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1

Whole-body vibration therapy for osteoporosis: state of the science.  

PubMed

Clinical guidelines for osteoporosis recommend dietary and pharmacologic interventions and weight-bearing exercise to prevent bone fractures. These interventions sometimes have low adherence and can cause adverse effects. A proposed alternative or adjunctive treatment is whole-body vibration therapy (WBV), in which energy produced by a forced oscillation is transferred to an individual from a mechanical vibration platform. Whole-body vibration platforms are not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for medical purposes. This review provides a broad overview of important issues related to WBV therapy for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Relying on key informants and a search of the gray and published literature from January 2000 to August 2011, the investigators found that the designs of WBV platforms and protocols for their use vary widely. The optimal target population for the therapy is not defined. Although WBV has some theoretical advantages, key informants have voiced several concerns, including uncertain safety and potential consumer confusion between low-intensity vibration platforms intended for osteoporosis therapy and high-intensity platforms intended for exercise. Finally, the scant literature did not establish whether WBV therapy leads to clinically important increases in bone mineral density or reduces risk for fracture. PMID:22084334

Wysocki, Andrea; Butler, Mary; Shamliyan, Tatyana; Kane, Robert L

2011-11-15

2

Effect of body shape on vibration of electric guitars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The body vibrations of an electric guitar are typically ignored since the string vibrations are converted to sound through the use of a magnetic pickup. However, vibrations in the neck have been shown to cause dead spots at certain fret positions [H. Fleischer, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105, 1330 (1999)]. In this paper we compare the vibrational mode shapes and

Daniel A. Russell; Wesley S. Haveman; Willis Broden; N. Pontus Weibull

2003-01-01

3

Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Technological advancements in imaging and radiation planning and delivery have made it possible for cranial stereotactic radiosurgery\\u000a techniques to be applied to tumors outside of the brain. Although high-dose radiation therapy may be delivered in a single\\u000a fraction, referred to as extracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), more often, high-precision radiation is delivered in\\u000a more than one fraction, leading to the field

Laura A. Dawson

4

Vibration Exposure and Biodynamic Responses during Whole-Body Vibration Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABERCROMBY, A. F. J., W. E. AMONETTE, C. S. LAYNE, B. K. MCFARLIN, M. R. HINMAN, and W. H. PALOSKI. Vibration Exposure and Biodynamic Responses during Whole-Body Vibration Training. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 39, No. 10, pp. 1794-1800, 2007. Purpose: Excessive, chronic whole-body vibration (WBV) has a number of negative side effects on the human body, including disorders of

ANDREW F. J. ABERCROMBY; WILLIAM E. AMONETTE; CHARLES S. LAYNE; BRIAN K. MCFARLIN; MARTHA R. HINMAN; WILLIAM H. PALOSKI

2007-01-01

5

Potential beneficial effects of whole-body vibration for muscle recovery after exercise.  

PubMed

Whole-body vibration is an emerging strategy used by athletes and exercising individuals to potentially accelerate muscle recovery. The vibration elicits involuntary muscle stretch reflex contractions leading to increased motor unit recruitment and synchronization of synergist muscles, which may lead to greater training adaptations over time. Intense exercise training, especially eccentric muscle contractions, will inevitably lead to muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness, which may interfere with the maintenance of a planned training program. Whole-body vibration before and after exercise shows promise for attenuating muscle soreness and may be considered as an adjunct to traditional therapies (i.e., massage, cryotherapy) to accelerate muscle recovery. PMID:22130390

Kosar, Angela C; Candow, Darren G; Putland, Jessica T

2012-10-01

6

Multi-body dynamics modelling of seated human body under exposure to whole-body vibration.  

