removed backside illuminated InGaAs/InP focal plane arrays down to a 10 ?m pitch with high quantum efficiency from 0.4 ?m through 1.7 ?m. This focal plane array can be used for visible imaging as well as imaging eye-safe lasers. Using the InGaAs/InP materials system for visible imaging applications has several advantages over silicon based CMOS or CCD imagers including inherent radiation hardness, the ability to simultaneously achieve low crosstalk (less than 1%), and bandwidths exceeding 1 GHz, as well as the ability to image out to 1.7 ?m.

  15. Fast digital image stabilizer based on Gray-coded bit-plane matching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung-Jea Ko; Sung-Hee Lee; Seung-Won Jeon; Eui-Sung Kang

    1999-01-01

    A fast digital image stabilizer based on the Gray-coded bit-plane matching is proposed which is robust to irregular conditions such as moving objects and intentional panning. The proposed digital image stabilization (DIS) system performs motion estimation using the Gray-coded bit-plane of video sequences, greatly reducing the computational load. This motion estimation method can be realized using only binary Boolean functions

  16. The SPIFFI image slicer: Revival of image slicing with plane mirrors

    E-print Network

    Matthias Tecza; Niranjan Thatte; Frank Eisenhauer; Sabine Mengel; Claudia Roehrle; Klaus Bickert

    2000-08-21

    SPIFFI (SPectrometer for Infrared Faint Field Imaging) is the integral field spectrograph of the VLT-instrument SINFONI (SINgle Far Object Near-infrared Investigation). SINFONI is the combination of SPIFFI with the ESO adaptive optics system MACAO (Multiple Application Concept for Adaptive Optics) offering for the first time adaptive optics assisted near infrared integral field spectroscopy at an 8m-telescope. SPIFFI works in the wavelength ranger from 1.1 to 2.5 micron with a spectral resolving power ranging from R=2000 to 4500. Pixel scale ranges from 0.25 to 0.025 seconds of arc. The SPIFFI field-of-view consists of 32x32 pixels which are rearranged with an image slicer to a form a long slit. Based on the 3D slicer concept with plane mirrors, an enhanced image slicer was developed. The SPIFFI image slicer consists of two sets of mirrors, called the 'small' and the 'large' slicer. The small slicer cuts a square field of view into 32 slitlets, each of which is 32 pixels long. The large slicer rearranges the 32 slitlets into a 1024 pixels long slit. The modifications to the 3D slicer concept affect the angles of the plane mirrors of small and large slicer and lead to an improved slit geometry with very little light losses. At a mirror width of 0.3mm the light loss is <5%. All reflective surfaces are flat and can be manufactured with a high surface quality. This is especially important for the adaptive optics mode of SINFONI. We explain the concept of the SPIFFI mirror slicer and describe details of the manufacturing process.

  17. Rapid three-dimensional isotropic imaging of living cells using Bessel beam plane illumination

    PubMed Central

    Planchon, Thomas A; Gao, Liang; Milkie, Daniel E; Davidson, Michael W; Galbraith, James A; Galbraith, Catherine G; Betzig, Eric

    2012-01-01

    A key challenge when imaging living cells is how to noninvasively extract the most spatiotemporal information possible. Unlike popular wide-field and confocal methods, plane-illumination microscopy limits excitation to the information-rich vicinity of the focal plane, providing effective optical sectioning and high speed while minimizing out-of-focus background and premature photobleaching. Here we used scanned Bessel beams in conjunction with structured illumination and/or two-photon excitation to create thinner light sheets (<0.5 ?m) better suited to three-dimensional (3D) subcellular imaging. As demonstrated by imaging the dynamics of mitochondria, filopodia, membrane ruffles, intracellular vesicles and mitotic chromosomes in live cells, the microscope currently offers 3D isotropic resolution down to ~0.3 ?m, speeds up to nearly 200 image planes per second and the ability to noninvasively acquire hundreds of 3D data volumes from single living cells encompassing tens of thousands of image frames. PMID:21378978

  18. NIR-green-blue high-resolution digital images for assessement of winter cover crop biomass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many small unmanned aerial systems use true-color digital cameras for remote sensing. For some cameras, only the red channel is sensitive to near-infrared (NIR) light; we attached a custom red-blocking filter to a digital camera to obtain NIR-green-blue digital images. One advantage of this low-co...

  19. Stacking of SKA data: comparing uv-plane and image-plane stacking

    E-print Network

    Knudsen, K K; Vlemmings, W; Conway, J; Marti-Vidal, I

    2015-01-01

    Stacking as a tool for studying objects that are not individually detected is becoming popular even for radio interferometric data, and will be widely used in the SKA era. Stacking is typically done using imaged data rather than directly using the visibilities (the uv-data). We have investigated and developed a novel algorithm to do stacking using the uv-data. We have performed exten- sive simulations comparing to image-stacking, and summarize the results of these simulations. Furthermore, we disuss the implications in light of the vast data volume produced by the SKA. Having access to the uv-stacked data provides a great advantage, as it allows the possibility to properly analyse the result with respect to calibration artifacts as well as source properties such as size. For SKA the main challenge lies in archiving the uv-data. For purposes of robust stacking analysis, it would be strongly desirable to either keep the calibrated uv-data at least in an aver- age form, or implement a stacking queue where stacki...

  20. Inter-plane artifact suppression in tomosynthesis using 3D CT image data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite its superb lateral resolution, flat-panel-detector (FPD) based tomosynthesis suffers from low contrast and inter-plane artifacts caused by incomplete cancellation of the projection components stemming from outside the focal plane. The incomplete cancellation of the projection components, mostly due to the limited scan angle in the conventional tomosynthesis scan geometry, often makes the image contrast too low to differentiate the malignant tissues from the background tissues with confidence. Methods In this paper, we propose a new method to suppress the inter-plane artifacts in FPD-based tomosynthesis. If 3D whole volume CT images are available before the tomosynthesis scan, the CT image data can be incorporated into the tomosynthesis image reconstruction to suppress the inter-plane artifacts, hence, improving the image contrast. In the proposed technique, the projection components stemming from outside the region-of-interest (ROI) are subtracted from the measured tomosynthesis projection data to suppress the inter-plane artifacts. The projection components stemming from outside the ROI are calculated from the 3D whole volume CT images which usually have lower lateral resolution than the tomosynthesis images. The tomosynthesis images are reconstructed from the subtracted projection data which account for the x-ray attenuation through the ROI. After verifying the proposed method by simulation, we have performed both CT scan and tomosynthesis scan on a phantom and a sacrificed rat using a FPD-based micro-CT. Results We have measured contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) from the tomosynthesis images which is an indicator of the residual inter-plane artifacts on the focal-plane image. In both cases of the simulation and experimental imaging studies of the contrast evaluating phantom, CNRs have been significantly improved by the proposed method. In the rat imaging also, we have observed better visual contrast from the tomosynthesis images reconstructed by the proposed method. Conclusions The proposed tomosynthesis technique can improve image contrast with aids of 3D whole volume CT images. Even though local tomosynthesis needs extra 3D CT scanning, it may find clinical applications in special situations in which extra 3D CT scan is already available or allowed. PMID:22151538

  1. Improved matrix inversion in image plane parallel MRI.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bing; Millane, R P; Watts, Richard; Bones, Philip J

    2009-09-01

    A new 3D parallel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method named Generalized Unaliasing Incorporating Support constraint and sensitivity Encoding (GUISE) is presented. GUISE allows direct image recovery from arbitrary Cartesian k-space trajectories. However, periodic k-space sampling patterns are considered for reconstruction efficiency. Image recovery methods such as 2D SENSE (SENSitivity Encoding) and 2D CAIPIRINHA (Controlled Aliasing In Parallel Imaging Results IN Higher Acceleration) are special instances of GUISE where specific restrictions are placed on the k-space sampling patterns used. It is shown that the sampling pattern has large impacts on the image reconstruction error due to noise. An efficient sampling pattern design method that incorporates prior knowledge of object support and coil sensitivity profile is proposed. It requires no experimental trials and could be used in clinical imaging. Comparison of the proposed sampling pattern design method with 2D SENSE and 2D CAIPIRINHA are made based on both simulation and experiment results. It is seen that this new adaptive sampling pattern design method results in a lower noise level in reconstructions due to better exploitation of the coil sensitivity variation and object support constraint. In addition, elimination of the non-object region from reconstruction potentially allows an acceleration factor higher than the number of receiver coils used. PMID:19269768

  2. Laser-induced fluorescence images of NO distribution after needle-plane pulsed negative corona discharge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory J. Roth; Martin A. Gundersen

    1999-01-01

    Images showing the spatial distribution of nitric oxide (NO) following propagation of a 30 ns pulsed, negative streamer between needle-plane electrodes, in 25 parts per million (ppm) NO seeded air, are reported. The images were generated using laser-induced fluorescence, and show uniform destruction of 10 ppm NO between the cathode and anode. This evidence shows that processes associated with the

  3. Dual-plane stereoscopic particle image velocimetry: system set-up and its application on a lobed jet mixing flow

    E-print Network

    Hu, Hui

    Dual-plane stereoscopic particle image velocimetry: system set-up and its application on a lobed and system set-up of a dual- plane stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) system, which can obtain the ¯ow velocity (all three com- ponents) ®elds at two spatially separated planes simulta- neously

  4. Using Satellite Images for Wireless Network Planing in Baku City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gojamanov, M.; Ismayilov, J.

    2013-04-01

    It is a well known fact that the Information-Telecommunication and Space research technologies are the fields getting much more benefits from the achievements of the scientific and technical progress. In many cases, these areas supporting each other have improved the conditions for their further development. For instance, the intensive development in the field of the mobile communication has caused the rapid progress of the Space research technologies and vice versa.Today it is impossible to solve one of the most important tasks of the mobile communication as Radio Frecance planning without the 2D and 3D digital maps. The compiling of such maps is much more efficient by means of the space images. Because the quality of the space images has been improved and developed, especially at the both spectral and spatial resolution points. It has been possible to to use 8 Band images with the spatial resolution of 50 sm. At present, in relation to the function 3G of mobile communications one of the main issues facing mobile operator companies is a high-precision 3D digital maps. It should be noted that the number of mobile phone users in the Republic of Azerbaijan went forward other Community of Independent States Countries. Of course, using of aerial images for 3D mapping would be optimal. However, depending on a number of technical and administrative problems aerial photography cannot be used. Therefore, the experience of many countries shows that it will be more effective to use the space images with the higher resolution for these issues. Concerning the fact that the mobile communication within the city of Baku has included 3G function there were ordered stereo images wih the spatial resolution of 50 cm for the 150 sq.km territory occupying the central part of the city in order to compile 3D digital maps. The images collected from the WorldView-2 satellite are 4-Band Bundle(Pan+MS1) stereo images. Such kind of imagery enable to automatically classificate some required clutter classes.Meanwhile, there were created 12 GPS points in the territory and there have been held some appropriate observations in these points for the geodesic reference of the space images in the territory. Moreover, it would like to mention that there have been constructed 37 permanently acting GPS stations in the territory of Azerbaijan at present. It significantly facilitates the process of the geodesic reference of the space images in order to accomplish such kind of mentioned projects. The processing of the collected space images was accomplished by means of Erdas LPS 10 program. In the first stage there was created the main component of the 3D maps- Digital Elevevation Model. In this model the following clutter classes are presented: Open; Open areas in urban; Airport, Sea, Inland water; Forest; Parks in urban; Semi Open Area; Open Wet Area; Urban/Urban Mean; Dense urban, Villages, Industrial/Commercial, Residential/Suburban; Dense residential/Suburban; Block of BUILDINGS; Dense Urban High; Buildings, Urban Mixed, Mixed dense urban

  5. Manganese-containing Prussian blue nanoparticles for imaging of pediatric brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Matthieu F; Yadavilli, Sridevi; Sze, Raymond W; Nazarian, Javad; Fernandes, Rohan

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric brain tumors (PBTs) are a leading cause of death in children. For an improved prognosis in patients with PBTs, there is a critical need to develop molecularly-specific imaging agents to monitor disease progression and response to treatment. In this paper, we describe manganese-containing Prussian blue nanoparticles as agents for molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescence-based imaging of PBTs. Our core-shell nanoparticles consist of a core lattice structure that incorporates and retains paramagnetic Mn2+ ions, and generates MRI contrast (both negative and positive). The biofunctionalized shell is comprised of fluorescent avidin, which serves the dual purpose of enabling fluorescence imaging and functioning as a platform for the attachment of biotinylated ligands that target PBTs. The surfaces of our nanoparticles are modified with biotinylated antibodies targeting neuron-glial antigen 2 or biotinylated transferrin. Both neuron-glial antigen 2 and the transferrin receptor are protein markers overexpressed in PBTs. We describe the synthesis, biofunctionalization, and characterization of these multimodal nanoparticles. Further, we demonstrate the MRI and fluorescence imaging capabilities of manganese-containing Prussian blue nanoparticles in vitro. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of these nanoparticles as PBT imaging agents by measuring their organ and brain biodistribution in an orthotopic mouse model of PBTs using ex vivo fluorescence imaging. PMID:24920896

  6. Coronagraphic phase diversity: a simple focal plane sensor for high-contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    Sauvage, J-F; Mugnier, L; Paul, B; Villecroze, R

    2012-12-01

    Exoplanet direct imaging is a challenging goal of today's astronomical instrumentation. Several high-contrast imaging instruments dedicated to this task are currently being integrated; they are ultimately limited by the presence of quasi-static speckles in the imaging focal plane. These speckles originate in residual quasi-static optical aberrations, which must be measured and compensated for, typically at a nanometric level. We present a novel focal plane wavefront sensor (WFS) designed for this particular application. It is an extension of the phase diversity technique to coronagraphic imaging. This sensor requires no dedicated hardware and uses only two scientific images differing from a known aberration, which can be conveniently introduced by the adaptive optics subsystem. The aberrations are therefore calibrated all the way down to the scientific camera, without any differential aberrations between the sensor and the scientific camera. We show the potential of this WFS by means of simulations, and we perform a preliminary experimental validation. PMID:23202053

  7. A blue optical filter for narrow-band imaging in endoscopic capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, M. F.; Ghaderi, M.; Goncalves, L. M.; de Graaf, G.; Wolffenbuttel, R. F.; Correia, J. H.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents the design, simulation, fabrication, and characterization of a thin-film Fabry-Perot resonator composed of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) thin-films. The optical filter is developed to be integrated with a light emitting diode (LED) for enabling narrow-band imaging (NBI) in endoscopy. The NBI is a high resolution imaging technique that uses spectrally centered blue light (415 nm) and green light (540 nm) to illuminate the target tissue. The light at 415 nm enhances the imaging of superficial veins due to their hemoglobin absorption, while the light at 540 nm penetrates deeper into the mucosa, thus enhances the sub-epithelial vessels imaging. Typically the endoscopes and endoscopic capsules use white light for acquiring images of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. However, implementing the NBI technique in endoscopic capsules enhances their capabilities for the clinical applications. A commercially available blue LED with a maximum peak intensity at 404 nm and Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM) of 20 nm is integrated with a narrow band blue filter as the NBI light source. The thin film simulations show a maximum spectral transmittance of 36 %, that is centered at 415 nm with FWHM of 13 nm for combined the blue LED and a Fabry Perot resonator system. A custom made deposition scheme was developed for the fabrication of the blue optical filter by RF sputtering. RF powered reactive sputtering at 200 W with the gas flows of argon and oxygen that are controlled for a 5:1 ratio gives the optimum optical conditions for TiO2 thin films. For SiO2 thin films, a non-reactive RF sputtering at 150 W with argon gas flow at 15 sccm results in the best optical performance. The TiO2 and SiO2 thin films were fully characterized by an ellipsometer in the wavelength range between 250 nm to 1600 nm. Finally, the optical performance of the blue optical filter is measured and presented.

  8. Large-format InGaAs focal plane arrays for SWIR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, Andrew D.; MacDougal, Michael H.; Manzo, Juan; Follman, David; Geske, Jonathan C.

    2012-06-01

    FLIR Electro Optical Components will present our latest developments in large InGaAs focal plane arrays, which are used for low light level imaging in the short wavelength infrared (SWIR) regime. FLIR will present imaging from their latest small pitch (15 ?m) focal plane arrays in VGA and High Definition (HD) formats. FLIR will present characterization of the FPA including dark current measurements as well as the use of correlated double sampling to reduce read noise. FLIR will show imagery as well as FPA-level characterization data.

  9. Focal-Plane Processing Architectures for Real-Time Hyperspectral Image Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sek M. Chai; Antonio Gentile; Wilfredo E. Lugo-Beauchamp; Javier Fonseca; D. Scott Wills

    2000-01-01

    Real-time image processing requires high computational and IyO throughputs obtained by use of opto- electronic system solutions. A novel architecture that uses focal-plane optoelectronic-area IyO with a fine-grain, low-memory, single-instruction-multiple-data ~SIMD! processor array is presented as an efficient computational solution for real-time hyperspectral image processing. The architecture is eval- uated by use of realistic workloads to determine data throughputs, processing

  10. Focal-Plane Imaging of Crossed Beams in Nonlinear Optics Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bivolaru, Daniel; Herring, G. C.

    2007-01-01

    An application of focal-plane imaging that can be used as a real time diagnostic of beam crossing in various optical techniques is reported. We discuss two specific versions and demonstrate the capability of maximizing system performance with an example in a combined dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering interferometric Rayleigh scattering experiment (CARS-IRS). We find that this imaging diagnostic significantly reduces beam alignment time and loss of CARS-IRS signals due to inadvertent misalignments.

  11. Focal-Plane Image and Beam Quality Sensors for Adaptive Optics

    E-print Network

    Cauwenberghs, Gert

    Focal-Plane Image and Beam Quality Sensors for Adaptive Optics Marc CohenÝ, Gert Cauwenberghs Laboratory, Adelphi, MD 20783 Abstract Control of adaptive optical elements for real-time wavefront phase to the requirements of high resolution, real-time adaptive optical systems. In this paper we introduce two VLSI focal

  12. REFLECTANCE CALIBRATION OF FOCAL PLANE ARRAY HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGING SYSTEM FOR AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD SAFETY APPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method to calibrate a pushbroom hyperspectral imaging system for "near-field" applications in agricultural and food safety has been demonstrated. The method consists of a modified geometric control point correction applied to a focal plane array to remove smile and keystone distortion from the sy...

  13. Chemical imaging of cotton fibers using an infrared microscope and a focal-plane array detector

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this presentation, the chemical imaging of cotton fibers with an infrared microscope and a Focal-Plane Array (FPA) detector will be discussed. Infrared spectroscopy can provide us with information on the structure and quality of cotton fibers. In addition, FPA detectors allow for simultaneous spe...

  14. Hard X-ray imaging survey of the Galactic plane with the Caltech gamma-ray imaging payload GRIP-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbel, S.; Cook, W. R.; Harrison, F. A.; Prince, T. A.; Schindler, S. M.; Wang, S.

    1997-01-01

    In a two-day balloon flight during October 1995, the Caltech coded aperture gamma ray imaging payload (GRIP-2) imaged various fields in the Galactic plane and center in the 25 to 600 keV energy band. The large phoswich detector, the 15 deg field of view, the 30 arcmin angular resolution and 6 arcmin point source localization capability of GRIP-2 provides the possibility of surveying the accreting binary population of the Galaxy at high energy. The instrument is described and preliminary imaging results are reported on. The capabilities of this instrument for hard X-ray/gamma ray imaging are demonstrated.

  15. Learning-based scan plane identification from fetal head ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Annangi, Pavan; Gupta, Mithun; Yu, Bing; Padfield, Dirk; Banerjee, Jyotirmoy; Krishnan, Kajoli

    2012-03-01

    Acquisition of a clinically acceptable scan plane is a pre-requisite for ultrasonic measurement of anatomical features from B-mode images. In obstetric ultrasound, measurement of gestational age predictors, such as biparietal diameter and head circumference, is performed at the level of the thalami and cavum septum pelucidi. In an accurate scan plane, the head can be modeled as an ellipse, the thalami looks like a butterfly, the cavum appears like an empty box and the falx is a straight line along the major axis of a symmetric ellipse inclined either parallel to or at small angles to the probe surface. Arriving at the correct probe placement on the mother's belly to obtain an accurate scan plane is a task of considerable challenge especially for a new user of ultrasound. In this work, we present a novel automated learning-based algorithm to identify an acceptable fetal head scan plane. We divide the problem into cranium detection and a template matching to capture the composite "butterfly" structure present inside the head, which mimics the visual cues used by an expert. The algorithm uses the stateof- the-art Active Appearance Models techniques from the image processing and computer vision literature and tie them to presence or absence of the inclusions within the head to automatically compute a score to represent the goodness of a scan plane. This automated technique can be potentially used to train and aid new users of ultrasound.

  16. Spatially isotropic four-dimensional imaging with dual-view plane illumination microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yicong; Wawrzusin, Peter; Senseney, Justin; Fischer, Robert S; Christensen, Ryan; Santella, Anthony; York, Andrew G; Winter, Peter W; Waterman, Clare M; Bao, Zhirong; Colón-Ramos, Daniel A; McAuliffe, Matthew; Shroff, Hari

    2014-01-01

    Optimal four-dimensional imaging requires high spatial resolution in all dimensions, high speed and minimal photobleaching and damage. We developed a dual-view, plane illumination microscope with improved spatiotemporal resolution by switching illumination and detection between two perpendicular objectives in an alternating duty cycle. Computationally fusing the resulting volumetric views provides an isotropic resolution of 330 nm. As the sample is stationary and only two views are required, we achieve an imaging speed of 200 images/s (i.e., 0.5 s for a 50-plane volume). Unlike spinning-disk confocal or Bessel beam methods, which illuminate the sample outside the focal plane, we maintain high spatiotemporal resolution over hundreds of volumes with negligible photobleaching. To illustrate the ability of our method to study biological systems that require high-speed volumetric visualization and/or low photobleaching, we describe microtubule tracking in live cells, nuclear imaging over 14 h during nematode embryogenesis and imaging of neural wiring during Caenorhabditis elegans brain development over 5 h. PMID:24108093

  17. [Self-adaptive beamforming method based on plane wave ultrasound imaging].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Longlong; Zhou, Hao; Zheng, Yinfei; Gong, Xiaohong; Wang, Jianping

    2013-08-01

    In order to improve the resolution, contrast and frame rate of ultrasound imaging, it is necessary to design an adaptive beamforming method for plane wave ultrasound imaging. An optimized minimum variance algorithm that suits plane wave ultrasound imaging was proposed, based on the traditional minimum variance algorithm that combines with the subband beamforming as well as the forward-backward spatial smoothing method in the frequency domain. To verify the effectiveness of the improved algorithm, the matlab software was used. Simulation results showed that full width at half maximum and peak side-lobe level of Optimized MV, Conventional MV, DAS boxcar, and Linear scan methods were 0.08, 0.36, 0.92, 1.42 dB, and -41.1, - 37.3, -16.9, - 34.1 dB, respectively. The improved algorithm can significantly improve the image resolution and contrast, particularly applicable to plane wave ultrasound imaging, compared with the conventional minimum variance algorithm and traditional delay-and-sum method. PMID:24059068

  18. Out-of-plane light-scattering polarimetric imaging of a thread surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng-Yang; Chang, Li-Jen

    2014-12-01

    A novel polarimetric measurement based on hemispherical light-scattering for the assessment of superficial screw is presented. The optical system is capable of capturing polarized light images. The effect of the thread surface backscattering is estimated with the use of in-plane and out-of-plane illumination. The angular distributions of polarized light scattered by the ISO metric screws are measured for light incident from a green laser. A partial Stokes vector imaging detector is mounted on a motorized rotating arm at an oblique angle to the sample normal and consists of a 10-bit scientific camera, an object lens, and a polarizer. The partial Stokes vector images of light scattered towards the camera are generated for each direction and a useful decomposition of the partial Stokes vector is presented. The thread surface effects can be minimized using out-of-plane polarized illumination in conjunction with polarized images. The experimental result may provide a new polarized imaging technique for using visible light to inspect the key features of a screw in automated optical inspection system.

  19. Line-plane-switching infrared bundle for push-broom sensing fiber imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Huan; Yan, Xingtao; Guo, Haitao; Xu, Yantao; He, Jianli; Li, Fu; Yang, Jianfeng; Si, Jinhai; Zhou, Zhiguang; Lin, Aoxiang

    2015-04-01

    We reported line-plane-switching infrared (IR) fiber bundle with high-resolution of 0.027 ?m-1, small numerical aperture (NA) of 0.20 (±0.02), high filling-factor, and bending radius of around 5.0 mm, i.e. extremely good flexibility. This fiber bundle is made from chalcogenide glass fibers, possessing core (As40S58Se2) of 45 ?m, cladding (As40S60) of 50 ?m, and error of 1% in diameter. Based on the lens used to demonstrate IR push-broom imaging, the format of matching fiber bundle we chose is 64 × 9 in system to implement 192 × 3 format linear array imaging. By principle-demonstrating system incorporated this fiber bundle coupled with small scale Infrared Focal Plane Array (IRFPA), wide-field and long-array IR push-broom image was successfully demonstrated.

  20. Photo-acoustic imaging of blue nanoparticle targeted brain tumor for intra-operative glioma delineation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Aniruddha; Wang, Xueding; Koo Lee, Yong-Eun; Hah, HoeJin; Kim, Gwangseong; Chen, Thomas; Orrienger, Daniel; Sagher, Oren; Kopelman, Raoul

    2011-07-01

    Distinguishing the tumor from the background neo-plastic tissue is challenging for cancer surgery such as surgical resection of glioma. Attempts have been made to use visible or fluorescent markers to delineate the tumors during surgery. However, the systemic injection of the dyes requires high dose, resulting in negative side effects. A novel method to delineate rat brain tumors intra-operatively, as well as post-operatively, using a highly sensitive photoacoustic imaging technique enhanced by tumor targeting blue nanoparticle as contrast agent is demonstrated. The nanoparticles are made of polyacrylamide (PAA) matrix with covalently linked Coomassie-Blue dye. They contain 7.0% dye and the average size is 80nm. Their surface was conjugated with F3 peptide for active tumor targeting. These nanoparticles are nontoxic, chemically inert and have long plasma circulation lifetime, making them suitable as nanodevices for imaging using photoacoustics. Experiments on phantoms and rat brains tumors ex-vivo demonstrate the high sensitivity of photoacoustic imaging in delineating the tumor, containing contrast agent at concentrations too low to be visualized by eye. The control tumors without nanoparticles did not show any enhanced signal. This study shows that photoacoustic imaging facilitated with the nanoparticle contrast agent could contribute to future surgical procedures for glioma.

  1. Simulation of High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Images on the IBM Blue Gene/L Supercomputer Using SIMRI

    PubMed Central

    Baum, K. G.; Menezes, G.; Helguera, M.

    2011-01-01

    Medical imaging system simulators are tools that provide a means to evaluate system architecture and create artificial image sets that are appropriate for specific applications. We have modified SIMRI, a Bloch equation-based magnetic resonance image simulator, in order to successfully generate high-resolution 3D MR images of the Montreal brain phantom using Blue Gene/L systems. Results show that redistribution of the workload allows an anatomically accurate 2563 voxel spin-echo simulation in less than 5 hours when executed on an 8192-node partition of a Blue Gene/L system. PMID:21747818

  2. Design of a multi-spectral TDICCD focal plane imaging and processing system based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Guo-fang; Zhang, Jing-jing; Wang, Dong; Han, Zhi-xue; Cheng, Yun

    2014-11-01

    A multi-spectral time delay and integration charge couple device(TDICCD) focal plane imaging and processing system is introduced in this paper. FPGA is the core logic control of the system. The main hardware component of the system and the implementation method of FPGA are described and the diagrams of main modules are presented. Software workflow and a variety of image processing methods are also given. Test results show that the design achieves data transfer speed of 4.48Gbps and realizes real-time processing of image for high-speed multi-channel TDICCD camera so that meets the system requirement.

  3. Multiple-plane particle image velocimetry using a light-field camera.

    PubMed

    Skupsch, Christoph; Brücker, Christoph

    2013-01-28

    Planar velocity fields in flows are determined simultaneously on parallel measurement planes by means of an in-house manufactured light-field camera. The planes are defined by illuminating light sheets with constant spacing. Particle positions are reconstructed from a single 2D recording taken by a CMOS-camera equipped with a high-quality doublet lens array. The fast refocusing algorithm is based on synthetic-aperture particle image velocimetry (SAPIV). The reconstruction quality is tested via ray-tracing of synthetically generated particle fields. The introduced single-camera SAPIV is applied to a convective flow within a measurement volume of 30 x 30 x 50 mm³. PMID:23389157

  4. Applicability of a Backprojection Algorithm to Reconstruct Images of Subsurface Horizontal Planes for Laboratory Experiments in Electrical Resistance Tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josep Jordana; Ramon Pallàs-Areny

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a backprojection algorithm to reconstruct subsurface images of the electrical resistivity in horizontal planes parallel to the surface. The algorithm can be applied to detect buried objects such as tanks or pipes and possible leakages from them. Two imaging strategies are compared: juxtaposition of vertical planes, and 3D reconstruction from the sensitivity matrix corresponding

  5. Electric Field Reconstruction in the Image Plane of a High-Contrast Coronagraph Using a Set of Pinholes around the Lyot Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giveona, Amir; Shaklan, Stuart; Kern, Brian; Noecker, Charley; Kendrick, Steve; Wallace, Kent

    2012-01-01

    In a setup similar to the self coherent camera, we have added a set of pinholes in the diffraction ring of the Lyot plane in a high-contrast stellar Lyot coronagraph. We describe a novel complex electric field reconstruction from image plane intensity measurements consisting of light in the coronagraph's dark hole interfering with light from the pinholes. The image plane field is modified by letting light through one pinhole at a time. In addition to estimation of the field at the science camera, this method allows for self-calibration of the probes by letting light through the pinholes in various permutations while blocking the main Lyot opening. We present results of estimation and calibration from the High Contrast Imaging Testbed along with a comparison to the pair-wise deformable mirror diversity based estimation technique. Tests are carried out in narrow-band light and over a composite 10% bandpass.

  6. Combined perfusion and doppler imaging using plane-wave nonlinear detection and microbubble contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Tremblay-Darveau, Charles; Williams, Ross; Milot, Laurent; Bruce, Matthew; Burns, Peter N

    2014-12-01

    Plane-wave imaging offers image acquisition rates at the pulse repetition frequency, effectively increasing the imaging frame rates by up to two orders of magnitude over conventional line-by-line imaging. This form of acquisition can be used to achieve very long ensemble lengths in nonlinear modes such as pulse inversion Doppler, which enables new imaging trade-offs that were previously unattainable. We first demonstrate in this paper that the coherence of microbubble signals under repeated exposure to acoustic pulses of low mechanical index can be as high as 204 ± 5 pulses, which is long enough to allow an accurate power Doppler measurement. We then show that external factors, such as tissue acceleration, restrict the detection of perfusion at the capillary level with linear Doppler, even if long Doppler ensembles are considered. Hence, perfusion at the capillary level can only be detected with ultrasound through combined microbubbles and Doppler imaging. Finally, plane-wave contrast-enhanced power and color Doppler are performed on a rabbit kidney in vivo as a proof of principle. We establish that long pulse-inversion Doppler sequences and conventional wall-filters can create an image that simultaneously resolves both the vascular morphology of veins and arteries, and perfusion at the capillary level with frame rates above 100 Hz. PMID:25474775

  7. Fourier transform spectroscopic imaging using an infrared focal-plane array detector.

    PubMed

    Lewis, E N; Treado, P J; Reeder, R C; Story, G M; Dowrey, A E; Marcott, C; Levin, I W

    1995-10-01

    A powerful new mid-infrared spectroscopic chemical imaging technique combining step-scan Fourier transform Michelson interferometry with indium antimonide focal-plane array (FPA) image detection is described. The coupling of an infrared focal-plane array detector to an interferometer provides an instrumental multiplex/multichannel advantage. Specifically, the multiple detector elements enable spectra at all pixels to be collected simultaneously, while the interferometer portion of the system allows all the spectral frequencies to be measured concurrently. With this method of mid-infrared spectroscopic imaging, the fidelity of the generated spectral images is limited only by the number of pixels on the FPA detector, and only several seconds of starting time is required for spectral image acquisition. This novel, high-definition technique represents the future of infrared chemical imaging analysis, a new discipline within the chemical and material sciences, which combines the capability of spectroscopy for molecular analysis with the power of visualization. In particular, chemical imaging is broadly applicable for noninvasive, molecular characterization of heterogeneous materials, since all solid-state materials exhibit chemical nonuniformity that exists either by design or by development during the course of material preparation or fabrication. Imaging, employing Raman and infrared spectroscopy, allows the precise characterization of the chemical composition, domain structure, and chemical architecture of a variety of substances. This information is often crucial to a wide range of activities, extending from the fabrication of new materials to a basic understanding of biological samples. In this study, step-scan imaging principles, instrument design details, and infrared chemical imaging results are presented. Since the prospect of performing high-resolution and high-definition mid-infrared chemical imaging very rapidly has been achieved with the step-scan approach, the implications for the chemical analysis of materials are many and varied. PMID:8686889

  8. Experimental evaluation of spectral-based quantitative ultrasound imaging using plane wave compounding.

    PubMed

    Salles, Sebastien; Liebgott, Hervé; Basset, Olivier; Cachard, Christian; Vray, Didier; Lavarello, Roberto

    2014-11-01

    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) based on backscatter coefficient (BSC) estimation has shown potential for tissue characterization. Beamforming using plane wave compounding has advantages for echographic, Doppler, and elastographic imaging; however, to date, plane wave compounding has not been experimentally evaluated for the purpose of BSC estimation. In this study, two BSC-derived parameters (i.e., the BSC midband fit and intercept) were estimated from experimental data obtained using compound plane wave beamforming. For comparison, QUS parameters were also estimated from data obtained using both fixed focus and dynamic receive beamforming. An ultrasound imaging system equipped with a 9-MHz center frequency, 64-element array was used to collect data up to a depth of 45 mm. Two gelatin phantoms with randomly distributed 20-?m inclusions with a homogeneous scatterer concentration and a two-region scatterer concentration were used for assessing the precision and lateral resolution of QUS imaging, respectively. The use of plane wave compounding resulted in accurate QUS estimation (i.e., bias in the BSC parameters of less than 2 dB) and relatively constant lateral resolution (i.e., BSC midband fit 10% to 90% rise distance ranging between 1.0 and 1.5 mm) throughout a 45 mm field of view. Although both fixed focus and dynamic receive beamforming provided the same performance around the focal depth, the reduction in SNR away from the focus resulted in a reduced field of view in the homogeneous phantom (i.e., only 28 mm). The lateral resolution also degraded away from the focus, with up to a 2-fold and 10-fold increase in the rise distance at 20 mm beyond the focal depth for dynamic receive and fixed focus beamforming, respectively. These results suggest that plane wave compounding has the potential to improve the performance of spectral-based quantitative ultrasound over other conventional beamforming strategies. PMID:25389161

  9. Bit-plane based analysis of integer wavelet coefficients for image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Hajar, Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents bit-plane based statistical study for integer wavelet transforms commonly used in image compression. In each bit-plane, the coefficients were modeled as binary random variables. Experimental results indicate the probability of the significant coefficients (P I), in each bit-plane, monotonically increases from P I ~ 0 at the most significant bits (MSB) to P I~ 0.5 at the least significant bits (LSB). Then, a parameterized model to predict P I from the MSB to the LSB was proposed. Also, the correlation among the different bit-planes within the same coefficient was investigated. In addition, this study showed correlation of the significant coefficients in the same spatial orientation among different subbands. Finally, clustering within the each subband and across the different subband with the same spatial orientation was investigated. Our results show strong correlation of previously coded significant coefficients at higher levels and the significant coefficients in future passes at lower levels. The overall study of this paper is useful in understanding and enhancing existing wavelet-based image compression algorithms such as SPIHT and EBC.

  10. Back focal plane imaging of Tamm plasmons and their coupled emission

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yikai; Zhang, Douguo; Qiu, Dong; Zhu, Liangfu; Yu, Sisheng; Yao, Peijun; Wang, Pei; Ming, Hai; Badugu, Ramachandram; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    The unique optical properties of TPs – such as flexible wavevector matching conditions including in-plane wavevector within the light line, existing both S- and P-polarized TPs and ability of populating with KR and RK illuminations – facilitate them for direct optical excitation. The Tamm plasmon Coupled emission (TPCE) from a combined photonic-plasmonic structure sustaining both surface plasmons (SPs) and Tamm plasmons (TPs) is described. The sensitivity of TPCE to the emission wavelength and polarization is examined with back focal plane imaging and verified with the numerical calculations. The results reveal that the excited probe can couple with both TPs and SPs, resulting in SPCE and TPCE, respectively. The TPCE angle is strongly dependent on the wavelength allowing for spectral resolution using different observation angles. These Tamm structures provide a new tool to control the optical emission from dye molecules and have many potential applications in fluorescence based-sensing and imaging.

  11. Imaging off-plane shear waves with a two-dimensional phononic crystal lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Chen-Yu; Luan, Pi-Gang

    2010-02-01

    A two-dimensional flat phononic crystal (PC) lens for focusing off-plane shear waves is proposed. The lens consists of a triangular lattice hole-array, embedded in a solid matrix. The self-collimation effect is employed to guide the shear waves propagating through the lens along specific directions. The Dirichlet-to-Neumann maps (DtN) method is employed to calculate the band structure of the PC, which can avoid the problems of bad convergence and fake bands automatically in the void-solid PC structure. When the lens is illuminated by the off-plane shear waves emanating from a point source, a subwavelength image appears in the far-field zone. The imaging characteristics are investigated by calculating the displacement fields explicitly using the multiple scattering method, and the results are in good agreement with the ray-trace predictions. Our results may provide insights for designing new phononic devices.

  12. Imaging off-plane shear waves with a two-dimensional phononic crystal lens.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chen-Yu; Luan, Pi-Gang

    2010-02-10

    A two-dimensional flat phononic crystal (PC) lens for focusing off-plane shear waves is proposed. The lens consists of a triangular lattice hole-array, embedded in a solid matrix. The self-collimation effect is employed to guide the shear waves propagating through the lens along specific directions. The Dirichlet-to-Neumann maps (DtN) method is employed to calculate the band structure of the PC, which can avoid the problems of bad convergence and fake bands automatically in the void-solid PC structure. When the lens is illuminated by the off-plane shear waves emanating from a point source, a subwavelength image appears in the far-field zone. The imaging characteristics are investigated by calculating the displacement fields explicitly using the multiple scattering method, and the results are in good agreement with the ray-trace predictions. Our results may provide insights for designing new phononic devices. PMID:21386343

  13. Robust real time extraction of plane segments from time-of-flight camera images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalbah, Yosef; Koltermann, Dirk; Wahl, Friedrich M.

    2014-04-01

    We present a method that extracts plane segments from images of a time-of-flight camera. Future driver assistance systems rely on an accurate description of the vehicle's environment. Time-of-flight cameras can be used for environment perception and for the reconstruction of the environment. Since most structures in urban environments are planar, extracted plane segments from single camera images can be used for the creation of a global map. We present a method for real time detection of planar surface structures from time-of-flight camera data. The concept is based on a planar surface segmentation that serves as the fundament for a subsequent global planar surface extraction. The evaluation demonstrates the ability of the described algorithm to detect planar surfaces form depth data of complex scenarios in real time. We compare our methods to state of the art planar surface extraction algorithms.

  14. The axial imaging plane--the main domain of the transcranial color-coded duplex ultrasonography?

    PubMed

    Bartels, Eva

    2002-11-01

    Transcranial color-coded duplex ultrasonography (TCCS) makes possible the visualization of basal cerebral arteries through color-coding the flow velocity information. This method is well established in the clinical routine for the diagnostics of pathological processes in cerebrovascular disease. The present review describes the examination technique, normal and pathological findings, such as stenosis and occlusion of intracranial arteries, as well as intracranial vascular malformations focussing on the advantages of the examination in the axial imaging planes. PMID:12470850

  15. Fast Spheres, Shadows, Textures, Transparencies, and Image Enhancements in Pixel-Planes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry Fuchs; Jack Goldfeather; Jeff P. Hultquist; Susan Spach; John D. Austin; Frederick P. Brooks Jr.; John G. Eyles; John Poulton

    1985-01-01

    Pixel-planes is a logic-enhanced memory system for raster graphics and imaging. Although each pixel-memory is enhanced with a one-bit ALU, the system's real power comes from a tree of one-bit adders that can evaluate linear expressions can accept the results. We and others have begun to develop a variety of algorithms that exploit this fast linear expression evaluation capability. In

  16. Fast functional imaging of multiple brain regions in intact zebrafish larvae using Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Panier, Thomas; Romano, Sebastián A.; Olive, Raphaël; Pietri, Thomas; Sumbre, Germán; Candelier, Raphaël; Debrégeas, Georges

    2013-01-01

    The optical transparency and the small dimensions of zebrafish at the larval stage make it a vertebrate model of choice for brain-wide in-vivo functional imaging. However, current point-scanning imaging techniques, such as two-photon or confocal microscopy, impose a strong limit on acquisition speed which in turn sets the number of neurons that can be simultaneously recorded. At 5 Hz, this number is of the order of one thousand, i.e., approximately 1–2% of the brain. Here we demonstrate that this limitation can be greatly overcome by using Selective-plane Illumination Microscopy (SPIM). Zebrafish larvae expressing the genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP3 were illuminated with a scanned laser sheet and imaged with a camera whose optical axis was oriented orthogonally to the illumination plane. This optical sectioning approach was shown to permit functional imaging of a very large fraction of the brain volume of 5–9-day-old larvae with single- or near single-cell resolution. The spontaneous activity of up to 5,000 neurons was recorded at 20 Hz for 20–60 min. By rapidly scanning the specimen in the axial direction, the activity of 25,000 individual neurons from 5 different z-planes (approximately 30% of the entire brain) could be simultaneously monitored at 4 Hz. Compared to point-scanning techniques, this imaging strategy thus yields a ?20-fold increase in data throughput (number of recorded neurons times acquisition rate) without compromising the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The extended field of view offered by the SPIM method allowed us to directly identify large scale ensembles of neurons, spanning several brain regions, that displayed correlated activity and were thus likely to participate in common neural processes. The benefits and limitations of SPIM for functional imaging in zebrafish as well as future developments are briefly discussed. PMID:23576959

  17. In-plane displacement and strain measurements using a camera phone and digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Liping; Pan, Bing

    2014-05-01

    In-plane displacement and strain measurements of planar objects by processing the digital images captured by a camera phone using digital image correlation (DIC) are performed in this paper. As a convenient communication tool for everyday use, the principal advantages of a camera phone are its low cost, easy accessibility, and compactness. However, when used as a two-dimensional DIC system for mechanical metrology, the assumed imaging model of a camera phone may be slightly altered during the measurement process due to camera misalignment, imperfect loading, sample deformation, and temperature variations of the camera phone, which can produce appreciable errors in the measured displacements. In order to obtain accurate DIC measurements using a camera phone, the virtual displacements caused by these issues are first identified using an unstrained compensating specimen and then corrected by means of a parametric model. The proposed technique is first verified using in-plane translation and out-of-plane translation tests. Then, it is validated through a determination of the tensile strains and elastic properties of an aluminum specimen. Results of the present study show that accurate DIC measurements can be conducted using a common camera phone provided that an adequate correction is employed.

  18. Sentinel lymph nodes detection with an imaging system using Patent Blue V dye as fluorescent tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellier, F.; Steibel, J.; Chabrier, R.; Rodier, J. F.; Pourroy, G.; Poulet, P.

    2013-03-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the gold standard to detect metastatic invasion from primary breast cancer. This method can help patients avoid full axillary chain dissection, thereby decreasing the risk of morbidity. We propose an alternative to the traditional isotopic method, to detect and map the sentinel lymph nodes. Indeed, Patent Blue V is the most widely used dye in clinical routine for the visual detection of sentinel lymph nodes. A Recent study has shown the possibility of increasing the fluorescence quantum yield of Patent Blue V, when it is bound to human serum albumin. In this study we present a preclinical fluorescence imaging system to detect sentinel lymph nodes labeled with this fluorescent tracer. The setup is composed of a black and white CCD camera and two laser sources. One excitation source with a laser emitting at 635 nm and a second laser at 785 nm to illuminate the region of interest. The prototype is operated via a laptop. Preliminary experiments permitted to determine the device sensitivity in the ?mol.L-1 range as regards the detection of PBV fluorescence signals. We also present a preclinical evaluation performed on Lewis rats, during which the fluorescence imaging setup detected the accumulation and fixation of the fluorescent dye on different nodes through the skin.

  19. Sentinel lymph nodes fluorescence detection and imaging using Patent Blue V bound to human serum albumin

    PubMed Central

    Tellier, Franklin; Steibel, Jérôme; Chabrier, Renée; Blé, François Xavier; Tubaldo, Hervé; Rasata, Ravelo; Chambron, Jacques; Duportail, Guy; Simon, Hervé; Rodier, Jean-François; Poulet, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Patent Blue V (PBV), a dye used clinically for sentinel lymph node detection, was mixed with human serum albumin (HSA). After binding to HSA, the fluorescence quantum yield increased from 5 × 10?4 to 1.7 × 10?2, which was enough to allow fluorescence detection and imaging of its distribution. A detection threshold, evaluated in scattering test objects, lower than 2.5 nmol × L?1 was obtained, using a single-probe setup with a 5-mW incident light power. The detection sensitivity using a fluorescence imaging device was in the µmol × L?1 range, with a noncooled CCD camera. Preclinical evaluation was performed on a rat model and permitted to observe inflamed nodes on all animals. PMID:23024922

  20. Comparative evaluation of methylene blue and demeclocycline for enhancing optical contrast of gliomas in optical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, Dennis; Snuderl, Matija; Curry, William; Yaroslavsky, Anna

    2014-09-01

    Contrast agents have shown to be useful in the detection of cancers. The goal of this study was to compare enhancement of brain cancer contrast using reflectance and fluorescence confocal imaging of two fluorophores, methylene blue (MB) and demeclocycline (DMN). MB absorbs light in the red spectral range and fluoresces in the near-infrared. It is safe for in vivo staining of human skin and breast tissue. However, its safety for staining human brain is questionable. Thus, DMN, which absorbs light in the violet spectral range and fluoresces between 470 and 570 nm, could provide a safer alternative to MB. Fresh human gliomas, obtained from surgeries, were cut in half and stained with aqueous solutions of MB and DMN, respectively. Stained tissues were imaged using multimodal confocal microscopy. Resulting reflectance and fluorescence optical images were compared with hematoxylin and eosin histopathology, processed from each imaged tissue. Results indicate that images of tissues stained with either stain exhibit comparable contrast and resolution of morphological detail. Further studies are required to establish the safety and efficacy of these contrast agents for use in human brain.

