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Sample records for body fat content

  1. An evaluation of a bioelectrical impedance analyser for the estimation of body fat content.

    PubMed Central

    Maughan, R J

    1993-01-01

    Measurement of body composition is an important part of any assessment of health or fitness. Hydrostatic weighing is generally accepted as the most reliable method for the measurement of body fat content, but is inconvenient. Electrical impedance analysers have recently been proposed as an alternative to the measurement of skinfold thickness. Both these latter methods are convenient, but give values based on estimates obtained from population studies. This study compared values of body fat content obtained by hydrostatic weighing, skinfold thickness measurement and electrical impedance on 50 (28 women, 22 men) healthy volunteers. Mean(s.e.m.) values obtained by the three methods were: hydrostatic weighing, 20.5(1.2)%; skinfold thickness, 21.8(1.0)%; impedance, 20.8(0.9)%. The results indicate that the correlation between the skinfold method and hydrostatic weighing (0.931) is somewhat higher than that between the impedance method and hydrostatic weighing (0.830). This is, perhaps, not surprising given the fact that the impedance method is based on an estimate of total body water which is then used to calculate body fat content. The skinfold method gives an estimate of body density, and the assumptions involved in the conversion from body density to body fat content are the same for both methods. PMID:8457817

  2. Plasma ghrelin is positively associated with body fat, liver fat and milk fat content but not with feed intake of dairy cows after parturition.

    PubMed

    Börner, Sabina; Derno, Michael; Hacke, Sandra; Kautzsch, Ulrike; Schäff, Christine; Thanthan, Sint; Kuwayama, Hideto; Hammon, Harald M; Röntgen, Monika; Weikard, Rosemarie; Kühn, Christa; Tuchscherer, Armin; Kuhla, Björn

    2013-02-01

    Ghrelin is a gastrointestinal peptide hormone that is present in blood mostly in a non-posttranslationally modified form, with a minor proportion acylated at Ser(3). Both ghrelin forms were initially assigned a role in the control of food intake but there is accumulating evidence for their involvement in fat allocation and utilization. We investigated changes in the ghrelin system in dairy cows, exhibiting differences in body fat mobilization and fatty liver, from late pregnancy to early lactation. Sixteen dairy cows underwent liver biopsy and were retrospectively grouped based on high (H) or low (L) liver fat content post-partum. Both groups had a comparable feed intake in week -6 (before parturition) and week 2 (after parturition). Only before parturition was preprandial total ghrelin concentration higher in L than in H cows and only after parturition was the basal plasma concentration of non-esterified fatty acids higher in H than in L cows. Both before and after parturition, H cows had higher preprandial plasma concentrations of acyl ghrelin, a higher acyl:total ghrelin ratio, lower plasma triacylglyceride concentrations and a lower respiratory quotient compared with L cows. These group differences could not be attributed to an allelic variant of the acyl ghrelin receptor. Rather, the ratio of acyl:total ghrelin correlated with several aspects of fat metabolism and with respiratory quotient but not with feed intake. These results show that endogenous ghrelin forms are associated with fat allocation, fatty liver, and utilization of fat during the periparturient period. PMID:23160961

  3. The relationship of weight-height indices of obesity to body fat content.

    PubMed

    Strain, G W; Zumoff, B

    1992-12-01

    The measurement called desirable body weight (DBW) was derived by actuaries to indicate that weight which is associated with the lowest mortality. Percent deviation from DBW has become a standard measure of fatness. A different obesity index, body mass index (BMI), is weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters. Many workers consider both measures inferior to the measurement of body fat content (BFC). We compared the three measures of fatness in 40 men aged 18-50 and 48 women aged 21-47, ranging from nonobese to extremely obese. Total BFC was determined by isotope dilution of 3H-labeled water. DBWs used were those listed in the US Air Force Examination Manual of 1971; these approximate the midpoint of the range of medium-frame values in the 1959 Metropolitan Life Insurance Tables, but have the advantage of providing a single value for each height. We found nearly perfect correlation (r = 0.99, p < 0.001) between BMI and percent deviation from DBW in both men and women ranging from 14% below to 305% above DBW. Correlations between percent deviation from DBW and total BFC were extremely high: 0.95 (p < 0.001) for the men and 0.94 (p < 0.001) for the women, essentially the same as correlations between BMI and BFC, which were 0.96 (p < 0.001) for the men and 0.95 (p < 0.001) for the women. It appears that the two technically simple weight-height indices, BMI and percent deviation from DBW, give just as accurate a measurement of fatness as the technically complex measurement of total BFC.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1460187

  4. Body Fat Measurement Tools

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cyberkitchen Fitness Center Shape Up & Drop 10 Body Fat Lab BMI Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Children Assessing ... Contact List Request for Support Measurement Tools Body fat has many important functions. It is: a "storage ...

  5. The relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content and bone marrow adipose tissue in early-pubertal girls

    PubMed Central

    L Newton, Anna; J Hanks, Lynae; Davis, Michelle; Casazza, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of the physiologic relevance of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) during growth may promote understanding of the bone-fat axis and confluence with metabolic factors. The objective of this pilot investigation was two-fold: (1) to evaluate the relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content (BMC) and femoral BMAT during childhood and underlying metabolic determinants and (2) to determine if the relationships differ by race. Participants included white and non-Hispanic black girls (n=59) ages 4–10 years. Femoral BMAT volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging, BMC and body fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Metabolic parameters were assessed in the fasted state. Total fat and BMC were positively associated with BMAT; however, simultaneous inclusion of BMC and body fat in the statistical model attenuated the association between BMC and BMAT. Differences in BMAT volume were observed, non-Hispanic black girls exhibiting marginally greater BMAT at age eight (P=0.05) and white girls exhibiting greater BMAT at age ten (P<0.001). Metabolic parameters conferred differential impact by race, such that, a positive association for BMAT and leptin (P=0.02) and adiponectin (P=0.002) in white girls while BMAT and insulin were inversely related in non-Hispanic black girls (P=0.008). Our findings revealed a positive relationship between BMAT, body fat and BMC, although body fat, respective to leptin, contributed partly to the relationship between BMAT and BMC. Despite large differences in total fat between non-Hispanic black and white, the relationship between BMAT and BMC was similar to white girls. However, this relationship appeared to be impacted through different mechanisms according to race. PMID:23951544

  6. A study of acid phosphatase locus 1 in women with high fat content and normal body mass index.

    PubMed

    De Lorenzo, Antonino; Di Renzo, Laura; Puja, Alberto; Saccucci, Patrizia; Gloria-Bottini, Fulvia; Bottini, Egidio

    2009-03-01

    De Lorenzo and coworkers have recently described a class of women with normal body mass index (BMI) and high fat content (normal weight obese syndrome [NWO]). This observation prompted us to study the possible role of acid phosphatase locus 1 (ACP(1)) in the differentiation of this special class of obese subjects. Acid phosphatase locus 1 is a polymorphic gene associated with severe obesity and with total cholesterol and triglycerides levels. The enzyme is composed by 2 isoforms--F and S--that have different biochemical properties and probably different functions. The sample study was composed of 130 white women from the population of Rome. Total fat mass and percentage of fat mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Thirty-six women had a BMI less than 25 and percentage of fat mass greater than 30 (high fat, normal BMI [HFHB]), and 94 women showed a BMI greater than 25 and a percentage of fat mass greater than 30 (high fat, high BMI [HFHB]). In the whole sample, the proportion of low-activity ACP(1) genotypes (*A/*A and *B/*A) was higher than in controls. However, whereas HFNB showed a very high frequency of ACP(1) *A/*A genotype, high-fat, high-BMI women showed an increase of *B/*A genotype. These 2 genotypes differ in the concentration of F isoform and the F/S ratio, which are lower in ACP(1)*A/*A genotype than in ACP(1)*B/*A genotype. The genetic differentiation of the class of women with normal BMI and high fat content from the class showing a concordant level of the 2 parameters supports the hypothesis that HFNB class represents a special cluster of obese subjects not revealed by BMI evaluation. Because ACP(1) is present in adipocytes, the present observation suggests that F isoform may have a specific role in the regulation of quantity of adipose tissue. PMID:19217450

  7. Determination of Fat Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Charles

    The term "lipid" refers to a group of compounds that are sparingly soluble in water, but show variable solubility in a number of organic solvents (e.g., ethyl ether, petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol, methanol, benzene). The lipid content of a food determined by extraction with one solvent may be quite different from the lipid content as determined with another solvent of different polarity. Fat content is determined often by solvent extraction methods (e.g., Soxhlet, Goldfish, Mojonnier), but it also can be determined by nonsolvent wet extraction methods (e.g., Babcock, Gerber), and by instrumental methods that rely on the physical and chemical properties of lipids (e.g., infrared, density, X-ray absorption). The method of choice depends on a variety of factors, including the nature of the sample (e.g., dry versus moist), the purpose of the analysis (e.g., official nutrition labeling or rapid quality control), and instrumentation available (e.g., Babcock uses simple glassware and equipment; infrared requires an expensive instrument).

  8. Gut microbiota composition correlates with changes in body fat content due to weight loss.

    PubMed

    Remely, M; Tesar, I; Hippe, B; Gnauer, S; Rust, P; Haslberger, A G

    2015-01-01

    Genetics, lifestyle, and dietary habits contribute to metabolic syndrome, but also an altered gut microbiota has been identified. Based on this knowledge it is suggested that host bacterial composition tends to change in response to dietary factors and weight loss. The aim of this study was to identify bacteria affecting host metabolism in obesity during weight loss and to correlate them with changes of the body composition obtained from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). We recruited obese individuals receiving a dietary intervention according DACH (German, Austrian, and Swiss Society of Nutrition) reference values and guidelines for 'prevention and therapy of obesity' of DAG e.V., DDG, DGE e.V., and DGEM e.V. over three months. Faecal microbiota and BIA measurements were conducted at three time points, before, during, and after the intervention. Gut microbiota was analysed on the basis of 16S rDNA with quantitative real time PCR. Additionally, a food frequency questionnaire with questions to nutritional behaviour, lifestyle, and physical activity was administered before intervention. After weight reduction, obese individuals showed a significant increase of total bacterial abundance. The ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes significantly decreased during intervention. Lactobacilli significantly increased between the first and the second time point. These differences also correlated with differences in weight percentage. During the intervention period Clostridium cluster IV increased significantly between the second and the third time point. In contrast Clostridium cluster XIVa showed a decreased abundance. The dominant butyrate producer, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, significantly increased as did the abundance of the butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA-transferase gene. Archaea and Akkermansia were significantly more prevalent after weight reduction. Our results show a clear difference in the gut bacterial composition before and after dietary intervention with a rapid

  9. Role of VMH ketone bodies in adjusting caloric intake to increased dietary fat content in DIO and DR rats.

    PubMed

    Le Foll, Christelle; Dunn-Meynell, Ambrose A; Miziorko, Henry M; Levin, Barry E

    2015-05-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the potential role of astrocyte-derived ketone bodies in regulating the early changes in caloric intake of diet induced-obese (DIO) versus diet-resistant (DR) rats fed a 31.5% fat high-energy (HE) diet. After 3 days on chow or HE diet, DR and DIO rats were assessed for their ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) ketone bodies levels and neuronal ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) sensing using microdialysis coupled to continuous food intake monitoring and calcium imaging in dissociated neurons, respectively. DIO rats ate more than DR rats over 3 days of HE diet intake. On day 3 of HE diet intake, DR rats reduced their caloric intake while DIO rats remained hyperphagic. Local VMH astrocyte ketone bodies production was similar between DR and DIO rats during the first 6 h after dark onset feeding but inhibiting VMH ketone body production in DR rats on day 3 transiently returned their intake of HE diet to the level of DIO rats consuming HE diet. In addition, dissociated VMN neurons from DIO and DR rats were equally sensitive to the largely excitatory effects of β-hydroxybutyrate. Thus while DR rats respond to increased VMH ketone levels by decreasing their intake after 3 days of HE diet, this is not the case of DIO rats. These data suggest that DIO inherent leptin resistance prevents ketone bodies inhibitory action on food intake. PMID:25786485

  10. Body Fat May Be Bigger Health Danger Than Body Size

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_157631.html Body Fat May Be Bigger Health Danger Than Body Size Study finds fat levels ... Body Weight Obesity Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Body Weight Obesity About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  11. Estimation of body fat from skinfold thickness.

    PubMed

    Aboul-Seoud, M A; Aboul-Seoud, A L

    2001-06-01

    The fat content of the human body has physiological and medical importance. It may influence morbidity and mortality, it may affect the ability to withstand exposure to cold and starvation, and it may alter the effectiveness of drugs and anaesthetics. It may also be the cause of reduced insulin sensitivity in some population groups. Thus, the measurement of the total body fat provides useful information. A computer program, written in quick basic language, was developed, to compute the equivalent fat content, as a percentage of body-weight, for a range of values for the sum of the four skinfolds, of Egyptian males and females of different ages. This is based on a table developed by Durnin and Womersley. The computer program was run using skinfolds of Egyptian males and females of different ages. Satisfactory results were obtained. This program can be used to calculate the total body fat with relative ease and reasonable accuracy. This should make it of common use in many fields of medicine, physiology, nutrition and anthropology, particularly in population studies comprising a large number of subjects. PMID:11339982

  12. Resisting body dissatisfaction: fat women who endorse fat acceptance.

    PubMed

    McKinley, Nita Mary

    2004-05-01

    Fat women who endorsed fat acceptance (N=128) were recruited from Radiance Magazine. Relationships between objectified body consciousness (OBC), body esteem, and psychological well-being for the mostly European American sample were similar to those found in other samples. OBC was independently related to body esteem when weight dissatisfaction was controlled. Those who endorsed the need for social change in attitudes towards fat people had higher body esteem and self-acceptance, and lower body shame, than those who endorsed personal acceptance of body size only. PMID:18089154

  13. Body fat and bone mineral content of infants fed breast-milk, cow's-milk formula, or soy formula during the first year of life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to characterize growth, fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM), and bone mineral content (BMC) longitudinally in breast-fed (BF), cow's milk formula-fed (CMF), or soy formula-fed (SF) healthy infants during the first year of life. Infants were assessed at ages 3, 6, 9, and 12 mo. Growt...

  14. Regulation of Body Fat in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Supriya

    2016-01-01

    Studies conducted in C. elegans over the last decade highlight the ancient and complex origins of body fat regulation. In this critical review, I introduce the major functional approaches used to study energy balance and body fat, the lipid composition of C. elegans, the regulation of cellular fat metabolism and its transcriptional control. Next I describe the influence of the sensory nervous system on body fat and the major regulatory mechanisms that couple food perception in the nervous system with the production of energy via fat metabolism. The final section describes the opportunities for the discovery of neuroendocrine factors that control communication between the nervous system and the metabolic tissues. The coming years are expected to reveal a wealth of information on the neuroendocrine control of body fat in C. elegans. PMID:25340962

  15. The Multicomponent Anthropometric Model for Assessing Body Composition in a Male Pediatric Population: A Simultaneous Prediction of Fat Mass, Bone Mineral Content, and Lean Soft Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Dalmo; Oikawa, Sérgio; Barbanti, Valdir

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to propose and cross-validate an anthropometric model for the simultaneous estimation of fat mass (FM), bone mineral content (BMC), and lean soft tissue (LST) using DXA as the reference method. A total of 408 boys (8–18 years) were included in this sample. Whole-body FM, BMC, and LST were measured by DXA and considered as dependent variables. Independent variables included thirty-two anthropometrics measurements and maturity offset determined by the Mirwald equation. From a multivariate regression model (Ymn = x(r + 1)(r + 1)nβm + εnm), a matrix analysis was performed resulting in a multicomponent anthropometric model. The cross-validation was executed through the sum of squares of residuals (PRESS) method. Five anthropometric variables predicted simultaneously FM, BMC, and LST. Cross-validation parameters indicated that the new model is accurate with high RPRESS2 values ranging from 0.94 to 0.98 and standard error of estimate ranging from 0.01 to 0.09. The newly proposed model represents an alternative to accurately assess the body composition in male pediatric ages. PMID:23555052

  16. Waist-to-Hip Ratio is Related to Body Fat Content and Distribution Regardless of the Waist Circumference Measurement Protocol in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Nuno M; Santa-Clara, Helena; Melo, Xavier; Cortez-Pinto, Helena; Silva-Nunes, José; Sardinha, Luís B

    2016-08-01

    Central accumulation and distribution of body fat (BF) is an important cardiometabolic risk factor. Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), commonly elevated in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients, has been endorsed as a risk related marker of central BF content and distribution, but no standardized waist circumference measurement protocol (WCmp) has been proposed. We aimed to investigate whether using different WCmp affects the strength of association between WHR and BF content and distribution in NAFLD patients. BF was assessed with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 28 NAFLD patients (19 males, 51 ± 13 years, and 9 females, 47 ± 13 years). Waist circumference (WC) was measured using four different WCmp (WC1: minimal waist; WC2: iliac crest; WC3: mid-distance between iliac crest and lowest rib; WC4: at the umbilicus) and WHR was calculated accordingly (WHR1, WHR2, WHR3 and WHR4, respectively). High WHR was found in up to 84.6% of subjects, depending on the WHR considered. With the exception of WHR1, all WHR correlated well with abdominal BF (r = .47 for WHR1; r = .59 for WHR2 and WHR3; r = .58 for WHR4) and BF distribution (r = .45 for WHR1; r = .56 for WHR2 and WHR3; r = .51 for WHR4), controlling for age, sex and body mass index (BMI). WHR2 and WHR3 diagnosed exactly the same prevalence of high WHR (76.9%). The present study confirms the strong relation between WHR and central BF, regardless of WCmp used, in NAFLD patients. WHR2 and WHR3 seemed preferable for use in clinical practice, interchangeably, for the diagnosis of high WHR in NAFLD patients. PMID:26630411

  17. Factors that Alter Body Fat, Body Mass, and Fat-Free Mass in Pediatric Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMura, Linda M.; Maziekas, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of exercise programs on changes in body mass, fat-free mass, and body fat in obese children and adolescents. Research review indicated that exercise effectively helped reduce children's and adolescents' body composition variables. The most favorable body alterations occurred with low- intensity, long-duration exercise;…

  18. Regulation of body fat in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Supriya

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, studies conducted in Caenorhabditis elegans have helped to uncover the ancient and complex origins of body fat regulation. This review highlights the powerful combination of genetics, pharmacology, and biochemistry used to study energy balance and the regulation of cellular fat metabolism in C. elegans. The complete wiring diagram of the C. elegans nervous system has been exploited to understand how the sensory nervous system regulates body fat and how food perception is coupled with the production of energy via fat metabolism. As a model organism, C. elegans also offers a unique opportunity to discover neuroendocrine factors that mediate direct communication between the nervous system and the metabolic tissues. The coming years are expected to reveal a wealth of information on the neuroendocrine control of body fat in C. elegans. PMID:25340962

  19. Moderate doses of conjugated linoleic acid isomers mix contribute to lowering body fat content maintaining insulin sensitivity and a noninflammatory pattern in adipose tissue in mice.

    PubMed

    Parra, Pilar; Serra, Francisca; Palou, Andreu

    2010-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) modulates body composition, especially by reducing adipose tissue. However, despite the increasing knowledge about CLA's beneficial effects on obesity management, the mechanism of action is not yet fully understood. Furthermore, in some human studies fat loss is accompanied by impairment in insulin sensitivity, especially when using the trans-10,cis-12 isomer. The aim of this work was to study the effects of moderate doses of CLA on body fat deposition, cytokine profile and inflammatory markers in mice. Mice were orally treated with a mixture of CLA isomers, cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 (50:50), for 35 days with doses of CLA1 (0.15 g CLA/kg body weight) and CLA2 (0.5 g CLA/kg body weight). CLA had discrete effects on body weight but caused a clear reduction in fat mass (retroperitoneal and mesenteric as the most sensitive depots), although no other tissue weights were affected. Glucose and insulin were not altered by CLA treatment, and maintenance of glucose homeostasis was observed even under insulin overload. The study of gene expression (Emr1, MCP-1, IL-6, TNFalpha, PPARgamma2 and iNOS) either in adipocytes and/or in the stromal vascular fraction indicated that CLA does not lead to the infiltration of macrophages in adipose tissue or to the induction of expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The use of a mixture of both isomers, as well as moderate doses of CLA, is able to induce a reduction of fat gain without an impairment of adipose tissue function while preserving insulin sensitivity. PMID:19195867

  20. "If You're Fat, Then I'm Humongous!": Frequency, Content, and Impact of Fat Talk among College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salk, Rachel H.; Engeln-Maddox, Renee

    2011-01-01

    Fat talk (women speaking negatively about the size and shape of their bodies) is a phenomenon that both reflects and creates body dissatisfaction. Our study investigated the content, frequency, and impact of fat talk among college women. Participants (168 female students at a Midwestern U.S. university) completed online surveys containing fat…

  1. MR-based assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics.

    PubMed

    Baum, Thomas; Cordes, Christian; Dieckmeyer, Michael; Ruschke, Stefan; Franz, Daniela; Hauner, Hans; Kirschke, Jan S; Karampinos, Dimitrios C

    2016-08-01

    The assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics using magnetic resonance (MR) methods has recently gained significant attention as it further extends our pathophysiological understanding of diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, or type 2 diabetes mellitus, and allows more detailed insights into treatment response and effects of lifestyle interventions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to review the current literature on MR-based assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics. PubMed search was performed to identify relevant studies on the assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics using MR methods. T1-, T2-weighted MR Imaging (MRI), Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), and chemical shift-encoding based water-fat MRI have been successfully used for the assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics. The relationship of insulin resistance and serum lipids with abdominal adipose tissue (i.e. subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue), liver, muscle, and bone marrow fat content have been extensively investigated and may help to understand the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and the multifaceted obese phenotype. MR methods have also been used to monitor changes of body fat distribution and characteristics after interventions (e.g. diet or physical activity) and revealed distinct, adipose tissue-specific properties. Lastly, chemical shift-encoding based water-fat MRI can detect brown adipose tissue which is currently the focus of intense research as a potential treatment target for obesity. In conclusion, MR methods reliably allow the assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics. Irrespective of the promising findings based on these MR methods the clinical usefulness remains to be established. PMID:26905521

  2. The impact of liposuction on body fat.

    PubMed

    Matarasso, A; Kim, R W; Kral, J G

    1998-10-01

    Routine liposuction has very low perioperative complication rates and is thus considered to be innocuous. Some authors have even proposed that large-volume liposuction could be therapeutic. However, because subcutaneous adipose tissue has nutritional and thermodynamic metabolic functions proportional to the absolute amount and the distribution of fat, it is possible that removal of subcutaneous adipose tissue might be detrimental. We measured the amount of fat removed by large-volume (>1000 cc) liposuction and expressed the results in terms of absolute and relative changes in total body fat and in visceral adipose tissue (nonsubcutaneous adipose tissue) in 63 normal weight to mildly obese women (n = 51) and men (n = 12). Aspiration of 1.5 +/- 0.7 kg (mean +/- SD) of lipid in women removed 9.2 +/- 3.2 percent of body fat or 10.5 percent of subcutaneous adipose tissue corresponding to a 12-percent increase in the ratio of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue. One third of the women (n = 17) had a mean increase of 16 percent (range 13 to 21 percent) in the proportion of visceral fat. In the 12 men, aspiration of 1.7 +/- 0.6 kg of lipid removed 9.8 +/- 2.9 percent of body fat or 12.7 +/- 3.6 percent of subcutaneous adipose tissue, resulting in a 14-percent increase in the ratio of visceral to subcutaneous fat. The correlation between aspirate and body mass index was 0.57 (p < 0.001). Although large-volume subcutaneous liposuction removed relatively little body fat, it led to significant increases in the proportion of visceral adipose tissue. Because the proportion of visceral adipose tissue is a risk factor for metabolic complications of obesity, the metabolic effects of large-volume liposuction need to be evaluated. PMID:9774031

  3. High levels of dietary unsaturated fat decrease alpha-tocopherol content of whole body, liver, and plasma of chickens without variations in intestinal apparent absorption.

    PubMed

    Villaverde, C; Baucells, M D; Manzanilla, E G; Barroeta, A C

    2008-03-01

    An experiment was designed to assess the effect of dietary unsaturated fat inclusion level on alpha-tocopherol apparent absorption and deposition in broiler chickens at 2 ages (20 and 39 d). The dietary fat was a mixture of linseed and fish oil, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The experimental treatments were the result of 4 levels of supplementation with alpha-tocopheryl acetate (0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg; E0, E100, E200, and E400 treatments, respectively) and 4 dietary oil inclusion levels (2, 4, 6, and 8%; O2, O4, O6, and O8 treatments respectively). Almond husk was used as an energy dilutor in the high-fat diets. Apparent absorption of total fatty acids was high in all treatments averaging 88% and was higher with high fat dietary inclusion level. alpha-Tocopheryl acetate hydrolysis and apparent absorption of alpha-tocopherol were similar in both ages and were not affected by fat inclusion level, except for a reduction of the absorption in the low-fat diet (O2) in the E100 treatment at 20 d of age. Despite this lack of differences in hydrolysis and absorption, higher-fat PUFA diets induced lower concentrations of free alpha-tocopherol in the excreta, at high alpha-tocopherol doses, suggesting an increase in the destruction of alpha-tocopherol by lipid oxidation in the gastrointestinal tract. Similarly, total and hepatic alpha-tocopherol deposition was lower in the birds fed high-PUFA diets in the E200- and E400-supplemented birds, possibly due to a destruction of vitamin E when protecting these PUFA from lipid peroxidation. alpha-Tocopherol concentration in liver and, to a lesser extent, in plasma was a useful indicator of the degree of response of this vitamin to different factors that can affect its bioavailability; however, in the present experiment, CV were too high to use liver and plasma concentrations as estimators of total body vitamin E. PMID:18281576

  4. Influence of Fat Content on Chocolate Rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriele, D.; Migliori, M.; Baldino, N.; de Cindio, B.

    2008-07-01

    Molten chocolate is a suspension having properties strongly affected by particle characteristics including not only the dispersed particles but also the fat crystals formed during chocolate cooling and solidification. Even though chocolate rheology is extensively studied, mainly viscosity at high temperature was determined and no information on amount and type of fat crystals can be detected in these conditions. However chocolate texture and stability is strongly affected by the presence of specific crystals. In this work a different approach, based on creep test, was proposed to characterize chocolate samples at typical process temperatures (approximately 30 °C). The analysis of compliance, as time function, at short times enable to evaluate a material "elasticity" related to the solid-like behavior of the material and given by the differential area between the Newtonian and the experimental compliance. Moreover a specific time dependent elasticity was defined as the ratio between the differential area, in a time range, and total area. Chocolate samples having a different fat content were prepared and they were conditioned directly on rheometer plate by applying two different controlled cooling rate; therefore creep were performed by applying a low stress to ensure material linear behavior. Experimental data were analyzed by the proposed method and specific elasticity was related to single crystal properties. It was found that fat crystal amount and properties depend in different way on fat content and cooling rate; moreover creep proved to be able to detect even small differences among tested samples.

  5. Imaging Body Fat: Techniques and Cardiometabolic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, H.; Chen, Y. E; Eitzman, D.T.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a world-wide epidemic and is associated with multiple comorbidities. The mechanisms underlying the relationship between obesity and adverse health outcomes remain poorly understood. This may be due to several factors including the crude measures used to estimate adiposity, the striking heterogeneity between adipose tissue depots, and the influence of fat accumulation in multiple organs. In order to advance our understanding of fat stores and associated co-morbidities in humans, it will be necessary to image adiposity throughout the body and ultimately also assess its functionality. Large clinical studies are demonstrating the prognostic importance of adipose tissue imaging. Newer techniques capable of imaging fat metabolism and other functions of adipose tissue may provide additional prognostic utility and may be useful in guiding therapeutic interventions. PMID:25147343

  6. Gestational Diabetes May Lead to More Body Fat on Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... 158813.html Gestational Diabetes May Lead to More Body Fat on Babies Finding held even when mom-to- ... mothers with gestational diabetes had 16 percent more body fat than babies of mothers without the disorder. This ...

  7. Regulation of locust fat-body phosphorylase

    PubMed Central

    Applebaum, S. W.; Schlesinger, H. M.

    1973-01-01

    1. Glycogen phosphorylase of locust fat-body was partially purified by differential centrifugation and dissociation from glycogen particles at two pH values. 2. Optimum activity was obtained at pH6.6–6.7. 3. The calculated apparent Km values for glycogen and glucose 1-phosphate were 0.08% and 10–13mm respectively. 4. 5′-AMP activated in the range 5μm–1mm. 5. Glucose 6-phosphate is a competitive inhibitor for the substrate glucose 1-phosphate (Ki=1.7mm). 5′-AMP abolishes this inhibition. Glucose weakly inhibits (Ki=25–30mm), but trehalose does not inhibit even at 100mm. 6. It is suggested that glucose 6-phosphate is a major regulator of glycogen phosphorylase activity in locust fat-body. PMID:4776873

  8. Enhanced UV-B radiation during pupal stage reduce body mass and fat content, while increasing deformities, mortality and cell death in female adults of solitary bee Osmia bicornis.

    PubMed

    Wasielewski, Oskar; Wojciechowicz, Tatiana; Giejdasz, Karol; Krishnan, Natraj

    2015-08-01

    The effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on the oogenesis and morpho-anatomical characteristics of the European solitary red mason bee Osmia bicornis L. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) were tested under laboratory conditions. Cocooned females in the pupal stage were exposed directly to different doses (0, 9.24, 12.32, and 24.64 kJ/m(2) /d) of artificial UV-B. Our experiments revealed that enhanced UV-B radiation can reduce body mass and fat body content, cause deformities and increase mortality. Following UV exposure at all 3 different doses, the body mass of bees was all significantly reduced compared to the control, with the highest UV dose causing the largest reduction. Similarly, following UV-B radiation, in treated groups the fat body index decreased and the fat body index was the lowest in the group receiving the highest dose of UV radiation. Mortality and morphological deformities, between untreated and exposed females varied considerably and increased with the dose of UV-B radiation. Morphological deformities were mainly manifested in the wings and mouthparts, and occurred more frequently with an increased dose of UV. Cell death was quantified by the Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay (DNA fragmentation) during early stages of oogenesis of O. bicornis females. The bees, after UV-B exposure exhibited more germarium cells with fragmented DNA. The TUNEL test indicated that in germarium, low doses of UV-B poorly induced the cell death during early development. However, exposure to moderate UV-B dose increased programmed cell death. In females treated with the highest dose of UV-B the vast majority of germarium cells were TUNEL-positive. PMID:24644123

  9. Length of stay and fat content of migrant semipalmated sandpipers in eastern Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunn, P.O.; May, T.A.; McCollough, M.A.; Howe, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) stop at coastal staging areas in the Canadian maritime provinces and northeastern United States to replenish fat reserves before initiating a nonstop transoceanic flight of at least 3,200 km to wintering areas in South America. The relationship between estimated fat content at capture and length of stay (days between marking and last observation) of Semipalmated Sandpipers at one of these staging areas in eastern Maine was studied during 1980-1982. Total body mass and wing chord length were used to estimate fat content. When data were analyzed by week of initial capture, mean length of stay of both adults and juveniles decreased with increasing fat content. This supports the assumption that resumption of migration is affected by fat content at staging areas for long-distance nonstop flights. However, fat content at capture was a poor predictor of length of stay, which suggests that other factors are more important in determining length of stay.

  10. What Do Fats Do in the Body? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... on NIH Research What Do Fats Do in the Body? Past Issues / Spring 2013 Table of Contents ... gov/insidelifescience/ When you have your cholesterol checked, the doctor typically gives you your levels of three ...

  11. Food prices and body fatness among youths.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Michael; Tekin, Erdal; Wada, Roy

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effect of food prices on clinical measures of obesity, including body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (PBF) measures derived from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), among youths ages 12 through 18 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. This is the first study to consider clinically measured levels of body composition rather than BMI to investigate the effects of food prices on obesity outcomes among youths classified by gender and race/ethnicity. Our findings suggest that increases in the real price per calorie of food for home consumption and the real price of fast-food restaurant food lead to improvements in obesity outcomes among youths. We also find that a rise in the real price of fruits and vegetables leads to increased obesity. Finally, our results indicate that measures of PBF derived from BIA and DXA are no less sensitive and in some cases more sensitive to the prices just mentioned than BMI, and serve an important role in demonstrating that rising food prices (except fruit and vegetable prices) are indeed associated with reductions in obesity rather than with reductions in body size proportions alone. PMID:24246131

  12. Fat stigmatization on YouTube: a content analysis.

    PubMed

    Hussin, Mallory; Frazier, Savannah; Thompson, J Kevin

    2011-01-01

    YouTube.com is an internet website that is viewed by two billion individuals daily, and thus may serve as the source of images and messages regarding weight acceptance or weight bias. In the current study, a targeted sample of YouTube videos that displayed fat stigmatization were content rated on a variety of video characteristics. The findings revealed that men were the target of fat stigmatization (62.1%) almost twice as often as women (36.4%). When there was an antagonist present in the video, the great majority of the time, the aggressor was male (88.5%) rather than female (7.7%). These findings indicate that men were the antagonist 11.5 times the rate of women, but they were only 1.7 times more often stigmatized. Future research avenues, including an experimental analysis of viewing stigmatizing videos on body image, are recommended. PMID:21126932

  13. Measurement of body fat and hydration of the fat-free body in health and disease

    SciTech Connect

    Streat, S.J.; Beddoe, A.H.; Hill, G.L.

    1985-06-01

    Body fat mass, fat-free body mass and body water are basic components of body composition which are used in nutritional and metabolic studies and in patient care. A method of measuring total body fat (TBF), fat-free mass (FFM) and its hydration (TBW/FFM) involving prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) and tritium dilution has been compared with the more traditional methods of densitometry and skinfold anthropometry in 36 normal volunteers, and with skinfold anthropometry in 56 patients presenting for nutritional support. While the mean values of TBF were in reasonable agreement for the three methods in normals it was founds that skinfold anthropometry underestimated TBF relative to the IVNAA/tritium method by, on average, 3.0 kg (19%) in patients. Furthermore, the ranges of values in normals of the ratio TBW/FFM for the anthropometric (0.62 to 0.80) and densitometric (0.65 to 0.80) methods were much wider than the range for the IVNAA/tritium method (0.69 to 0.76), in which TBW was measured by tritium dilution in all cases. In the patients, the ranges of this ratio were 0.52 to 0.90 for the anthropometric method and 0.67 to 0.82 for the IVNAA/tritium method; clearly anthropometry yields values of TBW/FFM which are outside accepted biological limits. On the basis of these findings, ranges of TBW/FFM are suggested for both normal adults (0.69 to 0.75) and patients requiring nutritional support (0.67 to 0.83). Finally it is concluded that the IVNAA/tritium method is a suitable method for measuring TBF and FFM and particularly so when body composition is abnormal.

  14. Overall body fat and regional fat distribution in young women: quantification with MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Gerard, E L; Snow, R C; Kennedy, D N; Frisch, R E; Guimaraes, A R; Barbieri, R L; Sorensen, A G; Egglin, T K; Rosen, B R

    1991-07-01

    Overall body fat and its distribution in different regions are important predispositions to known aberrations in lipid and glucose metabolism. The accuracy of MR imaging in estimating overall body fatness and regional fat distribution at individual landmarks was determined by comparing it with well-accepted measures by deuterium-oxide (D2O) dilution and bioimpedance analysis. Fourteen normal young women (athletes and control subjects) were studied. A total of 308 axial, T1-weighted, spin-echo MR images over a specific region in the trunk (21-24 scans per subject) were obtained. Morphometric computer image analysis was performed to determine the subcutaneous, internal, and total fat volumes in each image. The data were analyzed in two ways: data from all slices were summed to assess overall body fatness, and six anatomic landmarks were chosen for regional comparisons. MR-determined estimates of overall body fatness strongly correlated with total body fat measures by D2O dilution in both total fat (r = .91) and subcutaneous fat (r = .92) determinations. Athletes in both the low- and high-intensity training phases had significantly lower values of MR-determined total body fatness than did control subjects. Parallel to total body fatness, athletes had significantly lower MR-determined ratios of total fat/total volume in four of six individual landmarks compared with control subjects. Our experience suggests that MR is an accurate method to quantify overall body fatness, when compared with D2O dilution and bioimpedance analysis. MR could also discriminate regional components of subcutaneous and internal body fat at individual landmarks. PMID:1646564

  15. Influence of winter temperature and simulated climate change on body mass and fat body depletion during diapause in adults of the solitary bee, Osmia rufa (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    PubMed

    Fliszkiewicz, Monika; Giejdasz, Karol; Wasielewski, Oskar; Krishnan, Natraj

    2012-12-01

    The influence of simulated climate change on body weight and depletion of fat body reserves was studied during diapause in the European solitary bee Osmia rufa L. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Insects (females) were reared and collected from outdoor nests from September to March. One cohort of females was weighed and dissected immediately for analyses, whereas another cohort was subjected to simulated warmer temperature (15°C for 7 d) before analyses. A gradual decline in body mass and fat body content was recorded with declining temperatures from September to January in female bees from natural conditions. Temperature increased gradually from January to March with a further decline in body mass and fat body content. The fat body development index dropped from five in September-October (≈ 89% individuals) to four for the period from November to February (≈ 84% individuals) and further to three in March (95% individuals) before emergence. Simulated warmer winter temperature also resulted in a similar decline in body weight and fat body content; however, body weight and fat body content declined faster. The fat body development index dropped to three in December in the majority of individuals and continued at this level until March just before emergence. Taken together, our data indicate an earlier depletion of fat body reserves under simulated climate change conditions that may impact ovarian development and reproductive fitness in O. rufa. PMID:23321111

  16. The relationship of female physical attractiveness to body fatness

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guanlin; Djafarian, Kurosh; Egedigwe, Chima A.; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Ojiambo, Robert; Ramuth, Harris; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra Johanna; Lackner, Sonja; Diouf, Adama; Sauciuvenaite, Justina; Hambly, Catherine; Vaanholt, Lobke M.; Faries, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Aspects of the female body may be attractive because they signal evolutionary fitness. Greater body fatness might reflect greater potential to survive famines, but individuals carrying larger fat stores may have poor health and lower fertility in non-famine conditions. A mathematical statistical model using epidemiological data linking fatness to fitness traits, predicted a peaked relationship between fatness and attractiveness (maximum at body mass index (BMI) = 22.8 to 24.8 depending on ethnicity and assumptions). Participants from three Caucasian populations (Austria, Lithuania and the UK), three Asian populations (China, Iran and Mauritius) and four African populations (Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria and Senegal) rated attractiveness of a series of female images varying in fatness (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR). There was an inverse linear relationship between physical attractiveness and body fatness or BMI in all populations. Lower body fat was more attractive, down to at least BMI = 19. There was no peak in the relationship over the range we studied in any population. WHR was a significant independent but less important factor, which was more important (greater r2) in African populations. Predictions based on the fitness model were not supported. Raters appeared to use body fat percentage (BF%) and BMI as markers of age. The covariance of BF% and BMI with age indicates that the role of body fatness alone, as a marker of attractiveness, has been overestimated. PMID:26336638

  17. The relationship of female physical attractiveness to body fatness.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanlin; Djafarian, Kurosh; Egedigwe, Chima A; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Ojiambo, Robert; Ramuth, Harris; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra Johanna; Lackner, Sonja; Diouf, Adama; Sauciuvenaite, Justina; Hambly, Catherine; Vaanholt, Lobke M; Faries, Mark D; Speakman, John R

    2015-01-01

    Aspects of the female body may be attractive because they signal evolutionary fitness. Greater body fatness might reflect greater potential to survive famines, but individuals carrying larger fat stores may have poor health and lower fertility in non-famine conditions. A mathematical statistical model using epidemiological data linking fatness to fitness traits, predicted a peaked relationship between fatness and attractiveness (maximum at body mass index (BMI) = 22.8 to 24.8 depending on ethnicity and assumptions). Participants from three Caucasian populations (Austria, Lithuania and the UK), three Asian populations (China, Iran and Mauritius) and four African populations (Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria and Senegal) rated attractiveness of a series of female images varying in fatness (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR). There was an inverse linear relationship between physical attractiveness and body fatness or BMI in all populations. Lower body fat was more attractive, down to at least BMI = 19. There was no peak in the relationship over the range we studied in any population. WHR was a significant independent but less important factor, which was more important (greater r (2)) in African populations. Predictions based on the fitness model were not supported. Raters appeared to use body fat percentage (BF%) and BMI as markers of age. The covariance of BF% and BMI with age indicates that the role of body fatness alone, as a marker of attractiveness, has been overestimated. PMID:26336638

  18. Comparative Investigation of Body Composition in Male Dogs Using CT and Body Fat Analysis Software

    PubMed Central

    KOBAYASHI, Toyokazu; KOIE, Hiroshi; KUSUMI, Akiko; KITAGAWA, Masato; KANAYAMA, Kiichi; OTSUJI, Kazuya

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT In small animal veterinary practices, body condition score (BCS) is generally used to diagnose obesity. However, BCS does not constitute objective data. In this study, we investigated the value of using human body fat analysis software for male dogs. We also compared changes in body fat after neutering. Changes in body fat at the time of neutering (age 1 year) and 1 year later were compared by performing CT scanning and using human body fat analysis software. We found that body fat increased in all the individuals tested. In terms of the site of fat accumulation, subcutaneous fat was more pronounced than visceral fat with a marked increase on the dorsal side of the abdomen rather than the thorax. PMID:24212506

  19. Milk Fat Content and DGAT1 Genotype Determine Lipid Composition of the Milk Fat Globule Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Argov-Argaman, Nurit; Mida, Kfir; Cohen, Bat-Chen; Visker, Marleen; Hettinga, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    During secretion of milk fat globules, triacylglycerol (TAG) droplets are enveloped by a phospholipid (PL) trilayer. Globule size has been found to be related to polar lipid composition and fat content, and milk fat content and fatty acid composition have been associated with the diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) K232A polymorphism; however, the association between the DGAT1 polymorphism and fat globule size and polar lipid composition has not been studied. The ratio between polar and neutral lipids as well as the composition of the polar lipids in milk has industrial as well as nutritional and health implications. Understanding phenotypic and genotypic factors influencing these parameters could contribute to improving milk lipid composition for dairy products. The focus of the present study was to determine the effect of both fat content and DGAT1 polymorphism on PL/TAG ratio, as a marker for milk fat globule size, and detailed PL composition. Milk samples were selected from 200 cows such that there were equal numbers of samples for the different fat contents as well as per DGAT1 genotype. Samples were analyzed for neutral and polar lipid concentration and composition. PL/TAG ratio was significantly associated with both fat content and DGAT1 genotype. Phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine concentrations were associated with fat content*DGAT1 genotype with a stronger association for the AA than the KK genotype. Sphingomyelin concentration tended to interact with fat content*DGAT1 genotype. Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) concentration showed a biphasic response to fat content, suggesting that multiple biological processes influence its concentration. These results provide a new direction for controlling polar lipid concentration and composition in milk through selective breeding of cows. PMID:23874734

  20. Anorexia nervosa and body fat distribution: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    El Ghoch, Marwan; Calugi, Simona; Lamburghini, Silvia; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of body fat distribution before and after partial and complete weight restoration in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Literature searches, study selection, method development and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analyzed. The review had five main findings. First, during anorexia nervosa adolescent females lose more central body fat, while adult females more peripheral fat. Second, partial weight restoration leads to greater fat mass deposition in the trunk region than other body regions in adolescent females. Third, after short-term weight restoration, whether partial or complete, adults show a central adiposity phenotype with respect to healthy age-matched controls. Fourth, central fat distribution is associated with increased insulin resistance, but does not adversely affect eating disorder psychopathology or cause psychological distress in female adults. Fifth, the abnormal central fat distribution seems to normalize after long-term maintenance of complete weight restoration, indicating that preferential central distribution of body fat is a transitory phenomenon. However, a discrepancy in the findings has been noted, especially between adolescents and adults; besides age and gender, these appear to be related to differences in the methodology and time of body composition assessments. The PROSPERO Registry-Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review (CRD42014008738). PMID:25251296

  1. Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    El Ghoch, Marwan; Calugi, Simona; Lamburghini, Silvia; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of body fat distribution before and after partial and complete weight restoration in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Literature searches, study selection, method development and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analyzed. The review had five main findings. First, during anorexia nervosa adolescent females lose more central body fat, while adult females more peripheral fat. Second, partial weight restoration leads to greater fat mass deposition in the trunk region than other body regions in adolescent females. Third, after short-term weight restoration, whether partial or complete, adults show a central adiposity phenotype with respect to healthy age-matched controls. Fourth, central fat distribution is associated with increased insulin resistance, but does not adversely affect eating disorder psychopathology or cause psychological distress in female adults. Fifth, the abnormal central fat distribution seems to normalize after long-term maintenance of complete weight restoration, indicating that preferential central distribution of body fat is a transitory phenomenon. However, a discrepancy in the findings has been noted, especially between adolescents and adults; besides age and gender, these appear to be related to differences in the methodology and time of body composition assessments. The PROSPERO Registry—Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review (CRD42014008738). PMID:25251296

  2. Effect of body composition methodology on heritability estimation of body fatness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heritability estimates of human body fatness vary widely and the contribution of body composition methodology to this variability is unknown. The effect of body composition methodology on estimations of genetic and environmental contributions to body fatness variation was examined in 78 adult male ...

  3. Fat body, fat pad and adipose tissues in invertebrates and vertebrates: the nexus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The fat body in invertebrates was shown to participate in energy storage and homeostasis, apart from its other roles in immune mediation and protein synthesis to mention a few. Thus, sharing similar characteristics with the liver and adipose tissues in vertebrates. However, vertebrate adipose tissue or fat has been incriminated in the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders due to its role in production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This has not been reported in the insect fat body. The link between the fat body and adipose tissue was examined in this review with the aim of determining the principal factors responsible for resistance to inflammation in the insect fat body. This could be the missing link in the prevention of metabolic disorders in vertebrates, occasioned by obesity. PMID:24758278

  4. Connecting theory to fat talk: body dissatisfaction mediates the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance, and fat talk.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Analisa

    2014-06-01

    The fat talk literature is meager in terms of offering theoretical explanations for women's self-disparaging communication. The research presented here sought to establish a relationship between three prominent body image theories - self-discrepancy theory, social comparison theory, and objectification theory - and fat talk by proposing body dissatisfaction as a potential mediating mechanism. Young adult women (N=201) completed an online questionnaire. As predicted, results revealed that body dissatisfaction significantly mediated the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance and fat talk. Effect size estimates indicated that the size of each indirect effect was medium in magnitude. PMID:24958666

  5. Menarche and Fatness: Reexamination of the Critical Body Composition Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trussell, James

    1978-01-01

    Examines the credibility of the theory that, menarche and fecundity require a certain level of fat in the body. Concludes that the evidence does not totally support this hypothesis and that further investigation is warranted. (GA)

  6. Role of Fat Body Lipogenesis in Protection against the Effects of Caloric Overload in Drosophila*

    PubMed Central

    Musselman, Laura Palanker; Fink, Jill L.; Ramachandran, Prasanna Venkatesh; Patterson, Bruce W.; Okunade, Adewole L.; Maier, Ezekiel; Brent, Michael R.; Turk, John; Baranski, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    The Drosophila fat body is a liver- and adipose-like tissue that stores fat and serves as a detoxifying and immune responsive organ. We have previously shown that a high sugar diet leads to elevated hemolymph glucose and systemic insulin resistance in developing larvae and adults. Here, we used stable isotope tracer feeding to demonstrate that rearing larvae on high sugar diets impaired the synthesis of esterified fatty acids from dietary glucose. Fat body lipid profiling revealed changes in both carbon chain length and degree of unsaturation of fatty acid substituents, particularly in stored triglycerides. We tested the role of the fat body in larval tolerance of caloric excess. Our experiments demonstrated that lipogenesis was necessary for animals to tolerate high sugar feeding as tissue-specific loss of orthologs of carbohydrate response element-binding protein or stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 resulted in lethality on high sugar diets. By contrast, increasing the fat content of the fat body by knockdown of king-tubby was associated with reduced hyperglycemia and improved growth and tolerance of high sugar diets. Our work supports a critical role for the fat body and the Drosophila carbohydrate response element-binding protein ortholog in metabolic homeostasis in Drosophila. PMID:23355467

  7. Mathematical description of human body constitution and fatness.

    PubMed

    Sheikh-Zade, Yu R; Galenko-Yaroshevskii, P A; Cherednik, I L

    2014-02-01

    Using mathematical modeling of human body, we demonstrated logical drawbacks of body mass index (BMI1 = M/H(2); A. Quetelet, 1832) and proposed more precise body mass index (BMI2 = M/H(3)) as well as body constitution index (BCI = (M/H(3))(1/2)) and fatness index (FI = M/HC(2)), where M, H, and C are body weight, height, and wrist circumference of the individual. PMID:24771443

  8. Detecting Fat Content of Food from a Distance: Olfactory-Based Fat Discrimination in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Boesveldt, Sanne; Lundström, Johan N.

    2014-01-01

    The desire to consume high volumes of fat is thought to originate from an evolutionary pressure to hoard calories, and fat is among the few energy sources that we can store over a longer time period. From an ecological perspective, however, it would be beneficial to detect fat from a distance, before ingesting it. Previous results indicate that humans detect high concentrations of fatty acids by their odor. More important though, would be the ability to detect fat content in real food products. In a series of three sequential experiments, using study populations from different cultures, we demonstrated that individuals are able to reliably detect fat content of food via odors alone. Over all three experiments, results clearly demonstrated that humans were able to detect minute differences between milk samples with varying grades of fat, even when embedded within a milk odor. Moreover, we found no relation between this performance and either BMI or dairy consumption, thereby suggesting that this is not a learned ability or dependent on nutritional traits. We argue that our findings that humans can detect the fat content of food via odors may open up new and innovative future paths towards a general reduction in our fat intake, and future studies should focus on determining the components in milk responsible for this effect. PMID:24465822

  9. Perception of melting and flavor release of ice cream containing different types and contents of fat.

    PubMed

    Hyvönen, L; Linna, M; Tuorila, H; Dijksterhuis, G

    2003-04-01

    Temporal effects of dairy and vegetable fats (0 to 18%) on perception of strawberry flavor release and melting of ice cream were studied using the time intensity sensory method. Also, aroma and flavor attributes of the ice cream samples were evaluated. Only slight effects of fat on the rate of flavor release and flavor intensity were perceived. A slightly faster flavor release from the vegetable fat compared with dairy fat was noticed. Polydextrose and maltodextrin as bodying agents in the fat-free ice cream significantly increased flavor release and melting rate of the ice cream. Increasing fat content slightly retarded melting of ice cream in the mouth. No significant effect of the fat quality on perceived melting was noticed. Significant differences in aroma and flavor attributes of the fat-free and other samples were perceived. Intensity and sharpness of the strawberry aroma and flavor were greater in fat-free samples and they were perceived as nontypical. Fattiness and creaminess were highly correlated. Maltodextrin and polydextrose increased perceived fattiness and creaminess of fat-free ice cream. PMID:12741536

  10. Dual Lipolytic Control of Body Fat Storage and Mobilization in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Grönke, Sebastian; Müller, Günter; Hirsch, Jochen; Fellert, Sonja; Andreou, Alexandra; Haase, Tobias; Jäckle, Herbert; Kühnlein, Ronald P

    2007-01-01

    Energy homeostasis is a fundamental property of animal life, providing a genetically fixed balance between fat storage and mobilization. The importance of body fat regulation is emphasized by dysfunctions resulting in obesity and lipodystrophy in humans. Packaging of storage fat in intracellular lipid droplets, and the various molecules and mechanisms guiding storage-fat mobilization, are conserved between mammals and insects. We generated a Drosophila mutant lacking the receptor (AKHR) of the adipokinetic hormone signaling pathway, an insect lipolytic pathway related to ß-adrenergic signaling in mammals. Combined genetic, physiological, and biochemical analyses provide in vivo evidence that AKHR is as important for chronic accumulation and acute mobilization of storage fat as is the Brummer lipase, the homolog of mammalian adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). Simultaneous loss of Brummer and AKHR causes extreme obesity and blocks acute storage-fat mobilization in flies. Our data demonstrate that storage-fat mobilization in the fly is coordinated by two lipocatabolic systems, which are essential to adjust normal body fat content and ensure lifelong fat-storage homeostasis. PMID:17488184

  11. Visual adaptation to thin and fat bodies transfers across identity.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Dennis; Rudolf, Anne K; Untch, Karl-Heinz; Grabhorn, Ralph; Mohr, Harald M

    2012-01-01

    Visual perception is highly variable and can be influenced by the surrounding world. Previous research has revealed that body perception can be biased due to adaptation to thin or fat body shapes. The aim of the present study was to show that adaptation to certain body shapes and the resulting perceptual biases transfer across different identities of adaptation and test stimuli. We designed two similar adaptation experiments in which healthy female participants adapted to pictures of either thin or fat bodies and subsequently compared more or less distorted pictures of their own body to their actual body shape. In the first experiment (n = 16) the same identity was used as adaptation and test stimuli (i.e. pictures of the participant's own body) while in the second experiment (n = 16) we used pictures of unfamiliar thin or fat bodies as adaptation stimuli. We found comparable adaptation effects in both experiments: After adaptation to a thin body, participants rated a thinner than actual body picture to be the most realistic and vice versa. We therefore assume that adaptation to certain body shapes transfers across different identities. These results raise the questions of whether some type of natural adaptation occurs in everyday life. Natural and predominant exposure to certain bodily features like body shape--especially the thin ideal in Western societies--could bias perception for these features. In this regard, further research might shed light on aspects of body dissatisfaction and the development of body image disturbances in terms of eating disorders. PMID:22905232

  12. Transfer of phospholipids from fat body to lipophorin in Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Atella, G C; Gondim, K C; Masuda, H

    1992-01-01

    32P-Labeled fat bodies (32P-fat bodies) of Rhodnius prolixus females were incubated in the presence of non radioactive purified lipophorin and the release of radioactivity to the medium was analysed to answer the question of whether lipophorin is a reusable shuttle for phospholipids. The radioactivity found in the medium was associated with lipophorin phospholipids. When the 32P-fat bodies were incubated in the absence of lipophorin, only a small amount of radioactivity was released and it was not associated with lipophorin, indicating that there was no release of pre-labeled 32P-lipophorin by the tissue. Analysis of 32P-phospholipids transferred from fat bodies to the lipophorin particles by thin-layer chromatography revealed a predominance of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine, with minor amounts of phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, and sphingomyelin. The transfer of phospholipids to lipophorin was linear with time up to 45 min and the process was inhibited at low temperature and by the metabolic inhibitors azide and fluoride. The transfer of phospholipids from the fat bodies to lipophorin was saturable with respect to the concentration of lipophorin, which was half-maximal at about 8 mg/ml. A directional movement of phospholipids from the fat body to lipophorin was observed. The net gain of phospholipids in 2 h of incubation with fat body was 8.54 nmol per insect, which corresponds to 6.69% of increase in the lipophorin phospholipid content. The rate of 32P-phospholipid transfer from fat body to lipophorin particles varied during the days after a blood meal increasing up to day 10 and then decreasing in parallel with the process of oogenesis. PMID:11488301

  13. Anthropometric equations for studying body fat in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Paxton, A; Lederman, S A; Heymsfield, S B; Wang, J; Thornton, J C; Pierson, R N

    1998-01-01

    Anthropometric data from 200 pregnant women were used to estimate body fat at gestation weeks 14 and 37 and changes in body fat from week 14 to week 37 with four formulas from the literature. The resulting estimates were evaluated against the estimation of fat by a four-compartment model that determined fat from weight, total body water, bone mineral mass, and body density. The estimates of fat by existing anthropometric models were statistically different from those by the four-compartment model in both early and late pregnancy. Most importantly, the change in body fat estimated by the anthropometric models (all > 4 kg) was considerably higher than that estimated by the four-compartment model (3.3 kg). Two new anthropometric equations were developed, both of which used the four-compartment model as the reference method. The equation for predicting change in fat mass from week 14 to 37 of pregnancy was as follows: 0.77 (change in weight, kg)+ 0.07 (change in thigh skinfold thickness, mm)-6.13 (r2 = 0.73). The equation for determining fat (kg) at term was as follows: 0.40 (weight at week 37, kg)+ 0.16 (biceps skinfold thickness at week 37, mm) + 0.15 (thigh skinfold thickness at week 37, mm)-0.09 (wrist circumference at week 37. mm)+ 0.10 (prepregnancy weight.kg)-6.56 (r2 = 0.89). Both equations were derived on a randomly selected half of the total sample and validated on the remaining half. Both equations were found to be valid for use in studying pregnant women with different prepregnancy body mass indexes, different gestational weight gains, different ethnicities, and different socioeconomic status. PMID:9440383

  14. Somatic maturation and body composition in female healthy adolescents with or without adjustment for body fat

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Valter Paulo N.; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the stages of somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents with or without excessive body fat. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 118 female adolescents, from 14 to 19 years-old, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The adolescents were divided in two groups: Group 1 (G1), eutrophic with adequate body fat percentage, and Group 2 (G2), eutrophic with high body fat percentage. The somatic maturation was assessed by the formula for estimating the Peak Height Velocity (PHV). Results: The PHV had higher average score in G1 adolescents compared to G2 (0.26 versus 0.05; p=0.032). There was an association between G1, G2 and the somatic maturation (p=0.049). The female adolescents before and during PHV presented higher values of fat body BMI (p=0.034) and percentage of central fat (p=0.039) compared to the adolescents after PHV. There was a correspondence between before PHV stage and the excess of body fat (α=0.751). Conclusions: There was an association between somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents. Length, BMI and fat percentage were different among the somatic maturation stages. It is relevant to evaluate the somatic maturation and the changes occurring in the body composition during adolescence in order to better evaluate and manage the nutritional status and the body fat excess. PMID:24676194

  15. Body water content of extremely preterm infants at birth

    PubMed Central

    Hartnoll, G.; Betremieux, P.; Modi, N.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Preterm birth is often associated with impaired growth. Small for gestational age status confers additional risk.
AIM—To determine the body water content of appropriately grown (AGA) and small for gestational age (SGA) preterm infants in order to provide a baseline for longitudinal studies of growth after preterm birth.
METHODS—All infants born at the Hammersmith and Queen Charlotte's Hospitals between 25 and 30 weeks gestational age were eligible for entry into the study. Informed parental consent was obtained as soon after delivery as possible, after which the extracellular fluid content was determined by bromide dilution and total body water by H218O dilution.
RESULTS—Forty two preterm infants were studied. SGA infants had a significantly higher body water content than AGA infants (906 (833-954) and 844 (637-958) ml/kg respectively; median (range); p = 0.019). There were no differences in extracellular and intracellular fluid volumes, nor in the ratio of extracellular to intracellular fluid. Estimates of relative adiposity suggest a body fat content of about 7% in AGA infants, assuming negligible fat content in SGA infants and lean body tissue hydration to be equivalent in the two groups.
CONCLUSIONS—Novel values for the body water composition of the SGA preterm infant at 25-30 weeks gestation are presented. The data do not support the view that SGA infants have extracellular dehydration, nor is their regulation of body water impaired.

 PMID:10873174

  16. Effect of Body Composition Methodology on Heritability Estimation of Body Fatness

    PubMed Central

    Elder, Sonya J.; Roberts, Susan B.; McCrory, Megan A.; Das, Sai Krupa; Fuss, Paul J.; Pittas, Anastassios G.; Greenberg, Andrew S.; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Bouchard, Thomas J.; Saltzman, Edward; Neale, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Heritability estimates of human body fatness vary widely and the contribution of body composition methodology to this variability is unknown. The effect of body composition methodology on estimations of genetic and environmental contributions to body fatness variation was examined in 78 adult male and female monozygotic twin pairs reared apart or together. Body composition was assessed by six methods – body mass index (BMI), dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), underwater weighing (UWW), total body water (TBW), bioelectric impedance (BIA), and skinfold thickness. Body fatness was expressed as percent body fat, fat mass, and fat mass/height2 to assess the effect of body fatness expression on heritability estimates. Model-fitting multivariate analyses were used to assess the genetic and environmental components of variance. Mean BMI was 24.5 kg/m2 (range of 17.8–43.4 kg/m2). There was a significant effect of body composition methodology (p<0.001) on heritability estimates, with UWW giving the highest estimate (69%) and BIA giving the lowest estimate (47%) for fat mass/height2. Expression of body fatness as percent body fat resulted in significantly higher heritability estimates (on average 10.3% higher) compared to expression as fat mass/height2 (p=0.015). DXA and TBW methods expressing body fatness as fat mass/height2 gave the least biased heritability assessments, based on the small contribution of specific genetic factors to their genetic variance. A model combining DXA and TBW methods resulted in a relatively low FM/ht2 heritability estimate of 60%, and significant contributions of common and unique environmental factors (22% and 18%, respectively). The body fatness heritability estimate of 60% indicates a smaller contribution of genetic variance to total variance than many previous studies using less powerful research designs have indicated. The results also highlight the importance of environmental factors and possibly genotype by environmental

  17. Eating Regulation Styles, Appearance Schemas, and Body Satisfaction Predict Changes in Body Fat for Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Ali Zaremba; Keiley, Margaret K.; Ryan, Aubrey E.; Radomski, Juliana Groves; Gropper, Sareen S.; Connell, Lenda Jo; Simmons, Karla P.; Ulrich, Pamela V.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and high body fat percentages are a major public health issue. The percentage of obese and overweight Americans has increased over the past 30 years. On average, overweight individuals with higher percent body fat than normal weight individuals are at increased risk for numerous negative outcomes both physically and mentally. A prime time…

  18. Effect of body composition methodology on estimates of fat mass heritability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Body fatness is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Previous studies have produced a wide range of estimates for the heritability of body fatness, ranging from 0.34-0.90 for body mass index (BMI), 0.59-0.83 for percent body fat, and 0.45-0.71 for fat mass. Little atte...

  19. Serum lipocalin-2 levels are positively associated with not only total body fat but also visceral fat area in Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuqi; Ma, Xiaojing; Pan, Xiaoping; Xu, Yiting; Xiong, Qin; Xiao, Yunfeng; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2016-07-01

    Serum lipocalin-2 (LCN2) plays an important role in the regulation of the obesity-associated dysmetabolic state and cardiovascular disease. However, relatively little is known about the relationship between serum LCN2 levels and body fat content and distribution. We examined the associations of total body fat content and abdominal fat distribution with serum LCN2 levels in Chinese men.The study was based on a cross-sectional analysis of data for 1203 Chinese men aged 22 to 78 years from the Shanghai Obesity Study. Body fat percentage (fat%) was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and magnetic resonance imaging was adopted to quantify the visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA). Serum levels of LCN2 were measured with a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method.Subjects with a high fat% had higher serum LCN2 levels than those with a normal fat% regardless of their body mass index category (<25 and ≥25 kg/m). The frequency of isolated high VFA was increased with increasing quintiles of serum LCN2 levels (P < 0.001), but the frequency of isolated high SFA did not differ between quintiles of serum LCN2 levels. A trend of increasing VFA was observed with increasing serum LCN2 levels (P < 0.001). Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that VFA was positively associated with serum LCN2 levels, independent of overall obesity and other confounding factors (standardized β = 0.082, P = 0.008).Serum LCN2 levels are positively correlated with body fat content and independently associated with VFA in Chinese men. PMID:27472678

  20. Determination of fat content in NMR images of meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballerini, Lucia

    2000-12-01

    In this paper we present an application to food science of image processing technique. We describe a method for determining fat content in beef meat. The industry of meat faces a permanent need for improved methods for meat quality evaluation. Researchers want improved techniques to deepen their understanding of meat features. Expectations of consumers for meat quality grow constantly, which induces the necessity of quality control. Recent advances in the area of computer and video processing have created new ways to monitor quality in the food industry. We investigate the use of a new technology to control the quality of food: NMR imaging. The inherent advantages of NMR images are many. Chief among these unprecedented contrasts between the various structures present in meat like muscle, fat, and connective tissue. Moreover, the three-dimensional nature of the NMR method allow us to analyze isolated cross-sectional slices of the meat and to measure the volumetric content of fat, not only the fat visible on the surface. We propose a segmentation algorithm for the detection of fat together with a filtering technique to remove intensity inhomogeneities in NMR images caused by non-uniformities of the magnetic field during acquisition. Measurements have been successfully correlated with chemical analysis and digital photography. Results show that the NMR technique is a promising non-invasive method to determine the fat content in meat.

  1. Body fatness, related biomarkers and cancer risk: an epidemiological perspective.

    PubMed

    Nimptsch, Katharina; Pischon, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    Higher body fatness is not only associated with a higher risk of hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and coronary heart disease but also with certain types of cancer. The scope of this review is to summarize the epidemiological evidence for an association between body fatness and specific types of cancer and to outline the mediating role of obesity-related biomarkers in this context. Epidemiological studies have gathered convincing evidence that greater body fatness is associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer, postmenopausal breast cancer, endometrial cancer, esophageal adenocarcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, and pancreatic cancer. Further, evidence for an association between higher body fatness and higher risk of ovarian cancer, advanced prostate cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma is growing. Abdominal obesity is an independent risk factor for colorectal cancer beyond general obesity, whereas an independent role is less clear for other obesity-related cancer types. Epidemiological biomarker studies have shown that the positive association between body fatness and risk of cancer may be partly explained by hyperinsulinemia and altered concentrations in adipokines and sex-steroid hormones. In addition, obesity-associated low-grade inflammation plays a role in colorectal carcinogenesis. While epidemiology has contributed substantially to the understanding of the role of higher body fatness and related metabolic alterations in the development of cancer, further epidemiological biomarker studies are necessary to elucidate the complex interrelations between mediating pathways as well as to study novel pathways. Knowledge resulting from this research may help identify an obesity phenotype that is particularly strongly associated with cancer risk and thus pave the way for targeted prevention of cancer morbidity and mortality. PMID:25781710

  2. Body composition among Sri Lankan infants by 18*O dilution method and the validity of anthropometric equations to predict body fat against 18*O dilution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Body composition indicators provide a better guidance for growth and nutritional status of the infants. This study was designed to (1) measure the body composition of the Sri Lankan infants using a reference method, the 18*O dilution method; (2) calculate the body fat content of the infants using pu...

  3. Neither Good nor Useful: Looking Ad Vivum in Children's Assessments of Fat and Healthy Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Fat bodies are not, fait accompli, bad. Yet in our international research, we found overwhelmingly that fat functioned as a marker to indicate health or lack of health. A body with fat was simply and conclusively unhealthy. This article reports on how this unbalanced view of fat was tied to assessments of healthy bodies that were achieved by "the…

  4. High- and low-throughput scoring of fat mass and body fat distribution in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Wählby, Carolina; Lee-Conery, Annie; Bray, Mark-Anthony; Kamentsky, Lee; Larkins-Ford, Jonah; Sokolnicki, Katherine L.; Veneskey, Matthew; Michaels, Kerry; Carpenter, Anne E.; O’Rourke, Eyleen J.

    2014-01-01

    Fat accumulation is a complex phenotype affected by factors such as neuroendocrine signaling, feeding, activity, and reproductive output. Accordingly, the most informative screens for genes and compounds affecting fat accumulation would be those carried out in whole living animals. Caenorhabditis elegans is a well-established and effective model organism, especially for biological processes that involve organ systems and multicellular interactions, such as metabolism. Every cell in the transparent body of C. elegans is visible under a light microscope. Consequently, an accessible and reliable method to visualize worm lipid-droplet fat depots would make C. elegans the only metazoan in which genes affecting not only fat mass but also body fat distribution could be assessed at a genome-wide scale. Here we present a radical improvement in oil red O worm staining together with high-throughput image-based phenotyping. The three-step sample preparation method is robust, formaldehyde-free, and inexpensive, and requires only 15 minutes of hands-on time to process a 96-well plate. Together with our free and user-friendly automated image analysis package, this method enables C. elegans sample preparation and phenotype scoring at a scale that is compatible with genome-wide screens. Thus we present a feasible approach to small-scale phenotyping and large-scale screening for genetic and/or chemical perturbations that lead to alterations in fat quantity and distribution in whole animals. PMID:24784529

  5. Can you be large and not obese? The distinction between body weight, body fat, and abdominal fat in occupational standards.