PubMed

In vehicle systems occupational drivers might expose themselves to vibration for a long time. This may cause illness of the spine such as chronic lumbago or low back pain. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the influence of vibration to the spinal column and to make up appropriate guidelines or counter plans. In ISO2631-1 or ISO2631-5 assessment of vibration effects to human in the view of adverse-health effect was already presented. However, it is necessary to carry out further research to understand the effect of vibration to human body to examine their validity and to prepare for the future revision. This paper shows the detail measurement of human response to vibration, and the modelling of the seated human body for the assessment of the vibration risk. The vibration transmissibilities from the seat surface to the spinal column and to the head are measured during the exposure to vertical excitation. The modal paramters of seated subject are extracted in order to understand the dominant natural modes. For the evaluation of adverse-health effect the multi-body modelling of the spinal column is introduced. A simplified model having 10 DOFs is counstructed so that the transmissibilities of the model fit to those of experiment. The transient response analysis is illustrated when a half-sine input is applied. The relative displacements of vertebrae are evaluated, which can be a basis for the assessment of vibration risk. It is suggested that the multi-body dynamic model is used to evaluate the vibration effect to the spinal column for seated subjects. PMID:16100921

Yoshimura, Takuya; Nakai, Kazuma; Tamaoki, Gen

2005-07-01

7

Whole body vibration improves cognition in healthy young adults.  

PubMed

This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT), Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT), Stroop Difference Score (SDS) and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT) was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p?=?0.009; effect size r?=?0.20) and SDS (p?=?0.034; r?=?0.16) performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise. PMID:24949870

Regterschot, G Ruben H; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J G; Zeinstra, Edzard B; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van Der Zee, Eddy A

2014-01-01

8

Whole Body Vibration Improves Cognition in Healthy Young Adults  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT), Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT), Stroop Difference Score (SDS) and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT) was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p?=?0.009; effect size r?=?0.20) and SDS (p?=?0.034; r?=?0.16) performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise.

Regterschot, G. Ruben H.; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Zeinstra, Edzard B.; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van Der Zee, Eddy A.

2014-01-01

9

Biodynamics of the human body under whole-body vibration: Synthesis of the reported data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of most probable ranges of biodynamic responses of the human body exposed to whole-body vibration is essential for developing effective integrated human-machine system design tools, improved vibration mitigation devices and frequency-weighting for exposure assessment. The international standard, ISO-5982 (2001), defines such ranges for very limited conditions, namely for body seated without a back support and exposed to vertical vibration.

S. Rakheja; R. G. Dong; S. Patra; P.-É. Boileau; P. Marcotte; C. Warren

2010-01-01

10

Hormonal responses to whole-body vibration in men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute responses of blood hormone concentrations and neuromuscular performance following\\u000a whole-body vibration (WBV) treatment. Fourteen male subjects [mean (SD) age 25 (4.6)?years] were exposed to vertical sinusoidal\\u000a WBV, 10 times for 60?s, with 60?s rest between the vibration sets (a rest period lasting 6?min was allowed after 5 vibration\\u000a sets). Neuromuscular

Carmelo Bosco; M. Iacovelli; O. Tsarpela; M. Cardinale; M. Bonifazi; J. Tihanyi; M. Viru; A. De Lorenzo; A. Viru

2000-01-01

11

Visual-Motor Performance During Whole-Body Vibration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seven male employees of the Boeing Company were tested in the Company's human vibration facility to determine the effect of whole body vibration on visual-motor performance. Six controls: a large and a small knob; a horizontal and a vertical lever; and a ...

R. E. Chaney D. L. Parks

1964-01-01

12

Multiple Scales Approach to Sound Generation by Vibrating Bodies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem of determining the acoustic field in an inviscid, isentropic fluid generated by a solid body whose surface executes prescribed vibrations is formulated and solved as a multiple scales perturbation problem, using the Mach number M based on the ...

J. F. Geer D. S. Pope

1992-01-01

13

Effects of Whole Body Vibration Training on Body Composition in Adolescents with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aimed to determine the effect of 20 weeks of whole body vibration (WBV) on the body composition of adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty adolescent with DS were divided into two groups: control and WBV. Whole body, upper and lower limbs body fat and lean body mass were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)…

Gonzalez-Aguero, Alejandro; Matute-Llorente, Angel; Gomez-Cabello, Alba; Casajus, Jose A.; Vicente-Rodriguez, German

2013-01-01

14

Kappa Delta Award. Low back pain and whole body vibration.  

