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Sample records for blue nile river

  1. Nile River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    article title:  Nile River Fluctuations Near Khartoum, Sudan     ... history, the rising and falling waters of the mighty Nile River have directly impacted the lives of the people who live along its banks. ... the area around Sudan's capital city of Khartoum capture the river's dynamic nature. Acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer ...

  2. Age and origin of the Gezira alluvial fan between the Blue and White Nile rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, martin

    2014-05-01

    The Gezira is a low-angle alluvial fan bounded by the Blue Nile to the east and the White Nile to the west. It is the main agricultural region of Sudan and produces high quality long-staple cotton for export. Dark cracking clays (vertisols) cover much of the Gezira and range in age from 50 kyr to Holocene. The Gezira is traversed by a series of defunct sandy channels that originate between Sennar and Wad Medani on the present-day Blue Nile. With a radius of 300 km and an area of 40,000 km2 the Gezira is a mega-fan. The younger channels range in age from early Holocene to 100 kyr, while near surface channels filled with rolled quartz and carbonate gravels have ages back to >250 kyr. Boreholes in the Gezira reveal coarse alluvial sands and gravels in now buried channels overlain by alluvial clays, forming a repetitive sequence of fining-upwards alluvial units. that probably extend back to Pliocene times. The fan is up to 180 m thick with a volume of ~1,800 km3. The sandy or gravelly bed-load channels coincide with colder drier climates and sparse vegetation in the Ethiopian headwaters of the Blue Nile and the alluvial clays denote widespread flooding during times of stronger summer monsoon. The early stages of such flood events were often accompanied by mass burial of Nile oyster (Etheria elliptica) beds, such as the 45-50 kyr floods that deposited up to 5 m of clay in the northern Gezira. A unique feature of the eastern Gezira is a former Blue Nile channel at least 80 km long running parallel to the present river and entirely filled with volcanic ash. The channel was only 3-4 m deep and 20-30 m wide. Very fine laminations and cross-beds, together with locally abundant phytoliths and sponge spicules, suggest slow-moving water, with flow dispersed across many distributary channels. The ash geochemistry is similar to that in the lower part of the Kibish Formation in the lower Omo valley of southern Ethiopia and points to a minimum age of 100 kyr and a maximum age of

  3. Morphological changes of Gumara River channel over 50 years, upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abate, Mengiste; Nyssen, Jan; Steenhuis, Tammo S.; Moges, Michael M.; Tilahun, Seifu A.; Enku, Temesgen; Adgo, Enyew

    2015-06-01

    In response to anthropogenic disturbances, alluvial rivers adjust their geometry. The alluvial river channels in the upper Blue Nile basin have been disturbed by human-induced factors since a longtime. This paper examines channel adjustment along a 38-km stretch of the Gumara River which drains towards Lake Tana and then to the Blue Nile. Over a 50 years period, agriculture developed rapidly in the catchment and flooding of the alluvial plain has become more frequent in recent times. The objectives of this study were to document the changes in channel planform and cross-section of the Gumara River and to investigate whether the changes could have contributed to the frequent flooding or vice versa. Two sets of aerial photographs (1957 and 1980) were scanned, and then orthorectified. Recent channel planform information was extracted from SPOT images of 2006 and Google Earth. Channel planform and bed morphology (vertical changes) were determined for these nearly 50 years period. The vertical changes were determined based on aggradation along a permanent structure, historic information on river cross-sections at a hydrological gauging station, and field observations. The results indicate that the lower reach of Gumara near its mouth has undergone major planform changes. A delta with approx. 1.12 km2 of emerged land was created between 1957 and 1980 and an additional 1 km2 of land has been added between 1980 and 2006. The sinuosity of the river changed only slightly: negatively (-1.1% i.e. meandering decreased) for the period from 1957 to 1980 and positively (+3.0%) for the period 1980-2006. Comparison of cross-sections at the hydrological gauging station showed that the deepest point in the river bed aggraded by 2.91 m for the period 1963-2009. The importance of sediment deposition in the stream and on its banks is related to land degradation in the upper catchment, and to artificial rising of Lake Tana level that creates a backwater effect and sediment deposition in

  4. Effects of Bahir Dar Textile Factory Effluents on the Water Quality of the Head Waters of Blue Nile River, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mehari, Abrehet Kahsay; Gebremedhin, Shewit; Ayele, Belayneh

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted in 2013/14 with the objective of determining the effects of Bahir Dar textile factory effluents on the head of Blue Nile River water quality. Dissolve oxygen was higher at the upstream site of the river, whereas BOD5, TDS, and total alkalinity values were higher at wastewater outlet of the factory site. The mean values of dissolved oxygen, BOD5, and total alkalinity were above maximum permissible limits set by WHO for drinking water at head of Blue Nile River. The mean value of BOD5 was above permissible limit of IFC for textile effluents to be discharged to surface water. A total of 836 aquatic macroinvertebrate individuals belonging to 21 families were collected. The Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index, the Hilsenhoff family-level biotic index, family richness, and percent dipterans were calculated. Hilsenhoff family-level biotic index and percent dipterans metrics differed significantly among sampling sites (P < 0.05). Hilsenhoff family-level biotic index was higher at the most downstream site but percent dipterans were higher at site of discharge of effluent to the head of Blue Nile River. Therefore, there is indication that effluent demands frequent control and proper treatment before being discharged to the environment. PMID:26688685

  5. Rain event properties and dimensionless rain event hyetographs at the source of the Blue Nile River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haile, A. T.; Rientjes, T.; Habib, E.; Jetten, V.

    2010-08-01

    In the present study, the spatial and temporal patterns of the rain event properties are analysed. The event properties are rain event depth, event duration, mean event intensity, peak intensity and the time span between two consecutive rain events which is referred to as inter-event time (IET). Dimensionless event hyetographs are established by relating fractions of event intensities to the corresponding fractions of event durations. The spatial variation of the characteristics of the hyetographs is also evaluated. A model in the form of the beta distribution function is applied to reproduce the dimensionless hyetographs. Rainfall data is obtained from a field campaign in two wet seasons of June-August (JJA) of 2007 and 2008 in the Gilgel Abbay watershed that is situated at the source basin of the upper Blue Nile River in Ethiopia. The rainfall data was recorded at eight stations. The results reveal that rain event depth is more related to peak intensity than to event duration. At the start and towards the end of the wet season, the rain events have larger depth with longer duration and longer IET than the rain events in the mid-season. Mean event intensity and IET are strongly related to terrain elevation. Sekela which is on a mountain area has the shortest IET while Bahir Dar which is at the south shore of the lake has the longest IET.

  6. Morpho-tectonic analysis of the Tekeze River and the Blue Nile drainage systems on the Northwestern Plateau, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Elamin H.; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.

    2012-07-01

    This study examines the morpho-tectonic evolution of the drainage system in the Northwestern Plateau in Ethiopia dominated by the Tekeze River and the Blue Nile. The Northwestern Plateau is underlain by Precambrian crystalline rocks, followed by Mesozoic sedimentary section and topped with Oligocene-Quaternary volcanic rocks. The plateau is bounded in the east and southeast by the Afar Depression and the Main Ethiopian Rift, respectively. Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data are analyzed to extract morpho-tectonic parameters including the Normalized Steepness Index (Ksn), the Concavity (θ) and the Regression Fit (r2) between the observed and predicted channel profiles from the sub-basins and the tributaries of the Tekeze River and the Blue Nile. Analysis of these morpho-tectonic parameters has shown that the evolution of the drainage systems on the Northwestern Plateau was influenced by three tectonic and geological events. The first event resulted in a broad and regional uplift of the plateau, most likely due to the rise of the Afar mantle plume ˜30 Ma. This regional uplift was accompanied by moderate incision rate of the Tekeze River and the Blue Nile drainage systems within the entire Northwestern Plateau. The second event, which was in the form of shield volcanoes build-up, occurred at ˜22 Ma and resulted in localized increase in the incision rate around these volcanoes. The third event is manifested by rift-flank uplift at ˜11 Ma on the western escarpments of the Afar Depression and the northwestern escarpments of the Main Ethiopian Rift. This event resulted in an increase in the incision rate of the Tekeze River and the Blue Nile drainage systems, but this increase seems to diminish towards the west and northwest leaving the drainage systems in the lower reaches of the two rivers relatively tectonically undisturbed, hence

  7. The Nile River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of the northern portion of the Nile River was captured by MISR's nadir camera on January 30, 2001 (Terra orbit 5956). The Nile is the longest river in the world, extending for about 6700 kilometers from its headwaters in the highlands of eastern Africa. At the apex of the fertile Nile River Delta is the Egyptian capital city of Cairo. To the west are the Great Pyramids of Giza. North of here the Nile branches into two distributaries, the Rosetta to the west and the Damietta to the east. Also visible in this image is the Suez Canal, a shipping waterway connecting Port Said on the Mediterranean Sea with the Gulf of Suez. The Gulf is an arm of the Red Sea, and is located on the righthand side of the picture. Image credit: NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

  8. Nile River Delta, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Nile River Delta of Egypt (30.0N, 31.0E) irrigated by the Nile River and its many distributaries, is some of the richest farm land in the world and home to some 45 million people, over half of Egypt's population. The capital city of Cairo is at the apex of the delta. Just across the river from Cairo can be seen the ancient three big pyramids and sphinx at Giza and the Suez Canal is just to the right of the delta.

  9. Estimation of evaporation over the upper Blue Nile basin by combining observations from satellites and river flow gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allam, Mariam M.; Jain Figueroa, Anjuli; McLaughlin, Dennis B.; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.

    2016-02-01

    Reliable estimates of regional evapotranspiration are necessary to improve water resources management and planning. However, direct measurements of evaporation are expensive and difficult to obtain. Some of the difficulties are illustrated in a comparison of several satellite-based estimates of evapotranspiration for the Upper Blue Nile (UBN) basin in Ethiopia. These estimates disagree both temporally and spatially. All the available data products underestimate evapotranspiration leading to basin-scale mass balance errors on the order of 35 percent of the mean annual rainfall. This paper presents a methodology that combines satellite observations of rainfall, terrestrial water storage as well as river-flow gauge measurements to estimate actual evapotranspiration over the UBN basin. The estimates derived from these inputs are constrained using a one-layer soil water balance and routing model. Our results describe physically consistent long-term spatial and temporal distributions of key hydrologic variables, including rainfall, evapotranspiration, and river-flow. We estimate an annual evapotranspiration over the UBN basin of about 2.55 mm per day. Spatial and temporal evapotranspiration trends are revealed by dividing the basin into smaller subbasins. The methodology described here is applicable to other basins with limited observational coverage that are facing similar future challenges of water scarcity and climate change.

  10. Hydrological Response to Climate Change for Gilgel Abay River, in the Lake Tana Basin - Upper Blue Nile Basin of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Dile, Yihun Taddele; Berndtsson, Ronny; Setegn, Shimelis G.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is likely to have severe effects on water availability in Ethiopia. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of climate change on the Gilgel Abay River, Upper Blue Nile Basin. The Statistical Downscaling Tool (SDSM) was used to downscale the HadCM3 (Hadley centre Climate Model 3) Global Circulation Model (GCM) scenario data into finer scale resolution. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was set up, calibrated, and validated. SDSM downscaled climate outputs were used as an input to the SWAT model. The climate projection analysis was done by dividing the period 2010-2100 into three time windows with each 30 years of data. The period 1990-2001 was taken as the baseline period against which comparison was made. Results showed that annual mean precipitation may decrease in the first 30-year period but increase in the following two 30-year periods. The decrease in mean monthly precipitation may be as much as about -30% during 2010-2040 but the increase may be more than +30% in 2070-2100. The impact of climate change may cause a decrease in mean monthly flow volume between -40% to -50% during 2010-2040 but may increase by more than the double during 2070-2100. Climate change appears to have negligible effect on low flow conditions of the river. Seasonal mean flow volume, however, may increase by more than the double and +30% to +40% for the Belg (small rainy season) and Kiremit (main rainy season) periods, respectively. Overall, it appears that climate change will result in an annual increase in flow volume for the Gilgel Abay River. The increase in flow is likely to have considerable importance for local small scale irrigation activities. Moreover, it will help harnessing a significant amount of water for ongoing dam projects in the Gilgel Abay River Basin. PMID:24250755

  11. Discover the Nile River

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Bordering on the Fantastic. As the longest river on earth, the Nile passes through 10 countries. Presented through a wide range of activities and a winning array of games, it's also unsurpassed at taking young minds into exploring the world of water, as well as natural and man made wonders.

  12. Modeling the hydrologic effects of land and water development interventions: a case study of the upper Blue Nile river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haregeweyn, Nigussie; Tsunekawa, Atsushi; Tsubo, Mitsuru; Meshesha, Derege; Adgo, Enyew; Poesen, Jean; Schütt, Brigitta

    2014-05-01

    Over 67% of the Ethiopian landmass has been identified as very vulnerable to climate variability and land degradation. These problems are more prevalent in the Upper Blue Nile (UBN, often called Abay) river basin covering a drainage area of about 199,800 km2. The UBN River runs from Lake Tana (NW Ethiopia) to the Ethiopia-Sudan border. To enhance the adaptive capacity to the high climate variability and land degradation in the basin, different land and water management measures (stone/soil bunds, runoff collector trenches, exclosures) have been extensively implemented, especially since recent years. Moreover, multipurpose water harvesting schemes including the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD, reservoir area of ca. 4000 km2) and 17 other similar projects are being or to be implemented by 2025. However, impact studies on land and water management aspects rarely include detailed hydrological components especially at river basin scale, although it is generally regarded as a major determinant of hydrological processes. The main aim of this study is therefore to model the significance of land and water management interventions in surface runoff response at scale of UBN river basin and to suggest some recommendations. Spatially-distributed annual surface runoff was simulated for both present-day and future (2025) land and water management conditions using calibrated values of the proportional loss model in ArcGIS environment. Average annual rainfall map (1998-2012) was produced from calibrated TRMM satellite source and shows high spatial variability of rainfall ranging between ca. 1000 mm in the Eastern part of the basin to ca. 2000 mm in the southern part of the basin. Present-day land use day condition was obtained from Abay Basin Master Plan study. The future land use map was created taking into account the land and water development interventions to be implemented by 2025. Under present-day conditions, high spatial variability of annual runoff depth was observed

  13. Regional geomorphic analysis and gis susceptibility mapping of landslides in the blue nile and the tekeze river basins of ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Elamin Hassan Dai

    The Plateau region of Ethiopia lies within a seismically active continental extensional regime, which is being rapidly incised by the Blue Nile and the Tekeze Rivers. Extremely large landslides pose serious hazards in this highly populated region (>27 million), which is in the process of developing its hydrologic resources. This research sought to develop cost-effective methods to compile regional landslide inventory and landslide susceptibility maps, using geomorphic tools and GIS technologies. This work also sought to evaluate the relationships between landslide dams and knickpoints, caused by channel bed incision from those caused by slope failures, by utilizing identified knickpoints along 56 tributary channels across the study area. The study employed the weighted overlay technique to produce regional landslide susceptibility hazard maps, and for the first time, employing wind-driven and integrated rainfall/aspect rasters at various inclination to more realistically model the actual precipitation that is felt by hillsides of varying azimuth, shape, and height. Landslides greater than 500m long were tentatively identified on 1:200,000 topographic maps draped over 30m hill-shade generated ASTER GDEMv2. The mapping revealed different types of landslides, and also revealed a considerable number of old, dormant landslide features. The use of wind-driven rainfall with integrated rainfall and aspect rasters provided a much more detailed and asymmetric distribution of precipitation. Spatial distribution of the very high and high hazard areas, during the Kermit and Belg rainy seasons by a range of 0.38% for an inclination of 40o and 1.7% for inclinations on 60o, as compared to the traditional assumption of 90o vertical rainfall, without integration of a slope aspect raster.

  14. Plan form changes of Gumara River channel over 50 years (Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abate, Mengiste; Nyssen, Jan; Mehari, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Channel plan form changes were investigated along the 65 km long Gumara River in Lake Tana basin (Ethiopia) by overlaying information from aerial photographs and SPOT imagery. Two sets of aerial photographs (1957 and 1980) were scanned, and then orthorectified in ENVI 4.2 environment. Recent channel plan form information was extracted from SPOT images of 2006. ERDAS 2010 and ArcGIS 10.1 tools were used for the data preparation and analysis. The information on river plan form changes spans from 1957 to 2006 (49 years), during which time the Gumara catchment has been subjected to changes in land use/cover and increasing water abstraction, which may have affected its hydrogeomorphology. The results indicated that the lower reach of Gumara at its mouth has undergone major plan form changes. A delta of 1.12 km² was created between 1957 and 1980 and additional 1.00 km² land has been created between 1980 and 2006. The sinuosity of the plan form changed only slightly through the study period: 1.78 in 1957, 1.76 in 1980, and 1.81 in 2006. Comparison of cross sections at the hydrological gauging station showed that the river bed aggraded in the order of 1.5 m to 2.5 m for the period 1963-2009. The trend analysis of stream flow of Gumara River versus rainfall in the catchment also indicated that the bed level of the Gumara river at its gauging station has risen. From field observations, the impact of direct human interventions was identified. The building of artificial levees along the river banks has contributed to huge deposition in the river bed. At locations where intensive irrigation takes place in the floodplain, seepage water through the banks created river bank failure and modifications in plan form. The unstable segments of the river reach were identified and will be further analysed.

  15. Hydrogeological and hydrochemical framework of Upper Awash River basin, Ethiopia: With special emphasis on inter-basins groundwater transfer between Blue Nile and Awash Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yitbarek, Andarge; Razack, Moumtaz; Ayenew, Tenalem; Zemedagegnehu, Engida; Azagegn, Tilahun

    2012-04-01

    Integrated approach has been used to investigate the hydrogeological framework of a complex fractured volcanic aquifer system in the Upper Awash River basin located at the western shoulder of the Ethiopian Rift. The groundwater flow system and mechanism of recharge of different aquifers have been studied using conventional hydrogeological field investigations, hydrochemistry, and isotope hydrology. Litho-hydrostratigraphic relationships were constructed from lithologic logs obtained from exploratory drilling of deep boreholes. The result indicates quite complex flow pattern and hydraulic characteristics of the different volcanic aquifers. The litho-hydrostratigraphic correlation indicates that the permeable and porous scoraceous lower basaltic aquifer is extended laterally all the way from the Blue Nile Plateau to the study area. New evidences have also emerged on the inter-basin groundwater transfer. Two distinct regional basaltic aquifers (upper and lower) are identified showing distinct hydrochemical and isotopic signatures. In the southern part of the study area the upper and lower aquifers form one unconfined regional aquifer system. In the northern and central part of the basin, it appears that the two systems are separated by regional aquiclude forming confined aquifers, in places with artesian wells. The groundwater from the deep exploratory wells (>250 m) tapping the lower basaltic aquifer and wells located in the south were found to be moderately mineralized (TDS: 400-600 mg/l), with relatively depleted stable isotope composition and with almost zero tritium. In contrast, the upper shallow aquifer has lesser ionic concentration, more isotopically enriched. Evidences from the different methods clearly indicate inter-basin groundwater transfer from the Blue Nile basin to the Upper Awash basin. The evidences also converge to testify common origin of recharge, presence of hydraulic connectivity for systems tapping the lower basaltic aquifer. This has enormous

  16. Visualising DNA in Classrooms Using Nile Blue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Christine; Roche, Scott; McKay, David

    2008-01-01

    Giving students the opportunity to extract, manipulate and visualise DNA molecules enhances a constructivist approach to learning about modern techniques in biology and biotechnology Visualisation usually requires agarose gel electrophoresis and staining. In this article, we report on an alternative DNA stain, Nile Blue A, that may be used in the…

  17. Nile River, Lake Nasser, Aswan Dam, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Egypt's High Aswan Dam on the Nile River at the first cataracts, Nile River, (24.0N, 33.0E) was completed in 1971 to provide cheap hydroelectric power and to regulate the historically uneven flow of the Nile River. The contrast between the largely base rock desert east of the Nile versus the sand covered desert west of the river and the ancient irrigated floodplain downstream from the damsite is clearly shown.

  18. Determining the Palaeodrainage of the Nile River from a Provenance Study of the Nile Delta Cone Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielding, L.; Najman, Y.; Millar, I.; Butterworth, P.; Garzanti, E.; Kneller, B. C.

    2014-12-01

    This study documents the palaeodrainage history of the Nile River, in particular the time of its transition from a small locally sourced drainage network to the initiation of an extensive catchment. Today, the Nile drains as far south as Lake Victoria, with the White Nile draining largely cratonic rocks of Archean to Proterozoic age and the Blue Nile draining Cenozoic Ethiopian Continental Flood Basalts and Neoproterozoic basement. However, the timing of catchment expansion to the river's current extent is highly debated. Two end member models are: A) The Blue Nile did not connect with the lower Nile until the Late Messinian, and the White Nile not until 0.5 Ma. In this model, the pre-Messinian Nile delta sediments are locally derived from the Red Sea Hills (RSH) (Issawi and McCauley 1992). B) The Blue Nile has been connected to the lower Nile since the Oligocene (Burke and Wells 1989). Onshore fieldwork characterised each possible source area (Ethiopian flood basalts, Archean craton, and Neoproterozoic basement and Phanerozoic cover sequences of the RSH) using petrography, geochemistry and isotope studies. Tertiary-aged Nile delta sediments provide a unique archive of the river's palaeodrainage history, which were analysed from conventional core from exploration and appraisal wells in order to identify the occurrence (if any) of these sources in the delta geological record. Heavy mineral, petrographic, U/Pb rutile and Lu/Hf zircon analyses indicate Blue Nile and/or RSH input to the Nile delta since at least the Oligocene with very little input from the White Nile. Sr and Nd whole-rock analyses of mud samples allow discrimination between the Blue Nile and RSH sources and may, subject to further analyses, confirm Blue Nile input to the delta since the Oligocene. U-Pb zircon analyses reveal the presence of 20-30 Ma zircons in both the modern river sediments from the Ethiopian Highlands and the Nile Delta core from the early Miocene to present day indicating a

  19. Blue Nile Rainfall Experiment: Validation Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebremichael, M.

    2014-12-01

    The accuracy of three widely-used, near-global, high-resolution satellite rainfall products (CMORPH, TMPA-RT v7, TMPA-RP v7) is assessed over the Blue Nile River Basin, a basin characterized by complex terrain and tropical monsoon. The assessment is made using dense experimental networks of rain gauges deployed at two, 0.25°×0.25°, sites that represent contrasting topographic features: the lowland plain (mean elevation of 719 m.a.s.l.) site and the highland mountain (mean elevation of 2268 m.a.s.l.). The investigation period covers the summer seasons of 2012 through 2014. Compared to the highland mountain site, the lowland plain site exhibits marked extremes of rain intensity, higher rain intensity, lower frequency of rain occurrence, and smaller seasonal rainfall accumulation. All the satellite products considered tend to overestimate the mean rainfall rate at the lowland plain site, but underestimate it at the highland mountain site. The satellite products miss more rainfall at the highland mountain site than at the lowland plain site. The satellite products underestimate the heavy rain rates at both sites. Both sites have uncertainty (root mean square error) values greater than 100% for 3 hour accumulations of less than 5 mm, or daily accumulations of less than 10 mm, and the uncertainty values decrease with increasing rainfall accumulation. Among the satellite products, CMORPH suffers from a large positive bias at the lowland plain site, and TMPA-RP and TMPA-RT miss a large number of rainfall events that contribute nearly half of the total rainfall at the lowland plain.

  20. Impacts of conservation tillage on the hydrological and agronomic performance of fanya juus in the upper Blue Nile (Abbay) river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temesgen, M.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Simane, B.; van der Zaag, P.; Mohamed, Y.; Wenninger, J.; Savenije1, H. H. G.

    2012-01-01

    Adoption of soil conservation structures (SCS) has been low in high rainfall areas of Ethiopia mainly due to crop yield reduction, increased soil erosion following breaching of SCS, incompatibility with the tradition of cross plowing and water-logging behind SCS. A new type of conservation tillage (CT) involving contour plowing and the construction of invisible subsoil barriers using a modified Maresha winged "subsoiler" is suggested as a means to tackle these problems as an integral part of the SCS. We investigated the effect of integrating the CT with SCS on the surface runoff, water-logging, soil loss, crop yield and plowing convenience. The new approach of conservation tillage has been compared with traditional tillage (TT) on 5 farmers' fields in a high rainfall area in the upper Blue Nile (Abbay) river basin. Test crops were wheat [triticum vulgare] and tef [eragrostis tef]. Farmers found CT convenient to apply between SCS. Surface runoff appeared to be reduced under CT by 48 and 15%, for wheat and tef, respectively. As a result, CT reduced sediment yield by 51 and 9.5%, for wheat and tef, respectively. Significantly reduced water-logging was observed behind SCS in CT compared to TT. Grain yields of wheat and tef increased by 35 and 10%, respectively, although the differences were not statistically significant apparently due to high fertility variations among fields of participating farmers. Farmers who tested CT indicated that they will continue this practice in the future.

  1. Impacts of conservation tillage on the hydrological and agronomic performance of Fanya juus in the upper Blue Nile (Abbay) river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temesgen, M.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Simane, B.; van der Zaag, P.; Mohamed, Y.; Wenninger, J.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2012-12-01

    Adoption of soil conservation structures (SCS) has been low in high rainfall areas of Ethiopia mainly due to crop yield reduction, increased soil erosion following breaching of SCS, incompatibility with the tradition of cross plowing and water-logging behind SCS. A new type of conservation tillage (CT) involving contour plowing and the construction of invisible subsoil barriers using a modified Maresha winged "subsoiler" is suggested as a means to tackle these problems as an integral part of the SCS. We investigated the effect of integrating the CT with SCS on the surface runoff, water-logging, soil loss, crop yield and plowing convenience. The new approach of conservation tillage has been compared with traditional tillage (TT) on 5 farmers' fields in a high rainfall area in the upper Blue Nile (Abbay) river basin. Test crops were wheat [triticum vulgare] and tef [eragrostis tef]. Farmers found CT convenient to apply between SCS. Surface runoff appeared to be reduced under CT by 48 and 15%, for wheat and tef, respectively. As a result, CT reduced sediment yield by 51 and 9.5%, for wheat and tef, respectively. Significantly reduced water-logging was observed behind SCS in CT compared to TT. Grain yields of wheat and tef increased by 35 and 10%, respectively, although the differences were not statistically significant apparently due to high fertility variations among fields of participating farmers. Farmers who tested CT indicated that they will continue this practice in the future.

  2. Nile Blue derivatives as lysosomotropic photosensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chi-Wei; Shulok, Janine R.; Kirley, S. D.; Cincotta, Louis; Foley, James W.

    1991-06-01

    The benzophenoxazines, including several Nile blue analogues, are a unique group of dyes that localize selectively in animal tumors. Chemical modifications of Nile blue A can yield derivatives with high 1O2 quantum yields. These derivatives represent a group of potentially effective photosensitizers for selective phototherapy of malignant tumors. In vitro evaluation of these derivatives has indicated that those with high 1O2 yields are very effective in mediating the photocytotoxicity of tumor cells. This photodynamic effect is most likely mediated through the action of 1O2, since photoirradiation under D2O enhanced and under hypoxic conditions diminished the photocytotoxic action. The subcellular localization of these photosensitizers in bladder tumor cells in culture was examined by light and fluorescence microscopies as well as by histochemical and biochemical studies. The results indicate that these dyes are localized primarily in the lysosome. The cellular uptake and retention of these dyes is energy- and pH-dependent. Agents such as nigericin, which alter the transmembrane pH gradient, reduced uptake and enhanced efflux of the dyes, while agents such as valinomycin, which reduce cellular membrane potential, had no effect on the uptake. These findings are consistent with having ion-trapping as the mechanism for the uptake of these dyes. Photoirradiation of sensitizer-treated cells obliterated lysosomes in a light-dose and drug-dose dependent fashion. Release of the hydrolytic enzymes may be the main cause for subsequent cell death since the cytolytic effect was reduced by a specific inhibitor of lysosomal proteolytic enzyme. A lysosomotropic photosensitization mechanism is therefore proposed for the photocytotoxic action of the Nile blue derivatives. This mechanism may provide an approach to the development of new photosensitizers for the effective and selective destruction of malignant tumors.

  3. 20,000 years of Nile River dynamics and environmental changes in the Nile catchment area as inferred from Nile upper continental slope sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revel, Marie; Ducassou, E.; Skonieczny, C.; Colin, C.; Bastian, L.; Bosch, D.; Migeon, S.; Mascle, J.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-proxy analysis of two marine sediment cores (MS27PT and MD04-2726) from the Nile continental slope provides evidence of changes in Nile sediment discharge related to changes in Ethiopian African Monsoon (EAM) precipitation, and allows us to reconstruct changes in Nile River runoff, vegetation and erosion in the Nile headwaters. Sediment element composition and neodymium isotopic composition reveal significant changes in clastic sediment provenance, with sources oscillating between a Saharan aeolian contribution during the Last Glacial Maximum/deglacial transition and during the Late Holocene, and a Blue/Atbara Nile fluvial contribution during the African Humid Period (AHP). This study provides a new understanding of past environmental changes. Between 14.6 and 14.13 ka there was a major input of sediments from the Ethiopian Highlands, consistent with a stronger EAM at that time. Climate in the Nile basin was wetter between 14.8 and 8.4 ka, with a corresponding increase in Blue Nile water and sediment discharge via the main Nile into the Eastern Mediterranean. The gradual climatic transition from the AHP to the present-day dry climate was reflected in a decrease in Blue Nile sediment deposition and flood discharge between 8.4 and 3.7 ka, with aridity at a maximum between 3.7 and 2.6 ka. The onset of drier conditions in the Blue Nile basin seems to have begun before the 8.2 ka cooling event in the North Atlantic. We speculate that the climatic change from the wet AHP to the dry late Holocene may have been a result of a break in the low latitude dynamic equilibrium between climate, vegetation and erosion, which may in turn have affected the climate in higher latitudes. Reduced Nile flow may also have had an impact on Levantine Intermediate Water originating in the Eastern Mediterranean through an increase in intermediate water formation.

  4. From non-covalent binding to irreversible DNA lesions: nile blue and nile red as photosensitizing agents

    PubMed Central

    Gattuso, Hugo; Besancenot, Vanessa; Grandemange, Stéphanie; Marazzi, Marco; Monari, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    We report a molecular modeling study, coupled with spectroscopy experiments, on the behavior of two well known organic dyes, nile blue and nile red, when interacting with B-DNA. In particular, we evidence the presence of two competitive binding modes, for both drugs. However their subsequent photophysical behavior is different and only nile blue is able to induce DNA photosensitization via an electron transfer mechanism. Most notably, even in the case of nile blue, its sensitization capabilities strongly depend on the environment resulting in a single active binding mode: the minor groove. Fluorescence spectroscopy confirms the presence of competitive interaction modes for both sensitizers, while the sensitization via electron transfer, is possible only in the case of nile blue. PMID:27329409

  5. Prediction of future climate change for the Blue Nile, using a nested Regional Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliman, E.; Jeuland, M.

    2009-04-01

    Although the Nile River Basin is rich in natural resources, it faces many challenges. Rainfall is highly variable across the region, on both seasonal and inter-annual scales. This variability makes the region vulnerable to droughts and floods. Many development projects involving Nile waters are currently underway, or being studied. These projects will lead to land-use patterns changes and water distribution and availability. It is thus important to assess the effects of a) these projects and b) evolving water resource management and policies, on regional hydrological processes. This paper seeks to establish a basis for evaluation of such impacts within the Blue Nile River sub-basin, using the RegCM3 Regional Climate Model to simulate interactions between the land surface and climatic processes. We first present results from application of this RCM model nested with downscaled outputs obtained from the ECHAM5/MPI-OM1 transient simulations for the 20th Century. We then investigate changes associated with mid-21st century emissions forcing of the SRES A1B scenario. The results obtained from the climate model are then fed as inputs to the Nile Forecast System (NFS), a hydrologic distributed rainfall runoff model of the Nile Basin, The interaction between climatic and hydrological processes on the land surface has been fully coupled. Rainfall patterns and evaporation rates have been generated using RegCM3, and the resulting runoff and Blue Nile streamflow patterns have been simulated using the NFS. This paper compares the results obtained from the RegCM3 climate model with observational datasets for precipitation and temperature from the Climate Research Unit (UK) and the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center GPCP (USA) for 1985-2000. The validity of the streamflow predictions from the NFS is assessed using historical gauge records. Finally, we present results from modeling of the A1B emissions scenario of the IPCC for the years 2034-2055. Our results indicate that future

  6. Prediction of future climate change for the Blue Nile, using RCM nested in GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayed, E.; Jeuland, M.; Aty, M.

    2009-04-01

    Although the Nile River Basin is rich in natural resources, it faces many challenges. Rainfall is highly variable across the region, on both seasonal and inter-annual scales. This variability makes the region vulnerable to droughts and floods. Many development projects involving Nile waters are currently underway, or being studied. These projects will lead to land-use patterns changes and water distribution and availability. It is thus important to assess the effects of a) these projects and b) evolving water resource management and policies, on regional hydrological processes. This paper seeks to establish a basis for evaluation of such impacts within the Blue Nile River sub-basin, using the RegCM3 Regional Climate Model to simulate interactions between the land surface and climatic processes. We first present results from application of this RCM model nested with downscaled outputs obtained from the ECHAM5/MPI-OM1 transient simulations for the 20th Century. We then investigate changes associated with mid-21st century emissions forcing of the SRES A1B scenario. The results obtained from the climate model are then fed as inputs to the Nile Forecast System (NFS), a hydrologic distributed rainfall runoff model of the Nile Basin, The interaction between climatic and hydrological processes on the land surface has been fully coupled. Rainfall patterns and evaporation rates have been generated using RegCM3, and the resulting runoff and Blue Nile streamflow patterns have been simulated using the NFS. This paper compares the results obtained from the RegCM3 climate model with observational datasets for precipitation and temperature from the Climate Research Unit (UK) and the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center GPCP (USA) for 1985-2000. The validity of the streamflow predictions from the NFS is assessed using historical gauge records. Finally, we present results from modeling of the A1B emissions scenario of the IPCC for the years 2034-2055. Our results indicate that future

  7. Ultrashort Dephasing Time Measurements in Nile Blue Polymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwendiman, Julie J.; Grossman, Carl

    1998-03-01

    Ultrafast optical dephasing measurements were performed on thin films of the oxazine dye Nile Blue in poly-[vinyl alcohol] (PVOH). The experimental technique used two beam, time delayed degenerate four wave mixing (DFWM) with incoherent light.(T. Kobayashi, A. Terasaki, T. Hattori and K. Kurokawa, Appl. Phys. B 47, 107 (1988).) Under the conditions that the sample was at relatively high temperatures (between 200=B0K and room temperature) and the measurements were made on the blue side of the Nile Blue inhomogeneous distribution, small time delay oscillations in the were observed. A time delay period was measured at 1.96 +/- .07 fs, which corresponds to the central period of the incoherent light source (centered at 575 nm with a period of 1.92 fs). A comparison between the measured oscillation depth and a numerical simulation of the DFWM scattered intensity yields an estimate of a phase relaxation time between 2 and 3 femtoseconds. This technique offers a new method of measuring femtosecond dephasing times with applications to samples of broad homogeneous linewidths, at high temperatures or in highly interacting environments. The depth of the oscillation decreased with lower temperature and completely disappeared below T=3D100=B0K. The temperature dependence of this effect is currently under investigation.

  8. Laser output of nile blue A sulfate-xanthene in ethyl alcohol under coaxial flashlamp pumping*

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Fugeng; Yu Chunlian

    1988-03-01

    Experimental results of laser output of nile blue A sulfate-xanthene in ethyl alcohol under coaxial flashlamp pumping are reported. Owing to the sensitization effect of rhodamine 6G the laser conversion efficiency of nile blue sulfate has been increased by 80%.

  9. Natural equilibria and anthropic effects on sediment transport in big river systems: The Nile case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Padoan, Marta; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Villa, Igor

    2014-05-01

    The Nile River flows for ~ 6700 km, from Burundi and Rwanda highlands south of the Equator to the Mediterranean Sea at northern subtropical latitudes. It is thus the longest natural laboratory on Earth, a unique setting in which we are carrying out a continuing research project to investigate changes in sediment composition associated with a variety of chemical and physical processes, including weathering in equatorial climate and hydraulic sorting during transport and deposition. Petrographic, mineralogical, chemical, and isotopic fingerprints of sand and mud have been monitored along all Nile branches, from the Kagera and White Nile draining Archean, Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic basements uplifted along the western branch of the East African rift, to the Blue Nile and Atbara Rivers sourced in Ethiopian volcanic highlands made of Oligocene basalt. Downstream of the Atbara confluence, the Nile receives no significant tributary water and hardly any rainfall across the Sahara. After construction of the Aswan High Dam in 1964, the Nile ceased to be an active conveyor-belt in Egypt, where the mighty river has been tamed to a water canal; transported sediments are thus chiefly reworked from older bed and levee deposits, with minor contributions from widyan sourced in the Red Sea Hills and wind-blown desert sand and dust. Extensive dam construction has determined a dramatic sediment deficit at the mouth, where deltaic cusps are undergoing ravaging erosion. Nile delta sediments are thus recycled under the effect of dominant waves from the northwest, the longest Mediterranean fetch direction. Nile sands, progressively enriched in more stable minerals such as quartz and amphiboles relative to volcanic rock fragments and pyroxene, thus undergo multistep transport by E- and NE-directed longshore currents all along the coast of Egypt and Palestine, and are carried as far as Akko Bay in northern Israel. Nile mud reaches the Iskenderun Gulf in southern Turkey. A full

  10. Hydroclimate variability in the Nile River Basin during the past 28,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castañeda, Isla S.; Schouten, Stefan; Pätzold, Jürgen; Lucassen, Friedrich; Kasemann, Simone; Kuhlmann, Holger; Schefuß, Enno

    2016-03-01

    It has long been known that extreme changes in North African hydroclimate occurred during the late Pleistocene yet many discrepancies exist between sites regarding the timing, duration and abruptness of events such as Heinrich Stadial (HS) 1 and the African Humid Period (AHP). The hydroclimate history of the Nile River is of particular interest due to its lengthy human occupation history yet there are presently few continuous archives from the Nile River corridor, and pre-Holocene studies are rare. Here we present new organic and inorganic geochemical records of Nile Basin hydroclimate from an eastern Mediterranean (EM) Sea sediment core spanning the past 28 ka BP. Our multi-proxy records reflect the fluctuating inputs of Blue Nile versus White Nile material to the EM Sea in response to gradual changes in local insolation and also capture abrupt hydroclimate events driven by remote climate forcings, such as HS1. We find strong evidence for extreme aridity within the Nile Basin evolving in two distinct phases during HS1, from 17.5 to 16 ka BP and from 16 to 14.5 ka BP, whereas peak wet conditions during the AHP are observed from 9 to 7 ka BP. We find that zonal movements of the Congo Air Boundary (CAB), and associated shifts in the dominant moisture source (Atlantic versus Indian Ocean moisture) to the Nile Basin, likely contributed to abrupt hydroclimate variability in northern East Africa during HS1 and the AHP as well as to non-linear behavior of hydroclimate proxies. We note that different proxies show variable gradual and abrupt responses to individual hydroclimate events, and thus might have different inherent sensitivities, which may be a factor contributing to the controversy surrounding the abruptness of past events such as the AHP. During the Late Pleistocene the Nile Basin experienced extreme hydroclimate fluctuations, which presumably impacted Paleolithic cultures residing along the Nile corridor.

  11. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A.; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A.