  1. Massively-parallel electrical-conductivity imaging of hydrocarbonsusing the Blue Gene/L supercomputer

    SciTech Connect

    Commer, M.; Newman, G.A.; Carazzone, J.J.; Dickens, T.A.; Green,K.E.; Wahrmund, L.A.; Willen, D.E.; Shiu, J.

    2007-05-16

    Large-scale controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM)three-dimensional (3D) geophysical imaging is now receiving considerableattention for electrical conductivity mapping of potential offshore oiland gas reservoirs. To cope with the typically large computationalrequirements of the 3D CSEM imaging problem, our strategies exploitcomputational parallelism and optimized finite-difference meshing. Wereport on an imaging experiment, utilizing 32,768 tasks/processors on theIBM Watson Research Blue Gene/L (BG/L) supercomputer. Over a 24-hourperiod, we were able to image a large scale marine CSEM field data setthat previously required over four months of computing time ondistributed clusters utilizing 1024 tasks on an Infiniband fabric. Thetotal initial data misfit could be decreased by 67 percent within 72completed inversion iterations, indicating an electrically resistiveregion in the southern survey area below a depth of 1500 m below theseafloor. The major part of the residual misfit stems from transmitterparallel receiver components that have an offset from the transmittersail line (broadside configuration). Modeling confirms that improvedbroadside data fits can be achieved by considering anisotropic electricalconductivities. While delivering a satisfactory gross scale image for thedepths of interest, the experiment provides important evidence for thenecessity of discriminating between horizontal and verticalconductivities for maximally consistent 3D CSEM inversions.

  2. Use of Fluorescence Imaging in Combination with Patent Blue Dye versus Patent Blue Dye Alone in Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Meng; Gao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Near-infrared fluorescence imaging with indocyanine green (ICG) has the potential to improve sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping in breast cancer. In this clinical trial, we compared the potential value of ICG combined with blue dye with that of blue dye alone for detecting SLNs. Methods Patients undergoing SLN biopsy (SLNB) between November 2010 and November 2013 were included. Up to December 2011, SLNs were detected by using patent blue (PB) alone, and since January 2012, by using PB in combination with ICG. The patients were divided into the following two groups: group A (ICG-PB; n=96) and group B (PB; n=73), and SLN detection parameters were compared between the groups. All patients underwent level I and II axillary dissections after SLNB. Results In group A, the SLN detection rate was 96.9% (93/96), the accuracy of detection was 98.9% (92/93), and the false-negative rate (FNR) was 3.4% (1/29). In group B, the SLN detection rate was 84.9% (62/73), the accuracy of detection was 96.8% (60/62), and the FNR was 11.1% (2/18). The ICG-PB group showed significantly superior results compared to the PB group for SLN detection (p=0.005) and a greatly improved FNR. Conclusion The combined fluorescence and blue dye-based tracer technique was superior to the use of blue dye alone for identifying SLNs, and for predicting axillary lymph node status in patients with breast cancer; in addition, the combined technique had reduced false-negative results. PMID:25320623

  3. Midsagittal plane extraction from brain images based on 3D SIFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huisi; Wang, Defeng; Shi, Lin; Wen, Zhenkun; Ming, Zhong

    2014-03-01

    Midsagittal plane (MSP) extraction from 3D brain images is considered as a promising technique for human brain symmetry analysis. In this paper, we present a fast and robust MSP extraction method based on 3D scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT). Unlike the existing brain MSP extraction methods, which mainly rely on the gray similarity, 3D edge registration or parameterized surface matching to determine the fissure plane, our proposed method is based on distinctive 3D SIFT features, in which the fissure plane is determined by parallel 3D SIFT matching and iterative least-median of squares plane regression. By considering the relative scales, orientations and flipped descriptors between two 3D SIFT features, we propose a novel metric to measure the symmetry magnitude for 3D SIFT features. By clustering and indexing the extracted SIFT features using a k-dimensional tree (KD-tree) implemented on graphics processing units, we can match multiple pairs of 3D SIFT features in parallel and solve the optimal MSP on-the-fly. The proposed method is evaluated by synthetic and in vivo datasets, of normal and pathological cases, and validated by comparisons with the state-of-the-art methods. Experimental results demonstrated that our method has achieved a real-time performance with better accuracy yielding an average yaw angle error below 0.91° and an average roll angle error no more than 0.89°.

  4. Simultaneous optical trapping of microparticles in multiple planes by a modified self-imaging effect on a chip

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y. Y.; Bu, J.; Ong, L. S.; Yuan, X.-C. [College of Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2007-07-30

    The authors propose a three-dimensional (3D) optical trapping of microparticles in multiple planes simultaneously based on a modified self-imaging effect. Similar to the Talbot self-imaging effect, the modified self-imaging effect is induced by a layer of trapped particles and it is subsequently used as a periodic grating structure to generate its own self-imaging pattern in 3D. Based on this secondary layer-by-layer self-imaging effect, optical trapping of silica and polystyrene colloidal particles at different planes in a microchamber are demonstrated experimentally.

  5. Medical image compression using cubic spline interpolation with bit-plane compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Trieu-Kien; Chen, Shi-Huang; Lin, Tsung-Ching

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, a modified medical image compression algorithm using cubic spline interpolation (CSI) is presented for telemedicine applications. The CSI is developed in order to subsample image data with minimal distortion and to achieve compression. It has been shown in literatures that the CSI can be combined with the JPEG algorithms to develop a modified JPEG codec, which obtains a higher compression ratio and a better quality of reconstructed image than the standard JPEG. However, this modified JPEG codec will lose some high-frequency components of medical images during compression process. To minimize the drawback arose from loss of these high-frequency components, this paper further makes use of bit-plane compensation to the modified JPEG codec. The bit-plane compensation algorithm used in this paper is modified from JBIG2 standard. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme can increase 20~30% compression ratio of original JPEG medical data compression system with similar visual quality. This system can reduce the loading of telecommunication networks and is quite suitable for low bit-rate telemedicine applications.

  6. Brown-Roberts-Wells stereotactic frame modifications to accomplish magnetic resonance imaging guidance in three planes.

    PubMed

    Heilbrun, M P; Sunderland, P M; McDonald, P R; Wells, T H; Cosman, E; Ganz, E

    1987-01-01

    The Brown-Roberts-Wells (BRW) computer tomography (CT) stereotactic guidance system has been modified to accommodate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A smaller head ring, which fits in standard MRI head coils, is constructed of a non-ferromagnetic aluminum ring that is split to prevent eddy currents and anodized to prevent MRI image distortion and resolution degradation. A new localizing device has been designed in a box configuration, which allows BRW stereotactic coordinates to be calculated from coronal and sagittal MRI images, in addition to axial images. The system was tested utilizing a phantom and T1- and T2-weighted images. Using 5-mm MRI scan slices, targets were localized accurately to a 5-mm cube in three combined planes. Optimized calibration of both low field strength (0.3 T) and high field strength (1.5 T) MRI systems is necessary to obtain thin slice (5 mm) images with acceptable image resolution. To date, 10 patients have had MRI stereotactic localization of brain lesions that were better defined by MRI than CT. PMID:3329837

  7. Multiple binary images hiding with bit-plane composition and jigsaw transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yishi; Wang, Yali; Yang, Yuhua; Zhang, Jingjuan

    2010-11-01

    A new scheme for multiple binary image hiding is proposed. The digital methods of the bit-plane composition and the jigsaw transform are both introduced into the double phase modulated system. By the combination of the digital and the optical methods, the direct superposition of multiple images in most of present techniques is easily avoided. As a result, the proposed scheme is available to hide sixteen binary images without any noises. It implies that a quite satisfactory trade-off between the fidelity and the multiplexing capacity is achieved. According to the results of computer simulations, we also analyze the performances of the proposed scheme including the security, the complexity and the flexibility.

  8. The Second Epoch Molonglo Galactic Plane Survey: Images and Candidate Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, A. J.; Reeves, S. N.; Murphy, T.

    2014-11-01

    The second epoch Molonglo Galactic Plane Survey covers the area 245° ? l ? 365° and |b| ? 10° at a frequency of 843 MHz and an angular resolution of 45 arcsec × 45 arcsec cosec(?). The sensitivity varies between 1-2 mJy beam- 1 depending on the presence of strong extended sources. This survey is currently the highest resolution and most sensitive large-scale continuum survey of the southern Galactic plane. In this paper, we present the images of the complete survey, including postage stamps of some new supernova remnant (SNR) candidates and a discussion of the highly structured features detected in the interstellar medium. The intersection of these two types of features is discussed in the context of the `missing' SNR population in the Galaxy.

  9. Simulations of partially coherent focal plane imaging arrays: Fisher matrix approach to performance evaluation

    E-print Network

    George Saklatvala; Michael P. Hobson; Stafford Withington

    2007-03-07

    Focal plane arrays of bolometers are increasingly employed in astronomy at far--infrared to millimetre wavelengths. The focal plane fields and the detectors are both partially coherent in these systems, but no account has previously been taken of the effect of partial coherence on array performance. In this paper, we use our recently developed coupled--mode theory of detection together with Fisher information matrix techniques from signal processing to characterize the behaviour of partially coherent imaging arrays. We investigate the effects of the size and coherence length of both the source and the detectors, and the packing density of the array, on the amount of information that can be extracted from observations with such arrays.

  10. Detection of cracks under cladding using magneto-optic imaging and rotating in-plane magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, Gerald L.; Skaugset, Richard L.; Thome, David K.; Shih, William C.

    1996-11-01

    Conventional nondestructive inspection (NDI) of steel components, using magnetic particle, flux-leakage or near surface ultrasonic methods, is rendered difficult by the presence of protective coatings such as paint or stainless- steel cladding. Thick-section nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs), having as-welded cladding up to 0.25 inches thick are a case in point. Here, magnetic particle techniques do not work and ultrasonic techniques are difficult to apply because of cladding roughens and variable elastic properties in the cladding and the weld interface. An NDI technique that is essentially unaffected by standard thicknesses of protective coatings would be a major advance. Magneto-optic imaging is one such technique. While conventional magneto-optic/eddy current imagers (MOIs) are a proven technology in the NDI of nonferromagnetic conductors, they do not possess a self-contained method for magnetizing steel. The purpose of this work was to develop methods for producing rotating, in-plane magnetization and then combine this technology with magneto-optic imaging to produce a self-contained instrument capable of real-time imaging of cracks in steel through protective coatings. We successfully demonstrated rotating in-plane magnetization using special 'quadrature' magnetic-yokes designed to accommodate both flat and cylindrical steel surfaces. The yokes were attached one at a time, to an MOI of reduced size, and the combined system was placed on a sample of the appropriate curvature containing cracks. A two-channel power amplifier was used to drive the yoke coils in quadrature. The resulting crack images were found to be much less sensitive to liftoff than conventional magnetic particle or flux-leakage NDI. In particular, cracks in steel were successfully imaged through 0.125 inches of stainless-steel cladding, making it likely that images of cracks in steel under even thicker cladding should be possible after further development of the technology. Unlike conventional magnetic particle or flux- leakage NDI, where crack orientation is important, rotating in-plane magnetization renders crack orientation irrelevant. Finally, because of these successes, the new NDI technology for steel should find many important applications.

  11. Automated detection of midsagittal plane in MR images of the head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Deming; Chalk, Jonathan B.; Doddrell, David M.; Semple, James

    2001-07-01

    A fully automated and robust method is presented for dividing MR 3D images of the human brain into two hemispheres. The method is developed specifically to deal with pathologically affected brains or brains in which the longitudinal fissure (LF) is significantly widened due to ageing or atrophy associated with neuro-degenerative processes. To provide a definitive estimate of the mid- sagittal plane, the method combines longitudinal fissure lines detected in both axial and corona slices of T1- weighted MR images and then fit these lines to a 3D plane. The method was applied to 36 brain MR image data sets (15 of them arising from subjects with probable Alzheimer's disease) all exhibiting some degrees of widened fissures and/or significant asymmetry due to pathology. Visual inspection of the results revealed that the separation was highly accurate and satisfactory. In some cases (5 in total), there were minor degrees of asymmetry in the posterior fossa structures despite successful splitting of cerebral cortex.

  12. Summary of the operational land imager focal plane array for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindahl, Kirk A.; Burmester, William; Malone, Kevin; Schrein, Ronald J.; Irwin, Ronda; Donley, Eric; Collins, Sandra R.

    2011-10-01

    The Landsat missions are the longest continuous record of changes in the Earth's surface as seen from space. The next follow-on activity is the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). The LDCM objective is to extend the ability to detect and quantitatively characterize changes on the global land surface at a scale where natural and man-made causes of change can be detected and differentiated. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) is one of two instruments on the LDCM spacecraft. OLI will produce science data for the reflective bands, which include 6 visible and near-infrared (VNIR) and 3 short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands. The OLI instrument utilizes a pushbroom design with 15.5 degree field of view. As a result, the OLI Focal Plane Array (FPA) cross track dimension is large, and the FPA is a critical technology for the success of the mission. The FPA contains 14 critically aligned Focal Plane Modules (FPM) and consists of 6916 imaging pixels in each of the 8 multi-spectral bands, and 13,832 imaging pixels in the panchromatic band. Prior to integration into the FPA, the FPMs were characterized for radiometric, spectral, and spatial performance. The Flight FPA has been built and its performance has also been characterized. In this paper, the critical attributes of the FPMs and FPA are highlighted. Detailed description of the FPM and FPA test sets are provided. The performance results that demonstrate compliance to the science mission requirements are presented.

  13. Stolt’s f-k migration for plane wave ultrasound imaging

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Damien; Le Tarnec, Louis; Muth, Stéphan; Montagnon, Emmanuel; Porée, Jonathan; Cloutier, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Ultrafast ultrasound is an emerging modality that offers new perspectives and opportunities in medical imaging. Plane wave imaging (PWI) allows one to attain very high frame rates by transmission of planar ultrasound wavefronts. As a plane wave reaches a given scatterer, the latter becomes a secondary source emitting upward spherical waves and creating a diffraction hyperbola in the received RF (radio-frequency) signals. To produce an image of the scatterers, all the hyperbolas must be migrated back to their apexes. In order to perform beamforming of plane wave echo RFs and return high-quality images at high frame rates, we propose a new migration method carried out in the frequency-wavenumber (f-k) domain. The f-k migration for PWI has been adapted from the Stolt migration for seismic imaging. This migration technique is based on the exploding reflector model (ERM), which consists in assuming that all the scatterers explode in concert and become acoustic sources. The classical ERM model, however, is not appropriate for PWI. We showed that the ERM can be made suitable for PWI by a spatial transformation of the hyperbolic traces present in the RF data. In vitro experiments were performed to sketch the advantages of PWI with Stolt’s f-k migration over the conventional delay-and-sum (DAS) approach. The Stolt’s f-k migration was also compared with the Fourier-based method developed by J-Y Lu. Our findings show that multi-angle compounded f-k migrated images are of quality similar to those obtained with a state-of-the-art dynamic focusing mode. This remained true even with a very small number of steering angles thus ensuring a highly competitive frame rate. In addition, the new FFT-based f-k migration provides comparable or better contrast-to-noise ratio and lateral resolution than the Lu’s and DAS migration schemes. Matlab codes of the Stolt’s f-k migration for PWI are provided. PMID:24626107

  14. The study of blue LED to induce fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging for oral carcinoma detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Longjiang; Hu, Yuanting

    2009-07-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging diagnosis of malignant lesions provides us with a new method to diagnose diseases in precancerous stage. Early diagnosis of disease has significant importance in cancer treatment, because most cancers can be cured well in precancerous, especially when the diffusion of cancer is limited in a restricted region. In this study, Golden hamster models were applied to 5% 9, 10 dimethyl-1, 2-benzanthracene (DMBA) to induce hamster buccal cheek pouch carcinoma three times a week. Rose Bengal, which has been used in clinican for years and avoids visible side-effect to human was chosen as photosensitizer. 405 nm blue LED was used to induce the fluorescence of photosensitizer. After topical application of photosensitizer, characteristic red emission fluorescence peak was observed around 600nm. Similar, normal oral cavity has special luminescence around 480nm. Fluorescence spectroscopy technology is based on analysing emission peaks of photosensitizer in the areas of oral carcinoma, moreover, red-to-green (IR/IG) intensity ratio is also applied as a diagnostic algorithm. A CCD which is connected with a computer is used to take pictures at carcinoma areas through different filters. Fluorescence images from normal hamster buccal cheek pouch are compared with those from carcinogen-induced models of carcinoma, and morphological differences between normal and lesion tissue can be distinguished. The pictures are analyzed by Matlab and shown on the screen of computer. This paper demonstrates that Rose Bengal could be used as photosensitizer to detect oral carcinoma, and blue LED as excitation source could not only have a good effect to diagnose oral carcinoma, but also decrease cost greatly.

  15. Semiconductor detectors and focal plane arrays for far-infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogalski, A.

    2013-12-01

    The detection of far-infrared (far-IR) and sub-mm-wave radiation is resistant to the commonly employed techniques in the neighbouring microwave and IR frequency bands. In this wavelength detection range the use of solid state detectors has been hampered for the reasons of transit time of charge carriers being larger than the time of one oscillation period of radiation. Also the energy of radiation quanta is substantially smaller than the thermal energy at room temperature and even liquid nitrogen temperature. The realization of terahertz (THz) emitters and receivers is a challenge because the frequencies are too high for conventional electronics and the photon energies are too small for classical optics. Development of semiconductor focal plane arrays started in seventies last century and has revolutionized imaging systems in the next decades. This paper presents progress in far-IR and sub-mm-wave semiconductor detector technology of focal plane arrays during the past twenty years. Special attention is given on recent progress in the detector technologies for real-time uncooled THz focal plane arrays such as Schottky barrier arrays, field-effect transistor detectors, and microbolometers. Also cryogenically cooled silicon and germanium extrinsic photoconductor arrays, and semiconductor bolometer arrays are considered.

  16. Imaging of mesoscopic-scale organisms using selective-plane optoacoustic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razansky, Daniel; Vinegoni, Claudio; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2009-05-01

    Mesoscopic-scale living organisms (i.e. 1 mm to 1 cm sized) remain largely inaccessible by current optical imaging methods due to intensive light scattering in tissues. Therefore, imaging of many important model organisms, such as insects, fishes, worms and similarly sized biological specimens, is currently limited to embryonic or other transparent stages of development. This makes it difficult to relate embryonic cellular and molecular mechanisms to consequences in organ function and animal behavior in more advanced stages and adults. Herein, we have developed a selective-plane illumination optoacoustic tomography technique for in vivo imaging of optically diffusive organisms and tissues. The method is capable of whole-body imaging at depths from the sub-millimeter up to centimeter range with a scalable spatial resolution in the order of magnitude of a few tenths of microns. In contrast to pure optical methods, the spatial resolution here is not determined nor limited by light diffusion; therefore, such performance cannot be achieved by any other optical imaging technology developed so far. The utility of the method is demonstrated on several whole-body models and small-animal extremities.

  17. EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT AND MORPHOMETRY IN THE BLUE KING CRAB PARALITHODES PLATYPUS STUDIED BY USING IMAGE AND CLUSTER ANALYSIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BRADLEY G. STEVENS

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the embryonic development of laboratory-reared blue king crab, Paralithodes platypus, from the Pribilof Islands in the eastern Bering Sea is described. Developing embryos were removed from a female crab at various intervals, digitally photographed under a compound microscope and analyzed using Image-Pro Plus. Nine morphometric parameters were used, including seven measurements (total area, yolk area, embryo length

  18. Detection of moving objects in image plane for robot navigation using monocular vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yin-Tien; Sun, Chung-Hsun; Chiou, Ming-Jang

    2012-12-01

    This article presents an algorithm for moving object detection (MOD) in robot visual simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). This MOD algorithm is designed based on the defining epipolar constraint for the corresponding feature points on image plane. An essential matrix obtained using the state estimator is utilized to represent the epipolar constraint. Meanwhile, the method of speeded-up robust feature (SURF) is employed in the algorithm to provide a robust detection for image features as well as a better description of landmarks and of moving objects in visual SLAM system. Experiments are carried out on a hand-held monocular camera to verify the performances of the proposed algorithm. The results show that the integration of MOD and SURF is efficient for robot navigating in dynamic environments.

  19. Automatic standard plane adjustment on mobile C-Arm CT images of the calcaneus using atlas-based feature registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehler, Michael; Görres, Joseph; Wolf, Ivo; Franke, Jochen; von Recum, Jan; Grützner, Paul A.; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Nabers, Diana

    2014-03-01

    Intraarticular fractures of the calcaneus are routinely treated by open reduction and internal fixation followed by intraoperative imaging to validate the repositioning of bone fragments. C-Arm CT offers surgeons the possibility to directly verify the alignment of the fracture parts in 3D. Although the device provides more mobility, there is no sufficient information about the device-to-patient orientation for standard plane reconstruction. Hence, physicians have to manually align the image planes in a position that intersects with the articular surfaces. This can be a time-consuming step and imprecise adjustments lead to diagnostic errors. We address this issue by introducing novel semi-/automatic methods for adjustment of the standard planes on mobile C-Arm CT images. With the semi-automatic method, physicians can quickly adjust the planes by setting six points based on anatomical landmarks. The automatic method reconstructs the standard planes in two steps, first SURF keypoints (2D and newly introduced pseudo-3D) are generated for each image slice; secondly, these features are registered to an atlas point set and the parameters of the image planes are transformed accordingly. The accuracy of our method was evaluated on 51 mobile C-Arm CT images from clinical routine with manually adjusted standard planes by three physicians of different expertise. The average time of the experts (46s) deviated from the intermediate user (55s) by 9 seconds. By applying 2D SURF key points 88% of the articular surfaces were intersected correctly by the transformed standard planes with a calculation time of 10 seconds. The pseudo-3D features performed even better with 91% and 8 seconds.

  20. THz imaging using Glow Discharge Detector (GDD) focal plane arrays and large aperture quasi optic mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeika, N. S.; Abramovich, A.; Joseph, H.; Rozban, D.; Akram, A.; Levanon, A.; Yadid-Pecht, O.; Belenky, A.; Lineykin, S.

    2010-10-01

    The properties of terahertz (THz) radiation are well known. They penetrate well most nonconducting media; there are no known biological hazards, and atmospheric attenuation and scattering is lower than for visual and IR radiation. Recently we have found that common miniature commercial neon glow discharge detector (GDD) lamps costing typically about 30 cents each exhibit high sensitivity to THz radiation, with microsecond order rise times, thus making them excellent candidates for such focal plane arrays. Based on this technology we designed, built and tested 4X4 and 8X8 GDD focal plane arrays. A line vector of 32 GDD pixels is being designed in order to increase the number of pixels in such arrays and thus the image resolution. Unique large aperture quasi optic mirrors were design and tested experimentally in this work. A new technology of light weight large aperture mirrors is proposed in this work. In this case a metal coating on plastic substrate is demonstrated. According to first experiments this technology proves to reliable with minimal deformation in LAB conditions. THz Images at 100 GHz were taken using this new inexpensive technology with good quality and resolution.

  1. Solid-state image sensor with focal-plane digital photon-counting pixel array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A photosensitive layer such as a-Si for a UV/visible wavelength band is provided for low light level imaging with at least a separate CMOS amplifier directly connected to each PIN photodetector diode to provide a focal-plane array of NxN pixels, and preferably a separate photon-counting CMOS circuit directly connected to each CMOS amplifier, although one row of counters may be time shared for reading out the photon flux rate of each diode in the array, together with a buffer memory for storing all rows of the NxN image frame before transfer to suitable storage. All CMOS circuitry is preferably fabricated in the same silicon layer as the PIN photodetector diode for a monolithic structure, but when the wavelength band of interest requires photosensitive material different from silicon, the focal-plane array may be fabricated separately on a different semiconductor layer bump-bonded or otherwise bonded for a virtually monolithic structure with one free terminal of each diode directly connected to the input terminal of its CMOS amplifier and digital counter for integration of the photon flux rate at each photodetector of the array.

  2. Spatiotemporal object-based image analyses in the Blue Nile area using optical multispectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Abbas, Mustafa M.; Csaplovics, E.

    2012-10-01

    Considering the dramatic change occurred in the Blue Nile region of Sudan, this study is of great value for developing a method for identification of forestland cover extents, integrating rate of changes and causes. The study utilizes three consecutive optical multispectral images, two LANDSAT TM images of 1990 and 1999 as well as TERRA ASTER image of 2009 to evaluate forest cover dynamics during the period 1990 to 2009. The method adopted in this research consists in cross operation of classified images of different points in time, which utilizes the overlaying images to be compared for change detection. New layer of segments was created representing the change areas as well as the overlapped areas of each pair of classified images. Consequently, a series of optimized algorithms have been developed to estimate the change in Land Use Land Cover (LULC). At the fundamental stage, smooth and accurate classified images are very essential for any post-classification change detection technique, which were typically achieved by object-based approach (OB) with overall accuracy 91 %, 93 % and 95 % for the years 1990, 1999 and 2009 respectively. Nine LULC classes were generated from each, i.e. agriculture (Ag.), bare-land (Br.), crop-land (Cr.), dense-forest (DF), grassland (Gr.), orchard (Or.), scattered-forest (SF), settlements (St.) and water (W). Therefore, and considering the dramatic change observed in the area, the fusion operation of multi-temporal data results initially in quite numerous change "from-to" information classes, which allows for aggregation of these classes at any hierarchical level of details. Moreover, the developed approach allows the operator to effectively know the spatial pattern of change, trend and magnitude of the dynamics occurred in each of the classified LULC classes. While many change-detection techniques have been developed, a little has been done to assess the quality of these techniques. Hence, the change maps resulting from cross operation were assessed, which reveals that, the accuracies of the change maps for the two time intervals were consistently high.

  3. Visualization of peripheral vasodilative indices in human skin by use of red, green, blue images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishidate, Izumi; Tanaka, Noriyuki; Kawase, Tatsuya; Maeda, Takaaki; Yuasa, Tomonori; Aizu, Yoshihisa; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Niizeki, Kyuichi

    2013-06-01

    We propose a method to visualize the arterial inflow, the vascular resistance, and the venous capacitance in the skin tissue from red, green, blue (RGB) digital color images. The arterial inflow and the venous capacitance in the skin tissue are visualized based on an increase in the rate of change in the total blood concentration and the change of the total blood concentration during upper limb occlusion at a pressure of 50 mmHg. The resultant arterial inflow with the measured mean arterial pressure also provides an image of the vascular resistance in human skin. The arterial inflow, the vascular resistance, and the venous capacitance acquired by the method are well correlated with those obtained from the conventional strain-gauge plethysmograph. The correlation coefficients R between the estimated values by the method and the measurements by the SPG are calculated to be 0.83 (P<0.001) for the arterial inflow, 0.77 (P<0.01) for the vascular resistance, and 0.77 (P<0.01) for the venous capacitance. The arterial inflow and the venous capacitance in the skin tissue are significantly higher in active subjects compared with the sedentary subjects, whereas the vascular resistance was significantly lower in the active subjects compared with the sedentary subjects. The results of the present study indicate the possibility of using the proposed method for evaluating the peripheral vascular functions in human skin.

  4. Simultaneous quantification of flow and tissue velocities based on multi-angle plane wave imaging.

    PubMed

    Ekroll, Ingvild Kinn; Swillens, Abigail; Segers, Patrick; Dahl, Torbjørn; Torp, Hans; Lovstakken, Lasse

    2013-04-01

    A quantitative angle-independent 2-D modality for flow and tissue imaging based on multi-angle plane wave acquisition was evaluated. Simulations of realistic flow in a carotid artery bifurcation were used to assess the accuracy of the vector Doppler (VD) technique. Reduction in root mean square deviation from 27 cm/s to 6 cm/s and 7 cm/s to 2 cm/s was found for the lateral (vx) and axial (vz) velocity components, respectively, when the ensemble size was increased from 8 to 50. Simulations of a Couette flow phantom (vmax = 2.7 cm/s) gave promising results for imaging of slowly moving tissue, with root mean square deviation of 4.4 mm/s and 1.6 mm/s for the x- and z-components, respectively. A packet acquisition scheme providing both B-mode and vector Doppler RF data was implemented on a research scanner, and beamforming and further post-processing was done offline. In vivo results of healthy volunteers were in accordance with simulations and gave promising results for flow and tissue vector velocity imaging. The technique was also tested in patients with carotid artery disease. Using the high ensemble vector Doppler technique, blood flow through stenoses and secondary flow patterns were better visualized than in ordinary color Doppler. Additionally, the full velocity spectrum could be obtained retrospectively for arbitrary points in the image. PMID:23549533

  5. Development of a nile-blue based chemodosimeter for hg(2+) in aqueous solution and its application in biological imaging.

    PubMed

    Hu, Mingming; Yin, Jianhua; Li, Yahong; Zhao, Xiaofang

    2015-03-01

    A Nile blue-based chemodosimeter was newly synthesized. It can detect Hg(2+) in aqueous solution based on desulfurization reaction. Upon its addition into aqueous Hg(2+) ion solution, it exhibited a considerable blue-shift in its absorption and obvious fluorescence quenching. The detection mechanism was proved by mass spectrometry analysis and Gaussian calculations. Detection at an emission of 685 nm was extremely sensitive, with a detection limit of 2.5?×?10(-9) mol/L. The fluorescent images in living cells and zebrafish demonstrate its potential for studying the accumulation of mercury species in organism. PMID:25666716

  6. Mercury cadmium telluride focal-plane array detection for mid-infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Kidder, L H; Levin, I W; Lewis, E N; Kleiman, V D; Heilweil, E J

    1997-05-15

    By combining step-scan Fourier-transform Michelson interferometry, an infrared microscope, and mercury cadmium telluride focal-plane array image detection we have constructed a mid-infrared spectroscopic imaging system that simultaneously records high-fidelity images and spectra of materials from 3500 to 900 cm(-1) (2.8 to 11 microm) at a variety of spectral resolutions. The fidelity of the spectral images is determined by the pixel number density of the focal-plane array. Step-scan imaging principles and instrument design details are outlined. Spatial resolution measurements and infrared chemical imaging examples are presented, and the results are discussed with respect to implications for chemical analysis of biosystems and composite materials. PMID:18185647

  7. CTMRedit: a Matlab-based tool for segmenting and interpolating MRI and CT images in three orthogonal planes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Hasegawa-Johnson; Jul Setsu Chal; K. Haker

    1999-01-01

    CTMRedit is a GUI tool for viewing CT and MRI images in three orthogonal planes, for manually or automatically segmenting regions of interest (ROI), and for interpolating between outline contours to create a 3D outline surface. Features of CTMRedit include display and I\\/O of 8-bit and 16-bit image formats, easy navigation of a large image database, and easy-to-use ROI editing

  8. An Image-plane Algorithm for JWST's Non-redundant Aperture Mask Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Pueyo, Laurent; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Lacour, Sylvestre

    2015-01-01

    The high angular resolution technique of non-redundant masking (NRM) or aperture masking interferometry (AMI) has yielded images of faint protoplanetary companions of nearby stars from the ground. AMI on James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)'s Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS) has a lower thermal background than ground-based facilities and does not suffer from atmospheric instability. NIRISS AMI images are likely to have 90%-95% Strehl ratio between 2.77 and 4.8 ?m. In this paper we quantify factors that limit the raw point source contrast of JWST NRM. We develop an analytic model of the NRM point spread function which includes different optical path delays (pistons) between mask holes and fit the model parameters with image plane data. It enables a straightforward way to exclude bad pixels, is suited to limited fields of view, and can incorporate effects such as intra-pixel sensitivity variations. We simulate various sources of noise to estimate their effect on the standard deviation of closure phase, ?CP (a proxy for binary point source contrast). If ?CP < 10-4 radians—a contrast ratio of 10 mag—young accreting gas giant planets (e.g., in the nearby Taurus star-forming region) could be imaged with JWST NIRISS. We show the feasibility of using NIRISS' NRM with the sub-Nyquist sampled F277W, which would enable some exoplanet chemistry characterization. In the presence of small piston errors, the dominant sources of closure phase error (depending on pixel sampling, and filter bandwidth) are flat field errors and unmodeled variations in intra-pixel sensitivity. The in-flight stability of NIRISS will determine how well these errors can be calibrated by observing a point source. Our results help develop efficient observing strategies for space-based NRM.

  9. LOOKING THROUGH THE GALACTIC PLANE: IMAGING COLD DUST TOWARD l = 44 DEG

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Henry; Kirk, Helen; Johnstone, Doug [National Research Council Canada, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Rd, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Weferling, Bernd [University of Hannover, IDMP, Welfengarten 1, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Cohen, Martin [Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Jenness, Tim; Davis, Gary [Joint Astronomy Centre, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Evans, Aneurin [School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University (United Kingdom); Dent, William R. F. [Atacama Large Millimeter Array (Chile); Fuller, Gary [University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Jackson, James M.; Rathborne, Jill [Department Astronomy, Boston University, MA 02215 (United States); Richer, John [Mullard Radio Astronomy Obs., Cavendish Laboratory Street, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Simon, Robert [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany)], E-mail: henry.matthews@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca

    2009-11-15

    We present imaging observations of continuum emission from interstellar dust at 850 and 1200 {mu}m of a section of the Galactic Plane covering 2 deg{sup 2} centered at l = 44 DEG. Complementary jiggle-mapping and fast-scanning techniques were used, respectively, at these two wavelengths. The mapped area includes the well-known star formation regions W49 and G45.1/45.5. Using an automated clump-finding routine, we identify 132 compact 850 {mu}m emission features within the region above a completeness level of about 200 mJy beam{sup -1}. The positions of the latter objects were used to determine fluxes from the 1200 {mu}m image. Spectral line data were subsequently obtained with the same observing beamwidth as at 850 {mu}m for almost half of the objects; these were either imaged in the {sup 13}CO (3-2) line, or basic characteristics determined using the {sup 12}CO (3-2) transition. We use these data, supplemented by existing {sup 13}CO (1-0) and H I survey data, to determine distances and hence derive masses for the dust clump ensemble, assuming a uniform dust temperature of 15 K. From these data we find that the number-mass relationship for clumps in the field is similar to that found for individual star-forming regions.

  10. THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. II. CATALOG OF THE IMAGE DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna BC, V1V 1V7 (Canada); Dunham, Miranda K.; Evans, Neal J.; Harvey, Paul [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Ginsburg, Adam; Bally, John; Battersby, Cara; Glenn, Jason; Stringfellow, Guy S. [CASA, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Bradley, E. Todd [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Aguirre, James [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Cyganowski, Claudia [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Dowell, Darren [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91104 (United States); Drosback, Meredith [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Walawender, Josh [Institute for Astronomy, 640 N. Aohoku Pl., Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Williams, Jonathan P., E-mail: erik.rosolowsky@ubc.c [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    We present a catalog of 8358 sources extracted from images produced by the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS). The BGPS is a survey of the millimeter dust continuum emission from the northern Galactic plane. The catalog sources are extracted using a custom algorithm, Bolocat, which was designed specifically to identify and characterize objects in the large-area maps generated from the Bolocam instrument. The catalog products are designed to facilitate follow-up observations of these relatively unstudied objects. The catalog is 98% complete from 0.4 Jy to 60 Jy over all object sizes for which the survey is sensitive (<3.'5). We find that the sources extracted can best be described as molecular clumps-large dense regions in molecular clouds linked to cluster formation. We find that the flux density distribution of sources follows a power law with dN/dS {proportional_to} S {sup -2.4{+-}0.1} and that the mean Galactic latitude for sources is significantly below the midplane: (b) = (-0.{sup 0}095 {+-} 0.{sup 0}001).

  11. FISST Based Method for Multi-Target Tracking in the Image Plane of Optical Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yang; Xu, Hui; An, Wei; Xu, Dan

    2012-01-01

    A finite set statistics (FISST)-based method is proposed for multi-target tracking in the image plane of optical sensors. The method involves using signal amplitude information in probability hypothesis density (PHD) filter which is derived from FISST to improve multi-target tracking performance. The amplitude of signals generated by the optical sensor is modeled first, from which the amplitude likelihood ratio between target and clutter is derived. An alternative approach is adopted for the situations where the signal noise ratio (SNR) of target is unknown. Then the PHD recursion equations incorporated with signal information are derived and the Gaussian mixture (GM) implementation of this filter is given. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves significantly better performance than the generic PHD filter. Moreover, our method has much lower computational complexity in the scenario with high SNR and dense clutter. PMID:22736984

  12. Pair-Wise, Deformable Mirror, Image Plane-Based Diversity Electric Field Estimation for High Contrast Coronagraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Give'on, Amir; Kern, Brian D.; Shaklan, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe the complex electric field reconstruction from image plane intensity measurements for high contrast coronagraphic imaging. A deformable mirror (DM) surface is modied with pairs of complementary shapes to create diversity in the image plane of the science camera where the intensity of the light is measured. Along with the Electric Field Conjugation correction algorithm, this estimation method has been used in various high contrast imaging testbeds to achieve the best contrasts to date both in narrow and in broad band light. We present the basic methodology of estimation in easy to follow list of steps, present results from HCIT and raise several open quations we are confronted with using this method. XXXX We have presented a DM diversity based estimation technique for reconstruction of the complex EF in the image plane based on intensity measurements. The method uses a typical diversity methodology with a unique way of achieving the diversity. In this case, the diversity in the EF is done by changing the DM, using pairs of perturbation patterns ( "probes"). This paper described the complete details of how to solve for the EF and proposed various ways to validate the model used. Without an independent measurement of the EF, it is impossible to quantify the accuracy of each reconstruction. However, since this method is used in conjunction with the EFC correction algorithm to sub-nanometer level of correction, it is considered the best estimation technique to date. That said, there are several open questions that are presented in this paper regarding the relationship between coherent and incoherent light throughout correction runs. This estimation technique has been developed for a family of wavefront correction algorithms such as the EFC, 1 Energy Minimization8 and Stroke Minimization, 9 all requiring an estimate of the complex valued wavefront in the image plane. The EFC algorithm and the other image plane intensity measurements based correction algorithms require an estimate of the complex field in the science camera image plane in order to determine the commands of the deformable mirror to minimize the total intensity of light in a predetermined region in the image plane.1 The high contrast needed for Earth-like planet detection determines the requirements from the coronagraph and correction system. In order to avoid non-common path errors this estimation technique uses the deformable mirror (DM) to perturb the electric field (EF) at the DM's plane rather than using an additional optical path with an interferometer. 10 Moreover, a typical high contrast imaging coronagraph has masks along its optical path, as such, methods that require both forward and backward numerical propagation of the EF through the system suffer from non-uniqueness effects and/or large errors due to edge effects. The estimation method described in this paper uses only forward propagation of the EF through the coronagraph. Since the measured quantity at the science camera is the intensity of the EF, a perturbation of the EF is needed in order to retrieve the phase information that was lost. In the case presented here, we take a series of intensity measurements at the science camera plane with different changes to the DM surface (these changes to the EF are referred to as "probes" ) and estimate the EF at the science camera image plane. The modulation scheme we describe in this paper is a sequence of DM shapes with accompanying intensity measurements, each intended to exploit the nonlinear relationship of the intensity measurements to the additive EF due to the change in t he DM, which then allow determination of the EF before the probes were applied. Analogously to a phaseshifting interferometer, taking four intensity measurements with varying phase by multiples of ei1r 12 would allow unambiguous determination of the complex EF in the image plane from intensity measurements alone for every point in the plane simultaneously.1

  13. Vitamin B1 derived blue and green fluorescent carbon nanoparticles for cell-imaging application.

    PubMed

    Bhunia, Susanta Kumar; Pradhan, Nibedita; Jana, Nikhil R

    2014-05-28

    A carbon-based fluorescent nanoparticle is considered to be a new generation nontoxic nanoprobe suitable for various bioimaging and sensing applications. However, the synthesis of such a high-quality nanoparticle is challenging, and its application potential is mostly unexplored. Here we report a vitamin B1 carbonization-based approach for blue and green fluorescent carbon nanoparticles of <10 nm size with a fluorescence quantum of up to 76%. We found that carbonization of vitamin B1 in the presence of phosphate salt at ?90-130 °C for about 2 h produces highly fluorescent carbon nanoparticles of 1-6 nm size. The particle size and fluorescence property can be controlled by varying the reaction temperature and nature of phosphate salt. Elemental analysis shows the incorporation of a large percentage (up to 48 wt %) of other elements (such as nitrogen, oxygen, phophorus, and sulfur) in the carbon matrix. The chemical structure of vitamin B1 (thiamine) is unique in a sense that it consists of a large number of heteroatoms along with unsaturated bonds and offers low-temperature carbonization with the formation of a nanoparticle having an optimum ratio of sp(2) and sp(3) carbon atoms. These carbon nanoparticles have high colloidal stability and stable fluorescence and have been used as fluorescent imaging probes. PMID:24697797

  14. FRET imaging of multiple focal planes to analyze the organization and conformation of transferrin-receptor in polarized cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallrabe, Horst; Periasamy, Ammasi; Barroso, Margarida

    2009-02-01

    We developed a FRET-based assay to analyze multiple focal planes from z-staks collected using confocal imaging of polarized epithelial MDCK cells. To establish the imaging assay for multiple focal planes, we have used fixed cells, where changes in the organization and conformation of transferrin-receptor complexes between endosomes are expected to be minimized. Therefore, we indeed only see minor changes in E% throughout the endocytic pathway of polarized cells. In the future, we will apply this FRET-based assay to live polarized epithelial cells to investigate the factors involved in the regulation of the organization and conformation of membrane-bound receptors during endocytic trafficking.

  15. [Research on the neas infrared focal plane array detector imaging technology used in the laser warning].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Bin; Huang, Yan-Fei; Wang, Yao-Li; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yan-Chao

    2014-04-01

    In order to achieve the incoming laser's accurate position, it is necessary to improve the detected laser's direction resolution. The InGaAs focal plane array detector with the type of FPA-320 x 256-C was selected as the core component of the diffraction grating laser warning device. The detection theory of laser wavelength and direction based on diffraction grating was introduced. The drive circuit was designed through the analysis of the detector's performance and parameters. Under the FPGA' s timing control, the detector's analog output was sampled by the high-speed AD. The data was cached to FPGA's extended SRAM, and then transferred to a PC through USB. Labview on a PC collects the raw data for processing and displaying. The imaging experiments were completed with the above method. With the wavelength of 1550 nm and 980 nm laser from different directions the diffraction images were detected. Through analysis the location of the zero order and one order can be determined. According to the grating diffraction theory, the wavelength and the direction of the two-dimensional angle can be calculated. It indicates that the wavelength error is less than 10 nm, and the angle error is less than 1 degrees. PMID:25007645

  16. Ultrafast laser beam shaping for material processing at imaging plane by geometric masks using a spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Zheng; Li, Jiangning; Edwardson, Stuart; Perrie, Walter; Liu, Dun; Dearden, Geoff

    2015-07-01

    We have demonstrated an original ultrafast laser beam shaping technique for material processing using a spatial light modulator (SLM). Complicated and time-consuming diffraction far-field phase hologram calculations based on Fourier transformations are avoided, while simple and direct geometric masks are used to shape the incident beam at diffraction near-field. Various beam intensity shapes, such as square, triangle, ring and star, are obtained and then reconstructed at the imaging plane of an f-theta lens. The size of the shaped beam is approximately 20 ?m, which is comparable to the beam waist at the focal plane. A polished stainless steel sample is machined by the shaped beam at the imaging plane. The shape of the ablation footprint well matches the beam shape.

  17. Red-green-blue fluorescent hollow carbon nanoparticles isolated from chromatographic fractions for cellular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xiaojuan; Hu, Qin; Paau, Man Chin; Zhang, Yan; Shuang, Shaomin; Dong, Chuan; Choi, Martin M. F.

    2014-06-01

    An as-synthesised hollow carbon nanoparticle (HC-NP) sample has been proved to be a relatively complex mixture, and its complexity can be reduced significantly by high-performance liquid chromatography. An unprecedented reduction in such complexity can reveal fractions of HC-NP with unique luminescence properties. While the UV-vis absorption profile for the HC-NP mixture is featureless, the HC-NP fractions do possess unique absorption bands and specific emission wavelengths. The HC-NP fractions are fully anatomised by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry, displaying their fragmentation mass ion features. The shell thickness and crystal lattices of the selected HC-NP fractions are determined as 6.13, 8.31, 2.22, and 8.66 nm, and 0.37, 0.35, 0.33, and 0.32 nm by transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The fractionated HC-NP show profound differences in emission quantum yield, allowing for brighter HC-NP to be isolated from an apparent low quantum yield mixture. Finally, red, green and blue emissive HC-NP are isolated from the as-synthesised HC-NP sample. They show good photostability and have been demonstrated to be excellent probes for cellular imaging.An as-synthesised hollow carbon nanoparticle (HC-NP) sample has been proved to be a relatively complex mixture, and its complexity can be reduced significantly by high-performance liquid chromatography. An unprecedented reduction in such complexity can reveal fractions of HC-NP with unique luminescence properties. While the UV-vis absorption profile for the HC-NP mixture is featureless, the HC-NP fractions do possess unique absorption bands and specific emission wavelengths. The HC-NP fractions are fully anatomised by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry, displaying their fragmentation mass ion features. The shell thickness and crystal lattices of the selected HC-NP fractions are determined as 6.13, 8.31, 2.22, and 8.66 nm, and 0.37, 0.35, 0.33, and 0.32 nm by transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The fractionated HC-NP show profound differences in emission quantum yield, allowing for brighter HC-NP to be isolated from an apparent low quantum yield mixture. Finally, red, green and blue emissive HC-NP are isolated from the as-synthesised HC-NP sample. They show good photostability and have been demonstrated to be excellent probes for cellular imaging. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Plots of integrated PL intensity against absorbance of quinine sulfate and as-synthesised HC-NP product, UV-vis absorption, PL spectra and XRD of the as-synthesised HC-NP product, IR spectra of HC-NP mixture, glacial acetic acid and fractions 1-13, effect of MeOH content on HPLC separation, UV absorption and PL spectra at different excitation wavelengths of the as-prepared HC-NP product and fractions 1-13, expanded mass spectra of fractions 2, 4, 8, and 12, the time-dependence of fluorescent intensity and time-resolved spectra of the as-prepared HC-NP product and fractions 2, 4, 8, and 12, cytotoxicity test of the as-prepared HC-NP product on MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01453g

  18. Multi-beam confocal microscopy based on a custom image sensor with focal-plane pinhole array effect.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Keiichiro; Seo, Min-Woong; Yasutomi, Keita; Terakawa, Susumu; Kawahito, Shoji

    2013-01-28

    Multi-beam confocal microscopy without any physical pinhole was demonstrated. As a key device, a custom CMOS image sensor realizing a focal-plane pinhole array effect by special pixel addressing and discarding of the unwanted photocarriers was developed. The axial resolution in the confocal mode measured by FWHM for a planar mirror was 8.9 ?m, which showed that the confocality has been achieved with the proposed CMOS image sensor. PMID:23389123

  19. Left Ventricular Longitudinal Function Assessed by Speckle Tracking Ultrasound from a Single Apical Imaging Plane

    PubMed Central

    Bagger, Thomas; Sloth, Erik; Jakobsen, Carl-Johan

    2012-01-01

    Background. Transthoracic ultrasonography of the heart is valuable in monitoring and treatment of critically ill patients. Speckle tracking ultrasound (STU) has proven valid in estimating left ventricular systolic deformation. The aims of the study were to compare conventional and automated STU and to determine whether left ventricular systolic deformation could be estimated from one single imaging plane. Methods. 2D-echocardiography cine-loops were obtained from 20 patients for off-line speckle tracking analysis, consisting of manually tracing of the endocardial border (conventional method) or automatically drawn boundaries (automated method). Results. We found a bias of 0,6 (95% CI ?2.2?3.3) for global peak systolic strain comparing the automated and the conventional method. Comparing global peak systolic strain of apical 4-chamber cine-loops with averaged Global Peak Strain obtained from apical 4, 2 and long axis cine-loops, showed a bias of 0.1 (95% CI ?3.9?4.0). The agreement between subcostal 4-chamber and apical 4-chamber global peak systolic strain was 4.4 (95% CI ?3.7?12.5). Conclusion. We found good agreement between the conventional and the automated method. STU applied to single apical 4-chamber cine-loops is in excellent agreement with overall averaged global peak systolic strain, while subcostal 4-chamber cine-loops proved less compliant with speckle tracking ultrasound. PMID:22611488

  20. Image-plane Analysis of n-point-mass Lens Critical Curves and Caustics

    E-print Network

    Danek, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    The interpretation of gravitational microlensing events caused by planetary systems or multiple stars is based on the n-point mass lens model. The first planets detected by microlensing were well described by the two-point-mass model of a star with one planet. By the end of 2014, four events involving three-point-mass lenses had been announced. Two of the lenses were stars with two planetary companions each; two were binary stars with a planet orbiting one component. While the two-point-mass model is well understood, the same cannot be said for lenses with three or more components. Even the range of possible critical-curve topologies and caustic geometries of the three-point-mass lens remains unknown. In this paper we provide new tools for mapping the critical-curve topology and caustic cusp number in the parameter space of n-point-mass lenses. We perform our analysis in the image plane of the lens. We show that all contours of the Jacobian are critical curves of re-scaled versions of the lens configuration. ...