    PubMed

    Friedl, Karl E

    2004-10-01

    Weight control is an important early intervention in diabetes, but the nature of the association between weight and disordered metabolism has been confused because fat mass and its distribution are only partly associated with increasing body size. Weight, fat, and regional fat placement, specifically in the abdominal site, may each have distinctly different associations with diabetes risk. Abdominal circumference may be the common marker of poor fitness habits and of increased risk for metabolic diseases such as diabetes. This is an important question for public health policy as well as for occupational standards such as those of the military, which are intended to promote fitness for military missions and include strength and aerobic capacity, as well as military appearance considerations. U.S. soldiers are heavier than ever before, reflecting both increased muscle and fat components. They also have better health care than ever before and are required to exercise regularly, and even the oldest soldiers are required to remain below body fat limits that are more stringent than the current median values of the U.S. population over age 40. The body fat standards assessed by circumference-based equations are 20-26% and 30-36%, for various age groups of men and women, respectively, and the upper limits align with threshold values of waist circumference recommended in national health goals. The basis and effects of the Army standards are presented in this paper. U.S. Army body fat standards may offer practical and reasonable health guidelines suitable for all active Americans that might help stem the increasing prevalence of obesity that is predicted to increase the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes. PMID:15628823

  6. The Effects of Diet Composition on Body Fat and Hepatic Steatosis in an Animal (Peromyscus californicus) Model of the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Krugner-Higby, Lisa; Caldwell, Stephen; Coyle, Kathryn; Bush, Eugene; Atkinson, Richard; Joers, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine body composition, total fat content, fat distribution, and serum leptin concentration in hyperlipidemic (high responder, HR) and normolipidemic (low responder, LR) California mice (Peromyscus californicus). In our initial experiments, we sought to determine whether differences in regional fat storage were associated with hyperlipidemia in this species. To further characterize the hepatic steatosis in the mice, we performed 2 additional experiments by using a diet containing 45% of energy as fat. The body fat content of mice fed a low fat-diet (12.3% energy as fat) was higher than that of mice fed a moderate-fat diet (25.8% energy as fat). Total body fat did not differ between HR and LR mice. There was no significant difference between intraabdominal, gonadal, or inguinal fat pad weights. Liver weights of HR mice fed the moderate-fat diet were higher than those of LR mice fed the same diet, and the moderate-fat diet was associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL). Mice fed the 45% diet had higher histologic score for steatosis but very little inflammatory response. Chemical analysis indicated increased lipid in the livers of mice fed the high-fat diet compared with those fed the low-fat diet. HR and LR mice had similar serum leptin concentrations. California mice develop NAFL without excess fat accumulation elsewhere. NAFL was influenced by genetic and dietary factors. These mice may be a naturally occuring model of partial lipodystrophy. PMID:21819679

  7. Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kevin D; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D; Miller, Bernard V; Prado, Carla M; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C; Walter, Mary; Walter, Peter J; Yannai, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5-day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and net fat oxidation measured while residing in a metabolic chamber. Whereas carbohydrate restriction led to sustained increases in fat oxidation and loss of 53 ± 6 g/day of body fat, fat oxidation was unchanged by fat restriction, leading to 89 ± 6 g/day of fat loss, and was significantly greater than carbohydrate restriction (p = 0.002). Mathematical model simulations agreed with these data, but predicted that the body acts to minimize body fat differences with prolonged isocaloric diets varying in carbohydrate and fat. PMID:26278052

  8. Eating regulation styles, appearance schemas, and body satisfaction predict changes in body fat for emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Ali Zaremba; Keiley, Margaret K; Ryan, Aubrey E; Radomski, Juliana Groves; Gropper, Sareen S; Connell, Lenda Jo; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2012-09-01

    Obesity and high body fat percentages are a major public health issue. The percentage of obese and overweight Americans has increased over the past 30 years. On average, overweight individuals with higher percent body fat than normal weight individuals are at increased risk for numerous negative outcomes both physically and mentally. A prime time to investigate changes in body composition and associated psychological influences on decision making is during the emerging adulthood period. The first few years of college are a time when adolescents begin to regulate for themselves their own eating behaviors. Previous research shows that freshmen gain weight and increase in percent body fat during their first year of college. The current study addresses the limitations of previous research by investigating (1) individual growth in percent body fat over a longer period of time in college than previous available research and (2) important psychological and sex differences in this growth. This study measures percent body fat across the first 3 years of college at 8 time points for 542 undergraduates (351 females, 65 %; 191 males, 35 %). Longitudinal data analysis was conducted to identify changes in percent body fat, psychological predictors of those changes, and how changes differ for males and females. Our study found that significant increases exist in percent body fat during undergraduates' college years and that change differs for males and females. In addition, through the use of nested hierarchical models, eating regulation style (autonomous or controlled regulation), appearance schema (self-evaluative salience or motivational salience), and body satisfaction were identified as influential predictors of change in percent body fat. For example, young females, who do not feel in control of their physical appearance yet spend a great deal of time maintaining their appearance, have the highest initial body fat percentage and the steepest increase in percent body fat

  9. Predicting Body Fat Using Data on the BMI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Terence C.

    2005-01-01

    A data set contained in the "Journal of Statistical Education's" data archive provides a way of exploring regression analysis at a variety of teaching levels. An appropriate functional form for the relationship between percentage body fat and the BMI is shown to be the semi-logarithmic, with variation in the BMI accounting for a little over half…

  10. Fat Talk and Body Dissatisfaction among College Dancers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartawidjaja, Jenae E.; Cordero, Elizabeth D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate "fat talk" conversations about weight and body dissatisfaction within college dancers. Participants were 116 female undergraduates who were dancers/dance majors ("n"?=?20), dancers/nondance majors ("n"?=?32), and nondancers ("n"?=?63). Participants responded to…

  11. Children's Television Viewing, Body Fat, and Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Colin A.; Sallis, James F.; Alcaraz, John E.; Kolody, Bohdan; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the relationship between elementary students' television viewing and their physical fitness. Data from parent and student questionnaires and measures of body fat, cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength/endurance, and muscular flexibility indicated that television viewing weakly and inconsistently related to various components of…

  12. Practice perspectives: fat injection in different parts of the body.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Pérez, E

    1998-04-01

    Fat injection may be successfully performed in almost all parts of the body, including the face, hands, female breasts, buttocks, calves, and genitals. A review of the steps necessary for obtaining better cosmetic results with this procedure are presented. PMID:9697445

  13. In vivo determination of body fat by measuring total body carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Kehayias, J.J.; Heymsfield, S.B.; LoMonte, A.F.; Wang, J.; Pierson, R.N. Jr. )

    1991-06-01

    Total body carbon (TBC) is measured in vivo by neutron inelastic scattering. The fast neutrons needed for the irradiation are produced by a miniature deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron generator. Body fat and protein are the main contributors to TBC. Bone ash and carbohydrates contribute less than 3%. Fat is calculated from TBC after the subtraction of the carbon contributions from protein, bone, and glycogen. The technique was applied to 14 normal volunteers (8 females, 6 males) aged 24-94 y who underwent neutron inelastic scattering and neutron activation measurements for body carbon, nitrogen, and calcium. The initial results agree with other techniques. Unlike models that evaluate body fat by subtracting lean body mass from body weight, the TBC technique is not sensitive to assumptions on the composition of lean body; therefore, it is appropriate for studies of adults of any age and health condition.

  14. Relationship between the percentage of body fat and surrogate indices of fatness in male and female Polish active and sedentary students

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Limited data have indicated that body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) of athletes and young adults provide misleading results concerning body fat content. This study was aimed at the evaluation of the relationship between different surrogate indices of fatness (BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR and body adiposity index (BAI)) with the percentage of body fat in Polish students with respect to their sex and physical activity. Methods A total of 272 students volunteered to participate in the study. Of these students, 177 physical education students (90 males and 87 females) were accepted as active (physical activity of 7 to 9 hours/week); and 95 students of other specializations (49 males and 46 females) were accepted as sedentary (physical activity of 1.5 hours/week). Weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were measured, and BMI, WHR, WHtR and BAI were calculated. Body fat percentage was assessed using four skinfold measurements. Results Classification of fatness according to the BMI and the percentage of body fat have indicated that BMI overestimates fatness in lean subjects (active men and women, sedentary men), but underestimates body fat in obese subjects (sedentary women). In all groups, BMI, WHR, WHtR and BAI were significantly correlated with the percentage of body fat (with the exception of WHR and hip circumference in active and sedentary women, respectively). However, coefficients of determination not exceeding 50% and Lin’s concordance correlation coefficients lower than 0.9 indicated no relationship between measured and calculated body fat. Conclusion The findings in the present study support the concept that irrespective of physical activity and sex none of the calculated indices of fatness are useful in the determination of body fat in young adults. Thus, it seems that easily calculated indices may contribute to distorted body image and unhealthy dietary habits observed in many

  15. Body Fat and Muscle Mass as Functions of Body Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, R. A.; Miller, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Hydrostatic weighing and chemical dilution are well accepted methods for measuring body composition. Recently, Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) has become the preferred method. The two compartment algorithms used by these methods assume a fixed constant for lean body tissue. This constant has long been suspect of variations due to many…

  16. Sex-differences of the healthy infra-patellar (Hoffa) fat pad in relation to intermuscular and subcutaneous fat content--data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    PubMed

    Diepold, J; Ruhdorfer, A; Dannhauer, T; Wirth, W; Steidle, E; Eckstein, F

    2015-07-01

    The infra-patellar fat pad (IPFP) is composed of intra-articular adipose tissue; it represents a potential source of pro-inflammatory cytokines and has been associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. Yet, to what extent the size of the IPFP differs between healthy men and women, and how sex differences compare to those in inter-muscular and subcutaneous fat tissue content is unknown. We studied healthy reference subjects from the Osteoarthritis Initiative, without knee pain, without radiographic signs or without risk factors of femorotibial osteoarthritis. Sagittal magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of 99 right knees were used to segment the IPFP; in a subset, axial images of the thigh were available to segment inter-muscular and subcutaneous fat. Healthy men (n=40) displayed a 41% greater (p<0.001) IPFP volume and a 9% greater (p<0.01) ratio of IPFP volume/body weight than women (n=59). Men (n=13) displayed 15% greater intermuscular fat content (not significant), and a 50% lesser (p<0.01) subcutaneous fat content than women (n=12); when related to total thigh cross-sectional areas, these sex differences were +2% (not significant) and -53% (p<0.001). This is the first study to explore quantitative measures of the IPFP in healthy men and women, and to relate these to sex differences of inter-muscular and subcutaneous fat tissue content. Men displayed a significantly greater ratio of IPFP volume/body weight than women, similar amounts of inter-muscular fat, and strikingly less subcutaneous fat. These data provide a basis for further systematic studies of the variability of the IPFP with the body mass index and its role in knee osteoarthritis. PMID:25723518

  17. Associations between body fat and vitamin K status in older women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fat soluble nutrients are stored in fat tissue. Yet, the association between body fat and vitamin K status is not clear. We examined associations between % body fat (%BF) and 3 circulating measures of vitamin K status [plasma phylloquinone (plasma K1), uncarboxylated prothrombin (PIVKA), uncarboxyla...

  18. Body Fat Percentage Prediction Using Intelligent Hybrid Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yuehjen E.

    2014-01-01

    Excess of body fat often leads to obesity. Obesity is typically associated with serious medical diseases, such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Accordingly, knowing the body fat is an extremely important issue since it affects everyone's health. Although there are several ways to measure the body fat percentage (BFP), the accurate methods are often associated with hassle and/or high costs. Traditional single-stage approaches may use certain body measurements or explanatory variables to predict the BFP. Diverging from existing approaches, this study proposes new intelligent hybrid approaches to obtain fewer explanatory variables, and the proposed forecasting models are able to effectively predict the BFP. The proposed hybrid models consist of multiple regression (MR), artificial neural network (ANN), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), and support vector regression (SVR) techniques. The first stage of the modeling includes the use of MR and MARS to obtain fewer but more important sets of explanatory variables. In the second stage, the remaining important variables are served as inputs for the other forecasting methods. A real dataset was used to demonstrate the development of the proposed hybrid models. The prediction results revealed that the proposed hybrid schemes outperformed the typical, single-stage forecasting models. PMID:24723804

  19. The demographics of fat talk in adult women: Age, body size, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Engeln, Renee; Salk, Rachel H

    2016-08-01

    Fat talk, conversations in which women disparage the size/shape of their bodies, acts as both a reflection of and contributor to body dissatisfaction. We assessed the impact of age, body mass index, and ethnicity on fat talk in two large, online surveys of adult women. Body mass index showed a small, positive correlation with fat talk, but only for women who were not overweight. Fat talking was common across all ages. In contrast to the common belief that fat talk is limited to young, thin women, these studies demonstrate that women of many body sizes and ages engage in fat talk. PMID:25488938

  20. Obesity development in neuron-specific lipoprotein lipase deficient mice is not responsive to increased dietary fat content or change in fat composition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Taussig, Matthew D; DiPatrizio, Nicholas V; Bruce, Kimberley; Piomelli, Daniele; Eckel, Robert H

    2016-07-01

    We have previously reported that mice with neuron-specific LPL deficiency (NEXLPL-/-) become obese by 16weeks of age on chow. Moreover, these mice had reduced uptake of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein-derived fatty acids and lower levels of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in the hypothalamus. Here, we asked whether increased dietary fat content or altered dietary composition could modulate obesity development in NEXLPL-/- mice. Male NEXLPL-/- mice and littermate controls (WT) were randomly assigned one of three synthetic diets; a high carbohydrate diet (HC, 10% fat), a high-fat diet (HF, 45% fat), or a HC diet supplemented with n-3 PUFAs (HCn-3, 10% fat, Lovaza, GSK®). After 42weeks of HC feeding, body weight and fat mass were increased in the NEXLPL-/- mice compared to WT. WT mice fed a HF diet displayed typical diet-induced obesity, but weight gain was only marginal in HF-fed NEXLPL-/- mice, with no significant difference in body composition. Dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation did not prevent obesity in NEXLPL-/- mice, but was associated with differential modifications in hypothalamic gene expression and PUFA concentration compared to WT mice. Our findings suggest that neuronal LPL is involved in the regulation of body weight and composition in response to either the change in quantity (HF feeding) or quality (n-3 PUFA-enriched) of dietary fat. The precise role of LPL in lipid sensing in the brain requires further investigation. PMID:27282869

  1. Method and apparatus for determining fat content of tissue

    DOEpatents

    Weber, Thomas M.; Spletzer, Barry L.; Bryan, Jon R.; Dickey, Fred M.; Shagam, Richard N.; Gooris, Luc

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining characteristics of tissue is disclosed. The method comprises supplying optical energy to a tissue and detecting at a plurality of locations consequent energy scattered by the tissue. Analysis of the scattered energy as taught herein provides information concerning the properties of the tissue, specifically information related to the fat and lean content and thickness of the tissue. The apparatus comprises a light source adapted to deliver optical energy to a tissue. A plurality of detectors can be mounted at different positions relative to the source to detect energy scattered by the tissue. A signal processor as taught herein can determine characteristics of the tissue from the signals from the detectors and locations of the detectors, specifically information related to the fat and lean content and thickness of the tissue.

  2. Black tea polyphenols and polysaccharides improve body composition, increase fecal fatty acid, and regulate fat metabolism in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Guo, Yu; Liu, Rui; Wang, Kuan; Zhang, Min

    2016-05-18

    With the current changes in diet and living habits, obesity has become a global health problem. Thus, the weight-reducing function of tea has attracted considerable attention. This study investigated the anti-obesity effect and the mechanism of black tea (BT) polyphenols and polysaccharides in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The BT polyphenols and polysaccharides reduced the body weight, Lee's index, visceral fat weight, and fat cell size but improved the biochemical profile and increased the fecal fatty acid content, thereby preventing high-fat diet-induced obesity. A gene expression profile array was used to screen eight upregulated and five downregulated differentially expressed genes that affect fat metabolic pathways, such as glycerolipid and glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid degradation, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, bile and pancreatic secretion, the insulin signaling pathway, and steroid hormone secretion. The BT polyphenols and polysaccharides suppressed the formation and accumulation of fat and promoted its decomposition to prevent obesity. PMID:27161951

  3. Body Fat Accumulation in Zebrafish Is Induced by a Diet Rich in Fat and Reduced by Supplementation with Green Tea Extract

    PubMed Central

    Meguro, Shinichi; Hasumura, Takahiro; Hase, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Fat-rich diets not only induce obesity in humans but also make animals obese. Therefore, animals that accumulate body fat in response to a high-fat diet (especially rodents) are commonly used in obesity research. The effect of dietary fat on body fat accumulation is not fully understood in zebrafish, an excellent model of vertebrate lipid metabolism. Here, we explored the effects of dietary fat and green tea extract, which has anti-obesity properties, on body fat accumulation in zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were allocated to four diet groups and over 6 weeks were fed a high-fat diet containing basal diet plus two types of fat or a low-fat diet containing basal diet plus carbohydrate or protein. Another group of adult zebrafish was fed a high-fat diet with or without 5% green tea extract supplementation. Zebrafish fed the high-fat diets had nearly twice the body fat (visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat) volume and body fat volume ratio (body fat volume/body weight) of those fed low-fat diets. There were no differences in body fat accumulation between the two high-fat groups, nor were there any differences between the two low-fat groups. Adding green tea extract to the high-fat diet significantly suppressed body weight, body fat volume, and body fat volume ratio compared with the same diet lacking green tea extract. 3-Hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase and citrate synthase activity in the liver and skeletal muscle were significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with green tea extract than in those fed the unsupplemented diet. Our results suggest that a diet rich in fat, instead of protein or carbohydrate, induced body fat accumulation in zebrafish with mechanisms that might be similar to those in mammals. Consequently, zebrafish might serve as a good animal model for research into obesity induced by high-fat diets. PMID:25785691

  4. Gender differences in body fat of low- and high-body-mass children: relationship with body mass index.

    PubMed

    Komiya, S; Eto, C; Otoki, K; Teramoto, K; Shimizu, F; Shimamoto, H

    2000-05-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine gender differences in total body fat mass (TBFM) and body fat distribution (subcutaneous fat mass, SFM; and internal fat mass, IFM) in a cross-sectional sample of 280 children. Measurements of the body composition of 141 boys and 139 girls, all apparently healthy and aged 3-6 years were made using bioelectrical impedance. Determinations of impedance were made using a four-terminal impedance analyzer (TP-95K; Toyo Physical, Fukuoka, Japan). Lean body mass (LBM) was calculated using a previously published equation [Goran MI, Kaskoun MC, Carpenter WH, Poehlman ET, Ravussin E, Fontvieikke A-M (1993) Estimating body composition of young children by using bioelectrical resistance. J Appl Physiol 75: 1776-1780]. SFM was calculated using a modification of the equation derived by Skerjl [Skerjl B, Brozek J, Hunt EE (1953) Subcutaneous fat and age changes in body build and body form in women. Am J Phys Anthrop 11: 577-580] and Davies [Davies PSW, Jones PRM, Norgan NG (1986) The distribution of subcutaneous and internal fat in man. Ann Hum Biol 13: 189-192]. The main modifications of the equation in the present study were the introduction of: (1) mean thickness of adipose tissue over body surface/2, and (2) skin mass. IFM was calculated as the difference between TBFM and SFM. The body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) was calculated from the formula: body mass/height2. For each gender, the subjects in the lowest and highest 25th percentiles were designated as "low body mass" and "high body mass", respectively. In the present study, no gender differences in absolute TBFM, SFM and IFM were observed in either of these groups. In contrast, gender differences in relative TBFM (%Fat) and SFM (SFM/mass) were evident in girls. However, the four subgroups were similar in terms of relative IFM (IFM/mass). The TBFM was independently related to SFM, IFM and %Fat in both genders after adjustment for BMI; however, there was no significant

  5. Measures of body fat in South Asian adults

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, S; Mercuri, M; Anand, S S

    2013-01-01

    Background: South Asian people who originate from the Indian subcontinent have greater percent body fat (%BF) for the same body mass index (BMI) compared with white Caucasians. This has been implicated in their increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is limited information comparing different measures of body fat in this ethnic group. Objectives: The objectives of this study were: (1) to investigate the correlation of %BF measured by a foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis (FF-BIA) against the BOD POD, a method of air-displacement plethysmography, and (2) to determine the correlations of simple anthropometric measures, (that is, BMI, body adiposity index (BAI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)) against the BOD POD measure of body fat. Methods: Eighty apparently healthy South Asian men and women were recruited from the community, and measurements of height, weight, WC, HC and body composition using Tanita FF-BIA and BOD POD were taken. Results: The mean±s.d. age of participants was 27.78±10.49 years, 42.5% were women, and the mean BMI was 22.68±3.51 kg m−2. The mean body fat (%BF) calculated by FF-BIA and BOD POD was 21.94±7.88% and 26.20±8.47%, respectively. The %BF calculated by FF-BIA was highly correlated with the BOD POD (Pearson's r=0.83, P<0.001), however, FF-BIA underestimated %BF by 4.3%. When anthropometric measures were compared with % BF by BOD POD, the BAI showed the strongest correlation (r=0.74) and the WHR showed the weakest (r=0.33). BAI generally underestimated %BF by 2.6% in comparison with %BF by BOD POD. The correlations of BOD POD with other measures of %BF were much stronger in subjects with a BMI >21 kg m−2 than those with a BMI ⩽21 kg m−2. Conclusion: The FF-BIA and BAI estimates of %BF are highly correlated with that of BOD POD among people of South Asian origin, although both methods somewhat underestimate % BF. Furthermore, their

  6. Skeletal muscle fat content is inversely associated with bone strength in young girls.

    PubMed

    Farr, Joshua N; Funk, Janet L; Chen, Zhao; Lisse, Jeffrey R; Blew, Robert M; Lee, Vinson R; Laudermilk, Monica; Lohman, Timothy G; Going, Scott B

    2011-09-01

    Childhood obesity is an established risk factor for metabolic disease. The influence of obesity on bone development, however, remains controversial and may depend on the pattern of regional fat deposition. Therefore, we examined the associations of regional fat compartments of the calf and thigh with weight-bearing bone parameters in girls. Data from 444 girls aged 9 to 12 years from the Jump-In: Building Better Bones study were analyzed. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to assess bone parameters at metaphyseal and diaphyseal sites of the femur and tibia along with subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, mm(2) ) and muscle density (mg/cm(3) ), an index of skeletal muscle fat content. As expected, SAT was positively correlated with total-body fat mass (r = 0.87-0.89, p < .001), and muscle density was inversely correlated with total-body fat mass (r = -0.24 to -0.28, p < .001). Multiple linear regression analyses with SAT, muscle density, muscle cross-sectional area, bone length, maturity, and ethnicity as independent variables showed significant associations between muscle density and indices of bone strength at metaphyseal (β = 0.13-0.19, p < .001) and diaphyseal (β = 0.06-0.09, p < .01) regions of the femur and tibia. Associations between SAT and indices of bone strength were nonsignificant at all skeletal sites (β = 0.03-0.05, p > .05), except the distal tibia (β = 0.09, p = .03). In conclusion, skeletal muscle fat content of the calf and thigh is inversely associated with weight-bearing bone strength in young girls. PMID:21544865

  7. 21 CFR 101.62 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the criteria in § 101.60(b)(1) or (b)(2) for “calorie free” or “low calorie” claims. (b) Fat content... and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the product meets these conditions... total fat per 100 g and not more than 30 percent calories from fat. (1) The terms “saturated fat...

  8. 21 CFR 101.62 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the criteria in § 101.60(b)(1) or (b)(2) for “calorie free” or “low calorie” claims. (b) Fat content... and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the product meets these conditions... total fat per 100 g and not more than 30 percent calories from fat. (1) The terms “saturated fat...

  9. 21 CFR 101.62 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the criteria in § 101.60(b)(1) or (b)(2) for “calorie free” or “low calorie” claims. (b) Fat content... and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the product meets these conditions... total fat per 100 g and not more than 30 percent calories from fat. (1) The terms “saturated fat...

  10. 21 CFR 101.62 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the criteria in § 101.60(b)(1) or (b)(2) for “calorie free” or “low calorie” claims. (b) Fat content... and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the product meets these conditions... total fat per 100 g and not more than 30 percent calories from fat. (1) The terms “saturated fat...

  11. 21 CFR 101.62 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the criteria in § 101.60(b)(1) or (b)(2) for “calorie free” or “low calorie” claims. (b) Fat content... and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the product meets these conditions... total fat per 100 g and not more than 30 percent calories from fat. (1) The terms “saturated fat...

  12. Seasonal Dynamics in the Chemistry and Structure of the Fat Bodies of Bumblebee Queens.

    PubMed

    Votavová, Alena; Tomčala, Aleš; Kofroňová, Edita; Kudzejová, Michaela; Šobotník, Jan; Jiroš, Pavel; Komzáková, Olga; Valterová, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Insects' fat bodies are responsible for nutrient storage and for a significant part of intermediary metabolism. Thus, it can be expected that the structure and content of the fat body will adaptively change, if an insect is going through different life stages. Bumblebee queens belong to such insects as they dramatically change their physiology several times over their lives in relation to their solitary overwintering, independent colony foundation stage, and during the colony life-cycle ending in the senescent stage. Here, we report on changes in the ultrastructure and lipid composition of the peripheral fat body of Bombus terrestris queens in relation to seasonal changes in the queens' activity. Six life stages are defined and evaluated in particular: pharate, callow, before and after hibernation, egg-laying, and senescence. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the fat body contained two main cell types-adipocytes and oenocytes. Only adipocytes reveal important changes related to the life phase, and mostly the ration between inclusion and cytoplasm volume varies among particular stages. Both electron microscopy and chemical analyses of lipids highlighted seasonal variability in the quantity of the stored lipids, which peaked prior to hibernation. Triacylglycerols appeared to be the main energy source during hibernation, while the amount of glycogen before and after hibernation remained unchanged. In addition, we observed that the representation of some fatty acids within the triacylglycerols change during the queen's life. Last but not least, we show that fat body cell membranes do not undergo substantial changes concerning phospholipid composition in relation to overwintering. This finding supports the hypothesis that the cold-adaptation strategy of bumblebee queens is more likely to be based on polyol accumulation than on the restructuring of lipid membranes. PMID:26559946

  13. Seasonal Dynamics in the Chemistry and Structure of the Fat Bodies of Bumblebee Queens

    PubMed Central

    Votavová, Alena; Tomčala, Aleš; Kofroňová, Edita; Kudzejová, Michaela; Šobotník, Jan; Jiroš, Pavel; Komzáková, Olga; Valterová, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Insects’ fat bodies are responsible for nutrient storage and for a significant part of intermediary metabolism. Thus, it can be expected that the structure and content of the fat body will adaptively change, if an insect is going through different life stages. Bumblebee queens belong to such insects as they dramatically change their physiology several times over their lives in relation to their solitary overwintering, independent colony foundation stage, and during the colony life-cycle ending in the senescent stage. Here, we report on changes in the ultrastructure and lipid composition of the peripheral fat body of Bombus terrestris queens in relation to seasonal changes in the queens’ activity. Six life stages are defined and evaluated in particular: pharate, callow, before and after hibernation, egg-laying, and senescence. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the fat body contained two main cell types–adipocytes and oenocytes. Only adipocytes reveal important changes related to the life phase, and mostly the ration between inclusion and cytoplasm volume varies among particular stages. Both electron microscopy and chemical analyses of lipids highlighted seasonal variability in the quantity of the stored lipids, which peaked prior to hibernation. Triacylglycerols appeared to be the main energy source during hibernation, while the amount of glycogen before and after hibernation remained unchanged. In addition, we observed that the representation of some fatty acids within the triacylglycerols change during the queen’s life. Last but not least, we show that fat body cell membranes do not undergo substantial changes concerning phospholipid composition in relation to overwintering. This finding supports the hypothesis that the cold-adaptation strategy of bumblebee queens is more likely to be based on polyol accumulation than on the restructuring of lipid membranes. PMID:26559946

  14. Gender Differences in Body Fat Utilization During Weight Gain, Loss, or Maintenance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter outlines the known gender differences in fat gain, loss, and maintenance, and perhaps more importantly, highlights how little is known about the subject. The effects of gender differences on body fat distribution, fat use as an energy source, and exercise-related fat loss are discussed...

  15. Correlation between a liking for fat-rich foods and body fatness in adult Japanese: a gender difference.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, K; Shimai, S; Kikuchi, S; Tanaka, M

    2001-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that Japanese adults who like fat-rich foods have more body fatness and higher serum lipid levels than those who do not. The subjects were 540 male and 492 female workers under 41 years of age. A self-administered questionnaire determined four levels of liking for fat-rich foods. Anthropometric measurements were employed yielding body mass index (BMI), waist to hip circumference ratio (WHR), and skinfold thickness. Anthropometric values were compared among the levels of liking for fat-rich foods using analysis of covariance. For males, a liking for fat-rich foods was associated with BMI, WHR, whole-body skinfold thickness, and abdominal skinfold thickness (p<0.0001). In particular, those who like fat-rich foods "quite a bit" or "very much" showed significantly higher values than those who answered "no" or "a little". Multiple regression analysis showed that a liking for fat-rich foods explains 7-9% of the variation in the anthropometric indices, even when other lifestyles were taken into account. For females, such findings were not evident. There is a gender difference in the association between a liking for fat-rich foods and body fatness. The difference may be due to a female-specific attitude toward high-calorie foods. PMID:11161340

  16. Ramadan Fasting Decreases Body Fat but Not Protein Mass

    PubMed Central

    Fahrial Syam, Ari; Suryani Sobur, Cecep; Abdullah, Murdani; Makmun, Dadang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many studies have shown various results regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on weight and body composition in healthy individuals. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy Indonesian medical staff. Objectives: In this study, we examined the influence of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy medical staff. Patients and Methods: The longitudinal study was performed during and after Ramadan fasting in 2013 (August to October). Fourty-three medical staff members (physicians, nurses and nutritionists) at the Internal Medicine Ward of the Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital were measured to compare their calorie intake, weight, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and body composition, including body fat, protein, minerals and water, on the first and 28th days of Ramadan and also 4-5 weeks after Ramadan fasting. Measurements were obtained for all 43 subjects on the 28th day of Ramadan, but they were obtained for only 25 subjects 4 - 5 weeks after Ramadan. Results: By the 28th day of Ramadan, it was found that the body weight, BMI, body fat, water and mineral measures had decreased significantly (-0.874 ± 0.859 kg, P < 0.001; -0.36 ± 0.371 kg/m2, P < 0.001; -0.484 ± 0.597 kg, P < 0.001; -0.293 ± 0.486 kg, P = 0.001; -0.054 ± 0.059 kg, P < 0.001, respectively). Protein body mass and calorie intake did not significantly change (-0.049 ± 0.170 kg, P = 0.561; 12.94 ± 760.608 Kcal, P = 0.082 respectively). By 4 - 5 weeks after Ramadan, body weight and composition had returned to the same levels as on the first day of Ramadan. Conclusions: Ramadan fasting resulted in weight loss even it was only a temporary effect, as the weight was quickly regained within one month after fasting. The catabolism catabolic state, which is related to protein loss, was not triggered during Ramadan fasting. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of weight loss during Ramadan fasting

  17. Differences in Body Fat of British Children from Various Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Michael J.; Woodfieldand, Lorayne; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the percent body fatness of British secondary school children and examined any variation in fatness according to school year, gender and ethnicity. 782 children aged 11 to 14 participated in the study. Body fatness was assessed using skinfold measures and obesity was classified using child-specific cut-off points. Results from…

  18. Ultrasound as a Tool to Assess Body Fat

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Dale R.

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound has been used effectively to assess body fat for nearly 5 decades, yet this method is not known as well as many other body composition techniques. The purpose of this review is to explain the technical principles of the ultrasound method, explain the procedures for taking a measurement and interpreting the results, evaluate the reliability and validity of this method for measuring subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, highlight the advantages and limitations of ultrasound relative to other body composition methods, consider its utility to clinical populations, and introduce new body composition-specific ultrasound technology. The focus of this review is adipose, although various tissue thicknesses (e.g., muscle and bone) can be measured with ultrasound. Being a portable imaging device that is capable of making fast regional estimates of body composition, ultrasound is an attractive assessment tool in instances when other methods are limited. Furthermore, much of the research suggests that it is reliable, reproducible, and accurate. The biggest limitations appear to be a lack of standardization for the measurement technique and results that are highly dependent on operator proficiency. New ultrasound devices and accompanying software designed specifically for the purpose of body composition assessment might help to minimize these limitations. PMID:24062944

  19. [Measurement of human body fat by means of gravimetry. Application of Archimedes' principle].

    PubMed

    Dettwiler, W; Ribordy, M; Donath, A; Scherrer, J R

    1978-12-01

    The weighing of the human body under water is an application of Archimedes' law. Fat being lighter than water or than the structures of lean body mass, body fat can be measured by determining the specific gravity of the human body; that is, by underwater weighing. Body fat has been determined in an "ideal" sample of 14 men and 23 women, all aged 20 years. Testing against a reference measure of body fat makes it possible to test the validity of some anthropometric measurements and of some indices of obesity. These indices offer no advantages over anthropometric measurements. PMID:715434

  20. Thin or overweight women's fat talk: which is worse for other women's body satisfaction?

    PubMed

    Corning, Alexandra F; Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Pick, Cari M

    2014-01-01

    Fat talk is not merely correlated with, but appears to be one of the causes of body dissatisfaction in other women. Moderators of fat talk's deleterious effects, however, have not yet been identified. This experiment tested whether the body type of the fat-talker affects listeners' body satisfaction. Women viewed photos of either noticeably thin or overweight women making either fat talk or positive body statements. Fat talk by thin and overweight women both had a negative impact on women's body satisfaction, but dissatisfaction was highest after exposure to photos of thin women making fat talk statements. Statistically indistinguishable from this latter effect, however, was the negative effect of thin women making positive body statements. Results are considered within a social comparison framework. Theoretical implications for the thin-ideal and fat talk literatures are presented, as are clinical implications for work with clients. PMID:24320716

  1. Estimation of skeletal muscle mass from body creatine content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    Procedures have been developed for studying the effect of changes in gravitational loading on skeletal muscle mass through measurements of the body creatine content. These procedures were developed for studies of gravitational scale effects in a four-species model, comprising the hamster, rat, guinea pig, and rabbit, which provides a sufficient range of body size for assessment of allometric parameters. Since intracellular muscle creatine concentration varies among species, and with age within a given species, the concentration values for metabolically mature individuals of these four species were established. The creatine content of the carcass, skin, viscera, smooth muscle, and skeletal muscle was determined for each species. In addition, the skeletal muscle mass of the major body components was determined, as well as the total and fat-free masses of the body and carcass, and the percent skeletal muscle in each. It is concluded that these procedures are particularly useful for studying the effect of gravitational loading on the skeletal muscle content of the animal carcass, which is the principal weight-bearing organ of the body.

  2. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out.

  3. Putative regulatory factors associated with intramuscular fat content.

    PubMed

    Cesar, Aline S M; Regitano, Luciana C A; Koltes, James E; Fritz-Waters, Eric R; Lanna, Dante P D; Gasparin, Gustavo; Mourão, Gerson B; Oliveira, Priscila S N; Reecy, James M; Coutinho, Luiz L

    2015-01-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) content is related to insulin resistance, which is an important prediction factor for disorders, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity and type 2 diabetes in human. At the same time, it is an economically important trait, which influences the sensorial and nutritional value of meat. The deposition of IMF is influenced by many factors such as sex, age, nutrition, and genetics. In this study Nellore steers (Bos taurus indicus subspecies) were used to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in IMF content. This was accomplished by identifying differentially expressed genes (DEG), biological pathways and putative regulatory factors. Animals included in this study had extreme genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) for IMF. RNA-seq analysis, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and co-expression network methods, such as partial correlation coefficient with information theory (PCIT), regulatory impact factor (RIF) and phenotypic impact factor (PIF) were utilized to better understand intramuscular adipogenesis. A total of 16,101 genes were analyzed in both groups (high (H) and low (L) GEBV) and 77 DEG (FDR 10%) were identified between the two groups. Pathway Studio software identified 13 significantly over-represented pathways, functional classes and small molecule signaling pathways within the DEG list. PCIT analyses identified genes with a difference in the number of gene-gene correlations between H and L group and detected putative regulatory factors involved in IMF content. Candidate genes identified by PCIT include: ANKRD26, HOXC5 and PPAPDC2. RIF and PIF analyses identified several candidate genes: GLI2 and IGF2 (RIF1), MPC1 and UBL5 (RIF2) and a host of small RNAs, including miR-1281 (PIF). These findings contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie fat content and energy balance in muscle and provide important information for the production of healthier beef for human consumption. PMID:26042666

  4. Putative Regulatory Factors Associated with Intramuscular Fat Content

    PubMed Central

    Cesar, Aline S. M.; Regitano, Luciana C. A.; Koltes, James E.; Fritz-Waters, Eric R.; Lanna, Dante P. D.; Gasparin, Gustavo; Mourão, Gerson B.; Oliveira, Priscila S. N.; Reecy, James M.; Coutinho, Luiz L.

    2015-01-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) content is related to insulin resistance, which is an important prediction factor for disorders, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity and type 2 diabetes in human. At the same time, it is an economically important trait, which influences the sensorial and nutritional value of meat. The deposition of IMF is influenced by many factors such as sex, age, nutrition, and genetics. In this study Nellore steers (Bos taurus indicus subspecies) were used to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in IMF content. This was accomplished by identifying differentially expressed genes (DEG), biological pathways and putative regulatory factors. Animals included in this study had extreme genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) for IMF. RNA-seq analysis, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and co-expression network methods, such as partial correlation coefficient with information theory (PCIT), regulatory impact factor (RIF) and phenotypic impact factor (PIF) were utilized to better understand intramuscular adipogenesis. A total of 16,101 genes were analyzed in both groups (high (H) and low (L) GEBV) and 77 DEG (FDR 10%) were identified between the two groups. Pathway Studio software identified 13 significantly over-represented pathways, functional classes and small molecule signaling pathways within the DEG list. PCIT analyses identified genes with a difference in the number of gene-gene correlations between H and L group and detected putative regulatory factors involved in IMF content. Candidate genes identified by PCIT include: ANKRD26, HOXC5 and PPAPDC2. RIF and PIF analyses identified several candidate genes: GLI2 and IGF2 (RIF1), MPC1 and UBL5 (RIF2) and a host of small RNAs, including miR-1281 (PIF). These findings contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie fat content and energy balance in muscle and provide important information for the production of healthier beef for human consumption. PMID:26042666

  5. The right weight: body fat, menarche and ovulation.

    PubMed

    Frisch, R E

    1990-09-01

    Women with moderate weight loss (10-15% of ideal weight), as well as women with the severe weight loss of anorexia nervosa (30% of ideal weight), have secondary or primary amenorrhoea. A high proportion of well-trained dancers and athletes also have amenorrhoea, though weight may be in the normal range, since muscles are heavy (80% water, compared to 5-10% water in adipose tissue). The amenorrhoea is usually reversible with weight gain, decreased exercise or both. The amenorrhoea is due to hypothalamic dysfunction; the pituitary-ovary axis is intact, suggesting that this type of amenorrhoea is adaptive, preventing an unsuccessful pregnancy outcome. Evidence is presented that the high percentage of body fat (26-28%) in mature women is necessary for regular ovulatory cycles. Target weights for height are given for the evaluation and treatment of primary and secondary amenorrhoea due to weight loss. The high percentage of body fat in women may influence reproductive ability directly: (1) as an extragonadal source of oestrogen by aromatization of androgen to oestrogen; (2) by influencing the direction of oestrogen metabolism to more potent or less potent forms; or (3) by changes in the binding properties of sex-hormone-binding globulin. Indirect signals may be of abnormal control of temperature and changes in energy metabolism, which accompany excessive leanness. PMID:2282736

  6. Body fat, fat distribution, and psychosocial factors among patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bell, R A; Summerson, J H; Spangler, J G; Konen, J C

    1998-01-01

    Diabetes, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, requires lifestyle modifications (diet, exercise, weight loss). The relations between body mass index, waist-hip ratio (WHR), and psychosocial indicators, such as affect and stress, among 302 diabetic patients from a clinic and a neighborhood health center were analyzed. Data included stress and mood scale responses, body size (height, weight, and WHR) and potential confounders (physical activity, energy intake, and diabetes duration). In univariate analyses, body mass index was positively associated with stress and inversely associated with positive affect only in women. Multiple regression analyses indicated that stress was associated with body mass index and negative mood was associated with the WHR. The findings suggested that stress and affect may be important correlates of body fat among women with Type 2 diabetes, leading to more complications. Healthcare providers can help women with Type 2 diabetes lose weight and lower the risk of cardiovascular disease by recognizing and helping them deal with these psychosocial issues. PMID:9850808

  7. Percentage body fat in children and adolescents: Does DXA agree with a four-compartment (4-C) reference model?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Overweight and obese children and adolescents often become obese adults. Hence, intervention strategies are being focused at reducing excess fat gain during childhood. Body fatness, defined at the ratio of body fat to body weight, expressed as a percentage (%Fat), is considered the best body compo...

  8. Inhibitory effect of green coffee bean extract on fat accumulation and body weight gain in mice

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Hiroshi; Seki, Emi; Aitani, Michio

    2006-01-01

    Background An epidemiological study conducted in Italy indicated that coffee has the greatest antioxidant capacity among the commonly consumed beverages. Green coffee bean is rich in chlorogenic acid and its related compounds. The effect of green coffee bean extract (GCBE) on fat accumulation and body weight in mice was assessed with the objective of investigating the effect of GCBE on mild obesity. Methods Male ddy mice were fed a standard diet containing GCBE and its principal constituents, namely, caffeine and chlorogenic acid, for 14 days. Further, hepatic triglyceride (TG) level was also investigated after consecutive administration (13 days) of GCBE and its constituents. To examine the effect of GCBE and its constituents on fat absorption, serum TG changes were evaluated in olive oil-loaded mice. In addition, to investigate the effect on hepatic TG metabolism, carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) activity in mice was evaluated after consecutive ingestion (6 days) of GCBE and its constituents (caffeine, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and feruloylquinic acid mixture). Results It was found that 0.5% and 1% GCBE reduced visceral fat content and body weight. Caffeine and chlorogenic acid showed a tendency to reduce visceral fat and body weight. Oral administration of GCBE (100 and 200 mg/kg· day) for 13 days showed a tendency to reduce hepatic TG in mice. In the same model, chlorogenic acid (60 mg/kg· day) reduced hepatic TG level. In mice loaded with olive oil (5 mL/kg), GCBE (200 and 400 mg/kg) and caffeine (20 and 40 mg/kg) reduced serum TG level. GCBE (1%), neochlorogenic acid (0.028% and 0.055%) and feruloylquinic acid mixture (0.081%) significantly enhanced hepatic CPT activity in mice. However, neither caffeine nor chlorogenic acid alone was found to enhance CPT activity. Conclusion These results suggest that GCBE is possibly effective against weight gain and fat accumulation by inhibition of fat absorption and activation of fat metabolism in the

  9. Estimation of percentage body fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry: evaluation by in vivo human elemental composition.

    PubMed

    Wang, ZiMian; Heymsfield, Steven B; Chen, Zhao; Zhu, Shankuan; Pierson, Richard N

    2010-05-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely applied for estimating body fat. The percentage of body mass as fat (%fat) is predicted from a DXA-estimated R(ST) value defined as the ratio of soft tissue attenuation at two photon energies (e.g., 40 keV and 70 keV). Theoretically, the R(ST) concept depends on the mass of each major element in the human body. The DXA R(ST) values, however, have never been fully evaluated by measured human elemental composition. The present investigation evaluated the DXA R(ST) value by the total body mass of 11 major elements and the DXA %fat by the five-component (5C) model, respectively. Six elements (i.e. C, N, Na, P, Cl and Ca) were measured by in vivo neutron activation analysis, and potassium (i.e. K) by whole-body (40)K counting in 27 healthy adults. Models were developed for predicting the total body mass of four additional elements (i.e. H, O, Mg and S). The elemental content of soft tissue, after correction for bone mineral elements, was used to predict the R(ST) values. The DXA R(ST) values were strongly associated with the R(ST) values predicted from elemental content (r = 0.976, P < 0.001), although there was a tendency for the elemental-predicted R(ST) to systematically exceed the DXA-measured R(ST) (mean +/- SD, 1.389 +/- 0.024 versus 1.341 +/- 0.024). DXA-estimated %fat was strongly associated with 5C %fat (24.4 +/- 12.0% versus 24.9 +/- 11.1%, r = 0.983, P < 0.001). DXA R(ST) is evaluated by in vivo elemental composition, and the present study supports the underlying physical concept and accuracy of the DXA method for estimating %fat. PMID:20393230

  10. Estimation of percentage body fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry: evaluation by in vivo human elemental composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, ZiMian; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Chen, Zhao; Zhu, Shankuan; Pierson, Richard N.

    2010-05-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely applied for estimating body fat. The percentage of body mass as fat (%fat) is predicted from a DXA-estimated RST value defined as the ratio of soft tissue attenuation at two photon energies (e.g., 40 keV and 70 keV). Theoretically, the RST concept depends on the mass of each major element in the human body. The DXA RST values, however, have never been fully evaluated by measured human elemental composition. The present investigation evaluated the DXA RST value by the total body mass of 11 major elements and the DXA %fat by the five-component (5C) model, respectively. Six elements (i.e. C, N, Na, P, Cl and Ca) were measured by in vivo neutron activation analysis, and potassium (i.e. K) by whole-body 40K counting in 27 healthy adults. Models were developed for predicting the total body mass of four additional elements (i.e. H, O, Mg and S). The elemental content of soft tissue, after correction for bone mineral elements, was used to predict the RST values. The DXA RST values were strongly associated with the RST values predicted from elemental content (r = 0.976, P < 0.001), although there was a tendency for the elemental-predicted RST to systematically exceed the DXA-measured RST (mean ± SD, 1.389 ± 0.024 versus 1.341 ± 0.024). DXA-estimated %fat was strongly associated with 5C %fat (24.4 ± 12.0% versus 24.9 ± 11.1%, r = 0.983, P < 0.001). DXA RST is evaluated by in vivo elemental composition, and the present study supports the underlying physical concept and accuracy of the DXA method for estimating %fat.

  11. Estimation of percentage body fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry: evaluation by in vivo human elemental composition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, ZiMian; Heymsfield, Steven B; Chen, Zhao; Zhu, Shankuan; Pierson, Richard N

    2010-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely applied for estimating body fat. The percentage of body mass as fat (%fat) is predicted from a DXA-estimated RST value defined as the ratio of soft tissue attenuation at two photon energies (e.g., 40 keV and 70 keV). Theoretically, the RST concept depends on the mass of each major element in the human body. The DXA RST values, however, have never been fully evaluated by measured human elemental composition. The present investigation evaluated the DXA RST value by the total body mass of 11 major elements and the DXA %fat by the five-component (5C) model, respectively. Six elements (i.e. C, N, Na, P, Cl and Ca) were measured by in vivo neutron activation analysis, and potassium (i.e. K) by whole-body 40K counting in 27 healthy adults. Models were developed for predicting the total body mass of four additional elements (i.e. H, O, Mg and S). The elemental content of soft tissue, after correction for bone mineral elements, was used to predict the RST values. The DXA RST values were strongly associated with the RST values predicted from elemental content (r = 0.976, P < 0.001), although there was a tendency for the elemental-predicted RST to systematically exceed the DXA-measured RST (mean ± SD, 1.389 ± 0.024 versus 1.341 ± 0.024). DXA-estimated %fat was strongly associated with 5C %fat (24.4 ± 12.0% versus 24.9 ± 11.1%, r = 0.983, P < 0.001). DXA RST evaluated by in vivo elemental composition, and the present study supports the underlying physical concept and accuracy of the DXA method for estimating %fat. PMID:20393230

  12. Dietary fat content and fiber type modulate hind gut microbial community and metabolic markers in the pig.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hui; Potu, Ramesh; Lu, Hang; Vezzoni de Almeida, Vivian; Stewart, Terry; Ragland, Darryl; Armstrong, Arthur; Adeola, Olayiwola; Nakatsu, Cindy H; Ajuwon, Kolapo M

    2013-01-01

    Obesity leads to changes in the gut microbial community which contribute to the metabolic dysregulation in obesity. Dietary fat and fiber affect the caloric density of foods. The impact of dietary fat content and fiber type on the microbial community in the hind gut is unknown. Effect of dietary fat level and fiber type on hindgut microbiota and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles was investigated. Expression of metabolic marker genes in the gut, adipose tissue and liver was determined. A 2 × 2 experiment was conducted in pigs fed at two dietary fat levels (5% or 17.5% swine grease) and two fiber types (4% inulin, fermentable fructo-oligosaccharide or 4% solka floc, non-fermentable cellulose). High fat diets (HFD) resulted in a higher (P<0.05) total body weight gain, feed efficiency and back fat accumulation than the low fat diet. Feeding of inulin, but not solka floc, attenuated (P<0.05) the HFD-induced higher body weight gain and fat mass accumulation. Inulin feeding tended to lead to higher total VFA production in the cecum and resulted in a higher (P<0.05) expression of acyl coA oxidase (ACO), a marker of peroxisomal β-oxidation. Inulin feeding also resulted in lower expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), a marker of lipid anabolism. Bacteria community structure characterized by DGGE analysis of PCR amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments showed that inulin feeding resulted in greater bacterial population richness than solka floc feeding. Cluster analysis of pairwise Dice similarity comparisons of the DGGE profiles showed grouping by fiber type but not the level of dietary fat. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of PCR- DGGE profiles showed that inulin feeding negatively correlated with back fat thickness. This study suggests a strong interplay between dietary fat level and fiber type in determining susceptibility to obesity. PMID:23573202

  13. The properties of monoclonal antibody against sepiapterin reductase from fat body of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Iino, T; Sawada, H; Gyure, W L; Tsusué, M

    1992-12-01

    A specific monoclonal antibody prepared for the 29-kDa a subunit of silkworm fat body sepiapterin reductase (SPR) was able to recognize the subunit in crude extract of fat body after SDS treatment. Although SPR from the silkworm fat body has biochemical properties similar to those reported for SPR from mammalian sources, especially rat erythrocytes, the antibody failed to recognize the 28-kDa subunit of rat erythrocyte SPR. This result indicates that SPR from silkworm fat body has a different amino-acid sequence from that of the rat erythrocyte enzyme. Sepiapterin reductase activity has not been found in crude extract of fat body from the silkworm mutant lemon. Although the antibody recognized only 29-kDa protein in the crude extract of silkworm fat body from normal strain after SDS-treatment, the antibody recognized only an approximately 80-kDa protein in the crude extract of the lemon mutant after SDS-treatment. PMID:1292509

  14. Comparison of methods of estimating body fat in normal subjects and cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Sawitsky, A.; Gartenhaus, W.; Yasumura, S.; Vaswani, A.N.

    1981-12-01

    Total body fat can be indirectly estimated by the following noninvasive techniques: determination of lean body mass by measurement of body potassium or body water, and determination of density by underwater weighing or by skinfold measurements. The measurement of total body nitrogen by neutron activation provides another technique for estimating lean body mass and hence body fat. The nitrogen measurement can also be combined with the measurement of total body potassium in a two compartment model of the lean body mass from which another estimate of body fat can be derived. All of the above techniques are subject to various errors and are based on a number of assumptions, some of which are incompletely validated. These techniques were applied to a population of normal subjects and to a group of cancer patients. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed in terms of their ability to estimate total body fat.

  15. Effect of Physical Activity on BMI and Percent Body Fat of Chinese Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Frank H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of regular physical activity on body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat of Chinese girls grouped by age and physical activity patterns. Measurements of skinfold, height, and weight, and BMI calculations, found differences in BMI and percent body fat between active and inactive girls. (SM)

  16. Effect of fat content on sensory characteristics of marbled beef from Japanese Black steers.

    PubMed

    Iida, Fumiko; Saitou, Kaoru; Kawamura, Tadashi; Yamaguchi, Shizuko; Nishimura, Toshihide

    2015-07-01

    To analyze the sensory characteristics of meat samples with a crude fat content between 23.8% and 48.6% taken from 34 Japanese Black steers, we grilled the meat and subjected it to analytical sensory evaluation. We also measured the amounts of moisture, protein, nucleic acid and glutamic acid. An increase in crude fat content increased the tenderness, juiciness, and fattiness in the meat quality evaluation. An increase in crude fat content reduced the crude protein and moisture contents; it also slightly reduced the nucleic acid and glutamic acid contents, although when the reductions in these umami components were assessed relative to the moisture content they changed little. Increasing the fat content up to a certain point greatly enhanced the umami intensity and beef flavor intensity in the meat quality evaluation and raised the overall evaluation score; the peak of the appropriate crude fat content for these purposes was about 36%. PMID:25492124

  17. Gains in Body Fat and Vasomotor Symptom Reporting Over the Menopausal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Sowers, MaryFran R.; Sternfeld, Barbara; Gold, Ellen B.; Bromberger, Joyce; Chang, Yuefang; Joffe, Hadine; Crandall, Carolyn J.; Waetjen, L. Elaine; Matthews, Karen A.

    2009-01-01

    Although most women report vasomotor symptoms (hot flashes, night sweats) during midlife, their etiology and risk factors are incompletely understood. Body fat is positively associated with vasomotor symptoms cross-sectionally, but the longitudinal relation between changes in body fat and vasomotor symptoms is uncharacterized. The study aim was to examine whether gains in body fat were related to vasomotor symptom reporting over time. Measures of bioelectrical impedance for body fat, reproductive hormones, and reported vasomotor symptoms were assessed annually over 4 years from 2002 to 2006 among 1,659 women aged 47–59 years participating in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Body fat change was examined in relation to vasomotor symptoms by using generalized estimating equations. Body fat gains were associated with greater odds of reporting hot flashes in models adjusted for age, site, race/ethnicity, education, smoking, parity, anxiety, and menopausal status (relative to stable body fat, gain: odds ratio = 1.23, 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 1.48; P = 0.03; loss: odds ratio = 1.07, 95% confidence interval: 0.89, 1.29; P = 0.45). Findings persisted controlling for estradiol, the free estradiol index, or follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations. The relations between body fat changes and night sweats were not statistically significant. Body fat gains are associated with greater hot flash reporting during the menopausal transition. PMID:19675142

  18. A middle-aged man with increasing body fat.

    PubMed

    Lam, J K Y; Lam, K S L; Chow, W S; Tan, K C B

    2014-08-01

    A 51-year-old man was referred for evaluation of gradual increase in body fat over bilateral arms, chest and abdomen for 6 months. He was a non-smoker and he drank at least four bottles of beer daily since the age of 18. There was no significant past medical history or any family history of obesity or endocrine diseases. Physical examination showed localized large bulk of fat over the neck, both arms and mammary regions, abdomen, and back (Figs  and ). The lower limbs and buttock were relatively spared. There was telangiectasia over the face and chest wall, but no palmar erythema nor finger clubbing. The liver span was normal, and the spleen tip was palpated 2 cm below the costal margin. Examination of the cardiovascular, respiratory and neurological system was normal. [Figure: see text] [Figure: see text] Blood tests showed thrombocytopenia (platelet 140 × 10(9)  L(-1) [normal: 170-380 × 10(9)  L(-1) ]) and liver function derangement (bilirubin 27 μmol L(-1) , ALP 298 U L(-1) , ALT 127 U L(-1) , AST 165 U L(-1) , GGT 1353 U L(-1) , albumin 33 g L(-1) and globulin 42 g L(-1) ). His clotting profile and renal functions were normal. His hepatitis B surface antigen was positive, but his HBV DNA was <60 copies per mL. Fasting glucose was 5.0 mmol L(-1) . HbA1c was 5.6%. His lipid profile was satisfactory with total cholesterol of 2.9 mmol L(-1) , triglycerides 1.0 mmol L(-1) , HDL-C 1.37 mmol L(-1) and LDL-C 1.1 mmol L(-1) . Ultrasound of the abdomen showed normal-sized liver with coarsened liver parenchymal echogenicity. The spleen was enlarged to 14 cm. This middle-aged man suffered from multiple symmetric lipomatosis and alcoholic liver disease. Dual-energy X-ray showed 1746 gm (40.1%), 1498 gm (32.8%) and 8322 gm (26.8%) fat over the left arm, right arm and trunk, respectively. The legs were unaffected with 1703 gm (19.4%) and 1627 gm (17.7%) fat over the left and right sides

  19. Liver Fat Content in Type 2 Diabetes: Relationship With Hepatic Perfusion and Substrate Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Rijzewijk, Luuk J.; van der Meer, Rutger W.; Lubberink, Mark; Lamb, Hildo J.; Romijn, Johannes A.; de Roos, Albert; Twisk, Jos W.; Heine, Robert J.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Smit, Johannes W.A.; Diamant, Michaela

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Hepatic steatosis is common in type 2 diabetes. It is causally linked to the features of the metabolic syndrome, liver cirrhosis, and cardiovascular disease. Experimental data have indicated that increased liver fat may impair hepatic perfusion and metabolism. The aim of the current study was to assess hepatic parenchymal perfusion, together with glucose and fatty acid metabolism, in relation to hepatic triglyceride content. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Fifty-nine men with well controlled type 2 diabetes and 18 age-matched healthy normoglycemic men were studied using positron emission tomography to assess hepatic tissue perfusion, insulin-stimulated glucose, and fasting fatty acid metabolism, respectively, in relation to hepatic triglyceride content, quantified by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Patients were divided into two groups with hepatic triglyceride content below (type 2 diabetes-low) or above (type 2 diabetes-high) the median of 8.6%. RESULTS Type 2 diabetes-high patients had the highest BMI and A1C and lowest whole-body insulin sensitivity (ANOVA, all P < 0.001). Compared with control subjects and type 2 diabetes-low patients, type 2 diabetes-high patients had the lowest hepatic parenchymal perfusion (P = 0.004) and insulin-stimulated hepatic glucose uptake (P = 0.013). The observed decrease in hepatic fatty acid influx rate constant, however, only reached borderline significance (P = 0.088). In type 2 diabetic patients, hepatic parenchymal perfusion (r = −0.360, P = 0.007) and hepatic fatty acid influx rate constant (r = −0.407, P = 0.007) correlated inversely with hepatic triglyceride content. In a pooled analysis, hepatic fat correlated with hepatic glucose uptake (r = −0.329, P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, type 2 diabetic patients with increased hepatic triglyceride content showed decreased hepatic parenchymal perfusion and hepatic insulin mediated glucose uptake, suggesting a potential modulating effect of hepatic fat

  20. Alternate-Day High-Fat Diet Induces an Increase in Mitochondrial Enzyme Activities and Protein Content in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xi; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Kawamura, Takuji; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Long-term high-fat diet increases muscle mitochondrial enzyme activity and endurance performance. However, excessive calorie intake causes intra-abdominal fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an alternating day high-fat diet on muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities, protein content, and intra-abdominal fat mass in rats. Male Wistar rats were given a standard chow diet (CON), high-fat diet (HFD), or alternate-day high-fat diet (ALT) for 4 weeks. Rats in the ALT group were fed a high-fat diet and standard chow every other day for 4 weeks. After the dietary intervention, mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in skeletal muscle were measured. Although body weight did not differ among groups, the epididymal fat mass in the HFD group was higher than those of the CON and ALT groups. Citrate synthase and beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activities in the plantaris muscle of rats in HFD and ALT were significantly higher than that in CON rats, whereas there was no difference between HFD and ALT groups. No significant difference was observed in muscle glycogen concentration or glucose transporter-4 protein content among the three groups. These results suggest that an alternate-day high-fat diet induces increases in mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in rat skeletal muscle without intra-abdominal fat accumulation. PMID:27058555

  1. Alternate-Day High-Fat Diet Induces an Increase in Mitochondrial Enzyme Activities and Protein Content in Rat Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Kawamura, Takuji; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Long-term high-fat diet increases muscle mitochondrial enzyme activity and endurance performance. However, excessive calorie intake causes intra-abdominal fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an alternating day high-fat diet on muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities, protein content, and intra-abdominal fat mass in rats. Male Wistar rats were given a standard chow diet (CON), high-fat diet (HFD), or alternate-day high-fat diet (ALT) for 4 weeks. Rats in the ALT group were fed a high-fat diet and standard chow every other day for 4 weeks. After the dietary intervention, mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in skeletal muscle were measured. Although body weight did not differ among groups, the epididymal fat mass in the HFD group was higher than those of the CON and ALT groups. Citrate synthase and beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activities in the plantaris muscle of rats in HFD and ALT were significantly higher than that in CON rats, whereas there was no difference between HFD and ALT groups. No significant difference was observed in muscle glycogen concentration or glucose transporter-4 protein content among the three groups. These results suggest that an alternate-day high-fat diet induces increases in mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in rat skeletal muscle without intra-abdominal fat accumulation. PMID:27058555

  2. Relationship Between Body Fat and Physical Fitness in Army ROTC Cadets.

    PubMed

    Steed, Carly L; Krull, Benjamin R; Morgan, Amy L; Tucker, Robin M; Ludy, Mary-Jon

    2016-09-01

    The Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT), including timed push-ups, sit-ups, and run, assesses physical performance for the Army. Percent body fat is estimated using height and circumference measurements. The objectives of the study were to (a) compare the accuracy of height and circumference measurements to other, more accepted, body fat assessment methods and (b) determine the relationships between body composition and APFT results. Participants included Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) cadets (n = 11 males, 2 females, 21.6 ± 3.5 years) from a midwestern university). At one visit, percent body fat was assessed using height and circumference measurements, air-displacement plethysmography, and bioelectrical impedance analysis. APFT results were provided by the ROTC director. All assessment methods for percent body fat were strongly associated (r ≥ 0.7, p < 0.01), implying that height and circumference measurement is a practical tool to estimate percent body fat of ROTC cadets. Total APFT score was not associated with any body fat assessment method. Push-up number was negatively associated with percent body fat by all assessment methods (r ≥ -0.8, p = 0.001), although run time was positively associated (r ≥ 0.6, p < 0.05). This suggests that percent body fat may be an important variable in determining or improving cardiovascular and muscular endurance, but not APFT performance. PMID:27612345

  3. Effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on nutrition metabolism in silkworm fat body.

    PubMed

    Tian, J H; Hu, J S; Li, F C; Ni, M; Li, Y Y; Wang, B B; Xu, K Z; Shen, W D; Li, B

    2016-01-01

    Silkworm (Bombyx mori) is an important economic insect with a fat body that plays a crucial role in the storage and transfer of nutrients. It is also known that TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) can improve feed efficiency and promote silk protein synthesis in the silkworm. In this study, we profiled gene expression in the silkworm fat body after TiO2 NP treatment, validated the major RNA-seq findings, and determined the contents of trehalose and triglyceride, the activity of lipase, and the amount of total proteins. RNA-seq analysis revealed that TiO2 NP treatment caused significant expression changes in 341 genes (P≤0.01), 138 of which were upregulated while the other 203 were downregulated. The expression levels of two target genes in the insulin signaling pathway and two protein metabolism-related target genes, three lipid metabolism-associated target genes, two carbohydrate metabolism related target genes and expression levels of seven heat shock protein genes were increased, and that of threonine dehydratase gene and fatty acid transport protein gene were decreased. The RNA-seq results of 16 genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. The lipase activity, content of trehalose, and amount of total proteins were elevated by 3.86-fold, 1.34-fold, and 1.21-fold, respectively, and the content of triglyceride was decreased by 0.94-fold after TiO2 NP treatment. These results indicated that TiO2 NPs activated the insulin signaling pathway, promoted the metabolism of protein, fat, and carbohydrate, and improved nutrition metabolism. Our study provides new support for the understanding of the beneficial effect of TiO2 NPs on silkworm nutrient metabolism. PMID:27185267

  4. Effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on nutrition metabolism in silkworm fat body

    PubMed Central

    Tian, J. H.; Hu, J. S.; Li, F. C.; Ni, M.; Li, Y. Y.; Wang, B. B.; Xu, K. Z.; Shen, W. D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Silkworm (Bombyx mori) is an important economic insect with a fat body that plays a crucial role in the storage and transfer of nutrients. It is also known that TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) can improve feed efficiency and promote silk protein synthesis in the silkworm. In this study, we profiled gene expression in the silkworm fat body after TiO2 NP treatment, validated the major RNA-seq findings, and determined the contents of trehalose and triglyceride, the activity of lipase, and the amount of total proteins. RNA-seq analysis revealed that TiO2 NP treatment caused significant expression changes in 341 genes (P≤0.01), 138 of which were upregulated while the other 203 were downregulated. The expression levels of two target genes in the insulin signaling pathway and two protein metabolism-related target genes, three lipid metabolism-associated target genes, two carbohydrate metabolism related target genes and expression levels of seven heat shock protein genes were increased, and that of threonine dehydratase gene and fatty acid transport protein gene were decreased. The RNA-seq results of 16 genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. The lipase activity, content of trehalose, and amount of total proteins were elevated by 3.86-fold, 1.34-fold, and 1.21-fold, respectively, and the content of triglyceride was decreased by 0.94-fold after TiO2 NP treatment. These results indicated that TiO2 NPs activated the insulin signaling pathway, promoted the metabolism of protein, fat, and carbohydrate, and improved nutrition metabolism. Our study provides new support for the understanding of the beneficial effect of TiO2 NPs on silkworm nutrient metabolism. PMID:27185267

  5. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  6. A Comparison of Three Methods to Measure Percent Body Fat on Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkett, Lee N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports a study that compared three measures for determining percent body fat in mentally retarded adults (multiple skinfolds and circumference measurements, Infrared Interactance, and Bioelectrical Impedance). Results indicated the Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer and Infrared Interactance Analyzer produced values for percent body fat that were…

  7. EFFECT OF A FAT BODY EXTRACT ON LARVAL MIDGUT CELLS AND GROWTH OF LEPIDOPTERA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An extract of fat body (FBX) prepared from green fat body tissue from newly ecdysed pupae of Manduca sexta must be added to cultures with a very low (1 pg/ l) titer of insect molting hormone (20-hydroxyecdysone, 20E) in order to induce midgut stem cells to multiply in vitro. However, FBX fed or...

  8. Field method to measure changes in percent body fat of young women: The TIGER Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Body mass index (BMI), waist (W) and hip (H) circumference (C) are commonly used to assess changes in body composition for field research. We developed a model to estimate changes in dual energy X-ray absorption (DXA) percent fat (% fat) from these variables with a diverse sample of young women fro...

  9. Improved visualization of fat body conditions and abundance in the southern green stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fat bodies are a crucial source of energy for insect survival and reproduction. Differing types of fat body cells and amounts have been previously reported for southern green stink bug but clear supporting images are lacking. Further, in ongoing studies elucidating the ecology of southern green st...