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt. PMID:26798844

  12. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt. PMID:26798844

  13. Diurnal rainfall variability over the Upper Blue Nile Basin: A remote sensing based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rientjes, Tom; Haile, Alemseged Tamiru; Fenta, Ayele Almaw

    2013-04-01

    In this study we aim to assess the diurnal cycle of rainfall across the Upper Blue Nile (UBN) basin using satellite observations from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Seven years (2002-2008) of Precipitation Radar (PR) and TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) data are used and analyses are based on GIS operations and simple statistical techniques. Observations from PR and TMI reveal that over most parts of the basin area, the rainfall occurrence and conditional mean rain rate are highest between mid- and late-afternoon (15:00-18:00 LST). Exceptions to this are the south-west and south-eastern parts of the basin area and the Lake Tana basin where midnight and early morning maxima are observed. Along the Blue Nile River gorge the rainfall occurrence and the conditional mean rain rate are highest during the night (20:00-23:00 LST). Orographic effects by large scale variation of topography, elevation and the presence of the UBN river gorge were assessed taking two transects across the basin. Along transects from north to south and from east to west results indicate increased rainfall with increase of elevation whereas areas on the windward side of the high mountain ranges receive higher amount of rainfall than areas on the leeward side. As such, mountain ranges and elevation affect the rainfall distribution resulting in rain shadow effect in the north-eastern parts of Choke-mountain and the ridges in the north-east of the basin. Moreover, a direct relation between rainfall occurrence and elevation is observed specifically for 17:00-18:00 LST. Further, results indicate that the rainfall distribution in the deeply incised and wide river gorge is affected with relatively low rainfall occurrence and low mean rainfall rates in the gorge areas. Seasonal mean rainfall depth is highest in the south-west area and central highlands of the basin while areas in the north, north-east and along the Blue Nile gorge receive the least amount of rainfall. Statistical results of this

  14. Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy of DNA Monolayers Modified with Nile Blue

    PubMed Central

    Gorodetsky, Alon A.; Hammond, William J.; Hill, Michael G.; Slowinski, Krzysztof; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2009-01-01

    Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) is used to probe long-range charge transport (CT) through DNA monolayers containing the redox-active Nile Blue (NB) intercalator covalently affixed at a specific location in the DNA film. At substrate potentials negative of the formal potential of covalently attached NB, the electrocatalytic reduction of Fe(CN)63− generated at the SECM tip is observed only when NB is located at the DNA/solution interface; for DNA films containing NB in close proximity to the DNA/electrode interface, the electrocatalytic effect is absent. This behavior is consistent with both rapid DNA-mediated CT between the NB intercalator and the gold electrode as well as a rate-limiting electron transfer between NB and the solution phase Fe(CN)63−. The DNA-mediated nature of the catalytic cycle is confirmed through sequence-specific and localized detection of attomoles of TATA-binding protein, a transcription factor that severely distorts DNA upon binding. Importantly, the strategy outlined here is general and allows for the local investigation of the surface characteristics of DNA monolayers both in the absence and in the presence of DNA binding proteins. These experiments highlight the utility of DNA-modified electrodes as versatile platforms for SECM detection schemes that take advantage of CT mediated by the DNA base pair stack. PMID:19053641

  15. Investigation of Regional Drivers for Discharge Variability in the Blue Nile Basin under Climate Change Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tecklenburg, J.; Hattermann, F. F.; Liersch, S.

    2012-04-01

    A discharge time series is the result of complex and interacting processes. Important for the runoff variability are catchment characteristics like the basin size and shape, gradient of altitude and exposition as well as micro- and macroclimatic conditions. The discharge dynamic of the Blue Nile is predominantly controlled by the monsoon variability. Due to the steep gradients in the Ethiopian highlands, the surface flow component represents the main fraction of the total discharge. The composition of discharge and the resulting time response of river runoff is further a function of subsurface retention and surface roughness. Thus, the soil surface characteristics and thereby the land use are main factors controlling formation of local water availability in the Upper Blue Nile basin. During the last 30 years the continual transformation of forest and grassland to cropland reduced the total forest area of Ethiopia to 2.5 % with respect to the total area. Regarding the discharge formation process, land cover change supports generation of surface flow because of degradation of the surface roughness with two mainly negative effects: more surface runoff and less vegetation cover leads to erosion and degradation of soils. On the other hand, the water available for plants (soil moisture) may be reduced by a decreasing infiltration rate. Both effects have consequences for agricultural production and lead to an increasing demand for irrigation. Thus, the combination of the processes may accelerate the negative environmental response which makes the system highly vulnerable and sensitive to changes in driving forces. This study aims at analyzing the correlation of possible regional drivers with the inter-seasonal and inter-annual variability of subcatchment discharge generation. The study will be carried out applying the eco-hydrological model SWIM (Soil and Water Integrated Model) driven by observed and scenario climate data. Based on satellite image information the effect

  16. Nile River, Lake Nasser, Aswan High Dam, Egypt, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Lake Nasser, (24.0N, 33.0E) at the Aswan High Dam on the Nile River, in Egypt is the world's second largest artificial lake, extending 500 km, in length and about 5000 sq. km. in area. The lake has a storage capacity sufficient to irrigate farms in Egypt and Sudan year round allowing up to three harvests per year. Other benefits include year round river navagation, hydroelectric power, more fish harvests, reduced flooding and more industrial employment. opportunites.

  17. Hydro-economic Risk Assessment in the Eastern Nile River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjoon, D.; Tilmant, A.; Mohamed, Y.

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, the Ethiopian government announced plans for the construction of the Grand Renaissance Dam (GRD) on the Blue Nile, just east of its border with Sudan, at a cost of almost 5 billion dollars. The project is expected to generate over 15 TWh of energy and will include a reservoir of more than 60 km3 capacity, which roughly corresponds to the average annual flow of the Blue Nile. This project is part of a larger scheme, by the government, to expand its hydroelectric power capacity, however, the scheme faces strong opposition from downstream Egypt and Sudan. Egypt and Sudan are highly dependent on flows that originate in Ethiopia (it has been estimated that 86% of Nile flow originates in the Ethiopian highlands). The Ethiopian government argues that the dam would supply electricity for Ethiopians as well as generate surplus energy for export to neighboring countries. The Ethiopians also argue that the huge reservoir would generate positive externalities downstream by reducing floods and providing more constant and predictable lows. This study attempts to provide an independent analysis of the hydrologic and economic risks faced by downstream countries when GRD will be online. To achieve this, an integrated, stochastic hydro-economic model of the entire Eastern Nile basin is used to analyze various development and management scenarios. The results indicate that if countries agree to co- operative management of the Eastern Nile River basin, GRD would indeed significantly increase basin-wide benefits, especially in Ethiopia and in Sudan. An alternative management scenario, whereby GRD would be operated by Sudan and Egypt, does not yield significant economic gains in these countries. However, massive unilateral irrigation developments in Ethiopia will be detrimental for all countries, including Ethiopia itself, due to the huge opportunity costs involved.

  18. Nile tilapia and blue tilapia fry production in a subtropical climate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between production in earthen ponds located in a subtropical climate of fry suitable for hormonal sex inversion and degree-days was quantified for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus; Egypt strain) and blue tilapia (O. aureus). Degree-days were calculated for each trial as the sum o...

  19. Causal links between Nile floods and eastern Mediterranean sapropel formation during the past 125 kyr confirmed by OSL and radiocarbon dating of Blue and White Nile sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. A. J.; Duller, G. A. T.; Williams, F. M.; Woodward, J. C.; Macklin, M. G.; El Tom, O. A. M.; Munro, R. N.; El Hajaz, Y.; Barrows, T. T.

    2015-12-01

    It has long been hypothesised that beds of highly organic mud or sapropels seen in marine sediment cores retrieved from the floor of the eastern Mediterranean accumulated during times of high Nile fluvial discharge. Our recent fieldwork in the valleys of the Blue Nile, the White Nile and the main Nile has for the first time revealed a sequence of extreme flood episodes synchronous with sapropel units S5 (124 kyr), S4 (102 kyr), S3 (81 kyr), S2 (55 kyr) and S1 (13.5-6.5 kyr). There are more weakly defined links with Nile floods and sapropel units S9 (240 kyr), S8 (217 kyr), S7 (195 kyr), S6 (172 kyr), but the dating error terms are too large to allow us to be too definite. During times of extreme floods over the past 125 kyr, wide distributary channels of the Blue Nile flowed across the Gezira alluvial fan in central Sudan and transported a bed load of sand and gravel into the lower White Nile valley. The sands were reworked by wind to form source-bordering dunes, all of which contain heavy minerals of Ethiopian provenance. These source-bordering dunes were active at 115-105 kyr, 60 kyr and 12-7 kyr, all times of extreme Blue Nile floods. The flood and dune sediments were dated using a combination of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and radiocarbon analyses. The Quaternary record of Nile floods discussed here shows a precessional signal and reflects episodes of stronger summer monsoon and more northerly seasonal movement of the ITCZ, linked to times of higher insolation in northern tropical latitudes. Progressive aggradation of Holocene Nile channels in northern Sudan has had a profound influence upon human settlement in the last 8 kyr.

  20. Screening reservoir systems by considering the efficient trade-offs—informing infrastructure investment decisions on the Blue Nile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geressu, Robel T.; Harou, Julien J.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-reservoir system planners should consider how new dams impact downstream reservoirs and the potential contribution of each component to coordinated management. We propose an optimized multi-criteria screening approach to identify best performing designs, i.e., the selection, size and operating rules of new reservoirs within multi-reservoir systems. Reservoir release operating rules and storage sizes are optimized concurrently for each separate infrastructure design under consideration. Outputs reveal system trade-offs using multi-dimensional scatter plots where each point represents an approximately Pareto-optimal design. The method is applied to proposed Blue Nile River reservoirs in Ethiopia, where trade-offs between total and firm energy output, aggregate storage and downstream irrigation and energy provision for the best performing designs are evaluated. This proof-of concept study shows that recommended Blue Nile system designs would depend on whether monthly firm energy or annual energy is prioritized. 39 TWh/yr of energy potential is available from the proposed Blue Nile reservoirs. The results show that depending on the amount of energy deemed sufficient, the current maximum capacities of the planned reservoirs could be larger than they need to be. The method can also be used to inform which of the proposed reservoir type and their storage sizes would allow for the highest downstream benefits to Sudan in different objectives of upstream operating objectives (i.e., operated to maximize either average annual energy or firm energy). The proposed approach identifies the most promising system designs, reveals how they imply different trade-offs between metrics of system performance, and helps system planners asses the sensitivity of overall performance to the design parameters of component reservoirs.

  1. Sediment concentration rating curves for a monsoonal climate: upper Blue Nile Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moges, M. A.; Zemale, F. A.; Alemu, M. L.; Ayele, G. K.; Dagnew, D. C.; Tilahun, S. A.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2015-12-01

    Information on sediment content in rivers is important for design of reservoirs and for environmental applications. Because of scarcity of continuous sediment data, methods have been developed to predict sediment loads based on few discontinuous measurements. Traditionally, loads are being predicted using rating curves that relate sediment load to discharge. The relationship assumes inherently a unique relationship between concentration and discharge and therefore although performing satisfactorily in predicting loads, it may be less suitable for predicting concentration. This is especially true in the Blue Nile basin of Ethiopia where concentrations decrease for a given discharge with the progression of the rainy monsoon phase. The objective of this paper is to improve the sediment concentration predictions throughout the monsoon period for the Ethiopian highlands with a modified rating type equation. To capture the observed sediment concentration pattern, we assume that the sediment concentration was at the transport limit early in the rainy season and then decrease linearly with effective rainfall towards source limited concentration. The modified concentration rating curve was calibrated for the four main rivers in the Lake Tana basin where sediment concentrations affect fish production and tourism. Then the scalability of the rating type equation was checked in three 100-ha watersheds for which historic data was available. The results show, that for predicting sediment concentrations, the (modified) concentration rating curve was more accurate than the (standard) load rating curve as expected. In addition loads were predicted more accurately for three of the four rivers. We expect that after more extensive testing over a wider geographical area, the proposed concentration rating curve will offer improved predictions of sediment concentrations in monsoonal climates.

  2. Sediment concentration rating curves for a monsoonal climate: upper Blue Nile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moges, Mamaru A.; Zemale, Fasikaw A.; Alemu, Muluken L.; Ayele, Getaneh K.; Dagnew, Dessalegn C.; Tilahun, Seifu A.; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    2016-07-01

    Information on sediment concentration in rivers is important for design of reservoirs and for environmental applications. Because of the scarcity of continuous sediment data, methods have been developed to predict sediment loads based on few discontinuous measurements. Traditionally, loads are being predicted using rating curves that relate sediment load to discharge. The relationship assumes inherently a unique relationship between concentration and discharge and therefore although performing satisfactorily in predicting loads, it may be less suitable for predicting concentration. This is especially true in the Blue Nile Basin of Ethiopia where concentrations decrease for a given discharge with the progression of the rainy monsoon phase. The objective of this paper is to improve the sediment concentration predictions throughout the monsoon period for the Ethiopian highlands with a modified rating type equation. To capture the observed sediment concentration pattern, we assume that the sediment concentration was at the transport limit early in the rainy season and then decreases linearly with effective rainfall towards source-limited concentration. The modified concentration rating curve was calibrated for the four main rivers in the Lake Tana basin where sediment concentrations affect fish production and tourism. Then the scalability of the rating type equation was checked in three 100 ha watersheds for which historic data were available. The results show that for predicting sediment concentrations, the (modified) concentration rating curve was more accurate than the (standard) load rating curve as expected. In addition loads were predicted more accurately for three of the four rivers. We expect that after more extensive testing over a wider geographical area, the proposed concentration rating curve will offer improved predictions of sediment concentrations in monsoonal climates.

  3. Water balance of a lake with floodplain buffering: Lake Tana, Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessie, Mekete; Verhoest, Niko E. C.; Pauwels, Valentijn R. N.; Adgo, Enyew; Deckers, Jozef; Poesen, Jean; Nyssen, Jan

    2015-03-01

    Lakes are very important components of the earth's hydrological cycle, providing a variety of services for humans and ecosystem functioning. For a sustainable use of lakes, a substantial body of knowledge on their water balance is vital. We present here a detailed daily water balance analysis for Lake Tana, the largest lake in Ethiopia and the source of the Blue Nile. Rainfall on the lake is determined by Thiessen polygon procedure, open water evaporation is estimated by the Penman-combination equation and observed inflows for the gauged catchments as well as outflow data at the two lake outlets are directly used. Runoff from ungauged catchments is estimated using a simple rainfall-runoff model and runoff coefficients. Hillslope catchments and floodplains are treated separately, which makes this study unique compared to previous water balance studies. Impact of the floodplain on the lake water balance is analyzed by conducting scenario-based studies. We found an average yearly abstraction of 420 × 106 m3 or 6% of river inflows to the lake by the floodplain in 2012 and 2013. Nearly 60% of the inflow to the lake is from the Gilgel Abay River. Simulated lake levels compare well with the observed lake levels (R2 = 0.95) and the water balance can be closed with a closure error of 82 mm/year (3.5% of the total lake inflow). This study demonstrates the importance of floodplains and their influence on the water balance of the lake and the need of incorporating the effects of floodplains and water abstraction for irrigation to improve predictions.

  4. Hydrological Response to Climate Change over the Blue Nile Basin Distributed hydrological modeling based on surrogate climate change scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berhane, F. G.; Anyah, R. O.

    2010-12-01

    The program Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT2009) model has been applied to the Blue Nile Basin to study the hydrological response to surrogate climate changes over the Blue Nile Basin (Ethiopia) by downscaling gridded weather data. The specific objectives of the study include (i) examining the performance of the SWAT model in simulating hydrology-climate interactions and feedbacks within the entire Blue Nile Basin, and (ii) investigating the response of hydrological variables to surrogate climate changes. Monthly weather data from the Climate Research Unit (CRU) are converted to daily values as input into the SWAT using Monthly to Daily Weather Converter (MODAWEC). Using the program SUFI-2 (Sequential Uncertainty Fitting Algorithm), data from 1979 to 1983 are applied for sensitivity analysis and calibration (P-factor = 90%, R-factor =0.7, R2 =0.93 and NS=0.93) and subsequently to validate hindcasts over the period 1984-1989 (R2 =0.92 and NS=0.92). The period from 1960-2000 was used as baseline and has been used to determine the changes and the effect of the surrogate climate changes over the Blue Nile Basin. Overall, our surrogate climate change based simulations indicate the hydrology of the Blue Nile catchment is very sensitive to potential climate change with 100%, 34% and 51% increase to the surface runoff, lateral flow and water yield respectively for the A2 scenario surrogate. Key Words: SWAT, MODAWEC, Blue Nile Basin, SUFI-2, climate change, hydrological modeling, CRU

  5. Nile Delta

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    article title:  The Nile River Delta     View Larger Image ... of eastern Africa. At the apex of the fertile Nile River Delta is the Egyptian capital city of Cairo. To the west are the Great Pyramids ...

  6. Nile River, Lake Nasser, Aswan High Dam, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Aswan High Dam, 2.5 miles across and 364 feet high, (24.0N, 33.0E) completed in 1971, was constructed to supply cheap hydroelectric power to both Egypt and Sudan by impounding, controling and regulating the flood waters of the Nile River in Lake Nasser, the world's second largest artifical lake. The lake extends over 500 miles in length, covers an area of some 2,000 square miles and is as much as 350 feet deep at the face of the dam.

  7. Accuracy of satellite rainfall estimates in the Blue Nile Basin: Lowland plain versus highland mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebremichael, Mekonnen; Bitew, Menberu M.; Hirpa, Feyera A.; Tesfay, Gebrehiwot N.

    2014-11-01

    The demand for accurate satellite rainfall products is increasing particularly in Africa where ground-based data are mostly unavailable, timely inaccessible, and unreliable. In this study, the accuracy of three widely used, near-global, high-resolution satellite rainfall products (CMORPH, TMPA-RT v7, TMPA-RP v7), with a spatial resolution of 0.25° and a temporal resolution of 3 h, is assessed over the Blue Nile River Basin, a basin characterized by complex terrain and tropical monsoon. The assessment is made using relatively dense experimental networks of rain gauges deployed at two, 0.25° × 0.25°, sites that represent contrasting topographic features: lowland plain (mean elevation of 719 m.a.s.l.) and highland mountain (mean elevation of 2268 m.a.s.l.). The investigation period covers the summer seasons of 2012 and 2013. Compared to the highland mountain site, the lowland plain site exhibits marked extremes of rain intensity, higher mean rain intensity when it rains, lower frequency of rain occurrence, and smaller seasonal rainfall accumulation. All the satellite products considered tend to overestimate the mean rainfall rate at the lowland plain site, but underestimate it at the highland mountain site. The satellite products miss more rainfall at the highland mountain site than at the lowland plain site, and underestimate the heavy rain rates at both sites. Both sites have uncertainty (root mean square error) values greater than 100% for 3 h accumulations of <5 mm, or daily accumulations of <10 mm, and the uncertainty values decrease with increasing rainfall accumulation. Among the satellite products, CMORPH suffers from a large positive bias at the lowland plain site, and TMPA-RP and TMPA-RT miss a large number of rainfall events that contribute nearly half of the total rainfall at the highland mountain.

  8. Hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater in the Blue Nile Basin, eastern Sudan, using conventional and multivariate techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Mohammed Tahir

    Hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater systems can be carried out using conventional and multivariate techniques, namely cluster, factor analyses and others such as correspondence analysis. The main objective of this study is to investigate the groundwater quality in the Blue Nile basin of eastern Sudan, and to workout a hydrochemical evaluation for the aquifer system. Conventional methods and multivariate techniques were applied to achieve these goals. Two water-bearing layers exist in the study area: the Nubian Sandstone Formation and the Al-Atshan Formation. The Nubian aquifer is recharged mainly from the Blue Nile and Dinder Rivers through lateral subsurface flow and through direct rainfall in outcrop areas. The Al-Atshan aquifer receives water through underground flow from River Rahad and from rainfall infiltration. The prevailing hydrochemical processes are simple dissolution, mixing, partial ion exchange and ion exchange. Limited reverse ion exchange has been witnessed in the Nubian aquifer. Three factors control the overall mineralization and water quality of the Blue Nile Basin. The first factor includes high values of total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, sulphate and magnesium. The second factor includes calcium and pH. The third factor is due to fluoride concentration in the groundwater. The study highlights the descriptive capabilities of conventional and multivariate techniques as effective tools in groundwater quality evaluation. Une étude hydrochimique de systèmes aquifères a pu être réalisée au moyen des techniques conventionnelles et multidimensionnelles, telles que les analyses de cluster et factorielles, ainsi que d'autres comme l'analyse des correspondances. Le principal objectif de ce travail est d'étudier la qualité des eaux souterraines du bassin du Nil bleu au Soudan oriental, et de réaliser une évaluation hydrochimique du système aquifère. Des méthodes conventionnelles et

  9. Hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater in the Blue Nile Basin, eastern Sudan, using conventional and multivariate techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Mohammed Tahir

    Hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater systems can be carried out using conventional and multivariate techniques, namely cluster, factor analyses and others such as correspondence analysis. The main objective of this study is to investigate the groundwater quality in the Blue Nile basin of eastern Sudan, and to workout a hydrochemical evaluation for the aquifer system. Conventional methods and multivariate techniques were applied to achieve these goals. Two water-bearing layers exist in the study area: the Nubian Sandstone Formation and the Al-Atshan Formation. The Nubian aquifer is recharged mainly from the Blue Nile and Dinder Rivers through lateral subsurface flow and through direct rainfall in outcrop areas. The Al-Atshan aquifer receives water through underground flow from River Rahad and from rainfall infiltration. The prevailing hydrochemical processes are simple dissolution, mixing, partial ion exchange and ion exchange. Limited reverse ion exchange has been witnessed in the Nubian aquifer. Three factors control the overall mineralization and water quality of the Blue Nile Basin. The first factor includes high values of total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, sulphate and magnesium. The second factor includes calcium and pH. The third factor is due to fluoride concentration in the groundwater. The study highlights the descriptive capabilities of conventional and multivariate techniques as effective tools in groundwater quality evaluation. Une étude hydrochimique de systèmes aquifères a pu être réalisée au moyen des techniques conventionnelles et multidimensionnelles, telles que les analyses de cluster et factorielles, ainsi que d'autres comme l'analyse des correspondances. Le principal objectif de ce travail est d'étudier la qualité des eaux souterraines du bassin du Nil bleu au Soudan oriental, et de réaliser une évaluation hydrochimique du système aquifère. Des méthodes conventionnelles et

  10. Lake Nasser on Nile River in Egypt as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Lake Nasser on the Nile River in southeastern United Arab Republic (Egypt) as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft during its 10th revolution of the earth. Photographed from an altitude of 130 nautical miles, at ground elapsed time of 14 hours and 56 minutes. Lake Nasser was created by the contruction of the Aswan Dam on the Nile.

  11. Optimal operation of a multipurpose multireservoir system in the Eastern Nile River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goor, Q.; Halleux, C.; Mohamed, Y.; Tilmant, A.

    2010-10-01

    The upper Blue Nile River Basin in Ethiopia is a largely untapped resource despite its huge potential for hydropower generation and irrigated agriculture. Controversies exist as to whether the numerous infrastructural development projects that are on the drawing board in Ethiopia will generate positive or negative externalities downstream in Sudan and Egypt. This study attempts at (1) examining the (re-)operation of infrastructures, in particular the proposed reservoirs in Ethiopia and the High Aswan Dam and (2) assessing the economic benefits and costs associated with the storage infrastructures in Ethiopia and their spatial and temporal distribution. To achieve this, a basin-wide integrated hydro-economic model has been developed. The model integrates essential hydrologic, economic and institutional components of the river basin in order to explore both the hydrologic and economic consequences of various policy options and planned infrastructural projects. Unlike most of the deterministic economic-hydrologic models reported in the literature, a stochastic programming formulation has been adopted in order to: (i) understand the effect of the hydrologic uncertainty on management decisions, (ii) determine allocation policies that naturally hedge against the hydrological risk, and (iii) assess the relevant risk indicators. The study reveals that the development of four mega dams in the upper part of the Blue Nile Basin would change the drawdown refill cycle of the High Aswan Dam. Should the operation of the reservoirs be coordinated, they would enable an average annual saving of at least 2.5 billion m3 through reduced evaporation losses from the Lake Nasser. Moreover, the new reservoirs (Karadobi, Beko-Abo, Mandaya and Border) in Ethiopia would have significant positive impacts on hydropower generation and irrigation in Ethiopia and Sudan: at the basin scale, the annual energy generation is boosted by 38.5 TWh amongst which 14.2 TWh due to storage. Moreover, the

  12. Optimal operation of a multipurpose multireservoir system in the Eastern Nile River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goor, Q.; Halleux, C.; Mohamed, Y.; Tilmant, A.

    2010-07-01

    The upper Blue Nile River Basin in Ethiopia is a largely untapped resource despite its huge potential for hydropower generation and irrigated agriculture. Controversies exist as to whether the numerous infrastructural development projects that are on the drawing board in Ethiopia will generate positive or negative externalities downstream in Sudan and Egypt. This study attempts at 1) examining the (re-)operation of infrastructures, in particular the proposed reservoirs in Ethiopia and the High Aswan Dam and 2) assessing the economic benefits and costs associated with the storage infrastructures in Ethiopia and their spatial and temporal distribution. To achieve this, a basin-wide integrated hydro-economic model has been developed. The model integrates essential hydrologic, economic and institutional components of the river basin in order to explore both the hydrologic and economic consequences of various policy options and planned infrastructural projects. Unlike most of the deterministic economic-hydrologic models reported in the literature, a stochastic programming formulation has been adopted in order to: i) understand the effect of the hydrologic uncertainty on management decisions, ii) determine allocation policies that naturally hedge against the hydrological risk, and iii) assess the relevant risk indicators. The study reveals that the development of four mega dams in the upper part of the Blue Nile Basin would change the drawdown refill cycle of the High Aswan Dam. Should the operation of the reservoirs be coordinated, they would enable an average annual saving of at least 2.5 billion m3 through reduced evaporation losses from the Lake Nasser. Moreover, the new reservoirs (Karadobi, Beko-Abo, Mandaya and Border) in Ethiopia would have significant positive impacts on hydropower generation and irrigation in Ethiopia and Sudan: at the basin scale, the annual energy generation is boosted by 38.5 TWh amongst which 14.2 TWh due to storage. Moreover, the

  13. Explaining and Forecasting Interannual Variability in the Flow of the Nile River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltahir, E. A.; Siam, M.

    2013-12-01

    The natural interannual variability in the flow of Nile River had a significant impact on the ancient civilizations and cultures that flourished on the banks of the river. Here, we analyze extensive data sets collected during the 20th century and define four modes of natural variability in the flow of Nile River, identifying a new significant potential for improving predictability of floods and droughts. Previous studies have identified a significant teleconnection between the Nile flow and the Eastern Pacific Ocean. El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) explains about 25% of the interannual variability in the Nile flow. Here, we identify, for the first time, a region in the southern Indian Ocean with similarly strong teleconnection to the Nile flow. Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in the region (60oE-90oE and 25oS-35oS) explains 28% of the interannual variability in the Nile flow. During those years with anomalous SST conditions in both Oceans, we estimate that indices of the SSTs in the Pacific and Indian Oceans can collectively explain up to 84% of the interannual variability in the flow of Nile. Building on these findings, we use classical Bayesian theorem to develop a new hybrid forecasting algorithm that predicts the Nile flow based on indices of the SST in the Eastern Pacific and Southern Indian Oceans.

  14. Explaining and forecasting interannual variability in the flow of the Nile River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siam, M. S.; Eltahir, E. A. B.

    2014-05-01

    The natural interannual variability in the flow of Nile River had a significant impact on the ancient civilizations and cultures that flourished on the banks of the river. This is evident from stories in the Bible and Koran, and from the numerous Nilometers discovered near ancient temples. Here, we analyze extensive data sets collected during the 20th century and define four modes of natural variability in the flow of Nile River, identifying a new significant potential for improving predictability of floods and droughts. Previous studies have identified a significant teleconnection between the Nile flow and the Eastern Pacific Ocean. El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) explains about 25% of the interannual variability in the Nile flow. Here, we identify, for the first time, a region in the southern Indian Ocean with similarly strong teleconnection to the Nile flow. Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in the region (50-80° E and 25-35° S) explains 28% of the interannual variability in the Nile flow. During those years with anomalous SST conditions in both Oceans, we estimate that indices of the SSTs in the Pacific and Indian Oceans can collectively explain up to 84% of the interannual variability in the flow of Nile. Building on these findings, we use classical Bayesian theorem to develop a new hybrid forecasting algorithm that predicts the Nile flow based on global models predictions of indices of the SST in the Eastern Pacific and Southern Indian Oceans.

  15. An Integrated Hydrological and Water Management Study of the Entire Nile River System - Lake Victoria to Nile Delta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Alo, Clement; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Anderson, Martha; Policelli, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    The Nile basin River system spans 3 million km(exp 2) distributed over ten nations. The eight upstream riparian nations, Ethiopia, Eretria, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Congo, Tanzania and Kenya are the source of approximately 86% of the water inputs to the Nile, while the two downstream riparian countries Sudan and Egypt, presently rely on the river's flow for most of the their needs. Both climate and agriculture contribute to the complicated nature of Nile River management: precipitation in the headwaters regions of Ethiopia and Lake Victoria is variable on a seasonal and inter-annual basis, while demand for irrigation water in the arid downstream region is consistently high. The Nile is, perhaps, one of the most difficult trans-boundary water issue in the world, and this study would be the first initiative to combine NASA satellite observations with the hydrologic models study the overall water balance in a to comprehensive manner. The cornerstone application of NASA's Earth Science Research Results under this project are the NASA Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) and the USDA Atmosphere-land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model. These two complementary research results are methodologically independent methods for using NASA observations to support water resource analysis in data poor regions. Where an LDAS uses multiple sources of satellite data to inform prognostic simulations of hydrological process, ALEXI diagnoses evapotranspiration and water stress on the basis of thermal infrared satellite imagery. Specifically, this work integrates NASA Land Data Assimilation systems into the water management decision support systems that member countries of the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) and Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD, located in Nairobi, Kenya) use in water resource analysis, agricultural planning, and acute drought response to support sustainable development of Nile Basin water resources. The project is motivated by the recognition that

  16. The question of Sudan: a hydro-economic optimization model for the Sudanese Blue Nile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satti, S.; Zaitchik, B.; Siddiqui, S.

    2015-05-01

    The effects of development and the uncertainty of a changing climate in eastern Africa pose myriad challenges for water managers along the Blue Nile. Sudan's large irrigation potential, hydroelectric dams, and prime location within the basin mean that Sudan's water management decisions will have great social, economic and political implications for the region. At the same time, Sudan's water use options are constrained by tradeoffs between upstream irrigation developments and downstream hydropower facilities as well as by the country's commitments under existing or future transboundary water sharing agreements. Here, we present a model that can be applied to evaluate optimal allocation of surface water resources to irrigation and hydropower in the Sudanese portion of the Blue Nile. Hydrologic inputs are combined with agronomic and economic inputs to formulate an optimization model within the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). A sensitivity analysis is performed by testing model response to a range of economic conditions and to changes in the volume and timing of hydrologic flows. Results indicate that changing hydroclimate inputs have the capacity to greatly influence the productivity of Sudan's water resource infrastructure. Results also show that the economically optimal volume of water consumption, and thus the importance of existing treaty constraints, is sensitive to the perceived value of agriculture relative to electricity as well as to changing hydrological conditions.

  17. A Journey on Three Rivers: The Nile, The Rhine, The Mississippi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Anita

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on the Nile, the Rhine, and the Mississippi, the greatest rivers of Africa, Europe, and North America, respectively. Highlights the rich diversity of subjects associated with rivers including geography, history, literature, and art. Includes 12 learning activities for each river. (MJP)

  18. A new model of river dynamics, hydroclimatic change and human settlement in the Nile Valley derived from meta-analysis of the Holocene fluvial archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macklin, Mark G.; Toonen, Willem H. J.; Woodward, Jamie C.; Williams, Martin A. J.; Flaux, Clément; Marriner, Nick; Nicoll, Kathleen; Verstraeten, Gert; Spencer, Neal; Welsby, Derek

    2015-12-01

    In the Nile catchment, a growing number of site- and reach-based studies employ radiocarbon and, more recently, OSL dating to reconstruct Holocene river histories, but there has been no attempt to critically evaluate and synthesise these data at the catchment scale. We present the first meta-analysis of published and publically available radiocarbon and OSL dated Holocene fluvial units in the Nile catchment, including the delta region, and relate this to changing climate and river dynamics. Dated fluvial units are separated both geographically (into the Nile Delta and White, Blue, and Desert Nile sub-regions) and into depositional environment (floodplain and palaeochannel fills). Cumulative probability density frequency (CPDF) plots of floodplain and palaeochannel units show a striking inverse relationship during the Holocene, reflecting abrupt (<100 years) climate-related changes in flooding regime. The CPDF plot of dated floodplain units is interpreted as a record of over-bank river flows, whilst the CPDF plot of palaeochannel units reflect periods of major flooding associated with channel abandonment and contraction, as well as transitions to multi-centennial length episodes of greater aridity and low river flow. This analysis has identified major changes in river flow and dynamics in the Nile catchment with phases of channel and floodplain contraction at c. 6150-5750, 4400-4150, 3700-3450, 2700-2250, 1350-900, 800-550 cal. BC and cal. AD 1600, timeframes that mark shifts to new hydrological and geomorphological regimes. We discuss the impacts of these changing hydromorphological regimes upon riverine civilizations in the Nile Valley.

  19. Building climate resilience in the Blue Nile/Abay Highlands: Part II-arole for earth system sciences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Blue Nile (Abay) Highlands of Ethiopia are characterized by significant interannual climate variability, dissected topography and associated local climate contrasts, erosive rains and erodible soils, and intense land pressure due to an increasing population and an economy that is almost entirely...

  20. Shifting sediment sources in the world's longest river: A strontium isotope record for the Holocene Nile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, Jamie; Macklin, Mark; Fielding, Laura; Millar, Ian; Spencer, Neal; Welsby, Derek; Williams, Martin

    2015-12-01

    We have reconstructed long-term shifts in catchment sediment sources by analysing, for the first time, the strontium (Sr) and neodymium (Nd) isotope composition of dated floodplain deposits in the Desert Nile. The sediment load of the Nile has been dominated by material from the Ethiopian Highlands for much of the Holocene, but tributary wadis and aeolian sediments in Sudan and Egypt have also made major contributions to valley floor sedimentation. The importance of these sources has shifted dramatically in response to global climate changes. During the African Humid Period, before c. 4.5 ka, when stronger boreal summer insolation produced much higher rainfall across North Africa, the Nile floodplain in northern Sudan shows a tributary wadi input of 40-50%. Thousands of tributary wadis were active at this time along the full length of the Saharan Nile in Egypt and Sudan. As the climate became drier after 4.5 ka, the valley floor shows an abrupt fall in wadi inputs and a stronger Blue Nile/Atbara contribution. In the arid New Kingdom and later periods, in palaeochannel fills on the margins of the valley floor, aeolian sediments replace wadi inputs as the most important secondary contributor to floodplain sedimentation. Our sediment source data do not show a measurable contribution from the White Nile to the floodplain deposits of northern Sudan over the last 8500 years. This can be explained by the distinctive hydrology and sediment delivery dynamics of the upper Nile basin. High strontium isotope ratios observed in delta and offshore records - that were previously ascribed to a stronger White Nile input during the African Humid Period - may have to be at least partly reassessed. Our floodplain Sr records also have major implications for bioarchaeologists who carry out Sr isotope-based investigations of ancient human remains in the Nile Valley because the isotopic signature of Nile floodplain deposits has shifted significantly over time.

  1. Late Pleistocene and Holocene drought events at Lake Tana, the source of the Blue Nile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Michael H.; Lamb, Henry F.; Huws, Dei; Davies, Sarah J.; Bates, Richard; Bloemendal, Jan; Boyle, John; Leng, Melanie J.; Umer, Mohammed; Bryant, Charlotte

    2011-08-01

    Magnetic and geochemical core data spanning the last 17,000 years are correlated with new seismic stratigraphy from Lake Tana, Ethiopia, to infer past lake-level change and hence effective precipitation. The data confirm that low lake-level coincides with Heinrich Event 1 (H1) in the North Atlantic, as previously shown from diatom and pollen evidence (Lamb et al., 2007). The lake deepened at 15.3 cal kyr BP and abruptly returned to freshwater conditions, when the lake overflowed into the Blue Nile. Low runoff and lake levels and therefore rainfall are inferred between 13.0 and 12.5 cal kyr BP and may represent southerly suppression of the ITCZ and the associated monsoon front at the time of the Younger Dryas. Two drought episodes occurred at 8.4 and 7.5 cal kyr BP, and are also interpreted as a southward shift in the monsoon front. The first of these events appears to have preceded and been more significant than the 8.2 cal kyr BP. Precipitation declined after 6.8 cal kyr BP, although we do not see an abrupt end to the African Humid Period. This period culminated in a dry episode at ~ 4.2 cal kyr BP, supporting the view that reduced Nile flow was a contributing factor to the demise of the Egyptian Old Kingdom.

  2. Preconcentration and separation of iron, zinc, cadmium and mercury, from waste water using Nile blue a grafted polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    El-shahat, M F; Moawed, E A; Zaid, M A A

    2003-04-10

    The present work describes a novel method for the incorporation of Nile blue A into polyurethane foam matrix. This foam material was found to be very suitable for the extraction of metal ions from aqueous solutions. The characterization of Nile blue A grafted foam and the effect of halide concentration, pH, shaking time, extraction isotherm and capacity have been investigated. This foam material was found to be suitable for the separation and preconcentration of iron (III), zinc (II), cadmium (II) and mercury (II) from waste water. The extraction was accomplished in (15-20) minutes. Iron was separated from acid medium (2-4 M HCl), zinc from (3-5 M HCl), cadmium from (4-6 M HCl) as thiocyanate complexes and mercury was separated from (1-2 M HCl) as chloride. PMID:18968973

  3. Permian and Triassic microfloral assemblages from the Blue Nile Basin, central Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawit, Enkurie L.

    2014-11-01

    Palynological investigation was carried out on surface samples from up to 400 m thick continental siliciclastic sediments, here referred to as “Fincha Sandstone”, in the Blue Nile Basin, central Ethiopia. One hundred sixty species were identified from 15 productive samples collected along a continuous road-cut exposure. Six informal palynological assemblage zones have been identified. These assemblage zones, in ascending order, are: “Central Ethiopian Permian Assemblage Zone - CEPAZ I”, earliest Permian (Asselian-Sakmarian); “CEPAZ II”, late Early Permian (Artinskian-Kungurian); CEPAZ III - Late Permian (Kazanian-Tatarian); “CETAZ IV”, Lower Triassic (Olenekian Induan); “CETAZ V”, Middle Triassic (Anisian Ladinian); “CETAZ VI”, Late Triassic (Carnian Norian). Tentative age ranges proposed herein are compared with faunally calibrated palynological zones in Gondwana. The overall composition and vertical distribution of miospores throughout the studied section reveals a wide variation both qualitatively and quantitatively. The high frequency of monosaccate pollen in CEPAZ I may reflect a Glossopterid-dominated upland flora in the earliest Permian. The succeeding zone is dominated by straite/taeniate disaccate pollen and polyplicates, suggesting a notable increase in diversity of glossopterids. The decline in the diversity of taeniate disaccate pollen and the concomitant rise in abundance of non-taeniate disaccates in CEPAZ III may suggest the decline in Glossopteris diversity, though no additional evidence is available to equate this change with End-Permian extinction. More diverse and dominant non-taeniate, disaccate, seed fern pollen assignable to FalcisporitesAlisporites in CETAZ IV may represent an earliest Triassic recovery flora. The introduction of new disaccate forms with thick, rigid sacci, such as Staurosaccites and Cuneatisporites, in CETAZ V and VI may indicate the emergence of new gymnospermous plants that might have favourably

  4. Tradeoff Analysis Between Economic Development and Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for River Nile Basin Water Resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) briefings have declared that the growing population in the Nile river basin region (about 160 million, or 57% of the entire population of the basin’s ten riparian countries) is at risk of water scarcity. Adjustment strategies in response to cl...

