Sample records for blue image planes

  1. Fourier plane imaging microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.dominguez@ttu.edu; Peralta, Luis Grave de [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Nano Tech Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Alharbi, Nouf; Alhusain, Mdhaoui [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Bernussi, Ayrton A. [Nano Tech Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)

    2014-09-14

    We show how the image of an unresolved photonic crystal can be reconstructed using a single Fourier plane (FP) image obtained with a second camera that was added to a traditional compound microscope. We discuss how Fourier plane imaging microscopy is an application of a remarkable property of the obtained FP images: they contain more information about the photonic crystals than the images recorded by the camera commonly placed at the real plane of the microscope. We argue that the experimental results support the hypothesis that surface waves, contributing to enhanced resolution abilities, were optically excited in the studied photonic crystals.

  2. Optically sectioned imaging by oblique plane microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunil Kumar; Ziduo Lin; Alex R. Lyon; Ken T. MacLeod; Chris Dunsby

    2011-01-01

    Oblique Plane Microscopy (OPM) is a light sheet microscopy technique that combines oblique illumination with correction optics that tilt the focal plane of the collection system. OPM can be used to image conventionally mounted specimens on coverslips or tissue culture dishes and has low out-of-plane photobleaching and phototoxicity. No moving parts are required to achieve an optically sectioned image and

  3. Resolving power in direct oblique plane imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeongmin; Li, Tongcang; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2015-03-01

    Direct oblique plane imaging is a high-speed microscopy technique that observes a sample's plane that is inclined to the focal plane of the microscope objective lens. This wide-field microscopy is suitable for a study of fast dynamics of living samples where the principle plane of interest is tilted to the focal plane. A way to implement this imaging technique is to use remote focusing together with a tilted mirror, which involves asymmetrical pupil function of the imaging system. We rigorously study the anisotropic resolving power of the oblique plane imaging using a vectorial diffraction theory. From the derived effective pupil function, we calculate vectorial point spread function (PSF) and optical transfer function (OTF). We show that the two-dimensional (2D) PSF of the direct oblique plane imaging is not merely an oblique crosssection of the 3D PSF of circular aperture system. Similarly, 2D OTF of the oblique plane imaging is different from 2D oblique projection of conventional 3D OTF in circular aperture system.

  4. Out-of-plane Doppler imaging based on ultrafast plane wave imaging.

    PubMed

    Osmanski, Bruno-Felix; Montaldo, Gabriel; Tanter, Mickael

    2015-04-01

    Retrieving the out-of-plane blood flow velocity vector from two-dimensional transverse acquisitions of large vessels could improve the quantification of flow rate and maximum speed. The in-plane vector flow component can be computed easily using the Doppler frequency shift. The main problem is estimating the angle between the probe imaging plane and the vessel axis to derive the out-of-plane component from in-plane measurements. In this article, we study the case in which the velocity vector can be decomposed on two directions: the out-of-plane direction and the in-plane depth direction. We explore the combination of a technique called intrinsic spectral broadening with ultrafast plane wave imaging to retrieve the out-of-plane component of the flow velocity vector. Using a one-time probe calibration of this intrinsic spectral broadening, out-of-plane angle and flow speed can be recovered easily, thus avoiding approximations of a complex theoretical analysis. For the calibration step, ultrafast plane wave imaging permits a fast calibration procedure for the Doppler intrinsic spectral broadening. In vitro experimental validations are performed on a homogeneous flow phantom and a Poiseuille flow; the absolute speed was retrieved with 6% error. The potential of the technique is demonstrated in vivo on the human carotid artery. Combined with in-plane vector flow approaches, this out-of-plane Doppler imaging method paves the way to threedimensional vector flow imaging using only conventional onedimensional probe technology. PMID:25881341

  5. Image-plane processing of visual information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, F. O.; Fales, C. L.; Park, S. K.; Samms, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    Shannon's theory of information is used to optimize the optical design of sensor-array imaging systems which use neighborhood image-plane signal processing for enhancing edges and compressing dynamic range during image formation. The resultant edge-enhancement, or band-pass-filter, response is found to be very similar to that of human vision. Comparisons of traits in human vision with results from information theory suggest that: (1) Image-plane processing, like preprocessing in human vision, can improve visual information acquisition for pattern recognition when resolving power, sensitivity, and dynamic range are constrained. Improvements include reduced sensitivity to changes in lighter levels, reduced signal dynamic range, reduced data transmission and processing, and reduced aliasing and photosensor noise degradation. (2) Information content can be an appropriate figure of merit for optimizing the optical design of imaging systems when visual information is acquired for pattern recognition. The design trade-offs involve spatial response, sensitivity, and sampling interval.

  6. Target plane imager for inertial confinement fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Swift; E. S. Bliss; W. A. Jones; L. G. Seppala

    1985-01-01

    The Nova laser, completed in December 1984 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is being used to conduct inertial confinement fusion experiments. It is capable of focusing more than 100 kJ of energy on small fusion targets. This paper discusses an optical system called the target plane imager that is used during the beam alignment phase of these experiments. The TPI

  7. Hybrid Image-Plane/Stereo Manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgartner, Eric; Robinson, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Hybrid Image-Plane/Stereo (HIPS) manipulation is a method of processing image data, and of controlling a robotic manipulator arm in response to the data, that enables the manipulator arm to place an end-effector (an instrument or tool) precisely with respect to a target (see figure). Unlike other stereoscopic machine-vision-based methods of controlling robots, this method is robust in the face of calibration errors and changes in calibration during operation. In this method, a stereoscopic pair of cameras on the robot first acquires images of the manipulator at a set of predefined poses. The image data are processed to obtain image-plane coordinates of known visible features of the end-effector. Next, there is computed an initial calibration in the form of a mapping between (1) the image-plane coordinates and (2) the nominal three-dimensional coordinates of the noted end-effector features in a reference frame fixed to the main robot body at the base of the manipulator. The nominal three-dimensional coordinates are obtained by use of the nominal forward kinematics of the manipulator arm that is, calculated by use of the currently measured manipulator joint angles and previously measured lengths of manipulator arm segments under the assumption that the arm segments are rigid, that the arm lengths are constant, and that there is no backlash. It is understood from the outset that these nominal three-dimensional coordinates are likely to contain possibly significant calibration errors, but the effects of the errors are progressively reduced, as described next. As the end-effector is moved toward the target, the calibration is updated repeatedly by use of data from newly acquired images of the end-effector and of the corresponding nominal coordinates in the manipulator reference frame. By use of the updated calibration, the coordinates of the target are computed in manipulator-reference-frame coordinates and then used to the necessary manipulator joint angles to position and orient the end-effector at the target with respect to the same kinematic model from the calibration step. As the end-effector/target distance decreases, the computed coordinates of the end-effector and target become more nearly affected by the same errors, so that the differences between their coordinates become increasingly precise. When the end-effector reaches the target, the remaining effective position error is the distance that corresponds to more than about one pixel in the stereoscopic images of the target.

  8. Scanned Image Projection System Employing Intermediate Image Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeJong, Christian Dean (Inventor); Hudman, Joshua M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    In imaging system, a spatial light modulator is configured to produce images by scanning a plurality light beams. A first optical element is configured to cause the plurality of light beams to converge along an optical path defined between the first optical element and the spatial light modulator. A second optical element is disposed between the spatial light modulator and a waveguide. The first optical element and the spatial light modulator are arranged such that an image plane is created between the spatial light modulator and the second optical element. The second optical element is configured to collect the diverging light from the image plane and collimate it. The second optical element then delivers the collimated light to a pupil at an input of the waveguide.

  9. Confocal Blue Reflectance Imaging in Type 2 Idiopathic Macular Telangiectasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Charbel Issa; Tos T. J. M. Berendschot; Giovanni Staurenghi; Frank G. Holz; Hendrik P. N. Scholl

    2008-01-01

    METHODS. In a prospective observational cross-sectional study, both eyes of 33 patients with type 2 IMT were examined by means of fundus biomicroscopy, fundus photography, fluores- cein angiography, and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Confocal blue reflectance (CBR) imaging was performed using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (HRA2; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). To compare the results derived from different imaging modalities,

  10. Optimization of Bit Plane Combination for Efficient Digital Image Watermarking

    E-print Network

    Kejgir, Sushma

    2009-01-01

    In view of the frequent multimedia data transfer authentication and protection of images has gained importance in todays world. In this paper we propose a new watermarking technique, based on bit plane, which enhances robustness and capacity of the watermark, as well as maintains transparency of the watermark and fidelity of the image. In the proposed technique, higher strength bit plane of digital signature watermark is embedded in to a significant bit plane of the original image. The combination of bit planes (image and watermark) selection is an important issue. Therefore, a mechanism is developed for appropriate bit plane selection. Ten different attacks are selected to test different alternatives. These attacks are given different weightings as appropriate to user requirement. A weighted correlation coefficient for retrieved watermark is estimated for each of the alternatives. Based on these estimated values optimal bit plane combination is identified for a given user requirement. The proposed method is ...

  11. The ABLE ACE Pupil Plane Imaging Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coy, Stephen C.; Praus, Robert W., II

    1997-08-01

    The ABLE ACE pupil plane imaging experiment (PPI) measured the irradiance distributions of individual pulses originating from two laser sources on the ABLE ACE transmitter aircraft and incident upon the aperture of the receiver aircraft. The laser pulses were very short, and PPI has high spatial resolution but very low temporal sampling, so the PPI data is simply a series of uncorrelated snapshots of the illuminated aperture.Form the PPI data we can compute the irradiance variance, the probability density function of irradiance, the irradiance covariance function, and the amplitude correlation function, and other irradiance statistics. These statistics can be used for comparison with theory, simulation, and other measurements, and also to estimate the strength of turbulence. The amplitude correlation function is a direct measure of the Strehl ration and optical transfer function that would be achieved with perfect phase correction; this gives us an upper bound on the performance of an actual ABL system. We have PPI data from all ABLE ACE flights, over almost all of the time the science lasers were firing. We have compared PPI results with theory, simulation, simultaneous measurements, and a previous experiment. We see good agreement on all counts.

  12. Image plane filters and adaptive optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seward, Anthony Joseph

    Shack-Hartmann sensors are the most commonly used wavefront sensors in adaptive optics applications today. There are problems when using Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors in the presence of strong scintillation. This dissertation investigates the use of focal plane filters as wavefront sensors in adaptive optics systems. Both simulation and experiment are used to explore the characteristics of focal plane filter wavefront sensors, the conclusion being that they are a viable alternative to Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors.

  13. Multiplane transesophageal echocardiography: a basic oblique plane patient imaging sequence.

    PubMed

    Griffin, M; Rafferty, T

    1998-01-01

    We have previously reported a standardized 10-step sequence of monoplane (transverse plane) transesophageal two-dimensional echocardiographic views and a standardized 7-step vertical plane examination, both suitable for expeditious intraoperative use by the beginning practitioner. A multiplane transesophageal examination involves transverse plane views, vertical plane views and the remaining "in-between" oblique plane views. This report describes a sequence of specific oblique views to be used as a framework for the completion of a multiplane transesophageal examination. Each of these steps is illustrated with a two-dimensional echocardiographic image, a matching diagram and a schematic representation of the corresponding axis of interrogation. This description of oblique plane imaging, therefore, completes the components of a multiplane transesophageal examination. PMID:10604783

  14. A full-plane block Kalman filter for image restoration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart Citrin; Mahmood R. Azimi-sadjadi

    1992-01-01

    A two-dimensional method which uses a full-plane image model to generate a more accurate filtered estimate of an image that has been corrupted by additive noise and full-plane blur is presented. Causality is maintained within the filtering process by using multiple concurrent block estimators. In addition, true state dynamics are preserved, resulting in an accurate Kalman gain matrix. Simulation results

  15. Focal plane resolution and overlapped array TDI imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grycewicz, Thomas J.; Cota, Stephen A.; Lomheim, Terrence S.; Kalman, Linda S.

    2008-08-01

    In this paper we model sub-pixel image registration for a generic earth-observing satellite system with a focal plane using two offset Time Delay and Integrate (TDI) arrays in the focal plane to improve the achievable ground resolution over the resolution achievable with a single array. The modeling process starts with a high-resolution image as ground truth. The Parameterized Image Chain Analysis & Simulation SOftware (PICASSO) modeling tool is used to degrade the images to match the optical transfer function, sampling, and noise characteristics of the target system. The model outputs a pair of images with a separation close to the nominal half-pixel separation between the overlapped arrays. A registration estimation algorithm is used to measure the offset for image reconstruction. The two images are aligned and summed on a grid with twice the capture resolution. We compare the resolution in images between the inputs before overlap, the reconstructed image, and a simulation for the image which would have been captured on a focal plane with twice the resolution. We find the performance to always be better than the lower resolution baseline, and to approach the performance of the high-resolution array in the ideal case. We show that the overlapped array imager significantly outperforms both the conventional high- and low-resolution imagers in conditions with high image smear.

  16. Search Image Formation in the Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata).

    PubMed

    Pietrewicz, A T; Kamil, A C

    1979-06-22

    Blue jays trained to detect Catocala moths in slides were exposed to two types of slide series containing these moths: series of one species and series of two species intermixed. In one-species series, detection ability increased with successive encounters with one prey type. No similar effect occurred in two-species series. These results are a direct demonstration of a specific search image. PMID:17813172

  17. Quantum image Gray-code and bit-plane scrambling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ri-Gui; Sun, Ya-Juan; Fan, Ping

    2015-05-01

    With the rapid development of multimedia technology, the image scrambling for information hiding and digital watermarking is crucial. But, in quantum image processing field, the study on image scrambling is still few. Several quantum image scrambling schemes are basically position space scrambling strategies; however, the quantum image scrambling focused on the color space does not exist. Therefore, in this paper, the quantum image Gray-code and bit-plane (GB) scrambling scheme, an entire color space scrambling strategy, is proposed boldly. On the strength of a quantum image representation NEQR, several different quantum scrambling methods using GB knowledge are designed. Not only can they change the histogram distribution of the image dramatically, some designed schemes can almost make the image histogram flush, enhance the anti-attack ability of digital image, but also their cost or complexity is very low. The simulation experiments result also shows a good performance and indicates the particular advantage of GB scrambling in quantum image processing field.

  18. A focal plane array system for clinical infra red imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. F. J. Ring; M. A. B. Minchinton; D. M. Elvins

    1999-01-01

    Thermal infrared imaging (IR) in medicine has been dependent on single element detectors with mechanical scanning systems for four decades. Modern IR systems now offer high speed, high resolution. This paper reports a study made during an upgrade from a cooled single element Agena 782M imager to a new uncooled focal plane army Thermovision (Flir systems Inc.). The results show

  19. CCD focal-plane image reorganization processors for lossless image compression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabrina E. Kemeny; Habib H. Torbey; Henry E. Meadows; Richard A. Bredthauer; Melanie A. La Shell; Eric R. Fossum

    1992-01-01

    Four image reorganization ICs that enable real-time difference encoding for hierarchical lossless image compression are reported. Two image reorganization processors are realized on the focal-plane and two are designed for hybridization to a separate imager IC. The two focal-plane ICs represent the first integration of a 256×256 buried-channel frame-transfer CCD image sensor with additional charge-domain circuitry to enable image reformatting

  20. Biofunctionalized prussian blue nanoparticles for multimodal molecular imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Vojtech, Jennifer M; Cano-Mejia, Juliana; Dumont, Matthieu F; Sze, Raymond W; Fernandes, Rohan

    2015-01-01

    Multimodal, molecular imaging allows the visualization of biological processes at cellular, subcellular, and molecular-level resolutions using multiple, complementary imaging techniques. These imaging agents facilitate the real-time assessment of pathways and mechanisms in vivo, which enhance both diagnostic and therapeutic efficacy. This article presents the protocol for the synthesis of biofunctionalized Prussian blue nanoparticles (PB NPs)--a novel class of agents for use in multimodal, molecular imaging applications. The imaging modalities incorporated in the nanoparticles, fluorescence imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have complementary features. The PB NPs possess a core-shell design where gadolinium and manganese ions incorporated within the interstitial spaces of the PB lattice generate MRI contrast, both in T1 and T2-weighted sequences. The PB NPs are coated with fluorescent avidin using electrostatic self-assembly, which enables fluorescence imaging. The avidin-coated nanoparticles are modified with biotinylated ligands that confer molecular targeting capabilities to the nanoparticles. The stability and toxicity of the nanoparticles are measured, as well as their MRI relaxivities. The multimodal, molecular imaging capabilities of these biofunctionalized PB NPs are then demonstrated by using them for fluorescence imaging and molecular MRI in vitro. PMID:25993028

  1. Versatile dual focal plane imaging radiometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary L. Jensen

    1994-01-01

    The Space Dynamics Laboratory at Utah State University built an infrared imaging radiometer with dual, large-format detector arrays and a passively cooled telescope for low earth orbit. The confocal detector arrays include a 128 X 128 HgCdTe array operating from 4.5 to 7.5 micrometers and a 256 X 256 InSb array operating from 2.0 to 4.5 micrometers . These arrays

  2. Target plane imaging system for the Nova laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Swift; E. S. Bliss; W. A. Jones; R. J. Reeves; L. G. Seppala; R. T. Shelton; P. J. Vanarsdall

    1985-01-01

    The Nova laser, in operation since December 1984, is capable of irradiating targets with light at 1.05 m, 0.53 m, and 0.35 m. Correct alignment of these harmonic beams uses a system called a target plane imager (TPI). It is a large microscope (four meters long, weighing one thousand kilograms) that relays images from the target chamber center to a

  3. Blue Marble - A Seamless Image Mosaic of the Earth (WMS)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Reto Stockli

    2004-02-16

    This spectacular Blue Marble image is the most detailed true-color image of the entire Earth to date. Using a collection of satellite-based observations, scientists and visualizers stitched together months of observations of the land surface, oceans, sea ice, and clouds into a seamless, true-color mosaic of every square kilometer (.386 square mile) of our planet. Much of the information contained in this image came from a single remote-sensing device-NASAs Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. Flying over 700 km above the Earth onboard the Terra satellite, MODIS provides an integrated tool for observing a variety of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric features of the Earth. The land and coastal ocean portions of these images are based on surface observations collected from June through September 2001 and combined, or composited, every eight days to compensate for clouds that might block the sensors view of the surface on any single day. Two different types of ocean data were used in these images: shallow water true color data, and global ocean color (or chlorophyll) data. Topographic shading is based on the GTOPO 30 elevation dataset compiled by the U.S. Geological Surveys EROS Data Center.

  4. Blue Fluorescent cGMP Sensor for Multiparameter Fluorescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Niino, Yusuke; Hotta, Kohji; Oka, Kotaro

    2010-01-01

    Cyclic GMP (cGMP) regulates many physiological processes by cooperating with the other signaling molecules such as cyclic AMP (cAMP) and Ca2+. Genetically encoded sensors for cGMP have been developed based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between fluorescent proteins. However, to analyze the dynamic relationship among these second messengers, combined use of existing sensors in a single cell is inadequate because of the significant spectral overlaps. A single wavelength indicator is an effective alternative to avoid this problem, but color variants of a single fluorescent protein-based biosensor are limited. In this study, to construct a new color fluorescent sensor, we converted the FRET-based sensor into a single wavelength indicator using a dark FRET acceptor. We developed a blue fluorescent cGMP biosensor, which is spectrally compatible with a FRET-based cAMP sensor using cyan and yellow fluorescent proteins (CFP/YFP). We cotransfected them and loaded a red fluorescent probe for Ca2+ into cells, and accomplished triple-parameter fluorescence imaging of these cyclic nucleotides and Ca2+, confirming the applicability of this combination to individually monitor their dynamics in a single cell. This blue fluorescent sensor and the approach using this FRET pair would be useful for multiparameter fluorescence imaging to understand complex signal transduction networks. PMID:20161796

  5. Prototype Focal-Plane-Array Optoelectronic Image Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Wai-Chi; Shaw, Timothy; Yu, Jeffrey

    1995-01-01

    Prototype very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) planar array of optoelectronic processing elements combines speed of optical input and output with flexibility of reconfiguration (programmability) of electronic processing medium. Basic concept of processor described in "Optical-Input, Optical-Output Morphological Processor" (NPO-18174). Performs binary operations on binary (black and white) images. Each processing element corresponds to one picture element of image and located at that picture element. Includes input-plane photodetector in form of parasitic phototransistor part of processing circuit. Output of each processing circuit used to modulate one picture element in output-plane liquid-crystal display device. Intended to implement morphological processing algorithms that transform image into set of features suitable for high-level processing; e.g., recognition.

  6. Navigating solid medical images by pencils of sectioning planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bookstein, Fred L.; Athey, Brian D.; Green, William D. K.; Wetzel, Arthur W.

    2000-10-01

    Beyond their involvement in ordinary surface rendering, the boundaries of organs in medical images have differential properties that make them quite useful for quantitative understanding. In particular, their geometry affords a framework for navigating the original solid, representing its R3 contents quite flexibility as multiple pseudovolumes R2 x T, where T is ar eal-valued parameter standing for screen time. A navigation is a smoothly parameterized series of image sections characterized by normal direction, centerpoint, scale and orientation. Such filmstrips represent a radical generalization of conventional medical image dynamics. The lances encountered in these navigations can be represented by constructs from classic differential geometry. Sequences of plane sections can be formalized as continuous pencils of planes, sets of cardinality (infinity) 1 that are sometimes explicitly characterized by a real-value parameter and sometimes defined implicitly as the intersection (curve of common elements) of a pair of bundles of (infinity) 2 planes. An example of the first type of navigation is the pencil of planes through the tangent line at one point of a curve; of the second type, the cone of planes through a point tangent to a surface. The further enhancements of centering, orienting, and rescaling in the medical context are intended to leave landmark points or boundary intersections invariant on the screen. Edgewarp, a publicly available software package, allows free play with pencils of planes like these as they section one single enormous medical data resource, the Visible Human data sets from the National Library of Medicine. This paper argues the relative merits of such visualizations over conventional surface-rendered flybys for understanding and communication of associated anatomical knowledge.

  7. Preparing Red-Green-Blue (RGB) Images from CCD Data

    E-print Network

    Robert Lupton; Michael R. Blanton; George Fekete; David W. Hogg; Wil O'Mullane; Alex Szalay; N. Wherry

    2003-12-18

    We present a new, and we believe arguably correct, algorithm for producing Red-Green-Blue (RBG) composites from 3-band astronomical images. Our method ensures that an object with a specified astronomical color (e.g. g-r and r-i) has a unique color in the RGB image, as opposed to the burnt-out white stars to which we are accustomed. A natural consequence of this is that we can use the same colors to code color-magnitude diagrams, providing a natural `index' to our images. We also introduce the use of an asinh stretch, which allows us to show faint objects while simultaneously preserving the structure of brighter objects in the field, such as the spiral arms of large galaxies. We believe that, in addition to their aesthetic value, our images convey far more information than do the traditional ones, and provide examples from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging, the Hubble Deep Field (HDF), and Chandra to support our claims. More examples are available at http://www.astro.princeton.edu/~rhl/PrettyPictures

  8. Scenery's temperature image based on two-band uncooled focal plane array thermal images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuqing He; Weiqi Jin; Xia Wang; Zhiyun Gao; Lingxue Wang; Guangrong Liu

    2002-01-01

    Dual-band uncooled Focal Plane Array (FPA) thermal imaging system adopts an Archimedes spiral cord chopper and a matched dual-band light filter to achieve two single-band IR images in one imaging system. Traditional methods of getting two bands images need two single-band thermal imagers, this system only needs one detector and one optical imaging system, so the system's structure becomes smaller

  9. A CMOS focal-plane array for heterodyne terahertz imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ullrich R. Pfeiffer; E. Ojefors; A. Lisaukas; D. Glaab; H. G. Roskos

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a focal-plane array (FPA) for heterodyne imaging at 0.65-THz in a low-cost 0.25-mum CMOS process technology. The 3times5 pixel array is fully integrated on chip and consists of differential patch antennas, NMOS square-law mixers, and 43-dB low-IF amplifiers. The NMOS square-law mixers are based on distributed resistive self-mixing and facilitate mixing well beyond the cutoff

  10. A CMOS focal-plane array for terahertz imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. R. Pfeiffer; E. Ojefors; A. Lisauskas; D. Glaab; F. Voltolina; V. M. F. Nzogang; P. H. Bolivar; H. G. Roskos

    2008-01-01

    A terahertz focal-plane array (FPA) for video-rate imaging applications has been fabricated in a commercially available CMOS process technology. The 3times5 pixel array uses conventional low-cost quarter-micron NMOS transistors for incoherent power detection. Each pixel has a size of 150times150 mum2 and consists of an on-chip antenna, an incoherent power detection circuit, and a 43-dB amplifier with a 1.6-MHz bandwidth.

  11. 3D pupil plane imaging of opaque targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cain, Stephen C.

    2010-08-01

    Correlography is a technique that allows image formation from non-imaged speckle patterns via their relationship to the autocorrelation of the scene. Algorithms designed to form images from this type of data represent a particular type of phase retrieval algorithm since the autocorrelation function is related to the Fourier magnitude of the scene but not the Fourier phase. Methods for forming 2-D images from far field intensity measurements have been explored previously, but no 3-D methods have been put forward for forming range images of a scene from this kind of measurement. Farfield intensity measurements are attractive large focusing optics are not required to form images. Pupil plane intensity imaging is also attractive due to the fact that the effects of atmospheric turbulence close to the imaging system are mitigated by the cancelation of phase errors in the intensity operation. This paper suggests a method for obtaining 3-D images of a scene through the use of successive 2-D pupil plane intensity measurements sampled with an APD (Avalanche Photo-Diode) array. The 2-D array samples the returning pulse from a laser at a fast enough rate to avoid aliasing of the pulse shape in time. The spatial pattern received by the array allows the Autocorrelation of the scene to be determined as a function of time. The temporal autocorrelation function contains range information to each point in the scene illuminated by the pulsed laser. The proposed algorithm uses a model for the LADAR pulse and its relation to the autocorrelation of the scene as a function of time to estimate the range to every point in the reconstructed scene assuming that all surfaces are opaque (meaning a second return from the same point in the scene is not anticipated). The method is demonstrated using a computer simulation.

  12. Image-plane processing for improved computer vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, F. O.; Fales, C. L.; Park, S. K.; Samms, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    The proper combination of optical design with image plane processing, as in the mechanism of human vision, which allows to improve the performance of sensor array imaging systems for edge detection and location was examined. Two dimensional bandpass filtering during image formation, optimizes edge enhancement and minimizes data transmission. It permits control of the spatial imaging system response to tradeoff edge enhancement for sensitivity at low light levels. It is shown that most of the information, up to about 94%, is contained in the signal intensity transitions from which the location of edges is determined for raw primal sketches. Shading the lens transmittance to increase depth of field and using a hexagonal instead of square sensor array lattice to decrease sensitivity to edge orientation improves edge information about 10%.

  13. Infrared imaging and spectroscopy of the Luminous Blue Variables Wra 751 and AG Car???

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. M. Voors; L. B. F. M. Waters; A. de Koter; J. Bouwman; P. W. Morris; M. J. Barlow; R. J. Sylvester

    We present ground-based infrared imaging and ISO spectroscopy of the luminous blue variables Wra 751 and AG Car. The images show in both cases a detached shell with a roughly circular distribution of emission. The infrared images of AG Car coincide very well with the optical images. The opti- cal (H) image of Wra 751 is different from the infrared

  14. Infrared imaging and spectroscopy of the Luminous Blue Variables Wra 751 and AG Car

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. M. Voors; L. B. F. M. Waters; A. de Koter; J. Bouwman; P. W. Morris; M. J. Barlow; R. J. Sylvester; N. R. Trams

    2000-01-01

    We present ground-based infrared imaging and ISO spectroscopy of the luminous blue variables Wra 751 and AG Car. The images show in both cases a detached shell with a roughly circular distribution of emission. The infrared images of AG Car coincide very well with the optical images. The optical (Halpha ) image of Wra 751 is different from the infrared

  15. Huber fractal image coding based on a fitting plane.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jian; Ye, Zhongxing; Zou, Yuru

    2013-01-01

    Recently, there has been significant interest in robust fractal image coding for the purpose of robustness against outliers. However, the known robust fractal coding methods (HFIC and LAD-FIC, etc.) are not optimal, since, besides the high computational cost, they use the corrupted domain block as the independent variable in the robust regression model, which may adversely affect the robust estimator to calculate the fractal parameters (depending on the noise level). This paper presents a Huber fitting plane-based fractal image coding (HFPFIC) method. This method builds Huber fitting planes (HFPs) for the domain and range blocks, respectively, ensuring the use of an uncorrupted independent variable in the robust model. On this basis, a new matching error function is introduced to robustly evaluate the best scaling factor. Meanwhile, a median absolute deviation (MAD) about the median decomposition criterion is proposed to achieve fast adaptive quadtree partitioning for the image corrupted by salt & pepper noise. In order to reduce computational cost, the no-search method is applied to speedup the encoding process. Experimental results show that the proposed HFPFIC can yield superior performance over conventional robust fractal image coding methods in encoding speed and the quality of the restored image. Furthermore, the no-search method can significantly reduce encoding time and achieve less than 2.0 s for the HFPFIC with acceptable image quality degradation. In addition, we show that, combined with the MAD decomposition scheme, the HFP technique used as a robust method can further reduce the encoding time while maintaining image quality. PMID:22949061

  16. Positioning of electrode plane systematically influences EIT imaging.

    PubMed

    Krueger-Ziolek, Sabine; Schullcke, Benjamin; Kretschmer, Jörn; Müller-Lisse, Ullrich; Möller, Knut; Zhao, Zhanqi

    2015-06-01

    Up to now, the impact of electrode positioning on electrical impedance tomography (EIT) had not been systematically analyzed due to the lack of a reference method. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of electrode positioning on EIT imaging in spontaneously breathing subjects at different ventilation levels with our novel lung function measurement setup combining EIT and body plethysmography. EIT measurements were conducted in three transverse planes between the 3rd and 4th intercostal space (ICS), at the 5th ICS and between the 6th and 7th ICS (named as cranial, middle and caudal) on 12 healthy subjects. Pulmonary function tests were performed simultaneously by body plethysmography to determine functional residual capacity (FRC), vital capacity (VC), tidal volume (VT), expiratory reserve volume (ERV), and inspiratory reserve volume (IRV). Ratios of impedance changes and body plethysmographic volumes were calculated for every thorax plane (?IERV/ERV, ?IVT/VT and ?IIRV/IRV). In all measurements of a subject, FRC values and VC values differed ?5%, which confirmed that subjects were breathing at comparable end-expiratory levels and with similar efforts. In the cranial thorax plane the normalized ?IERV/ERV ratio in all subjects was significantly higher than the normalized ?IIRV/IRV ratio whereas the opposite was found in the caudal chest plane. No significant difference between the two normalized ratios was found in the middle thoracic plane. Depending on electrode positioning, impedance to volume ratios may either increase or decrease in the same lung condition, which may lead to opposite clinical decisions. PMID:26006327

  17. Radiometric infrared focal plane array imaging system for thermographic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, B. J.; Mccafferty, N.; Brown, R.; Tower, J. R.; Kosonocky, W. F.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes research performed under the Radiometric Infrared Focal Plane Array Imaging System for Thermographic Applications contract. This research investigated the feasibility of using platinum silicide (PtSi) Schottky-barrier infrared focal plane arrays (IR FPAs) for NASA Langley's specific radiometric thermal imaging requirements. The initial goal of this design was to develop a high spatial resolution radiometer with an NETD of 1 percent of the temperature reading over the range of 0 to 250 C. The proposed camera design developed during this study and described in this report provides: (1) high spatial resolution (full-TV resolution); (2) high thermal dynamic range (0 to 250 C); (3) the ability to image rapid, large thermal transients utilizing electronic exposure control (commandable dynamic range of 2,500,000:1 with exposure control latency of 33 ms); (4) high uniformity (0.5 percent nonuniformity after correction); and (5) high thermal resolution (0.1 C at 25 C background and 0.5 C at 250 C background).

  18. Pupil-plane imager for scintillometry over long horizontal paths.

    PubMed

    Hughes, W M; Holmes, R B

    2007-10-10

    A pupil plane imaging (PPI) system has been designed and implemented to measure scintillation induced by atmospheric turbulence and to estimate key parameters of atmospheric turbulence. A high-speed, high-resolution camera images the pupil of a telescope. The process of estimating normalized intensity variance and the underlying rationale is discussed. Experimental results are presented for data taken at North Oscura Peak in southern New Mexico from light originating at Salinas Peak or an aircraft, over near-horizontal paths of approximately 50 km. Strong scintillation is often observed. The results are compared to those of other instruments operating in parallel, and systematic and random errors are discussed. The primary goal is to accurately estimate scintillation strength using PPI in order to assess adaptive optics performance as a function of such scintillation. PMID:17932516

  19. ULTRACOMPACT BLUE DWARF GALAXIES: HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING AND STELLAR POPULATION ANALYSIS

    E-print Network

    Hibbard, John

    ULTRACOMPACT BLUE DWARF GALAXIES: HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING AND STELLAR POPULATION ANALYSIS of nine ``ultracompact'' blue dwarf galaxies (UCBDs) selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We of supernova ejecta, rather than youth. Subject headinggs: galaxies: dwarf -- galaxies: formation -- galaxies

  20. Application of oblique plane microscopy to high speed live cell imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunil Kumar; Dean Wilding; Markus B. Sikkel; Alexander R. Lyon; Ken T. MacLeod; Chris Dunsby

    2011-01-01

    Oblique Plane Microscopy (OPM) is a light sheet microscopy technique that combines oblique illumination with correction optics that tilt the focal plane of the collection system. OPM can be used to image conventionally mounted specimens on coverslips or tissue culture dishes and has low out-of-plane photobleaching and phototoxicity. No moving parts are required to achieve an optically sectioned image and

  1. Imaging Polarimetry With Polarization-Sensitive Focal Planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobiev, Dmitry; Ninkov, Z.

    2014-01-01

    We present a compact, lightweight, snapshot imaging polarimeter designed for operation in the near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR). Flux, polarization and spectral energy distribution are the fundamental measurements through which we infer properties of the sources of radiation such as intensity, temperature, chemical composition, emission mechanisms and structure. In recent decades, many scientific fields that utilize radiometry and spectroscopy have benefited from revolutionary improvements in instrumentation, for example, charge-coupled devices, hybridized infrared arrays, multi-object spectrometers and adaptive optics. Advances in polarimetric instrumentation have been more modest. Recently, the fabrication of microgrid polarizer arrays (MGPAs), facilitated the development of polarization-sensitive focal planes. These devices have inherent capability to measure the degree and angle of polarization across a scene (i.e., imaging polarimetry) instantaneously, without the need for multiple exposures and moving optics or multiple detectors. MGPA-based devices are compact, lightweight, and mechanically robust and perfectly suited for deployment on space-based and airborne platforms. We describe the design, operation and expected performance of MGPA-based imaging polarimeters and identify the applications for which these polarimeters are best suited.

  2. Advances in Focal Plane Wavefront Estimation for Directly Imaging Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldorado Riggs, A. J.; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Groff, Tyler Dean

    2015-01-01

    To image cold exoplanets directly in visible light, an instrument on a telescope needs to suppress starlight by about 9 orders of magnitude at small separations from the star. A coronagraph changes the point spread function to create regions of high contrast where exoplanets or disks can be seen. Aberrations on the optics degrade the contrast by several orders of magnitude, so all high-contrast imaging systems incorporate one or more deformable mirrors (DMs) to recover regions of high contrast. With a coronagraphic instrument planned for the WFIRST-AFTA space telescope, there is a pressing need for faster, more robust estimation and control schemes for the DMs. Non-common path aberrations limit conventional phase conjugation schemes to medium star-to-planet contrast ratios of about 1e-6. High-contrast imaging requires estimation and control of both phase and amplitude in the same beam path as the science camera. Field estimation is a challenge since only intensity is measured; the most common approach, including that planned for WFIRST-AFTA, is to use DMs to create diversity, via pairs of small probe shapes, thereby allowing disambiguation of the electric field. Most implementations of DM Diversity require at least five images per electric field estimate and require narrowband measurements. This paper describes our new estimation algorithms that improve the speed (by using fewer images) and bandwidth of focal plane wavefront estimation. For narrowband estimation, we are testing nonlinear, recursive algorithms such as an iterative extended Kalman filter (IEKF) to use three images each iteration and build better, more robust estimates. We are also exploring the use of broadband estimation without the need for narrowband sub-filters and measurements. Here we present simulations of these algorithms with realistic noise and small signals to show how they might perform for WFIRST-AFTA. Once validated in simulations, we will test these algorithms experimentally in Princeton's HCIL and in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL's) High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT). Developing these faster, more robust wavefront estimators is a crucial for increasing the science yield of the WFIRST-AFTA coronagraphic instrument.

  3. Depth plane adaptive integral imaging using a varifocal liquid lens array.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cheol-Joong; Chang, Minho; Lee, Muyoung; Kim, Junoh; Won, Yong Hyub

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes an enhanced integral imaging system with an electrically controllable image plane to address the issue of the limited depth problem in integral imaging. For implementation of the variable image plane, a varifocal liquid lens array and driving device are adopted instead of an ordinary solid lens array. The position of the central depth plane is varied by adjusting the focal length of the lens array. The proposed system enables matching between the object position and depth plane electrically, and thus an object moving from 5.15 to 11.72 cm is clearly displayed with this method. PMID:25967160

  4. Detection of blue-white veil areas in dermoscopy images using machine learning techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celebi, M. E.; Kingravi, Hassan A.; Aslandogan, Y. A.; Stoecker, William V.

    2006-03-01

    As a result of the advances in skin imaging technology and the development of suitable image processing techniques, during the last decade, there has been a significant increase of interest in the computer-aided diagnosis of skin cancer. Dermoscopy is a non-invasive skin imaging technique which permits visualization of features of pigmented melanocytic neoplasms that are not discernable by examination with the naked eye. One of the useful features in dermoscopic diagnosis is the blue-white veil (irregular, structureless areas of confluent blue pigmentation with an overlying white "ground-glass" film) which is mostly associated with invasive melanoma. In this preliminary study, a machine learning approach to the detection of blue-white veil areas in dermoscopy images is presented. The method involves pixel classification based on relative and absolute color features using a decision tree classifier. Promising results were obtained on a set of 224 dermoscopy images.

  5. MAGPIS: A MULTI-ARRAY GALACTIC PLANE IMAGING SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Helfand, D J; Becker, R H; White, R L; Fallon, A; Tuttle, S

    2005-11-10

    We present the Multi-Array Galactic Plane Imaging Survey (MAGPIS), which maps portions of the first Galactic quadrant with an angular resolution, sensitivity and dynamic range that surpasses existing radio images of the Milky Way by more than an order of magnitude. The source detection threshold at 20 cm is in the range 1-2 mJy over the 85% of the survey region (5{sup o} < l < 32{sup o}, |b| < 0.8{sup o}) not covered by bright extended emission; the angular resolution is {approx} 6''. We catalog over 3000 discrete sources (diameters mostly < 30'') and present an atlas of {approx} 400 diffuse emission regions. New and archival data at 90 cm for the whole survey area are also presented. Comparison of our catalogs and images with the MSX mid-infrared data allow us to provide preliminary discrimination between thermal and non-thermal sources. We identify 49 high-probability supernova remnant candidates, increasing by a factor of seven the number of known remnants with diameters smaller than 50 in the survey region; several are pulsar wind nebula candidates and/or very small diameter remnants (D < 45''). We report the tentative identification of several hundred H II regions based on a comparison with the mid-IR data; they range in size from unresolved ultra-compact sources to large complexes of diffuse emission on scales of half a degree. In several of the latter regions, cospatial nonthermal emission illustrates the interplay between stellar death and birth. We comment briefly on plans for followup observations and our extension of the survey; when complemented by data from ongoing X-ray and mid-IR observations, we expect MAGPIS to provide an important contribution to our understanding of the birth and death of massive stars in the Milky Way.

  6. Search Image Formation in the Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra T. Pietrewicz; Alan C. Kamil

    1979-01-01

    Blue jays trained to detect Catocala moths in slides were exposed to two types of slide series containing these moths: series of one species and series of two species intermixed. In one-species series, detection ability increased with successive encounters with one prey type. No similar effect occurred in two-species series. These results are a direct demonstration of a specific search

  7. Application of bit-plane decomposition steganography to wavelet encoded images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Noda; J. Spaulding; Mahdad Nouri Shirazi; E. Kawaguchi

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a steganography method based on a lossy wavelet compression scheme and bit-plane complex- ity segmentation (BPCS) steganography. This method uti- lizes the embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) compression scheme, where wavelet coefficients of an image are quan- tized into a bit-plane structure. The proposed steganogra- phy enables us to use lossy compressed images as dummy files in bit-plane-based

  8. Effect of novel bright image enhanced endoscopy using blue laser imaging (BLI)

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Kazuhiro; Oono, Yasuhiro; Yano, Tomonori; Ikematsu, Hiroaki; Odagaki, Tomoyuki; Yoda, Yusuke; Yagishita, Atsushi; Sato, Akihiro; Nomura, Shogo

    2014-01-01

    Background and study aims: The novel method of image-enhanced endoscopy (IEE) named blue laser imaging (BLI) can enhance the contrast of surface vessels using lasers for light illumination. BLI has two IEE modes: high contrast mode (BLI-contrast) for use with magnification, and bright mode (BLI-bright), which achieves a brighter image than BLI-contrast and yet maintains the enhanced visualization of vascular contrast that is expected for the detection of tumors from a far field of view. The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of BLI-bright with a far field of view compared to BLI-contrast and commonly available narrow-band imaging (NBI). Patients and methods: Patients with neoplasia, including early cancer in the pharynx, esophagus, stomach, or colorectum, were recruited and underwent tandem endoscopy with BLI and NBI systems. Six sets of images of the lesions were captured with a changing observable distance from 3 to 40?mm. Individual sets of images taken from various observable distances were assessed for visibility among BLI-bright, BLI-contrast, and NBI modes. The brightness and contrast of these images were also analyzed quantitatively. Results: Of 51 patients, 39 were assessed. Image analysis indicated that only BLI-bright maintained adequate brightness and contrast up to 40?mm and had significantly longer observable distances compared to the other methods. Furthermore, BLI-bright enhanced the visualization of serious lesions infiltrating into deeper layers, such as esophageal lamina propria or gastric submucosal cancers. Conclusions: BLI-bright will be a helpful tool for the far-field view with IEE in organs with wider internal spaces such as the stomach.

  9. Parallel FDTD Modeling of a Focal Plane Array with Vivaldi Elements on the Highly Parallel LOFAR BlueGene\\/L Supercomputer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Maaskant; M. V. Ivashina; R. Mittra; W. Yu; N.-T. Huang

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes some preliminary results of a numerical study towards the modeling of a focal plane array (FPA) with Vivaldi elements, carried out on the LOFAR BlueGene\\/L, a supercomputer with more than 6000 nodes located at the University of Groningen. The parallel finite-difference time domain (PFDTD) code was used to simulate the array because it is able to achieve

  10. Supplemental Blue LED Lighting Array to Improve the Signal Quality in Hyperspectral Imaging of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Hammersley, Simon; Oerke, Erich-Christian; Dehne, Heinz-Wilhelm; Goldbach, Heiner; Grieve, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging systems used in plant science or agriculture often have suboptimal signal-to-noise ratio in the blue region (400–500 nm) of the electromagnetic spectrum. Typically there are two principal reasons for this effect, the low sensitivity of the imaging sensor and the low amount of light available from the illuminating source. In plant science, the blue region contains relevant information about the physiology and the health status of a plant. We report on the improvement in sensitivity of a hyperspectral imaging system in the blue region of the spectrum by using supplemental illumination provided by an array of high brightness light emitting diodes (LEDs) with an emission peak at 470 nm. PMID:26039423

  11. Supplemental Blue LED Lighting Array to Improve the Signal Quality in Hyperspectral Imaging of Plants.

    PubMed

    Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Hammersley, Simon; Oerke, Erich-Christian; Dehne, Heinz-Wilhelm; Goldbach, Heiner; Grieve, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging systems used in plant science or agriculture often have suboptimal signal-to-noise ratio in the blue region (400-500 nm) of the electromagnetic spectrum. Typically there are two principal reasons for this effect, the low sensitivity of the imaging sensor and the low amount of light available from the illuminating source. In plant science, the blue region contains relevant information about the physiology and the health status of a plant. We report on the improvement in sensitivity of a hyperspectral imaging system in the blue region of the spectrum by using supplemental illumination provided by an array of high brightness light emitting diodes (LEDs) with an emission peak at 470 nm. PMID:26039423

  12. Present and future status of flexible spectral imaging color enhancement and blue laser imaging technology.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Hironori

    2014-01-01

    The usefulness of flexible spectral imaging color enhancement (FICE) has been reported for evaluating the esophagus, stomach, and small and large intestine. Higher contrast is shown between cancer and the surrounding mucosa in the esophagus and stomach and may facilitate the detection of gastric cancers missed by white light imaging alone. The surface patterns of gastric mucosa are clearly visualized in non-malignant areas but are irregular and blurred in malignant areas, leading to clear demarcation. Capsule endoscopy with FICE detects angiodysplasia and erosions of the small intestine. The surface and vascular pattern with FICE is useful for the differential diagnosis of colorectal polyps. However, FICE remains somewhat poor at visualizing mucosal microvasculature on a tumor surface. Narrow-band imaging (NBI) is dark in observing whole gastric mucosa and poor at visualizing mucosal microstructure. Blue laser imaging (BLI) has the potential to resolve these limitations. Narrow-band laser light combined with white light shows irregular microvessels on both differentiated and undifferentiated gastric cancer similar to those using NBI. In addition, irregular surface patterns including minute white zones are clearly seen on the uneven surface of differentiated lesions, resulting in exclusion of undifferentiated lesions. Using both distant and close-up views, a high contrast between green intestinal metaplasia and brown gastric cancer may lead to early detection of gastric cancers and determination of a demarcation line. BLI produces high-contrast images in esophageal cancer with clear vision of intrapapillary capillary loops and also predicts the histopathological diagnosis and depth of invasion in colorectal neoplasms. PMID:24373002

  13. Vectorial point spread function and optical transfer function in oblique plane imaging.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongmin; Li, Tongcang; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2014-05-01

    Oblique plane imaging, using remote focusing with a tilted mirror, enables direct two-dimensional (2D) imaging of any inclined plane of interest in three-dimensional (3D) specimens. It can image real-time dynamics of a living sample that changes rapidly or evolves its structure along arbitrary orientations. It also allows direct observations of any tilted target plane in an object of which orientational information is inaccessible during sample preparation. In this work, we study the optical resolution of this innovative wide-field imaging method. Using the vectorial diffraction theory, we formulate the vectorial point spread function (PSF) of direct oblique plane imaging. The anisotropic lateral resolving power caused by light clipping from the tilted mirror is theoretically analyzed for all oblique angles. We show that the 2D PSF in oblique plane imaging is conceptually different from the inclined 2D slice of the 3D PSF in conventional lateral imaging. Vectorial optical transfer function (OTF) of oblique plane imaging is also calculated by the fast Fourier transform (FFT) method to study effects of oblique angles on frequency responses. PMID:24921812

  14. A PCA-based approach to the representation and recognition of MR brain midsagittal plane images.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Hu, Qingmao

    2008-01-01

    The midsagittal plane (MSP) of brain images is a key landmark used for many processing and analysis procedures associated with diagnosis, and intervention planning for the brain. In this paper, we propose to represent MSP images with features from principal component analysis (PCA). MSP images are extracted from 43 brain MRI volumes of different subjects. Images are represented as linear combinations of a set of eigen images which define the eigenspace that best describes the variation distribution of the set of images. The results of tests using planes extracted with slight orientational variations about the MSP show 100% recognition accuracy for planes varied under 0.5 degrees, and its robustness to MSP extraction error within variations of 1 degree in magnitude. The validation of this method with different MSP images yields a recognition accuracy of 88.6%. PMID:19163569

  15. Phase correction of image plane in holographic microscopy with equal-step phase shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hong-bo; Zhou, Hao; Tai, Fang-fang; Gu, Ji-hua

    2014-02-01

    A method which can compensate the phase curvature of image plane in equal-step phase-shifting holographic microscopy is presented. Recording two holograms before and after inserting the sample, unwrapping the numerical reconstructed images of the two holograms respectively and subtracting them each other, the corrected phase distribution of the sample is obtained. Firstly, the imaging characteristics of in-line phase-shifting holographic system in the image plane was analyzed. Secondly, onionskin cells and USAF1951 test target were recorded and reconstructed by this method. It is shown that high quality imaging of phase objects can be achieved by proposed method.

  16. Biofunctionalized gadolinium-containing prussian blue nanoparticles as multimodal molecular imaging agents.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Matthieu F; Hoffman, Hilary A; Yoon, Pryscilla R S; Conklin, Laurie S; Saha, Shanta R; Paglione, Johnpierre; Sze, Raymond W; Fernandes, Rohan

    2014-01-15

    Molecular imaging agents enable the visualization of phenomena with cellular and subcellular level resolutions and therefore have enormous potential in improving disease diagnosis and therapy assessment. In this article, we describe the synthesis, characterization, and demonstration of core-shell, biofunctionalized, gadolinium-containing Prussian blue nanoparticles as multimodal molecular imaging agents. Our multimodal nanoparticles combine the advantages of MRI and fluorescence. The core of our nanoparticles consists of a Prussian blue lattice with gadolinium ions located within the lattice interstices that confer high relaxivity to the nanoparticles providing MRI contrast. The relaxivities of our nanoparticles are nearly nine times those observed for the clinically used Magnevist. The nanoparticle MRI core is biofunctionalized with a layer of fluorescently labeled avidin that enables fluorescence imaging. Biotinylated antibodies are attached to the surface avidin and confer molecular specificity to the nanoparticles by targeting cell-specific biomarkers. We demonstrate our nanoparticles as multimodal molecular imaging agents in an in vitro model consisting of a mixture of eosinophilic cells and squamous epithelial cells. Our nanoparticles specifically detect eosinophilic cells and not squamous epithelial cells, via both fluorescence imaging and MRI in vitro. These results suggest the potential of our biofunctionalized Prussian blue nanoparticles as multimodal molecular imaging agents in vivo. PMID:24328306

  17. Large format dual band QWIP focal plane arrays for third generation thermal imagers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Besikci; Y. Arslan; S. U. Eker

    2009-01-01

    This talk covers the recent developments in quantum structured infrared photodetector technology, as well as the realization of large format\\/low cost dual band QWIP focal plane arrays for third generation thermal imagers.

  18. Robot control from sequential image planes of a 3D object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premkumar, Saganti B.; Harman, Thomas L.; Houston, A. G.; Nguyen, Luong A.

    1993-10-01

    Movement of a robot head between desired points in a 3D volume from (x1,y1,z1) to (x2,y2,z2) is crucial for high accuracy. When the knowledge of a 3D volume is only partial, obtained as a data set of cross-sectional image planes, control parameters for movement of the robot head are critical for best accuracy. In the present approach an attempt is being made to develop an interface for transforming control parameters of a robot system for desired movements of the robot head in the 3D volume from a sequence of cross-sectional image planes. Coordinates of a desired location from image data are obtained, and their corresponding locations on the object are estimated. These coordinates are transformed through matrix transformation into control parameters for the desired movements of the robot system. Most diagnostic medical imaging modalities obtain cross-sectional image planes of vital human organs. Treatment procedures often require 3D volume considerations. In the present approach a hypothetical radiation treatment procedure for a prostate cancer tumor in a 3D volume from given 2D cross-sectional sequential image planes is presented. Diagnostic ultrasound images of the prostate are obtained as sequential cross-sectional image planes at 2 mm apart from base to apex of the gland. An approach for robot coordinate movements for a simple robotic system with five degrees of freedom (Eshed Robotics, ER VII) is presented.