PubMed

The investigators describe their multifaceted approach to the study of the relationship between whole body vibration and low back pain. The epidemiologic study was a two center study of drivers and sedentary workers in the United States and Sweden. The vibration exposure was measured in the vehicles. It was found that the career vibration exposure was related to low back, neck, and shoulder pain. However, disability was related to job satisfaction. In vivo experiments, using percutaneous pin mounted accelerometers have shown that the natural frequency is at 4.5 Hz. The frequency response is affected by posture, seating, and seat back inclination. The response appears to be determined largely by the rocking of the pelvis. Electromyographic studies have shown that muscle fatigue occurs under whole body vibration. After whole body vibration exposure the muscle response to a sudden load has greater latency. Vehicle driving may be a reason for low back pain or herniated nucleus pulposus. Prolonged seating exposure, coupled with the whole body vibration, should be reduced for those recovering from these problems. Vibration attenuating seats and correct ergonomic layout of the cabs may reduce the risks of recurrence. PMID:9755785

Pope, M H; Magnusson, M; Wilder, D G

1998-09-01

15

Cognitive)ehavioral body image therapy for body dysmorphic disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a distressing body image disorder that involves excessive pre- occupation with physical appearance in a normal appearing person. Prior case reports of behavior therapy were encouraging, but no controlled evaluation of behavior therapy or any other type of treatment had been conducted. In the present study, 54 BDD subjects were randomly assigned to cognitive behavior

James C. Rosen; Jeff Reiter; Pam Orosan

1995-01-01

16

Short-term effects of vibration therapy on motor impairments in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Recent studies have suggested that vibration therapy may have a positive influence on motor symptoms in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, quantitative evidence of these benefits is scarce, and the concept of "whole-body" vibration in these studies is vague. The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the influence of vibration on motor symptoms and functional measures in PD by delivering sound waves to the entire body. We delivered whole body sound wave vibration to 40 individuals with PD using a Physioacoustic Chair, a piece of equipment with speakers spaced throughout the chair permitting a series of programmed low frequency sound waves through the body. Using a parallel cross-over design we utilized the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), quantitative gait assessments, and a grooved pegboard for upper limb control. Improvements were seen in all symptom, motor control and functional outcome measures at the time of assessment. Specifically, a significant decrease in rigidity, and tremor were shown, as well as a significant increase in step length and improved speed on the grooved pegboard task. Results of this initial investigation provide support for vibration therapy as a non-pharmacological treatment alternative. Long-term benefits of vibration therapy will require further research. PMID:20037223

King, Lauren K; Almeida, Quincy J; Ahonen, Heidi

2009-01-01

17

Effect of body shape on vibration of electric guitars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The body vibrations of an electric guitar are typically ignored since the string vibrations are converted to sound through the use of a magnetic pickup. However, vibrations in the neck have been shown to cause dead spots at certain fret positions [H. Fleischer, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105, 1330 (1999)]. In this paper we compare the vibrational mode shapes and frequencies of three electric guitars with different body shapes. Two guitars are solid-body electrics: one with a body shape which is symmetric about the neck axis (Epiphone Coronet) and the other which is not (Gibson Explorer). Mode shapes and frequencies are considerably different for the body, though neck vibrations are more closely related. The third guitar is an arched top hollow-body electric (Gibson ES-335). For this guitar, the top and back plates and the air cavities may also contribute to the guitar sound quality. Mode shapes and frequencies are determined from experimental modal analysis using an impact hammer and accelerometer.