  5. Occurrence of pesticides in fish tissues, water and soil sediment from Manzala Lake and River Nile.

    PubMed

    Osfor, M M; Abd el Wahab, A M; el Dessouki, S A

    1998-02-01

    Pesticides constitute the major source of potential environmental hazard to man and animal as they are present and concentrated in the food chain. This study was conducted on 136 samples of water, sediment and fish for detection and determination of pesticide residues in this ecosystem. Highly significant differences were found in levels of Indian, heptachlor, endrin, dieldrin, P,P'-DDE and propoxur in River Nile water when compared with that of Manzala Lake. Levels of Indian, endrin, malathion and diazinon were significantly higher in soil sediment of Manzala Lake, while the levels of heptachlor, aldrine, P,P'-DDE, DDT, parathion, propoxur and zectran were significantly higher in soil sediment of River Nile. Boury fish of Manzala Lake contained higher levels of heptachlor, aldrin, P,P'-DDE and malathion, while boury fish of River Nile contained a higher level of zectran only. This survey, thus indicated that Manzala Lake and even the River Nile which was used as control are heavily contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons (Indian, heptachlor, aldrin, endrin, dieldrin, P,P'-DDE and DDT), organic phosphorus compounds (malathion, dimethoat, diazinon and parathion) and carbamate pesticides (propoxur and zectran). PMID:9584277

  6. Quantifying Knick Point Migration Rates Related to the Messinian Crisis. The Case of the Nile River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stüwe, Kurt; Pucher, Christoph; Robl, Jörg; Hergarten, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The Messinian crisis is a temporally well-constrained period between 5.3 my and 5.9 my, when the strait of Gibraltar was tectonically closed and the Mediterranean Sea had consequently desiccated. This dramatic base level drop by about 1500 vertical meters had a profound influence on the geomorphic evolution of the major drainages surrounding the Mediterranean basin. In particular, it caused substantial knickpoints in the major rivers including the Rhone, the Ebro, the Po and the Nile. While the knickpoints of the Rhone and Ebro have been studied previously and the knickpoints created by the Po may lie today underneath the Po plains, the knickpoint and its migration along the Nile has not been studied and would have migrated along its current river channel. In this contribution we focus on numerical modelling of the knickpoint migration in the Nile and use our modelling results in comparison with the present day morphological analyses of the river to constrain absolute migration rates. We suspect that the first Nile cataract near Assuan, some 1000 km upstream of today's river mouth may be the relict of the Messinian salinity crisis making it to one of the fastest migrating knickpoints in the world.

  7. Retrofitting outlet tunnel for Blue River Project

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Y.Y.; Stow, J.A.; Edmister, T.D.

    1995-12-31

    The major development of the Blue River Project is to use the existing tunnel to supply water to a penstock and turbine located in a proposed powerhouse. The flood release through the tunnel is presently discharged by open channel flow. After the modification, the outlet and a new gate structure will be pressurized to allow combined usage of hydropower and flood release. The velocity through the new gate will increase by almost 70 percent. A complex transition was designed to house the bifurcation to penstock and to the new dual gate structure. A comprehensive physical model study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of the transition. Turbulent pressure fluctuation tests and analyses were performed from upstream of the bifurcation through the new gates. A revised transition was designed to minimize any potential pressure fluctuation and cavitation problems.

  8. Building Climate Resilience in the Blue Nile/Abay Highlands: A Role for Earth System Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Simane, Belay; Habib, Shahid; Anderson, Martha C.; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Foltz, Jeremy D.

    2012-01-01

    The Blue Nile (Abay) Highlands of Ethiopia are characterized by significant interannual climate variability, complex topography and associated local climate contrasts, erosive rains and erodible soils, and intense land pressure due to an increasing population and an economy that is almost entirely dependent on smallholder, low-input agriculture. As a result, these highland zones are highly vulnerable to negative impacts of climate variability. As patterns of variability and precipitation intensity alter under anthropogenic climate change, there is concern that this vulnerability will increase, threatening economic development and food security in the region. In order to overcome these challenges and to enhance sustainable development in the context of climate change, it is necessary to establish climate resilient development strategies that are informed by best-available Earth System Science (ESS) information. This requirement is complicated by the fact that climate projections for the Abay Highlands contain significant and perhaps irreducible uncertainties. A critical challenge for ESS, then, is to generate and to communicate meaningful information for climate resilient development in the context of a highly uncertain climate forecast. Here we report on a framework for applying ESS to climate resilient development in the Abay Highlands, with a focus on the challenge of reducing land degradation. PMID:22470302

  9. Climate resilience in the Blue Nile Highlands: defining a role for Earth System Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitchik, B. F.; Simane, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Blue Nile (Abay) Highlands of Ethiopia are characterized by significant interannual climate variability, dissected topography and associated local climate contrasts, erosive rains and erodible soils, and intense land pressure due to an increasing population and an economy that is almost entirely dependent on smallholder, low-input agriculture. As a result, these highland zones are highly vulnerable to negative impacts of climate variability. As most climate projections indicate that climate variability and intensity of rain events will increase in the coming decades, there is concern that vulnerability will increase, threatening economic development and food security in the region. In order to overcome these challenges and to enhance sustainable development in the context of climate change, it is necessary to develop climate resilient development strategies that are informed by best-available earth system science information on climate change impacts. This requirement is complicated by the fact that climate projections for the Abay Highlands contain significant and perhaps irreducible uncertainties. A critical challenge for Earth System Science (ESS), then, is to generate and to communicate meaningful information for climate resilient development in the context of a highly uncertain climate forecast. Here we report on a framework for applying ESS to climate resilient development in the Abay Highlands, with a focus on the challenge of reducing land degradation for improved food and water security.

  10. Linking soil erosion to onsite financial cost: lessons from watersheds in the Blue Nile basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkossa, T.; Wudneh, A.; Desalegn, B.; Taye, G.

    2015-02-01

    The study was conducted in three watersheds (Dapo, Meja and Mizewa) in the Ethiopian part of the Blue Nile Basin to estimate the onsite cost of soil erosion using the productivity change approach, in which crop yield reduction due to plant nutrients lost with the sediment and runoff has been analyzed. For this purpose, runoff measurement and sampling was conducted during the main rainy season of 2011 at the outlet of two to three sub watersheds in each watershed. The sediment concentration of the runoff, and nitrogen and phosphorus content of the runoff and sediment were determined. Crop response functions were developed for the two plant nutrients based on data obtained from the nearest Agricultural Research Centers. The response functions were used to estimate crop yield reduction as a result of the lost N and P assuming there is no compensation through fertilization. The results show a significant yield reduction and resultant financial loss to the farmers. Considering only grain yield of maize (Zea mays), farmers at Dapo annually lose about 220 and USD 150 ha-1 due to the loss of nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. In view of the importance of the crop residues including as feed, the loss can be even greater. The study demonstrated that in addition to the long-term deterioration of land quality, the annual financial loss suffered by farmers is substantial. Therefore, on farm soil and water conservation measures that are suitable in biophysical and socio-economic terms in the landscapes and beyond need to be encouraged.

  11. Heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of nile blue dye in aqueous BiOCl suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarwan, Bhawna; Pare, B.; Acharya, A. D.

    2014-05-01

    Bismuth oxychloride (BiOCl) was synthesized by hydrolysis method. Several analytical tools such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic, and energy-dispersive spectroscopic techniques were used to characterize the sample. The prepared material had average pore diameter of about 7-10 nm and the BET surface area of BiOCl was 40 m2 g-1. The analysis of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) formation was performed by fluorescence technique. The intermediates and the final products of degradation were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-DAD-MS) technology. The degradation of nile blue (NB) dye was mainly attributed to the destruction of the conjugated structure, and after that the intermediates were transformed into small molecules mainly phenol, aniline, etc., which were mineralized to water and carbon dioxide. During three recycles, the catalyst did not exhibit any significant loss of photocatalytic activity, confirming that the photocatalyst is essentially stable. The NB oxidation was evaluated by the decrease in total organic carbon (TOC) content. The formation of NO3- and the evolution of CO2 revealed complete mineralization of aqueous NB during the photocatalytic process by this photocatalyst.

  12. Is Solar Variability Reflected in the Nile River?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruzmaikin, Alexander; Feynman, Joan; Yung, Yuk L.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that solar variability influences North African climate by using annual records of the water level of the Nile collected in 622-1470 A.D. The time series of these records are nonstationary, in that the amplitudes and frequencies of the quasi-periodic variations are time-dependent. We apply the Empirical Mode Decomposition technique especially designed to deal with such time series. We identify two characteristic timescales in the records that may be linked to solar variability: a period of about 88 years and one exceeding 200 years. We show that these timescales are present in the number of auroras reported per decade in the Northern Hemisphere at the same time. The 11-year cycle is seen in the Nile's high-water level variations, but it is damped in the low-water anomalies. We suggest a possible physical link between solar variability and the low-frequency variations of the Nile water level. This link involves the influence of solar variability on the atmospheric Northern Annual Mode and on its North Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean patterns that affect the rainfall over the sources of the Nile in eastern equatorial Africa.

  13. Spectral Inspections on Molecular Configurations of Nile Blue A Adsorbed on the Elementary Clay Sheets.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mei; He, Shuai; Liu, Wenhong; Yao, Yunjin; Miao, Shiding

    2015-10-22

    Studies on the configuration of dye molecules are of great importance in revealing origins of the electronic bands as well as understanding their transitions. In this work, we utilized dye molecules named Nile blue A, which are a type of oxazine dyes, to study the molecular configurations when they are transferred from solutions to a solid surface. The Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique was employed to construct such an interface where the interaction between the dye molecules and solid supports can be pursued. Hybrid films were prepared via the LB depositions, and the dye molecules were assembled on the elementary clay sheets (laponite, saponite). The configuration of Nb reflected by the molecular orientation, packing density, phase behavior, and variances of the surface tension has been derived. The ex situ spectroscopy characterizations such as UV-vis absorption, fluorescence emission, and excitation spectra were carried out on these LB films to reveal the fact that the adsorbed Nb molecules are mainly assembled in two types of configurations. Adsorbed state I was found to be achieved at high concentrations (1-10 ppm) of clay dispersions and low surface pressure (∼5 mN/m). In this state the anionic oxazine rings of Nb are adsorbed on clay sheets sharing a large lift-off area. This configuration gives allowable fluorescence (λ = 550 nm). Lower clay concentration (<1 ppm) and high surface pressure (10-30 mN/m) yield the adsorbed state II in which the oxazine chromophores were arranged in a side-by-side style, and the dye molecules stand perpendicularly to the clay sheets. This conformation exhibits no photoluminescence. PMID:26436823

  14. Electrochemical properties of interstrand cross-linked DNA duplexes labeled with Nile blue.

    PubMed

    Mie, Yasuhiro; Kowata, Keiko; Kojima, Naoshi; Komatsu, Yasuo

    2012-12-11

    DNA molecules have attracted considerable attention as functional materials in various fields such as electrochemical sensors with redox-labeled DNA. However, the recently developed interstrand cross-link (ICL) technique for double-stranded DNA can adequately modify the electronic properties inside the duplex. Hence, the electrochemical investigation of ICL-DNA helps us to understand the electron transfer of redox-labeled DNA at an electrode surface, which would develop useful sensors. In this study, the first insight into this matter is presented. We prepared 17-mer DNA duplexes incorporating Nile blue (NB-DNA) at one end as a redox marker and a disulfide tether at the other end for immobilization onto an electrode. The duplexes were covalently cross-linked by bifunctional cross-linkers that utilize either a propyl or naphthalene residue to replace a base pair. Their electrochemical responses at the electrode surface were compared to evaluate the effect of the ICL on the electron-transfer reactions of the redox-labeled DNA duplexes. A direct transfer of electrons between NB and the electrode was observed for a standard DNA, as previously reported, whereas interstrand cross-linked DNA (CL-DNA) strands showed a decrease in the direct electron-transfer pathway. This is expected to result from constraining the elastic bending/flexibility of the duplex caused by the covalent cross-links. Interestingly, the CL-DNA incorporating naphthalene residues exhibited additional voltammetric peaks derived from DNA-mediated electron transfer (through base π stacking), which was not observed in the mismatched CL-DNA. The present results indicate that the ICL significantly affects electron transfer in the redox-labeled DNA at the electrode and can be an important determinant for electrochemical signaling in addition to its role in stabilizing the duplex structure. PMID:23153070

  15. Building Climate Resilience in the Blue Nile/Abay Highlands: A Framework for Action

    PubMed Central

    Simane, Belay; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Mesfin, Desalegn

    2012-01-01

    Ethiopia has become warmer over the past century and human induced climate change will bring further warming over the next century at unprecedented rates. On the average, climate models show a tendency for higher mean annual rainfall and for wetter conditions, in particular during October, November and December, but there is much uncertainty about the future amount, distribution, timing and intensity of rainfall. Ethiopia’s low level of economic development, combined with its heavy dependence on agriculture and high population growth rate make the country particularly susceptible to the adverse effects of climate change. Nearly 90% of Ethiopia’s population lives in the Highlands, which include the critical Blue Nile (Abay) Highlands—a region that holds special importance due to its role in domestic agricultural production and international water resources. A five year study of climate vulnerability and adaptation strategies in communities of Choke Mountain, located in the center of the Abay Highlands, has informed a proposed framework for enhancing climate resilience in communities across the region. The framework is motivated by the critical need to enhance capacity to cope with climate change and, subsequently, to advance a carbon neutral and climate resilient economy in Ethiopia. The implicit hypothesis in applying a research framework for this effort is that science-based information, generated through improved understanding of impacts and vulnerabilities of local communities, can contribute to enhanced resilience strategies. We view adaptation to climate change in a wider context of changes, including, among others, market conditions, the political-institutional framework, and population dynamics. From a livelihood perspective, culture, historical settings, the diversity of income generation strategies, knowledge, and education are important factors that contribute to adaptive capacities. This paper reviews key findings of the Choke Mountain study

  16. SAR Interferometry as a Tool for Monitoring Coastal Changes in the Nile River Delta of Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aly, Mohamed H.; Klein, Andrew G.; Giardino, John R.

    2005-01-01

    The Nile River Delta is experiencing rapid rates of coastal change. The rate of both coastal retreat and accretion in the Eastern Nile Delta requires regular, accurate detection and measurement. Current techniques used to monitor coastal changes in the delta are point measurements and, thus, they provide a spatially limited view of the ongoing coastal changes. SAR interferometry can provide measurements of subtle coastal change at a significantly improved spatial resolution and over large areas (100 sq km). Using data provided by the ERS-1&2 satellites, monitoring can be accomplished as frequently as every 35 days when needed. Radar interferometry is employed in this study to detect segments of erosion and accretion during the 1993-2000 period. The average rates of erosion and accretion in the Eastern Nile Delta are measured to be -11.64 m/yr and +5.12 m/yr, respectively. The results of this interferometric study can be used effectively for coastal zone management and integrated sustainable development for the Nile River Delta.

  17. Decadal biogeochemical history of the south east Levantine basin: Simulations of the river Nile regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suari, Yair; Brenner, Steve

    2015-08-01

    The south eastern Mediterranean is characterized by antiestuarine circulation which leads to extreme oligotrophic conditions. The Nile river that used to transport fresh water and nutrients into the basin was dammed in 1964 which led to a drastic reduction of fresh water fluxes, and later, changes in Egyptian agriculture and diet led to increased nutrient fluxes. In this paper we present the results of simulations with a biogeochemical model of the south eastern Mediterranean. Four experiments were conducted: (1) present day without riverine inputs; (2) Nile before damming (pre-1964); (3) post-damming 1995 Nile; and (4) fresh water and nutrient discharges of Israeli coastal streams. The present day input simulation (control run) successfully reproduced measured nutrient concentrations, with the exception of simulated chlorophyll concentrations which were slightly higher than observed. The pre-1964 Nile simulation showed a salinity reduction of 2 psu near the Egyptian coast and 0.5 psu along the Israeli coast, as well as elevated chlorophyll a concentrations mostly east of the Nile delta and north to Cyprus. The spring bloom extended from its present peak during February-March to a peak during February-May. The 1995 Nile simulation showed increased chlorophyll a concentrations close to the Egyptian coast. The Israeli coastal stream simulation showed that the effect of the Israeli coastal stream winter flow on chlorophyll converged to control concentrations within about one month, demonstrating the stability and sensitivity of the model to external forcing. The results of this study demonstrate the significance of fresh water fluxes in maintaining marine productivity, which may have large scale effects on the marine ecosystem.

  18. STS-56 view of freeflying SPARTAN-201 and Earth observation of Nile River,Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    During STS-56, the Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy 201 (SPARTAN-201), a freeflying payload, is captured as it orbits the Earth above the Nile River Valley in Egypt. This synoptic view taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, reveals the landscapes of the Sinai and the Gulf of Suez on the left and the Qatara Depression on the right. The Nile River Valley and the base of the delta feature are in the center. The leaf-like appearance of El Fayum is clearly seen. The city of Cairo is also easily recognized at the base of the delta. SPARTAN-201 was later captured by OV-103's remote manipulator system (RMS) and returned to Earth with the astronaut crew.

  19. Effect of regulation of the Nile River on the bioproductivity of Southeastern Mediterranean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Wadia, W.

    1982-01-01

    The Nile River previously brought a large quantity of dissolved nutrients and organic matter into the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea. Since completion of the Aswan hydrocomplex, reduction in the river flow has caused significant change in the distribution of the physico-chemical indices of the sea water as well as in the formation and distribution of the water masses in the region located north of the Nile delta. In recent years changes have been recorded in the dynamics and distribution of water temperature. From 1966 the sediment runoff of the Nile began dropping sharply due not only to reduction in the volume of river water reaching the sea, but also due to a significant reduction in the suspended particles in the flow. This has had a harmful effect on the formation and dynamics of grounds and banks near the delta and north of it. The reproduction of the shrimp in the area has changed significantly in timing and the food supplies for the young shrimp have deteriorated. Shrimp catches in 1966 were half what they had been in 1963. Commercial fishes have also decreased in numbers. Thus all links of the trophic chain have been affected from the phytoplankton to the pelagic and benthic fishes. 11 references, 3 tables.

  20. Assessing and managing water scarcity within the Nile River Transboundary Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butts, M. B.; Wendi, D.; Jessen, O. Z.; Riegels, N. D.

    2012-04-01

    The Nile Basin is the main source of water in the North Eastern Region of Africa and is perhaps one of the most critical river basins in Africa as the riparian countries constitute 40% of the population on the continent but only 10% of the area. This resource is under considerable stress with rising levels of water scarcity, high population growth, watershed degradation, and loss of environmental services. The potential impacts of climate change may significantly exacerbate this situation as the water resources in the Nile Basin are critically sensitive to climate change (Conway, Hanson, Doherty, & Persechino, 2007). The motivation for this study is an assessment of climate change impacts and adaptation potential for floods and droughts within the UNEP project "Adapting to climate change induced water stress in the Nile River Basin", supported by SIDA. This project is being carried out as collaboration between DHI, the UK Met Office, and the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI). The Nile Basin exhibits highly diverse climatological and hydrological characteristics. Thus climate change impacts and adaptive capacity must be addressed at both regional and sub-basin scales. While the main focus of the project is the regional scale, sub-basin scale modelling is required to reflect variability within the basin. One of the major challenges in addressing this variability is the scarcity of data. This paper presents an initial screening modelling study of the water balance of the Nile Basin along with estimates of expected future impacts of climate change on the water balance. This initial study is focussed on the Ethiopian Highlands and the Lake Victoria regions, where the impact of climate change on rainfall is important. A robust sub-basin based monthly water balance model is developed and applied to selected sub-basins. The models were developed and calibrated using publicly available data. One of the major challenges in addressing this variability within the basin is the

  1. Anatomy of a river drainage reversal in the Neogene Kivu Nile Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzförster, F.; Schmidt, U.

    2007-07-01

    The Neogene geological history of East Africa is characterised by the doming and extension in the course of development of the East African Rift System with its eastern and western branches. In the centre of the Western Rift Rise Rwanda is situated on Proterozoic basement rocks exposed in the strongly uplifted eastern rift shoulder of the Kivu-Nile Rift segment, where clastic sedimentation is largely restricted to the rift axis itself. A small, volcanically and tectonically controlled depository in northwestern Rwanda preserved the only Neogene sediments known from the extremely uplifted rift shoulder. Those (?)Pliocene to Pleistocene/Holocene fluvio-lacustrine muds and sands of the Palaeo-Nyabarongo River record the influence of Virunga volcanism on the major drainage reversal that affected East Africa in the Plio-/Pleistocene, when the originally rift-parallel upper Nile drainage system became diverted to the East in order to enter the Nile system via Lake Victoria. Sedimentary facies development, heavy mineral distributions and palaeobiological controls, including hominid artefacts, signal a short time interval of <300-350 ka to complete this major event for the sediment supply system of the Kivu-Nile Rift segment.

  2. Nile Blue-Based Nanosized pH Sensors for Simultaneous Far-Red and Near-Infrared Live Bioimaging

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Diblock copolymer vesicles are tagged with pH-responsive Nile Blue-based labels and used as a new type of pH-responsive colorimetric/fluorescent biosensor for far-red and near-infrared imaging of live cells. The diblock copolymer vesicles described herein are based on poly(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphorylcholine-block-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methacrylate) [PMPC-PDPA]: the biomimetic PMPC block is known to facilitate rapid cell uptake for a wide range of cell lines, while the PDPA block constitutes the pH-responsive component that enables facile vesicle self-assembly in aqueous solution. These biocompatible vesicles can be utilized to detect interstitial hypoxic/acidic regions in a tumor model via a pH-dependent colorimetric shift. In addition, they are also useful for selective intracellular staining of lysosomes and early endosomes via subtle changes in fluorescence emission. Such nanoparticles combine efficient cellular uptake with a pH-responsive Nile Blue dye label to produce a highly versatile dual capability probe. This is in marked contrast to small molecule dyes, which are usually poorly uptaken by cells, frequently exhibit cytotoxicity, and are characterized by intracellular distributions invariably dictated by their hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance. PMID:24001153

  3. Nile Blue-based nanosized pH sensors for simultaneous far-red and near-infrared live bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jeppe; Canton, Irene; Warren, Nicholas J; Themistou, Efrosyni; Blanazs, Adam; Ustbas, Burcin; Tian, Xiaohe; Pearson, Russell; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Lewis, Andrew L; Armes, Steven P

    2013-10-01

    Diblock copolymer vesicles are tagged with pH-responsive Nile Blue-based labels and used as a new type of pH-responsive colorimetric/fluorescent biosensor for far-red and near-infrared imaging of live cells. The diblock copolymer vesicles described herein are based on poly(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphorylcholine-block-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methacrylate) [PMPC-PDPA]: the biomimetic PMPC block is known to facilitate rapid cell uptake for a wide range of cell lines, while the PDPA block constitutes the pH-responsive component that enables facile vesicle self-assembly in aqueous solution. These biocompatible vesicles can be utilized to detect interstitial hypoxic/acidic regions in a tumor model via a pH-dependent colorimetric shift. In addition, they are also useful for selective intracellular staining of lysosomes and early endosomes via subtle changes in fluorescence emission. Such nanoparticles combine efficient cellular uptake with a pH-responsive Nile Blue dye label to produce a highly versatile dual capability probe. This is in marked contrast to small molecule dyes, which are usually poorly uptaken by cells, frequently exhibit cytotoxicity, and are characterized by intracellular distributions invariably dictated by their hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance. PMID:24001153

  4. Unforeseen distance-dependent SERS spectroelectrochemistry from surface-tethered Nile Blue: the role of molecular orientation.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Andrew J; Willets, Katherine A

    2016-08-15

    Covalent immobilization of redox-active dyes is an important strategy to evaluate structure-activity relationships in nanoscale electrochemistry by using optical readouts such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Here we investigate the role of the tether length in the SERS spectroelectrochemistry of surface-attached Nile Blue. Differential pulse voltammetry and a potential-dependent SERS derivative analysis reveal that the Nile Blue molecules adopt a different orientation with respect to the electrode surface as the number of carbons in a carboxylic acid-terminated alkanethiol monolayer is varied, which leads to unique SERS spectroelectrochemical behaviors. We use the relative molecular orientations and spectral characteristics to propose a model in which tethers shorter than the length of the molecule limit molecular motion under electrochemical perturbation, but tethers longer than the length of the molecule allow dye intercalation into the hydrophobic self-assembled monolayer, producing an unexpected decrease in the SERS intensity when the molecule is in the oxidized form. PMID:27337143

  5. Geochemistry of sediments and surface soils from the Nile Delta and lower Nile valley studied by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arafa, Wafaa M.; Badawy, Wael M.; Fahmi, Naglaa M.; Ali, Khaled; Gad, Mohamed S.; Duliu, Octavian G.; Frontasyeva, Marina V.; Steinnes, Eiliv

    2015-07-01

    The distributions of 36 major and trace elements in 40 surface soil and sediment samples collected from the Egyptian section of the river Nile were determined by epithermal neutron activation analysis and compared with corresponding data for the Upper Continental Crust and North American Shale Composite. Their relative distributions indicate the presence of detrital material of igneous origin, most probably resulting from weathering on Ethiopian highlands and transported by the Blue Nile, the Nile main tributary. The distributions of the nickel, zinc, and arsenic contents suggest that the lower part of the Nile and its surroundings including the Nile Delta is not seriously polluted with metals from local human activity. The geographical distributions of Na, Cl, and I as well as results of principal component analysis suggest atmospheric supply of these elements from the ocean. In general the present data may contribute to a better understanding of the geochemistry of the Nile sediments.

  6. Fluorescence-line-narrowing spectroscopy of nile blue in glass and polymer at 5 K: Determination of a single-site line shape function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yiping; Hartmann, S. R.; Moshary, F.

    1996-03-01

    Fluorescence-line-narrowing (FLN) spectra of the oxazine dye nile blue are obtained at 5 K in both ethanol glass and PVOH polymer. Multiple spectra, each associated with a different excitation wavelength setting, are presented. We analyze these spectra assuming a site-independent molecular response. Excellent agreement obtains in the ethanol glass host.

  7. Another unique river: a consideration of some of the characteristics of the trunk tributaries of the Nile River in northwestern Ethiopia in relationship to their aquatic food resources.

    PubMed

    Kappelman, John; Tewabe, Dereje; Todd, Lawrence; Feseha, Mulugeta; Kay, Marvin; Kocurek, Gary; Nachman, Brett; Tabor, Neil; Yadeta, Meklit

    2014-12-01

    Aquatic food resources are important components of many modern human hunter-gatherer diets and yet evidence attesting to the widespread exploitation of this food type appears rather late in the archaeological record. While there are times when, for example, the capture of fish and shellfish requires sophisticated technology, there are other cases when the exact ecological attributes of an individual species and the particulars of its environment make it possible for these foods to be incorporated into the human diet with little or no tool use and only a minimal time investment. In order to better understand the full set of variables that are considered in these sorts of foraging decisions, it is necessary to detail the attributes of each particular aquatic environment. We discuss here some of the characteristics of the trunk tributaries of the Nile and Blue Rivers in the Horn of Africa. Unlike typical perennial rivers, these 'temporary' rivers flow only during a brief but intense wet season; during the much longer dry season, the rivers are reduced to a series of increasingly disconnected waterholes, and the abundant and diverse fish and mollusk populations are trapped in ever smaller evaporating pools. The local human population today utilizes a number of diverse capture methods that range from simple to complex, and vary according to the size and depth of the waterhole and the time of the year. When we view the particular characteristics of an individual river system, we find that each river is 'unique' in its individual attributes. The Horn of Africa is believed to be along the route that modern humans followed on their migration out of Africa, and it is likely that the riverine-based foraging behaviors of these populations accompanied our species on its movement into the rest of the Old World. PMID:25017504

  8. Assessment of Active Landslides in Sanbaro Sago Valley, Blue-Nile Catchment, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hailemariam Gugsa, Trufat

    2010-05-01

    In fall of 2009, a detail field mapping was carried out in the Sanbaro Sago Valley, south-eastern of Blue-Nile catchment, to inspect the landslide processes that affected the livelihood of more than 6,000 peoples. The valley is a part of Ethiopian highlands where long histories of rainfall triggered landslides are prominent. The villagers suffered the recurring landslides for the last five years, even at present; there are numerous evidences of active landslides, with some actual slides currently taking place. The nature their activity indicate high probability of destructive phenomena within the foreseeable future. The landslides already damaged houses, farm plots and drainage ditch, as well; more than 40 causalities are recorded. Most of the dwellers have been permanently displaced from their residences, as they lost their houses and farm plots. A preliminary zoning was made through the interpretation of satellite images (+ETM Land sat) that drape over the digital elevation model of the area, which followed by detail field investigation to map the geological, geomorphological, and anthropogenic factors that contribute to the landslide activity. The valley consists of low lying graben bounded by steep scarps that characterized by highly weathered Tertiary basaltic rocks covered with Quaternary deposits. Structurally controlled, alluvial and denudational landforms are present. There are distinct geomorphic units formed by differences in the lithology of the various basalt types. The Quaternary deposits along the ridge that has many rills and incised gullies are characterized by weathered basalts and alluvial-colluvial deposits. The elevation of the valley ranges from 1290m to 3200m m.a.s.l. The steep slopes, volcanic hills, exposed on the downthrown side of the major scarps have been modified by erosion, resulting in a highly dissected topography with steep gullies. This makes the steep slopes of the ridge to be one of landslide prone areas. Many of the active

  9. Hydro-environmental status and soil management of the River Nile Delta, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elewa, H. H.; El Nahry, A. H.

    2009-04-01

    The sea level rise has its own-bearing on the coastal recession and hydro-environmental degradation of the River Nile Delta. Attempts are made here to use remote sensing to detect the coastal recession in some selected parts and delineating the chemistry of groundwater aquifers and surface water, which lie along south-mid-northern and coastal zone of the Nile Delta. Eight water samples from groundwater monitoring wells and 13 water samples from surface water were collected and analyzed for various hydrochemical parameters. The groundwater samples are classified into five hydrochemical facies on Hill-Piper trilinear diagram based on the dominance of different cations and anions: facies 1: Ca-Mg-Na-HCO3-Cl-SO4 type I; facies 2: Na-Cl-HCO3 type II; facies 3: Na-Ca-Mg-Cl type III, facies 4: Ca-Na-Mg-Cl-HCO3 type IV and facies 5: Na-Mg-Cl type V. The hydrochemical facies showed that the majority of samples were enriched in sodium, bicarbonate and chloride types and, which reflected that the sea water and tidal channel play a major role in controlling the groundwater chemical composition in the Quaternary shallow aquifers, with a severe degradation going north of Nile Delta. Also, the relationship between the dissolved chloride (Cl, mmol/l), as a variable, and other major ion combinations (in mmol/l) were considered as another criterion for chemical classification system. The low and medium chloride groundwater occurs in southern and mid Nile Delta (Classes A and B), whereas the high and very high chloride (classes D and C) almost covers the northern parts of the Nile Delta indicating the severe effect of sea water intrusion. Other facets of hydro-environmental degradation are reflected through monitoring the soil degradation process within the last two decades in the northern part of Nile Delta. Land degradation was assessed by adopting new approach through the integration of GLASOD/FAO approach and Remote Sensing/GIS techniques. The main types of human induced soil

  10. Concentration-dependent energy transfer studies in ternary dye mixture of Stilbene-420, Coumarin-540 and Nile Blue.

    PubMed

    Sharma, A K; Ahlawat, D S; Mohan, D; Singh, R D

    2009-01-01

    The energy transfer studies in the case of ternary dye mixture [Stilbene-420 (donor)+Coumarin-540 (intermediator)+Nile Blue (acceptor)] have been done and discussed through optical gain characteristics at various acceptor concentrations under nitrogen laser excitation. The concentration of the other two dyes were kept constant. It is observed that the concentration of the acceptor dye plays a very critical role in energy transfer dye laser (ETDL) as small change in its concentration varies the intensity of the laser output in the red region by large amount. Also, the highest laser output in the red region is obtained when the concentration of the acceptor dye is slightly higher than that of the intermediator dye. The present studies are helpful in deciding the optimum concentration of the acceptor dye to be used in ternary dye mixture for maximum gain and tuning range. The ternary dye mixture under study provides an ETDL tuning range up to 700 nm. PMID:18930436

  11. Concentration-dependent energy transfer studies in ternary dye mixture of Stilbene-420, Coumarin-540 and Nile Blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A. K.; Ahlawat, D. S.; Mohan, D.; Singh, R. D.

    2009-01-01

    The energy transfer studies in the case of ternary dye mixture [Stilbene-420 (donor) + Coumarin-540 (intermediator) + Nile Blue (acceptor)] have been done and discussed through optical gain characteristics at various acceptor concentrations under nitrogen laser excitation. The concentration of the other two dyes were kept constant. It is observed that the concentration of the acceptor dye plays a very critical role in energy transfer dye laser (ETDL) as small change in its concentration varies the intensity of the laser output in the red region by large amount. Also, the highest laser output in the red region is obtained when the concentration of the acceptor dye is slightly higher than that of the intermediator dye. The present studies are helpful in deciding the optimum concentration of the acceptor dye to be used in ternary dye mixture for maximum gain and tuning range. The ternary dye mixture under study provides an ETDL tuning range up to 700 nm.

  12. Designing multi-reservoir system designs via efficient water-energy-food nexus trade-offs - Selecting new hydropower dams for the Blue Nile and Nepal's Koshi Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harou, J. J.; Hurford, A.; Geressu, R. T.

    2015-12-01

    Many of the world's multi-reservoir water resource systems are being considered for further development of hydropower and irrigation aiming to meet economic, political and ecological goals. Complex river basins serve many needs so how should the different proposed groupings of reservoirs and their operations be evaluated? How should uncertainty about future supply and demand conditions be factored in? What reservoir designs can meet multiple goals and perform robustly in a context of global change? We propose an optimized multi-criteria screening approach to identify best performing designs, i.e., the selection, size and operating rules of new reservoirs within multi-reservoir systems in a context of deeply uncertain change. Reservoir release operating rules and storage sizes are optimized concurrently for each separate infrastructure design under consideration across many scenarios representing plausible future conditions. Outputs reveal system trade-offs using multi-dimensional scatter plots where each point represents an approximately Pareto-optimal design. The method is applied to proposed Blue Nile River reservoirs in Ethiopia, where trade-offs between capital costs, total and firm energy output, aggregate storage and downstream irrigation and energy provision for the best performing designs are evaluated. The impact of filling period for large reservoirs is considered in a context of hydrological uncertainty. The approach is also applied to the Koshi basin in Nepal where combinations of hydropower storage and run-of-river dams are being considered for investment. We show searching for investment portfolios that meet multiple objectives provides stakeholders with a rich view on the trade-offs inherent in the nexus and how different investment bundles perform differently under plausible futures. Both case-studies show how the proposed approach helps explore and understand the implications of investing in new dams in a global change context.

  13. A Comparative Study Environmental and Radiological Causes Of Cancer In River Nile State, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, Eyad; Khair, Hatim

    The causes of cancer in River Nile state are differ between environmental and radiological, this paper tried to make comparison between the two causes, to determine the real cause behind the large rising of cancer cases in this state, considering the daily habits for the patients and the possible contamination in the natural resources around them. The noticeable thing that most of cancer cases are might be due to the high concentration of nitrate pollutant detected in natural resources such as drinking water; also by looking to the radioactive elements we see there's high concentration of some radioactive elements specially the K-40 which found in Portulaca Oleracea.

  14. Ecological Risk Assessment of Metal Pollution along Greater Cairo Sector of the River Nile, Egypt, Using Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, as Bioindicator

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Wael A.; Mikhail, Wafai Z. A.; Abdo, Hanaa M.; Abou El Defan, Tarek A.; Poraas, Mamdouh M.

    2015-01-01

    The present work aims to evaluate seasonal metal pollution along Greater Cairo sector of the River Nile, Egypt, using wild Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, as bioindicator and to conduct a risk assessment for human consumers. Greater Cairo is the largest populated area along the whole course of River Nile with a wide range of anthropogenic activities. Effects of metal pollution on fish body indices were studied using condition factor (CF) and scaled mass index (SMI). Metal pollution index (MPI) showed that the total metal load in fish organs followed the follwoing order: kidney > liver > gill > muscle which gives a better idea about the target organs for metal accumulation. Metal concentrations in fish muscle (edible tissue) showed the following arrangement: Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cd. Metal's bioaccumulation factor (BAF) in fish muscle showed the following arrangement: Zn > Cu > Fe > Mn > Cd and Pb. The hazard index (HI) as an indicator of human health risks associated with fish consumption showed that adverse health effects are not expected to occur in most cases. However, the metals' cumulative risk effects gave an alarming sign specifically at high fish consumption rates. PMID:26617637

  15. Identifying residence times and streamflow generation processes using δ18O and δ2H in meso-scale catchments in the Abay/Upper Blue Nile, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekleab, S.; Wenninger, J.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2013-08-01

    Measurements of the stable isotopes oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (2H) were carried out in two meso-scale catchments, Chemoga (358 km2) and Jedeb (296 km2) south of Lake Tana, Abay/Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. The region is of paramount importance for the water resources in the Nile basin. Stable isotope composition in precipitation, spring water and streamflow were analyzed (i) to characterize the spatial and temporal variations of water fluxes; (ii) to estimate the mean residence time of water using a sine wave regression approach; and (iii) to identify runoff components using classical two component hydrograph separations at a seasonal time scale. The results show that the isotopic composition of precipitation exhibit marked seasonal variations, which suggests different sources of moisture generation for the rainfall in the study area. The Atlantic-Indian ocean, Congo basin, and the Sud swamps are the likely the potential moisture source areas during the main rainy (summer) season. While, the Indian-Arabian, and Mediterranean Sea moisture source areas during little rain (spring), and dry (winter) seasons. The spatial variation of the isotopic composition is affected by the amount effect and to less extent by altitude and temperature effects. A mean altitude effect of -0.12‰ (100 m)-1 for 18O and -0.58‰ (100 m)-1 for 2H were discernable in precipitation isotope composition. The seasonal variations of the isotopic signature of the spring water exhibit a damped response as compared to the river waters, which shows that the spring water has longer residence times than the river water. Results from the hydrograph separation at a seasonal time scale indicate the dominance of event water with an average of 71% and 64% of the total runoff during the wet season in the Chemoga and Jedeb catchment, respectively. The stable isotope compositions of streamflow samples were damped compared to the input function of precipitation for both catchments and this damping was

  16. STS-57 Earth observation of the Eastern Mediterranean, Nile River, Asia Minor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-57 Earth observation of the Eastern Mediterranean. From a high vantage point over the Nile River, this north-looking view shows the eastern Mediterranean and the entire landmass of Asia Minor, with the Black Sea dimly visible at the horizon. Many of the Greek islands can be seen in the Aegean Sea (top left), off the coast of Asia Minor. Cyprus is visible under atmospheric dust in the northeastern corner of the Mediterranean. The dust cloud covers the east end of the Mediterranean, its western edge demarcated by a line that cuts the center of the Nile Delta. This dust cloud originated far to the west, in Algeria, and moved northeast. A gyre of clouds in the southeast corner of the Mediterranean indicates a complementary counterclockwise (cyclonic) circulation of air. The Euphrates River appears as a thin green line (upper right) in the yellow Syrian desert just south of the mountains of Turkey. The Dead Sea (lower right) lies in a rift valley which extends north into Turkey and sout

  17. Asynchronous changes in vegetation, runoff and erosion in the nile river watershed during the holocene.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, Cécile L; Frank, Martin; Schouten, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The termination of the African Humid Period in northeastern Africa during the early Holocene was marked by the southward migration of the rain belt and the disappearance of the Green Sahara. This interval of drastic environmental changes was also marked by the initiation of food production by North African hunter-gatherer populations and thus provides critical information on human-environment relationships. However, existing records of regional climatic and environmental changes exhibit large differences in timing and modes of the wet/dry transition at the end of the African Humid Period. Here we present independent records of changes in river runoff, vegetation and erosion in the Nile River watershed during the Holocene obtained from a unique sedimentary sequence on the Nile River fan using organic and inorganic proxy data. This high-resolution reconstruction allows to examine the phase relationship between the changes of these three parameters and provides a detailed picture of the environmental conditions during the Paleolithic/Neolithic transition. The data show that river runoff decreased gradually during the wet/arid transition at the end of the AHP whereas rapid shifts of vegetation and erosion occurred earlier between 8.7 and ∼6 ka BP. These asynchronous changes are compared to other regional records and provide new insights into the threshold responses of the environment to climatic changes. Our record demonstrates that the degradation of the environment in northeastern Africa was more abrupt and occurred earlier than previously thought and may have accelerated the process of domestication in order to secure sustainable food resources for the Neolithic African populations. PMID:25551633

  18. Asynchronous Changes in Vegetation, Runoff and Erosion in the Nile River Watershed during the Holocene

    PubMed Central

    Blanchet, Cécile L.; Frank, Martin; Schouten, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The termination of the African Humid Period in northeastern Africa during the early Holocene was marked by the southward migration of the rain belt and the disappearance of the Green Sahara. This interval of drastic environmental changes was also marked by the initiation of food production by North African hunter-gatherer populations and thus provides critical information on human-environment relationships. However, existing records of regional climatic and environmental changes exhibit large differences in timing and modes of the wet/dry transition at the end of the African Humid Period. Here we present independent records of changes in river runoff, vegetation and erosion in the Nile River watershed during the Holocene obtained from a unique sedimentary sequence on the Nile River fan using organic and inorganic proxy data. This high-resolution reconstruction allows to examine the phase relationship between the changes of these three parameters and provides a detailed picture of the environmental conditions during the Paleolithic/Neolithic transition. The data show that river runoff decreased gradually during the wet/arid transition at the end of the AHP whereas rapid shifts of vegetation and erosion occurred earlier between 8.7 and ∼6 ka BP. These asynchronous changes are compared to other regional records and provide new insights into the threshold responses of the environment to climatic changes. Our record demonstrates that the degradation of the environment in northeastern Africa was more abrupt and occurred earlier than previously thought and may have accelerated the process of domestication in order to secure sustainable food resources for the Neolithic African populations. PMID:25551633

  19. Assessing the impacts of climate change on river basin management: A new method with application to the Nile River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidwell, Amy C.