  19. Image-plane alcove reflection hologram using one-step recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yih-Shyang; Lee, Ting-Ching

    2011-09-01

    Image-plane technique can overcome the annoying "picket-fence" effect encountered in the traditional multiplex holography. Previously, we have adopted a three-step process to fabricate a reflection-type image-plane alcove hologram. Here, we design an anamorphic optical system for the object wave which is mixed with light diffracted from a line segment on a diffuser to simplify the recording process to one step. Experimental result shows single-colored image reconstructed with white light from LED. Qualitative description of some characteristics of the reconstructed image is also presented.

  20. Focal plane resolution and overlapped array time delay and integrate imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grycewicz, Thomas J.; Cota, Stephen A.; Lomheim, Terrence S.; Kalman, Linda S.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper we model sub-pixel image registration for a generic earth-observing satellite system with a focal plane using two offset time delay and integrate (TDI) arrays in the focal plane to improve the achievable ground resolution over the resolution achievable with a single array. The modeling process starts with a high-resolution image as ground truth. The Parameterized Image Chain Analysis & Simulation Software (PICASSO) modeling tool is used to degrade the images to match the optical transfer function, sampling, and noise characteristics of the target system. The model outputs a pair of images with a separation close to the nominal half-pixel separation between the overlapped arrays. A registration estimation algorithm is used to measure the offset for image reconstruction. The two images are aligned and summed on a grid with twice the capture resolution. We compare the resolution in images between the inputs before overlap, the reconstructed image, and a simulation for the image which would have been captured on a focal plane with twice the resolution. We find the performance to always be better than the lower resolution baseline, and to approach the performance of the high-resolution array in the ideal case. We show that the overlapped array imager significantly outperforms both the conventional high- and low-resolution imagers in conditions with high image smear.

  1. Combatting infrared focal plane array nonuniformity noise in imaging polarimeters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bradley M. Ratliff; Rakesh Kumar; Wiley Black; James K. Boger; J. Scott Tyo

    2005-01-01

    One of the most significant challenges in performing infrared (IR) polarimetery is the focal plane array (FPA) nonuniformity (NU) noise that is inherent in virtually all IR photodetector technologies that operate in the midwave IR (MWIR) or long-wave IR (LWIR). NU noise results from pixel-to-pixel variations in the repsonsivity of the photodetectors. This problem is especially severy in the microengineered

  2. Quantitative Characterization of Super-Resolution Infrared Imaging Based on Time-Varying Focal Plane Coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Yuan, Y.; Zhang, J.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, Y.

    2014-10-01

    High resolution infrared image has been the goal of an infrared imaging system. In this paper, a super-resolution infrared imaging method using time-varying coded mask is proposed based on focal plane coding and compressed sensing theory. The basic idea of this method is to set a coded mask on the focal plane of the optical system, and the same scene could be sampled many times repeatedly by using time-varying control coding strategy, the super-resolution image is further reconstructed by sparse optimization algorithm. The results of simulation are quantitatively evaluated by introducing the Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), which illustrate that the effect of compressed measurement coefficient r and coded mask resolution m on the reconstructed image quality. Research results show that the proposed method will promote infrared imaging quality effectively, which will be helpful for the practical design of new type of high resolution ! infrared imaging systems.

  3. Manganese-containing Prussian blue nanoparticles for imaging of pediatric brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Matthieu F; Yadavilli, Sridevi; Sze, Raymond W; Nazarian, Javad; Fernandes, Rohan

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric brain tumors (PBTs) are a leading cause of death in children. For an improved prognosis in patients with PBTs, there is a critical need to develop molecularly-specific imaging agents to monitor disease progression and response to treatment. In this paper, we describe manganese-containing Prussian blue nanoparticles as agents for molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescence-based imaging of PBTs. Our core-shell nanoparticles consist of a core lattice structure that incorporates and retains paramagnetic Mn(2+) ions, and generates MRI contrast (both negative and positive). The biofunctionalized shell is comprised of fluorescent avidin, which serves the dual purpose of enabling fluorescence imaging and functioning as a platform for the attachment of biotinylated ligands that target PBTs. The surfaces of our nanoparticles are modified with biotinylated antibodies targeting neuron-glial antigen 2 or biotinylated transferrin. Both neuron-glial antigen 2 and the transferrin receptor are protein markers overexpressed in PBTs. We describe the synthesis, biofunctionalization, and characterization of these multimodal nanoparticles. Further, we demonstrate the MRI and fluorescence imaging capabilities of manganese-containing Prussian blue nanoparticles in vitro. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of these nanoparticles as PBT imaging agents by measuring their organ and brain biodistribution in an orthotopic mouse model of PBTs using ex vivo fluorescence imaging. PMID:24920896

  4. Manganese-containing Prussian blue nanoparticles for imaging of pediatric brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Matthieu F; Yadavilli, Sridevi; Sze, Raymond W; Nazarian, Javad; Fernandes, Rohan

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric brain tumors (PBTs) are a leading cause of death in children. For an improved prognosis in patients with PBTs, there is a critical need to develop molecularly-specific imaging agents to monitor disease progression and response to treatment. In this paper, we describe manganese-containing Prussian blue nanoparticles as agents for molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescence-based imaging of PBTs. Our core-shell nanoparticles consist of a core lattice structure that incorporates and retains paramagnetic Mn2+ ions, and generates MRI contrast (both negative and positive). The biofunctionalized shell is comprised of fluorescent avidin, which serves the dual purpose of enabling fluorescence imaging and functioning as a platform for the attachment of biotinylated ligands that target PBTs. The surfaces of our nanoparticles are modified with biotinylated antibodies targeting neuron-glial antigen 2 or biotinylated transferrin. Both neuron-glial antigen 2 and the transferrin receptor are protein markers overexpressed in PBTs. We describe the synthesis, biofunctionalization, and characterization of these multimodal nanoparticles. Further, we demonstrate the MRI and fluorescence imaging capabilities of manganese-containing Prussian blue nanoparticles in vitro. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of these nanoparticles as PBT imaging agents by measuring their organ and brain biodistribution in an orthotopic mouse model of PBTs using ex vivo fluorescence imaging. PMID:24920896

  5. Improving super-resolution image reconstruction by in-plane camera rotation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Bonchev; Kiril Alexiev

    2010-01-01

    In a digital optical imaging system, image resolution is constrained by several factors, including focus plane array pitch and optics. Super-resolution approaches aim at overcoming some of these limits by incorporating additional information of the object and\\/or combining several pictures of the same object, taken with some displacements between each other. This paper considers the second class of methods. The

  6. Clockwork blue: on the evolution of non-image-forming retinal photoreceptors in marine and terrestrial vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. C. Erren; M. Erren; A. Lerchl; V. B. Meyer-Rochow

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a hypothesis that could explain why blue light appears to dominate non-image-forming (NIF) ocular photoreception in marine as well as terrestrial vertebrates. Indeed, there is more and more evidence suggesting that `novel' retinal photoreceptors, which are sensitive to blue light and were only discovered in the 1990s, could be a feature shared by all vertebrates. In our

  7. Fluorescence lifetime system for microscopy and multiwell plate imaging with a blue picosecond diode laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Elson; J. Siegel; S. E. D. Webb; S. Lévêque-Fort; M. J. Lever; P. M. W. French; K. Lauritsen; M. Wahl; R. Erdmann

    2002-01-01

    We report a wide-field f luorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) system that uses a blue picosecond pulsed diode laser as the excitation source. This represents a significant miniaturization and simplification compared with other time-domain FLIM instruments that should accelerate the development of clinical and real-world applications of FLIM. We have demonstrated this instrument in two configurations: a macroimaging setup applied to

  8. A novel MEMS-based focal plane array for infrared imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaobo Li; Binbin Jiao; Shali Shi; Tianchun Ye; Dapeng Chen; Qingchuan Zhang; Zheying Guo; Fengliang Dong; Xiaoping Wu

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of opto-mechanical effect and micro electromechanical system (MEMS) technology, a novel substrate-free focal\\u000a plane array (FPA) with the thermal isolated structure for uncooled infrared imaging is developed, even as alternate evaporated\\u000a Au on SiN cantilever is used for thermal isolation. A human thermal image is obtained successfully by using the infrared imaging\\u000a system composed of the FPA

  9. A CCD\\/CMOS-based imager with integrated focal plane signal processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig L. Keast; Charles G. Sodini

    1993-01-01

    Using a CCD\\/CMOS technology, a fully parallel 4×4 focal plane processor, which performs image acquisition, smoothing, and segmentation, has been fabricated and characterized. In this chip, image brightness is converted into signal charge using charge-coupled-device (CCD) imaging techniques. The Gaussian smoothing operation is approximated by the repeated application of a simple nearest-neighbor binomial convolution mask, realizing the first known use

  10. Rapid three-dimensional isotropic imaging of living cells using Bessel beam plane illumination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas A Planchon; Liang Gao; Daniel E Milkie; Michael W Davidson; James A Galbraith; Catherine G Galbraith; Eric Betzig

    2011-01-01

    A key challenge when imaging living cells is how to noninvasively extract the most spatiotemporal information possible. Unlike popular wide-field and confocal methods, plane-illumination microscopy limits excitation to the information-rich vicinity of the focal plane, providing effective optical sectioning and high speed while minimizing out-of-focus background and premature photobleaching. Here we used scanned Bessel beams in conjunction with structured illumination

  11. Application of bit-plane decomposition steganography to JPEG2000 encoded images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideki Noda; Jeremiah Spaulding; Mahdad N. Shirazi; Eiji Kawaguchi

    2002-01-01

    This letter presents a steganography method based on a JPEG2000 lossy compression scheme and bit-plane complexity segmentation (BPCS) steganography. It overcomes the lack of robustness of bit-plane-based steganography methods with respect to lossy compression of a dummy image: a critical shortcoming that has hampered deployment in a practical scenario. The proposed method is based on a seamless integration of the

  12. PEGylated Prussian blue nanocubes as a theranostic agent for simultaneous cancer imaging and photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Gong, Hua; Zhu, Wenwen; Liu, Jingjing; Wang, Xiaoyong; Liu, Gang; Liu, Zhuang

    2014-12-01

    Theranostic agents with both imaging and therapeutic functions have attracted enormous interests in cancer diagnosis and treatment in recent years. In this work, we develop a novel theranostic agent based on Prussian blue nanocubes (PB NCs), a clinically approved agent with strong near-infrared (NIR) absorbance and intrinsic paramagnetic property, for in vivo bimodal imaging-guided photothermal therapy. After being coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG), the obtained PB-PEG NCs are highly stable in various physiological solutions. In vivo T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) and photoacoustic tomography (PAT) bimodal imaging uncover that PB-PEG NCs after intravenous (i.v.) injection show high uptake in the tumor. Utilizing the strong and super stable NIR absorbance of PB, in vivo cancer treatment is then conducted upon i.v. injection of PB-PEG NCs followed by NIR laser irradiation of the tumors, achieving excellent therapeutic efficacy in a mouse tumor model. Comprehensive blood tests and careful histological examinations reveal no apparent toxicity of PB-PEG NCs to mice at our tested dose, which is two-fold of the imaging/therapy dose, within two months. Our work highlights the great promise of Prussian blue with well engineered surface coating as a multifunctional nanoprobe for imaging-guided cancer therapy. PMID:25239041

  13. NESP: Nonlinear enhancement and selection of plane for optimal segmentation and recognition of scene word images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Deepak; Anil Prasad, M. N.; Ramakrishnan, A. G.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we report a breakthrough result on the difficult task of segmentation and recognition of coloured text from the word image dataset of ICDAR robust reading competition challenge 2: reading text in scene images. We split the word image into individual colour, gray and lightness planes and enhance the contrast of each of these planes independently by a power-law transform. The discrimination factor of each plane is computed as the maximum between-class variance used in Otsu thresholding. The plane that has maximum discrimination factor is selected for segmentation. The trial version of Omnipage OCR is then used on the binarized words for recognition. Our recognition results on ICDAR 2011 and ICDAR 2003 word datasets are compared with those reported in the literature. As baseline, the images binarized by simple global and local thresholding techniques were also recognized. The word recognition rate obtained by our non-linear enhancement and selection of plance method is 72.8% and 66.2% for ICDAR 2011 and 2003 word datasets, respectively. We have created ground-truth for each image at the pixel level to benchmark these datasets using a toolkit developed by us. The recognition rate of benchmarked images is 86.7% and 83.9% for ICDAR 2011 and 2003 datasets, respectively.

  14. Pupil imaging with a high sensitivity, LWIR focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeVan, Paul D.; Hubbs, John E.; Pratt, Quinn T.

    2014-10-01

    We describe an integrated sensor assembly serving as both a component technology demonstration and a potential means of detecting distant point sources of infrared radiation. The objective of the demonstration was to show that usefully long integration times could be achieved with a low-background and well capacity, LWIR focal plane array optimized for use with cooled optics in space. The system controls extraneous background radiation with a small (150 ?m) cooled pinhole that nevertheless transmits all the radiation of a point source collected by the fore-optic. Broad waveband response (~3 to 12 ?m) results from optimization of the fore-optic for both MW and LWIR, as well as from a broadband anti-reflection coating on the field lens that is used at the pinhole to reimage the entrance aperture and its surrounding cold stop. Integration times in excess of 10 msec have been achieved for room temperature backgrounds with the FPA cold stage operated at 50 Kelvin, and noise performance has been bracketed with single frames of data collected over several integration times and over several minutes duration. However, anomalous signal behavior has been observed as the temperature of a remote blackbody increases. Although operation to date has been with a lower operability, engineering grade FPA, plans are to eventually upgrade to a higher quality device.

  15. Velocity discrimination of auditory image moving in vertical plane.

    PubMed

    Agaeva, Maria

    2004-12-01

    This research investigated the ability of humans to discriminate changes in velocity of apparent movement of a sound source (as defined by the time required for the sound to traverse a 180 deg arc) in the median vertical plane. Apparent auditory movement was created by successive switching of the loudspeakers situated over the arc. The broadband noise with band width of 0.25-4 kHz (low-pass noise - LP) and of 4-12.5 kHz (high-pass noise - HP) was employed as stimuli. Discrimination thresholds were calculated for reference velocities of 58 and 115 deg/s under four stimuli types: movement of stepped movement of noise for low-pass noise and for high-pass noise and continuous motion for low-pass noise and for high-pass noise. The result showed that discrimination of the velocity depended on the signal frequency spectrum. The differential thresholds for the signals with low pass noise were significantly higher than those for signals with high pass noise (F(1;78) > 3.96, p < 0.05). Magnitude of the absolute thresholds was the highest when the velocity was 115 deg/s for each of four types. It is interesting to note that the thresholds magnitude depended on the type of signal motion, that is on whether it was continuous or stepped. PMID:15567597

  16. Simulation of High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Images on the IBM Blue Gene/L Supercomputer Using SIMRI

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Baum, K. G.; Menezes, G.; Helguera, M.

    2011-01-01

    Medical imaging system simulators are tools that provide a means to evaluate system architecture and create artificial image sets that are appropriate for specific applications. We have modified SIMRI, a Bloch equation-based magnetic resonance image simulator, in order to successfully generate high-resolution 3D MR images of the Montreal brain phantom using Blue Gene/L systems. Results show that redistribution of the workload allows an anatomically accurate 2563voxel spin-echo simulation in less than 5 hours when executed on an 8192-node partition of a Blue Gene/L system.

  17. Photo-acoustic imaging of blue nanoparticle targeted brain tumor for intra-operative glioma delineation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Aniruddha; Wang, Xueding; Koo Lee, Yong-Eun; Hah, HoeJin; Kim, Gwangseong; Chen, Thomas; Orrienger, Daniel; Sagher, Oren; Kopelman, Raoul

    2011-07-01

    Distinguishing the tumor from the background neo-plastic tissue is challenging for cancer surgery such as surgical resection of glioma. Attempts have been made to use visible or fluorescent markers to delineate the tumors during surgery. However, the systemic injection of the dyes requires high dose, resulting in negative side effects. A novel method to delineate rat brain tumors intra-operatively, as well as post-operatively, using a highly sensitive photoacoustic imaging technique enhanced by tumor targeting blue nanoparticle as contrast agent is demonstrated. The nanoparticles are made of polyacrylamide (PAA) matrix with covalently linked Coomassie-Blue dye. They contain 7.0% dye and the average size is 80nm. Their surface was conjugated with F3 peptide for active tumor targeting. These nanoparticles are nontoxic, chemically inert and have long plasma circulation lifetime, making them suitable as nanodevices for imaging using photoacoustics. Experiments on phantoms and rat brains tumors ex-vivo demonstrate the high sensitivity of photoacoustic imaging in delineating the tumor, containing contrast agent at concentrations too low to be visualized by eye. The control tumors without nanoparticles did not show any enhanced signal. This study shows that photoacoustic imaging facilitated with the nanoparticle contrast agent could contribute to future surgical procedures for glioma.

  18. High Resolution Image Reconstruction Method for a Double-plane PET System with Changeable Spacing

    E-print Network

    Gu, Xiao-Yue; Li, Lin; Yin, Peng-Fei; Shang, Lei-Min; Yun, Ming-Kai; Lu, Zhen-Rui; Huang, Xian-Chao; Wei, Long

    2015-01-01

    Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) imaging systems with the ability in detection of millimeter-sized tumors were developed in recent years. And some of them have been well used in clinical applications. In consideration of biopsy application, a double-plane detector configuration is practical for the convenience of breast immobilization. However, the serious blurring effect in the double-plane system with changeable spacing for different breast size should be studied. Methods: We study a high resolution reconstruction method applicable for a double-plane PET system with a changeable detector spacing. Geometric and blurring components should be calculated at real time for different detector distance. Accurate geometric sensitivity is obtained with a tube area model. Resolution recovery is achieved by estimating blurring effects derived from simulated single gamma response information. Results: The results show that the new geometric modeling gives a more finite and smooth sensitivity weight in double-plane sy...

  19. Extended linear detection range for optical tweezers using image-plane detection scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajizadeh, Faegheh; Masoumeh Mousavi, S.; Khaksar, Zeinab S.; Reihani, S. Nader S.

    2014-10-01

    Ability to measure pico- and femto-Newton range forces using optical tweezers (OT) strongly relies on the sensitivity of its detection system. We show that the commonly used back-focal-plane detection method provides a linear response range which is shorter than that of the restoring force of OT for large beads. This limits measurable force range of OT. We show, both theoretically and experimentally, that utilizing a second laser beam for tracking could solve the problem. We also propose a new detection scheme in which the quadrant photodiode is positioned at the plane optically conjugate to the object plane (image plane). This method solves the problem without need for a second laser beam for the bead sizes that are commonly used in force spectroscopy applications of OT, such as biopolymer stretching.

  20. Focal-Plane Imaging of Crossed Beams in Nonlinear Optics Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bivolaru, Daniel; Herring, G. C.

    2007-01-01

    An application of focal-plane imaging that can be used as a real time diagnostic of beam crossing in various optical techniques is reported. We discuss two specific versions and demonstrate the capability of maximizing system performance with an example in a combined dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering interferometric Rayleigh scattering experiment (CARS-IRS). We find that this imaging diagnostic significantly reduces beam alignment time and loss of CARS-IRS signals due to inadvertent misalignments.

  1. Hard X-ray imaging survey of the Galactic plane with the Caltech gamma-ray imaging payload GRIP-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbel, S.; Cook, W. R.; Harrison, F. A.; Prince, T. A.; Schindler, S. M.; Wang, S.

    1997-01-01

    In a two-day balloon flight during October 1995, the Caltech coded aperture gamma ray imaging payload (GRIP-2) imaged various fields in the Galactic plane and center in the 25 to 600 keV energy band. The large phoswich detector, the 15 deg field of view, the 30 arcmin angular resolution and 6 arcmin point source localization capability of GRIP-2 provides the possibility of surveying the accreting binary population of the Galaxy at high energy. The instrument is described and preliminary imaging results are reported on. The capabilities of this instrument for hard X-ray/gamma ray imaging are demonstrated.

  2. REFLECTANCE CALIBRATION OF FOCAL PLANE ARRAY HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGING SYSTEM FOR AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD SAFETY APPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method to calibrate a pushbroom hyperspectral imaging system for "near-field" applications in agricultural and food safety has been demonstrated. The method consists of a modified geometric control point correction applied to a focal plane array to remove smile and keystone distortion from the sy...

  3. ViPro: Focal-Plane Spatially-Oversampling CMOS Image Compression Sensor

    E-print Network

    Genov, Roman

    are accumulated to realize a two- dimensional block matrix transform in parallel for all columns. The 3.1 mm × 1 but employ multiple matched current mirrors at the expense of increased pixel area. Charge integration-dependent scan-out imager architectures have been shown to reduce memory requirements in focal-plane spatial

  4. Study of subpixel image processing algorithms for MEMS in-plane vibration measurements by stroboscopic microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adel Hafiane; Sylvain Petitgrand; Olivier Gigan; Samia Bouchafa; Alain Bosseboeuf

    2003-01-01

    Several optical methods have been developed for the measurement of in-plane vibration of microscopic objects. However most of them need a scattering surface or a specific surface structuring. A low cost method which has not these limitations is optical stroboscopic microscopy combined with image processing by optical flow techniques. Previous works have shown that a nanometric sensitivity can be obtained.

  5. Focal-Plane Image and Beam Quality Sensors for Adaptive Optics

    E-print Network

    Cauwenberghs, Gert

    Focal-Plane Image and Beam Quality Sensors for Adaptive Optics Marc CohenÝ, Gert Cauwenberghs Laboratory, Adelphi, MD 20783 Abstract Control of adaptive optical elements for real-time wavefront phase to the requirements of high resolution, real-time adaptive optical systems. In this paper we introduce two VLSI focal

  6. Chemical imaging of cotton fibers using an infrared microscope and a focal-plane array detector

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this presentation, the chemical imaging of cotton fibers with an infrared microscope and a Focal-Plane Array (FPA) detector will be discussed. Infrared spectroscopy can provide us with information on the structure and quality of cotton fibers. In addition, FPA detectors allow for simultaneous spe...

  7. Achieving near-correct focus cues in a 3D display using multiple image planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt, Simon J.; Akeley, Kurt; Girshick, Ahna R.; Banks, Martin S.

    2005-03-01

    Focus cues specify inappropriate 3-D scene parameters in conventional displays because the light comes from a single surface, independent of the depth relations in the portrayed scene. This can lead to distortions in perceived depth, as well as discomfort and fatigue due to the differing demands on accommodation and vergence. Here we examine the efficacy of a stereo-display prototype designed to minimize these problems by using multiple image planes to present near-correct focus cues. Each eye"s view is the sum of several images presented at different focal distances. Image intensities are assigned based on the dioptric distance of each image plane from the portrayed object, determined along visual lines. The stimulus to accommodation is more consistent with the portrayed depth than with conventional displays, but it still differs from the stimulus in equivalent real scenes. Compared to a normal, fixed-distance display, observers showed improved stereoscopic performance in different psychophysical tasks including speed of fusing stereoscopic images, precision of depth discrimination, and accuracy of perceived depth estimates. The multiple image-planes approach provides a practical solution for some shortcomings of conventional displays.

  8. Spatially isotropic four-dimensional imaging with dual-view plane illumination microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yicong; Wawrzusin, Peter; Senseney, Justin; Fischer, Robert S; Christensen, Ryan; Santella, Anthony; York, Andrew G; Winter, Peter W; Waterman, Clare M; Bao, Zhirong; Colón-Ramos, Daniel A; McAuliffe, Matthew; Shroff, Hari

    2014-01-01

    Optimal four-dimensional imaging requires high spatial resolution in all dimensions, high speed and minimal photobleaching and damage. We developed a dual-view, plane illumination microscope with improved spatiotemporal resolution by switching illumination and detection between two perpendicular objectives in an alternating duty cycle. Computationally fusing the resulting volumetric views provides an isotropic resolution of 330 nm. As the sample is stationary and only two views are required, we achieve an imaging speed of 200 images/s (i.e., 0.5 s for a 50-plane volume). Unlike spinning-disk confocal or Bessel beam methods, which illuminate the sample outside the focal plane, we maintain high spatiotemporal resolution over hundreds of volumes with negligible photobleaching. To illustrate the ability of our method to study biological systems that require high-speed volumetric visualization and/or low photobleaching, we describe microtubule tracking in live cells, nuclear imaging over 14 h during nematode embryogenesis and imaging of neural wiring during Caenorhabditis elegans brain development over 5 h. PMID:24108093

  9. Clockwork blue: on the evolution of non-image-forming retinal photoreceptors in marine and terrestrial vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. C. Erren; M. Erren; A. Lerchl; V. B. Meyer-Rochow

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a hypothesis that could explain why blue light appears to dominate non-image-forming (NIF) ocular photoreception\\u000a in marine as well as terrestrial vertebrates. Indeed, there is more and more evidence suggesting that ‘novel’ retinal photoreceptors,\\u000a which are sensitive to blue light and were only discovered in the 1990s, could be a feature shared by all vertebrates. In\\u000a our

  10. Line-plane-switching infrared bundle for push-broom sensing fiber imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Huan; Yan, Xingtao; Guo, Haitao; Xu, Yantao; He, Jianli; Li, Fu; Yang, Jianfeng; Si, Jinhai; Zhou, Zhiguang; Lin, Aoxiang

    2015-04-01

    We reported line-plane-switching infrared (IR) fiber bundle with high-resolution of 0.027 ?m-1, small numerical aperture (NA) of 0.20 (±0.02), high filling-factor, and bending radius of around 5.0 mm, i.e. extremely good flexibility. This fiber bundle is made from chalcogenide glass fibers, possessing core (As40S58Se2) of 45 ?m, cladding (As40S60) of 50 ?m, and error of 1% in diameter. Based on the lens used to demonstrate IR push-broom imaging, the format of matching fiber bundle we chose is 64 × 9 in system to implement 192 × 3 format linear array imaging. By principle-demonstrating system incorporated this fiber bundle coupled with small scale Infrared Focal Plane Array (IRFPA), wide-field and long-array IR push-broom image was successfully demonstrated.

  11. Statistical analysis of cross-talk noise and storage capacity in volume holographic memory: image plane holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xianmin; Campbell, Scott; Yeh, Pochi; Gu, Claire

    1995-04-01

    We investigate the cross-talk noise in optical storage based on angle-multiplexed image plane volume holograms. Simple expressions for the signal-to-noise ratio and the storage density are obtained. The cross-talk noise is found to limit the size of the pixels and the number of recorded holograms. The cross-talk-limited storage density of image plane holographic storage is found to be close to that of Fourier plane holographic storage.

  12. Multispectral information hiding in RGB image using bit-plane-based watermarking and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoda, Kazuma; Watanabe, Aya; Hasegawa, Madoka; Kato, Shigeo

    2015-06-01

    Although it was expected that multispectral images would be implemented in many applications, such as remote sensing and medical imaging, their use has not been widely diffused in these fields. The development of a compact multispectral camera and display will be needed for practical use, but the format compatibility between multispectral and RGB images is also important for reducing the introduction cost and having high usability. We propose a method of embedding the spectral information into an RGB image by watermarking. The RGB image is calculated from the multispectral image, and then, the original multispectral image is estimated from the RGB image using Wiener estimation. The residual data between the original and the estimated multispectral image are compressed and embedded in the lower bit planes of the RGB image. The experimental results show that, as compared with Wiener estimation, the proposed method leads to more than a 10 dB gain in the peak signal-to-noise ratio of the reconstructed multispectral image, while there are almost no significant perceptual differences in the watermarked RGB image.

  13. Multispectral information hiding in RGB image using bit-plane-based watermarking and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoda, Kazuma; Watanabe, Aya; Hasegawa, Madoka; Kato, Shigeo

    2015-04-01

    Although it was expected that multispectral images would be implemented in many applications, such as remote sensing and medical imaging, their use has not been widely diffused in these fields. The development of a compact multispectral camera and display will be needed for practical use, but the format compatibility between multispectral and RGB images is also important for reducing the introduction cost and having high usability. We propose a method of embedding the spectral information into an RGB image by watermarking. The RGB image is calculated from the multispectral image, and then, the original multispectral image is estimated from the RGB image using Wiener estimation. The residual data between the original and the estimated multispectral image are compressed and embedded in the lower bit planes of the RGB image. The experimental results show that, as compared with Wiener estimation, the proposed method leads to more than a 10 dB gain in the peak signal-to-noise ratio of the reconstructed multispectral image, while there are almost no significant perceptual differences in the watermarked RGB image.

  14. [The effect of auditory image moving in vertical plane upon posture responses of humans].

    PubMed

    Agaeva, M Iu; Al'tman, Ia A; Kirillova, I Iu

    2005-07-01

    The influence of sound image motion on postural reactions was studied. The movement of sound source was created by successive switching of the loudspeakers situated over the arc in sagittal plane. Movement duration of sound stimulus was 1.6 s, 3.2 s and 4.8 s. The mean sway magnitudes decreased when the stimuli duration was 1.6 s and 3.2 s. Averaging of the wave-forms of center-of-pressure sway for signal with 4.8 s duration revealed that the sound image presentation induces body displacement in the direction opposite to that of sound image. PMID:16206625

  15. Sentinel lymph nodes detection with an imaging system using Patent Blue V dye as fluorescent tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellier, F.; Steibel, J.; Chabrier, R.; Rodier, J. F.; Pourroy, G.; Poulet, P.

    2013-03-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the gold standard to detect metastatic invasion from primary breast cancer. This method can help patients avoid full axillary chain dissection, thereby decreasing the risk of morbidity. We propose an alternative to the traditional isotopic method, to detect and map the sentinel lymph nodes. Indeed, Patent Blue V is the most widely used dye in clinical routine for the visual detection of sentinel lymph nodes. A Recent study has shown the possibility of increasing the fluorescence quantum yield of Patent Blue V, when it is bound to human serum albumin. In this study we present a preclinical fluorescence imaging system to detect sentinel lymph nodes labeled with this fluorescent tracer. The setup is composed of a black and white CCD camera and two laser sources. One excitation source with a laser emitting at 635 nm and a second laser at 785 nm to illuminate the region of interest. The prototype is operated via a laptop. Preliminary experiments permitted to determine the device sensitivity in the ?mol.L-1 range as regards the detection of PBV fluorescence signals. We also present a preclinical evaluation performed on Lewis rats, during which the fluorescence imaging setup detected the accumulation and fixation of the fluorescent dye on different nodes through the skin.

  16. Image interpolation and denoising for division of focal plane sensors using Gaussian processes.

    PubMed

    Gilboa, Elad; Cunningham, John P; Nehorai, Arye; Gruev, Viktor

    2014-06-16

    Image interpolation and denoising are important techniques in image processing. These methods are inherent to digital image acquisition as most digital cameras are composed of a 2D grid of heterogeneous imaging sensors. Current polarization imaging employ four different pixelated polarization filters, commonly referred to as division of focal plane polarization sensors. The sensors capture only partial information of the true scene, leading to a loss of spatial resolution as well as inaccuracy of the captured polarization information. Interpolation is a standard technique to recover the missing information and increase the accuracy of the captured polarization information. Here we focus specifically on Gaussian process regression as a way to perform a statistical image interpolation, where estimates of sensor noise are used to improve the accuracy of the estimated pixel information. We further exploit the inherent grid structure of this data to create a fast exact algorithm that operates in ????(N(3/2)) (vs. the naive ???? (N³)), thus making the Gaussian process method computationally tractable for image data. This modeling advance and the enabling computational advance combine to produce significant improvements over previously published interpolation methods for polarimeters, which is most pronounced in cases of low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We provide the comprehensive mathematical model as well as experimental results of the GP interpolation performance for division of focal plane polarimeter. PMID:24977618

  17. Sentinel lymph nodes fluorescence detection and imaging using Patent Blue V bound to human serum albumin

    PubMed Central

    Tellier, Franklin; Steibel, Jérôme; Chabrier, Renée; Blé, François Xavier; Tubaldo, Hervé; Rasata, Ravelo; Chambron, Jacques; Duportail, Guy; Simon, Hervé; Rodier, Jean-François; Poulet, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Patent Blue V (PBV), a dye used clinically for sentinel lymph node detection, was mixed with human serum albumin (HSA). After binding to HSA, the fluorescence quantum yield increased from 5 × 10?4 to 1.7 × 10?2, which was enough to allow fluorescence detection and imaging of its distribution. A detection threshold, evaluated in scattering test objects, lower than 2.5 nmol × L?1 was obtained, using a single-probe setup with a 5-mW incident light power. The detection sensitivity using a fluorescence imaging device was in the µmol × L?1 range, with a noncooled CCD camera. Preclinical evaluation was performed on a rat model and permitted to observe inflamed nodes on all animals. PMID:23024922

  18. Massively-parallel electrical-conductivity imaging of hydrocarbonsusing the Blue Gene/L supercomputer

    SciTech Connect

    Commer, M.; Newman, G.A.; Carazzone, J.J.; Dickens, T.A.; Green,K.E.; Wahrmund, L.A.; Willen, D.E.; Shiu, J.

    2007-05-16

    Large-scale controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM)three-dimensional (3D) geophysical imaging is now receiving considerableattention for electrical conductivity mapping of potential offshore oiland gas reservoirs. To cope with the typically large computationalrequirements of the 3D CSEM imaging problem, our strategies exploitcomputational parallelism and optimized finite-difference meshing. Wereport on an imaging experiment, utilizing 32,768 tasks/processors on theIBM Watson Research Blue Gene/L (BG/L) supercomputer. Over a 24-hourperiod, we were able to image a large scale marine CSEM field data setthat previously required over four months of computing time ondistributed clusters utilizing 1024 tasks on an Infiniband fabric. Thetotal initial data misfit could be decreased by 67 percent within 72completed inversion iterations, indicating an electrically resistiveregion in the southern survey area below a depth of 1500 m below theseafloor. The major part of the residual misfit stems from transmitterparallel receiver components that have an offset from the transmittersail line (broadside configuration). Modeling confirms that improvedbroadside data fits can be achieved by considering anisotropic electricalconductivities. While delivering a satisfactory gross scale image for thedepths of interest, the experiment provides important evidence for thenecessity of discriminating between horizontal and verticalconductivities for maximally consistent 3D CSEM inversions.

  19. 3D live fluorescence imaging of cellular dynamics using Bessel beam plane illumination microscopy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Liang; Shao, Lin; Chen, Bi-Chang; Betzig, Eric

    2014-05-01

    3D live imaging is important for a better understanding of biological processes, but it is challenging with current techniques such as spinning-disk confocal microscopy. Bessel beam plane illumination microscopy allows high-speed 3D live fluorescence imaging of living cellular and multicellular specimens with nearly isotropic spatial resolution, low photobleaching and low photodamage. Unlike conventional fluorescence imaging techniques that usually have a unique operation mode, Bessel plane illumination has several modes that offer different performance with different imaging metrics. To achieve optimal results from this technique, the appropriate operation mode needs to be selected and the experimental setting must be optimized for the specific application and associated sample properties. Here we explain the fundamental working principles of this technique, discuss the pros and cons of each operational mode and show through examples how to optimize experimental parameters. We also describe the procedures needed to construct, align and operate a Bessel beam plane illumination microscope by using our previously reported system as an example, and we list the necessary equipment to build such a microscope. Assuming all components are readily available, it would take a person skilled in optical instrumentation ?1 month to assemble and operate a microscope according to this protocol. PMID:24722406

  20. Experimental evaluation of spectral-based quantitative ultrasound imaging using plane wave compounding.

    PubMed

    Salles, Sebastien; Liebgott, Hervé; Basset, Olivier; Cachard, Christian; Vray, Didier; Lavarello, Roberto

    2014-11-01

    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) based on backscatter coefficient (BSC) estimation has shown potential for tissue characterization. Beamforming using plane wave compounding has advantages for echographic, Doppler, and elastographic imaging; however, to date, plane wave compounding has not been experimentally evaluated for the purpose of BSC estimation. In this study, two BSC-derived parameters (i.e., the BSC midband fit and intercept) were estimated from experimental data obtained using compound plane wave beamforming. For comparison, QUS parameters were also estimated from data obtained using both fixed focus and dynamic receive beamforming. An ultrasound imaging system equipped with a 9-MHz center frequency, 64-element array was used to collect data up to a depth of 45 mm. Two gelatin phantoms with randomly distributed 20-?m inclusions with a homogeneous scatterer concentration and a two-region scatterer concentration were used for assessing the precision and lateral resolution of QUS imaging, respectively. The use of plane wave compounding resulted in accurate QUS estimation (i.e., bias in the BSC parameters of less than 2 dB) and relatively constant lateral resolution (i.e., BSC midband fit 10% to 90% rise distance ranging between 1.0 and 1.5 mm) throughout a 45 mm field of view. Although both fixed focus and dynamic receive beamforming provided the same performance around the focal depth, the reduction in SNR away from the focus resulted in a reduced field of view in the homogeneous phantom (i.e., only 28 mm). The lateral resolution also degraded away from the focus, with up to a 2-fold and 10-fold increase in the rise distance at 20 mm beyond the focal depth for dynamic receive and fixed focus beamforming, respectively. These results suggest that plane wave compounding has the potential to improve the performance of spectral-based quantitative ultrasound over other conventional beamforming strategies. PMID:25389161

  1. A general system of images for regularized Stokeslets and other elements near a plane wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortez, Ricardo; Varela, Douglas

    2015-03-01

    We derive a general system of images for regularized sources, Stokeslets, and other related elements starting from an arbitrary regularization kernel (blob) used in the simulation of Stokes flows in three dimensions bounded by a plane. This generalizes previous work in which the image system for a Stokeslet had been derived for one specific blob. The significance of this generalization is that recent work on regularization methods requires the use of blobs designed to satisfy certain properties, such as zero moment conditions and fast decay, and thus it is absolutely necessary to have the system of images starting from an arbitrary blob. The system of images for a regularized element consists of a set of several elements, usually of higher order, that produce a flow that is zero at the bounding plane. In order for the resultant flow to vanish analytically at the wall, two different but related blobs must be used. For any given blob, we provide the formula for the companion blob that accomplishes the cancellation and we derive a systematic way to compute the image system of regularized Stokeslets, sources and dipoles. Other elements can be derived from these. By taking the limit as the regularization parameter approaches zero, the system of images for the corresponding singular elements is found.

  2. Back focal plane imaging of Tamm plasmons and their coupled emission

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yikai; Zhang, Douguo; Qiu, Dong; Zhu, Liangfu; Yu, Sisheng; Yao, Peijun; Wang, Pei; Ming, Hai; Badugu, Ramachandram; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    The unique optical properties of TPs – such as flexible wavevector matching conditions including in-plane wavevector within the light line, existing both S- and P-polarized TPs and ability of populating with KR and RK illuminations – facilitate them for direct optical excitation. The Tamm plasmon Coupled emission (TPCE) from a combined photonic-plasmonic structure sustaining both surface plasmons (SPs) and Tamm plasmons (TPs) is described. The sensitivity of TPCE to the emission wavelength and polarization is examined with back focal plane imaging and verified with the numerical calculations. The results reveal that the excited probe can couple with both TPs and SPs, resulting in SPCE and TPCE, respectively. The TPCE angle is strongly dependent on the wavelength allowing for spectral resolution using different observation angles. These Tamm structures provide a new tool to control the optical emission from dye molecules and have many potential applications in fluorescence based-sensing and imaging. PMID:25893010

  3. Near Real-Time Imaging of the Galactic Plane with BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, B. A.; Zhang, S. N.; Robinson, C. R.; Paciesas, W. S.; Barret, D.; Grindlay, J.; Bloser, P.; Monnelly, C.

    1997-01-01

    The discovery of new transient or persistent sources in the hard X-ray regime with the BATSE Earth occultation Technique has been limited previously to bright sources of about 200 mCrab or more. While monitoring known source locations is not a problem to a daily limiting sensitivity of about 75 mCrab, the lack of a reliable background model forces us to use more intensive computer techniques to find weak, previously unknown emission from hard X-ray/gamma sources. The combination of Radon transform imaging of the galactic plane in 10 by 10 degree fields and the Harvard/CFA-developed Image Search (CBIS) allows us to straightforwardly search the sky for candidate sources in a +/- 20 degree latitude band along the plane. This procedure has been operating routinely on a weekly basis since spring 1997. We briefly describe the procedure, then concentrate on the performance aspects of the technique and candidate source results from the search.

  4. Registration of three-dimensional cardiac catheter models to single-plane fluoroscopic images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott A. Meyer; Patrick D. Wolf

    1999-01-01

    Transvenous cardiac procedures require accurate positioning of catheters within the geometrically complex cavities of the heart. Recently, nonfluoroscopic catheter tracking technologies have been developed to quantitate the (degrees-of-freedom) three-dimensional positions of intracardiac catheters. This paper presents a projection-Procrustes method to register an animated three-dimensional (3-D) model of multiple intracardiac catheters with a single-plane fluoroscopic image. Applying the computed transformation to

  5. Fast Spheres, Shadows, Textures, Transparencies, and Image Enhancements in Pixel-Planes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry Fuchs; Jack Goldfeather; Jeff P. Hultquist; Susan Spach; John D. Austin; Frederick P. Brooks Jr.; John G. Eyles; John Poulton

    1985-01-01

    Pixel-planes is a logic-enhanced memory system for raster graphics and imaging. Although each pixel-memory is enhanced with a one-bit ALU, the system's real power comes from a tree of one-bit adders that can evaluate linear expressions can accept the results. We and others have begun to develop a variety of algorithms that exploit this fast linear expression evaluation capability. In

  6. Large scale W-band focal plane array for passive radiometric imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Dow; D. C. W. Lo; Y. Guo; E. W. Lin; T. T. Chung; M. D. Biedenbender; O. Miromontes; A. Marashi; L. Yujiri; P. S. C. Lee; M. M. Shoucri; B. R. Allen

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a large scale W-band focal plane array (FPA) for passive radiometric imaging application. The goal is to develop a 40×26 (1040-pixels) FPA to cover 15°×10° instantaneous field-of-view. Each receiver consists of a single direct detection MMIC which is a W-band high gain, wide bandwidth switched LNA with integrated Schottky barrier diode detector. A 1×4

  7. A thin film indium gallium arsenide focal plane array for visible and near infrared hyperspectral imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marshall J. Cohen; Michael J. Lange; Martin H. Ettenberg; Peter Dixon; G. H. Olsen

    1999-01-01

    Indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) focal plane arrays (FPAs) have proven useful in a wide variety of scientific, commercial, and military applications ranging from near infrared spectroscopy to night vision imaging. In a two-dimensional InGaAs FPA, an InGaAs photodiode array is hybrid-integrated to a silicon CMOS readout integrated circuit using indium bump-bonding techniques. The array is backside-illuminated with a long wavelength

  8. High contrast imaging with focal plane wavefront sensing for ground based telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyon, Olivier; Gallet, Basile; Pluzhnik, Eugene A.; Takami, Hideki; Tamura, Motohide

    2006-06-01

    The techniques adopted in "classical" AO (sensing in the visible, imaging in the near-IR) limit the achievable raw PSF contrast to about 10 5 in the central arcsecond. On nearby stars, this level is far from the theoretical PSF contrast limit imposed by photon noise in the wavefront sensor. A comparative study between wavefront sensing strategies shows that a focal-plane based wavefront sensor (WFS), combining wavefront sensing and scientific imaging on the same detector, seems optimal for high contrast imaging. This approach combines high WFS sensitivity, immunity to aliasing, chromaticity, and non common path errors and optical design simplicity. We show that such a system can be efficiently used as a second stage "Extreme-AO" system after a low-order AO system. The images acquired by the science camera are then used to drive the high-order DM (which also introduces the phase diversity needed for focal plane wavefront sensing). This scheme offers much flexibility: with the proper DM updates, the focal plane images can be simultaneously used to solve for the entrance wavefront and the presence of companions (which are incoherent with the speckles) below the speckle noise level. Control and data reduction algorithms are presented, as well as possible optical designs incorporating a coronagraph. A laboratory demonstration of this technique is currently being done at Subaru Telescope with a 1024 actuators MEMs DM. This experiment serves as a prototype to plan and design a similar system for Subaru's upcoming HiCIAO instrument (near-IR coronagraphic imager for adaptive optics).

  9. The study of blue LED to induce fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging for oral carcinoma detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Longjiang; Hu, Yuanting

    2009-07-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging diagnosis of malignant lesions provides us with a new method to diagnose diseases in precancerous stage. Early diagnosis of disease has significant importance in cancer treatment, because most cancers can be cured well in precancerous, especially when the diffusion of cancer is limited in a restricted region. In this study, Golden hamster models were applied to 5% 9, 10 dimethyl-1, 2-benzanthracene (DMBA) to induce hamster buccal cheek pouch carcinoma three times a week. Rose Bengal, which has been used in clinican for years and avoids visible side-effect to human was chosen as photosensitizer. 405 nm blue LED was used to induce the fluorescence of photosensitizer. After topical application of photosensitizer, characteristic red emission fluorescence peak was observed around 600nm. Similar, normal oral cavity has special luminescence around 480nm. Fluorescence spectroscopy technology is based on analysing emission peaks of photosensitizer in the areas of oral carcinoma, moreover, red-to-green (IR/IG) intensity ratio is also applied as a diagnostic algorithm. A CCD which is connected with a computer is used to take pictures at carcinoma areas through different filters. Fluorescence images from normal hamster buccal cheek pouch are compared with those from carcinogen-induced models of carcinoma, and morphological differences between normal and lesion tissue can be distinguished. The pictures are analyzed by Matlab and shown on the screen of computer. This paper demonstrates that Rose Bengal could be used as photosensitizer to detect oral carcinoma, and blue LED as excitation source could not only have a good effect to diagnose oral carcinoma, but also decrease cost greatly.

  10. Midsagittal plane extraction from brain images based on 3D SIFT.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huisi; Wang, Defeng; Shi, Lin; Wen, Zhenkun; Ming, Zhong

    2014-03-21

    Midsagittal plane (MSP) extraction from 3D brain images is considered as a promising technique for human brain symmetry analysis. In this paper, we present a fast and robust MSP extraction method based on 3D scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT). Unlike the existing brain MSP extraction methods, which mainly rely on the gray similarity, 3D edge registration or parameterized surface matching to determine the fissure plane, our proposed method is based on distinctive 3D SIFT features, in which the fissure plane is determined by parallel 3D SIFT matching and iterative least-median of squares plane regression. By considering the relative scales, orientations and flipped descriptors between two 3D SIFT features, we propose a novel metric to measure the symmetry magnitude for 3D SIFT features. By clustering and indexing the extracted SIFT features using a k-dimensional tree (KD-tree) implemented on graphics processing units, we can match multiple pairs of 3D SIFT features in parallel and solve the optimal MSP on-the-fly. The proposed method is evaluated by synthetic and in vivo datasets, of normal and pathological cases, and validated by comparisons with the state-of-the-art methods. Experimental results demonstrated that our method has achieved a real-time performance with better accuracy yielding an average yaw angle error below 0.91° and an average roll angle error no more than 0.89°. PMID:24583964

  11. Midsagittal plane extraction from brain images based on 3D SIFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huisi; Wang, Defeng; Shi, Lin; Wen, Zhenkun; Ming, Zhong

    2014-03-01

    Midsagittal plane (MSP) extraction from 3D brain images is considered as a promising technique for human brain symmetry analysis. In this paper, we present a fast and robust MSP extraction method based on 3D scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT). Unlike the existing brain MSP extraction methods, which mainly rely on the gray similarity, 3D edge registration or parameterized surface matching to determine the fissure plane, our proposed method is based on distinctive 3D SIFT features, in which the fissure plane is determined by parallel 3D SIFT matching and iterative least-median of squares plane regression. By considering the relative scales, orientations and flipped descriptors between two 3D SIFT features, we propose a novel metric to measure the symmetry magnitude for 3D SIFT features. By clustering and indexing the extracted SIFT features using a k-dimensional tree (KD-tree) implemented on graphics processing units, we can match multiple pairs of 3D SIFT features in parallel and solve the optimal MSP on-the-fly. The proposed method is evaluated by synthetic and in vivo datasets, of normal and pathological cases, and validated by comparisons with the state-of-the-art methods. Experimental results demonstrated that our method has achieved a real-time performance with better accuracy yielding an average yaw angle error below 0.91° and an average roll angle error no more than 0.89°.

  12. The pressure-dependent performance of a substrate-free focal plane array in an uncooled infrared imaging system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhiming Xiong; Qingchuan Zhang; Jie Gao; Xiaoping Wu; Dapeng Chen; Binbin Jiao

    2007-01-01

    Uncooled focal plane arrays (FPAs) are being developed for a wide range of infrared imaging applications. A substrate-free FPA for optical readout infrared imaging is fabricated with a pixel pitch of 120 mum. The pressure dependences of thermal conductance of a FPA with\\/without substrate are studied by modeling analysis. Infrared imaging experiments are performed to validate the modeling analysis. At

  13. Simulations of partially coherent focal plane imaging arrays: Fisher matrix approach to performance evaluation

    E-print Network

    George Saklatvala; Michael P. Hobson; Stafford Withington

    2007-03-07

    Focal plane arrays of bolometers are increasingly employed in astronomy at far--infrared to millimetre wavelengths. The focal plane fields and the detectors are both partially coherent in these systems, but no account has previously been taken of the effect of partial coherence on array performance. In this paper, we use our recently developed coupled--mode theory of detection together with Fisher information matrix techniques from signal processing to characterize the behaviour of partially coherent imaging arrays. We investigate the effects of the size and coherence length of both the source and the detectors, and the packing density of the array, on the amount of information that can be extracted from observations with such arrays.

  14. Development of a Nile-blue based chemodosimeter for Hg2+ in aqueous solution and its application in biological imaging.

    PubMed

    Hu, Mingming; Yin, Jianhua; Li, Yahong; Zhao, Xiaofang

    2015-03-01

    A Nile blue-based chemodosimeter was newly synthesized. It can detect Hg(2+) in aqueous solution based on desulfurization reaction. Upon its addition into aqueous Hg(2+) ion solution, it exhibited a considerable blue-shift in its absorption and obvious fluorescence quenching. The detection mechanism was proved by mass spectrometry analysis and Gaussian calculations. Detection at an emission of 685 nm was extremely sensitive, with a detection limit of 2.5?×?10(-9) mol/L. The fluorescent images in living cells and zebrafish demonstrate its potential for studying the accumulation of mercury species in organism. PMID:25666716

  15. Summary of the operational land imager focal plane array for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindahl, Kirk A.; Burmester, William; Malone, Kevin; Schrein, Ronald J.; Irwin, Ronda; Donley, Eric; Collins, Sandra R.

    2011-10-01

    The Landsat missions are the longest continuous record of changes in the Earth's surface as seen from space. The next follow-on activity is the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). The LDCM objective is to extend the ability to detect and quantitatively characterize changes on the global land surface at a scale where natural and man-made causes of change can be detected and differentiated. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) is one of two instruments on the LDCM spacecraft. OLI will produce science data for the reflective bands, which include 6 visible and near-infrared (VNIR) and 3 short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands. The OLI instrument utilizes a pushbroom design with 15.5 degree field of view. As a result, the OLI Focal Plane Array (FPA) cross track dimension is large, and the FPA is a critical technology for the success of the mission. The FPA contains 14 critically aligned Focal Plane Modules (FPM) and consists of 6916 imaging pixels in each of the 8 multi-spectral bands, and 13,832 imaging pixels in the panchromatic band. Prior to integration into the FPA, the FPMs were characterized for radiometric, spectral, and spatial performance. The Flight FPA has been built and its performance has also been characterized. In this paper, the critical attributes of the FPMs and FPA are highlighted. Detailed description of the FPM and FPA test sets are provided. The performance results that demonstrate compliance to the science mission requirements are presented.