  10. Relationships between body roundness with body fat and visceral adipose tissue emerging from a new geometrical model

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Diana M.; Bredlau, Carl; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Mueller, Manfred; Shen, Wei; Gallagher, Dympna; Maeda, Yuna; McDougall, Andrew; Peterson, Courtney M.; Ravussin, Eric; Heymsfield, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop a new geometrical index that combines height, waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference (HC) and relate this index to total and visceral body fat. Design and Methods Subject data were pooled from three databases that contained demographic, anthropometric, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measured fat mass, and magnetic resonance imaging measured visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume. Two elliptical models of the human body were developed. Body roundness was calculated from the model using a well-established constant arising from the theory. Regression models based on eccentricity and other variables were used to predict % body fat and % VAT. Results A body roundness index (BRI) was derived to quantify the individual body shape in a height-independent manner. Body roundness slightly improved predictions of % body fat and % VAT compared to the traditional metrics of body mass index (BMI), WC, or HC. On this basis, healthy body roundness ranges were established. An automated graphical program simulating study results was placed at http://www.pbrc.edu/bodyroundness. Conclusions Body roundness index, a new shape measure, is a predictor of % body fat and % VAT and can be applied as a visual tool for health status evaluations. PMID:23519954

  11. Body Adiposity Index: Its Relevance and Validity in Assessing Body Fatness of Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shilpi; Kapoor, Satwanti

    2014-01-01

    Background. One of the limitations of body mass index is its accuracy to assess body fatness. To address this limitation, a new index, body adiposity index, has been developed. However its validity needs to ascertained. Objective. Our aim was to investigate sex-specific relationship between BAI, BMI, and percent body fat in an endogamous population of Delhi, India. Method. Data was collected from 578 adults on bodyweight, height, skinfold thicknesses, hip circumference, waist circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Pearson's correlations were calculated for BAI and BMI with PBF. Differences in the correlation coefficients were examined using Fisher's z tests. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to compare the predictive validity and to determine optimal cut-off values. Odds ratios were calculated to assess the risk of having hypertension using the proposed cut-off points. Results. The correlations of PBF with BMI (men: r = 0.83; women: r = 0.71) were stronger than those with BAI (men: r = 0.66; women: r = 0.58). In men, the sensitivity and specificity of BAI to predict hypertension were higher than other anthropometric markers but lower than BMI. In women, the sensitivity of BAI was higher than BMI and WC. Conclusions. BAI can be used as an additional marker for screening population; however its validity needs to be demonstrated on other populations too. PMID:24587942

  12. Central Body Fat Distribution Associates with Unfavorable Renal Hemodynamics Independent of Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Zelle, Dorien M.; Bakker, Stephan J.L.; Navis, Gerjan

    2013-01-01

    Central distribution of body fat is associated with a higher risk of renal disease, but whether it is the distribution pattern or the overall excess weight that underlies this association is not well understood. Here, we studied the association between waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), which reflects central adiposity, and renal hemodynamics in 315 healthy persons with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 24.9 kg/m2 and a mean 125I-iothalamate GFR of 109 ml/min per 1.73 m2. In multivariate analyses, WHR was associated with lower GFR, lower effective renal plasma flow, and higher filtration fraction, even after adjustment for sex, age, mean arterial pressure, and BMI. Multivariate models produced similar results regardless of whether the hemodynamic measures were indexed to body surface area. Thus, these results suggest that central body fat distribution, independent of BMI, is associated with an unfavorable pattern of renal hemodynamic measures that could underlie the increased renal risk reported in observational studies. PMID:23578944

  13. Hypothalamic Npy mRNA is correlated with increased wheel running and decreased body fat in calorie-restricted rats.

    PubMed

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Speichinger, Katherine R; Manier, Jacob B; Younger, Kyle M; Childs, Thomas E; Booth, Frank W

    2016-04-01

    The neuro-molecular mechanisms that regulate the relationship between physical activity level, energy homeostasis regulation, and body fat are unclear. Thus, we aimed to investigate the relationship between mRNAs in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) related to energy homeostasis, wheel running distance, and body fat in ad lib (AL) and calorie-restricted (CR) growing rats. We hypothesized that changes in select mRNAs (Pomc, Cart, Agrp, Npy, Lepr, Insr, Mc4r, Ampk, Sirt1, Sirt3) in CR would be associated with decreases in body fat percentage and increased wheel running behavior. Male Wistar rats were given access to voluntary running wheels at 4 weeks of age and randomized into AL (n=8) and CR (70% of AL; n=7) groups at 5 weeks of age until study termination at 12 weeks of age. Body composition, serum leptin, insulin, and adiponectin, and ARC mRNA expression in AL and CR rats were assessed and correlated with week-12 running distance to examine potential relationships that may exist. By 12 weeks of age, wheel running was increased ∼3.3-fold (p=0.03) while body fat percentage was ∼2-fold lower in CR compared to AL (p=0.001). Compared to AL, ARC Npy mRNA expression was ∼2-fold greater in CR (p=0.02), while Lepr, Insr, Ampk, and Sirt1 mRNA were additionally increased in CR (p<0.05). Significant correlations existed between ARC Npy mRNA levels versus week-12 wheel running distance (r=0.81, p=0.03), body fat (r=-0.93, p<0.01), and between body fat and wheel running (r=-0.83, p=0.02) in CR, but not in AL. These results reveal possible mechanisms by which fat-brain crosstalk may influence physical activity during energy deficit. These data suggest that below a 'threshold' fat content, body fat may drive activity levels, potentially through hypothalamic Npy action. PMID:26921453

  14. Body fat and condition in sperm whales, Physeter macrocephalus, from southern Australian waters.

    PubMed

    Evans, Karen; Hindell, Mark A; Thiele, Deborah

    2003-04-01

    Blubber thickness (n=102) and lipid content (n=37) were measured in sperm whales from three mass stranding events on the west and north-west coasts of Tasmania, Australia in February 1998. Blubber thickness was highly variable, ranging from 43.0 to 168.0 mm (mean 98.4+/-18.4 mm) while lipid fat content, also highly variable, ranged from 16.19 to 89.34% (mean 49.2+/-17.9%). Blubber thickness was significantly and positively related to total length, but a blubber thickness index based on the residuals of this relationship was not related to age, sex or reproductive condition. No relationship was found between blubber thickness index and blubber lipid content, indicating that blubber thickness may not provide a comprehensive indication of body fat condition in sperm whales when only measured at a single site. Blubber lipid content was not related to total length, age or sex. Blubber lipid content was stratified vertically throughout the blubber layer, suggesting that the inner blubber layer may be a more active site for lipid deposition and mobilisation, while the outer blubber layer may serve in a structural or thermoregulatory role. The social structure and foraging ecology of this species may serve to minimise the need to rely on stored energy reserves to meet reproductive energy requirements. In addition, the broader role of blubber for structural, buoyancy and insulative functions coupled with high individual variability may cause a lack of obvious relationships between these variables and body size, age, sex and reproductive state in this species. PMID:12814793

  15. Body Fat Composition: A Predictive Factor for Sleep Related Breathing Disorder in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Rajeev; Lesser, Daniel J.; Oliveira, Flavia G.S.A.; Tran, Winston H.; Keens, Thomas G.; Khoo, Michael C.K.; Davidson Ward, Sally L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The association between body fat composition as measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanning and pediatric sleep related breathing disorder (SRBD) is not well established. We investigated the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and DEXA parameters and their association with SRBD in obese children. Patients and Methods: Overnight polysomnography was performed on obese/overweight children (10–17 years) with habitual snoring. Total body fat mass (g), trunk fat mass (g), total body % fat, and trunk % fat were determined by DEXA. Results: Forty-one subjects were studied. Logarithm (Log) total arousal index correlated with BMI (p < 0.01, r = 0.473), total body fat mass (p < 0.05, r = 0.331), and trunk fat mass (p < 0.05, r = 0.319). Log desaturation index correlated with BMI (p < 0.05, r = 0.313), total body fat mass (p < 0.05, r = 0.375), and trunk fat mass (p < 0.05, r = 0.391), whereas obstructive apnea hypopnea index (OAHI) did not. In males 10–12 years, there was a significant correlation between Log total arousal index and obesity parameters, but not for males aged 13–17 years. BMI correlated with DEXA parameters in all subjects: total body fat mass (p < 0.001, r = 0.850); total body % fat (p < 0.01, r = 0.425); trunk fat mass (p < 0.001, r = 0.792) and trunk % fat (p < 0.05, r = 0.318) and in 10–12 year old males. This relationship was not significant in males aged 13–17 years. Conclusions: Total body fat mass and trunk fat mass as well as BMI correlated with total arousal index and desaturation index. BMI correlated with DEXA parameters in 10–12 year old males but not in 13–17 year old males. The value of using DEXA scanning to study the relationship between obesity and SRBD may depend on age and pubertal stage. Citation: Bhatia R, Lesser DJ, Oliveira FG, Tran WH, Keens TG, Khoo MC, Davidson Ward SL. Body fat composition: a predictive factor for sleep related breathing disorder in obese children. J Clin Sleep Med

  16. Energy absorption, lean body mass, and total body fat changes during 5 weeks of continuous bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krebs, Jean M.; Evans, Harlan; Kuo, Mike C.; Schneider, Victor S.; Leblanc, Adrian D.

    1990-01-01

    The nature of the body composition changes due to inactivity was examined together with the question of whether these changes are secondary to changes in energy absorption. Volunteers were 15 healthy males who lived on a metabolic research ward under close staff supervision for 11 weeks. Subjects were ambulatory during the first six weeks and remained in continuous bed rest for the last five weeks of the study. Six male volunteers (age 24-61 years) were selected for body composition measurements. Nine different male volunteers (age 21-50 years) were selected for energy absorption measurements. The volunteers were fed weighed conventional foods on a constant 7-d rotation menu. The average daily caloric content was 2,592 kcal. Comparing the five weeks of continuous bed rest with the previous six weeks of ambulation, it was observed that there was no change in energy absorption or total body weight during bed rest, but a significant decrease in lean body mass and a significant increase in total body fat (p less than 0.05).

  17. Evaluation of body composition and nitrogen content of renal patients on chronic dialysis as determined by total body neutron activation

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.; Brennan, B.L.; Yasumura, S.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Ellis, K.J.

    1983-07-01

    Total body protein (nitrogen), body cell mass (potassium), fat, and water were measured in 15 renal patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). Total body nitrogen was measured by means of prompt ..gamma.. neutron activation analysis; total body water was determined with tritium labeled water; total body potassium was measured by whole body counting. The extracellular water was determined by a technique utilizing the measurement of total body chloride and plasma chloride. When compared with corresponding values of a control group of the same age, sex, and height, the protein content, body cell mass, and total body fat of the MHD patients were within the normal range. The only significant change was an increase in the extracellular water/body cell mass ratio in the male MHD patients compared to the control. The lack of significant difference of the nitrogen values of the MHD patients compared to matched controls suggests that dialysis minimizes any residual effects of uremic toxicity or protein-calorie malnutrition. These findings further suggest that there is a need to reevaluate the traditional anthropometric and biochemical standards of nutritional status for MHD patients. It was concluded that it is particularly important to measure protein stores of MHD patients with low protein intake to ascertain nutritional status. Finally, in vivo measurement of total body nitrogen and potassium for determination of body composition provides a simple, direct, and accurate assessment of the nutritional status of MHD patients.

  18. Validating skinfold thickness as a proxy to estimate total body fat in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) using the mass of dissected adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Dittus, Wolfgang P J; Gunathilake, K A Sunil

    2015-06-01

    Skinfold thickness (SFT) has been used often in non-human primates and humans as a proxy to estimate fatness (% body fat). We intended to validate the relation between SFT (in recently deceased specimens) and the mass of adipose tissue as determined from dissection of fresh carcasses of wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica). In adult male and female toque macaques body composition is normally 2% adipose tissue. Calipers for measuring SFT were suitable for measuring only some subcutaneous deposits of adipose tissue but were not suitable for measuring large fat deposits within the body cavity or minor intermuscular ones. The anatomical distribution of 13 different adipose deposits, in different body regions (subcutaneous, intra-abdominal and intermuscular) and their proportional size differences, were consistent in this species (as in other primates), though varying in total mass among individuals. These consistent allometric relationships were fundamental for estimating fatness of different body regions based on SFT. The best fit statistically significant correlations and regressions with the known masses of dissectible adipose tissue were evident between the SFT means of the seven sites measured, as well as with a single point on the abdomen anterior to the umbilicus. SFT related to total fat mass and intra-abdominal fat mass in curvilinear regressions and to subcutaneous fat mass in a linear relationship. To adjust for differences in body size among individuals, and to circumvent intangible variations in total body mass allocated, for example to the gastro-intestinal contents, dissected fat mass was estimated per unit body size (length of crown-rump)(3). SFT had greater coefficients of correlation and regressions with this Fat Mass Index (g/dm(3)) than with Percent Body Fat. PMID:25715692

  19. Hydration and tissue solid content of the lean body on prolonged exposure to altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharadwaj, H.; Singh, M. V.; Rawal, S. B.; Zachariah, T.; Kishnani, S.; Pramanik, S. N.; Gupta, A.; Rai, R. M.

    1989-03-01

    Using densitometric, hydrometric and anthropometric techniques, body fat, tissue solids, water and mineral content were quantitatively measured on two groups each of 26 young and healthy Indian soldiers of mixed ethnic composition. The experimental group was exposed to 3500 m altitude for 2 years and the experiments were carried out after 48 h and 3 weeks rehabilitation in Delhi (300 m). The control group was never exposed to high altidues. Inspite of the experimental group being fed with superior rations at high altitude, this group showed significantly hyperhydrated lean body with reduced tissue solids in comparison to the control group which was fed with identical rations in Delhi. The calculated mean density of the fat free body had declined to 0.092×103 kg/m3. The 3 week stay at low altitude had little influence on body composition. Hyperhydration, with reduced tissue solids, would cause reduction in the density of fat free body, and would thus interfere with the estimates of total body fat based on densitometric procedures alone. In the hyperhydrated state, Siri's formula overestimated fat by 22.8% of the true value.

  20. Clinical Usefulness of a New Equation for Estimating Body Fat

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Silva, Camilo; Catalán, Victoria; Rodríguez, Amaia; Galofré, Juan Carlos; Escalada, Javier; Valentí, Victor; Rotellar, Fernando; Romero, Sonia; Ramírez, Beatriz; Salvador, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the predictive capacity of a recently described equation that we have termed CUN-BAE (Clínica Universidad de Navarra-Body Adiposity Estimator) based on BMI, sex, and age for estimating body fat percentage (BF%) and to study its clinical usefulness. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a comparison study of the developed equation with many other anthropometric indices regarding its correlation with actual BF% in a large cohort of 6,510 white subjects from both sexes (67% female) representing a wide range of ages (18–80 years) and adiposity. Additionally, a validation study in a separate cohort (n = 1,149) and a further analysis of the clinical usefulness of this prediction equation regarding its association with cardiometabolic risk factors (n = 634) was carried out. RESULTS The mean BF% in the cohort of 6,510 subjects determined by air displacement plethysmography was 39.9 ± 10.1%, and the mean BF% estimated by the CUN-BAE was 39.3 ± 8.9% (SE of the estimate, 4.66%). In this group, BF% calculated with the CUN-BAE showed the highest correlation with actual BF% (r = 0.89, P < 0.000001) compared with other anthropometric measures or BF% estimators. Similar agreement was found in the validation sample. Moreover, BF% estimated by the CUN-BAE exhibits, in general, better correlations with cardiometabolic risk factors than BMI as well as waist circumference in the subset of 634 subjects. CONCLUSIONS CUN-BAE is an easy-to-apply predictive equation that may be used as a first screening tool in clinical practice. Furthermore, our equation may be a good tool for identifying patients at cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes risk. PMID:22179957

  1. Variations in the efficacy of resistant maltodextrin on body fat reduction in rats fed different high-fat models.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hui-Fang; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Ho, Chi-Tang; Tseng, Yu-Han; Wang, William Wei-Li; Chau, Chi-Fai

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have utilized a variety of methods to induce obesity in rodents, but they often received inconsistent results. The present study intended to use resistant maltodextrin (RMD) as a means to investigate the variations in its efficacy on body fat accumulation under the influence of four high-fat (HF) models of 23% or 40% total fat, comprising soybean oil, lard, and/or condensed milk. Results indicated that integrating condensed milk into the diets could help increase diet intake, boost energy intake, increase weight gain, and enhance fat formation. Supplementation of RMD (2.07 g/kg) notably reduced total body fat levels in three HF models, with the exception of a condensed-milk-added 40%-fat diet that may have misrepresented the functions of RMD. The uses of the 23% HF diets, with and without milk, and the milk-free 40% HF diet were therefore recommended as suitable models for antiobesity evaluations of RMD, or other fiber-rich products. PMID:24313233

  2. Body fat from body density: underwater weighing vs. dual-photon absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Heymsfield, S B; Aulet, M; Thornton, J C; Pierson, R N

    1989-06-01

    We measured fat in 286 healthy volunteers by underwater weighing (FUWW) and dual-photon absorptiometry (FDPA) to develop a translation table for the differing results from these entirely different techniques and to study the sources of these differences. In 99 males and 187 females aged 19-94 yr, fatness was 7-47%. Prediction equations are presented for FUWW-FDPA (delta F), density of lean body mass (DLBM), and FDPA. FUWW and FDPA were significantly different from each other (P less than 0.01). Calculated DLBM is less than the assumed constant of 1.10 (P less than 0.01), ranging widely from 1.05 to 1.13 and being highly correlated with the ratio of total body bone mineral to lean body mass (TBBM/LBM). delta F, the differences between FUWW and FDPA measurements in individual subjects, varied widely (-7 to +11% in males and -18 to +13% in females). The difference was positively correlated with the DLBM. FUWW was no better than anthropometrics in equations for predicting FDPA. The FDPA predicted from anthropometrics showed smaller standard errors than when FUWW was used. Neither anthropometrics nor FUWW equations are clearly superior to those previously available. PMID:2735405

  3. Temporal Trends in Fast-Food Restaurant Energy, Sodium, Saturated Fat, and Trans Fat Content, United States, 1996–2013

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Lorien E.; Roberts, Susan B.; Fierstein, Jamie L.; Gary, Christine E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Excess intakes of energy, sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat are associated with increased risk for cardiometabolic syndrome. Trends in fast-food restaurant portion sizes can inform policy decisions. We examined the variability of popular food items in 3 fast-food restaurants in the United States by portion size during the past 18 years. Methods Items from 3 national fast-food chains were selected: French fries, cheeseburgers, grilled chicken sandwich, and regular cola. Data on energy, sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat content were collated from 1996 through 2013 using an archival website. Time trends were assessed using simple linear regression models, using energy or a nutrient component as the dependent variable and the year as the independent variable. Results For most items, energy content per serving differed among chain restaurants for all menu items (P ≤ .04); energy content of 56% of items decreased (β range, −0.1 to −5.8 kcal) and the content of 44% increased (β range, 0.6–10.6 kcal). For sodium, the content of 18% of the items significantly decreased (β range, −4.1 to −24.0 mg) and the content for 33% increased (β range, 1.9–29.6 mg). Absolute differences were modest. The saturated and trans fat content, post-2009, was modest for French fries. In 2013, the energy content of a large-sized bundled meal (cheeseburger, French fries, and regular cola) represented 65% to 80% of a 2,000-calorie-per-day diet, and sodium content represented 63% to 91% of the 2,300-mg-per-day recommendation and 97% to 139% of the 1,500-mg-per-day recommendation. Conclusion Findings suggest that efforts to promote reductions in energy, sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat intakes need to be shifted from emphasizing portion-size labels to additional factors such as total calories, frequency of eating, number of items ordered, menu choices, and energy-containing beverages. PMID:25551184

  4. Exploring the relationship between time preference, body fatness, and educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Brown, Heather; Biosca, Olga

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is a global health concern. This is the first study to explore if the relationship between body fatness and time preference is consistent across different ways of objectively measuring body fatness. Our second aim is to explore if there are differential associations between educational attainment and being a saver to determine if education can be used to change saving behaviour and subsequently body fatness. This paper uses data on 15,591 individuals from 2010/2011 of the Understanding Society Survey (UK) to explore the relationship between time preference, measured as being a saver and three objective measures of body fatness: BMI, percent body fatness (PBF), and waist circumference (WC). Our findings show that there is a negative relationship between the three measures of body fatness and being a saver. The strongest relationship is found for WC and being a saver for both genders. Overall, a stronger association is found for women than men. Our results suggest that differential effects by educational attainment can be found in the relationship between being a saver and body fatness. Educational interventions to improve savings behaviour and subsequently obesity may be more effective for women with lower levels of education. PMID:27111437

  5. Diet and exercise interventions reduce intrahepatic fat content and improve insulin sensitivity in obese older adults.

    PubMed

    Shah, Krupa; Stufflebam, Abby; Hilton, Tiffany N; Sinacore, David R; Klein, Samuel; Villareal, Dennis T

    2009-12-01

    Both obesity and aging increase intrahepatic fat (IHF) content, which leads to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance. We evaluated the effects of diet and diet in conjunction with exercise on IHF content and associated metabolic abnormalities in obese older adults. Eighteen obese (BMI >or=30 kg/m(2)) older (>or=65 years old) adults completed a 6-month clinical trial. Participants were randomized to diet (D group; n = 9) or diet + exercise (D+E group; n = 9). Primary outcome was IHF quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Secondary outcomes included insulin sensitivity (assessed by oral glucose tolerance), body composition (assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), physical function (VO(2 peak) and strength), glucose, lipids, and blood pressure (BP). Body weight (D: -9 +/- 1%, D+E: -10 +/- 2%, both P < 0.05) and fat mass (D: -13 +/- 3%, D+E -16 +/- 3%, both P < 0.05) decreased in both groups but there was no difference between groups. IHF decreased to a similar extent in both groups (D: -46 +/- 11%, D+E: -45 +/- 8%, both P < 0.05), which was accompanied by comparable improvements in insulin sensitivity (D: 66 +/- 25%, D+E: 68 +/- 28%, both P < 0.05). The relative decreases in IHF correlated directly with relative increases in insulin sensitivity index (ISI) (r = -0.52; P < 0.05). Improvements in VO(2 peak), strength, plasma triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration, and diastolic BP occurred in the D+E group (all P < 0.05) but not in the D group. Diet with or without exercise results in significant decreases in IHF content accompanied by considerable improvements in insulin sensitivity in obese older adults. The addition of exercise to diet therapy improves physical function and other obesity- and aging-related metabolic abnormalities. PMID:19390517

  6. The body that does not diminish itself: fat acceptance in Israel's lesbian queer communities.

    PubMed

    Maor, Maya

    2012-01-01

    This article follows Charlotte Cooper's call to widen fat studies scholarship to contexts outside the United States, and Adrianne Hill's call to locate historically specific connections between lesbian communities and promotion of fat acceptance. Three in-depth interviews were conducted with Jewish-Israeli fat women. Through the development of their ability to appreciate their fat body and the fat bodies of other women, participants employed a mixture of disparate feminist-lesbian and queer discourses, in a similar, albeit not identical manner to the one used in the U.S. context. One of the major differences is that queer/lesbian communities in Israel are not in contact with the Israeli fat acceptance movement. PMID:22455341

  7. Eating quality of UK-style sausages varying in price, meat content, fat level and salt content.

    PubMed

    Sheard, P R; Hope, E; Hughes, S I; Baker, A; Nute, G R

    2010-05-01

    Thirty-six brands of pork sausage were purchased from a total of 10 retailers over a 4 months period and assessed for eating quality. The brands included 5 of the 10 most popular sausages in the UK, 4 basic, 14 standard, 10 premium and 8 healthy eating brands. The average price, meat content, fat content and salt content was 3.31 pounds/kg, 62%, 17% and 1.6%, respectively, but there were wide differences in price (1.08 pound/kg-5.23 pounds/kg), meat content (32-97%), fat content (2.1-29.1%) and salt content (0.5-2.5%). Sausages were assessed by a trained sensory panel using 100mm unstructured line scales and 14 descriptors (skin toughness, firmness, juiciness, pork flavour, fattiness, meatiness, particle size, cohesiveness, saltiness, sweet, acidic, bitter and metallic) including overall liking. The declared meat content was positively correlated with price, skin toughness, firmness, pork flavour, meatiness, particle size and perceived saltiness (r=0.5 or better). The declared fat content was positively correlated with fattiness and sweetness (r=0.42 or better) but not juiciness. There was no significant correlation between declared salt content and perceived saltiness. A principal component analysis showed that the first two principal components accounted for 51% of the variability in the data. Products could be separated into four quadrants according to their price, meat content, fat content and their associated eating quality attributes. PMID:20374862

  8. Effects of Yogurt Containing Fermented Pepper Juice on the Body Fat and Cholesterol Level in High Fat and High Cholesterol Diet Fed Rat

    PubMed Central

    Yeon, Su-Jung; Hong, Go-Eun; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Park, Woo Joon; Kim, Soo-Ki; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This experiment investigated whether yogurt containing fermented pepper juice (FPJY) affects cholesterol level in high fat and high cholesterol diet (HFCD) fed rat. Twenty five Sprague-Dawley male rats of 7 wk were divided into 5 groups, and fed following diets for 9 wk; CON (control diet), HFCD (HFCD), PY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of plain yogurt), LFY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of FPJY), and HFY (HFCD supplemented with 5% of FPJY). In the LFY group, hepatic total lipid level decreased significantly compared to the HFCD group (p<0.05). Serum HDL cholesterol level tended to increase and hepatic total cholesterol level decreased and were comparable to the CON group (p>0.05). In HFY group, body weight and hepatic total lipid level significantly decreased over the HFCD group (p<0.05). Serum and hepatic total cholesterol level, kidney, and body fat weights decreased, and were compared to the CON group (p>0.05). Liver weight decreased as FPJY content was increased. Results suggested FPJY would inhibit organ hypertrophy and accumulation of body fat, hepatic lipid, and cholesterol in HFCD fed rat. PMID:26761869

  9. NIRS and MIRS technique for the determination of protein and fat content in milk powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Feng, Shuijuan; He, Chao; He, Yong

    2008-03-01

    It is very important to detect the protein and fat content in milk powder fast and non-destructively. Near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared(MIR) spectroscopy techniques have been compared and evaluated for the determination of the protein and fat content in milk powder with the use of Least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM). LS-SVM models have been developed by using both NIR and MIR spectra. Both methods have shown good correlations between infrared transmission values and two nutrition contents. MIRS provided better prediction performance over NIRS. It is concluded that infrared spectroscopy technique can quantify of the protein and fat content in milk powder fast and nondestructively. The process is simple and easy to operate than chemistry methods. The results can be beneficial for designing a simple and non-destructive instrument with MIRS or NIRS spectral sensor for the determination of the protein fat content in milk powder.

  10. The effects of weight loss treatments on upper and lower body fat.

    PubMed

    Kopelman, P G

    1997-08-01

    The intra-abdominal visceral deposition of adipose tissue, which characterises upper body obesity, is a major contributor to the development of hypertension, glucose intolerance and hyperlipidaemia. Conversely, individuals with lower body obesity may have comparable amounts of adipose tissue but remain relatively free from the metabolic consequences of obesity. This raises an obvious question-are there particular weight reducing treatments which specifically target intra-abdominal fat? In theory, surgical removal of upper body fat should be effective. In reality, neither liposuction nor apronectomy ('tummy tuck') have any beneficial metabolic effects, they simply remove subcutaneous adipose tissue which is often rapidly replaced. Vertical banded gastroplasty and gastric bypass operations may be dramatically effective in improving blood pressure, insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. However, these benefits result from a parallel reduction in visceral and total body fat. Studies of body fat distribution in postmenopausal women confirm that the marked decrease in adiposity, following a programme of very low calorie diet and exercise, reflects a comparable reduction in visceral and thigh fat. The reduction in waist circumference after a low fat/exercise programme suggests a similar situation in men. Exercise has an important role in treatment but, once again, the fat loss is generalised. Nevertheless, the improved metabolic parameters seen in exercising obese subjects, independent of weight loss, suggest other beneficial actions. Growth hormone (GH) has a marked lipolytic action. GH replacement treatment for GH deficient adults with pronounced abdominal fat deposition, has been shown to reduce intra-abdominal fat by 47% compared to 27% decrease in abdominal subcutaneous fat. Similar beneficial actions on abdominal fat have been reported following treatment with testosterone in obese men. The potential hazards of such treatments make them unsuitable therapy for

  11. 9 CFR 381.462 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... product and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the product meets these conditions... reference amount customarily consumed and not more than 15 percent of calories from saturated fat; and (ii... contains 1 g or less of saturated fat per 100 g and less than 10 percent calories from saturated fat;...

  12. 9 CFR 317.362 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... contains 3 g or less of total fat per 100 g of product and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat... of calories from saturated fat; and (ii) If the product meets these conditions without benefit of... calories from saturated fat; and (ii) If the product meets these conditions without the benefit of...

  13. 9 CFR 381.462 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... product and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the product meets these conditions... reference amount customarily consumed and not more than 15 percent of calories from saturated fat; and (ii... contains 1 g or less of saturated fat per 100 g and less than 10 percent calories from saturated fat;...

  14. 9 CFR 317.362 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... product and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the product meets these conditions... reference amount customarily consumed and not more than 15 percent of calories from saturated fat; and (ii... contains 1 g or less of saturated fat per 100 g and less than 10 percent calories from saturated fat;...

  15. 9 CFR 317.362 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... product and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the product meets these conditions... reference amount customarily consumed and not more than 15 percent of calories from saturated fat; and (ii... contains 1 g or less of saturated fat per 100 g and less than 10 percent calories from saturated fat;...

  16. 9 CFR 381.462 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... contains 3 g or less of total fat per 100 g of product and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat... of calories from saturated fat; and (ii) If the product meets these conditions without benefit of... calories from saturated fat; and (ii) If the product meets these conditions without the benefit of...

  17. 9 CFR 381.462 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of total fat per 100 g of product and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the... of calories from saturated fat; and (ii) If the product meets these conditions without benefit of... calories from saturated fat; and (ii) If the product meets these conditions without the benefit of...

  18. 9 CFR 317.362 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... product and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the product meets these conditions... reference amount customarily consumed and not more than 15 percent of calories from saturated fat; and (ii... contains 1 g or less of saturated fat per 100 g and less than 10 percent calories from saturated fat;...

  19. 9 CFR 317.362 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of total fat per 100 g of product and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the... of calories from saturated fat; and (ii) If the product meets these conditions without benefit of... calories from saturated fat; and (ii) If the product meets these conditions without the benefit of...

  20. 9 CFR 381.462 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... product and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the product meets these conditions... reference amount customarily consumed and not more than 15 percent of calories from saturated fat; and (ii... contains 1 g or less of saturated fat per 100 g and less than 10 percent calories from saturated fat;...

  1. Effects of Body Fat on Weight Concerns, Dating, and Sexual Activity: A Longitudinal Analysis of Black and White Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Udry, J. Richard; Suchindran, Chirayath; Campbell, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    Investigated implications of body-fat differences for dating and sexual activity and implications of heterosexual activity for dieting and weight concerns in adolescent girls. Found that among white girls, and blacks with college-educated mothers, more body fat was associated with lower dating probability, even among non-obese girls. Body fat was…

  2. Improved models for determination of body fat by in vivo neutron activation

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.; Vaswani, A.; Yasumura, S.; Yuen, K.; Ellis, K.

    1984-08-01

    In the present study, two different models of body composition, based on data obtained by nuclear techniques are used. Total body nitrogen, calcium, and chlorine were obtained by total body neutron activation. Total body chlorine was used to estimate extracellular water, and total body calcium to determine bone mineral and extracellular solids. Total body potassium was measured by whole body counting to obtain the body cell mass. In addition, total body water was measured by the tritium dilution technique. It was found that either model can be used equally well to measure total body fat in normal subjects. Estimation of body fat as the difference between body weight and the sum of total body nitrogen (protein), total body water, and bone ash (model 1) appears to have an advantage over model 2, which uses body cell mass, extracellular water, and extracellular solids, particularly for patients with metabolic disorders. This advantage is partly due to the fact that the parameter protein (total body nitrogen) is less affected in metabolic disorders than the more labile total body potassium. The closely correlated results obtained with the two models based on nuclear measurements support the conclusion that these techniques provide reliable measurements of total body fat.

  3. Candidate gene expression affects intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition in pigs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Xue, Wenda; Jin, Bangquan; Zhang, Xixia; Ma, Fei; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to correlate the expression pattern of candidate genes with the intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle of Duroc × Shanzhu commercial crossbred pigs. Animals of both sexes were slaughtered at a body weight of about 90 kg. The IMF content and fatty acid composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle were measured and correlated with candidate genes mRNA expression (AdPLA, ADRB3, LEPR, MC4R, PPARγ, PPARα, LPL, PEPCK, and SCD). Females presented higher IMF content (p < 0.05) than males. The total saturated fatty acid (SFA) in males was greater (p < 0.01), whereas the total monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) (p < 0.01) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (p < 0.05) were lower than in females. The expressions of AdPLA, MC4R, PEPCK, and SCD correlated with the IMF content (p < 0.05). AdPLA showed a positive association with MUFA and a negative association with SFA (p < 0.05). LEPR and MC4R were both positively and significantly associated with C18:3 and C20:0 (p < 0.05). PPARα and PPARγ were negatively correlated with SFA, and PPARγ was positively associated with MUFA (p < 0.05). LPL was positively associated with MUFA and negatively associated with SFA (p < 0.05). PEPCK was negatively correlated with PUFA (p < 0.05). SCD was positively associated with MUFA (p < 0.05). The revealed correlations may confirm that these candidate genes are important for fat deposition and fatty acid composition in pigs, and the evaluation and use of these genes may be useful for improving porcine meat quality. PMID:23275256

  4. A systematic comparison of sugar content in low-fat vs regular versions of food

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, P K; Lin, S; Heidenreich, P

    2016-01-01

    Obesity remains a significant public health concern. One of the primary messages from providers and health-care organizations is to eat healthier foods with lower fat. Many in the lay press, however, have suggested that lower fat versions of foods contain more sugar. To our knowledge, a systematic comparison of the sugar content in food with lower fat alternatives has not been performed. In this study, we compared fat free, low fat and regular versions of the same foods using data collected from the USDA National Nutrient Database. We found that the amount of sugar is higher in the low fat (that is, reduced calorie, light, low fat) and non-fat than ‘regular' versions of tested items (Friedman P=0.00001, Wilcoxon P=0.0002 for low fat vs regular food and P=0.0003 for non-fat vs regular food). Our data support the general belief that food that is lower in fat may contain more sugar. PMID:26807511

  5. The Role of Body Fat and Fat Distribution in Hypertension Risk in Urban Black South African Women

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, Nigel J.; Jaff, Nicole G.; Kengne, Andre P.; Norris, Shane A.

    2016-01-01

    Developing countries are disproportionately affected by hypertension, with Black women being at greater risk, possibly due to differences in body fat distribution. The objectives of this study were: (1) To examine how different measures of body composition are associated with blood pressure (BP) and incident hypertension; (2) to determine the association between baseline or change in body composition, and hypertension; and (3) to determine which body composition measure best predicts hypertension in Black South African women. The sample comprised 478 non-hypertensive women, aged 29–53 years. Body fat and BP were assessed at baseline and 8.3 years later. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (n = 273) and anthropometry. Hypertension was diagnosed based on a systolic/diastolic BP ≥140/90 mmHg, or medication use at follow-up. All body composition measures increased (p<0.0001) between baseline and follow-up. SBP and DBP increased by ≥20%, resulting in a 57.1% cumulative incidence of hypertension. Both DXA- and anthropometric-derived measures of body composition were significantly associated with BP, explaining 3–5% of the variance. Baseline BP was the most important predictor of hypertension (adjusted OR: 98–123%). Measures of central adiposity were associated with greater odds (50–65%) of hypertension than total adiposity (44–45%). Only change in anthropometric-derived central fat mass predicted hypertension (adjusted OR: 32–40%). This study highlights that body composition is not a major determinant of hypertension in the sample of black African women. DXA measures of body composition do not add to hypertension prediction beyond anthropometry, which is especially relevant for African populations globally, taking into account the severely resource limited setting found in these communities. PMID:27171011

  6. Argument for the need of investigation of the relationship between body fatness and experimental pain sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Astita, Rehab A; Tashani, Osama A; Sharp, Duncan; Johnson, Mark I

    2015-01-01

    In this communication, we argue about the need for an extensive investigation of the relationship between body fatness and fat distribution and experimental pain to explore the factors that might contribute to the increased prevalence of pain conditions in obese individuals. PMID:26085491

  7. Dietary L-arginine supplementation increases muscle gain and reduces body fat mass in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bie; Yin, Yulong; Liu, Zhiqiang; Li, Xinguo; Xu, Haijun; Kong, Xiangfeng; Huang, Ruilin; Tang, Wenjie; Shinzato, Izuru; Smith, Stephen B; Wu, Guoyao

    2009-05-01

    Obesity in humans is a major public health crisis worldwide. In addition, livestock species exhibit excessive subcutaneous fat at market weight. However, there are currently few means of reducing adiposity in mammals. This study was conducted with a swine model to test the hypothesis that dietary L-arginine supplementation may increase muscle gain and decrease fat deposition. Twenty-four 110-day-old barrows were assigned randomly into two treatments, representing supplementation with 1.0% L-arginine or 2.05% L-alanine (isonitrogenous control) to a corn- and soybean meal-based diet. Growth performance was measured based on weight gain and food intake. After a 60-day period of supplementation, carcass and muscle composition were measured. Serum triglyceride concentration was 20% lower (P < 0.01) but glucagon level was 36% greater (P < 0.05) in arginine-supplemented than in control pigs. Compared with the control, arginine supplementation increased (P < 0.05) body weight gain by 6.5% and carcass skeletal-muscle content by 5.5%, while decreasing (P < 0.01) carcass fat content by 11%. The arginine treatment enhanced (P < 0.05) longissimus dorsi muscle protein, glycogen, and fat contents by 4.8, 42, and 70%, respectively, as well as muscle pH at 45 min post-mortem by 0.32, while reducing muscle lactate content by 37%. These results support our hypothesis that dietary arginine supplementation beneficially promotes muscle gain and reduces body fat accretion in growing-finishing pigs. The findings have a positive impact on development of novel therapeutics to treat human obesity and enhance swine lean-tissue growth. PMID:18683021

  8. Relationship between alcohol intake, body fat, and physical activity – a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Crabb, David W.; Qi, Rong

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Aside from fat, ethanol is the macronutrient with the highest energy density. Whether the energy derived from ethanol affects the body composition and fat mass is debatable. We investigated the relationship between alcohol intake, body composition, and physical activity in the US population using the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Methods Ten thousand five hundred and fifty subjects met eligible criteria and constituted our study cohort. Estimated percent body fat and resting metabolic rate were calculated based on the sum of the skinfolds. Multivariate regression analyses were performed accounting for the study sampling weight. Results In both genders, moderate and hazardous alcohol drinkers were younger (p<0.05), had significantly lower BMI (P<0.01) and body weight (p<0.01) than controls, non drinkers. Those with hazardous alcohol consumption had significantly less physical activity compared to those with no alcohol use and moderate drinkers in both genders. Female had significantly higher percent body fat than males. In the multivariate linear regression analyses, the levels of alcohol consumption were found to be an independent predictor associated with lower percent body fat only in male subjects. Conclusions Our results showed that alcoholics are habitually less active and that alcohol drinking is an independent predictor of lower percent body fat especially in male alcoholics. PMID:20696406

  9. Changes in weight, total fat, percent body fat, and central-to-peripheral fat ratio associated with injectable and oral contraceptive use

    PubMed Central

    BERENSON, Abbey B.; RAHMAN, Mahbubur

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine changes in body weight and composition resulting from hormonal contraception. Study design Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed at baseline and every 6 months for 3 years on 703 women (200 Black, 247 White, 256 Hispanic) initiating use of oral contraception (OC, n = 245), depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA, n = 240), or nonhormonal contraception (NH, n = 218). DMPA discontinuers were followed for up to 2 years to examine the reversibility of observed changes. Results Over 36 months, DMPA users increased their weight (+5.1 kg), body fat (+4.1 kg), percent body fat (+3.4%), and central-to-peripheral fat ratio (+0.1) more than OC and NH users (P<.01). OC use did not cause weight gain. After DMPA discontinuation, NH users lost 0.42 kg/6 months while OC users gained 0.43 kg/6 months. Conclusions Body weight and fat significantly increase while using DMPA. After discontinuation, some decrease occurs when NH is used. PMID:19254592

  10. Body Fat Measurement: Weighing the Pros and Cons of Electrical Impedance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Heyward L.

    1985-01-01

    Research technologists have developed electrical impedance units in response to demand for a convenient and reliable method of measuring body fat. Accuracy of impedance measures versus calipers and underwater weighing are discussed. (MT)

  11. Cocaine's appetite for fat and the consequences on body weight.

    PubMed

    Billing, Lawrence; Ersche, Karen D

    2015-03-01

    For many individuals in treatment for cocaine dependence, weight gain is a substantial problem during recovery. This weight gain causes significant distress and seems to increase the risk of relapse. The mechanisms underlying cocaine's effects on weight remain elusive. It is widely assumed that this weight gain reflects a metabolic or behavioural compensatory response to the cessation of cocaine use. Here we challenge this assumption and outline potential mechanisms by which chronic cocaine use produces disturbances in the regulation of fat intake and storage, through its effects on the central and peripheral nervous systems, specifically the sympathetic nervous system. We hypothesize that the cocaine-induced alteration in fat regulation results in cocaine users developing a pronounced appetite for fatty food but keeps their fat mass low. This altered fat appetite subsequently leads to excessive weight gain when individuals enter treatment and stop using cocaine. Our aim is to shed light on the neurobiological mechanisms that may underlie the alterations in eating and fat regulation in cocaine-dependent individuals, to open up potential new avenues to support these individuals in recovery. PMID:25321424

  12. Fat content of the flesh of siscowets and lake trout from Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eschmeyer, Paul H.; Phillips, Arthur M., Jr.

    1965-01-01

    Samples of flesh were excised from the middorsal region of 67 siscowets (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet) and 46 lake trout (Salvelinus n. namaycush) collected from Lake Superior. Chemical analysis of the samples revealed a range in fat content (dry weight) of 32.5 to 88.8 per cent in siscowets and 6.6 to 52.3 per cent in lake trout. Percentage fat increased progressively with increase in length of fish in both forms, but the average rate of increase was far greater for siscowets than for lake trout at lengths between 12 and 20 inches. Despite substantial individual variation, the percentage fat in the two forms was widely different and without overlap at all comparable lengths. The range in iodine number of the fat was 100 to 160 for siscowets and 103 to 161 for lake trout; average values were generally lower for siscowets than for lake trout among fish of comparable length. Percentage fat and relative weight were not correlated significantly in either subspecies. The fat content of flesh samples from a distinctive subpopulation of Lake Superior lake trout known as 'humpers' was more closely similar to that of typical lean lake trout than to siscowets, but the rate of increase in fat with increasing length was greater than for lean lake trout. Flesh samples from hatchery-reared stocks of lake trout, hybrid lake trout X siscowets, and siscowets tended to support the view that the wide difference in fat content between siscowets and lake trout is genetically determined.

  13. Hepatic fat content is a determinant of metabolic phenotypes and increased carotid intima-media thickness in obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huijie; Ma, Zhimin; Pan, Lingling; Xu, Yanfang; Shao, Jin; Huang, Zhufeng; Chen, Zheng; Sun, Qian; Liu, Changqin; Lin, Mingzhu; Yang, Shuyu; Li, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) are at relatively low risk for the development of metabolic abnormalities and subclinical atherosclerosis. This study aims to examine whether hepatic fat accumulation determines metabolic phenotype of obesity and associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. A total of 485 obese adults (aged 40–65 years) who received magnetic resonance spectroscopy were divided into metabolically abnormally obesity (MAO) and MHO groups according to metabolic status. MHO individuals had lower levels of intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) than MAO individuals. In multivariable linear regression analyses, IHTG content was independently associated with metabolic syndrome components and CIMT. Based on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the IHTG content displayed a higher area under the curve (AUC) for detecting the MAO phenotype (AUC = 0.70, 95%CI = 0.65–0.75) and increased CIMT (AUC = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.54–0.66) than BMI, waist circumference, and body fat percent. MHO individuals were 1.9 times (p < 0.001) more likely to have metabolic syndrome per 1 SD change in IHTG content in multivariable-adjusted models. Likewise, the risk for high CIMT increased 29% per 1 SD change in IHTG content [OR (95% CI):1.29(1.01–1.64)]. These findings suggest that hepatic fat is a potential predictor of metabolically unhealthy obesity phenotype and subclinical atherosclerosis. PMID:26902311

  14. Hepatic fat content is a determinant of metabolic phenotypes and increased carotid intima-media thickness in obese adults.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huijie; Ma, Zhimin; Pan, Lingling; Xu, Yanfang; Shao, Jin; Huang, Zhufeng; Chen, Zheng; Sun, Qian; Liu, Changqin; Lin, Mingzhu; Yang, Shuyu; Li, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) are at relatively low risk for the development of metabolic abnormalities and subclinical atherosclerosis. This study aims to examine whether hepatic fat accumulation determines metabolic phenotype of obesity and associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. A total of 485 obese adults (aged 40-65 years) who received magnetic resonance spectroscopy were divided into metabolically abnormally obesity (MAO) and MHO groups according to metabolic status. MHO individuals had lower levels of intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) than MAO individuals. In multivariable linear regression analyses, IHTG content was independently associated with metabolic syndrome components and CIMT. Based on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the IHTG content displayed a higher area under the curve (AUC) for detecting the MAO phenotype (AUC = 0.70, 95%CI = 0.65-0.75) and increased CIMT (AUC = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.54-0.66) than BMI, waist circumference, and body fat percent. MHO individuals were 1.9 times (p < 0.001) more likely to have metabolic syndrome per 1 SD change in IHTG content in multivariable-adjusted models. Likewise, the risk for high CIMT increased 29% per 1 SD change in IHTG content [OR (95% CI):1.29(1.01-1.64)]. These findings suggest that hepatic fat is a potential predictor of metabolically unhealthy obesity phenotype and subclinical atherosclerosis. PMID:26902311

  15. Associations Between Sedentary Time, Physical Activity, and Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Measures of Total Body, Android, and Gynoid Fat Mass in Children.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Lacey; Meendering, Jessica; Specker, Bonny; Binkley, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Negative health outcomes are associated with excess body fat, low levels of physical activity (PA), and high sedentary time (ST). Relationships between PA, ST, and body fat distribution, including android and gynoid fat, assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) have not been measured in children. The purpose of this study was to test associations between levels of activity and body composition in children and to evaluate if levels of activity predict body composition by DXA and by body mass index percentile in a similar manner. PA, ST, and body composition from 87 children (8.8-11.8 yr, grades 3-5, 44 boys) were used to test the association among study variables. Accelerometers measured PA and ST. Body composition measured by DXA included bone mineral content (BMC) and fat and lean mass of the total body (TB, less head), android, and gynoid regions. ST (range: 409-685 min/wk) was positively associated with TB percent fat (0.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.00-0.05) and android fat mass (1.5 g, 95% CI: 0.4-3.0), and inversely associated with the lean mass of the TB (-10.7 g, 95% CI: -20.8 to -0.63) and gynoid regions (-2.2 g, 95% CI: -4.3 to -0.2), and with BMC (-0.43 g, 95% CI: 0.77-0.09). Moderate-to-vigorous PA was associated with lower TB (-53 g, 95% CI: -87 to -18), android (-5 g, 95% CI: -8 to -2]), and gynoid fat (-6 g, 95% CI: -11 to -0.5). Vigorous activity results were similar. Light PA was associated with increased TB (17.1 g, 95% CI: 3.0-31.3) and gynoid lean mass (3.9 g, 95% CI: 1.0-6.8) and BMC (0.59 g, 95% CI: 0.10-1.07). In boys, there were significant associations between activity and DXA percent body fat measures that were not found with the body mass index percentile. Objective measures of PA were inversely associated with TB, android, and gynoid fat, whereas ST was directly associated with TB percent fat and, in particular, android fat. Activity levels predict body composition measures by DXA and, in

  16. Insights into the Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) fat body transcriptome.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Cristina Soares; Serrão, José Eduardo; Bonetti, Ana Maria; Amaral, Isabel Marques Rodrigues; Kerr, Warwick Estevam; Maranhão, Andréa Queiroz; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos

    2013-07-01

    The insect fat body is a multifunctional organ analogous to the vertebrate liver. The fat body is involved in the metabolism of juvenile hormone, regulation of environmental stress, production of immunity regulator-like proteins in cells and protein storage. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in fat body physiology in stingless bees. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptome of the fat body from the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. In silico analysis of a set of cDNA library sequences yielded 1728 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and 997 high-quality sequences that were assembled into 29 contigs and 117 singlets. The BLAST X tool showed that 86% of the ESTs shared similarity with Apis mellifera (honeybee) genes. The M. scutellaris fat body ESTs encoded proteins with roles in numerous physiological processes, including anti-oxidation, phosphorylation, metabolism, detoxification, transmembrane transport, intracellular transport, cell proliferation, protein hydrolysis and protein synthesis. This is the first report to describe a transcriptomic analysis of specific organs of M. scutellaris. Our findings provide new insights into the physiological role of the fat body in stingless bees. PMID:23885214

  17. Insights into the Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) fat body transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Cristina Soares; Serrão, José Eduardo; Bonetti, Ana Maria; Amaral, Isabel Marques Rodrigues; Kerr, Warwick Estevam; Maranhão, Andréa Queiroz; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The insect fat body is a multifunctional organ analogous to the vertebrate liver. The fat body is involved in the metabolism of juvenile hormone, regulation of environmental stress, production of immunity regulator-like proteins in cells and protein storage. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in fat body physiology in stingless bees. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptome of the fat body from the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. In silico analysis of a set of cDNA library sequences yielded 1728 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and 997 high-quality sequences that were assembled into 29 contigs and 117 singlets. The BLAST X tool showed that 86% of the ESTs shared similarity with Apis mellifera (honeybee) genes. The M. scutellaris fat body ESTs encoded proteins with roles in numerous physiological processes, including anti-oxidation, phosphorylation, metabolism, detoxification, transmembrane transport, intracellular transport, cell proliferation, protein hydrolysis and protein synthesis. This is the first report to describe a transcriptomic analysis of specific organs of M. scutellaris. Our findings provide new insights into the physiological role of the fat body in stingless bees. PMID:23885214

  18. Influence of Regular Exercise on Body Fat and Eating Patterns of Patients with Intermittent Claudication

    PubMed Central

    Leicht, Anthony; Crowther, Robert; Golledge, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the impact of regular supervised exercise on body fat, assessed via anthropometry, and eating patterns of peripheral arterial disease patients with intermittent claudication (IC). Body fat, eating patterns and walking ability were assessed in 11 healthy adults (Control) and age- and mass-matched IC patients undertaking usual care (n = 10; IC-Con) or supervised exercise (12-months; n = 10; IC-Ex). At entry, all groups exhibited similar body fat and eating patterns. Maximal walking ability was greatest for Control participants and similar for IC-Ex and IC-Con patients. Supervised exercise resulted in significantly greater improvements in maximal walking ability (IC-Ex 148%–170% vs. IC-Con 29%–52%) and smaller increases in body fat (IC-Ex −2.1%–1.4% vs. IC-Con 8.4%–10%). IC-Con patients exhibited significantly greater increases in body fat compared with Control at follow-up (8.4%–10% vs. −0.6%–1.4%). Eating patterns were similar for all groups at follow-up. The current study demonstrated that regular, supervised exercise significantly improved maximal walking ability and minimised increase in body fat amongst IC patients without changes in eating patterns. The study supports the use of supervised exercise to minimize cardiovascular risk amongst IC patients. Further studies are needed to examine the additional value of other lifestyle interventions such as diet modification. PMID:25993298

  19. Obesity classification in military personnel: A comparison of body fat, waist circumference, and body mass index measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate obesity classifications from body fat percentage (BF%), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). A total of 451 overweight/obese active duty military personnel completed all three assessments. Most were obese (men, 81%; women, 98%) using National...

  20. Variability in the reported energy, total fat and saturated fat content in fast food products across ten countries

    PubMed Central

    Ziauddeen, Nida; Fitt, Emily; Edney, Louise; Dunford, Elizabeth; Neal, Bruce; Jebb, Susan A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fast foods are often energy dense and offered in large serving sizes. Observational data has linked the consumption of fast food to an increased risk of obesity and related diseases. Design We surveyed the reported energy, total fat and saturated fat contents, and serving sizes, of fast food items from five major chains across 10 countries, comparing product categories as well as specific food items available in most countries. Setting MRC Human Nutrition Research (HNR), Cambridge Subjects Data for 2961 food and drink products were collected, with most from Canada (n=550) and fewest from United Arab Emirates (n=106). Results There was considerable variability in energy and fat content of fast food across countries, reflecting both the portfolio of products, and serving size variability. Differences in total energy between countries were particularly noted for chicken dishes (649-1197kJ/100g) and sandwiches (552-1050kJ/100g). When comparing the same product between countries variations were consistently observed in total energy and fat content (g/100g) with extreme variation in McDonald’s Chicken McNuggets with 12g total fat (g/100g) in Germany compared to 21.1g in New Zealand. Conclusions These cross-country variations highlight the possibility for further product reformulation in many countries to reduce nutrients of concern and improve the nutritional profiles of fast food products around the world. Standardisation of serving sizes towards the lower end of the range would also help to reduce the risk of overconsumption. PMID:25702788

  1. Numerous Genes in Loci Associated With Body Fat Distribution Are Linked to Adipose Function.

    PubMed

    Dahlman, Ingrid; Rydén, Mikael; Brodin, David; Grallert, Harald; Strawbridge, Rona J; Arner, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Central fat accumulation is a strong risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous loci associated with body fat distribution. The objectives of the current study are to examine whether genes in genetic loci linked to fat distribution can be linked to fat cell size and number (morphology) and/or adipose tissue function. We show, in a cohort of 114 women, that almost half of the 96 genes in these loci are indeed associated with abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue parameters. Thus, adipose mRNA expression of the genes is strongly related to adipose morphology, catecholamine-induced lipid mobilization (lipolysis), or insulin-stimulated lipid synthesis in adipocytes (lipogenesis). In conclusion, the genetic influence on body fat distribution could be mediated via several specific alterations in adipose tissue morphology and function, which in turn may influence the development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26798124

  2. Cross-sectional study of possible association between rapid eating and high body fat rates among female Japanese college students.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi-Tanaka, Yuri; Kawagoshi, Yumiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Fukao, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of excessive body fat among young Japanese females with a normal BMI, which is referred to as normal weight obesity (NWO), has recently increased. Some studies have associated eating rates with BMI. However, an association between body fat rate and dietary habits has not been proven. We compared differences in dietary habits between 72 female Japanese junior college students with normal (<30%; normal body fat ratio, NFR) and high (≥ 30%; excessive body fat ratio, EFR) proportions of body fat. Energy and the intake of many nutrients and foods did not significantly differ between the two groups, but the EFR group consumed significantly less saturated fatty acid, sugar and confectionery. Eating rapidly was significantly associated with body fat ratios. Our findings suggest that eating rapidly increases body fat ratios. PMID:23883696

  3. Effects of covert subject actions on percent body fat by air-displacement plethsymography.

    PubMed

    Tegenkamp, Michelle H; Clark, R Randall; Schoeller, Dale A; Landry, Greg L

    2011-07-01

    Air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) is used for estimation of body composition, however, some individuals, such as athletes in weight classification sports, may use covert methods during ADP testing to alter their apparent percent body fat. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of covert subject actions on percent body fat measured by ADP. Subjects underwent body composition analysis in the Bod Pod following the standard procedure using the manufacturer's guidelines. The subjects then underwent 8 more measurements while performing the following intentional manipulations: 4 breathing patterns altering lung volume, foot movement to disrupt air, hand cupping to trap air, and heat and cold exposure before entering the chamber. Increasing and decreasing lung volume during thoracic volume measurement and during body density measurement altered the percent body fat assessment (p < 0.001). High lung volume during thoracic gas measures overestimated fat by 3.7 ± 2.1 percentage points. Lowered lung volume during body volume measures overestimated body fat by an additional 2.2 ± 2.1 percentage points. The heat and cold exposure, tapping, and cupping treatments provided similar estimates of percent body fat when compared with the standard condition. These results demonstrate the subjects were able to covertly change their estimated ADP body composition value by altering breathing when compared with the standard condition. We recommend that sports conditioning coaches, athletic trainers, and technicians administering ADP should be aware of the potential effects of these covert actions. The individual responsible for administering ADP should remain vigilant during testing to detect deliberate altered breathing patterns by athletes in an effort to gain a competitive advantage by manipulating their body composition assessment. PMID:21499137

  4. Oral fat perception is related with body mass index, preference and consumption of high-fat foods.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ruiz, Nina R; López-Díaz, José A; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Jiménez-Castro, Jorge A; Angulo, Ofelia

    2014-04-22

    Oral sensory perception may play an important role in food preferences, driving food intake and energy balance. Fat perceived in oral cavity has been associated with satiety and homeostatic signals. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that fat oral-intensity perception may be associated with BMI, food preferences and consumption of fat-rich foods. The ability to perceive linoleic acid at different concentrations by intensity scaling was measured in young adults (n=121), characterized by anthropometric measurements such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and total body fat (TBF) percentage. Additionally, dietary habits were recorded online during 35days using a questionnaire designed according to the 24-hour recall and the food diary methods. Finally, food preferences were evaluated online using a nine-point hedonic scale. Taste sensitivity (intensity scaling with suprathreshold concentrations) was estimated with different linoleic acid concentrations using a linear scale of 150mm labeled at the ends. Four groups were established after the ratings for oral-intensity perception of linoleic acid: quartile high ratings (QH), quartile medium-high ratings (QMH), quartile medium-low ratings (QML) and quartile low ratings (QL). Participants with high-intensity ratings for linoleic acid (QH) had lower BMI (p=0.04) and waist circumference (WC) (p=0.03) values than participants in the QL group. High-fat foods (foods with more than 20% of energy from lipids such as fast foods and Mexican street foods) were less preferred by participants with high-intensity ratings for linoleic acid (QH) than by participants with medium- (QMH, QML) and low-(QL) intensity ratings (p<0.01). Also, participants with high-intensity ratings for linoleic acid (QH) presented lower consumption of high-fat foods like fast foods (p=0.04) and Mexican street foods (p=0.03) than subjects with medium- (QMH, QML) and low-(QL) intensity ratings. Overall, these data suggest that

  5. Anthropometric indicators of obesity in the prediction of high body fat in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pelegrini, Andreia; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, João Marcos Ferreira de Lima; Grigollo, Leoberto; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the anthropometric indicators of obesity in the prediction of high body fat in adolescents from a Brazilian State. METHODS: The study included 1,197 adolescents (15-17 years old). The following anthropometric measurements were collected: body mass (weight and height), waist circumference and skinfolds (triceps and medial calf). The anthropometric indicators analyzed were: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and conicity index (C-Index). Body fat percentage, estimated by the Slaughter et al equation, was used as the reference method. Descriptive statistics, U Mann-Whitney test, and ROC curve were used for data analysis. RESULTS: Of the four anthropometric indicators studied, BMI, WHtR and WC had the largest areas under the ROC curve in relation to relative high body fat in both genders. The cutoffs for boys and girls, respectively, associated with high body fat were BMI 22.7 and 20.1kg/m², WHtR 0.43 and 0.41, WC 75.7 and 67.7cm and C-Index 1.12 and 1.06. CONCLUSIONS: Anthropometric indicators can be used in screening for identification of body fat in adolescents, because they are simple, have low cost and are non-invasive. PMID:25649384

  6. Linking cellular zinc status to body weight and fat mass: mapping quantitative trait loci in Znt7 knockout mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc transporter 7 (Znt7, Slc30a7) knockout (KO) mice display abnormalities in body weight gain and body adiposity. Regulation of body weight and fatness is complex, involving multiple genetic and environmental factors. To understand how zinc homeostasis influences body weight gain and fat deposit a...

  7. Tissue nonautonomous effects of fat body methionine metabolism on imaginal disc repair in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kashio, Soshiro; Obata, Fumiaki; Zhang, Liu; Katsuyama, Tomonori; Chihara, Takahiro; Miura, Masayuki

    2016-02-16

    Regulatory mechanisms for tissue repair and regeneration within damaged tissue have been extensively studied. However, the systemic regulation of tissue repair remains poorly understood. To elucidate tissue nonautonomous control of repair process, it is essential to induce local damage, independent of genetic manipulations in uninjured parts of the body. Herein, we develop a system in Drosophila for spatiotemporal tissue injury using a temperature-sensitive form of diphtheria toxin A domain driven by the Q system to study factors contributing to imaginal disc repair. Using this technique, we demonstrate that methionine metabolism in the fat body, a counterpart of mammalian liver and adipose tissue, supports the repair processes of wing discs. Local injury to wing discs decreases methionine and S-adenosylmethionine, whereas it increases S-adenosylhomocysteine in the fat body. Fat body-specific genetic manipulation of methionine metabolism results in defective disc repair but does not affect normal wing development. Our data indicate the contribution of tissue interactions to tissue repair in Drosophila, as local damage to wing discs influences fat body metabolism, and proper control of methionine metabolism in the fat body, in turn, affects wing regeneration. PMID:26831070

  8. Validation study of the body adiposity index as a predictor of percent body fat in older individuals: findings from the BLSA.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hui; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Cooper, Jamie A

    2014-09-01

    A new body adiposity index (BAI = (hip circumference)/((height)(1.5)) - 18) has been developed and validated in adult populations. We aimed to assess the validity of BAI in an older population. We compared the concordance correlation coefficient between BAI, body mass index (BMI), and percent body fat (fat%; by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) in an older population (n = 954) participating in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. BAI was more strongly correlated with fat% than BMI (r of .7 vs .6 for BAI vs BMI and fat%, respectively, p < .01) and exhibited a smaller mean difference from fat% (-5.2 vs -7.6 for BAI vs BMI and fat%, respectively, p < .01) indicating better agreement. In men, however, BMI was in better agreement with fat% (r of .6 vs .7 for BAI vs BMI and fat%, respectively, p < .01) with a smaller mean difference from fat% (-3.0 vs -2.2 for BAI vs BMI and fat%, respectively, p < .01). Finally, BAI did not accurately predict fat% in people with a fat% below 15%. BAI provides valid estimation of body adiposity in an older adult population; however, BMI may be a better index for older men. Finally, BAI is not accurate in people with extremely low or high body fat percentages. PMID:24158764

  9. To Be Fat or Thin? Social Representations of the Body among Adolescent Female Students in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenzel, Lucia Marques; Saha, Lawrence J.; Guareschi, Pedrinho

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this paper are (a) to investigate how adolescents perceive and represent the body form with respect to being fat or thin, and (b) to describe the process of how they constructed the social representations for these latter two body conditions. The data were collected by means of individual and focus group interviews with adolescent…

  10. Effect of milk fat content on flavor perception of vanilla ice cream.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Marshall, R; Heymann, H; Fernando, L

    1997-12-01

    The effects of milk fat concentration on flavor perception of vanilla ice cream (with 0.5 to 10% fat) were studied by sensory analyses. The percentage of free vanillin in the ice cream was determined by HPLC. The HPLC data showed that the amount of free vanillin decreased when fat content increased. Perceptions of vanilla flavor and sweetness were evaluated by a trained panel using time-intensity methodology. No significant difference was found in sweetness perception. Among 11 time-intensity parameters for vanilla flavor perception, the panel found a significant difference only in the time required to reach maximum vanilla intensity. However, free-choice profiling and a consumer preference panel showed, respectively, that, as fat content was increased, sensory quality improved, and overall preference increased. PMID:9436093

  11. Comparison of two field methods for estimating body fat in different spanish dance disciplines.

    PubMed

    Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón; Marfell-Jones, Mike; Alacid, Fernando; Artero Orta, Pedro; Correas-Gómez, Lorena; Santonja Medina, Fernando; Carnero, Elvis A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate percentage body fat (%BF) differences in three Spanish dance disciplines and to compare skinfold and bioelectrical impedance predictions of body fat percentage in the same sample. Seventy-six female dancers, divided into three groups, Classical (n=23), Spanish (n=29) and Flamenco (n=24), were measured using skinfold measurements at four sites: triceps, subscapular, biceps and iliac crest, and whole body multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance (BIA). The skinfold measures were used to predict body fat percentage via Durnin and Womersley's and Segal, Sun and Yannakoulia equations by BIA. Differences in percent fat mass between groups (Classical, Spanish and Flamenco) were tested by using repeated measures analysis (ANOVA). Also, Pearson's product-moment correlations were performed on the body fat percentage values obtained using both methods. In addition, Bland-Altman plots were used to assess agreement, between anthropometric and BIA methods. Repeated measures analysis of variance did not found differences in %BF between modalities (p<0.05). Fat percentage correlations ranged from r= 0.57 to r=0.97 (all, p<0.001). Bland-Altman analysis revealed differences between BIA Yannakoulia as a reference method with BIA Segal (-0.35 ± 2.32%, 95%CI: -0.89to 0.18, p=0.38), with BIA Sun (-0.73 ± 2.3%, 95%CI: -1.27 to -0.20, p=0.014) and Durnin-Womersley (-2.65 ± 2,48%, 95%CI: -3.22 to -2.07, p<0.0001). It was concluded that body fat percentage estimates by BIA compared with skinfold method were systematically different in young adult female ballet dancers, having a tendency to produce underestimations as %BF increased with Segal and Durnin-Womersley equations compared to Yannakoulia, concluding that these methods are not interchangeable. PMID:25238839

  12. Bone, fat, and body composition: evolving concepts in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Clifford J; Klibanski, Anne

    2009-05-01

    Disorders of body composition, including obesity and osteoporosis, have reached record proportions. Coincidentally, our understanding of the mechanisms controlling body mass also has greatly improved. Shared regulation at the hypothalamus and the bone marrow highlight major bone-fat interactions. The hypothalamus modulates fat and bone via the sympathetic nervous system by regulating appetite, insulin sensitivity, energy use, and skeletal remodeling. In the bone marrow, fat and bone cells arise from the same stem cells. Insights from disorders such as anorexia nervosa provide a new rationale for examining the mechanisms that link bone to fat. This article explores these relationships in the context of a new paradigm with implications for obesity and osteoporosis. PMID:19375545

  13. Measurements of body fat distribution: assessment of collinearity with body mass, adiposity and height in female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Serrano, Hiara Miguel Stanciola; Carvalho, Gisele Queiroz; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE : To verify the correlation between body fat location measurements with the body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%) and height, according to the nutritional status in female adolescents. METHODS : A controlled cross-sectional study was carried out with 113 adolescents (G1: 38 with normal weight, but with high body fat level, G2: 40 with normal weight and G3: 35 overweight) from public schools in Viçosa-MG, Brazil. The following measures were assessed: weight, height, waist circumference (WC), umbilical circumference (UC), hip circumference (HC), thigh circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR), conicity index (CI), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), coronal diameter (CD), central (CS) and peripheral skinfolds (PS). The BF% was assessed by tetrapolar electric bioimpedance. RESULTS : The increase in central fat, represented by WC, UC, WHtR, SAD, CD and CS, and the increase in peripheral fat indicated by HC and thigh circumference were proportional to the increase in BMI and BF%. WC and especially the UC showed the strongest correlations with adiposity. Weak correlation between WHR, WTR, CI and CS/PS with adiposity were observed. The height showed correlation with almost all the fat location measures, being fair or weak with waist measurements. CONCLUSIONS : The results indicate colinearity between body mass and total adiposity with central and peripheral adipose tissue. We recommend the use of UC for assessing nutritional status of adolescents, as it showed the highest capacity to predict adiposity in each group, and also showed fair or weak correlation with height. PMID:25623729

  14. Mechanisms of TiO2 NPs-induced phoxim metabolism in silkworm (Bombyx mori) fat body.

    PubMed

    Hu, J S; Li, F C; Xu, K Z; Ni, M; Wang, B B; Tian, J H; Li, Y Y; Shen, W D; Li, B

    2016-05-01

    Silkworm is an important economic insect. Abuse of organophosphorus pesticides in recent years often leads to poisoning of silkworms, which significantly affects sericulture development by reducing silk production. Previous studies have shown that TiO2 NPs can effectively mitigate the damages caused by organophosphorus pesticides in silk glands and nerve tissues. The fat body is an important metabolic detoxification organ of silkworms, but it is unknown whether TiO2 NPs affect pesticide metabolism in fat body. In this study, we characterized the transcription of antioxidant genes and enzyme activity in fat body after TiO2 NPs and phoxim treatments using transcriptome sequencing, real-time PCR, and enzyme activity assay. Transcriptome sequencing detected 10 720, 10 641, 10 403, and 10 489 genes for control group, TiO2 NPs group, phoxim group, and TiO2 NPs+phoxim group, respectively. The TiO2 NPs+phoxim group had 705 genes with significantly differential expression (FDR<0.001), among which the antioxidant genes thioredoxin reductase 1 and glutathione S-transferase omega 3 were significantly upregulated. In phoxim group, the expression levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase delta (GSTd), and thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx) were increased by 1.365 -fold, 1.335 -fold, 1.642 -fold, and 1.765 -fold, respectively. The level changes of SOD, CAT, GSTd, and TPx were validated by real time PCR. The contents of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were increased by 1.598 -fold, 1.946 -fold, and 1.506 -fold, respectively, indicating that TiO2 NPs treatment can relieve phoxim-induced oxidative stress. To clarify the mechanism of TiO2 NPs's effect, the transcription levels of P450 gene family were measured for the TiO2 NPs+phoxim group; the expression levels of CYP4M5, CYP6AB4, CYP6A8, and CYP9G3 were elevated by 2.784 -fold, 3.047 -fold, 2.254 -fold, and 4.253 -fold, respectively, suggesting that

  15. Height, adiposity and body fat distribution and breast density in young women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Breast density is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer, but determinants of breast density in young women remain largely unknown. Methods Associations of height, adiposity and body fat distribution with percentage dense breast volume (%DBV) and absolute dense breast volume (ADBV) were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of 174 healthy women, 25 to 29 years old. Adiposity and body fat distribution were measured by anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), while %DBV and ADBV were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Associations were evaluated using linear mixed-effects models. All tests of statistical significance are two-sided. Results Height was significantly positively associated with %DBV but not ADBV; for each standard deviation (SD) increase in height, %DBV increased by 18.7% in adjusted models. In contrast, all measures of adiposity and body fat distribution were significantly inversely associated with %DBV; a SD increase in body mass index (BMI), percentage fat mass, waist circumference and the android:gynoid fat mass ratio (A:G ratio) was each associated significantly with a 44.4 to 47.0% decrease in %DBV after adjustment for childhood BMI and other covariates. Although associations were weaker than for %DBV, all measures of adiposity and body fat distribution also were significantly inversely associated with ADBV before adjustment for childhood BMI. After adjustment for childhood BMI, however, only the DXA measures of percentage fat mass and A:G ratio remained significant; a SD increase in each was associated with a 13.8 to 19.6% decrease in ADBV. In mutually adjusted analysis, the percentage fat mass and the A:G ratio remained significantly inversely associated with %DBV, but only the A:G ratio was significantly associated with ADBV; a SD increase in the A:G ratio was associated with an 18.5% decrease in ADBV. Conclusion Total adiposity and body fat distribution are independently inversely associated with

  16. Increased Akt signaling in the mosquito fat body increases adult survivorship.

    PubMed

    Arik, Anam J; Hun, Lewis V; Quicke, Kendra; Piatt, Michael; Ziegler, Rolf; Scaraffia, Patricia Y; Badgandi, Hemant; Riehle, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    Akt signaling regulates diverse physiologies in a wide range of organisms. We examine the impact of increased Akt signaling in the fat body of 2 mosquito species, the Asian malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi and the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Overexpression of a myristoylated and active form of A. stephensi and Ae. aegypti Akt in the fat body of transgenic mosquitoes led to activation of the downstream signaling molecules forkhead box O (FOXO) and p70 S6 kinase in a tissue and blood meal-specific manner. In both species, increased Akt signaling in the fat body after blood feeding significantly increased adult survivorship relative to nontransgenic sibling controls. In A. stephensi, survivorship was increased by 15% to 45%, while in Ae. aegypti, it increased 14% to 47%. Transgenic mosquitoes fed only sugar, and thus not expressing active Akt, had no significant difference in survivorship relative to nontransgenic siblings. Expression of active Akt also increased expression of fat body vitellogenin, but the number of viable eggs did not differ significantly between transgenic and nontransgenic controls. This work demonstrates a novel mechanism of enhanced survivorship through increased Akt signaling in the fat bodies of multiple mosquito genera and provides new tools to unlock the molecular underpinnings of aging in eukaryotic organisms. PMID:25550465

  17. 20-hydroxyecdysone upregulates Atg genes to induce autophagy in the Bombyx fat body

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ling; Ma, Li; Guo, Enen; Deng, Xiaojuan; Ma, Sanyuan; Xia, Qingyou; Cao, Yang; Li, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is finely regulated at multiple levels and plays crucial roles in development and disease. In the fat body of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, autophagy occurs and Atg gene expression peaks during the nonfeeding molting and pupation stages when the steroid hormone (20-hydroxyecdysone; 20E) is high. Injection of 20E into the feeding larvae upregulated Atg genes and reduced TORC1 activity resulting in autophagy induction in the fat body. Conversely, RNAi knockdown of the 20E receptor partner (USP) or targeted overexpression of a dominant negative mutant of the 20E receptor (EcRDN) in the larval fat body reduced autophagy and downregulated the Atg genes, confirming the importance of 20E-induction of Atg gene expression during pupation. Moreover, in vitro treatments of the larval fat body with 20E upregulated the Atg genes. Five Atg genes were potentially 20E primary-responsive, and a 20E response element was identified in the Atg1 (ortholog of human ULK1) promoter region. Furthermore, RNAi knockdown of 4 key genes (namely Br-C, E74, HR3 and βftz-F1) in the 20E-triggered transcriptional cascade reduced autophagy and downregulated Atg genes to different levels. Taken together, we conclude that in addition to blocking TORC1 activity for autophagosome initiation, 20E upregulates Atg genes to induce autophagy in the Bombyx fat body. PMID:23674061

  18. A reappraisal of the hormonal regulation of larval fat body histolysis in female Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Richard, D S; Arnim, A E; Gilbert, L I

    1993-02-15

    The histolysis of larval fat body cells in adult female Drosophila melanogaster was examined in wild type and mutant animals. The fat body cells of wild type (Canton-S), apterous56f homozygotes, apterous78jts homozygotes and heterozygotes, apterous4/+, ecdysoneless1 homozygotes and heterozygotes all underwent histolysis normally during the 72 h following adult eclosion. Only in the case of ap4/ap4 adults did the cells fail to histolyze normally. The fat body cells of both diapausing and non-diapausing wild type females underwent histolysis at the same rate. Attempts to demonstrate histolysis in vitro were unsuccessful, even in the presence of juvenile hormones (JHs), larval ring glands, or adult ovaries. In all strains other than the ap4 homozygotes, a significant proportion of larval fat body cells were dead at any time while the ap4/ap4 animals, almost all cells remained viable. It is postulated that fat body cell lysis following eclosion is not a JH-mediated event, but is elicited by an as yet unidentified factor(s), possibly originating in the ovary. PMID:8440351

  19. Effect of blending and emulsification on thermal behavior, solid fat content, and microstructure properties of palm oil-based margarine fats.