    A framework is developed for the assessment of climate change impacts on water resources systems. The applied techniques include: quantifying global climate model (GCM) skill over a range of time scales; developing future climate scenarios based on GCM data that are found to skillfully represent the observed climate over an historical baseline period; and using the climate scenarios together with hydrologic and water resources models to make assessments of the potential impacts and implications of climate change on water resources systems. A statistical analysis of GCM skill in East Africa shows that temperature is well represented in the GCMs at monthly to annual time scales. Precipitation is found to be much less reliable in the models and shows skill in fewer seasons and nodes than temperature. Eight climate scenarios, stemming from three global climate models and two atmospheric emissions scenarios, project temperature increases between 2 and 5° Celsius by the year 2080. Precipitation projections vary widely across models as well as regionally. The scenarios project changes in precipitation from -38% to +42%. The climate change impact methodology is applied to the Nile River Basin. It is shown that, in spite of widely varying precipitation projections, the major sub-basins of the Nile River will experience decreases in watershed runoff under all eight climate scenarios. Detailed water resources models are employed to assess the system wide response to the climate-induced hydrologic changes. The assessments indicate that water supply deficits will emerge by 2030 and continue to grow in frequency and magnitude by 2080. Additional impacts include reservoir depletion and reduced hydropower generation. An assessment of the river system response to basin development projects, including additional water storage and wetlands water conservation, indicates that adverse climate impacts may be mitigated for 30 to 40 years. The assessments demonstrate the relevance of

  20. Shifting Sediment Sources in the Quaternary Nile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, Jamie; Macklin, Mark; Fielding, Laura; Millar, Ian; Williams, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Invited Paper The Nile basin contains the longest river channel system in the world and drains about one tenth of the African continent. A dominant characteristic of the modern Nile is the marked spatial and temporal variability in the flux of water and sediment. Because the major headwater basins of the Nile are linked to key elements of the global climate system, the sedimentary records in the basin have attracted good deal of attention from the Quaternary palaeoclimate and palaeohydrology communities. Various approaches (from heavy minerals to strontium isotopes) have been employed to examine present and past patterns of sediment yield in the basin. A good deal of work has been carried out on the long sediment records in the delta and offshore which provide high resolution archives of hydrological changes in the upstream basin as well fluctuations in the input of dust from the desert. The sediment load of the modern desert Nile (downstream of Khartoum) is dominated by sediment inputs from the Blue Nile (61 +/- 5%) and Atbara (35 +/- 4%), whilst the White Nile contribution is meagre (3 +/- 2%) (Padoan et al. 2011). Recent work has shown that these values were very different during humid phases of the Quaternary when stronger Northern Hemisphere summer insolation produced wetter conditions across North Africa. In the early Holocene, for example, the Nile floodplain in Northern Sudan shows a tributary wadi input of 40-50%. This paper will review three decades of work on the sediment delivery dynamics of the Quaternary Nile and explore their palaeoclimatic implications. Padoan, M., Garzanti, E., Harlavan, Y., Villa, I.M. (2011) Tracing Nile sediment sources by Sr and Nd isotope signatures (Uganda, Ethiopia, Sudan). Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75 (12), 3627-3644.

  1. Polyhydroxyalkanoate granules quantification in mixed microbial cultures using image analysis: Sudan Black B versus Nile Blue A staining.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Daniela P; Amaral, A Luís; Leal, Cristiano; Oehmen, Adrian; Reis, Maria A M; Ferreira, Eugénio C

    2015-03-20

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) can be produced and intracellularly accumulated as inclusions by mixed microbial cultures (MMC) for bioplastic production and in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems. Classical methods for PHA quantification use a digestion step prior to chromatography analysis, rendering them labor intensive and time-consuming. The present work investigates the use of two quantitative image analysis (QIA) procedures specifically developed for PHA inclusions identification and quantification. MMC obtained from an EBPR system were visualized by bright-field and fluorescence microscopy for PHA inclusions detection, upon Sudan Black B (SBB) and Nile Blue A (NBA) staining, respectively. The captured color images were processed by QIA techniques and the image analysis data were further treated using multivariate statistical analysis. Partial least squares (PLS) regression coefficients of 0.90 and 0.86 were obtained between QIA parameters and PHA concentrations using SBB and NBA, respectively. It was found that both staining procedures might be seen as alternative methodologies to classical PHA determination. PMID:25732579

  2. Value versus Accuracy: application of seasonal forecasts to a hydro-economic optimization model for the Sudanese Blue Nile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satti, S.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Siddiqui, S.; Badr, H. S.; Shukla, S.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    The unpredictable nature of precipitation within the East African (EA) region makes it one of the most vulnerable, food insecure regions in the world. There is a vital need for forecasts to inform decision makers, both local and regional, and to help formulate the region's climate change adaptation strategies. Here, we present a suite of different seasonal forecast models, both statistical and dynamical, for the EA region. Objective regionalization is performed for EA on the basis of interannual variability in precipitation in both observations and models. This regionalization is applied as the basis for calculating a number of standard skill scores to evaluate each model's forecast accuracy. A dynamically linked Land Surface Model (LSM) is then applied to determine forecasted flows, which drive the Sudanese Hydroeconomic Optimization Model (SHOM). SHOM combines hydrologic, agronomic and economic inputs to determine the optimal decisions that maximize economic benefits along the Sudanese Blue Nile. This modeling sequence is designed to derive the potential added value of information of each forecasting model to agriculture and hydropower management. A rank of each model's forecasting skill score along with its added value of information is analyzed in order compare the performance of each forecast. This research aims to improve understanding of how characteristics of accuracy, lead time, and uncertainty of seasonal forecasts influence their utility to water resources decision makers who utilize them.

  3. Comparative evaluation of different satellite rainfall estimation products and bias correction in the Upper Blue Nile (UBN) basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abera, Wuletawu; Brocca, Luca; Rigon, Riccardo

    2016-09-01

    In a region where ground-based gauge data are scarce, satellite rainfall estimates (SREs) are a viable option for proper space-time rainfall characterization. However, their accuracy and performances vary from region to region, and must be assessed. In this study, five high resolution satellite products (3B42V7, CMORPH, TAMSAT, SM2R-CCI, and CFSR) are compared and analyzed using the available rain gauge data in one of the most topographically and climatologically complex basin of Africa, the Upper Blue Nile basin (UBN). The basin rainfall is investigated systematically, and it is found that, at some locations, the difference in mean annual rainfall estimates between these SREs could be as much as about 2700 mm. Considering three goodness-of-fit indexes, correlation, bias and root mean square error (RMSE) between the SREs and ground-based gauge rainfall, CMORPH, TAMSAT and SM2R-CCI outperform the other two. Furthermore, a confusion matrix is used to investigate the detection ability of satellite rainfall products for different rainfall intensities. TAMSAT has the highest (91%) detection skill for dry days, followed by CFSR (77%). On the contrary, SM2R-CCI has the highest accuracy index for medium rainfall ranges (10-20 mm). The empirical cumulative distribution (ecdf) mapping technique is used to correct the intensities distribution givenby the SREs. This method provides a means to improve the rainfall estimation of all SREs, and the highest improvement is obtained for CMORPH (bias reduction from - 72% to - 1%).

  4. Patterns of West Nile virus infection in Ohio blue jays: implications for initiation of the annual cycle.

    PubMed

    Garvin, Mary C; Tarvin, Keith A; Smith, Jennifer; Ohajuruka, Ojimadu A; Grimes, Sheila

    2004-05-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was first detected in North America in New York City in 1999 and rapidly moved westward. Understanding the mechanisms by which the amplification cycle is reinitiated each year increases our ability to predict epizootics and geographic expansion of the disease. Such understanding is enhanced by knowledge of the patterns of infection in the vertebrate reservoir hosts. Blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata) may serve as reservoir hosts for WNV. We examined the influence of age and date on the prevalence of WNV in jay carcasses in Ohio during May-August 2002. Percent of carcasses that were infected increased significantly with time from 3% in May to more than 90% by August. We found no difference in prevalence between juvenile (nestlings and fledglings) and adult jays early in the season, which contradicts the expected pattern if the majority of the adults sampled in 2002 had been exposed to the virus in 2001. Therefore, jays infected in 2001 were unlikely to have been important in initiating the 2002 virus cycle in Ohio. PMID:15155993

  5. Water Dynamics in Fogera and the Upper Blue Nile - Farmers perspectives and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemin, Yann; Desalegn, Mengistu; Curnow, Jayne; Johnston, Robyn

    2015-04-01

    This research work is about finding the connection between farmers perspectives on changes of water conditions in their socio-agricultural environment and satellite remote sensing analysis. Key informant surveys were conducted to investigate localised views on water scarcity as a counterpoint to the physical measurement of water availability. Does a numerical or mapped image identifying water scarcity always equate to a dearth of water for agriculture? To push the limits of the relationship between human and physical data we sought to ground-truth GIS results with the practical experience and knowledge of people living in the area. We data-mined public domain satellite data with FOSS (GDAL, GRASS GIS) and produced water-related spatio-temporal domains for our study area and the larger Upper Nile Basin. Accumulated remote sensing information was then cross-referenced with informant's accounts of water availability for the same space and time. During the survey fieldwork the team also took photographs electronically stamped with GPS coordinates to compare and contrast the views of informants and the remote sensing information with high resolution images of the landscape. We found that farmers perspective on the Spring maize crop sensibility to variability of rainfall can be quantified in space and time by remote sensing cumulative transpiration. A crop transpiration gap of 1-2.5 mm/day for about 20 days is to be overcome, a full amount of 20 to 50 mm, depending on the type of year deficit. Such gap can be overcome, even by temporary supplemental irrigation practices, however, the economical and cultural set up is already developed in another way, as per sesonal renting of higher soil profile water retention capacity fields.

  6. Simulations of Water and Energy Cycles over the Congo and Upper Blue Nile basins by IPCC GCMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltahir, E. A.; Siam, M.

    2012-12-01

    The simulations of the hydrological cycle in general circulation models (GCMs) are characterized by a significant degree of uncertainty. This uncertainty is reflected in the wide range of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) GCMs predictions of future changes in the hydrological cycle, particularly over major African basins. Here, we explore the relations between the surface radiation and hydrological cycle within 17 of the IPCC GCMs over the Congo and Upper Blue Nile (UBN) basins. Most GCMs overestimate the hydrological cycle over the basins compared to observations. This overestimation is associated with excess net surface radiation, attributed to an overestimation of downward shortwave radiation and an underestimation of upward longwave radiation at the surface compared to observations. In order to verify if the overestimation of the net radiation is a systematic problem in these models for other regions, the net surface radiation over the Sahara Desert is also investigated. Although the Sahara Desert has a different climatic conditions compared to the studied basins, but the persistent overestimation of the net surface radiation for all models over this region suggests that models tend to overestimate the net surface radiation at least over the majority of the African continent. Our results also show that the increase in horizontal resolution of GCMs results in a better simulations of the hydrological cycle. In addition, the absence of the radiation effects of mineral aerosols, biomass burning and low negative cloud feedback for most of the models can be responsible of the overestimation of both the energy and hydrological cycles over the studied regions.

  7. Assessing Impact of Climate Change on the Runoffs of Gilgel Abbay Watershed, the upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayele, H. S.; Li, M. H.; Tung, C. P.; Liu, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Water is the most climate sensitive sector in changing climate. Hydrological vulnerability assessment is critical to the implementation of adaption measures. In this study, projections of 7 GCMs in association with high (RCP8.5) and medium low (RCP4.5) representative concentration path way from the CMPI5 (fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project) for the period 2021-2040 and 2081-2100 were adopted to assess the impacts of climate change on the runoffs of Gilgel Abbay watershed, the upper Blue Nile basin, in Ethiopia. The GCMs selected were first screened in harmony with baseline climate statistics of study areas. Based on climate projections and statistical characteristics of historical weather data, a weather generator was employed to generate daily temperature and precipitation as inputs for the GWLF hydrological model to simulate runoffs. Changes of projected temperature and precipitation were analyzed to explain variations of evapotranspiration and influences on future runoffs. We found that, despite the fact that the projected magnitude varies among different GCMs, increasing in the wet and a decreasing in dry seasons runoffs were observed in both time windows, which mainly attributes to the increase of precipitations projected by most of GCMs. In contrast to great increases in runoffs, the increase of evapotranspiration by elevating temperature is less significant. The increasing runoffs in both time windows will provide more water inflow to the Lake Tana. On the other hand, the increase of precipitation in wet season makes the wet season wetter and implies higher possibility of flash floods. This will have deleterious consequences in the local community. Therefore, concerned water organizations in local, state, and federal levels shall be prepared to harness the opportunities with more water resources for utilization and management, as well as flood preventive measures.

  8. Influence of downscaling methods in projecting climate change impact on hydrological extremes of upper Blue Nile basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taye, M. T.; Willems, P.

    2013-06-01

    Methods from two statistical downscaling categories were used to investigate the impact of climate change on high rainfall and flow extremes of the upper Blue Nile basin. The main downscaling differences considered were on the rainfall variable while a generally similar method was applied for temperature. The applied downscaling methods are a stochastic weather generator, LARS-WG, and an advanced change factor method, the Quantile Perturbation Method (QPM). These were applied on 10 GCM runs and two emission scenarios (A1B and B1). The downscaled rainfall and evapotranspiration were input into a calibrated and validated lumped conceptual model. The future simulations were conducted for 2050s and 2090s horizon and were compared with 1980-2000 control period. From the results all downscaling methods agree in projecting increase in temperature for both periods. Nevertheless, the change signal on the rainfall was dependent on the climate model and the downscaling method applied. LARS weather generator was good for monthly statistics although caution has to be taken when it is applied for impact analysis dealing with extremes, as it showed a deviation from the extreme value distribution's tail shape. Contrary, the QPM method was good for extreme cases but only for good quality daily climate model data. The study showed the choice of downscaling method is an important factor to be considered and results based on one downscaling method may not give the full picture. Regardless, the projections on the extreme high flows and the mean main rainy season flow mostly showed a decreasing change signal for both periods. This is either by decreasing rainfall or increasing evapotranspiration depending on the downscaling method.

  9. Linking soil erosion to on-site financial cost: lessons from watersheds in the Blue Nile basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkossa, T.; Wudneh, A.; Desalegn, B.; Taye, G.

    2015-06-01

    The study was conducted in three watersheds (Dapo, Meja and Mizewa) in the Ethiopian part of the Blue Nile Basin to estimate the on-site cost of soil erosion using the productivity change approach, in which crop yield reduction due to plant nutrients lost with the sediment and runoff has been analysed. For this purpose, runoff measurement and sampling was conducted during the main rainy season of 2011 at the outlet of two to three sub-watersheds in each watershed. The sediment concentration of the runoff, and N and P contents in runoff and sediment were determined. Crop response functions were developed for the two plant nutrients based on data obtained from the nearest Agricultural Research Centres. The response functions were used to estimate crop yield reduction as a result of the lost N and P assuming there is no compensation through fertilization. The results show a significant yield reduction and resultant financial loss to the farmers. Considering only grain yield of maize (Zea mays), farmers at Dapo annually lose about USD 220 ha-1 and 150 ha-1 due to the loss of N and P, respectively. In view of the importance of the crop residues, including as feed, the loss can be even greater. The study demonstrated that in addition to the long-term deterioration of land quality, the annual financial loss suffered by farmers is substantial. Therefore, on farm soil and water conservation measures that are suitable in biophysical and socio-economic terms in the landscapes and beyond need to be encouraged.

  10. Holocene Floods and Sediment Sources in the Desert Nile: a Strontium Isotope Record from Northern Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, Jamie; Macklin, Mark; Millar, Ian; Williams, Martin; Welsby, Derek; Duller, Geoff; Williams, Frances

    2014-05-01

    Strontium isotope ratios can be used to explore changes in Nile sediment sources and flood regime because the Blue Nile/Atbara and White Nile headwater catchments lie in markedly contrasting geological settings. Most of the existing Sr isotope data for the Holocene Nile has been obtained from lagoonal/lacustrine environments rather than directly from the fluvial sediments of the desert Nile. Northern Sudan contains some of the best preserved Holocene river deposits and landforms in the desert Nile. Using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) and radiocarbon dating, we have compiled a detailed record of Holocene river history in the Northern Dongola Reach (NDR) that spans the last c. 8500 years. This period includes major changes in global climate and Nile hydrological regime. In the palaeochannel fills and floodplain deposits of the NDR, we have sampled sedimentary units that represent discrete flood events. We have measured Sr and Nd isotopes on the fine-grained fraction of dated alluvial units. The Sr isotope signature of the NDR fluvial sediments is discussed and compared to published datasets for the Nile delta.

  11. Late Pleistocene and Holocene environments in the Nile basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Martin A. J.

    2009-10-01

    Owing to the very gently sloping nature of the flood plain in the lower White Nile valley, which is underlain by a former lake-bed, the depositional record in that area is unusually well preserved. In Egypt and along the Blue Nile phases of erosion have destroyed segments of the sedimentary record, but the White Nile sequence is a good proxy for both the main Nile and the Blue Nile. During the last 15 ka, at least, times of high flow in the Blue Nile and main Nile were synchronous with those in the White Nile. Not all the White Nile flood deposits have been preserved but calibrated radiocarbon dates obtained on fossil freshwater and amphibious Pila shells and fish bones indicate that White Nile levels were high around 14.7-13.1 ka, 9.7-9.0 ka, 7.9-7.6 ka, 6.3 ka and 3.2-2.8 ka. The Blue Nile record is more fragmentary and that of the main Nile even more so except for the Holocene Nile delta. Calibrated radiocarbon ages for high Blue Nile flows indicate very high flood levels towards 13.9-13.2 ka, 8.6 ka, 7.7 ka and 6.3 ka. Incision by the Blue Nile and main Nile has caused progressive incision in the White Nile amounting to at least 4 m since the terminal Pleistocene ˜ 15 ka ago and at least 2 m over the past 9 ka. The Blue Nile seems to have cut down at least 10 m since ˜ 15 ka and at least 4 m since 9 ka. The time-transgressive and relatively late inception of plant domestication in the Nile valley may partly reflect this history of incision. Nile incision would propagate upstream into the White Nile valley, draining previously swampy areas along the valley floor, which would then become accessible to cultivation.

  12. Seasonal variation and enrichment of metals in sediments of Rosetta branch, Nile River, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Redwan, Mostafa; Elhaddad, Engy

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated heavy metal pollution in sediments of the Rosetta branch of the River Nile of Egypt to quantify the toxic distribution potential of metals into the surrounding environment. Sediment samples were collected at 9 sites during in four seasons. Organic matter and total metal concentrations were determined using loss on ignition and inductively coupled plasma spectrometry, respectively. Principal component analysis has been applied to evaluate the metal sources and the relationships between metals in sediments. Metal concentrations showed the following order: winter > autumn > spring > summer. Mean concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in sediments were above the average background value of metals in shale. Pb and Cd showed higher enrichment during all seasons at stations N3/N4, Zn at stations N1 to N4, and Cu at stations N6/N8. The variations in heavy metal total concentration and organic matter are due to different input sources, physico-chemical conditions, and adsorption/precipitation/redox conditions in sediments. Mean values of Geo-accumulation index (Igeo) for Fe, Mn, and Cu were below 0 which were classified as unpolluted during spring, summer, and autumn, except Cu increased from unpolluted to moderately polluted during winter. Igeo values for Cd, Pb, and Zn increased from unpolluted-moderately polluted to highly-very highly polluted during autumn and winter. Pollution Load Index was recorded in highest values during winter, especially at Fuwwah/Basioun and in lowest values during summer at after the Edfina Barrage/before Kafer El-Zayat due to industrial/human activities. Both natural and anthropogenic sources contributed to the metal accumulations in sediments, and industrial, agricultural, and municipal sewage effluents discharged from non-point sources may be the main anthropogenic sources for metals in the Rosetta branch. PMID:27194230

  13. Biological characteristics of the blue sucker in the James River and the Big Sioux River, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morey, N.M.; Berry, C.R., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Little is known about the relative abundance and biology of the blue sucker (Cycleptus elongatus), a species that may be declining in some parts of its range. We described the age, growth, condition, length distribution, and habitat preference of the blue sucker in two South Dakota rivers. Specimens were collected from the James River (n=74) and Big Sioux River (n=28) during the summer of 2000. Although five macrohabitats were sampled with electrofishing and hoopnets, most individuals were collected from riffle habitats and downstream of rock dams. Total length-weight relationships were log10W=-6.14+3.37(log10L) (r2 = 0.92) for blue suckers from the James River and log10W = -6.52+3.50(log10L) (r2 = 0.97) for fish from the Big Sioux River. Mean condition factors (K = W(105)/L3) of blue suckers were 0.79 (SE = 0.07) for the James River and 0.73 (SE = 0.07) for the Big Sioux River. Blue suckers between 500 and 700 mm dominated length distributions (range = 374-717 mm) of both samples. Ages ranged from two to nine years, but six-year-old fish were captured most frequently. Blue suckers grew rapidly during juvenile stages (< age 5); however, growth slowed afterward.

  14. Error analysis of global satellite precipitation products using daily gauged observations over the upper central Blue Nile Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahlu, Dejene; Moges, Semu; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Hailu, Dereje

    2015-04-01

    Water resource assessment, planning and management in Africa are often constrained due to lack of reliable spatio-temporal rainfall data. Satellite and global reanalysis products are steadily growing and offering useful alternative datasets of rainfall globally. Aim of this paper is to examine the error characteristics of the main available global satellite precipitation products with the view to improve the reliability of wet season (June to September) rainfall datasets over the upper Blue Nile Basin in Ethiopia. The study utilized six satellite derived precipitation datasets at 0.25-deg spatial grid size and daily temporal resolution:1) the near real-time (3B42_RT) and gauge adjusted (3B42_V7) products of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), 2) gauge adjusted and unadjusted Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN) products and 3) the gauge adjusted and un-adjusted product of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Prediction Center Morphing technique (CMORPH) over the period of 2000 to 2013. The historical daily rainfall data sets are chosen for the same period from 64 gauging stations which are within a mountainous area of about 45,000 km2. The elevation of gauges used in this error study ranged from 1800 to 3000 meters above sea level. The error analysis utilized statistical techniques of missed rainfall volume fraction (MRV), falsely detected rainfall volume fraction (FRV), mean relative error (MRE), bias ratio (Bias), coefficient of variation of error (CVE) and the trends of the error metrics with respect to elevation. The three error metrics, MRE, Bias and CVE are further examined for five rainfall thresholds associated with different percentile categories (2nd, 20th, 50th, 80th and 98th) . Results show that CMORPH has relatively lower MRV (~1.5 %) than the TRMM and PERSIANN products (10 -13 %.). Non-gauge adjusted

  15. A new record of Myxobolus brachysporus and M. israelensis in the tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) collected from the Nile River, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S.; Zayed, Eman; Sakran, Thabet; Al-Quraishy, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out as part of an ongoing general survey for myxosporean parasites infecting tilapias in the River Nile, Egypt. In the present study, 77 Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were collected from boat landing sites at Beni-Suef governorate, Egypt and examined for the myxosporean infection. The infection was encountered as a huge number of free spores in the kidney and the spleen. The infection showed a prevalence of 51.9% (40/77) for Myxobolus brachysporus while it was 25.9% (20/77) for Myxobolus israelensis. Mature spores of M. brachysporus were ellipsoidal and measured 8.6 × 13.2 μm. The polar capsules were subcircular with 5–6 filament turns and measured 4.7 × 3.6 μm. Spores of M. israelensis were ellipsoidal in the frontal view and fusiform in the lateral view. Spore measurements were 13.4 μm long and 8.7 μm wide. The polar capsules were elongated with 6–7 filament coils and measured 8.6 × 3.1 μm. The findings presented here proved that tilapia fishes in the Nile River are still suffering from infections with Myxobolus species. Therefore, further studies should be carried out to survey the Myxobolus infection among tilapias under culture conditions to clarify the pathological impacts of this parasite in tilapias aquaculture. PMID:26286347

  16. The Challenges and Opportunities of Hydrologic Remote Sensing in Data-Poor Regions: Case Study of Nile River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, E.; Kirstetter, P.; Zhang, K.; Hong, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Nile River Basin (NRB) is one of the largest trans-boundary watercourses; it is the lifeline for more than 300 million people belonging to 11 African nations sharing the NRB. The riparian countries are challenged by their infirm relationships, lack of information sharing and insufficient monitoring stations. Thus, to understand the water future along the NRB under the changing climate, reliable, and sufficient information are needed. This to assess and understand: whether will be more rainfall and induced flooding events, or the drought conditions with less surface runoff will be dominant over the Nile Basin? In addition, to what extent the available remote sensing and model reanalysis data can substitute the lack of detailed ground information, and help to determine the size and risk associated to the climatic impact on the Nile Basin? In the current study, we utilizing multi-scale remote sensing, and model reanalysis datasets for hydrologic monitoring along the NRB in Africa. The list of remote sensing, and model reanalysis datasets that implemented: several MODIS satellite products such as the NDVI, LAI, LST, and LULC datasets. Three GRACE satellite derivative products: TWS, EWT, and DTWS, and TRMM satellite precipitation product. In addition to number of model reanalysis datasets including Global Precipitation Climatological Center (GPCC) datasets, Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) products, Climate Research Unit (CRU) datasets, Physical Science Division (PSD) gridded climate dataset, and in situ Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC) datasets. The main objective of our research is to monitor the hydrological changes and the variation in water balance along the NRB. The study approach accomplished through: (1) developing a distributed storage changes based grid, (2) trend analysis and inter-annual variability shift detections using regime shift analysis, (3) define the water stress and water deficit periods along the Nile Basins, (4) applying multi

  17. Characterisation of stable isotopes to identify residence times and runoff components in two meso-scale catchments in the Abay/Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekleab, S.; Wenninger, J.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2014-06-01

    Measurements of the stable isotopes oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (2H) were carried out in two meso-scale catchments, Chemoga (358 km2) and Jedeb (296 km2) south of Lake Tana, Abay/Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. The region is of paramount importance for the water resources in the Nile basin, as more than 70% of total Nile water flow originates from the Ethiopian highlands. Stable isotope compositions in precipitation, spring water and streamflow were analysed (i) to characterise the spatial and temporal variations of water fluxes; (ii) to estimate the mean residence time of water using a sine wave regression approach; and (iii) to identify runoff components using classical two-component hydrograph separations on a seasonal timescale. The results show that the isotopic composition of precipitation exhibits marked seasonal variations, which suggests different sources of moisture generation for the rainfall in the study area. The Atlantic-Indian Ocean, Congo basin, Upper White Nile and the Sudd swamps are the potential moisture source areas during the main rainy (summer) season, while the Indian-Arabian and Mediterranean Sea moisture source areas during little rain (spring) and dry (winter) seasons. The spatial variation in the isotopic composition is influenced by the amount effect as depicted by moderate coefficients of determination on a monthly timescale (R2 varies from 0.38 to 0.68) and weak regression coefficients (R2 varies from 0.18 to 0.58) for the altitude and temperature effects. A mean altitude effect accounting for -0.12‰/100 m for 18O and -0.58‰/100 m for 2H was discernible in precipitation isotope composition. Results from the hydrograph separation on a seasonal timescale indicate the dominance of event water, with an average of 71 and 64% of the total runoff during the wet season in the Chemoga and Jedeb catchments, respectively. Moreover, the stable isotope compositions of streamflow samples were damped compared to the input function of

  18. Reconstructing the late-Holocene fluvial dynamics of the River Nile in central Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraeten, G.; Willems, H.; Notebaert, B.; Dusar, B.; de Laet, V.; Marinova, E.; Kaniewski, D.

    2009-04-01

    From 2004 on, geoarchaeological research is being carried out in the Nile floodplain near Dayr al Bershah, an important ancient Egyptian funeral site in central Egypt covering burial sites from the Old to the New Kingdom. The reconstruction of the ancient Nilotic landscape and human-environment interactions alongside the transition from the lower desert to the Nile floodplain was approached multidisciplinarily. On the one hand, in the floodplain more than 300 detailed hand augerings up to 6 m depth were made, and compared with electrical resistivity imaging profiles with lengths up to 1200 m and depths from 20-45 m. These data were complemented with information obtained from historical map analysis, remote sensing imagery (ASTER, Quickbird, Corona) and digital elevation models (SRTM). Preliminary results show good correspondence between the sedimentological analysis of the hand augerings and the electrical resistivity values: sandy paleochannel deposits show high resistivity values, whereas silty to clay-rich floodplain deposits show very low ER-values. All information sources show several Nile branches being active prior to the closure of the Aswan Dam in 1964, and most branches can also be traced applying topographical analysis, confirming the sedimentological and ER analyses. However, one major branch relatively close to the eastern edge of the floodplain and the current village of Dayr al Bershah could only be traced by coring and ER as it is no longer topographically visible. First dating results suggest this Nile branch being at least 600 years old and some parts being active up to 2000 years ago. Moreover, several radiocarbon dates from the Nile floodplain show there is no clear age-depth relationship present within the floodplain sediments, as a strong negative exponential relationship between the sedimentation rate in mm.a-1 and the sediment age has been proven. This indicates large parts of the floodplain near Dayr al Bershah have been reworked over the

  19. A White Nile megalake during the last interglacial period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrows, Timothy T.; Williams, Martin A. J.; Mills, Stephanie C.; Duller, Geoff A. T.; Fifield, L. Keith; Haberlah, David; Tims, Stephen G.; Williams, Frances M.

    2014-05-01

    The eastern Sahara Desert of Africa is one of the most climatically sensitive areas on Earth, varying from lake-studded savannah woodland to hyperarid desert over the course of a glacial-interglacial cycle. In currently semiarid Sudan there is widespread evidence that a very large freshwater lake once filled the White Nile River valley (Barrows et al., 2014). Here we present the first quantitative estimate for the dimensions of the lake and a direct age for the emplacement of its shoreline. Using a profile dating approach with the cosmogenic nuclide 10Be, we estimate an exposure age of 109 ± 8 ka for this megalake, indicating that it probably formed during the last interglacial period. This age is supported by optically stimulated luminescence dating of Blue Nile paleochannels associated with the lake. Using a high-resolution digital elevation model, we estimate that the lake was more than 45,000 km2 in area, making it comparable to the largest freshwater lakes on Earth today. We attribute the lake's existence to seasonal flood pulses as a result of local damming of the White Nile by a more southern position of the Blue Nile and greatly increased precipitation associated with an enhanced monsoon. References Barrows, T.T., Williams, M.A.J., Mills, S.C., Duller, G.A.T., Fifield, L.K., Haberlah, D., Tims, S.G., Williams, F.M., 2014. A White Nile megalake during the last interglacial period. Geology. 10.1130/g35238.1

  20. Analysis of stream-aquifer system interrelationships in the Big Blue and Little Blue River basins in Gage and Jefferson Counties, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    Seepage measurements made during the fall of 1978 at 21 sites in the Big Blue River basin and at 35 sites in the Little Blue River basin were used to determine stream gains or losses in 20 drainage areas in the Big Blue River basin and 31 drainage areas in the Little Blue River basin. Analyses of data from these seepage measurements and of available hydrogeologic data indicate that the most significant ground-water contributions to streamflow in the Big Blue and Little Blue River drainage basins in Gage and Jefferson Counties, Nebr., occur where a direct hydraulic connection exists between a stream and buried coarse-grained deposits of Quaternary age. These deposits occur in two buried bedrock valleys that trend east-northeasterly across the area. The largest ground-water contributions to streamflow in the Big Blue River occur in the reaches of the river between the mouth of Mud Creek and the dam at Blue Springs (about 13 cubic feet per second) and between the mouth of Turkey Creek and the Beatrice gaging station (about 22 cubic feet per second). Ground-water contributions to streamflow also occur in two tributaries of the Big Blue River; Bear Creek (4.39 cubic feet per second) and Big Indian Creek (6.23 cubic feet per second). In the Little Blue River basin the largest contributions to streamflow occur between the mouths of Big Sandy Creeks (about 6.5 cubic feet per second) and in the vicinity of Fairbury (about 16 cubic feet per second). A ground-water contribution to streamflow of about 6.5 cubic feet per second also occurs in Rose Creek, a tributary of the Little Blue River. (USGS)

  1. Prevalence and characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in dairy cattle in Nile River delta provinces, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Amer, Said; Zidan, Shereif; Adamu, Haileeyesus; Ye, Jianbin; Roellig, Dawn; Xiao, Lihua; Feng, Yaoyu

    2013-11-01

    Molecular characterizations of Cryptosporidium spp. in dairy cattle in industrialized nations have mostly shown a dominance of Cryptosporidium parvum, especially its IIa subtypes in pre-weaned calves. Few studies, however, have been conducted on the distribution of Cryptosporidium species and C. parvum subtypes in various age groups of dairy cattle in developing countries. In this study, we examined the prevalence and molecular characteristics of Cryptosporidium in dairy cattle in four Nile River delta provinces in Egypt. Modified Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast microscopy was used to screen for Cryptosporidium oocysts in 1974 fecal specimens from animals of different ages on 12 farms. Positive fecal specimens were identified from all studied farms with an overall prevalence of 13.6%. By age group, the infection rates were 12.5% in pre-weaned calves, 10.4% in post-weaned calves, 22.1% in heifers, and 10.7% in adults. PCR-RFLP and DNA sequence analyses of microscopy-positive fecal specimens revealed the presence of four major Cryptosporidium species. In pre-weaned calves, C. parvum was most common (30/69 or 43.5%), but Cryptosporidium ryanae (13/69 or 18.8%), Cryptosporidium bovis (7/69 or 10.2%), and Cryptosporidium andersoni (7/69 or 10.2%) were also present at much higher frequencies seen in most industrialized nations. Mixed infections were seen in 12/69 (17.4%) of genotyped specimens. In contrast, C. andersoni was the dominant species (193/195 or 99.0%) in post-weaned calves and older animals. Subtyping of C. parvum based on sequence analysis of the 60kDa glycoprotein gene showed the presence of subtypes IIdA20G1 in nine specimens, IIaA15G1R1 in 27 specimens, and a rare subtype IIaA14G1R1r1b in one specimen. The common occurrence of non-C. parvum species and IId subtypes in pre-weaned calves is a distinct feature of cryptosporidiosis transmission in dairy cattle in Egypt. The finding of the same two dominant IIa and IId C. parvum subtypes recently found in humans in

  2. N Isotopes in Nile Sediments (ethiopia, Sudan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padoan, M.; Villa, I. M.; Garzanti, E.; Galbusera, M.; Quistini, S.; Peruta, L.; El Kammar, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Nile is the most important river of the Eastern Mediterranean. Its water and sediment fluxes have greatly influenced marine circulation throughout the Quaternary, and are widely considered as possible causes for stagnation and formation of sapropel (Krom et al., 1999a; 2002; Talbot et al., 2000; Freydier et al., 2001; Weldeab et al., 2002; Scrivner et al., 2004). Variations in annual flooding and baseflow of the river Nile, controlled by climate changes, had major impact on the rise and demise of Egyptian dynasties (Stanley et al., 2003). In order to better define sedimentary sources of the Nile system and to obtain more robust results, we have analyzed Nd isotopes in sediments of all its major Sudanese and Ethiopian tributaries (Atbara, Gash, Abay, Didesa, Dabus, White Nile, Bahr Ez Zeraf) in several replicate samples. Analyses were carried out on distinct mud and sand fractions (<40 microns and 125-180 microns) of 30 samples, and systematic changes related to grain size and hydraulic-sorting processes could thus be investigated. On the same samples, companion studies are being carried out on Sr isotopes (Padoan et al., 2007) and on Pb isotopes at the Geological Survey of Israel (Harlavan et al., in preparation). Overall, isotopic signals are markedly different between the White Nile system, derived from largely Archean to Paleoproterozoic basement rocks, and Ethiopian tributaries, derived in diverse proportions from largely Neoproterozoic rift-shoulder basements and overlying Oligocene flood basalts. Isotopic signals of Main Nile sediments downstream of the Atbara confluence are close to those of Blue Nile sediments, indicating that detritus is mainly provided by the latter (Garzanti et al., 2006). In the White Nile branch, the 143Nd/144Nd ratio of the mud fraction is lower in the Bahr Ez Zeraf (0.51167) than in the White Nile downstrean of the Sobat confluence (0.51219), revealing significant sediment influx from the latter. In Blue Nile and Atbara branches

  3. Holocene evolution of the River Nile drainage system as revealed from the Lake Dendi sediment record, central Ethiopian highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, B.; Viehberg, F. A.; Wennrich, V.; Junginger, A.; Kolvenbach, A.; Rethemeyer, J.; Schaebitz, F.; Schmiedl, G. H.

    2015-12-01

    A 12 m long sediment sequence from Dendi Crater lakes, located on the central Ethiopian Plateau, was analysed with sedimentological and geochemical methods to reconstruct the regional environmental history. Bulk organic carbon samples from 23 horizons throughout the sequence were used for AMS radiocarbon dating and indicate that the sediment sequence spans the last ca. 12 cal kyr BP. Microscope analyses and sedimentological data reveal three tephra layers, of which the most prominent layer with a thickness of ~2 m was deposited at 10.2 cal kyr BP and probably originates from an eruption of the Wenchi crater 12 km to the west of the Dendi lakes. Sedimentological data of the pelagic deposits indicate shifts in erosion and rainfall throughout the record. A decrease in Ca and Sr at 11.6 cal kyr BP is related to the shift of less humid condition during the Younger Dryas (YD) to the return to full humid conditions of the African Humid Period (AHP). Single thin horizons with high carbonate content or high Ti and K imply that short spells of dry conditions and significantly increased rainfall superimpose the generally more humid conditions during the AHP. The end of the AHP is gradual. Relatively stable and less humid conditions characterised the Dendi Crater lakes until around 3.9 cal kyr BP. A highly variable increase in clastic matter over the last 1500 years indicates higher erosion due to short-term variations in precipitation within the Dendi catchment. Overall, the sediment record suggests moderate change of precipitation during the Holocene, which is probably due to their exposed location in the Ethiopian highlands. The data from the Dendi Crater lakes show, in concert with other records from the Nile catchment and the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS), that the Blue Nile provided the main freshwater source for maintaining EMS stratification and sapropel S1 formation between ca. 10.0 and 8.7 cal kyr BP. Subsequent aridification is recorded from equatorial East Africa

  4. Coupled hydrologic and land use change models for decision making on land and water resources in the Upper Blue Nile basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalew, Seleshi; van der Zaag, Pieter; Mul, Marloes; Uhlenbrook, Stefan; Teferi, Ermias; van Griensven, Ann; van der Kwast, Johannes

    2013-04-01

    Hydrology of a basin, alongside climate change, is well documented to impact and to be impacted by land use/land cover change processes. The need to understand the impacts of hydrology on land use change and vice- versa cannot be overstated especially in basins such as the Upper Blue Nile in Ethiopia, where the vast majority of farmers depend on rain-fed agriculture. A slight fluctuation in rainy seasons or an increase or decrease in magnitude of precipitation can easily trigger drought or flooding. On the other hand, ever growing population and emerging economic development, among others, is likely to continually alter land use/land cover change, thereby affecting hydrological processes. With the intention of identifying and analyzing interactions and future scenarios of the hydrology and land use/land cover, we carried out a case study on a meso-scale catchment, in the Upper Blue Nile basin. A land use model using SITE (SImulation of Terrestrial Environments) was built for analyzing land use trends from aerial land cover photographs of 1957 and simulate until 2009 based on socio-economic as well as biophysical factors. Major land use drivers in the catchment were identified and used as input to the land use model. Separate land use maps were produced using Landsat images of 1972, 1986, 1994 and 2009 for historical calibration of the land use model. By the same token, a hydrological model for the same catchment was built using the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model. After calibration of the two independent models, they were loosely coupled for analyzing the changes in either of the models and impacts on the other. Among other details, the coupled model performed better in identifying limiting factors from both the hydrology as well as from the land use perspectives. For instance, the simulation of the uncoupled land use model alone (without inputs from SWAT on the water budget of each land use parcel) continually considered a land use type such as a wet

  5. Analysis of water quality in the Blue River watershed, Colorado, 1984 through 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bauch, Nancy J.; Miller, Lisa D.; Yacob, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Water quality of streams, reservoirs, and groundwater in the Blue River watershed in the central Rocky Mountains of Colorado has been affected by local geologic conditions, historical hard-rock metal mining, and recent urban development. With these considerations, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Summit Water Quality Committee, conducted a study to compile historical water-quality data and assess water-quality conditions in the watershed. To assess water-quality conditions, stream data were primarily analyzed from October 1995 through December 2006, groundwater data from May 1996 through September 2004, and reservoir data from May 1984 through November 2007. Stream data for the Snake River, upper Blue River, and Tenmile Creek subwatersheds upstream from Dillon Reservoir and the lower Blue River watershed downstream from Dillon Reservoir were analyzed separately. (The complete abstract is provided in the report)

  6. Summer rains and dry seasons in the upper Blue Nile Basin: the predictability of half a century of past and future spatiotemporal patterns.