  16. Visualization of peripheral vasodilative indices in human skin by use of red, green, blue images.

    PubMed

    Nishidate, Izumi; Tanaka, Noriyuki; Kawase, Tatsuya; Maeda, Takaaki; Yuasa, Tomonori; Aizu, Yoshihisa; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Niizeki, Kyuichi

    2013-06-01

    We propose a method to visualize the arterial inflow, the vascular resistance, and the venous capacitance in the skin tissue from red, green, blue (RGB) digital color images. The arterial inflow and the venous capacitance in the skin tissue are visualized based on an increase in the rate of change in the total blood concentration and the change of the total blood concentration during upper limb occlusion at a pressure of 50 mmHg. The resultant arterial inflow with the measured mean arterial pressure also provides an image of the vascular resistance in human skin. The arterial inflow, the vascular resistance, and the venous capacitance acquired by the method are well correlated with those obtained from the conventional strain-gauge plethysmograph. The correlation coefficients R between the estimated values by the method and the measurements by the SPG are calculated to be 0.83 (P < 0.001) for the arterial inflow, 0.77 (P < 0.01) for the vascular resistance, and 0.77 (P < 0.01) for the venous capacitance. The arterial inflow and the venous capacitance in the skin tissue are significantly higher in active subjects compared with the sedentary subjects, whereas the vascular resistance was significantly lower in the active subjects compared with the sedentary subjects. The results of the present study indicate the possibility of using the proposed method for evaluating the peripheral vascular functions in human skin. PMID:23264964

  17. Removal of Out-of-Plane Fluorescence for Single Cell Visualization and Quantification in Cryo-Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Steyer, Grant J.; Roy, Debashish; Salvado, Olivier; Stone, Meredith E.; Wilson, David L.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a cryo-imaging system, which alternates between sectioning (10–40 ?m) and imaging bright field and fluorescence block-face image volumes with micronscale-resolution. For applications requiring single-cell detection of fluorescently labeled cells anywhere in a mouse, we are developing software for reduction of out-of-plane fluorescence. In mouse experiments, we imaged GFP-labeled cancer and stem cells, and cell-sized fluorescent microspheres. To remove out-of-plane fluorescence, we used a simplified model of light-tissue interaction whereby the next-image was scaled, blurred, and subtracted from the current image. We estimated scaling and blurring parameters by minimizing an objective function on subtracted images. Tissue-specific attenuation parameters [?T: heart (267 ± 47.6 cm?1), liver (218 ± 27.1 cm?1), brain (161 ± 27.4 cm?1)] were found to be within the range of estimates in the literature. “Next-image” processing removed out-of-plane fluorescence equally well across multiple tissues (brain, kidney, liver, etc.), and analysis of 200 microsphere images gave 97 ± 2% reduction of out-of-plane fluorescence. Next-image processing greatly improved axial-resolution, enabled high quality 3D volume renderings, and improved automated enumeration of single cells by up to 24%. The method has been used to identify metastatic cancer sites, determine homing of stem cells to injury sites, and show microsphere distribution correlated with blood flow patterns. PMID:19513848

  18. The effect of out-of-plane motion on 2D and 3D digital image correlation measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Sutton; J. H. Yan; V. Tiwari; H. W. Schreier; J. J. Orteu

    2008-01-01

    The effect of out-of-plane motion (including out-of-plane translation and rotation) on two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) digital image correlation measurements is demonstrated using basic theoretical pinhole image equations and experimentally through synchronized, multi-system measurements. Full-field results obtained during rigid body, out-of-plane motion using a single-camera vision system with (a-1) a standard f55mm Nikon lens and (a-2) a single Schneider–Kreuznach Xenoplan

  19. Palomar\\/Las Campanas Imaging Atlas of Blue Compact Dwarf galaxies I. Images and integrated photometry

    E-print Network

    De Paz, A G; Pevunova, O

    2003-01-01

    We present B, R, and Halpha images for a total of 114 nearby galaxies (v_helio-21mag), peak surface brightness (mu_B,peakdetected in all but three sample galaxies. Typical color, absolute magnitude, and Halpha luminosity are (B-R)=0.7+/-0.3mag, M_B=-16.1+/-1.4mag, and log(L_Halpha)=40.0+/-0.6(erg/s). Galaxies morphologically classified as nE and iE BCDs within our sample show lower Halpha equivalent widths and redder colors, on average, than the iI and i0-type BCDs. For most of the galaxies the presence of an evolved stellar population is required to explain their observed properties; only the most metal-poor BCDs (e.g. IZw18, Tol65) are still compatible with a pure, young burst. The flux-calibrated and WCS-compliant images in this Atlas are individually available through the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED) image server and collectively through a dedicated web page at http://nedwww.ipac.caltech...

  20. Methylene blue microbubbles as a model dual-modality contrast agent for ultrasound and activatable photoacoustic imaging.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Mansik; Song, Wentao; Huynh, Elizabeth; Kim, Jungho; Kim, Jeesu; Helfield, Brandon L; Leung, Ben Y C; Goertz, David E; Zheng, Gang; Oh, Jungtaek; Lovell, Jonathan F; Kim, Chulhong

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging are highly complementary modalities since both use ultrasonic detection for operation. Increasingly, photoacoustic and ultrasound have been integrated in terms of hardware instrumentation. To generate a broadly accessible dual-modality contrast agent, we generated microbubbles (a standard ultrasound contrast agent) in a solution of methylene blue (a standard photoacoustic dye). This MB2 solution was formed effectively and was optimized as a dual-modality contrast solution. As microbubble concentration increased (with methylene blue concentration constant), photoacoustic signal was attenuated in the MB2 solution. When methylene blue concentration increased (with microbubble concentration held constant), no ultrasonic interference was observed. Using an MB2 solution that strongly attenuated all photoacoustic signal, high powered ultrasound could be used to burst the microbubbles and dramatically enhance photoacoustic contrast (>800-fold increase), providing a new method for spatiotemporal control of photoacoustic signal generation. PMID:24390438

  1. The effect of out-of-plane motion on 2D and 3D digital image correlation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, M. A.; Yan, J. H.; Tiwari, V.; Schreier, H. W.; Orteu, J. J.

    2008-10-01

    The effect of out-of-plane motion (including out-of-plane translation and rotation) on two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) digital image correlation measurements is demonstrated using basic theoretical pinhole image equations and experimentally through synchronized, multi-system measurements. Full-field results obtained during rigid body, out-of-plane motion using a single-camera vision system with (a-1) a standard f55mm Nikon lens and (a-2) a single Schneider-Kreuznach Xenoplan telecentric lens are compared with data obtained using a two-camera stereovision system with standard f55mm Nikon lenses. Results confirm that the theoretical equations are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements. Specifically, results show that (a) a single-camera, 2D imaging system is sensitive to out-of-plane motion, with in-plane strain errors (a-1) due to out-of-plane translation being proportional to ? Z/ Z, where Z is the distance from the object to the pin hole and ? Z the out-of-plane translation displacement, and (a-2) due to out-of-plane rotation are shown to be a function of both rotation angle and the image distance Z; (b) the telecentric lens has an effective object distance, Zeff, that is 50× larger than the 55 mm standard lens, with a corresponding reduction in strain errors from 1250 ?s/mm of out-of-plane motion to 25 ?s/mm; and (c) a stereovision system measures all components of displacement without introducing measurable, full-field, strain errors, even though an object may undergo appreciable out-of-plane translation and rotation.

  2. Semiconductor detectors and focal plane arrays for far-infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogalski, A.

    2013-12-01

    The detection of far-infrared (far-IR) and sub-mm-wave radiation is resistant to the commonly employed techniques in the neighbouring microwave and IR frequency bands. In this wavelength detection range the use of solid state detectors has been hampered for the reasons of transit time of charge carriers being larger than the time of one oscillation period of radiation. Also the energy of radiation quanta is substantially smaller than the thermal energy at room temperature and even liquid nitrogen temperature. The realization of terahertz (THz) emitters and receivers is a challenge because the frequencies are too high for conventional electronics and the photon energies are too small for classical optics. Development of semiconductor focal plane arrays started in seventies last century and has revolutionized imaging systems in the next decades. This paper presents progress in far-IR and sub-mm-wave semiconductor detector technology of focal plane arrays during the past twenty years. Special attention is given on recent progress in the detector technologies for real-time uncooled THz focal plane arrays such as Schottky barrier arrays, field-effect transistor detectors, and microbolometers. Also cryogenically cooled silicon and germanium extrinsic photoconductor arrays, and semiconductor bolometer arrays are considered.

  3. Detection of moving objects in image plane for robot navigation using monocular vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yin-Tien; Sun, Chung-Hsun; Chiou, Ming-Jang

    2012-12-01

    This article presents an algorithm for moving object detection (MOD) in robot visual simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). This MOD algorithm is designed based on the defining epipolar constraint for the corresponding feature points on image plane. An essential matrix obtained using the state estimator is utilized to represent the epipolar constraint. Meanwhile, the method of speeded-up robust feature (SURF) is employed in the algorithm to provide a robust detection for image features as well as a better description of landmarks and of moving objects in visual SLAM system. Experiments are carried out on a hand-held monocular camera to verify the performances of the proposed algorithm. The results show that the integration of MOD and SURF is efficient for robot navigating in dynamic environments.

  4. Large size MOEMS Fabry-Perot interferometer filter for focal plane array hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chee, J.; Hwu, J.; Kim, T. S.; Kubby, J.; Velicu, S.; Gupta, N.

    2015-02-01

    Focal plane array (FPA) technology is mature and is widely used for imaging applications. However, FPAs have broadband responses which limit their ability to provide high performance in hyperspectral applications such as detection of buried explosives, and identifying the presence of explosive chemicals and their concentrations. EPIR is currently developing Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical System (MOEMS) Fabry-Perot interferometer filter (FPF) devices for FPAs. In this paper, we present our approach to MOEMS FPF design and fabrication that will meet the size requirements for large format FPA hyperspectral imaging. We also report the performance of our FPF resonance cavity, capable of up to 3 ?m change gap in tens of nanometer increments.

  5. Automatic standard plane adjustment on mobile C-Arm CT images of the calcaneus using atlas-based feature registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehler, Michael; Görres, Joseph; Wolf, Ivo; Franke, Jochen; von Recum, Jan; Grützner, Paul A.; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Nabers, Diana

    2014-03-01

    Intraarticular fractures of the calcaneus are routinely treated by open reduction and internal fixation followed by intraoperative imaging to validate the repositioning of bone fragments. C-Arm CT offers surgeons the possibility to directly verify the alignment of the fracture parts in 3D. Although the device provides more mobility, there is no sufficient information about the device-to-patient orientation for standard plane reconstruction. Hence, physicians have to manually align the image planes in a position that intersects with the articular surfaces. This can be a time-consuming step and imprecise adjustments lead to diagnostic errors. We address this issue by introducing novel semi-/automatic methods for adjustment of the standard planes on mobile C-Arm CT images. With the semi-automatic method, physicians can quickly adjust the planes by setting six points based on anatomical landmarks. The automatic method reconstructs the standard planes in two steps, first SURF keypoints (2D and newly introduced pseudo-3D) are generated for each image slice; secondly, these features are registered to an atlas point set and the parameters of the image planes are transformed accordingly. The accuracy of our method was evaluated on 51 mobile C-Arm CT images from clinical routine with manually adjusted standard planes by three physicians of different expertise. The average time of the experts (46s) deviated from the intermediate user (55s) by 9 seconds. By applying 2D SURF key points 88% of the articular surfaces were intersected correctly by the transformed standard planes with a calculation time of 10 seconds. The pseudo-3D features performed even better with 91% and 8 seconds.

  6. Image-plane Analysis of n-Point-mass Lens Critical Curves and Caustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan?k, Kamil; Heyrovský, David

    2015-06-01

    The interpretation of gravitational microlensing events caused by planetary systems or multiple stars is based on the n-point-mass lens model. The first planets detected by microlensing were well described by the two-point-mass model of a star with one planet. By the end of 2014, four events involving three-point-mass lenses had been announced. Two of the lenses were stars with two planetary companions each; two were binary stars with a planet orbiting one component. While the two-point-mass model is well understood, the same cannot be said for lenses with three or more components. Even the range of possible critical-curve topologies and caustic geometries of the three-point-mass lens remains unknown. In this paper we provide new tools for mapping the critical-curve topology and caustic cusp number in the parameter space of n-point-mass lenses. We perform our analysis in the image plane of the lens. We show that all contours of the Jacobian are critical curves of re-scaled versions of the lens configuration. Utilizing this property further, we introduce the cusp curve to identify cusp-image positions on all contours simultaneously. In order to track cusp-number changes in caustic metamorphoses, we define the morph curve, which pinpoints the positions of metamorphosis-point images along the cusp curve. We demonstrate the usage of both curves on simple two- and three-point-mass lens examples. For the three simplest caustic metamorphoses we illustrate the local structure of the image and source planes.

  7. Solid-state image sensor with focal-plane digital photon-counting pixel array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A photosensitive layer such as a-Si for a UV/visible wavelength band is provided for low light level imaging with at least a separate CMOS amplifier directly connected to each PIN photodetector diode to provide a focal-plane array of NxN pixels, and preferably a separate photon-counting CMOS circuit directly connected to each CMOS amplifier, although one row of counters may be time shared for reading out the photon flux rate of each diode in the array, together with a buffer memory for storing all rows of the NxN image frame before transfer to suitable storage. All CMOS circuitry is preferably fabricated in the same silicon layer as the PIN photodetector diode for a monolithic structure, but when the wavelength band of interest requires photosensitive material different from silicon, the focal-plane array may be fabricated separately on a different semiconductor layer bump-bonded or otherwise bonded for a virtually monolithic structure with one free terminal of each diode directly connected to the input terminal of its CMOS amplifier and digital counter for integration of the photon flux rate at each photodetector of the array.

  8. An uncooled 1280 x 1024 InGaAs focal plane array for small platform, shortwave infrared imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Battaglia; M. Blessinger; M. Enriquez; M. Ettenberg; M. Evans; K. Flynn; M. Lin; J. Passe; M. Stern; T. Sudol

    2009-01-01

    The increasing demand for short wave infrared (SWIR) imaging technology for soldier-based and unmanned platforms requires camera systems where size, weight and power consumption are minimized without loss of performance. Goodrich, Sensors Unlimited Inc. reports on the development of a novel focal plane (FPA) array for DARPA's MISI (Micro-Sensors for Imaging) Program. This large format (1280 x 1024) array is

  9. Magnetic Prussian blue nanoparticles for targeted photothermal therapy under magnetic resonance imaging guidance.

    PubMed

    Fu, Guanglei; Liu, Wei; Li, Yanyan; Jin, Yushen; Jiang, Lingdong; Liang, Xiaolong; Feng, Shanshan; Dai, Zhifei

    2014-09-17

    This paper reported a core-shell nanotheranostic agent by growing Prussian blue (PB) nanoshells of 3-6 nm around superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanocores for targeted photothermal therapy of cancer under magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments proved that the Fe3O4@PB core-shell nanoparticles showed significant contrast enhancement for T2-weighted MRI with the relaxivity value of 58.9 mM(-1)·s(-1). Simultaneously, the composite nanoparticles exhibited a high photothermal effect under irradiation of a near-infrared laser due to the strong absorption of PB nanoshells, which led to more than 80% death of HeLa cells with only 0.016 mg·mL(-1) of the nanoparticles with the aid of the magnetic targeting effect. Using tumor-bearing nude mice as the model, the near-infrared laser light ablated the tumor effectively in the presence of the Fe3O4@PB nanoparticles and the tumor growth inhibition was evaluated to be 87.2%. Capabilities of MRI, magnetic targeting, and photothermal therapy were thus integrated into a single agent to allow efficient MRI-guided targeted photothermal therapy. Most importantly, both PB and Fe3O4 nanoparticles were already clinically approved drugs, so the Fe3O4@PB nanoparticles as a theranostic nanomedicine would be particularly promising for clinical applications in the human body due to the reliable biosafety. PMID:25109612

  10. Diagnosing malaria infected cells at the single cell level using focal plane array Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wood, Bayden R; Bambery, Keith R; Dixon, Matthew W A; Tilley, Leann; Nasse, Michael J; Mattson, Eric; Hirschmugl, Carol J

    2014-10-01

    New methods are needed to rapidly identify malaria parasites in blood smears. The coupling of a Focal Plane Array (FPA) infrared microscope system to a synchrotron light source at IRENI enables rapid molecular imaging at high spatial resolution. The technique, in combination with hyper-spectral processing, enables imaging and diagnosis of early stage malaria parasites at the single cell level in a blood smear. The method relies on the detection of distinct lipid signatures associated with the different stages of the malaria parasite and utilises resonant Mie extended multiplicative scatter correction to pre-process the spectra followed by full bandwidth image deconvolution to resolve the single cells. This work demonstrates the potential of focal plane technology to diagnose single cells in a blood smear. Brighter laboratory based infrared sources, optical refinements and higher sensitive detectors will soon see the emergence of focal plane array imaging in the clinical environment. PMID:25055796

  11. An image-plane algorithm for JWST's non-redundant aperture mask data

    E-print Network

    Greenbaum, Alexandra Z; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Lacour, Sylvestre

    2014-01-01

    The high angular resolution technique of non-redundant masking (NRM) or aperture masking interferometry (AMI) has yielded images of faint protoplanetary companions of nearby stars from the ground. AMI on James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)'s Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS) has a lower thermal background than ground-based facilites and does not suffer from atmospheric instability. NIRISS AMI images are likely to have 90 - 95% Strehl ratio between 2.77 and 4.8 micron. In this paper we quantify factors that limit the raw point source contrast of JWST NRM. We develop an analytic model of the NRM point spread function which includes different optical path delays (pistons) between mask holes and fit the model parameters with image plane data. It enables a straightforward way to exclude bad pixels, is suited to limited fields of view, and can incorporate effects such as intra-pixel sensitivity variations. We simulate various sources of noise to estimate their effect on the standard deviation of...

  12. Reflectance calibration of focal plane array hyperspectral imaging system for agricultural and food safety applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Kurt C.; Park, Bosoon; Windham, William R.; Mao, Chengye; Poole, Gavin H.

    2003-03-01

    A method to calibrate a pushbroom hyperspectral imaging system for "near-field" applications in agricultural and food safety has been demonstrated. The method consists of a modified geometric control point correction applied to a focal plane array to remove smile and keystone distortion from the system. Once a FPA correction was applied, single wavelength and distance calibrations were used to describe all points on the FPA. Finally, a percent reflectance calibration, applied on a pixel-by-pixel basis, was used for accurate measurements for the hyperspectral imaging system. The method was demonstrated with a stationary prism-grating-prism, pushbroom hyperspectral imaging system. For the system described, wavelength and distance calibrations were used to reduce the wavelength errors to <0.5 nm and distance errors to <0.01mm (across the entrance slit width). The pixel-by-pixel percent reflectance calibration, which was performed at all wavelengths with dark current and 99% reflectance calibration-panel measurements, was verified with measurements on a certified gradient Spectralon panel with values ranging from about 14% reflectance to 99% reflectance with errors generally less than 5% at the mid-wavelength measurements. Results from the calibration method, indicate the hyperspectral imaging system has a usable range between 420 nm and 840 nm. Outside this range, errors increase significantly.

  13. Fast color flow mode imaging using plane wave excitation and temporal encoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udesen, Jesper; Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jorgen A.

    2005-04-01

    In conventional ultrasound color flow mode imaging, a large number (~500) of pulses have to be emitted in order to form a complete velocity map. This lowers the frame-rate and temporal resolution. A method for color flow imaging in which a few (~10) pulses have to be emitted to form a complete velocity image is presented. The method is based on using a plane wave excitation with temporal encoding to compensate for the decreased SNR, resulting from the lack of focusing. The temporal encoding is done with a linear frequency modulated signal. To decrease lateral sidelobes, a Tukey window is used as apodization on the transmitting aperture. The data are beamformed along the direction of the flow, and the velocity is found by 1-D cross correlation of these data. First the method is evaluated in simulations using the Field II program. Secondly, the method is evaluated using the experimental scanner RASMUS and a 7 MHz linear array transducer, which scans a circulating flowrig. The velocity of the blood mimicking fluid in the flowrig is constant and parabolic, and the center of the scanned area is situated at a depth of 40 mm. A CFM image of the blood flow in the flowrig is estimated from two pulse emissions. At the axial center line of the CFM image, the velocity is estimated over the vessel with a mean relative standard deviation of 2.64% and a mean relative bias of 6.91%. At an axial line 5 mm to the right of the center of the CFM image, the velocity is estimated over the vessel with a relative standard deviation of 0.84% and a relative bias of 5.74%. Finally the method is tested on the common carotid artery of a healthy 33-year-old male.

  14. FT-IR spectroscopic imaging microscopy of wheat kernels using a Mercury–Cadmium–Telluride focal-plane array detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Curtis Marcott; Robert C Reeder; Joseph A Sweat; Dia D Panzer; David L Wetzel

    1999-01-01

    A 64×64 Mercury–Cadmium–Telluride (MCT) focal-plane array detector attached to a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microscope was used to spectroscopically image 8-?m-thick cross-sections of wheat kernels in the fingerprint region of the infrared spectrum. After fast-Fourier transformation of the raw image interferograms, the data can be displayed as either a series of spectroscopic images collected at individual wavelengths, or as a

  15. An Image-plane Algorithm for JWST's Non-redundant Aperture Mask Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Pueyo, Laurent; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Lacour, Sylvestre

    2015-01-01

    The high angular resolution technique of non-redundant masking (NRM) or aperture masking interferometry (AMI) has yielded images of faint protoplanetary companions of nearby stars from the ground. AMI on James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)'s Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS) has a lower thermal background than ground-based facilities and does not suffer from atmospheric instability. NIRISS AMI images are likely to have 90%-95% Strehl ratio between 2.77 and 4.8 ?m. In this paper we quantify factors that limit the raw point source contrast of JWST NRM. We develop an analytic model of the NRM point spread function which includes different optical path delays (pistons) between mask holes and fit the model parameters with image plane data. It enables a straightforward way to exclude bad pixels, is suited to limited fields of view, and can incorporate effects such as intra-pixel sensitivity variations. We simulate various sources of noise to estimate their effect on the standard deviation of closure phase, ?CP (a proxy for binary point source contrast). If ?CP < 10-4 radians—a contrast ratio of 10 mag—young accreting gas giant planets (e.g., in the nearby Taurus star-forming region) could be imaged with JWST NIRISS. We show the feasibility of using NIRISS' NRM with the sub-Nyquist sampled F277W, which would enable some exoplanet chemistry characterization. In the presence of small piston errors, the dominant sources of closure phase error (depending on pixel sampling, and filter bandwidth) are flat field errors and unmodeled variations in intra-pixel sensitivity. The in-flight stability of NIRISS will determine how well these errors can be calibrated by observing a point source. Our results help develop efficient observing strategies for space-based NRM.

  16. THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. II. CATALOG OF THE IMAGE DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna BC, V1V 1V7 (Canada); Dunham, Miranda K.; Evans, Neal J.; Harvey, Paul [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Ginsburg, Adam; Bally, John; Battersby, Cara; Glenn, Jason; Stringfellow, Guy S. [CASA, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Bradley, E. Todd [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Aguirre, James [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Cyganowski, Claudia [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Dowell, Darren [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91104 (United States); Drosback, Meredith [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Walawender, Josh [Institute for Astronomy, 640 N. Aohoku Pl., Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Williams, Jonathan P., E-mail: erik.rosolowsky@ubc.c [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    We present a catalog of 8358 sources extracted from images produced by the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS). The BGPS is a survey of the millimeter dust continuum emission from the northern Galactic plane. The catalog sources are extracted using a custom algorithm, Bolocat, which was designed specifically to identify and characterize objects in the large-area maps generated from the Bolocam instrument. The catalog products are designed to facilitate follow-up observations of these relatively unstudied objects. The catalog is 98% complete from 0.4 Jy to 60 Jy over all object sizes for which the survey is sensitive (<3.'5). We find that the sources extracted can best be described as molecular clumps-large dense regions in molecular clouds linked to cluster formation. We find that the flux density distribution of sources follows a power law with dN/dS {proportional_to} S {sup -2.4{+-}0.1} and that the mean Galactic latitude for sources is significantly below the midplane: (b) = (-0.{sup 0}095 {+-} 0.{sup 0}001).

  17. Performance quantification of a millimeter-wavelength imaging system based on inexpensive glow-discharge-detector focal-plane array.

    PubMed

    Shilemay, Moshe; Rozban, Daniel; Levanon, Assaf; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak; Kopeika, Natan S; Yadid-Pecht, Orly; Abramovich, Amir

    2013-03-01

    Inexpensive millimeter-wavelength (MMW) optical digital imaging raises a challenge of evaluating the imaging performance and image quality because of the large electromagnetic wavelengths and pixel sensor sizes, which are 2 to 3 orders of magnitude larger than those of ordinary thermal or visual imaging systems, and also because of the noisiness of the inexpensive glow discharge detectors that compose the focal-plane array. This study quantifies the performances of this MMW imaging system. Its point-spread function and modulation transfer function were investigated. The experimental results and the analysis indicate that the image quality of this MMW imaging system is limited mostly by the noise, and the blur is dominated by the pixel sensor size. Therefore, the MMW image might be improved by oversampling, given that noise reduction is achieved. Demonstration of MMW image improvement through oversampling is presented. PMID:23458816

  18. FISST Based Method for Multi-Target Tracking in the Image Plane of Optical Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yang; Xu, Hui; An, Wei; Xu, Dan

    2012-01-01

    A finite set statistics (FISST)-based method is proposed for multi-target tracking in the image plane of optical sensors. The method involves using signal amplitude information in probability hypothesis density (PHD) filter which is derived from FISST to improve multi-target tracking performance. The amplitude of signals generated by the optical sensor is modeled first, from which the amplitude likelihood ratio between target and clutter is derived. An alternative approach is adopted for the situations where the signal noise ratio (SNR) of target is unknown. Then the PHD recursion equations incorporated with signal information are derived and the Gaussian mixture (GM) implementation of this filter is given. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves significantly better performance than the generic PHD filter. Moreover, our method has much lower computational complexity in the scenario with high SNR and dense clutter. PMID:22736984

  19. Passive uncooled subMMW focal plane array imager for person-borne explosives detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, J. Allen; Higashi, R.; Nusseibeh, F.; Zins, C.

    2011-06-01

    We review our previous work to develop an uncooled subMMW detector capable of achieving an NE?T ~0.5K at 30Hz frame rate and describe our approach to develop a staring subMMW camera based on a 2D array of such detectors. Both predicted and measured results of performance metrics (responsivity, NEP, response time, spectral bandwidth, NE?T) are presented. The measured performance agrees reasonably well with predictions and is consistent with attaining our NE?T goal. Thus far, 1×4 detector arrays have been fabricated, and 1×8 focal plane arrays have been developed and tested. We briefly discuss our vision to achieve a128×128 detector array needed for a practical staring subMMW imager and describe the technology challenges needed to realize it.

  20. Pair-Wise, Deformable Mirror, Image Plane-Based Diversity Electric Field Estimation for High Contrast Coronagraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Give'on, Amir; Kern, Brian D.; Shaklan, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe the complex electric field reconstruction from image plane intensity measurements for high contrast coronagraphic imaging. A deformable mirror (DM) surface is modied with pairs of complementary shapes to create diversity in the image plane of the science camera where the intensity of the light is measured. Along with the Electric Field Conjugation correction algorithm, this estimation method has been used in various high contrast imaging testbeds to achieve the best contrasts to date both in narrow and in broad band light. We present the basic methodology of estimation in easy to follow list of steps, present results from HCIT and raise several open quations we are confronted with using this method. XXXX We have presented a DM diversity based estimation technique for reconstruction of the complex EF in the image plane based on intensity measurements. The method uses a typical diversity methodology with a unique way of achieving the diversity. In this case, the diversity in the EF is done by changing the DM, using pairs of perturbation patterns ( "probes"). This paper described the complete details of how to solve for the EF and proposed various ways to validate the model used. Without an independent measurement of the EF, it is impossible to quantify the accuracy of each reconstruction. However, since this method is used in conjunction with the EFC correction algorithm to sub-nanometer level of correction, it is considered the best estimation technique to date. That said, there are several open questions that are presented in this paper regarding the relationship between coherent and incoherent light throughout correction runs. This estimation technique has been developed for a family of wavefront correction algorithms such as the EFC, 1 Energy Minimization8 and Stroke Minimization, 9 all requiring an estimate of the complex valued wavefront in the image plane. The EFC algorithm and the other image plane intensity measurements based correction algorithms require an estimate of the complex field in the science camera image plane in order to determine the commands of the deformable mirror to minimize the total intensity of light in a predetermined region in the image plane.1 The high contrast needed for Earth-like planet detection determines the requirements from the coronagraph and correction system. In order to avoid non-common path errors this estimation technique uses the deformable mirror (DM) to perturb the electric field (EF) at the DM's plane rather than using an additional optical path with an interferometer. 10 Moreover, a typical high contrast imaging coronagraph has masks along its optical path, as such, methods that require both forward and backward numerical propagation of the EF through the system suffer from non-uniqueness effects and/or large errors due to edge effects. The estimation method described in this paper uses only forward propagation of the EF through the coronagraph. Since the measured quantity at the science camera is the intensity of the EF, a perturbation of the EF is needed in order to retrieve the phase information that was lost. In the case presented here, we take a series of intensity measurements at the science camera plane with different changes to the DM surface (these changes to the EF are referred to as "probes" ) and estimate the EF at the science camera image plane. The modulation scheme we describe in this paper is a sequence of DM shapes with accompanying intensity measurements, each intended to exploit the nonlinear relationship of the intensity measurements to the additive EF due to the change in t he DM, which then allow determination of the EF before the probes were applied. Analogously to a phaseshifting interferometer, taking four intensity measurements with varying phase by multiples of ei1r 12 would allow unambiguous determination of the complex EF in the image plane from intensity measurements alone for every point in the plane simultaneously.1

  1. Blue-Light Reflectance Imaging of Macular Pigment in Infants and Children

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Paul S.; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Liu, Aihua; Ermakov, Igor; Nelson, Kelly; Sheng, Xiaoming; Panish, Cynthia; Carlstrom, Bonnie; Hoffman, Robert O.; Gellermann, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. While the role of the macular pigment carotenoids in the prevention of age-related macular degeneration has been extensively studied in adults, comparatively little is known about the physiology and function of lutein and zeaxanthin in the developing eye. We therefore developed a protocol using a digital video fundus camera (RetCam) to measure macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and distributions in premature infants and in children. Methods. We used blue light reflectance to image the macular pigment in premature babies at the time of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening and in children aged under 7 years who were undergoing examinations under anesthesia for other reasons. We correlated the MPOD with skin carotenoid levels measured by resonance Raman spectroscopy, serum carotenoids measured by HPLC, and dietary carotenoid intake. Results. We enrolled 51 infants and children ranging from preterm to age 7 years. MPOD correlated significantly with age (r = 0.36; P = 0.0142), with serum lutein + zeaxanthin (r = 0.44; P = 0.0049) and with skin carotenoid levels (r = 0.42; P = 0.0106), but not with dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake (r = 0.13; P = 0.50). All premature infants had undetectable macular pigment, and most had unusually low serum and skin carotenoid concentrations. Conclusions. Our most remarkable finding is the undetectable MPOD in premature infants. This may be due in part to foveal immaturity, but the very low levels of serum and skin carotenoids suggest that these infants are carotenoid insufficient as a consequence of low dietary intake and/or severe oxidative stress. The potential value of carotenoid supplementation in the prevention of ROP and other disorders of prematurity should be a fruitful direction for further investigation. PMID:23652486

  2. Band-limited image plane masks for the Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph: materials and designs for broadband performance.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham

    2008-01-10

    Coronagraphs for detection and characterization of exosolar earthlike planets require accurate masks with broadband performance in the visible and near infrared spectrum. Design and fabrication of image plane masks capable of suppressing broadband starlight to 10(-10) level contrast presents technical challenges. We discuss basic approaches, material choices, designs, and fabrication options for image plane masks with particular focus on material properties to obtain adequate spectral performance. Based on theoretical analysis, we show that metals such as Pt and Ni, and alloys such as Inconel, may be employed as promising mask materials that can meet broadband performance requirements. PMID:18188191

  3. [Research on the neas infrared focal plane array detector imaging technology used in the laser warning].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Bin; Huang, Yan-Fei; Wang, Yao-Li; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yan-Chao

    2014-04-01

    In order to achieve the incoming laser's accurate position, it is necessary to improve the detected laser's direction resolution. The InGaAs focal plane array detector with the type of FPA-320 x 256-C was selected as the core component of the diffraction grating laser warning device. The detection theory of laser wavelength and direction based on diffraction grating was introduced. The drive circuit was designed through the analysis of the detector's performance and parameters. Under the FPGA' s timing control, the detector's analog output was sampled by the high-speed AD. The data was cached to FPGA's extended SRAM, and then transferred to a PC through USB. Labview on a PC collects the raw data for processing and displaying. The imaging experiments were completed with the above method. With the wavelength of 1550 nm and 980 nm laser from different directions the diffraction images were detected. Through analysis the location of the zero order and one order can be determined. According to the grating diffraction theory, the wavelength and the direction of the two-dimensional angle can be calculated. It indicates that the wavelength error is less than 10 nm, and the angle error is less than 1 degrees. PMID:25007645

  4. Infrared hyperspectral imaging using a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser and microbolometer focal plane array

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Mark C.; Ho, Nicolas

    2008-02-04

    A versatile mid-infrared hyperspectral imaging system is demonstrated by combining a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser and a microbolometer focal plane array. The tunable mid-infrared laser provided high brightness illumination over a tuning range from 985 cm-1 to 1075 cm-1 (9.30-10.15 ?m). Hypercubes containing images at 300 wavelengths separated by 0.3 cm 1 were obtained in 12 s. High spectral resolution chemical imaging of methanol vapor was demonstrated for both static and dynamic systems. The system was also used to image and characterize multiple component liquid and solid samples.

  5. The coronal plane magnetic resonance imaging measurement of hippocampal formation volume.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hua; Yang, Ming; Cheng, Kai Liang; Fu, Qiang; Tian, Yong; Li, Youqiong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide healthy Chinese adult hippocampal formation volume data for the clinic and diagnoses of the related diseases. Three-dimensional fast spoiled gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging sequence scanning was used in 68 cases of healthy adult brain to gain the image between lateral border of bilateral fourth ventricle and vitreous body. The image then was divided into 10 equal parts in the sagittal plane. We draw the outline and then obtain the area and volume of the hippocampal formation in each part, and the data were analyzed by SPSS 17.0 software. Results of the research showed that the volume of the hippocampal in healthy Chinese adult left side is ? 2319.87 to 2602.47 mm3, right side is ? 2443.96 to 2755.89 mm3; male left side is ? 2135.00 to 2494.29 mm3, right side is ? 2350.21 to 2745.61 mm3; female left side is ? 2328.13 to 2748.41 mm3, right side is ? 2398.41 to 2909.48 mm3. The volume of hippocampal absence correlated with age (P > 0.05), youth group. The volume of hippocampal has significant sexual difference (t = 2.500, P < 0.05). The volumes of the left and right sides have significant difference (t = 2.571, P < 0.05). The female group (middle-age and youth) which the volumes of right-side hippocampal have significant difference (P < 0.05). PMID:24406562

  6. Ultrafast laser beam shaping for material processing at imaging plane by geometric masks using a spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Zheng; Li, Jiangning; Edwardson, Stuart; Perrie, Walter; Liu, Dun; Dearden, Geoff

    2015-07-01

    We have demonstrated an original ultrafast laser beam shaping technique for material processing using a spatial light modulator (SLM). Complicated and time-consuming diffraction far-field phase hologram calculations based on Fourier transformations are avoided, while simple and direct geometric masks are used to shape the incident beam at diffraction near-field. Various beam intensity shapes, such as square, triangle, ring and star, are obtained and then reconstructed at the imaging plane of an f-theta lens. The size of the shaped beam is approximately 20 ?m, which is comparable to the beam waist at the focal plane. A polished stainless steel sample is machined by the shaped beam at the imaging plane. The shape of the ablation footprint well matches the beam shape.

  7. Comparison of conventional parallel beamforming with plane wave and diverging wave imaging for cardiac applications: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Tong, Ling; Gao, Hang; Choi, Hon Fai; D'hooge, Jan

    2012-08-01

    When imaging the heart, good temporal resolution is beneficial for capturing the information of short-lived cardiac phases (in particular, the isovolumetric phases). To increase the frame rate, parallel beamforming is a commonly used technique for fast cardiac imaging. Conventionally, a 4 multiple-line-acquisition (4MLA) system increases the frame rate by a factor of 4, making use of a broadened transmit beam to reduce block-like artifacts. As an alternative, it has been proposed to transmit an unfocused beam (i.e., plane wave or diverging wave) for which a large number of parallel receive beams (i.e., 16) can be formed for each transmit. However, to keep the spatial resolution acceptable in these approaches, spatial compounding of overlapping successive transmits is required. As a result, the effective gain in frame rate is similar to that of a 4MLA system. To date, it remains unclear how conventional 4MLA compares to plane-wave or diverging-wave imaging when operating at similar frame rate. The goal of this study was therefore to directly contrast the performance of these beamforming methods by computer simulation. In this study, the performance of 4 different imaging systems was investigated by quantitatively evaluating the characteristics of their beam profiles. The results showed that the conventional 4MLA and plane wave imaging were very competitive imaging strategies when operating at a similar frame rate. 4MLA performed better in the near field (i.e., 10 to 50 mm), whereas plane-wave imaging had better beam profiles in the far field (i.e., 50 to 90 mm). Although diverging-wave imaging had the poorest performance in the present study, it could potentially be improved by optimizing the settings. PMID:22899113

  8. Multi-beam confocal microscopy based on a custom image sensor with focal-plane pinhole array effect.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Keiichiro; Seo, Min-Woong; Yasutomi, Keita; Terakawa, Susumu; Kawahito, Shoji

    2013-01-28

    Multi-beam confocal microscopy without any physical pinhole was demonstrated. As a key device, a custom CMOS image sensor realizing a focal-plane pinhole array effect by special pixel addressing and discarding of the unwanted photocarriers was developed. The axial resolution in the confocal mode measured by FWHM for a planar mirror was 8.9 ?m, which showed that the confocality has been achieved with the proposed CMOS image sensor. PMID:23389123

  9. Infrared hyperspectral imaging using a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser and microbolometer focal plane array

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark C. Phillips; Nicolas Ho

    2008-01-01

    A versatile mid-infrared hyperspectral imaging system is demonstrated by combining a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser and a microbolometer focal plane array. The tunable mid-infrared laser provided high brightness illumination over a tuning range from 985 cm-1 to 1075 cm-1 (9.30-10.15 m). Hypercubes containing images at 300 wavelengths separated by 0.3 cm 1 were obtained in 12 s.

  10. Performances and reliability tests of AlGaN based focal plane array for deep-UV imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-L. Reverchon; G. Lehoucq; C. Lyoret; J.-P. Truffer; E. Costard; E. Frayssinet; J. Brault; J.-Y. Duboz; A. Giuliani; M. Réfrégier; M. Idir

    2011-01-01

    Some 2D imagers based on AlGaN materials have been developed in the framework of a CNES founded research program to sustain visible blind imagers devoted to solar physics. We have already presented several prototypes of focal plane arrays extending the range of detection from near UV to deep UV [1, 2]. It consists in an array of 320x256 pixels of

  11. Three-component velocity field measurement in confined liquid flows with high-speed digital image plane holography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virginia R. Palero; Julia Lobera; M. Pilar Arroyo

    2010-01-01

    In the last years, several techniques have been developed for the measurement of the three velocity components in a fluid plane or volume. Techniques as stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) or tomographic PIV need a complex set-up and present serious restrictions when applied to confined liquid flows. Other like digital holographic PIV has some limitations in the particle concentration that

  12. Depth-enhanced integral imaging display system with time-multiplexed depth planes using a varifocal liquid lens array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Cheoljoong; Lee, Muyoung; Kim, Junoh; Lee, Jin Su; Won, Yong Hyub

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present a depth enhancing technique for integral imaging (II) system using a varifocal lens array. Expressible depth range of II is restricted in a specific region. If the image gets out of the region, displayed image becomes distorted and broken. The center of the region which called central depth plane (CDP) is defined by the focal length of lens array. In our experiment, liquid lens array is used for II system instead of ordinary solid lens array. The focal length of lens array varies depending on the applied voltage across. As a result, the proposed II system enables control of the location of image planes electrically. With this depth plane controllable system, time multiplexed II system is implemented. For this purpose, two objects of different positions and appropriate voltage level for each object are chosen. In display panel, elemental images for each object are alternately displayed with high frame rate and appropriate voltage levels are applied to the liquid lens array. Because the time period between two sequences is very short, both objects are seems to appear simultaneously. Hence the depth range of the constructed image is enhanced.

  13. Monodansylpentane as a Blue-Fluorescent Lipid-Droplet Marker for Multi-Color Live-Cell Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huei-Jiun; Hsu, Chia-Ling; Yang, Jin-Yi; Yang, Wei Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are dynamic cellular organelles responsible for the storage of neutral lipids, and are associated with a multitude of metabolic syndromes. Here we report monodansylpentane (MDH) as a high contrast blue-fluorescent marker for LDs. The unique spectral properties make MDH easily combinable with other green and red fluorescent reporters for multicolor fluorescence imaging. MDH staining does not apparently affect LD trafficking, and the dye is extraordinarily photo-stable. Taken together MDH represents a reliable tool to use for the investigation of dynamic LD regulation within living cells using fluorescence microscopy. PMID:22396789

  14. Radio images of four luminous blue variable stars R. A. Duncan1P

    E-print Network

    White, Stephen

    , and resolutions of 1 and 2 arcsec respectively. With the partial exception of HR Car, all radio images show II] optical images. The image of WRA 751 shows a stellar torus or disc. HR Car's radio image images of the four hitherto unimaged southern LBVs, AG Car, He3-519, HR Car and WRA 751, all

  15. Design and performance of single photon APD focal plane arrays for 3-D LADAR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itzler, Mark A.; Entwistle, Mark; Owens, Mark; Patel, Ketan; Jiang, Xudong; Slomkowski, Krystyna; Rangwala, Sabbir; Zalud, Peter F.; Senko, Tom; Tower, John; Ferraro, Joseph

    2010-08-01

    ×We describe the design, fabrication, and performance of focal plane arrays (FPAs) for use in 3-D LADAR imaging applications requiring single photon sensitivity. These 32 × 32 FPAs provide high-efficiency single photon sensitivity for three-dimensional LADAR imaging applications at 1064 nm. Our GmAPD arrays are designed using a planarpassivated avalanche photodiode device platform with buried p-n junctions that has demonstrated excellent performance uniformity, operational stability, and long-term reliability. The core of the FPA is a chip stack formed by hybridizing the GmAPD photodiode array to a custom CMOS read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) and attaching a precision-aligned GaP microlens array (MLA) to the back-illuminated detector array. Each ROIC pixel includes an active quenching circuit governing Geiger-mode operation of the corresponding avalanche photodiode pixel as well as a pseudo-random counter to capture per-pixel time-of-flight timestamps in each frame. The FPA has been designed to operate at frame rates as high as 186 kHz for 2 ?s range gates. Effective single photon detection efficiencies as high as 40% (including all optical transmission and MLA losses) are achieved for dark count rates below 20 kHz. For these planar-geometry diffused-junction GmAPDs, isolation trenches are used to reduce crosstalk due to hot carrier luminescence effects during avalanche events, and we present details of the crosstalk performance for different operating conditions. Direct measurement of temporal probability distribution functions due to cumulative timing uncertainties of the GmAPDs and ROIC circuitry has demonstrated a FWHM timing jitter as low as 265 ps (standard deviation is ~100 ps).

  16. Dual-view plane illumination microscopy for rapid and spatially isotropic imaging.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Abhishek; Wu, Yicong; Christensen, Ryan; Chandris, Panagiotis; Gandler, William; McCreedy, Evan; Bokinsky, Alexandra; Colón-Ramos, Daniel A; Bao, Zhirong; McAuliffe, Matthew; Rondeau, Gary; Shroff, Hari

    2014-11-01

    We describe the construction and use of a compact dual-view inverted selective plane illumination microscope (diSPIM) for time-lapse volumetric (4D) imaging of living samples at subcellular resolution. Our protocol enables a biologist with some prior microscopy experience to assemble a diSPIM from commercially available parts, to align optics and test system performance, to prepare samples, and to control hardware and data processing with our software. Unlike existing light sheet microscopy protocols, our method does not require the sample to be embedded in agarose; instead, samples are prepared conventionally on glass coverslips. Tissue culture cells and Caenorhabditis elegans embryos are used as examples in this protocol; successful implementation of the protocol results in isotropic resolution and acquisition speeds up to several volumes per s on these samples. Assembling and verifying diSPIM performance takes ?6 d, sample preparation and data acquisition take up to 5 d and postprocessing takes 3-8 h, depending on the size of the data. PMID:25299154

  17. 320 x 256 Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector Focal Plane Array for Long-Wave Infrared Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Jean; Rafol, Sir B.; Soibel, Alexander; Khoskhlagh, Arezou; Ting, David Z.-Y.; Liu, John K.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2012-01-01

    A 320 x 256 Complementary Barrier Infrared (CBIRD) focal plane array for long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) imaging is reported. The arrays were grown by molecular beam expitaxy (MBE) with a 300 period 1.9 um thick absorber. The mean dark current density of 2.2 x 10-4 A/cm2 was measured at an operating bias of 128 mV with a long wavelength cutoff of 8.8 ?m observed at 50% of the peak. The maximum quantum efficiency was 54% measured at 5.6 ?m. Operating at T = 80K, the array yielded an 81% fill factor with 97% operability. Good imagery with a mean noise equivalent different temperature (NE?T) of 18.6 mK and a mean detectivity of D* = 1.3 x 1011 cm-Hz1/2/W was achieved. The substrate was thinned using mechanical lapping and neither an AR coating nor a passivation layer was applied. This article provides the details of the fabrication process for achieving low-dark current LWIR CBIRD arrays. Discussion for an effective hard mask for excellent pattern transfer is given and appropriate mounting techniques for good thermal contact during the dry etching process is described. The challenges and differences between etching large 200 ?m test diodes and small 28 ?m FPA pixels are given.

  18. Image-plane Analysis of n-point-mass Lens Critical Curves and Caustics

    E-print Network

    Danek, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    The interpretation of gravitational microlensing events caused by planetary systems or multiple stars is based on the n-point mass lens model. The first planets detected by microlensing were well described by the two-point-mass model of a star with one planet. By the end of 2014, four events involving three-point-mass lenses had been announced. Two of the lenses were stars with two planetary companions each; two were binary stars with a planet orbiting one component. While the two-point-mass model is well understood, the same cannot be said for lenses with three or more components. Even the range of possible critical-curve topologies and caustic geometries of the three-point-mass lens remains unknown. In this paper we provide new tools for mapping the critical-curve topology and caustic cusp number in the parameter space of n-point-mass lenses. We perform our analysis in the image plane of the lens. We show that all contours of the Jacobian are critical curves of re-scaled versions of the lens configuration. ...

  19. Light Blue - Dark Blue

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This problem provides students the opportunity to explore fractions in a practical context as well as identify and explain patterns and justify their ideas. Solvers are shown a sequence of five squares shaded light blue and dark blue and are asked to find what fraction of the total area of each square is covered by light blue. They are also asked to work out what the next two squares would look like if they followed the pattern. The Teachers' Notes page offers rationale, suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, and ideas for extension and support.

  20. Imaging with a 90 frames/s microbolometer focal plane array and high-power terahertz free electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Dem'yanenko, M. A.; Esaev, D. G. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Knyazev, B. A.; Vinokurov, N. A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Kulipanov, G. N. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2008-03-31

    An uncooled microbolometer focal plane array (FPA) has been developed and used for imaging of objects illuminated by monochromatic coherent radiation of a free electron laser tunable in the range of 1.25-2.5 THz. A sensitivity threshold of 1.3x10{sup -3} W/cm{sup 2} was obtained for the FPA with a homemade absolute interferometric power meter. Videos up to 90 frames/s were recorded in both transmission and reflection/scattering modes. When objects were illuminated by laser radiation scattered by a rough metal surface, speckled images were observed. Good quality terahertz images were achieved through the fast rotation of the scatterer.

  1. Intensity profile distortion at the processing image plane of a focused femtosecond laser below the critical power: Analysis and counteraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietroy, David; Baubeau, Emmanuel; Faure, Nicolas; Mauclair, Cyril

    2015-03-01

    Femtosecond laser surface processing of materials allows for precise micro or sub-micrometer machining with restricted detrimental side effects. Thus, fine control of the laser intensity distribution (repeatability) in the processing plane is of outmost importance for industrial implementation. In this paper, we study the influence on non-linear effects on the machining quality. We experimentally study the profiles of cavities machined at the image plane of a focused femtosecond laser for a large set of fluences on stainless steel below the critical power. A strong distortion of the cavities is observed for high energetic levels. A beam analysis performed in the machining conditions reveals that the cavity profile follows the laser beam profile even at high fluences where the beam undergoes an increasing distortion. Numerical calculations of the laser beam distribution taking a Kerr effect into account are presented showing a good agreement with the experimental laser profile. To counteract the beam distortion at high fluences, we propose and successfully employ a robust solution consisting in geometrically forming the image processing plane before the laser focusing point. This ensures a beam profile free of distortion even at high fluences. Experimental evidence is made, showing a significant quality increase of the cavity profiles with an image plane placed before the focus point.

  2. In vivo imaging of scattering and absorption properties of exposed brain using a digital red-green-blue camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishidate, Izumi; Yoshida, Keiichiro; Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Sato, Manabu

    2014-03-01

    We investigate a method to estimate the spectral images of reduced scattering coefficients and the absorption coefficients of in vivo exposed brain tissues in the range from visible to near-infrared wavelength (500-760 nm) based on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy using a digital RGB camera. In the proposed method, the multi-spectral reflectance images of in vivo exposed brain are reconstructed from the digital red, green blue images using the Wiener estimation algorithm. The Monte Carlo simulation-based multiple regression analysis for the absorbance spectra is then used to specify the absorption and scattering parameters of brain tissue. In this analysis, the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin and that of deoxygenated hemoglobin are estimated as the absorption parameters whereas the scattering amplitude a and the scattering power b in the expression of ?s'=a?-b as the scattering parameters, respectively. The spectra of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients are reconstructed from the absorption and scattering parameters, and finally, the spectral images of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients are estimated. The estimated images of absorption coefficients were dominated by the spectral characteristics of hemoglobin. The estimated spectral images of reduced scattering coefficients showed a broad scattering spectrum, exhibiting larger magnitude at shorter wavelengths, corresponding to the typical spectrum of brain tissue published in the literature. In vivo experiments with exposed brain of rats during CSD confirmed the possibility of the method to evaluate both hemodynamics and changes in tissue morphology due to electrical depolarization.

  3. Methyl green and nitrotetrazolium blue chloride co-expression in colon tissue: A hyperspectral microscopic imaging analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingli; Liu, Hongying; Wang, Yiting; Sun, Zhen; Guo, Fangmin; Zhu, Jianzhong

    2014-12-01

    Histological observation of dual-stained colon sections is usually performed by visual observation under a light microscope, or by viewing on a computer screen with the assistance of image processing software in both research and clinical settings. These traditional methods are usually not sufficient to reliably differentiate spatially overlapping chromogens generated by different dyes. Hyperspectral microscopic imaging technology offers a solution for these constraints as the hyperspectral microscopic images contain information that allows differentiation between spatially co-located chromogens with similar but different spectra. In this paper, a hyperspectral microscopic imaging (HMI) system is used to identify methyl green and nitrotetrazolium blue chloride in dual-stained colon sections. Hyperspectral microscopic images are captured and the normalized score algorithm is proposed to identify the stains and generate the co-expression results. Experimental results show that the proposed normalized score algorithm can generate more accurate co-localization results than the spectral angle mapper algorithm. The hyperspectral microscopic imaging technology can enhance the visualization of dual-stained colon sections, improve the contrast and legibility of each stain using their spectral signatures, which is helpful for pathologist performing histological analyses.