    PubMed

    Saadi, S; Ariffin, A A; Ghazali, H M; Miskandar, M S; Abdulkarim, S M; Boo, H C

    2011-01-01

    The ability of palm oil (PO) to crystallize as beta prime polymorph has made it an attractive option for the production of margarine fat (MF). Palm stearin (PS) expresses similar crystallization behavior and is considered one of the best substitutes of hydrogenated oils due to its capability to impart the required level of plasticity and body to the finished product. Normally, PS is blended with PO to reduce the melting point at body temperature (37 °C). Lipid phase, formulated by PO and PS in different ratios were subjected to an emulsification process and the following analyses were done: triacylglycerols, solid fat content (SFC), and thermal behavior. In addition, the microstructure properties, including size and number of crystals, were determined for experimental MFs (EMFs) and commercial MFs (CMFs). Results showed that blending and emulsification at PS levels over 40 wt% significantly changed the physicochemical and microstructure properties of EMF as compared to CMF, resulting in a desirable dipalmitoyl-oleoyl-glycerol content of less than 36.1%. SFC at 37 °C, crystal size, crystal number, crystallization, and melting enthalpies (ΔH) were 15%, 5.37 μm, 1425 crystal/μm(2), 17.25 J/g, and 57.69J/g, respectively. All data reported indicate that the formation of granular crystals in MFs was dominated by high-melting triacylglycerol namely dipalmitoyl-oleoyl-glycerol, while the small dose of monoacylglycerol that is used as emulsifier slowed crystallization rate. Practical Application: Most of the past studies were focused on thermal behavior of edible oils and some blends of oils and fats. The crystallization of oils and fats are well documented but there is scarce information concerning some mechanism related to crystallization and emulsification. Therefore, this study will help to gather information on the behavior of emulsifier on crystallization regime; also the dominating TAG responsible for primary granular crystal formations, as well as to determine

  20. Does the Effect of Supervised Cardiac Rehabilitation Programs on Body Fat Distribution Remained Long Time?

    PubMed Central

    Nalini, Mehdi; Moradi, Bahieh; Esmaeilzadeh, Maryam; Maleki, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: An increased accumulation of fat in the intra-abdominal cavity is highly correlated with adverse coronary risk profiles. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) produces a host of health benefits related to modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. Further research is needed to define better program for weight loss and risk improvement in coronary patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of supervised and unsupervised cardiac rehabilitation program on body composition and body fat distribution in a population with coronary artery disease. Methods: The study investigated 167 patients with coronary artery disease (73% males; mean age = 52.67±9.11 years) before and after a supervised protocol cardiac rehabilitation program, and 12-months later. Target variables included body fat distribution indices (waist and hip circumference and waist to hip ratio), weight and body mass index. Results: Weight, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio and body mass index significantly decreased with 2 month supervised program (P<0.001), but hip circumference was not significantly changed. Males improved to a greater extent than the female patients. All of measurements relatively returned to baseline at the end of program (after 12 months). Conclusion: Supervised cardiac rehabilitation program results in improvements in body composition and body fat distribution. The effects of non-supervised program were minimal and the program needed to be reviewed. PMID:24404342

  1. Correlation of Air Displacement Plethysmography with Alternative Body Fat Measurement Techniques in Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    REINERT, BRITTANY L.; POHLMAN, ROBERTA; HARTZLER, LYNN

    2012-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions with serious health consequences. Techniques used to measure body fat (BF) yield variable BF estimates, and this variability may lead to underestimation or overestimation of BF and subsequent treatment options. The measurements that are most accurate (Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) and Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP)) are expensive and often unavailable. The purpose of this study is to find the commonly available BF measurement that is the most accurate and practical for individual body types in the general population and compare these measurements to ADP (BOD POD®) as the standard. Field measurements include skinfolds (SKF), upper, lower, and whole body bioelectrical impedance (BI), waist and hip circumference ratios, body mass index calculations (BMI), and ADP. Our data indicate that BI is the least accurate measurement of body fat in males and females (paired t-tests of % body fat: BI vs. ADP, p0.05). However, preliminary data suggest female- specific SKF equations more accurately predict body fat in obese males than male-specific SKF equations. Given the current obesity trends, it is imperative to update these formulae to accurately reflect the current population. PMID:27182394

  2. Sertraline inhibits increases in body fat and carbohydrate dysregulation in adult female cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Silverstein-Metzler, Marnie G; Shively, Carol A; Clarkson, Thomas B; Appt, Susan E; Carr, J Jeffrey; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Jones, Sara R; Register, Thomas C

    2016-06-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants are widely prescribed for depression and other disorders. SSRIs have become one of the most commonly used drugs in the United States, particularly by women. Acute effects on body composition and carbohydrate metabolism have been reported, but little is known regarding the effects of chronic SSRI use. We evaluated the effects of chronic administration of a commonly prescribed SSRI, sertraline HCl, on body weight and composition, fat distribution, carbohydrate metabolism, as well as activity, in adult female depressed and nondepressed cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis; n=42) using a placebo-controlled, longitudinal, randomized study design. Phenotypes were evaluated prior to and after 18 months of oral sertraline (20mg/kg) or placebo. Over the 18 month treatment period, the placebo group experienced increases in body weight, body fat (visceral and subcutaneous) fasting insulin concentrations, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance scores (HOMA-IR). Sertraline treatment prevented increases in body weight, fat, insulin, and HOMA-IR (all p<0.05), without significantly altering activity levels. Sertraline treatment altered adiponectin in an unusual way - reducing circulating adiponectin in depressed monkeys without affecting fat mass or body weight. Deleterious effects on adiponectin, a potentially insulin-sensitizing and atheroprotective protein, may result in adverse effects on cardiovascular health despite otherwise beneficial effects on body composition and carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:26939086

  3. Peer pressure to "Fat talk": Does audience type influence how women portray their body image?

    PubMed

    Craig, Ashley B; Martz, Denise M; Bazzini, Doris G

    2007-04-01

    "Fat talk" describes women discussing their bodies disparangingly for impression management while interacting with one another. This study examined whether college females deliberately alter their self-reported body image according to characteristics of their prospective audience. This study was a mixed experimental design with four audience conditions (private, public, female audience, male audience) as the between-subjects factor and time across trials as the within-subjects factor using college females as participants (N=100). Pre versus posttest changes on the Body Esteem Scale (BES) and the Body Weight Figure Assessment (BWFA) served as the dependent variables. It was hypothesized that body image would decrease to indicate self-derogation (fat talk) in the public audience and female audience conditions, whereas body image would increase in the male audience condition. These hypotheses were not supported using repeated measures ANOVA. Strengths and weaknesses of the study are discussed. PMID:17336794

  4. Evaluation of body weight, body mass index, and body fat percentage changes in early stages of fixed orthodontic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sandeep, K. Sai; Singaraju, Gowri Sankar; Reddy, V. Karunakar; Mandava, Prasad; Bhavikati, Venkata N.; Reddy, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage (BFP) during the initial stages of fixed orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: The sample for this observational prospective study included 68 individuals with fixed orthodontic appliance in the age group of 18–25 years of both the sexes (25 males and 43 females). The control group consisted of 60 individuals (24 males and 36 females). The weight, BMI, and BFP were measured using a Body Composition Monitor at three points of time “T1” initial; “T2” after 1 month; and “T2” after 3 months. The results were tabulated and analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. The mean changes between different parameters in both the study and control groups and between males and females in the study group was compared by using two-tailed unpaired student's t-test. The statistical significance is set atP ≤ 0.05. Results: There was an overall decrease in the body weight, BMI, and BFP after 1 month in the study cohort, which was statistically significant compared to the control group (P < 0.0001). This was followed by an increase in the parameters after the end of the 3rd month. Comparison of the parameters between the study and control group at the start of the treatment and at the end of the 3rd month had no statistical significance. There was a marked variation in the changes of these parameters between males and females of the study group, which is statistically significant (<0.0001). Conclusion: There is a definite reduction in the weight, BMP, and BMI at the end of the first month followed by a gain of weight, but not at the initial point by the end of the 3rd month. PMID:27583224

  5. Leptin responses to overfeeding: relationship with body fat and nonexercise activity thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Levine, J A; Eberhardt, N L; Jensen, M D

    1999-08-01

    Administration of leptin to rodents results in weight loss through decreased food intake and increased energy expenditure that occurs in part through increased spontaneous activity. In humans, low levels of spontaneous physical activity and below normal plasma leptin concentrations predict subsequent excess weight gain. We recently found that failure to increase nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) with overfeeding results in greater fat gain in humans, and subsequently evaluated whether changes in leptin are related to NEAT activation. We measured plasma leptin concentrations and adipose tissue leptin messenger ribonucleic acid together with the components of energy expenditure in 16 nonobese humans before and after overfeeding to assess the relationship between leptin responses to overfeeding and the changes in NEAT. Adipocyte leptin expression was up-regulated with overfeeding, and leptin concentrations increased. Leptin concentrations correlated with body fat before and after overfeeding. Changes in leptin with overfeeding were strongly related to changes in body fat, but not to changes in NEAT. Changes in NEAT correlated inversely with fat gain. It is, therefore, unlikely that leptin mediates activation of NEAT with overfeeding in nonobese humans; rather, leptin directly reflects body fat mass and fat mass gain. PMID:10443673

  6. Body Fatness at Young Ages and Risk of Breast Cancer Throughout Life

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Heather J.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Willett, Walter C.

    2010-01-01

    Body fatness at young ages may be related to breast cancer risk independently of adult adiposity. The authors conducted a prospective analysis among 188,860 women (7,582 breast cancer cases) in the Nurses’ Health Study (1988–2004) and Nurses’ Health Study II (1989–2005) who recalled their body fatness at ages 5, 10, and 20 years using a 9-level pictogram (level 1: most lean; level 9: most overweight). Body fatness at young ages was inversely associated with risk of both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer (per 1-unit increase in adolescent body fatness, relative risk (RR) = 0.88 and RR = 0.91, respectively; Ptrend < 0.0001). Among all women, the RR for adolescent body fatness of level 6.5 or higher versus level 1 was 0.57 (per 1-unit increase, RR = 0.90; Ptrend < 0.0001) and was unaffected by adjustment for current body mass index. The association was stronger for women with birth weights under 8.5 pounds (<3.9 kg) than for women with birth weights of 8.5 pounds or more (≥3.9 kg) (per 1-unit increase, RR = 0.89 and RR = 0.94, respectively; Pinteraction = 0.04) and stronger for estrogen receptor-negative tumors than for estrogen receptor-positive tumors (per 1-unit increase, RR = 0.86 and RR = 0.92, respectively; Pheterogeneity = 0.03). Body fatness at young ages has a strong and independent inverse relation to breast cancer risk throughout life. PMID:20460303

  7. Body Fat Patterning, Hepatic Fat and Pancreatic Volume of Non-Obese Asian Indians with Type 2 Diabetes in North India: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Anoop; Anoop, Shajith; Gulati, Seema; Mani, Kalaivani; Bhatt, Surya Prakash; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate body fat patterning and phenotype including hepatic fat and pancreatic volume of non-obese (BMI: < 25 kg/m2) Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes residing in North India. Methods Non-obese patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 93) and non-obese, normo-glycemic subjects (n = 40) were recruited. BMI, waist & hip circumferences, skinfold thickness at 8 sites, body fat, lean mass and detailed abdominal fat evaluation [total abdominal fat, total subcutaneous fat (superficial, deep, anterior, and posterior), total intra-abdominal fat (intra-peritoneal, retroperitoneal)], liver span, grades of fatty liver and pancreatic volume were compared. Results Waist circumference, subscapular skinfolds and total truncal fat (on DEXA) were higher whereas calf, total peripheral skinfolds and total leg fat (on DEXA) lower in patients. Specifically, the following volumes were higher in cases as compared to controls; total abdominal fat (19.4%), total intra-abdominal fat (49.7%), intra-peritoneal fat (47.7%), retroperitoneal fat (70.7%), pancreatic volume (26.6%), pancreatic volume index (21.3%) and liver span (10.8%). In cases, significant positive correlations were observed for pancreatic volume with BMI, waist and hip circumferences, W-HR, subscapular, abdominal and total truncal skinfolds, truncal, total subcutaneous, total intra-abdominal, intra-peritoneal, retroperitoneal fat depots, liver span and fatty liver. Conclusions In non-obese Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal obesity, including fatty liver, and pancreatic volume were higher and peripheral subcutaneous adiposity was lower than BMI matched non-diabetic subjects. Importantly, increased pancreatic volume in patients was highly correlated with multiple measures of abdominal obesity and liver fat. PMID:26474415

  8. Restricted selection index in mice designed to change body fat without changing body weight: correlated responses.

    PubMed

    Eisen, E J

    1992-07-01

    Correlated responses were studied in lines of mice selected for eight generations based on the criterion of a restricted selection index. Two replicate lines were selected in each treatment as follows: HE, high epididymal fat pad weight (EF) with zero change in body weight (BW) at 12 weeks of age; LE; low EF with zero change in BW; and RS, randomly. Correlated responses showed considerable variation between replicates, suggesting that genetic drift was important. Further, correlated responses for most traits were relatively small, probably because of low selection intensity. The HE line responded as expected in component traits of the restricted index. Associated compositional traits in HE responded as predicted since traits correlated with adiposity increased and hind carcass weight did not change significantly. Feed intake increased and feed efficiency (weight gain/feed intake) decreased in HE, as predicted. In contrast, the LE line did not respond in component traits as predicted since EF did not decrease and BW increased. Consequently, LE exhibited little change in traits associated with adiposity, but hind carcass weight, feed intake and feed efficiency increased. Of the correlated responses scored for fitness traits (littering rate, number of days from pairing of mate to littering, litter size and preweaning pup survival rate), significant effects were found for decreased littering rate in LE and increased prenatal survival rate in HE. In summary, correlated responses to restricted index selection generally agreed with expectation when responses in component traits of the index were considered. PMID:24203189

  9. Relative body fat and anthropometric prediction of body density of female athletes.

    PubMed

    Withers, R T; Whittingham, N O; Norton, K I; La Forgia, J; Ellis, M W; Crockett, A

    1987-01-01

    Ninety-one percent (n = 182) of the female members of South Australian representative squads in 14 sports volunteered to act as subjects. Twenty-seven percent of them had represented Australia. The underwater weighing method together with the measurement of residual volume (RV) by helium dilution were used to determine body density (BD); the percent body fat (% BF) was then computed according to Siri. A stepwise multiple regression analysis yielded a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.863 between the criterion (BD) and the best weighted sum of predictors (anthropometric variables): BD (g X cm-3) = 1.14075-0.04959 (log10 sigma triceps, subscapular, supraspinale and calf skinfolds in mm) + 0.00044 (age in decimal years)-0.000612 (waist girth in cm) + 0.000284 (height in cm)-0.000505 (gluteal girth in cm) + 0.000331 (breast girth in cm). Only those predictors which resulted in a statistically significant increase in R (p less than or equal to 0.05) were included. The standard error of estimate of 0.00597 g X cm-3 was equivalent to 2.7% BF at the mean. This equation was shown to be largely population specific. There was a range of 7.6-35.8% of BF and the overall mean 18.5% was significantly lower (p less than 0.001) than that of 23.4% obtained on a moderately active reference sample of similar age (n = 135). If group sizes of only one or two are regarded as too small for meaningful comparison, then the lowest mean of 13.5% was achieved by the long-distance runners (n = 14). The highest averages were registered by the heavyweight rowers (24.2%; n = 7) and soccer players (22.0%; n = 11). The overall average for games players (n = 107) was 19.4%. PMID:3569223

  10. Non-destructive determination of fat content in green hams using ultrasound and X-rays.

    PubMed

    de Prados, M; Fulladosa, E; Gou, P; Muñoz, I; Garcia-Perez, J V; Benedito, J

    2015-06-01

    This work addresses the use of ultrasound (US) and medical dual energy X-ray absorptiometry methods to predict the fat content in green pork hams. Ultrasonic velocity (υ) and X-ray absorption were measured in 78 green hams. An increase in the fat content involved an increase in υ and a decrease in the X-ray attenuation measured at 2°C. Models developed to predict the fat content from the ultrasonic velocity or X-ray parameters provided errors of 2.97% and 4.65%, respectively. The combination of both US and X-ray technologies did not improve prediction accuracy. These models allowed green hams to be classified into three levels of fatness, with 88.5% and 65.4% of the hams correctly classified when using models based on ultrasonic and X-ray parameters, respectively. Therefore, US and X-rays emerge as useful quality control technologies with which to estimate the fat content in green pork hams. PMID:25687033

  11. Comparison of variations between percentage of body fat, body mass index and daily physical activity among young Japanese and Thai female students

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In our series of investigations concerning the causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students, we could not find any contribution of seasonal variation in the ratio of carbohydrate and fat metabolism to that of body fat percentage in Japanese and Thai participants. After our previous study, we examined the effect of daily physical activity on body fat percentage to look for the major causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students. Findings In this study, we measured participants’ (young Japanese and Thai university students) daily physical activity by a uniaxial accelerometer in addition to the measurements of body fat percentage and body mass index by a bioelectrical impedance meter. We found that there was significant and moderate negative correlation between body fat percentage and daily step counts among Japanese but not Thai participants. We observed significant, moderate and positive correlations between the percentage of body fat and body mass index among Japanese and Thai participants. Conclusions Daily physical activity plays an important role in the seasonal variation of body fat percentage of Japanese female students. Our present study also confirmed the importance of daily physical activity for controlling body mass index and for the prevention of obesity. PMID:22894563

  12. Adipokines, hormones related to body composition, and insulin resistance in HIV fat redistribution syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lipodystrophies are characterized by adipose tissue redistribution, insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic complications. Adipokines and hormones related to body composition may play an important role linking these alterations. Our aim was to evaluate adipocyte-derived hormones (adiponectin, leptin, resistin, TNF-α, PAI-1) and ghrelin plasma levels and their relationship with IR in HIV-infected patients according to the presence of lipodystrophy and fat redistribution. Methods Anthropometric and metabolic parameters, HOMA-IR, body composition by DXA and CT, and adipokines were evaluated in 217 HIV-infected patients on cART and 74 controls. Fat mass ratio defined lipodystrophy (L-FMR) was defined as the ratio of the percentage of the trunk fat mass to the percentage of the lower limb fat mass by DXA. Patient’s fat redistribution was classified into 4 different groups according the presence or absence of either clinical lipoatrophy or abdominal prominence: no lipodystrophy, isolated central fat accumulation (ICFA), isolated lipoatrophy and mixed forms (MXF). The associations between adipokines levels and anthropometric, metabolic and body composition were estimated by Spearman correlation. Results Leptin levels were lower in patients with FMR-L and isolated lipoatrophy, and higher in those with ICFA and MXF. Positive correlations were found between leptin and body fat (total, trunk, leg, arm fat evaluated by DXA, and total, visceral (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and VAT/SAT ratio evaluated by CT) regardless of FMR-L, and with HOMA-IR only in patients with FMR-L. Adiponectin correlated negatively with VAT, and its mean levels were lower in patients with ICFA and higher in those with no lipodystrophy. Resistin was not correlated with adipose tissue but positively correlated with HOMA-IR in FMR-L patients. PAI-1 levels were higher in MXF-patients and their levels were positively correlated with VAT in those with FMR-L. Ghrelin was higher in HIV

  13. Age- and Gender Dependent Liver Fat Content in a Healthy Normal BMI Population as Quantified by Fat-Water Separating DIXON MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ulbrich, Erika J.; Fischer, Michael A.; Manoliu, Andrei; Marcon, Magda; Luechinger, Roger; Nanz, Daniel; Reiner, Caecilia S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To establish age- and sex-dependent values of magnetic resonance (MR) liver fat-signal fraction (FSF) in healthy volunteers with normal body-mass index (BMI). Methods 2-point mDIXON sequences (repetition time/echo time, 4.2msec/1.2msec, 3.1msec) at 3.0 Tesla MR were acquired in 80 healthy volunteers with normal BMI (18.2 to 25.7 kg/m2) between 20 and 62 years (10 men/10 women per decade). FSF was measured in 5 liver segments (segment II, III, VI, VII, VIII) based on mean signal intensities in regions of interest placed on mDIXON-based water and fat images. Multivariate general linear models were used to test for significant differences between BMI-corrected FSF among age subgroups. Pearson and Spearman correlations between FSF and several body measures were calculated. Results Mean FSF (%) ± standard deviations significantly differed between women (3.91 ± 1.10) and men (4.69 ± 1.38) and varied with age for women/men (p-value: 0.002/0.027): 3.05 ± 0.49/3.74 ± 0.60 (age group 20–29), 3.75 ± 0.66/4.99 ± 1.30 (30–39), 4.76 ± 1.16/5.25 ± 1.97 (40–49) and 4.09 ± 1.26/4.79 ± 0.93 (50–62). FSF differences among age subgroups were significant for women only (p = 0.003). Conclusions MR-based liver fat content is higher in men and peaks in the fifth decade for both genders. PMID:26554709

  14. ßFTZ-F1 and Matrix metalloproteinase 2 are required for fat-body remodeling in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Bond, Nichole D; Nelliot, Archana; Bernardo, Marsha K; Ayerh, Melanie A; Gorski, Kathryn A; Hoshizaki, Deborah K; Woodard, Craig T

    2011-12-15

    During metamorphosis, holometabolous insects eliminate obsolete larval tissues via programmed cell death. In contrast, tissues required for further development are retained and often remodeled to meet the needs of the adult fly. The larval fat body is involved in fueling metamorphosis, and thus it escapes cell death and is instead remodeled during prepupal development. The molecular mechanisms by which the fat body escapes programmed cell death have not yet been described, but it has been established that fat-body remodeling requires 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) signaling. We have determined that 20E signaling is required within the fat body for the cell-shape changes and cell detachment that are characteristic of fat-body remodeling. We demonstrate that the nuclear hormone receptor ßFTZ-F1 is a key modulator of 20E hormonal induction of fat body remodeling and Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) expression in the fat body. We show that induction of MMP2 expression in the fat body requires 20E signaling, and that MMP2 is necessary and sufficient to induce fat-body remodeling. PMID:21978772

  15. Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera: Apidae) fat body persists through metamorphosis with a few apoptotic cells and an increased autophagy.

    PubMed

    Santos, Douglas Elias; Azevedo, Dihego Oliveira; Campos, Lúcio Antônio Oliveira; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2015-03-01

    Fat body, typically comprising trophocytes, provides energy during metamorphosis. The fat body can be renewed once the larval phase is complete or recycled and relocated to form the fat body of the adult insect. This study aims to identify the class of programmed cell death that occurs within the fat body cells during the metamorphosis of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata. Using immunodetection techniques, the fat body of the post-defecating larvae and the white-, pink-, brown-, and black-eyed pupae were tested for cleaved caspase-3 and DNA integrity, followed by ultrastructural analysis and identification of autophagy using RT-PCR for the Atg1 gene. The fat body of M. quadrifasciata showed some apoptotic cells positive for cleaved caspase-3, although without DNA fragmentation. During development, the fat body cells revealed an increased number of mitochondria and free ribosomes, in addition to higher amounts of autophagy Atg1 mRNA, than that of the pupae. The fat body of M. quadrifasciata showed few cells which underwent apoptosis, but there was evidence of increased autophagy at the completion of the larval stage. All together, these data show that some fat body cells persist during metamorphosis in the stingless bee M. quadrifasciata. PMID:25269629

  16. Gains in body fat and vasomotor symptom reporting over the menopausal transition: the study of women's health across the nation.

    PubMed

    Thurston, Rebecca C; Sowers, MaryFran R; Sternfeld, Barbara; Gold, Ellen B; Bromberger, Joyce; Chang, Yuefang; Joffe, Hadine; Crandall, Carolyn J; Waetjen, L Elaine; Matthews, Karen A

    2009-09-15

    Although most women report vasomotor symptoms (hot flashes, night sweats) during midlife, their etiology and risk factors are incompletely understood. Body fat is positively associated with vasomotor symptoms cross-sectionally, but the longitudinal relation between changes in body fat and vasomotor symptoms is uncharacterized. The study aim was to examine whether gains in body fat were related to vasomotor symptom reporting over time. Measures of bioelectrical impedance for body fat, reproductive hormones, and reported vasomotor symptoms were assessed annually over 4 years from 2002 to 2006 among 1,659 women aged 47-59 years participating in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Body fat change was examined in relation to vasomotor symptoms by using generalized estimating equations. Body fat gains were associated with greater odds of reporting hot flashes in models adjusted for age, site, race/ethnicity, education, smoking, parity, anxiety, and menopausal status (relative to stable body fat, gain: odds ratio = 1.23, 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 1.48; P = 0.03; loss: odds ratio = 1.07, 95% confidence interval: 0.89, 1.29; P = 0.45). Findings persisted controlling for estradiol, the free estradiol index, or follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations. The relations between body fat changes and night sweats were not statistically significant. Body fat gains are associated with greater hot flash reporting during the menopausal transition. PMID:19675142

  17. Endurance in high-fat-fed rats: effects of carbohydrate content and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Helge, J W; Ayre, K; Chaunchaiyakul, S; Hulbert, A J; Kiens, B; Storlien, L H

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to study endurance performance and substrate storage and utilization in fat- or carbohydrate-fed rats. Ninety-nine rats were randomly divided into three groups and over 4 wk were fed either a carbohydrate-rich [CHO; 10% total energy content in the diet (E%) fat, 20 E% protein, 70 E% carbohydrate] diet or one of two fat-rich diets (65 E% fat, 20 E% protein, 15 E% carbohydrate) containing either saturated (Sat) or monounsaturated fatty acids (Mono). Each dietary group was randomly assigned to a trained (6 days/wk, progressive to 60 min, 28 m/min at a 10% incline) or a sedentary group. Rats were killed either before or after a treadmill endurance run to exhaustion. Training increased endurance (206%), but diet composition did not affect endurance in either trained or sedentary rats. beta-Hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity was increased in fat-fed but not carbohydrate-fed rats (P < 0.05). Respiratory exchange ratio during the initial phase of exercise was lower after the Mono compared with the Sat diet (P < 0. 05) and higher after the CHO than the Sat diet (P < 0.05). Thus adaptation to a high-fat diet containing a moderate amount of carbohydrates did not induce enhanced endurance in either trained or untrained rats; however, substrate utilization was modulated by both amount and type of dietary fat during the initial stage of exercise in trained and sedentary rats. PMID:9760326

  18. Effect of body fat mass and nutritional status on 24-hour leptin profiles in ewes.

    PubMed

    Daniel, J A; Whitlock, B K; Baker, J A; Steele, B; Morrison, C D; Keisler, D H; Sartin, J L

    2002-04-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of feeding or fasting of fat or thin ewes on 24-h leptin profiles. Ewes were assigned, based on ultrasonic assessments of last-rib subcutaneous fat measurements, into fat (fat thickness > 1 cm; mean = 1.52 +/- 0.03 cm; range 1.14 to 2.18 cm) or thin (fat thickness < 1 cm; mean = 0.25 +/- 0.03 cm; range 0.03 to 0.84 cm) groups. Fat and thin ewes were then assigned to either fed or fasted (deprived of feed) groups consisting of five ewes per group. Thus, four groups existed and were designated as fat-fed, fat-fasted, thin-fed, and thin-fasted. Fed ewes had ad libitum access to feed throughout the study. Fasted ewes were prohibited access to feed beginning 48 h preceding the experiment. Plasma samples were collected for leptin analysis from ewes every 15 min for 24 h beginning 48 h after the initiation of feed restriction or the congruent interval in fed ewes. Data were subjected to CLUSTER pulse analysis procedures. Profiles of plasma concentrations of leptin were episodic in nature and did not differ in a diurnal manner. Fed ewes had greater mean concentrations of leptin, area under the curve, number of peaks, peak height, peak nadir, and a shorter interval between peaks than fasted ewes (P < or = 0.05). Fat ewes had greater mean concentrations of leptin, area under the curve, number of peaks, peak height, peak nadir, and a shorter interval between peaks than thin ewes (P < 0.02). There also was a tendency for a body condition x treatment interaction for number of peaks (P = 0.073) and interval between peaks (P = 0.056). These results provide evidence that plasma concentrations of leptin are episodic in nature and are influenced by nutritive state and fat thickness over the ribs, but display no circadian variation. PMID:12002315

  19. The D299G/T399I Toll-Like Receptor 4 Variant Associates with Body and Liver Fat: Results from the TULIP and METSIM Studies

    PubMed Central

    Weyrich, Peter; Staiger, Harald; Stančáková, Alena; Machicao, Fausto; Machann, Jürgen; Schick, Fritz; Stefan, Norbert; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Schäfer, Silke; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Background Toll-like-receptor 4 (TLR) is discussed to provide a molecular link between obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance. Genetic studies with replications in non-diabetic individuals in regard to their fat distribution or insulin resistance according to their carrier status of a common toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) variant (TLR4D299G/T399I) are still lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a cross-sectional analysis in individuals phenotyped for prediabetic traits as body fat composition (including magnetic resonance imaging), blood glucose levels and insulin resistance (oral glucose tolerance testing, euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp), according to TLR4 genotype determined by candidate SNP analyses (rs4986790). We analyzed N = 1482 non-diabetic individuals from the TÜF/TULIP cohort (South Germany, aged 39±13 y, BMI 28.5±7.9, mean±SD) and N = 5327 non-diabetic participants of the METSIM study (Finland, males aged 58±6 y, BMI 26.8±3.8) for replication purposes. German TLR4D299G/T399I carriers had a significantly increased body fat (XG in rs4986790: +6.98%, p = 0.03, dominant model, adjusted for age, gender) and decreased insulin sensitivity (XG: −15.3%, Matsuda model, p = 0.04; XG: −20.6%, p = 0.016, clamp; both dominant models adjusted for age, gender, body fat). In addition, both liver fat (AG: +49.7%; p = 0.002) and visceral adipose tissue (AG: +8.2%; p = 0.047, both adjusted for age, gender, body fat) were significantly increased in rs4986790 minor allele carriers, and the effect on liver fat remained significant also after additional adjustment for visceral fat (p = 0.014). The analysis in METSIM confirmed increased body fat content in association with the rare G allele in rs4986790 (AG: +1.26%, GG: +11.0%; p = 0.010, additive model, adjusted for age) and showed a non-significant trend towards decreased insulin sensitivity (AG: −0.99%, GG: −10.62%). Conclusions/Significance TLR4D299G/T399

  20. Prediction of body composition by total body electrical conductivity technique is affected by fat reserves of Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Hyánková, L; Szebestová, Z

    2010-11-01

    The effect of fat accumulation on the prediction of in vivo body composition by a total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) technique was evaluated using Japanese quail at 2 life periods (0 to 21 d and 28 to 70 d of age) that differ significantly in the fatness of birds. In total, 119 quail of 14 age categories were weighed and scanned by the TOBEC analyzer, and their carcasses were subjected to chemical analysis. The prediction equations for chemical composition (percentage of water, lipids, and lean tissue) and body masses (weight of body, water, lipids, and lean tissue) were obtained by linear regression analysis. The equations involved the E-value as the independent variable. In both growth phases, a high accuracy of estimation was found for the total body, lean, and water masses (0.85 ≤ R(2) ≤ 0.98), whereas a low accuracy of estimation was observed for percentages of lipids, lean tissue, and water (0.27 ≤ R(2) ≤ 0.64). Most of the variables showed a worse estimation in the late than in the early growth phase; the maximum difference was observed for the lipid mass (R(2) = 0.35 vs. 0.90, respectively). The correlations between analyzed variables and the residual error distributions of regression models demonstrated that the lower power of the models in the late versus early growth phase may be attributed to an enhanced fat accumulation in sexually mature birds. Their high fat reserves considerably decrease body hydration, which negatively influences the estimation of body composition based upon the TOBEC procedure. PMID:20952716

  1. Adipokines, cytokines and body fat stores in hepatitis C virus liver steatosis

    PubMed Central

    González-Reimers, Emilio; López-Prieto, Javier; Quintero-Platt, Geraldine; Pelazas-González, Ricardo; Alemán-Valls, M Remedios; Pérez-Hernández, Onán; de-la-Vega-Prieto, M José; Gómez-Rodríguez, M Angeles; Martín-González, Candelaria; Santolaria-Fernández, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To identify patients with or without liver steatosis and its severity in treatment-naïve patients affected by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS: We included 56 HCV infected patients, and assessed the amount of liver fat by histomorphometry, and its relationships with fat and lean mass at different parts of the body (by densitometry), hormones [insulin, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)], adipokines (resistin, adiponectin, leptin), and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6). RESULTS: Although the intensity of liver steatosis is related to trunk fat mass and HOMA, 33% of patients showed no liver steatosis, and this finding was not related to body mass index or genotype. Besides trunk fat mass, no other factor was related to the presence or not of liver steatosis, or to the intensity of it, by multivariate analysis. Lean mass was not related to liver steatosis. Adiponectin levels were lower among patients. No differences were observed in leptin and resistin. CONCLUSION: Steatosis in HCV infection is common (67.2%), and closely related to trunk fat, and insulin resistance, but not with leg fat mass or adipokines. PMID:26783423

  2. Comparison of body fat in Brazilian adult females by bioelectrical impedance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altamir, Vaz; Frère, Slaets Annie France; Ramírez Leonardo, López

    2012-12-01

    Body-fat is essential for human body, provided that its amount is at healthy levels. If in-excess body-fat is deleterious, its lack is otherwise also harmful. Estimated percent body-fat performed with commercially available devices measuring bioimpedance have many advantages, such as easy measurement and low cost. However, these measurements are based on standard models and equations that are not disclosed by manufacturers, and this leads to questioning the validity of these estimates for Brazilian females. The aim of this study was to compare electrical tetrapolar and octapolar impedance results obtained with commercially available equipment: Maltron BF-906 and OMRON 510-W. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics. Devices used in this study to estimate body fat quantity have not shown any significant differences in results; this is a major issue when selecting equipment based on three factors: study focus, available financial resources, and target population. Results obtained from the two devices have not shown any significant differences, which lead to the conclusion that either device may be reliably used.

  3. Effects of body condition score at calving on indicators of fat and protein mobilization of periparturient Holstein-Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    Pires, J A A; Delavaud, C; Faulconnier, Y; Pomiès, D; Chilliard, Y

    2013-10-01

    The objective was to study the effects of body condition score (BCS) at calving on dairy performance, indicators of fat and protein mobilization, and metabolic and hormonal profiles during the periparturient period of Holstein-Friesian cows. Twenty-eight multiparous cows were classed according to their BCS (0 to 5 scale) before calving as low (BCS ≤ 2.5; n=9), medium (2.75 ≤ BCS ≤ 3.5; n=10), and high (BCS ≥ 3.75; n=9), corresponding to a mean of 2.33, 3.13, and 4.17 points of BCS, and preceding calving intervals of 362, 433, and 640 d, respectively. Cows received the same diets based on preserved grass to allow ad libitum feed intake throughout the study, and lactation diet contained 30% of concentrate (dry-matter basis). Measurements and sampling were performed between wk -4 and 7 relative to calving. No significant effects were observed of BCS group on dry matter intake (kg/d), milk yield, BCS loss, plasma glucose, and insulin concentrations. The high-BCS group had the lowest postpartum energy balance and the greatest plasma concentrations of leptin prepartum, nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate postpartum, insulin-like growth factor 1, and milk fat content. Milk fat yield was greater for the high- than the low-BCS group (1,681 vs. 1,417 g/d). Low-BCS cows had the greatest concentration of medium-chain fatty acids (e.g., sum of 10:0 to 15:0, and 16:0), and the lowest concentration and secretion of preformed fatty acids (e.g., cis-9 18:1) in milk fat. Milk protein secretion was lowest in the low-BCS group, averaging 924, 1,051, and 1,009 g/d for low-, medium-, and high-BCS groups, respectively. Plasma 3-methylhistidine was greater in wk 1 and 2 postpartum compared with other time points, indicating mobilization of muscle protein. Plasma creatinine tended to be lower and the 3-methylhistidine: creatinine ratio was greater in low- compared with medium- and high-BCS cows, suggesting less muscle mass but more intense mobilization of muscle

  4. Lean Body Mass Associated with Upper Body Strength in Healthy Older Adults While Higher Body Fat Limits Lower Extremity Performance and Endurance.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Karen; Batterham, Marijka; Langford, Kelly; Lateo, Jenna; Brock, Erin; Walton, Karen; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Eisenhauer, Katie; Green, Nick; McLean, Cameron

    2015-09-01

    Impaired strength adversely influences an older person's ability to perform activities of daily living. A cross-sectional study of 117 independently living men and women (age = 73.4 ± 9.4 year; body mass index (BMI) = 27.6 ± 4.8 kg/m²) aimed to assess the association between body composition and: (1) upper body strength (handgrip strength, HGS); (2) lower extremity performance (timed up and go (TUG) and sit to stand test (STS)); and (3) endurance (6-minute walk (SMWT). Body composition (% fat; lean body mass (LBM)) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Habitual physical activity was measured using the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (MLTPA) and dietary macronutrient intake, assessed using 24 h recalls and 3-day food records. Regression analyses included the covariates, protein intake (g/kg), MLTPA, age and sex. For natural logarithm (Ln) of right HGS, LBM (p < 0.001) and % body fat (p < 0.005) were significant (r² = 46.5%; p < 0.000). For left LnHGS, LBM (p < 0.000), age (p = 0.036), protein intake (p = 0.015) and LnMLTPA (p = 0.015) were significant (r² = 0.535; p < 0.000). For SMW, % body fat, age and LnMLTPA were significant (r² = 0.346; p < 0.000). For STS, % body fat and age were significant (r² = 0.251; p < 0.000). LBM is a strong predictor of upper body strength while higher % body fat and lower physical activity are associated with poorer outcomes on tests of lower extremity performance. PMID:26343709

  5. Long-chain SFA at the sn-1, 3 positions of TAG reduce body fat deposition in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Gouk, Shiou Wah; Cheng, Sit Foon; Mok, Josephine Shiueh Lian; Ong, Augustine Soon Hock; Chuah, Cheng Hock

    2013-12-14

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of positional distribution of long-chain SFA in TAG, especially at the sn-1, 3 positions, on fat deposition using the C57BL/6 mouse model. Throughout the 15 weeks of the study, mice were fed with diets fortified with palm olein (POo), chemically interesterified POo (IPOo) and soyabean oil (SOY). Mice receiving the SOY-enriched diet gained significantly higher amounts of subcutaneous fat (P= 0·011) and total fat (P= 0·013) compared with the POo group, despite similar body mass gain being recorded. During normalisation with food consumption to obtain the fat:feed ratio, mice fed with the POo-enriched diet exhibited significantly lower visceral (P= 0·044), subcutaneous (P= 0·006) and total (P= 0·003) fat:feed than those fed with the SOY-enriched diet. It is noteworthy that mice fed with the IPOo-enriched diet gained 14·3 % more fat per food consumed when compared with the POo group (P= 0·013), despite their identical total fatty acid compositions. This was mainly attributed to the higher content of long-chain SFA at the sn-1, 3 positions of TAG in POo, which results in delayed absorption after deacylation as evidenced by the higher amounts of long-chain SFA excreted in the faeces of mice fed with the POo-enriched diet. Negative correlations were found between the subcutaneous, visceral as well as total fat accretion per food consumption and the total SFA content at the sn-1, 3 positions, while no relationships were found for MUFA and PUFA. The present results show that the positional distribution of long-chain SFA exerts a more profound effect on body fat accretion than the total SFA content. PMID:23756564

  6. Food reward in active compared to inactive men: Roles for gastric emptying and body fat.

    PubMed

    Horner, Katy M; Finlayson, Graham; Byrne, Nuala M; King, Neil A

    2016-06-01

    Habitual exercise could contribute to weight management by altering processes of food reward via the gut-brain axis. We investigated hedonic processes of food reward in active and inactive men and characterised relationships with gastric emptying and body fat. Forty-four men (active: n=22; inactive: n=22, BMI range 21-36kg/m(2); percent fat mass range 9-42%) were studied. Participants were provided with a standardised fixed breakfast and an ad libitum lunch meal 5h later. Explicit liking, implicit wanting and preference among high-fat, low-fat, sweet and savoury food items were assessed immediately post-breakfast (fed state) and again pre-lunch (hungry state) using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. Gastric emptying was assessed by (13)C-octanoic acid breath test. Active individuals exhibited a lower liking for foods overall and a greater implicit wanting for low-fat savoury foods in the fed state, compared to inactive men. Differences in the fed state remained significant after adjusting for percent fat mass. Active men also had a greater increase in liking for savoury foods in the interval between breakfast and lunch. Faster gastric emptying was associated with liking for savoury foods and with an increase in liking for savoury foods in the postprandial interval. In contrast, greater implicit wanting for high-fat foods was associated with slower gastric emptying. These associations were independent of each other, activity status and body fat. In conclusion, active and inactive men differ in processes of food reward. The rate of gastric emptying may play a role in the association between physical activity status and food reward, via the gut-brain axis. PMID:27072508

  7. Body mass index as discriminator of the lean mass deficit and excess body fat in institutionalized elderly people.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Maria Helena; Bolina, Alisson F; Luiz, Raíssa B; de Oliveira, Karoline F; Virtuoso, Jair S; Rodrigues, Rosalina A P; Silva, Larissa C; da Cunha, Daniel F; De Mattia, Ana Lúcia; Barichello, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the discriminating criterion for body mass index (BMI) in the prediction of low fat free mass and high body fat percentage according to sex among older people. Observational analytical study with cross-sectional design was used for this study. All institutionalized older people from the city of Uberaba (Minas Gerais, Brazil) who fit within the inclusion and exclusion criteria were approached. Sixty-five institutionalized older people were evaluated after signing a Free and Informed Consent Form. Descriptive and inferential statistical procedures were employed for the analysis, using Student's t-test and multiple linear regression. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to determine the BMI (kg/m(2)) cut-off points. The study complied with all the ethical norms for research involving human beings. In comparing the anthropometric measurements obtained via bioimpedance, elder male had higher mean height and body water volume than females. However, women had higher mean triceps skinfold and fat free mass than men. The BMI cut-off points, as discriminators of low fat free mass percentage and high body fat percentage in women, were ≤22.4 kg/m(2) and >26.6 kg/m(2), respectively; while for men they were ≤19.2 kg/m(2) and >23.8 kg/m(2). The results of this study indicate the need for multicenter studies aimed at suggesting BMI cut-off points for institutionalized older people, taking into account specific sex characteristics. PMID:25771958

  8. Sodium, Saturated Fat, and Trans Fat Content Per 1,000 Kilocalories: Temporal Trends in Fast-Food Restaurants, United States, 2000–2013

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Lorien E.; Roberts, Susan B.; Fierstein, Jamie L.; Gary, Christine E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Intakes of sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat remain high despite recommendations to limit these nutrients for cardiometabolic risk reduction. A major contributor to intake of these nutrients is foods prepared outside the home, particularly from fast-food restaurants. Methods We analyzed the nutrient content of frequently ordered items from 3 US national fast-food chains: fried potatoes (large French fries), cheeseburgers (2-oz and 4-oz), and a grilled chicken sandwich. We used an archival website to obtain data on sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat content for these items from 2000 through 2013. The amount of each nutrient per 1,000 kcal was calculated to determine whether there were trends in product reformulation. Results Sodium content per 1,000 kcal differed widely among the 3 chains by food item, precluding generalizations across chains. During the 14-year period, sodium content per 1,000 kcal for large French fries remained high for all 3 chains, although the range narrowed from 316–2,000 mg per 1,000 kcal in 2000 to 700–1,420 mg per 1,000 kcal in 2013. Among the items assessed, cheeseburgers were the main contributor of saturated fat, and there was little change in content per 1,000 kcal for this item during the 14-year period. In contrast, there was a sharp decline in saturated and trans fat content of large French fries per 1,000 kcal. Post-2009, the major contributor of trans fat per 1,000 kcal was cheeseburgers; trans fat content of this item remained stable during the 14-year period. Conclusion With the exception of French fries, little evidence was found during the 14-year period of product reformulation by restaurants to become more consistent with dietary guidance to reduce intakes of sodium and saturated fat. PMID:25551183

  9. The relationship between parental yolk cholesterol and yolk fat concentration to abdominal fat content and feed conversion ratio of their respective offspring.

    PubMed

    Suk, Y O; Washburn, K W

    1998-03-01

    The correlation of yolk cholesterol and yolk fat concentrations of egg from the pedigreed Athens-Canadian Randombred control population with the percentage of abdominal fat (AF) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of their progeny were studied. The average yolk cholesterol, yolk fat, and AF were 20.3 mg/g yolk, 244 mg/g yolk, and 1.64%, respectively. The phenotypic correlation of both yolk cholesterol and yolk fat content of eggs from the parental population with AF or FCR of their progeny were low and nonsignificant. PMID:9521446

  10. Relationship between diet-induced changes in body fat and appetite sensations in women.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Jo-Anne; Drapeau, Vicky; Astrup, Arne; Tremblay, Angelo

    2009-06-01

    To quantify the impact of weight/fat loss on appetite sensations, 54 overweight women followed a caloric restriction program (-2900 kJ/day). Their body composition and appetite sensations were assessed. Visual analogue scales (VAS) were used to measure desire to eat, hunger, fullness and prospective food consumption. The results showed that there is a significant association between the decrease in body fat mass and the change in appetite sensations, predicting a 5.8-mm increase in desire to eat and a 3.6-mm decrease in fullness per kg fat loss. This quantified relationship could serve as a reference point to evaluate the satiating efficiency of functional foods when they are combined with a weight-reducing program. PMID:19389439

  11. Effect of licorice on the reduction of body fat mass in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Armanini, D; De Palo, C B; Mattarello, M J; Spinella, P; Zaccaria, M; Ermolao, A; Palermo, M; Fiore, C; Sartorato, P; Francini-Pesenti, F; Karbowiak, I

    2003-07-01

    The history of licorice, as a medicinal plant, is very old and has been used in many societies throughout the millennia. The active principle, glycyrrhetinic acid, is responsible for sodium retention and hypertension, which is the most common side-effect. We show an effect of licorice in reducing body fat mass. We studied 15 normal-weight subjects (7 males, age 22-26 yr, and 8 females, age 21-26 yr), who consumed for 2 months 3.5 g a day of a commercial preparation of licorice. Body fat mass (BFM, expressed as percentage of total body weight, by skinfold thickness and by bioelectrical impedance analysis, BIA) and extracellular water (ECW, percentage of total body water, by BIA) were measured. Body mass index (BMI) did not change. ECW increased (males: 41.8+/-2.0 before vs 47.0+/-2.3 after, p<0.001; females: 48.2+/-1.4 before vs 49.4+/-2.1 after, p<0.05). BFM was reduced by licorice: (male: before 12.0+/-2.1 vs after 10.8+/-2.9%, p<0.02; female: before 24.9+/-5.1 vs after 22.1+/-5.4, p<0.02); plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone were suppressed. Licorice was able to reduce body fat mass and to suppress aldosterone, without any change in BMI. Since the subjects were consuming the same amount of calories during the study, we suggest that licorice can reduce fat by inhibiting 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Type 1 at the level of fat cells. PMID:14594116

  12. Solid fat content as a substitute for total polar compound analysis in edible oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The solid fat contents (SFC) of heated edible oil samples were measured and found to correlate positively with total polar compounds (TPC) and inversely with triglyceride concentration. Traditional methods for determination of total polar compounds require a laboratory setting and are time intensiv...

  13. Energy content of reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles for lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight Holstein and 8 Jersey multiparous, lactating cows were used to complete 56 energy balances to determine the energy content of reduced-fat distillers grains and solubles (RFDDGS). A repeated switchback design was used to compare treatments with and without RFDDGS. Diets consisted of 24.2% cor...

  14. Moisture and fat content of extra crispy fried chicken skin from breast, thigh, drum, and wing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To establish nutrient values for fast food fried chicken, sample compositing procedures were validated by comparing moisture and fat content of skin from four chicken parts. Samples were purchased from 12 fast food outlets nationwide using a probability sampling plan. Skin samples were derived from...

  15. Energy content of reduced-fat dried distillers grains and solubles for lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight Holstein and 8 Jersey multiparous, lactating cows were used to complete 56 energy balances to determine the energy content of reduced-fat distillers grains and solubles (RFDDGS). A repeated switchback design was used to compare treatments with and without RFDDGS. Diets consisted of 24.2% cor...

  16. Genetic correlations of intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition among muscles and with subcutaneous fat in Duroc pigs.

    PubMed

    Ros-Freixedes, R; Reixach, J; Bosch, L; Tor, M; Estany, J

    2014-12-01

    There is an increasing interest in including intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid composition, particularly oleic acid (C18:1) content, in the selection objectives of pig lines for quality pork markets. These traits are costly and can be measured in more than 1 location, so knowing their correlation structure across muscles and with subcutaneous fat (SF) is necessary for developing optimum sampling and recording schemes. We analyzed the genetic and phenotypic correlations of IMF content and composition among 3 of the most relevant muscles (LM, gluteus medius muscle [GM], and semimembranosus muscle [SM]) and with the fatty acid composition of SF. All genetic correlations were positive but variable. For IMF, the genetic correlation between GM and LM was 0.68, and for fatty acids, the genetic correlation ranged from 0.62 for C18:1 to 0.82 for total PUFA. Genetic correlations of GM and LM with SM were much lower: 0.13 to 0.19 for IMF and 0.10 to 0.54 for fatty acids. Correlations for fatty acid composition in SF with GM and LM were moderate to high (0.29-0.53 and 0.43-0.75, respectively) but were null with SM. The expected responses for IMF in the 3 muscles and for C18:1 in each muscle and in SF to selection on records taken from only a single muscle or SF were estimated. Selection for IMF and C18:1 in GM is expected to lead to positive responses in IMF and C18:1 in LM and vice versa, although this can entail genetic lags of 20 to 45% in the muscle not directly selected for. Selection for C18:1 in SF is more effective for C18:1 in LM than in GM and of very limited value for IMF. In conclusion, the genetic correlations of IMF content and fatty acid composition among muscles and with SF, although positive, are variable enough to influence the genetic evaluation scheme for IMF and fat quality. They also indicate that GM and LM can be used alternatively for selection purposes. PMID:25403201

  17. Validity of deuterium oxide dilution for the measurement of body fat among Singaporeans.

    PubMed

    Deurenberg-Yap, Mabel; Deurenberg, Paul

    2002-09-01

    Body fat percent (BF%) was measured in 108 adult Chinese, 76 Malays, and 107 Indians in Singapore by densitometry, deuterium oxide dilution (hydrometry), dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and a chemical four-compartment model (BF%4c). The hydration of the fat-free mass (FFM) was calculated. Subjects ranged in age from 18 to 69 years and their body mass index ranged from 16 to 40 kg/m2. BF%4c for the various subgroups were: Chinese females (33.5 +/- 7.5%), Chinese males (24.4 +/- 6.1%), Malay females (37.8 +/- 6.3%), Malay males (26.0 +/- 7.6%), Indian females (38.2 +/- 7.0%) and Indian males (28.1 +/- 5.5%). Biases were found between BF%4c and BF% measured by 2-compartment models (hydrometry, densitometry, DXA), with systematic underestimation by DXA and densitometry. On a group level hydrometry had the lowest bias while DXA gave the highest bias. When validated against BF%4c, 2-compartment models were found to be unsuitable for accurate measures of body fat due to high biases at the individual level and the violation of assumptions of constant hydration of FFM and density FFM among the ethnic groups. On a group level the best 2-compartment model for measuring body fat was found to be hydrometry. PMID:12362808

  18. Determining BMI cut points based on excess percent body fat in US children and adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current cut points for overweight were derived statistically from BMI distribution. The study aimed at determining age-, gender-, and ethnic-specific BMI cut points based on excess body fat in US children and adolescents aged 8-17 years, who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examinat...

  19. Longitudinal DXA Studies: Minimum scanning interval for pediatric assessment of body fat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increased prevalence of obesity in the United States, has led to the increased use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for assessment of body fat mass (TBF) in pediatric populations. We examined DXA precision, in order to determine suitable scanning intervals for the measurement of change...

  20. Type of body fat distribution in postmenopausal women and its related factors

    PubMed Central

    Noroozi, Mahnaz; Rastegari, Zahra; Paknahad, Zamzam

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The type of body fat distribution has an important role for identifying risk of diseases. One of the simple anthropometric indexes for estimating type of body fat distribution is waist circumference index. This study is aimed to determine the type of body fat distribution in postmenopausal women and its related factors. METHODS: This is a cross sectional descriptive analytical study. Samples were 278 postmenopausal women in Isfahan who were selected by stratified sampling and then were invited to 64 health centers of Isfahan. Data was gathered using a questionnaire and standard meter. Data was analyzed using SPSS software and descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: Results showed that in postmenopausal women the mean of waist circumference index was 93.63 (10.66) and its range was 54 to 119 cm. There was a meaningful relation between job, educational status, total pregnancies, total deliveries, age of first pregnancy, lactation history and menopausal age with waist circumference index. CONCLUSIONS: Results showed that the type of body fat distribution of postmenopausal women is of android type. Considering side effects of this kind of distribution, necessary teachings about healthy eating, movement and exercises must be given to women of these ages. PMID:21589746

  1. Perceived parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Jeong; McIntosh, William A; Anding, Jenna; Kubena, Karen S; Reed, Debra B; Moon, Gap-Soon

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated whether perceptions of parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness. The randomly selected study sample consisted of 106 13-15 years olds from Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area. Parenting style variables were created by cluster analysis and factor analysis. A two-cluster solution for both maternal and paternal parenting style represented authoritative vs. non-authoritative parenting. Two parenting dimension factors derived were maternal/paternal nurturing and control. For adolescents' energy and nutrient intake, greater maternal nurturing appeared to be most beneficial given its association with lower consumption of total kilocalorie and lower saturated fat intake. Paternal nurturing was associated with lower sodium intake, whereas paternal control predicted lower percentage of kilocalories from carbohydrate and percentage Dietary Reference Intake for dietary fibre, and greater percentage of kilocalories from total fat. Maternal authoritative parenting and lower maternal control over their adolescents may have protective effects against having heavier and fatter adolescents given their associations with adolescents' body weight, sub-scapular skinfold, waist circumference, body mass index, and the tendencies of being at risk of overweight and being overweight. None of paternal parenting styles or dimensions appeared to be significantly related to adolescents' body fatness. PMID:18811793

  2. Body fatness as a cause of cancer: epidemiologic clues to biologic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Byers, Tim; Sedjo, Rebecca L

    2015-06-01

    Carrying excess body fat is a leading cause of cancer. Epidemiologic evidence gives strong clues about the mechanisms that link excess adiposity to risk for several cancer sites. For postmenopausal breast cancer and endometrial cancer, the hyper-estrogenic state that is induced by excess body fatness is the likely cause. For esophageal cancer and gallbladder cancer, chronic local inflammation induced by acid reflux and gallstones is the likely cause, and for liver cancer, local inflammation induced by hepatic fatty infiltration is the likely cause. However, for several other cancers known to be associated with excess adiposity, including cancers of the colon, pancreas, ovary, kidney, and prostate, specific causes are not known. Possible candidates include elevated systemic or local tissue inflammation induced by adiposity and effects of the elevated levels of leptin, insulin, IGFs, and depressed immune function that are seen with excess adiposity. There is growing evidence that intentional weight loss not only reduces circulating levels of cancer-associated factors but that it also reduces cancer incidence and recurrence. Better research is needed to understand the mechanisms that link excess body fat to cancer risk as well as to understand the amount of weight loss needed for substantial cancer risk reduction. Finally, as we develop better understanding of the mediators of the effects of excess body fatness on cancer risk, we should identify pharmacologic interventions that target those mediators so that they can be used to complement weight loss in order to reduce cancer risk. PMID:25870250

  3. The effects of exercise on food intake and body fatness: a summary of published studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exercise has well-recognized health benefits including reduction in risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. However, the extent to which exercise influences energy regulation and facilitates reduction in body fat is less clear. This review summarizes published studies on the e...

  4. High-fructose corn syrup causes characteristics of obesity in rats: increased body weight, body fat and triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Bocarsly, Miriam E; Powell, Elyse S; Avena, Nicole M; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2010-11-01

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) accounts for as much as 40% of caloric sweeteners used in the United States. Some studies have shown that short-term access to HFCS can cause increased body weight, but the findings are mixed. The current study examined both short- and long-term effects of HFCS on body weight, body fat, and circulating triglycerides. In Experiment 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for short term (8 weeks) on (1) 12 h/day of 8% HFCS, (2) 12 h/day 10% sucrose, (3) 24 h/day HFCS, all with ad libitum rodent chow, or (4) ad libitum chow alone. Rats with 12-h access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than animals given equal access to 10% sucrose, even though they consumed the same number of total calories, but fewer calories from HFCS than sucrose. In Experiment 2, the long-term effects of HFCS on body weight and obesogenic parameters, as well as gender differences, were explored. Over the course of 6 or 7 months, both male and female rats with access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than control groups. This increase in body weight with HFCS was accompanied by an increase in adipose fat, notably in the abdominal region, and elevated circulating triglyceride levels. Translated to humans, these results suggest that excessive consumption of HFCS may contribute to the incidence of obesity. PMID:20219526

  5. High-fructose corn syrup causes characteristics of obesity in rats: increased body weight, body fat and triglyceride levels

    PubMed Central

    Bocarsly, Miriam E.; Powell, Elyse S.; Avena, Nicole M.; Hoebel, Bartley G.

    2010-01-01

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) accounts for as much as 40% of caloric sweeteners used in the United States. Some studies have shown that short-term access to HFCS can cause increased body weight, but the findings are mixed. The current study examined both short- and long-term effects of HFCS on body weight, body fat, and circulating triglycerides. In Experiment 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for short term (8 wks) on (1) 12-h/day of 8% HFCS, (2) 12-h/day 10% sucrose, (3) 24-h/day HFCS, all with ad libitum rodent chow, or (4) ad libitum chow alone. Rats with 12-h access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than animals given equal access to 10% sucrose, even though they consumed the same number of total calories but fewer calories from HFCS than sucrose. In Experiment 2, the long-term effects of HFCS on body weight and obesogenic parameters, as well as gender differences, were explored. Over the course of 6 or 7 months, both male and female rats with access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than control groups. This increase in body weight with HFCS was accompanied by an increase in adipose fat, notably in the abdominal region, and elevated circulating triglyceride levels. Translated to humans, these results suggest that excessive consumption of HFCS may contribute to the incidence of obesity. PMID:20219526

  6. Methods of Assessing Body Fatness among Children: Implications for the National Child Measurement Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Sharon; Twist, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is increasingly recognized as an inadequate measure for determining obesity in children. Therefore, the aim within this study was to investigate other indirect methods of body fat assessment that could potentially be used in place of BMI. Twenty-four children (boys: 13.8 [plus or minus] 0.8 yr; girls: 13.3 [plus or minus] 0.5…

  7. Ethnic differences in the relationship between body mass index and percentage body fat among Asian children from different backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ailing; Byrne, Nuala M; Kagawa, Masaharu; Ma, Guansheng; Poh, Bee Koon; Ismail, Mohammad Noor; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Nasreddine, Lara; Trinidad, Trinidad Palad; Hills, Andrew P

    2011-11-01

    Overweight and obesity in Asian children are increasing at an alarming rate; therefore a better understanding of the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) in this population is important. A total of 1039 children aged 8-10 years, encompassing a wide BMI range, were recruited from China, Lebanon, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. Body composition was determined using the 2H dilution technique to quantify total body water and subsequently fat mass, fat-free mass and %BF. Ethnic differences in the BMI-%BF relationship were found; for example, %BF in Filipino boys was approximately 2 % lower than in their Thai and Malay counterparts. In contrast, Thai girls had approximately 2.0 % higher %BF values than in their Chinese, Lebanese, Filipino and Malay counterparts at a given BMI. However, the ethnic difference in the BMI-%BF relationship varied by BMI. Compared with Caucasian children of the same age, Asian children had 3-6 units lower BMI at a given %BF. Approximately one-third of the obese Asian children (%BF above 25 % for boys and above 30 % for girls) in the study were not identified using the WHO classification and more than half using the International Obesity Task Force classification. Use of the Chinese classification increased the sensitivity. Results confirmed the necessity to consider ethnic differences in body composition when developing BMI cut-points and other obesity criteria in Asian children. PMID:21736824

  8. IQP-GC-101 Reduces Body Weight and Body Fat Mass: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Pee-Win; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Grube, Barbara; Riede, Linda

    2014-01-01

    IQP-GC-101 is a patented blend of the standardized extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, unroasted Coffea arabica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa. These individual ingredients of IQP-GC-101 have each shown promise in promoting weight loss; however, the efficacy of the blend has not been established. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study conducted over 14 weeks (including a 2-week run-in phase) aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IQP-GC-101 in reducing body weight and body fat mass in overweight Caucasian adults. Subjects took three IQP-GC-101 or placebo tablets, twice a day, 30 min before main meals. All subjects also adhered to a 500 kcal/day energy deficit diet with 30% of energy from fat. Ninety-one overweight and mildly obese subjects (46 in the IQP-GC-101 group, 45 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12-week intervention, IQP-GC-101 resulted in a mean (±SD) weight loss of 2.26 ± 2.37 kg compared with 0.56 ± 2.34 kg for placebo (pU = 0.002). There was also significantly more reduction in body fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the IQP-GC-101 group. No serious adverse events were reported. The use of IQP-GC-101 has been shown to result in body weight and body fat reduction in the current study, with good tolerability. © 2014 InQpharm Group Sdn Bhd. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24797657

  9. Body Mass Index Is Associated with Increased Creatinine Clearance by a Mechanism Independent of Body Fat Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Gerchman, Fernando; Tong, Jenny; Utzschneider, Kristina M.; Zraika, Sakeneh; Udayasankar, Jayalakshmi; McNeely, Marguerite J.; Carr, Darcy B.; Leonetti, Donna L.; Young, Bessie A.; de Boer, Ian H.; Boyko, Edward J.; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y.; Kahn, Steven E.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Although obesity has been, in general, associated with glomerular hyperfiltration, visceral adiposity has been suggested to be associated with reduced glomerular filtration. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the differential effects of obesity and body fat distribution on glomerular filtration. Design and Setting: We conducted a cross-sectional study of the Japanese-American community in Seattle, Washington. Participants: We studied a representative sample of second-generation Japanese-American men and women with normal glucose tolerance (n = 124) and impaired glucose metabolism (impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) (n = 144) residing in King County, Washington. Main Outcome Measures: Glomerular filtration rate was estimated by 24-h urinary creatinine clearance, body size by body mass index (BMI), and intra-abdominal fat (IAF), sc fat (SCF), and lean thigh areas by CT scan. Results: Creatinine clearance was positively correlated with BMI (r = 0.429; P < 0.001), fasting glucose (r = 0.198; P = 0.001), and insulin levels (r = 0.125; P = 0.042), as well as IAF (r = 0.239; P < 0.001), SCF (r = 0.281; P < 0.001), and lean thigh (r = 0.353; P < 0.001) areas. The association between creatinine clearance and BMI remained significant after adjustments for IAF, SCF areas, and fasting insulin levels (r = 0.337; P < 0.001); whereas IAF and SCF areas were not independently associated with creatinine clearance after adjusting for BMI. Creatinine clearance increased with increasing BMI after adjusting for fasting insulin, fasting glucose, IAF and SCF areas in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (r = 0.432; P < 0.001) and impaired glucose metabolism (r = 0.471; P < 0.001). Conclusions: BMI rather than body fat distribution is an independent determinant of creatinine clearance in nondiabetic subjects. Lean body mass, rather than adiposity, may explain this association. PMID:19584179

  10. The effect of dietary fat content on lactation energetics in the European hare (Lepus europaeus).

    PubMed

    Hackländer, Klaus; Tataruch, Frieda; Ruf, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    European hares selectively feed on plants with high fat and hence energy content. We hypothesized that these dietary requirements limit the ability of hares to adjust daily food intake during periods of high energy requirements, namely lactation. Our measurements in captive lactating females show that does kept on a low-fat diet increased food intake compared to does on a high-fat diet but assimilated significantly lower amounts of energy. Further, does fed a low-fat diet showed a prolonged rise of food intake during lactation, reduced milk energy content and lower milk mass production at large litter sizes. We hypothesize that impaired milk production under suboptimal fat supply is due to the inability of females to increase the capacity of nutrient-processing organs rapidly enough to meet the high energy demands of precocial juveniles with high metabolic costs. Thus, in hares, the production of precocial young may be viewed as a constraint, caused by their inability to dig thermally buffered burrows, rather than as an adaptive reproductive strategy. We suggest that the interaction of lactation energetics, dietary requirements, and reduced plant diversity in modern agricultural landscapes has facilitated the decline of hare populations across Europe over the last decades. PMID:11880974

  11. A residential summer camp can reduce body fat and improve health-related quality of life in obese children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an earlier report, we showed that a 2-week, residential summer camp (Kamp K'aana) led to improved body weight, body mass index, body mass index z score, and self-esteem among obese children. To assess whether improvements in body weight and self-esteem translate into improvement in body fat and w...

  12. Health effects from exercise versus those from body fat loss

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess whether body weight confounds the relationships between physical activity and its health benefits. Data sources: Eighty reports from population based studies (Category C) of physical activity or fitness and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or coronary heart disease (CHD).Data synthesis: Eleven of 64 reports found no relationship between physical activity and disease. Of the remaining 53 reports, 11 did not address the possible confounding effects of body weight, 9 cited reasons that weight differences should not explain their observed associations, and 32 statistically adjusted for weight (as required). Only 3 of these changed their associations from significant to nonsignificant when adjusted. Ten of 15 reports on cardiorespiratory fitness and CHD or CVD used statistical adjustment, and none of these changed their findings to nonsignificant. Population studies show that vigorously active individuals also have higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration, a major risk factor for CHD and CVD, than sedentary individuals when statistically adjusted for weight. In contrast intervention studies, which relate dynamic changes in weight and HDL, suggest that adjustment for weight loss largely eliminates the increase in HDL-cholesterol in sedentary men who begin exercising vigorously. Adjusting the cross-sectional HDL-cholesterol differences for the dynamic effects of weight loss eliminates most of the HDL-cholesterol difference between active and sedentary men. Conclusion: Thus population studies show that the lower incidence of CHD and CVD and higher HDL of fit, active individuals are not due to lean, healthy individuals choosing to be active (i.e., self-selection bias). Nevertheless, metabolic processed associated weight loss may be primarily responsible for the HDL differences between active and sedentary men, and possibly their differences in CHD and CVD.