    PubMed

    Mellander, Per-Erik; Gebrehiwot, Solomon G; Gärdenäs, Annemieke I; Bewket, Woldeamlak; Bishop, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    During the last 100 years the Ethiopian upper Blue Nile Basin (BNB) has undergone major changes in land use, and is now potentially facing changes in climate. Rainfall over BNB supplies over two-thirds of the water to the Nile and supports a large local population living mainly on subsistence agriculture. Regional food security is sensitive to both the amount and timing of rain and is already an important political challenge that will be further complicated if scenarios of climate change are realized. In this study a simple spatial model of the timing and duration of summer rains (Kiremt) and dry season (Bega), and annual rain over the upper BNB was established from observed data between 1952 and 2004. The model was used to explore potential impacts of climate change on these rains, using a down-scaled ECHAM5/MP1-OM scenario between 2050 and 2100. Over the observed period the amount, onset and duration of Kiremt rains and rain-free Bega days have exhibited a consistent spatial pattern. The spatially averaged annual rainfall was 1490 mm of which 93% was Kiremt rain. The average Kiremt rain and number of rainy days was higher in the southwest (322 days) and decreased towards the north (136 days). Under the 2050-2100 scenario, the annual mean rainfall is predicted to increase by 6% and maintain the same spatial pattern as in the past. A larger change in annual rainfall is expected in the southwest (ca. +130 mm) with a gradually smaller change towards the north (ca. +70 mm). Results highlight the need to account for the characteristic spatiotemporal zonation when planning water management and climate adaptation within the upper BNB. The presented simple spatial resolved models of the presence of Kiremt and annual total rainfall could be used as a baseline for such long-term planning. PMID:23869219

  7. Summer Rains and Dry Seasons in the Upper Blue Nile Basin: The Predictability of Half a Century of Past and Future Spatiotemporal Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Mellander, Per-Erik; Gebrehiwot, Solomon G.; Gärdenäs, Annemieke I.; Bewket, Woldeamlak; Bishop, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    During the last 100 years the Ethiopian upper Blue Nile Basin (BNB) has undergone major changes in land use, and is now potentially facing changes in climate. Rainfall over BNB supplies over two-thirds of the water to the Nile and supports a large local population living mainly on subsistence agriculture. Regional food security is sensitive to both the amount and timing of rain and is already an important political challenge that will be further complicated if scenarios of climate change are realized. In this study a simple spatial model of the timing and duration of summer rains (Kiremt) and dry season (Bega), and annual rain over the upper BNB was established from observed data between 1952 and 2004. The model was used to explore potential impacts of climate change on these rains, using a down-scaled ECHAM5/MP1-OM scenario between 2050 and 2100. Over the observed period the amount, onset and duration of Kiremt rains and rain-free Bega days have exhibited a consistent spatial pattern. The spatially averaged annual rainfall was 1490 mm of which 93% was Kiremt rain. The average Kiremt rain and number of rainy days was higher in the southwest (322 days) and decreased towards the north (136 days). Under the 2050–2100 scenario, the annual mean rainfall is predicted to increase by 6% and maintain the same spatial pattern as in the past. A larger change in annual rainfall is expected in the southwest (ca. +130 mm) with a gradually smaller change towards the north (ca. +70 mm). Results highlight the need to account for the characteristic spatiotemporal zonation when planning water management and climate adaptation within the upper BNB. The presented simple spatial resolved models of the presence of Kiremt and annual total rainfall could be used as a baseline for such long-term planning. PMID:23869219

  8. LIS-HYMAP coupled Hydrological Modeling in the Nile River Basin and the Greater Horn of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, H. C.; Getirana, A.; Policelli, F. S.

    2015-12-01

    Water scarcity and resources in Africa have been exacerbated by periodic droughts and floods. However, few studies show the quantitative analysis of water balance or basin-scale hydrological modeling in Northeast Africa. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) is implemented to simulate land surface processes in the Nile River Basin and the Greater Horn of Africa. In this context, the Noah land surface model (LSM) and the Hydrological Modeling and Analysis Platform (HYMAP) are used to reproduce the water budget and surface water (rivers and floodplains) dynamics in that region. The Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) meteorological dataset is used to force the system . Due to the unavailability of recent ground-based observations, satellite data are considered to evaluate first model outputs. Water levels at 10 Envisat virtual stations and water discharges at a gauging station are used to provide model performance coefficients (e.g. Nash-Sutcliffe, delay index, relative error). We also compare the spatial and temporal variations of flooded areas from the model with the Global Inundation Extent from Multi-Satellites (GIEMS) and the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF)'s MEaSUREs Wetland data. Finally, we estimate surface water storage variations using a hypsographic curve approach with Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) topographic data and evaluate the model-derived water storage changes in both river and floodplain. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using LIS-HYMAP coupled modeling to support seasonal forecast methods for prediction of decision-relevant metrics of hydrologic extremes.

  9. Nile behaviour and Late Palaeolithic humans in Upper Egypt during the Late Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeersch, Pierre M.; Van Neer, Wim

    2015-12-01

    The reconstruction of the environment and the human population history of the Nile Valley during the Late Pleistocene have received a lot of attention in the literature thus far. There seems to be a consensus that during MIS2 extreme dry conditions prevailed over north-eastern Africa, which was apparently not occupied by humans. The Nile Valley seems to be an exception; numerous field data have been collected suggesting an important population density in Upper Egypt during MIS2. The occupation remains are often stratified in, or at least related to, aeolian and Nile deposits at some elevation above the present-day floodplain. They are rich in lithics and animal bones, mainly fish, illustrating the exploitation of the Nile Valley by the Late Palaeolithic inhabitants. The fluvial processes active during that period have traditionally been interpreted as a continuously rising highly braided river. In this paper we summarize the evidence thus far available for the Late Pleistocene on the population densities in the Nile Valley, and on the models of Nilotic behaviour. In the discussion we include data on the environmental conditions in Eastern Africa, on the aeolian processes in the Western Desert of Egypt derived from satellite images, 14C and OSL dates, in order to formulate a new model that explains the observed high remnants of aeolian and Nilotic deposits and the related Late Palaeolithic sites. This model hypothesizes that, during the Late Pleistocene, and especially the LGM, dunes from the Western Desert invaded the Nile Valley at several places in Upper Egypt. The much reduced activity of the White Nile and the Blue Nile was unable to evacuate incoming aeolian sand and, as a consequence, several dams were created in the Upper Egyptian Nile Valley. Behind such dams the created lakes offered ideal conditions for human subsistence. This model explains the occurrence of Late Palaeolithic hunter-fisher-gatherers in a very arid environment with very low Nile flows

  10. Water resources of the Blue Earth River watershed, south-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, H.W.; Farrell, D.F.; Broussard, W.L.

    1974-01-01

    The Blue Earth River Watershed in Minnesota includes 3,106 square miles of land surface, which varies from fairly flat to gently rolling. The drainage extends south to include an additional 450 square miles in Iowa. The western, southern, and eastern boundaries are end moraines formed by Pleistocene glaciers. Major streams have eroded channels 40 to 75 feet deep in headwater regions and 150 to 200 feet deep near the mouth of the Blue Earth River at Mankato. In their lower reaches major streams have cut through glacial deposits and into underlying bedrock (described on ground-water sheet).

  11. Nile Delta, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Nile Delta of Egypt (30.0N, 31.0E) irrigated by the Nile River and its many distributaries, is some of the richest farm land in the world and home to some 45 million people, over half of Egypt's population of 57 million. The capital city of Cairo is at the apex of the delta in the middle of the scene. Across the river from Cairo can be seen the three big pyramids and sphinx at Giza and the Suez Canal is just to the right of the delta.

  12. Identification of the main attribute of river flow temporal variations in the Nile Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onyutha, C.; Willems, P.

    2015-11-01

    Temporal variation of monthly flows was investigated at 18 Discharge Measurement Stations (DMS) within the Nile Basin in Africa. The DMS were grouped using a clustering procedure based on the similarity in the flow variation patterns. The co-variation of the rainfall and flow was assessed in each group. To investigate the possible change in catchment behavior, which may interfere with the flow-rainfall relationship, three rainfall-runoff models were applied to the major catchment in each group based on the data time period falling within 1940-2003. The co-occurrence of the changes in the observed and simulated overland flow was examined using the cumulative rank difference (CRD) technique and the quantile perturbation method (QPM). Two groups of the DMS were obtained. Group 1 comprises the DMS from the equatorial region and/or South Sudan, while those in Sudan, Ethiopia and Egypt form group 2. In the selected catchment of each group, the patterns of changes in terms of the CRD sub-trends and QPM anomalies for both the observed and simulated flows were in a close agreement. These results indicate that change in catchment behavior due to anthropogenic influence in the Nile basin over the selected time period was minimal. Thus, the overall rainfall-runoff generation processes of the catchments were not impacted upon in a significant way. The temporal flow variations could be attributed mainly to the rainfall variations.

  13. The Carbon Cycle at the Nile Headwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Michael; Saunders, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    The carbon cycle at the Nile headwaters M B Jones, School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College, University of Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland M Saunders, Environmental and Biochemical Sciences Group, The James Hutton Institute, Aberdeen, Scotland River systems play an integral role in the global carbon cycle by connecting the terrestrial biosphere, the atmosphere and the oceans. Extensive wetland systems, such as those found in the Amazon region, have been shown to export significant amounts of carbon to river waters as dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) that can be transported and emitted hundreds of km downstream. The assessment of both regional and global carbon budgets could therefore be improved by quantifying these lateral carbon fluxes, especially from highly productive temporarily or permanently flooded areas where substantial CO2 evasion from inland waters can occur. The Nile is the longest river in the world and the headwaters are located in the extensive Papyrus dominated wetlands in central Africa that are associated with Lake Victoria. From its source the White Nile flows northwards through wetlands in Uganda and Sudan before it joins the Blue Nile. Papyrus wetlands have been shown to be some of the most productive global ecosystems, with recorded rates of aerial net primary productivity of up to 3.09 kg C m-2 yr-1. In addition, where anaerobic conditions occur they also accumulate large amounts of carbon in the form of peat, and under these circumstances they represent a significant carbon sink. However, as water moves through these wetlands and is exchanged with surrounding rivers and lakes significant quantities of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon as well as suspended particulate organic matter are exported, which are either released further downstream by degassing, decomposition or deposition. Information on such losses from these wetland ecosystems is extremely sparse but in order to better constrain ecosystem scale carbon dynamics more accurate

  14. Assessment of climate change impact on hydrological extremes in two source regions of the Nile River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taye, M. T.; Ntegeka, V.; Ogiramoi, N. P.; Willems, P.

    2011-01-01

    The potential impact of climate change was investigated on the hydrological extremes of Nyando River and Lake Tana catchments, which are located in two source regions of the Nile River basin. Climate change scenarios were developed for rainfall and potential evapotranspiration (ETo), considering 17 General Circulation Model (GCM) simulations to better understand the range of possible future change. They were constructed by transferring the extracted climate change signals to the observed series using a frequency perturbation downscaling approach, which accounts for the changes in rainfall extremes. Projected changes under two future SRES emission scenarios A1B and B1 for the 2050s were considered. Two conceptual hydrological models were calibrated and used for the impact assessment. Their difference in simulating the flows under future climate scenarios was also investigated. The results reveal increasing mean runoff and extreme peak flows for Nyando catchment for the 2050s while unclear trend is observed for Lake Tana catchment for mean volumes and high/low flows. The hydrological models for Lake Tana catchment, however, performed better in simulating the hydrological regimes than for Nyando, which obviously also induces a difference in the reliability of the extreme future projections for both catchments. The unclear impact result for Lake Tana catchment implies that the GCM uncertainty is more important for explaining the unclear trend than the hydrological models uncertainty. Nevertheless, to have a better understanding of future impact, hydrological models need to be verified for their credibility of simulating extreme flows.

  15. Diet and population metrics of the introduced blue catfish population in the Altamaha, River, GA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonvechio, Timothy F.; Jennings, Cecil A.

    2011-01-01

    Blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) were first detected in the Altamaha River, Georgia, during an access creel survey in 2005 and subsequently in 2006 during annual ictalurid sampling. Introduction of this species in the Altamaha River is believed to have occurred via escape from normal upstream reservoir releases from Lake Sinclair and Lake Oconee. Relative abundance, as indexed by electrofishing catch rate (fish per hour), has increased from 2.9±1.0 SE in 2006 to 38.8±8.2 SE in 2011. The size of blue catfish captured ranged from 56 to 820 mm total length and 0.001 to 7.7 kg. Using otoliths obtained in 2010 (n=214), age of fish ranged from 0 to 6 yrs, which indicated a relatively young population. The catch-curve analysis resulted in an instantaneous mortality rate (Z) of 0.75. Despite concerns of blue catfish predation on native fishes and mussels, a diet analysis of blue catfish (n=257) obtained in 2010 revealed that diets of fish in all size groups were dominated by the introduced Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea). This study describes a recently introduced blue catfish population in an Atlantic coastal plain river and provides insight on possible ecological effects during the early phases of establishment. These results offer an early status assessment of the invasion dynamics before the system has had time to reach a new equilibrium state.

  16. 76 FR 25545 - Safety Zone; Blue Crab Festival Fireworks Display, Little River, Little River, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Blue Crab Festival Fireworks Display... Carolina during the Blue Crab Festival Fireworks Display on Friday, ] May 13, 2011. The safety zone is... this rule because the Coast Guard did not receive notice of the Blue Crab Festival Fireworks...

  17. Biophysical and financial impacts of community-based gully rehabilitation in the Birr Watershed, Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although erosion in the Ethiopian highlands has been occurring for thousands of years, rivers sediment concentration has increased two to three fold during the last fifty years, reducing crop and livestock production and the volume of irrigation water stored in reservoirs. Gully erosion in particula...

  18. Comparing TRMM 3B42, CFSR and ground-based rainfall estimates as input for hydrological models, in data scarce regions: the Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worqlul, A. W.; Collick, A. S.; Tilahun, S. A.; Langan, S.; Rientjes, T. H. M.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2015-02-01

    Accurate prediction of hydrological models requires accurate spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall observation network. In developing countries rainfall observation station network are sparse and unevenly distributed. Satellite-based products have the potential to overcome these shortcomings. The objective of this study is to compare the advantages and the limitation of commonly used high-resolution satellite rainfall products as input to hydrological models as compared to sparsely populated network of rain gauges. For this comparison we use two semi-distributed hydrological models Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning (HBV) and Parameter Efficient Distributed (PED) that performed well in Ethiopian highlands in two watersheds: the Gilgel Abay with relatively dense network and Main Beles with relatively scarce rain gauge stations. Both are located in the Upper Blue Nile Basin. The two models are calibrated with the observed discharge from 1994 to 2003 and validated from 2004 to 2006. Satellite rainfall estimates used includes Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B42 version 7 and ground rainfall measurements. The results indicated that both the gauged and the CFSR precipitation estimates were able to reproduce the stream flow well for both models and both watershed. TRMM 3B42 performed poorly with Nash Sutcliffe values less than 0.1. As expected the HBV model performed slightly better than the PED model, because HBV divides the watershed into sub-basins resulting in a greater number of calibration parameters. The simulated discharge for the Gilgel Abay was better than for the less well endowed (rain gauge wise) Main Beles. Finally surprisingly, the ground based gauge performed better for both watersheds (with the exception of extreme events) than TRMM and CFSR satellite rainfall estimates. Undoubtedly in the future, when improved satellite products will become available, this will change.

  19. Effects of land use and land cover on selected soil quality indicators in the headwater area of the Blue Nile basin of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Teferi, Ermias; Bewket, Woldeamlak; Simane, Belay

    2016-02-01

    Understanding changes in soil quality resulting from land use and land management changes is important to design sustainable land management plans or interventions. This study evaluated the influence of land use and land cover (LULC) on key soil quality indicators (SQIs) within a small watershed (Jedeb) in the Blue Nile Basin of Ethiopia. Factor analysis based on principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine different SQIs. Surface (0-15 cm) soil samples with four replications were collected from five main LULC types in the watershed (i.e., natural woody vegetation, plantation forest, grassland, cultivated land, and barren land) and at two elevation classes (upland and midland), and 13 soil properties were measured for each replicate. A factorial (2 × 5) multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) showed that LULC and altitude together significantly affected organic matter (OM) levels. However, LULC alone significantly affected bulk density and altitude alone significantly affected bulk density, soil acidity, and silt content. Afforestation of barren land with eucalypt trees can significantly increase the soil OM in the midland part but not in the upland part. Soils under grassland had a significantly higher bulk density than did soils under natural woody vegetation indicating that de-vegetation and conversion to grassland could lead to soil compaction. Thus, the historical LULC change in the Jedeb watershed has resulted in the loss of soil OM and increased soil compaction. The study shows that a land use and management system can be monitored if it degrades or maintains or improves the soil using key soil quality indicators. PMID:26744135

  20. ECOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS, WEST NILE VIRUS, AND AVIAN PARAMYXOVIRUS INFECTION AND ANTIBODY STATUS IN BLUE-WINGED TEAL (ANAS DISCORS) IN THE CANADIAN PRAIRIES.

    PubMed

    Nallar, Rodolfo; Papp, Zsuzsanna; Leighton, Frederick A; Epp, Tasha; Pasick, John; Berhane, Yohannes; Lindsay, Robbin; Soos, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The Canadian prairies are one of the most important breeding and staging areas for migratory waterfowl in North America. Hundreds of thousands of waterfowl of numerous species from multiple flyways converge in and disperse from this region annually; therefore this region may be a key area for potential intra- and interspecific spread of infectious pathogens among migratory waterfowl in the Americas. Using Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors, BWTE), which have the most extensive migratory range among waterfowl species, we investigated ecologic risk factors for infection and antibody status to avian influenza virus (AIV), West Nile virus (WNV), and avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1) in the three prairie provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba) prior to fall migration. We used generalized linear models to examine infection or evidence of exposure in relation to host (age, sex, body condition, exposure to other infections), spatiotemporal (year, province), population-level (local population densities of BWTE, total waterfowl densities), and environmental (local pond densities) factors. The probability of AIV infection in BWTE was associated with host factors (e.g., age and antibody status), population-level factors (e.g., local BWTE population density), and year. An interaction between age and AIV antibody status showed that hatch year birds with antibodies to AIV were more likely to be infected, suggesting an antibody response to an active infection. Infection with AIV was positively associated with local BWTE density, supporting the hypothesis of density-dependent transmission. The presence of antibodies to WNV and APMV-1 was positively associated with age and varied among years. Furthermore, the probability of being WNV antibody positive was positively associated with pond density rather than host population density, likely because ponds provide suitable breeding habitat for mosquitoes, the primary vectors for transmission. Our findings highlight the importance of

  1. Understanding the ecology of blue elderberry to inform landscape restoration in semiarid river corridors.

    PubMed

    Vaghti, Mehrey G; Holyoak, Marcel; Williams, Amy; Talley, Theresa S; Fremier, Alexander K; Greco, Steven E

    2009-01-01

    Societal constraints often limit full process restoration in large river systems, making local rehabilitation activities valuable for regeneration of riparian vegetation. A target of much mitigation and restoration is the federally threatened Valley elderberry longhorn beetle and its sole host plant, blue elderberry, in upper riparian floodplain environments. However, blue elderberry ecology is not well understood and restoration attempts typically have low success rates. We determined broad-scale habitat characteristics of elderberry in altered systems and examined associated plant species composition in remnant habitat. We quantified vegetation community composition in 139 remnant riparian forest patches along the Sacramento River and elderberry stem diameters along this and four adjacent rivers. The greatest proportion of plots containing elderberry was located on higher and older floodplain surfaces and in riparian woodlands dominated by black walnut. Blue elderberry saplings and shrubs with stems <5.0 cm in diameter were rare, suggesting a lack of recruitment. A complex suite of vegetation was associated with blue elderberry, including several invasive species which are potentially outcompeting seedlings for light, water, or other resources. Such lack of recruitment places increased importance on horticultural restoration for the survival of an imperiled species. These findings further indicate a need to ascertain whether intervention is necessary to maintain functional and diverse riparian woodlands, and a need to monitor vegetative species composition over time, especially in relation to flow regulation. PMID:19034562

  2. Understanding the Ecology of Blue Elderberry to Inform Landscape Restoration in Semiarid River Corridors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaghti, Mehrey G.; Holyoak, Marcel; Williams, Amy; Talley, Theresa S.; Fremier, Alexander K.; Greco, Steven E.

    2009-01-01

    Societal constraints often limit full process restoration in large river systems, making local rehabilitation activities valuable for regeneration of riparian vegetation. A target of much mitigation and restoration is the federally threatened Valley elderberry longhorn beetle and its sole host plant, blue elderberry, in upper riparian floodplain environments. However, blue elderberry ecology is not well understood and restoration attempts typically have low success rates. We determined broad-scale habitat characteristics of elderberry in altered systems and examined associated plant species composition in remnant habitat. We quantified vegetation community composition in 139 remnant riparian forest patches along the Sacramento River and elderberry stem diameters along this and four adjacent rivers. The greatest proportion of plots containing elderberry was located on higher and older floodplain surfaces and in riparian woodlands dominated by black walnut. Blue elderberry saplings and shrubs with stems <5.0 cm in diameter were rare, suggesting a lack of recruitment. A complex suite of vegetation was associated with blue elderberry, including several invasive species which are potentially outcompeting seedlings for light, water, or other resources. Such lack of recruitment places increased importance on horticultural restoration for the survival of an imperiled species. These findings further indicate a need to ascertain whether intervention is necessary to maintain functional and diverse riparian woodlands, and a need to monitor vegetative species composition over time, especially in relation to flow regulation.

  3. Simulation of blue and green water resources in the Wei River basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Z.; Zuo, D.

    2014-09-01

    The Wei River is the largest tributary of the Yellow River in China and it is suffering from water scarcity and water pollution. In order to quantify the amount of water resources in the study area, a hydrological modelling approach was applied by using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool), calibrated and validated with SUFI-2 (Sequential Uncertainty Fitting program) based on river discharge in the Wei River basin (WRB). Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were also performed to improve the model performance. Water resources components of blue water flow, green water flow and green water storage were estimated at the HRU (Hydrological Response Unit) scales. Water resources in HRUs were also aggregated to sub-basins, river catchments, and then city/region scales for further analysis. The results showed that most parts of the WRB experienced a decrease in blue water resources between the 1960s and 2000s, with a minimum value in the 1990s. The decrease is particularly significant in the most southern part of the WRB (Guanzhong Plain), one of the most important grain production basements in China. Variations of green water flow and green water storage were relatively small on the spatial and temporal dimensions. This study provides strategic information for optimal utilization of water resources and planning of cultivating seasons in the Wei River basin.

  4. Mosquitoes and West Nile virus along a river corridor from prairie to montane habitats in eastern Colorado.

    PubMed

    Barker, Christopher M; Bolling, Bethany G; Black, William C; Moore, Chester G; Eisen, Lars

    2009-12-01

    We conducted studies on mosquitoes and West Nile virus (WNV) along a riparian corridor following the South Platte River and Big Thompson River in northeastern Colorado and extending from an elevation of 1,215 m in the prairie landscape of the eastern Colorado plains to 1,840 m in low montane areas at the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains in the central part of the state. Mosquito collection during June-September 2007 in 20 sites along this riparian corridor yielded a total of 199,833 identifiable mosquitoes of 17 species. The most commonly collected mosquitoes were, in descending order: Aedes vexans, Culex tarsalis, Ae. dorsalis, Ae. trivittatus, Ae. melanimon, Cx. pipiens, and Culiseta inornata. Species richness was higher in the plains than in foothills-montane areas, and abundances of several individual species, including the WNV vectors Cx. tarsalis and Cx. pipiens and the nuisance-biter and potential secondary WNV vector Ae. vexans, decreased dramatically from the plains (1,215-1,487 m) to foothills-montane areas (1,524-1,840 m). Ae. vexans and Cx. tarsalis had a striking pattern of uniformly high abundances between 1,200-1,450 m followed by a gradual decrease in abundance above 1,450 m to reach very low numbers above 1,550 m. Culex species were commonly infected with WNV in the plains portion of the riparian corridor in 2007, with 14 of 16 sites yielding WNV-infected Cx. tarsalis and infection rates for Cx. tarsalis females exceeding 2.0 per 1,000 individuals in ten of the sites. The Vector Index for abundance of WNV-infected Cx. tarsalis females during June-September exceeded 0.5 in six plains sites along the South Platte River but was uniformly low (0-0.1) in plains, foothills and montane sites above 1,500 m along the Big Thompson River. A population genetic analysis of Cx. tarsalis revealed that all collections from the ≈190 km riparian transect in northeastern Colorado were genetically uniform but that these collections were genetically distinct from

  5. From the Mountains of the Moon to the Grand Renaissance: misinformation, disinformation and, finally, information for cooperation in the Nile River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitchik, B. F.; Habib, S.; Anderson, M. C.; Ozdogan, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Nile River basin is shared by 11 nations and approximately 200 million people. Eight of the riparian States are defined as Least Developed Countries by the United Nations, and about 50% of the total basin population lives below the international poverty line. In addition, eight of the eleven countries have experienced internal or external wars in the past 20 years, six are predicted to be water scarce by 2025, and, at present, major water resource development projects are moving forward in the absence of a fully recognized basin-wide water sharing agreement. Nevertheless, the Nile basin presents remarkable opportunities for transboundary water cooperation, and today—notwithstanding significant substantive and perceived disagreements between stakeholders in the basin—this cooperation is beginning to be realized in topics ranging from flood early warning to hydropower optimization to regional food security. This presentation will provide an overview of historic and present challenges and opportunities for transboundary water management in the Nile basin and will present several case studies in which improved hydroclimatic information and communication systems are currently laying the groundwork for advanced cooperation. In this context climate change acts as both stress and motivator. On one hand, non-stationary hydrology is expected to tax water resources in the basin, and it undermines confidence in conventionally formulated water sharing agreements. On the other, non-stationarity is increasingly understood to be an exogenous threat to regional food and water security that will require informed, flexible cooperation between riparian states.

  6. Estimated flood-inundation mapping for the Lower Blue River in Kansas City, Missouri, 2003-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, Brian P.; Rydlund, Paul H.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Kansas City, Missouri, began a study in 2003 of the lower Blue River in Kansas City, Missouri, from Gregory Boulevard to the mouth at the Missouri River to determine the estimated extent of flood inundation in the Blue River valley from flooding on the lower Blue River and from Missouri River backwater. Much of the lower Blue River flood plain is covered by industrial development. Rapid development in the upper end of the watershed has increased the volume of runoff, and thus the discharge of flood events for the Blue River. Modifications to the channel of the Blue River began in late 1983 in response to the need for flood control. By 2004, the channel had been widened and straightened from the mouth to immediately downstream from Blue Parkway to convey a 30-year flood. A two-dimensional depth-averaged flow model was used to simulate flooding within a 2-mile study reach of the Blue River between 63rd Street and Blue Parkway. Hydraulic simulation of the study reach provided information for the design and performance of proposed hydraulic structures and channel improvements and for the production of estimated flood-inundation maps and maps representing an areal distribution of water velocity, both magnitude and direction. Flood profiles of the Blue River were developed between Gregory Boulevard and 63rd Street from stage elevations calculated from high water marks from the flood of May 19, 2004; between 63rd Street and Blue Parkway from two-dimensional hydraulic modeling conducted for this study; and between Blue Parkway and the mouth from an existing one-dimensional hydraulic model by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Twelve inundation maps were produced at 2-foot intervals for Blue Parkway stage elevations from 750 to 772 feet. Each map is associated with National Weather Service flood-peak forecast locations at 63rd Street, Blue Parkway, Stadium Drive, U.S. Highway 40, 12th Street, and the Missouri River

  7. Occurrence, transport, and fate of trace elements, Blue River Basin, Summit County, Colorado: an integrated approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, L.E.; Driver, N.E.; Bails, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Mining activities in the Blue River Basin, Summit County, Colorado, have affected the trace-element chemistry and biota along French Gulch and the Blue River. Elevated concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were present in the bed and suspended sediments. Bed sediment trace-element concentrations were high in the streams in and near mining activities in the basin and remained high as water flowed into Dillon Reservoir about 3.5 km downstream. Bed-sediment (< 63 μm) data were useful in assessing the distribution of trace elements in the basin. Suspended-sediment measurements provided information as to the transport of the trace elements. Filtered (< 0.45 μm) water-column trace-element concentrations were orders of magnitude less than the sediment concentrations. Concentrations of Cd and Zn in the water column at some sites exceeded stream water-quality standards. Elevated trace-element concentrations in the sediment and water column are a source of contamination and must be considered in water-quality management of the Blue River Basin.

  8. Groundwater model of the Blue River basin, Nebraska-Twenty years later

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, W.M.; Emery, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    Groundwater flow models have become almost a routine tool of the practicing hydrologist. Yet, surprisingly little attention has been given to true verification analysis of studies using these models. This paper examines predictions for 1982 of water-level declines and streamflow depletions that were made in 1965 using an electric analog groundwater model of the Blue River basin in southeastern Nebraska. Analysis of the model's predictions suggests that the analog model used too low an estimate of net groundwater withdrawals, yet overestimated water-level declines. The model predicted that almost all of the net groundwater pumpage would come from storage in the Pleistocene aquifer within the Blue River basin. It appears likely that the model underestimated the contributions of other sources of water to the pumpage, and that the aquifer storage coefficients used in the model were too low. There is some evidence that groundwater pumpage has had a greater than predicted effect on streamflow. Considerable uncertainty about the basic conceptualization of the hydrology of the Blue River basin greatly limits the reliability of groundwater models developed for the basin. The paper concludes with general perspectives on groundwater modeling gained from this post-audit analysis. ?? 1986.

  9. Inter-annual and seasonal trends of vegetation condition in the Upper Blue Nile (Abay) Basin: dual-scale time series analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teferi, E.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Bewket, W.

    2015-09-01

    A long-term decline in ecosystem functioning and productivity, often called land degradation, is a serious environmental challenge to Ethiopia that needs to be understood so as to develop sustainable land use strategies. This study examines inter-annual and seasonal trends of vegetation cover in the Upper Blue Nile (UBN) or Abbay Basin. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)-based Global Inventory, Monitoring, and Modeling Studies (GIMMS) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was used for long-term vegetation trend analysis at low spatial resolution. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NDVI data (MOD13Q1) were used for medium-scale vegetation trend analysis. Harmonic analyses and non-parametric trend tests were applied to both GIMMS NDVI (1981-2006) and MODIS NDVI (2001-2011) data sets. Based on a robust trend estimator (Theil-Sen slope), most parts of the UBN (~ 77 %) showed a positive trend in monthly GIMMS NDVI, with a mean rate of 0.0015 NDVI units (3.77 % yr-1), out of which 41.15 % of the basin depicted significant increases (p < 0.05), with a mean rate of 0.0023 NDVI units (5.59 % yr-1) during the period. However, the MODIS-based vegetation trend analysis revealed that about 36 % of the UBN showed a significant decreasing trend (p < 0.05) over the period 2001-2011 at an average rate of 0.0768 NDVI yr-1. This indicates that the greening trend of the vegetation condition was followed by decreasing trend since the mid-2000s in the basin, which requires the attention of land users and decision makers. Seasonal trend analysis was found to be very useful to identify changes in vegetation condition that could be masked if only inter-annual vegetation trend analysis was performed. Over half (60 %) of the Abay Basin was found to exhibit significant trends in seasonality over the 25-year period (1982-2006). About 17 and 16 % of the significant trends consisted of areas experiencing a uniform increase in NDVI throughout the year

  10. Inter-annual and seasonal trends of vegetation condition in the Upper Blue Nile (Abbay) basin: dual scale time series analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teferi, E.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Bewket, W.

    2015-02-01

    A long-term decline in ecosystem functioning and productivity, often called land degradation, is a serious environmental and development challenge to Ethiopia that needs to be understood so as to develop sustainable land use strategies. This study examines inter-annual and seasonal trends of vegetation cover in the Upper Blue Nile (UBN) or Abbay basin. Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) based Global Inventory, Monitoring, and Modelling Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used for course scale long-term vegetation trend analysis. Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NDVI data (MOD13Q1) was used for finer scale vegetation trend analysis. Harmonic analyses and non-parametric trend tests were applied to both GIMMS NDVI (1981-2006) and MODIS NDVI (2001-2011) data sets. Based on a robust trend estimator (Theil-Sen slope) most part of the UBN (~77%) showed a positive trend in monthly GIMMS NDVI with a mean rate of 0.0015 NDVI units (3.77% yr-1), out of which 41.15% of the basin depicted significant increases (P < 0.05) with a mean rate of 0.0023 NDVI units (5.59% yr-1) during the period. However, the finer scale (250 m) MODIS-based vegetation trend analysis revealed that about 36% of the UBN shows a significantly decreasing trend (P < 0.05) over the period 2001-2011 at an average rate of 0.0768 NDVI yr-1. This indicates that the greening trend of vegetation condition was followed by browning trend since the mid-2000s in the basin, which requires the attention of land users and decision makers. Seasonal trend analysis was found to be very useful in identifying changes in vegetation condition that could be masked if only inter-annual vegetation trend analysis was performed. The finer scale intra-annual trend analysis revealed trends that were more linked to human activities. This study concludes that integrated analysis of course and fine scale, inter-annual and intra-annual trends enables a more robust

  11. Evaluation of climate anomalies impacts on the Upper Blue Nile Basin in Ethiopia using a distributed and a lumped hydrologic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsanabary, Mohamed Helmy; Gan, Thian Yew

    2015-11-01

    Evaluating the climate anomalies impacts on the Upper Blue Nile Basin (UBNB), Ethiopia, a large basin with scarce hydroclimatic data, through hydrologic modeling is a challenge. A fully distributed, physically-based model, a modified version of the Interactions Soil-Biosphere Atmosphere model of Météo France (MISBA), and a lumped, conceptual rainfall-runoff Sacramento model, SAC-SMA of the US National Weather Service, were used to simulate the streamflow of UBNB. To study the potential hydrologic effect of climate anomalies on the UBNB, rainfall and temperature data observed when climate anomalies were active, were resampled and used to drive MISBA and SAC-SMA. To obtain representative, distributed precipitation data in mountainous basins, it was found that a 3% adjustment factor for every 25 m rise in elevation was needed to orographically correct the rainfall over UBNB. The performance of MISBA applied to UBNB improved after MISBA was modified so that it could simulate evaporation loss from the canopy, providing coefficient of determination (R2) = 0.58, and root mean square error (RMSE) = 0.34 m3/s in comparison with the observed streamflow. In contrast, the performance of SAC-SMA at the calibration run and the validation run is better than that of MISBA, such that R2 is 0.79 for calibration and 0.82 for validation even though it models the hydrology of UBNB in a lumped, conceptual framework as against the physically-based, fully distributed framework of MISBA. El Niño tends to decrease the June-September rainfall but increase the February-May rainfall, while La Niña has opposite effect on the rainfall of UBNB. Based on the simulations of MISBA and SAC-SMA for UBNB, La Niña and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) tend to have a wetting effect while El Niño has a drying effect on the streamflow of the UBNB. In addition, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and IOD increase the streamflow variability more than changing the magnitude of streamflow. The results provide

  12. Gastric nematodes of nile crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti, 1768, in the Okavango River, Botswana.

    PubMed

    Junker, K; Wallace, K; Leslie, A J; Boomker, J

    2006-06-01

    The ascaridoid nematodes Dujardinascaris madagascariensis Chabaud & Caballero, 1966, Dujardinascaris dujardini (Travassos, 1920), Gedoelstascaris vandenbrandeni (Baylis, 1929) Sprent, 1978 and Multicaecum agile (Wedl, 1861) Baylis, 1923 were recovered from the stomach contents of Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti, 1768 from the Okavango River, Botswana, together with Eustrongylides sp., a dioctophymatoid nematode usually parasitizing piscivorous birds. Dujardinascaris madagascariensis was present in most of the infected hosts, while the remaining species were mostly represented in single collections in one to three hosts. All four ascaridoid nematodes represent new geographic records. PMID:16958261

  13. Hayden-Blue River 345-kV transmission line project, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc., Colorado-Ute Electric Association, Inc., Platte River Power Authority, and Western Area Power Administration propose to construct and operate approximately 90 miles of 345-kilovolt (kV) transmission line between Hayden and the Blue River Valley in Colorado. The project would involve expansion of existing substation facilities at Hayden and construction of two new substations. The line would be operated at 230 kV initially. Estimated cost of the project is $37.8 million. The new line and substation facilities would provide a backup transmission path, satisfy the long-term needs in meeting the energy requirements, improve system reliability, improve system stability for the Craig and Hayden generating stations, and leave the existing 115-kV and 138-kV lines in operation to provide additional transmission capacity that would function as backup transmission during an outage on another line. Minute amounts of lands would be displaced. Construction activities would disturb critical ranges for elk and mule deer, elk calving areas, and the mating and nesting areas of greater sandhill cranes, great blue herons, sage grouse, golden eagles, and prairie falcons. Management of timberland would damage natural vegetation. The line would traverse 3.1 miles of flood-prone area, and as many as three transmission towers would lie within the floodplain of the Colorado River. The visual quality of land crossed by the line would be degraded somewhat.

  14. Assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of green and blue water flows in inland river basins in Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, C. F.; Liu, J.; van der Velde, M.; Kraxner, F.

    2012-03-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions freshwater resources have become scarcer with increasing demands from socio-economic development and population growth. Until recently, water research and management in these has mainly focused on blue water but ignored green water. Here we report on spatial and temporal patterns of both blue and green water flows simulated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for the Heihe river basin, the second largest inland river basin in Northwest China. Calibration and validation at two hydrological stations show good performance of the SWAT model in modelling hydrological processes. The total green and blue water flows were 22.09 billion m3 in the 2000s for the Heihe river basin. Blue water flows are larger in upstream sub-basins than in downstream sub-basins mainly due to high precipitation and large areas of glaciers in upstream. Green water flows are distributed more homogeneously among different sub-basins. The green water coefficient was 88.0% in the 2000s for the entire river basin, varying from around 80-90% in up- and mid-stream sub-basins to above 95% in downstream sub-basins. This is much higher than reported green water coefficient in many other river basins. The spatial patterns of green water coefficient were closely linked to dominant land covers (e.g. glaciers in upstream and desert in downstream) and climate conditions (e.g. high precipitation in upstream and low precipitation in downstream). There are no clear consistent historical trends of change in green and blue water flows and green water coefficient at both the river basin and sub-basin levels. This study provides insights into green and blue water endowments for the entire Heihe river basin at sub-basin level. The results are helpful for formulating reasonable water policies to improve water resources management in the inland river basins of China.

  15. Replacing the Nile: are anthropogenic nutrients providing the fertility once brought to the Mediterranean by a great river?