  4. Computer-aided method for automated selection of optimal imaging plane for measurement of total cerebral blood flow by MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Pang-yu; Bagci, Ahmet Murat; Alperin, Noam

    2009-02-01

    A computer-aided method for finding an optimal imaging plane for simultaneous measurement of the arterial blood inflow through the 4 vessels leading blood to the brain by phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging is presented. The method performance is compared with manual selection by two observers. The skeletons of the 4 vessels for which centerlines are generated are first extracted. Then, a global direction of the relatively less curved internal carotid arteries is calculated to determine the main flow direction. This is then used as a reference direction to identify segments of the vertebral arteries that strongly deviates from the main flow direction. These segments are then used to identify anatomical landmarks for improved consistency of the imaging plane selection. An optimal imaging plane is then identified by finding a plane with the smallest error value, which is defined as the sum of the angles between the plane's normal and the vessel centerline's direction at the location of the intersections. Error values obtained using the automated and the manual methods were then compared using 9 magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) data sets. The automated method considerably outperformed the manual selection. The mean error value with the automated method was significantly lower than the manual method, 0.09+/-0.07 vs. 0.53+/-0.45, respectively (p<.0001, Student's t-test). Reproducibility of repeated measurements was analyzed using Bland and Altman's test, the mean 95% limits of agreements for the automated and manual method were 0.01~0.02 and 0.43~0.55 respectively.

  5. Noise-robust boundary recursive algorithm for super-resolution reconstruction of staring focal plane array micro-scanning imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dun, Xiong; Jin, Weiqi; Lu, Lu

    2015-01-01

    A boundary recursive algorithm for the super-resolution reconstruction of staring focal plane array (FPA) micro-scanning imaging with consideration of a fill ratio-based sampling model is presented. The reconstruction errors of the algorithm introduced by image noise and boundary approximation are analyzed. Then, a modified bilateral filter and gray statistical principle are used in the algorithm to reduce these errors. Simulation and actual imaging experiments confirm that the proposed algorithm has effective noise robustness and can achieve superior results compared to an over-sampled reconstruction in the presence of low noise. This algorithm can achieve ideal sub-pixel imaging and has excellent immunity to noise. Its application will enhance the performance of optoelectronic-imaging systems.

  6. The WIYN one degree imager 2014: performance of the partially populated focal plane and instrument upgrade path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harbeck, Daniel R.; Boroson, Todd; Lesser, Michael; Rajagopal, Jayadev; Yeatts, Andrey; Corson, Charles; Liu, Wilson; Dell'Antonio, Ian; Kotulla, Ralf; Ouellette, David; Hooper, Eric; Smith, Mike; Bredthauer, Richard; Martin, Pierre; Muller, Gary; Knezek, Patricia; Hunten, Mark

    2014-07-01

    The One Degree Imager (ODI) was deployed during the summer of 2012 at the WIYN 3.5m telescope, located on Kitt Peak near Tucson, AZ (USA). ODI is an optical imager designed to deliver atmosphere-limited image quality (? 0.4" FWHM) over a one degree field of view, and uses Orthogonal Transfer Array (OTA) detectors to also allow for on-chip tip/tilt image motion compensation. At this time, the focal plane is partially populated ("pODI") with 13 out of 64 OTA detectors, providing a central scientifically usable field of view of about 24' x 24'; four of the thirteen detectors are installed at outlying positions to probe image quality at all field angles. The image quality has been verified to be indeed better than 0.4'' FWHM over the full field when atmospheric conditions allow. Based on over one year of operations, we summarize pODIs performance and lessons learned. As pODI has proven the viability of the ODI instrument, the WIYN consortium is engaging in an upgrade project to add 12 more detectors to the focal plane enlarging the scientifically usable field of view to about 40' x 40'. A design change in the new detectors has successfully addressed a low light level charge transfer inefficiency.

  7. 3D profile reconstruction of biological sample by in-line image-plane phase-shifting digital microscopic holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaoxu; Chen, Jianpei; Liu, Shengde; Ma, Zhijian; Zhang, Zhun; Zhong, Liyun

    2012-10-01

    To improve the measuring accuracy is an important research content for digital microscopic holography (DMH) development and application. In this study, we have upgraded application of DMH through the in-line image-plane phase-shifting technique and the image correlation algorithm to reconstruct the 3D profile of a biological sample. Importantly, since this novel DMH system can obtain the phase-shifting hologram with a high ratio of signal to noise conveniently, the reconstructed algorithm of DMH and the compensation operation of the phase aberration are simplified significantly. Moreover, by using the image correlation algorithm, the digital phase mask with high precision also can be obtained easily; thus both the measuring accuracy of DMH and the quality of the reconstructed image are improved significantly. More importantly, this kind of in-line image-plane phase-shifting digital microscopic holography provides a powerful imaging tool to simultaneously reconstruct the amplitude and the phase of the measured object with submicron scale resolution.

  8. Plane Groups

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dexter Perkins

    This is a lengthy PDF document (60 pages+) about plane groups and symmetry. It includes colorful images of each of the 17 plane groups, in several different forms. Additionally, there are some summarizing graphics that show unit cells, lattices, symmetry elements, etc. There is lots here to choose from -- I doubt that anyone will want to use all of the images. Studying plane groups is a good way to introduce crystal systems, point groups, lattices, symmetry operators, etc. All is in 2-D, but it is easy to tell students that the principles are the same in 3-D. For those who like to make changes, the PDF document was created from individual EPS files. This means that the files can be opened in Adobe Illustrator, Corel Draw, etc., and modified to fit your own needs.

  9. Blue Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    This Web site is a companion to the Discovery Channel/ BBC television series Blue Planet: Seas of Life. The Web site includes images, games, and expeditions all related to oceanography and marine biology. One feature that is particularly interesting is Ocean Alert, an interactive, current events feature where users can identify the topics that most interest them. News headlines, with links to more complete stories, are organized into twelve topics; users select the topics and area of the world of interest from a rotating map. This site is fun to use and informative, and users may appreciate the options to explore only as in-depth as they choose.

  10. Wave-turbulence interaction of a low-speed plane liquid wall-jet investigated by particle image velocimetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F.-C. Li; Y. Kawaguchi; T. Segawa; K. Suga

    2005-01-01

    The surface-wave amplitude (free-surface level) and the turbulent velocity field of the liquid phase of a plane wall-jet flow have been simultaneously measured by means of particle image velocimetry, which allows for the investigation of surface waves and wave-turbulence interaction. The Reynolds number, Weber number, and Ohnesorge number of the tested flow, based on the bulk velocity, height of the

  11. Three-component velocity field measurement in confined liquid flows with high-speed digital image plane holography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virginia R. Palero; Julia Lobera; M. Pilar Arroyo

    2010-01-01

    In the last years, several techniques have been developed for the measurement of the three velocity components in a fluid\\u000a plane or volume. Techniques as stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) or tomographic PIV need a complex set-up and\\u000a present serious restrictions when applied to confined liquid flows. Other like digital holographic PIV has some limitations\\u000a in the particle concentration that

  12. 1024 × 1024 pixel mid-wavelength and long-wavelength infrared QWIP focal plane arrays for imaging applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S D Gunapala; S V Bandara; J K Liu; C J Hill; S B Rafol; J M Mumolo; J T Trinh; M Z Tidrow; P D LeVan

    2005-01-01

    Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024 × 1024 pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NE?T) of 17 mK at a 95 K operating temperature with f\\/2.5 optics at 300 K background and the LWIR detector array has

  13. Effective readout pixel sensor circuit design for infrared focal plane array and three-dimension image MEMS VLSI system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yun Yang

    2011-01-01

    New three-dimension (3D) readout pixel sensor circuit is proposed in this paper. The readout IC (ROIC) circuit is used in recent uncooled Bolometer infrared (BMIR) image micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS), which can alter Bolometer capacitance instead of traditional resistance value change. Direct infrared light (IR) can focus on Bolometer focal plane array and cause small capacitance variance, which can be detected

  14. Laboratory and field imaging test results on single-color and dual-band QWIP focal plane arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnold Goldberg; Theodore Fischer; Stephen Kennerly; William Beck; Vincent Ramirez; Ken Garner

    2001-01-01

    We report on recent laboratory and field measurements on quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane arrays (FPAs). The results of laboratory measurements of imaging performance such as noise-equivalent temperature difference (NE?T), minimum resolvable temperature, conversion efficiency, uniformity of response and dark current and their dependence on operating temperature are presented on large format (640×480 pixels) single-color long-wavelength infrared (LWIR)

  15. Red, green, and blue gray-value shift-based approach to whole-field imaging for tissue diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Valiyambath Krishnan, Mohankumar; Vadakke Matham, Murukeshan; Krishnan, Sathiyamoorthy; Parasuraman, Padmanabhan; Joseph, James; Bhakoo, Kishore

    2012-07-01

    Identification of abnormal pathology in situ remains one of the challenges of medicine. The interpretation of tissue conditions relies mainly on optical assessment, which can be difficult due to inadequate visual differences or poor color delineation. We propose a methodology to identify regions of abnormal tissue in a targeted area based on red, green, blue (RGB) shift analysis employing a simple CCD color camera and light-emitting diode illumination in a whole-field-imaging scheme. The concept involves analysis of RGB components in an image with respect to a reference set of RGB values under different illumination wavelengths. The magnitude of the gray value shift is estimated by calculating the Euclidean distance between their normalized RGB coordinates. The shift values obtained using these concepts are thereafter used to construct pseudo-colored images with high contrast, enabling easy identification of abnormal areas in the tissue. Images processed from experiments conducted with excised Wistar rat colon sample (lightly doped with Alexafluor 488) and with simulated tumor (cancer cell pellet placed on colon) showed clear localization of tumor region. This proposed approach and methodology is expected to find potential applications for the in vivo diagnosis of disease. PMID:22894493

  16. LEARNING-BASED SCAN PLANE IDENTIFICATION FROM FETAL HEAD ULTRASOUND IMAGES

    E-print Network

    measurements of specific features of fetal anatomy such as the head, abdomen, and femur are used the maternal abdomen until the fetal head is visible in a standard scan plane shown in Figure 1. In this scan

  17. An attempt to estimate out-of-plane lung nodule elongation in tomosynthesis images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chodorowski, Artur; Arvidsson, Jonathan; Söderman, Christina; Svalkvist, Angelica; Johnsson, Šse A.; Bâth, Magnus

    2015-03-01

    In chest tomosynthesis (TS) the most commonly used reconstruction methods are based on Filtered Back Projection (FBP) algorithms. Due to the limited angular range of x-ray projections, FBP reconstructed data is typically associated with a low spatial resolution in the out-of-plane dimension. Lung nodule measures that depend on depth information such as 3D shape and volume are therefore difficult to estimate. In this paper the relation between features from FBP reconstructed lung nodules and the true out-of-plane nodule elongation is investigated and a method for estimating the out-of-plane nodule elongation is proposed. In order to study these relations a number of steps that include simulation of spheroidal-shaped nodules, insertion into synthetic data volumes, construction of TS-projections and FBP-reconstruction were performed. In addition, the same procedure was used to simulate nodules and insert them into clinical chest TS projection data. The reconstructed nodule data was then investigated with respect to in-plane diameter, out-of-plane elongation, and attenuation coefficient. It was found that the voxel value in each nodule increased linearly with nodule elongation, for nodules with a constant attenuation coefficient. Similarly, the voxel value increased linearly with in-plane diameter. These observations indicate the possibility to predict the nodule elongation from the reconstructed voxel intensity values. Such a method would represent a quantitative approach to chest tomosynthesis that may be useful in future work on volume and growth rate estimation of lung nodules.

  18. Active hyperspectral imaging using a quantum cascade laser (QCL) array and digital-pixel focal plane array (DFPA) camera.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Anish; Myers, Travis; Wang, Christine A; Kelly, Michael; Tyrrell, Brian; Gokden, B; Sanchez, Antonio; Turner, George; Capasso, Federico

    2014-06-16

    We demonstrate active hyperspectral imaging using a quantum-cascade laser (QCL) array as the illumination source and a digital-pixel focal-plane-array (DFPA) camera as the receiver. The multi-wavelength QCL array used in this work comprises 15 individually addressable QCLs in which the beams from all lasers are spatially overlapped using wavelength beam combining (WBC). The DFPA camera was configured to integrate the laser light reflected from the sample and to perform on-chip subtraction of the passive thermal background. A 27-frame hyperspectral image was acquired of a liquid contaminant on a diffuse gold surface at a range of 5 meters. The measured spectral reflectance closely matches the calculated reflectance. Furthermore, the high-speed capabilities of the system were demonstrated by capturing differential reflectance images of sand and KClO3 particles that were moving at speeds of up to 10 m/s. PMID:24977536

  19. Searching image in blue jays: Facilitation and interference in sequential priming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan B. Bond; Alan C. Kamil

    1999-01-01

    Repeated exposure to a single target type (sequential priming) during visual search for multiple cryptic targets commonly\\u000a improves performance on subsequent presentations of that target. It appears to be an attentional phenomenon, a component of\\u000a the searching image effect. It has been argued, however, that if searching image is an attentional process, sequential priming\\u000a should also interfere with performance on

  20. Real-time imaging using a 4.3THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 \\/spl times\\/ 240 microbolometer focal-plane array

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan W. M. Lee; Benjamin S. Williams; Sushil Kumar; Qing Hu; John L. Reno

    2006-01-01

    We report the use of a ~50-mW peak power 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser (QCL) as an illumination source for real-time imaging with a 320 times 240 element room-temperature microbolometer focal-plane array detector. The QCL is modulated synchronously with the focal-plane array for differential imaging. Signal-to-noise ratios of ~340 are achieved at a 20-frame\\/s acquisition rate, and the optical noise equivalent

  1. An abuttable CCD imager for visible and X-ray focal plane arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry E. Burke; David C. Harrison; Marshall W. Bautz; John P. Doty; George R. Ricker; Peter J. Daniels

    1991-01-01

    A frame-transfer silicon charge-coupled-device (CCD) imager has been developed that can be closely abutted to other imagers on three sides of the imaging array. It is intended for use in multichip arrays. The device has 420×420 pixels in the imaging and frame-store regions and is constructed using a three-phase triple-polysilicon process. Particular emphasis has been placed on achieving low-noise charge

  2. Multi-color imaging of the bacterial nucleoid and division proteins with blue, orange, and near-infrared fluorescent proteins.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fabai; Van Rijn, Erwin; Van Schie, Bas G C; Keymer, Juan E; Dekker, Cees

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the spatiotemporal protein dynamics within live bacterial cells impose a strong demand for multi-color imaging. Despite the increasingly large collection of fluorescent protein (FP) variants engineered to date, only a few of these were successfully applied in bacteria. Here, we explore the performance of recently engineered variants with the blue (TagBFP), orange (TagRFP-T, mKO2), and far-red (mKate2) spectral colors by tagging HU, LacI, MinD, and FtsZ for visualizing the nucleoid and the cell division process. We find that, these FPs outperformed previous versions in terms of brightness and photostability at their respective spectral range, both when expressed as cytosolic label and when fused to native proteins. As this indicates that their folding is sufficiently fast, these proteins thus successfully expand the applicable spectra for multi-color imaging in bacteria. A near-infrared protein (eqFP670) is found to be the most red-shifted protein applicable to bacteria so far, with brightness and photostability that are advantageous for cell-body imaging, such as in microfluidic devices. Despite the multiple advantages, we also report the alarming observation that TagBFP directly interacts with TagRFP-T, causing interference of localization patterns between their fusion proteins. Our application of diverse FPs for endogenous tagging provides guidelines for future engineering of fluorescent fusions in bacteria, specifically: (1) The performance of newly developed FPs should be quantified in vivo for their introduction into bacteria; (2) spectral crosstalk and inter-variant interactions between FPs should be carefully examined for multi-color imaging; and (3) successful genomic fusion to the 5(')-end of a gene strongly depends on the translational read-through of the inserted coding sequence. PMID:26136737

  3. Multi-color imaging of the bacterial nucleoid and division proteins with blue, orange, and near-infrared fluorescent proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fabai; Van Rijn, Erwin; Van Schie, Bas G. C.; Dekker, Cees

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the spatiotemporal protein dynamics within live bacterial cells impose a strong demand for multi-color imaging. Despite the increasingly large collection of fluorescent protein (FP) variants engineered to date, only a few of these were successfully applied in bacteria. Here, we explore the performance of recently engineered variants with the blue (TagBFP), orange (TagRFP-T, mKO2), and far-red (mKate2) spectral colors by tagging HU, LacI, MinD, and FtsZ for visualizing the nucleoid and the cell division process. We find that, these FPs outperformed previous versions in terms of brightness and photostability at their respective spectral range, both when expressed as cytosolic label and when fused to native proteins. As this indicates that their folding is sufficiently fast, these proteins thus successfully expand the applicable spectra for multi-color imaging in bacteria. A near-infrared protein (eqFP670) is found to be the most red-shifted protein applicable to bacteria so far, with brightness and photostability that are advantageous for cell-body imaging, such as in microfluidic devices. Despite the multiple advantages, we also report the alarming observation that TagBFP directly interacts with TagRFP-T, causing interference of localization patterns between their fusion proteins. Our application of diverse FPs for endogenous tagging provides guidelines for future engineering of fluorescent fusions in bacteria, specifically: (1) The performance of newly developed FPs should be quantified in vivo for their introduction into bacteria; (2) spectral crosstalk and inter-variant interactions between FPs should be carefully examined for multi-color imaging; and (3) successful genomic fusion to the 5?-end of a gene strongly depends on the translational read-through of the inserted coding sequence. PMID:26136737

  4. Perfluoropentane-encapsulated hollow mesoporous prussian blue nanocubes for activated ultrasound imaging and photothermal therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaoqing; Cai, Xiaojun; Chen, Yu; Wang, Shige; Xu, Huixiong; Zhang, Kun; Ma, Ming; Wu, Huixia; Shi, Jianlin; Chen, Hangrong

    2015-03-01

    Hollow mesoporous nanomaterials have gained tremendous attention in the fields of nanomedicine and nanobiotechnology. Herein, n-perfluoropentane (PFP)-encapsulated hollow mesoporous Prussian blue (HPB) nanocubes (HPB-PFP) with excellent colloidal stability have been synthesized for concurrent in vivo tumor diagnosis and regression. The HPB shell shows excellent photothermal conversion efficiency that can absorb near-infrared (NIR) laser light and convert it into heat. The generated heat can not only cause tumor ablation by raising the temperature of tumor tissue but also promote the continuous gasification and bubbling of encapsulated liquid PFP with low boiling point. These formed PFP bubbles can cause tissue impedance mismatch, thus apparently enhancing the signal of B-mode ultrasound imaging in vitro and generating an apparent echogenicity signal for tumor tissues of nude mice in vivo. Without showing observable in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity, the designed biocompatible HPB-PFP nanotheranostics with high colloidal stability and photothermal efficiency are anticipated to find various biomedical applications in activated ultrasound imaging-guided tumor detection and therapy. PMID:25646576

  5. Impacts of Cross-Platform Vicarious Calibration on the Deep Blue Aerosol Retrievals for Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aboard Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Hsu, N. Christina; Kwiatkowska, Ewa J.; Franz, Bryan A.; Meister, Gerhard; Salustro, Clare E.

    2012-01-01

    The retrieval of aerosol properties from spaceborne sensors requires highly accurate and precise radiometric measurements, thus placing stringent requirements on sensor calibration and characterization. For the Terra/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spedroradiometer (MODIS), the characteristics of the detectors of certain bands, particularly band 8 [(B8); 412 nm], have changed significantly over time, leading to increased calibration uncertainty. In this paper, we explore a possibility of utilizing a cross-calibration method developed for characterizing the Terral MODIS detectors in the ocean bands by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ocean Biology Processing Group to improve aerosol retrieval over bright land surfaces. We found that the Terra/MODIS B8 reflectance corrected using the cross calibration method resulted in significant improvements for the retrieved aerosol optical thickness when compared with that from the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer, Aqua/MODIS, and the Aerosol Robotic Network. The method reported in this paper is implemented for the operational processing of the Terra/MODIS Deep Blue aerosol products.

  6. Single-shot visualization of evolving, light-speed structures by multiobject-plane phase-contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengyan; Pai, Chih-Hao; Chang, Yen-Yu; Zgadzaj, Rafal; Wang, Xiaoming; Downer, M C

    2013-12-01

    We demonstrate a single-shot method of visualizing the evolution of light-speed, laser-generated structures as they propagate over hundreds of Rayleigh lengths (typically ?10 cm) through a tenuous medium. An ultrashort probe pulse crosses the object's path at a small angle (?<5°) and a specific time delay. Copies of the phase-modulated probe are then relay-imaged to separate detectors from selected object planes along the propagation path. A phase-contrast technique based on Kerr effect and nonlinear absorption converts phase to intensity modulation, improving sensitivity in tenuous media. A continuous record of the probe phase modulation along the propagation path is reconstructed. PMID:24281534

  7. The nonuniformity measurement and image processing algorithm evaluation for uncooled microbolometer infrared focal plane arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunsheng Qian; BenKang Chang; Junju Zhang; Suxia Xing; Shuizhong Yu; Ji Yang

    2005-01-01

    The great achievements were achieved in the manufacturing of uncooled microbolometer infrared focal plane arrays(UFPA). By this technique infrared system can be made in the formation of small volume, light weight, low price and being portable. It promotes greatly the utilization of infrared system in many fields. The main disadvantage of UFPA is non-uniformity. Despite non-uniformity of UFPA has been

  8. Uncooled Infrared Imaging Using a Substrate-Free Focal-Plane Array

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teng Cheng; Qingchuan Zhang; Xiaoping Wu; Dapeng Chen; Binbin Jiao

    2008-01-01

    A substrate-free 160 times 160 focal-plane array (FPA) with a 60-mum times 60-mum pitch has been developed and used for an optical readout uncooled infrared (IR) detector. The supporting frame of the FPA is a temperature-variable one due to its large decreases in both heat capacity and thermal conductance. This thermal characteristic significantly increases the temperature change of the microcantilever,

  9. Digital pixel CMOS focal plane array with on-chip multiply accumulate units for low-latency image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Jeffrey W.; Tyrrell, Brian M.; D'Onofrio, Richard; Berger, Paul J.; Fernandez-Cull, Christy

    2014-06-01

    A digital pixel CMOS focal plane array has been developed to enable low latency implementations of image processing systems such as centroid trackers, Shack-Hartman wavefront sensors, and Fitts correlation trackers through the use of in-pixel digital signal processing (DSP) and generic parallel pipelined multiply accumulate (MAC) units. Light intensity digitization occurs at the pixel level, enabling in-pixel DSP and noiseless data transfer from the pixel array to the peripheral processing units. The pipelined processing of row and column image data prior to off chip readout reduces the required output bandwidth of the image sensor, thus reducing the latency of computations necessary to implement various image processing systems. Data volume reductions of over 80% lead to sub 10?s latency for completing various tracking and sensor algorithms. This paper details the architecture of the pixel-processing imager (PPI) and presents some initial results from a prototype device fabricated in a standard 65nm CMOS process hybridized to a commercial off-the-shelf short-wave infrared (SWIR) detector array.

  10. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING OF THE OUTBURST SITE OF M31 RV. II. NO BLUE REMNANT IN QUIESCENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Howard E., E-mail: bond@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2011-08-10

    M31 RV is a red transient that erupted in 1988 in the Andromeda bulge, reaching a luminosity intermediate between novae and supernovae. It was cool throughout its outburst, unlike a normal classical nova. In 2006, Bond and Siegel examined archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) optical images of the M31 RV site, obtained in 1999. We found only old red giants at the site and no stars of unusual color. However, Shara et al. recently claimed to have detected (1) a bright UV source within the error box in HST UV images taken in 1995, (2) a hot (T{sub eff} > 40, 000 K) optical source in the same 1999 images that we examined, and (3) cooling of this source from 1999 to 2008. Shara et al. argue that this source's behavior is consistent with a classical-nova outburst occurring on a low-mass white dwarf. I have re-examined all of the HST frames, including new ones obtained in 2009-2010. I find that (1) the bright 1995 UV source reported by Shara et al. was actually due to cosmic rays striking the same pixel in two successive exposures; (2) the claim that an optically bright star in the error box is very hot is actually due to misinterpretation of red-giant colors in the STmagnitude system; (3) there is no evidence for variability of any source within the error box from 1999 to 2010; and (4) there are no stars of unusually blue or red color in the error box. Our 2006 conclusions remain valid: either M31 RV had faded below HST detectability by 1999, or its remnant is an unresolved companion of a red giant in the field, or the remnant is one of the red giants.

  11. Software for simulation of image conversion in IR TDI systems and optimizing TDI focal plane arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergey Orlov; Yury Vinetsky

    2000-01-01

    A program model and relative software tool has been developed allowing to simulate transformations of different physical nature the initial image undergo while passing through electro-optical path of IR TDI system. The program consists of appropriate successively processed units, considering influence of atmosphere, optics, scanning, photodetector (PD) and multiplexer, on initial thermal image. The developed software is intended to be

  12. Lateral modulation boosts image quality in single plane illumination fluorescence microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tobias Breuninger; Klaus Greger; Ernst H. K. Stelzer

    2007-01-01

    A new microscope combines optical sectioning by fluorophore excitation using a single light sheet with structured illumination. Several images with laterally intensity-modulated light sheets are recorded from scattering fluorescent specimens. By applying a simple data processing scheme, the nonmodulated volumes are identified. The blurred features become dark, and the resultant images are improved in terms of contrast and resolution. Hence,

  13. Reliability of InGaAs focal plane array imaging of wheat germination at early stages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hicran Koç; Virgil W. Smail; David L. Wetzel

    2008-01-01

    To assist our Kansas breeding program, we have developed nondestructive methods to test new lines of wheat for resistance to premature germination. The high sensitivity of subsurface imaging, compared with visual detection, ?-amylase determination, or viscosity testing, permits germination detection at early stages. This report is concerned with detection reliability via chemical imaging of intact wheat kernels at early stages

  14. Focal-plane-arrays and CMOS readout techniques of infrared imaging systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-Cheng Hsieh; Chung-Yu Wu; Far-Wen Jih; Tai-Ping Sun

    1997-01-01

    A discussion of CMOS readout technologies for infrared (IR) imaging systems is presented. First, the description of various types of IR detector materials and structures is given. The advances of detector fabrication technology and microelectronics process technology have led to the development of large format array of IR imaging detectors. For such large IR FPAs which is the critical component

  15. Noninvasive imaging of human skin hemodynamics using a digital red-green-blue camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishidate, Izumi; Tanaka, Noriyuki; Kawase, Tatsuya; Maeda, Takaaki; Yuasa, Tomonori; Aizu, Yoshihisa; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Niizeki, Kyuichi

    2011-08-01

    In order to visualize human skin hemodynamics, we investigated a method that is specifically developed for the visualization of concentrations of oxygenated blood, deoxygenated blood, and melanin in skin tissue from digital RGB color images. Images of total blood concentration and oxygen saturation can also be reconstructed from the results of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. Experiments using tissue-like agar gel phantoms demonstrated the ability of the developed method to quantitatively visualize the transition from an oxygenated blood to a deoxygenated blood in dermis. In vivo imaging of the chromophore concentrations and tissue oxygen saturation in the skin of the human hand are performed for 14 subjects during upper limb occlusion at 50 and 250 mm Hg. The response of the total blood concentration in the skin acquired by this method and forearm volume changes obtained from the conventional strain-gauge plethysmograph were comparable during the upper arm occlusion at pressures of both 50 and 250 mm Hg. The results presented in the present paper indicate the possibility of visualizing the hemodynamics of subsurface skin tissue.

  16. Noninvasive imaging of human skin hemodynamics using a digital red-green-blue camera.

    PubMed

    Nishidate, Izumi; Tanaka, Noriyuki; Kawase, Tatsuya; Maeda, Takaaki; Yuasa, Tomonori; Aizu, Yoshihisa; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Niizeki, Kyuichi

    2011-08-01

    In order to visualize human skin hemodynamics, we investigated a method that is specifically developed for the visualization of concentrations of oxygenated blood, deoxygenated blood, and melanin in skin tissue from digital RGB color images. Images of total blood concentration and oxygen saturation can also be reconstructed from the results of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. Experiments using tissue-like agar gel phantoms demonstrated the ability of the developed method to quantitatively visualize the transition from an oxygenated blood to a deoxygenated blood in dermis. In vivo imaging of the chromophore concentrations and tissue oxygen saturation in the skin of the human hand are performed for 14 subjects during upper limb occlusion at 50 and 250 mm Hg. The response of the total blood concentration in the skin acquired by this method and forearm volume changes obtained from the conventional strain-gauge plethysmograph were comparable during the upper arm occlusion at pressures of both 50 and 250 mm Hg. The results presented in the present paper indicate the possibility of visualizing the hemodynamics of subsurface skin tissue. PMID:21895324

  17. Blue Pork

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi; Boyd, David

    2011-05-29

    . Yes. Blue. Shanghai supermarket shoppers were surprised when the pork they brought home recently glowed a faint blue under dim light. An investigation determined that the blue pork wasn't from alien pigs or a genetic modification gone terribly wrong...

  18. Performances and reliability tests of AlGaN based focal plane array for deep-UV imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverchon, J.-L.; Lehoucq, G.; Lyoret, C.; Truffer, J.-P.; Costard, E.; Frayssinet, E.; Brault, J.; Duboz, J.-Y.; Giuliani, A.; Réfrégier, M.; Idir, M.

    2011-11-01

    Some 2D imagers based on AlGaN materials have been developed in the framework of a CNES founded research program to sustain visible blind imagers devoted to solar physics. We have already presented several prototypes of focal plane arrays extending the range of detection from near UV to deep UV [1, 2]. It consists in an array of 320x256 pixels of Schottky photodiodes with a pitch of 30 ?m. AlGaN is grown on a silicon substrate instead of sapphire substrate only transparent down to 200 nm. The use of honeycomb structure has straightened the membrane after hybridization, maintained membrane integrity but decreases the filling factor. After a preliminary study to optimize substrate and AlGaN window layer elimination, 12 focal plane arrays have been fabricated in order to achieve aging and reliability tests based on thermal cycling. Technological analyses such as cross-section, profilometry, microscopy and electrical measurements are presented without showing any ageing effect. We present here the final results with a complete evaluation of quantum efficiency on all the spectral range of interest. A large intrinsic absorption in AlGaN takes place in the 100 nm range where the quantum efficiency decreases down to 1%. Several growth parameters are identified as a key component to avoid cracks in the epitaxial structure and surface electrical traps affecting the quantum efficiency.

  19. Real-time, continuous-wave terahertz imaging using a microbolometer focal-plane array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Qing (Inventor); Min Lee, Alan W. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention generally provides a terahertz (THz) imaging system that includes a source for generating radiation (e.g., a quantum cascade laser) having one or more frequencies in a range of about 0.1 THz to about 10 THz, and a two-dimensional detector array comprising a plurality of radiation detecting elements that are capable of detecting radiation in that frequency range. An optical system directs radiation from the source to an object to be imaged. The detector array detects at least a portion of the radiation transmitted through the object (or reflected by the object) so as to form a THz image of that object.

  20. A 600GHz CMOS focal-plane array for terahertz imaging applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ullrich R. Pfeiffer; E. Ojefors

    2008-01-01

    A 600-GHz single-chip focal-plane array (FPA) has been fully integrated in a 0.25-mum CMOS process technology. The 3times5 array achieves a room temperature responsivity of 50 kV\\/W and a noise equivalent power (NEP) of 400 pW\\/radicHz. Each pixel comprises of an on-chip antenna, an NMOS incoherent power detection circuit based on resistive self-mixing, and a 43-dB amplifier with a 1.6-MHz

  1. QWIP focal plane arrays on InP substrates for single and dual band thermal imagers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. U. Eker; Y. Arslan; M. Kaldirim; C. Besikci

    2009-01-01

    Alternative material systems on InP substrate provide certain advantages for mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR), long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) and dual band MWIR\\/LWIR quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane arrays (FPAs). While InP\\/InGaAs and InP\\/InGaAsP LWIR QWIPs provide much higher responsivity when compared to the AlGaAs\\/GaAs QWIPs, AlInAs\\/InGaAs system facilitates completely lattice matched single band MWIR and dual band MWIR\\/LWIR FPAs.We present

  2. AbstractThe main objective of this work is to track the aortic valve plane in intra-operative fluoroscopic images in

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Abstract²The main objective of this work is to track the aortic valve plane in intra-operative fluoroscopic images in order to optimize and secure Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) procedure. This paper is focused on the issue of aortic valve calcifications tracking in fluoroscopic images. We propose

  3. Smart CMOS focal plane arrays: a Si CMOS detector array and sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter imaging system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youngjoong Joo; M. Thomas; K. S. Chung; M. A. Brooke; N. M. Jokerst; D. S. Wills

    1999-01-01

    This paper evaluates the potential for the real-time utilization of high frame rate image sequences using a fully parallel readout system. Multiple readout architectures for high frame rate imaging are compared. The application domain for a fully parallel readout system is identified, and the design for a fully parallel, monolithically integrated smart CMOS focal plane array is presented. This focal

  4. Subcellular Biochemical Investigation of Purkinje Neurons Using Synchrotron Radiation Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging with a Focal Plane Array Detector

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Coupling Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with focal plane array detectors at synchrotron radiation sources (SR-FTIR-FPA) has provided a rapid method to simultaneously image numerous biochemical markers in situ at diffraction limited resolution. Since cells and nuclei are well resolved at this spatial resolution, a direct comparison can be made between FTIR functional group images and the histology of the same section. To allow histological analysis of the same section analyzed with infrared imaging, unfixed air-dried tissue sections are typically fixed (after infrared spectroscopic analysis is completed) via immersion fixation. This post fixation process is essential to allow histological staining of the tissue section. Although immersion fixation is a common practice in this filed, the initial rehydration of the dehydrated unfixed tissue can result in distortion of subcellular morphology and confound correlation between infrared images and histology. In this study, vapor fixation, a common choice in other research fields where postfixation of unfixed tissue sections is required, was employed in place of immersion fixation post spectroscopic analysis. This method provided more accurate histology with reduced distortions as the dehydrated tissue section is fixed in vapor rather than during rehydration in an aqueous fixation medium. With this approach, accurate correlation between infrared images and histology of the same section revealed that Purkinje neurons in the cerebellum are rich in cytosolic proteins and not depleted as once thought. In addition, we provide the first direct evidence of intracellular lactate within Purkinje neurons. This highlights the significant potential for future applications of SR-FTIR-FPA imaging to investigate cellular lactate under conditions of altered metabolic demand such as increased brain activity and hypoxia or ischemia. PMID:23638613

  5. Subcellular biochemical investigation of purkinje neurons using synchrotron radiation fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging with a focal plane array detector.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Mark J; Borondics, Ferenc; Brown, Devin; Hirschmugl, Carol; Smith, Shari E; Paterson, Phyllis G; Nichol, Helen; Pickering, Ingrid J; George, Graham N

    2013-07-17

    Coupling Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with focal plane array detectors at synchrotron radiation sources (SR-FTIR-FPA) has provided a rapid method to simultaneously image numerous biochemical markers in situ at diffraction limited resolution. Since cells and nuclei are well resolved at this spatial resolution, a direct comparison can be made between FTIR functional group images and the histology of the same section. To allow histological analysis of the same section analyzed with infrared imaging, unfixed air-dried tissue sections are typically fixed (after infrared spectroscopic analysis is completed) via immersion fixation. This post fixation process is essential to allow histological staining of the tissue section. Although immersion fixation is a common practice in this filed, the initial rehydration of the dehydrated unfixed tissue can result in distortion of subcellular morphology and confound correlation between infrared images and histology. In this study, vapor fixation, a common choice in other research fields where postfixation of unfixed tissue sections is required, was employed in place of immersion fixation post spectroscopic analysis. This method provided more accurate histology with reduced distortions as the dehydrated tissue section is fixed in vapor rather than during rehydration in an aqueous fixation medium. With this approach, accurate correlation between infrared images and histology of the same section revealed that Purkinje neurons in the cerebellum are rich in cytosolic proteins and not depleted as once thought. In addition, we provide the first direct evidence of intracellular lactate within Purkinje neurons. This highlights the significant potential for future applications of SR-FTIR-FPA imaging to investigate cellular lactate under conditions of altered metabolic demand such as increased brain activity and hypoxia or ischemia. PMID:23638613

  6. Large scale rock slope release planes imaged by differential ground based InSAR at Randa, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gischig, V.; Loew, S.; Kos, A.; Raetzo, H.

    2009-04-01

    In April and May of 1991 a steep rock slope above the village of Randa (Valais, Switzerland) failed in two events, releasing a total rock volume of 30 million m3. The rock mass behind the back scarp contains several million cubic meters of unstable gneisses and schists which are moving with a maximum rate of about 2 cm/yr. Different geodetic, geotechnical and geophysical techniques were applied to monitor this new instability and to determine its spatial extent. However, the boundaries of the instability could only be roughly estimated so far. For this reason five ground based differential InSAR surveys (GB-DInSAR) were carried out between 2005 and 2007 from the opposite valley flank at a distance to target of 1.3 to 1.9 km. These surveys provide displacements maps of four different time intervals with a spatial resolution of 2 to 6 m and an accuracy of less than 1 mm. These datasets reveal interesting new insights into the spatial distribution of displacements and significantly contribute to the kinematic interpretation of the ongoing movements. We found that the lower boundary of the instability is a narrow rupture plane which coincides with a primary lithological boundary on the slope. The intersection line between this basal rupture plane and the steep rock cliff extents over at least 200 m meters. It is possible to identify this structure on helicopter-based high resolution images and a LiDAR DTM of the failure surface. The eastern boundary of the instability also presents itself as a sharp line separating stable bedrock from a strongly fractured rock mass moving about 1 cm/yr along the line of sight. This lateral release plane is formed by a steeply east dipping tectonic fault plane, with subhorizontal striations and an exposed surface area of about 10'000 square meters. In the north-east of the instability the lateral boundaries crop out on surfaces that have an acute angle to the line of sight or lie in the shadow of the radar. Here the boundaries of the instability most probably correlate with faults which were mapped on the surface or can be seen on the DTM. Inside the moving rock mass several discrete structures can be identified along which active movements take place. In this contribution we discuss the ability of GB-DInSAR to detect release planes and active fractures of large scale landslides in fractured rock masses, which is not possible with any other method in inaccessible terrain. The identification of such structures provides essential information for kinematic analysis and the understanding of failure mechanisms in fractured rock masses.

  7. VLSI implementation of a focal plane image processor-a realization of the near-sensor image processing concept

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan-erik Eklund; Christer Svensson; Anders Åström

    1996-01-01

    The near-sensor image processing concept, which has earlier been theoretically described, is here verified with an implementation. The NSIP describes a method to implement a two-dimensional (2-D) image sensor array with processing capacity in every pixel. Traditionally, there is a contradiction between high spatial resolution and complex processor elements, In the NSIP concept we have a nondestructive photodiode readout and

  8. Radiation Channels Close to a Plasmonic Nanowire Visualized by Back Focal Plane Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Nicolai; Piatkowski, Dawid; Ciesielski, Richard; Mackowski, Sebastian; Hartschuh, Achim

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the angular radiation patterns, a key characteristic of an emitting system, from individual silver nanowires decorated with rare earth ion-doped nanocrystals. Back focal plane radiation patterns of the nanocrystal photoluminescence after local two-photon excitation can be described by two emission channels: Excitation of propagating surface plasmons in the nanowire followed by leakage radiation and direct dipolar emission observed also in the absence of the nanowire. Theoretical modeling reproduces the observed radiation patterns which strongly depend on the position of excitation along the nanowire. Our analysis allows to estimate the branching ratio into both emission channels and to determine the diameter dependent surface plasmon quasi-momentum, important parameters of emitter-plasmon structures. PMID:24131299

  9. Monolithic focal plane arrays for terahertz active spectroscopic imaging: an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortolani, Michele; Casini, Roberto; Chiarello, Fabio; Cibella, Sara; Di Gaspare, Alessandra; Evangelisti, Florestano; Foglietti, Vittorio; Giovine, Ennio; Leoni, Roberto; Torrioli, Guido; Tredicucci, Alessandro; Vitiello, Miriam S.; Scamarcio, Gaetano

    2011-01-01

    Imaging arrays of direct detectors in the 0.5-5 THz range are being experimentally developed. Terahertz active imaging with amplitude-modulated quantum cascade lasers emitting at 2.5 and 4.4 THz performed by using an antenna-coupled superconducting microbolometer. We then present two room-temperature terahertz detector technologies compatible with monolithic arrays: i) GaAs Schottky diodes with air-bridge sub-micron anodes; ii) high electron mobility transistors with sub-micron Schottky gate. Performances, requirements and fabrication costs of the different detector technologies are compared.

  10. Granular solid formulation commodity mixture uniformity revealed via InSb focal plane array chemical imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Wetzel; Mark D. Boatwright; Lauren R. Brewer

    2010-01-01

    In the formula feed industry, sufficient mixing is essential to produce uniformity in blended mixtures of solid ground maize or sorghum with protein supplement and other components. Excess mixing is a waste of energy and time, adding cost to the process. We use near-IR imaging to assess adequate mixing as an alternative to inorganic tracers with density and flow characteristics

  11. A plane intersect method for estimating fine root productivity of trees from minirhizotron images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Y. Bernier; Gilles Robitaille

    2004-01-01

    The advent of minirhizotrons more than a decade ago has made the careful and widespread study of fine root dynamics of trees possible. However, to this day, the estimation of fine root productivity in terms of mass production per unit of ground surface from the minirhizotron data remains hampered by the difficulty in transforming images of roots captured along a

  12. Image method for the derivation of point sources in elastostatic problems with plane interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fares, Nabil; Li, Victor C.

    1986-01-01

    An image method algorithm is presented for the derivation of point sources of elastostatics in multilayered media assuming the infinite space point source is known. Specific cases were worked out and shown to coincide with well known solutions in the literature.

  13. Inverted selective plane illumination microscopy (iSPIM) enables coupled cell identity lineaging and neurodevelopmental imaging in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yicong; Ghitani, Alireza; Christensen, Ryan; Santella, Anthony; Du, Zhuo; Rondeau, Gary; Bao, Zhirong; Colón-Ramos, Daniel; Shroff, Hari

    2011-01-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans embryo is a powerful model for studying neural development, but conventional imaging methods are either too slow or phototoxic to take full advantage of this system. To solve these problems, we developed an inverted selective plane illumination microscopy (iSPIM) module for noninvasive high-speed volumetric imaging of living samples. iSPIM is designed as a straightforward add-on to an inverted microscope, permitting conventional mounting of specimens and facilitating SPIM use by development and neurobiology laboratories. iSPIM offers a volumetric imaging rate 30× faster than currently used technologies, such as spinning-disk confocal microscopy, at comparable signal-to-noise ratio. This increased imaging speed allows us to continuously monitor the development of C, elegans embryos, scanning volumes every 2 s for the 14-h period of embryogenesis with no detectable phototoxicity. Collecting ?25,000 volumes over the entirety of embryogenesis enabled in toto visualization of positions and identities of cell nuclei. By merging two-color iSPIM with automated lineaging techniques we realized two goals: (i) identification of neurons expressing the transcription factor CEH-10/Chx10 and (ii) visualization of their neurodevelopmental dynamics. We found that canal-associated neurons use somal translocation and amoeboid movement as they migrate to their final position in the embryo. We also visualized axon guidance and growth cone dynamics as neurons circumnavigate the nerve ring and reach their targets in the embryo. The high-speed volumetric imaging rate of iSPIM effectively eliminates motion blur from embryo movement inside the egg case, allowing characterization of dynamic neurodevelopmental events that were previously inaccessible. PMID:22006307

  14. State of Detector Development for the WIYN One Degree Imager: Deploying a Partially Populated Focal Plane in Summer 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harbeck, Daniel R.; Boroson, T.; Lesser, M.

    2012-01-01

    The deployment of the WIYN One Degree Imager (ODI) was delayed due to issues with the production of its Orthogonal Transfer Array (OTA) detectors. OTA detectors allow moving charge in the detector area during an ongoing science integration to compensate for image motion caused by either telescope guide errors or atmospheric turbulence. In 2011 a small experimental foundry run with a modified design has yielded at least 14 devices that meet science requirements for conventional static imaging mode. Active correction of telescope guide errors by the detectors will be achievable with some precautions during operation, whereas atmospheric motion correction will remain limited to a technical demonstration due to persistent amplifier glow. In this poster we describe the characteristics of these devices and present a plan for the deployment of ODI with a partially populated focal plane (pODI) at the WIYN telescope in the second half of 2012. pODI will be used to characterize the performance of the ODI instrument and will be used for science operations while the future development options for OTA detectors are considered.

  15. Nanostructure morphology and atomically resolved images of chains and planes of YBCO single crystals grown with different additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narlikar, A. V.; Samanta, S. B.; Changkang, Chen; Yongle, Hu; Hodby, J. W.; Wanklyn, B. M.

    1996-01-01

    Bulk single crystals of superconducting YBCO (YBa 2Cu 3O 7), grown with incorporation of different additives like BaF 2, B 2O 3 and Bi 2O 3, have been investigated to gain an insight into the problem of combating Tc degradation due to aluminium contamination from the crucible material. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) along with Tc values of the above crystals, shows that, with BaF 2 introduced as additive, the contamination due to aluminium is significantly reduced, which improves crystal growth and superconductivity. The crystals have been subjected to high resolution imaging of planes and chains using STM, while the ensuing changes in the conductance spectra of chains due to Al contamination were studied by scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS). The contamination of Cu?O chains is corroborated by chains becoming quasi-insulating on account of substitutional disorder, and also by the increase in their surface roughness at the atomic level. The effect of additives is discussed and the observed Tc variation is linked with the relative changes in the adulteration and disordering of Cu?O chains. The results are in general accord with the role of interlayer coupling between CuO 2 planes and other effects that are known to control the Tc of layered cuprates.

  16. Synchrotron infrared confocal microspectroscopic spatial resolution or a customized synchrotron/focal plane array system enhances chemical imaging of biological tissue or cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzel, David L.; Nasse, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    Spectroscopy and spatially resolved chemical imaging of biological materials using an infrared microscope is greatly enhanced with confocal image plane masking to 5-6 ?m with a third generation microspectrometer and illumination with a synchrotron radiation source compared to globar illuminated and array detection or singly masked system. Steps toward this instrumental achievement are illustrated with spectra and images of biological tissue sections, including single cells, brain, aorta, and grain specimens. A recent, customized synchrotron infrared microspectrometer installation enables focal plane array detection to achieve both rapid and high definition chemical imaging. Localization of the ester carbonyl population in single modified starch granules was used to provide direct comparison of the two advanced imaging capabilities.

  17. Can noninvasive imaging tools potentially predict the risk of ulceration in invasive melanomas showing blue and black colors?

    PubMed

    Longo, Caterina; Farnetani, Francesca; Moscarella, Elvira; de Pace, Barbara; Ciardo, Silvana; Ponti, Giovanni; Piana, Simonetta; Cesinaro, Anna M; Cota, Carlo; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Rosendahl, Cliff; Pellacani, Giovanni; Zalaudek, Iris

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reflectance microscopy and histopathologic correlates of dermoscopic blue and black color (BB) in a series of melanomas. We searched our database for dermoscopic images of histopathologically diagnosed pigmented nodular melanomas (pNM), superficial spreading melanomas with a nodular component (SSM+Nod), and melanoma metastasis (METs). All cases were assessed for the presence of dermoscopic BB. Confocal microscopy findings were then compared with those of histopathology. A total of 17 BB-positive tumors including eight pNMs, five SSM+Nod, and four METs were included in the study. We identified two different dermoscopic patterns associated with black color, namely, large black blotches and irregular black dots/globules, which corresponded to two different confocal and histopathologic findings. Black blotches resulted from a total filling of the epidermis by an upward migration of melanocyte nests and pagetoid melanocytes as single cells and clusters, whereas black dots/globules also corresponded to the upward migration of melanocyte nests in the epidermis and pagetoid spread, but with sparing of intervening areas of epidermis. Interestingly, two pNM and two METs showing black color lacked any epidermal involvement and, instead, they were characterized by upward-bulging dermal masses of atypical melanocytes covered by an highly attenuated epidermis. In both cases, black color corresponded to pigment-containing melanocytes in close proximity to the surface of the skin. Our study suggests that black color results not only from epidermal melanin but also from a dense dermal proliferation of pigmented melanocytes under a thinned epidermis. It seems reasonable to suggest that a bulging proliferation of dermal melanocytes beneath a thin epidermal layer could precede ulceration. As ulceration is a very significant prognostic factor, speculation arising from this study that dermoscopic black color may in some cases indicate incipient ulceration is worthy of further study. PMID:23358425

  18. Imaging in-plane and normal stresses near an interface crack using traction force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ye; Engl, Wilfried C.; Jerison, Elizabeth R.; Wallenstein, Kevin J.; Hyland, Callen; Wilen, Larry A.; Dufresne, Eric R.

    2010-01-01

    Colloidal coatings, such as paint, are all around us. However, we know little about the mechanics of the film-forming process because the composition and properties of drying coatings vary dramatically in space and time. To surmount this challenge, we extend traction force microscopy to quantify the spatial distribution of all three components of the stress at the interface of two materials. We apply this approach to image stress near the tip of a propagating interface crack in a drying colloidal coating and extract the stress intensity factor. PMID:20696929

  19. Elasticity imaging of arterial wall with transcutaneous ultrasound both in longitudinal-axis and short-axis planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanai, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Hideyuki

    2001-05-01

    A method for measuring regional elasticity of tissue surrounding atherosclerotic plaque is described. An ultrasonic beam was scanned with a conventional linear-type probe, and multiple layers were preset from luminal surface to adventitia of the common carotid artery (CCA) with intervals of 375 ?m. By applying the method [IEEE Trans. UFFC 46, 1229-1241 (1999)], a minute decrease of several tenths of a micrometer in thickness of each layer resulting from arrival of the pressure wave was determined. By assuming that the arterial wall is incompressible and that the blood pressure is applied normal to each layer, the elastic modulus in the circumferential direction of each layer was estimated at intervals of 75 ?m in the radial direction and 150-300 ?m in longitudinal direction. On the other hand, by designing the directions of ultrasonic beams so that each beam always passes through the center of the artery, the cross-sectional elasticity image in the short-axis plane was also obtained. Based on the elasticity library determined by comparing the elasticity distribution and their pathological images, each point was statistically categorized as lipid, a mixture of smooth muscle and collagen fiber, or other. By applying the method to the CCAs, soft inclusion of lipid was found for plaques.

  20. Identification and Quantification of Microplastics in Wastewater Using Focal Plane Array-Based Reflectance Micro-FT-IR Imaging.

    PubMed

    Tagg, Alexander S; Sapp, Melanie; Harrison, Jesse P; Ojeda, Jesús J

    2015-06-16

    Microplastics (<5 mm) have been documented in environmental samples on a global scale. While these pollutants may enter aquatic environments via wastewater treatment facilities, the abundance of microplastics in these matrices has not been investigated. Although efficient methods for the analysis of microplastics in sediment samples and marine organisms have been published, no methods have been developed for detecting these pollutants within organic-rich wastewater samples. In addition, there is no standardized method for analyzing microplastics isolated from environmental samples. In many cases, part of the identification protocol relies on visual selection before analysis, which is open to bias. In order to address this, a new method for the analysis of microplastics in wastewater was developed. A pretreatment step using 30% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was employed to remove biogenic material, and focal plane array (FPA)-based reflectance micro-Fourier-transform (FT-IR) imaging was shown to successfully image and identify different microplastic types (polyethylene, polypropylene, nylon-6, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene). Microplastic-spiked wastewater samples were used to validate the methodology, resulting in a robust protocol which was nonselective and reproducible (the overall success identification rate was 98.33%). The use of FPA-based micro-FT-IR spectroscopy also provides a considerable reduction in analysis time compared with previous methods, since samples that could take several days to be mapped using a single-element detector can now be imaged in less than 9 h (circular filter with a diameter of 47 mm). This method for identifying and quantifying microplastics in wastewater is likely to provide an essential tool for further research into the pathways by which microplastics enter the environment. PMID:25986938

  1. Miniaturized imaging spectrometer based on Fabry-Perot MOEMS filters and HgCdTe infrared focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velicu, S.; Buurma, C.; Bergeson, J. D.; Kim, Tae Sung; Kubby, J.; Gupta, N.