  1. Dual-view plane illumination microscopy for rapid and spatially isotropic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Abhishek; Wu, Yicong; Christensen, Ryan; Chandris, Panagiotis; Gandler, William; McCreedy, Evan; Bokinsky, Alexandra; Colón-Ramos, Daniel A; Bao, Zhirong; McAuliffe, Matthew; Rondeau, Gary; Shroff, Hari

    2015-01-01

    We describe the construction and use of a compact dual-view inverted selective plane illumination microscope (diSPIM) for time-lapse volumetric (4D) imaging of living samples at subcellular resolution. Our protocol enables a biologist with some prior microscopy experience to assemble a diSPIM from commercially available parts, to align optics and test system performance, to prepare samples, and to control hardware and data processing with our software. Unlike existing light sheet microscopy protocols, our method does not require the sample to be embedded in agarose; instead, samples are prepared conventionally on glass coverslips. Tissue culture cells and Caenorhabditis elegans embryos are used as examples in this protocol; successful implementation of the protocol results in isotropic resolution and acquisition speeds up to several volumes per s on these samples. Assembling and verifying diSPIM performance takes ~6 d, sample preparation and data acquisition take up to 5 d and postprocessing takes 3–8 h, depending on the size of the data. PMID:25299154

  2. Noninvasive Vascular Displacement Estimation for Relative Elastic Modulus Reconstruction in Transversal Imaging Planes

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Hendrik H.G.; Richards, Michael S.; Doyley, Marvin M.; de Korte, Chris L.

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerotic plaque rupture can initiate stroke or myocardial infarction. Lipid-rich plaques with thin fibrous caps have a higher risk to rupture than fibrotic plaques. Elastic moduli differ for lipid-rich and fibrous tissue and can be reconstructed using tissue displacements estimated from intravascular ultrasound radiofrequency (RF) data acquisitions. This study investigated if modulus reconstruction is possible for noninvasive RF acquisitions of vessels in transverse imaging planes using an iterative 2D cross-correlation based displacement estimation algorithm. Furthermore, since it is known that displacements can be improved by compounding of displacements estimated at various beam steering angles, we compared the performance of the modulus reconstruction with and without compounding. For the comparison, simulated and experimental RF data were generated of various vessel-mimicking phantoms. Reconstruction errors were less than 10%, which seems adequate for distinguishing lipid-rich from fibrous tissue. Compounding outperformed single-angle reconstruction: the interquartile range of the reconstructed moduli for the various homogeneous phantom layers was approximately two times smaller. Additionally, the estimated lateral displacements were a factor of 2–3 better matched to the displacements corresponding to the reconstructed modulus distribution. Thus, noninvasive elastic modulus reconstruction is possible for transverse vessel cross sections using this cross-correlation method and is more accurate with compounding. PMID:23478602

  3. 320 x 256 Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector Focal Plane Array for Long-Wave Infrared Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Jean; Rafol, Sir B.; Soibel, Alexander; Khoskhlagh, Arezou; Ting, David Z.-Y.; Liu, John K.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2012-01-01

    A 320 x 256 Complementary Barrier Infrared (CBIRD) focal plane array for long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) imaging is reported. The arrays were grown by molecular beam expitaxy (MBE) with a 300 period 1.9 um thick absorber. The mean dark current density of 2.2 x 10-4 A/cm2 was measured at an operating bias of 128 mV with a long wavelength cutoff of 8.8 ?m observed at 50% of the peak. The maximum quantum efficiency was 54% measured at 5.6 ?m. Operating at T = 80K, the array yielded an 81% fill factor with 97% operability. Good imagery with a mean noise equivalent different temperature (NE?T) of 18.6 mK and a mean detectivity of D* = 1.3 x 1011 cm-Hz1/2/W was achieved. The substrate was thinned using mechanical lapping and neither an AR coating nor a passivation layer was applied. This article provides the details of the fabrication process for achieving low-dark current LWIR CBIRD arrays. Discussion for an effective hard mask for excellent pattern transfer is given and appropriate mounting techniques for good thermal contact during the dry etching process is described. The challenges and differences between etching large 200 ?m test diodes and small 28 ?m FPA pixels are given.

  4. Intensity profile distortion at the processing image plane of a focused femtosecond laser below the critical power: Analysis and counteraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietroy, David; Baubeau, Emmanuel; Faure, Nicolas; Mauclair, Cyril

    2015-03-01

    Femtosecond laser surface processing of materials allows for precise micro or sub-micrometer machining with restricted detrimental side effects. Thus, fine control of the laser intensity distribution (repeatability) in the processing plane is of outmost importance for industrial implementation. In this paper, we study the influence on non-linear effects on the machining quality. We experimentally study the profiles of cavities machined at the image plane of a focused femtosecond laser for a large set of fluences on stainless steel below the critical power. A strong distortion of the cavities is observed for high energetic levels. A beam analysis performed in the machining conditions reveals that the cavity profile follows the laser beam profile even at high fluences where the beam undergoes an increasing distortion. Numerical calculations of the laser beam distribution taking a Kerr effect into account are presented showing a good agreement with the experimental laser profile. To counteract the beam distortion at high fluences, we propose and successfully employ a robust solution consisting in geometrically forming the image processing plane before the laser focusing point. This ensures a beam profile free of distortion even at high fluences. Experimental evidence is made, showing a significant quality increase of the cavity profiles with an image plane placed before the focus point.

  5. Imaging with a 90 frames/s microbolometer focal plane array and high-power terahertz free electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Dem'yanenko, M. A.; Esaev, D. G. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Knyazev, B. A.; Vinokurov, N. A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Kulipanov, G. N. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2008-03-31

    An uncooled microbolometer focal plane array (FPA) has been developed and used for imaging of objects illuminated by monochromatic coherent radiation of a free electron laser tunable in the range of 1.25-2.5 THz. A sensitivity threshold of 1.3x10{sup -3} W/cm{sup 2} was obtained for the FPA with a homemade absolute interferometric power meter. Videos up to 90 frames/s were recorded in both transmission and reflection/scattering modes. When objects were illuminated by laser radiation scattered by a rough metal surface, speckled images were observed. Good quality terahertz images were achieved through the fast rotation of the scatterer.

  6. Plane Groups

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dexter Perkins

    This is a lengthy PDF document (60 pages+) about plane groups and symmetry. It includes colorful images of each of the 17 plane groups, in several different forms. Additionally, there are some summarizing graphics that show unit cells, lattices, symmetry elements, etc. There is lots here to choose from -- I doubt that anyone will want to use all of the images. Studying plane groups is a good way to introduce crystal systems, point groups, lattices, symmetry operators, etc. All is in 2-D, but it is easy to tell students that the principles are the same in 3-D. For those who like to make changes, the PDF document was created from individual EPS files. This means that the files can be opened in Adobe Illustrator, Corel Draw, etc., and modified to fit your own needs.

  7. Measurement of Local Lattice Distortion in Silicon by Imaging-Plate Plane-Wave X-Ray Topography with Image Magnification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seiji Kawado; Yoshihiro Kudo; Shigeru Kojima; Kuang Yu Liu; Tetsuya Ishikawa

    1995-01-01

    One-dimensional image magnification was applied to imaging-plate plane-wave X-ray topography using synchrotron radiation, in order to improve the spatial resolution in measurements of variations in local lattice distortion in silicon. The distortion analysis was performed using the intensity change of a rocking curve obtained through a 5× magnifier crystal when the sample crystal was rotated around the Bragg angle. This

  8. Dual-plane stereoscopic particle image velocimetry: system set-up and its application on a lobed jet mixing flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, H.; Saga, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Taniguchi, N.; Yasuki, M.

    The technical basis and system set-up of a dual-plane stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) system, which can obtain the flow velocity (all three components) fields at two spatially separated planes simultaneously, is summarized. The simultaneous measurements were achieved by using two sets of double-pulsed Nd:Yag lasers with additional optics to illuminate the objective fluid flow with two orthogonally linearly polarized laser sheets at two spatially separated planes, as proposed by Kaehler and Kompenhans in 1999. The light scattered by the tracer particles illuminated by laser sheets with orthogonal linear polarization were separated by using polarizing beam-splitter cubes, then recorded by high-resolution CCD cameras. A three-dimensional in-situ calibration procedure was used to determine the relationships between the 2-D image planes and three-dimensional object fields for both position mapping and velocity three-component reconstruction. Unlike conventional two-component PIV systems or single-plane stereoscopic PIV systems, which can only get one-component of vorticity vectors, the present dual-plane stereoscopic PIV system can provide all the three components of the vorticity vectors and various auto-correlation and cross-correlation coefficients of flow variables instantaneously and simultaneously. The present dual-plane stereoscopic PIV system was applied to measure an air jet mixing flow exhausted from a lobed nozzle. Various vortex structures in the lobed jet mixing flow were revealed quantitatively and instantaneously. In order to evaluate the measurement accuracy of the present dual-plane stereoscopic PIV system, the measurement results were compared with the simultaneous measurement results of a laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) system. It was found that both the instantaneous data and ensemble-averaged values of the stereoscopic PIV measurement results and the LDV measurement results agree well. For the ensemble-averaged values of the out-of-plane velocity component at comparison points, the differences between the stereoscopic PIV and LDV measurement results were found to be less than 2%.

  9. High-power blue-violet AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, R. M.; Haeger, D. A.; Hsu, P. S.; Schmidt, M. C.; Fujito, K.; Feezell, D. F.; DenBaars, S. P.; Speck, J. S.; Nakamura, S.

    2011-10-01

    We demonstrate AlGaN-cladding-free (ACF) m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes (LDs) with peak output powers and estimated front facet optical power densities that are comparable to the state-of-the-art single-stripe emitter c-plane LDs. The threshold current density, slope efficiency, and peak output power were 4.66 kA/cm2, 1.29 W/A, and 1.6 W, respectively, after facet coating and under pulsed conditions. Catastrophic optical mirror damage was not observed up to an estimated optical power density of 51.2 MW/cm2 at the front mirror facet, indicating the potential for using ACF m-plane InGaN/GaN LDs in high-power LD applications.

  10. High-power blue-violet AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN\\/GaN laser diodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Farrell; D. A. Haeger; P. S. Hsu; M. C. Schmidt; K. Fujito; D. F. Feezell; S. P. DenBaars; J. S. Speck; S. Nakamura

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate AlGaN-cladding-free (ACF) m-plane InGaN\\/GaN laser diodes (LDs) with peak output powers and estimated front facet optical power densities that are comparable to the state-of-the-art single-stripe emitter c-plane LDs. The threshold current density, slope efficiency, and peak output power were 4.66 kA\\/cm2, 1.29 W\\/A, and 1.6 W, respectively, after facet coating and under pulsed conditions. Catastrophic optical mirror damage

  11. 3D profile reconstruction of biological sample by in-line image-plane phase-shifting digital microscopic holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaoxu; Chen, Jianpei; Liu, Shengde; Ma, Zhijian; Zhang, Zhun; Zhong, Liyun

    2012-10-01

    To improve the measuring accuracy is an important research content for digital microscopic holography (DMH) development and application. In this study, we have upgraded application of DMH through the in-line image-plane phase-shifting technique and the image correlation algorithm to reconstruct the 3D profile of a biological sample. Importantly, since this novel DMH system can obtain the phase-shifting hologram with a high ratio of signal to noise conveniently, the reconstructed algorithm of DMH and the compensation operation of the phase aberration are simplified significantly. Moreover, by using the image correlation algorithm, the digital phase mask with high precision also can be obtained easily; thus both the measuring accuracy of DMH and the quality of the reconstructed image are improved significantly. More importantly, this kind of in-line image-plane phase-shifting digital microscopic holography provides a powerful imaging tool to simultaneously reconstruct the amplitude and the phase of the measured object with submicron scale resolution.

  12. The Effect of Through-Plane Motion on Left Ventricular Rotation: A Study Using Slice Following Harmonic Phase Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Brotman, David; Zhang, Ziheng; Sampath, Smita

    2012-01-01

    Non-invasive quantification of regional left ventricular (LV) rotation may improve understanding of cardiac function. Current methods employed to quantify rotation typically acquire data on a set of prescribed short-axis slices, neglecting effects due to through-plane myocardial motion. We combine principles of slice-following tagged imaging with harmonic phase analysis methods to account for through-plane motion in regional rotation measurements. We compare rotation and torsion measurements obtained using our method to those obtained from imaging datasets acquired without slice-following. Our results in normal volunteers demonstrate differences in the general trends of average and regional rotation-time plots in mid-basal slices, and of the rotation versus circumferential strain loops. We observe substantial errors in measured peak average rotation of the order of 58% for basal slices (due to change in the pattern of the curve), ?6.6% for mid-ventricular slices, and ?8.5% for apical slices; and an average error in base-to-apex torsion of 19% when through-plane motion is not considered. This study concludes that due to an inherent base-to-apex gradient in rotation that exists in the LV, accounting for through-plane motion is critical to the accuracy of LV rotation quantification. PMID:22700308

  13. Real-time 3D millimeter wave imaging based FMCW using GGD focal plane array as detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levanon, Assaf; Rozban, Daniel; Kopeika, Natan S.; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak; Abramovich, Amir

    2014-03-01

    Millimeter wave (MMW) imaging systems are required for applications in medicine, communications, homeland security, and space technology. This is because there is no known ionization hazard for biological tissue, and atmospheric attenuation in this range of the spectrum is relatively low. The lack of inexpensive room temperature imaging systems makes it difficult to give a suitable MMW system for many of the above applications. 3D MMW imaging system based on chirp radar was studied previously using a scanning imaging system of a single detector. The system presented here proposes to employ a chirp radar method with a Glow Discharge Detector (GDD) Focal Plane Array (FPA) of plasma based detectors. Each point on the object corresponds to a point in the image and includes the distance information. This will enable 3D MMW imaging. The radar system requires that the millimeter wave detector (GDD) will be able to operate as a heterodyne detector. Since the source of radiation is a frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW), the detected signal as a result of heterodyne detection gives the object's depth information according to value of difference frequency, in addition to the reflectance of the image. In this work we experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of implementing an imaging system based on radar principles and FPA of GDD devices. This imaging system is shown to be capable of imaging objects from distances of at least 10 meters.

  14. Light Blue - Dark Blue

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This problem provides students the opportunity to explore fractions in a practical context as well as identify and explain patterns and justify their ideas. Solvers are shown a sequence of five squares shaded light blue and dark blue and are asked to find what fraction of the total area of each square is covered by light blue. They are also asked to work out what the next two squares would look like if they followed the pattern. The Teachers' Notes page offers rationale, suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, and ideas for extension and support.

  15. Epipolar-plane image analysis: An approach to determining structure from motion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Bolles; H. Harlyn Baker; David H. Marimont

    1987-01-01

    We present a technique for building a three-dimensional description of a static scene from a dense se- quence of images. These images are taken in such rapid succession that they form a solid block of data in which the temporal continuity from image to image is approximately equal to the spatial continuity in an individual image. The technique utilizes knowledge

  16. Methyl green and nitrotetrazolium blue chloride co-expression in colon tissue: A hyperspectral microscopic imaging analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingli; Liu, Hongying; Wang, Yiting; Sun, Zhen; Guo, Fangmin; Zhu, Jianzhong

    2014-12-01

    Histological observation of dual-stained colon sections is usually performed by visual observation under a light microscope, or by viewing on a computer screen with the assistance of image processing software in both research and clinical settings. These traditional methods are usually not sufficient to reliably differentiate spatially overlapping chromogens generated by different dyes. Hyperspectral microscopic imaging technology offers a solution for these constraints as the hyperspectral microscopic images contain information that allows differentiation between spatially co-located chromogens with similar but different spectra. In this paper, a hyperspectral microscopic imaging (HMI) system is used to identify methyl green and nitrotetrazolium blue chloride in dual-stained colon sections. Hyperspectral microscopic images are captured and the normalized score algorithm is proposed to identify the stains and generate the co-expression results. Experimental results show that the proposed normalized score algorithm can generate more accurate co-localization results than the spectral angle mapper algorithm. The hyperspectral microscopic imaging technology can enhance the visualization of dual-stained colon sections, improve the contrast and legibility of each stain using their spectral signatures, which is helpful for pathologist performing histological analyses.

  17. LEARNING-BASED SCAN PLANE IDENTIFICATION FROM FETAL HEAD ULTRASOUND IMAGES

    E-print Network

    measurements of specific features of fetal anatomy such as the head, abdomen, and femur are used the maternal abdomen until the fetal head is visible in a standard scan plane shown in Figure 1. In this scan

  18. Performance of an Achromatic Focal Plane Mask for Exoplanet Imaging Coronagraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Kevin; Belikov, Ruslan; Pluzhnik, Eugene; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Wilson, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Coronagraph technology combined with wavefront control is close to achieving the contrast and inner working angle requirements in the lab necessary to observe the faint signal of an Earth-like exoplanet in monochromatic light. An important remaining technological challenge is to achieve high contrast in broadband light. Coronagraph bandwidth is largely limited by chromaticity of the focal plane mask, which is responsible for blocking the stellar PSF. The size of a stellar PSF scales linearly with wavelength; ideally, the size of the focal plane mask would also scale with wavelength. A conventional hard-edge focal plane mask has a fixed size, normally sized for the longest wavelength in the observational band to avoid starlight leakage. The conventional mask is oversized for shorter wavelengths and blocks useful discovery space. Recently we presented a solution to the size chromaticity challenge with a focal plane mask designed to scale its effective size with wavelength. In this paper, we analyze performance of the achromatic size-scaling focal plane mask within a Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph. We present results from wavefront control around the achromatic focal plane mask, and demonstrate the size-scaling effect of the mask with wavelength. The edge of the dark zone, and therefore the inner working angle of the coronagraph, scale with wavelength. The achromatic mask enables operation in a wider band of wavelengths compared with a conventional hard-edge occulter.

  19. Focal plane generation of multi-resolution and multi-scale image representation for low-power vision applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Berni, J.; Carmona-Galán, R.; Carranza-González, L.; Zarándy, A.; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Á.

    2011-06-01

    Early vision stages represent a considerably heavy computational load. A huge amount of data needs to be processed under strict timing and power requirements. Conventional architectures usually fail to adhere to the specifications in many application fields, especially when autonomous vision-enabled devices are to be implemented, like in lightweight UAVs, robotics or wireless sensor networks. A bioinspired architectural approach can be employed consisting of a hierarchical division of the processing chain, conveying the highest computational demand to the focal plane. There, distributed processing elements, concurrent with the photosensitive devices, influence the image capture and generate a pre-processed representation of the scene where only the information of interest for subsequent stages remains. These focal-plane operators are implemented by analog building blocks, which may individually be a little imprecise, but as a whole render the appropriate image processing very efficiently. As a proof of concept, we have developed a 176x144-pixel smart CMOS imager that delivers lighter but enriched representations of the scene. Each pixel of the array contains a photosensor and some switches and weighted paths allowing reconfigurable resolution and spatial filtering. An energy-based image representation is also supported. These functionalities greatly simplify the operation of the subsequent digital processor implementing the high level logic of the vision algorithm. The resulting figures, 5.6mW@30fps, permit the integration of the smart image sensor with a wireless interface module (Imote2 from Memsic Corp.) for the development of vision-enabled WSN applications.

  20. Enhancement of Optical Polarization Anisotropy of a-Plane InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Well Structure from Violet to Blue-Green Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Sheng-Han; Huang, Shyh-Jer; Su, Yan-Kuin; Hsu, Hsiao-Chiu

    2013-01-01

    A nonpolar a-plane (1120) InGaN/GaN epitaxial layer was grown on r-plane (1012) sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). In this work, a set of step-stage multiple quantum wells (MQWs) is inserted between underlying GaN and overlying high indium-content MQWs to investigate its influence on the optical properties of the active region. The step-stage MQWs were deposited by varying growth temperature at fixed precursor flow rate. Optical properties were investigated by the measurement of temperature-dependent photoluminescence (TD-PL). The optical polarization ratio, activation energy, and the smile-like curve in full width at half maximum (FWHM) of PL were analyzed in detail.

  1. Blue Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    This Web site is a companion to the Discovery Channel/ BBC television series Blue Planet: Seas of Life. The Web site includes images, games, and expeditions all related to oceanography and marine biology. One feature that is particularly interesting is Ocean Alert, an interactive, current events feature where users can identify the topics that most interest them. News headlines, with links to more complete stories, are organized into twelve topics; users select the topics and area of the world of interest from a rotating map. This site is fun to use and informative, and users may appreciate the options to explore only as in-depth as they choose.

  2. Active hyperspectral imaging using a quantum cascade laser (QCL) array and digital-pixel focal plane array (DFPA) camera.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Anish; Myers, Travis; Wang, Christine A; Kelly, Michael; Tyrrell, Brian; Gokden, B; Sanchez, Antonio; Turner, George; Capasso, Federico

    2014-06-16

    We demonstrate active hyperspectral imaging using a quantum-cascade laser (QCL) array as the illumination source and a digital-pixel focal-plane-array (DFPA) camera as the receiver. The multi-wavelength QCL array used in this work comprises 15 individually addressable QCLs in which the beams from all lasers are spatially overlapped using wavelength beam combining (WBC). The DFPA camera was configured to integrate the laser light reflected from the sample and to perform on-chip subtraction of the passive thermal background. A 27-frame hyperspectral image was acquired of a liquid contaminant on a diffuse gold surface at a range of 5 meters. The measured spectral reflectance closely matches the calculated reflectance. Furthermore, the high-speed capabilities of the system were demonstrated by capturing differential reflectance images of sand and KClO3 particles that were moving at speeds of up to 10 m/s. PMID:24977536

  3. 1024 x 1024 pixel mid-wavelength and long-wavelength infrared QWIP focal plane arrays for imaging applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Hill, C. J.; Rafol, S. B.; Mumolo, J. M.; Trinh, J. T.; Tidrow, M. Z.; LeVan, P. D.

    2005-01-01

    Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 10(24) x 10(24) pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NEAT) of 17 mK at a 95 K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300 K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NEAT of 13 mK at a 70 K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR detector array after the subtraction of system noise. Both MWIR and LWIR focal planes have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90 K and 70 K operating temperatures respectively, with similar optical and background conditions. In this paper, we will discuss the performance in terms of quantum efficiency, NE(delta)T, uniformity, operability and modulation transfer functions.

  4. Automatic Bilateral Symmetry Midsagittal Plane Extraction from Pathological 3D Neuroradiological Images

    E-print Network

    , bleed, stroke of the human brain can be determined by a symmetry-based analysis of neural scans showing the brain's 3D internal structure. Detecting departures of this internal structure from its normal bilateral the ideal symmetry plane midsagittalwith respect to which the brain is invariant under re ection

  5. Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) Focal Planes for Long Wave Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, S.; Liu, J. K.; Bandara, S. V.; Hong, W.; Maker, P. D.; Muller, R. E.; Krabach, T. N.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the development of very sensitive long wavelength infrared GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) based on bound-to-quasibound intersubband transition, fabrication of light coupling schemes for efficient light coupling, and demonstration of several long wavelength infrared cameras based on QWIP focal plane arrays.

  6. Red, green, and blue gray-value shift-based approach to whole-field imaging for tissue diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiyambath Krishnan, Mohankumar; Vadakke Matham, Murukeshan; Krishnan, Sathiyamoorthy; Parasuraman, Padmanabhan; Joseph, James; Bhakoo, Kishore

    2012-07-01

    Identification of abnormal pathology in situ remains one of the challenges of medicine. The interpretation of tissue conditions relies mainly on optical assessment, which can be difficult due to inadequate visual differences or poor color delineation. We propose a methodology to identify regions of abnormal tissue in a targeted area based on red, green, blue (RGB) shift analysis employing a simple CCD color camera and light-emitting diode illumination in a whole-field-imaging scheme. The concept involves analysis of RGB components in an image with respect to a reference set of RGB values under different illumination wavelengths. The magnitude of the gray value shift is estimated by calculating the Euclidean distance between their normalized RGB coordinates. The shift values obtained using these concepts are thereafter used to construct pseudo-colored images with high contrast, enabling easy identification of abnormal areas in the tissue. Images processed from experiments conducted with excised Wistar rat colon sample (lightly doped with Alexafluor 488) and with simulated tumor (cancer cell pellet placed on colon) showed clear localization of tumor region. This proposed approach and methodology is expected to find potential applications for the in vivo diagnosis of disease.

  7. Variability in EIT Images of Lung Ventilation as a Function of Electrode Planes and Body Positions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Patterson, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the variability in resistivity changes in the lung region as a function of air volume, electrode plane and body position. Six normal subjects (33.8 ± 4.7 years, range from 26 to 37 years) were studied using the Sheffield Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) portable system. Three transverse planes at the level of second intercostal space, the level of the xiphisternal joint, and midway between upper and lower locations were chosen for measurements. For each plane, sixteen electrodes were uniformly positioned around the thorax. Data were collected with the breath held at end expiration and after inspiring 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 liters of air from end expiration, with the subject in both the supine and sitting position. The average resistivity change in five regions, two 8x8 pixel local regions in the right lung, entire right, entire left and total lung regions, were calculated. The results show the resistivity change averaged over electrode positions and subject positions was 7-9% per liter of air, with a slightly larger resistivity change of 10 % per liter air in the lower electrode plane. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between supine and sitting. The two 8x8 regions show a larger inter individual variability (coefficient of variation, CV, is from 30% to 382%) compared to the entire left, entire right and total lung (CV is from 11% to 51%). The results for the global regions are more consistent. The large inter individual variability appears to be a problem for clinical applications of EIT, such as regional ventilation. The variability may be mitigated by choosing appropriate electrode plane, body position and region of interest for the analysis. PMID:25110529

  8. Red, green, and blue luminescence by carbon dots: full-color emission tuning and multicolor cellular imaging.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kai; Sun, Shan; Zhang, Ling; Lu, Yue; Wu, Aiguo; Cai, Congzhong; Lin, Hengwei

    2015-04-27

    A facile approach for preparation of photoluminescent (PL) carbon dots (CDs) is reported. The three resulting CDs emit bright and stable red, green and blue (RGB) colors of luminescence, under a single ultraviolet-light excitation. Alterations of PL emission of these CDs are tentatively proposed to result from the difference in their particle size and nitrogen content. Interestingly, up-conversion (UC)PL of these CDs is also observed. Moreover, flexible full-color emissive PVA films can be achieved through mixing two or three CDs in the appropriate ratios. These CDs also show low cytotoxicity and excellent cellular imaging capability. The facile preparation and unique optical features make these CDs potentially useful in numerous applications such as light-emitting diodes, full-color displays, and multiplexed (UC)PL bioimaging. PMID:25832292

  9. Low-power focal-plane dynamic texture segmentation based on programmable image binning and diffusion hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Berni, Jorge; Carmona-Galán, Ricardo

    2009-05-01

    Stand-alone applications of vision are severely constrained by their limited power budget. This is one of the main reasons why vision has not yet been widely incorporated into wireless sensor networks. For them, image processing should be suscribed to the sensor node in order to reduce network traffic and its associated power consumption. In this scenario, operating the conventional acquisition-digitization-processing chain is unfeasible under tight power limitations. A bio-inspired scheme can be followed to meet the timing requirements while maintaining a low power consumption. In our approach, part of the low-level image processing is conveyed to the focal-plane thus speeding up system operation. Moreover, if a moderate accuracy is permissible, signal processing is realized in the analog domain, resulting in a highly efficient implementation. In this paper we propose a circuit to realize dynamic texture segmentation based on focal-plane spatial bandpass filtering of image subdivisions. By the appropriate binning, we introduce some constrains into the spatial extent of the targeted texture. By running time-controlled linear diffusion within each bin, a specific band of spatial frequencies can be highlighted. Measuring the average energy of the components in that band at each image bin the presence of a targeted texture can be detected and quantified. The resulting low-resolution representation of the scene can be then employed to track the texture along an image flow. An application specific chip, based on this analysis, is being developed for natural spaces monitoring by means of a network of low-power vision systems.

  10. Transport of Intensity phase imaging by intensity spectrum fitting of exponentially spaced defocus planes.

    PubMed

    Jingshan, Zhong; Claus, Rene A; Dauwels, Justin; Tian, Lei; Waller, Laura

    2014-05-01

    We propose an alternative method for solving the Transport of Intensity equation (TIE) from a stack of through-focus intensity images taken by a microscope or lensless imager. Our method enables quantitative phase and amplitude imaging with improved accuracy and reduced data capture, while also being computationally efficient and robust to noise. We use prior knowledge of how intensity varies with propagation in the spatial frequency domain in order to constrain a fitting algorithm [Gaussian process (GP) regression] for estimating the axial intensity derivative. Solving the problem in the frequency domain inspires an efficient measurement scheme which captures images at exponentially spaced focal steps, significantly reducing the number of images required. Low-frequency artifacts that plague traditional TIE methods can be suppressed without an excessive number of captured images. We validate our technique experimentally by recovering the phase of human cheek cells in a brightfield microscope. PMID:24921767

  11. Polyhydroxyalkanoate granules quantification in mixed microbial cultures using image analysis: Sudan Black B versus Nile Blue A staining.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Daniela P; Amaral, A Luís; Leal, Cristiano; Oehmen, Adrian; Reis, Maria A M; Ferreira, Eugénio C

    2015-03-20

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) can be produced and intracellularly accumulated as inclusions by mixed microbial cultures (MMC) for bioplastic production and in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems. Classical methods for PHA quantification use a digestion step prior to chromatography analysis, rendering them labor intensive and time-consuming. The present work investigates the use of two quantitative image analysis (QIA) procedures specifically developed for PHA inclusions identification and quantification. MMC obtained from an EBPR system were visualized by bright-field and fluorescence microscopy for PHA inclusions detection, upon Sudan Black B (SBB) and Nile Blue A (NBA) staining, respectively. The captured color images were processed by QIA techniques and the image analysis data were further treated using multivariate statistical analysis. Partial least squares (PLS) regression coefficients of 0.90 and 0.86 were obtained between QIA parameters and PHA concentrations using SBB and NBA, respectively. It was found that both staining procedures might be seen as alternative methodologies to classical PHA determination. PMID:25732579

  12. Multiperspective-Modelling in the Process of Constructing and Understanding Physical Theories Using the Example of the Plane Mirror Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, U.; Pospiech, G.; Körndle, H.; Narciss, S.

    2010-07-01

    Teaching physics goes along with explaining natural phenomena. The modelling process during the acquisition of physical knowledge plays an important role in developing understanding and deeper insight. Novices, however, have problems with this modelling process, in particular because they do not understand that teachers are talking about models of reality and not about reality itself. Physical theories are described with linguistic and mathematical symbols; hence there exist at least two perspectives of modelling, physical and mathematical modelling. According to Greca and Moreira (2001) [2] understanding of physics in school is achieved if it is possible to predict a physical phenomenon from its physical models. Yet, apart from the physical and the mathematical perspective of modelling other perspectives of modelling are necessary for understanding complex physical phenomena. To prevent confusion for the learner it is essential to differentiate between these different perspectives of modelling. This process of differentiation between various perspectives of modelling will be referred to as `Multiperspective-Modelling'. Prior studies (F. Goldberg and L. McDermott, (1986), Wiesner 1992) [1, 5] on how individual students think about images in plane mirrors revealed that the learners have misconceptions. Based on the idea of `Multiperspective-Modelling' we developed and evaluated a special training for the learner. This training differentiates physical, mathematical and `human' perspectives of modelling of the plane mirror phenomenon. The purposes of this study were to investigate the understanding of the plane mirror phenomenon of novices, before and after the special training.

  13. 320x240 pixel InGaAs/InP focal plane array for short-wave infrared and visible light imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Tara; Dixon, Peter; Gagliardi, Mari-Anne; Masaun, Navneet

    2005-04-01

    We report on the recent production release of our 320x240 pixel InGaAs/InP focal plane array and camera for visible and short-wavelength infrared light imaging. For this camera, we have fabricated a substrate-removed backside-illuminated InGaAs/InP photodiode array hybridized to a silicon read out integrated circuit (ROIC). Removing the InP substrate from the focal plane array allows visible wavelengths, which would otherwise be absorbed by the InP substrate due to its 920 nm wavelength cut-off, to reach the pixels" active region. Quantum efficiency is approximately 15% at 500 nm, 70% at 850 nm, 85% at 1310 nm and 80% at 1550 nm. This focal plane array is useable for visible imaging as well as imaging eye-safe lasers and is of particular interest for day and low light level imaging as well as hyperspectral imaging.

  14. Digital pixel CMOS focal plane array with on-chip multiply accumulate units for low-latency image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Jeffrey W.; Tyrrell, Brian M.; D'Onofrio, Richard; Berger, Paul J.; Fernandez-Cull, Christy

    2014-06-01

    A digital pixel CMOS focal plane array has been developed to enable low latency implementations of image processing systems such as centroid trackers, Shack-Hartman wavefront sensors, and Fitts correlation trackers through the use of in-pixel digital signal processing (DSP) and generic parallel pipelined multiply accumulate (MAC) units. Light intensity digitization occurs at the pixel level, enabling in-pixel DSP and noiseless data transfer from the pixel array to the peripheral processing units. The pipelined processing of row and column image data prior to off chip readout reduces the required output bandwidth of the image sensor, thus reducing the latency of computations necessary to implement various image processing systems. Data volume reductions of over 80% lead to sub 10?s latency for completing various tracking and sensor algorithms. This paper details the architecture of the pixel-processing imager (PPI) and presents some initial results from a prototype device fabricated in a standard 65nm CMOS process hybridized to a commercial off-the-shelf short-wave infrared (SWIR) detector array.

  15. Inverse-synthetic-aperture imaging of trees over a ground plane

    SciTech Connect

    Zittel, D.H.; Brock, B.C.; Littlejohn, J.H.; Patitz, W.E.

    1995-11-01

    Recent data collections with the Sandia VHF-UHF synthetic-aperture radar have yielded surprising results; trees appear brighter in the images than expected! In an effort to understand this phenomenon, various small trees have been measured on the Sandia folded compact range with the inverse-synthetic-aperture imaging system. A compilation of these measurements is contained in this report.

  16. Chemical imaging of cotton fibers using an infrared microscope and a focal-plane array detector

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vibrational spectroscopy studies can be used to examine the quality and structure of cotton fibers. An emerging area of research relates to the imaging of cotton fibers. Herein, we report the use of a Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microscope to image developing cotton fibers. Studies were perfor...

  17. Searching image in blue jays: Facilitation and interference in sequential priming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan B. Bond; Alan C. Kamil

    1999-01-01

    Repeated exposure to a single target type (sequential priming) during visual search for multiple cryptic targets commonly\\u000a improves performance on subsequent presentations of that target. It appears to be an attentional phenomenon, a component of\\u000a the searching image effect. It has been argued, however, that if searching image is an attentional process, sequential priming\\u000a should also interfere with performance on

  18. Ray aberrations of two-dimensional oblique lattices on the self-image plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Soo

    2006-12-01

    We extend the geometrical theory of aberration for a self-imaging system to the case of two-dimensional oblique lattices. In our approach, the fundamental translation vectors of the lattice are not restricted in both length and orientation. Evaluating the disturbance of light through the oblique lattice under coherent illumination, we find the conditions of constraint which limit the self-imaging of the oblique lattice. Various types of oblique lattices are shown to obey the self-imaging conditions. We derive the equations to trace the optical paths of self-imaging rays and then analyze the ray aberrations which arise from the difference between the optical paths of a self-imaging ray and of the corresponding actual ray. The ray aberrations are shown to disappear when the periods of the lattice are large compared with the wavelength of light. We find that the ray aberrations carried by self-imaged oblique lattices are totally undercorrected and the aberrated image patches are displaced along the direction tangent vector of a chief ray.

  19. Tibiofibular syndesmosis in acute ankle fractures: additional value of an oblique MR image plane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. Hermans; Annechien Beumer; Wim C. J. Hop; Adrianus F. C. M. Moonen; Abida Z. Ginai

    2011-01-01

    Objective  To evaluate the additional value of a 45° oblique MRI scan plane for assessing the anterior and posterior distal tibiofibular\\u000a syndesmotic ligaments in patients with an acute ankle fracture.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Prospectively, data were collected for 44 consecutive patients with an acute ankle fracture who underwent a radiograph (AP,\\u000a lateral, and mortise view) as well as an MRI in both

  20. Real-time, continuous-wave terahertz imaging using a microbolometer focal-plane array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Qing (Inventor); Min Lee, Alan W. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention generally provides a terahertz (THz) imaging system that includes a source for generating radiation (e.g., a quantum cascade laser) having one or more frequencies in a range of about 0.1 THz to about 10 THz, and a two-dimensional detector array comprising a plurality of radiation detecting elements that are capable of detecting radiation in that frequency range. An optical system directs radiation from the source to an object to be imaged. The detector array detects at least a portion of the radiation transmitted through the object (or reflected by the object) so as to form a THz image of that object.

  1. MultiFocus Polarization Microscope (MF-PolScope) for 3D polarization imaging of up to 25 focal planes simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsson, Sara; McQuilken, Molly; Mehta, Shalin B; Verma, Amitabh; Larsch, Johannes; Ilic, Rob; Heintzmann, Rainer; Bargmann, Cornelia I; Gladfelter, Amy S; Oldenbourg, Rudolf

    2015-03-23

    We have developed an imaging system for 3D time-lapse polarization microscopy of living biological samples. Polarization imaging reveals the position, alignment and orientation of submicroscopic features in label-free as well as fluorescently labeled specimens. Optical anisotropies are calculated from a series of images where the sample is illuminated by light of different polarization states. Due to the number of images necessary to collect both multiple polarization states and multiple focal planes, 3D polarization imaging is most often prohibitively slow. Our MF-PolScope system employs multifocus optics to form an instantaneous 3D image of up to 25 simultaneous focal-planes. We describe this optical system and show examples of 3D multi-focus polarization imaging of biological samples, including a protein assembly study in budding yeast cells. PMID:25837112

  2. Impacts of Cross-Platform Vicarious Calibration on the Deep Blue Aerosol Retrievals for Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aboard Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Hsu, N. Christina; Kwiatkowska, Ewa J.; Franz, Bryan A.; Meister, Gerhard; Salustro, Clare E.

    2012-01-01

    The retrieval of aerosol properties from spaceborne sensors requires highly accurate and precise radiometric measurements, thus placing stringent requirements on sensor calibration and characterization. For the Terra/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spedroradiometer (MODIS), the characteristics of the detectors of certain bands, particularly band 8 [(B8); 412 nm], have changed significantly over time, leading to increased calibration uncertainty. In this paper, we explore a possibility of utilizing a cross-calibration method developed for characterizing the Terral MODIS detectors in the ocean bands by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ocean Biology Processing Group to improve aerosol retrieval over bright land surfaces. We found that the Terra/MODIS B8 reflectance corrected using the cross calibration method resulted in significant improvements for the retrieved aerosol optical thickness when compared with that from the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer, Aqua/MODIS, and the Aerosol Robotic Network. The method reported in this paper is implemented for the operational processing of the Terra/MODIS Deep Blue aerosol products.

  3. Perfluoropentane-encapsulated hollow mesoporous prussian blue nanocubes for activated ultrasound imaging and photothermal therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaoqing; Cai, Xiaojun; Chen, Yu; Wang, Shige; Xu, Huixiong; Zhang, Kun; Ma, Ming; Wu, Huixia; Shi, Jianlin; Chen, Hangrong

    2015-03-01

    Hollow mesoporous nanomaterials have gained tremendous attention in the fields of nanomedicine and nanobiotechnology. Herein, n-perfluoropentane (PFP)-encapsulated hollow mesoporous Prussian blue (HPB) nanocubes (HPB-PFP) with excellent colloidal stability have been synthesized for concurrent in vivo tumor diagnosis and regression. The HPB shell shows excellent photothermal conversion efficiency that can absorb near-infrared (NIR) laser light and convert it into heat. The generated heat can not only cause tumor ablation by raising the temperature of tumor tissue but also promote the continuous gasification and bubbling of encapsulated liquid PFP with low boiling point. These formed PFP bubbles can cause tissue impedance mismatch, thus apparently enhancing the signal of B-mode ultrasound imaging in vitro and generating an apparent echogenicity signal for tumor tissues of nude mice in vivo. Without showing observable in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity, the designed biocompatible HPB-PFP nanotheranostics with high colloidal stability and photothermal efficiency are anticipated to find various biomedical applications in activated ultrasound imaging-guided tumor detection and therapy. PMID:25646576

  4. Radiation channels close to a plasmonic nanowire visualized by back focal plane imaging.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Nicolai; Piatkowski, Dawid; Ciesielski, Richard; Mackowski, Sebastian; Hartschuh, Achim

    2013-11-26

    We investigated the angular radiation patterns, a key characteristic of an emitting system, from individual silver nanowires decorated with rare earth ion-doped nanocrystals. Back focal plane radiation patterns of the nanocrystal photoluminescence after local two-photon excitation can be described by two emission channels: excitation of propagating surface plasmons in the nanowire followed by leakage radiation and direct dipolar emission observed also in the absence of the nanowire. Theoretical modeling reproduces the observed radiation patterns which strongly depend on the position of excitation along the nanowire. Our analysis allows us to estimate the branching ratio into both emission channels and to determine the diameter-dependent surface plasmon quasi-momentum, important parameters of emitter-plasmon structures. PMID:24131299

  5. Subcellular Biochemical Investigation of Purkinje Neurons Using Synchrotron Radiation Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging with a Focal Plane Array Detector

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Coupling Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with focal plane array detectors at synchrotron radiation sources (SR-FTIR-FPA) has provided a rapid method to simultaneously image numerous biochemical markers in situ at diffraction limited resolution. Since cells and nuclei are well resolved at this spatial resolution, a direct comparison can be made between FTIR functional group images and the histology of the same section. To allow histological analysis of the same section analyzed with infrared imaging, unfixed air-dried tissue sections are typically fixed (after infrared spectroscopic analysis is completed) via immersion fixation. This post fixation process is essential to allow histological staining of the tissue section. Although immersion fixation is a common practice in this filed, the initial rehydration of the dehydrated unfixed tissue can result in distortion of subcellular morphology and confound correlation between infrared images and histology. In this study, vapor fixation, a common choice in other research fields where postfixation of unfixed tissue sections is required, was employed in place of immersion fixation post spectroscopic analysis. This method provided more accurate histology with reduced distortions as the dehydrated tissue section is fixed in vapor rather than during rehydration in an aqueous fixation medium. With this approach, accurate correlation between infrared images and histology of the same section revealed that Purkinje neurons in the cerebellum are rich in cytosolic proteins and not depleted as once thought. In addition, we provide the first direct evidence of intracellular lactate within Purkinje neurons. This highlights the significant potential for future applications of SR-FTIR-FPA imaging to investigate cellular lactate under conditions of altered metabolic demand such as increased brain activity and hypoxia or ischemia. PMID:23638613

  6. TraP: Transients discovery pipeline for image-plane surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TraP contributors

    2014-12-01

    The TraP is a pipeline for detecting and responding to transient and variable sources in a stream of astronomical images. Images are initially processed using a pure-Python source-extraction package, PySE, which is bundled with the TraP. Source positions and fluxes are then loaded into a SQL database for association and variability detection. The database structure allows for estimation of past upper limits on newly detected sources, and for forced fitting of previously detected sources which have since dropped below the blind-extraction threshold. Developed with LOFAR data in mind, the TraP has been used with data from other radio observatories.