    PubMed

    Nixon, Scott W

    2003-02-01

    Prior to construction of the Aswan High Dam, the annual Nile flood delivered about 7-11 x 10(3) t of biologically available phosphorus (P), at least 7 x 10(3) t of inorganic nitrogen (N), and 110 x 10(3) t of silica (Si) to the Mediterranean coastal waters off Egypt. These nutrients stimulated a dramatic "Nile bloom" of diatoms which supported a productive fishery. After closure of the dam in 1965, flow from the Nile was reduced by over 90%, and the fishery collapsed. It remained unproductive for about 15 years. The fishery began a dramatic recovery during the 1980s, coincident with increasing fertilizer use, expanded agricultural drainage, increasing human population, and dramatic extensions of urban water supplies and sewage collection systems. Calculations of the potential anthropogenic contribution of nutrients (P and N, but not Si) are consistent with the hypothesis that human sewage and agricultural drainage now support the fertility once provided by the Nile, though the nature of the productive ecosystem now supporting the fishery appears to be quite different from the historical one. PMID:12691489

  16. The modern Nile sediment system: Processes and products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Padoan, Marta; Vezzoli, Giovanni; El Kammar, Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    We trace compositional changes of Nile sediments for 7400 km, from their sources in equatorial rift highlands of Burundi and Rwanda to their sink in the Mediterranean Sea. All chemical and physical controls on sediment petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry, including weathering, grain-size, hydraulic sorting, mechanical breakdown, anthropic impact, mixing and recycling are investigated in detail. The Nile course is controlled along its entire length by the East African-Red Sea Rift. In this anorogenic setting, detritus is derived in various proportions from volcanic fields associated with tectonic extension (Anorogenic Volcanic provenance) and from igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks uplifted on the rift shoulders or exposed on the craton (Continental Block provenance). The entire spectrum of such detrital signatures is displayed in the Nile catchment. Volcaniclastic Atbara sand is generated by focused erosion of the Ethiopian basaltic plateau in semiarid climate, whereas quartzose White Nile sand reflects low erosion rates, extensive weathering and sediment trapping in lakes and swamps at equatorial to subequatorial latitudes. In the main Nile, as in its main tributary the Blue Nile, suspended load is volcaniclastic, whereas feldspatho-quartzose bedload is derived largely from basement sources, with fine to medium-grained eolian sand added along the lower course. Mixing of detrital populations with different provenance and grain size is reflected in diverse violations of settling-equivalence relationships in fluvial and deltaic sediments. Sediment delivery from Sudan has been cut off after closure of the Aswan High Dam and accelerated erosion of deltaic cusps is leading to local formation of placer lags dominated by ultradense Fe-Ti-Cr oxides, but mineralogical changes caused by man's radical modification of fluvial regimes have been minor so far. In beaches of Sinai, Gaza and Israel, the Nile volcaniclastic trace gets progressively diluted by quartzose

  17. Microbial Source Tracking as a Tool for TMDL Development, Little Blue River in Independence, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Eric D.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Brady, Amie M.G.

    2013-01-01

    The Little Blue River in Jackson County, Missouri has been listed by the Missouri Department of Natural Resources as impaired by bacteria for the protection of aquatic life and contact recreation from urban point and nonpoint sources. The Clean Water Act requires that a total maximum daily load (TMDL) for Escherichia coli (E. coli) be developed. Over a 5-year period, 108 base-flow, 87 stormflow, 48 fecal source, and 12 sewage influent samples were collected and analyzed for E. coli and Bacteroides general and host-associated microbial source tracking (MST) genetic markers. Less than half of the main-stem base-flow samples exceeded the E. coli state standard, whereas, all of the stormflow samples exceeded the standard during the recreation season (April through October). Both E. coli and MST markers were detected more frequently and at higher concentrations in stormflow samples. Only 14 percent of samples with E. coli detections greater than the Missouri state standard of 206 colonies per 100 milliliters had the human-associated Bacteroides marker as the only identified marker; therefore, Little Blue River TMDL development may require a broader scope beyond the municipal separate storm sewer system if bacteria sources are to be identified and addressed. Fecal samples showed a greater specificity with the human-associated marker than the dog- or ruminant-associated Bacteroides markers; however, false positives were at least one order of magnitude lower than true positives. MST data may be a useful tool for identifying probable sources of contamination and directing TMDL strategies.

  18. Socioeconomic dynamics of water quality in the Egyptian Nile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Maheen; Nisar, Zainab; Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    The Nile River remains the most important source of freshwater for Egypt as it accounts for nearly all of the country's drinking and irrigation water. About 95% of the total population is accounted to live along the Banks of the Nile(1). Therefore, water quality deterioration in addition to general natural scarcity of water in the region(2) is the main driver for carrying out this study. What further aggravates this issue is the water conflict in the Blue Nile region. The study evaluates different water quality parameters and their concentrations in the Egyptian Nile; further assessing the temporal dynamics of water quality in the area with (a) the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC)(3) and (b) the Jevons Paradox (JP)(4) in order to identify water quality improvements or degradations using selected socioeconomic variables(5). For this purpose various environmental indicators including BOD, COD, DO, Phosphorus and TDS were plotted against different economic variables including Population, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Annual Fresh Water Withdrawal and Improved Water Source. Mathematically, this was expressed by 2nd and 3rd degree polynomial regressions generating the EKC and JP respectively. The basic goal of the regression analysis is to model and highlight the dynamic trend of water quality indicators in relation to their established permissible limits, which will allow the identification of optimal future water quality policies. The results clearly indicate that the dependency of water quality indicators on socioeconomic variables differs for every indicator; while COD was above the permissible limits in all the cases despite of its decreasing trend in each case, BOD and phosphate signified increasing concentrations for the future, if they continue to follow the present trend. This could be an indication of rebound effect explained by the Jevons Paradox i.e. water quality deterioration after its improvement, either due to increase of population or intensification

  19. Marine productivity leads organic matter preservation in sapropel S1: palynological evidence from a core east of the Nile River outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Helmond, Niels A. G. M.; Hennekam, Rick; Donders, Timme H.; Bunnik, Frans P. M.; de Lange, Gert J.; Brinkhuis, Henk; Sangiorgi, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The formation of Eastern Mediterranean organic matter rich deposits known as sapropels is the results of two mechanisms: (enhanced) marine productivity and preservation of organic material at depth. However, their relative contribution and their leads and lags with respect to each other remain elusive. Here, we address these questions by studying sediments deposited prior to, during, and after the most recent sapropel (S1, ˜10-6 calibrated ka before present, BP) with an integrated marine and terrestrial palynological approach, combined with existing and newly generated geochemical data. The studied core was retrieved from an area under strong influence of the Nile outflow and has high average sediment accumulation rates allowing a high temporal resolution (of several decades to centuries). Marine productivity, as reconstructed with total dinocyst accumulation rates (ARs) and biogenic CaCO3 content, starts to increase ˜1 ka prior to sapropel formation. A shift in the dinocyst taxa contributing to the productivity signal at sapropel onset indicates the rapid development of (seasonal) water column stratification. Pollen and spore ARs also increase prior to sapropel onset, but a few centuries after the increase in marine productivity. Hence, the first shift to a high marine productivity system before sapropel deposition may have been mostly favoured by the injection of nutrients via shoaling of the nutricline with a minor contribution of nutrients from land via river input and flooding of the shelves. Pollen assemblages indicate a gradual change across the sapropel onset from a savanna-like, through coastal marsh expansion, toward an open woodland assemblage, which is consistent with enhanced Nile influence and delta development. At sapropel onset a marked shift in pollen ARs could suggest increased preservation under anoxia. However, major shifts in pollen assemblages and signs of selective- or partial decomposition of terrestrial palynomorphs are absent. We

  20. A distal 140 kyr sediment record of Nile discharge and East African monsoon variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrmann, Werner; Schmiedl, Gerhard; Seidel, Martin; Krüger, Stefan; Schulz, Hartmut

    2016-03-01

    Clay mineral assemblages in a sediment core from the distal Nile discharge plume off Israel have been used to reconstruct the late Quaternary Nile sediment discharge into the eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS). The record spans the last ca. 140 kyr. Smectite abundances indicate the influence of the Blue Nile and the Atbara River that have their headwaters in the volcanic rocks of the Ethiopian Highlands. Kaolinite abundances indicate the influence of wadis, which contribute periodically to the suspension load of the Nile. Due to the geographical position, the climate and the sedimentary framework of the EMS is controlled by two climate systems. The long-term climate regime was governed by the African monsoon that caused major African humid periods (AHPs) with enhanced sediment discharge at 132 to < 126 (AHP 5), 116 to 99 (AHP4), and 89 to 77 ka (AHP3). They lasted much longer than the formation of the related sapropel layers S5 (> 2 kyr), S4 (3.5 kyr), and S3 (5 kyr). During the last glacial period (Marine Isotope Stages (MISs) 4-2), the long-term changes in the monsoonal system were superimposed by millennial-scale changes in an intensified midlatitude glacial system. This climate regime caused short but pronounced drought periods in the Nile catchment, which are linked to Heinrich events and alternate with more humid interstadials. The clay mineral record further implies that feedback mechanisms between vegetation cover and sediment discharge of the Nile are detectable but of minor importance for the sedimentary record in the southeastern Mediterranean Sea during the investigated African humid periods.

  1. Controls on phosphorous mobility in the Potomac River near the Blue Plains wastewater treatment plant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hearn,, Paul P., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The Blue Plains wastewater treatment plant is the largest point source of phosphorus in the Potomac River basin, discharging an average of 2 metric tons of phosphorus into the river each day in 1980. An intensive study of the water and sediments in the vicinity of the treatment plant was conducted in 1979-80 in order to characterize the major factors controlling the mobility of effluent-derived phosphorus in the area. The transport of phosphorus near the treatment plant was found to be affected by the circulation regime, by inorganic adsorption reactions with sediments, and by metabolic uptake and release by phytoplankton. The effect of river discharge on the convective transport of phosphorus near the outfall is significantly reduced by a mid-river shoal area, which confines the flow path of the effluent to an embayment on the eastern side of the river for a distance of 4 kilometers below the outfall. This embayment appears to serve as a sediment trap, where protection from bottom scour during high-flow events has permitted fine-grained sediments to accumulate. Measurements of mean residence time indicate that the effluent leaves the embayment area 21? days after being discharged from the outfall. Measurements of the linear decay constant for the removal of dissolved phosphorus from the water column reveal a diurnal cycle corresponding to the metabolic utilization of phosphorus by phytoplankton. This cyclic removal is superimposed on a constant and noncyclic adsorption of phosphorus by inorganic phases. Forty-eight hour average values of the linear decay constant for dissolved phosphorus in the area range from 0.4 to 1.1 per day. Analyses of bottom sediments indicate that approximately 13 percent of the phosphorus discharged between September 1977 and August 1980 has been retained in the embayment. The primary inorganic phase responsible for phosphorus adsorption is amorphous iron (ferric oxy-hydroxides); amorphous aluminum and clay minerals appear to play

  2. Assessing habitat use by breeding great blue herons (Ardea herodias) on the upper Mississippi River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirsch, E.M.; Ickes, B.; Olsen, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 7,610 to 3,175 pairs of Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias) nested along 420 river km of the Uppert Mississippi River (UMR) from 1993 to 2003. Numbers declined precipitously in the mid-1990s stabilizing somewhat in the early 2000s. The average number of nests in colonies was 349 (SD = 283). Annual colony turn over rate for the eleven year period was 0.15 and ranged from 0.06 to 0.29 each year. The number of years that a colony was active was positively correlated with the average number of nests present while the colony was active. Of the eight colonies active in 1993 that averaged more than 349 nests, four were abandoned by 2003. Only one colony grew to greater than 349 nests during the study period. Custer et al. (2004) suggested that herons on the UMR may be limited by forage resources or foraging habitat and social factors, as evidenced by the even spacing of colonies that reflects the maximum feeding range of herons on the river. To rule out nesting and foraging habitat limitation, landscape habitat features of terrestrial and aquatic areas were examined for colony areas and areas without colonies. Available fish monitoring data were used to examine potential interactions between herons and forage resources. Colony areas did not differ from areas without colonies in any habitat feature. Indices of potential heron forage fish increased from 1993 to 2002, although low indices of fish abundance in 1993 were likely influenced by flood conditions that year. Although fish availability to herons is related to flows and water levels, available data suggested that herons did not negatively impact their potential forage base. Numbers of herons were not correlated with indices of fish abundance from the preceding year on a pool-wide scale. Indices of fish abundance were higher within 5 km of colonies than farther than 5 km from colonies, and indices of fish abundance increased from June through August both near and far from colonies. Numbers of herons and

  3. The White Nile sedimentary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Padoan, Marta; Resentini, Alberto; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Villa, Igor

    2014-05-01

    The Nile River flows for ~6700 km from south of the Equator to finally reach the Mediterranean Sea at northern subtropical latitudes (Woodward et al. 2007). This is the longest sedimentological laboratory on Earth, a unique setting in which we are investigating changes in sediment composition associated with diverse chemical and physical processes, including weathering and hydraulic sorting. The present study focuses on the southern branch of the Nile across 20° of latitude, from hyperhumid Burundi and Rwanda highlands in central Africa to Khartoum, the capital city of Sudan at the southern edge of the Sahara. Our study of the Kagera basin emphasizes the importance of weathering in soils at the source rather than during stepwise transport, and shows that the transformation of parent rocks into quartzose sand may be completed in one sedimentary cycle (Garzanti et al. 2013a). Micas and heavy minerals, less effectively diluted by recycling than main framework components, offer the best key to identify the original source-rock imprint. The different behaviour of chemical indices such as the CIA (a truer indicator of weathering) and the WIP (markedly affected by quartz dilution) helps us to distinguish strongly weathered first-cycle versus polycyclic quartz sands (Garzanti et al. 2013b). Because sediment is efficiently trapped in East African Rift lakes, the composition of Nile sediments changes repeatedly northwards across Uganda. Downstream of both Lake Kyoga and Lake Albert, quartzose sands are progressively enriched in metamorphiclastic detritus supplied from tributaries draining amphibolite-facies basements. The evolution of White Nile sediments across South Sudan, a scarcely accessible region that suffered decades of civil war, was inferred from the available information (Shukri 1950), integrated by original petrographic, heavy-mineral and geochemical data (Padoan et al. 2011). Mineralogical and isotopic signatures of Bahr-el-Jebel and Sobat sediments, derived

  4. 21,000 years of Ethiopian African monsoon variability recorded in sediments of the western Nile deep-sea fan: impact of the Nile freshwater inflow for the Mediterranean thermo-haline circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revel, Marie; Colin, Christophe; Bernasconi, Stephano; Combourieu-Nebout, Nathalie; Ducassou, Emmanuelle; Rolland, Yann; Bosch, Delphine

    2014-05-01

    The Nile delta sedimentation constitutes a continuous high resolution (1.6 mm/year) record of Ethiopian African monsoon regime intensity. Multiproxy analyses performed on core MS27PT recovered in hemipelagic Nile sediment margin (<90 km outward of the Rosetta mouth of the Nile) allow the quantification of the Saharan aeolian dust and the Blue/White Nile River suspended matter frequency fluctuations during the last 21 cal. ka BP. The radiogenic Sr and Nd isotopes, clay mineralogy, bulk elemental composition and palynological analyses reveal large changes in source components, oscillating between a dominant aeolian Saharan contribution during the LGM and the Late Holocene (~4 to 2 cal. ka BP), a dominant Blue/Atbara Nile River contribution during the early Holocene (15 to 8.4 cal. ka BP) and a probable White Nile River contribution during the Middle Holocene (8.4 to 4 cal. ka BP). The following main features are highlighted: 1. The rapid shift from the LGM arid conditions to the African Humid Period (AHP) started at about 15 cal. ka BP. AHP extends until 8.4 cal. ka BP, and we suggest that the Ethiopian African Monsoon maximum between 12 and 8 cal. ka BP is responsible for a larger Blue/Atbara Nile sediment load and freshwater input into the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. 2. The transition between the AHP and the arid Late Holocene is gradual and occurs in two main phases between 8.4 and 6.5 cal. ka BP and 6.5 to 3.2 cal. ka BP. We suggest that the main rain belt shifted southward from 8.4 to ~4 cal. ka BP and was responsible for progressively reduced sediment load and freshwater input into the eastern Mediterranean Sea. 3. The aridification along the Nile catchments occurred from ~4 to 2 cal. ka BP. A dry period, which culminates at 3.2 cal. ka BP, and seems to coincide with a re-establishment of increased oceanic primary productivity in the western Mediterranean Sea. We postulate that the decrease in thermo-haline water Mediterranean circulation could be part of a

  5. Nest initiation and clutch size of great blue herons on the Mississippi River in relation to the 1993 flood

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Hines, R.K.; Custer, Christine M.

    1996-01-01

    Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias) eggs were collected from ten colonies between Clinton, Iowa and Royalton, Minnesota on the Mississippi River in 1993, a year of record floods in the midwestern United States. In the live southernmost colonies where record flooding occurred, Great Blue Herons initiated nesting two weeks later than herons nesting in the five northernmost colonies that were less affected by flooding. The southern nests had a-smaller average clutch size than the northern nests, but egg size was similar between south and north. Weather patterns in 1993 were similar between northern and southern colonies. We suspect that flooding of the available feeding habitat influenced nest initiation and clutch size. Data from 1995, a year without record flooding on the Mississippi River, support this hypothesis. In 1995, timing of nesting and number of eggs per clutch were similar between sites that had record flooding and sites that were less affected by flooding in 1993.

  6. Flood-inundation mapping for the Blue River and selected tributaries in Kansas City, Missouri, and vicinity, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heimann, David C.; Weilert, Trina E.; Kelly, Brian P.; Studley, Seth E.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and City of Kansas City, Missouri, operate multiple streamgages along the Blue River and tributaries in and near the city. Knowledge of water level at a streamgage is difficult to translate into depth and areal extent of flooding at points distant from the streamgage. One way to address these informational gaps is to produce a library of flood-inundation maps that are referenced to the stages recorded at a streamgage. By referring to the appropriate map, emergency responders can discern the severity of flooding (depth of water and areal extent), identify roads that are or may be flooded, and make plans for notification or evacuation of residents in harm’s way for some distance upstream and downstream from the streamgage. The USGS, in cooperation with the city of Kansas City, Missouri, developed a library of flood-inundation maps for the Blue River and selected tributaries.

  7. HUMAN INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECTIONS AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH FACTORS IN RURAL EGYPTIAN COMMUNITIES. A REPORT OF THE U.S.-EGYPTIAN RIVER NILE AND LAKE NASSER RESEARCH PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A survey of common intestinal parasites was completed in three areas of the Egyptian Nile Valley: The Nile Delta, Upper Middle Egypt and Upper Egypt. The relocated Nubian population was also included. The total sampling included 15,664 persons in 41 villages. More than 95% attend...

  8. Epidemiology of tuberculosis and evaluation of treatment outcomes in the national tuberculosis control programme, River Nile state, Sudan, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Elmadhoun, W M; Noor, S K; Bushara, S O; Ahmed, E O; Mustafa, H; Sulaiman, A A; Almobarak, A O; Ahmed, M H

    2016-02-01

    Tuberculosis is a major health problem in Sudan, a country that carries 11-15% of the tuberculosis burden in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of tuberculosis in River Nile State and to compare treatment outcomes with WHO recommended indicators. A descriptive study was conducted on data collected from records of 1221 patients registered at tuberculosis management units over the 3 years 2011-2013. The mean age of cases was 37.7 (SD 21.5) years and 65.9% were males; 76.3% were pulmonary tuberculosis and 36.9% were sputum smear-positive cases. Average values for all outcome indicators were suboptimal, notably rates of case notification (30.8 per 100 000), case detection (10.3%), treatment success (79.6%), treatment failure (3.0%), default (8.1%) and death (8.0%). Of the 264 patients tested for HIV, 3.8% were positive. Outcome indicators for the national tuberculosis control programme are lagging behind the required targets. PMID:27180737

  9. Demographics and chronology of a spawning aggregation of blue sucker (Cycleptus elongatus) in the Grand River, Missouri, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vokoun, Jason C.; Guerrant, Travis L.; Rabeni, Charles F.

    2003-01-01

    The blue sucker (Cycleptus elongatus) was sampled as individuals arrived, spawned, and departed from a spawning rime in the Grand River of northcentral Missouri, USA. The Grand River basin was not known to support blue sucker reproduction with few individuals ever recorded. The spawning site is unique in character for the lower river. Individuals began arriving in early April when water temperatures reached 10–12°C. Females with freely-flowing roe were sampled in late April after a large rise in river stage and concurrent lowering of the water temperature 4–5 degrees to 16.5°C. The spawning aggregation had a mean age of 15 y and ranged from 9 to 22 y based on scales that probably underestimated true ages. Males outnumbered females 5.5:1. Mean length was 659 mm for males and 721 mm for females. Females were longer at age than males and no significant age-length relationship was evident.

  10. West Nile virus

    MedlinePlus

    West Nile virus is a disease spread by mosquitoes. The condition ranges from mild to severe. ... West Nile virus was first identified in 1937 in Uganda in eastern Africa. It was first discovered in the U.S. in ...

  11. Feeding ecology and energetic relationships with habitat of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus, and flathead catfish, Pylodictis olivaris, in the lower Mississippi River, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggleton, M.A.; Schramm, H.L., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    We examined feeding of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus, and flathead catfish, Pylodictis olivaris, collected from floodplain lake, secondary (side) river channel, and main river channel habitats in the lower Mississippi River (LMR), U.S.A. We described the feeding ecology of two large river catfish species within the context of whether off-channel habitats in the LMR (i.e., floodplain lakes and secondary channels) potentially provided energetic benefits to these fishes as purported in contemporary theory on the ecology of large rivers. We used diet composition and associated caloric densities of prey consumed as indicators of energetic benefit to catfishes. Differences in diet among habitats were strong for blue catfish, but weak for flathead catfish; consumed foods generally differed among habitats in caloric (energy) content. Caloric densities of consumed foods were generally greatest in floodplain lakes, least in the main river channel, and intermediate in secondary river channels. Strong between-year variation in diet was observed, but only for blue catfish. Blue catfish fed disproportionately on lower-energy zebra mussels in the main river channel during 1997, and higher-energy chironomids and oligochaetes in floodplain lakes during 1998. Results suggested that although off-channel habitats potentially provided greater energetic return to catfishes in terms of foods consumed, patterns of feeding and subsequent energy intake may vary annually. Energetic benefits associated with off-channel habitats as purported under contemporary theory (e.g., the 'flood-pulse concept') may not be accrued by catfishes every year in the LMR.

  12. Estimation of survival of adult Florida manatees in the Crystal River, at Blue Spring, and on the Atlantic Coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, Thomas J.; Langtimm, Catherine A.

    1995-01-01

    We applied Cormack-Jolly-Seber open population models to manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) photo-identification databases to estimate adult survival probabilities. The computer programs JOLLY and RECAPCO were used to estimate survival of 677 individuals in three study areas: Crystal River (winters 1977-78 to 1990-91), Blue Spring (winters 1977-78 to 1990-91), and the Atlantic Coast (winters 1984-85 to 1990-91). We also estimated annual survival from observations of 111 manatees tagged for studies with radiotelemetry. Survival estimated from observations with telemetry had broader confidence intervals than survival estimated with the Cormack-Jolly-Seber models. Annual probabilities of capture based on photo-identification records were generally high. The mean annual adult survival estimated from sighting-resighting records was 0.959-0.962 in the Crystal River and 0.936-0.948 at Blue Spring and may be high enough to permit population growth, given the values of other life-history parameters. On the Atlantic Coast, the estimated annual adult survival (range of means = 0.877-0.885) may signify a declining population. However, for several reasons, interpretation of data from the latter study group should be tempered with caution. Adult survivorship seems to be constant with age in all three study groups. No strong differences were apparent between adult survival ofmales and females in the Crystal River or at Blue Spring; the basis of significant differences between sexes on the Atlantic Coast is unclear. Future research into estimating survival with photo-identification and the Cormack-Jolly-Seber models should be vigorously pursued. Estimates of annual survival can provide an additional indication of Florida manatee population status with a stronger statistical basis than aerial counts and carcass totals.

  13. Physical characteristics of stream subbasins in the Blue Earth River Basin, south-central Minnesota and north-central Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenz, D.L.; Payne, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents data describing the physical characteristics of stream basins upstream from selected points on streams in the Blue Earth River basin, located in south-central Minnesota and north-central Iowa. The physical characteristics are the drainage area of the basin, the percentage area of the basin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the basin covered by both lakes and wetlands, the main-channel length, and the mainchannel slope. The points on the stream include outlets of subbasins of at least five square miles, outfalls of sewage treatment plants, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations.

  14. Impacts of human activities and climate variability on green and blue water flows in the Heihe River Basin in Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, C.; Liu, J.; Jiang, L.; Gerten, D.

    2013-07-01

    Human activities and climate factors both affect the availability of water resources and the sustainability of water management. Especially in already dry regions, water has become more and more scarce with increasing requirements from growing population, economic development and diet shifts. Although progress has been made in understanding variability of runoff, the impacts of climate variability and human activities on flows of both green water (actual evapotranspiration) and blue water (discharge accumulated in the river network) remain less well understood. We study the spatial patterns of blue and green water flows and the impacts on them of human activities and climate variability as simulated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for an inland Heihe river basin located in Northwest China. The results show that total green and blue water flow increased from 1980 to 2005, mainly as a result of climate variability (upward precipitation trends). Direct human activities did not significantly change the total green and blue water flow. However, land use change led to a transformation of 206 million m3 from green to blue water flow, while farmland irrigation expansion resulted in a transformation of 66 million m3 from blue to green water flow. The synchronous climate variability caused an increase of green water flow by 469 million m3 and an increase of blue water flow by 146 million m3 at the river basin level, while the geographical distribution showed an uneven change even with reductions of water flows in western sub-basins at midstream. The results are helpful to benchmark the water resources in the context of global change in the inland river basins in China. This study also provides a general approach to investigate the impacts of historical human activities and climate variability on green and blue water flows at the river basin level.

  15. Feeding habitat characteristics of the great blue heron and great egret nesting along the Upper Mississippi River, 1995-1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Suarez, S.A.; Olsen, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias) and Great Egret (Ardea alba) nested in eight colonies along the Upper Mississippi River, USA, and individual birds were followed by airplane to feeding sites during the nesting seasons in 1995-1998. Both species used braided channel/backwater habitats for feeding more than expected, based on availability, and open pool and main navigation channel less than expected. Most individuals of both species fed 10 km away. Habitat and distance need to be considered simultaneously when assessing habitat quality for herons and egrets. The Great Blue Heron flew farther to feeding sites during the care-of-young period than during incubation and the Great Egret showed the opposite pattern. The Great Blue Heron tended to feed solitarily; only 10% of the feeding flights ended at a location where another heron was already present. About one-third of Great Egret feeding flights ended at a location with another egret already present. Colony placement on the landscape seemed to be a function of the feeding radius of each colony.

  16. Contamination and biomarkers in the great blue heron, an indicator of the state of the st. Lawrence river.

    PubMed

    Champoux, Louise; Rodrigue, Jean; Trudeau, Suzanne; Boily, Monique H; Spear, Philip A; Hontela, Alice

    2006-02-01

    In 1996-1997, nine breeding colonies of the great blue heron on the St. Lawrence River and its estuary (Québec, Canada) were investigated in the framework of a biomonitoring program. Fledglings from colonies in freshwater were more contaminated with mercury, PCBs and many organic contaminants than those from estuarine colonies. The level of contamination in the St. Lawrence River is generally below the levels of toxicological effects for the great blue heron. The molar ratio of retinol: retinyl palmitate in heron eggs was correlated with total PCBs (r=0.79) and Mirex (r=0.90). In plasma, all biochemical parameters were significantly different between freshwater and marine colonies. Plasma retinol concentrations at the Dickerson and Hérons colonies were significantly lower compared with those at Grande Ile (p<0.05) and Steamboat (p<0.001). Based on retinoid and beta-carotene concentrations in eggs, low plasma retinol was not associated with possible dietary deficiency. Plasma retinol was negatively correlated with many PCB congeners, total PCBs (r=-0.78), p,p'-DDE, trans-nonachlor and alpha-HCH. Similarly, the hormone T3 was correlated with many PCB congeners, total PCBs (r=-0.69) and the same organochlorine chemicals. Plasma LDH concentrations were different among freshwater colonies, Grande Ile and Hérons colonies having LDH values significantly greater than those of Steamboat (respectively, p<0.05 and p<0.01). Globally, the health status of the St. Lawrence great blue heron population was judged to be acceptable, however, several biomarkers indicated positive responses to contaminants. PMID:16400530

  17. Blue tilapia (Oreochromis aureus) predation on fishes in the Muddy River system, Clark County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scoppettone, G.G.; Salgado, J.A.; Nielsen, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Blue tilapia (Oreochromis aureus), native to North Africa and the Middle East (Courtenay and Robins 1973, Fuller et al. 1999), has been introduced around the world as a human food source, for vegetation control, and as a game fish (Costa-Pierce and Riedel 2000). Blue tilapia has been particularly successful in establishing and spreading in North American waters where it has been reported to change fish community structure and cause native fish decline (Courtenay and Robins 1973, Fuller et al. 1999). Because of these detrimental effects, it is now generally considered an unwelcome introduction into North American waters (Dill and Cordone 1997, Fuller et al. 1999).

  18. Twelve myxosporean species of the family Myxobolidae infecting freshwater fishes of the River Nile, Egypt, with the description of four novel species.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Morsy, Kareem; El-Ganainy, Sahar; Ahmed, Manal; Gamal, Shams; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2015-08-01

    Myxosporidian parasites infecting fish are very dangerous parasites causing severe damage to a large number of economically important fishes especially in aquaculture. A survey of myxosporean parasites infecting four species of fishes from the River Nile in Egypt is conducted. One hundred and ninety-five out of 316 fish specimens with a percentage of 61.7% were found to be naturally infected with these parasites. Light microscopic examination of different tissues revealed the presence of 12 myxosporean species belonging to the family Myxobolidae. Four of the identified species are novel and the other eight species are redescribed. Myxidium sp.nov. a coelozoic species inhabiting the gallbladder of Labeo niloticus with its mature spores float free in bile was detected. These spores possess a fusiform, straight, or slightly crescentic shape with less pointed ends and two equal polar capsules. Three novel histozoic Myxobolus species infecting Oreochromis niloticus were identified. Myxobolus sp(1).nov. is a species inhabiting kidney tissue with ovoid spores exhibiting a small intercapsular appendix. Myxobolus sp(2).nov. and Myxobolus sp(3).nov. recovered from kidney and intestinal tissues. Spores of Myxobolus sp(2).nov. are elliptical in shape with an anterior end wider than posterior one. Their two polar capsules are ovoid to pyriform occupied nearly the first third of the spore body. Spores of Myxobolus sp(3).nov. are broader than long with nearly rounded or ovoid two polar capsules. Eight species of the recovered myxosporean parasites are redescribed, Myxobolus niloticus Fahmy et al., 1971 from pectoral, dorsal, and tail fins of L. niloticus, Henneguya suprabranchiae Landsberg, 1987, and Henneguya branchialis Ashmawy et al., 1989 are recovered from the gills and suprabranchial organ of the catfish Clarias gariepinus, respectively, Myxobolus naffari Abdel-Ghaffar et al., 1998 and Myxobolus imami Ali et al., 2002 are found in the kidney of Barbus bynni and L. niloticus

  19. Inter- and intra-annual variation of water footprint of crops and blue water scarcity in the Yellow River basin (1961-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, La; Mekonnen, Mesfin M.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Wada, Yoshihide

    2016-01-01

    The Yellow River Basin (YRB), the second largest river basin of China, has experienced a booming agriculture over the past decades. But data on variability of and trends in water consumption, pollution and scarcity in the YRB are lacking. We estimate, for the first time, the inter- and intra-annual water footprint (WF) of crop production in the YRB for the period 1961-2009 and the variation of monthly scarcity of blue water (ground and surface water) for 1978-2009, by comparing the blue WF of agriculture, industry and households in the basin to the maximum sustainable level. Results show that the average overall green (from rainfall) and blue (from irrigation) WFs of crops in the period 2001-2009 were 14% and 37% larger, respectively, than in the period 1961-1970. The annual nitrogen- and phosphorus-related grey WFs (water required to assimilate pollutants) of crop production grew by factors of 24 and 36, respectively. The green-blue WF per ton of crop reduced significantly due to improved crop yields, while the grey WF increased because of the growing application of fertilizers. The ratio of blue to green WF increased during the study period resulting from the expansion of irrigated agriculture. In the period 1978-2009, the annual total blue WFs related to agriculture, industry and households varied between 19% and 52% of the basin's natural runoff. The blue WF in the YRB generally peaks around May-July, two months earlier than natural peak runoff. On average, the YRB faced moderate to severe blue water scarcity during seven months (January-July) per year. Even in the wettest month in a wet year, about half of the area of the YRB still suffered severe blue water scarcity, especially in the basin's northern part.

  20. Observations on the Nesting Distribution of Great Blue Herons on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Rickard, William H.; Tiller, Brett L.

    2003-10-01

    Great blue herons probably did not nest along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River in the 1800s because of the scarcity of trees. Trees were first introduced to land along the Reach with the advent of irrigation farming in the early 1900s. Since 1950 most of the heron colonies distributed along the Hanford Reach have elected to nest in clusters of non-native trees planted 80 to 100 years ago at scattered farmhouse locations. These sites have been protected from most human intrusions by the safety and security provisions enforced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site since 1943. Reproductive success of Hanford Reach colonies is equal to or better than that of heron colonies elsewhere in the Pacific Northwest. In recent years the number of active heron colonies along the reach has declined. The causes of the observed decline are unknown to us.

  1. Water-quality assessment of the largely urban blue river basin, Metropolitan Kansas City, USA, 1998 to 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkison, D.H.; Armstrong, D.J.; Hampton, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    From 1998 through 2007, over 750 surface-water or bed-sediment samples in the Blue River Basin - a largely urban basin in metropolitan Kansas City - were analyzed for more than 100 anthropogenic compounds. Compounds analyzed included nutrients, fecal-indicator bacteria, suspended sediment, pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Non-point source runoff, hydrologic alterations, and numerous waste-water discharge points resulted in the routine detection of complex mixtures of anthropogenic compounds in samples from basin stream sites. Temporal and spatial variations in concentrations and loads of nutrients, pharmaceuticals, and organic wastewater compounds were observed, primarily related to a site's proximity to point-source discharges and stream-flow dynamics. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  2. Environmental contaminants in great blue herons (Ardea herodias) from the lower Columbia and Willamette Rivers, Oregon and Washington, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.M.; Anthony, R.G.

    1999-12-01

    Great blue heron (Ardea herodias) eggs and prey items were collected from six colonies in Oregon and Washington, USA, during 1994 to 1995. Contaminant concentrations, reproductive success, and biomagnification factors were determined and effects of residue levels were measured by H4IIE rat hepatoma bioassays. Mean residue concentrations in heron eggs and prey items were generally low. However, elevated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected in eggs and prey from Ross Island on the Willamette River. Biomagnification factors varied among sites. Sites were not significantly different in H4IIE tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs), although the TCDD-EQ for Karlson Island was 9 to 20 times greater than that of any other site. Large differences existed between toxic equivalents calculated from egg residue concentrations and TCDD-EQs, which indicated nonadditive interactions among the compounds. Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents and nest failure were positively correlated with TCDD concentration. Fledging and reproductive rates were similar to those determined for healthy heron populations, however, indicating that any adverse effects were occurring at the individual level and not at the colony level. Their results support the use of great blue herons as a biomonitor for contamination in aquatic ecosystems. Their relatively low sensitivity to organochlorine contaminants and high trophic position allows contaminant accumulation and biomagnification without immediate adverse effects that are often seen in other, more sensitive species.

  3. Character and Trends of Water Quality in the Blue River Basin, Kansas City Metropolitan Area, Missouri and Kansas, 1998 through 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkison, Donald H.; Armstrong, Daniel J.; Hampton, Sarah A.

    2009-01-01

    Water-quality and ecological character and trends in the metropolitan Blue River Basin were evaluated from 1998 through 2007 to provide spatial and temporal resolution to factors that affect the quality of water and biota in the basin and provide a basis for assessing the efficacy of long-term combined sewer control and basin management plans. Assessments included measurements of stream discharge, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, turbidity, nutrients (dissolved and total nitrogen and phosphorus species), fecal-indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and fecal coliform), suspended sediment, organic wastewater and pharmaceutical compounds, and sources of these compounds as well as the quality of stream biota in the basin. Because of the nature and myriad of factors that affect basin water quality, multiple strategies are needed to decrease constituent loads in streams. Strategies designed to decrease or eliminate combined sewer overflows (CSOs) would substantially reduce the annual loads of nutrients and fecal-indicator bacteria in Brush Creek, but have little effect on Blue River loadings. Nonpoint source reductions to Brush Creek could potentially have an equivalent, if not greater, effect on water quality than would CSO reductions. Nonpoint source reductions could also substantially decrease annual nutrient and bacteria loadings to the Blue River and Indian Creek. Methods designed to decrease nutrient loads originating from Blue River and Indian Creek wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) could substantially reduce the overall nutrient load in these streams. For the main stem of the Blue River and Indian Creek, primary sources of nutrients were nonpoint source runoff and WWTPs discharges; however, the relative contribution of each source varied depending on how wet or dry the year was and the number of upstream WWTPs. On Brush Creek, approximately two-thirds of the nutrients originated from nonpoint sources and the remainder from CSOs. Nutrient assimilation

  4. Assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of green and blue water flows under natural conditions in inland river basins in Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, C. F.; Liu, J.; van der Velde, M.; Kraxner, F.

    2012-08-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions freshwater resources have become scarcer with increasing demands from socio-economic development and population growth. Until recently, water research and management has mainly focused on blue water but ignored green water. Furthermore, in data poor regions hydrological flows under natural conditions are poorly characterised but are a prerequisite to inform future water resources management. Here we report on spatial and temporal patterns of both blue and green water flows that can be expected under natural conditions as simulated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for the Heihe river basin, the second largest inland river basin in Northwest China. Calibration and validation at two hydrological stations show good performance of the SWAT model in modelling hydrological processes. The total green and blue water flows were 22.05-25.51 billion m3 in the 2000s for the Heihe river basin. Blue water flows are larger in upstream sub-basins than in downstream sub-basins mainly due to high precipitation and a large amount of snow and melting water in upstream. Green water flows are distributed more homogeneously among different sub-basins. The green water coefficient was 87%-89% in the 2000s for the entire river basin, varying from around 80%-90% in up- and mid-stream sub-basins to above 90% in downstream sub-basins. This is much higher than reported green water coefficients in many other river basins. The spatial patterns of green water coefficients were closely linked to dominant land covers (e.g. snow cover upstream and desert downstream) and climate conditions (e.g. high precipitation upstream and low precipitation downstream). There are no clear consistent historical trends of change in green and blue water flows and the green water coefficient at both the river basin and sub-basin levels. This study provides insights into green and blue water endowments under natural conditions for the entire Heihe river basin at the sub

  5. Tracing Nile sediment sources by Sr and Nd isotope signatures (Uganda, Ethiopia, Sudan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padoan, Marta; Garzanti, Eduardo; Harlavan, Yehudit; Villa, Igor Maria

    2011-06-01

    Strontium and neodymium isotopes, measured on diverse mud and sand fractions of sediment in transit along all major Nile branches, identify detritus sourced from Precambrian basements, Mesozoic strata, and Tertiary volcanic rocks exposed along the shoulders of the East African rift and in Ethiopian highlands. Sr and Nd isotopic ratios reflect the weighted average of detrital components generated in different catchments, allowing us to discriminate provenance, calculate sediment budgets, and investigate grain-size and hydraulic-sorting effects. 87Sr/ 86Sr and 143Nd/ 144Nd range, respectively, from as high as 0.722 and as low as 0.5108 for sediment derived from Archean gneisses in northern Uganda, to 0.705 and 0.5127 for sediment derived from Neoproterozoic Ethiopian and Eritrean basements. 87Sr/ 86Sr and 143Nd/ 144Nd, ranging 0.705-0.709 and 0.5124-0.5130 for Blue Nile tributaries, are 0.704-0.705 and 0.5127-0.5128 for largely volcaniclastic sediments of River Tekeze-Atbara, and 0.705-0.706 and 0.5126-0.5127 for main Nile sediments upstream Lake Nasser. Model mantle derivation ages ( tDM), oldest in Uganda where sediment is principally derived from the Congo Craton (3.4-3.0 Ga for Victoria and Albert Nile), progressively decrease northward across the Saharan Metacraton, from 2.6 Ga (Bahr el Jebel in South Sudan), to 2.4-2.2 Ga (Bahr ez Zeraf across the Sudd), and finally 1.6-1.3 Ga (White Nile upstream Khartoum). Instead, tDM ages of Sobat mud increase from 0.9 to 1.5 Ga across the Machar marshes. TDM ages are younger for sediments shed by Ethiopian (1.2-0.7 Ga) and Eritrean basements (1.5-1.2 Ga), and youngest for sediments shed from Ethiopian flood basalts (0.3-0.2 Ga). Integrated geochemical, mineralogical, and settling-equivalence analyses suggest influence on the Nd isotopic signal by volcanic lithic grains and titanite rather than by LREE-rich monazite or allanite. Because contributions by ultradense minerals is subordinate, intrasample variability of Sr and

  6. Late Quaternary environments and prehistoric occupation in the lower White Nile valley, central Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Martin A. J.; Usai, Donatella; Salvatori, Sandro; Williams, Frances M.; Zerboni, Andrea; Maritan, Lara; Linseele, Veerle

    2015-12-01

    Despite the major contributions provided over fifty years ago by A.J. Arkell and J.D. Tothill to our understanding of late Quaternary environments and prehistoric occupation near the confluence of the Blue and White Nile in central Sudan, three key questions have remained unresolved since then. (a) Was the decline in Nile flood levels from early Holocene times onwards caused by a reduction in Nile discharge, or by channel incision, or both? (b) Was the regional climate wetter during times of high Nile floods and drier during times of low Nile floods? (c) Given the high degree of disturbance of Mesolithic and later prehistoric sites, is it possible to identify primary-context, stratified and undisturbed occupation? Drawing upon dated evidence from three sites to the east of and three to the west of the lower White Nile, we provide a qualified answer to the first question and documented affirmative answers to the second and third questions.