  13. Nuclear Immunolocalization of Hexamerins in the Fat Body of Metamorphosing Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Juliana Ramos; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile

    2012-01-01

    Hexamerins are storage proteins with primordial functions in insect metamorphosis. They are actively secreted by the larval fat body and stored in the hemolymph. During metamorphosis, they return to the fat body to be processed. For decades, these proteins were thought to exclusively function as an amino acid source for tissue reconstruction during the non-feeding pupal and pharate adult stages and, in some species, for egg production. Recently, new findings have linked the hexamerins to caste polyphenism and gonad development in social insects. To explore the roles of hexamerins during the honey bee metamorphosis, we used specific antibodies in expression analysis by western blot, in situ immunolocalization by confocal laser-scanning microscopy and in vivo injections to lower their endogenous levels. Our expression analysis highlighted the changing expression patterns in the fat body and hemolymph during development, which is consistent with the temporal dynamics of hexamerin secretion, storage and depletion. Confocal microscopy showed hexamerin expression in the cytoplasm of both types of fat body cells, trophocytes and oenocytes. Notably, hexamerin foci were also found in the nuclei of these cells, thus confirming our western blot analysis of fat body nuclear-enriched fractions. We also observed that the decrease in soluble hexamerins in antibody-treated pharate adults led to a precocious adult ecdysis, perhaps in response to the lack (or decrease) in hexamerin-derived amino acids. Taken together, these findings indicate that hexamerins have other functions in addition to their well-established role as amino acid sources for development. PMID:26466725

  14. Nuclear Immunolocalization of Hexamerins in the Fat Body of Metamorphosing Honey Bees.

    PubMed

    Martins, Juliana Ramos; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile

    2012-01-01

    Hexamerins are storage proteins with primordial functions in insect metamorphosis. They are actively secreted by the larval fat body and stored in the hemolymph. During metamorphosis, they return to the fat body to be processed. For decades, these proteins were thought to exclusively function as an amino acid source for tissue reconstruction during the non-feeding pupal and pharate adult stages and, in some species, for egg production. Recently, new findings have linked the hexamerins to caste polyphenism and gonad development in social insects. To explore the roles of hexamerins during the honey bee metamorphosis, we used specific antibodies in expression analysis by western blot, in situ immunolocalization by confocal laser-scanning microscopy and in vivo injections to lower their endogenous levels. Our expression analysis highlighted the changing expression patterns in the fat body and hemolymph during development, which is consistent with the temporal dynamics of hexamerin secretion, storage and depletion. Confocal microscopy showed hexamerin expression in the cytoplasm of both types of fat body cells, trophocytes and oenocytes. Notably, hexamerin foci were also found in the nuclei of these cells, thus confirming our western blot analysis of fat body nuclear-enriched fractions. We also observed that the decrease in soluble hexamerins in antibody-treated pharate adults led to a precocious adult ecdysis, perhaps in response to the lack (or decrease) in hexamerin-derived amino acids. Taken together, these findings indicate that hexamerins have other functions in addition to their well-established role as amino acid sources for development. PMID:26466725

  15. Visceral Adipocyte Hypertrophy is Associated With Dyslipidemia Independent of Body Composition and Fat Distribution in Women

    PubMed Central

    Veilleux, Alain; Caron-Jobin, Maude; Noël, Suzanne; Laberge, Philippe Y.; Tchernof, André

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We assessed whether subcutaneous and omental adipocyte hypertrophy are related to metabolic alterations independent of body composition and fat distribution in women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Mean adipocyte diameter of paired subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue samples was obtained in lean to obese women. Linear regression models predicting adipocyte size in both adipose tissue depots were computed using body composition and fat distribution measures (n = 150). In a given depot, women with larger adipocytes than predicted by the regression were considered as having adipocyte hypertrophy, whereas women with smaller adipocytes than predicted were considered as having adipocyte hyperplasia. RESULTS Women characterized by omental adipocyte hypertrophy had higher plasma and VLDL triglyceride levels as well as a higher total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio compared with women characterized by omental adipocyte hyperplasia (P < 0.05). Conversely, women characterized by subcutaneous adipocyte hypertrophy or hyperplasia showed a similar lipid profile. In logistic regression analyses, a 10% enlargement of omental adipocytes increased the risk of hypertriglyceridemia (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 4.06, P < 0.001) independent of body composition and fat distribution measures. A 10% increase in visceral adipocyte number also raised the risk of hypertriglyceridemia (adjusted OR 1.55, P < 0.02). Associations between adipocyte size and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance were not significant once adjusted for adiposity and body fat distribution. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that omental, but not subcutaneous, adipocyte hypertrophy is associated with an altered lipid profile independent of body composition and fat distribution in women. PMID:21421806

  16. Personal Best Time, Percent Body Fat, and Training Are Differently Associated with Race Time for Male and Female Ironman Triathletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Baumann, Barbara; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We studied male and female nonprofessional Ironman triathletes to determine whether percent body fat, training, and/or previous race experience were associated with race performance. We used simple linear regression analysis, with total race time as the dependent variable, to investigate the relationship among athletes' percent body fat, average…

  17. Body Fatness and Risk for Elevated Blood Pressure, Total Cholesterol, and Serum Lipoprotein Ratios in Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Daniel P.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examines the relationship between body fat percent and risk for elevated blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, and serum lipoprotein ratios in 1,230 African-American and 2,090 white 5-18 year olds (1,667 males and 1,653 females). Results support body fatness standards in children and adolescents as cardiovascular risk factors. (SLD)

  18. Increased muscle fatty acid oxidation in dairy cows with intensive body fat mobilization during early lactation.

    PubMed

    Schäff, C; Börner, S; Hacke, S; Kautzsch, U; Sauerwein, H; Spachmann, S K; Schweigel-Röntgen, M; Hammon, H M; Kuhla, B

    2013-10-01

    The beginning of lactation requires huge metabolic adaptations to meet increased energy demands for milk production of dairy cows. One of the adaptations is the mobilization of body reserves mainly from adipose tissue as reflected by increased plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations. The capacity of the liver for complete oxidation of NEFA is limited, leading to an increased formation of ketone bodies, reesterification, and accumulation of triglycerides in the liver. As the skeletal muscle also may oxidize fatty acids, it may help to decrease the fatty acid load on the liver. To test this hypothesis, 19 German Holstein cows were weekly blood sampled from 7 wk before until 5 wk after parturition to analyze plasma NEFA concentrations. Liver biopsies were obtained at d 3, 18, and 30 after parturition and, based on the mean liver fat content, cows were grouped to the 10 highest (HI) and 9 lowest (LO). In addition, muscle biopsies were obtained at d -17, 3, and 30 relative to parturition and used to quantify mRNA abundance of genes involved in fatty acid degradation. Plasma NEFA concentrations peaked after parturition and were 1.5-fold higher in HI than LO cows. Muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1α and β mRNA was upregulated in early lactation. The mRNA abundance of muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG) increased in early lactation and was higher in HI than in LO cows, whereas the abundance of PPARA continuously decreased after parturition. The mRNA abundance of muscle PPARD, uncoupling protein 3, and the β-oxidative enzymes 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase, very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and 3-ketoacyl-CoA was greatest at d 3 after parturition, whereas the abundance of PPARγ coactivator 1α decreased after parturition. Our results indicate that around parturition, oxidation of fatty acids in skeletal muscle is highly activated, which may contribute to diminish the fatty acid load on the liver. The

  19. Significant Beneficial Association of High Dietary Selenium Intake with Reduced Body Fat in the CODING Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongbo; Gao, Xiang; Pedram, Pardis; Shahidi, Mariam; Du, Jianling; Yi, Yanqing; Gulliver, Wayne; Zhang, Hongwei; Sun, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a trace element which plays an important role in adipocyte hypertrophy and adipogenesis. Some studies suggest that variations in serum Se may be associated with obesity. However, there are few studies examining the relationship between dietary Se and obesity, and findings are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the association between dietary Se intake and a panel of obesity measurements with systematic control of major confounding factors. A total of 3214 subjects participated in the study. Dietary Se intake was determined from the Willett food frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Obese men and women had the lowest dietary Se intake, being 24% to 31% lower than corresponding normal weight men and women, classified by both BMI and body fat percentage. Moreover, subjects with the highest dietary Se intake had the lowest BMI, waist circumference, and trunk, android, gynoid and total body fat percentages, with a clear dose-dependent inverse relationship observed in both gender groups. Furthermore, significant negative associations discovered between dietary Se intake and obesity measurements were independent of age, total dietary calorie intake, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, medication, and menopausal status. Dietary Se intake alone may account for 9%–27% of the observed variations in body fat percentage. The findings from this study strongly suggest that high dietary Se intake is associated with a beneficial body composition profile. PMID:26742059

  20. Adiponectin and leptin levels in HIV-infected subjects with insulin resistance and body fat redistribution.

    PubMed

    Mynarcik, Dennis C; Combs, Terry; McNurlan, Margaret A; Scherer, Philipp E; Komaroff, Eugene; Gelato, Marie C

    2002-12-15

    In this study, we sought to determine the relationship between serum levels of leptin and adiponectin (Acrp30) in patients with HIV-associated lipodystrophy (HIV-LD). Three groups of subjects were studied; HIV-positive subjects with lipodystrophy (HIV-LD; n = 22), HIV-positive subjects without lipodystrophy (HIV; n = 17), and ethnicity- and body mass index-matched healthy control subjects (n = 20). Although total body fat from dual energy x-ray absorptiometry was similar in all three groups, the HIV-LD group had a significantly lower mean proportion of body fat in the limbs +/- SEM (37.2% +/- 2.2%) than either controls (49.8% +/- 1.5%) or HIV subjects (45.7% +/- 2.0%). The HIV-LD group also had the lowest mean insulin sensitivity +/- SEM (5.11 +/- 0.59 mg of glucose/[kg of lean body mass. min] vs. 10.2 +/- 0.72 mg of glucose/[kg of lean body mass. min] in controls and 8.64 +/- 0.69 mg of glucose/[kg of lean body mass. min] in the HIV group). Leptin levels were similar in all three groups and were significantly correlated to total body fat (r = 0.86; p <.001), but these levels did not correlate with either insulin sensitivity or limb fat. Mean Acrp30 levels +/- SEM were lowest in the HIV-LD group (5.43 +/- 0.44 microg/mL vs. 11.2 +/- 1.4 microg/mL in the HIV group and 14.9 +/- 1.8 microg/mL in control subjects). Further, Acrp30 levels were positively correlated with insulin sensitivity (r = 0.610; p <.001) and limb fat (r = 0.483; p <.001). However, the correlation between limb fat and insulin sensitivity disappeared when Acrp30 level and other potential mediators were removed from the association, suggesting that a deficiency in Acrp30 in subjects with HIV-LD may be part of the mechanism for the reduced insulin sensitivity. PMID:12473840

  1. [The relation between plasma leptin concentration and body fat mass in patients with rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Tokarczyk-Knapik, Anita; Nowicki, Michał; Wyroślak, Janusz

    2002-08-01

    The prospective, cross-sectional study was undertaken to evaluate the relation between the fat mass and serum leptin level in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Low body mass and anorexia are commonly found in patients with RA. Inflammatory cytokines may significantly influence the secretion of anorectic hormone--leptin--that was confirmed in both experimental and clinical studies. Fifty-two non-diabetic and non-obese patients (38 females, 14 males) were studied. Mean age was 56 +/- 11 years and mean body mass index (BMI) 24.6 +/- 4.1 kg/m2. The disease activity score (DAS) was 3.9 +/- 1.4; range 1.4-7.4, and disease duration 8.1 +/- 6.7 years. Serum leptin was measured by ELISA and body composition by double X-ray densitometry. Mean serum leptin concentration was 2.8 +/- 1.4 ng/ml in patients with RA was lower than in the control group (4.2 +/- 2.0). In a simple regression analysis leptin did not correlate with BMI (R Spearman = 0.01), C-reactive protein (R = 0.08), total fat mass (R = 0.08), trunk fat (R = 0.05), limbs fat (R = 0.09) and DAS (R = -0.17). This relation was also not influenced by gender or type of immunosuppressive therapy. In a multiple regression model none of the independent variables explained the significant portion of variance of serum leptin. It is concluded that the physiologic relation of serum leptin to body fat stores is not present in patients with RA. PMID:12476896

  2. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN DIETARY FAT CONTENT AND OUTCOMES IN PEDIATRIC BURN PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong O.; Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Herndon, David N.; Hawkins, Hal K.; Halder, Stefanie C.; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to compare a low fat/high-carbohydrate diet and a high-fat diet on clinical outcomes by a retrospective cohort study. Methods Nine-hundred forty-four children with burns ≥40% of their total body surface area (TBSA) were divided into two groups: patients receiving Vivonex®T.E.N. (low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet; n=518) and patients receiving milk (high-fat diet; n=426). Patient demographics, caloric intake, length of hospital stay and incidence of sepsis, mortality, hepatic steatosis and organomegaly at autopsy were determined. Results Demographics and caloric intake were similar in both groups. Patients receiving Vivonex®T.E.N. had shorter ICU stays (Vivonex®T.E.N.: 31±2 days; milk: 47±2 days; p<.01), shorter ICU stay per % TBSA burn (Vivonex®T.E.N.: 0.51±0.02 days/%; milk: 0.77±0.03 days/%; p<0.01), lower incidence of sepsis (Vivonex®T.E.N.: 11%; milk: 20%; p<0.01) and lived significantly longer until death than those receiving milk (Vivonex®T.E.N.: 20±3 days; milk: 10±2 days; p<0.01). There was no difference in overall mortality between the two groups (Vivonex®T.E.N.:15% vs. milk: 13%; p<0.9). Autopsies revealed decreased hepatic steatosis and decreased enlargement of kidney and spleen in patients receiving Vivonex®T.E.N. Conclusions The period with a low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet was associated with lower LOS, decreased incidence of organomegaly, infection, and hepatic steatosis post-burn as compared to the period when a high-fat diet was used. We suggest that a low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet should be considered in severely burned patients. PMID:21109263

  3. Impact of body fat distribution on neoadjuvant chemotherapy outcomes in advanced breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Iwase, Toshiaki; Sangai, Takafumi; Nagashima, Takeshi; Sakakibara, Masahiro; Sakakibara, Junta; Hayama, Shouko; Ishigami, Emi; Masuda, Takahito; Miyazaki, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is known to decrease the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) against breast cancer; however, the relationship between actual body composition and NAC outcomes remains unknown. Therefore, we determined the effect of body composition on NAC outcomes. A total of 172 advanced breast cancer patients who underwent surgery after NAC were retrospectively analyzed. Body composition parameters including abdominal circumference (AC), subcutaneous fat area (SFA), visceral fat area (VFA), and skeletal muscle area (SMA) were calculated using computed tomography volume-analyzing software. VFA/SFA ratio was used to evaluate visceral obesity. The associations of body composition parameters with pathological complete remission (pCR) and survival were analyzed. AC, SFA, and VFA were significantly correlated with body mass index (BMI) (all P < 0.05; r = 0.82, r = 0.71, and r = 0.78, respectively). AC, SFA, and VFA increased significantly and SMA decreased significantly after menopause (all P < 0.05). VFA/SFA ratio increased significantly after menopause, even though BMI remained unchanged. Body composition parameters were not associated with pCR. Distant disease-free survival (DDFS) was significantly worse in the high VFA group than in the low VFA group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, in the high VFA group, postmenopausal patients had significantly shorter DDFS than premenopausal patients (P < 0.05). VFA was independently associated with DDFS in the multivariate analysis (P < 0.05). High visceral fat is associated with worse NAC outcomes in breast cancer patients, especially postmenopausal patients. Interventions targeting visceral fat accumulation will likely improve NAC outcomes. PMID:26626021

  4. Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract reduces body weight and fat mass in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Cho, In-Jin; Choung, Se Young; Hwang, You-Cheol; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon; Jeong, In-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    Aster spathulifolius Maxim (AS), a perennial herb of the genus Aster within the family Asteraceae, induced weight loss in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that AS could also reduce body weight in obese humans. Therefore, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Korea to evaluate the effect of AS extract (ASE) on body weight and fat mass and its safety in obese humans. Forty-four obese participants (body mass index [BMI], 25-30 kg/m(2)) aged ≥20 years were randomly assigned to the placebo or ASE group (700 mg/d of ASE) and were instructed to take a once-daily pill for 12 weeks. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, fat mass (measured using bioimpedance, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and computed tomography), and laboratory tests were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks. Body weight significantly decreased after 12 weeks of treatment in the ASE group (placebo vs ASE: -0.08 ± 2.11 kg vs -3.30 ± 3.15 kg, P < .05), and so did body fat mass (placebo vs ASE; bioimpedance method: -0.51 ± 1.89 kg vs -2.38 ± 2.30 kg, P < .05; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: 0.38 ± 1.59 kg vs -2.26 ± 2.37 kg, P < .05). Changes in lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose, and hemoglobin A1c did not differ between the 2 groups. No drug-related adverse events were observed during the study. In conclusion, ASE significantly decreases body weight and fat mass in obese humans, suggesting that ASE may be a potential therapeutic candidate for reducing obesity. PMID:27333958

  5. Prenatal pesticide exposure and PON1 genotype associated with adolescent body fat distribution evaluated by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).

    PubMed

    Tinggaard, J; Wohlfahrt-Veje, C; Husby, S; Christiansen, L; Skakkebaek, N E; Jensen, T K; Grandjean, P; Main, K M; Andersen, H R

    2016-07-01

    Many modern pesticides have endocrine disrupting abilities and early-life exposure may affect growth and disease risk later in life. Previously, we reported associations between prenatal pesticide exposure and higher childhood body fat content measured by anthropometry. The associations were affected by child PON1 Q192R genotype. We aimed to study whether prenatal pesticide exposure was still associated with body fat content and distribution in the children at puberty and the potential impact of both maternal and child PON1 Q192R genotype. In this prospective cohort study of 247 children born by occupationally exposed or unexposed women (greenhouse workers and controls) two follow-up examinations (age 10-15 and 11-16 years) including simple anthropometry, skinfold measurements, pubertal staging and blood sampling were performed. Total and regional fat% was determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at age 10-15. Prenatal pesticide exposure was associated with increased total, android, and gynoid fat percentage (DXA) at age 10-15 years after adjustment for sex, socioeconomic status, and puberty (all β = 0.5 standard deviation score (SDS) p < 0.05). Stratified by sex, the associations were significant in girls (total fat: β = 0.7 SDS, android-gynoid ratio: β = 0.1, both p < 0.05), but not in boys. Carrying the R-allele (child or mother, separately, or both) augmented the differences between exposed and unexposed children (total fat: β = 1.0 SDS, β = 0.8 SDS, p < 0.05, respectively, and β = 1.2 SDS, p < 0.01). No exposure-related differences were found if either the child or mother had the QQ wild-type. At age 11-16, exposed children tended to have a higher total fat% estimated by skinfolds than unexposed children (p = 0.06). No significant associations between prenatal exposure and body mass index or waist circumference were found. Prenatal pesticide exposure was associated with higher adolescent body fat content, including android

  6. Body fat and body-mass index among a multiethnic sample of college-age men and women.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Catherine L; Yan, Eric; Chen, Steve; Hong, Kurt; Arechiga, Adam; Kim, Woo S; Deng, Max; Li, Zhaoping; Heber, David

    2013-01-01

    Obesity prevalence and average body composition vary by US race and gender. Asian Americans have the lowest prevalence of obesity. Relying on body-mass index (BMI) to estimate obesity prevalence may misclassify subgroups that appear normally weighted but have excess body fat. We evaluated percentage body fat (PBF) and BMI to determine whether BMI reflects PBF consistently across different races. 940 college students were recruited from a local public university over four consecutive years. We measured PBF by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), weight by physicians' scales, and height with stadiometers. Our sample comprised Asians (49%), Caucasians (23%), Hispanics (7%), and Other (21%). Participants averaged 21.4 years old; BMI was 22.9 kg/m(2); PBF was 24.8%. BMI and PBF varied significantly by race and gender (P value = 0.002 and 0.005 for men; 0.0009 and 0.0008 for women). Asian-American women had the lowest BMI (21.5 kg/m(2)) but the second highest PBF (27.8%). Linear association between BMI and PBF was the weakest (r (2) = 0.09) among Asian-American women and BMI had the poorest sensitivity (37%) to detect PBF. The high PBF with low BMI pattern exhibited by Asian-American women suggests that they could escape detection for obesity-related disease if BMI is the sole measure that estimates body composition. PMID:23691288

  7. Animal models of sugar and fat bingeing: relationship to food addiction and increased body weight.

    PubMed

    Avena, Nicole M; Bocarsly, Miriam E; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2012-01-01

    Binge eating is a behavior that occurs in some eating disorders, as well as in obesity and in nonclinical populations. Both sugars and fats are readily consumed by human beings and are common components of binges. This chapter describes animal models of sugar and fat bingeing, which allow for a detailed analysis of these behaviors and their concomitant physiological effects. The model of sugar bingeing has been used successfully to elicit behavioral and neurochemical signs of dependence in rats; e.g., indices of opiate-like withdrawal, increased intake after abstinence, cross-sensitization with drugs of abuse, and the repeated release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens following repeated bingeing. Studies using the model of fat bingeing suggest that it can produce some, but not all, of the signs of dependence that are seen with sugar binge eating, as well as increase body weight, potentially leading to obesity. PMID:22231826

  8. Fat content in migratory central Arizona Brazilian free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasiliensis (Molossidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, Thomas J.

    1976-01-01

    Fat content of migratory Tadarida brasiliensis was determined during the spring, summer and fall of 1972 in the Verde Valley of Arizona. Fat indices were highest in March arrivals, generally declined throughout the summer, and were lowest in September. In both 1972 and 1973 bats had arrived at the study area by mid-March. In 1971 bats were last noted at the area in mid-October while in 1972 they had disappeared by late September. On the basis on physiological calculations it is estimated that bats collected in March 1972 possessed sufficient fat reserves to carry them a mean distance of 716 km north of the study area while September bats had only enough reserves to fly 386 km southward, about 160 km short of the nearest known Sonora wintering locality. It is suggested that in spring the bats may have a more rigidly timed migration and so put on excess fat to counter an uncertain environment to the north. The fall migration may be triggered by more unpredictable events, such as the passage of cold fronts, and less fat reserves may be required for movements into more favorable southern locales.

  9. Venom of Euplectrus separatae causes hyperlipidemia by lysis of host fat body cells.

    PubMed

    Nakamatsu, Y; Tanaka, T

    2004-04-01

    Although the lepidopteran larva Pseudaletia separata is attacked by the gregarious ectoparasitoid Euplectrus separatae, it continues to feed and grow. Lipid concentration in the hemolymph of the parasitized host was higher than that of the nonparasitized host from 3 to 8 days after parasitization. Artificial injection of parasitoid venom also elevated lipid concentration in the host hemolymph. One day after venom injection the host's fat body contained many lipid particles, but most of the lipid particles disappeared 7 days later. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed the lipid particles leaving the fat body cells as a result of the lysis of the fat body cells. These results suggest that the venom elevated the lipid concentration in the host hemolymph by provoking the release of lipid particles from the fat body. Though most of the lipid particles were freely floating in the host hemolymph, a portion of the released lipid particles were phagocytized by hemocytes. The amount of lipid that was loaded to lipophorin in the hemolymph of the venom-injected host was measured, but it was not sufficient to explain the high lipid titer in the hemolymph of parasitized and venom-injected host larvae. The fact that parasitoid larva consumed many hemocytes as evidenced by their presence in the midgut supported the hypothesis that the parasitoid larvae fed on the host hemolymph containing the free lipid particles, the hemocytes phagocytizing the lipid particles, and the lipid-loaded lipophorin. The possibility of the venom contribution to the disruption of the intercellular matrix was examined. The venom showed high activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), especially when it was mixed with the hemolymph of non-parasitized 5th instar larvae. We suggest that the MMP in the venom was activated by some components of the host hemolymph. On the other hand, the venom mixed with hemolymph could not decompose gelatin on zymography, suggesting that the venom

  10. Longitudinal analysis of sleep in relation to BMI and body fat in children: the FLAME study

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Philippa J; Williams, Sheila M

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether reduced sleep is associated with differences in body composition and the risk of becoming overweight in young children. Design Longitudinal study with repeated annual measurements. Setting Dunedin, New Zealand. Participants 244 children recruited from a birth cohort and followed from age 3 to 7. Main outcome measures Body mass index (BMI), fat mass (kg), and fat free mass (kg) measured with bioelectrical impedance; dual energy x ray absorptiometry; physical activity and sleep duration measured with accelerometry; dietary intake (fruit and vegetables, non-core foods), television viewing, and family factors (maternal BMI and education, birth weight, smoking during pregnancy) measured with questionnaire. Results After adjustment for multiple confounders, each additional hour of sleep at ages 3-5 was associated with a reduction in BMI of 0.48 (95% confidence interval 0.01 to 0.96) and a reduced risk of being overweight (BMI ≥85th centile) of 0.39 (0.24 to 0.63) at age 7. Further adjustment for BMI at age 3 strengthened these relations. These differences in BMI were explained by differences in fat mass index (−0.43, −0.82 to −0.03) more than by differences in fat free mass index (−0.21, −0.41 to −0.00). Conclusions Young children who do not get enough sleep are at increased risk of becoming overweight, even after adjustment for initial weight status and multiple confounding factors. This weight gain is a result of increased fat deposition in both sexes rather than additional accumulation of fat free mass. PMID:21622518

  11. Diabetes prevalence in NZO females depends on estrogen action on liver fat content.

    PubMed

    Lubura, Marko; Hesse, Deike; Kraemer, Maria; Hallahan, Nicole; Schupp, Michael; von Löffelholz, Christian; Kriebel, Jennifer; Rudovich, Natalia; Pfeiffer, Andreas; John, Clara; Scheja, Ludger; Heeren, Joerg; Koliaki, Chryssi; Roden, Michael; Schürmann, Annette

    2015-12-15

    In humans and rodents, risk of metabolic syndrome is sexually dimorphic, with an increased incidence in males. Additionally, the protective role of female gonadal hormones is ostensible, as prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) increases after menopause. Here, we investigated the influence of estrogen (E2) on the onset of T2DM in female New Zealand obese (NZO) mice. Diabetes prevalence (defined as blood glucose levels >16.6 mmol/l) of NZO females on high-fat diet (60 kcal% fat) in week 22 was 43%. This was markedly dependent on liver fat content in week 10, as detected by computed tomography. Only mice with a liver fat content >9% in week 10 plus glucose levels >10 mmol/l in week 9 developed hyperglycemia by week 22. In addition, at 11 wk, diacylglycerols were elevated in livers of diabetes-prone mice compared with controls. Hepatic expression profiles obtained from diabetes-prone and -resistant mice at 11 wk revealed increased abundance of two transcripts in diabetes-prone mice: Mogat1, which catalyzes the synthesis of diacylglycerols from monoacylglycerol and fatty acyl-CoA, and the fatty acid transporter Cd36. E2 treatment of diabetes-prone mice for 10 wk prevented any further increase in liver fat content and reduced diacylglycerols and the abundance of Mogat1 and Cd36, leading to a reduction of diabetes prevalence and an improved glucose tolerance compared with untreated mice. Our data indicate that early elevation of hepatic Cd36 and Mogat1 associates with increased production and accumulation of triglycerides and diacylglycerols, presumably resulting in reduced hepatic insulin sensitivity and leading to later onset of T2DM. PMID:26487005

  12. Reported food intake and distribution of body fat: a repeated cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Krachler, Benno; Eliasson, Mats; Stenlund, Hans; Johansson, Ingegerd; Hallmans, Göran; Lindahl, Bernt

    2006-01-01

    Background Body mass, as well as distribution of body fat, are predictors of both diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In Northern Sweden, despite a marked increase in average body mass, prevalence of diabetes was stagnant and myocardial infarctions decreased. A more favourable distribution of body fat is a possible contributing factor. This study investigates the relative importance of individual food items for time trends in waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) on a population level. Methods Independent cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1986, 1990, 1994 and 1999 in the two northernmost counties of Sweden with a common population of 250000. Randomly selected age stratified samples, altogether 2982 men and 3087 women aged 25–64 years. Questionnaires were completed and anthropometric measurements taken. For each food item, associations between frequency of consumption and waist and hip circumferences were estimated. Partial regression coefficients for every level of reported intake were multiplied with differences in proportion of the population reporting the corresponding levels of intake in 1986 and 1999. The sum of these product terms for every food item was the respective estimated impact on mean circumference. Results Time trends in reported food consumption associated with the more favourable gynoid distribution of adipose tissue were increased use of vegetable oil, pasta and 1.5% fat milk. Trends associated with abdominal obesity were increased consumption of beer in men and higher intake of hamburgers and French fried potatoes in women. Conclusion Food trends as markers of time trends in body fat distribution have been identified. The method is a complement to conventional approaches to establish associations between food intake and disease risk on a population level. PMID:17187681

  13. The regulation of body fat distribution and the modulation of insulin action.

    PubMed

    Cases, J A; Barzilai, N

    2000-11-01

    Body fat distribution may determine insulin resistance and its metabolic syndrome in humans, independent of obesity. Surgical removal of visceral fat (VF) in obese rats was associated with decreased leptin plasma levels and its gene expression in subcutaneous fat (SC). Chronic leptin treatment to rats decreased VF specifically supporting the role of leptin in determining fat distribution. Surgical removal of selected VF provided direct evidence of improved in vivo insulin action on hepatic glucose production (HGP) by over 2-fold vs sham-operated control. The impact of decreased VF on improved in vivo insulin action was further supported by obtaining similar decreases in VF by treating rats with leptin (Lep), beta3-aderenoreceptor agonist, or by severe caloric restriction (CR). All these three interventions improved insulin action on the modulation of HGP and were mostly attributed to preservation of hepatic glycogen stores. Because free fatty acids (FFA) plasma levels were unchanged, this effect may not be mediated portally by substrates. Improved peripheral insulin sensitivity and glycogen synthesis was demonstrated only in Lep. These data suggest that VF is a major determinant of hepatic insulin action. In obese rats, the ability of leptin to prevent visceral adiposity and its own expression is attenuated. Thus, the failure of leptin to regulate fat distribution and its own secretion suggest that 'leptin resistance' may be a pathologic feature in obesity. PMID:11126245

  14. Statistical modeling and MAP estimation for body fat quantification with MRI ratio imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Wilbur C. K.; Johnson, David H.; Wilson, David L.

    2008-03-01

    We are developing small animal imaging techniques to characterize the kinetics of lipid accumulation/reduction of fat depots in response to genetic/dietary factors associated with obesity and metabolic syndromes. Recently, we developed an MR ratio imaging technique that approximately yields lipid/{lipid + water}. In this work, we develop a statistical model for the ratio distribution that explicitly includes a partial volume (PV) fraction of fat and a mixture of a Rician and multiple Gaussians. Monte Carlo hypothesis testing showed that our model was valid over a wide range of coefficient of variation of the denominator distribution (c.v.: 0-0:20) and correlation coefficient among the numerator and denominator (ρ 0-0.95), which cover the typical values that we found in MRI data sets (c.v.: 0:027-0:063, ρ: 0:50-0:75). Then a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate for the fat percentage per voxel is proposed. Using a digital phantom with many PV voxels, we found that ratio values were not linearly related to PV fat content and that our method accurately described the histogram. In addition, the new method estimated the ground truth within +1.6% vs. +43% for an approach using an uncorrected ratio image, when we simply threshold the ratio image. On the six genetically obese rat data sets, the MAP estimate gave total fat volumes of 279 +/- 45mL, values 21% smaller than those from the uncorrected ratio images, principally due to the non-linear PV effect. We conclude that our algorithm can increase the accuracy of fat volume quantification even in regions having many PV voxels, e.g. ectopic fat depots.

  15. Development and Reproducibility of a Computed Tomography–Based Measurement for Upper Body Subcutaneous Neck Fat

    PubMed Central

    Rosenquist, Klara J.; Therkelsen, Kate E.; Massaro, Joseph M.; Hoffmann, Udo; Fox, Caroline S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Upper body subcutaneous neck fat (UBSF) is a unique fat depot anatomically separate from visceral abdominal fat that appears to be associated with cardiometabolic risk above and beyond generalized adiposity. We sought to develop a protocol to quantify UBSF using multidetector computed tomography measurements. Methods and Results Protocol development was performed in participants from the Framingham Heart Study who had participated in the multidetector computed tomography scanning substudy, consisting of chest scans. Volumetric assessment of UBSF was defined by 40 contiguous 0.625‐mm slices superior to the body of the sternum. The reader manually traced the chest to identify total neck fat. Breast tissue exterior to the chest wall was excluded. Subcutaneous and visceral fat volumes were obtained using standard protocols. Age‐ and sex‐adjusted Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess the association among UBSF, traditional adiposity measures, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Inter‐ and intrareader reproducibility was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients. Volumetric assessments were obtained in 92 participants because 8 scans were not readable (51% women; mean age: 59 years [women], 58 years [men]). The mean volume of UBSF was 310 cm3 for women and 345 cm3 for men. Intra‐ and interreader class correlation coefficients were 0.99 and 0.99, respectively. UBSF was correlated with waist circumference (r=0.90), neck circumference (r=0.75), body mass index (r=0.89), subcutaneous adipose tissue (r=0.87), and visceral adipose tissue (r=0.86). Conclusions UBSF can be quantified reproducibly using computed tomography in a community‐dwelling sample from the Framingham Heart Study. PMID:25523152

  16. Facial attractiveness is related to women's cortisol and body fat, but not with immune responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Rantala, Markus J; Coetzee, Vinet; Moore, Fhionna R; Skrinda, Ilona; Kecko, Sanita; Krama, Tatjana; Kivleniece, Inese; Krams, Indrikis

    2013-08-23

    Recent studies suggest that facial attractiveness indicates immune responsiveness in men and that this relationship is moderated by stress hormones which interact with testosterone levels. However, studies testing whether facial attractiveness in women signals their immune responsiveness are lacking. Here, we photographed young Latvian women, vaccinated them against hepatitis B and measured the amount of specific antibodies produced, cortisol levels and percentage body fat. Latvian men rated the attractiveness of the women's faces. Interestingly, in women, immune responsiveness (amount of antibodies produced) did not predict facial attractiveness. Instead, plasma cortisol level was negatively associated with attractiveness, indicating that stressed women look less attractive. Fat percentage was curvilinearly associated with facial attractiveness, indicating that being too thin or too fat reduces attractiveness. Our study suggests that in contrast to men, facial attractiveness in women does not indicate immune responsiveness against hepatitis B, but is associated with two other aspects of long-term health and fertility: circulating levels of the stress hormone cortisol and percentage body fat. PMID:23697641

  17. An analysis of sodium, total fat and saturated fat contents of packaged food products advertised in Bronx-based supermarket circulars.

    PubMed

    Samuel, L; Basch, C H; Ethan, D; Hammond, R; Chiazzese, K

    2014-08-01

    Americans' consumption of sodium, fat, and saturated fat exceed federally recommended limits for these nutrients and has been identified as a preventable leading cause of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. More than 40% of the Bronx population comprises African-Americans, who have increased risk and earlier onset of hypertension and are also genetically predisposed to salt-sensitive hypertension. This study analyzed nutrition information for packaged foods advertised in Bronx-based supermarket circulars. Federally recommended limits for sodium, saturated fat and total fat contents were used to identify foods that were high in these nutrients. The proportion of these products with respect to the total number of packaged foods was calculated. More than a third (35%) and almost a quarter (24%) of the 898 advertised packaged foods were high in saturated fat and sodium respectively. Such foods predominantly included processed meat and fish products, fast foods, meals, entrees and side dishes. Dairy and egg products were the greatest contributors of high saturated fat. Pork and beef products, fast foods, meals, entrees and side dishes had the highest median values for sodium, total fat and saturated fat content. The high proportion of packaged foods that are high in sodium and/or saturated fat promoted through supermarket circulars highlights the need for nutrition education among consumers as well as collaborative public health measures by the food industry, community and government agencies to reduce the amounts of sodium and saturated fat in these products and limit the promotion of foods that are high in these nutrients. PMID:24488648

  18. Association of total body and visceral fat mass with iron deficiency in preadolescents: the Healthy Growth Study.

    PubMed

    Moschonis, George; Chrousos, George P; Lionis, Christos; Mougios, Vassilis; Manios, Yannis

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of obesity, percentage body fat and visceral fat mass with body Fe status in a representative sample of 1493 schoolchildren aged 9-13 years. Anthropometric, body composition, biochemical, clinical (Tanner stage, age of menarche) and dietary intake data were collected. Fe deficiency (ID) was defined as transferrin saturation (TS) < 16 %; and Fe-deficiency anaemia (IDA) as ID with Hb < 120 g/l. Obese boys and girls and those in the highest quartiles of percentage body fat mass had significantly higher levels of serum ferritin (P ≤ 0.05) compared to their normal-weight peers and those in the corresponding lowest quartiles. Similarly, obese boys and girls and those in the highest quartiles of percentage body fat and visceral fat mass had significantly lower levels of TS (P ≤ 0.05) compared to normal-weight children and those in the corresponding lowest quartiles. The prevalence of ID and IDA was significantly higher in boys and girls in the highest quartiles of percentage body fat than in peers in the lowest quartile. Higher quartiles of percentage body fat and visceral fat mass were the main significant predictors of ID in boys, after controlling for other important confounders, with OR of 2.48 (95 % CI, 1.26, 4.88) and 2.12 (95 % CI, 1.07, 4.19), respectively. Similar significant associations were observed for girls. In conclusion, percentage body fat and visceral fat mass were positively associated with ID in both sexes of preadolescents. These associations might be attributed to the chronic inflammation induced by excess adiposity. PMID:22088365

  19. Body mass and lipid content of shorebirds overwintering on the south Texas coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Three species of shorebirds were collected at bimonthly intervals in 1979-1980, from the time of their arrival in early autumn to mid-February, on the south Texas coast. Female Long-billed Dowitchers (Limnodromus scolopaceus) and Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) were heavier (P 0.05) between sexes in any of the three species. During the wintering period, fat stores in Long-billed Dowitchers and Western Sandpipers declined 70% and 44%, respectively, but not in American Avocets. Lipid content was highly correlated (P < 0.001) with body mass in all three species, providing further evidence that fat accumulation is responsible for the major variation in total mass of some shorebird species.

  20. Pineapple by-product and canola oil as partial fat replacers in low-fat beef burger: Effects on oxidative stability, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Selani, Miriam M; Shirado, Giovanna A N; Margiotta, Gregório B; Rasera, Mariana L; Marabesi, Amanda C; Piedade, Sonia M S; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G

    2016-05-01

    The effect of freeze-dried pineapple by-product and canola oil as fat replacers on the oxidative stability, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile of low-fat beef burgers was evaluated. Five treatments were performed: conventional (CN, 20% fat) and four low-fat formulations (10% fat): control (CT), pineapple by-product (PA), canola oil (CO), and pineapple by-product and canola oil (PC). Low-fat cooked burgers showed a mean cholesterol content reduction of 9.15% compared to the CN. Canola oil addition improved the fatty acid profile of the burgers, with increase in the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio and decrease in the n-6/n-3 ratio, in the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. The oxidative stability of the burgers was affected by the vegetable oil addition. However, at the end of the storage time (120 days), malonaldehyde values of CO and PC were lower than the threshold for the consumer's acceptance. Canola oil, in combination with pineapple by-product, can be considered promising fat replacers in the development of healthier burgers. PMID:26775152

  1. Serum Vitamin D status and its relations to body fatness and fitness and risk factors in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinkook; Gong, Jiyoung; Hong, Hyeryun; Ha, Changduk; Kang, Hyunsik

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the relations of serum vitamin D levels to body fatness, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and metabolic risk factors in young adults in Korea. A total of 593 young men completed a health examination, body fatness, maximal treadmill exercise test, and assessment of metabolic risk factors. Participants were classified by serum vitamin D levels as deficient (< 20 ng/mL), insufficient (20~30 ng/mL), and sufficient (> 30 ng/mL). Body fatness, CRF, and metabolic risk factors were evaluated according to serum vitamin D classification. Significant inverse trends in body fatness and metabolic risk factors were observed, as was a significant linear trend for CRF across incremental vitamin D categories in this study population. Serum vitamin D levels were negatively associated with body fatness parameters, blood pressures, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin and positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and CRF. Compared to the BMI-based lean group, the obese groups had significantly higher odds ratio for serum vitamin D insufficiency before and after adjusting for age, CRF, and physical activity. Similarly, compared to percent body fat- and waist circumference-based lean groups, the obese groups had significant higher odds ratios for serum vitamin D insufficiency. In conclusion, the current findings of the study suggest that along with vitamin D intakes, body fat loss and outdoor physical activity should be promoted as non-pharmacologic means to improve metabolic risk factors in young adults. PMID:25566425

  2. Drosophila transcriptional repressor protein that binds specifically to negative control elements in fat body enhancers.

    PubMed Central

    Falb, D; Maniatis, T

    1992-01-01

    Expression of the Drosophila melanogaster Adh gene in adults requires a fat body-specific enhancer called the Adh adult enhancer (AAE). We have identified a protein in Drosophila nuclear extracts that binds specifically to a site within the AAE (adult enhancer factor 1 [AEF-1]). In addition, we have shown that AEF-1 binds specifically to two other Drosophila fat body enhancers. Base substitutions in the AEF-1 binding site that disrupt AEF-1 binding in vitro result in a significant increase in the level of Adh expression in vivo. Thus, the AEF-1 binding site is a negative regulatory element within the AAE. A cDNA encoding the AEF-1 protein was isolated and shown to act as a repressor of the AAE in cotransfection studies. The AEF-1 protein contains four zinc fingers and an alanine-rich sequence. The latter motif is found in other eukaryotic proteins known to be transcriptional repressors. Images PMID:1508206

  3. Postnatal Stress in Mice: Effects on Body Fat, Plasma Lipids, Glucose and Insulin.

    PubMed

    d'Amore, A; Caiola, S; Maroccia, E; Loizzo, A

    2000-01-01

    Mice pups were exposed to stressful stimuli everyday during the first 3 weeks of life. Body weight, food intake and spontaneous locomotor activity, triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, glucose and insulin basal levels, as well as epididymal fat pad weight and its cell volume were measured in stressed and control animals. Results indicated that postnatal stressful manipulations induced an increase in body weight, epididymal fat pad weight and its cell volume, as well as in insulin, glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides plasma levels, at 4 months of age. No significant changes in food consumption, locomotor activity and phospholipids plasma levels were found. Present data suggest that early stressful manipulations may induce residual effects on lipid and glucid metabolism. PMID:27414054

  4. Exercise improves body fat, lean mass and bone mass in breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Melinda L.; Alvarez-Reeves, Marty; Cadmus, Lisa; Mierzejewski, Eileen; Mayne, Susan T.; Yu, Herbert; Chung, Gina G.; Jones, Beth; Knobf, M. Tish; DiPietro, Loretta

    2010-01-01

    Given the negative effects of a breast cancer diagnosis and its treatments on body weight and bone mass, we investigated the effects of a 6-month randomized controlled aerobic exercise intervention vs. usual care on body composition in breast cancer survivors. Secondary aims were to examine the effects stratified by important prognostic and physiologic variables. Seventy-five physically inactive postmenopausal breast cancer survivors were recruited through the Yale-New Haven Hospital Tumor Registry and randomly assigned to an exercise (n = 37) or usual care (n = 38) group. The exercise group participated in 150 min/wk of supervised gym- and home-based moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. The usual care group was instructed to maintain their current physical activity level. Body composition was assessed at baseline and 6-months via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry by one radiologist blinded to the intervention group of the participants. On average, exercisers increased moderate-intensity aerobic exercise by 129 min/wk over and above baseline levels compared with 45 min/wk among usual care participants (p < .001). Exercisers experienced decreases in percent body fat (p = .0022) and increases in lean mass (p = .047) compared with increases in body fat and decreases in lean mass in usual care participants. BMD was also maintained among exercisers compared with a loss among usual care participants (p = .043). In summary, moderate-intensity aerobic exercise, such as brisk walking, produces favorable changes in body composition that may improve breast cancer prognosis. PMID:19629060

  5. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Obesity, body fatness and cancer.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Annie S; Key, Timothy J; Norat, Teresa; Scoccianti, Chiara; Cecchini, Michele; Berrino, Franco; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Espina, Carolina; Leitzmann, Michael; Powers, Hilary; Wiseman, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    It is estimated that over half the population of the European Union (EU) is overweight or obese due to an imbalance between energy expenditure and energy intake; this is related to an obesogenic environment of sociocultural, economic and marketing challenges to the control of body weight. Excess body fat is associated with nine cancer sites - oesophagus, colorectum, gall bladder, pancreas, postmenopausal breast, endometrium, ovary, kidney and prostate (advanced) - and 4-38% of these cancers (depending on site and gender) can be attributed to overweight/obesity status. Metabolic alterations which accompany excess body weight are accompanied by increased levels of inflammation, insulin, oestrogens and other hormonal factors. There are some indications that intentional weight loss is associated with reduced cancer incidence (notably in postmenopausal breast and endometrial cancers). Excess body weight is also a risk factor for several other diseases, including diabetes and heart disease, and is related to higher risk of premature death. In reviewing the current evidence related to excess body fat and cancer, the European Code against Cancer Nutrition Working Group has developed the following recommendation: 'Take action to be a healthy body weight'. PMID:26205840

  6. The NK1R-/- mouse phenotype suggests that small body size, with a sex- and diet-dependent excess in body mass and fat, are physical biomarkers for a human endophenotype with vulnerability to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Pillidge, Katharine; Heal, David J; Stanford, S Clare

    2016-09-01

    The abnormal behaviour of NK1R-/- mice (locomotor hyperactivity, inattentiveness and impulsivity in the 5-Choice Serial Reaction-Time Test) is arguably analogous to that of patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Evidence suggests that small body size and increased body weight are risk factors for ADHD. Here, we compared the body size, body mass and body composition of male and female NK1R-/- mice and their wildtypes that had been fed either standard laboratory chow or a high-fat (45%: 'Western') diet. Male NK1R-/- mice from both cohorts were approximately 7% shorter than wildtypes. A similar trend was evident in females. Male NK1R-/- mice fed the normal diet weighed less than wildtypes but the 'body mass index' ('mBMI': weight (mg)/length (cm)(2)) of female NK1R-/- mice was higher than wildtypes. When given the high-fat diet, the mBMI of both male and female NK1R-/- mice was higher than wildtypes. There were no consistent genotype or sex differences in protein, ash or water content of mice from the two cohorts. However, the fat content of male NK1R-/- mice on the Western diet was considerably (35%) higher than wildtypes and resembled that of females from both genotypes. We conclude that a lack of functional NK1R is associated with small body size but increases vulnerability to an increase in mBMI and fat content, especially in males. This phenotype could also be evident in ADHD patients with polymorphism(s) of the TACR1 gene (the human equivalent of Nk1r). PMID:27462087

  7. The NK1R-/- mouse phenotype suggests that small body size, with a sex- and diet-dependent excess in body mass and fat, are physical biomarkers for a human endophenotype with vulnerability to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pillidge, Katharine; Heal, David J; Stanford, S Clare

    2016-01-01

    The abnormal behaviour of NK1R-/- mice (locomotor hyperactivity, inattentiveness and impulsivity in the 5-Choice Serial Reaction-Time Test) is arguably analogous to that of patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Evidence suggests that small body size and increased body weight are risk factors for ADHD. Here, we compared the body size, body mass and body composition of male and female NK1R-/- mice and their wildtypes that had been fed either standard laboratory chow or a high-fat (45%: ‘Western’) diet. Male NK1R-/- mice from both cohorts were approximately 7% shorter than wildtypes. A similar trend was evident in females. Male NK1R-/- mice fed the normal diet weighed less than wildtypes but the ‘body mass index’ (‘mBMI’: weight (mg)/length (cm)2) of female NK1R-/- mice was higher than wildtypes. When given the high-fat diet, the mBMI of both male and female NK1R-/- mice was higher than wildtypes. There were no consistent genotype or sex differences in protein, ash or water content of mice from the two cohorts. However, the fat content of male NK1R-/- mice on the Western diet was considerably (35%) higher than wildtypes and resembled that of females from both genotypes. We conclude that a lack of functional NK1R is associated with small body size but increases vulnerability to an increase in mBMI and fat content, especially in males. This phenotype could also be evident in ADHD patients with polymorphism(s) of the TACR1 gene (the human equivalent of Nk1r). PMID:27462087

  8. Contents of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars and dietary fibre in Swedish market basket diets.

    PubMed

    Becker, W; Eriksson, A; Haglund, M; Wretling, S

    2015-05-14

    The typical dietary supply of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars, polyols and dietary fibre in Sweden was assessed from analyses of market baskets (MB) purchased in 2005 and 2010. MB were based on food balance sheets, with each basket comprising about 130 foods, which represented more than 90% of annual dietary supply. Foods were divided into ten to twelve categories. In 2010, total fat contributed 34% of energy (E%), SFA 14.3 E%, MUFA 12.8 E%, PUFA 4.6 E%, n-6 fatty acids 3.6 E%, n-3 fatty acids 1.0 E% and trans-fatty acids (TFA) 0.5 E%. Glycaemic carbohydrates contributed 47 E%, monosaccharides 9 E%, sucrose 11 E%, disaccharides 15 E% and total sugars 24 E%. Added sugars contributed about 15 E%. Dietary fibre content was about 1.7 g/MJ in the 2010 MB. Compared with the 2005 MB, the dietary supply of TFA and dietary fibre was lower, otherwise differences were small. The present MB survey shows that the content of SFA and added sugars was higher than the current Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, while the content of PUFA and especially dietary fibre was lower. TFA levels decreased and dietary supply was well below the recommendations of the WHO. These results emphasise a focus on quality and food sources of fat and carbohydrates, limiting foods rich in SFA and added sugars and replacing them with foods rich in dietary fibre and cis-unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:25989998

  9. Ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian pre-pubertal children: A cross-sectional multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ethnic differences in body fat distribution contribute to ethnic differences in cardiovascular morbidities and diabetes. However few data are available on differences in fat distribution in Asian children from various backgrounds. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian children from four countries. Methods A total of 758 children aged 8-10 y from China, Lebanon, Malaysia and Thailand were recruited using a non-random purposive sampling approach to enrol children encompassing a wide BMI range. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), fat mass (FM, derived from total body water [TBW] estimation using the deuterium dilution technique) and skinfold thickness (SFT) at biceps, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale and medial calf were collected. Results After controlling for height and weight, Chinese and Thai children had a significantly higher WC than their Lebanese and Malay counterparts. Chinese and Thais tended to have higher trunk fat deposits than Lebanese and Malays reflected in trunk SFT, trunk/upper extremity ratio or supraspinale/upper extremity ratio after adjustment for age and total body fat. The subscapular/supraspinale skinfold ratio was lower in Chinese and Thais compared with Lebanese and Malays after correcting for trunk SFT. Conclusions Asian pre-pubertal children from different origins vary in body fat distribution. These results indicate the importance of population-specific WC cut-off points or other fat distribution indices to identify the population at risk of obesity-related health problems. PMID:21703012

  10. Body fat distribution and cortisol metabolism in healthy men: enhanced 5beta-reductase and lower cortisol/cortisone metabolite ratios in men with fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Westerbacka, Jukka; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Vehkavaara, Satu; Häkkinen, Anna-Maija; Andrew, Ruth; Wake, Deborah J; Seckl, Jonathan R; Walker, Brian R

    2003-10-01

    In Cushing's syndrome, cortisol causes fat accumulation in specific sites most likely to be associated with insulin resistance, notably in omental adipose and also perhaps in the liver. In idiopathic obesity, cortisol-metabolizing enzymes may play a key role in determining body fat distribution. Increased regeneration of cortisol from cortisone within adipose by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) type 1 (11HSD1) has been proposed to cause visceral fat accumulation, whereas decreased hepatic 11HSD1 may protect the liver from glucocorticoid excess. Increased inactivation of cortisol by 5alpha- and 5beta-reductases in the liver may drive compensatory activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, hence increasing adrenal androgens and 'android' central obesity. This study aimed to examine relationships between these enzymes and detailed measurements of body fat distribution. Twenty-five healthy men (age, 22-57 yr; body mass index, 20.6-35.6 kg/m(2)) were recruited from occupational health services. Body composition was assessed by anthropometric measurements, bioimpedance, and cross-sectional abdominal magnetic resonance imaging scans. Liver fat content was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging spectroscopy. Insulin sensitivity was measured in a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Cortisol metabolites were measured in a 24-h urine sample by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In vivo hepatic 11HSD1 activity was measured by generation of plasma cortisol after an oral dose of cortisone. In vitro 11HSD1 activity and mRNA were measured in 18 subjects who consented to provide abdominal sc adipose biopsies. Indices of obesity (body mass index, whole-body percentage fat, waist/hip ratio) were associated with higher urinary excretion of 5alpha- and 5beta-reduced cortisol metabolites (for percentage fat, P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) and increased adipose 11HSD1 activity (P < 0.05). Liver fat accumulation was associated with a selective increase in

  11. Lipolysis and proteolysis profiles of fresh artisanal goat cheese made with raw milk with 3 different fat contents.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Macías, D; Morales-Delanuez, A; Moreno-Indias, I; Hernández-Castellano, L E; Mendoza-Grimón, V; Castro, N; Argüello, A

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the proteolysis and lipolysis profiles in goat cheese made in the Canary Islands (Spain) using raw milk with 3 different fat contents (0.5, 1.5, and 5%) and ripened for 1, 7, 14, and 28 d. β-Casein was the most abundant protein in all cheeses and at all ripening times. Quantitative analysis showed a general decrease in caseins as ripening progressed, and degradation rates were higher for α(S1)-casein than for β-casein and α(S2)-casein. Furthermore, the degradation rate during the experimental time decreased with lower fat contents. The α(S2)-casein and α(S1)-casein levels that remained in full-fat and reduced-fat cheeses were less than those in low-fat cheese. In contrast, β-casein also showed degradation along with ripening, but differences in degradation among the 3 cheese types were not significant at 28 d. The degradation products increased with the ripening time in all cheeses, but they were higher in full-fat cheese than in reduced-fat and low-fat cheeses. The free fatty acid concentration per 100g of cheese was higher in full-fat cheese than in reduced- and low-fat cheese; however, when the results were expressed as milligrams of free fatty acids per gram of fat in cheese, then lipolysis occurred more rapidly in low-fat cheese than in reduced- and full-fat cheeses. These results may explain the atypical texture and off-flavors found in low-fat goat cheeses, likely the main causes of non-acceptance. PMID:22118069

  12. Iridoid biosynthesis in Chrysomelina larvae: Fat body produces early terpenoid precursors.

    PubMed

    Burse, Antje; Schmidt, Axel; Frick, Sindy; Kuhn, Jürgen; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Boland, Wilhelm

    2007-03-01

    Larvae of the Chrysomelina species Phaedon cochleariae and Gastrophysa viridula produce monoterpenoids (iridoids) to defend themselves against predatory attacks by presenting the toxins upon attack as droplets on the top of nine pairs of dorsal glands. Although the conversion of 8-hydroxygeraniol-8-O-beta-d-glucoside into the iridoids in the glandular reservoir has been studied in detail, the synthesis of the glucosidically bound precursor received only limited attention. We compared larvae of the two iridoid producing species with those of Chrysomela populi, a sequestering species producing salicylaldehyde, in terms of the key enzymes 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) and isoprenyl diphosphate synthases involved in the biosynthesis of the iridoid precursor. Increased HMGR transcript abundance, high HMGR activity and accumulation of geraniol indicating geranyl diphosphate synthase activity was observed only in the fat body of the iridoid producing larvae in comparison to other larval tissues and to the tested tissues of C. populi. These results correlate with the identification of glucosidically bound 8-hydroxygeraniol in the fat body of the iridoid producers. We suggest that in P. cochleariae and G. viridula glucosidically bound 8-hydroxygeraniol is produced by the fat body and transferred via the hemolymph into the glandular reservoir for further conversion into iridoids. PMID:17296500

  13. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    PubMed Central

    Strawbridge, Rona J; Pers, Tune H; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M.W.; Buchkovich, Martin L; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Roman, Tamara S; Drong, Alexander W; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian’an; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feitosa, Mary F; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Leach, Irene Mateo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J; Prokopenko, Inga; Stančáková, Alena; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B; Caspersen, Ida H; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex SF; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrich, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Mooijaart, Simon P; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M; Smith, Albert Vernon; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor VA; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Zhao, Jing Hua; Brennan, Eoin P.; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G; Hedman, Åsa K; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Montgomery, Grant W; Murabito, Joanne M; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John RB; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E; Scott, Robert A; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan JL; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chines, Peter S; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco JC; Dörr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heliövaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Humphries, Steve E

    2014-01-01

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, we conducted genome-wide association meta-analyses of waist and hip circumference-related traits in up to 224,459 individuals. We identified 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI) and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P<5×10−8). Twenty of the 49 WHRadjBMI loci showed significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which displayed a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation, and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:25673412

  14. Differentially expressed genes in the fat body of Bombyx mori in response to phoxim insecticide.

    PubMed

    Gu, Z Y; Li, F C; Wang, B B; Xu, K Z; Ni, M; Zhang, H; Shen, W D; Li, B

    2015-01-01

    The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is an economically important insect. However, poisoning of silkworms by organophosphate pesticides causes tremendous loss to the sericulture. The fat body is the major tissue involved in detoxification and produces antimicrobial peptides and regulates hormones. In this study, a microarray system comprising 22,987 oligonucluotide 70-mer probes was employed to examine differentially expressed genes in the fat body of B. mori exposed to phoxim insecticide. The results showed that a total of 774 genes were differentially expressed upon phoxim exposure, including 500 up-regulated genes and 274 down-regulated genes. The expression levels of eight detoxification-related genes were up-regulated upon phoxim exposure, including six cytochrome P450s and two glutathione-S-transferases. It was firstly found that eight antimicrobial peptide genes were down-regulated, which might provide important references for studying the larvae of B. mori become more susceptible to microbial infections after phoxim treatment. In addition, we firstly detected the expression level of metamorphosis-related genes after phoxim exposure, which may lead to impacted reproduction. Our results may facilitate the overall understanding of the molecular mechanism of multiple pathways following exposure to phoxim insecticide in the fat body of B. mori. PMID:25619911

  15. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Shungin, Dmitry; Winkler, Thomas W; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Ferreira, Teresa; Locke, Adam E; Mägi, Reedik; Strawbridge, Rona J; Pers, Tune H; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M W; Buchkovich, Martin L; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Roman, Tamara S; Drong, Alexander W; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian'an; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feitosa, Mary F; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Mateo Leach, Irene; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J; Prokopenko, Inga; Stančáková, Alena; Ju Sung, Yun; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B; Caspersen, Ida H; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex S F; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrich, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Mooijaart, Simon P; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M; Vernon Smith, Albert; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor V A; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Hua Zhao, Jing; Brennan, Eoin P; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G; Hedman, Åsa K; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Montgomery, Grant W; Murabito, Joanne M; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John R B; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E; Scott, Robert A; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J L; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chines, Peter S; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco J C; Dörr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heliövaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Humphries, Steve E; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKenzie, Colin A; McKnight, Barbara; Musk, Arthur W; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Morris, Andrew D; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Palmer, Lyle J; Penninx, Brenda W; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Ridker, Paul M; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schwarz, Peter E H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Staessen, Jan A; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Adair, Linda S; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Caulfield, Mark J; Chambers, John C; Chasman, Daniel I; Cooper, Richard S; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Froguel, Philippe; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hveem, Kristian; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; März, Winfried; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin N A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Sinisalo, Juha; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Veronesi, Giovanni; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Assimes, Themistocles L; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M; Groop, Leif C; Hunter, David J; Kaplan, Robert C; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Qi, Lu; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Willer, Cristen J; Visscher, Peter M; Yang, Jian; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Zillikens, M Carola; McCarthy, Mark I; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; North, Kari E; Fox, Caroline S; Barroso, Inês; Franks, Paul W; Ingelsson, Erik; Heid, Iris M; Loos, Ruth J F; Cupples, L Adrienne; Morris, Andrew P; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Mohlke, Karen L

    2015-02-12

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. We identify 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P < 5 × 10(-8)). In total, 20 of the 49 waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI loci show significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which display a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:25673412

  16. Midgut and fat body bacteriocytes in neotropical cerambycid beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Calderon, Olga; Berkov, Amy

    2012-02-01

    Xylophagous insects derive nutrients from intractable substrates by producing or ingesting cellulolytic enzymes, or by maintaining associations with symbiotic microbes. Wood-boring cerambycid beetle larvae sometimes house maternally-transmitted endosymbiotic yeasts that are presumed to provide their hosts with nutritional benefits. These are thought to be absent from species in the large subfamily Lamiinae; nevertheless yeasts have been repeatedly isolated from the guts of neotropical lamiines. The objective of this study was to conduct transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of cerambycid larval midgut tissues to determine if gut yeasts were intracellular, or simply present in the gut lumen. Nine cerambycid larvae were harvested from two trees in the Brazil nut family (Lecythidaceae) in the rain forest of SE Peru; seven were identified using mtDNA sequence data and processed for TEM. Yeasts cultured from larval frass or exuvia, and identified with rDNA sequence data, were identical or similar to yeasts previously isolated from beetles. In TEM analyses yeast cells were found only in the gut lumens, sometimes associated with fragments of thick-walled xylem cells. Apparent bacteriocytes were found in either midgut or fat body tissue of three larval specimens, including two lamiines. This is the first report of a potential fat body symbiosis in a cerambycid beetle. Future studies of cerambycid symbiosis should distinguish the identities and potential roles of free-living organisms in the gut lumen from those of organisms harbored within gut epithelial or fat body tissue. PMID:22525065

  17. ‘To[o] much eating stifles the child’: fat bodies and reproduction in early modern England†

    PubMed Central

    Toulalan, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This article examines associations between fat bodies and reproductive dysfunction that were prevalent in medical, midwifery and other literature in early modern England. In a period when fertility and successful reproduction were regarded as hugely important for social, economic and political stability such associations further contributed to negative attitudes towards fat bodies that were fuelled by connection with the vices of sloth and gluttony. Fat bodies were categorized as inherently, constitutionally, less sexual and reproductively successful. Consequently they were perceived as unhealthy and unfit for their primary purpose once they had reached sexual maturity: marriage and the production of children. PMID:25960608

  18. Sex- and age-related mortality profiles during famine: testing the 'body fat' hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Speakman, John R

    2013-11-01

    During famines females generally have a mortality advantage relative to males, and the highest levels of mortality occur in the very young and the elderly. One popular hypothesis is that the sex differential in mortality may reflect the greater body fatness combined with lower metabolism of females, which may also underpin the age-related patterns of mortality among adults. This study evaluated the 'body fat' hypothesis using a previously published and validated mathematical model of survival during total starvation. The model shows that at a given body weight females would indeed be expected to survive considerably longer than males in the absence of food. At a mass of 70 kg for example a female aged 30 would survive for 144 days compared with life expectancy of only 95 days for a male of the same age and weight. This effect is contributed to by both the higher body fatness and lower metabolism of the females at a given body weight. However, females are generally smaller than males and in addition to a sex effect there was also a major effect of body size - heavier individuals survive longer. When this body size effect was removed by considering survival in relation to BMI the sex effect was much reduced, and could be offset by a relatively small difference in pre-famine BMI between the sexes. Nevertheless, combining these predictions with observed mean BMIs of males and females across 48 countries at the low end of the obesity spectrum suggests that in the complete absence of food females would survive on average about 40% longer (range 6 to 64.5%) than males. The energy balance model also predicted that older adult individuals should survive much longer than younger adult individuals, by virtue of their lower resting metabolic rates and lower activity levels. Observations of the female survival advantage in multiple famines span a much wider range than the model prediction (5% to 210%). This suggests in some famines body fatness may be a significant factor

  19. The relationship between distribution of body fat mass and carotid artery intima-media thickness in Korean older adults.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Kee; Park, Hyuntae; Kim, Kwi-Baek

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the amount and distribution of body fat and the carotid intima-media thickness to explore whether coronary artery disease risk may be mediated through effects on the amount of fat mass in older adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 200 elderly females was participated. The percentage of body fat mass was measured by the bioelectrical impedance analysis method, and the carotid intima-media thickness was measured by B-mode ultrasound. Analysis of covariance was performed to assess independent associations between the four categories of percentage of body fat mass and the carotid intima-media thickness after multivariate adjustment. Logistic regression analyses were utilized to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for examining independent associations between percentage of body fat mass and the estimated risk of coronary artery disease. [Results] Analysis of covariance showed that the carotid intima-media thickness was significantly thick in both obesity and overweight groups. When multivariate-adjusted OR for the estimated risk of coronary artery disease, the odds ratios for the obesity and overweight groups were 3.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 8.7) and 2.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 6.1), respectively. [Conclusion] This study demonstrates that elderly females with a high body fat mass are more likely to have the estimated risk of CAD than who fit body fat mass in elderly female. PMID:26633917

  20. The relationship between distribution of body fat mass and carotid artery intima-media thickness in Korean older adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Kee; Park, Hyuntae; Kim, Kwi-Baek

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the amount and distribution of body fat and the carotid intima-media thickness to explore whether coronary artery disease risk may be mediated through effects on the amount of fat mass in older adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 200 elderly females was participated. The percentage of body fat mass was measured by the bioelectrical impedance analysis method, and the carotid intima-media thickness was measured by B-mode ultrasound. Analysis of covariance was performed to assess independent associations between the four categories of percentage of body fat mass and the carotid intima-media thickness after multivariate adjustment. Logistic regression analyses were utilized to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for examining independent associations between percentage of body fat mass and the estimated risk of coronary artery disease. [Results] Analysis of covariance showed that the carotid intima-media thickness was significantly thick in both obesity and overweight groups. When multivariate-adjusted OR for the estimated risk of coronary artery disease, the odds ratios for the obesity and overweight groups were 3.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 8.7) and 2.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 6.1), respectively. [Conclusion] This study demonstrates that elderly females with a high body fat mass are more likely to have the estimated risk of CAD than who fit body fat mass in elderly female. PMID:26633917

  1. Dietary fibers and crude protein content alleviate hepatic fat deposition and obesity in broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Mohiti-Asli, M; Shivazad, M; Zaghari, M; Aminzadeh, S; Rezaian, M; Mateos, G G

    2012-12-01

    The effects of inclusion of cellulose or inulin as a source of dietary fiber and CP content of the diet on hepatic fat deposition were investigated in hens fed restricted or close to ad libitum consumption. There were 12 dietary treatments forming a 2 × 3 × 2 factorial with 2 feeding regimens [restricted and liberal (close to ad libitum consumption; LIB)], 3 fiber sources (control, 3% inulin, and 3% cellulose), and 2 levels of CP (14.5 and 17.4%). Hens were assigned in groups of 6 to 60 floor pens. From 43 to 55 wk of age, hens fed LIB showed increased activity of the hepatic malic enzyme (MalE; P < 0.01), which led to an increase (P < 0.001) in liver weight and hepatic lipid deposition and was associated with enhancements (P < 0.05) in plasma levels of glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Abdominal fat deposition and BW of the hens increased (P < 0.001) with liberal feeding. Inclusion of inulin in the diet reduced (P < 0.05) liver and abdominal fat weight, whereas cellulose inclusion decreased (P < 0.05) feed intake, abdominal fat, and BW. An increase in CP content of the diet from 14.5 to 17.4% reduced MalE activity (P < 0.001), liver weight (P < 0.001), and the accumulation of lipids and cholesterol in the liver, as well as plasma triglyceride concentration and abdominal fat pad weight (P < 0.05). It is concluded that fiber inclusion reduced abdominal fat and liver weight, with effects being more pronounced with cellulose than with inulin. An increase in dietary CP reduced MalE activity and alleviated hepatic and plasma lipid concentration; therefore, it might be a practical approach to reduce the incidence of obesity-linked problems in broiler breeder hens. The combination of high-CP diets and the inclusion of a fiber source did not suppress liver lipid content over that observed with the high-CP diet, exclusively. PMID:23155020

  2. Relation of Body's Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Body Mass Index With Submaximal Systolic Blood Pressure in Young Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Vivek K; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A; Lavie, Carl J; Sui, Xuemei; Demello, Madison; Blair, Steven N

    2016-02-01

    We examined the association of body composition and body mass index (BMI) with submaximal systolic blood pressure (SSBP) among young adult men. The analysis included 211 men with BMI between 20 and 35 kg/m(2). Total lean mass and fat mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and lean mass percentage was calculated from the total lean mass. Fat mass index (FMI) and BMI were calculated using height and weight (total fat mass and total weight, respectively) measurements. SSBP was measured at each stage of a graded exercise test. Quintiles of lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI were created with quintile 1 the lowest and quintile 5 the highest lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI. Compared with men in lean mass percentage quintile 1, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5 at 6, 8, and 10 minutes. Compared with men in FMI quintile 5, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5. SSBP among men in lean mass percentage quintile 5 and FMI quintile 1 were still less than lean mass percentage quintile 1 and FMI quintile 5, respectively. There were no significant differences in SSBP across BMI quintiles 1 to 4 but a significantly higher SSBP in quintile 5 compared with quintiles 1 to 4. In conclusion, there was a J-curve pattern between SSBP and components of body composition, whereas, a linear relation between SSBP and BMI. PMID:26718229

  3. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on body fat accretion in overweight or obese children123

    PubMed Central

    Racine, Natalie M; Watras, Abigail C; Carrel, Aaron L; Allen, David B; McVean, Jennifer J; Clark, Robert R; O'Brien, Abigail R; O'Shea, Marianne; Scott, Corey E

    2010-01-01

    Background: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a supplemental dietary fatty acid that decreases fat mass accretion in young animals. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine CLA's efficacy with regard to change in fat and body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) in children. Design: We conducted a 7 ± 0.5-mo randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of CLA in 62 prepubertal children aged 6–10 y who were overweight or obese but otherwise healthy. The subjects were randomly assigned to receive 3 g/d of 80% CLA (50:50 cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 isomers) or placebo in chocolate milk. Results: Fifty-three subjects completed the trial (n = 28 in the CLA group, n = 25 in the placebo group). CLA attenuated the increase in BMI (0.5 ± 0.8) compared with placebo (1.1 ± 1.1) (P = 0.05). The percentage change in body fat measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was smaller (P = 0.001) in the CLA group (−0.5 ± 2.1%) than in the placebo group (1.3 ± 1.8%). The change in abdominal body fat as a percentage of total body weight was smaller (P = 0.02) in the CLA group (−0.09 ± 0.9%) than in the placebo group (0.43 ± 0.6%). There were no significant changes in plasma glucose, insulin, or LDL cholesterol between groups. Plasma HDL cholesterol decreased significantly more (P = 0.05) in the CLA group (−5.1 ± 7.3 mg/dL) than in the placebo group (−0.7 ± 8 mg/dL). Bone mineral accretion was lower (P = 0.04) in the CLA group (0.05 ± 0.03 kg) than in the placebo group (0.07 ± 0.03 kg). Reported gastrointestinal symptoms did not differ significantly between groups. Conclusions: CLA supplementation for 7 ± 0.5 mo decreased body fatness in 6–10-y-old children who were overweight or obese but did not improve plasma lipids or glucose and decreased HDL more than in the placebo group. Long-term investigation of the safety and efficacy of CLA supplementation in children is recommended. PMID:20200257

  4. Mildly compromised tetrahydrobiopterin cofactor biosynthesis due to Pts variants leads to unusual body fat distribution and abdominal obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Korner, Germaine; Scherer, Tanja; Adamsen, Dea; Rebuffat, Alexander; Crabtree, Mark; Rassi, Anahita; Scavelli, Rossana; Homma, Daigo; Ledermann, Birgit; Konrad, Daniel; Ichinose, Hiroshi; Wolfrum, Christian; Horsch, Marion; Rathkolb, Birgit; Klingenspor, Martin; Beckers, Johannes; Wolf, Eckhard; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Fuchs, Helmut; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Blau, Nenad; Rozman, Jan; Thöny, Beat

    2016-03-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases, alkylglycerol monooxygenase, and nitric oxide synthases (NOS). Inborn errors of BH4 metabolism lead to severe insufficiency of brain monoamine neurotransmitters while augmentation of BH4 by supplementation or stimulation of its biosynthesis is thought to ameliorate endothelial NOS (eNOS) dysfunction, to protect from (cardio-) vascular disease and/or prevent obesity and development of the metabolic syndrome. We have previously reported that homozygous knock-out mice for the 6-pyruvolytetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS; Pts-ko/ko) mice with no BH4 biosynthesis die after birth. Here we generated a Pts-knock-in (Pts-ki) allele expressing the murine PTPS-p.Arg15Cys with low residual activity (15% of wild-type in vitro) and investigated homozygous (Pts-ki/ki) and compound heterozygous (Pts-ki/ko) mutants. All mice showed normal viability and depending on the severity of the Pts alleles exhibited up to 90% reduction of PTPS activity concomitant with neopterin elevation and mild reduction of total biopterin while blood L-phenylalanine and brain monoamine neurotransmitters were unaffected. Yet, adult mutant mice with compromised PTPS activity (i.e., Pts-ki/ko, Pts-ki/ki or Pts-ko/wt) had increased body weight and elevated intra-abdominal fat. Comprehensive phenotyping of Pts-ki/ki mice revealed alterations in energy metabolism with proportionally higher fat content but lower lean mass, and increased blood glucose and cholesterol. Transcriptome analysis indicated changes in glucose and lipid metabolism. Furthermore, differentially expressed genes associated with obesity, weight loss, hepatic steatosis, and insulin sensitivity were consistent with the observed phenotypic alterations. We conclude that reduced PTPS activity concomitant with mildly compromised BH4-biosynthesis leads to abnormal body fat distribution and abdominal obesity at least in mice. This study associates a novel

  5. Body condition and forage type influence intramuscular and rump fat, and reproductive performance of postpartum Brahman-influenced cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiparous Brahman-influenced cows were managed to achieve marginal (BCS = 4.9 ± 0.1; n = 55) or moderate (BCS = 6.5 ± 0.1; n = 55) body condition (BC) to determine the influence of forage type on estrous characteristics, intramuscular fat percentage (IMF), rump fat (RF), and reproductive performan...