    2014-05-01

    Imaging spectrometry can be utilized in the midwave infrared (MWIR) and long wave infrared (LWIR) bands to detect, identify and map complex chemical agents based on their rotational and vibrational emission spectra. Hyperspectral datasets are typically obtained using grating or Fourier transform spectrometers to separate the incoming light into spectral bands. At present, these spectrometers are large, cumbersome, slow and expensive, and their resolution is limited by bulky mechanical components such as mirrors and gratings. As such, low-cost, miniaturized imaging spectrometers are of great interest. Microfabrication of micro-electro-mechanicalsystems (MEMS)-based components opens the door for producing low-cost, reliable optical systems. We present here our work on developing a miniaturized IR imaging spectrometer by coupling a mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe)-based infrared focal plane array (FPA) with a MEMS-based Fabry-Perot filter (FPF). The two membranes are fabricated from silicon-oninsulator (SOI) wafers using bulk micromachining technology. The fixed membrane is a standard silicon membrane, fabricated using back etching processes. The movable membrane is implemented as an X-beam structure to improve mechanical stability. The geometries of the distributed Bragg reflector (DBR)-based tunable FPFs are modeled to achieve the desired spectral resolution and wavelength range. Additionally, acceptable fabrication tolerances are determined by modeling the spectral performance of the FPFs as a function of DBR surface roughness and membrane curvature. These fabrication non-idealities are then mitigated by developing an optimized DBR process flow yielding high-performance FPF cavities. Zinc Sulfide (ZnS) and Germanium (Ge) are chosen as the low and the high index materials, respectively, and are deposited using an electron beam process. Simulations are presented showing the impact of these changes and non-idealities in both a device and systems level.

  2. Focal Plane Detectors for the Advanced Gamma-Ray Imaging System (AGIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Otte, A. N.; Williams, D. A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (United States); Byrum, K.; Drake, G.; Horan, D.; Smith, A.; Wagner, R. G. [Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Falcone, A. [Pennsylvania State University (United States); Funk, S.; Tajima, H. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (United States); Mukherjee, R. [Barnard College (United States)

    2008-12-24

    The Advanced Gamma-Ray Imaging System (AGIS) is a concept for the next generation observatory in ground-based very high energy gamma-ray astronomy. Design goals are ten times better sensitivity, higher angular resolution, and a lower energy threshold than existing Cherenkov telescopes. Simulations show that a substantial improvement in angular resolution may be achieved if the pixel diameter is reduced to the order of 0.05 deg, i.e. two to three times smaller than the pixel diameter of current Cherenkov telescope cameras. At these dimensions, photon detectors with smaller physical dimensions can be attractive alternatives to the classical photomultiplier tube (PMT). Furthermore, the operation of an experiment with the size of AGIS requires photon detectors that are among other things more reliable, more durable, and possibly higher efficiency photon detectors. Alternative photon detectors we are considering for AGIS include both silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) and multi-anode photomultipliers (MAPMTs). Here we present results from laboratory testing of MAPMTs and SiPMs along with results from the first incorporation of these devices into cameras on test bed Cherenkov telescopes.

  3. An Indium Gallium Arsenide Visible/SWIR Focal Plane Array for Low Light Level Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marshall J.; Ettenberg, Martin H.; Lange, Michael J.; Olsen, Gregory H.

    1999-01-01

    PIN photodiodes fabricated from indium gallium arsenide lattice-matched to indium phosphide substrates (In(.53)Ga(.47)As/InP) exhibit low reverse saturation current densities (JD < 10(exp -8) A/sq cm), and high shunt resistance-area products (RoA > 10(exp 6) omega-sq cm) at T=290K. Backside-illuminated, hybrid-integrated InGaAs FPAs are sensitive from 0.9 micrometers to 1.7 micrometers. 290K detectivities, D(*), greater than 10(exp 14) cm-(square root of Hz/W) are demonstrated. This represents the highest room temperature detectivity of any infrared material. The long wavelength cutoff (1.7 micrometers) makes In(.53)Ga(.47)As an idea match to the available airglow that has major peaks at 1.3 micrometers and 1.6 micrometers. The short wavelength 'cut-on' at 0.9 micrometers is due to absorption in the InP substrate. We will report on new InGaAs FPA epitaxial structures and processing techniques. These have resulted in improved performance in the form of a 10 x increase in detectivity and visible response via removal of the InP substrate. The resulting device features visible and SWIR response with greater than 15% quantum efficiency at 0.5 micrometers while maintaining the long wavelength cutoff. Imaging has been demonstrated under overcast starlight/urban glow conditions with cooling provided by a single stage thermoelectric cooler. Details on the material structure and device fabrication, quantitative characterization of spectral response and detectivity, as well as examples of night vision imagery are presented.

  4. Real-time out-of-plane artifact subtraction tomosynthesis imaging using prior CT for scanning beam digital x-ray system

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Meng, E-mail: mengwu@stanford.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Fahrig, Rebecca [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: The scanning beam digital x-ray system (SBDX) is an inverse geometry fluoroscopic system with high dose efficiency and the ability to perform continuous real-time tomosynthesis in multiple planes. This system could be used for image guidance during lung nodule biopsy. However, the reconstructed images suffer from strong out-of-plane artifact due to the small tomographic angle of the system. Methods: The authors propose an out-of-plane artifact subtraction tomosynthesis (OPAST) algorithm that utilizes a prior CT volume to augment the run-time image processing. A blur-and-add (BAA) analytical model, derived from the project-to-backproject physical model, permits the generation of tomosynthesis images that are a good approximation to the shift-and-add (SAA) reconstructed image. A computationally practical algorithm is proposed to simulate images and out-of-plane artifacts from patient-specific prior CT volumes using the BAA model. A 3D image registration algorithm to align the simulated and reconstructed images is described. The accuracy of the BAA analytical model and the OPAST algorithm was evaluated using three lung cancer patients’ CT data. The OPAST and image registration algorithms were also tested with added nonrigid respiratory motions. Results: Image similarity measurements, including the correlation coefficient, mean squared error, and structural similarity index, indicated that the BAA model is very accurate in simulating the SAA images from the prior CT for the SBDX system. The shift-variant effect of the BAA model can be ignored when the shifts between SBDX images and CT volumes are within ±10 mm in the x and y directions. The nodule visibility and depth resolution are improved by subtracting simulated artifacts from the reconstructions. The image registration and OPAST are robust in the presence of added respiratory motions. The dominant artifacts in the subtraction images are caused by the mismatches between the real object and the prior CT volume. Conclusions: Their proposed prior CT-augmented OPAST reconstruction algorithm improves lung nodule visibility and depth resolution for the SBDX system.

  5. Blue Bonnet 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    Blue copper proteins have long held the interest of inorganic chemists, partially because of the interesting spectroscopic properties of the proteins and partially because of the difficulty in synthesizing an inorganic model complex that mimics...

  6. Automated system for the production of image-planed white-light-viewable holograms by pulsed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grichine, Mikhail V.; Rodin, Alexey M.; Ratcliffe, David B.; Skokov, Gleb R.

    1999-03-01

    We present details of a compact highly automated pulsed holographic camera system designed for the rapid production of image-planed white-light-viewable reflection holograms up to a size of 40 X 60 cm. The camera operates in two modes: Mastering and Copying. In the mastering mode a holographic plate (40 cm X 60 cm VRP-M Slavich) is placed in a special plate holder at the front of the main camera unit and two diffusers either side of this plate illuminate the object/subject to be holographed. The reference beam exits from the back of the main camera unit and is directed onto the plate by two small overhead mirrors. In copying mode, a processed holographic master is placed in a special rig and a new plate (VRP-M Slavich) having a size up to 40 cm X 60 cm is placed opposite and parallel to this master. In this mode two beams exit the main camera body at opposite sides and are directed by small tripod-mounted mirrors to illuminate the master and copy plates. The camera system is highly automated, providing instant switch-over from copying to mastering modes and permits digital electronic setting of all beam ratios. Machine options currently under development are discussed which include high-speed film copying and a digital mastering interface.

  7. Laboratory and field imaging test results on single-color and dual-band QWIP focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Arnold; Fischer, Theodore; Kennerly, Stephen; Beck, William; Ramirez, Vincent; Garner, Ken

    2001-06-01

    We report on recent laboratory and field measurements on quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane arrays (FPAs). The results of laboratory measurements of imaging performance such as noise-equivalent temperature difference (NE ?T), minimum resolvable temperature, conversion efficiency, uniformity of response and dark current and their dependence on operating temperature are presented on large format (640×480 pixels) single-color long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) and dual-band (256×256 pixels) mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR)/LWIR arrays. We found that under optimum operating conditions (65 K and 1 V bias), the NE ?T of the LWIR FPA was approximately 30 mK and was limited by the optics and noise from the closed-cycle cooler. We will show field imagery of military targets taken with this FPA. In addition, field imagery taken with the LWIR QWIP camera of a large-transient event will be compared with that taken with an InSb MWIR camera. We will also show imagery of a recent total eclipse of the moon. We will also present laboratory results on a simultaneously integrating, pixel-registered dual-band FPA showing excellent operability and response uniformity with NE ?T of approximately 30 mK in both bands ( T=60 K). The dual-band FPA was also taken to the field and we will present imagery of various targets acquired with this FPA.

  8. Advancing Optical Imaging for Breast Margin Assessment: An Analysis of Excisional Time, Cautery, and Patent Blue Dye on Underlying Sources of Contrast

    PubMed Central

    Bydlon, Torre M.; Barry, William T.; Kennedy, Stephanie A.; Brown, J. Quincy; Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Wilke, Lee G.; Geradts, Joseph; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2012-01-01

    Breast conserving surgery (BCS) is a recommended treatment for breast cancer patients where the goal is to remove the tumor and a surrounding rim of normal tissue. Unfortunately, a high percentage of patients return for additional surgeries to remove all of the cancer. Post-operative pathology is the gold standard for evaluating BCS margins but is limited due to the amount of tissue that can be sampled. Frozen section analysis and touch-preparation cytology have been proposed to address the surgical needs but also have sampling limitations. These issues represent an unmet clinical need for guidance in resecting malignant tissue intra-operatively and for pathological sampling. We have developed a quantitative spectral imaging device to examine margins intra-operatively. The context in which this technology is applied (intra-operative or post-operative setting) is influenced by time after excision and surgical factors including cautery and the presence of patent blue dye (specifically Lymphazurin™, used for sentinel lymph node mapping). Optical endpoints of hemoglobin ([THb]), fat ([?-carotene]), and fibroglandular content via light scattering (<µs’>) measurements were quantified from diffuse reflectance spectra of lumpectomy and mastectomy specimens using a Monte Carlo model. A linear longitudinal mixed-effects model was used to fit the optical endpoints for the cautery and kinetics studies. Monte Carlo simulations and tissue mimicking phantoms were used for the patent blue dye experiments. [THb], [?-carotene], and <µs’> were affected by <3.3% error with <80 µM of patent blue dye. The percent change in [?-carotene], <µs’>, and [?-carotene]/<µs’> was <14% in 30 minutes, while percent change in [THb] was >40%. [?-carotene] and [?-carotene]/<µs’> were the only parameters not affected by cautery. This work demonstrates the importance of understanding the post-excision kinetics of ex-vivo tissue and the presence of cautery and patent blue dye for breast tumor margin assessment, to accurately interpret data and exploit underling sources of contrast. PMID:23251526

  9. Least squares restoration of multichannel images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galatsanos, Nikolas P.; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K.; Chin, Roland T.; Hillery, Allen D.

    1991-01-01

    Multichannel restoration using both within- and between-channel deterministic information is considered. A multichannel image is a set of image planes that exhibit cross-plane similarity. Existing optimal restoration filters for single-plane images yield suboptimal results when applied to multichannel images, since between-channel information is not utilized. Multichannel least squares restoration filters are developed using the set theoretic and the constrained optimization approaches. A geometric interpretation of the estimates of both filters is given. Color images (three-channel imagery with red, green, and blue components) are considered. Constraints that capture the within- and between-channel properties of color images are developed. Issues associated with the computation of the two estimates are addressed. A spatially adaptive, multichannel least squares filter that utilizes local within- and between-channel image properties is proposed. Experiments using color images are described.

  10. The Blues

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Noted bluesman Willie Dixon once said, "The blues are the roots; everything else is the fruits". Wise words indeed, and the quote informs the spirit of Martin Scorsese's PBS documentary series "The Blues". This interactive website provides users with some great material about this seven part series, which features segments by Clint Eastwood, Wim Wenders, and of course, Mr. Scorsese. On the site, visitors can watch previews of each segment and learn more about the artists profiled in each one. In "The Songs & the Artists" area, visitors can read musician biographies and even check out the accompanying radio series which was released in conjunction with the documentary. Those who like to travel should click on the "Blues Road Trip" area. Here they will have the opportunity to take a musical journey from the Deep South to Memphis, St. Louis, and Chicago via song, photographs, and maps. The site is rounded out by the "Blues Classroom" area, which is designed for educators. Interested parties can view lesson plans, look over a blues glossary, and read several background essays.

  11. BLUE STRAGGLERS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER 47 TUCANAE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The core of globular cluster 47 Tucanae is home to many blue stragglers, rejuvenated stars that glow with the blue light of young stars. A ground-based telescope image (on the left) shows the entire crowded core of 47 Tucanae, located 15,000 light-years away in the constellation Tucana. Peering into the heart of the globular cluster's bright core, the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 separated the dense clump of stars into many individual stars (image on right). Some of these stars shine with the light of old stars; others with the blue light of blue stragglers. The yellow circles in the Hubble telescope image highlight several of the cluster's blue stragglers. Analysis for this observation centered on one massive blue straggler. Astronomers theorize that blue stragglers are formed either by the slow merger of stars in a double-star system or by the collision of two unrelated stars. For the blue straggler in 47 Tucanae, astronomers favor the slow merger scenario. This image is a 3-color composite of archival Hubble Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 images in the ultraviolet (blue), blue (green), and violet (red) filters. Color tables were assigned and scaled so that the red giant stars appear orange, main-sequence stars are white/green, and blue stragglers are appropriately blue. The ultraviolet images were taken on Oct. 25, 1995, and the blue and violet images were taken on Sept. 1, 1995. Credit: Rex Saffer (Villanova University) and Dave Zurek (STScI), and NASA

  12. Blue gods, blue oil, and blue people.

    PubMed

    Fairbanks, V F

    1994-09-01

    Studies of the composition of coal tar, which began in Prussia in 1834, profoundly affected the economies of Germany, Great Britain, India, and the rest of the world, as well as medicine and surgery. Such effects include the collapse of the profits of the British indigo monopoly, the growth in economic power of Germany based on coal tar chemistry, and an economic crisis in India that led to more humane tax laws and, ultimately, the independence of India and the end of the British Empire. Additional consequences were the development of antiseptic surgery and the synthesis of a wide variety of useful drugs that have eradicated infections and alleviated pain. Many of these drugs, particularly the commonly used analgesics, sulfonamides, sulfones, and local anesthetics, are derivatives of aniline, originally called "blue oil" or "kyanol." Some of these aniline derivatives, however, have also caused aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, and methemoglobinemia (that is, "blue people"). Exposure to aniline drugs, particularly when two or three aniline drugs are taken concurrently, seems to be the commonest cause of methemoglobinemia today. PMID:8065194

  13. Blue Water

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St-Laurent has a mechanical system that creates bubbles that rise to the surface and push ice away from the ship's hull. It also happens to churn the water into an amazing shade of blue....

  14. BLUE HONEYSUCKLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-four blue honeysuckle, Lonicera caerulea L., cultivars available to North America are described. The origin, description and uses of the cultivars are presented. The majority of the cultivars were released from Russia but two were released from Canada. These cultivars have fruits which look l...

  15. X-ray Microbeam Three-Dimensional Topography Imaging and Strain Analysis of Basal-Plane Dislocations and Threading Edge Dislocations in 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanuma, Ryohei; Mori, Daisuke; Kamata, Isaho; Tsuchida, Hidekazu

    2012-06-01

    This paper demonstrates the X-ray microbeam three-dimensional (3D) topography of basal-plane dislocations (BPDs) and threading edge dislocations (TEDs) in 4H-SiC. Stereographic images showing the propagation of BPDs from a substrate to an epilayer and the conversion of BPDs into TEDs near the epilayer/substrate interface are successfully obtained. The narrowing of BPD images is observed just before the BPD-TED conversion points. The images of effective misorientations ?? provide a spatial resolution of 1-2 µm for a TED, and the range of ?? corresponds to strains on the order of +/-10-5. We also discuss the image-formation mechanism in 3D topography.

  16. Assessment of the Rotation Motion at the Papillary Muscle Short-Axis Plane with Normal Subjects by Two-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Imaging: A Basic Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Xian-Da; Huang, Jun; Hu, Yuan-Ping; Xu, Rui; Yang, Wei-Yu; Zhou, Li-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to observe the rotation patterns at the papillary muscle plane in the Left Ventricle(LV) with normal subjects using two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging(2D-STI). Methods We acquired standard of the basal, the papillary muscle and the apical short-axis images of the LV in 64 subjects to estimate the LV rotation motion by 2D-STI. The rotational degrees at the papillary muscle short-axis plane were measured at 15 different time points in the analysis of two heart cycles. Results There were counterclockwise rotation, clockwise rotation, and counterclockwise to clockwise rotation at the papillary muscle plane in the LV with normal subjects, respectively. The ROC analysis of the rotational degrees was performed at the papillary muscle short-axis plane at the peak LV torsion for predicting whether the turnaround point of twist to untwist motion pattern was located at the papillary muscle level. Sensitivity and specificity were 97% and 67%, respectively, with a cut-off value of 0.34°, and an area under the ROC curve of 0.8. At the peak LV torsion, there was no correlation between the rotational degrees at the papillary muscle short-axis plane and the LVEF in the normal subjects(r?=?0.000, p?=?0.998). Conclusions In the study, we conclude that there were three rotation patterns at the papillary muscle short-axis levels, and the transition from basal clockwise rotation to apical counterclockwise rotation is located at the papillary muscle level. PMID:24376634

  17. The Next Generation Blue Marble

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The phenomena is a full year?s worth of NASA satellite data of Earth's land surface, coastal oceans, sea ice, and clouds that has been organized into a seamless, photo-like mosaic of our planet The image beneath the title "The Next Generation Blue Marble" features an animation. Click the image to begin the animation.

  18. Sodium cholate-templated blue light-emitting Ag subnanoclusters: in vivo toxicity and imaging in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Chandirasekar, Shanmugam; Chandrasekaran, Chandramouli; Muthukumarasamyvel, Thangavel; Sudhandiran, Ganapasam; Rajendiran, Nagappan

    2015-01-28

    We report a novel green chemical approach for the synthesis of blue light-emitting and water-soluble Ag subnanoclusters, using sodium cholate (NaC) as a template at a concentration higher than the critical micelle concentration (CMC) at room temperature. However, under photochemical irradiation, small anisotropic and spherically shaped Ag nanoparticles (3-11 nm) were obtained upon changing the concentration of NaC from below to above the CMC. The matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight and electrospray ionization mass spectra showed that the cluster sample was composed of Ag4 and Ag6. The optical properties of the clusters were studied by UV-visible and luminescence spectroscopy. The lifetime of the synthesized fluorescent Ag nanoclusters (AgNCs) was measured using a time-correlated single-photon counting technique. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to assess the size of clusters and nanoparticles. A protocol for transferring nanoclusters to organic solvents is also described. Toxicity and bioimaging studies of NaC templated AgNCs were conducted using developmental stage zebrafish embryos. From the survival and hatching experiment, no significant toxic effect was observed at AgNC concentrations of up to 200 ?L/mL, and the NC-stained embryos exhibited blue fluorescence with high intensity for a long period of time, which shows that AgNCs are more stable in living system. PMID:25552345

  19. The Blue Marble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This spectacular Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 'blue marble' image is based on the most detailed collection of true-color imagery of the entire Earth to date. Using a collection of satellite-based observations, scientists and visualizers stitched together months of observations of the land surface, oceans, sea ice, and clouds into a seamless, true-color mosaic of every square kilometer (.386 square mile) of our planet. Most of the information contained in this image came from MODIS, illustrating MODIS' outstanding capacity to act as an integrated tool for observing a variety of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric features of the Earth. The land and coastal ocean portions of this image is based on surface observations collected from June through September 2001 and combined, or composited, every eight days to compensate for clouds that might block the satellite's view on any single day. Global ocean color (or chlorophyll) data was used to simulate the ocean surface. MODIS doesn't measure 3-D features of the Earth, so the surface observations were draped over topographic data provided by the U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center. MODIS observations of polar sea ice were combined with observations of Antarctica made by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's AVHRR sensor-the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The cloud image is a composite of two days of MODIS imagery collected in visible light wavelengths and a third day of thermal infra-red imagery over the poles. A large collection of imagery based on the blue marble in a variety of sizes and formats, including animations and the full (1 km) resolution imagery, is available at the Blue Marble page. Image by Reto Stockli, Render by Robert Simmon. Based on data from the MODIS Science Team

  20. coordinate plane

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    olsen

    2010-10-07

    Become familiar with the coordinate plane. Learn the quadrants and how to graph points and read points on a coordinate plane. You are required to do the assignment and take the quiz. The other resources are to help prepare you for the quiz and book assignment. This is a quick review of the lesson.The Coordinate Plane This is a game to practice plotting and reading points.coordinates game *Assignment: Watch Powerpoint 3.3 and fill in your ...

  1. THE DEEP BLUE COLOR OF HD 189733b: ALBEDO MEASUREMENTS WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH AT VISIBLE WAVELENGTHS

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Thomas M.; Aigrain, Suzanne; Barstow, Joanna K. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Pont, Frederic; Sing, David K. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, EX4 4QL Exeter (United Kingdom); Desert, Jean-Michel; Knutson, Heather A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gibson, Neale [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Heng, Kevin [University of Bern, Center for Space and Habitability, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Lecavelier des Etangs, Alain, E-mail: tom.evans@astro.ox.ac.uk [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2013-08-01

    We present a secondary eclipse observation for the hot Jupiter HD 189733b across the wavelength range 290-570 nm made using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. We measure geometric albedos of A{sub g} = 0.40 {+-} 0.12 across 290-450 nm and A{sub g} < 0.12 across 450-570 nm at 1{sigma} confidence. The albedo decrease toward longer wavelengths is also apparent when using six wavelength bins over the same wavelength range. This can be interpreted as evidence for optically thick reflective clouds on the dayside hemisphere with sodium absorption suppressing the scattered light signal beyond {approx}450 nm. Our best-fit albedo values imply that HD 189733b would appear a deep blue color at visible wavelengths.

  2. Three-dimensional polarization second harmonic generation (3D-PSHG) imaging: the effect of the tilted-off the plane SHG active structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psilodimitrakopoulos, Sotiris; Amat-Roldan, Ivan; Artigas, David; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo

    2011-03-01

    Polarization sensitive second harmonic generation (PSHG) provides additional information in intensity only SHG imaging. In particular, it offers the SHG effective orientation of the implicated SHG active structures. Assuming that those structures possess cylindrical symmetry, the supplementary contrast is based on the ratio of two non-vanishing, independent elements of the ?2 tensor. This ratio is experimentally extracted by fitting pixel by pixel a theoretical model to the PSHG images and by finding the maximum frequency value or the mean of the consequent pixels' histogram. In the present study we show that the above ?2 elements' ratio critically depends on the tilted-off the plane SHG active structures. We performed PSHG in different z-planes of a starch granule (presenting radially oriented amylopectin molecules, the SHG source in starch) and we found different pick values of the ?2 elements' ratio histogram for each plane. By assuming a fixed value for the ?2 elements' ratio, we present here a generalized three dimensional (3D) model that determines the 3D orientation of the SHG active structures.

  3. Comparison of in-plane and out-of-plane optical amplification in AFM measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Peter, F.; Ruediger, A.; Waser, R.; Szot, K.; Reichenberg, B. [Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung (IFF) and cni-Center of Nanoelectronic Systems for Information Technology, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); aixACCT Systems GmbH, 52068 Aachen (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    The in-plane image of piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) generally exhibits a higher resolution and less noise than the out-of-plane image. Geometrical considerations indicate that the optical in-plane amplification is {approx_equal}40 times larger than the out-of-plane amplification. We experimentally confirm this explanation in a dedicated setup.

  4. SNAP focal plane

    SciTech Connect

    Lampton, Michael L.; Kim, A.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Berkovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.E.; DiGennaro,R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Holland, S.E.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Linder,E.V.; Loken, S.C.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto, E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch,A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.

    2002-07-29

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square-degree field sensitive in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. We describe the requirements for the instrument suite and the evolution of the focal plane design to the present concept in which all the instrumentation--visible and near-infrared imagers, spectrograph, and star guiders--share one common focal plane.

  5. Technical developments for cerebral thermal treatment: water-cooled diffusing laser fibre tips and temperature-sensitive MRI using intersecting image planes.

    PubMed

    McNichols, R J; Kangasniemi, M; Gowda, A; Bankson, J A; Price, R E; Hazle, J D

    2004-02-01

    The aim was to determine if water-cooled diffusing tips could produce larger and safer (better controlled) thermal lesions than non-cooled diffusing tips at 980 nm. Thermal lesions were induced in beef myocardium in vitro with and without water cooling using a 980 nm diode laser at various power levels. Seven intracerebral treatments were performed in six canines using water-cooled diffusing tips with four animals having intracerebral transmissible venereal tumours grown from inoculate. Magnetic resonance thermal imaging (MRTI)-based feedback software using a fast, radio frequency-spoiled gradient echo acquisition with two intersecting image planes was used for on-line monitoring and control of treatment and for the evaluation of in vivo laser lesion production. In cases where two-plane MRTI was employed, the maximum calculated temperature was compared in each plane. Using water-cooled tips and 400 micro m core diameter laser diffusing fibres in in vitro beef myocardium, power of up to 9.5 W was applied for 8 min without tip failure. Without cooling, tip failure occurred in under 4 min at 6 W, in under 2 min at 7 W and instantaneously at 8 W. Additionally, char accompanied lesions made with uncooled tips while cooled application resulted in only minimal char at only the highest thermal dose. Achieved lesion cross-sectional diameters in in vitro samples were up to 26.5 x 23.3 mm when water cooling was used. In canine brain and transmissible venereal tumours, up to 18.1 x 21.4 mm lesions were achieved. It is concluded that water cooling allows safe application of higher power to small core diameter diffusing tip fibres, which results in larger thermal lesions than can be achieved without cooling. Two-plane MRTI enhances on-line monitoring and feedback of thermal treatment. PMID:14612313

  6. Full-range in-plane rotation measurement for image recognition with hybrid digital-optical correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Tianxiang; Cao, Liangcai; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid digital-optical correlator (HDOC) based on volume holographic memory is able to compute the correlation of images at a high speed. HDOC is suitable for real-time image processing and has potential usage in big data processing areas. A 7500-channel HDOC system is experimentally set up, and the target image is correlated with all the channels. The large number of parallel correlation channels could contribute to the precise rotation measurement as well as the translation measurement. In the image recognition applications, the target image involves rotation distortion with respect to the template images. A method with two coarse-fine steps is proposed to measure the rotation at a full range of 360 deg. In the coarse step, the target image is rotated 36 times at an increment of 10 deg. The 36 new images are sent into the HDOC to compute with the template images. Each new image corresponds to a correlation matrix. By searching the smallest value throughout the 36 minimums of the 36 correlation matrixes, the rotation of the target image is narrowed into ±5 deg. In the fine step, the new image is rotated another 10 times at an increment of 1 deg. The rotation measurement error is <0.3 deg.

  7. Comparison of computerized image analysis with traditional semiquantitative scoring of Perls' Prussian Blue stained hepatic iron deposition.

    PubMed

    Hall, A Peter; Davies, Wendy; Stamp, Katie; Clamp, Isabel; Bigley, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Image analysis is now routinely employed as a tool in toxicologic pathology to help quantitate end points of efficacy and safety. It is regarded as a proficient and a sensitive technique to generate numerical data that can be easily interrogated for statistical evaluation. Traditional semiquantitative pathology scoring on the other hand is sometimes regarded as less accurate due to the limitations of the scoring systems employed and the day-to-day variations often noted between pathologists. We therefore decided to generate an optimized histochemical staining and image analysis protocol to compare the accuracy of semiquantitative scoring with computerized image analysis. In order to achieve this, we describe a standardized protocol for staining and image analysis that eliminates or minimizes as many sources of error as possible. The results of this experiment demonstrate that despite consistent variations in scoring between two independent pathologists, correlation with image analysis data of 0.91 to 0.95 (Spearman's Rho test) was achieved. These data indicate that either image analysis or traditional semiquantitative scoring can generate accurate data. As a result of this, it appears that it is equally safe to employ either method dependent upon the complexity and the practicality of the task at hand provided that the experimental conditions are rigorously optimized and rigidly adhered to. PMID:23416962

  8. Blue Sky

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Exploratorium

    2011-12-07

    In this optics activity, learners explore why the sky is blue and the sunset is red, using a simple setup comprising a transparent plastic box, water, and powdered milk. Learners use a flashlight to shine a beam of light through the container. Learners look at the beam from the side of the container and then from the end of the tank, and compare the colors that they see. Learners also examine a narrower beam of light. Use this activity to introduce learners to the light spectrum, wavelengths, frequency, scattering, and how all this effects what we see in the sky at different times of the day.

  9. Blue Whales

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this two-minute sound segment, a professor of physics and astronomy describes the communication ability of the blue whale. He says that pitch discrimination with whales is incredibly accurate. The whales produce this call always at exactly four octaves below middle C, based on measurements of 6,000 whale calls. This site is from an archive of a daily radio program called Pulse of the Planet, which provides its listeners with a portrait of Planet Earth, tracking the rhythms of nature, culture and science worldwide and blending interviews and extraordinary natural sound. The site also provides a written transcript of the broadcast.

  10. Large-Format Voltage-Tunable Dual-Band Quantum-Well Infrared Photodetector Focal Plane Array for Third-Generation Thermal Imagers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. U. Eker; M. Kaldirim; Y. Arslan; C. Besikci

    2008-01-01

    We report a large-format (640 times 512) voltage- tunable quantum-well (QW) infrared photodetector focal plane array (FPA) for dual-band imaging in the mid- and long-wavelength infrared (MWIR and LWIR) bands. Voltage-tunable spectral response has been achieved through a series connection of eight-well MWIR AlGaAs-InGaAs and 16-well LWIR AlGaAs-GaAs QW stacks grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs substrate. The peak

  11. Demonstration of 640 × 512 pixels long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP) imaging focal plane array

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. Gunapala; S. V. Bandara; C. J. Hill; D. Z. Ting; J. K. Liu; S. B. Rafol; E. R. Blazejewski; J. M. Mumolo; S. A. Keo; S. Krishna; Y.-C. Chang; C. A. Shott

    2007-01-01

    We have exploited the artificial atom-like properties of epitaxially grown self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) for the development of high operating temperature long wavelength infrared (LWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs). QD infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) are expected to outperform quantum well infrared detectors (QWIPs) and are expected to offer significant advantages over II–VI material based FPAs. We have used molecular beam epitaxy

  12. 640 $\\\\,\\\\times\\\\,$ 512 Pixels Long-Wavelength Infrared (LWIR) Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetector (QDIP) Imaging Focal Plane Array

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarath D. Gunapala; Sumith V. Bandara; Cory J. Hill; David Z. Ting; John K. Liu; B. Rafol; Edward R. Blazejewski; Jason M. Mumolo; Sam A. Keo; Sanjay Krishna; Y.-C. Chang; Craig A. Shott

    2007-01-01

    Epitaxially grown self-assembled InAs-InGaAs- GaAs quantum dots (QDs) are exploited for the development of large-format long-wavelength infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs). The dot-in-a-well (DWELL) structures were experimentally shown to absorb both 45 and normal incident light, therefore, a reflection grating structure was used to enhance the quantum effi- ciency. The devices exhibit peak responsivity out to 8.1 m, with peak

  13. Bluefield Blue Jays Internships

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Bluefield Blue Jays Internships General Internship Start Date: Mid May 2014 JOB DESCRIPTION: The Bluefield Blue Jays, Appalachian League Affiliate of the Toronto Blue Jays is looking for an individual: #12;The Bluefield Blue Jays, Appalachian League Affiliate of the Toronto Blue Jays is looking

  14. SNAP focal plane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L. Lampton; Christopher Bebek; Carl W. Akerlof; Greg Aldering; R. Amanullah; Pierre Astier; E. Barrelet; Lars Bergstrom; John Bercovitz; Gary M. Bernstein; Manfred Bester; Alain Bonissent; C. R. Bower; William C. Carithers Jr.; Eugene D. Commins; C. Day; Susana E. Deustua; Richard S. DiGennaro; Anne Ealet; Richard S. Ellis; Mikael Eriksson; Andrew Fruchter; Jean-Francois Genat; Gerson Goldhaber; Ariel Goobar; Donald E. Groom; Stewart E. Harris; Peter R. Harvey; Henry D. Heetderks; Steven E. Holland; Dragan Huterer; Armin Karcher; Alex G. Kim; William F. Kolbe; B. Krieger; R. Lafever; J. Lamoureux; Michael E. Levi; Daniel S. Levin; Eric V. Linder; Stewart C. Loken; Roger Malina; R. Massey; Timothy McKay; Steven M. McKee; Ramon Miquel; E. Moertsell; N. Mostek; Stuart Mufson; J. A. Musser; Peter E. Nugent; Hakeem M. Oluseyi; Reynald Pain; Nicholas P. Palaio; David H. Pankow; Saul Perlmutter; R. Pratt; Eric Prieto; Alexandre Refregier; J. Rhodes; Kem E. Robinson; N. Roe; Michael Sholl; Michael S. Schubnell; G. Smadja; George F. Smoot; Anthony Spadafora; Gregory Tarle; Andrew D. Tomasch; H. von der Lippe; D. Vincent; J.-P. Walder; Guobin Wang

    2003-01-01

    The proposed SuperNova\\/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square-degree field sensitive in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. We describe the requirements for the instrument suite and the evolution of the focal plane design to the present concept in which all the instrumentation -- visible and near-infrared imagers, spectrograph,

  15. Forward modelling to determine the observational signatures of white-light imaging and interplanetary scintillation for the propagation of an interplanetary shock in the ecliptic plane

    E-print Network

    Xiong, Ming; Bisi, M M; Owens, M J; Fallows, R A; Dorrian, G D; Davies, J A; Thomasson, P

    2011-01-01

    Recent coordinated observations of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) and stereoscopic heliospheric imagers (HIs) are significant to continuously track the propagation and evolution of solar eruptions throughout interplanetary space. In order to obtain a better understanding of the observational signatures in these two remote-sensing techniques, the magnetohydrodynamics of the macro-scale interplanetary disturbance and the radio-wave scattering of the micro-scale electron-density fluctuation are coupled and investigated using a newly-constructed multi-scale numerical model. This model is then applied to a case of an interplanetary shock propagation within the ecliptic plane. The shock could be nearly invisible to an HI, once entering the Thomson-scattering sphere of the HI. The asymmetry in the optical images between the western and eastern HIs suggests the shock propagation off the Sun-Earth line. Meanwhile, an IPS signal, strongly dependent on the local electron density, is insensitive to the density cavity...

  16. A MultiChannel Radiometer with Focal Plane Array Antenna for W-Band Passive Millimeterwave Imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiirgen Richter; D. Notel; F. Kloppel; J. Huck; H. Essen; L.-P. Schmidt

    2006-01-01

    Passive millimeter wave imaging can complement security measures in scenarios such as airports or checkpoints, due to the fact that these frequencies penetrate clothes and enable e.g. concealed weapon detection (CWD). Such a radiometric system has to meet several key requirements concerning its thermal and spatial resolution and the image acquisition time. The latter can be reduced significantly by scanning

  17. Integrating Spray Plane-Based Remote Sensing and Rapid Image Processing with Variable-Rate Aerial Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven J. Thomson; Randy R. Price; Lowrey A. Smith

    A remote sensing and variable rate application system was configured for agricultural aircraft. This combination system has the potential of providing a completely integrated solution for all aspects of aerial site-specific application and includes remote sensing, image processing and georegistration, prescription generation, and variable-rate application. A missing link has been the ability to rapidly process and georeference images obtained during

  18. Mongolian blue spots

    MedlinePLUS

    Mongolian spots are flat, blue, or blue-gray skin markings near the buttocks that appear at birth or shortly thereafter. ... Mongolian blue spots are common among persons who are of Asian, East Indian, and African descent.

  19. Blue nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Blue nightshade poisoning occurs when someone eats parts of the blue nightshade plant. This is for information only and ... The poison is found in the blue nightshade (Solanum dulcamara) plant, especially in the fruit and leaves.

  20. The Blue Bottle Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandaveer, Walter R., IV; Mosher, Mel

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modification of the classic Blue Bottle demonstration that involves the alkaline glucose reduction of methylene blue. Uses other indicators in the classic Blue Bottle to produce a rainbow of colors. (JRH)

  1. Blue-phase liquid crystal cored optical fiber array with photonic bandgaps and nonlinear transmission properties.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Iam Choon; Hong, Kuan Lung; Zhao, Shuo; Ma, Ding; Lin, Tsung-Hsien

    2013-02-25

    Blue-phase liquid crystal (BPLC) is introduced into the pores of capillary arrays to fabricate fiber arrays. Owing to the photonic-crystals like properties of BPLC, these fiber arrays exhibit temperature dependent photonic bandgaps in the visible spectrum. With the cores maintained in isotropic as well as the Blue phases, the fiber arrays allow high quality image transmission when inserted in the focal plane of a 1x telescope. Nonlinear transmission and optical limiting action on a cw white-light continuum laser is also observed and is attributed to laser induced self-defocusing and propagation modes changing effects caused by some finite absorption of the broadband laser at the short wavelength regime. These nonlinear and other known electro-optical properties of BPLC, in conjunction with their fabrication ease make these fiber arrays highly promising for imaging, electro-optical or all-optical modulation, switching and passive optical limiting applications. PMID:23481965

  2. A New Model of Ultrasonic Imaging System Based on Plane Wave Transmission and Angular Spectrum Propagation Principle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hu Peng

    2007-01-01

    A kind of high frame rate (HFR) 2D and 3D imaging method based on array beams, which belong to limited diffraction beams family, was developed about several years ago. Because only one transmission is required to construct an image, this method can reach an ultra high frame rate. Compared with conventional delay-and-sum (dynamic focusing) method, the HFR system is simple

  3. Fourier transform infrared spectrochemical imaging: review of design and applications with a focal plane array and multiple beam synchrotron radiation source.

    PubMed

    Hirschmugl, Carol J; Gough, Kathleen M

    2012-05-01

    The beamline design, microscope specifications, and initial results from the new mid-infrared beamline (IRENI) are reviewed. Synchrotron-based spectrochemical imaging, as recently implemented at the Synchrotron Radiation Center in Stoughton, Wisconsin, demonstrates the new capability to achieve diffraction limited chemical imaging across the entire mid-infrared region, simultaneously, with high signal-to-noise ratio. IRENI extracts a large swath of radiation (320 hor. × 25 vert. mrads(2)) to homogeneously illuminate a commercial infrared (IR) microscope equipped with an IR focal plane array (FPA) detector. Wide-field images are collected, in contrast to single-pixel imaging from the confocal geometry with raster scanning, commonly used at most synchrotron beamlines. IRENI rapidly generates high quality, high spatial resolution data. The relevant advantages (spatial oversampling, speed, sensitivity, and signal-to-noise ratio) are discussed in detail and demonstrated with examples from a variety of disciplines, including formalin-fixed and flash-frozen tissue samples, live cells, fixed cells, paint cross-sections, polymer fibers, and novel nanomaterials. The impact of Mie scattering corrections on this high quality data is shown, and first results with a grazing angle objective are presented, along with future enhancements and plans for implementation of similar, small-scale instruments. PMID:22524953

  4. A compact thermal infrared imaging radiometer with high spatial resolution and wide swath for a small satellite using a large format uncooled infrared focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsumi, Kenji; Sakuma, Fumihiro; Kikuchi, Masakuni; Tanii, Jun; Kawanishi, Toneo; Ueno, Shinichi; Kuga, Hideki

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we present a feasibility study for the potential of a high spatial resolution and wide swath thermal infrared (TIR) imaging radiometer for a small satellite using a large format uncooled infrared focal plane array (IR-FPA). The preliminary TIR imaging radiometer designs were performed. One is a panchromatic (mono-band) imaging radiometer (8-12?m) with a large format 2000 x 1000 pixels uncooled IR-FPA with a pixel pitch of 15 ?m. The other is a multiband imaging radiometer (8.8?m, 10.8?m, 11.4?m). This radiometer is employed separate optics and detectors for each wave band. It is based on the use of a 640 x 480 pixels uncooled IR-FPA with a pixel pitch of 25 ?m. The thermal time constant of an uncooled IR-FPA is approximately 10-16ms, and introduces a constraint to the satellite operation to achieve better signal-to-noise ratio, MTF and linearity performances. The study addressed both on-ground time-delayintegration binning and staring imaging solutions, although a staring imaging was preferred after trade-off. The staring imaging requires that the line of sight of the TIR imaging radiometer gazes at a target area during the acquisition time of the image, which can be obtained by rotating the satellite or a steering mirror around the pitch axis. The single band radiometer has been designed to yield a 30m ground sample distance over a 30km swath width from a satellite altitude of 500km. The radiometric performance, enhanced with staring imaging, is expected to yield a NETD less than 0.5K for a 300K ground scene. The multi-band radiometer has three spectral bands with spatial resolution of 50m and swath width of 24km. The radiometric performance is expected to yield a NETD less than 0.85K. We also showed some preliminary simulation results on volcano, desert/urban scenes, and wildfire.

  5. A critical evaluation of the ability of the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) thermal infrared red-green-blue rendering to identify dust events: Theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brindley, Helen; Knippertz, Peter; Ryder, Claire; Ashpole, Ian

    2012-04-01

    Using a combination of idealized radiative transfer simulations and a case study from the first field campaign of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) in southern Morocco, this paper provides a systematic assessment of the limitations of the widely used Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) red-green-blue (RGB) thermal infrared dust product. Both analyses indicate that the ability of the product to identify dust, via its characteristic pink coloring, is strongly dependent on the column water vapor, the lower tropospheric lapse rate, and dust altitude. In particular, when column water vapor exceeds ˜20-25 mm, dust presence, even for visible optical depths of the order 0.8, is effectively masked. Variability in dust optical properties also has a marked impact on the imagery, primarily as a result of variability in dust composition. There is a moderate sensitivity to the satellite viewing geometry, particularly in moist conditions. The underlying surface can act to confound the signal seen through variations in spectral emissivity, which are predominantly manifested in the 8.7?m SEVIRI channel. In addition, if a temperature inversion is present, typical of early morning conditions over the Sahara and Sahel, an increased dust loading can actually reduce the pink coloring of the RGB image compared to pristine conditions. Attempts to match specific SEVIRI observations to simulations using SAMUM measurements are challenging because of high uncertainties in surface skin temperature and emissivity. Recommendations concerning the use and interpretation of the SEVIRI RGB imagery are provided on the basis of these findings.

  6. Inclined Plane

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-05-07

    This applet demonstrates motion of a body on an inclined plane. The angle of inclination, the mass, and the coefficient of friction can be set by the user and the resultant can be viewed. This applet is available in a wide range of languages and is a part of a large collection of physics applets.

  7. First demonstration and performance of AlGaN based focal plane array for deep-UV imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverchon, J.-L.; Bansropun, S.; Robo, J. A.; Truffer, J. P.; Costard, E.; Frayssinet, E.; Brault, J.; Semond, F.; Duboz, J. Y.; Idir, M.

    2009-09-01

    We present several prototypes to extend the range of AlGaN focal plane arrays from near UV to deep UV range (200 nm - 4 nm). Arrays include 320x256 pixels with a pitch of 30 ?m and are based on Schottky photodiodes. AlGaN is grown on a silicon substrate. After a flip-chip hybridization, silicon substrate is thinned and removed by dry etching. The tricky point is to maintain the membrane integrity. By using a honeycomb structure in the Si substrate, after hybridization, we were able to keep the membrane plane and rigid, avoid the crack expansion, and thus maintain the membrane integrity. The structure includes an Al.35Ga.65N active layer grown on a thick Al.55Ga .45N window layer, with a graded AlGaN layer in between. The high quality materials are grown by MBE. The Al.55Ga.45N window layer is also thinned by dry etching down to the gradual layer and desertion layer where a higher internal electric field takes place. The results show that the dry etching process doesn't affect the readout circuit properties. The dark current is negligible and non uniformity in etching slightly contributes into a constant offset. The measured noise factor, a bit more than 100 electrons rms, is due to reset noise in the integration capacitance and in other parasitic capacitances. With a peak response at 300 nm of 35%, the responsivity is 1% at 266 nm and in the deep UV range. The spectral responsivity measured on a synchrotron line at a wavelength of 2nm reaches more than 200% due to multiple photoexcitation.

  8. Matching a curved focal plane with CCD's - Wide field imaging of glancing incidence X-ray telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nousek, J. A.; Garmire, G. P.; Ricker, G. R.; Bautz, M. W.; Levine, A. M.; Collins, S. A.

    1987-01-01

    The design of a wide field imaging camera suitable for use with a glancing incidence X-ray telescope is complicated by the sharply concave nature of the optimum focal surface of such a telescope. Such a camera made up of a mosaic of CCDs is being designed which is intended for flight aboard the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). The design rationale and tradeoffs are discussed, and the layout for the imaging CCD array is presented. The related issue of optimizing performance of transmission objective gratings is also discussed, and the array of CCD orientations suitable for this problem is presented.

  9. AlGaN-based focal plane arrays for selective UV imaging at 310nm and 280nm and route toward deep UV imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Luc Reverchon; Jean-Alexandre Robo; Jean-Patrick Truffer; Jean-Pascal Caumes; Idir Mourad; Julien Brault; Jean-Yves Duboz

    2007-01-01

    The fast development of nitrides has given the opportunity to investigate AlGaN as a material for ultraviolet detection. Such camera present an intrinsic spectral selectivity and an extremely low dark current at room temperature. It can compete with technologies based on photocathodes, MCP intensifiers, back thinned CCD or hybrid CMOS focal plane arrays (FPA) for low flux measurements. AlGaN based

  10. Matching a curved focal plane with CCD's - Wide field imaging of glancing incidence X-ray telescopes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Nousek; G. P. Garmire; G. R. Ricker; M. W. Bautz; A. M. Levine; S. A. Collins

    1987-01-01

    The design of a wide field imaging camera suitable for use with a glancing incidence X-ray telescope is complicated by the sharply concave nature of the optimum focal surface of such a telescope. Such a camera made up of a mosaic of CCDs is being designed which is intended for flight aboard the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). The design

  11. Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy

    E-print Network

    Grandidier, Jonathan

    and the propagation constants are evalu- ated by Fourier imaging and analysis. Good agreements are found between of an electromagnetic wave to the free electrons of a metal, open new perspectives in optoelectronics.1,2 In the last and their associated propagation lengths. These two parameters can be optimized by adjusting the thickness

  12. Recognition of blue movies by fusion of audio and video

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haiqiang Zuo; Ou Wu; Weiming Hu; Bo Xu

    2008-01-01

    Along with the explosive growth of the Internet, comes the proliferation of pornography. Compared with the pornographic texts and images, blue movies can do much harm to children, due to the greater realism and voyeurism of blue movies. In this paper, a framework for recognizing blue movies by fusing the audio and video information is described. A one-class Gaussian mixture

  13. Characterizing the transplanar and in-plane water transport of textiles with gravimetric and image analysis technique: Spontaneous Uptake Water Transport Tester

    PubMed Central

    Tang, K. P. M.; Wu, Y. S.; Chau, K. H.; Kan, C. W.; Fan, J. T.

    2015-01-01

    Water absorption and transport property of textiles is important since it affects wear comfort, efficiency of treatment and functionality of product. This paper introduces an accurate and reliable measurement tester, which is based on gravimetric and image analysis technique, for characterising the transplanar and in-plane wicking property of fabrics. The uniqueness of this instrument is that it is able to directly measure the water absorption amount in real-time, monitor the direction of water transport and estimate the amount of water left on skin when sweating. Throughout the experiment, water supply is continuous which simulates profuse sweating. Testing automation could even minimise variation caused by subjective manipulation, thus enhancing testing accuracy. This instrument is versatile in terms of the fabrics could be tested. A series of shirting fabrics made by different fabric structure and yarn were investigated and the results show that the proposed method has high sensitivity in differentiating fabrics with varying geometrical differences. Fabrics with known hydrophobicity were additionally tested to examine the sensitivity of the instrument. This instrument also demonstrates the flexibility to test on high performance moisture management fabrics and these fabrics were found to have excellent transplanar and in-plane wicking properties. PMID:25875329

  14. [Anaphylaxis to blue dyes].

    PubMed

    Langner-Viviani, F; Chappuis, S; Bergmann, M M; Ribi, C

    2014-04-16

    In medicine, vital blue dyes are mainly used for the evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes in oncologic surgery. Perioperative anaphylaxis to blue dyes is a rare but significant complication. Allergic reactions to blue dyes are supposedly IgE-mediated and mainly caused by triarylmethanes (patent blue and isosulfane blue) and less frequently by methylene blue. These substances usually do not feature on the anesthesia record and should not be omitted from the list of suspects having caused the perioperative reaction, in the same manner as latex and chlorhexidine. The diagnosis of hypersensitivity to vital blue dyes can be established by skin test. We illustrate this topic with three clinical cases. PMID:24834647

  15. R&D in photosensors and data acquisition systems for a new generation of Cosmic Ray Cherenkov and Fluorescence Imaging focal planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assis, Pedro; Brogueira, Pedro; Catalano, Osvaldo; Ferreira, Miguel; Lorenz, Eckart; Mendes, Luís; Pimenta, Mário; Rodrigues, Pedro; Schweizer, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    In this work we present the design, first prototypes and experimental R&D activities on the development of novel imaging cameras for Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov and Fluorescence Telescopes. The baseline solution for the focal plane is based on a photosensor architecture instrumented with Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). To decrease the trigger threshold and improve the signal-to-noise ratio for low-energy events, the Photon Counting technique is used. For very bright events the conventional Charge Integration approach is retained. The large number of channels requires a compact and modular design with minimal cabling and distance between the photosensors and the frontend. Other design requirements are an efficient light concentration system treated with an anti-reflective coating, a liquid cooling system able to keep the SiPMs at a temperature of -20 °C to -10 °C, a low-power frontend electronics down to 1 kW/m2 and an easy field maintenance, high reliability data acquisition and trigger system. In the baseline design, the data acquisition system is partitioned in on-board frontend and off-detector high-level trigger electronics. Extensive use of mixed-signal ASICs and low-power FPGAs for early data reduction (Level 1 trigger), compatible with a liquid cooling sub-system for temperature control is adopted. The off-detector data acquisition and higher trigger (Level 2 and Level 3) architecture is based on the VME64X standard. The boards are connected by multi-Gbps optical links to the focal plane camera. Trigger primitives are sent asynchronously to the trigger boards via data links running at their own clocks. Data and slow-control data streams are also sent over the same links with the parallel VME64X backplane kept for trigger board configuration, slow-control and final data readout. Each 8-slot 6U crate can process up to about 3.6×104 SiPM channels.