  7. Nile behaviour and Upper Palaeolithic humans in Upper Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeersch, Pierre M.

    2014-05-01

    There is evidence of a decreasing human occupation of the Upper Egyptian Nile valley during the MIS 5 to MIS 3 period. Whereas very large extraction sites of the Middle Stone Age have been recorded, only very few sites of the Upper Palaeolithic have been found. The best explanation of this fact is that during the Late Middle Stone Age and the Upper Palaeolithc there was nearly no need for raw materials because there was only a very restricted population present in Upper Egypt. From about 22 ka BP an important population increase is registered by the presence of numerous Late Palaeolithic sites. During the whole LGM there is abundant presence of humans along the Nile Valley in Upper Egypt. This population was mainly living from fishing. There seems to be an abrupt end of the Palaeolithic occupation after 12.8 ka BP. Until now, no sites were found in the Valley until some rare Epipaleolithic sites occur about 8.0 ka BP. It will be suggested that these population changes are influenced by the river Nile behaviour. The best interpretation of the observations in the Upper Egyptian Nile Valley is the hypothesis that at the same time that Nile flow was reduced because of the dryness in its source area, the impact of aeolian activity was increased over Northeast Africa. The increased aeolian activity by northern winds in the Fayum and Wadi Ryan during the LGM resulted in the accumulation of aeolian sand in the valley. That aeolian sand was transported along the western Nile valley cliffs until it was accumulated when the Nile Valley change it S-N direction, such as at Nag'Hammadi. At other places sand was invading the Nile valley, directly from the Western Desert, creating a damming of the Nile at several places such as Armant and Aswan. As Nile flow was quite reduced, the Nile was unable to erode all the incoming sand and the Nile water with its important clay content was dammed. At several places large lakes were created in the Nile Valley. Those lakes were an ideal

  8. Estimated Flood-Inundation Mapping for the Upper Blue River, Indian Creek, and Dyke Branch in Kansas City, Missouri, 2006-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, Brian P.; Huizinga, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    In the interest of improved public safety during flooding, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Kansas City, Missouri, completed a flood-inundation study of the Blue River in Kansas City, Missouri, from the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow gage at Kenneth Road to 63rd Street, of Indian Creek from the Kansas-Missouri border to its mouth, and of Dyke Branch from the Kansas-Missouri border to its mouth, to determine the estimated extent of flood inundation at selected flood stages on the Blue River, Indian Creek, and Dyke Branch. The results of this study spatially interpolate information provided by U.S. Geological Survey gages, Kansas City Automated Local Evaluation in Real Time gages, and the National Weather Service flood-peak prediction service that comprise the Blue River flood-alert system and are a valuable tool for public officials and residents to minimize flood deaths and damage in Kansas City. To provide public access to the information presented in this report, a World Wide Web site (http://mo.water.usgs.gov/indep/kelly/blueriver) was created that displays the results of two-dimensional modeling between Hickman Mills Drive and 63rd Street, estimated flood-inundation maps for 13 flood stages, the latest gage heights, and National Weather Service stage forecasts for each forecast location within the study area. The results of a previous study of flood inundation on the Blue River from 63rd Street to the mouth also are available. In addition the full text of this report, all tables and maps are available for download (http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2008/5068). Thirteen flood-inundation maps were produced at 2-foot intervals for water-surface elevations from 763.8 to 787.8 feet referenced to the Blue River at the 63rd Street Automated Local Evaluation in Real Time stream gage operated by the city of Kansas City, Missouri. Each map is associated with gages at Kenneth Road, Blue Ridge Boulevard, Kansas City (at Bannister Road), U.S. Highway 71

  9. Time Series Models Adoptable for Forecasting Nile Floods and Ethiopian Rainfalls.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Fandy, M. G.; Taiel, S. M. M.; Ashour, Z. H.

    1994-01-01

    Long-term rainfall forecasting is used in making economic and agricultural decisions in many countries. It may also be a tool in minimizing the devastation resulting from recurrent droughts. To be able to forecast the total annual rainfall or the levels of seasonal floods, a class of models has first been chosen. The model parameters have then been estimated with an appropriate parameter estimation algorithm. Finally, diagnostic tests have been performed to verify the adequacy of the model. These are the general principles of system identification, which is the most crucial part of the forecasting procedure. In this paper several sets of data have been studied using different statistical procedures. The examined data include a historical 835-year record representing the levels of the seasonal Nile floods in Cairo, Egypt, during the period A.D. 622-1457. These readings were originally carried out by the Arabsto a great degree of accuracy in order to be used in estimating yearly taxes or Zacat (islamic duties). The observations also comprise recent total annual rainfall data over Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) (1907-1984), the total annual discharges of Ethiopian rivers (including the river Sobat discharges at Hillet Doleib, Blue Nile discharge at Roseris, river Dinder, river Rahar, and river Atbara), equatorial lake plateau supply as contributed at Aswan during the period 1912-1982, and the total annual discharges at Aswan during the period 1871-1982. Periodograms have been used to uncover possible peridodicities. Trends of rainfall and discharges of some rivers of east and central Africa have been also estimated.Using the first half of the available record, two autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) time series models have been identified, one for the levels of the seasonal Nile floods in Cairo, the second to model the annual rainfall over Ethiopia. The time series models have been applied in 1-year-ahead forecasting to the other hall of the available record and

  10. Green-blue water in the city: quantification of impact of source control versus end-of-pipe solutions on sewer and river floods.

    PubMed

    De Vleeschauwer, K; Weustenraad, J; Nolf, C; Wolfs, V; De Meulder, B; Shannon, K; Willems, P

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization and climate change trends put strong pressures on urban water systems. Temporal variations in rainfall, runoff and water availability increase, and need to be compensated for by innovative adaptation strategies. One of these is stormwater retention and infiltration in open and/or green spaces in the city (blue-green water integration). This study evaluated the efficiency of three adaptation strategies for the city of Turnhout in Belgium, namely source control as a result of blue-green water integration, retention basins located downstream of the stormwater sewers, and end-of-pipe solutions based on river flood control reservoirs. The efficiency of these options is quantified by the reduction in sewer and river flood frequencies and volumes, and sewer overflow volumes. This is done by means of long-term simulations (100-year rainfall simulations) using an integrated conceptual sewer-river model calibrated to full hydrodynamic sewer and river models. Results show that combining open, green zones in the city with stormwater retention and infiltration for only 1% of the total city runoff area would lead to a 30 to 50% reduction in sewer flood volumes for return periods in the range 10-100 years. This is due to the additional surface storage and infiltration and consequent reduction in urban runoff. However, the impact of this source control option on downstream river floods is limited. Stormwater retention downstream of the sewer system gives a strong reduction in peak discharges to the receiving river. However due to the difference in response time between the sewer and river systems, this does not lead to a strong reduction in river flood frequency. The paper shows the importance of improving the interface between urban design and water management, and between sewer and river flood management. PMID:25500472

  11. Dietary exposure of great blue heron (Ardea herodias) to PCDD/DFs in the Tittabawassee River floodplain, MI, USA.

    PubMed

    Seston, Rita M; Fredricks, Timothy B; Tazelaar, Dustin L; Coefield, Sarah J; Bradley, Patrick W; Roark, Shaun A; Newsted, John L; Kay, Denise P; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Giesy, John P

    2011-03-01

    Concentrations of dioxin-like compounds, primarily polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), in soils and sediments of the Tittabawassee River (TR) and associated floodplains downstream of Midland, Michigan (USA) were greater than upstream sites and prompted a site-specific risk assessment of great blue herons (GBH). Dietary exposure of GBH to PCDFs and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) was evaluated based on site-specific concentrations of residues in prey items. Concentrations of ∑PCDD/DFs and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQ(WHO-Avian)) in prey items collected from the TR were consistently greater than those collected from associated reference areas (RAs) and further downstream in the Saginaw River (SR). The average daily dose (ADD(pot)) of ∑PCDD/DFs to GBH was 45- to 54-fold greater along the TR and 12-fold greater along the SR when compared to the RA. ∑PCDD/DFs were normalized to TEQ(WHO-Avian), and fold differences in the ADD(pot) increased, being 150- to 190-fold greater along the TR and 36-fold greater along the SR than they were in the RA. Greater fold changes in the ADD(pot) based on TEQ(WHO-Avian) between the RA and the TR and SR was due to prey items from the latter reaches having a greater relative toxic potency of ∑PCDD/DFs, primarily from greater amounts of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran but also 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran. Potential for adverse population-level effects from site-specific contaminant exposures were evaluated via comparison to selected toxicity reference values. The prediction of minimal to no risk of adverse population-level effects resultant from the assessment of site-specific dietary exposure of GBH to ∑PCDD/DFs along the TR and SR is consistent with site-specific assessments of tissue-based exposures as well as population condition. PMID:21093913

  12. Tracking Nile Delta vulnerability to Holocene change.

    PubMed

    Marriner, Nick; Flaux, Clément; Morhange, Christophe; Stanley, Jean-Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Understanding deltaic resilience in the face of Holocene climate change and human impacts is an important challenge for the earth sciences in characterizing the full range of present and future wetland responses to global warming. Here, we report an 8000-year mass balance record from the Nile Delta to reconstruct when and how this sedimentary basin has responded to past hydrological shifts. In a global Holocene context, the long-term decrease in Nile Delta accretion rates is consistent with insolation-driven changes in the 'monsoon pacemaker', attested throughout the mid-latitude tropics. Following the early to mid-Holocene growth of the Nile's deltaic plain, sediment losses and pronounced erosion are first recorded after ~4000 years ago, the corollaries of falling sediment supply and an intensification of anthropogenic impacts from the Pharaonic period onwards. Against the backcloth of the Saharan 'depeopling', reduced river flow underpinned by a weakening of monsoonal precipitation appears to have been particularly conducive to the expansion of human activities on the delta by exposing productive floodplain lands for occupation and irrigation agriculture. The reconstruction suggests that the Nile Delta has a particularly long history of vulnerability to extreme events (e.g. floods and storms) and sea-level rise, although the present sediment-starved system does not have a direct Holocene analogue. This study highlights the importance of the world's deltas as sensitive archives to investigate Holocene geosystem responses to climate change, risks and hazards, and societal interaction. PMID:23922692

  13. Contaminant concentrations and biomarker response in great blue heron eggs from 10 colonies on the upper Mississippi River, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Custer, T.W.; Hines, R.K.; Melancon, M.J.; Hoffman, D.J.; Wickliffe, J.K.; Bickham, J.W.; Martin, J.W.; Henshel, D.S.

    1997-02-01

    In 1993, great blue heron (Ardea herodias; GBH) eggs were collected from 10 colonies on the upper Mississippi River (UMR). They were then artificially incubated until pipping and analyzed for mercury, selenium, and organochlorines. Livers of embryos were analyzed for hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROS) activity and four measures of oxidative stress. Brains were measured for asymmetry and blood was measured for the coefficient of variation of DNA (DNA CV). Organochlorine concentrations were generally low (geometric mean DDE = 1.3 {micro}g/g wet weight; polychlorinated biphenyl [PCB] = 3.0 {micro}g/g; 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [TCDD] = 11.5 pg/g). Eggshell thickness was negatively correlated with DDE concentrations. Mercury (geometric mean = 0.8 {micro}g/g dry weight) and selenium (3.1 {micro}g/g dry weight) concentrations in GBH eggs were within background levels. EROD activity was not correlated with total PCBs, TCDD, or toxic equivalents (TEQs), based on the relative contribution of individual PCB congeners, dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) to total calculated TEQs. Three of the four measures of oxidative stress were correlated with mercury concentrations. Twenty of 43 (47%) embryo brains were asymmetrical and the embryos with asymmetrical brains had higher EROD concentrations in the liver and higher DNA CV in the blood than embryos with symmetrical brains.

  14. Metal Concentrations, Foraging Distances, and Fledging Success of Great Blue Herons Nesting Along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Tiller, Brett L.; Marco, Jeffrey D.; Rickard, William H.

    2005-05-01

    Excrement sample and livers of juvenile great blue herons were collected at nests at three widely separated colonies along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River to test the validity of using excrement samples as indicators of metal concentrations in tissues of juvenile herons fed food collected by parent birds within a few kilometers of nests. There was no positive relation noted between metal concentrations in excrement and liver samples taken from the same nests. Statistically significant differences in metal concentrations were noted in excrement samples collected among the different heron colonies. Arsenic, Cd, Cr, and Pb concentrations (dry wt.) were higher in excrement than in liver samples but the opposite was noted for Cu, Hg, and Zn. Mercury concentrations in heron liver samples were biomagnified to a greater extent than Cd and Cr. Fledging success and eggshell thickness measurements were used as indicators of population health. These values were equivalent to or better than those noted for heron colonies elsewhere in the United States.

  15. Contaminant concentrations and biomarker response in great blue heron eggs from 10 colonies on the upper Mississippi River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Hines, R.K.; Melancon, M.J.; Hoffman, D.J.; Wickliffe, J.K.; Bickham, J.W.; Martin, J.W.; Henshel, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    In 1993, great blue heron (Ardea herodias; GBH) eggs were collected from 10 colonies on the upper Mississippi River (UMR). They were then artificially incubated until pipping and analyzed for mercury, selenium, and organochlorines. Livers of embryos were analyzed for hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) and four measures of oxidative stress. Brains were measured for asymmetry and blood was measured for the coefficient of variation of DNA (DNA VC). Organochlorine concentrations were generally low (geometric mean DDE = 1.3 ug/g wet weight; polychlorinated biphenyl [PCB] = 3.0 ug/g; 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro- -dioxin [TCDD] = 11.5 pg/g). Eggshell thickness was negatively correlated with DDE concentrations. Mercury (geometric mean = 0.8 ug/g dry weight) and selenium (3.1 ug/g dry weight) concentrations in GBH eggs were within background levels. EROD activity was not correlated with total PCBs, TCDD or toxic equivalents (TEQs) based on the relative contribution of individual PCB congeners, dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) to calculated TEQs. Three of the four measures of oxidative stress were correlated with mercury concentrations. Twenty of 43 (47%) embryo brains were asymmetrical and the embryos with asymmetrical brains had higher EROD concentrations in the liver and higher DNA CV in the blood than embryos with symmetrical brains.

  16. Contaminant concentrations and biomarker response in great blue heron eggs from 10 colonies on the upper Mississippi River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Hines, R.K.; Melancon, M.J.; Hoffman, D.J.; Wickliffe, J.K.; Bickham, J.W.; Martin, J.W.; Henshel, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    In 1993, great blue heron (Ardea herodias; GBH) eggs were collected from 10 colonies on the upper Mississippi River (UMR). They were then artificially incubated until pipping and analyzed for mercury, selenium, and organochlorines. Livers of embryos were analyzed for hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) activity and four measures of oxidative stress. Brains were measured for asymmetry and blood was measured for the coefficient of variation of DNA (DNA CV). Organochlorine concentrations were generally low (geometric mean DDE = 1.3 I?g/g wet weight; polychlorinated biphenyl [PCB] = 3.0 I?g/g; 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [TCDD] = 11.5 pg/g). Eggshell thickness was negatively correlated with DDE concentrations. Mercury (geometric mean = 0.8 I?g/g dry weight) and selenium (3.1 I?g/g dry weight) concentrations in GBH eggs were within background levels. EROD activity was not correlated with total PCBs, TCDD, or toxic equivalents (TEQs), based on the relative contribution of individual PCB congeners, dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) to total calculated TEQs. Three of the four measures of oxidative stress were correlated with mercury concentrations. Twenty of 43 (47%) embryo brains were asymmetrical and the embryos with asymmetrical brains had higher EROD concentrations in the liver and higher DNA CV in the blood than embryos with symmetrical brains.

  17. Flood-inundation maps and wetland restoration suitability index for the Blue River and selected tributaries, Kansas City, Missouri, and vicinity, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heimann, David C.; Kelly, Brian P.; Studley, Seth E.

    2015-01-01

    Additional information in this report includes maps of simulated stream velocity for an 8.2-mile, two-dimensional modeled reach of the Blue River and a Wetland Restoration Suitability Index (WRSI) generated for the study area that was based on hydrologic, topographic, and land-use digital feature layers. The calculated WRSI for the selected flood-plain area ranged from 1 (least suitable for possible wetland mitigation efforts) to 10 (most suitable for possible wetland mitigation efforts). A WRSI of 5 to 10 is most closely associated with existing riparian wetlands in the study area. The WRSI allows for the identification of lands along the Blue River and selected tributaries that are most suitable for restoration or creation of wetlands. Alternatively, the index can be used to identify and avoid disturbances to areas with the highest potential to support healthy sustainable riparian wetlands.

  18. A multi decennial-scale marine and terrestrial palynological record of eastern Mediterranean sapropel S1 in proximity of Nile River outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Helmond, Niels; Hennekam, Rick; Bunnik, Frans P. M.; Donders, Timme H.; De Lange, Gert J.; Brinkhuis, Henk; Sangiorgi, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Eastern Mediterranean sediments are characterized by the cyclic occurrence of organic-rich layers, sapropels. Sapropel deposition is dominantly controlled by variations in precession, which drive the Northern Hemisphere seasonal contrast and the African monsoon intensity. During precession minima increased freshwater input (e.g., Nile runoff) weakened the prevailing anti-estuarine circulation. This ultimately led to widespread seafloor anoxia, promoting enhanced preservation of organic material. Increased nutrient-rich freshwater input may have additionally boosted productivity in surface waters enhancing organic matter flux to the seafloor. The relative contributions of productivity and preservation in sapropel formation is still highly debated. Here we present a marine and terrestrial palynological study (i.e., dinoflagelattes, pollen and spores) of sapropel S1 (~10-6 kyr BP) from core PS009PC, retrieved from offshore Israel, a location extremely sensitive to changes in the Nile outflow. High sediment accumulation rates of the core enable an unique high-resolution study. Our results clearly reflect the changes that occurred in the marine and terrestrial realms prior to and during sapropel deposition, its termination and the temporary interruption at ~8.2 kyr. Our data, in combination with available geochemical data, show that productivity was elevated before sapropel deposition already, while sudden stratification seems to have been critical for sapropel formation.

  19. Effects of pumping municipal wells at Manhattan, Kansas, on streamflow in the Big Blue and Kansas Rivers, Northeast Kansas, 1992-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jian, Xiaodong; Myers, N.C.; Hargadine, G.D.

    1997-01-01

    A ground-water flow model was developed to simulate the effects of municipal well pumping on streamflow in the Big Blue and Kansas Rivers near Manhattan, Kansas, from 1992 through 1994.Model simulations of the effects of municipal well pumping on streamflow in the Big Blue and Kansas Rivers indicate that well pumping decreases streamflow. Simulations of May 1993 conditions indicate that well pumping decreased simulated streamflow in the Big Blue and Kansas Rivers by 5.28 ft3/s (cubic feet per second) for the month, of which 3.22 ft3/s were contributed from the streams (induced infiltration) and 2.06 ft3/s werecontributed from ground water that would have seeped to the streams if the wells had not been pumping (intercepted base flow). Of the total 414acre-feet pumped by municipal wells during May 1993, about 48 percent was from induced infiltration, and about 31 percent was from intercepted base flow. Simulations of October 16 through November 14, 1994, conditions indicate that well pumping decreased simulated streamflow in the Big Blue and Kansas Rivers by 6.67 ft3/s for the period, of which 6.51 ft3/s was from induced infiltration and 0.61 ft3/s was from intercepted base flow. Of the 506 acre-feet pumped by municipal wells during October 16 through November 14, 1994, about 76 percent was induced from infiltration, and about 2 percent was from intercepted base flow. Steady-state simulations of hypothetical conditions were conducted to develop relations among average and minimum ground- water altitudes in the Manhattan municipal well field and precipitation, pumping, and streamflow rates.

  20. Quality of stormwater runoff in the Blue River basin, Missouri and Kansas, July-October 1981 and April-July 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blevins, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    Stormwater-runoff sampling was done at three mainstem stations on the Blue River, Missouri, and three stations on urban tributaries. Concentrations of lead, iron, manganese, zinc, and ammonia nitrogen consistently exceeded Missouri water-quality standards. Many constituents were significantly correlated with large concentrations of suspended sediment from the agricultural areas in the upstream part of the basin. However, mean concentrations of lead increased 200% and mean concentrations of zinc increased 100% in the urban reach of Blue River for some storms. Combined sewer overflows along Brush Creek, one of the urban tributaries, caused large concentrations of nutrients, suspended sediment, metals, and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand in the initial runoff. After extended dry periods, surface flushing caused concentrations of lead and zinc to be largest during initial runoff at all three urban tributaries. However, large flushes of most constituents were not detected at the mainstem stations. The large percentage of impervious surfaces and lined channels in urban areas caused increased volumes of runoff per unit of drainage area and limited the availability of sediment to streams. Consequently, concentrations of most constituents were small, but the loads per unit of drainage area were large when compared with those in Blue River. (USGS)

  1. Effects of wastewater and combined sewer overflows on water quality in the Blue River basin, Kansas City, Missouri and Kansas, July 1998-October 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkison, Donald H.; Armstrong, Daniel J.; Blevins, Dale W.

    2002-01-01

    Samples were collected from 16 base-flow events and a minimum of 10 stormflow events between July 1998 and October 2000 to characterize the effects of wastewater and combined sewer overflows on water quality in the Blue River Basin, Kansas City, Missouri and Kansas. Waterquality effects were determined by analysis of nutrients, chloride, chemical and biochemical oxygen demand, and suspended sediment samples from three streams (Blue River, Brush Creek, and Indian Creek) in the basin as well as the determination of a suite of compounds known to be indicative of wastewater including antioxidants, caffeine, detergent metabolites, antimicrobials, and selected over-the-counter and prescription pharmaceuticals. Constituent loads were determined for both hydrologic regimes and a measure of the relative water-quality impact of selected stream reaches on the Blue River and Brush Creek was developed. Genetic fingerprint patterns of Escherichia coli bacteria from selected stream samples were compared to a data base of knownsource patterns to determine possible sources of bacteria. Water quality in the basin was affected by wastewater during both base flows and stormflows; however, there were two distinct sources that contributed to these effects. In the Blue River and Indian Creek, the nearly continuous discharge of treated wastewater effluent was the primary source of nutrients, wastewater indicator compounds, and pharmaceutical compounds detected in stream samples. Wastewater inputs into Brush Creek were largely the result of intermittent stormflow events that triggered the overflow of combined storm and sanitary sewers, and the subsequent discharge of untreated wastewater into the creek. A portion of the sediment, organic matter, and associated constituents from these events were trapped by a series of impoundments constructed along Brush Creek where they likely continued to affect water quality during base flow. Concentrations and loads of most wastewater constituents in

  2. FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education Public Service Videos West Nile Virus & Dead Birds Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... dead bird sightings to local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile ...

  3. Developmental alterations and endocrine-disruptive responses in farmed Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) exposed to contaminants from the Crocodile River, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Arukwe, Augustine; Myburgh, Jan; Langberg, Håkon A; Adeogun, Aina O; Braa, Idunn Godal; Moeder, Monika; Schlenk, Daniel; Crago, Jordan Paul; Regoli, Francesco; Botha, Christo

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, the developmental (including fertility) and endocrine-disruptive effects in relation to chemical burden in male and female Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus), from a commercial crocodile farm in the Brits district, South Africa, exposed to various anthropogenic aquatic contaminants from the natural environment was investigated. Hepatic transcript levels for vitellogenin (Vtg), zona pellucida (ZP) and ERα (also in gonads) were analyzed using real-time PCR. Plasma estradiol-17β (E2), testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) were analyzed using enzyme immunoassay. Gonadal aromatase and hepatic testosterone metabolism (6β-hydroxylase (6β-OHase)) were analyzed using biochemical methods. Overall, there is high and abnormal number (%) of infertile and banded eggs during the studied reproductive seasons, showing up to 57 and 34% of infertile eggs in the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 seasons, respectively. In addition, the percentage of banded eggs ranged between 10 and 19% during the period of 2009-2014 seasons. While hepatic ERα, Vtg, ZP mRNA and testosterone 6β-OHase, were equally expressed in female and male crocodiles, gonadal ERα mRNA and aromatase activity were significantly higher in females compared to male crocodiles. On the other hand, plasma T and 11-KT levels were significantly higher in males, compared to female crocodiles. Principal component analysis (PCA) produced significant grouping that revealed correlative relationships between reproductive/endocrine-disruptive variables and liver contaminant burden, that further relates to measured contaminants in the natural environment. The overall results suggest that these captive pre-slaughter farm crocodiles exhibited responses to anthropogenic aquatic contaminants with potentially relevant consequences on key reproductive and endocrine pathways and these responses may be established as relevant species endocrine disruptor biomarkers of exposure and effects in this threatened

  4. A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for West Fork Blue River, Washington County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, James G.; Wilber, W.G.; Crawford, Charles G.; Girardi, F.P.

    1979-01-01

    A digital computer model calibrated to observe stream conditions was used to evaluate water quality in West Fork Blue River, Washington County, IN. Instream dissolved-oxygen concentration averaged 96.5% of saturation at selected sites on West Fork Blue River during two 24-hour summer surveys. This high dissolved-oxygen concentration reflects small carbonaceous and nitrogenous waste loads; adequate dilution of waste by the stream; and natural reaeration. Nonpoint source waste loads accounted for an average of 53.2% of the total carbonaceous biochemical-oxygen demand and 90.2% of the nitrogenous biochemical-oxygen demand. Waste-load assimilation was studiedfor critical summer and winter low flows. Natural streamflow for these conditions was zero, so no benefit from dilution was provided. The projected stream reaeration capacity was not sufficient to maintain the minimum daily dissolved-oxygen concentration (5 milligrams per liter) in the stream with current waste-discharge restrictions. During winter low flow, ammonia toxicity, rather than dissolved-oxygen concentration, was the limiting water-quality criterion downstream from the Salem wastewater-treatment facility. (USGS)

  5. Orbital forcing of glacial/interglacial variations in chemical weathering within the White Nile basin: stable-isotope and biomarker evidence from Lakes Victoria and Edward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockerton, Helen E.; Alayne Street-Perrott, F.; Barker, Philip A.; Leng, Melanie J.; Sloane, Hilary J.; Horstwood, Matthew S. A.; Snelling, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    The continental Si cycle on Quaternary time scales has been largely neglected. Emphasis has been placed on long-term geochemical processes of silicate-rock weathering and the resulting drawdown of atmospheric CO2, rather than on shorter-term biogenic processes occurring along the land-ocean continuum. Si-accumulating plants (notably tropical rainforest hardwoods, savanna and wetland grasses, and Papyrus) and aquatic organisms (such as diatoms and sponges in lakes, rivers and swamps) have the potential to take up, store and recycle significant amounts of Si, thereby modifying the riverine flux of Si to the oceans, the productivity of siliceous marine organisms and the rate of atmospheric CO2 drawdown on an orbital time scale. The main aim of this study was to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of Si cycling along the Nile system during the last 20ka BP. Utilising sediment cores from Lakes Victoria and Edward, coupled measurements of stable Si and O isotopes on cleaned diatom separates were employed to reconstruct millennial-scale variations in biotic Si cycling and palaeohydrology, respectively. Abundance ratios of lipid biomarkers (n-alkanes) were used to track major changes in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The results have been interpreted in the light of multi-isotope analyses (2H,18O,30Si) of modern water samples collected along the courses of the modern White and Blue Niles during both wet- and dry-season conditions. During drier intervals (the Last Glacial Maximum and the late Holocene: high 18Odiatom), Si cycling was greatly reduced. Diminished vegetation cover, reduced biotic rock weathering, a declining soil stock of amorphous silica (ASi) and decreased runoff resulted in reduced dissolved silica (DSi) supply to the lakes in relation to aquatic demand (high 30Sidiatom). In contrast, enhanced monsoon rainfall (low 18Odiatom) during the early to mid-Holocene promoted a substantial increase in terrestrial biomass within the White Nile headwaters

  6. Mental Status after West Nile Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sadek, Joseph; Pergam, Steven; Echevarria, Leonor A.; Davis, Larry E.; Goade, Diane; Harnar, Joanne; Nofchissey, Robert A.; Sewel, C. Mack; Ettestad, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Mental status after acute West Nile virus infection has not been examined objectively. We compared Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status scores of 116 patients with West Nile fever or West Nile neuroinvasive disease. Mental status was poorer and cognitive complaints more frequent with West Nile neuroinvasive disease (p = 0.005). PMID:16965710

  7. Solar Forcings on Nile and Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Shehri, Saad Mohammed; Sabbah, Ismail; Yousef, Shahinaz Moustafa; Amin, Magdy Y.

    2013-03-01

    Nile and earthquake periodicities are examined in the light of solar and geomagnetic periodicities in order to uncover the role of the sun in initiating such terrestrial phenomena. The Nile periodicities under considerations covers the period 622-1420 AD. 1749- 1800 and 1870-1945 and are taken from an earlier paper by Yousef and El-Rae (1995). It is found that 11 yr and 21 yr solar periodicities affected the White Nile originating from the Equatorial plateau. On the other hand the Blue Nile arising mainly from Lake Tana in Ethiopia was affected mostly by the 3.3 yr, 2.9 yr, 2.7 yr, and the 2.52 yr periodicities. Such short periodicities are also present in cosmic rays. This is fairly true as during weak solar cycles series at the bottom of the 80-120 year Solar Wolf-Gleissberg Cycles, the level of the second to last of the weak cycles rise and fall coherently with full solar cycles with a correlation coefficient of about 0.9. Rain over Ethiopia is affected by the Monsoon precipitation which is related to the quasi biennial oscillations QBO of the equatorial zonal wind between the easterlies and the westerlies in the tropical stratosphere with a mean period of 29 months. We propose that the QBO are stimulated by the 2.52-2.48 yr solar periodicities. The 2.52 and 2.48 yr periodicity is strong in odd solar cycles 21 and 23. Generally speaking, it looks that different solar periodicities are space-time dependant and that they affect different regimes of terrestrial responses. In the case of earthquakes, we think that they are related to geomagnetic storms initiated by solar stimuli. Several solar periodicities are found in earthquakes. We postulate that electric currents in the ring current and in the ionosphere induce surface as well as deep electric currents in the magma thus produce motion and disturbances of the plates and the magma leading to earthquakes and volcanoes.

  8. Compilation of atrazine and selected herbicide data from previous surface-water-quality investigations within the Big Blue River basin, Nebraska, 1983-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankforter, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Atrazine has been detected in the surface water of the Big Blue River Basin during every month of the year. Recent data (1983-92) documenting the occurrence of atrazine and related herbicides in the surface water of the basin are compiled in this report. In samples analyzed during these studies, atrazine was the herbicide detected most frequently within the basin. Of the 385 samples analyzed, 369 contained atrazine in detectable concentrations with detection levels varying from 0 to 0.1 micrograms per liter. The concentrations of atrazine within the samples varied from 0.5 to 166 micrograms per liter, with a median concentration of 2.7 micrograms per liter. Other herbicides frequently detected in the Big Blue River Basin were alachlor, cyanazine, metolachlor, and simazine, and two metabolites of atrazine, desethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine. In the 226 samples which alachlor was detected, the concentrations of the herbicide ranged from 0.05 to 56 micrograms per liter, and the median concen- tration was 1.1 micrograms per liter. Cyanazine was detected in 210 of 365 samples collected with con- centrations that ranged from 0.05 to 8.6 micrograms per liter with a median concentration of 0.4 microgram per liter. The maximum concentrations of metolachlor and simazine were 26 and 35 micrograms per liter, respectively. The median concentrations of these herbicides were 1.0 and 0.1 micrograms per liter, respectively. The maximum concentration of desethylatrazine, was 3.7 micrograms per liter, with a median concentration of 1.0 microgram per liter. Deisopropylatrazine, was detected in 152 samples with maximum and median concentrations of 2.6 and 0.6 micrograms per liter, respectively.

  9. Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Modeling and Analysis of the Proposed Channel Modifications and Grade Control Structure on the Blue River near Byram's Ford Industrial Park, Kansas City, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    The Blue River Channel Modification project being implemented by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is intended to provide flood protection within the Blue River valley in the Kansas City, Mo., metropolitan area. In the latest phase of the project, concerns have arisen about preserving the Civil War historic area of Byram's Ford and the associated Big Blue Battlefield while providing flood protection for the Byram's Ford Industrial Park. In 1996, the USACE used a physical model built at the Waterways Experiment Station (WES) in Vicksburg, Miss., to examine the feasibility of a proposed grade control structure (GCS) that would be placed downstream from the historic river crossing of Byram's Ford to provide a subtle transition of flow from the natural channel to the modified channel. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the USACE, modified an existing two-dimensional finite element surface-water model of the river between 63d Street and Blue Parkway (the 'original model'), used the modified model to simulate the existing (as of 2006) unimproved channel and the proposed channel modifications and GCS, and analyzed the results from the simulations and those from the WES physical model. Modifications were made to the original model to create a model that represents existing (2006) conditions between the north end of Swope Park immediately upstream from 63d Street and the upstream limit of channel improvement on the Blue River (the 'model of existing conditions'). The model of existing conditions was calibrated to two measured floods. The model of existing conditions also was modified to create a model that represents conditions along the same reach of the Blue River with proposed channel modifications and the proposed GCS (the 'model of proposed conditions'). The models of existing conditions and proposed conditions were used to simulate the 30-, 50-, and 100-year recurrence floods. The discharge from the calibration flood of May 15, 1990, also

  10. Tracking Nile Delta Vulnerability to Holocene Change

    PubMed Central

    Marriner, Nick; Flaux, Clément; Morhange, Christophe; Stanley, Jean-Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Understanding deltaic resilience in the face of Holocene climate change and human impacts is an important challenge for the earth sciences in characterizing the full range of present and future wetland responses to global warming. Here, we report an 8000-year mass balance record from the Nile Delta to reconstruct when and how this sedimentary basin has responded to past hydrological shifts. In a global Holocene context, the long-term decrease in Nile Delta accretion rates is consistent with insolation-driven changes in the ‘monsoon pacemaker’, attested throughout the mid-latitude tropics. Following the early to mid-Holocene growth of the Nile’s deltaic plain, sediment losses and pronounced erosion are first recorded after ~4000 years ago, the corollaries of falling sediment supply and an intensification of anthropogenic impacts from the Pharaonic period onwards. Against the backcloth of the Saharan ‘depeopling’, reduced river flow underpinned by a weakening of monsoonal precipitation appears to have been particularly conducive to the expansion of human activities on the delta by exposing productive floodplain lands for occupation and irrigation agriculture. The reconstruction suggests that the Nile Delta has a particularly long history of vulnerability to extreme events (e.g. floods and storms) and sea-level rise, although the present sediment-starved system does not have a direct Holocene analogue. This study highlights the importance of the world’s deltas as sensitive archives to investigate Holocene geosystem responses to climate change, risks and hazards, and societal interaction. PMID:23922692

  11. Monitoring the Spread of West Nile Virus with Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A NASA-funded study uses temperature and vegetation data from satellites to help track and predict where West Nile virus is spreading in North America. Scientists and public health officials hope one day to use near real-time maps to focus resources and stave off the disease more efficiently. This image is a composite of land surface temperatures (LST) recorded between 1997 and 2000 and was used to help monitor and predict the spread of West Nile virus in the United States. In the color figure above, the mean land surface temperatures are in red; annual amplitude-or the difference between low and high annual temperatures-is in blue; and annual phase-or the timing of annual temperature peaks-appears in green. Brighter colors mean higher values. The major north-south temperature difference (dull red in the upper part of the image to bright red in the lower part) is considerably affected by the Rockies in the west and to a much lesser extent by the Appalachians in the east. The brighter blue in the upper part of the image indicates the big difference between highest and lowest temperatures during the course of a year at higher latitudes. There is less variation in the timing of the annual peak of land surface temperatures, which occurs earlier in the south than in the north. Black dots superimposed on this image are the locations (county geo-centers) where birds infected with West Nile virus were reported between January and October 2001. Scientists working with the International Research Partnership for Infectious Diseases (INTREPID) program based at NASA are using such imagery to define and predict the conditions where mosquitoes transmit West Nile virus in the U.S. The conclusion reached about the importance of any single variable depends both upon its value and context. A temperature of 30o Celsius (86o Fahrenheit) might be fatal for a mosquito at low humidity but survivable at higher humidities. The work done here on West Nile virus and other diseases shows very

  12. Spatio-temporal Analysis on the Combined Impact of Long-term Climate and Landuse Changes on Blue and Green Water Dynamics over the Ohio River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, L.; Rajib, M. A.; Merwade, V.

    2015-12-01

    Impacts of climate and landuse change on the overall water availability can be analytically comprehended in terms of long-term trends in surface and subsurface hydrologic fluxes. The surface and subsurface fluxes can be represented in terms of blue water (BW; surface runoff and deep aquifer recharge) and green water (GW; soil water content and actual evapotranspiration). The objective of this study is to present a comprehensive assessment of the spatial and temporal trend of BW and GW under the historical climate and landuse data over the period of 1935 to 2014 in the Ohio River Basin (490,000 km2), and thereby, quantify the relative effects of climate and landuse changes on their long-term dynamics. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used to simulate hydrologic fluxes for the Ohio River Basin by first changing both climate and landuse inputs, and then by only changing the climate input keeping landuse constant. The Mann-Kendall and Theil-Sen trend analyses over the whole basin show volumetric increase in both BW and GW. However, the trends reveal a regional pattern, where GW has increased significantly in the upper and lower parts of the basin in response to prominent landuse change. Whereas, BW has increased significantly only in the lower part that can be related to the significant change in precipitation there. The finding that BW is more affected by precipitation while landuse change is more influential in changing GW, is further supported from the BW and GW trend analyses at the individual sub-basin scale. The results from this study help to understand the collective influence of natural and anthropogenic impacts on hydrologic responses in the Ohio River basin, and thereby provide useful information for future water security and planning.

  13. Mutually beneficial and sustainable management of Ethiopian and Egyptian dams in the Nile Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habteyes, Befekadu G.; Hasseen El-bardisy, Harb A. E.; Amer, Saud A.; Schneider, Verne R.; Ward, Frank A.