  7. VLSI implementation of a focal plane image processor-a realization of the near-sensor image processing concept

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan-erik Eklund; Christer Svensson; Anders Åström

    1996-01-01

    The near-sensor image processing concept, which has earlier been theoretically described, is here verified with an implementation. The NSIP describes a method to implement a two-dimensional (2-D) image sensor array with processing capacity in every pixel. Traditionally, there is a contradiction between high spatial resolution and complex processor elements, In the NSIP concept we have a nondestructive photodiode readout and

  8. High frame-rate blood vector velocity imaging using plane waves: Simulations and preliminary experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesper Udesen; Fredrik Gran; Kristoffer Lindskov Hansen; Jørgen Arendt Jensen; Carsten Thomsen; Michael Bachmann Nielsen

    2008-01-01

    Conventional ultrasound methods for acquiring color images of blood velocity are limited by a relatively low frame-rate and are restricted to give velocity estimates along the ultrasound beam direction only. To circumvent these limitations, the method presented in this paper uses 3 techniques: 1) The ultrasound is not focused during the transmissions of the ultrasound signals; 2) A 13 -bit

  9. Image interpolation and denoising for division of focal plane sensors using

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    the accuracy of the estimated pixel information. We further exploit the inherent grid structure of this data polarization imaging employ four different pixelated polarization filters, commonly referred to as division. Interpolation is a standard technique to recover the missing information and increase the accuracy

  10. BUILDING ROOF RECONSTRUCTION FROM LIDAR DATA AND AERIAL IMAGES THROUGH PLANE EXTRACTION AND COLOUR EDGE DETECTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelina Novacheva

    In this paper a strategy for 3D reconstruction of building roofs from airborne laser scanning and aerial images is discussed. In order to keep it as general as possible, no predefined primitives or ground plans are required. The processing is done directly on the raw LiDAR point cloud, so as to avoid any loss of information due to interpolation. Computations

  11. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING OF THE OUTBURST SITE OF M31 RV. II. NO BLUE REMNANT IN QUIESCENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Howard E., E-mail: bond@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2011-08-10

    M31 RV is a red transient that erupted in 1988 in the Andromeda bulge, reaching a luminosity intermediate between novae and supernovae. It was cool throughout its outburst, unlike a normal classical nova. In 2006, Bond and Siegel examined archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) optical images of the M31 RV site, obtained in 1999. We found only old red giants at the site and no stars of unusual color. However, Shara et al. recently claimed to have detected (1) a bright UV source within the error box in HST UV images taken in 1995, (2) a hot (T{sub eff} > 40, 000 K) optical source in the same 1999 images that we examined, and (3) cooling of this source from 1999 to 2008. Shara et al. argue that this source's behavior is consistent with a classical-nova outburst occurring on a low-mass white dwarf. I have re-examined all of the HST frames, including new ones obtained in 2009-2010. I find that (1) the bright 1995 UV source reported by Shara et al. was actually due to cosmic rays striking the same pixel in two successive exposures; (2) the claim that an optically bright star in the error box is very hot is actually due to misinterpretation of red-giant colors in the STmagnitude system; (3) there is no evidence for variability of any source within the error box from 1999 to 2010; and (4) there are no stars of unusually blue or red color in the error box. Our 2006 conclusions remain valid: either M31 RV had faded below HST detectability by 1999, or its remnant is an unresolved companion of a red giant in the field, or the remnant is one of the red giants.

  12. Breathing Blue

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WOSU

    2009-08-20

    In this demonstration of chemical change, the presenter blows breath into a methylene blue solution releasing carbon dioxide which acidifies the water and changes it from a bright blue color to green.

  13. Real-time focal-plane wavefront sensing for compact imaging phased-array telescopes: numerical and experimental demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denolle, B.; Cassaing, F.; Montri, J.; Lisowski, J.; Amans, J. P.

    2013-05-01

    Phase retrieval and phase diversity are wavefront sensing techniques fed by focal-plane data. In phase retrieval, the incoming wavefront is estimated from a single (near-) focal image of an unresolved source. In phase diversity, from at least two images of the same (complex) object recorded in presence of a known optical aberration (e,g., defocus), both the unknown incoming wavefront and the observed object can be derived. These two techniques have many advantages: the hardware is limited to (or can be merged in) the usual imaging sensor, the number of estimated modes can be continuously tuned and both are among the very few methods enabling the measurement of differential pistons/tip/tilts on segmented or divided apertures. The counterpart is that complexity is reported to digital processing, which is either iterative and long, or fast but limited to a first-order phase expansion. Based on an innovative physical approach and mathematical inversion, new simple, analytical and exact algorithms have been recently derived for phase retrieval and diversity. Conjugated with recent detector and processor advances, these algorithms can be implemented in adaptive/active optics loops, or even provide a purely-digital on-the-fly alternative. In this paper, for the first time, we present experimental validation of these algorithms with the cophasing of a segmented mirror.

  14. Nanostructure morphology and atomically resolved images of chains and planes of YBCO single crystals grown with different additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narlikar, A. V.; Samanta, S. B.; Changkang, Chen; Yongle, Hu; Hodby, J. W.; Wanklyn, B. M.

    1996-01-01

    Bulk single crystals of superconducting YBCO (YBa 2Cu 3O 7), grown with incorporation of different additives like BaF 2, B 2O 3 and Bi 2O 3, have been investigated to gain an insight into the problem of combating Tc degradation due to aluminium contamination from the crucible material. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) along with Tc values of the above crystals, shows that, with BaF 2 introduced as additive, the contamination due to aluminium is significantly reduced, which improves crystal growth and superconductivity. The crystals have been subjected to high resolution imaging of planes and chains using STM, while the ensuing changes in the conductance spectra of chains due to Al contamination were studied by scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS). The contamination of Cu?O chains is corroborated by chains becoming quasi-insulating on account of substitutional disorder, and also by the increase in their surface roughness at the atomic level. The effect of additives is discussed and the observed Tc variation is linked with the relative changes in the adulteration and disordering of Cu?O chains. The results are in general accord with the role of interlayer coupling between CuO 2 planes and other effects that are known to control the Tc of layered cuprates.

  15. Blue Pork

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi; Boyd, David

    2011-05-29

    . Yes. Blue. Shanghai supermarket shoppers were surprised when the pork they brought home recently glowed a faint blue under dim light. An investigation determined that the blue pork wasn't from alien pigs or a genetic modification gone terribly wrong...

  16. High frame-rate blood vector velocity imaging using plane waves: simulations and preliminary experiments.

    PubMed

    Udesen, Jesper; Gran, Fredrik; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Thomsen, Carsten; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2008-08-01

    Conventional ultrasound methods for acquiring color images of blood velocity are limited by a relatively low frame-rate and are restricted to give velocity estimates along the ultrasound beam direction only. To circumvent these limitations, the method presented in this paper uses 3 techniques: 1) The ultrasound is not focused during the transmissions of the ultrasound signals; 2) A 13-bit Barker code is transmitted simultaneously from each transducer element; and 3) The 2-D vector velocity of the blood is estimated using 2-D cross-correlation. A parameter study was performed using the Field II program, and performance of the method was investigated when a virtual blood vessel was scanned by a linear array transducer. An improved parameter set for the method was identified from the parameter study, and a flow rig measurement was performed using the same improved setup as in the simulations. Finally, the common carotid artery of a healthy male was scanned with a scan sequence that satisfies the limits set by the Food and Drug Administration. Vector velocity images were obtained with a frame-rate of 100 Hz where 40 speckle images are used for each vector velocity image. It was found that the blood flow approximately followed the vessel wall, and that maximum velocity was approximately 1 m/s, which is a normal value for a healthy person. To further evaluate the method, the test person was scanned with magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. The volume flow derived from the MR scanning was compared with that from the ultrasound scanning. A deviation of 9% between the 2 volume flow estimates was found. PMID:18986917

  17. Back focal plane imaging of directional emission from dye molecules coupled to one-dimensional photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Douguo; Badugu, Ramachandram; Chen, Yikai; Yu, Sisheng; Yao, Peijun; Wang, Pei; Ming, Hai; Lakowicz, Joseph R

    2014-04-11

    Bloch surface waves (BSWs) on one-dimensional photonic crystals (1DPCs) have been used to beam the fluorescence emission from the dye molecules. All dielectric 1DPC displays its low propagating loss, narrow resonance and the absence of absorption or quenching. In this paper, back focal plane imaging reveals that in addition to the BSW mode, a guided mode and a cavity mode also exist in the 1DPC which all couple with the excited dye molecules. The appearance of these modes is sensitive to the wavelength of the fluorescence and alters the beaming effect by the 1DPC. Numerical simulations verify the existence of these modes which are consistent with the experimental results. Comparisons between the Bloch surface wave coupled emission and surface plasmon coupled emission are also presented for a clearer understanding of the multilayered film enabled directional emission. PMID:24621990

  18. 640 x 512 Pixels Long-Wavelength Infrared (LWIR) Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetector (QDIP) Imaging Focal Plane Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath D.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Hill, Cory J.; Ting, David Z.; Liu, John K.; Rafol, Sir B.; Blazejewski, Edward R.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Keo, Sam A.; Krishna, Sanjay; Chang, Y. -C.; Shott, Craig A.

    2007-01-01

    Epitaxially grown self-assembled. InAs-InGaAs-GaAs quantum dots (QDs) are exploited for the development of large-format long-wavelength infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs). The dot-in-a-well (DWELL) structures were experimentally shown to absorb both 45 degrees and normal incident light, therefore, a reflection grating structure was used to enhance the quantum efficiency. The devices exhibit peak responsivity out to 8.1 micrometers, with peak detectivity reaching approximately 1 X 10(exp 10) Jones at 77 K. The devices were fabricated into the first long-wavelength 640 x 512 pixel QD infrared photodetector imaging FPA, which has produced excellent infrared imagery with noise equivalent temperature difference of 40 mK at 60-K operating temperature.

  19. Back focal plane imaging of directional emission from dye molecules coupled to one-dimensional photonic crystals

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Douguo; Badugu, Ramachandram; Chen, Yikai; Yu, Sisheng; Yao, Peijun; Wang, Pei; Ming, Hai; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Bloch surface waves (BSWs) on one-dimensional photonic crystals (1DPC) have been used to beam the fluorescence emission from the dye molecules. All dielectric 1DPC displays its low propagating loss, narrow resonance and the absence of absorption or quenching. In this letter, back focal plane imaging reveals that in addition to the BSW mode, a guided mode and cavity mode also exist in the 1DPC which all couple with the excited dye molecules. The appearance of these modes is sensitive to the wavelength of the fluorescence and alters the beaming effect by the 1DPC. Numerical simulations verify the existence of these modes which are consistent with the experimental results. Comparisons between the Bloch surface wave-coupled emission (BWCE) and surface plasmon-coupled emission (SPCE) are also presented for a more clear understanding of the multilayered film-enabled directional emission. PMID:24621990

  20. Fractional Fourier plane image encryption technique using radial hilbert-, and Jigsaw transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Madhusudan; Shakher, Chandra; Singh, Kehar

    2010-07-01

    A new method for image encryption using integral order radial Hilbert transform (RHT) filter in the fractional Fourier transform (FRT) domain has been proposed. The technique is implemented using the popular double random phase encoding method in the fractional Fourier domain. The random phase masks (RPMs), integral orders of the RHT, fractional orders of FRT, and indices of the Jigsaw transform (JT) have been used as keys for encryption and decryption. Simulation results have been presented and the schematic representation for optical implementation has been proposed. The mean-square-error and signal-to-noise ratio between the decrypted image and the input image have been calculated for the correct as well as incorrect orders of the RHT. Effect of occlusion and noise on the performance of the proposed scheme has also been studied. The robustness of the technique has been verified against attack using partial windows of the correct random phase masks. Similar investigations have also been carried out for the chosen-, and the known-plain-text attacks.

  1. In vivo multispectral imaging of the absorption and scattering properties of exposed brain using a digital red-green-blue camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Keiichiro; Ishizuka, Tomohiro; Mizushima, Chiharu; Nishidate, Izumi; Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Sato, Manabu

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate multi-spectral images of the absorption and scattering properties in the cerebral cortex of rat brain, we investigated spectral reflectance images estimated by the Wiener estimation method using a digital red-green-blue camera. A Monte Carlo simulation-based multiple regression analysis for the corresponding spectral absorbance images at nine wavelengths (500, 520, 540, 560, 570, 580, 600, 730, and 760 nm) was then used to specify the absorption and scattering parameters. The spectral images of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients were reconstructed from the absorption and scattering parameters. We performed in vivo experiments on exposed rat brain to confirm the feasibility of this method. The estimated images of the absorption coefficients were dominated by hemoglobin spectra. The estimated images of the reduced scattering coefficients had a broad scattering spectrum, exhibiting a larger magnitude at shorter wavelengths, corresponding to the typical spectrum of brain tissue published in the literature.

  2. Spectral dispersion modeling of virtually imaged phased array by using angular spectrum of plane waves.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xinrong; Sun, Qiang; Li, Jing; Li, Chun; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2015-01-12

    We present an analytical treatment for the relatively new spectral disperser termed virtually imaged phased array (VIPA). Angular spectrum representation of the input Gaussian beam helps us obtain an exact analytic dispersion model and a dispersion law for a general VIPA by using the principle of multiple-beam interference. The consideration of the optical aberrations caused by refractions makes our model more accurate and practical than previous models. The validity of the proposed dispersion law has been validated theoretically by comparing with previous results. Some considerations of using a VIPA are also provided. PMID:25835648

  3. Synchrotron Infrared Confocal Microspectroscopic Spatial Resolution or a Customized Synchrotron/focal Plane Array System Enhances Chemical Imaging of Biological Tissue or Cells

    SciTech Connect

    D Wetzel; M Nasse; =

    2011-12-31

    Spectroscopy and spatially resolved chemical imaging of biological materials using an infrared microscope is greatly enhanced with confocal image plane masking to 5-6 {mu} with a third generation microspectrometer and illumination with a synchrotron radiation source compared to globar illuminated and array detection or singly masked system. Steps toward this instrumental achievement are illustrated with spectra and images of biological tissue sections, including single cells, brain, aorta, and grain specimens. A recent, customized synchrotron infrared microspectrometer installation enables focal plane array detection to achieve both rapid and high definition chemical imaging. Localization of the ester carbonyl population in single modified starch granules was used to provide direct comparison of the two advanced imaging capabilities.

  4. Synchrotron infrared confocal microspectroscopic spatial resolution or a customized synchrotron/focal plane array system enhances chemical imaging of biological tissue or cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzel, David L.; Nasse, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    Spectroscopy and spatially resolved chemical imaging of biological materials using an infrared microscope is greatly enhanced with confocal image plane masking to 5-6 ?m with a third generation microspectrometer and illumination with a synchrotron radiation source compared to globar illuminated and array detection or singly masked system. Steps toward this instrumental achievement are illustrated with spectra and images of biological tissue sections, including single cells, brain, aorta, and grain specimens. A recent, customized synchrotron infrared microspectrometer installation enables focal plane array detection to achieve both rapid and high definition chemical imaging. Localization of the ester carbonyl population in single modified starch granules was used to provide direct comparison of the two advanced imaging capabilities.

  5. GLIMPSE II: Imaging the Central +/-10 Degrees of the Galactic Plane with IRAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchwell, Ed; Brian, Babler; Bania, Tom; Benjamin, Bob; Clemens, Dan; Cohen, Martin; Dickey, John; Gilmore, Gerry; Indebetouw, Remy; Jackson, James; Kobulnicky, Henry; Lang, Cornelia; Mathis, John; Meade, Marilyn; Mercer, Emily; Stolovy, Susan; Watson, Christer; Whitney, Barbara; Wolff, Mike; Wolfire, Mark; Blommaert, Joris; Omont, Alain; Schuller, Frederic; Schultheis, Mathias

    2005-06-01

    The Galactic center region of our galaxy is unique with conditions not duplicated anywhere else in the Galaxy. Several large-scale features such as the central bar, a large stellar wind-blown bubble centered on the nucleus and perpendicular to the Galactic plane, and the nuclear bulge have been identified but their detailed properties such as size, axial ratios, orientation, mass, dynamics, etc. are poorly known. Even the distinction between the nuclear bulge and central bar has been questioned. Such poor understanding of fundamental features of our own Galaxy needs to be rectified. We propose here to provide a large sample of spectral energy distributions (SEDs from 1-8 microns) and positions of stellar tracers that will contribute to a better understanding of the large scale structures in the inner part of our Galaxy. We propose a fully sampled, unbiased, confusion-limited survey toward longitudes +/- 10 deg of the central region of the Galaxy in all 4 IRAC bands. The latitude coverage will be +/- 1 deg from |l|=10 deg to 5 deg, +/-1.5 deg from |l|=5 deg to 2 deg, and +/- 2 deg from |l|=2 deg to 0 deg. The main scientific goals of this proposal are to use a large sample of stars located in the inner Galaxy to: determine the content and distribution of stars in the inner Galaxy; the extent, stellar population, and interaction of the strong nuclear wind with the ambient interstellar medium above and below the nucleus of our Galaxy; and determine the rate and location of current star formation in the inner Galaxy. This survey will complete the coverage of the inner Galaxy from 0 deg to 65 deg on both sides of the Galactic center in all four IRAC bands when combined with the initial GLIMPSE survey. This survey will also enable many other scientific investigations by the wider community such as studies of supernovae, planetary nebulae, stellar populations, and correlations with objects detected at other wavelengths or energy regimes in the inner Galaxy.

  6. Elasticity imaging of arterial wall with transcutaneous ultrasound both in longitudinal-axis and short-axis planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanai, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Hideyuki

    2001-05-01

    A method for measuring regional elasticity of tissue surrounding atherosclerotic plaque is described. An ultrasonic beam was scanned with a conventional linear-type probe, and multiple layers were preset from luminal surface to adventitia of the common carotid artery (CCA) with intervals of 375 ?m. By applying the method [IEEE Trans. UFFC 46, 1229-1241 (1999)], a minute decrease of several tenths of a micrometer in thickness of each layer resulting from arrival of the pressure wave was determined. By assuming that the arterial wall is incompressible and that the blood pressure is applied normal to each layer, the elastic modulus in the circumferential direction of each layer was estimated at intervals of 75 ?m in the radial direction and 150-300 ?m in longitudinal direction. On the other hand, by designing the directions of ultrasonic beams so that each beam always passes through the center of the artery, the cross-sectional elasticity image in the short-axis plane was also obtained. Based on the elasticity library determined by comparing the elasticity distribution and their pathological images, each point was statistically categorized as lipid, a mixture of smooth muscle and collagen fiber, or other. By applying the method to the CCAs, soft inclusion of lipid was found for plaques.

  7. A novel Region of Interest (ROI) imaging technique for biplane imaging in interventional suites: high-resolution small field-of-view imaging in the frontal plane and dose-reduced, large field-of-view standard-resolution imaging in the lateral plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swetadri Vasan, Setlur Nagesh; Ionita, C.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Endovascular-Image-Guided-Interventional (EIGI) treatment of neuro-vascular conditions such as aneurysms, stenosed arteries, and vessel thrombosis make use of treatment devices such as stents, coils, and balloons which have very small feature sizes, 10's of microns to a few 100's of microns, and hence demand a high resolution imaging system. The current state-of-the-art flat panel detector (FPD) has about a 200-um pixel size with the Nyquist of 2.5 lp/mm. For higher-resolution imaging a charge-coupled device (CCD) based Micro-Angio - Fluoroscope (MAF-CCD) with a pixel size of 35um (Nyquist of 11 lp/mm) was developed and previously reported. Although the detector addresses the high resolution needs, the Field-Of-View (FOV) is limited to 3.5 cm x 3.5 cm, which is much smaller than current FPDs. During the use of the MAF-CCD for delicate parts of the intervention, it may be desirable to have real-time monitoring outside the MAF FOV with a low dose, and lower, but acceptable, quality image. To address this need, a novel imaging technique for biplane imaging systems has been developed, using an MAFCCD in the frontal plane and a dose-reduced standard large FOV imager in the lateral plane. The dose reduction is achieved by using a combination of ROI fluoroscopy and spatially different temporal filtering, a technique that has been previously presented. In order to evaluate this technique, a simulation using images acquired during an actual EIGI treatment on a patient, followed by an actual implementation on phantoms is presented.

  8. Determining the Instrumental Rotation Rate of MWO's 60' Tower Image Plane and Its Impact on Results from Ring-Diagram Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton I., S. F.; Rhodes, E. J., Jr.; Bogart, R. S.; Orr, M.; Martin, G.; Spinella, A.

    2013-12-01

    Time series of full-disk Dopplergrams were acquired at the 60-Foot Solar tower of the Mount Wilson Observatory every year between 1987 and 2009. The 60-Foot Tower was designed by George Ellery Hale to provide an image plane that did not rotate throughout each observing day. However, preliminary analyses of a portion of this archive, carried out in 2007, suggested that the focal plane of the Tower might actually be rotating slowly. If confirmed, such an instrumental rotation would suggest that the alignment of the optics has changed slightly over the years since 1907. This possible rotation of the image plane was uncovered through the computation of subsurface flow maps using the ring-diagram method of local helioseismology. Some of the initial MWO flow maps appeared to show evidence for a so-called “washing machine” effect similar to the pattern that was seen in the initial GONG flow maps. We have been working to confirm the early estimates of the focal plane rotation. The purpose of this paper is to report on the status of this endeavor as well as explore the ramifications of a rotating image plane on our anticipated meridional and zonal flow results.

  9. Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of the Outburst Site of M31 RV. II. No Blue Remnant in Quiescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Howard E.

    2011-08-01

    M31 RV is a red transient that erupted in 1988 in the Andromeda bulge, reaching a luminosity intermediate between novae and supernovae. It was cool throughout its outburst, unlike a normal classical nova. In 2006, Bond & Siegel examined archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) optical images of the M31 RV site, obtained in 1999. We found only old red giants at the site and no stars of unusual color. However, Shara et al. recently claimed to have detected (1) a bright UV source within the error box in HST UV images taken in 1995, (2) a hot (T eff > 40, 000 K) optical source in the same 1999 images that we examined, and (3) cooling of this source from 1999 to 2008. Shara et al. argue that this source's behavior is consistent with a classical-nova outburst occurring on a low-mass white dwarf. I have re-examined all of the HST frames, including new ones obtained in 2009-2010. I find that (1) the bright 1995 UV source reported by Shara et al. was actually due to cosmic rays striking the same pixel in two successive exposures; (2) the claim that an optically bright star in the error box is very hot is actually due to misinterpretation of red-giant colors in the STmagnitude system; (3) there is no evidence for variability of any source within the error box from 1999 to 2010; and (4) there are no stars of unusually blue or red color in the error box. Our 2006 conclusions remain valid: either M31 RV had faded below HST detectability by 1999, or its remnant is an unresolved companion of a red giant in the field, or the remnant is one of the red giants. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained by the Space Telescope Science Institute, and from the data archive at STScI. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  10. A superfast algorithm for self-grouping of multiple objects in image plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chialun John

    2015-01-01

    If we apply the developed local polar edge detection method, or LPED method, to a binary image (with each pixel being either black or white), we can obtain the boundary points of all objects embedded in the more randomly distributed noise background in sub-milli-second time. Then we can apply our newly developed grouping or clustering algorithm to separate the boundary points for all objects into individual-object, boundary-point groups. Then we can apply our fast identification-and-tracking technique to automatically identify each object by its unique geometry shape and track its movement simultaneously for N objects like we did before for two objects. This paper will concentrate at the algorithm design of this superfast grouping technique. It is not like the classical combinatorial clustering algorithm in which the computation time increases exponentially with the number of points to be clustered. It is a linear time grouping method in which the grouping time increases only linearly with the number of the total points to be grouped. The total time for automatic grouping of 100-200 boundary points into separated object boundary groups is about 10 to 50 milli-seconds

  11. Focal Plane Detectors for the Advanced Gamma-Ray Imaging System (AGIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Otte, A. N.; Williams, D. A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (United States); Byrum, K.; Drake, G.; Horan, D.; Smith, A.; Wagner, R. G. [Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Falcone, A. [Pennsylvania State University (United States); Funk, S.; Tajima, H. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (United States); Mukherjee, R. [Barnard College (United States)

    2008-12-24

    The Advanced Gamma-Ray Imaging System (AGIS) is a concept for the next generation observatory in ground-based very high energy gamma-ray astronomy. Design goals are ten times better sensitivity, higher angular resolution, and a lower energy threshold than existing Cherenkov telescopes. Simulations show that a substantial improvement in angular resolution may be achieved if the pixel diameter is reduced to the order of 0.05 deg, i.e. two to three times smaller than the pixel diameter of current Cherenkov telescope cameras. At these dimensions, photon detectors with smaller physical dimensions can be attractive alternatives to the classical photomultiplier tube (PMT). Furthermore, the operation of an experiment with the size of AGIS requires photon detectors that are among other things more reliable, more durable, and possibly higher efficiency photon detectors. Alternative photon detectors we are considering for AGIS include both silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) and multi-anode photomultipliers (MAPMTs). Here we present results from laboratory testing of MAPMTs and SiPMs along with results from the first incorporation of these devices into cameras on test bed Cherenkov telescopes.

  12. Miniaturized imaging spectrometer based on Fabry-Perot MOEMS filters and HgCdTe infrared focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velicu, S.; Buurma, C.; Bergeson, J. D.; Kim, Tae Sung; Kubby, J.; Gupta, N.

    2014-05-01

    Imaging spectrometry can be utilized in the midwave infrared (MWIR) and long wave infrared (LWIR) bands to detect, identify and map complex chemical agents based on their rotational and vibrational emission spectra. Hyperspectral datasets are typically obtained using grating or Fourier transform spectrometers to separate the incoming light into spectral bands. At present, these spectrometers are large, cumbersome, slow and expensive, and their resolution is limited by bulky mechanical components such as mirrors and gratings. As such, low-cost, miniaturized imaging spectrometers are of great interest. Microfabrication of micro-electro-mechanicalsystems (MEMS)-based components opens the door for producing low-cost, reliable optical systems. We present here our work on developing a miniaturized IR imaging spectrometer by coupling a mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe)-based infrared focal plane array (FPA) with a MEMS-based Fabry-Perot filter (FPF). The two membranes are fabricated from silicon-oninsulator (SOI) wafers using bulk micromachining technology. The fixed membrane is a standard silicon membrane, fabricated using back etching processes. The movable membrane is implemented as an X-beam structure to improve mechanical stability. The geometries of the distributed Bragg reflector (DBR)-based tunable FPFs are modeled to achieve the desired spectral resolution and wavelength range. Additionally, acceptable fabrication tolerances are determined by modeling the spectral performance of the FPFs as a function of DBR surface roughness and membrane curvature. These fabrication non-idealities are then mitigated by developing an optimized DBR process flow yielding high-performance FPF cavities. Zinc Sulfide (ZnS) and Germanium (Ge) are chosen as the low and the high index materials, respectively, and are deposited using an electron beam process. Simulations are presented showing the impact of these changes and non-idealities in both a device and systems level.

  13. An Indium Gallium Arsenide Visible/SWIR Focal Plane Array for Low Light Level Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marshall J.; Ettenberg, Martin H.; Lange, Michael J.; Olsen, Gregory H.

    1999-01-01

    PIN photodiodes fabricated from indium gallium arsenide lattice-matched to indium phosphide substrates (In(.53)Ga(.47)As/InP) exhibit low reverse saturation current densities (JD < 10(exp -8) A/sq cm), and high shunt resistance-area products (RoA > 10(exp 6) omega-sq cm) at T=290K. Backside-illuminated, hybrid-integrated InGaAs FPAs are sensitive from 0.9 micrometers to 1.7 micrometers. 290K detectivities, D(*), greater than 10(exp 14) cm-(square root of Hz/W) are demonstrated. This represents the highest room temperature detectivity of any infrared material. The long wavelength cutoff (1.7 micrometers) makes In(.53)Ga(.47)As an idea match to the available airglow that has major peaks at 1.3 micrometers and 1.6 micrometers. The short wavelength 'cut-on' at 0.9 micrometers is due to absorption in the InP substrate. We will report on new InGaAs FPA epitaxial structures and processing techniques. These have resulted in improved performance in the form of a 10 x increase in detectivity and visible response via removal of the InP substrate. The resulting device features visible and SWIR response with greater than 15% quantum efficiency at 0.5 micrometers while maintaining the long wavelength cutoff. Imaging has been demonstrated under overcast starlight/urban glow conditions with cooling provided by a single stage thermoelectric cooler. Details on the material structure and device fabrication, quantitative characterization of spectral response and detectivity, as well as examples of night vision imagery are presented.

  14. Blue Moon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Harper

    Information is presented on Blue Moons, including what they are, where the expression and name came from, and which months have the most Blue Moons. A calculator is provided to see when past and future Blue Moons have and will occur. In addition, moon phases are charted for the next and last month, year, and Metonic Cycles. General Moon information is included, along with links for further information.

  15. Blue Note

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2010-01-08

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  16. Blue Note

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  17. Real-time out-of-plane artifact subtraction tomosynthesis imaging using prior CT for scanning beam digital x-ray system

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Meng, E-mail: mengwu@stanford.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Fahrig, Rebecca [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: The scanning beam digital x-ray system (SBDX) is an inverse geometry fluoroscopic system with high dose efficiency and the ability to perform continuous real-time tomosynthesis in multiple planes. This system could be used for image guidance during lung nodule biopsy. However, the reconstructed images suffer from strong out-of-plane artifact due to the small tomographic angle of the system. Methods: The authors propose an out-of-plane artifact subtraction tomosynthesis (OPAST) algorithm that utilizes a prior CT volume to augment the run-time image processing. A blur-and-add (BAA) analytical model, derived from the project-to-backproject physical model, permits the generation of tomosynthesis images that are a good approximation to the shift-and-add (SAA) reconstructed image. A computationally practical algorithm is proposed to simulate images and out-of-plane artifacts from patient-specific prior CT volumes using the BAA model. A 3D image registration algorithm to align the simulated and reconstructed images is described. The accuracy of the BAA analytical model and the OPAST algorithm was evaluated using three lung cancer patients’ CT data. The OPAST and image registration algorithms were also tested with added nonrigid respiratory motions. Results: Image similarity measurements, including the correlation coefficient, mean squared error, and structural similarity index, indicated that the BAA model is very accurate in simulating the SAA images from the prior CT for the SBDX system. The shift-variant effect of the BAA model can be ignored when the shifts between SBDX images and CT volumes are within ±10 mm in the x and y directions. The nodule visibility and depth resolution are improved by subtracting simulated artifacts from the reconstructions. The image registration and OPAST are robust in the presence of added respiratory motions. The dominant artifacts in the subtraction images are caused by the mismatches between the real object and the prior CT volume. Conclusions: Their proposed prior CT-augmented OPAST reconstruction algorithm improves lung nodule visibility and depth resolution for the SBDX system.

  18. SNAP Focal Plane

    E-print Network

    M. Lampton; C. J. Bebek; for the SNAP Collaboration

    2002-09-30

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square-degree field sensitive in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. We describe the requirements for the instrument suite and the evolution of the focal plane design to the present concept in which all the instrumentation -- visible and near-infrared imagers, spectrograph, and star guiders -- share one common focal plane.

  19. A 158MS/s JPEG 2000 Codec with a Bit-Plane and Pass Parallel Embedded Block Coder for Low Delay Image Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyama, Masayuki; Inoie, Yuusuke; Kasuga, Takafumi; Inada, Ryouichi; Nakao, Masashi; Matsuda, Yoshio

    This paper describes a 158MS/s JPEG 2000 codec with an embedded block coder (EBC) based on bit-plane and pass-parallel architecture. The EBC contains bit-plane coders (BPCs) corresponding to each bit-plane in a code-block. The upper and the lower bit-plane coding overlap in time with a 1-stripe and 1-column gap. The bit-modeling passes in the bit-plane coding also overlap in time with the same gap. These methods increase throughput by 30 times in comparison with the conventional. In addition, the methods support not only vertically causal mode, but also regular mode, which enhances the image quality. Furthermore, speculative decoding is adopted to increase throughput. This codec LSI was designed using 0.18?m process. The core area is 4.7×4.7mm2 and the frequency is 160MHz. A system including the codec enables image transmission of PC desktop with 8ms delay.

  20. Axial Plane Optical Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tongcang; Ota, Sadao; Kim, Jeongmin; Wong, Zi Jing; Wang, Yuan; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    We present axial plane optical microscopy (APOM) that can, in contrast to conventional microscopy, directly image a sample's cross-section parallel to the optical axis of an objective lens without scanning. APOM combined with conventional microscopy simultaneously provides two orthogonal images of a 3D sample. More importantly, APOM uses only a single lens near the sample to achieve selective-plane illumination microscopy, as we demonstrated by three-dimensional (3D) imaging of fluorescent pollens and brain slices. This technique allows fast, high-contrast, and convenient 3D imaging of structures that are hundreds of microns beneath the surfaces of large biological tissues. PMID:25434770

  1. Pixel Color Clustering of Multi-Temporally Acquired Digital Photographs of a Rice Canopy by Luminosity-Normalization and Pseudo-Red-Green-Blue Color Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Ryoichi; Arif, Chusnul

    2014-01-01

    Red-green-blue (RGB) channels of RGB digital photographs were loaded with luminosity-adjusted R, G, and completely white grayscale images, respectively (RGwhtB method), or R, G, and R + G (RGB yellow) grayscale images, respectively (RGrgbyB method), to adjust the brightness of the entire area of multi-temporally acquired color digital photographs of a rice canopy. From the RGwhtB or RGrgbyB pseudocolor image, cyan, magenta, CMYK yellow, black, L*, a*, and b* grayscale images were prepared. Using these grayscale images and R, G, and RGB yellow grayscale images, the luminosity-adjusted pixels of the canopy photographs were statistically clustered. With the RGrgbyB and the RGwhtB methods, seven and five major color clusters were given, respectively. The RGrgbyB method showed clear differences among three rice growth stages, and the vegetative stage was further divided into two substages. The RGwhtB method could not clearly discriminate between the second vegetative and midseason stages. The relative advantages of the RGrgbyB method were attributed to the R, G, B, magenta, yellow, L*, and a* grayscale images that contained richer information to show the colorimetrical differences among objects than those of the RGwhtB method. The comparison of rice canopy colors at different time points was enabled by the pseudocolor imaging method. PMID:25302325

  2. Blue Sky

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    This activity provides instructions for using a flashlight and aquarium (or other container of water) to explain why the sky is blue and sunsets are red. When the white light from the sun shines through the earth's atmosphere, it collides with gas molecules with the blue light scattering more than the other colors, leaving a dominant yellow-orange hue to the transmitted light. The scattered light makes the sky blue; the transmitted light makes the sunset reddish orange. The section entitled What's Going On? explains this phenomena.

  3. Cross-Sectional Elasticity Imaging of Carotid Arterial Wall in Short-Axis Plane by Transcutaneous Ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nozomi Nakagawa; Hideyuki Hasegawa; Hiroshi Kanai

    2004-01-01

    We have developed the phased tracking method [H. Kanai, M. Sato, Y. Koiwa and N. Chubachi: IEEE Trans. UFFC 43 (1996) 791.] for measuring the minute change in thickness during one heartbeat and the elasticity of the arterial wall with transcutaneous ultrasound. When this method is applied to a plane perpendicular to the axis of the artery (short-axis plane) using

  4. Voyager 1 'Blue Movie'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This is the original Voyager 'Blue Movie' (so named because it was built from Blue filter images). It records the approach of Voyager 1 during a period of over 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storms shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  5. Nile-red and Nile-blue-based near-infrared fluorescent probes for in-cellulo imaging of hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Dong; Fan, Chen; Sun, Ru; Xu, Yu-Jie; Ge, Jian-Feng

    2014-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide has recently been identified as a biologically responsive species. The design and synthesis of fluorescence probes, which are constructed with Nile-red or Nile-blue fluorophores and a fluorescence-controllable dinitrophenyl group, for hydrogen sulfide are reported in this paper. The Nile-red-dinitrophenyl-ether-group-based probe (1a) is essentially non-fluorescent because of the inhibition of the photo-induced electron-transfer process; when the dinitrobenzene moiety is removed by nucleophilic substitution with the hydrosulfide anion, probe 1a is converted into hydroxy Nile red, eliciting a H2S-induced fluorescence turn-on signal. Furthermore, probe 1a has high selectivity and sensitivity for the hydrosulfide anion, and its potential for biological applications was confirmed by using it for real-time fluorescence imaging of hydrogen sulfide in live HeLa cells. The Nile-blue-dinitrobenzene-based probe (1b) has gradually diminishing brightness in the red-emission channel with increased hydrogen-sulfide concentration. Thus, this paper reports a comparative study of Nile-red and Nile-blue-based hydrogen-sulfide probes. PMID:25258280

  6. Fluorescence imaging lysosomal changes during cell division and apoptosis observed using Nile Blue based near-infrared emission.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jiangli; Dong, Huijuan; Hu, Mingming; Wang, Jingyun; Zhang, Hua; Zhu, Hao; Sun, Wen; Peng, Xiaojun

    2014-01-25

    , a Nile Blue based NIR fluorescent dye was reported. is highly effective in specifically labeling lysosomes with low concentration and good photostability in various kinds of live cells. It was first successfully used to observe the disappearance and reproduction of lysosomes during cell division. PMID:24296800

  7. A DIGITAL IMAGE WATERMARKING TECHNIQUE USING MODULATED PASCAL'S TRIANGLES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Kostopoulos; M. Xenos

    2003-01-01

    A watermarking process introduces imperceptible changes to a digital image that can be next detected by a computer program. In this paper we present an algorithm that embeds a binary representation of a modulated Pascal's triangle into the blue channel of color images by modifying one of the Bit planes. The proposed technique aims at the protection of the rights

  8. coordinate plane

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    olsen

    2010-10-07

    Become familiar with the coordinate plane. Learn the quadrants and how to graph points and read points on a coordinate plane. You are required to do the assignment and take the quiz. The other resources are to help prepare you for the quiz and book assignment. This is a quick review of the lesson.The Coordinate Plane This is a game to practice plotting and reading points.coordinates game *Assignment: Watch Powerpoint 3.3 and fill in your ...

  9. The Blues

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Noted bluesman Willie Dixon once said, "The blues are the roots; everything else is the fruits". Wise words indeed, and the quote informs the spirit of Martin Scorsese's PBS documentary series "The Blues". This interactive website provides users with some great material about this seven part series, which features segments by Clint Eastwood, Wim Wenders, and of course, Mr. Scorsese. On the site, visitors can watch previews of each segment and learn more about the artists profiled in each one. In "The Songs & the Artists" area, visitors can read musician biographies and even check out the accompanying radio series which was released in conjunction with the documentary. Those who like to travel should click on the "Blues Road Trip" area. Here they will have the opportunity to take a musical journey from the Deep South to Memphis, St. Louis, and Chicago via song, photographs, and maps. The site is rounded out by the "Blues Classroom" area, which is designed for educators. Interested parties can view lesson plans, look over a blues glossary, and read several background essays.

  10. Folate grafted Prussian Blue entrapped with gadolinium(III) as a new contrast agent for tumor-targeted magnetic resonant imaging.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Zhi-Jun; Tang, Qun

    2013-08-01

    A new generation of magnetic resonant imaging (MRI) contrast agents will simultaneously possess characteristics of high relaxivity, biotargeting ability and nontoxicity, referring that they are helpful to acquire better contrast imaging in the region of interest (e.g., tumors) without health risks. Colloidal Prussian blue with quasi-zeolite structure was introduced as a new type of nanosized scaffold to entrap Gd(III) ions via ion exchange and folate, one kind of cancer-targeting ligand, was intentionally grafted on its surface. The nanoparticulate contrast agent has T1 relaxivity of up to 23.9 mM(-1) s(-1). In vivo MRI illustrated a clear contrast enhancement specifically on the ovarian tumors transplanted on mice at a low dose. Furthermore, the contrast agent is stable and free of cytotoxicity. Therefore it might be a promising new MRI contrast agent for clinical applications. PMID:23882747

  11. Blue Water

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St-Laurent has a mechanical system that creates bubbles that rise to the surface and push ice away from the ship's hull. It also happens to churn the water into an amazing shade of blue....

  12. SNAP focal plane

    SciTech Connect

    Lampton, Michael L.; Kim, A.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Berkovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.E.; DiGennaro,R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Holland, S.E.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Linder,E.V.; Loken, S.C.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto, E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch,A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.

    2002-07-29

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square-degree field sensitive in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. We describe the requirements for the instrument suite and the evolution of the focal plane design to the present concept in which all the instrumentation--visible and near-infrared imagers, spectrograph, and star guiders--share one common focal plane.

  13. The use of image charges in the charge-simulation method: a parallel-plane dielectric plate covering a conductor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Poli

    1992-01-01

    It is noted that, when applied to two dielectrics, the charge simulation method needs a number of additional charges with respect to the single dielectric case. This can strongly increase the time of computation. It is analytically shown that, if the geometry to be solved is a dielectric medium facing a parallel plane dielectric plate covering a conductor, the problem

  14. Morphological observation and analysis using automated image cytometry for the comparison of trypan blue and fluorescence-based viability detection method.

    PubMed

    Chan, Leo Li-Ying; Kuksin, Dmitry; Laverty, Daniel J; Saldi, Stephanie; Qiu, Jean

    2015-05-01

    The ability to accurately determine cell viability is essential to performing a well-controlled biological experiment. Typical experiments range from standard cell culturing to advanced cell-based assays that may require cell viability measurement for downstream experiments. The traditional cell viability measurement method has been the trypan blue (TB) exclusion assay. However, since the introduction of fluorescence-based dyes for cell viability measurement using flow or image-based cytometry systems, there have been numerous publications comparing the two detection methods. Although previous studies have shown discrepancies between TB exclusion and fluorescence-based viability measurements, image-based morphological analysis was not performed in order to examine the viability discrepancies. In this work, we compared TB exclusion and fluorescence-based viability detection methods using image cytometry to observe morphological changes due to the effect of TB on dead cells. Imaging results showed that as the viability of a naturally-dying Jurkat cell sample decreased below 70 %, many TB-stained cells began to exhibit non-uniform morphological characteristics. Dead cells with these characteristics may be difficult to count under light microscopy, thus generating an artificially higher viability measurement compared to fluorescence-based method. These morphological observations can potentially explain the differences in viability measurement between the two methods. PMID:24643390

  15. Technical developments for cerebral thermal treatment: water-cooled diffusing laser fibre tips and temperature-sensitive MRI using intersecting image planes.

    PubMed

    McNichols, R J; Kangasniemi, M; Gowda, A; Bankson, J A; Price, R E; Hazle, J D

    2004-02-01

    The aim was to determine if water-cooled diffusing tips could produce larger and safer (better controlled) thermal lesions than non-cooled diffusing tips at 980 nm. Thermal lesions were induced in beef myocardium in vitro with and without water cooling using a 980 nm diode laser at various power levels. Seven intracerebral treatments were performed in six canines using water-cooled diffusing tips with four animals having intracerebral transmissible venereal tumours grown from inoculate. Magnetic resonance thermal imaging (MRTI)-based feedback software using a fast, radio frequency-spoiled gradient echo acquisition with two intersecting image planes was used for on-line monitoring and control of treatment and for the evaluation of in vivo laser lesion production. In cases where two-plane MRTI was employed, the maximum calculated temperature was compared in each plane. Using water-cooled tips and 400 micro m core diameter laser diffusing fibres in in vitro beef myocardium, power of up to 9.5 W was applied for 8 min without tip failure. Without cooling, tip failure occurred in under 4 min at 6 W, in under 2 min at 7 W and instantaneously at 8 W. Additionally, char accompanied lesions made with uncooled tips while cooled application resulted in only minimal char at only the highest thermal dose. Achieved lesion cross-sectional diameters in in vitro samples were up to 26.5 x 23.3 mm when water cooling was used. In canine brain and transmissible venereal tumours, up to 18.1 x 21.4 mm lesions were achieved. It is concluded that water cooling allows safe application of higher power to small core diameter diffusing tip fibres, which results in larger thermal lesions than can be achieved without cooling. Two-plane MRTI enhances on-line monitoring and feedback of thermal treatment. PMID:14612313

  16. Full-range in-plane rotation measurement for image recognition with hybrid digital-optical correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Tianxiang; Cao, Liangcai; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid digital-optical correlator (HDOC) based on volume holographic memory is able to compute the correlation of images at a high speed. HDOC is suitable for real-time image processing and has potential usage in big data processing areas. A 7500-channel HDOC system is experimentally set up, and the target image is correlated with all the channels. The large number of parallel correlation channels could contribute to the precise rotation measurement as well as the translation measurement. In the image recognition applications, the target image involves rotation distortion with respect to the template images. A method with two coarse-fine steps is proposed to measure the rotation at a full range of 360 deg. In the coarse step, the target image is rotated 36 times at an increment of 10 deg. The 36 new images are sent into the HDOC to compute with the template images. Each new image corresponds to a correlation matrix. By searching the smallest value throughout the 36 minimums of the 36 correlation matrixes, the rotation of the target image is narrowed into ±5 deg. In the fine step, the new image is rotated another 10 times at an increment of 1 deg. The rotation measurement error is <0.3 deg.

  17. Composite x-ray image assembly for large-field digital mammography with one- and two-dimensional positioning of a focal plane array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halama, G.; McAdoo, J.; Liu, H.

    1998-01-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of a novel large-field digital mammography technique, a 1024 x 1024 pixel Loral charge-coupled device (CCD) focal plane array (FPA) was positioned in a mammographic field with one- and two-dimensional scan sequences to obtain 950 x 1800 pixel and 3600 x 3600 pixel composite images, respectively. These experiments verify that precise positioning of FPAs produced seamless composites and that the CCD mosaic concept has potential for high-resolution, large-field imaging. The proposed CCD mosaic concept resembles a checkerboard pattern with spacing left between the CCDs for the driver and readout electronics. To obtain a complete x-ray image, the mosaic must be repositioned four times, with an x-ray exposure at each position. To reduce the patient dose, a lead shield with appropriately patterned holes is placed between the x-ray source and the patient. The high-precision motorized translation stages and the fiber-coupled-scintillating-screen-CCD sensor assembly were placed in the position usually occupied by the film cassette. Because of the high mechanical precision, seamless composites were constructed from the subimages. This paper discusses the positioning, image alignment procedure, and composite image results. The paper only addresses the formation of a seamless composite image from subimages and will not consider the effects of the lead shield, multiple CCDs, or the speed of motion.

  18. The Blue Marble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This spectacular Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 'blue marble' image is based on the most detailed collection of true-color imagery of the entire Earth to date. Using a collection of satellite-based observations, scientists and visualizers stitched together months of observations of the land surface, oceans, sea ice, and clouds into a seamless, true-color mosaic of every square kilometer (.386 square mile) of our planet. Most of the information contained in this image came from MODIS, illustrating MODIS' outstanding capacity to act as an integrated tool for observing a variety of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric features of the Earth. The land and coastal ocean portions of this image is based on surface observations collected from June through September 2001 and combined, or composited, every eight days to compensate for clouds that might block the satellite's view on any single day. Global ocean color (or chlorophyll) data was used to simulate the ocean surface. MODIS doesn't measure 3-D features of the Earth, so the surface observations were draped over topographic data provided by the U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center. MODIS observations of polar sea ice were combined with observations of Antarctica made by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's AVHRR sensor-the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The cloud image is a composite of two days of MODIS imagery collected in visible light wavelengths and a third day of thermal infra-red imagery over the poles. A large collection of imagery based on the blue marble in a variety of sizes and formats, including animations and the full (1 km) resolution imagery, is available at the Blue Marble page. Image by Reto Stockli, Render by Robert Simmon. Based on data from the MODIS Science Team

  19. Plane reconstruction ultrasound tomography device

    SciTech Connect

    Hassler, D.