  16. Real-time video rate imaging with a 1k-pixel THz CMOS focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzyb, J.; Sherry, H.; Zhao, Y.; Al Hadi, R.; Cathelin, A.; Kaiser, A.; Pfeiffer, U.

    2012-06-01

    Future submillimeter-wave and THz (300GHz-3THz) imaging applications will require low-cost portable systems operating at room-temperature with a video-rate speed and capable of delivering acceptable sensitivity at the very low-power consumption levels to become attractive for truly commercial applications. In particular, CMOS technologies are of interest due to their high integration level offered at a high yield that is capable of massive cost reduction of currently existing THz systems. It has been recently demonstrated that CMOS direct detectors achieve the performance comparable or even superior to the today's existing classical THz devices for active imaging operating at room-temperature. So far, however, only single pixels have been used, allowing only a raster-scan operation. To address this obstacle, we present the very initial work on a 1k-pixel camera chip with a completely integrated readout circuitry and with a full video-rate capability at a power consumption of 2.5?W/pixel. The chip is fully compliant with an industrial bulk CMOS technology and it is intended for active imaging applications. It exhibits a pixel pitch of 80?m, defined by a novel on-chip wire ring antenna, and is designed to accommodate silicon hyper-hemispherical lens for a wide operation bandwidth of at least 0.7-1.1 THz.

  17. Coordinate Plane

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Zilles

    2007-10-31

    5th Grade Math State core Standard 3, Objective 2a: Locate points defined by ordered pairs of integers. Congratulations for earning a game day in the computer lab! Remember that even though it is game day I expect you to stay on task and follow directions. We have been talking in math about graphing integers on the coordinate plane. The games for today require that ...

  18. Streaking images that appear only in the plane of diffraction in undoped GaAs single crystals: Diffraction imaging (topography) by monochromatic synchrotron radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuriyama, Masao; Steiner, Bruce; Dobbyn, Ronald C.; Laor, Uri; Larson, David; Brown, Margaret

    1988-01-01

    Streaking images restricted to the direction of the diffraction (scattering) vector have been observed on transmission through undoped GaAs. These disruption images (caused by the reduction of diffraction in the direction of observation) appear both in the forward and in Bragg diffracted directions in monochromatic synchrontron radiation diffraction imaging. This previously unobserved phenomenon can be explained in terms of planar defects (interfaces) or platelets which affects the absorption coefficient in anomalous transmission. Such regions of the crystal look perfect despite the presence of imperfections when the scattering vector is not perpendicular to the normal of the platelets. The observed crystallographic orientation of these interfaces strongly indicates that they are antiphase boundaries.

  19. Adverse reaction; patent blue turning patient blue.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Meera; Hart, Matthew; Ahmed, Farid; McPherson, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    The authors report a severe anaphylactic reaction to Patent Blue V dye used in sentinel node biopsy for lymphatic mapping during breast cancer surgery to stage the axilla. Patent Blue dye is the most widely used in the UK; however, adverse reactions have been reported with the blue dye previously. This case highlights that reactions may not always be immediately evident and to be vigilant in all patients that have undergone procedures using blue dye. If the patients are not responding appropriately particularly during an anaesthetic, one must always think of a possible adverse reaction to the dye. All surgical patients should give consent for adverse reactions to patent blue dye preoperatively. Alternative agents such as methylene blue are considered. PMID:23203181

  20. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Alabama

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Alabama BlueCross and BlueShield Medical Information Server, located and developed by the University of Alabama at Birmingham Department of Computer and Information Sciences, through a grant from Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Alabama for the express purpose of providing Internet access to medical information for all physicians and other health care providers in the state of Alabama. It provides links to a broad range of medical information resources located throughout the Internet. Menus provide information on diseases and disorders, patient care and medical practice, medical specialties, journals and newsletters, health care reform, and other medical information.

  1. Ninth Synthesis Imaging Summer School Socorro, June 15-22, 2004

    E-print Network

    Groppi, Christopher

    `line beams' (orange lines) , which uniquely project the sources (red bars) to the image plane (blue: ­ Effects of finite sampling of V(u,v,w). ­ Effects of maximum and minimum baselines. ­ The `dirty beam' (now a `beam ball'), sidelobes, etc. ­ Deconvolution, `clean beams', self-calibration. · All these are

  2. Dual-band infrared imaging analyses for 256 × 256 InAs/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetector focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shiang-Feng; Lee, Cheng-De; Shih, Chih-Chang; Chiang, Cheng Der; Gau, Yau-Tang; Yang, San-Te; Sun, Tai-Ping; Lu, Fu-Fa

    2007-04-01

    In this work, the 30 stacked InAs/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP) structure was grown by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy technique and demonstrated with dual-band mid- (2.7~5.6?m) and long- (7.5~13.5?m) wavelength normal-incident detections without grating and passivated process for 256×256 FPA. The 256 ×256 QDIP FPA hybridized with snapshot-mode ROIC was mounted in a 68 pin leadless ceramic chip carrier which was put in the testing dewar with IR optical cold spectral filters of the 2.9~5.5?m and 6.5~14.5 ?m for the dual-band IR detections, respectively. The testing scheme for thermal imaging uniformity of the InAs/GaAs QDIP focal plane array (FPA) has been proposed and calibrated using a plane-typed blackbody source of a high temperature of 373+/-1K and lower ambient temperature for the two-point temperature correction. The averaged of specific detectivity (D*) and operability of the QDIP FPA have reached 1.5×10 10cm-Hz 1/2/W and 99% at 80K, respectively. The dominant noise equivalent temperature differences (NEDT) of typical figure of merit for QDIP thermal imaging module operated under the temperature of 80K, device biases of -0.7 V and integration time of 32ms with infrared optics and two-point temperature correction (T L =R.T. and T H= 200 °C) are 1.065 K (mid-wavelength IR) and 131mK (long-wavelength IR), respectively. Meanwhile, it is worth to note that these are the first confirmation for dual-band detections of FPA from direct InAs quantum dots matrix embedded in GaAs heterostructure. In the future, the dual-band IR QDIP FPA will become one of the important candidates for hyper-spectral detection and thermal imaging fusion application.

  3. Forward modelling to determine the observational signatures of white-light imaging and interplanetary scintillation for the propagation of an interplanetary shock in the ecliptic plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Ming; Breen, A. R.; Bisi, M. M.; Owens, M. J.; Fallows, R. A.; Dorrian, G. D.; Davies, J. A.; Thomasson, P.

    2011-06-01

    Recent coordinated observations of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) from the EISCAT, MERLIN, and STELab, and stereoscopic white-light imaging from the two heliospheric imagers (HIs) onboard the twin STEREO spacecraft are significant to continuously track the propagation and evolution of solar eruptions throughout interplanetary space. In order to obtain a better understanding of the observational signatures in these two remote-sensing techniques, the magnetohydrodynamics of the macro-scale interplanetary disturbance and the radio-wave scattering of the micro-scale electron-density fluctuation are coupled and investigated using a newly constructed multi-scale numerical model. This model is then applied to a case of an interplanetary shock propagation within the ecliptic plane. The shock could be nearly invisible to an HI, once entering the Thomson-scattering sphere of the HI. The asymmetry in the optical images between the western and eastern HIs suggests the shock propagation off the Sun-Earth line. Meanwhile, an IPS signal, strongly dependent on the local electron density, is insensitive to the density cavity far downstream of the shock front. When this cavity (or the shock nose) is cut through by an IPS ray-path, a single speed component at the flank (or the nose) of the shock can be recorded; when an IPS ray-path penetrates the sheath between the shock nose and this cavity, two speed components at the sheath and flank can be detected. Moreover, once a shock front touches an IPS ray-path, the derived position and speed at the irregularity source of this IPS signal, together with an assumption of a radial and constant propagation of the shock, can be used to estimate the later appearance of the shock front in the elongation of the HI field of view. The results of synthetic measurements from forward modelling are helpful in inferring the in-situ properties of coronal mass ejection from real observational data via an inverse approach.

  4. Isolating stem cells in the inter-follicular epidermis employing synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy and focal plane array imaging.

    PubMed

    Patel, Imran I; Harrison, Wesley J; Kerns, Jemma G; Filik, Jacob; Wehbe, Katia; Carmichael, Paul L; Scott, Andrew D; Philpott, Mike P; Frogley, Mark D; Cinque, Gianfelice; Martin, Francis L

    2012-10-01

    Normal function and physiology of the epidermis is maintained by the regenerative capacity of this tissue via adult stem cells (SCs). However, definitive identifying markers for SCs remain elusive. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy exploits the ability of cellular biomolecules to absorb in the mid-IR region (? = 2.5-25 ?m), detecting vibrational transitions of chemical bonds. In this study, we exploited the cell's inherent biochemical composition to discriminate SCs of the inter-follicular skin epidermis based on IR-derived markers. Paraffin-embedded samples of human scalp skin (n = 4) were obtained, and 10-?m thick sections were mounted for IR spectroscopy. Samples were interrogated in transmission mode using synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform IR (FTIR) microspectroscopy (15 × 15 ?m) and also imaged employing globar-source FTIR focal plane array (FPA) imaging (5.4 × 5.4 ?m). Dependent on the location of derived spectra, wavenumber-absorbance/intensity relationships were examined using unsupervised principal component analysis. This approach showed clear separation and spectral differences dependent on cell type. Spectral biomarkers concurrently associated with segregation of SCs, transit-amplifying cells and terminally-differentiated cells of epidermis were primarily PO(2)(-) vibrational modes (1,225 and 1,080 cm(-1)), related to DNA conformational alterations. FPA imaging coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis also indicated the presence of specific basal layer cells potentially originating from the follicular bulge, suggested by co-clustering of spectra. This study highlights PO (2) (-) vibrational modes as potential putative SC markers. PMID:22945554

  5. Method to measure the 3D angular orientation of the aortic valve plane from a single image of a valvuloplasty balloon: findings of a large animal proof of concept experiment.

    PubMed

    Fetterly, Kenneth A; Mathew, Verghese

    2015-02-01

    During transcatheter aortic valve replacement procedures, alignment of the interventional x-ray beam with the aortic valve plane is required to guide valve placement. The purpose of this work was to develop methods to measure x-ray beam angles which are aligned with the aortic valve plane from a single x-ray image of a valvuloplasty balloon inflated across the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT). A custom valvuloplasty balloon and image analytics were developed. In-vivo pig experiments demonstrated that the angular orientation of the LVOT can be measured with precision less than 3°, including the influence of cardiac motion during rapid pacing. Using these methods, the angular orientation of the LVOT of a large mammal can be measured precisely and the continuous range of x-ray projection angles which are aligned with the aortic valve plane can be calculated. PMID:25431321

  6. EHD Flow and Collection Efficiency of a DBD ESP in Wire-to-Plane and Plane-to-Plane Configurations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noureddine Zouzou; Boni Dramane; Eric Moreau; Gérard Touchard

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, particle velocity fields inside three electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are investigated experimentally using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The reference case is a typical wire-to-plane ESP under negative and positive dc high voltages. The two other ESPs use an ac high voltage to generate a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in wire-to-plane and plane-to- plane configurations. The main objective of

  7. Blue-light imagery and photometry of sprites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Suszcynsky; Robert Roussel-Dupré; Walter A. Lyons; Russell A. Armstrong

    1998-01-01

    We have obtained blue (350–475 nm) video images and simultaneous high-time resolution narrow-band blue (415–435 nm) photometry records of four sprite events. The brightest blue images show a sustained tendril geometry and a nearly constant intensity of emission over the entire vertical extent of the sprite (from 35–90 km altitude). Photometer light curves display an exponential decay with a 0.3

  8. Blue-green algae

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lac Klamath, Anabaena, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Arthrospira maxima, Arthrospira platensis, BGA, Blue Green Algae, Blue-Green Micro-Algae, Cyanobacteria, Cyanobactérie, Cyanophycée, Dihe, Espirulina, Hawaiian Spirulina, Klamath, Klamath Lake Algae, Lyngbya wollei, Microcystis aeruginosa, ...

  9. Greening the Blue Bottle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Whitney E.; Noble, Mark E.

    2003-01-01

    Compares the revised Blue Bottle formulation to the classical Blue Bottle. Indicates that the revised formulation gives a somewhat bluer solution, but initially slower reduction when compared to the classical formulation. (Author/KHR)

  10. Methylene blue test

    MedlinePLUS

    The methylene blue test is a test to determine the type of methemoglobinemia (a blood disorder). ... are removed. A dark green powder called methylene blue goes through the tube into your vein. The ...

  11. Derivatization technique to increase the spectral selectivity of two-dimensional Fourier transform infrared focal plane array imaging: analysis of binder composition in aged oil and tempera paint.

    PubMed

    Zumbühl, Stefan; Scherrer, Nadim C; Eggenberger, Urs

    2014-01-01

    The interpretation of standard Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) on oil-based paint samples often suffers from interfering bands of the different compounds, namely, binder, oxidative aging products, carboxylates formed during aging, and several pigments and fillers. The distinction of the aging products such as ketone and carboxylic acid functional groups pose the next problem, as these interfere with the triglyceride esters of the oil. A sample preparation and derivatization technique using gaseous sulfur tetrafluoride (SF4), was thus developed with the aim to discriminate overlapping signals and achieve a signal enhancement on superposed compounds. Of particular interest in this context is the signal elimination of the broad carboxylate bands of the typical reaction products developing during the aging processes in oil-based paints, as well as signal interference originating from several typical pigments in this spectral range. Furthermore, it is possible to distinguish the different carbonyl-containing functional groups upon selective alteration. The derivatization treatment can be applied to both microsamples and polished cross sections. It increases the selectivity of the infrared spectroscopy technique in a fundamental manner and permits the identification and two-dimensional (2D) localization of binder components in aged paint samples at the micrometer scale. The combination of SF4 derivatization with high-resolution 2D FT-IR focal plane array (FPA) imaging delivers considerable advances to the study of micro-morphological processes involving organic compounds. PMID:24694702

  12. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Florida is now Florida Blue State Employees' PPO Plan health insurance provider Blue Cross and Blue Shield of

    E-print Network

    Ronquist, Fredrik

    Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Florida is now Florida Blue State Employees' PPO Plan health insurance provider Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Florida has recently changed its name to Florida Blue Resources Benefits Office at (850) 6444015, or insben@admin.fsu.edu. RELATED LINKS ­ Florida Blue

  13. Blue jets, blue starters and other blue luminous events observed by ISUAL payload on the FORMOSAT-2 satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, H.; Hsu, R.; Kuo, C.; Chen, A. B.; Lee, Y.; Chiang, P.; Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.; Takahashi, Y.; Fukunishi, H.; Lee, L.

    2005-12-01

    Blue jets and blue starters were first discovered in 1994 (Wescott, et. al. GRL, 22, 1209, 1995; GRL, 23, 2153, 1996). During 2000 STEPS campaign, other blue luminous events were also observed to emerge directly from cloud-top and were named gnomes and pixies (Lyons, et. al. BAMS, 445, 2003). The spectroscopic properties of blue starters were investigated in EXL98 campaign and no 2PN2 emission was detected. However using 1NN2+ images at 427.8nm and color TV images, the degree of ionization was estimated to be 3% (Wescott, et. al. JGR, 106, 21549, 2001). Among the thousands of TLEs registered by ISUAL payload onboard the FORMOSAT-2 (Chern et. al. JASTP 65, 647, 2003), more than two hundreds of them were identified as blue luminous events. These events have significant blue channel (370-450nm) signals in the ISUAL array photometer (AP), but have no red channel (530-650nm) emission. In the ISUAL spectrophotometer (SP), they also have strong 2PN2 (337nm) and 1NN2+ (391.4nm) emissions; but only a few also have N2-LBH (150-290nm) or N2 1PG (608.9-753.4nm) emissions and none has SP#5 channel (777.4nm) signal. The AP and SP spectrophometric data indicates that these blue luminous events are not related to lightning. The ISUAL ICCD images, which were taken through the red filter (633-750nm), show that some dim red emissions are emitted from the bottom of these blue luminous events near the cloud-top elevation; for some events the dim red emission can extend for >10km. Based the current spectroscopic information and their luminous duration (<200ms), these events are very similar to the blue jets, blue starters, gnomes or pixies. In this paper, the brightness, the characteristic and average electron energies of these events will be presented. The meteorological conditions for these blue luminous events to occur will also be discussed.

  14. Uncooled infrared focal plane arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul W. Kruse

    1994-01-01

    Uncooled infrared focal plane arrays have been developed which employ four detection mechanisms: resistive bolometric, pyroelectric, ferroelectric bolometric and thermoelectric. They find application in thermal imaging systems for night vision. Each of the four mechanisms is described. Figures of merit are defined. The fundamental limits to the performance of thermal detectors are presented. The state-of-the-art of the four types of

  15. Designing the focal plane spacing for multifocal plane microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tahmasbi, Amir; Ram, Sripad; Chao, Jerry; Abraham, Anish V.; Tang, Felix W.; Sally Ward, E.; Ober, Raimund J.

    2014-01-01

    Multifocal plane microscopy (MUM) has made it possible to study subcellular dynamics in 3D at high temporal and spatial resolution by simultaneously imaging distinct planes within the specimen. MUM allows high accuracy localization of a point source along the z-axis since it overcomes the depth discrimination problem of conventional single plane microscopy. An important question in MUM experiments is how the number of focal planes and their spacings should be chosen to achieve the best possible localization accuracy along the z-axis. Here, we propose approaches based on the Fisher information matrix and report spacing scenarios called strong coupling and weak coupling which yield an appropriate 3D localization accuracy. We examine the effect of numerical aperture, magnification, photon count, emission wavelength and extraneous noise on the spacing scenarios. In addition, we investigate the effect of changing the number of focal planes on the 3D localization accuracy. We also introduce a new software package that provides a user-friendly framework to find appropriate plane spacings for a MUM setup. These developments should assist in optimizing MUM experiments. PMID:25090489

  16. Optimal focal-plane restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichenbach, Stephen E.; Park, Stephen K.

    1989-01-01

    Image restoration can be implemented efficiently by calculating the convolution of the digital image and a small kernel during image acquisition. Processing the image in the focal-plane in this way requires less computation than traditional Fourier-transform-based techniques such as the Wiener filter and constrained least-squares filter. Here, the values of the convolution kernel that yield the restoration with minimum expected mean-square error are determined using a frequency analysis of the end-to-end imaging system. This development accounts for constraints on the size and shape of the spatial kernel and all the components of the imaging system. Simulation results indicate the technique is effective and efficient.

  17. SU-C-18C-02: Specifcation of X-Ray Projection Angles Which Are Aligned with the Aortic Valve Plane From a Planar Image of a Valvuloplasty Balloon Inflated Across the Aortic Valve

    SciTech Connect

    Fetterly, K; Mathew, V [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) procedures provide a method to implant a prosthetic aortic valve via a minimallyinvasive, catheter-based procedure. TAVR procedures require use of interventional fluoroscopy c-arm projection angles which are aligned with the aortic valve plane to minimize prosthetic valve positioning error due to x-ray imaging parallax. The purpose of this work is to calculate the continuous range of interventional fluoroscopy c-arm projection angles which are aligned with the aortic valve plane from a single planar image of a valvuloplasty balloon inflated across the aortic valve. Methods: Computational methods to measure the 3D angular orientation of the aortic valve were developed. Required inputs include a planar x-ray image of a known valvuloplasty balloon inflated across the aortic valve and specifications of x-ray imaging geometry from the DICOM header of the image. A-priori knowledge of the species-specific typical range of aortic orientation is required to specify the sign of the angle of the long axis of the balloon with respect to the x-ray beam. The methods were validated ex-vivo and in a live pig. Results: Ex-vivo experiments demonstrated that the angular orientation of a stationary inflated valvuloplasty balloon can be measured with precision less than 1 degree. In-vivo pig experiments demonstrated that cardiac motion contributed to measurement variability, with precision less than 3 degrees. Error in specification of x-ray geometry directly influences measurement accuracy. Conclusion: This work demonstrates that the 3D angular orientation of the aortic valve can be calculated precisely from a planar image of a valvuloplasty balloon inflated across the aortic valve and known x-ray geometry. This method could be used to determine appropriate c-arm angular projections during TAVR procedures to minimize x-ray imaging parallax and thereby minimize prosthetic valve positioning errors.

  18. Blue ocean strategy.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades. PMID:15559577

  19. Beautiful Blue Nile

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson students learn about the Blue Nile and compare it to rivers in the United States. They discuss their experiences with rivers and what they think it would be like to travel down a river that rapidly descends from the mountains to the plains. After looking at a map of Ethiopia, students describe what they would see in the area around the Blue Nile. They will witness a demonstration of a river running over flat versus mountainous terrain and view photos of the Blue Nile to describe the terrain.

  20. Blue Shark Adventure

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-09

    In this video, Jonathan joins Charlie Donilon on his shark charter boat in Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and learns about how shark tagging has shed light on the biology of and behavior of Blue sharks. Tagging has shown that these incredible swimmers actually migrate completely across the Atlantic ocean. Jonathan tries his hand at tagging a shark and then swims with Blue sharks. We also learn that Blue sharks are not nearly as vicious as they have been reputed to be, and the divers are actually able to pet the sharks! Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

  1. Thermodynamically Stable Blue Phases

    E-print Network

    F. Castles; S. M. Morris; E. M. Terentjev; H. J. Coles

    2011-01-28

    We show theoretically that flexoelectricity stabilizes blue phases in chiral liquid crystals. Induced internal polarization reduces the elastic energy cost of splay and bend deformations surrounding singular lines in the director field. The energy of regions of double twist is unchanged. This in turn reduces the free energy of the blue phase with respect to that of the chiral nematic phase, leading to stability over a wider temperature range. The theory explains the discovery of large temperature range blue phases in highly flexoelectric "bimesogenic" and "bent-core" materials, and predicts how this range may be increased further.

  2. A-plane GaN epitaxial lateral overgrowth structures: Growth domains, morphological defects, and impurity incorporation directly imaged by cathodoluminescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastek, B.; Bertram, F.; Christen, J.; Wernicke, T.; Weyers, M.; Kneissl, M.

    2008-05-01

    The distinctly different growth domains of a-plane epitaxial lateral overgrown GaN on stripe masks oriented along [011&barbelow;0] direction were directly visualized by highly spatially and spectrally resolved cathodoluminescence microscopy. Clear cut microscopic regions dominated by differing individual peak wavelengths originating from either basal plane stacking faults, prismatic stacking faults, impurity related donor-acceptor pair or (D0,X) emission are explicitly correlated to the different growth domains. The luminescence in the domains grown in [0001] direction over the mask [epitaxial lateral overgrown wings] is dominated by the intense and sharp (D0,X) emission at 3.471eV. Here, no luminescence originating from morphological defects is found over several micrometers. This evidences the excellent material quality of the a-plane GaN, which is fully relaxed at the surface of the wings.

  3. Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts is an Independent Licensee of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association Expanded Coverage for Preventive Care Under

    E-print Network

    Aalberts, Daniel P.

    Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts is an Independent Licensee of the Blue Cross and Blue. Effect the New Rules Will Have on Members and Accounts Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts. Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts will offer the following services with no member cost share

  4. Automated object recognition of blue-green algae for measuring water quality—A preliminary study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan U. Thiel; Ron J. Wiltshire; Lance J. Davies

    1995-01-01

    In this paper a computer algorithm for the automated detection of blue-green algae is presented. Samples of seven species of blue-green algae and two species of green algae were examined under a microscope and transferred to a computer. The microscope pictures were stored as digital images. In order to locate the organisms Image Segmentation routines were applied. Image Enhancement improved

  5. Methylene blue unresponsive methemoglobinemia

    PubMed Central

    Patnaik, Sibabratta; Natarajan, Manivachagan Muthappa; James, Ebor Jacob; Ebenezer, Kala

    2014-01-01

    Acquired methemoglobinemia is an uncommon blood disorder induced by exposure to certain oxidizing agents and drugs. Although parents may not give any history of toxin ingestion; with the aid of pulse-oximetry and blood gas analysis, we can diagnose methemoglobinemia. Prompt recognition of this condition is required in emergency situations to institute early methylene blue therapy. We report an unusual case of severe toxic methemoglobinemia, which did not respond to methylene blue, but was successfully managed with exchange transfusion. PMID:24872659

  6. Blue Light Emitting Diode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Kwei Lee; Min-Yen Yeh; Hon-Da Huang; Chih-Wei Hong

    1995-01-01

    An n-ZnSe\\/p-ZnSe\\/p+-GaAs blue light emitting diode was prepared by low pressure organometallic chemical vapor deposition. Its electroluminescence wavelength was 461 nm with a full width at half maximum 52 meV at 300 K. It shows that a pure blue ZnSe light emitting diode can be prepared under Zn-rich growth condition for n-type ZnSe epilayer doped with aluminum and under Se-rich

  7. Choosing between Blue Cross plans...

    E-print Network

    Burke, Peter

    Choosing between Blue Cross plans... ...when you have Medicare PresentedPresented By Glenn. Medicare and UC II. Medicare and Anthem Blue Cross III. Plan Comparisons · Pros/Cons · Medical coverage will automatically be enrolled in Part D by Blue Cross No additional Part D premium · Blue Cross members have

  8. Switching dynamics in cholesteric blue phases

    E-print Network

    A. Tiribocchi; G. Gonnella; D. Marenduzzo; E. Orlandini

    2011-03-30

    Blue phases are networks of disclination lines, which occur in cholesteric liquid crystals near the transition to the isotropic phase. They have recently been used for the new generation of fast switching liquid crystal displays. Here we study numerically the steady states and switching hydrodynamics of blue phase I (BPI) and blue phase II (BPII) cells subjected to an electric field. When the field is on, there are three regimes: for very weak fields (and strong anchoring at the boundaries) the blue phases are almost unaffected, for intermediate fields the disclinations twist (for BPI) and unzip (for BPII), whereas for very large voltages the network dissolves in the bulk of the cell. Interestingly, we find that a BPII cell can recover its original structure when the field is switched off, whereas a BPI cell is found to be trapped more easily into metastable configurations. The kinetic pathways followed during switching on and off entails dramatic reorganisation of the disclination networks. We also discuss the effect of changing the director field anchoring at the boundary planes and of varying the direction of the applied field.

  9. SNAP satellite focal plane development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Bebek; Carl W. Akerlof; Greg Aldering; R. Amanullah; Pierre Astier; Charles Baltay; E. Barrelet; Stephane Basa; John Bercovitz; Lars Bergstrom; Gary Berstein; Manfred Bester; Ralph C. Bohlin; Alain Bonissent; Charles R. Bower; Myron Campbell; William C. Carithers Jr.; Eugene D. Commins; C. Day; Susana E. Deustua; Richard S. DiGennaro; Anne Ealet; Richard S. Ellis; William Emmett; Mikael Eriksson; D. Fouchez; Andrew Fruchter; Jean-Francois Genat; Gerson Goldhaber; Ariel Goobar; Donald E. Groom; Henry D. Heetderks; Stephen E. Holland; Dragan Huterer; William E. Johnston; Richard W. Kadel; Armin Karcher; Alex G. Kim; William F. Kolbe; Robin E. Lafever; J. I. Lamoureux; Michael L. Lampton; Oliver Le Fèvre; Michael E. Levi; Daniel S. Levin; Eric V. Linder; Stewart C. Loken; Roger Malina; Alain Mazure; Timothy A. McKay; Shawn P. McKee; Ramon Miquel; Nicholas Morgan; E. Mortsell; N. Mostek; Stuart Mufson; J. A. Musser; Natalie A. Roe; Peter E. Nugent; Hakeem M. Oluseyi; Reynald Pain; Nicholas P. Palaio; David H. Pankow; Saul Perlmutter; Eric Prieto; David Rabinowitz; Alexandre Refregier; Jason Rhodes; Michael S. Schubnell; Michael Sholl; G. Smadja; R. Smith; George F. Smoot; Jeffrey A. Snyder; Anthony Spadafora; Andrew Szymkowiak; Gregory Tarle; Keith Taylor; A. Tilquin; Andrew D. Tomasch; D. Vincent; Henrik von der Lippe; Jean-Pierre Walder; Guobin Wang

    2003-01-01

    The proposed SuperNova\\/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R&D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just

  10. Infrared focal plane array technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DEAN A. SCRIBNER; MELVIN R. KRUER; JOSEPH M. KILLIANY

    1991-01-01

    Requirements for infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPAs) for advanced infrared imaging systems are discussed, and an overview is given of different IRFPA architectures. Important IR detector structures, including photoconductive, photovoltaic, metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS), and Schottky barrier, are reviewed. Infrared detector materials and related crystal-growth techniques are discussed, emphasizing applicability to IRFPA designs and performance. Three types of input circuit used to

  11. Uncovering blue diffuse dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Bethan L.; Koposov, Sergey; Stark, Daniel P.; Belokurov, Vasily; Pettini, Max; Olszewski, Edward W.

    2015-04-01

    Extremely metal poor (XMP) galaxies are known to be very rare, despite the large numbers of low-mass galaxies predicted by the local galaxy luminosity function. This paper presents a subsample of galaxies that were selected via a morphology-based search on Sloan Digital Sky Survey images with the aim of finding these elusive XMP galaxies. By using the recently discovered XMP galaxy, Leo P, as a guide, we obtained a collection of faint, blue systems, each with isolated H II regions embedded in a diffuse continuum, that have remained optically undetected until now. Here we show the first results from optical spectroscopic follow-up observations of 12 of ˜100 of these blue diffuse dwarf (BDD) galaxies yielded by our search algorithm. Oxygen abundances were obtained via the direct method for eight galaxies, and found to be in the range 7.45 < 12 + log (O/H) < 8.0, with two galaxies being classified as XMPs. All BDDs were found to currently have a young star-forming population (<10 Myr) and relatively high ionization parameters of their H II regions. Despite their low luminosities (-11 ? MB ? -18) and low surface brightnesses (˜23-25 mag arcsec-2), the galaxies were found to be actively star forming, with current star formation rates between 0.0003 and 0.078 M? yr-1. From our current subsample, BDD galaxies appear to be a population of non-quiescent dwarf irregular galaxies, or the diffuse counterparts to blue compact galaxies and as such may bridge the gap between these two populations. Our search algorithm demonstrates that morphology-based searches are successful in uncovering more diffuse metal-poor star-forming galaxies, which traditional emission-line-based searches overlook.

  12. Points, Lines, and Planes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Neubert

    2011-08-18

    This lesson will define the important basics of Geometry: Points, Lines, and Planes Let's take notes on our first lesson! Click on the link below to get started: Points, Lines, and Planes Now, here is an activity to check your understanding: Points, Lines and Planes Activity OK! Now, here is a quiz to really see if you got it: Points, Lines, and Planes Quiz! Good Job! Now, your homework can be found on your Canvas account or my website calendar on ...

  13. Powers of Ten with the Blue Morpho Butterfly

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lab, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, introduces students to the concepts of scale and magnification using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image of a Blue Morpho butterfly wing. If educators do not have access to an SEM,  images is included with the activity. This lesson will prompt students to think about nanoscale, biomimicry, SEM technology, and measurement. Students will examine the nanostructures of the butterfly's wings using either the images or the SEM (if available). Included in this lab are: teacher guide, student worksheet, and an image of a Blue Morpho butterfly.

  14. Multispectral imaging of absorption and scattering properties of in vivo exposed rat brain using a digital red-green-blue camera.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Keiichiro; Nishidate, Izumi; Ishizuka, Tomohiro; Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Sato, Manabu

    2015-05-01

    In order to estimate multispectral images of the absorption and scattering properties in the cerebral cortex of in vivo rat brain, we investigated spectral reflectance images estimated by the Wiener estimation method using a digital RGB camera. A Monte Carlo simulation-based multiple regression analysis for the corresponding spectral absorbance images at nine wavelengths (500, 520, 540, 560, 570, 580, 600, 730, and 760 nm) was then used to specify the absorption and scattering parameters of brain tissue. In this analysis, the concentrations of oxygenated hemoglobin and that of deoxygenated hemoglobin were estimated as the absorption parameters, whereas the coefficient a and the exponent b of the reduced scattering coefficient spectrum approximated by a power law function were estimated as the scattering parameters. The spectra of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients were reconstructed from the absorption and scattering parameters, and the spectral images of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients were then estimated. In order to confirm the feasibility of this method, we performed in vivo experiments on exposed rat brain. The estimated images of the absorption coefficients were dominated by the spectral characteristics of hemoglobin. The estimated spectral images of the reduced scattering coefficients had a broad scattering spectrum, exhibiting a larger magnitude at shorter wavelengths, corresponding to the typical spectrum of brain tissue published in the literature. The changes in the estimated absorption and scattering parameters during normoxia, hyperoxia, and anoxia indicate the potential applicability of the method by which to evaluate the pathophysiological conditions of in vivo brain due to the loss of tissue viability. PMID:25614979

  15. Plane waves Lumped systems

    E-print Network

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    1 Impedance · Plane waves ­ Lumped systems S x y z Impedance · Plane waves ­ Lumped systems · open tube #12;2 Impedance · Plane waves ­ Lumped systems · closed tube Impedance · Cylindrical waves z x y r;9 Impedance · Spherical waves ­ Spherical Hankel functions hn (2)(kr)=jn(kr)-iyn(kr) #12;

  16. Forward modelling to determine the observational signatures of white-light imaging and interplanetary scintillation for the propagation of an interplanetary shock in the ecliptic plane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming Xiong; A. R. Breen; M. M. Bisi; M. J. Owens; R. A. Fallows; G. D. Dorrian; J. A. Davies; P. Thomasson

    2011-01-01

    Recent coordinated observations of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) from the EISCAT, MERLIN, and STELab, and stereoscopic white-light imaging from the two heliospheric imagers (HIs) onboard the twin STEREO spacecraft are significant to continuously track the propagation and evolution of solar eruptions throughout interplanetary space. In order to obtain a better understanding of the observational signatures in these two remote-sensing techniques, the

  17. Plane Transformations in a Complex Setting II: Isometries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana-Picard, Thierry

    2007-01-01

    This paper is the second part of a study of plane transformations using a complex setting. The first part was devoted to homotheties and translations, now attention is turned towards plane isometries. The group theoretic properties of plane isometries are easy to derive and images of classical geometrical objects by these transformations are…

  18. Focal plane metrology for the LSST camera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew P. Rasmussen; Layton Hale; Peter Kim; Eric Lee; Martin Perl; Rafe Schindler; Peter Takacs; Timothy Thurston

    2006-01-01

    Meeting the science goals for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) translates into a demanding set of imaging performance requirements for the optical system over a wide (3.5°) field of view. In turn, meeting those imaging requirements necessitates maintaining precise control of the focal plane surface (10 mum P-V) over the entire field of view (640 mm diameter) at the

  19. From digital plane Segmentation to Polyhedral representation

    E-print Network

    Sivignon, Isabelle

    of MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imagery) and scanners. As 2D images are composed of pixels, these 3D images 3D discrete volumes are more and more used especially in the medical area as they are the resultFrom digital plane Segmentation to Polyhedral representation Isabelle Sivignon1 and David

  20. IBM Research: Blue Gene

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the home page of an IBM research and development project that is designing a supercomputer, called Blue Gene/L, capable of 200 trillion floating point operations per second. According to the Web site, this specification "is larger than the total computing power of the top 500 supercomputers in the world today." Working in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, IBM expects the project to be completed by 2005. There are a few publications and presentations given about the status of the project and its uses. There is also a fact sheet and several industry links about protein folding, which is the main application of Blue Gene/L.

  1. Techniques for identifying dust devils in mars pathfinder images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metzger, S.M.; Carr, J.R.; Johnson, J.R.; Parker, T.J.; Lemmon, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    Image processing methods used to identify and enhance dust devil features imaged by IMP (Imager for Mars Pathfinder) are reviewed. Spectral differences, visible red minus visible blue, were used for initial dust devil searches, driven by the observation that Martian dust has high red and low blue reflectance. The Martian sky proved to be more heavily dust-laden than pre-Pathfinder predictions, based on analysis of images from the Hubble Space Telescope. As a result, these initial spectral difference methods failed to contrast dust devils with background dust haze. Imager artifacts (dust motes on the camera lens, flat-field effects caused by imperfections in the CCD, and projection onto a flat sensor plane by a convex lens) further impeded the ability to resolve subtle dust devil features. Consequently, reference images containing sky with a minimal horizon were first subtracted from each spectral filter image to remove camera artifacts and reduce the background dust haze signal. Once the sky-flat preprocessing step was completed, the red-minus-blue spectral difference scheme was attempted again. Dust devils then were successfully identified as bright plumes. False-color ratios using calibrated IMP images were found useful for visualizing dust plumes, verifying initial discoveries as vortex-like features. Enhancement of monochromatic (especially blue filter) images revealed dust devils as silhouettes against brighter background sky. Experiments with principal components transformation identified dust devils in raw, uncalibrated IMP images and further showed relative movement of dust devils across the Martian surface. A variety of methods therefore served qualitative and quantitative goals for dust plume identification and analysis in an environment where such features are obscure.

  2. Ultra-low dark current InGaAs technology for focal plane arrays for low-light level visible-shortwave infrared imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bora M. Onat; Wei Huang; Navneet Masaun; Michael Lange; Martin H. Ettenberg; Christopher Dries

    2007-01-01

    Under the DARPA Photon Counting Arrays (PCAR) program we have investigated technologies to reduce the overall noise level in InGaAs based imagers for identifying a man at 100m under low-light level imaging conditions. We report the results of our experiments comprising of 15 InGaAs wafers that were utilized to investigate lowering dark current in photodiode arrays. As a result of

  3. Conversion of red fluorescent protein into a bright blue probe

    PubMed Central

    Subach, Oksana M; Gundorov, Illia S.; Yoshimura, Masami; Subach, Fedor V.; Zhang, Jinghang; Grüenwald, David; Souslova, Ekaterina A.; Chudakov, Dmitriy M.; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY We utilized a red chromophore formation pathway, in which the anionic red chromophore is formed from the neutral blue intermediate, to suggest a novel rational design strategy to develop blue fluorescent proteins with a tyrosine-based chromophore. The strategy was applied to red fluorescent proteins of the different genetic background such as TagRFP, mCherry, HcRed1, M355NA, and mKeima, which were converted into blue probes. Further improvement of a blue variant of TagRFP using random mutagenesis resulted in an enhanced monomeric protein, mTagBFP, characterized by substantially higher brightness, faster chromophore maturation and higher pH stability than blue fluorescence proteins with a histidine in the chromophore. Detailed biochemical and photochemical analysis indicates mTagBFP is the true monomeric protein tag for multicolor and lifetime imaging as well as the outstanding donor for green fluorescent proteins in FRET applications. PMID:18940671

  4. Blue honeysuckle list 47

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript summarizes descriptions for two newly released Lonicera caerulea L., blue honeysuckle, cultivars released for northern production. This fruit is popular in Russia and in Japan, particularly Hokkaido. It has possibility as a new fruit cultivar for North America. The University of Sask...

  5. Great Blue Heron

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Great Blue Herons are found throughout much of North America, but are always associated with water. Because they fish by sight, they need relatively shallow water. Release of too much water through the canals north of the Everglades can interfere with their ability to find food....

  6. Fourier plane filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, D. S.; Aldrich, R. E.; Krol, F. T.

    1972-01-01

    An electrically addressed liquid crystal Fourier plane filter capable of real time optical image processing is described. The filter consists of two parts: a wedge filter having forty 9 deg segments and a ring filter having twenty concentric rings in a one inch diameter active area. Transmission of the filter in the off (transparent) state exceeds fifty percent. By using polarizing optics, contrast as high as 10,000:1 can be achieved at voltages compatible with FET switching technology. A phenomenological model for the dynamic scattering is presented for this special case. The filter is designed to be operated from a computer and is addressed by a seven bit binary word which includes an on or off command and selects any one of the twenty rings or twenty wedge pairs. The overall system uses addressable latches so that once an element is in a specified state, it will remain there until a change of state command is received. The drive for the liquid crystal filter is ? 30 V peak at 30 Hz to 70 Hz. These parameters give a rise time for the scattering of 20 msec and a decay time of 80 to 100 msec.

  7. Why is the Sky Blue?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This hands on lab helps explain why the color of our sky/upper atmosphere appears blue in color. Students will be able to simulate how light from the sun is scattered by our atmosphere to create blue light.

  8. Optimization of starshades: focal plane versus pupil plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flamary, R.; Aime, C.

    2014-09-01

    We search for the best possible transmission for an external occulter coronagraph that is dedicated to the direct observation of terrestrial exoplanets. We show that better observation conditions are obtained when the flux in the focal plane is minimized in the zone in which the exoplanet is observed, instead of for the total flux received by the telescope. We describe the transmission of the occulter as a sum of basis functions. For each element of the basis, we numerically computed the Fresnel diffraction at the aperture of the telescope and the complex amplitude at its focus. The basis functions are circular disks that are linearly apodized over a few centimeters (truncated cones). We complemented the numerical calculation of the Fresnel diffraction for these functions by a comparison with pure circular disks (cylinder) for which an analytical expression, based on a decomposition in Lommel series, is available. The technique of deriving the optimal transmission for a given spectral bandwidth is a classical regularized quadratic minimization of intensities, but linear optimizations can be used as well. Minimizing the integrated intensity on the aperture of the telescope or for selected regions of the focal plane leads to slightly different transmissions for the occulter. For the focal plane optimization, the resulting residual intensity is concentrated behind the geometrical image of the occulter, in a blind region for the observation of an exoplanet, and the level of background residual starlight becomes very low outside this image. Finally, we provide a tolerance analysis for the alignment of the occulter to the telescope, which also favors the focal plane optimization. This means that telescope offsets of a few decimeters do not strongly reduce the efficiency of the occulter.

  9. A Biomimetic Focal Plane Speed Computation Architecture Vivek Pant1

    E-print Network

    A Biomimetic Focal Plane Speed Computation Architecture Vivek Pant1 and Charles M. Higgins1,2 1 speed at the image focal plane for robotic navigation. It employs an array of parallel sensing and computing blocks, and outputs a signal that varies linearly with image speed. ©2007 Optical Society

  10. Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging.

    PubMed

    Culver, J P; Choe, R; Holboke, M J; Zubkov, L; Durduran, T; Slemp, A; Ntziachristos, V; Chance, B; Yodh, A G

    2003-02-01

    Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography (DOT) of breast requires large data sets for even modest resolution (1 cm). We present a hybrid DOT system that combines a limited number of frequency domain (FD) measurements with a large set of continuous wave (cw) measurements. The FD measurements are used to quantitatively determine tissue averaged absorption and scattering coefficients. The larger cw data sets (10(5) measurements) collected with a lens coupled CCD, permit 3D DOT reconstructions of a 1-liter tissue volume. To address the computational complexity of large data sets and 3D volumes we employ finite difference based reconstructions computed in parallel. Tissue phantom measurements evaluate imaging performance. The tests include the following: point spread function measures of resolution, characterization of the size and contrast of single objects, field of view measurements and spectral characterization of constituent concentrations. We also report in vivo measurements. Average tissue optical properties of a healthy breast are used to deduce oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations. Differential imaging with a tumor simulating target adhered to the surface of a healthy breast evaluates the influence of physiologic fluctuations on image noise. This tomography system provides robust, quantitative, full 3D image reconstructions with the advantages of high data throughput, single detector-tissue coupling path, and large (1L) imaging domains. In addition, we find that point spread function measurements provide a useful and comprehensive representation of system performance. PMID:12607841

  11. Visualization of microvascular proliferation as a tumor infiltration structure in rat glioma specimens using the diffraction-enhanced imaging in-plane CT technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Seung-Jun; Sunaguchi, Naoki; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Huo, Qingkai; Ando, Masami; Choi, Gi-Hwan; Kim, Hong-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hong; Jeong, Eun-Ju; Chang, Won-Seok; Kim, Jong-Ki

    2012-03-01

    In order to study potent microenvironments of malignant gliomas with a high- resolution x-ray imaging technique, an injection orthotopic glioma model was made using the Sprague-Dawley rat. Total brain tissue, taken out as an ex vivo model, was examined with diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) computed tomography (CT) acquired with a 35 keV monochromatic x-ray. In the convolution-reconstructed 2D/3D images with a spatial resolution of 12.5 × 12.5 × 25 µm, distinction among necrosis, typical ring-shaped viable tumors, edemas and healthy tissues was clearly observed near the frontal lobe in front of the rat's caudate nucleus. Multiple microvascular proliferations (MVPs) were observed surrounding peritumoral edemas as a tumor infiltration structure. Typical dimensions of tubular MVPs were 130 (diameter) ×250 (length) µm with a partial sprout structure revealed in the 3D reconstructed image. Hyperplasia of cells around vessel walls was revealed with tumor cell infiltration along the perivascular space in microscopic observations of mild MVP during histological analysis. In conclusion, DEI-CT is capable of imaging potent tumor-infiltrating MVP structures surrounding high-grade gliomas.

  12. [Blue light and eye health].

    PubMed

    Zou, Leilei; Dai, Jinhui

    2015-01-01

    Blue light, with the wavelength between 400 nm and 500 nm, has caused public concern because of the injury to the retinal cells. Meanwhile, it is important in circadian rhythm regulation, scotopic vision and ocular growth. Is the blue light safe? Should it be eliminated from the daily life? Here we review the effect and safety of the blue light. PMID:25877712

  13. Crater Lake Blue Through Time

    E-print Network

    Torgersen, Christian

    trout, both introduced Lake Facts U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service Partnership funded scientific surveys of the lake, which encouraged President Roosevelt to sign a bill in 1902 givingCrater Lake Blue Through Time Blue is the color of constancy, hence the term true blue

  14. Mosaic focal plane for star sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, N. C.

    1981-02-01

    The basic principles of star sensors are reviewed with reference to the advantages of replacing photodiodes, image dissectors, and vidicons with mosaic charge transfer device (CTD) focal planes. The desirable characteristics of CTD focal planes include: high uniformity, high transfer effect, low dark current, low hot and cold spots, low dead space, low angular misalignment, high coplanarity, and high thermal stability. An implementation of a mosaic CTD array star sensor which achieves high angular position accuracy and frequency attitude update is presented. Two focal plane packaging concepts, the planar and vertical board packagings, are examined.

  15. Finding k Farthest Pairs and k Closest\\/Farthest Bichromatic Pairs for Points in the Plane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoki Katoh; Kazuo Iwanot

    1992-01-01

    We study the problem of enumerating k farthest pairs for n points in the plane and the problems of enumerating k closest\\/farthest bichromatic pairs of n red and n blue points in the plane. We propose a new technique for geometric enumeration problems which iteratively reduces the search space by a half and provides efficient algorithms. As applications of this

  16. The ejecta from the luminous blue variable star P Cygni

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Meaburn; J. A. O'connor; J. A. López; M. Bryce; M. P. Redman; A. Noriega-Crespo

    2000-01-01

    Further optical observations have been made with the Manchester Occulting Mask Imager and Manchester Echelle Spectrometer of the inner and outer shells of P Cygni, and of the 7-arcmin long giant lobe projecting from this luminous blue variable star. An image in the light of the fluorescently excited [Niii] 7378-Å line has revealed the knottiness of the inner shell. Well

  17. Comparing 3D spherical Monte-Carlo and 2-stream parallel plane simulation of far-field backscattering image of Titan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. T. Tran; Rannou Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Simple radiative transfers are frequently used to model Titan telescopic observations and also to retrieve haze properties, haze distribution and surface albedo. Many retrieved information are dependant upon the quality of the simulation results, and especially on the way the center to limb intensity behavior is modeled. In this work, we compare the simulations of Titan backscattered image done by

  18. GLAMER - II. Multiple-plane gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkova, Margarita; Metcalf, R. Benton; Giocoli, Carlo

    2014-12-01

    We present an extension to multiple planes of the gravitational lensing code GLAMER. The method entails projecting the mass in the observed light-cone on to a discrete number of lens planes and inverse ray-shooting from the image to the source plane. The mass on each plane can be represented as haloes, simulation particles, a projected mass map extracted form a numerical simulation or any combination of these. The image finding is done in a source-oriented fashion, where only regions of interest are iteratively refined on an initially coarse image plane grid. The calculations are performed in parallel on shared memory machines. The code is able to handle different types of analytic haloes (NFW, NSIE, power law, etc.), haloes extracted from numerical simulations and clusters constructed from semi-analytic models (MOKA). Likewise, there are several different options for modelling the source(s) which can be distributed throughout the light-cone. The distribution of matter in the light-cone can be either taken from a pre-existing N-body numerical simulations, from halo catalogues, or are generated from an analytic mass function. We present several tests of the code and demonstrate some of its applications such as generating mock images of galaxy and galaxy cluster lenses.

  19. Stabilising the Blue Phases

    E-print Network

    G. P. Alexander; J. M. Yeomans

    2006-09-22

    We present an investigation of the phase diagram of cholesteric liquid crystals within the framework of Landau - de Gennes theory. The free energy is modified to incorporate all three Frank elastic constants and to allow for a temperature dependent pitch in the cholesteric phase. It is found that the region of stability of the cubic blue phases depends significantly on the value of the elastic constants, being reduced when the bend elastic constant is larger than splay and when twist is smaller than the other two. Most dramatically we find a large increase in the region of stability of blue phase I, and a qualitative change in the phase diagram, in a system where the cholesteric phase displays helix inversion.

  20. The Blue Emu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Descalzi, Doug; Gillett, John; Gordon, Carlton; Keener, ED; Novak, Ken; Puente, Laura

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal in designing the Blue Emu was to provide an airline with a cost efficient and profitable means of transporting passengers between the major cities in Aeroworld. The design attacks the market where a demand for inexpensive transportation exists and for this reason the Blue Emu is an attractive investment for any airline. In order to provide a profitable aircraft, special attention was paid to cost and economics. For example, in manufacturing, simplicity was stressed in structural design to reduce construction time and cost. Aerodynamic design employed a tapered wing which reduced the induced drag coefficient while also reducing the weight of the wing. Even the propulsion system was selected with cost effectiveness in mind, yet also to maintain the marketability of the aircraft. Thus, in every aspect of the design, consideration was given to economics and marketability of the final product.

  1. Best Linear Unbiased Estimate Motivation for BLUE

    E-print Network

    Fowler, Mark

    1 Chapter 6 Best Linear Unbiased Estimate (BLUE) #12;2 Motivation for BLUE Except for Linear Model to a sub-optimal estimate BLUE is one such sub-optimal estimate Idea for BLUE: 1. Restrict estimate) Advantage of BLUE:Needs only 1st and 2nd moments of PDF Mean & Covariance Disadvantages of BLUE: 1. Sub

  2. Blue native PAGE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilka Wittig; Hans-Peter Braun; Hermann Schägger

    2006-01-01

    Blue native PAGE (BN-PAGE) can be used for one-step isolation of protein complexes from biological membranes and total cell and tissue homogenates. It can also be used to determine native protein masses and oligomeric states and to identify physiological protein–protein interactions. Native complexes are recovered from gels by electroelution or diffusion and are used for 2D crystallization and electron microscopy

  3. The blue brain project.

    PubMed

    Markram, Henry

    2006-02-01

    IBM's Blue Gene supercomputer allows a quantum leap in the level of detail at which the brain can be modelled. I argue that the time is right to begin assimilating the wealth of data that has been accumulated over the past century and start building biologically accurate models of the brain from first principles to aid our understanding of brain function and dysfunction. PMID:16429124

  4. Holo-Television System with a Single Plane

    E-print Network

    Lunazzi, J J; Rivera, N I R; Serra, R L

    2009-01-01

    We show a system capable of projecting a video scene on a white-light holographic screen to obtain a kind of image that results in a plane in front of the screen. This holographic screen is mainly a diffractive lens and it is constructed by holography. The image plane can be located at any azimuth angle and seen with continuous parallax and without the use of goggles or any special visualization equipment. The image is not volumetric but when the plane is oblique to the observer its appearance looks very close to a real volumetric image.