    2015-10-01

    Ongoing pressures from population growth, recurrent drought, climate, urbanization and industrialization in the Nile Basin raise the importance of finding viable measures to adapt to these stresses. Four tributaries of the Eastern Nile Basin contribute to supplies: the Blue Nile (56%), White Nile-Albert (14%), Atbara (15%) and Sobat (15%). Despite much peer reviewed work addressing conflicts on the Nile, none to date has quantitatively examined opportunities for discovering benefit sharing measures that could protect negative impacts on downstream water users resulting from new upstream water storage developments. The contribution of this paper is to examine the potential for mutually beneficial and sustainable benefit sharing measures from the development and operation of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam while protecting baseline flows to the downstream countries including flows into the Egyptian High Aswan Dam. An integrated approach is formulated to bring the hydrology, economics and institutions of the region into a unified framework for policy analysis. A dynamic optimization model is developed and applied to identify the opportunities for Pareto Improving measures to operate these two dams for the four Eastern Nile Basin countries: Ethiopia, South Sudan, Sudan, and Egypt. Results indicate a possibility for one country to be better off (Ethiopia) and no country to be worse off from a managed operation of these two storage facilities. Still, despite the optimism of our results, considerable diplomatic negotiation among the four riparians will be required to turn potential gains into actual welfare improvements.

  14. Antibody response of five bird species after vaccination with a killed West Nile virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Okeson, Danelle M; Llizo, Shirley Yeo; Miller, Christine L; Glaser, Amy L

    2007-06-01

    West Nile virus has been associated with numerous bird mortalities in the United States since 1999. Five avian species at three zoological parks were selected to assess the antibody response to vaccination for West Nile virus: black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus), little blue penguins (Eudyptula minor), American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber), Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis), and Attwater's prairie chickens (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri). All birds were vaccinated intramuscularly at least twice with a commercially available inactivated whole virus vaccine (Innovator). Significant differences in antibody titer over time were detected for black-footed penguins and both flamingo species. PMID:17679507

  15. Petrology and U-PB geochronology of the Robertson River Igneous Suite, Blue Ridge province, Virginia - Evidence for multistage magmatism associated witn an early episode of Laurentian rifting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tollo, R.P.; Aleinikoff, J.N.

    1996-01-01

    The Late Neoproterozoic (735-702 Ma) Robertson River Igneous Suite includes at least eight plutons ranging in composition from syenogranite to alkali feldspar granite to alkali feldspar syenite. These plutons intruded Mesoproterozoic (1.2-1.0 Ga) gneissic basement of the Blue Ridge anticlinorium in northern and central Virginia during an early episode of Laurentian rifting. Robertson River plutons range in composition from metaluminous to peralkaline and, relative to other granite types, exhibit compositional characteristics of A-type granitoids including (1) marked enrichment in Nb, Zr, Y, REE (except Eu), and Ga, (2) high Ga/Al and FeO(total)/MgO, and (3) depletion of Ba and Sr. High Ga/Al ratios are particularly diagnostic of the suite and serve as an effective discriminant between originally metaluminous and peralkaline bulk compositions, providing a useful proxy for widely used indicators based on major elements that are prone to remobilization. U-Pb isotopic analyses of zircons indicate that the suite was emplaced in two pulses, occurring at 735 to 722 and 706 to 702 Ma. Metaluminous magmas were emplaced during both pulses, formed most of the main batholith, and fractionated as independent, time-correlative groups. Peralkaline magmas were emplaced only during the final pulse, formed a volcanic center that erupted unknown quantities of rhyolite, and experienced a style of fractionation similar to the metaluminous types. Differences in Ce/Nb, Y/Nb, and Yb/Ta ratios suggest that the metaluminous and peralkaline magmas were derived from different sources. The Robertson River Igneous Suite is part of a regional group of Late Neoproterozoic (760-700 Ma) plutons including at least 20 other A-type granitoid bodies exposed throughout the Laurentian terrane of Virginia and northwestern North Carolina. Like the Robertson River, most of the other granitoids are metaluminous in composition, typically form multi-intrusive, elongate plutons, and are not geographically

  16. High-latitude eruptions cast shadow over the African monsoon and the flow of the Nile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oman, Luke; Robock, Alan; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Thordarson, Thorvaldur

    2006-09-01

    Nile River records indicate very low flow following the 1783-1784 Laki volcanic eruption, as well as after other high-latitude volcanic eruptions. As shown by climate model simulations of the Laki eruption, significant cooling (-1° to -3°C) of the Northern Hemisphere land masses during the boreal summer of 1783 resulted in a strong dynamical effect of weakening the African and Indian monsoon circulations, with precipitation anomalies of -1 to -3 mm/day over the Sahel of Africa, thus producing the low Nile flow. Future high-latitude eruptions would significantly impact the food and water supplies in these areas. Using observations of the flow of the Nile River, this new understanding is used to support a date of 939 for the beginning of the eruption of the Eldgjá volcano in Iceland, the largest high-latitude eruption of the past 1500 years.

  17. West Nile Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Sejvar, James J

    2016-06-01

    Although long recognized as a human pathogen, West Nile virus (WNV) emerged as a significant public health problem following its introduction and spread across North America. Subsequent years have seen a greater understanding of all aspects of this viral infection. The North American epidemic resulted in a further understanding of the virology, pathogenesis, clinical features, and epidemiology of WNV infection. Approximately 80% of human WNV infections are asymptomatic. Most symptomatic people experience an acute systemic febrile illness; less than 1% of infected people develop neuroinvasive disease, which typically manifests as meningitis, encephalitis, or anterior myelitis resulting in acute flaccid paralysis. Older age is associated with more severe illness and higher mortality; other risk factors for poor outcome have been challenging to identify. In addition to natural infection through mosquito bites, transfusion- and organ transplant-associated infections have occurred. Since there is no definitive treatment for WNV infection, protection from mosquito bites and other preventative measures are critical. WNV has reached an endemic pattern in North America, but the future epidemiologic pattern is uncertain. PMID:27337465

  18. Food chain sources of polychlorinated dioxins and furans to great blue herons, ardea herodias, foraging in the fraser river estuary, british columbia. Technical report series no. no. 169

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents results of determinations of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) levels in the prey of great blue herons foraging on the Fraser River estuary tidal flats. Observations of herons foraging at Iona and Westham Islands showed that starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) and Pacific staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus) were the major prey species throughout the year. The paper includes measurements of PCDD/PCDF levels in those two species and others such as redside shiner (Richardsonius balteatus), peamouth chub (Mylocheilus caurinum), and shiner perch (Cymatogaster aggregata). The paper concludes with a discussion of the role of contaminated inshore fish on the entry of PCDD/PCDF into herons.The purpose of the Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network is to provide information and understanding needed for the sustainable management of Canada`s resources and resource-based industries. This document presents the proceedings of the first meeting of the Network. It includes presentations by federal government representatives on ecological monitoring and research programs in federal departments, reviews of progress in establishing Ecological Science Cooperatives for ecological monitoring and research, presentations on topical workshops, and workshop summaries. The workshops were arranged by ecological issue (biodiversity, climate change, ultraviolet radiation, toxic chemicals, and cumulative effects). They discussed and recommended local and national goals, objectives, and deliverables for ongoing research, monitoring, and synthesis related to the ecological effects of each issue.

  19. Effects of wastewater effluent discharge and treatment facility upgrades on environmental and biological conditions of the upper Blue River, Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri, January 2003 through March 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, Jennifer L.; Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Poulton, Barry C.

    2010-01-01

    The Johnson County Blue River Main Wastewater Treatment Facility discharges into the upper Blue River near the border between Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri. During 2005 through 2007 the wastewater treatment facility underwent upgrades to increase capacity and include biological nutrient removal. The effects of wastewater effluent on environmental and biological conditions of the upper Blue River were assessed by comparing an upstream site to two sites located downstream from the wastewater treatment facility. Environmental conditions were evaluated using previously and newly collected discrete and continuous data, and were compared with an assessment of biological community composition and ecosystem function along the upstream-downstream gradient. This evaluation is useful for understanding the potential effects of wastewater effluent on water quality, biological community structure, and ecosystem function. In addition, this information can be used to help achieve National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) wastewater effluent permit requirements after additional studies are conducted. The effects of wastewater effluent on the water-quality conditions of the upper Blue River were most evident during below-normal and normal streamflows (about 75 percent of the time), when wastewater effluent contributed more than 20 percent to total streamflow. The largest difference in water-quality conditions between the upstream and downstream sites was in nutrient concentrations. Total and inorganic nutrient concentrations at the downstream sites during below-normal and normal streamflows were 4 to 15 times larger than at the upstream site, even after upgrades to the wastewater treatment facility were completed. However, total nitrogen concentrations decreased in wastewater effluent and at the downstream site following wastewater treatment facility upgrades. Similar decreases in total phosphorus were not observed, likely because the biological

  20. A giant dune-dammed lake on the North Platte River, Nebraska

    SciTech Connect

    Swinehart, J.B. . Conservation and Survey Div.); Loope, D.B. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    The recent work in the Nebraska Sand Hills, just north of the North Platte Valley, has revealed the presence of numerous dune dams--sites where eolian sand has filled Pleistocene paleovalleys and caused the formation of lake basins containing abundant small, interdunal lakes. Although the Platte River is considered the southern margin of the Sand Hills, there is a 1,200 sq km triangular area of large dunes in Lincoln County just south of the South Platte. The authors hypothesize that large dunes migrated southward to fill the North Platte Valley during glacial maximum when both the North and South Platte were dry. As Rocky Mountain snowmelt and Great Plains precipitation increased during deglaciation, a single 65 km-long, 15 km-wide, 50 m-deep lake formed behind the massive dune dam. The tentative chronology suggests that the lake was in existence for at least several thousand years. They have not yet found compelling evidence of catastrophic flooding downstream of the former lake. Evidence of two large Quaternary lakes on the White Nile between Khartoum and Malakal (Sudan) was discovered in the 1960's. Shoreline deposits indicate the lakes were 400--600 km long and up to 50 km wide. Although the lakes have been attributed to repeated blockage of the White Nile by clay-rich Blue Nile deposits, the distribution and age of dune sand near the confluence of these rivers suggest that, as in the Nebraska example, the course of the White Nile was blocked by dunes when the region was desiccated in the Late Pleistocene. Lakes behind permeable dams rise to a level where input equals output. Earthen dams are vulnerable to overtopping and piping. The relatively high permeability of dune sand prevents or delays overtopping, and piping is prevented by the extremely high low hydraulic gradients that typify extant sand dams.

  1. An ancient icon reveals new mysteries: mummy DNA resurrects a cryptic species within the Nile crocodile.

    PubMed

    Hekkala, Evon; Shirley, Matthew H; Amato, George; Austin, James D; Charter, Suellen; Thorbjarnarson, John; Vliet, Kent A; Houck, Marlys L; Desalle, Rob; Blum, Michael J

    2011-10-01

    The Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) is an ancient icon of both cultural and scientific interest. The species is emblematic of the great civilizations of the Nile River valley and serves as a model for international wildlife conservation. Despite its familiarity, a centuries-long dispute over the taxonomic status of the Nile crocodile remains unresolved. This dispute not only confounds our understanding of the origins and biogeography of the 'true crocodiles' of the crown genus Crocodylus, but also complicates conservation and management of this commercially valuable species. We have taken a total evidence approach involving phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear markers, as well as karyotype analysis of chromosome number and structure, to assess the monophyletic status of the Nile crocodile. Samples were collected from throughout Africa, covering all major bioregions. We also utilized specimens from museum collections, including mummified crocodiles from the ancient Egyptian temples at Thebes and the Grottes de Samoun, to reconstruct the genetic profiles of extirpated populations. Our analyses reveal a cryptic evolutionary lineage within the Nile crocodile that elucidates the biogeographic history of the genus and clarifies long-standing arguments over the species' taxonomic identity and conservation status. An examination of crocodile mummy haplotypes indicates that the cryptic lineage corresponds to an earlier description of C. suchus and suggests that both African Crocodylus lineages historically inhabited the Nile River. Recent survey efforts indicate that C. suchus is declining or extirpated throughout much of its distribution. Without proper recognition of this cryptic species, current sustainable use-based management policies for the Nile crocodile may do more harm than good. PMID:21906195

  2. Blue Note

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  3. Blue Note

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2010-01-08

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  4. Understanding the hydrologic sources and sinks in the Nile Basin using multisource climate and remote sensing data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senay, Gabriel B.; Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Bohms, Stefanie; Demissie, Yonas; Gebremichael, Mekonnen

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we integrated satellite-drived precipitation and modeled evapotranspiration data (2000-2012) to describe spatial variability of hydrologic sources and sinks in the Nile Basin. Over 2000-2012 period, 4 out of 11 countries (Ethiopia, Tanzania, Kenya, and Uganda) in the Nile Basin showed a positive water balance while three downstream countries (South Sudan, Sudan, and Egypt) showed a negative balance. Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mass deviation in storage data analysis showed that at annual timescales, the Nile Basin storage change is substantial while over longer time periods, it is minimal (<1% of basin precipitation). We also used long-term gridded runoff and river discharge data (1869-1984) to understand the discrepancy in the observed and expected flow along the Nile River. The top three countries that contribute most to the flow are Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Kenya. The study revealed that ˜85% of the runoff generated in the equatorial region is lost in an interstation basin that includes the Sudd wetlands in South Sudan; this proportion is higher than the literature reported loss of 50% at the Sudd wetlands alone. The loss in runoff and flow volume at different sections of the river tend to be more than what can be explained by evaporation losses, suggesting a potential recharge to deeper aquifers that are not connected to the Nile channel systems. On the other hand, we also found that the expected average annual Nile flow at Aswan is greater (97 km3) than the reported amount (84 km3). Due to the large variations of the reported Nile flow at different locations and time periods, the study results indicate the need for increased hydrometeorological instrumentation of the basin. The study also helped improve our understanding of the spatial dynamics of water sources and sinks in the Nile Basin and identified emerging hydrologic questions that require further attention.

  5. New insights into hydrologic sources and sinks in the Nile Basin: A multi-source satellite data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senay, G. B.; Velpuri, N. M.; Bohms, S.; Demissie, Y.; Gebremichael, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Nile River is the longest in the world with a length of 6,800 km. However, the contrast between the length of the river or the size of the basin and the comparatively small volume of basin runoff generated is a unique feature of the Nile Basin. Due to non-availability of in-situ hydrologic data, we do not clearly understand the spatial distribution of hydrologic sources and sinks and how much they control input-output dynamics? In this study, we integrated satellite-derived precipitation, and modeled evapotranspiration data (2000-2012) to describe spatial variability of hydrologic sources and sinks in the Nile Basin. We also used long-term gridded runoff and river discharge data (1869-1984) to understand the discrepancy in the observed and expected flow along the Nile River. Results indicate that over 2000-2012 period, 4 out of 11 countries (Ethiopia, Tanzania, Kenya, and Uganda) in the Nile basin showed a positive water balance while three downstream countries (South Sudan, Sudan, and Egypt) showed a negative balance. The top three countries that contribute most to the flow are Ethiopia, Tanzania and Kenya. The study revealed that ~85% of the runoff generated in the Equatorial region is lost in an inter-station basin that includes the Sudd wetlands in South Sudan; this proportion is higher than the reported loss of 50% at the Sudd wetlands alone. The loss in runoff and flow volume at different sections of the river tend to be more than what can be explained by evaporation losses, suggesting a potential recharge to deeper aquifers that are not connected to the Nile channel systems. On the other hand, we also found that the expected average annual Nile flow at Aswan is larger (97 km3) than the reported amount (84 km3). Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mass deviation in storage data analysis showed that at annual time-scales, the Nile Basin shows storage change is substantial while over longer-time periods, it is minimal (<1% of basin precipitation

  6. Tissue-based risk assessment of great blue heron (Ardea herodias) exposed to PCDD/DF in the Tittabawassee River floodplain, Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Seston, Rita M; Fredricks, Timothy B; Tazelaar, Dustin L; Coefield, Sarah J; Bradley, Patrick W; Newsted, John L; Kay, Denise P; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Giesy, John P; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2010-11-01

    Concentrations of dioxin-like compounds, primarily polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), in soils and sediments of the Tittabawassee River (TR) and associated floodplains downstream of Midland, Michigan, USA, were greater than upstream sites and prompted a site-specific risk assessment of great blue herons (GBH). Tissue exposure of PCDF and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) was assessed in multiple GBH tissue types, including blood plasma of adults and eggs, as well as blood plasma, adipose, liver, and muscle of nestlings. Adult GBH exposure was associated with foraging area and age class, with concentrations of PCDD/DF being greater in blood plasma of adult GBH foraging in the TR compared with those foraging in upstream reference areas and in older birds as compared with their younger cohorts. Concentrations of PCDD/DFs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in eggs and nestling tissues of GBH collected from rookeries within the TR floodplain were generally similar among rookeries. Mean concentrations of PCDD/DFs in eggs of GBH ranged from 45 to 67 ng/kg, wet weight for the rookeries studied, with a maximum concentration of 210 ng/kg, wet weight observed. Adipose consistently had the greatest concentration of PCDD/DFs of all tissues collected from nestlings of GBH, ranging from 98 to 430 ng/kg, wet weight. Potential for adverse population-level effects from site-specific contaminant exposures were evaluated by comparison with selected toxicity reference values (TRVs). Minimal risk of adverse population-level effects were predicted when exposures measured in tissues of GBH collected from rookeries within the TR were compared with appropriate TRVs. This prediction is consistent with site-specific measures of population condition, which included clutch size and number of nestlings per successful nest. PMID:20886642

  7. Water in the face of afforestation in the Nile Basin (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebrehiwot, S. G.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract The Nile is the longest river in the world with catchment area of more than 3 × 106 km2 that is home to a fast growing population of some 2 × 107 people. The specific runoff of the River Nile is far less than that of other major world rivers. Much of the rain falling on the catchment, ca 86%, is lost to evapotranspiration which in turn account for the relatively low specific runoff. Afforestation in the Nile Basin is one the major developmental activities in Africa with more than 80% the continent's tree plantation located in the basin. National and continental greening programs, biofuel production, land acquisition and carbon trade are some of the reasons behind the large scale afforestation. Given the complex relationship between forests and water availability, afforestation program needs to give proper consideration to their influence on water availability. Background studies in the Basin indicate that the low flow is highly dependent on the availability of grassland and woodland land covers; while the concurrent biofuel plantation and land investments have been carried out in the areas of grasslands and woodlands, as remote sensing analysis shown. The same studies on the Basin, as well as other studies from similar areas elsewhere in the world suggest that forest impacts on hydrology tend to be localized, where there may also be regional climatic impacts. So, afforestation programs in the Nile Basin need to embrace local impacts with special focus to grasslands and woodlands.

  8. The Holocene Geoarchaeology of the Desert Nile in Northern Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, Jamie; Macklin, Mark; Spencer, Neal; Welsby, Derek; Dalton, Matthew; Hay, Sophie; Hardy, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Invited Paper Forty years ago Colin Renfrew declared that "every archaeological problem starts as a problem in geoarchaeology" (Renfrew, 1976 p. 2). With this assertion in mind, this paper draws upon the findings from field research in two sectors of the Nile Valley of Northern Sudan dedicated to the exploration of human-environment interactions during the middle and late Holocene. This part of the Nile corridor contains a rich cultural record and an exceptionally well preserved Holocene fluvial archive. A distinctive feature of these records is the variety of evidence for interaction between desert and river over a range of spatial and temporal scales. This interaction presented both challenges and opportunities for its ancient inhabitants. This paper will present evidence for large-scale landscape changes driven by shifts in global climate. It will also show how we have integrated the archaeological and geological records in the Northern Dongola Reach and at Amara West - where long-term field projects led by archaeologists from the British Museum have recognised the importance of a sustained commitment to interdisciplinary research to achieve a fully integrated geoarchaeological approach across a range of scales. The former project is a large-scale landscape survey with multiple sites across an 80 km reach of the Nile whilst the latter has a strong focus on a single New Kingdom town site and changes in its environmental setting. By combining multiple archaeological and geological datasets - and pioneering the use of OSL dating and strontium isotope analysis in the Desert Nile - we have developed a new understanding of human responses to Holocene climate and landscape change in this region. Renfrew, C. (1976) Archaeology and the earth sciences. In: D.A. Davidson and M.I. Shackley (eds) Geoarchaeology: Earth Science and the Past, Duckworth, London, 1-5.

  9. Impact of climate change on water and agriculture: Challenges and possible solutions for the Nile Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabrouk, Badr; Arafa, Salah; Farahat, Hany; Badr, Marmar; Gampe, David; Ludwig, Ralf

    2013-04-01

    The Nile-Delta is subjected to continuous changes; including shoreline changes either erosion or accretion, subsidence of the delta, as well as sea level rise due to climate change. The impacts of climate change on the Nile Delta have been addressed on local and international level as the Nile Delta coastal zones are vulnerable to sea level rise. The poster presents recent research activities and findings from the CLIMB project in the Nile Delta and costal zones of Egypt. Lots of field data have been collected such as aquifer geometry data, soil properties data, well data and contamination sources. All of these data support a coupled modeling approach of the land surface hydrological model WASIM-ETH and the hydrological model MOD-Flow to simulate and project the future impact translation of climate projections into hydrological impacts. Results confirm intensified threads to water security. Increasing potential evaporation (in response to increasing temperature) in combination with decreasing water levels in the Nile river, reduced precipitation and groundwater recharge and deteriorating groundwater quality, imposes great challenges to ensure the supply of drinking water and irrigation. Current irrigation strategies are highly inefficient and must be replaced by new and adapted systems. Based on the results of the coupled modeling approach, various scenarios can be evaluated. The vision is to develop a road map for climate change and green economy that maximizes wellbeing of the Egyptian citizens, operates with environmental limits, and is capable of adapting to global environmental change.

  10. A distal 145 ka sediment record of Nile discharge and East African monsoon variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrmann, W.; Schmiedl, G.; Seidel, M.; Krüger, S.; Schulz, H.

    2015-09-01

    Clay mineral assemblages in a sediment core from the distal Nile discharge plume off Israel have been used to reconstruct the late Quaternary Nile sediment discharge into the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS). The record spans the last ca. 145 ka. Smectite abundances indicate the influence of the Blue Nile and Atbara that have their headwaters in the volcanic rocks of the Ethiopian highlands. Kaolinite abundances indicate the influence of wadis, which contribute periodically to the suspension load of the Nile. Due to the geographical position, the climate and the sedimentary framework of the EMS is controlled by two climate systems. The long-term climate regime was governed by the African monsoon that caused major humid periods with enhanced sediment discharge at 132 to < 122 ka (AHP 5), 113 to 104 ka (AHP 4), and 86 to 74 ka (AHP 3). They lasted much longer than the formation of the related sapropel layers S5, S4 and S3. During the last glacial period (MIS 4-2) the long-term changes of the monsoonal system were superimposed by millennial-scale changes of an intensified mid-latitude glacial system. This climate regime caused short but pronounced drought periods in the Nile catchment, which are linked to Heinrich Events and alternate with more humid interstadials. The clay mineral record further implies that feedback mechanisms between vegetation cover and sediment discharge of the Nile are detectable but of minor importance for the sedimentary record in the southeastern Mediterranean Sea during the investigated African Humid Periods.

  11. Blue gods, blue oil, and blue people.

    PubMed

    Fairbanks, V F

    1994-09-01

    Studies of the composition of coal tar, which began in Prussia in 1834, profoundly affected the economies of Germany, Great Britain, India, and the rest of the world, as well as medicine and surgery. Such effects include the collapse of the profits of the British indigo monopoly, the growth in economic power of Germany based on coal tar chemistry, and an economic crisis in India that led to more humane tax laws and, ultimately, the independence of India and the end of the British Empire. Additional consequences were the development of antiseptic surgery and the synthesis of a wide variety of useful drugs that have eradicated infections and alleviated pain. Many of these drugs, particularly the commonly used analgesics, sulfonamides, sulfones, and local anesthetics, are derivatives of aniline, originally called "blue oil" or "kyanol." Some of these aniline derivatives, however, have also caused aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, and methemoglobinemia (that is, "blue people"). Exposure to aniline drugs, particularly when two or three aniline drugs are taken concurrently, seems to be the commonest cause of methemoglobinemia today. PMID:8065194

  12. Mosquito larval habitat mapping using remote sensing and GIS: Implications of coalbed methane development and the West Nile Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential larval habitats of the mosquito Culex tarsalis (Coquillett), implicated as a primary vector of West Nile virus in Wyoming, were identified using integrated remote sensing and geographic information sytem (GIS) analyses. The study area is in the Powder River Basin of north central Wyoming,...

  13. Estimation of Some Bio-Physical Indicators for Sustainable Crop Production in the Eastern Nile Basin of Sudan Using Landsat-8 Imagery and SEBAL Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guma Biro Turk, Khalid

    2016-07-01

    Crop production under modern irrigation systems require unique management at field level and hence better utilization of agricultural inputs and water resources. This study aims to make use of remote sensing (RS) data and the surface energy balance algorithm for land (SEBAL) to improve the on-farm management. The study area is located in the Eastern part of the Blue Nile River about 60 km south of Khartoum, Sudan. Landsat-8 data were used to estimate a number of bio-physical indicators during the growing season of the year 2014/2015. Accordingly, in-situ weather data and SEBAL model were applied to calculate: the reference (ET0), actual (ETa) and potential (ETp) evapotranspiration, soil moisture (SM), crop factor (kc), nitrogen (N), biomass production (BP) and crop water productivity (CWP). Results revealed that ET0 showed steady variation throughout the year, varying from 5 to 7 mm/day. However, ETa and ETp showed clear temporal variation attributed to frequent cutting of the alfalfa, almost monthly. The BP of the alfalfa was observed to be high when there is no cutting activates were made before the image acquisition date. Nevertheless the CWP trends are following the biomass production ones, low when there is no biomass and high when the biomass is high. The application of SEBAL model within the study area using the Landsat-8 imagery indicates that it's possible to produce field-based bio-physical indicators, which can be useful in monitoring and managing the field during the growing season. However, a cross-calibration with the in-situ data should be considered in order to maintain the spatial variability within the field. Keywords: Bio-physical Indicators; Remote Sensing; SEBAL; Landsat-8; Eastern Nile Basin

  14. West Nile Virus and wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marra, P.P.; Griffing, S.; Caffrey, C.; Kilpatrick, A.M.; McLean, R.; Brand, C.; Saito, E.; Dupuis, A.P.; Kramer, L.; Novak, R.

    2004-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America, resulting in human deaths and in the deaths of untold numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles. The virus has reached Central America and the Caribbean and may spread to Hawaii and South America. Although tens of thousands of birds have died, and studies of some bird species show local declines, few regionwide declines can be attributed to WNV. Predicting future impacts of WNV on wildlife, and pinpointing what drives epidemics, will require substantial additional research into host susceptibility, reservoir competency, and linkages between climate, mosquitoes, and disease. Such work will entail a collaborative effort between scientists in governmental research groups, in surveillance and control programs, and in nongovernmental organizations. West Nile virus was not the first, and it will not be the last, exotic disease to be introduced to the New World. Its spread in North America highlights the need to strengthen animal monitoring programs and to integrate them with research on disease ecology.

  15. FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... or meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord). West Nile virus transmission has been documented in Europe and the Middle East, Africa, India, parts of Asia, and Australia. It was first detected ...

  16. Diversification of West Nile virus in a subtropical region

    PubMed Central

    Chisenhall, Daniel M; Mores, Christopher N

    2009-01-01

    Background West Nile virus (WNV) has spread across North, Central, and South America since its introduction in 1999. At the start of this spread, Florida was considered a potentially important area with regards to transmission due to its geographic, climatological, and demographic conditions. Curiously, the anticipated high levels of transmission or disease outbreaks have not been observed. As other studies have predicted that the lack of intense WNV transmission is not due to vector incompetence, we sought to evaluate the role of viral strain diversity in WNV transmission in Florida. Therefore, a phylogentic analysis was carried out on several isolates collected from three distinct locations in Florida. Results Contrasting with a positive control collected in Indian River County, Florida during 2003 that contains the original NY99 genotype with valanine at amino acid 159 of the envelope region, all of the isolates collected in 2005 contain the WN02 genotype composed of a substation with alanine at that position indicating the window of introduction of the WN02 genotype occurred between 2003 and 2005. From the eight isolates collected in Duval, Indian River, and Manatee Counties; there is also a silent nucleotide substitution that differentiates the isolates collected on the Atlantic side of the state compared to the isolate collected on the Gulf side, which groups closer to isolates from other locations near the Gulf. Conclusion As a whole, the Florida isolates contained numerous variable nucleotide and amino acid sites from the reference sequences, as well as each other; indicating greater nucleotide diversity within the Florida 2005 isolates than within other regions. Finally, a series of three amino acid substitutions surrounding a set of histidines located in the envelope coding region that hypothesized to play a role in conformational changes was found in the isolate collected in Indian River County, perhaps changing the antigenicity of the homodimer. Taken

  17. Genetic differentiation among natural populations of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei, cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Agnèse, J F; Adépo-Gourène, B; Abban, E K; Fermon, Y

    1997-07-01

    We analysed the genetic differentiation among 17 natural populations of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) using allozymes and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The populations studied, from the River Senegal to Lake Tana and from Lake Manzalla to Lake Baringo, represent all subspecies which have been previously described. Sixteen variable nuclear loci showed that these populations can be clustered in three groups: (1) West African populations (Senegal, Niger, Volta and Chad drainages), (2) Ethiopian Rift Valley populations (Lakes Awasa, Ziway, Koka and the Awash River) and (3) Nile drainage (Manzalla, Cairo, Lake Edward) and Kenyan Rift Valley populations (Lakes Turkana, Baringo and River Suguta). Nine different mtDNA haplotypes were found in the RFLP analysis of a 1 kb portion of the D-loop region. The network obtained showed that there are three geographically distinct groups; all West African populations and O. aureus are clustered, the two Ethiopian Rift Valley populations are distinct and between these two groups are the Kenyan and Ugandan Rift Valley populations. Nile populations show affinities both with West African populations and with specimens from Lakes Tana and Turkana. Taxonomic and biogeographical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:9253615

  18. West Nile virus: North American experience

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

  19. Facies analysis of Nile delta continental shelf sediments off Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frihy, Omran E.; Gamai, Ibrahim H.

    This study evaluates the texture and coarse fraction composition of 108 bottom samples from the Nile delta continental shelf. In total 19 petrological variables were considered for each of the samples, and Q-mode factor analysis of the textural and mineralogical variables yielded 4 factors (facies groups): Facies I. Fine and very fine sands, light minerals, heavy minerals and 'glauconite', extending from the shoreline to the inner shelf and decreasing away from the shoreline. Facies II. Silty sand rich in biogenic components occupies the entire outer shelf and its contiguous lower terraces. Facies III. Mud (silt plus clay), mica and 'glauconite', covering the middle shelf and the upper terraces. Facies IV. Fine to coarse-grained sediments and 'glauconite', locally distributed along the coast off lake ldku, Burullus headland, and Damietta promontory and El Gamil. The configuration patterns of facies I (delta-front), facies III (prodelta) and facies IV (distributary mouth bar or progradational coastal sand) help identify delta lobes related to former distributary branches of the Nile river (Canopic, Saitic, Sebennitic, Atribic and Mendisian). The 4 facies-forming shelf sediments have resulted from sediment dynamics, sea-level fluctuation and differences in sediment input and provenance.

  20. Trichinella zimbabwensis in wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) of South Africa.

    PubMed

    La Grange, Louis J; Marucci, Gianluca; Pozio, Edoardo

    2009-04-01

    Recent discovery of Trichinella zimbabwensis in crocodiles from Zimbabwe, Lake Cahora Basa, Mozambique, and from lake Abaja, Ethiopia, prompted strict control measures to curb the possible spread of the infection to humans and also to prevent its introduction to other countries, which were considered free of this pathogen. In 2006, the Chief Directorate Veterinary Services of Mpumalanga Province of South Africa launched a survey to investigate the status of wild and commercial breeding crocodiles in the province. To evaluate if T. zimbabwensis was circulating in the environments where crocodiles are living in South Africa, 9 fish, 36 reptiles (including 27 Nile crocodiles) and 4 mammals have been investigated to detect Trichinella sp. larvae in their muscles. In January 2008, a Nile crocodile from Komatipoort, sampled by means of a tail biopsy, tested positive for Trichinella larvae. In June-July 2008, Trichinella sp. larvae were also detected in four other Nile crocodiles from the Olifants River Gorge. The prevalence of Trichinella infection in the investigated wild Nile crocodiles from South Africa is 38.5%. The larvae were identified as belonging to T. zimbabwensis by multiplex-PCR. These are the first reports of T. zimbabwensis in South Africa and suggest that the distribution area of this parasite species is wider than that believed in the past. PMID:19167165

  1. The rivers of civilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macklin, Mark G.; Lewin, John

    2015-04-01

    The hydromorphic regimes that underpinned Old World river-based civilizations are reviewed in light of recent research. Notable Holocene climatic changes varied from region to region, whilst the dynamics of floodplain environments were equally diverse, with river channel changes significantly affecting human settlement. There were longer-term trends in Holocene hydroclimate and multi-centennial length 'flood-rich' and 'flood-poor' episodes. These impacted on five identified flooding and settlement scenarios: (i) alluvial fans and aprons; (ii) laterally mobile rivers; (iii) rivers with well-developed levees and flood basins; (iv) river systems characterised by avulsions and floodouts; and (v) large river-fed wetlands. This gave a range of changes that were either more or less regular or incremental from year-to-year (and thus potentially manageable) or catastrophic. The latter might be sudden during a flood event or a few seasons (acute), or over longer periods extending over many decades or even centuries (chronic). The geomorphic and environmental impacts of these events on riparian societies were very often irreversible. Contrasts are made between allogenic and autogenic mechanism for imposing environmental stress on riverine communities and a distinction is made between channel avulsion and contraction responses. Floods, droughts and river channel changes can precondition as well as trigger environmental crises and societal collapse. The Nile system currently offers the best set of independently dated Holocene fluvial and archaeological records, and the contrasted effects of changing hydromorphological regimes on floodwater farming are examined. The persistence of civilizations depended essentially on the societies that maintained them, but they were also understandably resilient in some environments (Pharaonic Egypt in the Egyptian Nile), appear to have had more limited windows of opportunity in others (the Kerma Kingdom in the Nubian Nile), or required

  2. Measurements of Land Subsidence Rates on the North-western Portion of the Nile Delta Using Radar Interferometry Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fugate, Joseph M.

    The Nile Delta is home to around 75 million people and most of Egypt's farmland and agricultural production. This area is currently threatened by Mediterranean Sea waters due to factors such as sediment starvation, climate change, and sea level fluctuations as well as subsidence. The low elevation and relief of the Nile Delta exposes many coastal communities, including the city of Alexandria, to potential inundation. This situation has become a concern for the area's residents but a better understanding of the processes occurring there can aid in deciding a suitable response. Recent studies have documented Holocene subsidence rates in the northeast part of the Nile Delta that average up to 8mm/year. In this study, PS-InSAR techniques are used to measure modern land subsidence rates on the north-central and north-western Nile Delta. Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PS-InSAR) techniques were applied to 23 ESA radar scenes from 2 orbital tracks spanning from 1992 to 2000 in the north-central and north-west portions of the Nile Delta. The area includes the cities of Alexandria, Greater Mahala, and Mansoura as well as the Rosetta promontory and lake Burullus, Idku Lagoon, and Maryut Lagoon. Results indicate that modern average-vertical ground motion velocities for the north-western and north-central Nile Delta range from emergent to subsidence of 8.5 mm/yr. The range of velocities measured are spatially varied in a complex way across the study area. Patterns of subsidence correlate closely to areas of most recent sediment deposition such as along coastlines and rivers, as well as in lagoons and lakes. Average subsidence velocities are also lower across the western sections of the Nile Delta than in the northeastern delta.

  3. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false West Nile virus serological reagents. 866.3940... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. West Nile virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of anti-West Nile virus IgM antibodies, in human...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false West Nile virus serological reagents. 866.3940... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. West Nile virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of anti-West Nile virus IgM antibodies, in human...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false West Nile virus serological reagents. 866.3940... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. West Nile virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of anti-West Nile virus IgM antibodies, in human...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false West Nile virus serological reagents. 866.3940... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. West Nile virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of anti-West Nile virus IgM antibodies, in human...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false West Nile virus serological reagents. 866.3940... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. West Nile virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of anti-West Nile virus IgM antibodies, in human...

  8. Holocene palaeo-environments on the western coast of the Nile Delta: local and basin-wide forcing factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaux, Clément; Véron, Alain; Marriner, Nick; el-Assal, Mena; Claude, Christelle; Morhange, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    The Canopic branch, which is today either silted up and cultivated or re-used in the modern drainage network, was the main channel for the western Nile Delta during Antiquity. Ancient Canopic flow used to supply the water network on the deltaic margin, including secondary tributaries, the Maryut lake, and irrigation agriculture and urban needs. We present new data obtained from a sediment core taken close to the palaeo-Canopic channel. Lead (Pb) isotopic analyses of bulk sediments, together with sedimentology, macro- and micro-fauna assemblages, magnetic susceptibility and radiocarbon dates provide evidence for environmental changes at the Canopic mouth in addition to changes in Nile sediment sources during the last 6000 years. Alternation of estuarine to lagoonal and peaty biofacies have recorded stages of transgression and progradation. 206Pb/207Pb analyses suggest a change in dominant sediment load from the White Nile to Blue Nile between 6000 and 5000 years cal. BP. The dataset is then compared and contrasted with previous studies, including: (1) a dense grid of dated bio-sedimentological cores data from the northwestern Nile Delta; (2) strontium isotope records of water and sediment fluxes on the delta; and (3) geochemical records from offshore sediment cores. Our analysis attempts to date and discriminate between basin-wide and regional to local forcing agents driving environmental changes at the mouth of the Canopic. The three main factors discussed will include climatic forcing of Nile flow and load changes, relative sea-level variations, and human impacts on the Canopic flow.

  9. Pathline-calibrated groundwater flow models of Nile Valley aquifers, Esna, upper Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brikowski, Tom H.; Faid, Abdallah

    2006-06-01

    Strongly concentrated agriculture along the River Nile in Egypt, combined with hydrologic changes related to the construction of the Aswan High Dam in the 1970's, has led to increasing salinization and waterlogging of agricultural areas. Successful control and remediation of these problems requires accurate understanding of the shallow Quaternary aquifers within the Nile Valley. While extensive conceptual models have been developed by the Egyptian RIGW, published numerical models have yet to incorporate all features of the conceptual model. In particular, marine affinity of some shallow groundwaters within the valley (Cl -as the predominant anion) indicates significant leakage from deeper Cretaceous aquifers into the shallow Quaternary aquifers, a feature that is not present in current models. In this study, groundwater profile modeling incorporating the bedrock leakage demonstrates that its shallow appearance requires hydraulic separation of surficial from deep-recharged zones of the Quaternary aquifer. This separation occurs near the boundary between reclaimed and traditional agricultural lands, which is also the primary site of waterlogging. Apparently, excessive recharge presumed to occur beneath the reclaimed lands does not penetrate deeply, and therefore might be easily remediated with shallow drains. Profound similarities exist between the Nile Valley salinization cases and the occurrence of shallow 'nuisance water' in desert southwestern U.S. cities (e.g. Las Vegas). The U.S. experience with this problem may provide useful guidance in addressing Nile Valley salinization and waterlogging issues in the future. In general, irrigation-related recharge from the reclaimed lands in the Nile Valley may have a much more localized impact on traditional lands than previously thought.

  10. From source to sink: Exploring the Quaternary history of the Nile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, J. C.; Williams, M. A. J.; Garzanti, E.; Macklin, M. G.; Marriner, N.

    2015-12-01

    Nearly two thousand five hundred years have elapsed since the Greek historian Herodotus (ca. 485-425 BC) posed a number of fundamental questions about the source, age, and flood regime of the River Nile. Herodotus travelled widely in Egypt in around 450 BC - mainly in the Delta and Lower Egypt, but he may have journeyed as far upstream as Aswan and the First Cataract. A keen observer of nature, with a questioning intellect, Herodotus very quickly discerned that the dark alluvial soils of Egypt were very different from the desert soils of Syria and Libya, and inferred that they were derived from the Ethiopian headwaters of the Nile. Herodotus was the first to recognize that Egyptian civilization was, as he put it, "the gift of the river" (Griffiths, 1966) since he understood that, without the regular and reliable hundred days of flooding during the summer months, and the annual deposition of silts along the floodplains, agriculture would not have been possible on any significant scale under the desert climate of the Nile Valley.