    1984-10-23

    An ultrasound tomography device for scanning an object under examination from a plurality of directions. Coronal slice images of the plane areas near or at the female breast wall are obtained. Ultrasound lobes from ultrasound transducers are electronically directed or mechanically positioned to obliquely strike the coronal slice located at or near the breast wall. A full image of the coronal slice plane is reconstructed through section by section combination of the images obtained from the several ultrasound lobes.

  20. The Next Generation Blue Marble

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The phenomena is a full year?s worth of NASA satellite data of Earth's land surface, coastal oceans, sea ice, and clouds that has been organized into a seamless, photo-like mosaic of our planet The image beneath the title "The Next Generation Blue Marble" features an animation. Click the image to begin the animation.

  1. THE DEEP BLUE COLOR OF HD 189733b: ALBEDO MEASUREMENTS WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH AT VISIBLE WAVELENGTHS

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Thomas M.; Aigrain, Suzanne; Barstow, Joanna K. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Pont, Frederic; Sing, David K. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, EX4 4QL Exeter (United Kingdom); Desert, Jean-Michel; Knutson, Heather A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gibson, Neale [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Heng, Kevin [University of Bern, Center for Space and Habitability, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Lecavelier des Etangs, Alain, E-mail: tom.evans@astro.ox.ac.uk [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2013-08-01

    We present a secondary eclipse observation for the hot Jupiter HD 189733b across the wavelength range 290-570 nm made using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. We measure geometric albedos of A{sub g} = 0.40 {+-} 0.12 across 290-450 nm and A{sub g} < 0.12 across 450-570 nm at 1{sigma} confidence. The albedo decrease toward longer wavelengths is also apparent when using six wavelength bins over the same wavelength range. This can be interpreted as evidence for optically thick reflective clouds on the dayside hemisphere with sodium absorption suppressing the scattered light signal beyond {approx}450 nm. Our best-fit albedo values imply that HD 189733b would appear a deep blue color at visible wavelengths.

  2. SNAP focal plane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L. Lampton; Christopher Bebek; Carl W. Akerlof; Greg Aldering; R. Amanullah; Pierre Astier; E. Barrelet; Lars Bergstrom; John Bercovitz; Gary M. Bernstein; Manfred Bester; Alain Bonissent; C. R. Bower; William C. Carithers Jr.; Eugene D. Commins; C. Day; Susana E. Deustua; Richard S. DiGennaro; Anne Ealet; Richard S. Ellis; Mikael Eriksson; Andrew Fruchter; Jean-Francois Genat; Gerson Goldhaber; Ariel Goobar; Donald E. Groom; Stewart E. Harris; Peter R. Harvey; Henry D. Heetderks; Steven E. Holland; Dragan Huterer; Armin Karcher; Alex G. Kim; William F. Kolbe; B. Krieger; R. Lafever; J. Lamoureux; Michael E. Levi; Daniel S. Levin; Eric V. Linder; Stewart C. Loken; Roger Malina; R. Massey; Timothy McKay; Steven M. McKee; Ramon Miquel; E. Moertsell; N. Mostek; Stuart Mufson; J. A. Musser; Peter E. Nugent; Hakeem M. Oluseyi; Reynald Pain; Nicholas P. Palaio; David H. Pankow; Saul Perlmutter; R. Pratt; Eric Prieto; Alexandre Refregier; J. Rhodes; Kem E. Robinson; N. Roe; Michael Sholl; Michael S. Schubnell; G. Smadja; George F. Smoot; Anthony Spadafora; Gregory Tarle; Andrew D. Tomasch; H. von der Lippe; D. Vincent; J.-P. Walder; Guobin Wang

    2003-01-01

    The proposed SuperNova\\/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square-degree field sensitive in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. We describe the requirements for the instrument suite and the evolution of the focal plane design to the present concept in which all the instrumentation -- visible and near-infrared imagers, spectrograph,

  3. SNAP focal plane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L. Lampton; A. Kim; C. W. Akerlof; G. Aldering; R. Amanullah; P. Astier; E. Barrelet; C. Bebek; L. Bergstrom; J. Berkovitz; G. Bernstein; M. Bester; A. Bonissent; C. Bower; W. C. Carithers Jr; E. D. Commins; C. Day; S. E. Deustua; R. DiGennaro; A. Ealet; R. S. Ellis; M. Eriksson; A. Fruchter; J.-F. Genat; G. Goldhaber; A. Goobar; D. Groom; S. E. Harris; P. R. Harvey; H. D. Heetderks; S. E. Holland; D. Huterer; A. Karcher; W. Kolbe; B. Krieger; R. Lafever; J. Lamoureux; M. E. Levi; D. S. Levin; E. V. Linder; S. C. Loken; R. Malina; R. Massey; T. McKay; S. P. McKee; R. Miquel; E. Mortsell; N. Mostek; S. Mufson; J. Musser; P. Nugent; H. Oluseyi; R. Pain; N. Palaio; D. Pankow; S. Perlmutter; R. Pratt; E. Prieto; A. Refregier; J. Rhodes; K. Robinson; N. Roe; M. Sholl; M. Schubnell; G. Smadja; G. Smoot; A. Spadafora; G. Tarle; A. Tomasch; H. von der Lippe; R. Vincent; J.-P. Walder; G. Wang

    2002-01-01

    The proposed SuperNova\\/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square-degree field sensitive in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. We describe the requirements for the instrument suite and the evolution of the focal plane design to the present concept in which all the instrumentation--visible and near-infrared imagers, spectrograph, and star

  4. Plane Jane(s).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Geri

    2001-01-01

    Describes an assignment that was used in an advanced drawing class in which the students created self-portraits, breaking up their images using planes and angles to suggest their bone structure. Explains that the students also had to include three realistic portions in their drawings. (CMK)

  5. A study of the feasibility and performance of an active/passive imager using silicon focal plane arrays and incoherent continuous wave laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmerhausen, Richard H.

    This dissertation describes an active/passive imager (API) that provides reliable, nighttime, target acquisition in a man-portable package with effective visual range of about 4 kilometers. The reflective imagery is easier to interpret than currently used thermal imagery. Also, in the active mode, the API provides performance equivalent to the big-aperture, thermal systems used on weapons platforms like tanks and attack helicopters. This dissertation describes the research needed to demonstrate both the feasibility and utility of the API. Part of the research describes implementation of a silicon focal plane array (SFPA) capable of both active and passive imaging. The passive imaging mode exceeds the nighttime performance of currently fielded, man-portable sensors. Further, when scene illumination is insufficient for passive imaging, the low dark current of SFPA makes it possible to use continuous wave laser diodes (CWLD) to add an active imaging mode. CWLD have advantages of size, efficiency, and improved eye safety when compared to high peak-power diodes. Because of the improved eye safety, the API provides user-demanded features like video output and extended range gates in the active as well as passive imaging modes. Like any other night vision device, the API depends on natural illumination of the scene for passive operation. Although it has been known for decades that "starlight" illumination is actually from diffuse airglow emissions, the research described in this dissertation provides the first estimates of the global and temporal variation of ground illumination due to airglow. A third related element of the current research establishes the impact of atmospheric aerosols on API performance. We know from day experience that atmospheric scattering of sunlight into the imager line-of-sight can blind the imager and drastically degrade performance. Atmospheric scattering of sunlight is extensively covered in the literature. However, previous literature did not cover the impact of atmospheric scattering when the target is diffusely illuminated by airglow.

  6. Blue Whales

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this two-minute sound segment, a professor of physics and astronomy describes the communication ability of the blue whale. He says that pitch discrimination with whales is incredibly accurate. The whales produce this call always at exactly four octaves below middle C, based on measurements of 6,000 whale calls. This site is from an archive of a daily radio program called Pulse of the Planet, which provides its listeners with a portrait of Planet Earth, tracking the rhythms of nature, culture and science worldwide and blending interviews and extraordinary natural sound. The site also provides a written transcript of the broadcast.

  7. Blue Sky

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Exploratorium

    2011-12-07

    In this optics activity, learners explore why the sky is blue and the sunset is red, using a simple setup comprising a transparent plastic box, water, and powdered milk. Learners use a flashlight to shine a beam of light through the container. Learners look at the beam from the side of the container and then from the end of the tank, and compare the colors that they see. Learners also examine a narrower beam of light. Use this activity to introduce learners to the light spectrum, wavelengths, frequency, scattering, and how all this effects what we see in the sky at different times of the day.

  8. National Geographic: Blue Whales

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brower, Ken

    As a cameraman leans in to get a shot of a blue whale, this massive creature glides through the water off of Costa Rica. That's the opening photograph that visitors to this interactive article from National Geographic are presented with, and it's a rather amazing image. This interactive article and feature is derived from a March 2009 feature in the print edition of National Geographic magazine, and it features the photography of Flip Nicklin and the writing of Ken Brower. The article offers an in-depth look into the recovery of the blue whale population off the coast of Costa Rica in recent years, and along the way visitors can stop off to take a look at a special photo gallery, take a quiz on these remarkable creatures, and also watch a video the provides the story behind one of Nicklin's photographs.

  9. Traction may enhance the imaging of spine injuries with plane radiographs: implications for the laboratory versus the clinic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart M. McGill; Vanessa R. Yingling

    1999-01-01

    Objective. In some of our work to quantify injury we had been unsuccessful in quantifying confirmed bony damage with conventional X-ray positioning. This motivated the current study to evaluate whether external loading would enhance radiologic imaging and interpretation of spinal injuries. It was hypothesized that traction loads would enhance injury manifestation on planar radiographic images.Design. Test–retest of fractured specimens both

  10. Inclined Plane

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-05-07

    This applet demonstrates motion of a body on an inclined plane. The angle of inclination, the mass, and the coefficient of friction can be set by the user and the resultant can be viewed. This applet is available in a wide range of languages and is a part of a large collection of physics applets.

  11. The Canadian Galactic Plane Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Taylor; S. J. Gibson; M. Peracaula; P. G. Martin; T. L. Landecker; C. M. Brunt; P. E. Dewdney; S. M. Dougherty; A. D. Gray; L. A. Higgs; C. R. Kerton; L. B. G. Knee; R. Kothes; C. R. Purton; B. Uyaniker; B. J. Wallace; A. G. Willis; D. Durand

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (CGPS) is a project to combine radio, millimeter, and infrared surveys of the Galactic plane to provide arcminute-scale images of all major components of the interstellar medium over a large portion of the Galactic disk. We describe in detail the observations for the low-frequency component of the CGPS, the radio surveys carried out at the

  12. Ultra-low dark current InGaAs technology for focal plane arrays for low-light level visible-shortwave infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onat, Bora M.; Huang, Wei; Masaun, Navneet; Lange, Michael; Ettenberg, Martin H.; Dries, Christopher

    2007-04-01

    Under the DARPA Photon Counting Arrays (PCAR) program we have investigated technologies to reduce the overall noise level in InGaAs based imagers for identifying a man at 100m under low-light level imaging conditions. We report the results of our experiments comprising of 15 InGaAs wafers that were utilized to investigate lowering dark current in photodiode arrays. As a result of these experiments, we have achieved an ultra low dark current of 2nA/cm2 through technological advances in InGaAs detector design, epitaxial growth, and processing at a temperature of +12.3 degrees C. The InGaAs photodiode array was hybridized to a low noise readout integrated circuit, also developed under this program. The focal plane array (FPA) achieves very high sensitivity in the shortwave infrared bands in addition to the visible response added via substrate removal process post hybridization. Based on our current room-temperature stabilized SWIR camera platform, these imagers enable a full day-night imaging capability and are responsive to currently fielded covert laser designators, illuminators, and rangefinders. In addition, improved haze penetration in the SWIR compared to the visible provides enhanced clarity in the imagery of a scene. In this paper we show the results of our dark current studies as well as FPA characterization of the camera built under this program.

  13. A compact thermal infrared imaging radiometer with high spatial resolution and wide swath for a small satellite using a large format uncooled infrared focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsumi, Kenji; Sakuma, Fumihiro; Kikuchi, Masakuni; Tanii, Jun; Kawanishi, Toneo; Ueno, Shinichi; Kuga, Hideki

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we present a feasibility study for the potential of a high spatial resolution and wide swath thermal infrared (TIR) imaging radiometer for a small satellite using a large format uncooled infrared focal plane array (IR-FPA). The preliminary TIR imaging radiometer designs were performed. One is a panchromatic (mono-band) imaging radiometer (8-12?m) with a large format 2000 x 1000 pixels uncooled IR-FPA with a pixel pitch of 15 ?m. The other is a multiband imaging radiometer (8.8?m, 10.8?m, 11.4?m). This radiometer is employed separate optics and detectors for each wave band. It is based on the use of a 640 x 480 pixels uncooled IR-FPA with a pixel pitch of 25 ?m. The thermal time constant of an uncooled IR-FPA is approximately 10-16ms, and introduces a constraint to the satellite operation to achieve better signal-to-noise ratio, MTF and linearity performances. The study addressed both on-ground time-delayintegration binning and staring imaging solutions, although a staring imaging was preferred after trade-off. The staring imaging requires that the line of sight of the TIR imaging radiometer gazes at a target area during the acquisition time of the image, which can be obtained by rotating the satellite or a steering mirror around the pitch axis. The single band radiometer has been designed to yield a 30m ground sample distance over a 30km swath width from a satellite altitude of 500km. The radiometric performance, enhanced with staring imaging, is expected to yield a NETD less than 0.5K for a 300K ground scene. The multi-band radiometer has three spectral bands with spatial resolution of 50m and swath width of 24km. The radiometric performance is expected to yield a NETD less than 0.85K. We also showed some preliminary simulation results on volcano, desert/urban scenes, and wildfire.

  14. Coordinate Plane

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Zilles

    2007-10-31

    5th Grade Math State core Standard 3, Objective 2a: Locate points defined by ordered pairs of integers. Congratulations for earning a game day in the computer lab! Remember that even though it is game day I expect you to stay on task and follow directions. We have been talking in math about graphing integers on the coordinate plane. The games for today require that ...

  15. Integrating Spray Plane-Based Remote Sensing and Rapid Image Processing with Variable-Rate Aerial Application.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A remote sensing and variable rate application system was configured for agricultural aircraft. This combination system has the potential of providing a completely integrated solution for all aspects of aerial site-specific application and includes remote sensing, image processing and georegistratio...

  16. Semiconducting layered blue phosphorus: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David

    2014-05-01

    We investigate a previously unknown phase of phosphorus that shares its layered structure and high stability with the black phosphorus allotrope. We find the in-plane hexagonal structure and bulk layer stacking of this structure, which we call "blue phosphorus," to be related to graphite. Unlike graphite and black phosphorus, blue phosphorus displays a wide fundamental band gap. Still, it should exfoliate easily to form quasi-two-dimensional structures suitable for electronic applications. We study a likely transformation pathway from black to blue phosphorus and discuss possible ways to synthesize the new structure. PMID:24836265

  17. Semiconducting Layered Blue Phosphorus: A Computational Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David

    2014-05-01

    We investigate a previously unknown phase of phosphorus that shares its layered structure and high stability with the black phosphorus allotrope. We find the in-plane hexagonal structure and bulk layer stacking of this structure, which we call "blue phosphorus," to be related to graphite. Unlike graphite and black phosphorus, blue phosphorus displays a wide fundamental band gap. Still, it should exfoliate easily to form quasi-two-dimensional structures suitable for electronic applications. We study a likely transformation pathway from black to blue phosphorus and discuss possible ways to synthesize the new structure.

  18. Characterizing the transplanar and in-plane water transport of textiles with gravimetric and image analysis technique: Spontaneous Uptake Water Transport Tester.

    PubMed

    Tang, K P M; Wu, Y S; Chau, K H; Kan, C W; Fan, J T

    2015-01-01

    Water absorption and transport property of textiles is important since it affects wear comfort, efficiency of treatment and functionality of product. This paper introduces an accurate and reliable measurement tester, which is based on gravimetric and image analysis technique, for characterising the transplanar and in-plane wicking property of fabrics. The uniqueness of this instrument is that it is able to directly measure the water absorption amount in real-time, monitor the direction of water transport and estimate the amount of water left on skin when sweating. Throughout the experiment, water supply is continuous which simulates profuse sweating. Testing automation could even minimise variation caused by subjective manipulation, thus enhancing testing accuracy. This instrument is versatile in terms of the fabrics could be tested. A series of shirting fabrics made by different fabric structure and yarn were investigated and the results show that the proposed method has high sensitivity in differentiating fabrics with varying geometrical differences. Fabrics with known hydrophobicity were additionally tested to examine the sensitivity of the instrument. This instrument also demonstrates the flexibility to test on high performance moisture management fabrics and these fabrics were found to have excellent transplanar and in-plane wicking properties. PMID:25875329

  19. Imaging Fos-Jun Transcription Factor Mobility and Interaction in Live Cells by Single Plane Illumination-Fluorescence Cross Correlation Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pernuš, Agata; Langowski, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    We collected mobility and interaction maps of c-Fos-eGFP and c-Jun-mRFP1 transcription factors within living cell nuclei. c-Fos dimerizes with c-Jun to form the transcription activator protein-1 (AP-1) which binds to the specific recognition site. To monitor this process, we used fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy on a single plane illumination microscope (SPIM-FCCS), which provides diffusion coefficient and protein-protein interaction data in the whole image plane simultaneously, instead of just one point on conventional confocal FCS. We find a strong correlation between diffusional mobility and interaction: regions of strong interaction show slow mobility. Controls containing either an eGFP-mRFP dimer, separately expressing eGFP and mRPF, or c-Fos-eGFP and c-Jun-mRFP1 mutants lacking dimerization and DNA-binding domains, showed no such correlation. These results extend our earlier findings from confocal FCCS to include spatial information. PMID:25875593

  20. Characterizing the transplanar and in-plane water transport of textiles with gravimetric and image analysis technique: Spontaneous Uptake Water Transport Tester

    PubMed Central

    Tang, K. P. M.; Wu, Y. S.; Chau, K. H.; Kan, C. W.; Fan, J. T.

    2015-01-01

    Water absorption and transport property of textiles is important since it affects wear comfort, efficiency of treatment and functionality of product. This paper introduces an accurate and reliable measurement tester, which is based on gravimetric and image analysis technique, for characterising the transplanar and in-plane wicking property of fabrics. The uniqueness of this instrument is that it is able to directly measure the water absorption amount in real-time, monitor the direction of water transport and estimate the amount of water left on skin when sweating. Throughout the experiment, water supply is continuous which simulates profuse sweating. Testing automation could even minimise variation caused by subjective manipulation, thus enhancing testing accuracy. This instrument is versatile in terms of the fabrics could be tested. A series of shirting fabrics made by different fabric structure and yarn were investigated and the results show that the proposed method has high sensitivity in differentiating fabrics with varying geometrical differences. Fabrics with known hydrophobicity were additionally tested to examine the sensitivity of the instrument. This instrument also demonstrates the flexibility to test on high performance moisture management fabrics and these fabrics were found to have excellent transplanar and in-plane wicking properties. PMID:25875329

  1. Mongolian blue spots

    MedlinePLUS

    Mongolian spots are flat, blue, or blue-gray skin markings near the buttocks that appear at birth or shortly thereafter. ... Mongolian blue spots are common among persons who are of Asian, East Indian, and African descent.

  2. Blue nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Blue nightshade poisoning occurs when someone eats parts of the blue nightshade plant. This is for information only and ... The poison is found in the blue nightshade (Solanum dulcamara) plant, especially in the fruit and leaves.

  3. Synchrotron based infrared imaging and spectroscopy via focal plane array on live fibroblasts in D2O enriched medium.

    PubMed

    Quaroni, Luca; Zlateva, Theodora; Sarafimov, Blagoj; Kreuzer, Helen W; Wehbe, Katia; Hegg, Eric L; Cinque, Gianfelice

    2014-05-01

    We successfully tested the viability of using synchrotron-based full-field infrared imaging to study biochemical processes inside living cells. As a model system, we studied fibroblast cells exposed to a medium highly enriched with D2O. We could show that the experimental technique allows us to reproduce at the cellular level measurements that are normally performed on purified biological molecules. We can obtain information about lipid conformation and distribution, kinetics of hydrogen/deuterium exchange, and the formation of concentration gradients of H and O isotopes in water that are associated with cell metabolism. The implementation of the full field technique in a sequential imaging format gives a description of cellular biochemistry and biophysics that contains both spatial and temporal information. PMID:24747675

  4. Synchrotron based infrared imaging and spectroscopy via focal plane array on live fibroblasts in D2O enriched medium

    SciTech Connect

    Quaroni, Luca; Zlateva, Theodora; Sarafimov, Blagoj; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Wehbe, Katia; Hegg, Eric L.; Cinque, Gianfelice

    2014-03-26

    We tested the viability of using synchrotron based infrared imaging to study biochemical processes inside living cells. As a model system, we studied fibroblast cells exposed to a medium highly enriched with D2O. We could show that the experimental technique allows us to reproduce at the cellular level measurements that are normally performed on purified biological molecules. We can obtain information about lipid conformation and distribution, kinetics of hydrogen/deuterium exchange, and the formation of concentration gradients of H and O isotopes in water that are associated with cell metabolism. The implementation of the full field technique in a sequential imaging format gives a description of cellular biochemistry and biophysics that contains both spatial and temporal information.

  5. Four-million-frame\\/s CMOS image sensor prototype with on-focal-plane 64-frame storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart Kleinfelder; Yandong Chen; Kris Kwiatkowski; Ashish Shah

    2004-01-01

    An image sensor acquisition and readout circuit prototype, capable of 4 to 10 million frames\\/s and 79 dB (13 bits), RMS, dynamic range has been fabricated and tested. The 0.35 mum CMOS chip tests sensor and readout circuitry intended for applications such as accelerator-based radiography, where fast, brief, transient events can be captured with high resolution. It exhibits a unique

  6. A critical evaluation of the ability of the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) thermal infrared red-green-blue rendering to identify dust events: Theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brindley, Helen; Knippertz, Peter; Ryder, Claire; Ashpole, Ian

    2012-04-01

    Using a combination of idealized radiative transfer simulations and a case study from the first field campaign of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) in southern Morocco, this paper provides a systematic assessment of the limitations of the widely used Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) red-green-blue (RGB) thermal infrared dust product. Both analyses indicate that the ability of the product to identify dust, via its characteristic pink coloring, is strongly dependent on the column water vapor, the lower tropospheric lapse rate, and dust altitude. In particular, when column water vapor exceeds ˜20-25 mm, dust presence, even for visible optical depths of the order 0.8, is effectively masked. Variability in dust optical properties also has a marked impact on the imagery, primarily as a result of variability in dust composition. There is a moderate sensitivity to the satellite viewing geometry, particularly in moist conditions. The underlying surface can act to confound the signal seen through variations in spectral emissivity, which are predominantly manifested in the 8.7?m SEVIRI channel. In addition, if a temperature inversion is present, typical of early morning conditions over the Sahara and Sahel, an increased dust loading can actually reduce the pink coloring of the RGB image compared to pristine conditions. Attempts to match specific SEVIRI observations to simulations using SAMUM measurements are challenging because of high uncertainties in surface skin temperature and emissivity. Recommendations concerning the use and interpretation of the SEVIRI RGB imagery are provided on the basis of these findings.

  7. A high-NA solid immersion objective for imaging a Blue-ray disc and investigating subsurface damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Densmore, Victor; Kim, Young Sik; Milster, Tom; Watson, Matt; Kwok, Dolaphine

    2014-09-01

    Nano-scale resolution in miniature optical systems has been realized in the optical data storage industry. Numerical apertures greater than unity have been achieved in by utilizing the high index material of a hemispherical Solid Immersion Lens (SIL), which increases the resolution of the backing objective by a factor that is related to the refractive index of the SIL. In this research, a custom Hyper-Blu-Disc (HBD) NA=1.4 SIL objective is utilized for high-fidelity readout of data pits beneath a 100?m thick cover layer on an optical Blu-Ray Disc. If realized commercially, the increase in data density could be 3X today's Blu-Ray technology. A distinct difference between this work and other work with SILs in optical data storage is the relatively thick cover layer of 100?m. Recently, there has been interest in discovering new ways to apply the technology and methods used in optical data storage for other means. The inherent design of the HBD objective to image through a shallow layer of dielectric material may lend itself to be used as an effective means for characterizing subsurface damage in optical materials. This research will furthermore investigate the HBD objective as a means of detecting subsurface damage.

  8. Isolating stem cells in the inter-follicular epidermis employing synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy and focal plane array imaging.

    PubMed

    Patel, Imran I; Harrison, Wesley J; Kerns, Jemma G; Filik, Jacob; Wehbe, Katia; Carmichael, Paul L; Scott, Andrew D; Philpott, Mike P; Frogley, Mark D; Cinque, Gianfelice; Martin, Francis L

    2012-10-01

    Normal function and physiology of the epidermis is maintained by the regenerative capacity of this tissue via adult stem cells (SCs). However, definitive identifying markers for SCs remain elusive. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy exploits the ability of cellular biomolecules to absorb in the mid-IR region (? = 2.5-25 ?m), detecting vibrational transitions of chemical bonds. In this study, we exploited the cell's inherent biochemical composition to discriminate SCs of the inter-follicular skin epidermis based on IR-derived markers. Paraffin-embedded samples of human scalp skin (n = 4) were obtained, and 10-?m thick sections were mounted for IR spectroscopy. Samples were interrogated in transmission mode using synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform IR (FTIR) microspectroscopy (15 × 15 ?m) and also imaged employing globar-source FTIR focal plane array (FPA) imaging (5.4 × 5.4 ?m). Dependent on the location of derived spectra, wavenumber-absorbance/intensity relationships were examined using unsupervised principal component analysis. This approach showed clear separation and spectral differences dependent on cell type. Spectral biomarkers concurrently associated with segregation of SCs, transit-amplifying cells and terminally-differentiated cells of epidermis were primarily PO(2)(-) vibrational modes (1,225 and 1,080 cm(-1)), related to DNA conformational alterations. FPA imaging coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis also indicated the presence of specific basal layer cells potentially originating from the follicular bulge, suggested by co-clustering of spectra. This study highlights PO (2) (-) vibrational modes as potential putative SC markers. PMID:22945554

  9. Recognition of blue movies by fusion of audio and video

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haiqiang Zuo; Ou Wu; Weiming Hu; Bo Xu

    2008-01-01

    Along with the explosive growth of the Internet, comes the proliferation of pornography. Compared with the pornographic texts and images, blue movies can do much harm to children, due to the greater realism and voyeurism of blue movies. In this paper, a framework for recognizing blue movies by fusing the audio and video information is described. A one-class Gaussian mixture

  10. Color plane interpolation using alternating projections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bahadir K. Gunturk; Yucel Altunbasak; Russell M. Mersereau

    2002-01-01

    Most commercial digital cameras use color filter arrays to sample red, green, and blue colors according to a specific pattern. At the location of each pixel only one color sample is taken, and the values of the other colors must be interpolated using neighboring samples. This color plane interpolation is known as demosaicing; it is one of the important tasks

  11. Preparation of multi-coloured different sized fluorescent gold clusters from blue to NIR, structural analysis of the blue emitting Au7 cluster, and cell-imaging by the NIR gold cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Subhasish; Baral, Abhishek; Bhattacharjee, Rameswar; Jana, Batakrishna; Datta, Ayan; Ghosh, Surajit; Banerjee, Arindam

    2015-01-01

    Blue, green, orange-red, red and NIR emitting gold quantum clusters have been prepared in aqueous media by using a bioactive peptide glutathione (reduced) at physiological pH. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analyses show that the core structure sizes of the five different gold clusters are Au7 (blue), Au16 (green), Au19 (orange-red), Au21 (red) and Au22 (NIR). The photo-stability and pH-stability of these quantum clusters have been measured, and these are photo-stable against continuous UV irradiation for a few hours. They also exhibit moderate to good pH-stability within the pH range of 5-12.5. A computational study reveals the organisation of gold atoms in the thiolate-protected blue quantum cluster and its several structural parameters, including the mode of interaction of ligand molecules with Au atoms in the Au7 cluster. Interestingly, it has been found that NIR emitting gold quantum cluster can easily be internalized into the adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cell line (A549 cell line). Moreover, a MTT assay indicates that our NIR emitting gold quantum cluster show very low cytotoxicy to A549 cancer cells.Blue, green, orange-red, red and NIR emitting gold quantum clusters have been prepared in aqueous media by using a bioactive peptide glutathione (reduced) at physiological pH. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analyses show that the core structure sizes of the five different gold clusters are Au7 (blue), Au16 (green), Au19 (orange-red), Au21 (red) and Au22 (NIR). The photo-stability and pH-stability of these quantum clusters have been measured, and these are photo-stable against continuous UV irradiation for a few hours. They also exhibit moderate to good pH-stability within the pH range of 5-12.5. A computational study reveals the organisation of gold atoms in the thiolate-protected blue quantum cluster and its several structural parameters, including the mode of interaction of ligand molecules with Au atoms in the Au7 cluster. Interestingly, it has been found that NIR emitting gold quantum cluster can easily be internalized into the adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cell line (A549 cell line). Moreover, a MTT assay indicates that our NIR emitting gold quantum cluster show very low cytotoxicy to A549 cancer cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: material, instrumentation, cellular uptake studies, cytotoxicity studies, synthesis of gold clusters, UV-Vis, fluorescence, plots, reaction details in tabulated form, ESI videos. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04338c

  12. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Alabama

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Alabama BlueCross and BlueShield Medical Information Server, located and developed by the University of Alabama at Birmingham Department of Computer and Information Sciences, through a grant from Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Alabama for the express purpose of providing Internet access to medical information for all physicians and other health care providers in the state of Alabama. It provides links to a broad range of medical information resources located throughout the Internet. Menus provide information on diseases and disorders, patient care and medical practice, medical specialties, journals and newsletters, health care reform, and other medical information.

  13. Focal Plane Array Concept and Technologies for the X-Ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer on the Advanced X-ray Spectroscopic Imaging Observatory (AXSIO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandler, Simon; Adams, J. D.; Busch, S. E.; Chervenak, J. A.; Eckart, M. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kilbourne, C.; Lee, S.; Porter, F. S.; Porst, J.; Sadleir, J. E.; Smith, S. J.; Doriese, W. B.; Fowler, J. W.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K.; Reintsema, C. D.; Ullom, J. N.

    2013-04-01

    We are developing large-format arrays of x-ray microcalorimeters to enable high-resolution, imaging X-ray imaging spectroscopy that meet the needs of the AXSIO mission. This mission requires microcalorimeter focal plane with an overall field of view of of 4x4 arcmin and an energy resolution of better then 3 eV (or, a spectral resolving power of > 2000 at 6 keV) over part of the array. To achieve this, we are developing technologies to implement an overall array that consists of three components: a small, central inner array with very small pixels to purposely over-sample the x-ray beam to provide high spectral resolution (< 2eV) of nearby point sources, an intermediate array that has 6 arcsec pixels with better than 3 eV resolution, and an outer array that also has has 6 arcsec pixels, but where multiple absorbers are read out by a single thermal sensor with better than 6 eV resolution for each pixel. Such a scheme will provide a field of view that will address the scientific requirements for extended sources and high spectral resolution with high throughput for bright sources, and compatible with existing cryogenic dewar technologies and capabilities. The technologies underlying this array approach are fully monolithic transition edge sensor microcalorimeters and multiplexed SQUID systems. We present device characterization of these array technologies, including uniformity of performance, sensitivity to environmental conditions, and thermal designs to minimize thermal cross-talk. We will describe our latest results in reading out these arrays using both time-domain and code-division multiplexing, and our strategy to use these technologies to design the microcalorimeter instrument for AXSIO with optimal performance and engineering margin.

  14. Multispectral four-dimensional imaging reveals that evoked activity modulates peripheral arborization and the selection of plane-polarized targets by sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Faucherre, Adèle; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Pujol-Martí, Jesús; López-Schier, Hernán

    2010-05-01

    The polarity of apical stereocilia endows hair cells with directional excitability, which in turn enables animals to determine the vectorial component of a sound. Neuromasts of the lateral line of aquatic vertebrates harbor two populations of hair cells that are oriented at 180 degrees relative to each other. The resulting sensory-vectorial ambiguity is solved by lateralis afferent neurons that discriminate between hair cells of opposite polarities to innervate only those with the same orientation. How neurons select identically oriented hair cells remains unknown. To gain insight into the mechanism that underlies this selection, we devised a simple method to gather dynamic morphometric information about axonal terminals in toto by four-dimensional imaging. Applying this strategy to the zebrafish allowed us to correlate hair cell orientation to single afferent neurons at subcellular resolution. Here we show that in zebrafish with absent hair cell mechanoreception, lateralis afferents arborize profusely in the periphery, display less stability, and make improper target selections. Central axons, however, show no dynamic changes and establish normal contacts with the Mauthner cell, a characteristic second-order target in the hindbrain. We propose that the hardwired developmental mechanisms that underlie peripheral arborization and target recognition are modulated by evoked hair cell activity. This interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic cues is essential for plane-polarized target selection by lateralis afferent neurons. PMID:20430744

  15. Derivatization technique to increase the spectral selectivity of two-dimensional Fourier transform infrared focal plane array imaging: analysis of binder composition in aged oil and tempera paint.

    PubMed

    Zumbühl, Stefan; Scherrer, Nadim C; Eggenberger, Urs

    2014-01-01

    The interpretation of standard Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) on oil-based paint samples often suffers from interfering bands of the different compounds, namely, binder, oxidative aging products, carboxylates formed during aging, and several pigments and fillers. The distinction of the aging products such as ketone and carboxylic acid functional groups pose the next problem, as these interfere with the triglyceride esters of the oil. A sample preparation and derivatization technique using gaseous sulfur tetrafluoride (SF4), was thus developed with the aim to discriminate overlapping signals and achieve a signal enhancement on superposed compounds. Of particular interest in this context is the signal elimination of the broad carboxylate bands of the typical reaction products developing during the aging processes in oil-based paints, as well as signal interference originating from several typical pigments in this spectral range. Furthermore, it is possible to distinguish the different carbonyl-containing functional groups upon selective alteration. The derivatization treatment can be applied to both microsamples and polished cross sections. It increases the selectivity of the infrared spectroscopy technique in a fundamental manner and permits the identification and two-dimensional (2D) localization of binder components in aged paint samples at the micrometer scale. The combination of SF4 derivatization with high-resolution 2D FT-IR focal plane array (FPA) imaging delivers considerable advances to the study of micro-morphological processes involving organic compounds. PMID:24694702

  16. Methylene blue test

    MedlinePLUS

    The methylene blue test is a test to determine the type of methemoglobinemia (a blood disorder). ... are removed. A dark green powder called methylene blue goes through the tube into your vein. The ...

  17. Greening the Blue Bottle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Whitney E.; Noble, Mark E.

    2003-01-01

    Compares the revised Blue Bottle formulation to the classical Blue Bottle. Indicates that the revised formulation gives a somewhat bluer solution, but initially slower reduction when compared to the classical formulation. (Author/KHR)

  18. Blue-light imagery and photometry of sprites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Suszcynsky; Robert Roussel-Dupré; Walter A. Lyons; Russell A. Armstrong

    1998-01-01

    We have obtained blue (350–475 nm) video images and simultaneous high-time resolution narrow-band blue (415–435 nm) photometry records of four sprite events. The brightest blue images show a sustained tendril geometry and a nearly constant intensity of emission over the entire vertical extent of the sprite (from 35–90 km altitude). Photometer light curves display an exponential decay with a 0.3

  19. Focal Plane Array Concept and Technologies for the X-Ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer on the Advanced X-ray Spectroscopic Imaging Observatory (AXSIO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Richard L.; Adams, J. S.; Bandler, S.; Busch, S. E.; Chervenak, J. A.; Eckart, M. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S.; Porst, J.; Sadleir, J. E.; Smith, S. J.; Doriese, W. B.; Fowler, J. W.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.; Reintsema, C. D.; Ullom, J. N.

    2013-01-01

    We are developing technologies needed for a large-format, high-resolution, imaging x-ray spectrometer for the AXSIO mission. This mission requires a microcalorimeter focal plane with an overall field of view of 4x4 arcmin and an energy resolution of better than 3 eV (or, a spectral resolving power of > 2000 at 6 keV) over a large portion of the array. To achieve this, we are developing a low-temperature sensor that consists of three components: a small, central inner array with very small, fast pixels to provide high spectral resolution (< 2 eV) of nearby point sources, an intermediate array that has 6 arcsec pixels with better than 3 eV resolution, and an outer array that also has 6 arcsec pixels, but where multiple pixels are read out with a single thermal sensor with better than 6 eV resolution for each pixel to limit readout complexity. Such a scheme addresses the scientific requirements for both extended sources and bright point sources, and is compatible with existing cryogenic dewar capabilities. This design was studied as the “notional calorimeter" instrument (“N-Cal”) for the mission design of AXSIO carried out at NASA/Goddard. The technologies underlying this approach are fully monolithic transition-edge sensor microcalorimeters and multiplexed SQUID read-outs. We will present recent progress in these array technologies, including uniformity of performance, sensitivity to environmental conditions, and thermal designs that minimize thermal cross talk. We will describe our latest results in reading out these arrays using both time-domain and code-division multiplexing, and our strategy to use these technologies to design the microcalorimeter instrument for AXSIO with optimal performance and engineering margin.

  20. Optimal focal-plane restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichenbach, Stephen E.; Park, Stephen K.

    1989-01-01

    Image restoration can be implemented efficiently by calculating the convolution of the digital image and a small kernel during image acquisition. Processing the image in the focal-plane in this way requires less computation than traditional Fourier-transform-based techniques such as the Wiener filter and constrained least-squares filter. Here, the values of the convolution kernel that yield the restoration with minimum expected mean-square error are determined using a frequency analysis of the end-to-end imaging system. This development accounts for constraints on the size and shape of the spatial kernel and all the components of the imaging system. Simulation results indicate the technique is effective and efficient.

  1. Image Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peay, Christopher S.; Palacios, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Calibrate_Image calibrates images obtained from focal plane arrays so that the output image more accurately represents the observed scene. The function takes as input a degraded image along with a flat field image and a dark frame image produced by the focal plane array and outputs a corrected image. The three most prominent sources of image degradation are corrected for: dark current accumulation, gain non-uniformity across the focal plane array, and hot and/or dead pixels in the array. In the corrected output image the dark current is subtracted, the gain variation is equalized, and values for hot and dead pixels are estimated, using bicubic interpolation techniques.

  2. Introducing the Blues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Bryan

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the history of the blues and presents a list of resources that are designed to introduce the blues, both as a feeling and as an influential part of American music and culture. Includes picture books and nonfiction for young readers, nonfiction for older readers, Web sites, and compact disks. (LRW)

  3. Blue Willow Story Plates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  4. Polymer-encapsulated blue phase liquid crystal droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemiklioglu, Emine; Chien, Liang-Chy

    2014-09-01

    We have demonstrated polymer-encapsulated blue phase (PEBP) liquid crystal droplets in electro-optical films with in-plane electric field switching. The PEBP films are prepared via solvent evaporation-induced phase separation of a mixture of blue phase liquid crystal (BPLC) and polymer latex. The PEBP films, laminated between two indium-tin-oxide coated conductive substrates, enable switching between light-scattering and transparent states in response to electric fields applied across the film. The PEBP films also allow in-plane switching to induce birefringence between crossed polarizers at low switching voltage and with fast response time.

  5. Uncovering Blue Diffuse Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Bethan; Koposov, Sergey; Stark, Daniel; Belokurov, Vasily; Pettini, Max; Olszewski, Edward W.

    2015-01-01

    Extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs) and the star-formation within their chemically pristine environments are fundamental to our understanding of the galaxy formation process at early times. However, traditional emission-line surveys detect only the brightest metal-poor galaxies where star-formation occurs in compact, starbursting environments, and thereby give us only a partial view of the dwarf galaxy population. To avoid such biases, we have developed a new search algorithm based on the morphological, rather then spectral, properties of XMPs and have applied to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database of images. Using this novel approach, we have discovered ~100 previously undetected, faint blue galaxies, each with isolated HII regions embedded in a diffuse continuum. In this talk I will present the first results from follow-up optical spectroscopy of this sample, which reveals these blue diffuse dwarfs (BDDs) to be young, very metal-poor and actively forming stars despite their intrinsically low luminosities. I will present evidence showing that BDDs appear to bridge the gap between quiescent dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxies and blue compact galaxies (BCDs) and as such offer an ideal opportunity to assess how star-formation occurs in more `normal' metal-poor systems.

  6. Orientation Distribution of 3 Grain Boundary Planes in Ni Before and After Grain Boundary Engineering

    E-print Network

    Rohrer, Gregory S.

    Orientation Distribution of 3 Grain Boundary Planes in Ni Before and After Grain Boundary Engineering, Grain Boundary Character Distribution, Grain Boundary Planes, Orientation Imaging Microscopy, Twins. Abstract. The distribution of grain boundary plane orientations in polycrystalline Ni has been

  7. Blue Cross Blue Shield-Managed Care: MUS Summary of Benefits and Coverage: What this Plan Covers & What it Costs Coverage Period: 7/1/2013-6/30/2014

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    Blue Cross Blue Shield-Managed Care: MUS Summary of Benefits and Coverage: What this Plan Covers Plan Description (SPD) OMB Control Numbers 1545-2229, 1210-0147, and 0938-1146 #12;BlueCross Blue% If you have a test Diagnostic test (x-ray, blood work) 25% 35% Imaging (CT/PET scans, MRIs) 25% 35% May

  8. SNAP satellite focal plane development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Bebek; Carl W. Akerlof; Greg Aldering; R. Amanullah; Pierre Astier; Charles Baltay; E. Barrelet; Stephane Basa; John Bercovitz; Lars Bergstrom; Gary Berstein; Manfred Bester; Ralph C. Bohlin; Alain Bonissent; Charles R. Bower; Myron Campbell; William C. Carithers Jr.; Eugene D. Commins; C. Day; Susana E. Deustua; Richard S. DiGennaro; Anne Ealet; Richard S. Ellis; William Emmett; Mikael Eriksson; D. Fouchez; Andrew Fruchter; Jean-Francois Genat; Gerson Goldhaber; Ariel Goobar; Donald E. Groom; Henry D. Heetderks; Stephen E. Holland; Dragan Huterer; William E. Johnston; Richard W. Kadel; Armin Karcher; Alex G. Kim; William F. Kolbe; Robin E. Lafever; J. I. Lamoureux; Michael L. Lampton; Oliver Le Fèvre; Michael E. Levi; Daniel S. Levin; Eric V. Linder; Stewart C. Loken; Roger Malina; Alain Mazure; Timothy A. McKay; Shawn P. McKee; Ramon Miquel; Nicholas Morgan; E. Mortsell; N. Mostek; Stuart Mufson; J. A. Musser; Natalie A. Roe; Peter E. Nugent; Hakeem M. Oluseyi; Reynald Pain; Nicholas P. Palaio; David H. Pankow; Saul Perlmutter; Eric Prieto; David Rabinowitz; Alexandre Refregier; Jason Rhodes; Michael S. Schubnell; Michael Sholl; G. Smadja; R. Smith; George F. Smoot; Jeffrey A. Snyder; Anthony Spadafora; Andrew Szymkowiak; Gregory Tarle; Keith Taylor; A. Tilquin; Andrew D. Tomasch; D. Vincent; Henrik von der Lippe; Jean-Pierre Walder; Guobin Wang

    2003-01-01

    The proposed SuperNova\\/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R&D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just

  9. Plane waves Lumped systems

    E-print Network

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    1 Impedance · Plane waves ­ Lumped systems S x y z Impedance · Plane waves ­ Lumped systems · open tube #12;2 Impedance · Plane waves ­ Lumped systems · closed tube Impedance · Cylindrical waves z x y r

  10. Beautiful Blue Nile

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson students learn about the Blue Nile and compare it to rivers in the United States. They discuss their experiences with rivers and what they think it would be like to travel down a river that rapidly descends from the mountains to the plains. After looking at a map of Ethiopia, students describe what they would see in the area around the Blue Nile. They will witness a demonstration of a river running over flat versus mountainous terrain and view photos of the Blue Nile to describe the terrain.

  11. Blue Shark Adventure

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-09

    In this video, Jonathan joins Charlie Donilon on his shark charter boat in Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and learns about how shark tagging has shed light on the biology of and behavior of Blue sharks. Tagging has shown that these incredible swimmers actually migrate completely across the Atlantic ocean. Jonathan tries his hand at tagging a shark and then swims with Blue sharks. We also learn that Blue sharks are not nearly as vicious as they have been reputed to be, and the divers are actually able to pet the sharks! Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

  12. Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts is an Independent Licensee of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association Expanded Coverage for Preventive Care Under

    E-print Network

    Aalberts, Daniel P.

    Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts is an Independent Licensee of the Blue Cross and Blue. Effect the New Rules Will Have on Members and Accounts Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts. Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts will offer the following services with no member cost share

  13. Reconstruction of 3D Plane using Min-Max Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gaurav Gupta; Balasubramanian Raman; Rama Bhargava

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach for the reconstruction of a 3D plane by solving the geometry of two perspective projections of the plane is presented. It is assumed that the position and the orientation of one camera are known with respect to the other one. The correspondence between the object space and image planes is established using the collinearity

  14. Plane Transformations in a Complex Setting II: Isometries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana-Picard, Thierry

    2007-01-01

    This paper is the second part of a study of plane transformations using a complex setting. The first part was devoted to homotheties and translations, now attention is turned towards plane isometries. The group theoretic properties of plane isometries are easy to derive and images of classical geometrical objects by these transformations are…

  15. Fourier plane filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, D. S.; Aldrich, R. E.; Krol, F. T.

    1972-01-01

    An electrically addressed liquid crystal Fourier plane filter capable of real time optical image processing is described. The filter consists of two parts: a wedge filter having forty 9 deg segments and a ring filter having twenty concentric rings in a one inch diameter active area. Transmission of the filter in the off (transparent) state exceeds fifty percent. By using polarizing optics, contrast as high as 10,000:1 can be achieved at voltages compatible with FET switching technology. A phenomenological model for the dynamic scattering is presented for this special case. The filter is designed to be operated from a computer and is addressed by a seven bit binary word which includes an on or off command and selects any one of the twenty rings or twenty wedge pairs. The overall system uses addressable latches so that once an element is in a specified state, it will remain there until a change of state command is received. The drive for the liquid crystal filter is ? 30 V peak at 30 Hz to 70 Hz. These parameters give a rise time for the scattering of 20 msec and a decay time of 80 to 100 msec.