Russell, Daniel A.; Haveman, Wesley S.; Broden, Willis; Weibull, N. Pontus

2003-04-01

18

Dual beam Laser Doppler vibrometer with body vibration compensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the development of a novel dual beam laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) that can eliminate the perturbation due to the vibrometer body vibration. Since a residual laser beam from the beam splitter is used and decoupled from main laser beam and a least mean square adaptive algorithm is used to eliminate the perturbation due to the vibrometer body

Hoseong Kim; Younjin Lee; Tae-gyu Chang; Min-Shik Kang

2002-01-01

19

Modeling of human reactions to whole-body vibration.  

PubMed

A computer-automated approach for studying the human body vibration is presented. This includes vertical, horizontal, and torsional vibration. The procedure used is based on Finite Segment Modeling (FSM) of the human body, thus treating it as a mechanical structure. Kane's equations as developed by Huston et al. are used to formulate the governing equations of motion. The connective tissues are modeled by springs and dampers. In addition, the paper presents the transient response of different parts of the body due to a sinusoidal forcing function as well as an impulse function applied to the lower torso in the vertical direction. PMID:3657108

Amirouche, F M

1987-08-01

20

Response of the seated human body to whole-body vertical vibration: biodynamic responses to sinusoidal and random vibration.  

PubMed

The dependence of biodynamic responses of the seated human body on the frequency, magnitude and waveform of vertical vibration has been studied in 20 males and 20 females. With sinusoidal vibration (13 frequencies from 1 to 16 Hz) at five magnitudes (0.1-1.6 ms(-2) r.m.s.) and with random vibration (1-16 Hz) at the same magnitudes, the apparent mass of the body was similar with random and sinusoidal vibration of the same overall magnitude. With increasing magnitude of vibration, the stiffness and damping of a model fitted to the apparent mass reduced and the resonance frequency decreased (from 6.5 to 4.5 Hz). Male and female subjects had similar apparent mass (after adjusting for subject weight) and a similar principal resonance frequency with both random and sinusoidal vibration. The change in biodynamic response with increasing vibration magnitude depends on the frequency of the vibration excitation, but is similar with sinusoidal and random excitation. PMID:24730687

Zhou, Zhen; Griffin, Michael J

2014-01-01

21

Therapeutic impact of low amplitude high frequency whole body vibrations on the osteogenesis imperfecta mouse bone?  

PubMed Central

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is characterized by extremely brittle bone. Currently, bisphosphonate drugs allow a decrease of fracture by inhibiting bone resorption and increasing bone mass but with possible long term side effects. Whole body mechanical vibrations (WBV) treatment may offer a promising route to stimulate bone formation in OI patients as it has exhibited health benefits on both muscle and bone mass in human and animal models. The present study has investigated the effects of WBV (45 Hz, 0.3 g, 15 minutes/days, 5 days/week) in young OI (oim) and wild type female mice from 3 to 8 weeks of age. Vibration therapy resulted in a significant increase in the cortical bone area and cortical thickness in the femur and tibia diaphysis of both vibrated oim and wild type mice compared to sham controls. Trabecular bone was not affected by vibration in the wild type mice; vibrated oim mice, however, exhibited significantly higher trabecular bone volume fraction in the proximal tibia. Femoral stiffness and yield load in three point bending were greater in the vibrated wild type mice than in sham controls, most likely attributed to the increase in femur cortical cross sectional area observed in the ?CT morphology analyses. The vibrated oim mice showed a trend toward improved mechanical properties, but bending data had large standard deviations and there was no significant difference between vibrated and non-vibrated oim mice. No significant difference of the bone apposition was observed in the tibial metaphyseal trabecular bone for both the oim and wild type vibrated mice by histomorphometry analyses of calcein labels. At the mid diaphysis, the cortical bone apposition was not significantly influenced by the WBV treatment in both the endosteum and periosteum of the oim vibrated mice while a significant change is observed in the endosteum of the vibrated wild type mice. As only a weak impact in bone apposition between the vibrated and sham groups is observed in the histological sections, it is possible that WBV reduced bone resorption, resulting in a relative increase in cortical thickness. Whole body vibration appears as a potential effective and innocuous means for increasing bone formation and strength, which is particularly attractive for treating the growing skeleton of children suffering from brittle bone disease or low bone density pathologies without the long term disadvantages of current pharmacological therapies.