  5. SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bebek, C.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bercovitz, J.; Bergstrom, L.; Berstein, G.P.; Bester, M.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.; Emmett, W.; Eriksson, M.; Fouchez,D.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Johnson, W.; Kadel, R.; Karcher,A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureaux, J.; Lampton, M.; Lefevre, O.; Levi, M.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Mazure, A.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Morgan, N.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Roe, N.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Prieto, E.; Rabinowitz,D.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Schubnell, M.; Sholl, M.; Smadja, G.; Smith, R.; Smoot, G.; Snyder, J.; Spadafora, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tarle,G.; Taylor, K.; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, A.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J-P.; Wang, G.

    2003-07-07

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R&D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics.

  6. A 0.8-?m CMOS two-dimensional programmable mixed-signal focal-plane array processor with on-chip binary imaging and instructions storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Dominguez-Castro; S. Espejo; A. Rodriguez-Vazquez; R. A. Carmona; P. Foldesy; A. Zarandy; P. Szolgay; T. Sziranyi; T. Roska

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a CMOS chip for the parallel acquisition and concurrent analog processing of two-dimensional (2-D) binary images. Its processing function is determined by a reduced set of 19 analog coefficients whose values are programmable with 7-b accuracy. The internal programming signals are analog, but the external control interface is fully digital. On-chip nonlinear digital-to-analog converters (DAC's) map digitally

  7. Inter-Plane Via Defect Detection Using the Sensor Plane in 3-D Heterogeneous Sensor Systems

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Glenn H.

    : an array of acoustic and seismic sensors, an Active Pixel Sensor array, and an uncooled InfraRed (IR imager, and seismic and acoustic sensor arrays. This paper investigates ways of introducing defect) imaging array [3]. By manufacturing the sensor plane separately using a combined CMOS and MEMS fabrication

  8. Design of smart imagers with image processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evgeniya N. Serova; Yury A. Shiryaev; Anton O. Udovichenko

    2005-01-01

    This paper is devoted to creation of novel CMOS APS imagers with focal plane parallel image preprocessing for smart technical vision and electro-optical systems based on neural implementation. Using analysis of main biological vision features, the desired artificial vision characteristics are defined. Image processing tasks can be implemented by smart focal plane preprocessing CMOS imagers with neural networks are determined.

  9. A Panel of Trypanosoma brucei Strains Tagged with Blue and Red-Shifted Luciferases for Bioluminescent Imaging in Murine Infection Models

    PubMed Central

    Van Reet, Nick; Van de Vyver, Hélène; Pyana, Patient Pati; Van der Linden, Anne Marie; Büscher, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic engineering with luciferase reporter genes allows monitoring Trypanosoma brucei (T.b.) infections in mice by in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Until recently, luminescent T.b. models were based on Renilla luciferase (RLuc) activity. Our study aimed at evaluating red-shifted luciferases for in vivo BLI in a set of diverse T.b. strains of all three subspecies, including some recently isolated from human patients. Methodology/Principal findings We transfected T.b. brucei, T.b. rhodesiense and T.b. gambiense strains with either RLuc, click beetle red (CBR) or Photinus pyralis RE9 (PpyRE9) luciferase and characterised their in vitro luciferase activity, growth profile and drug sensitivity, and their potential for in vivo BLI. Compared to RLuc, the red-shifted luciferases, CBR and PpyRE9, allow tracking of T.b. brucei AnTaR 1 trypanosomes with higher details on tissue distribution, and PpyRE9 allows detection of the parasites with a sensitivity of at least one order of magnitude higher than CBR luciferase. With CBR-tagged T.b. gambiense LiTaR1, T.b. rhodesiense RUMPHI and T.b. gambiense 348 BT in an acute, subacute and chronic infection model respectively, we observed differences in parasite tropism for murine tissues during in vivo BLI. Ex vivo BLI on the brain confirmed central nervous system infection by all luminescent strains of T.b. brucei AnTaR 1, T.b. rhodesiense RUMPHI and T.b. gambiense 348 BT. Conclusions/Significance We established a genetically and phenotypically diverse collection of bioluminescent T.b. brucei, T.b. gambiense and T.b. rhodesiense strains, including drug resistant strains. For in vivo BLI monitoring of murine infections, we recommend trypanosome strains transfected with red-shifted luciferase reporter genes, such as CBR and PpyRE9. Red-shifted luciferases can be detected with a higher sensitivity in vivo and at the same time they improve the spatial resolution of the parasites in the entire body due to the better kinetics of their substrate D-luciferin. PMID:25144573

  10. Forward modelling to determine the observational signatures of white-light imaging and interplanetary scintillation for the propagation of an interplanetary shock in the ecliptic plane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming Xiong; A. R. Breen; M. M. Bisi; M. J. Owens; R. A. Fallows; G. D. Dorrian; J. A. Davies; P. Thomasson

    2010-01-01

    Recent coordinated observations of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) and\\u000astereoscopic heliospheric imagers (HIs) are significant to continuously track\\u000athe propagation and evolution of solar eruptions throughout interplanetary\\u000aspace. In order to obtain a better understanding of the observational\\u000asignatures in these two remote-sensing techniques, the magnetohydrodynamics of\\u000athe macro-scale interplanetary disturbance and the radio-wave scattering of the\\u000amicro-scale electron-density fluctuation are

  11. 50-kHz-rate 2D imaging of temperature and H2O concentration at the exhaust plane of a J85 engine using hyperspectral tomography.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lin; Li, Xuesong; Sanders, Scott T; Caswell, Andrew W; Roy, Sukesh; Plemmons, David H; Gord, James R

    2013-01-14

    This paper describes a novel laser diagnostic and its demonstration in a practical aero-propulsion engine (General Electric J85). The diagnostic technique, named hyperspectral tomography (HT), enables simultaneous 2-dimensional (2D) imaging of temperature and water-vapor concentration at 225 spatial grid points with a temporal response up to 50 kHz. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such sensing capabilities have been reported. This paper introduces the principles of the HT techniques, reports its operation and application in a J85 engine, and discusses its perspective for the study of high-speed reactive flows. PMID:23389008

  12. Flexoelectric blue phases

    E-print Network

    G P Alexander; J M Yeomans

    2007-07-01

    We describe the occurence and properties of liquid crystal phases showing two dimensional splay and bend distortions which are stabilised by flexoelectric interactions. These phases are characterised by regions of locally double splayed order separated by topological defects and are thus highly analogous to the blue phases of cholesteric liquid crystals. We present a mean field analysis based upon the Landau--de Gennes Q-tensor theory and construct a phase diagram for flexoelectric structures using analytic and numerical results. We stress the similarities and discrepancies between the cholesteric and flexoelectric cases.

  13. Focal Plane Metrology for the LSST Camera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew P. A Rasmussen; Layton Hale; Peter Kim; Eric Lee; Martin Perl; Rafe Schindler; Peter Takacs; Timothy Thurston

    2007-01-01

    Meeting the science goals for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) translates into a demanding set of imaging performance requirements for the optical system over a wide (3.5{sup o}) field of view. In turn, meeting those imaging requirements necessitates maintaining precise control of the focal plane surface (10 μm P-V) over the entire field of view (640 mm diameter) at

  14. High speed multi focal plane optical system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minott, P. O. (inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for eliminating beamsplitter generated optical aberrations in a pupil concentric optical system providing a plurality of spatially separated images on different focal planes or surfaces is presented. The system employs a buried surface beamsplitter having spherically curved entrance and exit faces which are concentric to a system aperture stop with the entrance face being located in the path of a converging light beam directed there from an image forming objective element which is also concentric to the aperture stop.

  15. Laser Induced Blue Luminescence Phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Haiyong; Duan, Yanmin; Zhang, Ge; Zhang, Yaoju; Yang, Fugui

    2011-09-01

    Laser induced strange blue luminescence in several Raman crystals has been investigated. The blue luminescence at about 473 nm has the characteristic of no orientation and only produced in the crystal where the fundament laser oscillated. The experimental results show that the blue luminescence must result from the fundamental laser around 1.0 µm rather than Stokes-shifting. The spectrum detected is similar for different crystals. This blue luminescence is obviously strange and inconsistent with traditional luminescence theories, which maybe a brand-new luminescence theory.

  16. Fixed Sagittal Plane Imbalance

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Jason W.; Patel, Alpesh A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design?Literature review. Objective?To discuss the evaluation and management of fixed sagittal plane imbalance. Methods?A comprehensive literature review was performed on the preoperative evaluation of patients with sagittal plane malalignment, as well as the surgical strategies to address sagittal plane deformity. Results?Sagittal plane imbalance is often caused by de novo scoliosis or iatrogenic flat back deformity. Understanding the etiology and magnitude of sagittal malalignment is crucial in realignment planning. Objective parameters have been developed to guide surgeons in determining how much correction is needed to achieve favorable outcomes. Currently, the goals of surgery are to restore a sagittal vertical axis?plane malalignment is an increasingly recognized cause of pain and disability. Treatment of sagittal plane imbalance varies according to the etiology, location, and severity of the deformity. Fixed sagittal malalignment often requires complex reconstructive procedures that include osteotomy correction. Reestablishing harmonious spinopelvic alignment is associated with significant improvement in health-related quality-of-life outcome measures and patient satisfaction. PMID:25396111

  17. Project Blue Revolution

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, P.K. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). Hawaii Natural Energy Inst.

    1996-12-01

    In June of 1992, the National Science Foundation and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration sponsored a strategic planning workshop, involving 35 ocean technologists representing the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific marine communities, to develop a proactive plan for the commercialization of national Exclusive Economic Zone resources. This meeting was the culmination of a series of gatherings held over the past decade, each treating specific ocean applications. The blue-ribbon panel recommended the consolidation of all ocean resource development activities within the federal government,a nd named the Department of Commerce as the ideal agency to manage this office, congressional oversight hearings to reestablish ocean priorities,a nd a broad spectrum of major ocean enterprises for the 21st century. During this same period, an international workshop was held in Hawaii with 50 invited specialists from six countries to discuss the merits of a cooperative program identified as Project Blue Revolution. The attendees determined that a 1 ha (100,000 sq ft) floating platform powered by ocean thermal energy conversion and at a projected cost of $500,000,000 to serve as an incubator for facilitating the commercialization of ocean resources and supporting marine science research, was a feasible venture.

  18. High speed multi focal plane optical system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. O. Minott

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for eliminating beamsplitter generated optical aberrations in a pupil concentric optical system providing a plurality of spatially separated images on different focal planes or surfaces is presented. The system employs a buried surface beamsplitter having spherically curved entrance and exit faces which are concentric to a system aperture stop with the entrance face being located in the path

  19. Quantum Dot Based Infrared Focal Plane Arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjay Krishna; Sarath D. Gunapala; Sumith V. Bandara; Cory Hill; David Z. Ting

    2007-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been active research on infrared detectors based on intersubband transitions in self-assembled quantum dots (QDs). In the past two years, at least four research groups have independently demonstrated focal plane arrays based on this technology. In this paper, the progress from the first raster scanned image obtained with a QD detector to the demonstration

  20. Dual band QWIP focal plane array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor); Choi, Kwong Kit (Inventor); Bandara, Sumith V. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) that provides two-color image sensing. Two different quantum wells are configured to absorb two different wavelengths. The QWIPs are arrayed in a focal plane array (FPA). The two-color QWIPs are selected for readout by selective electrical contact with the two different QWIPs or by the use of two different wavelength sensitive gratings.

  1. DENTAL INSURANCE ANTHEM BLUE CROSS AND BLUE SHIELD

    E-print Network

    , you will receive a combined medical/dental membership card. It will be mailed to your home. Premium ­ Medical, Dental and Term Life Benefits". You may select from two separate dental care plans to meet your- 28 - DENTAL INSURANCE ANTHEM BLUE CROSS AND BLUE SHIELD Your two choices are: After enrollment

  2. Blue screen matting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alvy Ray Smith; James F. Blinn

    1996-01-01

    A classical problem of imaging—the matting problem—is sepa- ration of a non-rectangular foreground image from a (usually) rectangular background image—for example, in a film frame, extraction of an actor from a background scene to allow substitu- tion of a different background. Of the several attacks on this diffi- cult and persistent problem, we discuss here only the special case of

  3. Diffractive centrosymmetric 3D-transmission phase gratings positioned at the image plane of optical systems transform lightlike 4D-WORLD as tunable resonators into spectral metrics...

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauinger, Norbert

    1999-08-01

    Diffractive 3D phase gratings of spherical scatterers dense in hexagonal packing geometry represent adaptively tunable 4D-spatiotemporal filters with trichromatic resonance in visible spectrum. They are described in the (lambda) - chromatic and the reciprocal (nu) -aspects by reciprocal geometric translations of the lightlike Pythagoras theorem, and by the direction cosine for double cones. The most elementary resonance condition in the lightlike Pythagoras theorem is given by the transformation of the grating constants gx, gy, gz of the hexagonal 3D grating to (lambda) h1h2h3 equals (lambda) 111 with cos (alpha) equals 0.5. Through normalization of the chromaticity in the von Laue-interferences to (lambda) 111, the (nu) (lambda) equals (lambda) h1h2h3/(lambda) 111-factor of phase velocity becomes the crucial resonance factor, the 'regulating device' of the spatiotemporal interaction between 3D grating and light, space and time. In the reciprocal space equal/unequal weights and times in spectral metrics result at positions of interference maxima defined by hyperbolas and circles. A database becomes built up by optical interference for trichromatic image preprocessing, motion detection in vector space, multiple range data analysis, patchwide multiple correlations in the spatial frequency spectrum, etc.

  4. Blue Care Elect Enhanced Value (PPO)

    E-print Network

    Aalberts, Daniel P.

    Blue Care Elect SM Enhanced Value (PPO) Summary of Benefits Williams College An Association of Independent Blue Cross and Blue Shield Plans This health plan meets Minimum Creditable Coverage Standards of your directory, call Member Service at the number on your ID card. ·Visit the Blue Cross Blue Shield

  5. 75 FR 65525 - Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ...Training Administration [TA-W-74,327] Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations...applicable to workers and former workers of Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services,...

  6. Range formulation for a staring electro-optical and imaging system incorporating the effects of atmospheric transmission, focal plane 1/f noise and fixed pattern noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, Vikram; Khan, Zafar; Lomash, S. K.; Chhabra, K. C.

    1995-12-01

    To increase the detection range in staring FPAs, commonly the integration time Ti is increased, as the range is assumed to increase as one-fourth power of Ti, (T1/(4)i). It is shown here that the range dependence on Ti is weaker thanT1/(4)i , because of the effect of atmosphere. Since the atmospheric transmission coefficient decreases with increasing range, the effect of increasing Ti on the range is considerably reduced. It is also shown that when detector 1/f noise dominates over other noise sources, the dependence of range on Ti is much weaker thanT1/(4)i , having a logarithmic dependence. Calculations have been done by integrating equations involving spectral functions-photon flux, atmospheric transmission coefficient, optics transmission coefficient and responsivity-over wavelength, in the spectral range from 8 ?m to 12 ?m. LOWTRAN2 has been used for spectral atmospheric transmission coefficients, for different conditions of ambient temperature (-30°C to 55°C) and relative humidity (50-85%). The range formulation also distinguishes between distant targets (point sources) and nearby targets (extended sources). The analysis is applicable for terrestrial imaging, where the temperature difference of the target and the background is small. The effect of fixed pattern noise (FPN) in mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) FPAs has also been considered by modeling FPN in terms of a composition variation in the MCT. It is seen that range, both in the point source and the extended source cases, is not a sensitive function of FPN.

  7. Blue Ocean vs. Five Forces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Burke; Stel van A. J; A. R. Thurik

    2010-01-01

    The article reports on the authors' research in the Netherlands which focused on a profit model in Dutch retail stores and a so-called blue-ocean approach which requires a new market that attracts consumers and increases profits. Topics include the competitive strategy approach to increasing profits. The authors conclude that the blue-ocean strategy or innovation approach is sustainable.

  8. Blue Light Perception in Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Braatsch; Gabriele Klug

    2004-01-01

    This review focuses on the blue light responses in bacteria and on the bacterial proteins which have been demonstrated to function as blue light receptors. Results of the previous years reveal that different types of photoreceptors have already evolved in prokaryotes. However, for most of these photoreceptors the exact biological functions and the mechanisms of signaling to downstream components are

  9. Melanoma and satellite blue papule.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, André; Arzberger, Edith; Massone, Cesare; Zalaudek, Iris; Fink-Puches, Regina; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer

    2014-07-01

    The colors that are seen in dermoscopy depend on the anatomic level of the skin at which the chromophores are seen. Blue color can be found in a variety of melanocytic and nonmelanocytic lesions. An 89-year-old man presented with a 3-year history of a slow-growing, hyperpigmented patch located on the distal third of the right arm. Dermoscopy showed an atypical network, irregularly distributed globules, pigmented internal streaks and a milky-red area. Based on these findings a diagnosis of slow-growing malignant melanoma was made. Simultaneously, a well-defined blue papule was seen on the proximal third of the same arm. Dermoscopy disclosed a homogeneous blue pattern. After clinical and dermoscopic correlation our differential diagnosis for this blue lesion included cutaneous melanoma metastasis, blue nevus and foreign body reaction. The patient recalled its onset 75 years ago after a grenade explosion. We also discuss the blue lesion appearance under reflectance confocal microscopy and high-definition optical coherence tomography. Histopathological examination after excision of the hyperpigmented patch and blue papule revealed a melanoma in situ and a foreign body reaction, respectively. The diagnostic evaluation of a blue lesion should always rely on the integration of all data, especially clinical and dermoscopic features. Other non-invasive techniques, like reflectance confocal microscopy and high-definition optical coherence tomography can also be important aids for its differential diagnosis. PMID:25126462

  10. Focal Plane Metrology for the LSST Camera

    SciTech Connect

    A Rasmussen, Andrew P.; Hale, Layton; Kim, Peter; Lee, Eric; Perl, Martin; Schindler, Rafe; Takacs, Peter; Thurston, Timothy; /SLAC

    2007-01-10

    Meeting the science goals for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) translates into a demanding set of imaging performance requirements for the optical system over a wide (3.5{sup o}) field of view. In turn, meeting those imaging requirements necessitates maintaining precise control of the focal plane surface (10 {micro}m P-V) over the entire field of view (640 mm diameter) at the operating temperature (T {approx} -100 C) and over the operational elevation angle range. We briefly describe the hierarchical design approach for the LSST Camera focal plane and the baseline design for assembling the flat focal plane at room temperature. Preliminary results of gravity load and thermal distortion calculations are provided, and early metrological verification of candidate materials under cold thermal conditions are presented. A detailed, generalized method for stitching together sparse metrology data originating from differential, non-contact metrological data acquisition spanning multiple (non-continuous) sensor surfaces making up the focal plane, is described and demonstrated. Finally, we describe some in situ alignment verification alternatives, some of which may be integrated into the camera's focal plane.

  11. The Blue Comet: A Railroad's Astronomical Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumstay, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01

    Between 1929 February 21 and 1941 September 27, the Central New Jersey Railroad operated a luxury passenger train between Jersey City and Atlantic City. Named The Blue Comet, the locomotive, tender, and coaches sported a unique royal blue paint scheme designed to evoke images of celestial bodies speeding through space. Inside each car were etched window panes and lampshades featuring stars and comets. And each coach sported the name of a famous comet on its side; these comets were of course named for their discoverers. Some of the astronomers honored in this unique fashion remain famous to this day, or at least their comets do. The names D'Arrest, Barnard, Encke, Faye, Giacobini, Halley, Olbers, Temple, Tuttle, and Westphal are familiar ones. But Biela, Brorsen, deVico, Spitaler, and Winnecke have now largely faded into obscurity; their stories are recounted here. Although more than sixty years have elapsed since its last run, The Blue Comet, perhaps the most famous passenger train in American history, lives on in the memories of millions of passengers and railfans. This famous train returned to the attention of millions of television viewers on the evening of 2007 June 3, in an episode of the HBO series The Sopranos. This work was supported by a faculty development grant from Valdosta State University.

  12. Colorado Supplement to the Summary of Benefits and Coverage Form Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield

    E-print Network

    Supplement to the Summary of Benefits and Coverage Form Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield CHEIBA Custom Plus Screenings, Prostate Cancer Screenings, and Colorectal Cancer Screenings. Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield Colorado, Inc. Independent licensees of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association. ®ANTHEM is a registered

  13. Colorado Supplement to the Summary of Benefits and Coverage Form Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield

    E-print Network

    Supplement to the Summary of Benefits and Coverage Form Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield CHEIBA HMO/POS Plan. Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield is the trade name of Rocky Mountain Hospital and Medical Service, Inc. HMO products underwritten by HMO Colorado, Inc. Independent licensees of the Blue Cross and Blue

  14. Colorado Supplement to the Summary of Benefits and Coverage Form Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield

    E-print Network

    Supplement to the Summary of Benefits and Coverage Form Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield CHEIBA Prime PPO Screenings, Prostate Cancer Screenings, and Colorectal Cancer Screenings. Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield Colorado, Inc. Independent licensees of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association. ®ANTHEM is a registered

  15. Company Name: Blue Cross Blue Shield of MA Web Site: www.bluecrossma.com

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Company Name: Blue Cross Blue Shield of MA Web Site: www.bluecrossma.com Industry: Healthcare Brief Company Overview: Headquartered in Boston, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts provides comprehensive-level position: Please visit www.bluecrossma.com/careers. With almost 3 million members, Blue Cross Blue Shield

  16. Blue compact dwarfs - Extreme dwarf irregular galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thuan, Trinh X.

    1987-01-01

    Observational data on the most extreme members of the irregular dwarf (dI) galaxy class, the blue compact dwarfs (BCDs), are characterized, reviewing the results of recent investigations. The properties of the young stellar population, the ionized gas, the older star population, and the gas and dust of BCDs are contrasted with those of other dIs; BCD morphology is illustrated with sample images; and the value of BCDs (as nearby 'young' chemically unevolved galaxies) for studies of galaxy formation, galactic evolution, and starburst triggering mechanisms is indicated.

  17. Development of a dual-band LWIR/LWIR QWIP focal plane array for detection of buried land mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Arnold C.; Fischer, Theodore; Derzko, Zenon I.; Uppal, Parvez N.; Winn, Michael L.

    2002-08-01

    We report on the development and testing of a new dual-band infrared (IR) focal plane array (FPA) specifically designed to detect buried land mines. The detector response spectra were tailored to take advantage of the sharp spectral features associated with disturbed soils. The goal was to have a blue channel with peak response near 9.2 micrometers and a red channel with maximum response at 10.5 micrometers . The quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) is particularly suited for this application because of the flexibility available in designing the peak wavelength of the detector and the relatively narrow width of the response spectrum. FPAs were produced and tested under the U. S. Army Research Laboratory's Advanced Sensors Collaborative Research Alliance in co-operation with the Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate. We report on laboratory measurements of the response spectra, the dark current as a function of operating temperature, and the conversion efficiency in both the blue and red channels. Imagery was taken in the field of buried anti-tank mines. The images were analyzed by combining the data from the two channels into single fused images.

  18. Detection of buried land mines using a dual-band LWIR/LWIR QWIP focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Arnold; Uppal, Parvez N.; Winn, Michael

    2003-10-01

    We report on the development and testing of a new dual-band infrared focal plane array (FPA) specifically designed to detect buried land mines. The detector response spectra were tailored to take advantage of the sharp spectral features associated with disturbed soils. The goal was to have a "blue" channel with peak response near 9.2 ?m and a "red" channel with maximum response at 10.5 ?m. The quantum well infrared photodetector is particularly suited for this application because of the flexibility available in designing the peak wavelength of the detector and the relatively narrow width of the response spectrum. FPAs were produced and tested under the US Army Research Laboratory's Advanced Sensors Collaborative Research Alliance in co-operation with the Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate. We report on laboratory measurements of the response spectra, the dark current as a function of operating temperature, and the conversion efficiency in both the blue and red channels. Imagery was taken in the field of buried anti-tank mines. The images were analyzed by combining the data from the two channels into single fused images.

  19. Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX): Galactic Plane Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemley, Cameron; Mohammed, Steven; Schiminovich, David; Tam, Benjamin; Seibert, Mark; Martin, Christopher D.; GALEX Science Team

    2015-01-01

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) completed its survey of the Galactic plane in the near-ultraviolet during 2012. Although preliminary data were released shortly after the completion of the survey, the full dataset was reanalyzed during 2014 using refined attitude correction techniques that yield angular resolution-limited images. The GALEX Galactic plane survey includes more than 75% of the sky between 10 > b > -10 degrees. The initial photon dataset contains about 400 individual scans, each of which is a vertical slice of the Galactic plane. Each slice spans 1500-1700 seconds, during which the 1.24 degree diameter field of view performed a double-pass sweep across the Galactic plane. The Galactic Plane survey was the only time this non-standard, high scan rate acquisition mode was exercised during the mission, and required specialized processing and astrometric refinement to produce high quality sky maps. We present the first high-resolution map of the Galactic plane in the near-ultraviolet as well as a catalogue of thousands of sources for follow-up with HST. This work was partially supported by the Keck Institute for Space Studies.

  20. Mongolian Spot (Blue-Gray Spot)

    MedlinePLUS

    newsletter | contact Share | Mongolian Spot (Blue-Gray Spot) A parent's guide for infants and babies A A A Blue-gray spots (Mongolian spots) appear as gray to blue colored, flat, "bruise-like" areas of skin. Overview ...

  1. The Core Fundamental Plane of B2 Radio Galaxies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Bettoni; R. Falomo; P. Parma; R. Fanti; H. de Ruiter

    2007-01-01

    We explore the Core Fundamental Plane (CFP) for a sample of 40 low redshift B2 radio galaxies that have been imaged at high resolution by HST. We find that the CFP of radio galaxies is indistinguishable from the one of non radio elliptical galaxies. It is also indistinguishable from the Fundamental Plane (FP), of normal and radio galaxies. Similarly to

  2. Evolution in Plane Sight

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-24

    In this activity, learners model directed evolution by making paper fly. Learners construct and fly paper airplanes. During the first round, they calculate the average distance the planes fly and then recreate the planes that flew the furthest. Learners repeat this process several times, observe how the average distance of flight changes, and eventually identify the ideal flyer. This activity can be used to introduce learners to genetic random mutations and how scientists are using directed evolution to engineer new proteins with enhanced properties.

  3. Images

    Cancer.gov

    Home News and Events Multimedia Library Images Images:  Cancer Biology Image: Cell with DNA 72 DPI | 300 DPIDrawing depicting DNA molecule unwinding from a chromosome inside the nucleus of a cell. NHGRI >> View All Cancer Pathology/Imaging Image: Female

  4. 21073CAMENABC 5/11 Anthem Blue Cross is the trade name of Blue Cross of California. Anthem Blue Cross and Anthem Blue Cross Life and Health Insurance Company are independent licensees of the Blue Cross Association.

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    21073CAMENABC 5/11 Anthem Blue Cross is the trade name of Blue Cross of California. Anthem Blue Cross and Anthem Blue Cross Life and Health Insurance Company are independent licensees of the Blue Cross Association. ® ANTHEM is a registered trademark of Anthem Insurance Companies, Inc. The Blue Cross

  5. Focal Plane Instrumentation of VERITAS

    E-print Network

    VERITAS Collaboration; T. Nagai; R. McKay; G. Sleege; D. Petry

    2007-09-28

    VERITAS is a new atmospheric Cherenkov imaging telescope array to detect very high energy gamma rays above 100 GeV. The array is located in southern Arizona, USA, at an altitude of 1268m above sea level. The array consists of four 12-m telescopes of Davies-Cotton design and structurally resembling the Whipple 10-m telescope. The four focal plane instruments are equipped with high-resolution (499 pixels) fast photo-multiplier-tube (PMT) cameras covering a 3.5 degree field of view with 0.15 degree pixel separation. Light concentrators reduce the dead-space between PMTs to 25% and shield the PMTs from ambient light. The PMTs are connected to high-speed preamplifiers allowing operation at modest anode current and giving good single photoelectron peaks in situ. Electronics in the focus box provides real-time monitoring of the anode currents for each pixel and ambient environmental conditions. A charge injection subsystem installed in the focus box allows daytime testing of the trigger and data acquisition system by injecting pulses of variable amplitude and length directly into the photomultiplier preamplifiers. A brief description of the full VERITAS focal plane instrument is given in this paper.

  6. STREPTOMYCES SPECIES COMPRISING THE BLUE-SPORE SERIES

    PubMed Central

    Trejo, W. H.; Bennett, R. E.

    1963-01-01

    Trejo, W. H. (Squibb Institute for Medical Research, New Brunswick, N.J.) and R. E. Bennett. Streptomyces species comprising the blue-spore series. J. Bacteriol. 85:676–690. 1963.—The objective of this study was to define and delimit the streptomycetes of the blue-spored (Viridochromogenes) series. The series, as defined in this study, includes 11 blue and blue-green species. The green-spored species were excluded on the basis of morphology as well as color. It was proposed that NRRL B-1511 be designated as the neotype strain of Streptomyces viridochromogenes (Krainsky) Waksman and Henrici, and that IMRU 3761 be designated as the neotype for Streptomyces cyaneus (Krassilnikov) Waksman. Evidence was presented to show that physiological criteria cannot be used to differentiate these organisms below the series level. The major characteristics of the Viridochromogenes series are blue to blue-green spores borne in spirals, and chromogenicity (melanin-positive). Reverse color and spore morphology provide a basis for separation below the series level. Images PMID:14042949

  7. Extending hyperspectral capabilities with dualband infrared focal plane arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul D. LeVan; John P. Hartke; Eustace L. Dereniak; Brian P. Beecken

    2007-01-01

    Dualband infrared focal plane arrays (FPA) were developed originally for multi-spectral imaging applications, where their advantages in compactness and band-to-band pixel registration, relative to conventional multispectral imagers, were recognized. As dualband FPA architecture is matured for quantum well and mercury cadmium telluride focal plane arrays, and becomes within the grasp of strained layer superlattice technology, applications in addition to multi-waveband

  8. Extending hyperspectral capabilities with dualband Infrared Focal Plane Arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul D. LeVan; John P. Hartke; Eustace L. Dereniak; Brian P. Beecken

    2007-01-01

    Dualband infrared focal plane arrays (FPA) were developed originally for multi-spectral imaging applications, where their advantages in compactness and band-to-band pixel registration, relative to conventional multispectral imagers, were recognized. As dualband FPA architecture is matured for quantum well and mercury cadmium telluride focal plane arrays, and becomes within the grasp of strained layer superlattice technology, applications in addition to multi-waveband

  9. Symmetry planes of Paleozoic crinoids

    E-print Network

    Lane, N. G.; Webster, G. D.

    1967-11-30

    THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PALEONTOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS November 30, 1967 Paper 25 SYMMETRY PLANES OF PALEOZOIC CRINOIDS N. GARY LANE and G. D. WEBsTER University of California, Los Angeles, and San Diego State College ABSTRACT The homocrinid (E... three planes of bilateral symmetry in the crowns of Paleozoic crinoids. The most widely prevalent of these is the so-called madreporite (M) plane of BATHER. The other two planes, called homocrinid and heterocrinid symmetry planes by UBAGHS, are most...

  10. “Anting” in Blue Jays

    PubMed Central

    Eisner, Thomas; Aneshansley, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Summary Anting, the plumage-dipping behavior to which ants (mostly formicines) are commonly subjected by birds (mostly passerines), is shown in tests with hand-raised Blue Jays (Cyanocitta cristata) and the ant Formica exsectoides to be instinctive: the birds displayed typical renditions of the behavior on the first occasion that they encountered ants. Evidence is presented supportive of the view that anting is a strategy by which birds render ants fit for ingestion. Formicine ants are ordinarily protected by their formic acid-containing spray. Being wiped into the bird’s plumage causes them to discharge that spray, without harm to the bird, to the point of almost total emptying of the glandular sac in which the secretion is stored. The ants are therefore essentially secretion-free by the time they are swallowed. Further evidence indicates that it is the ant’s possession of the acid sac that triggers the anting behavior in the bird. If F. exsectoides are surgically deprived of their acid sac, they are eaten by the birds without first being subjected to anting. Data are also presented indicating that the ant’s crop, which is especially capacious in formicines (its contents may amount to over 30% of the formicine’s mass), and which appears to survive the anting procedure intact, constitutes, at least when laden, a valuable component of the trophic package that the bird accesses by anting. PMID:19169379

  11. A Highly Reconfigurable Computing Array: DSP Plane of a 3-D Heterogeneous SoC

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Glenn H.

    on a chip (HSoC) plane functionalities sensors, an active pixel sensor array, and an uncooled IR imaging. On the sensor plane four types of sensors are placed, namely a visible imager (Active Pixel Sensor), an infrared imager, seismic, and acoustic. The creation ofintegrated systems containing both sensors and processing

  12. Competition between in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization in exchange-coupled magnetic films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Kuch; Xingyu Gao; J. Kirschner

    2002-01-01

    The coupling between a Co layer with in-plane easy axis of magnetization and a Ni layer with out-of-plane easy axis across a nonmagnetic Cu spacer layer was studied by layer-resolved magnetic imaging. Photoelectron emission microscopy and magnetic circular dichroism in soft x-ray absorption as the magnetic contrast mechanism were used for the domain imaging. Crossed, wedge-shaped epitaxial Co and Cu

  13. MISR Stereo Imagery of Blue Mountain Fires in New South Wales, Australia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-12-17

    ... Stereo Imagery of Blue Mountain Fires in New South Wales, Australia     View Larger Image ...   A mild winter and an extremely hot September in Australia have led to an early start to the fire season Down Under. A number of ...

  14. Blue Heron Press Collection: Artists' Books

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Blue Heron Press is based in Avoca, Nebraska, and over the past several decades they have published a number of exquisite chapbooks and illustrated works. Recently, the University of Nebraska Digital Collections group placed a number of their more recent publications online here. The works include some elaborate pieces that utilize wooden covers with leather spine wraps, and visitors can search the collection for various works. There are a number of "alphabet" themed books that contain colorful images and creative renderings of these 26 letters. Visitors are welcome to view the images in high resolution, and they can also zoom in and out to get a finer appreciation for all of the artistic details.

  15. Carbon nanotube plane fastener

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirahara, Kaori; Ajioka, Shoichi; Nakayama, Yoshikazu

    2011-12-01

    We report a feature of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that arises when the surfaces of two vertically-aligned CNT brushes are pressed together. Adhesion between the CNTs creates a plane fastener-like device. Observations from scanning electron microscopy and measurements of adhesion properties indicate a device-dependence on CNT density and shape near the tip region. Among other applications, such fasteners have the potential to attach small components onto micron-sized electronic devices.

  16. Progress in focal plane array technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogalski, Antoni

    2012-03-01

    Development of focal plane arrays started in seventies last century and has revolutionized imaging systems in the next decades. This paper presents progress in optical detector technology of focal plane arrays during the past twenty years. At the beginning of paper, emphasises are given on integrated detector assembly and cooling requirements of different types of detectors. Next, the classification of two types of detectors (photon detectors and thermal detectors) is done on the basis of their principle of operation. This topic is followed by general overview of focal plane array architectures. The main subject of paper is concentrated on describing of material systems and detectors operated in different spectral ranges. Special attention is given on recent progress in their detector technologies. Discussion is focused mainly on current and the most rapidly developing focal plane arrays including: CdZnTe detectors, AlGaN photodiodes, visible CCD and CMOS imaging systems, HgCdTe heterostructure photodiodes, quantum well AlGaAs/GaAs photoresistors, and thermal detectors. Emphasis is also given on far-infrared and sub-millimetre wave detector arrays. Finally, the outlook for near-future trends in optical detector technologies is presented.

  17. MTI Focal Plane Assembly Design and Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, M.; Rienstra, J.L.

    1999-06-17

    The focal plane assembly for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) consists of sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure. Sensor chip assemblies, composed of linear detector arrays and readout integrated circuits, provide spatial resolution in the cross-track direction for the pushbroom imager. Optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 {micro}m to 10.7 {micro}m. All the detector arrays are mounted on a single focal plane and are designed to operate at 75 K. Three pairs of sensor chip assemblies (SCAs) are required to provide cross-track coverage in all 15 spectral bands. Each pair of SCAs includes detector arrays made from silicon, iridium antimonide, and mercury cadmium telluride. Read out integrated circuits multiplex the signals from the detectors to 18 separate video channels. Optical filter assemblies defining the spectral bands are mounted over the linear detector arrays. Each filter assembly consists of several filter strips bonded together side-by-side. The MTI focal plane assembly has been integrated with the rest of the payload and has undergone detailed testing and calibration. This paper includes representative test data for the various spectral bands and the overall performance of the focal plane assembly.

  18. Hyperspectral Imaging or Imaging Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    scan procedure to increase FOV. #12;Linear Array CCD Area Array CCD #12;Landsat ETM Focal Plane Array, is obtained in time as sensor is moved across the scene. y x #12;2D Array Usage in Imaging Spectrometer Focal Plane Array Diffraction Grating x Slit Focusing Optics Scene FOV Focusing Optics #12;Pushbroom Sensor

  19. BLUE WHALE-SIZED MOUTHFULS MAKE FORAGING

    E-print Network

    Martin, Paul R.

    Inside JEB i BLUE WHALE-SIZED MOUTHFULS MAKE FORAGING SUPER EFFICIENT When a blue whale dives from the University of British Columbia, Canada, explains that blue whales may be able to dive, measuring the energetics of blue whale lunges at depth seemed almost impossible until Shadwick and his

  20. Columbia Blue Furnald MathematicsLewisohn

    E-print Network

    Hone, James

    Columbia Blue #12;Furnald MathematicsLewisohn Dodge Miller Theatre Kent International Affairs Columbia Blue Blue View: Part I 4 Exponential Education 10 Columbia Days 26 Common Core, 44 Uncommon 72 Columbia Engineering 78 Community, Columbia Style 84 Columbia Moments: 100 Tried and True Blue

  1. STOCK ASSESSMENT OF THE BLUE CRAB

    E-print Network

    STOCK ASSESSMENT OF THE BLUE CRAB IN CHESAPEAKE BAY 2011 #12;2011 Stock assessment for blue crab in Chesapeake Bay iii Executive Summary The blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) is an icon for the Chesapeake Bay region. The commercial fisheries for blue crab in the Bay remain one of the most valuable fishery sectors

  2. The Blue Language1 Michael Klling

    E-print Network

    Kent, University of

    1 The Blue Language1 Michael Kölling School of Computer Science and Software Engineering Monash. The system we are about to discuss is named Blue. Blue is an integrated programming environment and an object. In this issue, we discuss the language aspects of Blue. Next month we will continue the discussion by describing

  3. Towards dualband megapixel QWIP focal plane arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. Gunapala; S. V. Bandara; J. K. Liu; J. M. Mumolo; C. J. Hill; S. B. Rafol; D. Salazar; J. Woolaway; P. D. LeVan; M. Z. Tidrow

    2007-01-01

    Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024×1024 pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NE?T) of 17mK at a 95K operating temperature with f\\/2.5 optics at 300K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NE?T of 13mK

  4. The BlueSky Smoke Modeling Framework: Recent Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, D. C.; Larkin, N.; Raffuse, S. M.; Strand, T.; ONeill, S. M.; Leung, F. T.; Qu, J. J.; Hao, X.

    2012-12-01

    BlueSky systems—a set of decision support tools including SmartFire and the BlueSky Framework—aid public policy decision makers and scientific researchers in evaluating the air quality impacts of fires. Smoke and fire managers use BlueSky systems in decisions about prescribed burns and wildland firefighting. Air quality agencies use BlueSky systems to support decisions related to air quality regulations. We will discuss a range of recent improvements to the BlueSky systems, as well as examples of applications and future plans. BlueSky systems have the flexibility to accept basic fire information from virtually any source and can reconcile multiple information sources so that duplication of fire records is eliminated. BlueSky systems currently apply information from (1) the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Hazard Mapping System (HMS), which represents remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES); (2) the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) interagency project, which derives fire perimeters from Landsat 30-meter burn scars; (3) the Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Group (GeoMAC), which produces helicopter-flown burn perimeters; and (4) ground-based fire reports, such as the ICS-209 reports managed by the National Wildfire Coordinating Group. Efforts are currently underway to streamline the use of additional ground-based systems, such as states' prescribed burn databases. BlueSky systems were recently modified to address known uncertainties in smoke modeling associated with (1) estimates of biomass consumption derived from sparse fuel moisture data, and (2) models of plume injection heights. Additional sources of remotely sensed data are being applied to address these issues as follows: - The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis Real-Time (TMPA-RT) data set is being used to improve dead fuel moisture estimates. - EastFire live fuel moisture estimates, which are derived from NASA's MODIS direct broadcast, are being used to improve live fuel moisture estimates. - NASA's Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) stereo heights are being used to improve estimates of plume injection heights. Further, the Fire Location and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBÉ) model was incorporated into the BlueSky Framework as an alternative means of calculating fire emissions. FLAMBÉ directly estimates emissions on the basis of fire detections and radiance measures from NASA's MODIS and NOAA's GOES satellites. (The authors gratefully acknowledge NASA's Applied Sciences Program [Grant Nos. NN506AB52A and NNX09AV76G)], the USDA Forest Service, and the Joint Fire Science Program for their support.)

  5. Geometry of moving planes

    E-print Network

    Sobczyk, Garret

    2007-01-01

    The concept of number and its generalization has played a central role in the development of mathematics over many centuries and many civilizations. Noteworthy milestones in this long and arduous process were the developments of the real and complex numbers which have achieved universal acceptance. Serious attempts have been made at further extensions, such as Hamiltons quaternions, Grassmann's exterior algebra and Clifford's geometric algebra. By examining the geometry of moving planes, we show how new mathematics is within reach, if the will to learn these powerful methods can be found.

  6. Geometry of moving planes

    E-print Network

    Garret Sobczyk

    2007-09-29

    The concept of number and its generalization has played a central role in the development of mathematics over many centuries and many civilizations. Noteworthy milestones in this long and arduous process were the developments of the real and complex numbers which have achieved universal acceptance. Serious attempts have been made at further extensions, such as Hamiltons quaternions, Grassmann's exterior algebra and Clifford's geometric algebra. By examining the geometry of moving planes, we show how new mathematics is within reach, if the will to learn these powerful methods can be found.

  7. Blue Planet Biomes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Benders-Hyde, Elisabeth

    This innovative educational website was created by Elisabeth Benders-Hyde, a science aide at the West Tisbury School in Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts. The site was originally inspired by a biome project developed by West Tisbury 6th grade teachers Ann and Karl Nelson, and incorporates information generated from independent student research. The site offers great information about the world's biomes including Tundra, Chaparral, Deciduous Forest, Alpine, Rainforest, and more. Biome profiles include general background information with separate sections for biome-specific plants, animals, and climates. This site has an artful lay-out with colorful maps denoting specific biomes, and images of biome landscapes, animals, and plants.

  8. Conversion of red fluorescent protein into a bright blue probe.

    PubMed

    Subach, Oksana M; Gundorov, Illia S; Yoshimura, Masami; Subach, Fedor V; Zhang, Jinghang; Grüenwald, David; Souslova, Ekaterina A; Chudakov, Dmitriy M; Verkhusha, Vladislav V

    2008-10-20

    We used a red chromophore formation pathway, in which the anionic red chromophore is formed from the neutral blue intermediate, to suggest a rational design strategy to develop blue fluorescent proteins with a tyrosine-based chromophore. The strategy was applied to red fluorescent proteins of the different genetic backgrounds, such as TagRFP, mCherry, HcRed1, M355NA, and mKeima, which all were converted into blue probes. Further improvement of the blue variant of TagRFP by random mutagenesis resulted in an enhanced monomeric protein, mTagBFP, characterized by the substantially higher brightness, the faster chromophore maturation, and the higher pH stability than blue fluorescent proteins with a histidine in the chromophore. The detailed biochemical and photochemical analysis indicates that mTagBFP is the true monomeric protein tag for multicolor and lifetime imaging, as well as the outstanding donor for green fluorescent proteins in Förster resonance energy transfer applications. PMID:18940671

  9. Carbon monoxide:methylene blue oxidoreductase from Pseudomonas carboxydovorans.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, O; Schlegel, H G

    1980-01-01

    The enzyme carbon monoxide:methylene blue oxidoreductase from CO autotrophically grown cells of Pseudomonas carboxydovorans strain OM5, was purified to homogeneity. The enzyme was obtained in 26% yield and was purified 36-fold. The enzyme was stable for at least 6 days, had a molecular weight of 230,000, gave a single protein and activity band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and was homogeneous by the criterion of sedimentation equilibrium. Sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis revealed a single band of molecular weight 107,000. Carbon monoxide:methylene blue oxidoreductase did not catalyze reduction of pyridine or flavin nucleotides but catalyzed the oxidation of CO to CO2 in the presence of methylene blue, thionine, toluylene blue, dichlorophenolindophenol, or pyocyanine under strictly anaerobic conditions. The visible spectrum revealed maxima at 405 and 470 nm. The millimolar extinction coefficients were 43.9 (405 nm) and 395.5 (275 nm), respectively. Absorption at 470 nm decreased in the presence of dithionite, and the spectrum was not affected by the substrate CO. Maximum reaction rates were found at pH 7.0 and 63 degrees C; temperature dependence followed the Arrhenius equation, with an activation energy (delta H degree) of 36.8 kJ/mol (8.8 kcal/mol). The apparent Km was 53 microM for CO. The purified enzyme was incapable of oxidizing methane, methanol, or formaldehyde in the presence of methylene blue as electron acceptor. Images PMID:7354006

  10. Planar Motion Estimation and Linear Ground Plane Rectification using an Uncalibrated Generic Camera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierluigi Taddei; Ferran Espuny; Vincenzo Caglioti

    2012-01-01

    We address and solve the self-calibration of a generic camera that performs planar motion while viewing (part of) a ground plane. Concretely, assuming initial sets of correspondences between several images of the ground plane as known, we are interested in determining both the camera motion and the geometry of the ground plane. The latter is obtained through the rectification of

  11. THE WHIQII SURVEY: METALLICITIES AND SPECTROSCOPIC PROPERTIES OF LUMINOUS COMPACT BLUE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Tollerud, Erik J.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Cooke, Jeff [Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Van Zee, Liese [Astronomy Department, Indiana University, 727 East 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)

    2010-01-10

    As part of the WIYN High Image Quality Indiana-Irvine (WHIQII) survey, we present 123 spectra of faint emission-line galaxies, selected to focus on intermediate redshift (0.4 approx< z approx< 0.8) galaxies with blue colors that appear physically compact on the sky. The sample includes 15 true Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies (LCBGs) and an additional 27 slightly less extreme emission-line systems. These galaxies represent a highly evolving class that may play an important role in the decline of star formation since z approx 1, but their exact nature and evolutionary pathways remain a mystery. Here, we use emission lines to determine metallicities and ionization parameters, constraining their intrinsic properties and state of star formation. Some LCBG metallicities are consistent with a 'bursting dwarf' scenario, while a substantial fraction of others are not, further confirming that LCBGs are a highly heterogeneous population but are broadly consistent with the intermediate redshift field. In agreement with previous studies, we observe overall evolution in the luminosity-metallicity relation at intermediate redshift. Our sample, and particularly the LCBGs, occupies a region in the empirical R{sub 23}-O{sub 32} plane that differs from luminous local galaxies and is more consistent with dwarf irregulars at the present epoch, suggesting that cosmic 'downsizing' is observable in even the most fundamental parameters that describe star formation. These properties for our sample are also generally consistent with lying between local galaxies and those at high redshift, as expected by this scenario. Surprisingly, our sample exhibits no detectable correlation between compactness and metallicity, strongly suggesting that at these epochs of rapid star formation, the morphology of compact star-forming galaxies is largely transient.

  12. A 15 element focal plane array for 100 GHz

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neal R. Erickson; Paul F. Goldsmith; G. Novak; Ronald M. Grosslein; P. J. Viscuso; Ronna B. Erickson; C. R. Predmore

    1992-01-01

    A focal plane imaging array receiver is described which covers the 86-115 GHz frequency range for radio astronomical observations. The 3 x 5 element array uses cryogenic Schottky diode mixers with integrated HEMT IF amplifiers. A cold quasi-optical filter selects the desired sideband, and terminates the image at 20 K. Polarization interleaving is used to minimize the array size on

  13. The Aerodynamic Plane Table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A F

    1924-01-01

    This report gives the description and the use of a specially designed aerodynamic plane table. For the accurate and expeditious geometrical measurement of models in an aerodynamic laboratory, and for miscellaneous truing operations, there is frequent need for a specially equipped plan table. For example, one may have to measure truly to 0.001 inch the offsets of an airfoil at many parts of its surface. Or the offsets of a strut, airship hull, or other carefully formed figure may require exact calipering. Again, a complete airplane model may have to be adjusted for correct incidence at all parts of its surfaces or verified in those parts for conformance to specifications. Such work, if but occasional, may be done on a planing or milling machine; but if frequent, justifies the provision of a special table. For this reason it was found desirable in 1918 to make the table described in this report and to equip it with such gauges and measures as the work should require.

  14. The Blue-Collar Brain

    PubMed Central

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body’s tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

  15. The blue-collar brain.

    PubMed

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

  16. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, D.C.; Faulkner, G.E.

    1990-08-14

    A blue-green laser (450--550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm[sup 3+]. The Tm[sup 3+] is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP. 3 figs.

  17. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Dinh C. (Los Alamos, NM); Faulkner, George E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A blue-green laser (450-550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm.sup.3+. The Tm.sup.+ is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP.

  18. The Pennsylvania State University Marching Blue Band Blue Band Office

    E-print Network

    Maroncelli, Mark

    band to perform at a major fashion show when 100 students marched down the catwalk of the 2005 Marc Jacobs event during Fashion Week in New York City, October 2005. Members of the Blue Band appeared in photo spreads published in Vogue and W magazines during Fall 2005, including a photo by world

  19. Active point out-of-plane ultrasound calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Alexis; Guo, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Haichong K.; Kang, Hyunjae; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Boctor, Emad M.

    2015-03-01

    Image-guided surgery systems are often used to provide surgeons with informational support. Due to several unique advantages such as ease of use, real-time image acquisition, and no ionizing radiation, ultrasound is a common intraoperative medical imaging modality used in image-guided surgery systems. To perform advanced forms of guidance with ultrasound, such as virtual image overlays or automated robotic actuation, an ultrasound calibration process must be performed. This process recovers the rigid body transformation between a tracked marker attached to the transducer and the ultrasound image. Point-based phantoms are considered to be accurate, but their calibration framework assumes that the point is in the image plane. In this work, we present the use of an active point phantom and a calibration framework that accounts for the elevational uncertainty of the point. Given the lateral and axial position of the point in the ultrasound image, we approximate a circle in the axial-elevational plane with a radius equal to the axial position. The standard approach transforms all of the imaged points to be a single physical point. In our approach, we minimize the distances between the circular subsets of each image, with them ideally intersecting at a single point. We simulated in noiseless and noisy cases, presenting results on out-of-plane estimation errors, calibration estimation errors, and point reconstruction precision. We also performed an experiment using a robot arm as the tracker, resulting in a point reconstruction precision of 0.64mm.