  16. Ultra-low dark current InGaAs technology for focal plane arrays for low-light level visible-shortwave infrared imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bora M. Onat; Wei Huang; Navneet Masaun; Michael Lange; Martin H. Ettenberg; Christopher Dries

    2007-01-01

    Under the DARPA Photon Counting Arrays (PCAR) program we have investigated technologies to reduce the overall noise level in InGaAs based imagers for identifying a man at 100m under low-light level imaging conditions. We report the results of our experiments comprising of 15 InGaAs wafers that were utilized to investigate lowering dark current in photodiode arrays. As a result of

  17. Cook-Coordinate Plane

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Cook

    2010-10-12

    Become familiar with the coordinate plane. Learn the quadrants and how to graph points and read points on a coordinate plane. You are required to do the assignment and take the quiz. The other resources are to help prepare you for the quiz and book assignment. This is a quick review of the lesson.The Coordinate Plane This is a game to practice plotting and reading points.coordinates game *Assignment: Watch Powerpoint 3.3 and fill in your ...

  18. Plane Symmetric Gravitational Collapse

    E-print Network

    M. Sharif; Zahid Ahmad

    2007-09-20

    In this paper, we derive the general formulation by considering two arbitrary plane symmetric spacetimes using Israel's method. As an example, we apply this formulation to known plane symmetric spacetimes. We take the Taub's static metric in the interior region whereas Kasner's non-static metric in the exterior region. It is shown that the plane collapses in some cases whereas it expands in some other cases.

  19. Multispectral imaging of absorption and scattering properties of in vivo exposed rat brain using a digital red-green-blue camera.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Keiichiro; Nishidate, Izumi; Ishizuka, Tomohiro; Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Sato, Manabu

    2015-05-01

    In order to estimate multispectral images of the absorption and scattering properties in the cerebral cortex of in vivo rat brain, we investigated spectral reflectance images estimated by the Wiener estimation method using a digital RGB camera. A Monte Carlo simulation-based multiple regression analysis for the corresponding spectral absorbance images at nine wavelengths (500, 520, 540, 560, 570, 580, 600, 730, and 760 nm) was then used to specify the absorption and scattering parameters of brain tissue. In this analysis, the concentrations of oxygenated hemoglobin and that of deoxygenated hemoglobin were estimated as the absorption parameters, whereas the coefficient a and the exponent b of the reduced scattering coefficient spectrum approximated by a power law function were estimated as the scattering parameters. The spectra of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients were reconstructed from the absorption and scattering parameters, and the spectral images of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients were then estimated. In order to confirm the feasibility of this method, we performed in vivo experiments on exposed rat brain. The estimated images of the absorption coefficients were dominated by the spectral characteristics of hemoglobin. The estimated spectral images of the reduced scattering coefficients had a broad scattering spectrum, exhibiting a larger magnitude at shorter wavelengths, corresponding to the typical spectrum of brain tissue published in the literature. The changes in the estimated absorption and scattering parameters during normoxia, hyperoxia, and anoxia indicate the potential applicability of the method by which to evaluate the pathophysiological conditions of in vivo brain due to the loss of tissue viability. PMID:25614979

  20. The Effect of Wedge Tip Angles on Stress Intensity Factors in the Contact Problem between Tilted Wedge and a Half Plane with an Edge Crack Using Digital Image Correlation

    E-print Network

    Khaleghian, Seyedmeysam; Yadegari, Mohammad; Soltani, Nasser

    2015-01-01

    The first and second mode stress intensity factors (SIFs) of a contact problem between a half-plane with an edge crack and an asymmetric tilted wedge were obtained using experimental method of Digital Image Correlation (DIC). In this technique, displacement and strain fields can be measured using two digital images of the same sample at different stages of loading. However, several images were taken consequently in each stage of this experiment to avoid the noise effect. A pair of images of each stage was compared to each other. Then, the correlation coefficients between them were studied using a computer code. The pairs with the correlation coefficient higher than 0.8 were selected as the acceptable match for displacement measurements near the crack tip. Subsequently, the SIFs of specimens were calculated using displacement fields obtained from DIC method. The effect of wedge tips angle on their SIFs was also studied. Moreover, the results of DIC method were compared with the results of photoelasticity metho...

  1. Uncovering blue diffuse dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Bethan L.; Koposov, Sergey; Stark, Daniel P.; Belokurov, Vasily; Pettini, Max; Olszewski, Edward W.

    2015-04-01

    Extremely metal poor (XMP) galaxies are known to be very rare, despite the large numbers of low-mass galaxies predicted by the local galaxy luminosity function. This paper presents a subsample of galaxies that were selected via a morphology-based search on Sloan Digital Sky Survey images with the aim of finding these elusive XMP galaxies. By using the recently discovered XMP galaxy, Leo P, as a guide, we obtained a collection of faint, blue systems, each with isolated H II regions embedded in a diffuse continuum, that have remained optically undetected until now. Here we show the first results from optical spectroscopic follow-up observations of 12 of ˜100 of these blue diffuse dwarf (BDD) galaxies yielded by our search algorithm. Oxygen abundances were obtained via the direct method for eight galaxies, and found to be in the range 7.45 < 12 + log (O/H) < 8.0, with two galaxies being classified as XMPs. All BDDs were found to currently have a young star-forming population (<10 Myr) and relatively high ionization parameters of their H II regions. Despite their low luminosities (-11 ? MB ? -18) and low surface brightnesses (˜23-25 mag arcsec-2), the galaxies were found to be actively star forming, with current star formation rates between 0.0003 and 0.078 M? yr-1. From our current subsample, BDD galaxies appear to be a population of non-quiescent dwarf irregular galaxies, or the diffuse counterparts to blue compact galaxies and as such may bridge the gap between these two populations. Our search algorithm demonstrates that morphology-based searches are successful in uncovering more diffuse metal-poor star-forming galaxies, which traditional emission-line-based searches overlook.

  2. Visualization of microvascular proliferation as a tumor infiltration structure in rat glioma specimens using the diffraction-enhanced imaging in-plane CT technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Seung-Jun; Sunaguchi, Naoki; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Huo, Qingkai; Ando, Masami; Choi, Gi-Hwan; Kim, Hong-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hong; Jeong, Eun-Ju; Chang, Won-Seok; Kim, Jong-Ki

    2012-03-01

    In order to study potent microenvironments of malignant gliomas with a high- resolution x-ray imaging technique, an injection orthotopic glioma model was made using the Sprague-Dawley rat. Total brain tissue, taken out as an ex vivo model, was examined with diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) computed tomography (CT) acquired with a 35 keV monochromatic x-ray. In the convolution-reconstructed 2D/3D images with a spatial resolution of 12.5 × 12.5 × 25 µm, distinction among necrosis, typical ring-shaped viable tumors, edemas and healthy tissues was clearly observed near the frontal lobe in front of the rat's caudate nucleus. Multiple microvascular proliferations (MVPs) were observed surrounding peritumoral edemas as a tumor infiltration structure. Typical dimensions of tubular MVPs were 130 (diameter) ×250 (length) µm with a partial sprout structure revealed in the 3D reconstructed image. Hyperplasia of cells around vessel walls was revealed with tumor cell infiltration along the perivascular space in microscopic observations of mild MVP during histological analysis. In conclusion, DEI-CT is capable of imaging potent tumor-infiltrating MVP structures surrounding high-grade gliomas.

  3. Powers of Ten with the Blue Morpho Butterfly

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lab, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, introduces students to the concepts of scale and magnification using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image of a Blue Morpho butterfly wing. If educators do not have access to an SEM,  images is included with the activity. This lesson will prompt students to think about nanoscale, biomimicry, SEM technology, and measurement. Students will examine the nanostructures of the butterfly's wings using either the images or the SEM (if available). Included in this lab are: teacher guide, student worksheet, and an image of a Blue Morpho butterfly.

  4. A simple framework to generate 3D patient-specific model of coronary artery bifurcation from single-plane angiographic images.

    PubMed

    Auricchio, Ferdinando; Conti, Michele; Ferrazzano, Carolina; Sgueglia, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Although computer-based simulations, such as structural finite element analysis, have proven their usefulness to support procedural planning of coronary stenting, the link between the clinical practice and these engineering techniques is still limited to research test-cases. A key point to further promote such an interaction is to generate in a fast and effective manner the computational grids from the medical images. Hence, the present study proposes a simple framework to generate 3D meshes of coronary bifurcations from a pair of planar angiographic images obtained by X-ray angiography, which is the gold standard technique for the diagnosis of coronary artery stenosis. PMID:24377693

  5. IBM Research: Blue Gene

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the home page of an IBM research and development project that is designing a supercomputer, called Blue Gene/L, capable of 200 trillion floating point operations per second. According to the Web site, this specification "is larger than the total computing power of the top 500 supercomputers in the world today." Working in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, IBM expects the project to be completed by 2005. There are a few publications and presentations given about the status of the project and its uses. There is also a fact sheet and several industry links about protein folding, which is the main application of Blue Gene/L.

  6. Course Syllabus Plane Trigonometry

    E-print Network

    Garcia-Puente, Luis David

    Course Syllabus MTH 163.14 Plane Trigonometry Fall 2008 Location: LDB 209 Time and Days: Tuesday the study of trigonometry in the plane, including the graphs and inverses of all trigonometric functions: Trigonometry 6th Edition, by McKeague and Turner. Thom- son Brooks/Cole. Required Supplies: A graphing

  7. Experiments with Planing Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sottorf, W

    1934-01-01

    A previous report discusses the experimental program of a systematic exploration of all questions connected with the planing problem as well as the first fundamental results of the investigation of a flat planing surface. The present report is limited to the conversion of the model test data to full scale.

  8. Comparing 3D spherical Monte-Carlo and 2-stream parallel plane simulation of far-field backscattering image of Titan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. T. Tran; Rannou Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Simple radiative transfers are frequently used to model Titan telescopic observations and also to retrieve haze properties, haze distribution and surface albedo. Many retrieved information are dependant upon the quality of the simulation results, and especially on the way the center to limb intensity behavior is modeled. In this work, we compare the simulations of Titan backscattered image done by

  9. Vector image method for the derivation of elastostatic solutions for point sources in a plane layered medium. Part 1: Derivation and simple examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fares, Nabil; Li, Victor C.

    1986-01-01

    An image method algorithm is presented for the derivation of elastostatic solutions for point sources in bonded halfspaces assuming the infinite space point source is known. Specific cases were worked out and shown to coincide with well known solutions in the literature.

  10. GLAMER - II. Multiple-plane gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkova, Margarita; Metcalf, R. Benton; Giocoli, Carlo

    2014-12-01

    We present an extension to multiple planes of the gravitational lensing code GLAMER. The method entails projecting the mass in the observed light-cone on to a discrete number of lens planes and inverse ray-shooting from the image to the source plane. The mass on each plane can be represented as haloes, simulation particles, a projected mass map extracted form a numerical simulation or any combination of these. The image finding is done in a source-oriented fashion, where only regions of interest are iteratively refined on an initially coarse image plane grid. The calculations are performed in parallel on shared memory machines. The code is able to handle different types of analytic haloes (NFW, NSIE, power law, etc.), haloes extracted from numerical simulations and clusters constructed from semi-analytic models (MOKA). Likewise, there are several different options for modelling the source(s) which can be distributed throughout the light-cone. The distribution of matter in the light-cone can be either taken from a pre-existing N-body numerical simulations, from halo catalogues, or are generated from an analytic mass function. We present several tests of the code and demonstrate some of its applications such as generating mock images of galaxy and galaxy cluster lenses.

  11. Blue Mojito 7 Bacardi rum, mint & lime, blue curacao,

    E-print Network

    Azevedo, Ricardo

    Signature Cocktails Blue Mojito 7 Bacardi rum, mint & lime, blue curacao, simple syrup and seltzer juice, cucumber, mint and seltzer Eric's Royale 7 Crown Royal, cranberry juice, peach schnapps, sprite

  12. SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bebek, C.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bercovitz, J.; Bergstrom, L.; Berstein, G.P.; Bester, M.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.; Emmett, W.; Eriksson, M.; Fouchez,D.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Johnson, W.; Kadel, R.; Karcher,A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureaux, J.; Lampton, M.; Lefevre, O.; Levi, M.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Mazure, A.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Morgan, N.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Roe, N.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Prieto, E.; Rabinowitz,D.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Schubnell, M.; Sholl, M.; Smadja, G.; Smith, R.; Smoot, G.; Snyder, J.; Spadafora, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tarle,G.; Taylor, K.; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, A.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J-P.; Wang, G.

    2003-07-07

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R&D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics.

  13. Techniques for identifying dust devils in mars pathfinder images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metzger, S.M.; Carr, J.R.; Johnson, J.R.; Parker, T.J.; Lemmon, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    Image processing methods used to identify and enhance dust devil features imaged by IMP (Imager for Mars Pathfinder) are reviewed. Spectral differences, visible red minus visible blue, were used for initial dust devil searches, driven by the observation that Martian dust has high red and low blue reflectance. The Martian sky proved to be more heavily dust-laden than pre-Pathfinder predictions, based on analysis of images from the Hubble Space Telescope. As a result, these initial spectral difference methods failed to contrast dust devils with background dust haze. Imager artifacts (dust motes on the camera lens, flat-field effects caused by imperfections in the CCD, and projection onto a flat sensor plane by a convex lens) further impeded the ability to resolve subtle dust devil features. Consequently, reference images containing sky with a minimal horizon were first subtracted from each spectral filter image to remove camera artifacts and reduce the background dust haze signal. Once the sky-flat preprocessing step was completed, the red-minus-blue spectral difference scheme was attempted again. Dust devils then were successfully identified as bright plumes. False-color ratios using calibrated IMP images were found useful for visualizing dust plumes, verifying initial discoveries as vortex-like features. Enhancement of monochromatic (especially blue filter) images revealed dust devils as silhouettes against brighter background sky. Experiments with principal components transformation identified dust devils in raw, uncalibrated IMP images and further showed relative movement of dust devils across the Martian surface. A variety of methods therefore served qualitative and quantitative goals for dust plume identification and analysis in an environment where such features are obscure.

  14. Large Blue Butterflies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    This page deals with research being done on the parasitism of the "blue butterfly" group Maculinea. These species are well known for taking advantage of ants by chemically convincing ants that they are one of their own larvae. This page has some lovely photos, and a nice generalized life history table. Other links deal with aspects of the research including population genetics and communication.

  15. Blue Crab Education Page

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Information compiled by the Virginia Institute of Marine Science on the anatomy, life cycle, ecology, and fisheries of the blue crab. Data, research reports, and instructions on eating crabs are all available. Educational resources include lesson plans, teaching tools, and access to online publications. Site serves as an exceptional resource for both beginners and experts.

  16. Blue honeysuckle list 47

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript summarizes descriptions for two newly released Lonicera caerulea L., blue honeysuckle, cultivars released for northern production. This fruit is popular in Russia and in Japan, particularly Hokkaido. It has possibility as a new fruit cultivar for North America. The University of Sask...

  17. Great Blue Heron

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Great Blue Herons are found throughout much of North America, but are always associated with water. Because they fish by sight, they need relatively shallow water. Release of too much water through the canals north of the Everglades can interfere with their ability to find food....

  18. The Blue Highway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Oakley Ash

    1996-01-01

    The Blue Highway is a collection of eleven literary short stories and ten miniatures that depict men in trouble, searching for a code to live by. The miniatures are repressed memories, appearing suddenly like the tips of ice bergs and act as stepping stones (tension bridges) between the larger works. The stories begin at the end with \\

  19. Designing an x-ray baffle for stray-light reduction at the focal plane of the Wide Field Imager on board EDGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perinati, E.; Mineo, T.; Cusumano, G.; Piro, L.; Pareschi, G.; Barbera, M.

    2008-07-01

    We exploited a ray-tracing Montecarlo code to investigate the effects of stray-light on the performances of the Wide Field Imager (FoV = 1.5 deg) on board the EDGE satellite. We found non negligible stray-light contamination up to ~ 8 deg off-axis angles. We discuss the benefits of a baffle in order to reduce this contamination, that would strongly affect the telescope sensitivity, and present two possible baffle designs based on results of simulations.

  20. A method for the determination of the 3D orientations and positions of catheters from single-plane X-ray images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacqueline Esthappan; Matthew A. Kupinski; Li Lan; K. R. Hoffmann

    2000-01-01

    The 3D orientation and position of an object, i.e., a configuration of points, can be determined by use of the single projection technique (SPT) from a single projection image, given the relative 3D positions of the points and initial estimates of the orientation and position. The accuracy of the SPT for the case of L-shaped catheters was evaluated in simulation

  1. Why is the Sky Blue?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This hands on lab helps explain why the color of our sky/upper atmosphere appears blue in color. Students will be able to simulate how light from the sun is scattered by our atmosphere to create blue light.

  2. Fundamentals of the Dwarf Fundamental Plane

    E-print Network

    McCall, Marshall L; Nunez, F Pozo; Dominguez, A Barr; Fingerhut, R; Unda-Sanzana, E; Li, Bintao; Albrecht, M; 10.1051/0004-6361/201117669

    2012-01-01

    Star-forming dwarfs are studied to elucidate the physical underpinnings of their fundamental plane. It is confirmed that residuals in the Tully-Fisher relation are correlated with surface brightness, but that even after accommodating the surface brightness dependence through the dwarf fundamental plane, residuals in absolute magnitude are far larger than expected from observational errors. Rather, a more fundamental plane is identified which connects the potential to HI line width and surface brightness. Residuals correlate with the axis ratio in a way which can be accommodated by recognizing the galaxies to be oblate spheroids viewed at varying angles. Correction of surface brightnesses to face-on leads to a correlation among the potential, line width, and surface brightness for which residuals are entirely attributable to observational uncertainties. The mean mass-to-light ratio of the diffuse component of the galaxies is constrained to be 0.88 +/- 0.20 in Ks. Blue compact dwarfs lie in the same plane as dw...

  3. Development of ultra-low dark current, high performance 3-5 quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) for focal plane arrays staring imaging sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sheng S.

    1995-02-01

    Specific achievements include: (1) development of the first bound-to-miniband (BTM) transition GaAs/GaAlAs QWIP for 8-12 micrometers detection - large area (128x128, 256x256, and 512x512) focal plane arrays (FPAs) based on the BTM QWIP structure have been demonstrated by Martin Marietta with excellent imagery; (2) development of a normal incidence type-II AlAs/AlGaAs QWIP grown on (110) GaAs substrate for multicolor detection in the 3-5 and 8-14 micrometers spectral windows; (3) design of 2-D metal grating couplers for efficient coupling of normal incidence IR radiation in n-type QWIPs; and (4) development of two new normal incidence p-type strained-layer III-V QWIPs for 3-5 and 8-12 micrometers detection. An ultra-low dark current p-type tensile strained-layer (PTSL) In(0.3)Ga(0.7)As/In(0.52)Al(0.48)As QWIP grown on InP by MBE for 8-12 micrometers detection has been developed with BLIP condition for T less than 100 K. The BLIP detectivity for this PTSL-QWIP was found to be 5.9 x 10(exp 10) Jones at 8.1 micrometers, V(sub b) = 2 V, and T = 77 K. A new p-type compressive strained-layer (PCSL) In(0.4)Ga(0.6)As/GaAs QWIP grown on GaAs substrate for 3-5 and 8-14 micrometers was demonstrated for the first time. Detectivity for this PCSL-QWIP was found to be 4.0 x 10(exp 9) Jones at 8.9 micrometers, V(sub b) = 0.3 V, and T = 75 K.

  4. The Blue Whale, Balaenoptera musculus

    E-print Network

    The Blue Whale, Balaenoptera musculus SALLY A. MIZROCH, DALE W. RICE, and JEFFREY M. BREIWICK Introduction The blue whale, Balaenoptera mus- culus (Linnaeus, 1758), is not only the largest of the whales metric tons (t) (Mackintosh, 1942). Blue whales are entirely bluish-gray in color, except for the white

  5. Crater Lake Blue Through Time

    E-print Network

    Torgersen, Christian

    Crater Lake Blue Through Time Blue is the color of constancy, hence the term true blue. The unearthly blueness of Crater Lake reflects its pristine character and gives scientists a focal point the lake for the last two decades. Long-term monitoring of this lake is a priority of Crater Lake National

  6. 50-kHz-rate 2D imaging of temperature and H2O concentration at the exhaust plane of a J85 engine using hyperspectral tomography.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lin; Li, Xuesong; Sanders, Scott T; Caswell, Andrew W; Roy, Sukesh; Plemmons, David H; Gord, James R

    2013-01-14

    This paper describes a novel laser diagnostic and its demonstration in a practical aero-propulsion engine (General Electric J85). The diagnostic technique, named hyperspectral tomography (HT), enables simultaneous 2-dimensional (2D) imaging of temperature and water-vapor concentration at 225 spatial grid points with a temporal response up to 50 kHz. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such sensing capabilities have been reported. This paper introduces the principles of the HT techniques, reports its operation and application in a J85 engine, and discusses its perspective for the study of high-speed reactive flows. PMID:23389008

  7. 2. VIEW SOUTH, INCLINE PLANE CAR, INCLINE PLANE TRACK, UPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH, INCLINE PLANE CAR, INCLINE PLANE TRACK, UPPER STATION. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  8. Just Plane Simple

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    This lesson introduces students to three of the six simple machines used by many engineers. These machines include the inclined plane, the wedge and the screw. In general, engineers use the inclined plane to lift heavy loads, the wedge to cut materials apart, and the screw to convert rotational motion into linear movement. Furthermore, the mechanical advantage describes how easily each machine can do work and is determined by its physical dimensions.

  9. Lensfree color imaging on a nanostructured chip using compressive decoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khademhosseinieh, Bahar; Biener, Gabriel; Sencan, Ikbal; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2010-11-01

    We demonstrate subpixel level color imaging capability on a lensfree incoherent on-chip microscopy platform. By using a nanostructured substrate, the incoherent emission from the object plane is modulated to create a unique far-field diffraction pattern corresponding to each point at the object plane. These lensfree diffraction patterns are then sampled in the far-field using a color sensor-array, where the pixels have three different types of color filters at red, green, and blue (RGB) wavelengths. The recorded RGB diffraction patterns (for each point on the structured substrate) form a basis that can be used to rapidly reconstruct any arbitrary multicolor incoherent object distribution at subpixel resolution, using a compressive sampling algorithm. This lensfree computational imaging platform could be quite useful to create a compact fluorescent on-chip microscope that has color imaging capability.

  10. Fixed Sagittal Plane Imbalance

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Jason W.; Patel, Alpesh A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design?Literature review. Objective?To discuss the evaluation and management of fixed sagittal plane imbalance. Methods?A comprehensive literature review was performed on the preoperative evaluation of patients with sagittal plane malalignment, as well as the surgical strategies to address sagittal plane deformity. Results?Sagittal plane imbalance is often caused by de novo scoliosis or iatrogenic flat back deformity. Understanding the etiology and magnitude of sagittal malalignment is crucial in realignment planning. Objective parameters have been developed to guide surgeons in determining how much correction is needed to achieve favorable outcomes. Currently, the goals of surgery are to restore a sagittal vertical axis?plane malalignment is an increasingly recognized cause of pain and disability. Treatment of sagittal plane imbalance varies according to the etiology, location, and severity of the deformity. Fixed sagittal malalignment often requires complex reconstructive procedures that include osteotomy correction. Reestablishing harmonious spinopelvic alignment is associated with significant improvement in health-related quality-of-life outcome measures and patient satisfaction. PMID:25396111

  11. The Blue Emu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Descalzi, Doug; Gillett, John; Gordon, Carlton; Keener, ED; Novak, Ken; Puente, Laura

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal in designing the Blue Emu was to provide an airline with a cost efficient and profitable means of transporting passengers between the major cities in Aeroworld. The design attacks the market where a demand for inexpensive transportation exists and for this reason the Blue Emu is an attractive investment for any airline. In order to provide a profitable aircraft, special attention was paid to cost and economics. For example, in manufacturing, simplicity was stressed in structural design to reduce construction time and cost. Aerodynamic design employed a tapered wing which reduced the induced drag coefficient while also reducing the weight of the wing. Even the propulsion system was selected with cost effectiveness in mind, yet also to maintain the marketability of the aircraft. Thus, in every aspect of the design, consideration was given to economics and marketability of the final product.

  12. Blue Sky Innovation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Chicago Tribune has broken new ground with this ambitious initiative to gather news, analysis, and events related to innovation and entrepreneurship. As the site indicates, "Blue Sky informs, inspires and connects an audience that looks at businessâ?¦in new ways." Visitors can get started by looking over the short-form news stories on the homepage. Recent pieces have covered the curious barge built by Google, the financial stability of Groupon, and the transformation of event planning via mobile apps. Visitors can look over the event calendar, which brings together information about ongoing activities such as mobile app contests and networking events. The Innovation Hub area is a good place to look around, as it features content gathered from organizations recognized for expertise in the field of innovation. Finally, visitors can sign up to receive updates from Blue Sky via Facebook, Google+, or email.

  13. Blue Crab Archive

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This easy to navigate and well-written site is packed with information and excellent photos about the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) and its fishery. Biology section covers: species profile, anatomy, life cycle, reproduction, larval development, life cycle and more. Industry and trade section includes recipes and tips for catching or buying hard and soft shell crabs, and fishery information. Also offers news, discussion forum, links, a glossary, and reference lists.

  14. Fundamental Plane Rotation and shapes

    E-print Network

    Kruit, Piet van der

    Contents Fundamental Plane Rotation and shapes Central kinematics and black holes Dynamical models Astronomical Institute Dynamics of elliptical galaxies #12;Contents Fundamental Plane Rotation and shapes Central kinematics and black holes Dynamical models and dark matter Contents Fundamental Plane Rotation

  15. METRIC PLANE RECTIFICATION USING SYMMETRIC VANISHING POINTS , H. Hel-Or

    E-print Network

    Hel-Or, Yacov

    METRIC PLANE RECTIFICATION USING SYMMETRIC VANISHING POINTS M. Lefler , H. Hel-Or Dept. of CS requires mapping of activity or object lo- cations from image coordinates to ground plane coordinates. This process is termed Plane Rectification. In this paper we propose an geometric method to find plane

  16. Dual band QWIP focal plane array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor); Choi, Kwong Kit (Inventor); Bandara, Sumith V. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) that provides two-color image sensing. Two different quantum wells are configured to absorb two different wavelengths. The QWIPs are arrayed in a focal plane array (FPA). The two-color QWIPs are selected for readout by selective electrical contact with the two different QWIPs or by the use of two different wavelength sensitive gratings.

  17. Kinematical classification of stars of blue apparent magnitude 9.5-12.5 and of annual proper motion 0.02-0.20 arcsec into two systems of low (20 km\\/s) and high (70 km\\/s) velocity dispersion in the galactic plane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Fresneau

    1990-01-01

    Proper motion and B - V color index have been derived from photographic surveys for a set of 3 × 104 stars in the blue apparent magnitude range 9.5-12.5 along almost a quarter of the galactic meridian (lII = 45°,bII, (lII >= + 30°) and ((lII = 225°,bII >= +80°). One star out of three has a significant tangential velocity

  18. Diffractive centrosymmetric 3D-transmission phase gratings positioned at the image plane of optical systems transform lightlike 4D-WORLD as tunable resonators into spectral metrics...

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauinger, Norbert

    1999-08-01

    Diffractive 3D phase gratings of spherical scatterers dense in hexagonal packing geometry represent adaptively tunable 4D-spatiotemporal filters with trichromatic resonance in visible spectrum. They are described in the (lambda) - chromatic and the reciprocal (nu) -aspects by reciprocal geometric translations of the lightlike Pythagoras theorem, and by the direction cosine for double cones. The most elementary resonance condition in the lightlike Pythagoras theorem is given by the transformation of the grating constants gx, gy, gz of the hexagonal 3D grating to (lambda) h1h2h3 equals (lambda) 111 with cos (alpha) equals 0.5. Through normalization of the chromaticity in the von Laue-interferences to (lambda) 111, the (nu) (lambda) equals (lambda) h1h2h3/(lambda) 111-factor of phase velocity becomes the crucial resonance factor, the 'regulating device' of the spatiotemporal interaction between 3D grating and light, space and time. In the reciprocal space equal/unequal weights and times in spectral metrics result at positions of interference maxima defined by hyperbolas and circles. A database becomes built up by optical interference for trichromatic image preprocessing, motion detection in vector space, multiple range data analysis, patchwide multiple correlations in the spatial frequency spectrum, etc.

  19. A Panel of Trypanosoma brucei Strains Tagged with Blue and Red-Shifted Luciferases for Bioluminescent Imaging in Murine Infection Models

    PubMed Central

    Van Reet, Nick; Van de Vyver, Hélène; Pyana, Patient Pati; Van der Linden, Anne Marie; Büscher, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic engineering with luciferase reporter genes allows monitoring Trypanosoma brucei (T.b.) infections in mice by in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Until recently, luminescent T.b. models were based on Renilla luciferase (RLuc) activity. Our study aimed at evaluating red-shifted luciferases for in vivo BLI in a set of diverse T.b. strains of all three subspecies, including some recently isolated from human patients. Methodology/Principal findings We transfected T.b. brucei, T.b. rhodesiense and T.b. gambiense strains with either RLuc, click beetle red (CBR) or Photinus pyralis RE9 (PpyRE9) luciferase and characterised their in vitro luciferase activity, growth profile and drug sensitivity, and their potential for in vivo BLI. Compared to RLuc, the red-shifted luciferases, CBR and PpyRE9, allow tracking of T.b. brucei AnTaR 1 trypanosomes with higher details on tissue distribution, and PpyRE9 allows detection of the parasites with a sensitivity of at least one order of magnitude higher than CBR luciferase. With CBR-tagged T.b. gambiense LiTaR1, T.b. rhodesiense RUMPHI and T.b. gambiense 348 BT in an acute, subacute and chronic infection model respectively, we observed differences in parasite tropism for murine tissues during in vivo BLI. Ex vivo BLI on the brain confirmed central nervous system infection by all luminescent strains of T.b. brucei AnTaR 1, T.b. rhodesiense RUMPHI and T.b. gambiense 348 BT. Conclusions/Significance We established a genetically and phenotypically diverse collection of bioluminescent T.b. brucei, T.b. gambiense and T.b. rhodesiense strains, including drug resistant strains. For in vivo BLI monitoring of murine infections, we recommend trypanosome strains transfected with red-shifted luciferase reporter genes, such as CBR and PpyRE9. Red-shifted luciferases can be detected with a higher sensitivity in vivo and at the same time they improve the spatial resolution of the parasites in the entire body due to the better kinetics of their substrate D-luciferin. PMID:25144573

  20. CLAES focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, A. E.; Sterritt, L. W.; Kumer, J. B.; Callary, P. C.; Nielsen, R. L.

    The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer for the NASA Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite uses solid-state focal plane arrays to detect emission from the earth's atmosphere over the IR wavelength range 3.5 to 13 microns. This paper discusses the design of the focal plane detector assembly and compares calculated performance with measurements. Measurements were made of focal plane noise and responsivity as functions of frequency (2 to 500 Hz) and temperature (12 to 19 K), pixel-to-pixel and across-array crosstalk, and linearity over a dynamic range of 100,000. The measurements demonstrate that the arrays satisfy the science requirements, and that, in general, there is reasonable agreement between the measurements and the analytical model.

  1. The Coordinate Plane

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a set of three, one-page problems about how astronomers use coordinate systems. Learners will plot a constellation on a coordinate plane and/or plot the route of Mars Science Lab (MSL aka Curiosity) on the surface of Mars. Options are presented so that students may learn about the MSL mission through a NASA press release or about the coordinate plane by viewing a NASA eClips video [7 min.]. This activity is part of the Space Math multi-media modules that integrate NASA press releases, NASA archival video, and mathematics problems targeted at specific math standards commonly encountered in middle school.

  2. Evolution in Plane Sight

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-24

    In this activity, learners model directed evolution by making paper fly. Learners construct and fly paper airplanes. During the first round, they calculate the average distance the planes fly and then recreate the planes that flew the furthest. Learners repeat this process several times, observe how the average distance of flight changes, and eventually identify the ideal flyer. This activity can be used to introduce learners to genetic random mutations and how scientists are using directed evolution to engineer new proteins with enhanced properties.

  3. Focal Plane Metrology for the LSST Camera

    SciTech Connect

    A Rasmussen, Andrew P.; Hale, Layton; Kim, Peter; Lee, Eric; Perl, Martin; Schindler, Rafe; Takacs, Peter; Thurston, Timothy; /SLAC

    2007-01-10

    Meeting the science goals for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) translates into a demanding set of imaging performance requirements for the optical system over a wide (3.5{sup o}) field of view. In turn, meeting those imaging requirements necessitates maintaining precise control of the focal plane surface (10 {micro}m P-V) over the entire field of view (640 mm diameter) at the operating temperature (T {approx} -100 C) and over the operational elevation angle range. We briefly describe the hierarchical design approach for the LSST Camera focal plane and the baseline design for assembling the flat focal plane at room temperature. Preliminary results of gravity load and thermal distortion calculations are provided, and early metrological verification of candidate materials under cold thermal conditions are presented. A detailed, generalized method for stitching together sparse metrology data originating from differential, non-contact metrological data acquisition spanning multiple (non-continuous) sensor surfaces making up the focal plane, is described and demonstrated. Finally, we describe some in situ alignment verification alternatives, some of which may be integrated into the camera's focal plane.

  4. Ground-Plane Based Projective Reconstruction for Surveillance Camera Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David N. R. McKinnon; Ruan Lakemond; Clinton Fookes; Sridha Sridharan

    This paper examines the task of calibrating a network of security cameras of arbitrary topology utilizing a common ground-plane to simplify the geometry. The method of chaining ground-plane homographies is employed to overcome the necessity that a common region is visible in all images of the ground-plane. We show that this method of recovering a projective reconstruction is ideal for

  5. Focal plane scanner with reciprocating spatial window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Chengye (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A focal plane scanner having a front objective lens, a spatial window for selectively passing a portion of the image therethrough, and a CCD array for receiving the passed portion of the image. All embodiments have a common feature whereby the spatial window and CCD array are mounted for simultaneous relative reciprocating movement with respect to the front objective lens, and the spatial window is mounted within the focal plane of the front objective. In a first embodiment, the spatial window is a slit and the CCD array is one-dimensional, and successive rows of the image in the focal plane of the front objective lens are passed to the CCD array by an image relay lens interposed between the slit and the CCD array. In a second embodiment, the spatial window is a slit, the CCD array is two-dimensional, and a prism-grating-prism optical spectrometer is interposed between the slit and the CCD array so as to cause the scanned row to be split into a plurality of spectral separations onto the CCD array. In a third embodiment, the CCD array is two-dimensional and the spatial window is a rectangular linear variable filter (LVF) window, so as to cause the scanned rows impinging on the LVF to be bandpass filtered into spectral components onto the CCD array through an image relay lens interposed between the LVF and the CCD array.

  6. Intraoperative tracking of aortic valve plane

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Duc Long Hung; Garreau, Mireille; Auffret, Vincent; Le Breton, Hervé; Verhoye, Jean-Philippe; Haigron, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to track the aortic valve plane in intra-operative fluoroscopic images in order to optimize and secure Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) procedure. This paper is focused on the issue of aortic valve calcifications tracking in fluoroscopic images. We propose a new method based on the Tracking-Learning-Detection approach, applied to the aortic valve calcifications in order to determine the position of the aortic valve plane in intra-operative TAVI images. This main contribution concerns the improvement of object detection by updating the recursive tracker in which all features are tracked jointly. The approach has been evaluated on four patient databases, providing an absolute mean displacement error less than 10 pixels ? 2mm). Its suitability for the TAVI procedure has been analyzed. PMID:24110703

  7. Plane stretching of thermoplastics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. N. Sapozhnikov

    1965-01-01

    Plane stretching tests over a wide temperature interval have been used to construct moldability curves for several thermoplastic resins produced in the USSR. These curves are found to have two maxima in the temperature range studied. The effect of the strain rate, heterogeneity of the material, and the addition of fillers, plasticizers, and cross-linking agents upon the formation of these

  8. I was six years old when Voyager sent its final images of the solar system. I was enchanted by the dramatic, mysterious blues of Neptune and the icy volcanoes of

    E-print Network

    Richardson Jr., James E.

    by the dramatic, mysterious blues of Neptune and the icy volcanoes of Triton. Voyager taught me about the solar the benefits of modern science. I also know that scientists must always remember that we work within a larger

  9. Blue emitting undecaplatinum clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Indranath; Bhuin, Radha Gobinda; Bhat, Shridevi; Pradeep, T.

    2014-07-01

    A blue luminescent 11-atom platinum cluster showing step-like optical features and the absence of plasmon absorption was synthesized. The cluster was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) suggest a composition, Pt11(BBS)8, which was confirmed by a range of other experimental tools. The cluster is highly stable and compatible with many organic solvents.A blue luminescent 11-atom platinum cluster showing step-like optical features and the absence of plasmon absorption was synthesized. The cluster was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) suggest a composition, Pt11(BBS)8, which was confirmed by a range of other experimental tools. The cluster is highly stable and compatible with many organic solvents. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of experimental procedures, instrumentation, chromatogram of the crude cluster; SEM/EDAX, DLS, PXRD, TEM, FT-IR, and XPS of the isolated Pt11 cluster; UV/Vis, MALDI MS and SEM/EDAX of isolated 2 and 3; and 195Pt NMR of the K2PtCl6 standard. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02778g

  10. Plane Tilings Richard P. Stanley

    E-print Network

    Plane Tilings Richard P. Stanley M.I.T. Plane Tilings ­ p. #12;region: tiles: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Plane Tilings ­ p. #12;tiling: 1 7 5 6 2 34 Plane Tilings ­ p. #12;Is there a tiling? How many? About how many that a tiling doesn't exist? What is a "typical" tiling? Plane Tilings ­ p. #12;Relations among different

  11. Stereo Imaging Miniature Endoscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bae, Youngsam; Manohara, Harish; White, Victor; Shcheglov, Kirill V.; Shahinian, Hrayr

    2011-01-01

    Stereo imaging requires two different perspectives of the same object and, traditionally, a pair of side-by-side cameras would be used but are not feasible for something as tiny as a less than 4-mm-diameter endoscope that could be used for minimally invasive surgeries or geoexploration through tiny fissures or bores. The proposed solution here is to employ a single lens, and a pair of conjugated, multiple-bandpass filters (CMBFs) to separate stereo images. When a CMBF is placed in front of each of the stereo channels, only one wavelength of the visible spectrum that falls within the passbands of the CMBF is transmitted through at a time when illuminated. Because the passbands are conjugated, only one of the two channels will see a particular wavelength. These time-multiplexed images are then mixed and reconstructed to display as stereo images. The basic principle of stereo imaging involves an object that is illuminated at specific wavelengths, and a range of illumination wavelengths is time multiplexed. The light reflected from the object selectively passes through one of the two CMBFs integrated with two pupils separated by a baseline distance, and is focused onto the imaging plane through an objective lens. The passband range of CMBFs and the illumination wavelengths are synchronized such that each of the CMBFs allows transmission of only the alternate illumination wavelength bands. And the transmission bandwidths of CMBFs are complementary to each other, so that when one transmits, the other one blocks. This can be clearly understood if the wavelength bands are divided broadly into red, green, and blue, then the illumination wavelengths contain two bands in red (R1, R2), two bands in green (G1, G2), and two bands in blue (B1, B2). Therefore, when the objective is illuminated by R1, the reflected light enters through only the left-CMBF as the R1 band corresponds to the transmission window of the left CMBF at the left pupil. This is blocked by the right CMBF. The transmitted band is focused on the focal plane array (FPA).

  12. DENTAL INSURANCE ANTHEM BLUE CROSS AND BLUE SHIELD

    E-print Network

    - 28 - DENTAL INSURANCE ANTHEM BLUE CROSS AND BLUE SHIELD Your two choices are: After enrollment, you will receive a combined medical/dental membership card. It will be mailed to your home. Premium Payments To assist in reducing your insurance premium costs, your share of dental insurance premiums can

  13. Hyperspectral Fluorescence and Reflectance Imaging Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert E.; O'Neal, S. Duane; Lanoue, Mark; Russell, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    The system is a single hyperspectral imaging instrument that has the unique capability to acquire both fluorescence and reflectance high-spatial-resolution data that is inherently spatially and spectrally registered. Potential uses of this instrument include plant stress monitoring, counterfeit document detection, biomedical imaging, forensic imaging, and general materials identification. Until now, reflectance and fluorescence spectral imaging have been performed by separate instruments. Neither a reflectance spectral image nor a fluorescence spectral image alone yields as much information about a target surface as does a combination of the two modalities. Before this system was developed, to benefit from this combination, analysts needed to perform time-consuming post-processing efforts to co-register the reflective and fluorescence information. With this instrument, the inherent spatial and spectral registration of the reflectance and fluorescence images minimizes the need for this post-processing step. The main challenge for this technology is to detect the fluorescence signal in the presence of a much stronger reflectance signal. To meet this challenge, the instrument modulates artificial light sources from ultraviolet through the visible to the near-infrared part of the spectrum; in this way, both the reflective and fluorescence signals can be measured through differencing processes to optimize fluorescence and reflectance spectra as needed. The main functional components of the instrument are a hyperspectral imager, an illumination system, and an image-plane scanner. The hyperspectral imager is a one-dimensional (line) imaging spectrometer that includes a spectrally dispersive element and a two-dimensional focal plane detector array. The spectral range of the current imaging spectrometer is between 400 to 1,000 nm, and the wavelength resolution is approximately 3 nm. The illumination system consists of narrowband blue, ultraviolet, and other discrete wavelength light-emitting-diode (LED) sources and white-light LED sources designed to produce consistently spatially stable light. White LEDs provide illumination for the measurement of reflectance spectra, while narrowband blue and UV LEDs are used to excite fluorescence. Each spectral type of LED can be turned on or off depending on the specific remote-sensing process being performed. Uniformity of illumination is achieved by using an array of LEDs and/or an integrating sphere or other diffusing surface. The image plane scanner uses a fore optic with a field of view large enough to provide an entire scan line on the image plane. It builds up a two-dimensional image in pushbroom fashion as the target is scanned across the image plane either by moving the object or moving the fore optic. For fluorescence detection, spectral filtering of a narrowband light illumination source is sometimes necessary to minimize the interference of the source spectrum wings with the fluorescence signal. Spectral filtering is achieved with optical interference filters and absorption glasses. This dual spectral imaging capability will enable the optimization of reflective, fluorescence, and fused datasets as well as a cost-effective design for multispectral imaging solutions. This system has been used in plant stress detection studies and in currency analysis.

  14. 75 FR 65525 - Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ...Training Administration [TA-W-74,327] Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations...applicable to workers and former workers of Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services,...

  15. Melanoma and satellite blue papule

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, André; Arzberger, Edith; Massone, Cesare; Zalaudek, Iris; Fink-Puches, Regina; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    The colors that are seen in dermoscopy depend on the anatomic level of the skin at which the chromophores are seen. Blue color can be found in a variety of melanocytic and nonmelanocytic lesions. An 89-year-old man presented with a 3-year history of a slow-growing, hyperpigmented patch located on the distal third of the right arm. Dermoscopy showed an atypical network, irregularly distributed globules, pigmented internal streaks and a milky-red area. Based on these findings a diagnosis of slow-growing malignant melanoma was made. Simultaneously, a well-defined blue papule was seen on the proximal third of the same arm. Dermoscopy disclosed a homogeneous blue pattern. After clinical and dermoscopic correlation our differential diagnosis for this blue lesion included cutaneous melanoma metastasis, blue nevus and foreign body reaction. The patient recalled its onset 75 years ago after a grenade explosion. We also discuss the blue lesion appearance under reflectance confocal microscopy and high-definition optical coherence tomography. Histopathological examination after excision of the hyperpigmented patch and blue papule revealed a melanoma in situ and a foreign body reaction, respectively. The diagnostic evaluation of a blue lesion should always rely on the integration of all data, especially clinical and dermoscopic features. Other non-invasive techniques, like reflectance confocal microscopy and high-definition optical coherence tomography can also be important aids for its differential diagnosis. PMID:25126462

  16. Magnetic Properties of Prussian Blue Analog Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajerowski, D. M.; Meisel, M. W.; Knowles, E. S.; Andrus, M. J.; Gardner, J. E.; Talham, D. R.; Datta, S.; Ozarowski, A.; Hill, S.

    2010-03-01

    The study of magnetization in thin film geometries of Prussian blue analogs, RbjM^'k [M(CN)6]l.nH2O, has shown emergent phenomena compared to bulk-like precursors. One example is the photoinduced decrease in magnetization for M^'=Co, M=Fe materials when the plane of the films is perpendicular to the applied magnetic field, as opposed to the usual increase in magnetization observed in the powder material [1,2]. By studying additional compounds without the photoinduced bistability, such as the M^'=Ni(S=1), M=Cr(S=3/2) ferromagnet with a TC ˜ 75 K and the M^'=Cu(S=1/2), M=Fe(S=1/2) ferromagnet with a TC ˜ 20 K, we have gained insight into the magnetic anisotropy present in the general class of Prussian blue analog thin films. Samples have been characterized by SQUID magnetometry, ESR, AFM, SEM, EDS and FT-IR. [4pt] [1] J.-H. Park, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3797 (2004). [2] F. A. Frye et al., Chem. Mater. 20, 5706 (2008).

  17. Ascorbic Acid and Methylene Blue

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The WebWare molecules of the month for May are featured in several articles in this issue. "Arsenic: Not So Evil After All?" discusses the pharmaceutical uses of methylene blue and its development as the first synthetic drug used against a specific disease. The JCE Classroom Activity "Out of the Blue" and the article "Greening the Blue Bottle" feature methylene blue and ascorbic acid as two key ingredients in the formulation of the blue bottle. You can also see a colorful example of these two molecules in action on the cover. "Sailing on the 'C': A Vitamin Titration with a Twist" describes an experiment to determine the vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content of citrus fruits and challenges students, as eighteenth-century sea captains, to decide the best fruit to take on a long voyage.

  18. Astronomical imaging by pupil plane interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribak, Erez

    1989-01-01

    Comparing rotational shear interferometry to standard speckle interferometry, it is found that it is easier in the first case to separate the atmospheric phases from the object transform phases. Phase closure and blind deconvolution should be directly applicable. Laboratory simulations were conducted to verify theoretical predictions and computer simulations for the phase closure case, and preliminary results show promise.