Vanleene, Maximilien; Shefelbine, Sandra J.

2013-01-01

22

Therapeutic impact of low amplitude high frequency whole body vibrations on the osteogenesis imperfecta mouse bone.  

PubMed

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is characterized by extremely brittle bone. Currently, bisphosphonate drugs allow a decrease of fracture by inhibiting bone resorption and increasing bone mass but with possible long term side effects. Whole body mechanical vibrations (WBV) treatment may offer a promising route to stimulate bone formation in OI patients as it has exhibited health benefits on both muscle and bone mass in human and animal models. The present study has investigated the effects of WBV (45Hz, 0.3g, 15minutes/days, 5days/week) in young OI (oim) and wild type female mice from 3 to 8weeks of age. Vibration therapy resulted in a significant increase in the cortical bone area and cortical thickness in the femur and tibia diaphysis of both vibrated oim and wild type mice compared to sham controls. Trabecular bone was not affected by vibration in the wild type mice; vibrated oim mice, however, exhibited significantly higher trabecular bone volume fraction in the proximal tibia. Femoral stiffness and yield load in three point bending were greater in the vibrated wild type mice than in sham controls, most likely attributed to the increase in femur cortical cross sectional area observed in the ?CT morphology analyses. The vibrated oim mice showed a trend toward improved mechanical properties, but bending data had large standard deviations and there was no significant difference between vibrated and non-vibrated oim mice. No significant difference of the bone apposition was observed in the tibial metaphyseal trabecular bone for both the oim and wild type vibrated mice by histomorphometry analyses of calcein labels. At the mid diaphysis, the cortical bone apposition was not significantly influenced by the WBV treatment in both the endosteum and periosteum of the oim vibrated mice while a significant change is observed in the endosteum of the vibrated wild type mice. As only a weak impact in bone apposition between the vibrated and sham groups is observed in the histological sections, it is possible that WBV reduced bone resorption, resulting in a relative increase in cortical thickness. Whole body vibration appears as a potential effective and innocuous means for increasing bone formation and strength, which is particularly attractive for treating the growing skeleton of children suffering from brittle bone disease or low bone density pathologies without the long term disadvantages of current pharmacological therapies. PMID:23352925

Vanleene, Maximilien; Shefelbine, Sandra J

2013-04-01

23

Heat transfer on space flight bodies for vibration relaxation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat transfer near stagnation point of blunt bodies in hypersonic low density gas flow was investigated. The dissipation effects of vibration relaxation, as well as that of friction and thermal conduction, were considered. Heat transfer was calculated under space environment conditions and under wind tunnel simulation conditions. Theoretical results agree well with experimental results obtained by various authors.

B. Schmitt-Vonschubert

1975-01-01

24

Steady planar vibrations of an isotropic body with cavities  

SciTech Connect

We solve the planar-deformation problem for a multiconnected isotropic body deformed by a pulsing load. For a circular cylinder with a circular central cavity we give the results of numerical studies of the stress distribution and the frequencies of the natural axisymmetric vibrations.

Zhitnyaya, V.G.

1995-12-25

25

Identification of rigid body properties from vibration measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A knowledge of the rigid body properties of a structure can be important in vibration analysis, control, optimisation and structural dynamic problems in general. Whenever a system has a complicated shape and the location of its centre of mass and inertia tensor cannot be easily determined by purely theoretical tools, it may be convenient to use measured experimental dynamic data

R. A. B. Almeida; A. P. V. Urgueira; N. M. M. Maia

2007-01-01

26

Do whole-body vibrations affect spatial hearing?  