  6. Nutrient intake, body fat, and lipid profiles of competitive male and female bodybuilders.

    PubMed

    Bazzarre, T L; Kleiner, S M; Litchford, M D

    1990-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to measure nutrient intake, body fat, [estimated from seven skinfolds: chest, axilla, triceps, subscapular, abdominal, suprailiac, and thigh (Jackson and Pollock, 1985)], total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), HDL2-C, and HDL3-C of 19 male and 8 female bodybuilders competing in the National Physique Committee's USA Bodybuilding Championships (Raleigh, NC, April 1988). Casual blood samples and anthropometric data were collected 18 hours prior to competition, whereas 7-day diet records were completed 1 week prior to competition. Only 11 males and 2 females provided blood samples. Competitors were not tested for steroid use. These data are unique because the measurements were collected on site at the competition. Data are presented as means and standard deviations. Estimated body fat for males (6.0 +/- 1.8%) and females (9.8 +/- 1.5%) was quite low. Blood lipids (mg%) for males (TC = 187 +/- 11, HDL-C = 37 +/- 6, HDL2-C = 13 +/- 4, and HDL3-C = 24 +/- 4) were not indicative of increased coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Data for the 2 females (TC = 190, 205; HDL-C = 56, 56; HDL2-C = 22, 8; and HDL3-C = 34, 48) could only be evaluated on an individual basis. Body fat was significantly correlated with HDL-C (r = 0.63; p = 0.04) and HDL3-C (r = 0.65; p = 0.03), but not TC nor HDL2-C. Of the dietary variables, only saturated fat was significantly correlated with HDL2-C (r = 0.60; p = 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2338462

  7. USE OF A NOVEL PEDIATRIC BODY COMPOSITION TECHNIQUE FOR ASSESING BODY FATNESS IN INFANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The assessment of body composition provides key information for assessing infant growth and for the administration of nutritional and pharmacological interventions. However, the use of body composition methods in infants is limited due to practical considerations, accuracy, and safety. This study ev...

  8. Intramuscular fat content and genetic variants at fatty acid-binding protein loci in Austrian pigs.

    PubMed

    Nechtelberger, D; Pires, V; Söolknet, J; Stur; Brem, G; Mueller, M; Mueller, S

    2001-11-01

    Intramuscular fat is an important meat quality trait in pig production. Previously, genetic variants of the heart fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) gene and the adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) gene were suggested to be associated with intramuscular fat content. The objective of this investigation was to study these associations in the three most important Austrian breeding populations (Piétrain, Large White, and Landrace). Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the H-FABP gene revealed a new MspI polymorphic site and genetic variation in all three breeds. Microsatellite analysis of the A-FABP locus showed up to nine different microsatellite alleles segregating. In Austrian breeds, no significant influence of the A-FABP and H-FABP gene polymorphisms on intramuscular fat could be detected. We also evaluated possible associations between the genetic variations at the H-FABP and A-FABP loci and other growth and carcass traits (average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, lean meat content, pH values, meat color, and drip loss). With regard to the extent of the effects, these genetic markers cannot be recommended for selection on growth and carcass traits in Austrian breeding populations. PMID:11768107

  9. Administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder reduced body fat mass in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Eriko; Tanaka, Miyuki; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Nomaguchi, Kouji; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Aloe vera gel administration in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). SD rats at 7 wk of age were fed either a standard diet (10 kcal% fat) (StdD) or high-fat (60 kcal% fat) diet (HFD) during the experimental period. Four weeks after of HFD-feeding, DIO rats (11 wk of age) were orally administered with two doses of Aloe vera gel powder (20 and 200 mg/kg/d) for 90 d. Body weights (g) and body fat (%) of HFD fed rats were significantly higher than those of StdD-fed rats. Although a modest decrease of body weight (g) was observed with the administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder, both subcutaneous and visceral fat weight (g) and body fat (%) were reduced significantly in Aloe vera gel-treated rats. Serum lipid parameters elevated by HFD were also improved by the Aloe vera gel treatment. The oxygen consumption (VO(2)), an index of energy expenditure, was decreased in HFD-fed rats compared with that in StdD-fed rats. Administration of Aloe vera gel reversed the change in VO(2) in the HFD-fed rats. These results suggest that intake of Aloe vera gel reduced body fat accumulation, in part, by stimulation of energy expenditure. Aloe vera gel might be beneficial for the prevention and improvement of diet-induced obesity. PMID:22878390

  10. Meat quality of Angus, Simmental, Charolais and Limousin steers compared at the same intramuscular fat content.

    PubMed

    Chambaz, A; Scheeder, M R L; Kreuzer, M; Dufey, P-A

    2003-04-01

    Meat quality and marbling properties of Angus, Simmental, Charolais and Limousin steers (4×16) were compared at an average intramuscular fat content (IMF) of 3.25% in the M. longissimus dorsi. The steers were fattened on a forage-based diet until the desired, ultrasonically estimated IMF content was reached which resulted in considerably different growth and carcass characteristics. The Angus group showed a growth rate similar to Simmental and Charolais while Limousin grew slower, became oldest and provided the heaviest carcasses and best conformation. Angus carcasses showed the lowest weight but the highest fatness score. Marbling was equal for all breeds. Angus and Charolais provided pale meat with low haem iron content. Angus and Limousin beef was more tender on sensory assessment than Simmental beef, corresponding to differences found in shear force (non-significant) and myofibrillar fragmentation index measured at 48 h post mortem. Flavour was similar among breed groups while juiciness was highest for Limousin and lowest for Angus. The juicier beef simultaneously showed the highest drip but the lowest cooking losses. In conclusion, clear differences in meat quality were observed between breeds despite similar IMF contents. PMID:22062519

  11. In vitro incorporation of L-canavanine into vitellogenin of the fat body of the migratory locust Locusta migratoria migratorioides.

    PubMed Central

    Pines, M; Rosenthal, G A; Applebaum, S W

    1981-01-01

    L-Canavanine competes with L-arginine for incorporation into vitellogenin secreted in vitro by the fat body of the female locust Locusta migratoria migratorioides. Incorporation of L-[guanidinooxy-14C]canavanine into vitellogenin has been established unequivocally by combined arginase and urease hydrolyses of the acid hydrolysate of antibody-precipitated canavanyl vitellogenin. Continued exposure of the fat body to canavanine decreases in vitro protein secretion but the proportion of canavanyl vitellogenin to native vitellogenin increases. Canavanine-mediated inhibition of fat body protein secretion is dependent on both the canavanine concentration and the arginine retention by the fat body. Canavanine replaces about 10% of the arginyl residues of canavanyl vitellogenin. The electrophoretic mobility of canavanyl vitellogenin is greater than that of native vitellogenin but the ability of this aberrant protein to react with vitellogenin antibody is unimpaired. Images PMID:6946485

  12. In vitro incorporation of L-canavanine into vitellogenin of the fat body of the migratory locust Locusta migratoria migratorioides.

    PubMed

    Pines, M; Rosenthal, G A; Applebaum, S W

    1981-09-01

    L-Canavanine competes with L-arginine for incorporation into vitellogenin secreted in vitro by the fat body of the female locust Locusta migratoria migratorioides. Incorporation of L-[guanidinooxy-14C]canavanine into vitellogenin has been established unequivocally by combined arginase and urease hydrolyses of the acid hydrolysate of antibody-precipitated canavanyl vitellogenin. Continued exposure of the fat body to canavanine decreases in vitro protein secretion but the proportion of canavanyl vitellogenin to native vitellogenin increases. Canavanine-mediated inhibition of fat body protein secretion is dependent on both the canavanine concentration and the arginine retention by the fat body. Canavanine replaces about 10% of the arginyl residues of canavanyl vitellogenin. The electrophoretic mobility of canavanyl vitellogenin is greater than that of native vitellogenin but the ability of this aberrant protein to react with vitellogenin antibody is unimpaired. PMID:6946485

  13. How well do skinfold equations predict percent body fat in elite soccer players?

    PubMed

    Reilly, T; George, K; Marfell-Jones, M; Scott, M; Sutton, L; Wallace, J A

    2009-08-01

    The use of generic equations for estimating percent body fat from skinfold thicknesses can be criticised when applied to specific sports. The present aims were to compare existing methods of using skinfold data and to derive an equation for predicting body fat values in professional soccer players. Forty-five professional soccer players (24.2 +/- 5.0 years; 82.0 +/- 8.5 kg; 1.82 +/- 0.07 m) participated. Skinfold thicknesses were assessed at eight sites for the application of existing prediction equations. Skinfold data were also utilised to determine a novel soccer-specific equation. All players had a reference estimate of percent fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The existing skinfold equations differed from the DXA-referenced values by varying degrees, the equation of Withers et al. (1987) demonstrating the lowest bias and highest relationship and agreement with DXA. Regression analysis resulted in an equation incorporating anterior thigh, abdominal, triceps and medial calf sites, accounting for 78.4% variance in DXA criterion values. PMID:19301213

  14. Camphor Tree Seed Kernel Oil Reduces Body Fat Deposition and Improves Blood Lipids in Rats.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing; Wang, Baogui; Gong, Deming; Zeng, Cheng; Jiang, Yihao; Zeng, Zheling

    2015-08-01

    The total and positional fatty acid composition in camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) seed kernel oil (CKO) were analyzed, and for the first time, the effect of CKO on body fat deposition and blood lipids in rats was studied. The major fatty acids in CKO were determined to be decanoic acid (C10:0, 51.49%) and dodecanoic acid (C12:0, 40.08%), and uniformly distributed at Sn-1, 3, and Sn-2 positions in triglyceride (TG). Rats were randomly divided into control, CKO, lard, and soybean oil groups. At the end of the experiment, levels of blood lipids and the fats of abdomen in the rats were measured. The main organ were weighted and used for the histological examination. The results showed that body weight and fat deposition in CKO group were significantly lower than the lard and soybean groups. Moderate consumption of CKO was found to improve the levels of blood TG and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. PMID:26130050

  15. Menopause is associated with decreased whole body fat oxidation during exercise.

    PubMed

    Abildgaard, J; Pedersen, A T; Green, C J; Harder-Lauridsen, N M; Solomon, T P; Thomsen, C; Juul, A; Pedersen, M; Pedersen, J T; Mortensen, O H; Pilegaard, H; Pedersen, B K; Lindegaard, B

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if fat oxidation was affected by menopausal status and to investigate if this could be related to the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle. Forty-one healthy women were enrolled in this cross-sectional study [premenopausal (n = 19), perimenopausal (n = 8), and postmenopausal (n = 14)]. Estimated insulin sensitivity was obtained from an oral glucose tolerance test. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging. Fat oxidation and energy expenditure were measured during an acute exercise bout of 45 min of ergometer biking at 50% of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2 max). Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis of the quadriceps muscle were obtained before and immediately after the exercise bout. Postmenopausal women had 33% [confidence interval (CI) 95%: 12-55] lower whole body fat oxidation (P = 0.005) and 19% (CI 95%: 9-22) lower energy expenditure (P = 0.02) during exercise, as well as 4.28 kg lower lean body mass (LBM) than premenopausal women. Correction for LBM reduced differences in fat oxidation to 23% (P = 0.05), whereas differences in energy expenditure disappeared (P = 0.22). No differences between groups were found in mRNA [carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (β-HAD), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, citrate synthase (CS), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α)], protein [phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), vascular endothelial growth factor, pyruvate dehydrogenase-1Eα, cytochrome oxidase I], or enzyme activities (β-HAD, CS) in resting skeletal muscle, except for an increased protein level of cytochrome c in the post- and perimenopausal women relative to premenopausal women. Postmenopausal women demonstrated a trend to a blunted exercise-induced increase in phosphorylation of AMPK compared with premenopausal women (P = 0.06). We conclude

  16. Exploring the Dietary Patterns of Young New Zealand Women and Associations with BMI and Body Fat

    PubMed Central

    Schrijvers, Jenna K.; McNaughton, Sarah A.; Beck, Kathryn L.; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-01-01

    Examining dietary patterns provides an alternative approach to investigating dietary behaviors related to excess adiposity. The study aim was to investigate dietary patterns and body composition profiles of New Zealand European (NZE) women, participating in the women’s EXPLORE (Examining the Predictors Linking Obesity Related Elements) study. Post-menarche, pre-menopausal NZE women (16–45 years) (n = 231) completed a validated 220-item, self-administrated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using measured height (cm) and weight (kg); body fat percentage (BF%) was measured using air displacement plethysmography (BodPod). Dietary patterns were identified using principal component factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns, age, BMI and BF% were investigated. Four dietary patterns were identified: snacking; energy-dense meat; fruit and vegetable; healthy, which explained 6.9%, 6.8%, 5.6% and 4.8% of food intake variation, respectively. Age (p = 0.012) and BMI (p = 0.016) were positively associated with the “energy-dense meat” pattern. BF% (p = 0.016) was positively associated with the “energy-dense meat” pattern after adjusting for energy intake. The women following the identified dietary patterns had carbohydrate intakes below and saturated fat intakes above recommended guidelines. Dietary patterns in NZE women explain only some variations in body composition. Further research should examine other potential factors including physical activity and socioeconomic status. PMID:27472358

  17. Exploring the Dietary Patterns of Young New Zealand Women and Associations with BMI and Body Fat.

    PubMed

    Schrijvers, Jenna K; McNaughton, Sarah A; Beck, Kathryn L; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-01-01

    Examining dietary patterns provides an alternative approach to investigating dietary behaviors related to excess adiposity. The study aim was to investigate dietary patterns and body composition profiles of New Zealand European (NZE) women, participating in the women's EXPLORE (Examining the Predictors Linking Obesity Related Elements) study. Post-menarche, pre-menopausal NZE women (16-45 years) (n = 231) completed a validated 220-item, self-administrated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using measured height (cm) and weight (kg); body fat percentage (BF%) was measured using air displacement plethysmography (BodPod). Dietary patterns were identified using principal component factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns, age, BMI and BF% were investigated. Four dietary patterns were identified: snacking; energy-dense meat; fruit and vegetable; healthy, which explained 6.9%, 6.8%, 5.6% and 4.8% of food intake variation, respectively. Age (p = 0.012) and BMI (p = 0.016) were positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern. BF% (p = 0.016) was positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern after adjusting for energy intake. The women following the identified dietary patterns had carbohydrate intakes below and saturated fat intakes above recommended guidelines. Dietary patterns in NZE women explain only some variations in body composition. Further research should examine other potential factors including physical activity and socioeconomic status. PMID:27472358

  18. Low birth weight may increase body fat mass in adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Minooee, Sonia; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women engaged with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), as the commonest endocrine disorder, are known to have a specific type of adiposity. Birth weight is among different contributors reported to be responsible for this diversity. Objective: We aimed to compare the relation between birth weight and body fat mass (BFM)/ body lean mass (BLM) in PCOS and their age and body mass index (BMI) matched normal controls. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a total number of 70 reproductive aged women, diagnosed with PCOS and 70 age- BMI matched healthy women without hirsutism and/or ovulatory dysfunction were recruited., control group had no polycystic ovaries in ultrasonographic scans. A detailed history of birth weight was taken and was divided into the following categories: <2,500 (low birth weight, LBW) and 2,500-4,000 (normal birth weight; NBW). Results: Results showed that LBW prevalence was higher in women with PCOS than in controls (19.3% (27) vs. 15.7% (22)). Also body fat and lean mass (BFM, BLM) have increased in adult women with PCOS who were born underweight compared to their normal (19.8±9.05 vs. 12.9±4.5, p=0.001 and 48.9±6.9 vs. 43.2±5.8, p=0.004 respectively). Conclusion: Fetal birth weight influences on the adulthood obesity, BFM and BLM. This impact is different among women with and without PCOS. PMID:27326419

  19. Survival of Salmonella enterica serotype Tennessee during simulated gastric passage is improved by low water activity and high fat content.

    PubMed

    Aviles, Bryan; Klotz, Courtney; Smith, Twyla; Williams, Robert; Ponder, Monica

    2013-02-01

    The low water activity (a(w) 0.3) of peanut butter prohibits the growth of Salmonella in a product; however, illnesses are reported from peanut butter contaminated with very small doses, suggesting the food matrix itself influences the infectious dose of Salmonella, potentially by improving Salmonella's survival in the gastrointestinal tract. The purpose of our study was to quantify the survival of a peanut butter outbreak-associated strain of Salmonella enterica serotype Tennessee when inoculated into peanut butters with different fat contents and a(w) (high fat, high a(w); high fat, low a(w); low fat, high a(w); low fat, low a(w)) and then challenged with a simulated gastrointestinal system. Exposures to increased fat content and decreased a(w) both were associated with a protective effect on the survival of Salmonella Tennessee in the simulated gastric fluid compared with control cells. After a simulated intestinal phase, the populations of Salmonella Tennessee in the control and low-fat formulations were not significantly different; however, a 2-log CFU/g increase occurred in high-fat formulations. This study demonstrates that cross-protection from low-a(w) stress and the presence of high fat results in improved survival in the low pH of the stomach. The potential for interaction of food matrix and stress adaptations could influence the virulence of Salmonella and should be considered for risk analysis. PMID:23433384

  20. Transcriptome Analysis of Fat Bodies from Two Brown Planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) Populations with Different Virulence Levels in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongdan; Lai, Wenxiang; Fu, Qiang; Lou, Yonggen

    2014-01-01

    Background The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), one of the most serious rice insect pests in Asia, can quickly overcome rice resistance by evolving new virulent populations. The insect fat body plays essential roles in the life cycles of insects and in plant-insect interactions. However, whether differences in fat body transcriptomes exist between insect populations with different virulence levels and whether the transcriptomic differences are related to insect virulence remain largely unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we performed transcriptome-wide analyses on the fat bodies of two BPH populations with different virulence levels in rice. The populations were derived from rice variety TN1 (TN1 population) and Mudgo (M population). In total, 33,776 and 32,332 unigenes from the fat bodies of TN1 and M populations, respectively, were generated using Illumina technology. Gene ontology annotations and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthology classifications indicated that genes related to metabolism and immunity were significantly active in the fat bodies. In addition, a total of 339 unigenes showed homology to genes of yeast-like symbionts (YLSs) from 12 genera and endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia. A comparative analysis of the two transcriptomes generated 7,860 differentially expressed genes. GO annotations and enrichment analysis of KEGG pathways indicated these differentially expressed transcripts might be involved in metabolism and immunity. Finally, 105 differentially expressed genes from YLSs and Wolbachia were identified, genes which might be associated with the formation of different virulent populations. Conclusions/Significance This study was the first to compare the fat-body transcriptomes of two BPH populations having different virulence traits and to find genes that may be related to this difference. Our findings provide a molecular resource for future investigations of fat bodies and will be useful

  1. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Na, Jianbo; Bataille, Veronique; Cousminer, Diana L.; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W.; Esko, Tõnu; Evans, David M.; Falchi, Mario; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ferreira, Teresa; Hedman, Åsa K.; Haring, Robin; Hysi, Pirro G.; Iles, Mark M.; Justice, Anne E.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lagou, Vasiliki; Li, Rui; Li, Xin; Locke, Adam; Lu, Chen; Mägi, Reedik; Perry, John R. B.; Pers, Tune H.; Qi, Qibin; Sanna, Marianna; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Scott, William R.; Shungin, Dmitry; Teumer, Alexander; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Walker, Ryan W.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zhang, Mingfeng; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Zhihong; Afzal, Uzma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Bellis, Claire; Bonnefond, Amélie; Borodulin, Katja; Buchman, Aron S.; Cederholm, Tommy; Choh, Audrey C.; Choi, Hyung Jin; Curran, Joanne E.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; De Jager, Philip L.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A. M.; Enneman, Anke W.; Eury, Elodie; Evans, Daniel S.; Forsen, Tom; Friedrich, Nele; Fumeron, Frédéric; Garcia, Melissa E.; Gärtner, Simone; Han, Bok-Ghee; Havulinna, Aki S.; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Ittermann, Till; Kent, Jack W.; Kolcic, Ivana; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahti, Jari; Leach, Irene Mateo; Lee, Christine G.; Lee, Jong-Young; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Lobbens, Stéphane; Loh, Marie; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Michaëlsson, Karl; Nalls, Mike A.; Nielson, Carrie M.; Oozageer, Laticia; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Polašek, Ozren; Ripatti, Samuli; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Shin, Chan Soo; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Spira, Dominik; Srikanth, Priya; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Sung, Yun Ju; Swart, Karin M. A.; Taittonen, Leena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Verweij, Niek; Wright, Alan F.; Yu, Lei; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Eklund, Niina; Forrester, Terrence; Grarup, Niels; Jackson, Anne U.; Kristiansson, Kati; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lichtner, Peter; Luan, Jian'an; Mahajan, Anubha; Männistö, Satu; Palmer, Cameron D.; Ried, Janina S.; Scott, Robert A.; Stancáková, Alena; Wagner, Peter J.; Demirkan, Ayse; Döring, Angela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kiel, Douglas P.; Kühnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; Mcknight, Barbara; Menni, Cristina; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Oostra, Ben A.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Song, Kijoung; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Vollenweider, Peter; White, Charles C.; Boehnke, Michael; Boettcher, Yvonne; Cooper, Richard S.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Hingorani, Aroon; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; Linneberg, Allan; Luke, Amy; Mckenzie, Colin A.; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Oluf; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Bennett, David A.; Bertram, Lars; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bouchard, Claude; Campbell, Harry; Cho, Nam H.; Cummings, Steven R.; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Demuth, Ilja; Eckardt, Rahel; Eriksson, Johan G.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H.; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B.; Hastie, Nicholas; Heliövaara, Markku; Hofman, Albert; Jordan, Joanne M.; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Knekt, Paul B.; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; Orwoll, Eric S.; Osmond, Clive; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rice, Treva K.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Towne, Bradford; Tranah, Gregory J.; Tremblay, Angelo; Uitterlinden, André G.; van der Harst, Pim; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F.; Yengo, Loïc; Bishop, D. Timothy; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Chambers, John C.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Dehghan, Abbas; Deloukas, Panos; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fox, Caroline; Furey, Terrence S.; Franke, Lude; Han, Jiali; Hunter, David J.; Karjalainen, Juha; Karpe, Fredrik; Kaplan, Robert C.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Morris, Andrew P.; Bishop, Julia A. N.; North, Kari E.; Ohlsson, Claes; Ong, Ken K.; Prokopenko, Inga; Richards, J. Brent; Schadt, Eric E.; Spector, Tim D.; Widén, Elisabeth; Willer, Cristen J.

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10−8), of which eight were previously associated with increased overall adiposity (BMI, BF%) and four (in or near COBLL1/GRB14, IGF2BP1, PLA2G6, CRTC1) were novel associations with BF%. Seven loci showed a larger effect on BF% than on BMI, suggestive of a primary association with adiposity, while five loci showed larger effects on BMI than on BF%, suggesting association with both fat and lean mass. In particular, the loci more strongly associated with BF% showed distinct cross-phenotype association signatures with a range of cardiometabolic traits revealing new insights in the link between adiposity and disease risk. PMID:26833246

  2. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R; Gustafsson, Stefan; Buchkovich, Martin L; Na, Jianbo; Bataille, Veronique; Cousminer, Diana L; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W; Esko, Tõnu; Evans, David M; Falchi, Mario; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Hedman, Åsa K; Haring, Robin; Hysi, Pirro G; Iles, Mark M; Justice, Anne E; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lagou, Vasiliki; Li, Rui; Li, Xin; Locke, Adam; Lu, Chen; Mägi, Reedik; Perry, John R B; Pers, Tune H; Qi, Qibin; Sanna, Marianna; Schmidt, Ellen M; Scott, William R; Shungin, Dmitry; Teumer, Alexander; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Walker, Ryan W; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zhang, Mingfeng; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Zhihong; Afzal, Uzma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Bakker, Stephan J L; Bellis, Claire; Bonnefond, Amélie; Borodulin, Katja; Buchman, Aron S; Cederholm, Tommy; Choh, Audrey C; Choi, Hyung Jin; Curran, Joanne E; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; De Jager, Philip L; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Enneman, Anke W; Eury, Elodie; Evans, Daniel S; Forsen, Tom; Friedrich, Nele; Fumeron, Frédéric; Garcia, Melissa E; Gärtner, Simone; Han, Bok-Ghee; Havulinna, Aki S; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Ittermann, Till; Kent, Jack W; Kolcic, Ivana; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahti, Jari; Mateo Leach, Irene; Lee, Christine G; Lee, Jong-Young; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Lobbens, Stéphane; Loh, Marie; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Michaëlsson, Karl; Nalls, Mike A; Nielson, Carrie M; Oozageer, Laticia; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Polašek, Ozren; Ripatti, Samuli; Sarzynski, Mark A; Shin, Chan Soo; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Spira, Dominik; Srikanth, Priya; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Sung, Yun Ju; Swart, Karin M A; Taittonen, Leena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Schoor, Natasja M; Verweij, Niek; Wright, Alan F; Yu, Lei; Zmuda, Joseph M; Eklund, Niina; Forrester, Terrence; Grarup, Niels; Jackson, Anne U; Kristiansson, Kati; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lichtner, Peter; Luan, Jian'an; Mahajan, Anubha; Männistö, Satu; Palmer, Cameron D; Ried, Janina S; Scott, Robert A; Stancáková, Alena; Wagner, Peter J; Demirkan, Ayse; Döring, Angela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kiel, Douglas P; Kühnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; Mcknight, Barbara; Menni, Cristina; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Oostra, Ben A; Shuldiner, Alan R; Song, Kijoung; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; White, Charles C; Boehnke, Michael; Boettcher, Yvonne; Cooper, Richard S; Forouhi, Nita G; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Hingorani, Aroon; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; Linneberg, Allan; Luke, Amy; Mckenzie, Colin A; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Oluf; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Tayo, Bamidele O; Wareham, Nicholas J; Bennett, David A; Bertram, Lars; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bouchard, Claude; Campbell, Harry; Cho, Nam H; Cummings, Steven R; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Demuth, Ilja; Eckardt, Rahel; Eriksson, Johan G; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B; Hastie, Nicholas; Heliövaara, Markku; Hofman, Albert; Jordan, Joanne M; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Knekt, Paul B; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; Orwoll, Eric S; Osmond, Clive; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Towne, Bradford; Tranah, Gregory J; Tremblay, Angelo; Uitterlinden, André G; van der Harst, Pim; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma S; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F; Yengo, Loïc; Bishop, D Timothy; Borecki, Ingrid B; Chambers, John C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Dehghan, Abbas; Deloukas, Panos; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fox, Caroline; Furey, Terrence S; Franke, Lude; Han, Jiali; Hunter, David J; Karjalainen, Juha; Karpe, Fredrik; Kaplan, Robert C; Kooner, Jaspal S; McCarthy, Mark I; Murabito, Joanne M; Morris, Andrew P; Bishop, Julia A N; North, Kari E; Ohlsson, Claes; Ong, Ken K; Prokopenko, Inga; Richards, J Brent; Schadt, Eric E; Spector, Tim D; Widén, Elisabeth; Willer, Cristen J; Yang, Jian; Ingelsson, Erik; Mohlke, Karen L; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Pospisilik, John Andrew; Zillikens, M Carola; Lindgren, Cecilia; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas Oskari; Loos, Ruth J F

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), of which eight were previously associated with increased overall adiposity (BMI, BF%) and four (in or near COBLL1/GRB14, IGF2BP1, PLA2G6, CRTC1) were novel associations with BF%. Seven loci showed a larger effect on BF% than on BMI, suggestive of a primary association with adiposity, while five loci showed larger effects on BMI than on BF%, suggesting association with both fat and lean mass. In particular, the loci more strongly associated with BF% showed distinct cross-phenotype association signatures with a range of cardiometabolic traits revealing new insights in the link between adiposity and disease risk. PMID:26833246

  3. Percentile curves for body fatness and cut-offs to define malnutrition in Russians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Starunova, O. A.; Eryukova, T. A.; Kolesnikov, V. A.; Ponomareva, E. G.; Soboleva, N. P.; Sterlikov, S. A.

    2013-04-01

    Here, we report first results of the large-scale ongoing bioelectrical impedance body composition study in Russians. By the end of 2012, 216 out of 800 Russian Health Centres submitted raw bioimpedance data on 844,221 adults and children aged 5-80 years, representing nearly 0.6% of the Russian population, who were accessed cross-sectionally using the same type of bioimpedance meter, ABC-01 Medas. Estimates of overweight, obesity, and normal weight obesity prevalence in the general population, as well as characteristics of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the conventional WHO BMI-based criteria of obesity depending on age are obtained. The smoothed reference centile curves for percentage fat mass are constructed, and localized cut-offs for fatness and thinness are provided that can be used both at the individual and epidemiological levels.

  4. Effect of antibiotic, Lacto-lase and probiotic addition in chicken feed on protein and fat content of chicken meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, Noor Amiza; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effect of chicken feed additives (antibiotic, Lacto-lase® and probiotic) on protein and fat content of chicken meat. Chicken fed with control diet (corn-soy based diet) served as a control. The treated diets were added with zinc bacitracin (antibiotic), different amount of Lacto-lase® (a mixture of probiotic and enzyme) and probiotic. Chicken were slaughtered at the age of 43-48 days. Each chicken was divided into thigh, breast, drumstick, drumette and wing. Protein content in chicken meat was determined by using macro-Kjeldahl method meanwhile Soxhlet method was used to analyse fat content. The result of the study showed that the protein content of chicken breast was significantly higher (p≤0.05) while thigh had the lowest protein content (p≤0.05). Antibiotic fed chicken was found to have the highest protein content among the treated chickens but there was no significant different with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® fed chicken (p>0.05). All thighs were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in fat content except for drumette of control chicken while breast contained the lowest fat content compared to other chicken parts studied. The control chicken meat contained significantly higher (p≤0.05) amount of fat compared to the other treated chickens. Chicken fed with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® had the lowest (p≤0.05) fat content. The result of this study indicated that the addition of Lacto-lase® as a replacement of antibiotic in chicken feed will not affect the content of protein and fat of chicken meat.

  5. Effects of 3 hours a week of physical activity on body fat and cardio-respiratory parameters in obese boys.

    PubMed

    Vajda, I; Mészáros, J; Mészáros, Z; Prókai, A; Sziva, A; Photiou, A; Zsidegh, P

    2007-09-01

    The prevalence of overweight or fat children and adolescents has markedly increased in Hungary during the past three decades. Among the possible factors insufficient physical activity and a relative or absolute excess of calorie intake associated to it can be regarded as the most important ones. The aim of the study was to analyse the effects of a 20-week aerobic exercise on body composition and on the exercise tested cardio-respiratory functions in 10-year-old obese boys. Obesity was defined by a BMI greater than the cut-off value reported by Cole and co-workers (5) and a relative body fat content above 30% (13). Of the study group 21 volunteer children completed the program; the contrast group contained 28 obese boys. Mean calendar age was 10.03 +/- 0.26 in the study group (S) and 9.88 +/- 0.29 in the control group (C). The members of group S had two curricular physical education (PE) classes a week and three extracurricular aerobic physical activity sessions of 60 min net time in the afternoon, on Mondays (swimming and water games), Wednesdays (folk dance) and Fridays (soccer). Group C had only 2 PE classes a week. Anthropometric and spiroergometric data were collected in the middle of January and June of 2004. Relative body fat content and BMI did not increase during the observation period in contrast to the significant increase of both in the control group. Peak minute ventilation, aerobic power, oxygen pulse, and running distance (performed on a treadmill) increased in group S, and did not change in group C. The program was considered successful despite that the changes in the observed physiological and physical indicators appeared to be slight. However, the 5-month elevated level of physical activity brought about such development in the physical status of the obese subjects that might be an appropriate basis for regular training. Fortunately, the cardio-respiratory functions of the investigated boys were not affected yet by obesity, consequently the really

  6. Changes in Dietary Fat Content Rapidly Alters the Mouse Plasma Coagulation Profile without Affecting Relative Transcript Levels of Coagulation Factors

    PubMed Central

    van Diepen, Janna A.; Verhoef, Daniël; Voshol, Peter J.; Reitsma, Pieter H.; van Vlijmen, Bart J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with a hypercoagulable state and increased risk for thrombotic cardiovascular events. Objective Establish the onset and reversibility of the hypercoagulable state during the development and regression of nutritionally-induced obesity in mice, and its relation to transcriptional changes and clearance rates of coagulation factors as well as its relation to changes in metabolic and inflammatory parameters. Methods Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low fat (10% kcal as fat; LFD) or high fat diet (45% kcal as fat; HFD) for 2, 4, 8 or 16 weeks. To study the effects of weight loss, mice were fed the HFD for 16 weeks and switched to the LFD for 1, 2 or 4 weeks. For each time point analyses of plasma and hepatic mRNA levels of coagulation factors were performed after overnight fasting, as well as measurements of circulating metabolic and inflammatory parameters. Furthermore, in vivo clearance rates of human factor (F) VII, FVIII and FIX proteins were determined after 2 weeks of HFD-feeding. Results HFD feeding gradually increased the body and liver weight, which was accompanied by a significant increase in plasma glucose levels from 8 weeks onwards, while insulin levels were affected after 16 weeks. Besides a transient rise in cytokine levels at 2 weeks after starting the HFD, no significant effect on inflammation markers was present. Increased plasma levels of fibrinogen, FII, FVII, FVIII, FIX, FXI and FXII were observed in mice on a HFD for 2 weeks, which in general persisted throughout the 16 weeks of HFD-feeding. Interestingly, with the exception of FXI the effects on plasma coagulation levels were not paralleled by changes in relative transcript levels in the liver, nor by decreased clearance rates. Switching from HFD to LFD reversed the HFD-induced procoagulant shift in plasma, again not coinciding with transcriptional modulation. Conclusions Changes in dietary fat content rapidly alter the mouse plasma coagulation profile, thereby

  7. Effects of Body Mass Index and Body Fat Percent on Default Mode, Executive Control, and Salience Network Structure and Function.

    PubMed

    Figley, Chase R; Asem, Judith S A; Levenbaum, Erica L; Courtney, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that obesity decreases overall life expectancy and increases the risk of several adverse health conditions. Mounting evidence indicates that body fat is likely also associated with structural and functional brain changes, reduced cognitive function, and greater impulsivity. However, previously reported differences in brain structure and function have been variable across studies and difficult to reconcile due to sample population and methodological differences. To clarify these issues, we correlated two independent measures of body composition-i.e., body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent (BFP)-with structural and functional neuroimaging data obtained from a cohort of 32 neurologically healthy adults. Whole-brain voxel-wise analyses indicated that higher BMI and BFP were associated with widespread decreases in gray matter volume, white matter volume, and white matter microstructure (including several regions, such as the striatum and orbitofrontal cortex, which may influence value assessment, habit formation, and decision-making). Moreover, closer examination of resting state functional connectivity, white matter volume, and white matter microstructure throughout the default mode network (DMN), executive control network (ECN), and salience network (SN) revealed that higher BMI and BFP were associated with increased SN functional connectivity and decreased white matter volumes throughout all three networks (i.e., the DMN, ECN, and SN). Taken together, these findings: (1) offer a biologically plausible explanation for reduced cognitive performance, greater impulsivity, and altered reward processing among overweight individuals, and (2) suggest neurobiological mechanisms (i.e., altered functional and structural brain connectivity) that may affect overweight individuals' ability to establish and maintain healthy lifestyle choices. PMID:27378831

  8. Effects of Body Mass Index and Body Fat Percent on Default Mode, Executive Control, and Salience Network Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Figley, Chase R.; Asem, Judith S. A.; Levenbaum, Erica L.; Courtney, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that obesity decreases overall life expectancy and increases the risk of several adverse health conditions. Mounting evidence indicates that body fat is likely also associated with structural and functional brain changes, reduced cognitive function, and greater impulsivity. However, previously reported differences in brain structure and function have been variable across studies and difficult to reconcile due to sample population and methodological differences. To clarify these issues, we correlated two independent measures of body composition—i.e., body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent (BFP)—with structural and functional neuroimaging data obtained from a cohort of 32 neurologically healthy adults. Whole-brain voxel-wise analyses indicated that higher BMI and BFP were associated with widespread decreases in gray matter volume, white matter volume, and white matter microstructure (including several regions, such as the striatum and orbitofrontal cortex, which may influence value assessment, habit formation, and decision-making). Moreover, closer examination of resting state functional connectivity, white matter volume, and white matter microstructure throughout the default mode network (DMN), executive control network (ECN), and salience network (SN) revealed that higher BMI and BFP were associated with increased SN functional connectivity and decreased white matter volumes throughout all three networks (i.e., the DMN, ECN, and SN). Taken together, these findings: (1) offer a biologically plausible explanation for reduced cognitive performance, greater impulsivity, and altered reward processing among overweight individuals, and (2) suggest neurobiological mechanisms (i.e., altered functional and structural brain connectivity) that may affect overweight individuals' ability to establish and maintain healthy lifestyle choices. PMID:27378831

  9. Two-generation diet-induced obesity model producing mice with increased amount of body fat in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kubandová, J; Fabian, D; Burkuš, J; Cikoš, Š; Czikková, S; Mozeš, Š; Šefčíková, Z; Koppel, J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to develop a model producing obese mice in early adulthood (4-6 weeks) based on their over-nutrition during fetal and early postnatal development. The fertilized dams of the parental generation were fed the standard diet supplemented with high-energy nutritional product Ensure Plus during gestation and lactation. Delivered weanlings were then fed with standard or supplemented diet and assessed for body fat deposits using EchoMRI at the time of early and late adulthood. Maternal over-feeding during the period before weaning had the most significant effect on obesity development in the filial generation. In weanlings, significantly higher body fat deposits and average body weight were recorded. Later, further significant increase in percentage of body fat in both male and female mice was observed. Withdrawal of the Ensure Plus supplement caused a decrease in the percentage of body fat in part of the filial generation. In offspring fed the standard diet, higher fat deposits persisted till the time of late adulthood. We conclude that this diet-induced obesity model might be used in exploration of the effects of elevated body fat on physiological functions of various organ systems during juvenile and early adulthood periods of life of a human being. PMID:24182339

  10. Green tea, black tea, and epigallocatechin modify body composition, improve glucose tolerance, and differentially alter metabolic gene expression in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nora; Bezzina, Rebecca; Hinch, Edward; Lewandowski, Paul A; Cameron-Smith, David; Mathai, Michael L; Jois, Markandeya; Sinclair, Andrew J; Begg, Denovan P; Wark, John D; Weisinger, Harrison S; Weisinger, Richard S

    2009-11-01

    The mechanisms of how tea and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) lower body fat are not completely understood. This study investigated long-term administration of green tea (GT), black tea (BT), or isolated EGCG (1 mg/kg per day) on body composition, glucose tolerance, and gene expression related to energy metabolism and lipid homeostasis; it was hypothesized that all treatments would improve the indicators of metabolic syndrome. Rats were fed a 15% fat diet for 6 months from 4 weeks of age and were supplied GT, BT, EGCG, or water. GT and BT reduced body fat, whereas GT and EGCG increased lean mass. At 16 weeks GT, BT, and EGCG improved glucose tolerance. In the liver, GT and BT increased the expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis (SREBP-1c, FAS, MCD, ACC) and oxidation (PPAR-alpha, CPT-1, ACO); however, EGCG had no effect. In perirenal fat, genes that mediate adipocyte differentiation were suppressed by GT (Pref-1, C/EBP-beta, and PPAR-gamma) and BT (C/EBP-beta), while decreasing LPL, HSL, and UCP-2 expression; EGCG increased expression of UCP-2 and PPAR-gamma genes. Liver triacylglycerol content was unchanged. The results suggest that GT and BT suppressed adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid uptake into adipose tissue, while increasing fat synthesis and oxidation by the liver, without inducing hepatic fat accumulation. In contrast, EGCG increased markers of thermogenesis and differentiation in adipose tissue, while having no effect on liver or muscle tissues at this dose. These results show novel and separate mechanisms by which tea and EGCG may improve glucose tolerance and support a role for these compounds in obesity prevention. PMID:19932867

  11. Thermogenic capacity is antagonistically regulated in classical brown and white subcutaneous fat depots by high fat diet and endurance training in rats: impact on whole-body energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Wu, Michelle V; Bikopoulos, George; Hung, Steven; Ceddia, Rolando B

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the regulation of thermogenic capacity in classical brown adipose tissue (BAT) and subcutaneous inguinal (SC Ing) white adipose tissue (WAT) and how it affects whole-body energy expenditure in sedentary and endurance-trained rats fed ad libitum either low fat or high fat (HF) diets. Analysis of tissue mass, PGC-1α and UCP-1 content, the presence of multilocular adipocytes, and palmitate oxidation revealed that a HF diet increased the thermogenic capacity of the interscapular and aortic brown adipose tissues, whereas exercise markedly suppressed it. Conversely, exercise induced browning of the SC Ing WAT. This effect was attenuated by a HF diet. Endurance training neither affected skeletal muscle FNDC5 content nor circulating irisin, but it increased FNDC5 content in SC Ing WAT. This suggests that locally produced FNDC5 rather than circulating irisin mediated the exercise-induced browning effect on this fat tissue. Importantly, despite reducing the thermogenic capacity of classical BAT, exercise increased whole-body energy expenditure during the dark cycle. Therefore, browning of subcutaneous WAT likely exerted a compensatory effect and raised whole-body energy expenditure in endurance-trained rats. Based on these novel findings, we propose that exercise-induced browning of the subcutaneous WAT provides an alternative mechanism that reduces thermogenic capacity in core areas and increases it in peripheral body regions. This could allow the organism to adjust its metabolic rate to accommodate diet-induced thermogenesis while simultaneously coping with the stress of chronically increased heat production through exercise. PMID:25344623

  12. Impact of particle size distribution on rheological and textural properties of chocolate models with reduced fat content.

    PubMed

    Do, T-A L; Hargreaves, J M; Wolf, B; Hort, J; Mitchell, J R

    2007-11-01

    With an increasing consumption of lipids nowadays, decreasing the fat content in food products has become a trend. Chocolate is a fat-based suspension that contains about 30%wt fat. Reducing fat content causes an increase in the molten chocolate viscosity. This leads to 2 major issues: difficulties in the process and a loss of eating quality in the final product, reported to have poor in-mouth melting properties, remain hard, and difficult to swallow. Literature shows that optimizing the particle size distribution (PSD), that is, having one with an increased packing fraction, can decrease the viscosity of highly concentrated suspensions. This study focuses on the impact of the PSD and fat content on the rheological properties, melting behavior, and hardness of chocolate models (dispersions of sugar in fat). We show that optimizing the PSD while reducing the fat content to a critical amount (22%wt) can decrease the viscosity of the molten material and reduce the hardness of the crystallized chocolate models. Melting in the mouth, characterized by an in vitro collapse speed, is faster for the samples with an optimized PSD. The decrease in the viscosity by optimizing the PSD in systems with a constant fraction of medium phase is based on the decrease of interparticle contact, reducing the particle aggregates strength, and structure buildup during flow or meltdown. In its crystallized state, the particle network is less interconnected, providing less resistance to breakage and meltdown. PMID:18034724

  13. Jellyfish Body Plans Provide Allometric Advantages beyond Low Carbon Content

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Kylie A.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Lucas, Cathy H.; Sutherland, Kelly R.; Condon, Robert H.; Mianzan, Hermes; Purcell, Jennifer E.; Robinson, Kelly L.; Uye, Shin-Ichi

    2013-01-01

    Jellyfish form spectacular blooms throughout the world’s oceans. Jellyfish body plans are characterised by high water and low carbon contents which enables them to grow much larger than non-gelatinous animals of equivalent carbon content and to deviate from non-gelatinous pelagic animals when incorporated into allometric relationships. Jellyfish have, however, been argued to conform to allometric relationships when carbon content is used as the metric for comparison. Here we test the hypothesis that differences in allometric relationships for several key functional parameters remain for jellyfish even after their body sizes are scaled to their carbon content. Data on carbon and nitrogen contents, rates of respiration, excretion, growth, longevity and swimming velocity of jellyfish and other pelagic animals were assembled. Allometric relationships between each variable and the equivalent spherical diameters of jellyfish and other pelagic animals were compared before and after sizes of jellyfish were standardised for their carbon content. Before standardisation, the slopes of the allometric relationships for respiration, excretion and growth were the same for jellyfish and other pelagic taxa but the intercepts differed. After standardisation, slopes and intercepts for respiration were similar but excretion rates of jellyfish were 10× slower, and growth rates 2× faster than those of other pelagic animals. Longevity of jellyfish was independent of size. The slope of the allometric relationship of swimming velocity of jellyfish differed from that of other pelagic animals but because they are larger jellyfish operate at Reynolds numbers approximately 10× greater than those of other pelagic animals of comparable carbon content. We conclude that low carbon and high water contents alone do not explain the differences in the intercepts or slopes of the allometric relationships of jellyfish and other pelagic animals and that the evolutionary longevity of jellyfish and

  14. The Percentage of Body Fat in Children and the Level of their Motor Skills.

    PubMed

    Prskalo, Ivan; Badrić, Marko; Kunješić, Mateja

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary education pupils and to identify differences in motor skills between normal weight, excessive and obese pupils. Partial aim was to determine differences in motor status of girls and boys and their anthropometric characteristics (Body Mass Index, body fat percentage). The study was conducted in two primary schools in Zagreb, Ivan Goran Kovačić and Davorin Trstenjak. Total of 333 pupils, aged 7-11, were measured (178 boys and 155 girls). Four anthropometric and seven motor variables were used to analyze differences in motor abilities of children. Children were divided into three groups within gender based on their body fat measures. We established a statistically significant difference in motor abilities between groups of subjects in three subsamples (1st-2nd class girls and 3rd-4th boys and girls). Children with normal weight have better results in explosive strength, coordination, static strength of arm and shoulder than children who are overweight and obese. The differences are not observed in motor variables where body weight is not a requisite for efficient execution of movement. Differences in motor skills by gender showed that boys are better in coordination, speed of the simple movements, explosive and repetitive strength, and girls are better in flexibility. The conclusion of this study confirmed the existence of differences in the development of motor skills in children with normal body weight compared to children who are overweight or obese. These facts prove that excessive body weight has negative repercussions on motor performance. PMID:26434007

  15. [Correlation of fat content and dioxins, total mercury and methyl mercury levels in tuna].

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Hiroyuki; Amakura, Yoshiaki; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Sasaki, Kumiko; Iketsu, Ayumi; Inasaki, Mizue; Kubota, Emi; Toyoda, Masatake

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the concentrations of mercury and dioxins in tuna with various fat contents (akami; the leaner meat, Chutoro; the belly area of the tuna along the side of the fish between the akami and the otoro. Otoro; the fattiest portion of the tuna) in wild and farmed bluefin tuna and farmed southern bluefin tuna. In the three kinds of tuna, average dioxins concentrations in Akami, chutoro and otoro were 1.7, 4.7 and 9.6 pg TEQ/g, respectively. The dioxins concentration in all three regions of tuna was in direct proportion to the fat content. In the farmed bluefin tuna, the dioxins concentration was almost the same as that of the wild tuna, but differed from that of the farmed southern bluefin tuna. Average total mercury concentration based on wet weight in akami was 0.42 µg/g, being higher than the values of 0.36 µg/g of chutoro and 0.31 µg/g of otoro, and in inverse proportion to the fat content. In all three regions, the total mercury concentration of the wild bluefin tuna was equal to that of the farmed tuna. The total mercury concentration in the latter was two to three times higher than that of the farmed southern bluefin tuna. If the Japanese intake is one fin of tuna (80 g) a day, the daily intake levels of dioxins and methyl mercury can be estimated as 0.48-37 pg TEQ/kg bw and 0.21-0.90 µg/kg bw, respectively. PMID:21071911

  16. Eating Disorder Risk and Body Dissatisfaction Based on Muscularity and Body Fat in Male University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Carrie; George, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between risk of eating disorders, body dissatisfaction, and perceptual attractiveness in male university students. Participants: Research was conducted January-April 2012 and involved 339 male and 441 female students. Methods: Eating disorder risk was assessed with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and body…

  17. Differences in mitochondrial DNA inheritance and function align with body conformation in genetically lean and fat sheep.

    PubMed

    Henry, B A; Loughnan, R; Hickford, J; Young, I R; St John, J C; Clarke, I

    2015-05-01

    Body weight and adiposity are determined by the balance between energy intake, energy expenditure, and nutrient deposition. We have identified differences in appetite-regulating peptides in sheep selectively bred to be either lean or fat, wherein gene expression for orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone are elevated in the lean group. Despite this, the underlying mechanisms leading to differences in body composition in the lean and fat lines remains unknown. We measured postprandial temperature in adipose tissue and muscle to ascertain whether a difference in thermogenesis is associated with the difference in body composition in genetically lean (n = 8) and fat (n = 12) ewes. Body weight was higher (P < 0.01) but percent fat mass was lower (P < 0.001) in the lean group. The percent lean mass was similar in lean and fat groups. Animals received intracerebroventricular cannulae and temperature probes implanted into the retroperitoneal fat and the hind-limb skeletal muscle (vastus lateralis). Animals were meal fed (1100-1600 h) to entrain postprandial thermogenesis. Food intake was similar between lean and fat animals. Postprandial thermogenesis was greater (P < 0.05) in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue of lean animals but not in skeletal muscle. Intracerebroventricular infusion of leptin reduced (P< 0.05) food intake by an equal extent in both groups. Postprandial expression of UCP1 mRNA was greater (P < 0.05) in retroperitoneal fat of lean animals, with similar UCP3 expression in skeletal muscle. Mitochondrial genome sequencing indicated haplotypic clustering in lean and fat animals within both the encoding and nonencoding regions. This demonstrates that differences in body composition may be underpinned by differences in thermogenesis, specifically within adipose tissue. Furthermore, thermogenic differences may be associated with specific mitochondrial DNA haplotypes, suggesting a strong genetic component inherited through the maternal lineage. PMID:26020304

  18. Prospective Study of Body Fat Distribution and the Risk of Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hankinson, Susan E; De Vivo, Immaculata; Cho, Eunyoung

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies have found that overall obesity is positively related to endometrial cancer (EC) risk. However, data assessing the association between body fat distribution and risk of EC are still limited. Methods We followed 51,948 women who first reported waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference in 1986 in the Nurses’ Health Study. Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was calculated. Results During 24 years of follow-up, 449 incident invasive EC cases were diagnosed. In a multivariate analysis without adjusting for body mass index (BMI), the relative risks (RRs) for EC comparing extreme categories were 2.44 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.72-3.45) for WC and 1.69 (1.20-2.40) for WHR. However, after adjustment of BMI, those positive associations were substantially attenuated and no longer significant; RR= 1.08 (0.69-1.67) for WC and 1.15 (0.81-1.64) for WHR, respectively. Conclusion In our prospective cohort study, we found no independent association between body fat distribution and the risk of EC after adjustment for BMI. PMID:26065406

  19. Bioactives from bitter melon enhance insulin signaling and modulate acyl carnitine content in skeletal muscle in high-fat diet fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhong Q.; Zhang, Xian H.; Yu, Yongmei; Poulev, Alexander.; Ribnicky, David; Cefalu, William T.

    2010-01-01

    Bioactive components from bitter melon (BM) have been reported to improve glucose metabolism in vivo, but definitive studies on efficacy and mechanism of action are lacking. We sought to investigate the effects of BM bioactives on body weight, muscle lipid content and insulin signaling in mice fed a high fat diet and on insulin signaling in L6 myotubes. Male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into low-fat diet control (LFD), high-fat diet (HFD) and HFD plus BM (BM) groups. Body weight, body composition, plasma glucose, leptin, insulin, and muscle lipid profile were determined over 12 weeks. Insulin signaling was determined in the mouse muscle taken at end of study and in L6 myotubes exposed to the extract. Body weight, plasma glucose, insulin, leptin levels, and HOMA-IR values were significantly lower in the BM fed HFD group when compared to the HFD group. BM supplementation significantly increased IRS-2, IR β, PI 3K and GLUT4 protein abundance in skeletal muscle as well as phosphorylation of IRS-1, Akt1 and Akt2 when compared with HFD (P<0.05 and P<0.01). BM also significantly reduced muscle lipid content in the HFD mice. BM extract greatly increased glucose uptake and enhanced insulin signaling in L6 myotubes. This study shows that bitter melon bioactives reduced body weight, improved glucose metabolism and enhanced skeletal muscle insulin signaling. A contributing mechanism to the enhanced insulin signaling may associate with the reduction in skeletal muscle lipid content. Nutritional supplementation with this extract, if validated for human studies, may offer an adjunctive therapy for diabetes. PMID:21277185

  20. Torso, a Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinase, plays a novel role in the larval fat body in regulating insulin signaling and body growth.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jong Woo; Han, Gangsik; Yun, Hyun Myoung; Lee, Gang Jun; Hyun, Seogang

    2016-08-01

    Torso is a receptor tyrosine kinase whose localized activation at the termini of the Drosophila embryo is mediated by its ligand, Trunk. Recent studies have unveiled a second function of Torso in the larval prothoracic gland (PG) as the receptor for the prothoracicotropic hormone, which triggers pupariation. As such, inhibition of Torso in the PG prolongs the larval growth period, thereby increasing the final pupa size. Here, we report that Torso also acts in the larval fat body, regulating body size in a manner opposite from that of Torso in PG. We confirmed the expression of torso mRNA in the larval fat body and its reduction by RNA interference (RNAi). Fat body-specific knockdown of torso, by either of the two independent RNAi transgenes, significantly decreased the final pupal size. We found that torso knockdown suppresses insulin/target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling in the fat body, as confirmed by repression of Akt and S6K. Notably, the decrease in insulin/TOR signaling and decrease of pupal size induced by the knockdown of torso were rescued by the expression of a constitutively active form of the insulin receptor or by the knockdown of FOXO. Our study revealed a novel role for Torso in the fat body with respect to regulation of insulin/TOR signaling and body size. This finding exemplifies the contrasting effects of the same gene expressed in two different organs on organismal physiology. PMID:27126913

  1. Indices of body fat distribution for assessment of lipodysthrophy in people living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Metabolic and morphological changes associated with excessive abdominal fat, after the introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in people living with HIV/AIDS(PLWHA). Accurate methods for body composition analysis are expensive and the use of anthropometric indices is an alternative. However the investigations about this subject in PLWHA are rare, making this research very important for clinical purpose and to advance scientific knowledge. The aim of this study is to correlate results of anthropometric indices of evaluation of body fat distribution with the results obtained by Dual-energy X-Ray Absorptiometry(DEXA), in people living with HIV/AIDS. Methods The sample was of 67 PLWHA(39 male and 28 female), aged 43.6+7.9 years. Body mass index, conicity index, waist/hip ratio, waist/height ratio and waist/thigh were calculated. Separated by sex, each index/ratio was plotted in a scatter chart with linear regression fit and their respective Pearson correlation coefficients. Analyses were performed using Prism statistical program and significance was set at 5%. Results The waist/height ratio presented the highest correlation coefficient, for both male (r=0.80, p<0.001) and female (r=0.87, p <001), while the lowest were in the waist/thigh also for both: male group (r=0.58, p<0.001) and female group (r=0.03, p=0.86). The other indices also showed significant positive correlation with DEXA. Conclusion Anthropometric indices, especially waist/height ratio may be a good alternative way to be used for evaluating the distribution of fat in the abdominal region of adults living with HIV/ADIS. PMID:23031203

  2. 20-hydroxyecdysone upregulates apoptotic genes and induces apoptosis in the Bombyx fat body.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ling; Liu, Shumin; Liu, Hanhan; Li, Sheng

    2012-04-01

    During insect metamorphosis, obsolete larval tissues are removed by programed cell death (PCD), mainly apoptosis and autophagy, which is directed by the molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and the 20E-triggered transcriptional cascade. Here, we investigated how 20E regulates apoptosis at the transcriptional level in the fat body of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. As detected by TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL), apoptosis weakly occurred during the fourth larval molting, decreased to undetected levels during the early fifth instar, and gradually increased from day 4 of fifth instar to the wandering stage to the prepupal stage. Meanwhile, as determined by quantitative real-time PCR, eight genes involved in apoptosis, including Apaf-1, Nedd2 like1, Nedd2 like2, ICE1, ICE3, ICE5, Arp, and IAP, were highly expressed during molting and pupation, when the 20E titer is high. Injection of 20E into day 2 of fifth instar larvae significantly induced apoptosis and upregulated apoptotic genes after 6 h of treatment, and in vitro treatment of larval fat body tissues with 20E upregulated all the eight apoptotic genes. Moreover, RNAi knockdown of USP, a component of the 20E receptor complex EcR-USP, at the early-wandering stage reduced apoptosis and downregulated apoptotic genes after 24 h of treatment. Taken together, we infer that 20E upregulates apoptotic genes and thus induces apoptosis in the Bombyx fat body during larval molting and the larval-pupal transition. PMID:22517444

  3. Association of Sodium Excretion With Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin Resistance, and Body Fat.

    PubMed

    Oh, Se Won; Han, Kum Hyun; Han, Sang Youb; Koo, Ho Seok; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2015-09-01

    Sodium intake was reported to be related to metabolic syndrome (MS). Although a strong association between sodium intake and blood pressure (BP) has been reported, the relationship between sodium intake and other components of MS is unknown. An observational study of 18,146 adults in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV-V databases (2008-2011) was performed. Estimates of 24-h sodium excretion were made from a single fasting urine sample. A significant positive association was found between sodium excretion and systolic BP and between sodium excretion and diastolic BP in participants with and without hypertension after adjusting for multiple covariates (P < 0.001 for trend). The relationship between triglyceride or glucose levels and sodium excretion was linear (P < 0.005). In both men and women, a positive relationship between sodium excretion and waist circumference and an inverse relationship between sodium excretion and high-density lipoprotein were found (P ≤ 0.001). Body fat percentage, body fat mass, and insulin level were positively related to sodium excretion (P ≤ 0.001), and HOMA-IR was significantly associated with sodium excretion (P < 0.05). The risk of MS was elevated 1.279-fold in the second quartile of sodium excretion (95% CI, 1.088-1.504, P = 0.003), 1.479-fold in the third quartile (95% CI, 1.262-1.734; P < 0.001), and 1.929-fold in the highest quartile (95% CI 1.654-2.249, P <  .001) compared with the lowest quartile. Sodium intake is significantly associated with all components of MS, body fat, and insulin resistance. Therefore, a high-salt diet is a significant risk factor for MS. PMID:26426658

  4. Association of Sodium Excretion With Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin Resistance, and Body Fat

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Se Won; Han, Kum Hyun; Han, Sang Youb; Koo, Ho Seok; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sodium intake was reported to be related to metabolic syndrome (MS). Although a strong association between sodium intake and blood pressure (BP) has been reported, the relationship between sodium intake and other components of MS is unknown. An observational study of 18,146 adults in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV-V databases (2008–2011) was performed. Estimates of 24-h sodium excretion were made from a single fasting urine sample. A significant positive association was found between sodium excretion and systolic BP and between sodium excretion and diastolic BP in participants with and without hypertension after adjusting for multiple covariates (P < 0.001 for trend). The relationship between triglyceride or glucose levels and sodium excretion was linear (P < 0.005). In both men and women, a positive relationship between sodium excretion and waist circumference and an inverse relationship between sodium excretion and high-density lipoprotein were found (P ≤ 0.001). Body fat percentage, body fat mass, and insulin level were positively related to sodium excretion (P ≤ 0.001), and HOMA-IR was significantly associated with sodium excretion (P < 0.05). The risk of MS was elevated 1.279-fold in the second quartile of sodium excretion (95% CI, 1.088–1.504, P = 0.003), 1.479-fold in the third quartile (95% CI, 1.262–1.734; P < 0.001), and 1.929-fold in the highest quartile (95% CI 1.654–2.249, P < 0.001) compared with the lowest quartile. Sodium intake is significantly associated with all components of MS, body fat, and insulin resistance. Therefore, a high-salt diet is a significant risk factor for MS. PMID:26426658

  5. Quality of gingernut type biscuits as affected by varying fat content and partial replacement of honey with molasses.

    PubMed

    Filipčev, Bojana; Šimurina, Olivera; Bodroža-Solarov, Marija

    2014-11-01

    Gingernut type biscuits were prepared with varying fat content (10, 20, and 30 % w/w flour basis) and with sugar beet molasses replacing 0, 25, and 50 % w/w of the honey in the formulation. To evaluate the effects of these modifications, dough properties, and the physical, and sensory properties, and chemical composition of the biscuits were determined. Dough properties were significantly affected by the fat content; higher fat gave softer dough with reduced adhesiveness, cohesiveness and springiness. Biscuit height and diameter were also significantly affected only by the fat content. The tested biscuit variants showed no difference with respect to hardness and fracturability. During storage, hardness, fracturability and brittleness of the biscuits significantly increased but significant differences within the biscuits variants were observed after two months of storage in terms of fracturability which was least impaired in the biscuits with 30 % fat. Higher fat content also contributed to better flavour keeping during storage. Substitution of honey with molasses resulted in products with darker colour, less yellow and more red tone. Molasses also contributed to better nutritive value of biscuits by increasing significantly the content of proteins, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron. PMID:26396308

  6. Agreement in Body Fat Estimates between a Hand-Held Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer and Skinfold Thicknesses in African American and Caucasian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, James C.; Ratliffe, Thomas; Williams, Daniel P.

    2006-01-01

    The body mass index (BMI), or the ratio of weight in kilograms to the square of height in meters, is widely used to determine the presence or absence of overweight and obesity in adults. Although many consider BMI an acceptable clinical surrogate of body fatness, it does not differentiate between fat and fat-free tissues. Thus, children and…

  7. Associations of body mass and body fat distribution with parity among African-American and Caucasian women: The CARDIA Study.