  20. Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell K. Hobbie; Bradley J. Roth

    Images are very important in the remainder of this book. They may be formed by the eye, a camera, an xray machine, a nuclear\\u000a medicine camera, magnetic resonance imaging, or ultrasound. The concepts developed in Chapter 11 can be used to understand\\u000a and describe image quality. The same concepts are also used to reconstruct computed tomographic or magnetic resonance slice

  1. HST and Spitzer imaging of red and blue galaxies at z~2.5: A correlation between size and star formation activity from compact quiescent galaxies to extended star forming galaxies

    E-print Network

    Toft, S; Franx, M; Labbé, I; Förster-Schreiber, N M; Wuyts, S; Webb, T; Rudnick, G; Zirm, A; Kriek, M; Van der Werf, P P; Blakeslee, J P; Illingworth, G; Rix, H -W; Papovich, C; Moorwood, A

    2007-01-01

    We present HST NICMOS+ACS and Spitzer IRAC+MIPS observations of 41 galaxies at 2blue rest-frame optical colors. About half of the galaxies are very compact (effective radii r_e galaxies from quiescent galaxies by modeling their rest-frame UV-NIR SEDs. The star forming galaxies span the full range of sizes, while the quiescent galaxies all have r_egalaxies is dominated by old stars, rather than dust-enshrouded star formation or AGN activity. The inferred surface mass densities and velocity dispersions for the quiescent galaxies are very high compared to those in l...

  2. Blue Marble: Remote Characterization of Habitable Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolf, Neville; Lewis, Brian; Chartres, James; Genova, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The study of the nature and distribution of habitable environments beyond the Solar System is a key area for Astrobiology research. At the present time, our Earth is the only habitable planet that can be characterized in the same way that we might characterize planets beyond the Solar System. Due to limitations in our current and near-future technology, it is likely that extra-solar planets will be observed as single-pixel objects. To understand this data, we must develop skills in analyzing and interpreting the radiation obtained from a single pixel. These skills must include the study of the time variation of the radiation, and the range of its photometric, spectroscopic and polarimetric properties. In addition, to understand whether we are properly analyzing the single pixel data, we need to compare it with a ground truth of modest resolution images in key spectral bands. This paper discusses the concept for a mission called Blue Marble that would obtain data of the Earth using a combination of spectropolarimetry, spectrophotometry, and selected band imaging. To obtain imagery of the proper resolution, it is desirable to place the Blue Marble spacecraft no closer than the outer region of cis-lunar space. This paper explores a conceptual mission design that takes advantage of low-cost launchers, bus designs and mission elements to provide a cost effective observing platform located at one of the stable Earth-moon Lagrangian points (L4, L5). The mission design allows for the development and use of novel technologies, such as a spinning moon sensor for attitude control, and leverages lessons-learned from previous low-cost spacecraft such as Lunar Prospector to yield a low-risk mission concept.

  3. Striatal neuroprotection with methylene blue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Rojas; N. Simola; B. A. Kermath; J. R. Kane; T. Schallert; F. Gonzalez-Lima

    2009-01-01

    Recent literature indicates that low-dose Methylene Blue (MB), an autoxidizable dye with powerful antioxidant and metabolic enhancing properties, might prevent neurotoxin-induced neural damage and associated functional deficits. This study evaluated whether local MB may counteract the anatomical and functional effects of the intrastriatal infusion of the neurotoxin rotenone (Rot) in the rat. To this end, stereological analyses of striatal lesion

  4. Blue Sky and Rayleigh Scattering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Carl R. (Rod) Nave

    This site from Georgia State University explains why we see the sky as blue. It describes Rayleigh scattering, which refers to the scattering of light off of the molecules of the air, and Mie scattering, which refers to the scattering of light by larger particles.

  5. The Blue Whale, Balaenoptera musculus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SALLY A. MIZROCH; DALE W. RICE; JEFFREY M. BREIWICK

    pers. They are members of the family Balaenopteridae, all of which have fringed baleen plates rather than teeth. Baleen whales graze through swarms of small crustaceans known as krill, and capture the krill in their baleen as water is filtered through. Like most balaenopterids, blue whales exhibit no well defined social or schooling structure, and in most of their range

  6. Nobel Prize for blue LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2015-05-01

    A brief review of lighting technologies is presented. Unavoidable restrictions for incandescent light bulbs caused by the Planck distribution and properties of the human eye are illustrated. The efficiency and luminous efficacy of thermal radiation are calculated for various temperatures; the results clearly show the limitations for thermal radiators. The only way to overcome these limitations is using non-thermal radiators, such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unique advantages of LEDs undoubtedly made a revolution in this field. A crucial element of this progress is the blue LEDs (Nobel Prize 2014). Some experiments with a blue and a green LED are described: (i) the luminescence triggered in a green-yellow phosphor inside a white LED by the blue LED; (ii) radiant spectra and ‘efficiency droop’ in the LEDs; (iii) modulation of the blue LED up to 4 MHz; and (iv) the h/e ratio from the turn-on voltage of the green LED. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and usable as classroom demonstrations.

  7. BLUE MUSTARD IN CHEATGRASS COMMUNITIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Until very recently, the exotic, invasive species of the mustard family (Brassicaceae) that occurred in cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) communities on former big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)/bunchgrass rangelands had yellow or white flowers. In the Great Basin, the “blue” flowered species Chorispo...

  8. Baby T (Blue) (Size: Small)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.

  9. Baby T (Blue) (Size: Large)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.

  10. Baby T (Blue) (Size: Medium)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.

  11. Why is the Sky Blue?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    CSIRO

    2006-01-01

    In this activity, learners use a flashlight, a glass of water, and some milk to examine why the sky is blue and sunsets are red. Learners will discover that the sky appears a different color depending on the position of the sun as well as molecules and particles in the air that cause the scattering of light.

  12. Optically Modulatable Blue Fluorescent Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, Amy E.; Vegh, Russell B.; Hsiang, Jung-Cheng; Bommarius, Bettina; Chen, Yen-Cheng; Solntsev, Kyril M.; Bommarius, Andreas S.; Tolbert, Laren M.; Dickson, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Blue fluorescent proteins (BFPs) offer visualization of protein location and behavior, but often suffer from high autofluorescent background and poor signal discrimination. Through dual-laser excitation of bright and photoinduced dark states, mutations to the residues surrounding the BFP chromophore enable long-wavelength optical modulation of BFP emission. Such dark state engineering enables violet-excited blue emission to be increased upon lower energy, green co-illumination. Turning this green co-illumination on and off at a specific frequency dynamically modulates collected blue fluorescence without generating additional background. Interpreted as transient photoconversion between neutral cis- and anionic trans- chromophoric forms, mutations tune photoisomerization and ground state tautomerizations to enable long-wavelength depopulation of the millisecond-lived, spectrally shifted dark states. Single mutations to the tyrosine-based blue fluorescent protein T203V/S205V exhibit enhanced modulation depth and varied frequency. Importantly, analogous single point mutations in the non-modulatable BFP, mKalama1, creates a modulatable variant. Building modulatable BFPs offers opportunities for improved BFP signal discrimination vs. background, greatly enhancing their utility. PMID:24099419

  13. Blue Crabs in the Chesapeake

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Clark, Vicki P.

    2011-06-13

    This resource is a classroom unit and data activity focusing on juvenile and adult blue crab distribution in the Chesapeake Bay. The pdf includes background on crab biology, anatomy, life cycle, and fisheries. Authentic data tables are provided for in-class analysis and discussion questions guide inquiry.

  14. Singing' the Black and Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Diane

    2004-01-01

    It is so obvious that the sky is blue in the daytime and black at night, but it took the smartest humans thousands of years of observation, thought, discussion, conjecture, and analysis to finally come up with answers that make scientific sense as to why the sky is these colors. This article discusses light and the scientific research…

  15. Why is the Sky Blue?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site provides a brief description of the scattering of light rays from the sun in the atmosphere of the Earth. It provides an explanation of why the sky is blue and sunsets are red. The discussion avoids the use of numbers.

  16. Optically modulatable blue fluorescent proteins.

    PubMed

    Jablonski, Amy E; Vegh, Russell B; Hsiang, Jung-Cheng; Bommarius, Bettina; Chen, Yen-Cheng; Solntsev, Kyril M; Bommarius, Andreas S; Tolbert, Laren M; Dickson, Robert M

    2013-11-01

    Blue fluorescent proteins (BFPs) offer visualization of protein location and behavior, but often suffer from high autofluorescent background and poor signal discrimination. Through dual-laser excitation of bright and photoinduced dark states, mutations to the residues surrounding the BFP chromophore enable long-wavelength optical modulation of BFP emission. Such dark state engineering enables violet-excited blue emission to be increased upon lower energy, green coillumination. Turning this green coillumination on and off at a specific frequency dynamically modulates collected blue fluorescence without generating additional background. Interpreted as transient photoconversion between neutral cis and anionic trans chromophoric forms, mutations tune photoisomerization and ground state tautomerizations to enable long-wavelength depopulation of the millisecond-lived, spectrally shifted dark states. Single mutations to the tyrosine-based blue fluorescent protein T203V/S205V exhibit enhanced modulation depth and varied frequency. Importantly, analogous single point mutations in the nonmodulatable BFP, mKalama1, creates a modulatable variant. Building modulatable BFPs offers opportunities for improved BFP signal discrimination vs background, greatly enhancing their utility. PMID:24099419

  17. Parallel volume rendering on the IBM Blue Gene/P.

    SciTech Connect

    Peterka, T.; Yu, H.; Ross, R.; Ma, K.-L.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of California at Davis

    2008-01-01

    Parallel ray casting volume rendering is implemented and tested on an IBM Blue Gene distributed memory parallel architecture. Data are presented from experiments under a number of different conditions, including dataset size, number of processors, low and high quality rendering, offline storage of results, and streaming of images for remote display. Performance is divided into three main sections of the algorithm: disk I/O, rendering, and compositing. The dynamic balance between these tasks varies with the number of processors and other conditions. Lessons learned from the work include understanding the balance between parallel I/O, computation, and communication within the context of visualization on supercomputers, recommendations for tuning and optimization, and opportunities for scaling further in the future. Extrapolating these results to very large data and image sizes suggests that a distributed memory HPC architecture such as the Blue Gene is a viable platform for some types of visualization at very large scales.

  18. Shielding of an electric line source by a finite ground plane and a narrow metal strip

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathalie Grignon; J.-J. Laurin

    1995-01-01

    The article discusses the performance of a finite-width image plane in the shielding of an electric line source. The effect on the shielding effectiveness of a metallic substrate and superstrate laid under and above the line source and image plane is studied in detail. The results are obtained by solving the electric-field integral equation with the point matching method for

  19. Galactic Plane H$\\alpha$ Surveys: IPHAS & VPHAS+

    E-print Network

    Wright, Nicholas J

    2015-01-01

    The optical Galactic Plane H$\\alpha$ surveys IPHAS and VPHAS+ are dramatically improving our understanding of Galactic stellar populations and stellar evolution by providing large samples of stars in short lived, but important, evolutionary phases, and high quality homogeneous photometry and images over the entire Galactic Plane. Here I summarise some of the contributions these surveys have already made to our understanding of a number of key areas of stellar and Galactic astronomy.

  20. Design study of the accessible focal plane telescope for shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The design and cost analysis of an accessible focal plane telescope for Spacelab is presented in blueprints, tables, and graphs. Topics covered include the telescope tube, the telescope mounting, the airlock plus Spacelab module aft plate, the instrument adapter, and the instrument package. The system allows access to the image plane with instrumentation that can be operated by a scientist in a shirt sleeve environment inside a Spacelab module.

  1. Could Blue Eyes Raise Odds for Alcoholism?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_153398.html Could Blue Eyes Raise Odds for Alcoholism? Study finds genes ... THURSDAY, July 2, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- People with blue eyes may be more likely to become alcoholics, ...

  2. The Blues Poetry of Langston Hughes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Edward E.

    1971-01-01

    The author discusses the criteria of the blues as an American art form. He then shows how Langston Hughes captures the mood, the feeling, the rhythm and the impact of the blues in his poetry. (Author/LF)

  3. Blue Marble Western Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Drawing on data from multiple satellite missions (not all collected at the same time), a team of NASA scientists and graphic artists created layers of global data for everything from the land surface, to polar sea ice, to the light reflected by the chlorophyll in the billions of microscopic plants that grow in the ocean. They wrapped these layers around a globe, set it against a black background, and simulated the hazy edge of the Earth's atmosphere (the limb) that appears in astronaut photography of the Earth. The land surface layer is based on photo-like surface reflectance observations (reflected sunlight) measured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite in July 2004. The sea ice layer near the poles comes from Terra MODIS observations of daytime sea ice observed between August 28 and September 6, 2001. The ocean layer is a composite. In shallow water areas, the layer shows surface reflectances observed by Terra MODIS in July 2004. In the open ocean, the photo-like layer is overlaid with observations of the average ocean chlorophyll content for 2004. NASA's Aqua MODIS collected the chlorophyll data. The cloud layer shows a single-day snapshot of clouds observed by Terra MODIS across the planet on July 29, 2001. City lights on Earth's night side are visualized from data collected by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program mission between 1994-1995. The topography layer is based on radar data collected by the Space Shuttle Endeavour during an 11-day mission in February of 2000. Topography over Antarctica comes from the Radarsat Antarctic Mapping Project, version 2.

  4. Blue Marble Eastern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Drawing on data from multiple satellite missions (not all collected at the same time), a team of NASA scientists and graphic artists created layers of global data for everything from the land surface, to polar sea ice, to the light reflected by the chlorophyll in the billions of microscopic plants that grow in the ocean. They wrapped these layers around a globe, set it against a black background, and simulated the hazy edge of the Earth's atmosphere (the limb) that appears in astronaut photography of the Earth. The land surface layer is based on photo-like surface reflectance observations (reflected sunlight) measured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite in July 2004. The sea ice layer near the poles comes from Terra MODIS observations of daytime sea ice observed between August 28 and September 6, 2001. The ocean layer is a composite. In shallow water areas, the layer shows surface reflectances observed by Terra MODIS in July 2004. In the open ocean, the photo-like layer is overlaid with observations of the average ocean chlorophyll content for 2004. NASA's Aqua MODIS collected the chlorophyll data. The cloud layer shows a single-day snapshot of clouds observed by Terra MODIS across the planet on July 29, 2001. City lights on Earth's night side are visualized from data collected by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program mission between 1994-1995. The topography layer is based on radar data collected by the Space Shuttle Endeavour during an 11-day mission in February of 2000. Topography over Antarctica comes from the Radarsat Antarctic Mapping Project, version 2.

  5. Foreland-dipping crestal imbricate stack beneath the overthrust western Blue Ridge: Simultaneous thrusting and folding revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Costain; C. Coruh; S. E. Boyer

    1994-01-01

    Lower Paleozoic carbonate and clastic shelf strata were imaged on ADCOH Line 3 beneath the Blue Ridge allochthon in North Carolina. The regional tectonic setting is one of crystalline rocks thrust over Lower Paleozoic shelf strata. The authors place the Blue Ridge master decollement (BRMD) at the base of the allochthon just above small and isolated, but bright, reflections with

  6. Gravitational Couplings for Gop-Planes and y-Op-Planes

    E-print Network

    Ospina-Giraldo, J F

    2000-01-01

    The Wess-Zumino actions for generalized orientifold planes (GOp-planes) and y-deformed orientifold planes (yOp-planes) are presented and two series power expantions are realized from whiches processes that involves GOp-planes,yOp-planes, RR-forms, gravitons and gaugeons, are obtained. Finally non-standard GOp-planes and y-Op-planes are showed.

  7. Gravitational Couplings for Gop-Planes and y-Op-Planes

    E-print Network

    Juan Fernando Ospina Giraldo

    2000-06-13

    The Wess-Zumino actions for generalized orientifold planes (GOp-planes) and y-deformed orientifold planes (yOp-planes) are presented and two series power expantions are realized from whiches processes that involves GOp-planes,yOp-planes, RR-forms, gravitons and gaugeons, are obtained. Finally non-standard GOp-planes and y-Op-planes are showed.

  8. Two Planes of Satellites in the Centaurus A Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tully, R. Brent; Libeskind, Noam I.; Karachentsev, Igor D.; Karachentseva, Valentina E.; Rizzi, Luca; Shaya, Edward J.

    2015-04-01

    Tip of the red giant branch measurements based on Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based imaging have resulted in accurate distances to 29 galaxies in the nearby Centaurus A Group. All but 2 of the 29 galaxies lie in either of two thin planes roughly parallel with the supergalactic equator. The planes are only slightly tilted from the line of sight, leaving little ambiguity regarding the morphology of the structure. The planes have characteristic rms long axis dimensions of ?300 kpc and short axis dimensions of ?60 kpc, hence axial ratios ?0.2, and are separated in the short axis direction by 303 kpc.

  9. Ground plane insulating coating for proximity focused devices

    DOEpatents

    Power, G.D.

    1998-07-14

    A thin layer of alumina (aluminum oxide) is coated onto the ground plane of a microchannel plate (MCP) without covering the pores of the MCP so it does not effect the performance. The coating is sputtered onto the ground plane at a very steep angle. The addition of the thin dielectric coating of alumina greatly improves the spatial resolution of proximity focused image intensifiers using a narrow gap between the phosphor screen and the MCP. With the coating on the ground plane and the same gap the phosphor screen can be ran at 9000 volts, as compared to 3 kV without the coating. 3 figs.

  10. Ground plane insulating coating for proximity focused devices

    DOEpatents

    Power, Gary D. (Manteca, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A thin layer of alumina (aluminum oxide) is coated onto the ground plane of a microchannel plate (MCP) without covering the pores of the MCP so it does not effect the performance. The coating is sputtered onto the ground plane at a very steep angle. The addition of the thin dielectric coating of alumina greatly improves the spatial resolution of proximity focused image intensifiers using a narrow gap between the phosphor screen and the MCP. With the coating on the ground plane and the same gap the phosphor screen can be ran at 9000 volts, as compared to 3 kV without the coating.

  11. Ocular lesions in the blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Crompton, J L; Taylor, D

    1981-01-01

    Investigations of a neonate presenting with multiple pleomorphic vascular skin lesions enabled a clinical and histological diagnosis of blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome to be made. This child had lesions in the conjunctiva, iris, and retina, associated with local haemorrhages at the time of birth. All the lesions regressed spontaneously, and a conservative approach to management of the ocular lesions in this syndrome is therefore suggested. Images PMID:7459316

  12. The blue supergiant Sher 25 and its intriguing hourglass nebula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Hendry; S. J. Smartt; E. D. Skillman; C. J. Evans; C. Trundle; D. J. Lennon; P. A. Crowther; I. Hunter

    2008-01-01

    The blue supergiant Sher25 is surrounded by an asymmetric, hourglass-shaped circumstellar nebula. Its structure and dynamics have been studied previously through high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, and it appears dynamically similar to the ring structure around SN1987A. Here, we present long-slit spectroscopy of the circumstellar nebula around Sher25, and of the background nebula of the host cluster NGC3603. We perform a

  13. The blue supergiant Sher 25 and its intriguing hourglass nebula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Hendry; S. J. Smartt; E. D. Skillman; C. J. Evans; C. Trundle; D. J. Lennon; P. A. Crowther; I. Hunter

    2008-01-01

    The blue supergiant Sher 25 is surrounded by an asymmetric, hourglass-shaped\\u000acircumstellar nebula. Its structure and dynamics have been studied previously\\u000athrough high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, and it appears dynamically\\u000asimilar to the ring structure around SN 1987A. Here we present long-slit\\u000aspectroscopy of the circumstellar nebula around Sher 25, and of the background\\u000anebula of the host cluster NGC

  14. Original article Blue-stain fungi associated

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Blue-stain fungi associated with Tomicus piniperda in Sweden and preliminary to determine the development of blue-staining of sapwood. Fungi were isolated from samples of inner bark and blue-stained sapwood in connection with galleries of T piniperda. Samples were also taken from beetle

  15. Blue Waters: An Extraordinary Research Capability for

    E-print Network

    Blue Waters: An Extraordinary Research Capability for Ad ancing Science & Engineering Frontiers will talk about the new supercomputer Blue Waters and its proposed use by the science and engineering of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. This system, called Blue Waters, is based on the latest computing

  16. Accessibility Application Blue Badge Car Park UK

    E-print Network

    Painter, Kevin

    i Accessibility Application Blue Badge Car Park UK Konstantinos Grassos H00113751 August 2012. In this project, Blue Badge Car Park (BBCP) is presented which is actually a mobile-based park finder application. It specifically focuses on finding parking spaces for wheelchair users, which are indicated by the blue badge

  17. Easy plane baby skyrmions

    E-print Network

    Juha Jäykkä; Martin Speight

    2011-02-02

    The baby Skyrme model is studied with a novel choice of potential, $V=1/2 \\phi_3^2$. This "easy plane" potential vanishes at the equator of the target two-sphere. Hence, in contrast to previously studied cases, the boundary value of the field breaks the residual SO(2) internal symmetry of the model. Consequently, even the unit charge skyrmion has only discrete symmetry and consists of a bound state of two half lumps. A model of long-range inter-skyrmion forces is developed wherein a unit skyrmion is pictured as a single scalar dipole inducing a massless scalar field tangential to the vacuum manifold. This model has the interesting feature that the two-skyrmion interaction energy depends only on the average orientation of the dipoles relative to the line joining them. Its qualitative predictions are confirmed by numerical simulations. Global energy minimizers of charges B=1,...,14,18,32 are found numerically. Up to charge B=6, the minimizers have 2B half lumps positioned at the vertices of a regular 2B-gon. For charges B >= 7, rectangular or distorted rectangular arrays of 2B half lumps are preferred, as close to square as possible.

  18. Fluorescent staining for leukocyte chemotaxis. Eosinophil-specific fluorescence with aniline blue.

    PubMed

    McCrone, E L; Lucey, D R; Weller, P F

    1988-11-10

    To overcome problems associated with the quantitation of human eosinophil chemotaxis in micropore filters, we have developed a fluorescent method of specifically staining eosinophils in chemotactic filters. A neutral solution of aniline blue yielded bright green fluorescent staining of the cytoplasmic granules of eosinophils. Other leukocytes and contaminating neutrophils potentially present with eosinophils did not fluoresce with aniline blue. The fluorescent staining eosinophils within filters provided bright, non-fading images that facilitated visual microscopic counting and were of sufficiently high contrast, unlike those with conventional eosinophil stains, to allow image analyzer based enumeration of eosinophil chemotactic responses at levels through the filters. Although not cell type-specific, congo red and ethidium bromide also provided high contrast, fluorescent images of all leukocyte types within chemotactic filters. Fluorescent staining with aniline blue constitutes a rapid, stable and eosinophil-specific stain that facilitates the visual or image analyzer-based quantitation of eosinophil chemotaxis. PMID:2460564

  19. 49 CFR 218.23 - Blue signal display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Blue signal display. 218.23 Section 218.23 ...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Blue Signal Protection of Workers § 218.23 Blue signal display. (a) Blue signals...

  20. 49 CFR 218.23 - Blue signal display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blue signal display. 218.23 Section 218.23 ...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Blue Signal Protection of Workers § 218.23 Blue signal display. (a) Blue signals...

  1. 49 CFR 218.23 - Blue signal display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Blue signal display. 218.23 Section 218.23 ...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Blue Signal Protection of Workers § 218.23 Blue signal display. (a) Blue signals...

  2. 49 CFR 218.23 - Blue signal display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Blue signal display. 218.23 Section 218.23 ...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Blue Signal Protection of Workers § 218.23 Blue signal display. (a) Blue signals...

  3. 49 CFR 218.23 - Blue signal display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Blue signal display. 218.23 Section 218.23 ...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Blue Signal Protection of Workers § 218.23 Blue signal display. (a) Blue signals...

  4. The performance of the blue prime focus large binocular camera at the large binocular telescope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Giallongo; R. Ragazzoni; A. Grazian; A. Baruffolo; G. Beccari; C. de Santis; E. Diolaiti; A. di Paola; J. Farinato; A. Fontana; S. Gallozzi; F. Gasparo; G. Gentile; R. Green; J. Hill; O. Kuhn; F. Pasian; F. Pedichini; M. Radovich; P. Salinari; R. Smareglia; R. Speziali; V. Testa; D. Thompson; E. Vernet; R. M. Wagner

    2008-01-01

    Aims: We present the characteristics and some early scientific results of the first instrument at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), the Large Binocular Camera (LBC). Each LBT telescope unit will be equipped with similar prime focus cameras. The blue channel is optimized for imaging in the UV-B bands and the red channel for imaging in the VRIz bands. The corrected

  5. The detection of cryptic prey by blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata) I: the effects of travel time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALAN C. KAMIL; FREDERIC LINDSTROM; JERRILYNN PETERS

    1985-01-01

    The behaviour of blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata) hunting for dispersed, cryptic prey was investigated in an operant simulation in which jays were trained to search projected images for noctuid moths. Each image contained either a single moth or no moth. Each trial was structured so as to simulate travelling between patches, searching within patches, and attacking and handling each moth

  6. The performance of the blue prime focus Large Binocular Camera at the Large Binocular Telescope

    E-print Network

    E. Giallongo; R. Ragazzoni; A. Grazian; A. Baruffolo; G. Beccari; C. De Santis; E. Diolaiti; A. Di Paola; J. Farinato; A. Fontana; S. Gallozzi; F. Gasparo; G. Gentile; R. Green; J. Hill; O. Kuhn; F. Pasian; F. Pedichini; M. Radovich; P. Salinari; R. Smareglia; R. Speziali; V. Testa; D. Thompson; E. Vernet; R. M. Wagner

    2008-03-13

    We present the characteristics and some early scientific results of the first instrument at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), the Large Binocular Camera (LBC). Each LBT telescope unit will be equipped with similar prime focus cameras. The blue channel is optimized for imaging in the UV-B bands and the red channel for imaging in the VRIz bands. The corrected field-of-view of each camera is approximately 30 arcminutes in diameter, and the chip area is equivalent to a 23x23 arcmin2 field. In this paper we also present the commissioning results of the blue channel. The scientific and technical performance of the blue channel was assessed by measurement of the astrometric distortion, flat fielding, ghosts, and photometric calibrations. These measurements were then used as input to a data reduction pipeline applied to science commissioning data. The measurements completed during commissioning show that the technical performance of the blue channel is in agreement with original expectations. Since the red camera is very similar to the blue one we expect similar performance from the commissioning that will be performed in the following months in binocular configuration. Using deep UV image, acquired during the commissioning of the blue camera, we derived faint UV galaxy-counts in a ~500 sq. arcmin. sky area to U(Vega)=26.5. These galaxy counts imply that the blue camera is the most powerful UV imager presently available and in the near future in terms of depth and extent of the field-of-view. We emphasize the potential of the blue camera to increase the robustness of the UGR multicolour selection of Lyman break galaxies at redshift z~3.

  7. Improved wheal detection from skin prick test images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulan, Orhan

    2014-03-01

    Skin prick test is a commonly used method for diagnosis of allergic diseases (e.g., pollen allergy, food allergy, etc.) in allergy clinics. The results of this test are erythema and wheal provoked on the skin where the test is applied. The sensitivity of the patient against a specific allergen is determined by the physical size of the wheal, which can be estimated from images captured by digital cameras. Accurate wheal detection from these images is an important step for precise estimation of wheal size. In this paper, we propose a method for improved wheal detection on prick test images captured by digital cameras. Our method operates by first localizing the test region by detecting calibration marks drawn on the skin. The luminance variation across the localized region is eliminated by applying a color transformation from RGB to YCbCr and discarding the luminance channel. We enhance the contrast of the captured images for the purpose of wheal detection by performing principal component analysis on the blue-difference (Cb) and red-difference (Cr) color channels. We finally, perform morphological operations on the contrast enhanced image to detect the wheal on the image plane. Our experiments performed on images acquired from 36 different patients show the efficiency of the proposed method for wheal detection from skin prick test images captured in an uncontrolled environment.

  8. Confined Cubic Blue Phases under Shear

    E-print Network

    O. Henrich; K. Stratford; D. Marenduzzo; P. V. Coveney; M. E. Cates

    2012-03-14

    We study the behaviour of confined cubic blue phases under shear flow via lattice Boltzmann simulations. We focus on the two experimentally observed phases, blue phase I and blue phase II. The disinclination network of blue phase II continuously breaks and reforms under shear, leading to an oscillatory stress response in time. The oscillations are only regular for very thin samples. For thicker samples, the shear leads to a "stick-slip" motion of part of the network along the vorticity direction. Blue phase I responds very differently: its defect network undergoes seemingly chaotic rearrangements under shear, irrespective of system size.

  9. 76 FR 71355 - United States et al. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Montana, Inc. et al.; Proposed Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ...OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States et al. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Montana, Inc. et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive...Montana, Billings Division, in United States et al. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of...

  10. 76 FR 19466 - Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, et al.; Amended Certification Regarding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ...895, et al.] Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, et al.; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility...TA-W-74,895 Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data...

  11. Chromatic number of Euclidean plane

    E-print Network

    Kai-Rui Wang

    2015-07-01

    If the chromatic number of Euclidean plane is larger than four, but it is known that the chromatic number of planar graphs is equal to four, then how does one explain it? In my opinion, they are contradictory to each other. This idea leads to confirm the chromatic number of the plane about its exact value.

  12. Maternity blues in Brazilian women.

    PubMed

    Rohde, L A; Busnello, E; Wolf, A; Zomer, A; Shansis, F; Martins, S; Tramontina, S

    1997-03-01

    In this prospective study, a sample of 86 postpartum women was compared with a sample of 75 women from a random period of 8 consecutive days out of puerperium. Symptoms were evaluated each day using the Blues Questionnaire. Postpartum women and women out of puerperium showed a different distribution of percentile scores on the scale on the third, fourth and fifth days. The postpartum symptom peak occurred on the fifth day. Symptoms more significantly associated with the third, fourth and fifth postpartum days were overemotionalism and oversensitivity. It is concluded that maternity blues in Brazilian women appear to be characterized by maternal mental state alterations occurring on the third, fourth and fifth days postpartum. MB seems to be better defined as an emotional oversensitivity syndrome of cross-cultural dimension than as depression. PMID:9111856

  13. Rheology of cholesteric blue phases

    E-print Network

    A. Dupuis; D. Marenduzzo; E. Orlandini; J. M. Yeomans

    2006-05-11

    Blue phases of cholesteric liquid crystals offer a spectacular example of naturally occurring disclination line networks. Here we numerically solve the hydrodynamic equations of motion to investigate the response of three types of blue phases to an imposed Poiseuille flow. We show that shear forces bend and twist and can unzip the disclination lines. Under gentle forcing the network opposes the flow and the apparent viscosity is significantly higher than that of an isotropic liquid. With increased forcing we find strong shear thinning corresponding to the disruption of the defect network. As the viscosity starts to drop, the imposed flow sets the network into motion. Disclinations break-up and re-form with their neighbours in the flow direction. This gives rise to oscillations in the time-dependent measurement of the average stress.

  14. The Physics of the Blues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, J. Murray

    2009-03-01

    In looking at the commonalities between music and science, one sees that the musician's palette is based on the principles of physics. The pitch of a musical note is determined by the frequency of the sound wave. The scales that musicians use to create and play music can be viewed as a set of rules. What makes music interesting is how musicians develop those rules and create ambiguity with them. I will discuss the evolution of western musical scales in this context. As a particular example, ``Blue'' notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale. The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting. Live keyboard demonstrations will be used. Beyond any redeeming entertainment value the talk will emphasize the serious connections between science and art in music. Nevertheless tips will be accepted.

  15. HYDROLOGY OF WATLING'S BLUE HOLE: SAN SALVADOR, BAHAMAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Vermette; Rebecca Hudson

    Watling's blue hole is a karst feature located on the Bahamian island of San Salvador. The blue hole's physiography and hydrology were studied in April 2001. Watling '.I' blue hole was compared with other Bahamian inland blue holes. Unlike typical blue holes, Watling '.I' blue hole did not have a fresh water lens, and therefore did not exhibit a halocline.

  16. Polish Terms for "Blue" in the Perspective of Vantage Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanulewicz, Danuta

    2010-01-01

    The Polish set of terms for blue includes, inter alia, the following adjectives: "niebieski" "blue", "blekitny" "(sky) blue", "granatowy" "navy blue", "lazurowy" "azure", "modry" "(intense) blue" and "siny" "(grey) violet-blue". The adjective "niebieski" is the basic term; however, it shares some of its functions with "blekitny", which is…

  17. 1370 Rev. (3/03) An independent licensee of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association. Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield is the trade name of Anthem Health Plans of New Hampshire, Inc.

    E-print Network

    Myers, Lawrence C.

    1370 Rev. (3/03) An independent licensee of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association. Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield is the trade name of Anthem Health Plans of New Hampshire, Inc. ® Registered marks of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association. Request for Certification for a Mentally or Physically

  18. Evaluation of planar 3D electrical capacitance tomography: from single-plane to dual-plane configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hsin-Yu; Qiu, Chang-Hua; Soleimani, Manuchehr

    2015-06-01

    Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is a non-invasive imaging technique that is sensitive to the dielectric permittivity property of an object. Conventional ECT systems have a circular/cylindrical or rectangular geometry, in which the electrode plates are usually spaced equally around the tank. It is the most common configuration as it can be easily applied to industrial pipelines. However, under some circumstances, the full access to the imaging geometry may not be applicable due to the limitation of the process area. In those cases, and with limited access, planar ECT sensors can fit the process structure if access to only one side is possible. A single-plane ECT configuration has been proposed for such applications. However, the planar array often suffers from a lack of sensitivity and difficulty with depth detection. To better understand these limitations we investigate the imaging performance from the single-plane ECT to dual-plane ECT structure. The limitations and constraints of the planar configuration will also be discussed. Several experiments were conducted using both single-plane and dual-plane configurations to evaluate the potential applications. The initial results are promising, and the quality of the reconstructed images are compared with the real condition for process validation.

  19. Halophilic-blue-green algae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas D. Brock

    1976-01-01

    The isolation of a halophilic blue-green alga, Aphanothece halophytica, from Great Salt Lake is described. The organism was cultured from waters with salinities up to saturated NaCl (about 30% w\\/v). It has an optimum salinity for growth of about 16% NaCl, but can grow very slowly even in saturated NaCl. Based on the study of the Great Salt Lake organism,

  20. Characterization of DECam focal plane detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Diehl, H.Thomas; Angstadt, Robert; Campa, Julia; Cease, Herman; Derylo, Greg; Emes, John H.; Estrada, Juan; Kibik, Donna; Flaugher, Brenna L.; Holland, Steve E.; Jonas, Michelle; /Fermilab /Madrid, CIEMAT /LBL, Berkeley /Argonne /Pennsylvania U.

    2008-06-01

    DECam is a 520 Mpix, 3 square-deg FOV imager being built for the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO. This facility instrument will be used for the 'Dark Energy Survey' of the southern galactic cap. DECam has chosen 250 ?m thick CCDs, developed at LBNL, with good QE in the near IR for the focal plane. In this work we present the characterization of these detectors done by the DES team, and compare it to the DECam technical requirements. The results demonstrate that the detectors satisfy the needs for instrument.

  1. Inflation and alternatives with blue tensor spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Xue, Wei

    2014-10-01

    We study the tilt of the primordial gravitational waves spectrum. A hint of blue tilt is shown from analyzing the BICEP2 and POLARBEAR data. Motivated by this, we explore the possibilities of blue tensor spectra from the very early universe cosmology models, including null energy condition violating inflation, inflation with general initial conditions, and string gas cosmology, etc. For the simplest G-inflation, blue tensor spectrum also implies blue scalar spectrum. In general, the inflation models with blue tensor spectra indicate large non-Gaussianities. On the other hand, string gas cosmology predicts blue tensor spectrum with highly Gaussian fluctuations. If further experiments do confirm the blue tensor spectrum, non-Gaussianity becomes a distinguishing test between inflation and alternatives.

  2. Inflation and Alternatives with Blue Tensor Spectra

    E-print Network

    Yi Wang; Wei Xue

    2014-10-20

    We study the tilt of the primordial gravitational waves spectrum. A hint of blue tilt is shown from analyzing the BICEP2 and POLARBEAR data. Motivated by this, we explore the possibilities of blue tensor spectra from the very early universe cosmology models, including null energy condition violating inflation, inflation with general initial conditions, and string gas cosmology, etc. For the simplest G-inflation, blue tensor spectrum also implies blue scalar spectrum. In general, the inflation models with blue tensor spectra indicate large non-Gaussianities. On the other hand, string gas cosmology predicts blue tensor spectrum with highly Gaussian fluctuations. If further experiments do confirm the blue tensor spectrum, non-Gaussianity becomes a distinguishing test between inflation and alternatives.

  3. The Cryptochrome Blue Light Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xuhong; Liu, Hongtao; Klejnot, John; Lin, Chentao

    2010-01-01

    Cryptochromes are photolyase-like blue light receptors originally discovered in Arabidopsis but later found in other plants, microbes, and animals. Arabidopsis has two cryptochromes, CRY1 and CRY2, which mediate primarily blue light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and photoperiodic control of floral initiation, respectively. In addition, cryptochromes also regulate over a dozen other light responses, including circadian rhythms, tropic growth, stomata opening, guard cell development, root development, bacterial and viral pathogen responses, abiotic stress responses, cell cycles, programmed cell death, apical dominance, fruit and ovule development, seed dormancy, and magnetoreception. Cryptochromes have two domains, the N-terminal PHR (Photolyase-Homologous Region) domain that bind the chromophore FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide), and the CCE (CRY C-terminal Extension) domain that appears intrinsically unstructured but critical to the function and regulation of cryptochromes. Most cryptochromes accumulate in the nucleus, and they undergo blue light-dependent phosphorylation or ubiquitination. It is hypothesized that photons excite electrons of the flavin molecule, resulting in redox reaction or circular electron shuttle and conformational changes of the photoreceptors. The photoexcited cryptochrome are phosphorylated to adopt an open conformation, which interacts with signaling partner proteins to alter gene expression at both transcriptional and posttranslational levels and consequently the metabolic and developmental programs of plants. PMID:21841916

  4. Models of Individual Blue Stragglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sills, Alison

    This chapter describes the current state of models of individual blue stragglers. Stellar collisions, binary mergers (or coalescence), and partial or ongoing mass transfer have all been studied in some detail. The products of stellar collisions retain memory of their parent stars and are not fully mixed. Very high initial rotation rates must be reduced by an unknown process to allow the stars to collapse to the main sequence. The more massive collision products have shorter lifetimes than normal stars of the same mass, while products between low mass stars are long-lived and look very much like normal stars of their mass. Mass transfer can result in a merger, or can produce another binary system with a blue straggler and the remnant of the original primary. The products of binary mass transfer cover a larger portion of the colour-magnitude diagram than collision products for two reasons: there are more possible configurations which produce blue stragglers, and there are differing contributions to the blended light of the system. The effects of rotation may be substantial in both collision and merger products, and could result in significant mixing unless angular momentum is lost shortly after the formation event. Surface abundances may provide ways to distinguish between the formation mechanisms, but care must be taken to model the various mixing mechanisms properly before drawing strong conclusions. Avenues for future work are outlined.

  5. Ultrafast vascular strain compounding using plane wave transmission.

    PubMed

    Hansen, H H G; Saris, A E C M; Vaka, N R; Nillesen, M M; de Korte, C L

    2014-03-01

    Deformations of the atherosclerotic vascular wall induced by the pulsating blood can be estimated using ultrasound strain imaging. Because these deformations indirectly provide information on mechanical plaque composition, strain imaging is a promising technique for differentiating between stable and vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. This paper first explains 1-D radial strain estimation as applied intravascularly in coronary arteries. Next, recent methods for noninvasive vascular strain estimation in a transverse imaging plane are discussed. Finally, a compounding technique that our group recently developed is explained. This technique combines motion estimates of subsequently acquired focused ultrasound images obtained at various insonification angles. However, because the artery moves and deforms during the multi-angle acquisition, errors are introduced when compounding. Recent advances in computational power have enabled plane wave ultrasound acquisition, which allows 100 times faster image acquisition and thus might resolve the motion artifacts. In this paper the performance of strain imaging using plane wave compounding is investigated using simulations of an artery with a vulnerable plaque and experimental data of a two-layered vessel phantom. The results show that plane wave compounding outperforms 0° focused strain imaging. For the simulations, the root mean squared error reduced by 66% and 50% for radial and circumferential strain, respectively. For the experiments, the elastographic signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratio (SNR(e) and CNR(e)) increased with 2.1 dB and 3.7 dB radially, and 5.6 dB and 16.2dB circumferentially. Because of the high frame rate, the plane wave compounding technique can even be further optimized and extended to 3D in future. PMID:24484646

  6. Are There Blue, Massive E/S0 Galaxies at z<1? Kinematics of Blue Spheroidal Galaxy Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Myungshin; Faber, S. M.; Gebhardt, Karl; Koo, David C.; Phillips, Andrew C.; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Simard, Luc; Willmer, Christopher N. A.

    2001-08-01

    Several recent studies find that 10%-50% of morphologically selected field early-type galaxies at redshifts z<~1 have blue colors indicative of recent star formation. Such ``blue spheroids'' might be massive early-type galaxies with active star formation, perhaps induced by recent merger events. Alternatively, they could be starbursting, low-mass spheroids. To distinguish between these two choices, we have selected 10 ``Blue Spheroid Candidates'' (BSCs) from a quantitatively selected E/S0 sample to study their properties, including kinematics from Keck spectra obtained as part of the DEEP Groth Strip Survey (GSS). Most BSCs (70%) turn out to belong to two broad categories, while the remaining objects are likely to be misclassified objects. Type 1 BSCs have underlying red stellar components with bluer inner components. Type 2 BSCs do not show an obvious sign of the underlying red stellar component, and their overall colors are quite blue [(U-B)rest<0]. Both type 1 and type 2 BSCs have internal velocity dispersions measured from emission lines ?<~80 km s-1 and estimated dynamical masses of only a few ×1010 Msolar or less. For type 1 BSCs, we estimate ? of the red component using the fundamental plane relation of distant field absorption-line galaxies and find that these ? estimates are similar to the ? measured from emission lines. Overall, we conclude that our type 1 and type 2 BSCs are more likely to be star-forming low-mass spheroids than star-forming, massive, early-type galaxies.

  7. Exfoliation of Egyptian Blue and Han Blue, Two Alkali Earth Copper Silicate-based Pigments

    PubMed Central

    Johnson-McDaniel, Darrah; Salguero, Tina T.

    2014-01-01

    In a visualized example of the ancient past connecting with modern times, we describe the preparation and exfoliation of CaCuSi4O10 and BaCuSi4O10, the colored components of the historic Egyptian blue and Han blue pigments. The bulk forms of these materials are synthesized by both melt flux and solid-state routes, which provide some control over the crystallite size of the product. The melt flux process is time intensive, but it produces relatively large crystals at lower reaction temperatures. In comparison, the solid-state method is quicker yet requires higher reaction temperatures and yields smaller crystallites. Upon stirring in hot water, CaCuSi4O10 spontaneously exfoliates into monolayer nanosheets, which are characterized by TEM and PXRD. BaCuSi4O10 on the other hand requires ultrasonication in organic solvents to achieve exfoliation. Near infrared imaging illustrates that both the bulk and nanosheet forms of CaCuSi4O10 and BaCuSi4O10 are strong near infrared emitters. Aqueous CaCuSi4O10 and BaCuSi4O10 nanosheet dispersions are useful because they provide a new way to handle, characterize, and process these materials in colloidal form. PMID:24796494

  8. Dynamic MRI Scan Plane Control for Passive Tracking of Instruments and Devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon P. Dimaio; E. Samset; Gregory S. Fischer; Iulian Iordachita; Gabor Fichtinger; Ferenc A. Jolesz; Clare M. Tempany

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a novel image-based method for track- ing robotic mechanisms and interventional devices during Magnetic Res- onance Image (MRI)-guided procedures. It takes advantage of the multi-planar imaging capabilities of MRI to optimally image a set of localizing fiducials for passive motion tracking in the image coordinate frame. The imaging system is servoed to adaptively position the scan plane

  9. Guided Growth of Horizontal ZnSe Nanowires and their Integration into High-Performance Blue-UV Photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Oksenberg, Eitan; Popovitz-Biro, Ronit; Rechav, Katya; Joselevich, Ernesto

    2015-07-01

    Perfectly aligned horizontal ZnSe nano-wires are obtained by guided growth, and easily integrated into high-performance blue-UV photodetectors. Their crystal phase and crystallographic orientation are controlled by the epitaxial relations with six different sapphire planes. Guided growth paves the way for the large-scale integration of nanowires into optoelectronic devices. PMID:26011601

  10. Modeling and 3D local estimation for in-plane and out-of-plane motion guidance by 2D ultrasound-based visual servoing

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and perturbations. Index Terms-- Visual servoing, ultrasound, model-free con- trol, image moments, medical roboticsModeling and 3D local estimation for in-plane and out-of-plane motion guidance by 2D ultrasound a new model-free visual ser- voing that is able to servo a robotized 2D ultrasound probe that interacts

  11. Photothermal therapy of cancer cells mediated by blue hydrogel nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Taeyjuana; Epstein, Tamir; Smith, Ron; Kopelman, Raoul

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the utility of biologically compatible, nontoxic and cell-specific targetable hydrogel nanoparticles (NPs), which have Coomassie® Brilliant Blue G dye (Sigma-Aldrich, MO, USA) covalently linked into their polyacrylamide matrix, as candidates for photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer cells. Materials & methods Hydrogel NPs with Coomassie Brilliant Blue G dye covalently linked into their polyacrylamide matrix were fabricated using a reverse micelle microemulsion polymerization method and were found to be 80–95 nm in diameter, with an absorbance value of 0.52. PTT-induced hyperthermia/thermolysis was achieved at 37°C using an inexpensive, portable, light-emitting diode array light source (590 nm, 25 mW/cm2). Results & conclusion Hydrogel NPs with Coomassie Brilliant Blue G dye linked into their polyacrylamide matrix are effective in causing PTT-induced thermolysis in immortalized human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) cells for varying NP concentrations and treatment times. These multifunctional particles have previously been used in cancer studies to enable delineation, for glioma surgery and in photoacoustic imaging studies. The addition of the PTT function would enable a three-pronged theranostic approach to cancer medicine, such as guided tumor surgery with intra-operative photoacoustic imaging and intra-operative PTT. PMID:23432340

  12. Mathematical Foundation for Plane Covering Using Hexagons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Gordon G.

    1999-01-01

    This work is to indicate the development and mathematical underpinnings of the algorithms previously developed for covering the plane and the addressing of the elements of the covering. The algorithms are of interest in that they provides a simple systematic way of increasing or decreasing resolution, in the sense that if we have the covering in place and there is an image superimposed upon the covering, then we may view the image in a rough form or in a very detailed form with minimal effort. Such ability allows for quick searches of crude forms to determine a class in which to make a detailed search. In addition, the addressing algorithms provide an efficient way to process large data sets that have related subsets. The algorithms produced were based in part upon the work of D. Lucas "A Multiplication in N Space" which suggested a set of three vectors, any two of which would serve as a bases for the plane and also that the hexagon is the natural geometric object to be used in a covering with a suggested bases. The second portion is a refinement of the eyeball vision system, the globular viewer.

  13. A method of plane geometry primitive presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Anbo; Luo, Haibo; Chang, Zheng; Hui, Bin

    2014-11-01

    Point feature and line feature are basic elements in object feature sets, and they play an important role in object matching and recognition. On one hand, point feature is sensitive to noise; on the other hand, there are usually a huge number of point features in an image, which makes it complex for matching. Line feature includes straight line segment and curve. One difficulty in straight line segment matching is the uncertainty of endpoint location, the other is straight line segment fracture problem or short straight line segments joined to form long straight line segment. While for the curve, in addition to the above problems, there is another difficulty in how to quantitatively describe the shape difference between curves. Due to the problems of point feature and line feature, the robustness and accuracy of target description will be affected; in this case, a method of plane geometry primitive presentation is proposed to describe the significant structure of an object. Firstly, two types of primitives are constructed, they are intersecting line primitive and blob primitive. Secondly, a line segment detector (LSD) is applied to detect line segment, and then intersecting line primitive is extracted. Finally, robustness and accuracy of the plane geometry primitive presentation method is studied. This method has a good ability to obtain structural information of the object, even if there is rotation or scale change of the object in the image. Experimental results verify the robustness and accuracy of this method.

  14. Color filter arrays based on mutually exclusive blue noise patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei A.; Parker, Kevin J.; Kriss, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    The ordered color filter arrays (CFA) used in single sensor, color digital still cameras introduce distracting color artifacts. These artifacts are due to the phase shifted, aliased signals introduced by the sparse sampling by the CFAs. This work reports the results of an investigation on the possibility of using random patterns as a CFA for single sensor, digital still cameras. From a single blue noise mask pattern, three mutually exclusive, random CFAs are constructed representing the red, green, and blue color filters. An edge adaptive method consisting of missing-pixel edge detection and boundary sensitive interpolation is employed to reconstruct the entire image. Experiments have shown that the random CFA alleviates the problem of the low-frequency color banding associated with ordered arrays. This method also has the advantage of better preserving color free, sharp neutral edges, and results in less deviation from neutral on high frequency, monochrome information.

  15. (100) Crystal Plane of Silicon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This animation, created by Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME), "illustrates the crystal growth of silicon using a seed crystal (or unit cell) positioned to the (100) plane. The silicon crystal grows into a large ingot which is sliced into silicon wafers. To verify the (100) plane of the wafer, the wafer is broken or cleaved causing it to break at 90 degree angles." The supporting Crystallography Learning Module and activities can be downloaded from the SCME website under Educational Materials.

  16. A 15 element focal plane array for 100 GHz

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. R. Erickson; P. F. Goldsmith; G. Novak; R. M. Grosslein; P. J. Viscuso; R. B. Erickson; C. R. Predmore

    1992-01-01

    A focal plane imaging array receiver is described which covers the 86-115 GHz frequency range for radio astronomical observations. The 3×5 element array uses cryogenic Schottky diode mixers with integrated HEMT IF amplifiers. A cold quasi-optical filter selects the desired sideband, and terminates the image at 20 K. Polarization interleaving is used to minimize the array size on the sky.

  17. Performance of microbolometer focal plane arrays under varying pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. He; G. Karunasiri; T. Mei; W. J. Zeng; P. Neuzil; U. Sridhar

    2000-01-01

    In this letter, we present a study of imaging using a 128×128-pixel microbolometer focal plane array (FPA) under varying pressure conditions from 10-5 torr to the ambient. We have employed bulk micromachining in the fabrication of FPA to reduce the thermal conduction through the air-gap between the membrane and the substrate of the microbolometers. It was found that an image

  18. Large area III–V infrared focal planes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. Gunapala; D. Z. Ting; C. J. Hill; J. Nguyen; A. Soibel; S. B. Rafol; S. A. Keo; J. M. Mumolo; M. C. Lee; J. K. Liu; B. Yang; A. Liao

    2011-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory is actively developing the III–V based infrared detector and focal plane arrays (FPAs) for remote sensing and imaging applications. Currently, we are working on Superlattice detectors, multi-band quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs), and quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIPs) technologies suitable for high pixel-pixel uniformity and high pixel operability large area imaging arrays. In this paper, we will

  19. Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Michele M.; Jamieson, Christopher G.; Lal, Geeta

    1996-01-01

    Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, an uncommon condition, is manifested by gastrointestinal and skin hemangiomas and gastrointestinal hemorrhage causing anemia. The authors report a unique case of the syndrome in association with a congenital cardiac malformation. A 26-year-old woman presented with iron-deficiency anemia after the birth of her first child. She had a history of skin and gastrointestinal hemangiomas and tetralogy of Fallot. Endoscopy revealed multiple new intestinal hemangiomas, which were removed through enterotomies with resolution of the anemia. Iron therapy was prescribed, and her condition was stable at follow-up 5 years later. PMID:8599795

  20. Experimental study of collisional granular flows down an inclined plane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuel Azanza; François Chevoir; Pascal Moucheront

    1999-01-01

    The collisional flow of a slightly inelastic granular material down a rough inclined plane is usually described by kinetic theories. We present an experimental study aimed at analysing the assumptions and the quantitative predictions of such theories. A two-dimensional channel coupled to a model granular material and image analysis allow detailed and complete measurement of the kinematics and structure of