PubMed

To assist the human operator, modern auditory interfaces increasingly rely on sound spatialisation to display auditory information and warning signals. However, we often operate in environments that apply vibrations to the whole body, e.g. when driving a vehicle. Here, we report three experiments investigating the effect of sinusoidal vibrations along the vertical axis on spatial hearing. The first was a free-field, narrow-band noise localisation experiment with 5- Hz vibration at 0.88 ms(- 2). The other experiments used headphone-based sound lateralisation tasks. Experiment 2 investigated the effect of vibration frequency (4 vs. 8 Hz) at two different magnitudes (0.83 vs. 1.65 ms(- 2)) on a left-right discrimination one-interval forced-choice task. Experiment 3 assessed the effect on a two-interval forced-choice location discrimination task with respect to the central and two peripheral reference locations. In spite of the broad range of methods, none of the experiments show a reliable effect of whole-body vibrations on localisation performance. PMID:24783989

Frissen, Ilja; Guastavino, Catherine

2014-07-01

27

Whole body vibration in mountain-rescue operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In mountain-rescue operations injured people are generally exposed to vibrations and shocks that can be potential causes of physical conditions worsening. Such vibrations can derive both from patient's body manipulations (e.g. when it is being loaded and immobilized on a stretcher) and from forces coming from the transport devices and vehicles. Despite the general feeling that during this kind of operations the levels of transmitted vibrations to the injured can be quite large and potentially dangerous, there is practically no study in literature providing reliable parameters (i.e. measurements) to support or dismiss these beliefs. This paper reports the results of a measurement campaign carried-out in order to outline, identify and quantify the excitations a human body is exposed to, during typical transportation phases related to mountain-rescue operations. The work mainly presents and discusses the experimental setup with the aim of focusing on the problems related to this kind of measurements; the results of the experimental campaign carried-out for the measurement of the vibrations undergone by a human body during a simulated rescue operation are presented and discussed as well. Such simulation includes three phases of transportation: on a hand-held stretcher, on an ambulance and on a helicopter. The work is not intended to supply a complete characterization and analysis of vibrations transmission during any rescue operation but just to provide a preliminary overview and to define a measurement method that can be applied for a more comprehensive characterization. With such aims measurements were carried out in on-field situations stated as "typical" by rescue experts and data then analyzed both with standard procedures and algorithms (e.g. ISO 2631s weighting curves) and with the commonly used statistical indexes; in the analysis it is important to be aware that standardized measurement procedures and indexes, created to verify comfort or health-risks of workers, might not fit the case of a generic patient who experienced a serious mountain accident. The work includes also a laboratory activity mainly related to mechanical characterization of the stretcher used in the field tests. The most interesting result of the study is the comparison of the vibration levels in the various rescue phases that, even when using different indicators, shows that the most critical issue is due to hand transportation despite the bad judgment usually expressed for helicopter flight.

Alberti, E.; Chiappa, D.; Moschioni, G.; Saggin, B.; Tarabini, M.

2006-12-01

28

Guidelines for Whole-Body Vibration Health Surveillance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is strong epidemiological evidence that occupational exposure to WBV is associated with an increased risk of low back pain (LBP), sciatic pain, and degenerative changes in the spinal system, including lumbar intervertebral disc disorders. A prototype health surveillance scheme for WBV is presented in this paper. Surveillance is the collection, analysis, and dissemination of data for the purpose of prevention. The aims are to assess health status and diagnose vibration-induced disorders at an early stage, to inform the workers on the potential risk associated with vibration exposure, to give preventive advice to employers and employees and to control whether preventive measures which have been taken, were successful. It is suggested that a pre-placement health examination should be offered to each worker who will be exposed to WBV so as to make the worker aware of the hazards, to obtain baseline health data, and to identify medical conditions that may increase the risk due to WBV. The case history should focus on personal history, work history, and leisure activities involving driving of vehicles. The personal medical history should detail back pain complaints, disorders in the spine, any injuries or surgery to the musculoskeletal system. A physical examination on the lower back should be performed on workers who have experienced LBP symptoms over the past 12 months. The preplacement examination should be followed by periodic health reassessment with a regular interval according to the legislation of the country. It is suggested that periodic medical examination should be made available at least every 2 years to all workers who are exposed to WBV. Any change in vibration exposure at the workplace should be reported by the employer. If an increase in vibration exposure or a change in health status have occurred, the medical re-examination should be offered at shorter intervals at the discretion of the attending physician. There should be a periodic medical examination, which includes recording any change in exposure to WBV. The findings for the individual should be compared with previous examinations. Group data should also be compiled periodically. Medical removal may be considered along with re-placement in working practices without exposure to WBV. This paper presents opinions on health surveillance for whole-body vibration developed within a working group of partners funded on a European Community Network (BIOMED2 concerted action BMH4-CT98-3251: Research network on detection and prevention of injuries due to occupational vibration exposures). The health surveillance protocol and the draft questionnaire with explanation comments are presented for wider consideration by the science community and others before being considered appropriate for implementation.