    PubMed

    Lewis, C E; Smith, D E; Caveny, J L; Perkins, L L; Burke, G L; Bild, D E

    1994-11-01

    Associations of parity with body fat and its distribution are poorly understood; therefore, we examined the relationships between parity and obesity in young adult women. Body mass index (BMI), skin-folds, and waist-hip ratio were compared in 1452 African-American and 1268 Caucasian nonpregnant women aged 18 to 30, adjusting for age (where no age-parity interactions were present), education, physical activity (assessed by questionnaire) and fitness (assessed by graded exercise test), dietary fat intake, alcohol and smoking. Adjusted mean BMI was significantly higher in African-American women aged 25-30 years with three or more children (28.5 kg/m2) than in those with two (27.0 kg/m2), one (26.2 kg/m2), or no children (26.3 kg/m2). Similar trends were found in Caucasians (BMI = 23.3, 23.4, 23.7, 25.0 kg/m2 for parity = 0, 1, 2, > or = 3, respectively), but the mean BMI was significantly higher in African Americans in each parity group. The association between BMI and parity was not present among women 18-24 years of age. Skinfolds were directly associated with parity in African Americans only. Waist-hip ratios were generally lower among nulliparous than parous women in both ethnic groups; race differences were present only among nulliparas. In conclusion, parity was associated with BMI in women aged 25 to 30 years but did not explain ethnicity-related differences in body mass. PMID:16358400

  8. MRI Detection of Brown Adipose Tissue with Low Fat Content in Newborns with Hypothermia

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Houchun H.; Wu, Tai-Wei; Yin, Larry; Kim, Mimi S.; Chia, Jonathan M.; Perkins, Thomas G.; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To report the observation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) with low fat content in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) after they have undergone hypothermia therapy. Materials and Methods The local ethics committee approved the imaging study. Ten HIE neonates (3 males, 7 females, age range: 2-3 days) were studied on a 3T MRI system using a low-flip-angle (3 degrees) six-echo proton-density-weighted chemical-shift-encoded water-fat pulse sequence. Fat-signal fraction (FF) measurements of supraclavicular and interscapular (nape) BAT and adjacent subcutaneous white adipose tissues (WAT) were compared to those from five non-HIE neonates, two recruited for the present investigation and three from a previous study. Results In HIE neonates, the FF range for the supraclavicular, interscapular, and subcutaneous regions were 10.3-29.9%, 28.0-57.9%, and 62.6-88.0%, respectively. In non-HIE neonates, the values were 23.7-42.2% (p=0.01), 45.4-59.5% (p=0.06), and 67.8-86.3% (p=0.38), respectively. On an individual basis, supraclavicular BAT FF was consistently the lowest, interscapular BAT values were higher, and subcutaneous WAT values were the highest (p<0.01). Conclusion We speculate that hypothermia therapy in HIE neonates likely promotes BAT-mediated non-shivering thermogenesis, which subsequently leads to a depletion of the tissue's intracellular fat stores. We believe this is consequently reflected in lower FF values, particularly in the supraclavicular BAT depot, in contrast to non-HIE neonates. PMID:24239336

  9. Selection Signature Analysis Implicates the PC1/PCSK1 Region for Chicken Abdominal Fat Content

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhipeng; Zhang, Yuandan; Wang, Shouzhi; Wang, Ning; Ma, Li; Leng, Li; Wang, Shengwen; Wang, Qigui; Wang, Yuxiang; Tang, Zhiquan; Li, Ning; Da, Yang; Li, Hui

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a selection signature analysis using the chicken 60k SNP chip in two chicken lines that had been divergently selected for abdominal fat content (AFC) for 11 generations. The selection signature analysis used multiple signals of selection, including long-range allele frequency differences between the lean and fat lines, long-range heterozygosity changes, linkage disequilibrium, haplotype frequencies, and extended haplotype homozygosity. Multiple signals of selection identified ten signatures on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 5, 11, 15, 20, 26 and Z. The 0.73 Mb PC1/PCSK1 region of the Z chromosome at 55.43-56.16 Mb was the most heavily selected region. This region had 26 SNP markers and seven genes, Mar-03, SLC12A2, FBN2, ERAP1, CAST, PC1/PCSK1 and ELL2, where PC1/PCSK1 are the chicken/human names for the same gene. The lean and fat lines had two main haplotypes with completely opposite SNP alleles for the 26 SNP markers and were virtually line-specific, and had a recombinant haplotype with nearly equal frequency (0.193 and 0.196) in both lines. Other haplotypes in this region had negligible frequencies. Nine other regions with selection signatures were PAH-IGF1, TRPC4, GJD4-CCNY, NDST4, NOVA1, GALNT9, the ESRP2-GALR1 region with five genes, the SYCP2-CADH4 with six genes, and the TULP1-KIF21B with 14 genes. Genome-wide association analysis showed that nearly all regions with evidence of selection signature had SNP effects with genome-wide significance (P<10–6) on abdominal fat weight and percentage. The results of this study provide specific gene targets for the control of chicken AFC and a potential model of AFC in human obesity. PMID:22792402

  10. Plexin D1 determines body fat distribution by regulating the type V collagen microenvironment in visceral adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Minchin, James E. N.; Dahlman, Ingrid; Harvey, Christopher J.; Mejhert, Niklas; Singh, Manvendra K.; Epstein, Jonathan A.; Arner, Peter; Torres-Vázquez, Jesús; Rawls, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have implicated PLEXIN D1 (PLXND1) in body fat distribution and type 2 diabetes. However, a role for PLXND1 in regional adiposity and insulin resistance is unknown. Here we use in vivo imaging and genetic analysis in zebrafish to show that Plxnd1 regulates body fat distribution and insulin sensitivity. Plxnd1 deficiency in zebrafish induced hyperplastic morphology in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and reduced lipid storage. In contrast, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) growth and morphology were unaffected, resulting in altered body fat distribution and a reduced VAT:SAT ratio in zebrafish. A VAT-specific role for Plxnd1 appeared conserved in humans, as PLXND1 mRNA was positively associated with hypertrophic morphology in VAT, but not SAT. In zebrafish plxnd1 mutants, the effect on VAT morphology and body fat distribution was dependent on induction of the extracellular matrix protein collagen type V alpha 1 (col5a1). Furthermore, after high-fat feeding, zebrafish plxnd1 mutant VAT was resistant to expansion, and excess lipid was disproportionately deposited in SAT, leading to an even greater exacerbation of altered body fat distribution. Plxnd1-deficient zebrafish were protected from high-fat-diet-induced insulin resistance, and human VAT PLXND1 mRNA was positively associated with type 2 diabetes, suggesting a conserved role for PLXND1 in insulin sensitivity. Together, our findings identify Plxnd1 as a novel regulator of VAT growth, body fat distribution, and insulin sensitivity in both zebrafish and humans. PMID:25831505

  11. Plexin D1 determines body fat distribution by regulating the type V collagen microenvironment in visceral adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Minchin, James E N; Dahlman, Ingrid; Harvey, Christopher J; Mejhert, Niklas; Singh, Manvendra K; Epstein, Jonathan A; Arner, Peter; Torres-Vázquez, Jesús; Rawls, John F

    2015-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies have implicated PLEXIN D1 (PLXND1) in body fat distribution and type 2 diabetes. However, a role for PLXND1 in regional adiposity and insulin resistance is unknown. Here we use in vivo imaging and genetic analysis in zebrafish to show that Plxnd1 regulates body fat distribution and insulin sensitivity. Plxnd1 deficiency in zebrafish induced hyperplastic morphology in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and reduced lipid storage. In contrast, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) growth and morphology were unaffected, resulting in altered body fat distribution and a reduced VAT:SAT ratio in zebrafish. A VAT-specific role for Plxnd1 appeared conserved in humans, as PLXND1 mRNA was positively associated with hypertrophic morphology in VAT, but not SAT. In zebrafish plxnd1 mutants, the effect on VAT morphology and body fat distribution was dependent on induction of the extracellular matrix protein collagen type V alpha 1 (col5a1). Furthermore, after high-fat feeding, zebrafish plxnd1 mutant VAT was resistant to expansion, and excess lipid was disproportionately deposited in SAT, leading to an even greater exacerbation of altered body fat distribution. Plxnd1-deficient zebrafish were protected from high-fat-diet-induced insulin resistance, and human VAT PLXND1 mRNA was positively associated with type 2 diabetes, suggesting a conserved role for PLXND1 in insulin sensitivity. Together, our findings identify Plxnd1 as a novel regulator of VAT growth, body fat distribution, and insulin sensitivity in both zebrafish and humans. PMID:25831505

  12. Association of common JAK2 variants with body fat, insulin sensitivity and lipid profile

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Dongliang; Gooljar, Sakina B; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Collins, Laura J; Swaminathan, Ramasamyiyer; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; O'Dell, Sandra D

    2007-01-01

    The leptin signal is transduced via the JAK2-STAT3 pathway at the leptin receptor. JAK2 also phosphorylates IRS, integral to insulin and leptin action and is required for optimum ABCA1-dependent transport of lipids from cells to apoA-I. We hypothesised that common variation in the JAK2 gene may be associated with body fat, insulin sensitivity and modulation of the serum lipid profile in the general population. Ten tagging SNPs spanning the gene were genotyped in 2760 Caucasian female twin subjects (mean age 47.3±12.6 years) from the St Thomas' UK Adult Twin Registry (Twins UK). Minor allele frequencies were between 0.170 and 0.464. The major allele of rs7849191 was associated with higher central fat (P=0.030), % central fat (P=0.014) and waist circumference (P=0.027) and the major allele of rs3780378 with higher serum apoA (P=0.026), total cholesterol (P=0.014) and LDL cholesterol (P=0.012) and lower triglyceride (P=0.023). However, no associations were significant at a level which took account of multiple testing. Although JAK2 is a critical element in leptin and insulin signalling and has a role in cellular cholesterol transport, we failed to establish associations of common SNPs with relevant phenotypes in this human study. PMID:18239666

  13. Reducing body fat with altitude hypoxia training in swimmers: role of blood perfusion to skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Chia, Michael; Liao, Chin-An; Huang, Chih-Yang; Lee, Wen-Chih; Hou, Chien-Wen; Yu, Szu-Hsien; Harris, M Brennan; Hsu, Tung-Shiung; Lee, Shin-Da; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2013-02-28

    Swimmers tend to have greater body fat than athletes from other sports. The purpose of the study was to examine changes in body composition after altitude hypoxia exposure and the role of blood distribution to the skeletal muscle in swimmers. With a constant training volume of 12.3 km/day, young male swimmers (N = 10, 14.8 ± 0.5 years) moved from sea-level to a higher altitude of 2,300 meters. Body composition was measured before and after translocation to altitude using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) along with 8 control male subjects who resided at sea level for the same period of time. To determine the effects of hypoxia on muscle blood perfusion, total hemoglobin concentration (THC) was traced by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in the triceps and quadriceps muscles under glucose-ingested and insulin-secreted conditions during hypoxia exposure (16% O2) after training. While no change in body composition was found in the control group, subjects who trained at altitude had unequivocally decreased fat mass (-1.7 ± 0.3 kg, -11.4%) with increased lean mass (+0.8 ± 0.2 kg, +1.5%). Arterial oxygen saturation significantly decreased with increased plasma lactate during hypoxia recovery mimicking 2,300 meters at altitude (~93% versus ~97%). Intriguingly, hypoxia resulted in elevated muscle THC, and sympathetic nervous activities occurred in parallel with greater-percent oxygen saturation in both muscle groups. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that increased blood distribution to the skeletal muscle under postprandial condition may contribute to the reciprocally increased muscle mass and decreased body mass after a 3-week altitude exposure in swimmers. PMID:23347012

  14. The potential application of rice bran wax oleogel to replace solid fat and enhance unsaturated fat content in ice cream.

    PubMed

    Zulim Botega, Daniele C; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Smith, Alexandra K; Goff, H Douglas

    2013-09-01

    The development of structure in ice cream, characterized by its smooth texture and resistance to collapse during melting, depends, in part, on the presence of solid fat during the whipping and freezing steps. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential application of 10% rice bran wax (RBW) oleogel, comprised 90% high-oleic sunflower oil and 10% RBW, to replace solid fat in ice cream. A commercial blend of 80% saturated mono- and diglycerides and 20% polysorbate 80 was used as the emulsifier. Standard ice cream measurements, cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to evaluate the formation of structure in ice cream. RBW oleogel produced higher levels of overrun when compared to a liquid oil ice cream sample, creating a lighter sample with good texture and appearance. However, those results were not associated with higher meltdown resistance. Microscopy revealed larger aggregation of RBW oleogel fat droplets at the air cell interface and distortion of the shape of air cells and fat droplets. Although the RBW oleogel did not develop sufficient structure in ice cream to maintain shape during meltdown when a mono- and diglycerides and polysorbate 80 blend was used as the emulsifier, micro- and ultrastructure investigations suggested that RBW oleogel did induce formation of a fat globule network in ice cream, suggesting that further optimization could lead to an alternative to saturated fat sources for ice cream applications. PMID:24024686

  15. Neural adaptation to thin and fat bodies in the fusiform body area and middle occipital gyrus: an fMRI adaptation study.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Dennis; Rudolf, Anne K; Brandi, Marie-Luise; Untch, Karl-Heinz; Grabhorn, Ralph; Hampel, Harald; Mohr, Harald M

    2013-12-01

    Visual perception can be strongly biased due to exposure to specific stimuli in the environment, often causing neural adaptation and visual aftereffects. In this study, we investigated whether adaptation to certain body shapes biases the perception of the own body shape. Furthermore, we aimed to evoke neural adaptation to certain body shapes. Participants completed a behavioral experiment (n = 14) to rate manipulated pictures of their own bodies after adaptation to demonstratively thin or fat pictures of their own bodies. The same stimuli were used in a second experiment (n = 16) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) adaptation. In the behavioral experiment, after adapting to a thin picture of the own body participants also judged a thinner than actual body picture to be the most realistic and vice versa, resembling a typical aftereffect. The fusiform body area (FBA) and the right middle occipital gyrus (rMOG) show neural adaptation to specific body shapes while the extrastriate body area (EBA) bilaterally does not. The rMOG cluster is highly selective for bodies and perhaps body parts. The findings of the behavioral experiment support the existence of a perceptual body shape aftereffect, resulting from a specific adaptation to thin and fat pictures of one's own body. The fMRI results imply that body shape adaptation occurs in the FBA and the rMOG. The role of the EBA in body shape processing remains unclear. The results are also discussed in the light of clinical body image disturbances. PMID:22807338

  16. Carotid intima media thickness is associated with body fat abnormalities in HIV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV-infected patients may be at increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) events, and lipodystrophy is generally associated with proatherogenic metabolic disturbances. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) has been used as a surrogate marker for atherosclerosis and it has been shown to be an independent risk factor for CV disease. Our objective was to evaluate cIMT in HIV-infected patients on combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART) with and without lipodystrophy defined by fat mass ratio (L-FMR), and to determine the association of lipodystrophy and visceral obesity [(visceral (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volume and VAT/SAT ratio, objectively evaluated by CT scan] with cIMT. Methods Cross-sectional study of 199 HIV-infected patients. Body composition by DXA and abdominal CT, lipids, blood pressure, inflammatory markers, and cIMT by ultrasonography were performed. L-FMR was defined as the ratio of the percentage of trunk fat mass to the percentage of lower limb fat mass by DXA. Categorical variables were compared using the chi-square or Fisher’s exact test. Spearman correlation coefficients were estimated to study the association between cIMT and clinical and metabolic characteristics. Means of cIMT, adjusted for age, were calculated, using generalized linear models. Results L-FMR was present in 41.2% of patients and cIMT was higher in these patients [0.81 (0.24) vs. 0.76 (0.25); p = 0.037)]. Lipodystrophic patients had higher VAT and VAT/SAT ratio and lower SAT. cIMT was associated with lipodystrophy evaluated by FMR, trunk fat, total abdominal fat, VAT and VAT/SAT ratio. No association was observed between cIMT and leg fat mass. Using generalized linear models, cIMT means were adjusted for age and no significant differences remained after this adjustment. The adjusted mean of cIMT was 0.787 (95% CI: 0.751-0.823) in patients without lipodystrophy, and 0.775 (95% CI: 0.732-0.817) in those with lipodystrophy (p = 0.671). Conclusions

  17. Cardiovascular risk factors in middle age obese Indians: a cross-sectional study on association of per cent body fat and intra-abdominal fat mass

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Jaspal Singh; Esht, Vandana; Shenoy, Shweta

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the association of per cent total body fat (TBF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) mass and subcutaneous abdominal fat with cardiovascular risk factors in middle age obese Indians. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Hydrostatic Laboratory, Department of Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy, Guru Nanak Dev University, India. Participants: 51 subjects aged 30–55 years with a body mass index value 23 and above. Methodology In all the participants, TBF was estimated by underwater weighing machine and IAF and subcutaneous fat were measured by ultrasonography. Lipid profile was determined by a semiautomated analyser. Main outcome measures were: IAF, per cent body fat to TBF ratio, lipid profile and risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Results IAF was found to be significantly associated with lipid variables (95% CI, p<0.01) and risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (95% CI, p≤0.05) in both male and female subjects. TBF and subcutaneous fat thickness showed no significant results (95% CI, p>0.05) with either lipid variables or risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (tables 1 and 2). IAF mass showed significant association with age (95% CI, p<0.01) and significant negative association with physical activity (95% CI, p<0.05) in male subjects (tables 3 and 4). Conclusion An ultrasonic measurement of IAF is a better predictor of the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in middle aged Indian population. In male subjects, physical activity of 5 or more days a week showed lesser amount of IAF as compared with those with physical activity <5 days a week. PMID:27326015

  18. Ethanolic extract of Taheebo attenuates increase in body weight and fatty liver in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won Hee; Um, Min Young; Ahn, Jiyun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Park, Myung Kyu; Ha, Tae Youl

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated whether intake of an ethanolic extract of Taheebo (TBE) from Tabebuia avellanedae protects against body weight increase and fat accumulation in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Four-week old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a HFD (25% fat, w/w) for 11 weeks. The diet of control (HFD) mice was supplemented with vehicle (0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by gavage); the diet of experimental (TBE) mice was supplemented with TBE (150 mg/kg body weight/day by gavage). Mice administered TBE had significantly reduced body weight gain, fat accumulation in the liver, and fat pad weight, compared to HFD mice. Reduced hypertrophy of fat cells was also observed in TBE mice. Mice administered TBE also showed significantly lower serum levels of triglycerides, insulin, and leptin. Lipid profiles and levels of mRNAs and proteins related to lipid metabolism were determined in liver and white adipose tissue of the mice. Expression of mRNA and proteins related to lipogenesis were decreased in TBE-administered mice compared to mice fed HFD alone. These results suggest that TBE inhibits obesity and fat accumulation by regulation of gene expression related to lipid metabolism in HFD-induced obesity in mice. PMID:25299819

  19. Intermittent Fasting Promotes Fat Loss With Lean Mass Retention, Increased Hypothalamic Norepinephrine Content, and Increased Neuropeptide Y Gene Expression in Diet-Induced Obese Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Verpeut, Jessica L; Yeomans, Bryn L; Yang, Jennifer A; Yasrebi, Ali; Roepke, Troy A; Bello, Nicholas T

    2016-02-01

    Clinical studies indicate alternate-day, intermittent fasting (IMF) protocols result in meaningful weight loss in obese individuals. To further understand the mechanisms sustaining weight loss by IMF, we investigated the metabolic and neural alterations of IMF in obese mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat) ad libitum for 8 weeks to promote an obese phenotype. Mice were divided into four groups and either maintained on ad libitum HFD, received alternate-day access to HFD (IMF-HFD), and switched to ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD; 10% fat) or received IMF of LFD (IMF-LFD). After 4 weeks, IMF-HFD (∼13%) and IMF-LFD (∼18%) had significantly lower body weights than the HFD. Body fat was also lower (∼40%-52%) in all diet interventions. Lean mass was increased in the IMF-LFD (∼12%-13%) compared with the HFD and IMF-HFD groups. Oral glucose tolerance area under the curve was lower in the IMF-HFD (∼50%), whereas the insulin tolerance area under the curve was reduced in all diet interventions (∼22%-42%). HPLC measurements of hypothalamic tissue homogenates indicated higher (∼55%-60%) norepinephrine (NE) content in the anterior regions of the medial hypothalamus of IMF compared with the ad libitum-fed groups, whereas NE content was higher (∼19%-32%) in posterior regions in the IMF-LFD group only. Relative gene expression of Npy in the arcuate nucleus was increased (∼65%-75%) in IMF groups. Our novel findings indicate that intermittent fasting produces alterations in hypothalamic NE and neuropeptide Y, suggesting the counterregulatory processes of short-term weight loss are associated with an IMF dietary strategy. PMID:26653760

  20. Role of heart rate in the relation between regional body fat and subendocardial viability ratio in women.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Joaquin U; Hadri, Omar

    2016-09-01

    Subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR) is a measure of left ventricular function, specifically; it is an index of myocardial perfusion relative to left ventricular workload. Women have lower SEVR than men, partly due to a faster resting heart rate that reduces diastolic time (i.e., time for myocardial perfusion). It is unclear if body fat relates to SEVR, thus the purpose of this study was to examine the relation between body fat and SEVR in women. Twenty-eight middle-aged (31-45 years) and 31 older (60-80 years) women were examined. Radial artery applanation tonometry was used to calculate SEVR from a synthesized central aortic pressure wave. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess body composition including fat in the trunk, legs, android and gynoid regions. Body fat was not related (P>.05) with SEVR in older women. In middle-aged women, all measures of regional fat were correlated with heart rate (range, r=.49-.59, P≤.01) and SEVR (range, r=.43-.53, P≤.01). Android-to-gynoid ratio was identified as the strongest predictor (r(2) =-.26, P<.01) of SEVR among measures of regional fat. Middle-aged women with lower android-to-gynoid fat ratio had higher SEVR (1.96±0.33 vs 1.66±0.20, P=.009) than women with higher fat ratio, even after adjusting for age, height, daily physical activity, and aortic mean pressure (P=.02). Adjusting for heart rate or diastolic time abolished the difference in SEVR between groups (1.80±0.09 vs 1.82±0.09, P=.56). These results suggest that middle-aged women with a greater distribution of fat in the abdomen have poorer left ventricular function that is dependent on the negative influence of heart rate on diastolic time. PMID:27220028

  1. Aflatoxin M1 in pasteurized and ultrapasteurized milk with different fat content in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Magda; Bolaños, Adolfo; Rojo, Francisco; Méndez, Ignacio

    2003-10-01

    High per capita milk consumption in Mexico indicated a strong need for documentation of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) levels in milk. A survey of 580, 2-liter samples (n = 290), was conducted to quantify AFM1 using high-performance liquid chromatography, considering two maximum tolerance levels (0.05 and 0.5 microg/liter). We relate aflatoxin levels in the seven most consumed brands from different regions, with two processes (pasteurized and ultrapasteurized), different expiration dates, and different fat content: whole fat (28, 30, and 33 g), half-skimmed (10, 16, and 20 g), light (1, 2, and 4 g), and with vegetable oil. Pasteurization and ultrapasteurization did not diminish AFM1 contamination present at levels of 0 to 8.35 microg/liter in 40% of the milk samples at concentrations > or = 0.05 microg/liter and in 10% of the samples at > or = 0.5 microg/liter. Statistically significant relationships were AFM1 contamination with brand (P = 0.002 at the > or = 0.05 microg/liter level and P = 0.034 at the > or = 0.5 microg/ liter level) and higher AFM1 levels with mild or warm seasons of the year (P = 0.0003). Samples with greater fat content had slightly more probability (P = 0.067) of being contaminated by AFM1 at the > or = 0.5 microg/liter level. The milk with the lowest contamination of AFM1 was a brand imported as powder and rehydrated in Mexico. PMID:14572228

  2. Changes induced by dietary energy intake and divergent selection for muscle fat content in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), assessed by transcriptome and proteome analysis of the liver

    PubMed Central

    Kolditz, Catherine-Ines; Paboeuf, Gilles; Borthaire, Maïena; Esquerré, Diane; SanCristobal, Magali; Lefèvre, Florence; Médale, Françoise

    2008-01-01

    Background Growing interest is turned to fat storage levels and allocation within body compartments, due to their impact on human health and quality properties of farm animals. Energy intake and genetic background are major determinants of fattening in most animals, including humans. Previous studies have evidenced that fat deposition depends upon balance between various metabolic pathways. Using divergent selection, we obtained rainbow trout with differences in fat allocation between visceral adipose tissue and muscle, and no change in overall body fat content. Transcriptome and proteome analysis were applied to characterize the molecular changes occurring between these two lines when fed a low or a high energy diet. We focused on the liver, center of intermediary metabolism and the main site for lipogenesis in fish, as in humans and most avian species. Results The proteome and transcriptome analyses provided concordant results. The main changes induced by the dietary treatment were observed in lipid metabolism. The level of transcripts and proteins involved in intracellular lipid transport, fatty acid biosynthesis and anti-oxidant metabolism were lower with the lipid rich diet. In addition, genes and proteins involved in amino-acid catabolism and proteolysis were also under expressed with this diet. The major changes related to the selection effect were observed in levels of transcripts and proteins involved in amino-acid catabolism and proteolysis that were higher in the fat muscle line than in the lean muscle line. Conclusion The present study led to the identification of novel genes and proteins that responded to long term feeding with a high energy/high fat diet. Although muscle was the direct target, the selection procedure applied significantly affected hepatic metabolism, particularly protein and amino acid derivative metabolism. Interestingly, the selection procedure and the dietary treatment used to increase muscle fat content exerted opposite effects on

  3. Alterations in Lung Functions Based on BMI and Body Fat % Among Obese Indian Population at National Capital Region

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Ritul; Bihari, Vipin; Sathian, Brijesh; Srivastava, Anup Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background In India, non-asthmatic hospital admission case study has been conducted to find out the relationship between obesity and lung functions. The main objective of the present study was to find out the alterations in lung functions due to obesity among Indian population living at National Capital Region (NCR). Materials and Methods We examined 609 non obese and 211 obese subjects in a cross sectional study from National Capital Region, India with age group ranges between 18-70 years. BMI and body fat % was determined using body fat analyzer. Obese and non-obese subjects were classified based on criteria for BMI and Body fat %. Lung function test viz., FEV1 and PEFR were conducted using portable spirometer (PIKO-1). Results A significant correlation (p<0.05) was observed between BMI and PEFR among non-obese male and female subjects. Decline in PEFR and FEV1 values for corresponding increase in body fat % was observed among study subjects. A significant (p<0.01) decline in mean FEV1 and PEFR was observed among non-obese and obese subjects, compared to their Indian reference standards for lung functions. A significant negative correlation (p<0.01) was observed between body fat % and lung functions (FEV1, PEFR). Conclusion It is concluded that obese subjects are at a risk of lung function impairment, based on the criteria followed for BMI and body fat %. The study also demonstrate that body fat% classification as a better index for determination of obese subjects compared to BMI classification, with respect to lung function impairments. PMID:26913206

  4. Development of a body condition scoring index for female African elephants validated by ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous fat.

    PubMed

    Morfeld, Kari A; Lehnhardt, John; Alligood, Christina; Bolling, Jeff; Brown, Janine L

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-related health and reproductive problems may be contributing to non-sustainability of zoo African elephant (Loxodonta africana) populations. However, a major constraint in screening for obesity in elephants is lack of a practical method to accurately assess body fat. Body condition scoring (BCS) is the assessment of subcutaneous fat stores based on visual evaluation and provides an immediate appraisal of the degree of obesity of an individual. The objective of this study was to develop a visual BCS index for female African elephants and validate it using ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat. To develop the index, standardized photographs were collected from zoo (n = 50) and free-ranging (n = 57) female African elephants for identifying key body regions and skeletal features, which were then used to visually determine body fat deposition patterns. This information was used to develop a visual BCS method consisting of a list of body regions and the physical criteria for assigning an overall score on a 5-point scale, with 1 representing the lowest and 5 representing the highest levels of body fat. Results showed that as BCS increased, ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat thickness also increased (P<0.01), indicating the scores closely coincide with physical measures of fat reserves. The BCS index proved to be reliable and repeatable based on high intra- and inter-assessor agreement across three assessors. In comparing photographs of wild vs. captive African elephants, the median BCS in the free-ranging individuals (BCS = 3, range 1-5) was lower (P<0.001) than that of the zoo population (BCS = 4, range 2-5). In sum, we have developed the first validated BCS index for African elephants. This tool can be used to examine which factors impact body condition in zoo and free-ranging elephants, providing valuable information on how it affects health and reproductive potential of individual elephants. PMID:24718304

  5. The fatty acid transport protein Fat1p is involved in the export of fatty acids from lipid bodies in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Dulermo, Rémi; Gamboa-Meléndez, Heber; Dulermo, Thierry; Thevenieau, France; Nicaud, Jean-Marc

    2014-09-01

    In order to live, cells need to import different molecules, such as sugars, amino acids or lipids, using transporters. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the ScFAT1 gene encodes the long-chain fatty acid transporter; however, the transport of fatty acids (FAs) in the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica has not yet been studied. In contrast to what has previously been found for ΔScfat1 strains, ΔYlfat1 yeast was still able to grow on substrates containing short-, medium- or long-chain FAs. We observed a notable difference in cell lipid content between wild-type (WT) and deletion mutant strains after 24 h of culture in minimal oleate medium: in the WT strain, lipids represented 24% of cell dry weight (CDW), while they accounted for 37% of CDW in the ΔYlfat1 strain. This result indicates that YlFat1p is not involved in cell lipid uptake. Moreover, we also observed that fatty acid remobilisation was decreased in the ΔYlfat1 strain and that fluorescence-tagged YlFat1p proteins localised to the interfaces between lipid bodies, which suggests that YlFat1p may play a role in the export of FAs from lipid bodies. PMID:24945074

  6. Association of NLK polymorphisms with intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition traits in pigs.

    PubMed

    Supakankul, Pantaporn; Mekchay, Supamit

    2016-08-01

    Nemo-like protein kinase (NLK) is a key enzyme in the noncanonical Wnt signaling pathway and it is involved in adipogenesis. In this study, the associations of the polymorphisms of the NLK gene with intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid (FA) composition traits were analyzed in crossbred commercial pigs. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the porcine NLK gene were identified in 5'-flanking region and introns, consisting of g.403739_403764insdel, g.574462T>C and g.630426A>G. The NLK g.403739_403764insdel was significantly associated with IMF content and palmitoleic acid levels. No association of the NLK g.574462T>C SNP with IMF content was observed. However, this SNP was significantly associated with arachidic and eicosenoic acid levels. Moreover, the NLK g.630426A>G SNP was significantly associated with IMF content and the fatty composition of arachidic, linoleic, as well as polyunsaturated FA and ω6 FA levels. These results indicate the importance of porcine NLK as a candidate gene for porcine IMF content and fatty acid composition traits. PMID:27050409

  7. Dietary gamma-linolenic acid in the form of borage oil causes less body fat accumulation accompanying an increase in uncoupling protein 1 mRNA level in brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Y; Ide, T; Fujita, H

    2000-10-01

    Rats were fed a low-fat diet containing 2% safflower oil or 20% fat diets containing either safflower oil rich in linoleic acid, borage oil containing 25% gamma (gamma)-linolenic acid or enzymatically prepared gamma-linolenic acid enriched borage oil containing 47% gamma-linolenic acid for 14 days. Energy intake and growth of animals were the same among groups. A high safflower oil diet compared with a low-fat diet caused significant increases in both epididymal and perirenal white adipose tissue weights. However, high-fat diets rich in gamma-linolenic acid failed to do so. Compared with a low-fat diet, all the high-fat diets increased mRNA levels of uncoupling protein 1 and lipoprotein lipase in brown adipose tissue. The extents of the increase were greater with high-fat diets rich in gamma-linolenic acid. Various high-fat diets, compared with a low-fat diet, decreased glucose transporter 4 mRNA in white adipose tissue to the same levels. The amount and types of dietary fat did not affect the leptin mRNA level in epididymal white adipose tissue. However, a high safflower oil diet, but not high-fat diets rich in gamma-linolenic acid relative to a low-fat diet, increased perirenal white adipose tissue leptin mRNA levels. All high-fat diets, relative to a low-fat diet, increased the hepatic mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation rate and fatty acid oxidation enzyme mRNA abundances to the same levels. High-fat diets also increased these parameters in the peroxisomal pathway, and the increases were greater with high-fat diets rich in gamma-linolenic acid. The physiological activity in increasing brown adipose tissue gene expression and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation was similar between the two types of borage oil differing in gamma-linolenic acid content. It was suggested that dietary gamma-linolenic acid attenuates body fat accumulation through the increase in gene expressions of uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue. An increase in hepatic peroxisomal fatty acid

  8. Body fatness and breast cancer risk in women of African ancestry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity has been shown to be inversely associated with breast cancer risk in premenopausal women, while increasing risk in postmenopausal women. However, the current evidence is largely based on studies in Caucasian populations. Associations in women of African ancestry (AA), who have a higher prevalence of obesity, have been evaluated in few studies and results suggest different effects. Methods We evaluated the impact of body size, body fat distribution, and body composition on breast cancer risk among AA women (978 cases and 958 controls) participating in the Women’s Circle of Health Study, a multi-site case–control study in New York City (NYC) and New Jersey (NJ). Cases were newly diagnosed with histologically confirmed ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive breast cancer, age 20–75 yrs. In NYC, cases were recruited through hospitals with the largest referral patterns for AA women and controls through random digit dialing (RDD). In NJ, cases were identified in seven counties in NJ thorough the NJ State Cancer Registry, and controls through RDD and community-based recruitment. During in-person interviews, questionnaires were administered and detailed anthropometric measurements were obtained. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Results BMI did not have a major impact on pre- or post-menopausal breast cancer, but was significantly associated with reduced risk of ER-/PR- tumors among postmenopausal women (OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.15-0.96 for BMI > 30 vs. BMI < 25). Furthermore, increased premenopausal breast cancer risk was found for higher waist and hip circumferences after adjusting for BMI, with ORs of 2.25 (95% CI: 1.07-4.74) and 2.91 (95% CI: 1.39-6.10), respectively, comparing the highest vs. lowest quartile. While ORs for higher fat mass and percent body fat among postmenopausal women were above one, confidence intervals included the null value. Conclusions Our study suggests that in AA women BMI is

  9. [Obesity, body fat distribution and the incidence of breast, cervical, endometrial and ovarian carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Sönnichsen, A C; Lindlacher, U; Richter, W O; Schwandt, P

    1990-12-14

    The connection of body fat distribution (BFD) and the risk of developing mammary, cervical, endometrial or ovarian carcinoma was ascertained for 163 patients with carcinoma (mean age 49.9 [19-78] years) and 489 controls of comparable age and body-mass index. BFD was expressed as the ratio of waist and hip circumference (T/H ratio of 0.822 vs 0.781 and 0.826 vs 0.789, respectively; P less than 0.01). In premenopausal women with mammary or cervical carcinoma and in all postmenopausal women BFD was similar to that in the control subjects. A common cause of android obesity and ovarian or endometrial carcinoma may be a reduction of sex-hormone-binding globulins with an elevated serum level of free androgens and oestrogens. PMID:2257779

  10. A dual function for Deep orange in programmed autophagy in the Drosophila melanogaster fat body

    SciTech Connect

    Lindmo, Karine; Simonsen, Anne; Brech, Andreas; Finley, Kim; Rusten, Tor Erik; Stenmark, Harald . E-mail: stenmark@ulrik.uio.no

    2006-07-01

    Lysosomal degradation of cytoplasm by way of autophagy is essential for cellular amino acid homeostasis and for tissue remodeling. In insects such as Drosophila, autophagy is developmentally upregulated in the larval fat body prior to metamorphosis. Here, autophagy is induced by the hormone ecdysone through down-regulation of the autophagy-suppressive phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway. In yeast, Vps18 and other members of the HOPS complex have been found essential for autophagic degradation. In Drosophila, the Vps18 homologue Deep orange (Dor) has previously been shown to mediate fusion of multivesicular endosomes with lysosomes. A requirement of Dor for ecdysone-mediated chromosome puffing has also been reported. In the present report, we have tested the hypothesis that Dor may control programmed autophagy at the level of ecdysone signaling as well as by mediating autophagosome-to-lysosome fusion. We show that dor mutants are defective in programmed autophagy and provide evidence that autophagy is blocked at two levels. First, PI3K activity was not down-regulated correctly in dor larvae, which correlated with a decrease in ecdysone reporter activity. The down-regulation of PI3K activity was restored by feeding ecdysone to the mutant larvae. Second, neither exogenous ecdysone nor overexpression of PTEN, a silencer of PI3K signaling, restored fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes in the fat body of dor mutants. These results indicate that Dor controls autophagy indirectly, via ecdysone signaling, as well as directly, via autolysosomal fusion.

  11. Histopathological changes in the perivisceral fat body of Rhinocricus padbergi (Diplopoda, Spirobolida) triggered by biosolids.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Annelise; Christofoletti, Cintya Aparecida; Righetto Neto, Nilton; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

    2015-12-01

    Human activities generate a great amount of sewage daily, which is dumped into the sewer system. After sewage-treatment processes, sewage sludge is generated. Such byproduct can be treated by different methods; the result of treatment is a stabilized compost of reduced pathogenicity that has a similar inorganic chemical composition to the raw sewage sludge. After such pretreatment, sewage sludge is called a biosolids, and it can be used in agriculture. In this contest, the present study evaluated the effects of a sample of biosolids on the perivisceral fat body of a diplopod. These invertebrates are soil organisms that play an important role in the dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems, and as a consequence, they are in contact with xenobiotics present in this environmental compartment. Special emphasis is given on the interpretation of the effects of complex mixtures in target organs of diplopods. A semiquantitative analysis for the evaluation of histopathological changes in the perivisceral fat body was proposed. The sample-induced histopathological and ultrastructural changes in individuals exposed to it, and the severity of the effects was positively related to the exposure time, resulting in the deaths of exposed individuals after 90 days. Thus, the results indicate the need for caution in the use of biosolids as well as the need for improving waste management techniques, so they will produce environmentally innocuous final products. PMID:26396012

  12. Body condition score and its correlation with ultrasonographic back fat thickness in transition crossbred cows

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Randhir; Randhawa, S. N. S.; Randhawa, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to study the effect of the transition to body condition score (BCS) and ultrasonographic back fat thickness (USG BFT) in crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 101 multiparous crossbred cows in advanced pregnancy from organized dairy farm were taken up for study. The cows were grouped according to transition stage, i.e. far off dry (FOD), close up dry (CUD) and fresh (F). BCS was estimated by using the five point visual BCS technique with 0.5 increments. The USG BFT was measured by real-time ultrasound using a portable Sonosite instrument. Results: In cows with BCS 2-2.5, the BFT of F period was significantly lower than FOD period. In cows with BCS 3-3.5, the mean BFT at F period was significantly reduced as compared to FOD and CUD period. The overall correlation coefficient between BCS and BFT for different transition stages was 84%, 79% and 75% for FOD, CUD and F period, respectively. Conclusion: The USG BFT gives an accurate measure of fat reserves in cows. The cows with BCS of ≥3.5 entering the transition period are more prone to lose body condition and hence require better and robust management during the transition period. PMID:27047087

  13. Altering the sex determination pathway in Drosophila fat body modifies sex-specific stress responses

    PubMed Central

    Neckameyer, Wendi S.

    2014-01-01

    The stress response in Drosophila melanogaster reveals sex differences in behavior, similar to what has been observed in mammals. However, unlike mammals, the sex determination pathway in Drosophila is well established, making this an ideal system to identify factors involved in the modulation of sex-specific responses to stress. In this study, we show that the Drosophila fat body, which has been shown to be important for energy homeostasis and sex determination, is a dynamic tissue that is altered in response to stress in a sex and time-dependent manner. We manipulated the sex determination pathway in the fat body via targeted expression of transformer and transformer-2 and analyzed these animals for changes in their response to stress. In the majority of cases, manipulation of transformer or transformer-2 was able to change the physiological output in response to starvation and oxidative stress to that of the opposite sex. Our data also uncover the possibility of additional downstream targets for transformer and transformer-2 that are separate from the sex determination pathway and can influence behavioral and physiological responses. PMID:24789992

  14. Profile of leptin, adiponectin, and body fat in patients with hyperprolactinemia: Response to treatment with cabergoline

    PubMed Central

    Pala, Nazir Ahmad; Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Misgar, Raiz Ahmad; Shah, Zaffar Amin; Gojwari, Tariq A.; Dar, Tariq A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Though hypoadiponectinemia and leptin resistance have been proposed as potential factors for weight gain in patients with hyperprolactinemia (HPL), the effects of HPL and cabergoline on these adipocyte-derived hormones are not clear. Aims of this study were (i) to assess the alterations of body fat, leptin, and adiponectin in patients with HPL (ii) effect of cabergoline treatment on these parameters. Methods: Nineteen consecutive patients with prolactinoma (median prolactin [PRL] 118.6 (interquartile range: 105.3) μg/L) and 20 controls were studied in a nonrandomized matched prospective design. The controls were age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) matched. Anthropometric data, metabolic variables, leptin, and adiponectin were studied at baseline and 3 and 6 months after cabergoline treatment. Results: Patients with prolactinoma had increased level of fasting plasma glucose (P < 0.001) as compared to age-, gender-, and BMI-matched healthy controls. Estradiol concentration of controls was higher than that of patients (P = 0.018). Patients with prolactinoma had higher levels of leptin (P = 0.027) as compared to healthy controls without a significant difference in adiponectin levels. There was a significant decrease of body weight at 3 months (P = 0.029), with a further decline at 6 months (P < 0.001) of cabergoline therapy. Furthermore, there was a significant decrement of BMI (P < 0.001), waist circumference (P = 0.003), waist-hip ratio (P = 0.03), total body fat (P = 0.003), plasma glucose (P < 0.001), leptin levels (P = 0.013), and an increase in estradiol concentration (P = 0.03) at 6 months of cabergoline treatment. Conclusion: Patients with prolactinoma have adverse metabolic profile compared to matched controls. Normalization of PRL with cabergoline corrects all the metabolic abnormalities. PMID:27042412

  15. Prediagnostic body fat and risk of death from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Wark, Petra A.; Jenab, Mazda; Pearce, Neil; Brayne, Carol; Vermeulen, Roel; Andersen, Peter M.; Hallmans, Goran; Kyrozis, Andreas; Vanacore, Nicola; Vahdaninia, Mariam; Grote, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Peeters, Petra H.; Travis, Ruth C.; Petersson, Jesper; Hansson, Oskar; Arriola, Larraitz; Jimenez-Martin, Juan-Manuel; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Agnoli, Claudia; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bonet, Catalina; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Gavrila, Diana; Overvad, Kim; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Palli, Domenico; Quirós, J. Ramón; Tumino, Rosario; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Barricante-Gurrea, Aurelio; Fedirko, Veronika; Ferrari, Pietro; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Boeing, Heiner; Vigl, Matthaeus; Middleton, Lefkos; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate for the first time the association between body fat and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with an appropriate prospective study design. Methods: The EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study included 518,108 individuals recruited from the general population across 10 Western European countries. At recruitment, information on lifestyle was collected and anthropometric characteristics were measured. Cox hazard models were fitted to investigate the associations between anthropometric measures and ALS mortality. Results: Two hundred twenty-two ALS deaths (79 men and 143 women) occurred during the follow-up period (mean follow-up = 13 years). There was a statistically significant interaction between categories of body mass index and sex regarding ALS risk (p = 0.009): in men, a significant linear decrease of risk per unit of body mass index was observed (hazard ratio = 0.93, 95% confidence interval 0.86–0.99 per kg/m2); among women, the risk was more than 3-fold increased for underweight compared with normal-weight women. Among women, a significant risk reduction increasing the waist/hip ratio was also evident: women in the top quartile had less than half the risk of ALS compared with those in the bottom quartile (hazard ratio = 0.48, 95% confidence interval 0.25–0.93) with a borderline significant p value for trend across quartiles (p = 0.056). Conclusion: Increased prediagnostic body fat is associated with a decreased risk of ALS mortality. PMID:23390184

  16. Impact of Resistant Starch on Body Fat Patterning and Central Appetite Regulation

    PubMed Central

    So, Po-Wah; Yu, Wei-Sheng; Kuo, Yu-Ting; Wasserfall, Clive; Goldstone, Anthony P.; Bell, Jimmy D.; Frost, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Background Adipose tissue patterning has a major influence on the risk of developing chronic disease. Environmental influences on both body fat patterning and appetite regulation are not fully understood. This study was performed to investigate the impact of resistant starch (RS) on adipose tissue deposition and central regulation of appetite in mice. Methodology and Principle Findings Forty mice were randomised to a diet supplemented with either the high resistant starch (HRS), or the readily digestible starch (LRS). Using 1H magnetic resonance (MR) methods, whole body adiposity, intrahepatocellular lipids (IHCL) and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) were measured. Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) was used to investigate neuronal activity in hypothalamic regions involved in appetite control when fed ad libitum. At the end of the interventional period, adipocytes were isolated from epididymal adipose tissue and fasting plasma collected for hormonal and adipokine measurement. Mice on the HRS and LRS diet had similar body weights although total body adiposity, subcutaneous and visceral fat, IHCL, plasma leptin, plasma adiponectin plasma insulin/glucose ratios was significantly greater in the latter group. Adipocytes isolated from the LRS group were significantly larger and had lower insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. MEMRI data obtained from the ventromedial and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei suggests a satiating effect of the HRS diet despite a lower energy intake. Conclusion and Significance Dietary RS significantly impacts on adipose tissue patterning, adipocyte morphology and metabolism, glucose and insulin metabolism, as well as affecting appetite regulation, supported by changes in neuronal activity in hypothalamic appetite regulation centres which are suggestive of satiation. PMID:18074032

  17. Effects of genetic strain on stress-induced weight and body fat loss in rats: Application to air pollution research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to some air pollutants is suspected of contributing to obesity. Hazelton chambers are commonly used in air pollution studies but we found unexpected reductions in body weight and body fat of rats housed in Hazelton chambers under control conditions. We suspect that stres...

  18. No Change of Body Mass, Fat Mass, and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Ultraendurance Swimmers after 12 Hours of Swimming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Kaul, Rene; Kohler, Gotz

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether ultraendurance swimmers suffer a change of body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, total body water, and specific gravity of urine during a 12-hr swim in 12 male Caucasian ultraswimmers. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance of urine samples before and after the race was performed to detect alanine, lactate, and…

  19. Calculate Your Body Mass Index

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Calculate Your Body Mass Index Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based ... to content Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SEARCH | SITE INDEX | ACCESSIBILITY | PRIVACY STATEMENT | FOIA | OIG | CONTACT US National ...

  20. Monounsaturated fat decreases hepatic lipid content in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Osamah; Grosovski, Masha; Lasri, Etti; Svalb, Sergio; Ravid, Uzi; Assy, Nimer

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of different types of dietary fats on the hepatic lipid content and oxidative stress parameters in rat liver with experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: A total of 32 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups. The rats in the control group (n = 8) were on chow diet (Group 1), rats (n = 6) on methionine choline-deficient diet (MCDD) (Group 2), rats (n = 6) on MCDD enriched with olive oil (Group 3), rats (n = 6) on MCDD with fish oil (Group 4) and rats (n = 6) on MCDD with butter fat (Group 5). After 2 mo, blood and liver sections were examined for lipids composition and oxidative stress parameters. RESULTS: The liver weight/rat weight ratio increased in all treatment groups as compared with the control group. Severe fatty liver was seen in MCDD + fish oil and in MCDD + butter fat groups, but not in MCDD and MCDD + olive oil groups. The increase in hepatic triglycerides (TG) levels was blunted by 30% in MCDD + olive oil group (0.59 ± 0.09) compared with MCDD group (0.85 ± 0.04, p < 0.004), by 37% compared with MCDD + fish oil group (0.95 ± 0.07, p < 0.001), and by 33% compared with MCDD + butter group (0.09 ± 0.1, p < 0.01). The increase in serum TG was lowered by 10% in MCDD + olive oil group (0.9 ± 0.07) compared with MCDD group (1.05 ± 0.06). Hepatic cholesterol increased by 15-fold in MCDD group [(0.08 ± 0.02, this increment was blunted by 21% in MCDD + fish oil group (0.09 ± 0.02)]. In comparison with the control group, ratio of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-6/omega-3 increased in MCDD + olive oil, MCDD + fish oil and MCDD + butter fat groups by 345-, 30- and 397-fold, respectively. In comparison to MCDD group (1.58 ± 0.08), hepatic MDA contents in MCDD + olive oil (3.3 ± 0.6), MCDD + fish oil (3.0 ± 0.4), and MCDD + butter group (2.9 ± 0.36) were increased by 108%, 91% and 87%, respectively (p < 0.004). Hepatic paraoxonase activity decreased significantly in all

  1. Association between body fat composition and blood pressure level among secondary school adolescents in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mushengezi, Brighton; Chillo, Pilly

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Excess body fat and high blood pressure (BP) are important risk factors for increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and both may have their roots of occurrence in childhood and adolescence. The present study aimed at determining the association between body fat composition and BP level among adolescents in Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional study involving 5 randomly selected secondary schools within Dar es Salaam was conducted between June and November 2013. Structured questionnaires were used to collect information on demographic characteristics and other cardiovascular risk factors. BP, height, weight and waist circumference were measured following standard methods. Body fat was assessed by skinfold thickness and categorized as underfat, healthy, overfat or obese according to World Health Organization definitions. Hypertension was defined as BP ≥ 90th percentile for age, height and gender of the adolescent. Results The study included 582 adolescents (mean age 16.5±1.8 years, 52.1% boys). The proportion of adolescents with overfat or obesity was 22.2%. Systolic, diastolic and combined hypertension was present in 17.5%, 5.5%, and 4.0% respectively. In the total population mean body fat percent correlated positively with diastolic BP and mean arterial pressure (MAP) but not with systolic BP. In multivariate analysis body mass index (β=0.21, p=0.008) and waist circumference (β=0.12, p=0.049), but not body fat percentage (β=-0.09, p=0.399) independently predicted higher MAP. Conclusion Body mass index predicts BP level better than body fat composition and should be used as a measure of increased risk for hypertension among adolescents. PMID:25918567

  2. Relation of Vascular Growth Factors with CT-Derived Measures of Body Fat Distribution: The Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaess, Bernhard M.; Pedley, Alison; Massaro, Joseph M.; Larson, Martin G.; Corsini, Erin; Hoffmann, Udo; Smith, Holly M.; Sawyer, Douglas B.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Visceral adiposity is associated with metabolic risk. Given that angiogenesis is a key feature of adipogenesis, variation in the association of levels of circulating vascular growth factors (and their soluble receptors) with distinct body fat compartments may explain differences in the systemic pathogenicity of regional fat depots. Methods and Results: Four body fat compartments [visceral adipose tissue (VAT), sc adipose tissue (SAT), thoracic periaortic fat, and pericardial fat] derived from computed tomography were related to serum concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the soluble VEGF receptor (fms-like tyrosine kinase-1), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and angiopoietin-2 and its soluble receptor (soluble tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 2 sTie-2) in 1806 Framingham Heart Study participants (mean age 44.9 yr, 44.5% women). In multivariable models, we observed positive associations between several fat compartments and VEGF and HGF levels. The magnitude of the associations were similar for VAT, SAT, and periaortic fat. We observed effect modification by sex. A stronger association was observed between VAT and HGF levels in women; higher VAT and periaortic fat were jointly associated with higher HGF concentrations (P = 0.02 and P = 0.051, respectively). In women within the highest tertile of VAT, HGF levels significantly increased with higher periaortic fat (P = 0.0005). Conclusions: In our large community-based sample, greater adiposity was associated with higher circulating growth factor levels in general. Additional studies are warranted to confirm the stronger association of VAT and periaortic fat with HGF in women and to examine its potential contribution to the sex-related differences in cardiometabolic risk. PMID:22170711

  3. The rapid determination of fat and protein content in fresh raw milk using the laser light scattering technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Qi; Zhi Ling, Hou; Jian Long, Tian; Zhu, Yu

    2006-08-01

    The aim was to develop a simple and rapid method for determination of fat and protein content in milk. Based on the laser light scattering theory, the ratio of the scattered light (at 90±0.05° scattering angles) intensity to the transmitted light intensity, which is called scattered-transmitted-ratio method, is adopted as the optical parameter representing the milk fat content and the protein content. In this way, the influence of the fluctuation of the power of the light source is eliminated and the accuracy of determination is improved accordingly. The system we use is real-time and can satisfy the challenging requirements of dairy farming. Results of this study indicate the feasibility of using this technology for fresh milk fat and protein analysis. The fat contents and protein contents of 50 milk samples determined by this method were consistent with the values obtained by the reference methods based on Rose-Gottlieb method and Kjeldahl determination of N method. In this paper, the operating principle of the instrument is introduced and the influence of the environmental conditions, such as the homogenization pressure and homogenization temperature, etc. on the result of the test is analyzed. Through data analysis, the concrete schemes for testing the fat using the curve fitting and testing the protein using the surface fitting technique are determined. Finally, the difference from the reference values of the test is discussed.

  4. Genome-Wide Association of Body Fat Distribution in African Ancestry Populations Suggests New Loci

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Leslie; Demerath, Ellen W.; Palmas, Walter; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Ellis, Jaclyn C.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Liu, Simin; Papanicolaou, George J.; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Xue, Luting; Griffin, Paula J.; Nalls, Michael A.; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Liu, Jiankang; Li, Guo; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A.; Chen, Wei-Min; Chen, Fang; Henderson, Brian E.; Millikan, Robert C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Strom, Sara S.; Guo, Xiuqing; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Sun, Yan V.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Yanek, Lisa R.; Shriner, Daniel; Haritunians, Talin; Rotter, Jerome I.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Smith, Megan; Rosenberg, Lynn; Mychaleckyj, Josyf; Nayak, Uma; Spruill, Ida; Garvey, W. Timothy; Pettaway, Curtis; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V.; Britton, Angela F.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Ding, Jingzhong; Lohman, Kurt; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Zhao, Wei; Peyser, Patricia A.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Kabagambe, Edmond; Broeckel, Ulrich; Chen, Guanjie; Zhou, Jie; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Rampersaud, Evadnie; Psaty, Bruce; Kooperberg, Charles; Manson, JoAnn E.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M.; Johnson, Karen C.; Sucheston, Lara; Ordovas, Jose M.; Palmer, Julie R.; Haiman, Christopher A.; McKnight, Barbara; Howard, Barbara V.; Becker, Diane M.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Liu, Yongmei; Allison, Matthew A.; Grant, Struan F. A.; Burke, Gregory L.; Patel, Sanjay R.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Evans, Michele K.; Taylor, Herman; Sale, Michele M.; Howard, Virginia; Carlson, Christopher S.; Rotimi, Charles N.; Cushman, Mary; Harris, Tamara B.; Reiner, Alexander P.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; North, Kari E.; Fox, Caroline S.

    2013-01-01

    Central obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio (WHR), is a marker of body fat distribution. Although obesity disproportionately affects minority populations, few studies have conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of fat distribution among those of predominantly African ancestry (AA). We performed GWAS of WC and WHR, adjusted and unadjusted for BMI, in up to 33,591 and 27,350 AA individuals, respectively. We identified loci associated with fat distribution in AA individuals using meta-analyses of GWA results for WC and WHR (stage 1). Overall, 25 SNPs with single genomic control (GC)-corrected p-values<5.0×10−6 were followed-up (stage 2) in AA with WC and with WHR. Additionally, we interrogated genomic regions of previously identified European ancestry (EA) WHR loci among AA. In joint analysis of association results including both Stage 1 and 2 cohorts, 2 SNPs demonstrated association, rs2075064 at LHX2, p = 2.24×10−8 for WC-adjusted-for-BMI, and rs6931262 at RREB1, p = 2.48×10−8 for WHR-adjusted-for-BMI. However, neither signal was genome-wide significant after double GC-correction (LHX2: p = 6.5×10−8; RREB1: p = 5.7×10−8). Six of fourteen previously reported loci for waist in EA populations were significant (p<0.05 divided by the number of independent SNPs within the region) in AA studied here (TBX15-WARS2, GRB14, ADAMTS9, LY86, RSPO3, ITPR2-SSPN). Further, we observed associations with metabolic traits: rs13389219 at GRB14 associated with HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting insulin, and rs13060013 at ADAMTS9 with HDL-cholesterol and fasting insulin. Finally, we observed nominal evidence for sexual dimorphism, with stronger results in AA women at the GRB14 locus (p for interaction = 0.02). In conclusion, we identified two suggestive loci associated with fat distribution in AA populations in addition to confirming 6 loci previously identified in populations of EA. These findings reinforce

  5. Socializing Young Readers: A Content Analysis of Body Size Images in Caldecott Medal Winners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedwick, Linda; Latham, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have examined gender issues in children's literature, but a review of the literature reveals that few studies have examined the instances of fatness in the images. Studying the fat representation in the images of children's literature is important because exposure to a variety of body types may slow the rate of children's body…

  6. PLTP activity in premenopausal women. Relationship with lipoprotein lipase, HDL, LDL, body fat, and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, S J; Carr, M C; Hokanson, J E; Brunzell, J D; Albers, J J

    2000-02-01

    Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is thought to play a major role in the facilitated transfer of phospholipids between lipoproteins and in the modulation of high density lipoprotein (HDL) particle size and composition. However, little has been reported concerning the relationships of PLTP with plasma lipoprotein parameters, lipolytic enzymes, body fat distribution, insulin, and glucose in normolipidemic individuals, particularly females. In the present study, 50 normolipidemic healthy premenopausal females were investigated. The relationships between the plasma PLTP activity and selected variables were assessed. PLTP activity was significantly and positively correlated with low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (r(s) = 0.53), apoB (r(s) = 0.44), glucose (r(s) = 0.40), HDL cholesterol (r(s) = 0.38), HDL(3) cholesterol (r(s) = 0.37), lipoprotein lipase activity (r(s) = 0.36), insulin (r(s) = 0.33), subcutaneous abdominal fat (r(s) = 0.36), intra-abdominal fat (r(s) = 0.29), and body mass index (r(s) = 0.29). HDL(2) cholesterol, triglyceride, and hepatic lipase were not significantly related to PLTP activity. As HDL(2) can be decreased by hepatic lipase and hepatic lipase is increased in obesity with increasing intra-abdominal fat, the participants were divided into sub-groups of non-obese (n = 35) and obese (n = 15) individuals and the correlation of PLTP with HDL(2) cholesterol was re-examined. In the non-obese subjects, HDL(2) cholesterol was found to be significantly and positively related to PLTP activity (r(s) = 0.44). Adjustment of the HDL(2) values for the effect of hepatic lipase activity resulted in a significant positive correlation between PLTP and HDL(2) (r(s) = 0.41), indicating that the strength of the relationship between PLTP activity and HDL(2) can be reduced by the opposing effect of hepatic lipase on HDL(2) concentrations. We conclude that PLTP-facilitated lipid transfer activity is related to HDL and LDL metabolism, as well as

  7. Body fat estimations by electrical impedance and infra-red interactance.

    PubMed

    Brodie, D A; Eston, R G

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine body fat estimation using three methods of electrical impedance (the BIA-103 Body Composition Analyser--RJL Systems, Detroit; the BMR 2000 Body Composition Analyzer--Berkeley Medical Research, San Leandro; the BC300 Body Composition Analyzer--Spacelabs, Dallas) and an infra-red interactance method (Futrex 5000 Analyzer--Futrex Inc. Gaithersburg) as an alternative to hydrodensitometry. Five different groups were examined using at least one of the electrical systems and in all cases utilising hydrodensitometry as the criterion method. The results produced highly significant correlations between all methods, but caution is recommended due to the limited common variance in some cases. The individual electrical methods differed from hydrodensitometry by a maximum of 1.1% in obese women, by 21.6% in athletic adults, by 6.2% in the slightly obese group, by 8.1% in normal women and by 56.0% in normal children. Significant mean differences between one of the impedance methods and hydrodensitometry were only noted in two of the groups tested. This suggests, allowing for the limitations of hydrodensitometry itself, that the other three electrical methods appear to be reasonably valid alternatives to underwater weighing, especially for field work of an epidemiological nature. PMID:1521946

  8. THE STRUCTURE AND FORMATION OF PROTEIN GRANULES IN THE FAT BODY OF AN INSECT.

    PubMed

    Locke, M; Collins, J V

    1965-09-01

    In the larva of the butterfly Calpodes ethlius, the fat body begins to store protein in the form of granules at about 30 to 35 hours before pupation, at a time when the endocuticle is being resorbed. At least two sorts of granule can be distinguished. The first granules to arise are those within vesicles of the Golgi complex. These may increase in size by incorporating material from microvesicles at their surface and by coalescence with one another. Later, at about 10 hours before pupation, another sort of granule arises by the isolation of regions of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) within paired membranes derived from Golgi vesicles. Several of these ER isolation bodies coalesce, with fusion of their outer isolating membranes. The ribosomes and membranes may then disappear and the granules become indistinguishable from the protein granules formed from Golgi vesicles, or the ribosomes may remain and be embedded in dense crystalline protein, forming a storage body for both protein and RNA. Mitochondria are isolated within paired membranes in the same way as regions of the ER. The isolated mitochondria also coalesce in a similar manner. When the inner membranes are lost, the structure of a group of isolation bodies is indistinguishable from that of a cytolysome. Isolation within paired membranes, as described here, may be of general importance in segregating regions of massive lysis or massive sequestration. PMID:19866685

  9. Increased whole-body adiposity without a concomitant increase in liver fat is not associated with augmented metabolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Magkos, Faidon; Fabbrini, Elisa; Mohammed, B Selma; Patterson, Bruce W; Klein, Samuel

    2010-08-01

    Aim of this study was to determine whether an increase in adiposity, without a concomitant increase in intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content, is associated with a deterioration in metabolic function. To this end, multiorgan insulin sensitivity, assessed by using a two-stage hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp procedure in conjunction with stable isotopically labeled tracer infusion, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) kinetics, assessed by using stable isotopically labeled tracer infusion and mathematical modeling, were determined in 10 subjects with class I obesity (BMI: 31.6 +/- 0.3 kg/m(2); 37 +/- 2% body fat; visceral adipose tissue (VAT): 1,225 +/- 144 cm(3)) and 10 subjects with class III obesity (BMI: 41.5 +/- 0.5 kg/m(2); 43 +/- 2% body fat; VAT: 2,121 +/- 378 cm(3)), matched on age, sex, and IHTG content (14 +/- 4 and 14 +/- 3%, respectively). No differences between class I and class III obese groups were detected in insulin-mediated suppression of palmitate (67 +/- 3 and 65 +/- 3%, respectively; P = 0.635) and glucose (67 +/- 3 and 73 +/- 5%, respectively; P = 0.348) rates of appearance in plasma, and the insulin-mediated increase in glucose disposal (218 +/- 18 and 193 +/- 30%, respectively; P = 0.489). In addition, no differences between class I and class III obese groups were detected in secretion rates of VLDL-triglyceride (6.5 +/- 1.0 and 6.0 +/- 1.4 micromol/l x min, respectively; P = 0.787) and VLDL-apolipoprotein B-100 (0.40 +/- 0.05 and 0.41 +/- 0.04 nmol/l x min, respectively; P = 0.866), and plasma clearance rates of VLDL-triglyceride (31 (16-59) and 29 (18-46) ml/min, respectively; P = 0.888) and VLDL-apolipoprotein B-100 (15 (11-19) and 17 (11-25) ml/min, respectively; P = 0.608). We conclude that increased adiposity without a concomitant increase in IHTG content does not cause additional abnormalities in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and hepatic insulin sensitivity, or VLDL metabolism. PMID:20395947

  10. Effect of an environmental school-based obesity prevention program on changes in body fat and body weight: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Donald A; Champagne, Catherine M; Harsha, David W; Han, Hongmei; Martin, Corby K; Newton, Robert L; Sothern, Melinda S; Stewart, Tiffany M; Webber, Larry S; Ryan, Donna H

    2012-08-01

    This study tested the efficacy of two school-based programs for prevention of body weight/fat gain in comparison to a control group, in all participants and in overweight children. The Louisiana (LA) Health study utilized a longitudinal, cluster randomized three-arm controlled design, with 28 months of follow-up. Children (N = 2,060; mean age = 10.5 years, SD = 1.2) from rural communities in grades 4-6 participated in the study. Seventeen school clusters (mean = 123 children/cluster) were randomly assigned to one of three prevention arms: (i) primary prevention (PP), an environmental modification (EM) program, (ii) primary + secondary prevention (PP+SP), the environmental program with an added classroom and internet education component, or (iii) control (C). Primary outcomes were changes in percent body fat and BMI z scores. Secondary outcomes were changes in behaviors related to energy balance. Comparisons of PP, PP+SP, and C on changes in body fat and BMI z scores found no differences. PP and PP+SP study arms were combined to create an EM arm. Relative to C, EM decreased body fat for boys (-1.7 ± 0.38% vs. -0.14 ± 0.69%) and attenuated fat gain for girls (2.9 ± 0.22% vs. 3.93 ± 0.37%), but standardized effect sizes were relatively small (<0.30). In conclusion, this school-based EM programs had modest beneficial effects on changes in percent body fat. Addition of a classroom/internet program to the environmental program did not enhance weight/fat gain prevention, but did impact physical activity and social support in overweight children. PMID:22402733

  11. Comparison of DEXA and QMR for Assessing Fat and Lean Body Mass in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Colette N.; Kauffman, Tricia G.; Cooney, Paula T.; Ramseur, Keshia R.; Brown, Lynda M.

    2011-01-01

    There are several techniques used to measure body composition in experimental models including dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR). DEXA/QMR data have been compared in mice, but have not been compared previously in rats. The goal of this study was to compare DEXA and QMR data in rats. We used rats that varied by sex, diet, and age, in addition we compared dissected samples containing subcutaneous (pelt) or visceral fat (carcass). The data means were compared by focusing on the differences between DEXA/QMR data using a series of scatter plots without assuming that either method is more accurate as suggested by Bland and Altman. DEXA/QMR data did not agree sufficiently in carcass or pelt FM or in pelt LBM. The variation observed within these groups suggests that DEXA and QMR measurements are not comparable. Carcass LBM in young rats did yield comparable data once the data for middle-aged rats was removed. The variation in our data may be a result of different direct and indirect measures that DEXA and QMR technologies use to quantify FM and LBM. DEXA measures FM and estimates fat-free mass. In contrast, QMR uses separate equations of magnetic resonance to measure FM, LBM, total body water and free water. We found that QMR overestimated body mass in our middle-aged rats, and this increased the variation between methods. Our goal was to evaluate the precision of DEXA/QMR data in rats to determine if they agree sufficiently to allow direct comparison of data between methods. However DEXA and QMR did not yield the same estimates of FM or LBM for the majority of our samples. PMID:21167190

  12. Percent body fat equations for a diverse population, aged 17 to 30: the TIGER study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research from our lab showed that the Jackson-Pollock generalized equations gave biased percent fat (%fat) estimates of men and women. The likely sources are increased %fat and the diversity of contemporary subjects. Our goal was to develop anthropometric %fat equations valid for a diverse populat...

  13. The effect of mannan oligosaccharide supplementation on body weight gain and fat accrual in C57Bl/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Daniel L; Nagy, Tim R; Wilson, Landon S; Dong, Shengli; Barnes, Stephen; Allison, David B

    2010-05-01

    The prevalence of obesity in industrialized societies has become markedly elevated. In contrast, model organism research shows that reducing caloric intake below ad libitum levels provides many health and longevity benefits. Despite these benefits, few people are willing and able to reduce caloric intake over prolonged periods. Prior research suggests that mannooligosaccharide (MOS or mannan) supplementation can increase lifespan of some livestock and in rodents can reduce visceral fat without reducing caloric intake. Hence, we tested the effect of MOS supplementation as a possible calorie restriction (CR) mimetic (CRM) in mice. C57Bl/6J male mice were fed a high-fat "western" type diet with or without 1% MOS (by weight) supplementation (n = 24/group) from 8 to 20 weeks of age. Animals were housed individually and provided 95% of ad libitum food intake throughout the study. Body weight was measured weekly and body composition (lean and fat mass) measured noninvasively every 3 weeks. Individual fat depot weights were acquired by dissection at study completion. Supplementation of a high-fat diet with 1% MOS tended to reduce total food intake (mean +/- s.d.; control (CON): 293.69 +/- 10.53 g, MOS: 288.10 +/- 11.82 g; P = 0.09) during the study. Moreover, MOS supplementation had no significant effect on final body weight (CON: 25.21 +/- 2.31 g, MOS: 25.28 +/- 1.49 g; P = 0.91), total fat (CON: 4.72 +/- 0.90 g, MOS: 4.82 +/- 0.83 g; P = 0.69), or visceral fat (CON: 1.048 +/- 0.276 g, MOS: 1.004 +/- 0.247 g; P = 0.57). Contrary to previous research, MOS supplementation had no discernable effect on body weight gain or composition during this 12-week study, challenging the potential use of MOS as a CRM or body composition enhancer. PMID:19798073

  14. Fasted Exercise and Increased Dietary Protein Reduces Body Fat and Improves Strength in Jockeys.

    PubMed

    Wilson, G; Pritchard, P P; Papageorgiou, C; Phillips, S; Kumar, P; Langan-Evans, C; Routledge, H; Owens, D J; Morton, J P; Close, G L

    2015-11-01

    The present study assessed the effects of a diet and exercise intervention in jockeys on body composition, metabolism, bone and mental health. 10 jockeys followed an individually prescribed 6-wk diet (Carbohydrate=2.5-3.5 g/kg, Protein=2.5 g/kg, Fat=1.0 g/kg). Body mass (59.2±4.6 vs. 57.6±4.5 kg), fat mass (7.5±3.5 vs. 6.2±2.6) and body fat (13.1±5.9 vs. 11.5±4.9%) all decreased (P<0.05) from pre to post-intervention whilst lean mass (47.1±5.3 vs. 47.0±5.5 kg) was maintained (P=0.80). RMR (1703±329 vs. 1975±313 kcal.d(-1)), VO2max (3.8±0.8 vs. 4.1±0.7 L/min(- 1)) chest strength (65±11 vs. 71±13 kg), leg strength (160±28 vs. 175±29 kg) and jumping height (40±6 vs. 48±5 cm) significantly increased (P<0.05). Bone health (DXA) did not change (P>0.05) at hip (-1.04±1.29 vs. - 0.76±0.71) or lumbar sites (-1.32±0.76 vs. - 1.31±0.77). Psychometrics (GHQ-12 and EAT-26) remained unchanged (10.3±4.3 vs. 8.9±3.8 and 14.8±9.6 vs. 11.0±5.6, P>0.05, respectively). This approach represents a marked difference from jockeys' habitual weight-making that largely involves dehydration and food deprivation. PMID:26212241

  15. Follicle-stimulating hormone increases the intramuscular fat content and expression of lipid biosynthesis genes in chicken breast muscle*

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiao-yan; Li, Ying-ying; Liu, Ran-ran; Zhao, Gui-ping; Zheng, Mai-qing; Li, Qing-he; Wen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) is a crucial factor in the quality of chicken meat. The genetic basis underlying it is complex. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), well-known as an effector in reproductive tissues, was recently discovered to stimulate abdominal fat accumulation in chicken. The effect of FSH on IMF accumulation and the underlying molecular regulatory mechanisms controlling both IMF and abdominal fat deposition in vivo are largely unknown. In this study, two groups of chickens were treated with chicken FSH or a placebo. The lipid content of breast muscle, abdominal fat volume, and serum concentrations of FSH were examined. Related genes implicated in breast muscle and abdominal fat accumulation were also investigated. Compared to the control group, the triglyceride (TG) content of breast muscle and the percentage of abdominal fat in FSH-treated chickens were significantly increased by 64.9% and 56.5% (P<0.01), respectively. The FSH content in the serum of FSH-treated chickens was 2.1 times than that of control chickens (P<0.01). Results from quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays showed that relative expression levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2), adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) were significantly upregulated in breast muscle following FSH treatment (P<0.01). Treatment with FSH also significantly increased relative expression levels of FAS, LPL, DGAT2, A-FABP, and PPARγ in abdominal fat tissue (P<0.05). The results of principal component analysis (PCA) for gene expression (breast muscle and abdominal fat) showed that the control and FSH treatment groups were well separated, which indicated the reliability of the data. This study demonstrates that FSH plays an important role in IMF accumulation in female chickens, which likely involves the regulation of biosynthesis genes related to lipid

  16. [Morphometric evaluation of relative adipose tissue content in the human body].

    PubMed

    Sheikh-Zade, Yu R

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the mathematical models of the human body composition revealed main shortcomings of body mass index (A. Quetelet, 1832). This allowed to offer more accurate body mass index (BMI = M/H3), body build index [BBI = (BMI)1/2] and body fatness index (BFI = M/HC2), where (M), (H) and (C) signified the mass, height and wrist circumference correspondingly. PMID:23659047

  17. Effect of High Fat Diets on Body Mass, Oleylethanolamide Plasma Levels and Oxytocin Expression in Growing Rats.

    PubMed

    Sospedra, Isabel; Moral, Raquel; Escrich, Raquel; Solanas, Montserrat; Vela, Elena; Escrich, Eduard

    2015-06-01

    Obesity prevalence in developed countries has promoted the need to identify the mechanisms involved in control of feeding and energy balance. We have tested the hypothesis that different fats present in diet composition may contribute in body weight gain and body indexes by regulation of oxytocin gene (oxt) expression in hypothalamus and Oleylethanolamide (OEA) levels in plasma. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed two high fat diets, based on corn (HCO) and extra virgin olive oil (HOO) and results were compared to a low fat diet (LF). LC-MS/MS analysis showed an increasing trend of OEA plasma levels in HOO group, although no significant differences were found. However, body weight gain of LF and HOO were similar and significantly lower than HCO. HCO rats also had higher Lee index than HOO. Rats fed HOO diet showed higher levels of hypothalamic oxt mRNA expression, which could indicate that oxytocin may be modulated by dietary lipids. PMID:25976631

  18. In vitro propagation of Nosema locustae using fat body cell line derived from Mythimna convecta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Khurad, A M; Raina, S K; Pandharipande, T N

    1991-01-01

    Nosema locustae, a microsporidian parasite of locusts and grasshoppers, was successfully propagated in a fat body cell line from Mythimna convecta (BPMNU-MyCo-1). The fat body cells were grown in MGM-448 medium supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum and 3% Bombyx mori serum at 25 degrees C. Cultures were inoculated with Nosema spores and agitated for 2 min. Infection appeared 3 days post-inoculation and by 7th day, some cells were filled with spores. At the 15th day post-inoculation, 32% of the fat body cells were infected. After isolation, the spore yield ranged from 1.4 x 10(6) spores/ml. Infected cells were subcultured and by the 4th passage spore production decreased. Harvested spores were found infectious to Locusta migratoria. PMID:1818221

  19. Fats and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Fats and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Fats and ... an important part of a healthy diet. About Fat Fats are nutrients in food that the body ...