  19. Images

    Cancer.gov

    Home News and Events Multimedia Library Images Images:  Cancer Biology Image: Cell with DNA 72 DPI | 300 DPIDrawing depicting DNA molecule unwinding from a chromosome inside the nucleus of a cell. NHGRI >> View All Cancer Pathology/Imaging Image: Female

  20. The Blue Comet: A Railroad's Astronomical Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumstay, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01

    Between 1929 February 21 and 1941 September 27, the Central New Jersey Railroad operated a luxury passenger train between Jersey City and Atlantic City. Named The Blue Comet, the locomotive, tender, and coaches sported a unique royal blue paint scheme designed to evoke images of celestial bodies speeding through space. Inside each car were etched window panes and lampshades featuring stars and comets. And each coach sported the name of a famous comet on its side; these comets were of course named for their discoverers. Some of the astronomers honored in this unique fashion remain famous to this day, or at least their comets do. The names D'Arrest, Barnard, Encke, Faye, Giacobini, Halley, Olbers, Temple, Tuttle, and Westphal are familiar ones. But Biela, Brorsen, deVico, Spitaler, and Winnecke have now largely faded into obscurity; their stories are recounted here. Although more than sixty years have elapsed since its last run, The Blue Comet, perhaps the most famous passenger train in American history, lives on in the memories of millions of passengers and railfans. This famous train returned to the attention of millions of television viewers on the evening of 2007 June 3, in an episode of the HBO series The Sopranos. This work was supported by a faculty development grant from Valdosta State University.

  1. MTI Focal Plane Assembly Design and Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, M.; Rienstra, J.L.

    1999-06-17

    The focal plane assembly for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) consists of sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure. Sensor chip assemblies, composed of linear detector arrays and readout integrated circuits, provide spatial resolution in the cross-track direction for the pushbroom imager. Optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 {micro}m to 10.7 {micro}m. All the detector arrays are mounted on a single focal plane and are designed to operate at 75 K. Three pairs of sensor chip assemblies (SCAs) are required to provide cross-track coverage in all 15 spectral bands. Each pair of SCAs includes detector arrays made from silicon, iridium antimonide, and mercury cadmium telluride. Read out integrated circuits multiplex the signals from the detectors to 18 separate video channels. Optical filter assemblies defining the spectral bands are mounted over the linear detector arrays. Each filter assembly consists of several filter strips bonded together side-by-side. The MTI focal plane assembly has been integrated with the rest of the payload and has undergone detailed testing and calibration. This paper includes representative test data for the various spectral bands and the overall performance of the focal plane assembly.

  2. Mongolian Spot (Blue-Gray Spot)

    MedlinePLUS

    newsletter | contact Share | Mongolian Spot (Blue-Gray Spot) A parent's guide for infants and babies A A A Blue-gray spots (Mongolian spots) appear as gray to blue colored, flat, "bruise-like" areas of skin. Overview ...

  3. Blue noise sampling method based on mixture distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Hongxing; Hong, XiaoYang; Xiao, Bin; Zhang, Shaoting; Wang, Guoyin

    2014-11-01

    Blue noise sampling is a core component for a large number of computer graphic applications such as imaging, modeling, animation, and rendering. However, most existing methods are concentrated on preserving spatial domain properties like density and anisotropy, while ignoring feature preserving. In order to solve the problem, we present a new distance metric called mixture distance for blue noise sampling, which is a combination of geodesic and feature distances. Based on mixture distance, the blue noise property and features can be preserved by controlling the ratio of the geodesic distance to the feature distance. With the intention of meeting different requirements from various applications, an adaptive adjustment for parameters is also proposed to achieve a balance between the preservation of features and spatial properties. Finally, implementation on a graphic processing unit is introduced to improve the efficiency of computation. The efficacy of the method is demonstrated by the results of image stippling, surface sampling, and remeshing.

  4. Hubble Space Telescope and Spitzer Imaging of Red and Blue Galaxies at z ~ 2.5: A Correlation between Size and Star Formation Activity from Compact Quiescent Galaxies to Extended Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toft, S.; van Dokkum, P.; Franx, M.; Labbe, I.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Wuyts, S.; Webb, T.; Rudnick, G.; Zirm, A.; Kriek, M.; van der Werf, P.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Illingworth, G.; Rix, H.-W.; Papovich, C.; Moorwood, A.

    2007-12-01

    We present HST NICMOS+ACS and Spitzer IRAC+MIPS observations of 41 galaxies at 2blue rest-frame optical colors. About half of the galaxies are very compact (effective radii re<1 kpc) at rest-frame optical wavelengths; the others are extended (1 kpcimaging is a sensitive probe of reradiated dust emission (z<2.5), the 24 ?m fluxes confirm that the light of the small quiescent galaxies is dominated by old stars, rather than dust-enshrouded star formation or AGN activity. The inferred surface mass densities and velocity dispersions for the quiescent galaxies are very high compared to those in local galaxies. The galaxies follow a Kormendy relation (between surface brightness and size) with approximately the same slope as locally, but shifted to brighter surface brightnesses, consistent with a mean stellar formation redshift of zf~5. This paper demonstrates a direct relation between star formation activity and size at z~2.5 and the existence of a significant population of massive, extremely dense, old stellar systems without readily identifiable counterparts in the local universe. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555 observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407; and observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO Program 164.O-0612).

  5. Geometry of moving planes

    E-print Network

    Garret Sobczyk

    2007-09-29

    The concept of number and its generalization has played a central role in the development of mathematics over many centuries and many civilizations. Noteworthy milestones in this long and arduous process were the developments of the real and complex numbers which have achieved universal acceptance. Serious attempts have been made at further extensions, such as Hamiltons quaternions, Grassmann's exterior algebra and Clifford's geometric algebra. By examining the geometry of moving planes, we show how new mathematics is within reach, if the will to learn these powerful methods can be found.

  6. Evans blue dye-enhanced capillary-resolution photoacoustic microscopy in vivo

    E-print Network

    Wang, Lihong

    Evans blue dye-enhanced capillary-resolution photoacoustic microscopy in vivo Junjie Yao Konstantin- toacoustic tomography can provide high resolution microvascular im- aging using hemoglobin within red blood in discontinuous and fragmentary capillary images. To over- come this problem, we use Evans blue EB dye

  7. Blue ellipticals in compact groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zepf, Stephen E.; Whitmore, Bradley C.

    1990-01-01

    By studying galaxies in compact groups, the authors examine the hypothesis that mergers of spiral galaxies make elliptical galaxies. The authors combine dynamical models of the merger-rich compact group environment with stellar evolution models and predict that roughly 15 percent of compact group ellipticals should be 0.15 mag bluer in B - R color than normal ellipticals. The published colors of these galaxies suggest the existence of this predicted blue population, but a normal distribution with large random errors can not be ruled out based on these data alone. However, the authors have new ultraviolet blue visual data which confirm the blue color of the two ellipticals with blue B - R colors for which they have their own colors. This confirmation of a population of blue ellipticals indicates that interactions are occurring in compact groups, but a blue color in one index alone does not require that these ellipticals are recent products of the merger of two spirals. The authors demonstrate how optical spectroscopy in the blue may distinguish between a true spiral + spiral merger and the swallowing of a gas-rich system by an already formed elliptical. The authors also show that the sum of the luminosity of the galaxies in each group is consistent with the hypothesis that the final stage in the evolution of compact group is an elliptical galaxy.

  8. The Three Planes of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Gloria

    1999-01-01

    Currently, the language sciences place together four different forms of mental activity on one plane of language, which results in confusion. This paper presents arguments from metaphysics, hermeneutics, and semiotics to demonstrate that there are actually three planes of language (a biologically-based information processing plane, a literal…

  9. Blue metal complex pigments involved in blue flower color

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Kosaku

    2006-01-01

    The blue pigment of cornflower, protocyanin, has been investigated for a long time, but its precise structure was not entirely explained until recently. The molecular structure of the pigment was recently shown to be a metal complex of six molecules each of anthocyanin and flavone glycoside, with one ferric iron, one magnesium and two calcium ions by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The studies provided the answer to the question posed in the early part of the last century, “why is the cornflower blue and rose red when both flowers contain the same anthocyanin?” This work was achieved on the basis of the results of long years of the studies made by many researchers. In this review, the author focuses on the investigations of the blue metal complex pigments involved in the bluing of flowers, commelinin from Commelina commusis, protocyanin from Centaurea cyanus, protodelphin from Salvia patens and hydrangea blue pigment.

  10. “Anting” in Blue Jays

    PubMed Central

    Eisner, Thomas; Aneshansley, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Summary Anting, the plumage-dipping behavior to which ants (mostly formicines) are commonly subjected by birds (mostly passerines), is shown in tests with hand-raised Blue Jays (Cyanocitta cristata) and the ant Formica exsectoides to be instinctive: the birds displayed typical renditions of the behavior on the first occasion that they encountered ants. Evidence is presented supportive of the view that anting is a strategy by which birds render ants fit for ingestion. Formicine ants are ordinarily protected by their formic acid-containing spray. Being wiped into the bird’s plumage causes them to discharge that spray, without harm to the bird, to the point of almost total emptying of the glandular sac in which the secretion is stored. The ants are therefore essentially secretion-free by the time they are swallowed. Further evidence indicates that it is the ant’s possession of the acid sac that triggers the anting behavior in the bird. If F. exsectoides are surgically deprived of their acid sac, they are eaten by the birds without first being subjected to anting. Data are also presented indicating that the ant’s crop, which is especially capacious in formicines (its contents may amount to over 30% of the formicine’s mass), and which appears to survive the anting procedure intact, constitutes, at least when laden, a valuable component of the trophic package that the bird accesses by anting. PMID:19169379

  11. 2012 BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee. BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee, Inc., an Independent Licensee of the BlueCross BlueShield Association.

    E-print Network

    Hong, Don

    © 2012 BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee. BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee, Inc., an Independent and individual rates must be filed and approved by Tennessee Department of Commerce and Insurance. Minimum loss ratio requirements in Tennessee prior to health care reform: None for group 55% for most Individual

  12. The Aerodynamic Plane Table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A F

    1924-01-01

    This report gives the description and the use of a specially designed aerodynamic plane table. For the accurate and expeditious geometrical measurement of models in an aerodynamic laboratory, and for miscellaneous truing operations, there is frequent need for a specially equipped plan table. For example, one may have to measure truly to 0.001 inch the offsets of an airfoil at many parts of its surface. Or the offsets of a strut, airship hull, or other carefully formed figure may require exact calipering. Again, a complete airplane model may have to be adjusted for correct incidence at all parts of its surfaces or verified in those parts for conformance to specifications. Such work, if but occasional, may be done on a planing or milling machine; but if frequent, justifies the provision of a special table. For this reason it was found desirable in 1918 to make the table described in this report and to equip it with such gauges and measures as the work should require.

  13. Head Start Blues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Stephen M.

    1998-01-01

    Noting that many students' experiences with police officers is negative, Heartland Programs Head Start in Salina, Kansas, initiated the Cop Day Program to develop a positive image of law enforcement. Police officer participated in classroom activities at the teachers' discretion once a month. Teachers and administrators noticed improvement in…

  14. Revisiting Three Blue Straggler Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Ren, S.

    2014-08-01

    For blue stragglers in binary systems, two kinds of origin mechanisms, i.e., collision and mass transfer, are theoretically predicted and companion mass is one of the most important probes to distinguish their origin mechanisms. By fitting the revised Hipparcos Intermediate Astrometric Data, we obtain the astrometric orbits of three single-lined spectroscopic binaries (HIP 39903, 55022, and 59750) with blue stragglers. On the basis of the obtained orbits and blue straggler masses estimated from stellar evolutionary model, their companion masses are computed. The values of the companion masses (0.44, 0.47, and 0.44 M?) suggest that all these three blue stragglers are originated from the mass transfer mechanism.

  15. Blue Flame from Common Salt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Gladstone

    1879-01-01

    At the present time any spectroscopic observations of coloured flames are peculiarly interesting, and I am glad to see the origin of the blue or violet flame produced by common salt and other chlorides again discussed in your pages.

  16. Blue Crabs in the Chesapeake

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Classroom unit and data activity focusing on juvenile and adult blue crab distribution in the Chesapeake Bay. Includes background on crab biology, anatomy, life cycle, and fisheries. Authentic data tables provided for in-class analysis, discussion questions guide inquiry.

  17. Blue Heron Press Collection: Artists' Books

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Blue Heron Press is based in Avoca, Nebraska, and over the past several decades they have published a number of exquisite chapbooks and illustrated works. Recently, the University of Nebraska Digital Collections group placed a number of their more recent publications online here. The works include some elaborate pieces that utilize wooden covers with leather spine wraps, and visitors can search the collection for various works. There are a number of "alphabet" themed books that contain colorful images and creative renderings of these 26 letters. Visitors are welcome to view the images in high resolution, and they can also zoom in and out to get a finer appreciation for all of the artistic details.

  18. X-ray and extended UV spectrometer designs based on off-plane grating mountings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Werner

    1981-01-01

    In this contribution a spectrometer design is presented with which it is possible to cover the entire wavelength range of GRIST by one focal plane instrument. This design is based on an off-plane grating mounting, by some other authors indicated with conical diffraction. In contrast with classical grating mountings object and spectral images are located out of the plane perpendicular

  19. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultramarine blue. 73.50 Section 73.50 Food and...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.50 Ultramarine blue. (a) Identity. The color additive ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by...

  20. Towards Dualband Megapixel QWIP Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Hill, C. J.; Rafol, S. B.; Salazar, D.; Woolaway, J.; LeVan, P. D.; Tidrow, M. Z.

    2006-01-01

    Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024 x 1024 pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NEDT) of 17 mK at a 95 K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300 K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NEDT of 13 mK at a 70 K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR detector array after the subtraction of system noise. Both MWIR and LWIR focal planes have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90 K and 70 K operating temperatures respectively, with similar optical and background conditions. In addition, we have demonstrated MWIR and LWIR pixel co-registered simultaneously readable dualband QWIP focal plane arrays. In this paper, we will discuss the performance in terms of quantum efficiency, NEDT, uniformity, operability, and modulation transfer functions of the 1024 x 1024 pixel arrays and the progress of dualband QWIP focal plane array development work.

  1. HOW WAVING MALES ATTRACT THE LADIES When a courting male blue crab gets a

    E-print Network

    Reidenbach, Matthew A.

    plane of laser light, the team saw that the waving male generated a strong jet of water with his paddle of a lady, he stands up high and starts waving his paddle-shaped swimming legs. But why male blue crabs, the male entices her out of her hidey-hole with a pheromone message carried on the jet of water generated

  2. Nicole Hudson Sillerman Center Summer Internship at the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts Foundation

    E-print Network

    Snider, Barry B.

    Nicole Hudson Sillerman Center Summer Internship at the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts of Philanthropy, I had the privilege of interning at The Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts Foundation (the Blue Shield of Massachusetts. The Foundation's mission is to expand access to health care services

  3. Usage patterns of blue flower color representation by Encyclopedia of Life content providers

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Chantal-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) is a resource for community-driven biodiversity data, focusing on species information and images. Research into blue flowers to compare color ('blueness') at different elevations revealed that data content providers describe flowers as blue for any color hue in the range from blue to magenta. We propose methods for standardizing color values and color searching within EOL by means of an expanded color vocabulary and improved access to image metadata, in order to improve the research capacity of this valuable resource. PMID:25197234

  4. Blue Planet Biomes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Benders-Hyde, Elisabeth

    This innovative educational website was created by Elisabeth Benders-Hyde, a science aide at the West Tisbury School in Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts. The site was originally inspired by a biome project developed by West Tisbury 6th grade teachers Ann and Karl Nelson, and incorporates information generated from independent student research. The site offers great information about the world's biomes including Tundra, Chaparral, Deciduous Forest, Alpine, Rainforest, and more. Biome profiles include general background information with separate sections for biome-specific plants, animals, and climates. This site has an artful lay-out with colorful maps denoting specific biomes, and images of biome landscapes, animals, and plants.

  5. Symmetry planes of Paleozoic crinoids

    E-print Network

    Lane, N. G.; Webster, G. D.

    1967-11-30

    , illustrated by Galateacrinus (after Moore, 1962). 2. Homocrinid (E-EC) symmetry plane (after Ubaghs, 1953). 3. Heterocrinid (D-AB) symmetry plane (after Ubaghs, 1953). 4 -5. Infrabasal, basal, and radial circlets of Permian flex- ible crinoids, Tram pidocrinus... at top and bottom of figures mark A-CD plane, dotted lines E-BC, or in Fig. 3, the D-AB plane; figures 1-5 are dorsal (aboral) views of adults, radials black.] 16 The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions—Paper 25 explanation of the symmetry...

  6. Easy plane baby skyrmions

    E-print Network

    Juha Jäykkä; Martin Speight

    2011-02-02

    The baby Skyrme model is studied with a novel choice of potential, $V=1/2 \\phi_3^2$. This "easy plane" potential vanishes at the equator of the target two-sphere. Hence, in contrast to previously studied cases, the boundary value of the field breaks the residual SO(2) internal symmetry of the model. Consequently, even the unit charge skyrmion has only discrete symmetry and consists of a bound state of two half lumps. A model of long-range inter-skyrmion forces is developed wherein a unit skyrmion is pictured as a single scalar dipole inducing a massless scalar field tangential to the vacuum manifold. This model has the interesting feature that the two-skyrmion interaction energy depends only on the average orientation of the dipoles relative to the line joining them. Its qualitative predictions are confirmed by numerical simulations. Global energy minimizers of charges B=1,...,14,18,32 are found numerically. Up to charge B=6, the minimizers have 2B half lumps positioned at the vertices of a regular 2B-gon. For charges B >= 7, rectangular or distorted rectangular arrays of 2B half lumps are preferred, as close to square as possible.

  7. The BlueSky Smoke Modeling Framework: Recent Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, D. C.; Larkin, N.; Raffuse, S. M.; Strand, T.; ONeill, S. M.; Leung, F. T.; Qu, J. J.; Hao, X.

    2012-12-01

    BlueSky systems—a set of decision support tools including SmartFire and the BlueSky Framework—aid public policy decision makers and scientific researchers in evaluating the air quality impacts of fires. Smoke and fire managers use BlueSky systems in decisions about prescribed burns and wildland firefighting. Air quality agencies use BlueSky systems to support decisions related to air quality regulations. We will discuss a range of recent improvements to the BlueSky systems, as well as examples of applications and future plans. BlueSky systems have the flexibility to accept basic fire information from virtually any source and can reconcile multiple information sources so that duplication of fire records is eliminated. BlueSky systems currently apply information from (1) the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Hazard Mapping System (HMS), which represents remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES); (2) the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) interagency project, which derives fire perimeters from Landsat 30-meter burn scars; (3) the Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Group (GeoMAC), which produces helicopter-flown burn perimeters; and (4) ground-based fire reports, such as the ICS-209 reports managed by the National Wildfire Coordinating Group. Efforts are currently underway to streamline the use of additional ground-based systems, such as states' prescribed burn databases. BlueSky systems were recently modified to address known uncertainties in smoke modeling associated with (1) estimates of biomass consumption derived from sparse fuel moisture data, and (2) models of plume injection heights. Additional sources of remotely sensed data are being applied to address these issues as follows: - The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis Real-Time (TMPA-RT) data set is being used to improve dead fuel moisture estimates. - EastFire live fuel moisture estimates, which are derived from NASA's MODIS direct broadcast, are being used to improve live fuel moisture estimates. - NASA's Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) stereo heights are being used to improve estimates of plume injection heights. Further, the Fire Location and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBÉ) model was incorporated into the BlueSky Framework as an alternative means of calculating fire emissions. FLAMBÉ directly estimates emissions on the basis of fire detections and radiance measures from NASA's MODIS and NOAA's GOES satellites. (The authors gratefully acknowledge NASA's Applied Sciences Program [Grant Nos. NN506AB52A and NNX09AV76G)], the USDA Forest Service, and the Joint Fire Science Program for their support.)

  8. Design study of the accessible focal plane telescope for shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The design and cost analysis of an accessible focal plane telescope for Spacelab is presented in blueprints, tables, and graphs. Topics covered include the telescope tube, the telescope mounting, the airlock plus Spacelab module aft plate, the instrument adapter, and the instrument package. The system allows access to the image plane with instrumentation that can be operated by a scientist in a shirt sleeve environment inside a Spacelab module.

  9. Two Planes of Satellites in the Centaurus A Group

    E-print Network

    Tully, R Brent; Karachentsev, Igor D; Karachentseva, Valentina E; Rizzi, Luca; Shaya, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Tip of the red giant branch measurements based on Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based imaging have resulted in accurate distances to 29 galaxies in the nearby Centaurus A Group. All but two of the 29 galaxies lie in either of two thin planes roughly parallel with the supergalactic equator. The planes are only slightly tilted from the line-of-sight, leaving little ambiguity regarding the morphology of the structure. The planes have characteristic r.m.s. long axis dimensions of ~300 kpc and short axis dimensions of ~60 kpc, hence axial ratios ~0.2, and are separated in the short axis direction by 303 kpc.

  10. Two Planes of Satellites in the Centaurus A Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tully, R. Brent; Libeskind, Noam I.; Karachentsev, Igor D.; Karachentseva, Valentina E.; Rizzi, Luca; Shaya, Edward J.

    2015-04-01

    Tip of the red giant branch measurements based on Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based imaging have resulted in accurate distances to 29 galaxies in the nearby Centaurus A Group. All but 2 of the 29 galaxies lie in either of two thin planes roughly parallel with the supergalactic equator. The planes are only slightly tilted from the line of sight, leaving little ambiguity regarding the morphology of the structure. The planes have characteristic rms long axis dimensions of ?300 kpc and short axis dimensions of ?60 kpc, hence axial ratios ?0.2, and are separated in the short axis direction by 303 kpc.

  11. Ground plane insulating coating for proximity focused devices

    DOEpatents

    Power, G.D.

    1998-07-14

    A thin layer of alumina (aluminum oxide) is coated onto the ground plane of a microchannel plate (MCP) without covering the pores of the MCP so it does not effect the performance. The coating is sputtered onto the ground plane at a very steep angle. The addition of the thin dielectric coating of alumina greatly improves the spatial resolution of proximity focused image intensifiers using a narrow gap between the phosphor screen and the MCP. With the coating on the ground plane and the same gap the phosphor screen can be ran at 9000 volts, as compared to 3 kV without the coating. 3 figs.

  12. Ground plane insulating coating for proximity focused devices

    DOEpatents

    Power, Gary D. (Manteca, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A thin layer of alumina (aluminum oxide) is coated onto the ground plane of a microchannel plate (MCP) without covering the pores of the MCP so it does not effect the performance. The coating is sputtered onto the ground plane at a very steep angle. The addition of the thin dielectric coating of alumina greatly improves the spatial resolution of proximity focused image intensifiers using a narrow gap between the phosphor screen and the MCP. With the coating on the ground plane and the same gap the phosphor screen can be ran at 9000 volts, as compared to 3 kV without the coating.

  13. Fundamentals of the dwarf fundamental plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, M. L.; Vaduvescu, O.; Pozo Nunez, F.; Barr Dominguez, A.; Fingerhut, R.; Unda-Sanzana, E.; Li, B.; Albrecht, M.

    2012-04-01

    Aims: Star-forming dwarfs are studied to elucidate the physical underpinnings of their fundamental plane. Processes controlling dynamics are evaluated, connections between quiescent and bursting dwarfs are examined, and the viability of using structural properties of dwarfs to determine distances is assessed. Methods: Deep surface photometry in Ks is presented for 19 star-forming dwarfs. The data are amalgamated with previously published observations to create a sample of 66 galaxies suitable for exploring how global properties and kinematics are connected. Results: It is confirmed that residuals in the Tully-Fisher relation are correlated with surface brightness, but that even after accomodating the surface brightness dependence through the dwarf fundamental plane, residuals in absolute magnitude are far larger than expected from observational errors. Rather, a morefundamental plane is identified which connects the potential to HI line width and surface brightness. Residuals correlate with the axis ratio in a way which can be accommodated by recognizing the galaxies to be oblate spheroids viewed at varying angles. Correction of surface brightnesses to face-on leads to a correlation among the potential, line width, and surface brightness for which residuals are entirely attributable to observational uncertainties. The mean mass-to-light ratio of the diffuse component of the galaxies is constrained to be 0.88 ± 0.20 in Ks. Blue compact dwarfs lie in the same plane as dwarf irregulars. The dependence of the potential on line width is less strong than expected for virialized systems, but this may be because surface brightness is acting as a proxy for variations in the mass-to-light ratio from galaxy to galaxy. Altogether, the observations suggest that gas motions are predominantly disordered and isotropic, that they are a consequence of gravity, not turbulence, and that the mass and scale of dark matter haloes scale with the amount and distribution of luminous matter. The tight relationship between the potential and observables offers the promise of determining distances to unresolved star-forming dwarfs to an accuracy comparable to that provided by the Tully-Fisher relation for spirals. Based on observations acquired from CFHT, CTIO, ESO, OAN-SPM, and SAAO.

  14. Blue phase liquid crystals stabilized by linear photo-polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Daming; Yuan, Jiamin; Schadt, Martin; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2014-08-01

    Stabilizing a photopolymer-embedded blue phase liquid crystal precursor with linearly polarized UV light is investigated experimentally. When the UV polarization axis is perpendicular to the stripe electrodes of an in-plane-switching cell, anisotropic polymer networks are formed through the linear photo-polymerization process and the electrostriction effect is suppressed. As a result, the measured hysteresis is dramatically reduced from 6.95% to 0.36% and the response time shortened by ˜2× compared to unpolarized UV exposure. To induce larger anisotropy in polymer networks for mitigating the electrostriction effect, high-intensity linearly polarized UV exposure is preferred.

  15. Strong blue photoluminescence from single-crystalline bismuth oxychloride nanoplates.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhengtao; Tang, Fangqiong; Muscat, Anthony J

    2008-07-23

    Single-crystalline bismuth oxychloride (BiOCl) nanoplates with in-plane sizes of 200-500 nm and a thickness of 15-25 nm are synthesized by a simple solution route. Strong blue photoluminescence centred at 455 nm (?2.72 eV) with very high quantum yields (?(PL)?0.4) has been observed at room temperature, representing the first report of strong room temperature photoluminescence from bismuth oxyhalide nanomaterials. It is envisaged that bismuth oxychloride could join the family of non-cadmium based high-efficiency emitters; it has promising applications in various fields, especially in light emitting diodes, lasers and solar cells. PMID:21730610

  16. Characterization of post-correction uniformity on infrared focal plane arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. O'Neill; Christopher R. Costanzo; David R. Kaplan

    1995-01-01

    With increased requirements for better performance being placed on thermal imaging systems, new characterization figures of merit are being developed to assess infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) attributes. Post correction uniformity (PCU) is a parameter that determines how successfully a thermal imaging system can eliminate spatial noise from scanning and staring focal plane arrays. Requirements on PCU, particularly for the

  17. Chameleon Graphing: The Coordinate Plane

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ursula Whitcher

    2000-01-01

    This Web unit introduces the coordinate plane with the help of Sam the Chameleon, who illustrates how to find points on a number line and graph points in the coordinate plane. A link to a Java applet for graphing with Sam is included.

  18. Strings in plane wave backgrounds

    E-print Network

    A. Pankiewicz

    2003-07-11

    I review aspects of string theory on plane wave backgrounds emphasising the connection to gauge theory given by the BMN correspondence. Topics covered include the Penrose limit and its role in deriving the BMN duality from AdS/CFT, light-cone string field theory in the maximally supersymmetric plane wave and extensions of the correspondence to less supersymmetric backgrounds.

  19. The non-ischaemic blue finger.

    PubMed Central

    Khaira, H. S.; Rittoo, D.; Vohra, R. K.; Smith, S. R.

    2001-01-01

    Finger discoloration may result from recognized conditions affecting upper limb vasculature. We describe 11 patients who presented with acute pain, swelling and blue/purple discoloration in a finger. This benign condition mimicked digital ischaemia. There were 9 women and 2 men. The episode usually started with an ache/pain in the finger followed 2-3 h later by a blue/purple discoloration primarily on the volar aspect but always sparing the tip. This completely resolved after 4-7 days with no residual deficit. There was no history of trauma. Four patients had had previous episodes--2 had been started on warfarin. There was no family history and only one gave a history of spontaneous bruising of her legs. Examination of all patients--pulse rate, blood pressure, cardiac and subclavian artery auscultation and digital artery Doppler insonation--was normal. All patients had normal full blood counts, CRP, vasculitis screen and clotting (except those on warfarin). Six similar cases, all women, were reported in 1982. There was no common aetiological factor other than sex. Although of no prognostic significance, the condition is likely to concern patients and doctors in primary care. The discoloration is, however, clearly of a different distribution to that in an ischaemic finger where the tip of the digit is involved. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:11432130

  20. Progress towards a ``blue'' potassium MOT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, David; Fine, Dan; Jervis, Dylan; Edge, Graham; Thywissen, Joseph

    2011-06-01

    One difficulty when preparing quantum degenerate gases of potassium 40 is the low efficiency of sub-Doppler cooling. In this talk, we discuss how we are attempting to circumvent this problem by implementing a ``blue'' MOT for ^40K on the non-cycling 4S1/2->5P3/2 transition, which has a wavelength of 404.53nm and a decay rate of 1.17MHz. The Doppler temperature should be 27?K, which is a factor of five improvement over the D2 transition at 767nm. This lower temperature would also facilitate in-situ imaging of atoms in optical lattices. The laser setup consists of a cooled diode injection locked to an external cavity diode laser. The master laser is in turn locked to ^39K saturation spectroscopy in a heated vapor cell. The proximity of this 4S-5P transition to the wavelength used in ``Blu-ray'' technology provides a relatively inexpensive source of laser diodes with powers up to 150mW. A dual MOT will be implemented using dichroic mirrors and waveplates for loading and capture with 767nm, followed by a switch to a ``blue'' MOT for late-stage cooling before loading into a magnetic trap. We will also present results on the spectroscopy of the ^40K 5P3/2 hyperfine levels using our setup.

  1. The Blue-Collar Brain

    PubMed Central

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body’s tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

  2. Crater Lake: blue through time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Gary L.; Buktenica, Mark; Collier, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Blue is the color of constancy, hence the term true blue. The unearthly blueness of Crater Lake reflects its pristine character and gives scientists a focal point for studying human impacts on aquatic environments over long periods of time. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), National Park Service, and Oregon State University have systematically studied the lake for the last two decades. Long-term monitoring of this lake is a priority of Crater Lake National Park and will continue far into the future.

  3. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Dinh C. (Los Alamos, NM); Faulkner, George E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A blue-green laser (450-550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm.sup.3+. The Tm.sup.+ is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP.

  4. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, D.C.; Faulkner, G.E.

    1990-08-14

    A blue-green laser (450--550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm[sup 3+]. The Tm[sup 3+] is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP. 3 figs.

  5. Blue light emitting thiogallate phosphor

    DOEpatents

    Dye, Robert C. (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, David C. (Los Alamos, NM); King, Christopher N. (Portland, OR); Tuenge, Richard T. (Hillsboro, OR)

    1998-01-01

    A crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor of the formula RGa.sub.2 S.sub.4 :Ce.sub.x where R is selected from the group consisting of calcium, strontium, barium and zinc, and x is from about 1 to 10 atomic percent, the phosphor characterized as having a crystalline microstructure on the size order of from about 100 .ANG. to about 10,000 .ANG. is provided together with a process of preparing a crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor by depositing on a substrate by CVD and resultant thin film electroluminescent devices including a layer of such deposited phosphor on an ordinary glass substrate.

  6. Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell K. Hobbie; Bradley J. Roth

    Images are very important in the remainder of this book. They may be formed by the eye, a camera, an xray machine, a nuclear\\u000a medicine camera, magnetic resonance imaging, or ultrasound. The concepts developed in Chapter 11 can be used to understand\\u000a and describe image quality. The same concepts are also used to reconstruct computed tomographic or magnetic resonance slice

  7. A multilinear constraint on dichromatic planes for illumination estimation.

    PubMed

    Toro, Javier; Funt, Brian

    2007-01-01

    A new multilinear constraint on the color of the scene illuminant based on the dichromatic reflection model is proposed. The formulation avoids the problem, common to previous dichromatic methods, of having to first identify pixels corresponding to the same surface material. Once pixels from two or more materials have been identified, their corresponding dichromatic planes can be intersected to yield the illuminant color. However, it is not always easy to determine which pixels from an arbitrary region of an image belong to which dichromatic plane. The image region may cover an area of the scene encompassing several different materials and, hence, pixels from several different dichromatic planes. The new multilinear constraint accounts for this multiplicity of materials and provides a mechanism for choosing the most plausible illuminant from a finite set of candidate illuminants. The performance of this new method is tested on a database of real images. PMID:17283768

  8. Blues and the Blues Committee Some historical notes

    E-print Network

    Travis, Adrian

    , the Cambridge crew wore white, with a scarlet or pink (accounts vary) sash, honouring their Captain W. Snow from to it by C.U.B.C. (a letter on file with the Blues Committee reports that the early chess Varsity matches

  9. Image-Method Gain Measurement With Mismatch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Richard Q.; Baddour, Maurice F.

    1988-01-01

    New formula accounts for multiple reflections. In image method antenna placed facing its image in reflecting plane. Power transmitted by antenna and portion of transmitted power received by antenna after reflection from plane measured at various distances R.

  10. Photoacoustic microscopy using Evans Blue dye as a contrast agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Junjie; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Hu, Song; Wang, Lihong V.

    2010-02-01

    Complete and continuous imaging of microvascular networks is crucial for a wide variety of biomedical applications. Photoacoustic tomography can provide high resolution microvascular imaging using hemoglobin within red blood cells (RBC) as an endogenous contrast agent. However, intermittent RBC flow in capillaries results in discontinuous and fragmentary capillary images. To overcome this problem, we used Evans Blue (EB) dye as a contrast agent for in vivo photoacoustic imaging. EB has strong optical absorption at 610 nm and distributes uniformly in the blood stream by chemically binding to albumin. By intravenous injection of EB (6%, 200 ?L), complete and continuous microvascular networks-especially capillaries-of the ears of nude mice were imaged. The diffusion of EB (3%, 100 ?L) leaving the blood stream was monitored for 2 hours. At lower administration dose of EB (3%, 50 ?L), the clearance of the EB-albumin complex was imaged for 10 days and quantitatively investigated using a two-compartment model.

  11. Characterization of DECam focal plane detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Diehl, H.Thomas; Angstadt, Robert; Campa, Julia; Cease, Herman; Derylo, Greg; Emes, John H.; Estrada, Juan; Kibik, Donna; Flaugher, Brenna L.; Holland, Steve E.; Jonas, Michelle; /Fermilab /Madrid, CIEMAT /LBL, Berkeley /Argonne /Pennsylvania U.

    2008-06-01

    DECam is a 520 Mpix, 3 square-deg FOV imager being built for the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO. This facility instrument will be used for the 'Dark Energy Survey' of the southern galactic cap. DECam has chosen 250 ?m thick CCDs, developed at LBNL, with good QE in the near IR for the focal plane. In this work we present the characterization of these detectors done by the DES team, and compare it to the DECam technical requirements. The results demonstrate that the detectors satisfy the needs for instrument.

  12. Super Resolution Imaging Translation

    E-print Network

    Painter, Kevin

    exploits new methods to restore high resolution super resolution images from low resolution data files represent three different stained structures; Red: Actin, Green: Microtubules and Blue: DNA (DAPI microscopy data files etc. · Complementary to existing microscopy techniques · "wavelength Independent

  13. BLUE MUSTARD IN CHEATGRASS COMMUNITIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Until very recently, the exotic, invasive species of the mustard family (Brassicaceae) that occurred in cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) communities on former big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)/bunchgrass rangelands had yellow or white flowers. In the Great Basin, the “blue” flowered species Chorispo...

  14. Blue Sky and Rayleigh Scattering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Carl R. (Rod) Nave

    This site from Georgia State University explains why we see the sky as blue. It describes Rayleigh scattering, which refers to the scattering of light off of the molecules of the air, and Mie scattering, which refers to the scattering of light by larger particles.

  15. Baby T (Blue) (Size: Medium)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.

  16. Optically Modulatable Blue Fluorescent Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, Amy E.; Vegh, Russell B.; Hsiang, Jung-Cheng; Bommarius, Bettina; Chen, Yen-Cheng; Solntsev, Kyril M.; Bommarius, Andreas S.; Tolbert, Laren M.; Dickson, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Blue fluorescent proteins (BFPs) offer visualization of protein location and behavior, but often suffer from high autofluorescent background and poor signal discrimination. Through dual-laser excitation of bright and photoinduced dark states, mutations to the residues surrounding the BFP chromophore enable long-wavelength optical modulation of BFP emission. Such dark state engineering enables violet-excited blue emission to be increased upon lower energy, green co-illumination. Turning this green co-illumination on and off at a specific frequency dynamically modulates collected blue fluorescence without generating additional background. Interpreted as transient photoconversion between neutral cis- and anionic trans- chromophoric forms, mutations tune photoisomerization and ground state tautomerizations to enable long-wavelength depopulation of the millisecond-lived, spectrally shifted dark states. Single mutations to the tyrosine-based blue fluorescent protein T203V/S205V exhibit enhanced modulation depth and varied frequency. Importantly, analogous single point mutations in the non-modulatable BFP, mKalama1, creates a modulatable variant. Building modulatable BFPs offers opportunities for improved BFP signal discrimination vs. background, greatly enhancing their utility. PMID:24099419

  17. Baby T (Blue) (Size: Large)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.

  18. Baby T (Blue) (Size: Small)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.

  19. Why is the Sky Blue?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-06

    In this activity, learners use a flashlight, a glass of water, and some milk to examine why the sky is blue and sunsets are red. Learners will discover that the sky appears a different color depending on the position of the sun as well as molecules and particles in the air that cause the scattering of light.

  20. Singing' the Black and Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Diane

    2004-01-01

    It is so obvious that the sky is blue in the daytime and black at night, but it took the smartest humans thousands of years of observation, thought, discussion, conjecture, and analysis to finally come up with answers that make scientific sense as to why the sky is these colors. This article discusses light and the scientific research…

  1. Blue Marble: Remote Characterization of Habitable Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolf, Neville; Lewis, Brian; Chartres, James; Genova, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The study of the nature and distribution of habitable environments beyond the Solar System is a key area for Astrobiology research. At the present time, our Earth is the only habitable planet that can be characterized in the same way that we might characterize planets beyond the Solar System. Due to limitations in our current and near-future technology, it is likely that extra-solar planets will be observed as single-pixel objects. To understand this data, we must develop skills in analyzing and interpreting the radiation obtained from a single pixel. These skills must include the study of the time variation of the radiation, and the range of its photometric, spectroscopic and polarimetric properties. In addition, to understand whether we are properly analyzing the single pixel data, we need to compare it with a ground truth of modest resolution images in key spectral bands. This paper discusses the concept for a mission called Blue Marble that would obtain data of the Earth using a combination of spectropolarimetry, spectrophotometry, and selected band imaging. To obtain imagery of the proper resolution, it is desirable to place the Blue Marble spacecraft no closer than the outer region of cis-lunar space. This paper explores a conceptual mission design that takes advantage of low-cost launchers, bus designs and mission elements to provide a cost effective observing platform located at one of the stable Earth-moon Lagrangian points (L4, L5). The mission design allows for the development and use of novel technologies, such as a spinning moon sensor for attitude control, and leverages lessons-learned from previous low-cost spacecraft such as Lunar Prospector to yield a low-risk mission concept.

  2. Coordinates and the Cartesian Plane

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-03-31

    The lesson begins with a short refresher lecture on how points are written in (x,y) format and orientation with the Cartesian plane axes. The lecture also covers which directions are positive and which are negative on an x-y plane. Students learn about what it means for a relation to be a function and how to determine domain and range of a set of data points. Prerequisite knowledge: Familiarity with the coordinate plane, coordinates, and equations are helpful, but not required.

  3. Hubble Views Saturn Ring-Plane Crossing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This sequence of images from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope documents a rare astronomical alignment -- Saturn's magnificent ring system turned edge-on. This occurs when the Earth passes through Saturn's ring plane, as it does approximately every 15 years.

    These pictures were taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on 22 May 1995, when Saturn was at a distance of 919 million miles (1.5 billion kilometers) from Earth. At Saturn, Hubble can see details as small as 450 miles (725 km) across. In each image, the dark band across Saturn is the ring shadow cast by the Sun which is still 2.7 degrees above Saturn's ring plane. The box around the western portion of the rings (to the right of Saturn) in each image indicates the area in which the faint light from the rings has been multiplied through image processing (by a factor of 25) to make the rings more visible.

    [Top] -

    This image was taken while the Earth was above the lit face of the rings. The moons Tethys and Dione are visible to the east (left) of Saturn; Janus is the bright spot near the center of the ring portion in the box, and Pandora is faintly visible just inside the left edge of this box. Saturn's atmosphere shows remarkable detail: multiple banding in both the northern and southern hemispheres, wispy structure at the north edge of the equatorial zone, and a bright area above the ring shadow that is caused by sunlight scattered off the rings onto the atmosphere. There is evidence of a faint polar haze over the north pole of Saturn and a fainter haze over the south.

    [Center] -

    This image was taken close to the time of ring-plane crossing. The rings are 75% fainter than in the top image, though they do not disappear completely because the vertical face of the rings still reflects sunlight when the rings are edge-on. Rhea is visible to the east of Saturn, Enceladus is the bright satellite in the rings to the west, and Janus is the fainter blip to its right. Pandora is just to the left of Enceladus, but is not visible because Enceladus is too bright. An oval-shaped atmospheric feature has just rotated into view (near the eastern limb, at the northern edge of the equatorial zone), and appears to be a local circulation pattern that is not penetrated by the bright clouds that are deflected around it.

    [Bottom] -

    This image was taken approximately 96 minutes (one Hubble orbit) after the center image. The rings are 10% brighter than they were in that image. Rhea is visible just off the eastern limb of Saturn, and casts a shadow on the south face of Saturn. During this exposure, the Earth and Sun were on opposite sides of Saturn's ring plane (they remain in this configuration until 10 August 1995). The atmospheric circulation pattern has rotated to just past the center of the planet's disk, and is followed by more wispy structure in the bright band of clouds, reminiscent of the structure seen during the Saturn storm observed in 1990.

    These images will be used to determine the time of ring-plane crossing and the thickness of the main rings and to search for as yet undiscovered satellites. Knowledge of the exact time of ring-plane crossing will lead to an improved determination of the rate at which Saturn 'wobbles' about its axis (polar precession).

    Technical Notes Each of these images is a 7-second exposure at 8922 Angstroms in a methane absorption band. North is up and east is to the left.

    The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

    This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

  4. Three-dimensional sheaf of ultrasound planes reconstruction (SOUPR) of ablated volumes.

    PubMed

    Ingle, Atul; Varghese, Tomy

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for 3-D reconstruction of tumor ablations using ultrasound shear wave imaging with electrode vibration elastography. Radio-frequency ultrasound data frames are acquired over imaging planes that form a subset of a sheaf of planes sharing a common axis of intersection. Shear wave velocity is estimated separately on each imaging plane using a piecewise linear function fitting technique with a fast optimization routine. An interpolation algorithm then computes velocity maps on a fine grid over a set of C-planes that are perpendicular to the axis of the sheaf. A full 3-D rendering of the ablation can then be created from this stack of C-planes; hence the name "Sheaf Of Ultrasound Planes Reconstruction" or SOUPR. The algorithm is evaluated through numerical simulations and also using data acquired from a tissue mimicking phantom. Reconstruction quality is gauged using contrast and contrast-to-noise ratio measurements and changes in quality from using increasing number of planes in the sheaf are quantified. The highest contrast of 5 dB is seen between the stiffest and softest regions of the phantom. Under certain idealizing assumptions on the true shape of the ablation, good reconstruction quality while maintaining fast processing rate can be obtained with as few as six imaging planes suggesting that the method is suited for parsimonious data acquisitions with very few sparsely chosen imaging planes. PMID:24808405

  5. Orcein-alcian blue staining: a new technique for demonstrating acid mucins in gastrointestinal epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, R; Gorton, A W

    1989-01-01

    Orcein-alcian blue staining, a new method for the simultaneous demonstration of sulphated and sialomucins in gastrointestinal epithelium was compared with the standard high iron diamine-alcian blue technique. Sections were oxidised with potassium permanganate and decolourised in oxalic acid. They were stained with orcein for four hours, differentiated for a few seconds in acid alcohol, and then counterstained with alcian blue for half to one minute. There was a good correlation of results between the two methods. Orcein-alcian blue is a safer, cheaper, and quicker method than high iron diamine-alcian blue which can be safely introduced into routine laboratories for the study of acid mucins in the gastrointestinal diseases. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 PMID:2475531

  6. Blue Blobs in Compact Groups of Galaxies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duilia F. De Mello; S. Torres-Flores; C. Mendes de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery of a population of young blue objects, similar to M81\\/M82 blue blobs (de Mello et al. 2008), outside galaxies in compact groups. These blue blobs were found using multiwavelength data (UV, HI, optical) for the compact groups of galaxies HCG 2, 7, 22, 23, 92, 100 and NGC 92 which are in different stages of interaction.

  7. BLUE WHALE-SIZED MOUTHFULS MAKE FORAGING

    E-print Network

    Martin, Paul R.

    Inside JEB i BLUE WHALE-SIZED MOUTHFULS MAKE FORAGING SUPER EFFICIENT When a blue whale dives from the University of British Columbia, Canada, explains that blue whales may be able to dive. Explaining that the whales feed by lunging repeatedly through deep shoals of krill, engulfing their own body

  8. The SLAC Blue Book: A Brief History

    E-print Network

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    The SLAC Blue Book: A Brief History By Jean Marie Deken, Archivist, SLAC Archives and History;The SLAC Blue Book: A Brief History probably late in 1966 or early 1967, the Two-Mile Accelerator had 2007 #12;The SLAC Blue Book: A Brief History Doug Dupen (1975) Doug Dupen, then SLAC Director

  9. Blue Gene/Q Overview and Update

    E-print Network

    Kemner, Ken

    Blue Gene®/Q Overview and Update November 2011 #12;Agenda Hardware Architecture George Chiu Sexton #12;© 2011 IBM Corporation IBM System Technology Group 3 Industrial Design BQC DD2.0 Blue Gene/Q 4 Gene/Q #12;© 2011 IBM Corporation IBM System Technology Group Examples of Applications Running on Blue

  10. On the number of plane graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oswin Aichholzer; Thomas Hackl; Birgit Vogtenhuber; Clemens Huemer; Ferran Hurtado; Hannes Krasser

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the number of plane geometric, i.e., straight-line, graphs, a set S of n points in the plane admits. We show that the number of plane graphs and connected plane graphs as well as the number of cycle- free plane graphs is minimized when S is in convex position. Moreover, these results hold for all these graphs with an

  11. (100) Crystal Plane of Silicon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This animation, created by Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME), "illustrates the crystal growth of silicon using a seed crystal (or unit cell) positioned to the (100) plane. The silicon crystal grows into a large ingot which is sliced into silicon wafers. To verify the (100) plane of the wafer, the wafer is broken or cleaved causing it to break at 90 degree angles." The supporting Crystallography Learning Module and activities can be downloaded from the SCME website under Educational Materials.

  12. Blue Lobster Bowl 2013: Team Intent Form Preparations are underway for the Blue Lobster Bowl

    E-print Network

    Entekhabi, Dara

    Blue Lobster Bowl 2013: Team Intent Form Preparations are underway for the Blue Lobster Bowl Forms will be requested at a later date. Up to 24 student teams can compete in the Blue Lobster Lobster Bowl The Blue Lobster Bowl is an annual academic competition that encourages high school

  13. Identification of polymer stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal display by chromaticity diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Yi-Fen; Tsai, Cheng-Yeh; Wang, Ling-Yung; Ku, Po-Jen; Huang, Tai-Hsiang; Liu, Chu-Yu; Sugiura, Norio

    2012-04-01

    We reported an identification method of blue phase liquid crystal (BPLC) display status by using Commission International de l'Éclairage (CIE) chromaticity diagram. The BPLC was injected into in-plane-switch (IPS) cell, polymer stabilized (PS) by ultraviolet cured process and analyzed by luminance colorimeter. The results of CIE chromaticity diagram showed a remarkable turning point when polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal II (PSBPLC-II) formed in the IPS cell. A mechanism of CIE chromaticity diagram identify PSBPLC display status was proposed, and we believe this finding will be useful to application and production of PSBPLC display.

  14. A method of plane geometry primitive presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Anbo; Luo, Haibo; Chang, Zheng; Hui, Bin

    2014-11-01

    Point feature and line feature are basic elements in object feature sets, and they play an important role in object matching and recognition. On one hand, point feature is sensitive to noise; on the other hand, there are usually a huge number of point features in an image, which makes it complex for matching. Line feature includes straight line segment and curve. One difficulty in straight line segment matching is the uncertainty of endpoint location, the other is straight line segment fracture problem or short straight line segments joined to form long straight line segment. While for the curve, in addition to the above problems, there is another difficulty in how to quantitatively describe the shape difference between curves. Due to the problems of point feature and line feature, the robustness and accuracy of target description will be affected; in this case, a method of plane geometry primitive presentation is proposed to describe the significant structure of an object. Firstly, two types of primitives are constructed, they are intersecting line primitive and blob primitive. Secondly, a line segment detector (LSD) is applied to detect line segment, and then intersecting line primitive is extracted. Finally, robustness and accuracy of the plane geometry primitive presentation method is studied. This method has a good ability to obtain structural information of the object, even if there is rotation or scale change of the object in the image. Experimental results verify the robustness and accuracy of this method.

  15. IC 225: A DWARF ELLIPTICAL GALAXY WITH A PECULIAR BLUE CORE Qiusheng Gu, Yinghe Zhao, Lei Shi, Zhixin Peng, and Xinlian Luo

    E-print Network

    Gu, Qiusheng

    IC 225: A DWARF ELLIPTICAL GALAXY WITH A PECULIAR BLUE CORE Qiusheng Gu, Yinghe Zhao, Lei Shi present the discovery of a peculiar blue core in the elliptical galaxy IC 225 by using images and spectra-, r-, i-, and z-band SDSS images for IC 225 are well fitted with an exponential function. The fitting

  16. 49 CFR 218.23 - Blue signal display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blue signal display. 218.23 Section 218...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Blue Signal Protection of Workers § 218.23 Blue signal display. (a) Blue signals...

  17. Platinum blue as an alternative to uranyl acetate for staining in transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Inaga, Sumire; Katsumoto, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Keiichi; Kameie, Toshio; Nakane, Hironobu; Naguro, Tomonori

    2007-04-01

    This paper introduces an aqueous solution of platinum blue (Pt-blue) as an alternative to uranyl acetate (UA) for staining in transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Pt-blue was prepared from a reaction of cis-dichlorodiamine-platinum (II) (cis-platin) with thymidine. When Pt-blue was dried on a microgrid and observed by TEM it showed a uniform appearance with tiny particles less than 1 nm in diameter. The effect of Pt-blue as an electron stain was then examined not only for positive staining of conventional ultrathin resin sections and counterstaining of post-embedding immuno-electron microscopy but also for negative staining. In ultrathin sections of the rat liver and renal glomerulus, Pt-blue provided good contrast images, especially in double staining combined with a lead stain (Pb). Almost all cell organelles were clearly observed with high contrast in these sections. Glycogen granules in the hepatic parenchymal cells were particularly electron dense in Pt-blue stained sections compared with those treated with UA. In longitudinal and transverse sections of budding influenza A viruses, a specific arrangement of rod-like structures, which correspond to the ribonucleoprotein complexes, was clearly shown in each virion stained with Pt-blue and Pb. When post-embedding immunoelectron microscopy was performed in ultrathin sections of HeLa cells embedded in Lowicryl K4M, the localization of Ki-67 protein was sufficiently detected even after Pt-blue and Pb staining. The present study also revealed that Pt-blue could be used for the negative staining of E. coli, allowing the visualization of a flagellum. These findings indicate that Pt-blue is a useful, safe, and easily obtainable electron stain that is an alternative to UA for TEM preparations. PMID:17558143

  18. Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  19. The Physics of the Blues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, J. Murray

    2009-03-01

    In looking at the commonalities between music and science, one sees that the musician's palette is based on the principles of physics. The pitch of a musical note is determined by the frequency of the sound wave. The scales that musicians use to create and play music can be viewed as a set of rules. What makes music interesting is how musicians develop those rules and create ambiguity with them. I will discuss the evolution of western musical scales in this context. As a particular example, ``Blue'' notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale. The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting. Live keyboard demonstrations will be used. Beyond any redeeming entertainment value the talk will emphasize the serious connections between science and art in music. Nevertheless tips will be accepted.

  20. The detection of cryptic prey by blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata) I: the effects of travel time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALAN C. KAMIL; FREDERIC LINDSTROM; JERRILYNN PETERS

    1985-01-01

    The behaviour of blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata) hunting for dispersed, cryptic prey was investigated in an operant simulation in which jays were trained to search projected images for noctuid moths. Each image contained either a single moth or no moth. Each trial was structured so as to simulate travelling between patches, searching within patches, and attacking and handling each moth

  1. Ol' Blue Eyes, in Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Scholarly books with "identity" and "culture" in the title have loomed large on academic publishing lists for several years. Scholarly books with "Sinatra" in the title are a more recent phenomenon. Despite his six-decade career as the Voice (the 1940s), the Chairman of the Board (the 50s and 60s), and Ol' Blue Eyes (the 70s through his death, in…

  2. Improved wheal detection from skin prick test images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulan, Orhan

    2014-03-01

    Skin prick test is a commonly used method for diagnosis of allergic diseases (e.g., pollen allergy, food allergy, etc.) in allergy clinics. The results of this test are erythema and wheal provoked on the skin where the test is applied. The sensitivity of the patient against a specific allergen is determined by the physical size of the wheal, which can be estimated from images captured by digital cameras. Accurate wheal detection from these images is an important step for precise estimation of wheal size. In this paper, we propose a method for improved wheal detection on prick test images captured by digital cameras. Our method operates by first localizing the test region by detecting calibration marks drawn on the skin. The luminance variation across the localized region is eliminated by applying a color transformation from RGB to YCbCr and discarding the luminance channel. We enhance the contrast of the captured images for the purpose of wheal detection by performing principal component analysis on the blue-difference (Cb) and red-difference (Cr) color channels. We finally, perform morphological operations on the contrast enhanced image to detect the wheal on the image plane. Our experiments performed on images acquired from 36 different patients show the efficiency of the proposed method for wheal detection from skin prick test images captured in an uncontrolled environment.

  3. Models of Individual Blue Stragglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sills, Alison

    This chapter describes the current state of models of individual blue stragglers. Stellar collisions, binary mergers (or coalescence), and partial or ongoing mass transfer have all been studied in some detail. The products of stellar collisions retain memory of their parent stars and are not fully mixed. Very high initial rotation rates must be reduced by an unknown process to allow the stars to collapse to the main sequence. The more massive collision products have shorter lifetimes than normal stars of the same mass, while products between low mass stars are long-lived and look very much like normal stars of their mass. Mass transfer can result in a merger, or can produce another binary system with a blue straggler and the remnant of the original primary. The products of binary mass transfer cover a larger portion of the colour-magnitude diagram than collision products for two reasons: there are more possible configurations which produce blue stragglers, and there are differing contributions to the blended light of the system. The effects of rotation may be substantial in both collision and merger products, and could result in significant mixing unless angular momentum is lost shortly after the formation event. Surface abundances may provide ways to distinguish between the formation mechanisms, but care must be taken to model the various mixing mechanisms properly before drawing strong conclusions. Avenues for future work are outlined.

  4. 76 FR 19466 - Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, et al.; Amended Certification Regarding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ...895, et al.] Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, et al.; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility...TA-W-74,895 Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data...

  5. 76 FR 22923 - Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data Management Team...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ...895, et al.] Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data Management Team Including...TA-W-74,895 Wellpoint, Inc., D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, Enterprise Provider Data...

  6. Inflation and alternatives with blue tensor spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Xue, Wei

    2014-10-01

    We study the tilt of the primordial gravitational waves spectrum. A hint of blue tilt is shown from analyzing the BICEP2 and POLARBEAR data. Motivated by this, we explore the possibilities of blue tensor spectra from the very early universe cosmology models, including null energy condition violating inflation, inflation with general initial conditions, and string gas cosmology, etc. For the simplest G-inflation, blue tensor spectrum also implies blue scalar spectrum. In general, the inflation models with blue tensor spectra indicate large non-Gaussianities. On the other hand, string gas cosmology predicts blue tensor spectrum with highly Gaussian fluctuations. If further experiments do confirm the blue tensor spectrum, non-Gaussianity becomes a distinguishing test between inflation and alternatives.

  7. Relationship of acupuncture points and meridians to connective tissue planes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helene M. Langevin; Jason A. Yandow

    2002-01-01

    Acupuncture meridians traditionally are believed to constitute channels connecting the surface of the body to internal organs. We hypothesize that the network of acupuncture points and meridians can be viewed as a representation of the network formed by interstitial connective tissue. This hypothesis is supported by ultrasound images showing connective tissue cleavage planes at acupuncture points in normal human subjects.

  8. Polish Terms for "Blue" in the Perspective of Vantage Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanulewicz, Danuta

    2010-01-01

    The Polish set of terms for blue includes, inter alia, the following adjectives: "niebieski" "blue", "blekitny" "(sky) blue", "granatowy" "navy blue", "lazurowy" "azure", "modry" "(intense) blue" and "siny" "(grey) violet-blue". The adjective "niebieski" is the basic term; however, it shares some of its functions with "blekitny", which is…

  9. The Laplace Planes of Uranus and Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.

    1993-01-01

    Satellite orbits close to an oblate planet precess about its equatorial plane, while distant satellites precess around the plane of the planet's heliocentric orbit. In between, satellites in nearly circular orbits precess about a warped intermediate surface called the Laplace 'plane.' Herein we derive general formulas for locating the Laplace plane. Because Uranus and Pluto have high obliquities, their Laplace planes are severely warped. We present maps of these Laplace planes, of interest in telescopic searches for new satellites. The Laplace plane of the Solar System as a whole is similarly distorted, but comets in the inner Oort cloud precess too slowly to sense the Laplace plane.

  10. Images

    Cancer.gov

    Images can be a powerful and direct means of communicating ideas and feelings about an organization and can create a personal connection with an audience. Imagery used for the main NCI website has been selected to give a consistent look throughout the site. Here are some recommended attributes for NCI website imagery.

  11. Spatial judgments in the horizontal and vertical planes from different vantage points.

    PubMed

    Prytz, Erik; Scerbo, Mark W

    2012-01-01

    Todorovi? (2008 Perception 37 106-125) reported that there are systematic errors in the perception of 3-D space when viewing 2-D linear perspective drawings depending on the observer's vantage point. Because these findings were restricted to the horizontal plane, the current study was designed to determine the nature of these errors in the vertical plane. Participants viewed an image containing multiple colonnades aligned on parallel converging lines receding to a vanishing point. They were asked to judge where, in the physical room, the next column should be placed. The results support Todorovi? in that systematic deviations in the spatial judgments depended on vantage point for both the horizontal and vertical planes. However, there are also marked differences between the two planes. While judgments in both planes failed to compensate adequately for the vantage-point shift, the vertical plane induced greater distortions of the stimulus image itself within each vantage point. PMID:22611661

  12. II VI blue-green light emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishibashi, A.

    1996-02-01

    Mg in ZnCd-chalcogenides opens up a wide range of II-VI materials having both a wide energy gap and a large lattice constant. ZnMgSSe, fully lattice-matched to GaAs (001) substrates, with an energy gap tunable from 2.8 up to ˜ 4.5 eV, has made possible the photopumped operation of MBE or MOCVD-grown Zn(Cd)Se/ZnSSe/ZnMgSSe separate-confinement heterostructure samples and continuous-wave operation of MBE-grown green and blue laser diodes at room temperature. Valence-band engineering by using a superlattice based on the amphoteric native defect model is proposed for removing the doping limit in alloy semiconductors. The doping concentration could be increased by one order of magnitude for (ZnSe) m(ZnMgSSe) n superlattice with m = 4-6 and n = 10-15. The device characteristics of the MBE-grown II-VI wide-gap light emitters are becoming as good as those of the established III-V materials-based LDs except for the device lifetime. We have reported structural studies of degraded ZnMgSSe-based LEDs. Pre-existing stacking faults turn into non-radiative regions with a high density of dislocation dipoles and dislocation loops, spreading out in the <100> directions during current injection. The dislocation dipoles themselves are aligned along both <110> directions lying in the {111} plane, with Burgers vectors of the type ( {a}/{2})<011> inclined at an angle of 45° against the (001) junction plane. Analysis of the degradation process shows that no catastrophically fast degradation occurs when II-VI LDs degrade. We believe that we can establish the reliability of the ZnMgSSe-based LDs through prevention of the start of rapid degradation by eliminating the pre-existing defects, and by slowing down the gradual degradation through reduction of point defects.

  13. Exfoliation of Egyptian Blue and Han Blue, Two Alkali Earth Copper Silicate-based Pigments

    PubMed Central

    Johnson-McDaniel, Darrah; Salguero, Tina T.

    2014-01-01

    In a visualized example of the ancient past connecting with modern times, we describe the preparation and exfoliation of CaCuSi4O10 and BaCuSi4O10, the colored components of the historic Egyptian blue and Han blue pigments. The bulk forms of these materials are synthesized by both melt flux and solid-state routes, which provide some control over the crystallite size of the product. The melt flux process is time intensive, but it produces relatively large crystals at lower reaction temperatures. In comparison, the solid-state method is quicker yet requires higher reaction temperatures and yields smaller crystallites. Upon stirring in hot water, CaCuSi4O10 spontaneously exfoliates into monolayer nanosheets, which are characterized by TEM and PXRD. BaCuSi4O10 on the other hand requires ultrasonication in organic solvents to achieve exfoliation. Near infrared imaging illustrates that both the bulk and nanosheet forms of CaCuSi4O10 and BaCuSi4O10 are strong near infrared emitters. Aqueous CaCuSi4O10 and BaCuSi4O10 nanosheet dispersions are useful because they provide a new way to handle, characterize, and process these materials in colloidal form. PMID:24796494

  14. Space-Plane Spreadsheet Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackall, Dale

    1993-01-01

    Basic Hypersonic Data and Equations (HYPERDATA) spreadsheet computer program provides data gained from three analyses of performance of space plane. Equations used to perform analyses derived from Newton's second law of physics, derivation included. First analysis is parametric study of some basic factors affecting ability of space plane to reach orbit. Second includes calculation of thickness of spherical fuel tank. Third produces ratio between volume of fuel and total mass for each of various aircraft. HYPERDATA intended for use on Macintosh(R) series computers running Microsoft Excel 3.0.

  15. Quotients of fake projective planes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JongHae Keum

    2008-01-01

    Recently, Prasad and Yeung classified all possible fundamental groups of fake projective planes. According to their result, many fake projective planes admit a nontrivial group of automorphisms, and in that case it is isomorphic to $\\\\bbZ\\/3\\\\bbZ$, $\\\\bbZ\\/7\\\\bbZ$, $7:3$, or $(\\\\bbZ\\/3\\\\bbZ)^2$, where $7:3$ is the unique non-abelian group of order 21. Let $G$ be a group of automorphisms of a fake

  16. A novel method for assessing visual perception of surgical planes

    PubMed Central

    Schlachta, Christopher M.; Ali, Syed; Ahmed, Hammood; Eagleson, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Background Recognition of tissue planes during surgery appears to be a skill acquired with experience. We conducted a pilot study to test this hypothesis using a novel method for evaluating this skill in a simulated environment. Methods Twelve surgeons of varying levels of experience were shown 16 captured images from a mesorectal excision. For each image, they were asked to draw the ideal dissection plane with a stylus on a tablet computer. We used a novel metric for comparing agreement between lines to determine the level of precision observed between junior and senior trainees and consultant surgeons and measure the accuracy of junior and senior trainees compared with consultant surgeons. Results We observed significant differences in precision for 9 of 16 images; 7 of these followed the predicted stepwise pattern associated with level of experience. Using consultant surgeons as the reference standard, we observed significant differences in accuracy between senior and junior trainees for 11 images, with senior trainees being more accurate in 10 of them. Only 2 images failed to contribute significant findings to our analysis. Conclusion The findings of this pilot evaluation of a novel method for measuring a surgeon’s ability to recognize tissue planes in a simulated model show that skill improves with experience. Further evaluation of this method will reveal its utility as an assessment tool and possibly as a training instrument. PMID:25799245

  17. United States–China Plane Collision Negotiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melvin F. Shakun

    2003-01-01

    On April 1, 2000 an American surveillance plane and a Chinese fighter plane collided off the coast of China. The Chinese pilot parachuted out of his aircraft but was presumed dead; his body was not found. The U.S. plane made an emergency landing at a Chinese military airfield without receiving permission. China thus had possession of the U.S. plane and

  18. Plane Segment Finder : Algorithm, Implementation and Applications

    E-print Network

    Yamamoto, Hirosuke

    Plane Segment Finder : Algorithm, Implementation and Applications Kei Okada Satoshi Kagami Masayuki{8656, Japan. e-mail: k-okada@jsk.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp Abstract This paper describes the development of a Plane-time. We propose an algorithm for detecting plane segments, that includes 1) Plane segment candi- date

  19. Plane and parabolic solar panels

    E-print Network

    Sales, J H O

    2009-01-01

    We present a plane and parabolic collector that absorbs radiant energy and transforms it in heat. Therefore we have a panel to heat water. We study how to increment this capture of solar beams onto the panel in order to increase its efficiency in heating water.

  20. Affine Contractions on the Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, D.; Ozdemir, Y.; Ureyen, M.

    2007-01-01

    Contractions play a considerable role in the theory of fractals. However, it is not easy to find contractions which are not similitudes. In this study, it is shown by counter examples that an affine transformation of the plane carrying a given triangle onto another triangle may not be a contraction even if it contracts edges, heights or medians.…

  1. Graphing and the Coordinate Plane

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-05-24

    This lesson is designed to introduce students to graphing coordinates and lines in the Cartesian coordinate plane. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to graphing as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one.

  2. Coordinates and the Cartesian Plane

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

    A brief refresher on the Cartesian plane includes how points are written in (x, y) format and oriented to the axes, and which directions are positive and negative. Then students learn about what it means for a relation to be a function and how to determine domain and range of a set of data points.

  3. Plane and parabolic solar panels

    E-print Network

    J. H. O. Sales; A. T. Suzuki

    2009-05-14

    We present a plane and parabolic collector that absorbs radiant energy and transforms it in heat. Therefore we have a panel to heat water. We study how to increment this capture of solar beams onto the panel in order to increase its efficiency in heating water.

  4. The plane with parallel coordinates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfred Inselberg

    1985-01-01

    By means ofParallel Coordinates planar “graphs” of multivariate relations are obtained. Certain properties of the relationship correspond tothe geometrical properties of its graph. On the plane a point ?? line duality with several interesting properties is induced. A new duality betweenbounded and unbounded convex sets and hstars (a generalization of hyperbolas) and between Convex Unions and Intersections is found. This

  5. An Introduction to Inclined Planes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students are introduced to the concept of simple tools and how they can make difficult or impossible tasks easier. They begin by investigating the properties of inclined planes and how implementing them can reduce the force necessary to lift objects off the ground.

  6. Stokes problems for moving half-planes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeng, Y.; Weinbaum, S.; Cowin, S. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    New exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations are obtained for the unbounded and bounded oscillatory and impulsive tangential edgewise motion of touching half-infinite plates in their own plane. In contrast to Stokes classical solutions for the harmonic and impulsive motion of an infinite plane wall, where the solutions are separable or have a simple similarity form, the present solutions have a two-dimensional structure in the near region of the contact between the half-infinite plates. Nevertheless, it is possible to obtain relatively simple closed-form solutions for the flow field in each case by defining new variables which greatly simplify the r- and theta- dependence of the solutions in the vicinity of the contact region. These solutions for flow in a half-infinite space are then extended to bounded flows in a channel using an image superposition technique. The impulsive motion has application to the motion near geophysical faults, whereas the oscillatory motion has arisen in the design of a novel oscillating half-plate flow chamber for examining the effect of fluid shear stress on cultured cell monolayers.

  7. THE DUST RING OF LUMINOUS BLUE VARIABLE CANDIDATE HD 168625: INFRARED OBSERVATIONS AND MODEL CALCULATIONS1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy B. O'Hara; Margaret Meixner; Angela K. Speck; Toshiya Ueta; Matthew Bobrowsky

    2003-01-01

    We present a 2.218 lm image from the Hubble Space Telescope\\/Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) and a 55 lm image from ISOPHOT of the dust ring surrounding the luminous blue variable (LBV) candidate HD 168625, together with new temperature and optical depth maps derived from mid-IR images. The shell is detached from the star in the near-IR, and

  8. The Dust Ring of Luminous Blue Variable Candidate HD 168625: Infrared Observations and Model Calculations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy B. O'Hara; Margaret Meixner; Angela K. Speck; Toshiya Ueta; Matthew Bobrowsky

    2003-01-01

    We present a 2.218 mum image from the Hubble Space Telescope\\/Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) and a 55 mum image from ISOPHOT of the dust ring surrounding the luminous blue variable (LBV) candidate HD 168625, together with new temperature and optical depth maps derived from mid-IR images. The shell is detached from the star in the near-IR, and

  9. The infrared focal plane instrumentation at TIRGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisi, Franco

    Two IR detectors that are being built to be used at the focal plane of the TIRGO telescope are discussed, with special attention given to the InSb Spectrophotometer and the IR Spectrometer. The Spectrophotometer, which can be used for both chopped operation and unmodulated measurements, consists of a LN2/SN2-cooled dewar containing the optics, a set of broadband filters (J, H, K, L, M, and CO), two continuous variable filters, and the InSb detector with its charge-integrating preamplifier. The IR Spectometer consists of a double-reservoir dewar containing the cooled grating with the collimating and imaging optics; the detector is a seven-element InSb array connected to seven preamplifiers. The paper also discusses the properties of integrating IR bidimensional array detectors, which are of astronomical interest for TIRGO because of their capability of recording simultaneously the light fluxes of a large number of picture elements.

  10. Blue Photoluminescence From Silacyclobutene Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernisz, Udo

    1999-04-01

    Organosilicon compounds in which the Si atom is bound to an aromatic moiety such as a phenyl group, exhibit strong blue photoluminescence when excited with UV light (for example at a wavelength of 337 nm). This phenomenon was investigated quantitatively at room temperature and at the temperature of liquid nitrogen (78 K) by measuring the emission and excitation spectra of the total luminescence, and of the phosphorescence, for a silacyclobutene compound in which two phenyl groups are joined across the C=C double bond of the ring. The effect of a series of organic substituents on the Si atom was investigated as well as the time dependence of the phosphorescence intensity decay for this class of materials. A tentative model of the energy levels in this compound is proposed. The observation of visible blue emission -- in contrast to photoluminescence in the UV from the aromatic groups -- is explained by the Si-C bond lowering the energy of the molecular orbitals, an effect that is currently under study for a range of Si-containing compounds. Synthesis of the silacyclobutene compounds was performed at the laboratory of Prof. N. Auner, now at J.W. Goethe Universität, Frankfurt, Germany. His contributions, and those of his collaborators, to the work reported here are gratefully acknowledged.

  11. Polymer stabilized and dispersed blue phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemiklioglu, Emine

    Blue phase liquid crystal (BPLC) materials have potential for advanced applications of display material and technology based on their optical behaviors, such as field-induced birefringence and sub-millisecond response time, which is at least one order of magnitude faster than the present nematic liquid crystal based displays. Since blue phases appear in the narrow temperature range between the chiral nematic and the isotropic phases, there is a temperature range limitation for the application of blue phase liquid crystal. In this dissertation, we have developed blue phase liquid crystal materials with a wide temperature range and low driving voltage. The first goal was to develop wide-temperature range blue phase liquid crystal materials using several stabilization methods notably polymer stabilization, doping of carbon-nanotubes and bent-core molecules. The temperature range could be expanded more than 54°C via the polymer stabilization. The second goal was to explore the polymer dispersed blue phase liquid crystal combining the advantages of the polymer dispersion method and blue phase materials. Polymer encapsulated blue phase films showed a large Kerr constant, low switching voltage and fast response time. Moreover, the temperature range of encapsulated blue phase films were successfully expanded from 9°C to 54°C .

  12. Morphological responses of wheat to blue light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, C.; Bugbee, B.

    1992-01-01

    Blue light significantly increased tillering in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants grown at the same photosynthetic photon flux (PPF). Plants were grown under two levels of blue light (400-500 nm) in a controlled environment with continuous irradiation. Plants received either 50 micromoles m-2 s-1 of blue light or 2 micromoles m-2 s-1 blue light from filtered metal halide lamps at a total irradiance of 200 micromoles m-2 s-1 PPF (400-700 nm). Plants tillered an average of 25% more under the higher level of blue light. Blue light also caused a small, but consistent, increase in main culm development, measured as Haun stage. Leaf length was reduced by higher levels of blue light, while plant dry-mass was not significantly affected by blue light. Applying the principle of equivalent light action, the results suggest that tillering and leaf elongation are mediated by the blue-UV light receptor(s) because phytochrome photoequilibrium for each treatment were nearly identical.

  13. Image steganalysis with binary similarity measures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ismail Avcibas; Nasir D. Memon; Biilent Sankur

    2002-01-01

    ABSTRACT Wepresent a novel technique for steganalysis of images that have been subjected to embedding by steganographic algorithms. The seventh and eight bit planes in an image are used for the computation of several binary similarity measures. The basic idea is that, the correlation between the bit planes as well the binary texture characteristics withinth e bit planes will differ

  14. Structural Analysis in Low-V-defect Blue and Green GaInN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes Mingwei Zhu1,2

    E-print Network

    Wetzel, Christian M.

    defects in blue and green GaInN/GaN LEDs grown on c-plane bulk GaN and sapphire substrates. Low density large V-defects with diameters around 600 nm were found in the blue LEDs on bulk GaN. They were. As a result, the light output power improved by one order of magnitude. For green LEDs on bulk GaN, another

  15. Inter-Plane Via Defect Detection Using the Sensor Plane in 3-D Heterogeneous Sensor Systems

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Glenn H.

    Inter-Plane Via Defect Detection Using the Sensor Plane in 3-D Heterogeneous Sensor Systems Glenn H using a stacked chip with sensors located on the top plane, and inter-plane vias connecting these to other planes which provide analog processing, digital signal processing, and wireless communication

  16. H-PLANE WAVEGUIDE FILTERS WITH E-PLANE DISPERSIVE INVERTERS FOR HIGH-POWER APPLICATIONS

    E-print Network

    Bornemann, Jens

    H-PLANE WAVEGUIDE FILTERS WITH E-PLANE DISPERSIVE INVERTERS FOR HIGH-POWER APPLICATIONS Jens 3R2, Canada Abstract -- Conventional H-plane waveguide filters are supplemented with E-plane stubs) at prescribed frequencies. Due to the utilization of E-plane stubs, the filter can be manufactured as two

  17. The Problem of Coloring the Plane Problem of Coloring the Plane

    E-print Network

    Siggers, Mark H.

    The Problem of Coloring the Plane Problem of Coloring the Plane Tommy Jensen Department of Mathematics Kyungpook National University May 29, 2010 Tommy Jensen #12;The Problem of Coloring the Plane Outline 1 The Problem of Coloring the Plane Tommy Jensen #12;The Problem of Coloring the Plane The Problem

  18. Eight plane IPND mechanical testing.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, A.; Guarino, V.; Wood, K.; Nephew, T.; Ayres, D.; Lee, A.; High Energy Physics; FNAL

    2008-03-18

    A mechanical test of an 8 plane IPND mechanical prototype, which was constructed using extrusions from the testing/tryout of the 16 cell prototype extrusion die in Argonne National Laboratory, was conducted. There were 4 vertical and 4 horizontal planes in this 8 plane IPND prototype. Each vertical plane had four 16 cell extrusions, while each horizontal plane had six 16 cell extrusions. Each plane was glued together using the formulation of Devcon adhesive, Devcon 60. The vertical extrusions used in the vertical planes shares the same dimensions as the horizontal extrusions in the horizontal planes with the average web thickness of 2.1 mm and the average wall thickness of 3.1 mm. This mechanical prototype was constructed with end-seals on the both ends of the vertical extrusions. The gaps were filled with epoxy between extrusions and end-seals. The overall dimension of IPND is 154.8 by 103.1 by 21.7 inches with the weight of approximately 1200 kg, as shown in a figure. Two similar mechanical tests of 3 layer and 11 layer prototypes have been done in order to evaluate the strength of the adhesive joint between extrusions in the NOvA detector. The test showed that the IPND prototype was able to sustain under the loading of weight of itself and scintillator. Two FEA models were built to verify the measurement data from the test. The prediction from FEA slice model seems correlated reasonably well to the test result, even under a 'rough' estimated condition for the wall thickness (from an untuned die) and an unknown property of 'garage type' extrusion. A full size of FEA 3-D model also agrees very well with the test data from strain gage readings. It is worthy to point out that the stress distribution of the structure is predominantly determined by the internal pressure, while the buckling stability relies more on the loading weight from the extrusions themselves and scintillate. Results of conducted internal pressure tests, including 3- cell, 11-cell and the IPND prototypes, have been correlated to the FEA analysis very well. The authors believe they have quite good understanding of response of the NOvA structures subjected to the internal pressure, while the understanding of buckling stability is far behind. Therefore, more effect should be laid to improve the buckling considering that the FEA analysis usually is not able accurately modeling the stability as good as the stress analysis. The IPND structure was mostly built using 'scrape' piece extrusions (whatever available in shop). Therefore, a future test should be more focus on by using a actual real extrusions, for example like Nova -27 (if a final choice is made) and extrusion from a tuned die (very important). The authors should/will repeat 11 layers test with an actual thicker piece for the vertical to verify the adhesive joint and similar large scale prototype with a symmetry case, either 9 or 11 layers with the dial indicator on the both side.

  19. Size Dependent Cation Channel in Nanoporous Prussian Blue Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritomo, Yutaka; Igarashi, Kazuhiro; Kim, Jungeun; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2009-08-01

    Cation and/or molecule transfer within nanoporous materials can be utilized in, for example, electrochromic devices, hydrogen storage, molecular sensors, and molecular filters. Here, we investigated the mobilities of cations, Na+, K+, and Rb+, in vacancy-controlled Prussian blue film, NaxCo[Fe(CN)6]1-vzH2O (v is vacancy concentration) with a jungle gym structure. We found that only the smallest Na+ ions pass through the cubic planes of the lattice, while the larger cations, i.e., K+ and Rb+, take a detour channel along the [Fe(CN)6] vacancy. The size-dependent cation channel is well understood in terms of the potential curve derived by an ab initio total energy calculation.

  20. Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKenzie, Patrick M.

    2003-01-01

    Lockheed Martin has been an active participant in NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI) programs over the past several years. SLI, part of NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan (ISTP), was restructured in November of 2002 to focus the overall theme of safer, more afford-able space transportation along two paths - the Orbital Space Plane Program and the Next Generation Launch Technology programs. The Orbital Space Plane Program has the goal of providing rescue capability from the International Space Station by 2008 and transfer capability for crew (and limited cargo) by 2012. The Next Generation Launch Technology program is combining research and development efforts from the 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2GRLV) program with cutting-edge, advanced space transportation programs (previously designated 3rd Generation) into one program aimed at enabling safe, reliable, cost-effective reusable launch systems by the middle of the next decade. Lockheed Martin is one of three prime contractors working to bring Orbital Space Plane system concepts to a system definition level of maturity by December of 2003. This paper and presentation will update the international community on the progress of the' OSP program, from an industry perspective, and provide insights into Lockheed Martin's role in enabling the vision of a safer, more affordable means of taking people to and from space.

  1. Blue Marble Matches: Using Earth for Planetary Comparisons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity is designed to introduce students to planetary geologic features and processes. First, students will use NASA satellite images to identify geologic surface features on the "Blue Marble" (Earth), and will explore the connection between those features and the geologic processes that created them. Using that information, students will then compare and discuss similar features on images from other planets. Included are the following materials: teacher's guide (with reference and resource information), student's guide (with activity sheets), and multiple cards of planetary images. Note that the range of targeted grade levels is quite broad; however, explicit adaptations for younger students are highlighted throughout the teacher's guide. This lesson is part of the Expedition Earth and Beyond Education Program.

  2. Ecology of Blue Straggler Stars

    E-print Network

    Boffin, H M J; Beccari, G

    2014-01-01

    The existence of blue straggler stars (BSS), which appear younger, hotter, and more massive than their siblings, is at odds with a simple picture of stellar evolution, as such stars should have exhausted their nuclear fuel and evolved long ago to become cooling white dwarfs. As such, BSS could just be some quirks but in fact their understanding requires a deep knowledge of many different areas in astronomy, from stellar evolution through cluster dynamics, from chemical abundances to stellar populations. In November 2012, a workshop on this important topic took place at the ESO Chilean headquarters in Santiago. The many topics covered at this workshop were introduced by very comprehensive invited reviews, providing a unique and insightful view on the field. These reviews have now become chapters of the first ever book on BSS.

  3. Long-persistence blue phosphors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, William M. (Inventor); Jia, Weiyi (Inventor); Lu, Lizhu (Inventor); Yuan, Huabiao (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to phosphors including long-persistence blue phosphors. Phosphors of the invention are represented by the general formula: MO . mAl.sub.2 O.sub.3 :Eu.sup.2+,R.sup.3+ wherein m is a number ranging from about 1.6 to about 2.2, M is Sr or a combination of Sr with Ca and Ba or both, R.sup.3+ is a trivalent metal ion or trivalent Bi or a mixture of these trivalent ions, Eu.sup.2+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M, and R.sup.3+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M. Phosphors of this invention include powders, ceramics, single crystals and single crystal fibers. A method of manufacturing improved phosphors and a method of manufacturing single crystal phosphors are also provided.

  4. Methylthymol blue in Fricke gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penev, K. I.; Mequanint, K.

    2015-01-01

    The initial trial of methylthymol blue (MTB) as a chelator for ferric iron in Fricke gel dosimeters, used for three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry in cancer radiotherapy, is reported. MTB is a structural analogue of the conventionally used xylenol orange (XO); however, the absorbance spectrum of the ferric-MTB complex is shifted to higher wavelengths, which should allow for lower amount of light scattering during gel scanning. In this study, two gelatin substrates, two sources of XO and one source of MTB have been compared. The MTB- containing gels exhibited similar dose response and diffusion coefficient to the XO-containing gels at their wavelengths of maximum absorption (620 and 585 nm, respectively). In addition, the MTB gels gave an excellent dose response at 633 nm, which is an important wavelength that is already used with other 3D dosimeters.

  5. Ecology of Blue Straggler Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boffin, Henri M. J.; Carraro, Giovanni; Beccari, Giacomo

    The existence of blue straggler stars (BSS), which appear younger, hotter, and more massive than their siblings, is at odds with a simple picture of stellar evolution, as such stars should have exhausted their nuclear fuel and evolved long ago to become cooling white dwarfs. As such, BSS could just be some quirks but in fact their understanding requires a deep knowledge of many different areas in astronomy, from stellar evolution through cluster dynamics, from chemical abundances to stellar populations. In November 2012, a workshop on this important topic took place at the ESO Chilean headquarters in Santiago. The many topics covered at this workshop were introduced by very comprehensive invited reviews, providing a unique and insightful view on the field. These reviews have now become chapters of the first ever book on BSS.

  6. Proposal for a new mediastinal compartment classification of transverse plane images according to the Japanese Association for Research on the Thymus (JART) General Rules for the Study of Mediastinal Tumors.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Kiminori; Hara, Masaki; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Kusumoto, Masahiko; Sakai, Fumikazu; Fujii, Yoshitaka

    2014-02-01

    There is no existing worldwide published method for mediastinum compartment classification based on transverse section images for the differential diagnosis of mediastinal tumors. Herein, we describe a new method for anatomic mediastinal compartment classification using transverse section computed tomography (CT) images and the use of this method to classify mediastinal lesions, and thus evaluate whether the method is sufficiently user-friendly and useful. In a publication of the Japanese Association for Research on the Thymus (JART), we proposed the following four mediastinal compartments based on transverse CT images: superior portion of mediastinum, anterior mediastinum (prevascular zone), middle mediastinum (peri-tracheoesophageal zone), and posterior mediastinum (paravertebral zone). In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed 445 pathologically proven mediastinal mass lesions, and categorized them into the proposed four compartments by consensus reading. Mass lesions were classified into compartments based on the location of the lesion centroid, and each lesion was satisfactorily categorized into a compartment. Almost all thymic epithelial tumors (99%, 244/246), all 24 thymic malignant lymphomas and a majority of germ cell neoplasms (93%, 54/58) were classified as being in the anterior mediastinum compartment. The majority of intrathoracic goiters (82%, 14/17) were categorized as being in the superior portion of the mediastinum compartment. Approximately two-thirds of mass lesions in the middle mediastinum were cysts, including foregut and pericardial cysts. Approximately 80% of 37 mass lesions in the posterior mediastinum were neurogenic tumors. Correspondingly, 29 of the 49 neurogenic tumors (60%) were categorized as being in the posterior mediastinum, while 10 (20%) were in the superior portion of the mediastinum, 4 (8%) in the anterior mediastinum, and 6 (12%) in the middle mediastinum. Our findings showed that the newly proposed mediastinal compartment classification using transverse images appears to be user-friendly enough for practical clinical application and may be helpful in differential diagnoses. PMID:24317723

  7. Delta Blues Scholarship and Imperialist Nostalgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, William P.

    When Delta blues are considered to be "folk music," the genre is inextricably tied to the neocolonial, sharecropping system of cotton production characteristic of the Mississippi Delta region between the Civil War and World War II. "Imperialist nostalgia," then, arises in accounts which pay primary and positive tribute to blues performances…

  8. Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available. Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of…

  9. Morpho-blue reproduced by nanocasting lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Akira; Nakajima, Masaki; Miyamura, Yusuke; Sogo, Kenji; Ishikawa, Yoko; Hirai, Yoshihiko

    2006-08-01

    The brilliant metallic blue in wings of Morpho butterflies has a mysterious feature. The blue luster is produced from the butterfly's scale, which does not contain a blue pigment at all. The origin of the coloration is then attributed to a microscopic structure that can also explain its high reflectivity. However, its optical characteristics on the scattered wavelength contradicts obviously the grating or multilayer, because it appears blue from wide angle. The mystery of the lack of multi-coloration has recently been explained using a model with a peculiar optical structure, and experimentally proven by fabricating the optical film by controlling the parameters in nanoscale. The reproduced Morpho-blue was found to be important from viewpoint of a wide variety of applications. However, the fabrication process of the nano- structure is too costly due to conventional lithography method. To solve the problem, nano-casting lithography (NCL) was newly applied using UV curable polymer to replicate the nanostructure and improve heat-resistance for the following process of deposition. After fabrication of the nano-patterned polymer structure by the NCL, TiO II and SiO II layers were deposited and the Morpho-blue structure was successfully replicated in low cost. The reflective characteristic of the replicated structure was found to reproduce the basic properties of the natural Morpho-blue, as well as the originally fabricated Morpho-blue.

  10. Blue4Green: Towards a healthier

    E-print Network

    Twente, Universiteit

    Blue4Green: Towards a healthier agri-sector Blue4Green started four years ago with a lab of blood ater a drop of a cow's blood has been applied to the block. If a cow has too little calcium in its blood it can become sick, and before such a situation arises a farmer can decide whether to give the cow

  11. À propos du post-partum blues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Jouppe

    2007-01-01

    Since postpartum blues was described by Savage in 1875, the controversy regarding its nature and cause has been sustained. In a first part, the author reviews the conventional clinical assessment of the blues as described in international medical literature. Its constitutive symptoms are mundane, of an affective, emotional, cognitive or psychosomatic nature. On the other hand, their originality resides in

  12. Blue Stragglers After the Main Sequence

    E-print Network

    Alison Sills; Amanda Karakas; John Lattanzio

    2008-11-18

    We study the post-main sequence evolution of products of collisions between main sequence stars (blue stragglers), with particular interest paid to the horizontal branch and asymptotic giant branch phases. We found that the blue straggler progeny populate the colour-magnitude diagram slightly blueward of the red giant branch and between 0.2 and 1 magnitudes brighter than the horizontal branch. We also found that the lifetimes of collision products on the horizontal branch is consistent with the numbers of so-called "evolved blue straggler stars" (E-BSS) identified by various authors in a number of globular clusters, and is almost independent of mass or initial composition profile. The observed ratio of the number of E-BSS to blue stragglers points to a main sequence lifetime for blue stragglers of approximately 1-2 Gyr on average.

  13. Artificial impedance ground planes for low profile antenna applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMichael, Ian T.

    Recent interest in artificial impedance surfaces for low-profile antennas has led to extensive research with the goal of optimizing the ground plane's characteristics for a given antenna configuration and broadening the operational bandwidth, or alternatively creating a multi-band functionality. A method of determining the optimal reflection phase for a low-profile dipole antenna over an electromagnetic band gap (EBG) ground plane has been developed based on image theory and is presented with experimental and numerical validation. A new artificial impedance surface has also been developed, which is composed of an annular slot ring on a thin grounded dielectric. The main difference between the proposed ground plane and a conventional EBG is that the high impedance condition exists only in the vicinity of the slot and is therefore best suited for antennas with a current distribution that has a similar shape as the annular slot ring. It is shown that a loop antenna positioned closely over an annular slot loaded ground plane exhibits approximately the same gain as a loop antenna over a conventional EBG ground plane. The advantage of the new structure is its lack of periodicity, which significantly eases manufacturing. Additionally, it is shown that multiple concentric slot rings can be designed into the ground plane, which excites multiple resonances in low-profile wideband antennas. The result is a multi-band high impedance ground plane constructed using a simple arrangement of annular slots. Finally, a manufacturing technique is presented for the application of arbitrarily configured EBG antennas to handheld dual-sensor landmine detection systems. It is shown that creating an EBG antenna using very thin layers of metal will enable it to be used for ground penetrating radar (GPR) when it is co-located with a low frequency metal detector without compromising the operation of the metal detector. The potential benefit of such an antenna would be a lower profile sensor head with twice the efficiency as currently employed GPR antennas.

  14. Quantum-Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) Focal Plane Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, Murzy; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Ewin, Audrey J.; Hess, Larry A.; Hartmann, Thomas M.; La, Anh T.

    2012-01-01

    A paper describes the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), a QWIP-based instrument intended to supplement the Operational Land Imager (OLI) for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). The TIRS instrument is a far-infrared imager operating in the pushbroom mode with two IR channels: 10.8 and 12 microns. The focal plane will contain three 640x512 QWIP arrays mounted on a silicon substrate. The silicon substrate is a custom-fabricated carrier board with a single layer of aluminum interconnects. The general fabrication process starts with a 4-in. (approx.10-cm) diameter silicon wafer. The wafer is oxidized, a single substrate contact is etched, and aluminum is deposited, patterned, and alloyed. This technology development is aimed at incorporating three large-format infrared detecting arrays based on GaAs QWIP technology onto a common focal plane with precision alignment of all three arrays. This focal plane must survive the rigors of flight qualification and operate at a temperature of 43 K (-230 C) for five years while orbiting the Earth. The challenges presented include ensuring thermal compatibility among all the components, designing and building a compact, somewhat modular system and ensuring alignment to very tight levels. The multi-array focal plane integrated onto a single silicon substrate is a new application of both QWIP array development and silicon wafer scale integration. The Invar-based assembly has been tested to ensure thermal reliability.

  15. 'Kind of Blue' and the Economy of Modal Jazz

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Samuel

    2006-05-09

    , is concealed by the opportunity afforded the individual consumer to buy into the dream-like image of integration afforded by the co-existence of European-American and African-American musicians and musical traditions. Such a dual economywould accordwith... 2.1 and 2.2). For all the continuity that can bedemonstrated betweenMilestones, hard bop and Kind of Blue, the sense of a fundamental shift in overall feel or attitude remains – a shift from a hard bop sound, with all its African-American resonance...

  16. Glomerular Polycystic Kidney Disease in a Dog (Blue Merle Collie)

    PubMed Central

    Chalifoux, A.; Phaneuf, J. -B.; Olivieri, M.; Gosselin, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Glomerular polycystic kidney disease was diagnosed in an 11 month old, female, Blue Merle Collie. Clinical signs (polyuria, polydipsia, vomiting, diarrhea, partial anorexia) and laboratory work (blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, serum phosphorus, specific gravity, proteinuria, nonregenerative anemia) indicated chronic renal failure. However, after the study of a biopsy specimen, a definitive diagnosis was reached and the prognosis was determined. Necropsy findings and histopathological studies revealed: presence of glomerular cysts, atrophy of glomerular tufts and sclerosis of the interstitial tissue. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:17422209

  17. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section 173.216 Transportation...7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following...

  18. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section 173.216 Transportation...7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following...

  19. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section 173.216 Transportation...7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following...

  20. 76 FR 35909 - Temporary Concession Contract for Blue Ridge Parkway

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ...2410-OYC] Temporary Concession Contract for Blue Ridge Parkway AGENCY: National Park Service...award of temporary concession contracts for Blue Ridge Parkway, NC/VA...of certain visitor services within the Blue Ridge Parkway, North Carolina and...