  20. Body Composition and Epicardial Fat in Type 2 Diabetes Patients Following Insulin Detemir Versus Insulin Glargine Initiation.

    PubMed

    Elisha, B; Azar, M; Taleb, N; Bernard, S; Iacobellis, G; Rabasa-Lhoret, R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare body composition and epicardial fat thickness changes in insulin-naïve inadequately controlled patients with type 2 diabetes following basal insulin initiation with detemir vs. glargine. Six-month, open-label, interventional randomized pilot study was conducted. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and echocardiography were used to estimate the body composition and epicardial fat thickness respectively. Thirty-six patients in the detemir group and 20 in the glargine group completed the study. Study groups baseline characteristics were comparable. At 6 months, for similar glycemic control, those on detemir significantly gained less total weight (0.6±2.5 vs. 4.2±4.1 kg, p=0.004), total fat mass (0.9±2.2 vs. 2.9±2.4 kg, p=0.02), and truncal fat mass (0.8±1.5 vs. 2.1±1.7 kg, p=0.02), with a loss in truncal lean mass (- 0.8±1.9 kg vs. 0.3±1.7 kg; p=0.02). EFT significantly decreased from baseline in both group (detemir - 1.7±0.52-mm, glargine - 1.1±1.6-mm; p<0.05, without significant difference inter-groups). Within the detemir group, epicardial fat thickness change correlated with truncal fat and total fat mass changes (r=0.65, p=0.06 and r=0.60, p=0.07). In conclusion, detemir resulted in less fat mass gain, a trend for a more pronounced epicardial fat thickness reduction when compared with glargine. PMID:26340704

  1. Polyphenolic extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa reduces body fat by inhibiting hepatic lipogenesis and preadipocyte adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kao, Erl-Shyh; Yang, Mon-Yuan; Hung, Chia-Hung; Huang, Chien-Ning; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Diets high in fat lead to excess lipid accumulation in adipose tissue, which is a crucial factor in the development of obesity, hepatitis, and hyperlipidemia. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (HSE) in vivo. Hamsters fed a high-fat diet (HFD) develop symptoms of obesity, which were determined based on body weight changes and changes in plasma and serum triglycerides, free fatty acid concentrations, total cholesterol levels, LDL-C levels, HDL-C levels, and adipocyte tissue weight. HFD-fed hamsters were used to investigate the effects of HSE on symptoms of obesity such as adipogenesis and fatty liver, loss of blood glucose regulation, and serum ion imbalance. Interestingly, HSE treatment effectively reduced the effects of the HFD in hamsters in a dose-dependent manner. Further, after inducing maturation of preadipocytes, Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenolic extract (HPE) was shown to suppress the adipogenesis of adipocytes. However, HPE does not affect the viability of preadipocytes. Therefore, both HSE and HPE are effective and viable treatment strategies for preventing the development and treating the symptoms of obesity. PMID:26489044

  2. Ethnic and Sex Differences in Visceral, Subcutaneous, and Total Body Fat in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, A. E.; Broyles, S. T.; Gupta, A. K.; Katzmarzyk, P. T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study investigated ethnic and sex differences in the distribution of fat during childhood and adolescence. Design and Methods A cross-sectional sample (n=382), aged 5 to 18 years, included African American males (n=84), White males (n=96), African American females (n=118), and White females (n=84). Measures for total body fat (TBF) mass and abdominal adipose tissue (total volume and L4–L5 cross-sectional area) for both subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) depots were assessed by DXA and MRI, respectively. ANCOVAs were used to determine ethnic and sex differences in TBF (adjusted for age) and ethnic and sex differences in SAT and VAT (adjusted for both age and TBF). Results Age-adjusted TBF was greater in African Americans (p=0.017) and females (p<0.0001) compared to Whites and males, respectively. In age- and TBF-adjusted ANCOVAs, no differences were found in the SAT. The VAT volume was, however, greater in Whites (p<0.0001) and males (p<0.0001) compared to African Americans and females, respectively. Similar patterns were observed in SAT and VAT area at L4–L5. Conclusions The demonstrated ethnic and sex differences are important confounders in the prevalence of obesity and in the assignment of disease risk in children and adolescents. PMID:23670982

  3. Fat and lean BMI reference curves in children and adolescents and their utility in identifying excess adiposity compared with BMI and percentage body fat1234

    PubMed Central

    Weber, David R; Moore, Reneé H; Leonard, Mary B

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (%BF) are widely used to assess adiposity. These indexes fail to account for independent contributions of fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM) to body weight, which vary according to age, sex, pubertal status, and population ancestry in the pediatric population. Objective: The objective was to develop pediatric reference curves for fat mass index (FMI) and lean body mass index (LBMI) and evaluate the effects of population ancestry and LBM on measures of excess adiposity (BMI, %BF, and FMI). Design: Sex-specific FMI and LBMI reference curves relative to age for children and adolescents aged 8–20 y were generated from cross-sectional body-composition data measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry from NHANES. Results: The mean LBMI z score was higher in blacks (males: 0.26; females: 0.45) than in whites (males: −0.07; females: −0.09) and Mexican Americans (males: 0.05; females: −0.09). The positive predictive value of overweight by BMI to identify excess adiposity defined by FMI was lower in blacks (males: 35.9%; females: 30.3%) than in whites (males: 65.4%; females: 52.2%) and Mexican Americans (males: 73.3%; females: 68.3%). Participants classified as having excess adiposity by FMI but normal adiposity by %BF had significantly higher BMI, LBMI, and height z scores than did those classified as having excess adiposity by %BF but normal adiposity by FMI. Conclusions: Relative to FMI, the prevalence of excess adiposity is overestimated by BMI in blacks and underestimated by %BF in individuals with high LBM. The use of FMI and LBMI improves on the use of %BF and BMI by allowing for the independent assessment of FM and LBM. PMID:23697708

  4. Changes in Moisture, Protein, and Fat Content of Fish and Rice Flour Coextrudates during Single-Screw Extrusion Cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Sukumar Bandyopadhyay; A. S. Bawa

    2013-02-01

    Changes in proximate composition of fish and rice flour coextrudates like moisture, protein, and fat content were studied with respect to extrusion process v ariables like barrel temperature, x1 (100–200 degrees C); screw speed, x2 (70–110 rpm); fish content of the feed, x3 (5–45 percent); and feed moisture content, x4 (20–60 percent). Experiments were conducted at five levels of the process variables based on rotatable experimental design. Response surface models (RSM) were developed that adequately described the changes in moisture, protein, and fat content of the extrudates based on the coeff icient of determination (R2) values of 0.95, 0.99, and 0.94. ANOVA analysis indicated that extrudate moisture content was influenced by x4, protein content by x1 and x3, and fat content by x3 and x4 at P < 0.001. Trends based on response surf ace plots indicated that the x1 of about 200 degrees C, x2 of about 90 rpm, x3 of about 25%, and x4 of about 20% minimized the moisture in the extrudates. Protein content was maximized at x1 of 100 degrees C, x2 > 80 rpm, x3 of about 45 percent, and x4 > 50 percent, and fat content was minimized at x1 of about 200 degrees C, x2 of about 85–95 rpm, x3 < 15 percent, and x4 of about >50 percent. Optimized process variables based on a genetic algorithm (GA) for minimum moisture and fat content and maximum protein content were x1 = 199.86, x2 = 109.86, x3 = 32.45, x4 = 20.03; x1 = 199.71, x2 = 90.09, x3 = 15.27, x4 = 58.47; and x1 = 102.97, x2 = 107.67, x3 = 44.56, x4 = 59.54. The predicted values were 17.52 percent, 0.57 percent, and 46.65 percent. Based on the RSM and GA analy sis, extrudate moisture and protein content was influenced by x1, x3, and x4 and fat content by x2, x3, and x4.

  5. Effects of Synthetic Diets Enriched in Specific Nutrients on Drosophila Development, Body Fat, and Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Tânia

    2016-01-01

    Gene-diet interactions play a crucial but poorly understood role in susceptibility to obesity. Accordingly, the development of genetically tractable model systems to study the influence of diets in obesity-prone genetic backgrounds is a focus of current research. Here I present a modified synthetic Drosophila diet optimized for timely larval development, a stage dedicated to energy storage. Specifically increasing the levels of individual macronutrients–carbohydrate, lipid, or protein–resulted in markedly different organismal effects. A high-carbohydrate diet adversely affected the timing of development, size, early lifespan and body fat. Strikingly, quadrupling the amount of dietary lipids had none of these effects. Diets rich in protein appeared to be the most beneficial, as larvae developed faster, with no change in size, into long-lived adults. I believe this synthetic diet will significantly facilitate the study of gene-diet interactions in organismal energy balance. PMID:26741692

  6. Effects of Synthetic Diets Enriched in Specific Nutrients on Drosophila Development, Body Fat, and Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Reis, Tânia

    2016-01-01

    Gene-diet interactions play a crucial but poorly understood role in susceptibility to obesity. Accordingly, the development of genetically tractable model systems to study the influence of diets in obesity-prone genetic backgrounds is a focus of current research. Here I present a modified synthetic Drosophila diet optimized for timely larval development, a stage dedicated to energy storage. Specifically increasing the levels of individual macronutrients-carbohydrate, lipid, or protein-resulted in markedly different organismal effects. A high-carbohydrate diet adversely affected the timing of development, size, early lifespan and body fat. Strikingly, quadrupling the amount of dietary lipids had none of these effects. Diets rich in protein appeared to be the most beneficial, as larvae developed faster, with no change in size, into long-lived adults. I believe this synthetic diet will significantly facilitate the study of gene-diet interactions in organismal energy balance. PMID:26741692

  7. Facets of impulsivity interactively predict body fat and binge eating in young women.

    PubMed

    Meule, Adrian; Platte, Petra

    2015-04-01

    Impulsivity has been positively linked to overeating and obesity, but findings are inconsistent. Studies using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) show that measures of overeating appear to be most consistently associated with scores on the subscale attentional impulsivity in both non-clinical and clinical samples. Additionally, individuals with binge-eating behaviors may have elevated scores on the subscale motor impulsivity. In the current study, young women (N = 133) completed the short form of the BIS (BIS-15), the Eating Disorder Examination - Questionnaire, and height, weight and body composition were measured. Regression analyses showed that attentional and motor impulsivity positively predicted binge eating and general eating pathology, while non-planning impulsivity negatively predicted these variables. Moreover, attentional and motor impulsivity interactively predicted percent body fat, and the number of subjective and objective binge episodes. Results show that only specific aspects of trait impulsivity (attentional and motor impulsivity) are positively associated with body mass and binge eating. Non-planning impulsivity appears to be unrelated or even inversely related to those variables, at least in female students. Elevated levels of attentional impulsivity in conjunction with high motor impulsivity may be a risk factor for overweight and clinically relevant binge eating. PMID:25582417

  8. Long-term vegetarians have low oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Cho, Sang Woon

    2012-01-01

    Excessive oxidative stress and abnormal blood lipids may cause chronic diseases. This risk can be reduced by consuming an antioxidant- and fiber-rich vegetarian diet. We compared biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and lipid profiles of sex- and age-matched long-term vegetarians and omnivores in Korea. Forty-five vegetarians (23 men and 22 women; mean age, 49.5 ± 5.3 years), who had maintained a vegetarian diet for a minimum of 15 years, and 30 omnivores (15 men and 15 women; mean age, 48.9 ± 3.6 years) participated in this study. Their 1-day, 24-h recall, and 2-day dietary records were analyzed. Oxidative stress was measured by the levels of diacron reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM). Antioxidant status was determined by the biological antioxidant potential (BAP) and levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. We observed that vegetarians had a significantly lower body fat percentage (21.6 ± 6.4%) than that of omnivores (25.4 ± 4.6%; P < 0.004). d-ROM levels were significantly lower in vegetarians than those in omnivores (331.82 ± 77.96 and 375.80 ± 67.26 Carratelli units; P < 0.011). Additionally, total cholesterol levels in the vegetarians and omnivores were 173.73 ± 31.42 mg/dL and 193.17 ± 37.89 mg/dL, respectively (P < 0.018). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 101.36 ± 23.57 mg/dL and 120.60 ± 34.62 mg/dL (P < 0.005) in the vegetarians and omnivores, respectively, indicating that vegetarians had significantly lower lipid levels. Thus, oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels were lower in long-term vegetarians than those in omnivores. PMID:22586505

  9. California Hass Avocado: Profiling of Carotenoids, tocopherol, fatty acid, and fat content during maturation and from different growing areas

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qing-Yi; Zhang, Yanjun; Wang, Yue; Wang, David; Lee, Ru-po; Gao, Kun; Byrns, Russell; Heber, David

    2009-01-01

    The California Hass avocado (Persea Americana) is an example of a domesticated berry fruit that matures on the tree during its growing season but ripens only after being harvested. Avocados are typically harvested multiple times during the growing season in California. Previous research has demonstrated potential health benefits of avocados and extracts of avocado against inflammation and cancer cell growth, but seasonal variations in the phytochemical profile of the fruits being studied may affect the results obtained in future research. Therefore in the present study, avocados were harvested in January, April, July and September 2008 from four different growing locations in California (San Luis Obispo, Ventura, Riverside and San Diego), and analyzed fortotal fat content, fatty acid profile, carotenoids and vitamin E. A significant increase in total carotenoid and fat content of avocados from all regions was noted as the season progressed from January to September. Four carotenoids not previously described in the avocado were quantified. The total content of carotenoids was highly correlated with total fat content (r=0.99, p<0.001) demonstrating a remarkable degree of constancy of carotenoid intake per gram of fat content in the California Hass avocado.. Future clinical research on the health benefits of the avocado should specify the time of harvest, degree of ripening, growing area and the total phytochemical profile of the fruit or extract being studied. These steps will enable researchers to account for potential nutrient-nutrient interactions that might affect the research outcomes. PMID:19813713

  10. California Hass avocado: profiling of carotenoids, tocopherol, fatty acid, and fat content during maturation and from different growing areas.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qing-Yi; Zhang, Yanjun; Wang, Yue; Wang, David; Lee, Ru-po; Gao, Kun; Byrns, Russell; Heber, David

    2009-11-11

    The California Hass avocado ( Persea americana ) is an example of a domesticated berry fruit that matures on the tree during its growing season but ripens only after being harvested. Avocados are typically harvested multiple times during the growing season in California. Previous research has demonstrated potential health benefits of avocados and extracts of avocado against inflammation and cancer cell growth, but seasonal variations in the phytochemical profile of the fruits being studied may affect the results obtained in future research. Therefore, in the present study, avocados were harvested in January, April, July, and September, 2008, from four different growing locations in California (San Luis Obispo, Ventura, Riverside, and San Diego) and analyzed for total fat content, fatty acid profile, carotenoids, and vitamin E. A significant increase in total carotenoid and fat content of avocados from all regions was noted as the season progressed from January to September. Four carotenoids not previously described in the avocado were quantified. The total content of carotenoids was highly correlated with the total fat content (r = 0.99, p < 0.001) demonstrating a remarkable degree of constancy of carotenoid intake per gram of fat content in the California Hass avocado. Future clinical research on the health benefits of the avocado should specify the time of harvest, degree of ripening, growing area, and the total phytochemical profile of the fruit or extract being studied. These steps will enable researchers to account for potential nutrient-nutrient interactions that might affect the research outcomes. PMID:19813713

  11. Differing associations of BMI and body fat with asthma and lung function in children

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ran; Custovic, Adnan; Simpson, Angela; Belgrave, Danielle C; Lowe, Lesley A; Murray, Clare S

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Current evidence suggests that in children there is a significant, albeit weak, association between asthma and obesity. Studies generally use body mass index (BMI) in evaluating body adiposity, but there are limitations to its use. Method Children from a population-based study attending follow-up (age 11 years) were weighed, measured and had percent body (PBF) and truncal (PTF) fat assessed using bioelectrical impedance. They were skin prick tested and completed spirometry. Parents completed a validated respiratory questionnaire. Children were defined as normal or overweight according to BMI and PBF cut-offs. We tested the association between these adiposity markers with wheeze, asthma, atopy, and lung-function. Results Six hundred forty-six children (339 male) completed follow-up. BMI z-score, PBF, and PTF were all positively associated with current wheeze (odds ratio [95% CI]: 1.27 [1.03, 1.57], P = 0.03; 1.05 [1.00, 1.09], P = 0.03; 1.04 [1.00, 1.08], P = 0.04, respectively). Similar trends were seen with asthma. However, when examining girls and boys separately, significant positive associations were found with PBF and PTF and asthma but only in girls (gender interaction P = 0.06 and 0.04, respectively). Associations between being overweight and wheezing and asthma were stronger when overweight was defined by PBF (P = 0.007, 0.03) than BMI (P > 0.05). Higher BMI was significantly associated with an increase in FEV1 and FVC, but only in girls. Conversely, increasing body fat (PBF and PTF) was associated with reduced FEV1 and FVC, but only in boys. No associations between adiposity and atopy were found. Conclusion All adiposity measures were associated with wheeze, asthma, and lung function. However, BMI and PBF did not have the same effects and girls and boys appear to be affected differently. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2014; 49:1049–1057. PMID:24166845

  12. Body Fat Mass Assessment: A Comparison between an Ultrasound-Based Device and a Discovery A Model of DXA

    PubMed Central

    Pineau, Jean-Claude; Lalys, Loïc; Pellegrini, Massimo; Battistini, Nino Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To examine measurement of body composition by ultrasound compared with a reference technique:dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We evaluated the accuracy of a portable ultrasound-based device in estimating total body fat mass with those assessed by DXA in adult. Methods. Body fat mass has been estimated using a portable ultrasound-based device in comparison with a contemporary reference DXA apparatus: the Hologic Discovery A. Anthropometric data has been assessed in order to maximize the output of the software associated with the ultrasound-based device. A cross-validation between ultrasound technique (US) and DXA was developed in this study. Total body fat mass estimated by ultrasound was compared with this DXA model in a sample of 83 women and 41 men. Results. Ultrasound technique (US) of body fat (BF) was better correlated with DXA in both women (r2 = 0.97, P < 0.01) and men (r2 = 0.92, P < 0.01) with standard errors of estimates (SEE) being 2.1 kg and 2.2 kg, respectively. Conclusion. The use of a portable device based on a US produced a very accurate BF estimate in relation to DXA reference technique. As DXA absorptiometry techniques are not interchangeable, the use of our ultrasound-based device needs to be recalibrated on a more contemporary DXA. PMID:24575315

  13. Improved insulin sensitivity and body fat distribution in HIV-infected patients treated with rosiglitazone: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gelato, Marie C; Mynarcik, Dennis C; Quick, Joyce L; Steigbigel, Roy T; Fuhrer, Jack; Brathwaite, Collin E M; Brebbia, John S; Wax, Mark R; McNurlan, Margaret A

    2002-10-01

    The insulin-sensitizing drugs thiazolidinediones (TZDs), such as rosiglitazone, improve insulin sensitivity and also promote adipocyte differentiation in vitro. The authors hypothesized that TZDs might be beneficial to patients with HIV disease to improve insulin sensitivity and the distribution of body fat by increasing peripheral fat. The ability of rosiglitazone (8 mg/d) to improve insulin sensitivity (from hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp) and to improve body fat distribution (determined from computed tomography measurements of visceral adipose tissue [VAT] and subcutaneous adipose tissue [SAT]) was determined in 8 HIV-positive patients. Before treatment, the insulin sensitivity of the patients was reduced to approximately 34% of that in control subjects. The rate of glucose disposal during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (Rd) was 3.8 +/-.4 (SEM) mg glucose/kg lean body mass/min compared with 11.08 +/- 1.1 (p<.001) in healthy age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched control subjects. After rosiglitazone treatment of 6 to 12 weeks, Rd increased to 5.99 +/-.9 (p=.02), an improvement of 59 +/- 22%. SAT increased by 23 +/- 10% (p=.05), and, surprisingly, VAT was decreased by 21 +/- 8% (p=.04) with a trend for increased SAT/VAT that failed to reach statistical significance. There were no significant changes in blood counts, viral loads, or CD4 counts with rosiglitazone treatment. The study demonstrates that rosiglitazone therapy improves insulin resistance and body fat distribution in some patients with HIV disease. PMID:12394794

  14. Prediction of retail beef yield and fat content from live animal and carcass measurements in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, L S; Mercadante, M E Z; Bonilha, S F M; Branco, R H; Bonilha, E F M; Magnani, E

    2014-11-01

    Data from 156 Nellore males were used to develop equations for the prediction of retail beef yield and carcass fat content, expressed as kilograms and as a percentage, from live animal and carcass measurements. Longissimus muscle area and backfat and rump fat thickness were measured by ultrasound up to 5 d before slaughter and fasted live weight was determined 1 d before slaughter. The same traits were obtained after slaughter. The carcass edible portion (CEP in kg and CEP% in percentage; n = 116) was calculated by the sum of the edible portions of primal cuts: hindquarter, forequarter, and spare ribs. Trimmable fat from the carcass boning process, with the standardization of about 3 mm of fat on retail beef, was considered to be representative of carcass fat content. Most of the variation in CEP was explained by fasted live weight or carcass weight (R(2) of 0.92 and 0.96); the same occurred for CEP% (R(2) of 0.15 and 0.13), and for CEP, the inclusion of LM area and fat thickness reduced the equation bias (lower value of Mallow's Cp statistics). For trimmable fat, most variation could be explained by weight or rump fat thickness. In general, the equations developed from live animal measurements showed a predictive power similar to the equations using carcass measurements. In all cases, the traits expressed as kilograms were better predicted (R(2) of 0.39 to 0.96) than traits expressed as a percentage (R(2) of 0.08 to 0.42). PMID:25349365

  15. Black soybean extract reduces fatty acid contents in subcutaneous, but not in visceral adipose triglyceride in high-fat fed rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, Daisuke; Kusunoki, Masataka; Seino, Narumi; Nishina, Atsuyoshi; Feng, Zhonggang; Tsutsumi, Kazuhiko; Nakamura, Takao

    2015-01-01

    It is known that black soybean (BS) extract, rich in polyphenols, has beneficial effects against obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance. However, detailed effects of BS on lipid metabolism have not been documented well. In the present study, we compared fatty acid composition in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues of high-fat fed (HFF) rats and BS administered HFF rats. Black soybean administration for 6 weeks influenced neither body nor adipose tissue weights, blood glucose, plasma insulin levels, or insulin sensitivity. However, BS reduced several saturated (C14:0 and C16:0), monounsaturated (C14:1n-5 and C18:1n-9) and n-6 polyunsaturated (C18:2n-6, C20:3n-6, C20:4n-6 and C22:4n-6) fatty acid contents in subcutaneous fat without any change in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents. No such effect was observed in fatty acid composition in visceral fat. Long-chain fatty acids are involved in regulation of inflammation. Therefore, those reduced fatty acids may be linked to the effects on suppressing inflammation. PMID:25830948

  16. Rapid and non-invasive quantification of intramuscular fat content of intact pork cuts.

    PubMed

    Huang, H; Liu, L; Ngadi, M O; Gariépy, C

    2014-02-01

    Having acquired near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral images of intact pork loin samples through an NIR hyperspectral imaging system, the efficiency of a variety of image processing techniques including texture pattern analysis techniques were applied to process hyperspectral images so as to determine the intramuscular fat (IMF) content non-destructively. After the segmentation of region of interest (ROI), the raw spectral, texture-based spectral and textural characteristics of pork images were extracted by spectral averaging and pattern recognition techniques namely Gabor filter and improved gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), respectively. First derivatives of the non-filtered and the Gabor filtered spectra were also investigated. Full waveband partial least squares regression (PLSR) was employed to determine the optimal parameters of Gabor filter and GLCM, and to select optimal wavelengths for IMF prediction. A stepwise procedure was applied to the optimal wavelengths to further optimize them to key wavelengths. Multiple linear regression (MLR) models were built based on the key wavelengths. Mean spectra and the Gabor filtered spectra outperformed GLCM. The best result, represented by correlation coefficients of calibration (Rc), cross validation (Rcv) and prediction (Rp) of 0.89, 0.89, and 0.86, respectively, was achieved using the first derivative of Gabor filtered spectra at 1193 and 1217 nm. To visualize the IMF content in pork, the distribution maps of IMF content in pork were drawn using a mean spectra-based MLR model. These promising results highlight the great potential of NIR hyperspectral imaging for non-destructive prediction of IMF content of intact pork. PMID:24401429

  17. Comparison of isocaloric very low carbohydrate/high saturated fat and high carbohydrate/low saturated fat diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk

    PubMed Central

    Noakes, Manny; Foster, Paul R; Keogh, Jennifer B; James, Anthony P; Mamo, John C; Clifton, Peter M

    2006-01-01

    Background It is speculated that high saturated fat very low carbohydrate diets (VLCARB) have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk but evidence for this in controlled studies is lacking. The objective of this study was to compare, under isocaloric conditions, the effects of a VLCARB to 2 low saturated fat high carbohydrate diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk. Methods Eighty three subjects, 48 ± 8 y, total cholesterol 5.9 ± 1.0 mmol/L, BMI 33 ± 3 kg/m2 were randomly allocated to one of 3 isocaloric weight loss diets (6 MJ) for 8 weeks and on the same diets in energy balance for 4 weeks: Very Low Fat (VLF) (CHO:Fat:Protein; %SF = 70:10:20; 3%), High Unsaturated Fat (HUF) = (50:30:20; 6%), VLCARB (4:61:35; 20%) Results Percent fat mass loss was not different between diets VLCARB -4.5 ± 0.5, VLF-4.0 ± 0.5, HUF -4.4 ± 0.6 kg). Lean mass loss was 32-31% on VLCARB and VLF compared to HUF (21%) (P < 0.05). LDL-C increased significantly only on VLCARB by 7% (p < 0.001 compared with the other diets) but apoB was unchanged on this diet and HDL-C increased relative to the other 2 diets. Triacylglycerol was lowered by 0.73 ± 0.12 mmol/L on VLCARB compared to -0.15 ± 0.07 mmol/L on HUF and -0.06 ± 0.13 mmol/L on VLF (P < 0.001). Plasma homocysteine increased 6.6% only on VLCARB (P = 0.026). VLCARB lowered fasting insulin 33% compared to a 19% fall on HUF and no change on VLF (P < 0.001). The VLCARB meal also provoked significantly lower post prandial glucose and insulin responses than the VLF and HUF meals. All diets decreased fasting glucose, blood pressure and CRP (P < 0.05). Conclusion Isocaloric VLCARB results in similar fat loss than diets low in saturated fat, but are more effective in improving triacylglycerols, HDL-C, fasting and post prandial glucose and insulin concentrations. VLCARB may be useful in the short-term management of subjects with insulin resistance and hypertriacylglycerolemia. PMID:16403234

  18. Vagus Nerve Stimulation Reduces Body Weight and Fat Mass in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Banni, Sebastiano; Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Cordeddu, Lina; Giordano, Elena; Marrosu, Francesco; Puligheddu, Monica; Floris, Gabriele; Asuni, Gino Paolo; Cappai, Angela Letizia; Deriu, Silvia; Follesa, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Among the manifold effects of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) delivered as an add-on treatment to patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, a moderate loss of body weight has been observed in some individuals. We have now investigated this effect in rats. Exposure of rats to VNS for 4 weeks reduced feed conversion efficiency as well as body weight gain (by ∼25%) and the amount of mesenteric adipose tissue (by ∼45%) in comparison with those in sham-operated control animals. A pair-fed experiment showed that both lower dietary intake and increase energy expenditure independently contributed to the reduction of body weight and mesenteric adipose tissue. Moreover, VNS increased the level of non-esterified fatty acids in plasma and mesenteric adipose tissue by ∼50 and 80%, respectively, without affecting that in the liver. In addition, VNS reduced the amounts of endocannabinoids and increased N-palmitoylethanolamide, an endogenous ligand of the transcription factor PPARα (peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor α) in mesenteric adipose tissue but not in the hypothalamus. These effects were accompanied by increased expression of the gene for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hypothalamus and up-regulation of the abundance of PPARα in the liver. Our results suggest that the reduction in body fat induced by VNS in rats may result from the action of both central and peripheral mediators. The reduced feed conversion efficiency associated with VNS may be mediated by hypothalamic BDNF, down-regulation of endocannabinoid tone in mesenteric adipose tissue and a PPARα-dependent increase in fatty acid oxidation in the liver, which in concerted action may account for the anorexic effect and increased energy expenditure. PMID:23028630

  19. Genetic parameters for lactation traits of milking ewes: protein content and composition, fat, somatic cells and individual laboratory cheese yield

    PubMed Central

    Othmane, Med Houcine; Carriedo, Juan Antonio; San Primitivo, Fermin; De la Fuente, Luis Fernando

    2002-01-01

    The effects of some environmental variation factors and the genetic parameters for total milk traits (fat content, protein content, casein content, serum protein content, lactation mean of individual laboratory cheese yield (LILCY), lactation mean of somatic cell count (LSCC), and milk yield) were estimated from the records of 1 111 Churra ewes. Genetic parameters were estimated by multivariate REML. Heritability for fat content was low (0.10) as is usually found in the Churra breed. Heritabilities for protein content, casein content, serum protein content, LILCY, milk yield and somatic cell count were 0.31, 0.30, 0.22, 0.09, 0.26 and 0.11, respectively. The highest heritability estimates were for protein and casein contents. Casein content is not advisable as an alternative to protein content as a selection criterion for cheese yield improvement; it does not have any compelling advantages and its measurement is costly. Our results for LSCC indicated that efforts should focus on improving the level of management rather than selecting for somatic cells, in the actual conditions of the Churra breed. PMID:12427387

  20. A dynamic model to predict fat and protein fluxes and dry matter intake associated with body reserve changes in cattle.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, Luis O; Fox, Danny G; Kononoff, Paul J

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to develop the structure and concepts of a dynamic model to simulate dry matter intake (DMI) pattern and the fluxes of fat and protein in the body reserves of cattle associated with changes in body condition score (BCS) for application within the structure of applied nutrition models. This model was developed to add the capability of evaluating the effects of factors affecting pre- and postcalving DMI, daily energy and protein balances, and changes in BCS over a reproductive cycle. Input variables are average DMI, diet metabolizable energy, and animal information (body weight, BCS, milk production, and calf birth body weight) from each diet fed over the reproductive cycle. Because the depletion and repletion of body reserves in cattle is a complex system of coordinated metabolic processes that reflect hormonal and physiological changes caused by negative or positive energy balances, the system dynamics modeling methodology was used to develop this model. The model was used to evaluate the effect of the dynamic interactions between dietary supply and animal requirements for energy and protein on the fluxes of body fat and body protein of dairy cows over the reproductive cycle and Monte Carlo simulations were used to assess the sensitivity of the parameters. The main long-term factor affecting DMI pattern was the growth of the gravid uterus causing an increase in the volume of abdominal organs and a compression of the rumen, consequentially reducing feed intake. Changes in body reserves (fat and protein) were computed based on metabolizable energy balance, assuming different efficiency of utilization coefficients for fat and protein during repletion and mobilization. The model was evaluated with data from 37 dairy cows individually fed 3 different diets over the lactation and dry periods. The model was successful in simulating the observed pattern of DMI (mean square error was 3.59, 3.97, and 3.66 for diets A, B, and C, respectively

  1. Fine Mapping of the Body Fat QTL on Human Chromosome 1q43

    PubMed Central

    Aissani, Brahim; Wiener, Howard W.; Zhang, Kui

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Evidence for linkage and association of obesity-related quantitative traits to chromosome 1q43 has been reported in the Quebec Family Study (QFS) and in populations of Caribbean Hispanic ancestries yet no specific candidate locus has been replicated to date. Methods Using a set of 1,902 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 525 African American (AA) and 391 European American (EA) women enrolled in the NIEHS uterine fibroid study (NIEHS-UFS), we generated a fine association map for the body mass index (BMI) across a 2.3 megabase-long interval delimited by RGS7 (regulator of G-protein signaling 7) and PLD5 (Phospholipase D, member 5). Multivariable-adjusted linear regression models were fitted to the data to evaluate the association in race-stratified analyses and meta-analysis. Results The strongest associations were observed in a recessive genetic model and peaked in the 3’ end of RGS7 at intronic rs261802 variant in the AA group (p = 1.0 x 10−4) and in meta-analysis of AA and EA samples (p = 9.0 x 10−5). In the EA group, moderate associations peaked at rs6429264 (p = 2.0 x 10−3) in the 2 Kb upstream sequence of RGS7. In the reference populations for the European ancestry in the 1,000 genomes project, rs6429264 occurs in strong linkage disequilibrium (D’ = 0.94) with rs1341467, the strongest candidate SNP for total body fat in QFS that failed genotyping in the present study. Additionally we report moderate associations at the 3’ end of PLD5 in meta-analysis (3.2 x 10−4 ≤ p ≤ 5.8 x 10−4). Conclusion We report replication data suggesting that RGS7, a gene abundantly expressed in the brain, might be a putative body fat QTL on human chromosome 1q43. Future genetic and functional studies are required to substantiate our observations and to potentially link them to the neurobehavioral phenotypes associated with the RGS7 region. PMID:27111224

  2. Associations between Obesity, Body Fat Distribution, Weight Loss and Weight Cycling on Serum Pesticide Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Frugé, Andrew Dandridge; Cases, Mallory Gamel; Schildkraut, Joellen Martha; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Objective Preliminary studies suggest pesticides may be linked to increased cancer risk. Since most pesticides are lipophilic and stored within adipose tissue, serum levels of organochlorines are affected not only by environmental exposures, but also by factors related to lipid turnover and storage. Our objective was to investigate whether serum organochlorines are influenced by weight loss, body fat distribution, and weight cycling. Methods Ten overweight women were recruited upon entry into a weight loss program and surveyed regarding weight history, childbearing/lactation, and exposure to environmental contaminants. Anthropometric measures and phlebotomy were conducted at baseline and at four weeks (mean weight loss=5.1 kg). Serum was analyzed for 19 common polychlorinated pesticides and metabolites and 10 PCB congeners. Results Organochlorine levels were not significantly affected by weight loss nor associated with body mass index (BMI). Strong positive correlations were noted between levels of DDE/DDT and age (DDE β=0.6986/p=0.0246/DDT β=0.6536/p=0.0404) and between DDE/DDT and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (DDE β=0.4356/p=0.0447/DDT β=0.8108/p=0.0044). Trends were noted for decreased levels of DDT in women who reported more episodes of weight cycling. Conclusion Serum organochlorine levels may be affected not only by age, but also factors related to lipid turnover (i.e., episodes of weight cycling and WHR), and warrants further study. PMID:27478857

  3. Muscle performance, body fat, pain and function in the elderly with arthritis

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Wagner Teixeira; Rodrigues, Erika de Carvalho; Mainenti, Míriam Raquel Meira

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To correlate muscule performance, body composition, pain and joint function in elderly people with gonarthrosis. Method: 21 elderly patients were submitted to bioelectrical impedance analysis, dynamometry associated with electromyographic (EMG) evaluation of isometric knee extension, in addition to pain assessment by the Numeric Pain Intensity Scale and function assessment, by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis (OA) questionnaire. Correlations were checked by the Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: The sample characteristics were mean age 67.36 ± 4.21 years old, body fat percentage 40.57±6.15%, total WOMAC score 43.27 ± 16.32%, and maximum strength 19.95 ± 6.99 kgF. Pain during movement showed a statistical association with WOMAC physical activity domain (r = 0.47) and its general score (r = 0.51); pain intensity at night presented association with WOMAC stiffness domain (r = 0.55), in addition to the negative correlation with the slope values of the Medium Frequency of the EMG signal (r = - 0.57). Conclusion: pain intensity is correlated to functional incapacity in elderly people with knee OA and to a greater expression of fatigue in EMG signal. Levels of Evidence III, Study of non consecutive patients PMID:24644422

  4. The combination of dietary conjugated linoleic acid and treadmill exercise lowers gain in body fat mass and enhances lean body mass in high fat-fed male Balb/C mice.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Arunabh; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Sun, Dongxu; Lawrence, Richard; Mejia, Walter; McCarter, Roger; O'Shea, Marianne; Fernandes, Gabriel

    2005-05-01

    Nearly half of the U.S. adult population is overweight or obese, which may be related to increased energy intake combined with lack of physical activity. Obesity increases the risk of several chronic diseases including diabetes, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and stroke. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) were shown to decrease fat and increase lean mass in several animal studies. However, the effects of CLA in combination with exercise (Ex) on body composition have not been studied in an animal model. We examined the effect of a low concentration of either safflower oil as control (0.5%) or mixed isomers of CLA (0.4%) along with treadmill exercise on body composition in male Balb/C mice fed a high-fat diet (20% corn oil) in a 2 x 2 factorial design. CLA consumption lowered change in fat mass (P < 0.001) confirming the results of other studies, and change in fat mass decreased further (P < 0.001) with CLA and exercise. Change in lean mass did not increase with exercise alone; it increased, although not significantly, with CLA alone and increased significantly (P < 0.05) due to the combination of CLA and exercise. This effect was accompanied by decreased serum leptin levels and lower leptin mRNA expression in peritoneal fat (P < 0.001). Serum insulin, glucose, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and interleukin-6 were lower in CLA-fed mice than in controls (P < 0.05), whereas serum TNF-alpha was increased by exercise (P < 0.05). Exercise increased oxygen consumption and energy expenditure when measured under resting conditions (P < 0.05). In summary, the combination of dietary CLA and exercise decreased fat mass and increased lean mass in mice fed a high-fat diet, and these effects may be related in part to decreased serum leptin and exercise-induced increases in oxygen consumption and energy expenditure. PMID:15867292

  5. Gastric Fluid and Heat Stress Response of Listeria monocytogenes Inoculated on Frankfurters Formulated with 10%, 20%, and 30% Fat Content

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hack-Youn; Kim, Cheon-Jei; Han, Sung Gu; Choi, Kyoung-Hee

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of frankfurter fat content on Listeria monocytogenes resistance to heat stress and gastric fluid, and the Caco-2 cell invasion efficiency of the pathogen. A 10-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes was inoculated on frankfurters formulated with 10%, 20%, and 30% fat content (10%: F10, 20%: F20, 30%: F30) and stored at 10℃ for 30 d. The samples were analyzed for L. monocytogenes resistance to heat stress and a simulated gastric fluid challenge. The total bacteria and L. monocytogenes survival rates were measured on tryptic soy agar plus 0.6% yeast extract and Palcam agar, respectively. L. monocytogenes colonies inoculated on F10, F20, and F30 samples were used for a Caco-2 cell invasion assay. In general, no obvious differences were observed between the survival rates of total bacteria and L. monocytogenes grown on different fat contents under heat stress and gastric fluid challenge. However, L. monocytogenes obtained from the F30 samples had a significantly higher Caco-2 cell invasion efficiency than those in the F10 and F20 samples (p<0.05). These results indicate that although high fat content in food may not be related to L. monocytogenes resistance to heat stress and gastric fluid, it may increase the Caco-2 cell invasion efficiency of the pathogen. PMID:26760741

  6. Examining "fat talk" experimentally in a female dyad: how are women influenced by another woman's body presentation style?

    PubMed

    Tucker, Katheryn L; Martz, Denise M; Curtin, Lisa A; Bazzini, Doris G

    2007-06-01

    Fat talk, the verbal dissatisfaction that women express about their bodies, was studied in a female dyad whereby participants interacted with a female confederate who either self-derogated, self-accepted, or self-aggrandized. A 2 (participant body esteem: high vs. low) x3 (confederate style of body image presentation) design was used. Results revealed that participants' public disclosure of their body image varied according to confederate's style. Consistent with a reciprocity effect, participants disclosed the lowest public body image ratings in the self-derogate condition, with moderate ratings in the self-accept condition, and highest ratings in the self-aggrandize condition. Moreover, participants with low compared to high body esteem stated lower public body image. Participants' judgments of the confederates' likeability did not vary as a function of the confederate's body presentational style. Findings support the recursive nature of the social psychology of body image such that personal body image dissatisfaction is partially influenced by fat talk social norms. PMID:18089261

  7. Inhibitory Effect of the Melanocortin Receptor Agonist Melanotan-II (MTII) on Feeding Depends on Dietary Fat Content and not Obesity in Rats on Free-Choice Diets

    PubMed Central

    van den Heuvel, José K.; Eggels, Leslie; van Rozen, Andrea J.; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries; Adan, Roger A. H.; la Fleur, Susanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Conflicting data exist on sensitivity changes of the melanocortin system during diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that melanocortin sensitivity depends on diet composition, in particular on the fat content rather than the level of obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of diet composition on feeding responses to a melanocortin receptor agonist, using free-choice diets that differ in food components. Methods: Male Wistar rats were subjected to a chow (CHOW) diet or a free-choice (fc) diet of either chow, saturated fat and liquid sugar (fcHFHS), chow and saturated fat (fcHF), or chow and liquid sugar (fcHS) for 4 weeks. Melanocortin sensitivity was tested by measuring food intake following administration of the melanocortin 3/4 receptor agonist melanotan II (MTII) or vehicle in the lateral ventricle. In a separate experiment, proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) mRNA levels were determined in the arcuate nucleus with in situ hybridization in rats subjected to the free-choice diets for 4 weeks. Results: Rats on the fcHFHS diet for 4 weeks show increased caloric intake and body weight gain compared to rats on the CHOW, fcHS and fcHF diet. Caloric intake and body weight gain was comparable between rats on the fcHF, fcHS, and CHOW diet. After 4 weeks diet, POMC and AgRP mRNA levels were not different between diet groups. MTII inhibited caloric intake to a larger extent in rats on the fcHF diet compared to rats on the CHOW, fcHFHS or fcHS diet. Moreover, the fat component was the most inhibited by MTII, and the sugar component the least. Conclusion: Rats on the fcHF diet show stronger food intake inhibition to the melanocortin receptor agonist MTII than rats on the CHOW, fcHS, and fcHFHS diet, which is independent of caloric intake and body weight gain. Our data point toward an important role for diet composition, particularly the dietary fat content, and not obesity in the sensitivity of the melanocortin

  8. Reduced Sun Exposure Does Not Explain the Inverse Association of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D with Percent Body Fat in Older Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greater adiposity is associated with lower blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. The extent to which this may result from reduced sun exposure among heavier individuals is unknown. This analysis was conducted to determine whether sun exposure habits differ according to percent body fat (%...

  9. Age-associated de-repression of retrotransposons in the Drosophila fat body, its potential cause and consequence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haiyang; Zheng, Xiaobin; Xiao, Danqing; Zheng, Yixian

    2016-06-01

    Eukaryotic genomes contain transposable elements (TE) that can move into new locations upon activation. Since uncontrolled transposition of TEs, including the retrotransposons and DNA transposons, can lead to DNA breaks and genomic instability, multiple mechanisms, including heterochromatin-mediated repression, have evolved to repress TE activation. Studies in model organisms have shown that TEs become activated upon aging as a result of age-associated deregulation of heterochromatin. Considering that different organisms or cell types may undergo distinct heterochromatin changes upon aging, it is important to identify pathways that lead to TE activation in specific tissues and cell types. Through deep sequencing of isolated RNAs, we report an increased expression of many retrotransposons in the old Drosophila fat body, an organ equivalent to the mammalian liver and adipose tissue. This de-repression correlates with an increased number of DNA damage foci and decreased level of Drosophila lamin-B in the old fat body cells. Depletion of the Drosophila lamin-B in the young or larval fat body results in a reduction of heterochromatin and a corresponding increase in retrotransposon expression and DNA damage. Further manipulations of lamin-B and retrotransposon expression suggest a role of the nuclear lamina in maintaining the genome integrity of the Drosophila fat body by repressing retrotransposons. PMID:27072046

  10. Transgenic Rescue of Adipocyte Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Receptor Expression Restores High Fat Diet-induced Body Weight Gain*

    PubMed Central

    Ugleholdt, Randi; Pedersen, Jens; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Füchtbauer, Ernst-Martin; Jørgensen, Signe Marie; Kissow, Hanne-Louise; Nytofte, Nikolaj; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie; Seino, Yutaka; Thams, Peter; Holst, Peter Johannes; Holst, Jens Juul

    2011-01-01

    The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor (GIPr) has been implicated in high fat diet-induced obesity and is proposed as an anti-obesity target despite an uncertainty regarding the mechanism of action. To independently investigate the contribution of the insulinotropic effects and the direct effects on adipose tissue, we generated transgenic mice with targeted expression of the human GIPr to white adipose tissue or beta-cells, respectively. These mice were then cross-bred with the GIPr knock-out strain. The central findings of the study are that mice with GIPr expression targeted to adipose tissue have a similar high fat diet -induced body weight gain as control mice, significantly greater than the weight gain in mice with a general ablation of the receptor. Surprisingly, this difference was due to an increase in total lean body mass rather than a gain in total fat mass that was similar between the groups. In contrast, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide-mediated insulin secretion does not seem to be important for regulation of body weight after high fat feeding. The study supports a role of the adipocyte GIPr in nutrient-dependent regulation of body weight and lean mass, but it does not support a direct and independent role for the adipocyte or beta-cell GIPr in promoting adipogenesis. PMID:22027838

  11. Body Fat Equations and Electrical Bioimpedance Values in Prediction of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Eutrophic and Overweight Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Franciane Rocha; Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Cecon, Roberta Stofeles; Barbosa Júnior, Djalma Adão; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; Cecon, Paulo Roberto; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze body fat anthropometric equations and electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA) in the prediction of cardiovascular risk factors in eutrophic and overweight adolescents. 210 adolescents were divided into eutrophic group (G1) and overweight group (G2). The percentage of body fat (% BF) was estimated using 10 body fat anthropometric equations and 2 BIA. We measured lipid profiles, uric acid, insulin, fasting glucose, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and blood pressure. We found that 76.7% of the adolescents exhibited inadequacy of at least one biochemical parameter or clinical cardiovascular risk. Higher values of triglycerides (TG) (P = 0.001), insulin, and HOMA-IR (P < 0.001) were observed in the G2 adolescents. In multivariate linear regression analysis, the % BF from equation (5) was associated with TG, diastolic blood pressure, and insulin in G1. Among the G2 adolescents, the % BF estimated by (5) and (9) was associated with LDL, TG, insulin, and the HOMA-IR. Body fat anthropometric equations were associated with cardiovascular risk factors and should be used to assess the nutritional status of adolescents. In this study, equation (5) was associated with a higher number of cardiovascular risk factors independent of the nutritional status of adolescents. PMID:23762051

  12. [Intracranial fat bodies and their potential effect on brain composition and behaviour in domestic ducks with feather crests (3 case studies)].

    PubMed

    Cnotka, J; Frahm, H D; Rehkämper, G

    2006-01-01

    Intracranial fat tissue was found in the brains of three crested ducks. The three ducks differed in the size of their crest and in the volume and the location of the fat body within their brains. The duck with the large crest showed a fat body which counts for 19 % of its brain volume. Due to this fat accumulation, brain structures, mainly the cerebellum, were moved laterally. This duck had serious problems in motor coordination. Fat body of the second duck with a middle sized crest was situated in neostriatum and constituted 0,6 % of total brain volume. Additionally this duck displayed an encephalocele. The last duck did show a small crest. Its fat body was found in the area of the tentorium cerebelli and made up 17 % of its brain volume. The later two ducks were not hampered behaviourally. PMID:16475552

  13. Increasing the stearate content in seed oil of Brassica juncea by heterologous expression of MlFatB affects lipid content and germination frequency of transgenic seeds.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Surajit; Sinha, Saheli; Das, Natasha; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2015-11-01

    Fatty acids from dietary lipids can impart both beneficial and harmful health effects. The compositional balance between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids plays a decisive role in maintaining the physiological harmony, proper growth and development in the human system. In case of Brassica juncea seed oil, the level of saturated fatty acid, especially desirable stearate is very much lower than the recommended value, along with a high content of nutritionally undesirable erucic acid. Therefore, in order to shift the carbon flux towards the production of stearate at the expense of erucate, the MlFatB gene encoding a FatB thioesterase from Madhuca longifolia (latifolia) was expressed heterologously in seed tissues of B. juncea. The functional MlFatB competed with the highly active endogenous BjFatA thioesterase, and the transgenic B. juncea lines showed noteworthy changes in their seed fatty acid profiles. The proportion of stearate increased up to 16-fold, constituting almost 31% of the total fatty acids along with the production of arachidic acid in significant amount (up to ∼11%). Moreover, the content of erucate was reduced up to 71% in the seed oils of transgenic lines. Although a nutritionally desirable fatty acid profile was achieved, the transgenic seeds exhibit reduction or abolition of seed germination in addition to a decrease in seed lipid content. The findings of the present study revealing the stearoyl-ACP thioesterase-mediated enhancement of the stearate content that is associated with reduced germination frequency of transgenic B. juncea seeds, may explain why no natural or induced stearate-rich Brassica has been found or developed. Furthermore, this study also suggests that the newly characterized MlFatB is a potential candidate gene for refined metabolic engineering strategy in B. juncea or other plant species for increasing stearate content in seed oil. PMID:26351151

  14. [Overweight and obesity in young adults: relevance of job-related changes of exercise on fat, lean body and body mass in students].

    PubMed

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Kohl, Matthias; Bebenek, Michael; von Stengel, Simon

    2015-03-01

    Early adulthood is related to changes in lifestyle that negatively affect body weight and health. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of exercise changes on the development of weight and body composition in college students.Sixty-one randomly selected dental (ZMS) and 53 sport students (SLS) were accompanied over 5 years. Body mass, fat and lean body mass (LBM) were determined via DXA-technique. Exercise and physical activity were assessed by questionnaires and interviews.All exercise indices significantly increased in the SLS and significantly decreased in the ZMS. Physical activity slightly increased in both groups. Both cohorts comparably gained body mass, however, the increase in the SLS group can be attributed to LBM-changes with minor changes of fat-mass (2.4 % ± 3.3 % vs. 0.1 ± 1.0 %) whereas ZMS gained fat and LBM in a proportion of 2:1.Maintenance/increase of exercise compensate the negative effects of lifestyle changes on body composition during young adulthood. PMID:25814051

  15. Estimation of the content of fat and parenchyma in breast tissue using MRI T1 histograms and phantoms.

    PubMed

    Boston, Raymond C; Schnall, Mitchell D; Englander, Sarah A; Landis, J Richard; Moate, Peter J

    2005-05-01

    Mammographic breast density has been correlated with breast cancer risk. Estimation of the volumetric composition of breast tissue using three-dimensional MRI has been proposed, but accuracy depends upon the estimation methods employed. The use of segmentation based on T1 relaxation rates allows quantitative estimates of fat and parenchyma volume, but is limited by partial volume effects. An investigation employing phantom breast tissue composed of various combinations of chicken breast (to represent parenchyma) and cooking fats was carried out to elucidate the factors that influence MRI T1 histograms. Using the phantoms, T1 histograms and their known fat and parenchyma composition, a logistic distribution function was derived to describe the apportioning of the T1 histogram to fat and parenchyma. This function and T1 histograms were then used to predict the fat and parenchyma content of breasts from 14 women. Using this method, the composition of the breast tissue in the study population was as follows: fat 69.9+/-22.9% and parenchyma 30.1+/-22.9%. PMID:15919606

  16. Purification and partial genome characterization of the bacterial endosymbiont Blattabacterium cuenoti from the fat bodies of cockroaches

    PubMed Central

    Tokuda, Gaku; Lo, Nathan; Takase, Aya; Yamada, Akinori; Hayashi, Yoshinobu; Watanabe, Hirofumi

    2008-01-01

    Background Symbiotic relationships between intracellular bacteria and eukaryotes are widespread in nature. Genome sequencing of the bacterial partner has provided a number of key insights into the basis of these symbioses. A challenging aspect of sequencing symbiont genomes is separating the bacteria from the host tissues. In the present study, we describe a simple method of endosymbiont purification from complex environment, using Blattabacterium cuenoti inhabiting in cockroaches as a model system. Findings B. cuenoti cells were successfully purified from the fat bodies of the cockroach Panesthia angustipennis by a combination of slow- and fast-speed centrifugal fractionations, nylon-membrane filtration, and centrifugation with Percoll solutions. We performed pulse-field electrophoresis, diagnostic PCR and random sequencing of the shoutgun library. These experiments confirmed minimal contamination of host and mitochondrial DNA. The genome size and the G+C content of B. cuenoti were inferred to be 650 kb and 32.1 ± 7.6%, respectively. Conclusion The present study showed successful purification and characterization of the genome of B. cuenoti. Our methodology should be applicable for future symbiont genome sequencing projects. An advantage of the present purification method is that each step is easily performed with ordinary microtubes and a microcentrifuge, and without DNase treatment. PMID:19025664

  17. Energy content of reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Foth, A J; Brown-Brandl, T; Hanford, K J; Miller, P S; Garcia Gomez, G; Kononoff, P J

    2015-10-01

    Eight Holstein and 8 Jersey multiparous, lactating cows were used to complete 56 energy balances to determine the energy content of reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles (RFDDGS). A repeated switchback design was used to compare treatments with and without RFDDGS. Diets consisted of 24.2% corn silage, 18.4% alfalfa hay, 6.94% brome hay with either 22.9% rolled corn or 14.8% soybean meal (control), or 8.95% rolled corn, 28.8% RFDDGS, and 0% soybean meal [Co-P; dry-matter (DM) basis]. The inclusion of RFDDGS did not affect DM intake, averaging 21.4 ± 0.53 kg of DM for all cows, but milk production tended to increase from 29.8 to 30.9 ± 1.46 kg/d for control and Co-P treatments, respectively. Milk fat percentage and energy-corrected milk did not differ between treatments, averaging 4.33 ± 0.14% and 34.1 kg/d, respectively. Milk protein was significantly decreased by the Co-P treatment (3.56 and 3.41 ± 0.08% for control and Co-P treatments), but protein yield was not affected. Milk energies were 1.40 Mcal/d greater with Co-P. Energy lost as methane was reduced by 0.31 Mcal/d with the addition of RFDDGS to the diet. Heat loss averaged 29.9 ± 0.55 Mcal/d and was not different between diets. Average energy retained as tissue energy was -2.99 ± 0.93 Mcal/d and did not differ between treatments. Intake of digestible and metabolizable energy were not different between the control and Co-P treatments, averaging 2.68 and 2.31 Mcal/kg of DM, respectively. The net energy of lactation values of control and Co-P diets were calculated to be 1.43 and 1.47 Mcal/kg of DM, respectively. These energy estimates suggest greater energy content of diets containing RFDDGS than diets containing a mixture of corn and soybean meal in lactating dairy cows. PMID:26233444

  18. Measurement of Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Children from Two Commonly Used Field Tests After Accounting for Body Fatness and Maturity

    PubMed Central

    Hamlin, Michael J.; Fraser, Meegan; Lizamore, Catherine A.; Draper, Nick; Shearman, Jeremy P.; Kimber, Nicholas E.

    2014-01-01

    Body fat and maturation both influence cardiorespiratory fitness, however few studies have taken these variables into account when using field tests to predict children’s fitness levels. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between two field tests of cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m Maximal Multistage Shuttle Run [20-MST], 550 m distance run [550-m]) and direct measurement of VO2max after adjustment for body fatness and maturity levels. Fifty-three participants (25 boys, 28 girls, age 10.6 ± 1.2 y, mean ± SD) had their body fat levels estimated using bioelectrical impedance (16.6% ± 6.0% and 20.0% ± 5.8% for boys and girls, respectively). Participants performed in random order, the 20-MST and 550-m run followed by a progressive treadmill test to exhaustion during which gas exchange measures were taken. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed that the participants’ performance in the 20-MST and 550-m run were highly correlated to VO2max obtained during the treadmill test to exhaustion (r = 0.70 and 0.59 for 20-MST and 550-m run, respectively). Adjusting for body fatness and maturity levels in a multivariate regression analysis increased the associations between the field tests and VO2max (r = 0.73 for 20-MST and 0.65 for 550-m). We may conclude that both the 20-MST and the 550-m distance run are valid field tests of cardiorespiratory fitness in New Zealand 8–13 year old children and incorporating body fatness and maturity levels explains an additional 5–7% of the variance. PMID:25031676

  19. The Relationships among Fundamental Motor Skills, Health-Related Physical Fitness, and Body Fatness in South Korean Adolescents with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, John T.; Harvey, Stephen; Chun, Hae-Ja; Kim, So-Yeun

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the following: (a) the relationships among the latent constructs of fundamental motor skills (FMS), health-related physical fitness (HRF), and observed body fatness in South Korean adolescents with mental retardation (MR); (b) the indirect effect of fundamental motor skills on body fatness when mediated by…

  20. Cell size and fat content of dietary-restricted Caenorhabditis elegans are regulated by ATX-2, an mTOR repressor.

    PubMed

    Bar, Daniel Z; Charar, Chayki; Dorfman, Jehudith; Yadid, Tam; Tafforeau, Lionel; Lafontaine, Denis L J; Gruenbaum, Yosef

    2016-08-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) is a metabolic intervention that extends the lifespan of multiple species, including yeast, flies, nematodes, rodents, and, arguably, rhesus monkeys and humans. Hallmarks of lifelong DR are reductions in body size, fecundity, and fat accumulation, as well as slower development. We have identified atx-2, the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of the human ATXN2L and ATXN2 genes, as the regulator of these multiple DR phenotypes. Down-regulation of atx-2 increases the body size, cell size, and fat content of dietary-restricted animals and speeds animal development, whereas overexpression of atx-2 is sufficient to reduce the body size and brood size of wild-type animals. atx-2 regulates the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, downstream of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and upstream of ribosomal protein S6 kinase and mTOR complex 1 (TORC1), by its direct association with Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor β, which likely regulates RHEB shuttling between GDP-bound and GTP-bound forms. Taken together, this work identifies a previously unknown mechanism regulating multiple aspects of DR, as well as unknown regulators of the mTOR pathway. They also extend our understanding of diet-dependent growth retardation, and offers a potential mechanism to treat obesity. PMID:27457958

  1. FAT10 KNOCK OUT MICE LIVERS FAIL TO DEVELOP MALLORY-DENK BODIES IN THE DDC MOUSE MODEL

    PubMed Central

    French, SW; French, BA; Oliva, J; Li, J; Bardag-Gorce, F; Tillman, B; Canaan, A

    2016-01-01

    Mallory-Denk bodies (MDBs) are aggresomes composed of undigested ubiqutinated short lived proteins which have accumulated because of a decrease in the rate of their degradation by the 26s proteasome. The decrease in the activity of the proteasome is due to a shift in the activity of the 26s proteasome to the immunoproteasome triggered by an increase in expression of the catalytic subunits of the immunoproteasome which replaces the catalytic subunits of the 26s proteasome. This switch in the type of proteasome in liver cells is triggered by the binding of IFNγ to the IFNγ sequence response element (ISRE) located on the FAT10 promoter. To determine if either FAT10 or IFNγ are essential for the formation of MDBs we fed both IFNγ and FAT10 knock out (KO) mice DDC added to the control diet for 10 weeks in order to induce MDBs. Mice fed the control diet and Wild type mice fed the DDC or control diet were compared. MDBs were located by immunofluorescent double stains using antibodies to ubiquitin to stain MDBs and FAT10 to localize the increased expression of FAT10 in MDB forming hepatocytes. We found that MDB formation occurred in the IFNγ KO mice but not in the FAT10 KO mice. Western blots showed an increase in the ubiquitin smears and decreases β 5 (chymotrypsin-like 26S proteasome subunit) in the Wild type mice fed DDC but not in the FAT10 KO mice fed DDC. To conclude, we have demonstrated that FAT10 is essential to the induction of MDB formation in the DDC fed mice. PMID:22981937

  2. High-speed assessment of fat and water content distribution in fish fillets using online imaging spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    ElMasry, Gamal; Wold, Jens Petter

    2008-09-10

    A nondestructive method using online spectral imaging has been developed for quantitative measurements of moisture and fat distribution in six species of fish fillets: Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), catfish (Icatalurus punctatus), cod (Gadus morhua), mackerel (Scomber japonicus), herring (Clupea harengus), and saithe (Pollachius virens). A spectral image cube was acquired for each fish fillet, and a subsampling approach for relating spectral and chemical features was applied. Spectral data was first analyzed by partial least-squares regression (PLSR), and then the regression coefficients were applied pixel-wise to convert the pixel spectra to a meaningful distribution map of moisture and fat contents. The resulting images are called "chemical images", which illustrate the distribution of fat and/or water content in the fillets. The pixel-wise prediction models for water and fat content had a correlation value of 0.94 with root-mean-square error estimated by a cross-validation (RMSECV) of 2.73% and a correlation value of 0.91 with RMSECV of 2.99%, respectively. This technique is suitable for high-speed assessment of quality parameters of biomaterials and should thus be implemented in industrial applications. The product could comprehensively be defined not only in terms of its external features such as size, shape, and color but also in terms of its chemical composition and its spatial distribution. PMID:18656933

  3. Milk fat globule membrane coating of large lipid droplets in the diet of young mice prevents body fat accumulation in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Baars, Annemarie; Oosting, Annemarie; Engels, Eefje; Kegler, Diane; Kodde, Andrea; Schipper, Lidewij; Verkade, Henkjan J; van der Beek, Eline M

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated protective effects of breast-feeding on childhood obesity. Differences between human milk and infant milk formula (IMF) in dietary lipid structure may contribute to this effect. In our mouse model, feeding a diet containing large lipid droplets coated with phospholipids (PL) (Nuturis®; PL of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) fraction origin) in early life protected against excessive body fat accumulation following a diet challenge in adult life. We now set out to determine the relevance of increased droplet size and/or MFGM lipid droplet coating to the observed anti-obesogenic effects in adult life. From day 16 to 42, male mouse pups were exposed to diets with small (S) or large (L) lipid droplets (0·3 v. 2·9 µm average mode diameter, respectively), either without MFGM or with MFGM coating around the lipid droplet, resulting in four groups: S (control diet), L, Scoating and Lcoating (Nuturis® IMF diet). Mice were subsequently challenged with a Western-style diet until dissection at postnatal day 98. A non-challenged group served as reference (REF). We repeatedly determined body composition between postnatal day 42 and 98. At day 98 plasma and gene expression measurements were performed. Only the Nuturis® IMF diet (Lcoating) in early life containing MFGM-coated large lipid droplets reduced body fat mass to a level comparable with the REF group. These data support the notion that the structural aspects of lipids in human milk, for example, both lipid droplet size as well as the MFGM coating, may contribute to its reported protective effect against obesity in later life. PMID:27040581

  4. Milk Collection in the Rat Using Capillary Tubes and Estimation of Milk Fat Content by Creamatocrit.

    PubMed

    Paul, Heather A; Hallam, Megan C; Reimer, Raylene A

    2015-01-01

    Milk, as the sole source of nutrition for the newborn mammal, provides the necessary nutrients and energy for offspring growth and development. It also contains a vast number of bioactive compounds that greatly affect the development of the neonate. The analysis of milk components will help elucidate key factors that link maternal metabolism and health with offspring growth and development. The laboratory rat represents a popular model organism for maternal studies, and rat milk can be used to examine the effect of various maternal physiological, nutritional, and pharmacological interventions on milk components, which may then impact offspring health. Here a simple method of manually collecting milk from the lactating rat that can be performed by a single investigator, does not require specialized vacuum or suction equipment, and provides sufficient milk for subsequent downstream analysis is described. A method for estimating the fat content of milk by measuring the percentage of cream within the milk sample, known as the creamatocrit, is also presented. These methods can ultimately be used to increase insight into maternal-child health and to elucidate maternal factors that are involved in proper growth and development of offspring. PMID:26709708

  5. Intrahepatic Fat Content and Markers of Hepatic Fibrosis in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Zhang, Hongxi; Xu, Xiaoqin; Huang, Ke; Fu, Junfen

    2016-01-01

    Aim. We evaluated both direct and indirect hepatic fibrosis markers in obese children and their relationship with intrahepatic fat (IHF) content. We also aimed to investigate the possible roles of IHF and fibrosis markers in metabolic syndrome (MS). Methods. 189 obese children were divided into simple obese (SOB), simple steatosis (SS), and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) groups according to their IHF and blood alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. They were also scored for the MS components. IHF was assessed as a continuous variable by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). In addition, 30 nonobese children were enrolled as controls and their direct hepatic fibrosis markers and IHF were assessed. Results. Age was related to IHF, NFS, and FIB-4. Both NFS and APRI were related to IHF more significantly than the direct markers. In the estimation of liver function impairment, indirect markers had greater AUROC than direct markers. In MS, IHF and all the fibrosis markers showed similar AUROC. Conclusions. Both direct and indirect markers played a valuable role in evaluating MS. Indirect markers were more effective in distinguishing fatty hepatitis. Age is an important factor underlying hepatic steatosis and fibrosis even in children. PMID:26966436

  6. Effects of the Dietary ω3:ω6 Fatty Acid Ratio on Body Fat and Inflammation in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Mickie L; Pegues, Melissa A; Szalai, Alexander J; Ghanta, Vithal K; D'Abramo, Louis R; Watts, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    The diets of populations in industrialized nations have shifted to dramatically increased consumption of ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), with a corresponding decrease in the consumption of ω3 PUFA. This dietary shift may be related to observed increases in obesity, chronic inflammation, and comorbidities in the human population. We examined the effects of ω3:ω6 fatty acid ratios in the context of constant total dietary lipid on the growth, total body fat, and responses of key inflammatory markers in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish were fed diets in which the ω3:ω6 PUFA ratios were representative of those in a purported ancestral diet (1:2) and more contemporary Western diets (1:5 and 1:8). After 5 mo, weight gain (fat free mass) of zebrafish was highest for those that received the 1:8 ratio treatment, but total body fat was lowest at this ratio. Measured by quantitative real-time RT–PCR, mRNA levels from liver samples of 3 chronic inflammatory response genes (C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, and vitellogenin) were lowest at the 1:8 ratio. These data provide evidence of the ability to alter zebrafish growth and body composition through the quality of dietary lipid and support the application of this model to investigations of human health and disease related to fat metabolism. PMID:26310458

  7. The Effect of Mannan Oligosaccharide Supplementation on Body Weight Gain and Fat Accrual in C57Bl/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Daniel L.; Nagy, Tim R.; Wilson, Landon S.; Dong, Shengli; Barnes, Stephen; Allison, David B.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in industrialized societies has become markedly elevated. In contrast, model organism research shows that reducing caloric intake below ad libitum levels provides many health and longevity benefits. Despite these benefits, few people are willing and able to reduce caloric intake over prolonged periods. Prior research suggests that mannooligosaccharide (MOS or Mannan) supplementation can increase lifespan of some livestock and in rodents can reduce visceral fat without reducing caloric intake. Hence, we tested the effect of MOS supplementation as a possible calorie restriction mimetic in mice. C57Bl/6J male mice were fed a high-fat “western” type diet with or without 1% MOS (by weight) supplementation (n=24/group) from 8 to 20 weeks of age. Animals were housed individually and provided 95% of ad libitum food intake throughout the study. Body weight was measured weekly and body composition (lean and fat mass) measured non-invasively every 3 weeks. Individual fat depot weights were acquired by dissection at study completion. Supplementation of a high-fat diet with 1% MOS tended to reduce total food intake (mean±s.d.; CON: 293.69±10.53g, MOS: 288.10±11.82g; p=0.09) during the study. Moreover, MOS supplementation had no significant effect on final body weight (CON: 25.21±2.31g, MOS: 25.28±1.49g; p=0.91), total fat (CON: 4.72±0.90g, MOS: 4.82±0.83g; p=0.69) or visceral fat (CON: 1.048±0.276g, MOS: 1.004±0.247g; p=0.57). Contrary to previous research, MOS supplementation had no discernable effect on body weight gain or composition during this 12-week study, challenging the potential use of MOS as a calorie restriction mimetic or body composition enhancer. PMID:19798073

  8. exo-Brevicomin biosynthesis in the fat body of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae.

    PubMed

    Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Nguyen, Trang T; Liu, Xibei; Jeffrey, Christopher; Blomquist, Gary J; Tittiger, Claus

    2014-02-01

    exo-Brevicomin (exo-7-ethyl-5-methyl-6,8-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane) is an important semiochemical for a number of beetle species, including the highly destructive mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae. It also has been found in other insects and even in the African elephant. Despite its significance, little is known about its biosynthesis. In order to fill this gap and to identify new molecular targets for potential pest management methods, we performed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of cell cultures and in vitro assays of various D. ponderosae tissues with exo-brevicomin intermediates, analogs, and inhibitors. We confirmed that exo-brevicomin was synthesized by "unfed" males after emerging from the brood tree. Furthermore, in contrast to the paradigm established for biosynthesis of monoterpenoid pheromone components in bark beetles, exo-brevicomin was produced in the fat body, and not in the anterior midgut. The first committed step involves decarboxylation or decarbonylation of ω-3-decenoic acid, which is derived from a longer-chain precursor via β-oxidation, to (Z)-6-nonen-2-ol. This secondary alcohol is converted to the known precursor, (Z)-6-nonen-2-one, and further epoxidized by a cytochrome P450 to 6,7-epoxynonan-2-one. The keto-epoxide is stable at physiological pH, suggesting that its final