POPE, M.; MAGNUSSON, M.; LUNDSTRÖM, R.; HULSHOF, C.; VERBEEK, J.; BOVENZI, M.

2002-05-01

29

A multiple scales approach to sound generation by vibrating bodies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of determining the acoustic field in an inviscid, isentropic fluid generated by a solid body whose surface executes prescribed vibrations is formulated and solved as a multiple scales perturbation problem, using the Mach number M based on the maximum surface velocity as the perturbation parameter. Following the idea of multiple scales, new 'slow' spacial scales are introduced, which are defined as the usual physical spacial scale multiplied by powers of M. The governing nonlinear differential equations lead to a sequence of linear problems for the perturbation coefficient functions. However, it is shown that the higher order perturbation functions obtained in this manner will dominate the lower order solutions unless their dependence on the slow spacial scales is chosen in a certain manner. In particular, it is shown that the perturbation functions must satisfy an equation similar to Burgers' equation, with a slow spacial scale playing the role of the time-like variable. The method is illustrated by a simple one-dimenstional example, as well as by three different cases of a vibrating sphere. The results are compared with solutions obtained by purely numerical methods and some insights provided by the perturbation approach are discussed.

Geer, James F.; Pope, Dennis S.

1992-01-01

30

Effect of whole body vibration applied on upper extremity muscles.  

PubMed

The acute residual effect of whole body vibration (WBV) on upper extremity muscles and testosterone secretion was studied. Eight highly (G1), nine moderately trained gymnasts (G2) and seven physically active persons (CG) were recruited for the investigation. The intervention occurred in push-up position with the elbow flexed at 90°. G1 and G2 received 30 s, 30 Hz and 6 mm amplitude vibration repeated five times. Subjects were tested before and after one and ten minutes intervention in push-up movement. Contact time (Tc), fly time (Tf), TF/Tc ratio and impulse was measured from the ground reaction force-time curves recorded during self-selected (SSRM) and full range of motion (FRM). Testosterone level in urine was also determined. Tf increased significantly in SSRM for G1 and decreased in SSRM and FRM for G2. Tf/Tc ratio in FRM and impulse in SSRM increased significantly for G1 only. No significant alteration in testosterone level was observed. We concluded that WBV is a reasonable training modality for influencing dynamic work of upper extremity muscle, but the reaction to WBV is training and individual dependent. It seems that WBV do not influence dynamic work through increased testosterone secretion because of the relatively low mass of the involved muscles. PMID:23232701

Gyulai, G; Rácz, L; Di Giminiani, R; Tihanyi, József

2013-03-01

31

Whole-body vibration during manual wheelchair propulsion with selected seat cushions and back supports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the exposure to whole-body vibrations (WBV) has been shown to be detrimental to seated humans, the effects of wheelchairs and seating systems on the transmission of vibration to an individual have not been thoroughly examined. The purpose of this study was to determine if the selected wheelchair seat cushions and back supports minimize the transmission of vibrations. Thirty-two wheelchair

Carmen P. DiGiovine; Rory A. Cooper; Shirley G. Fitzgerald; Michael L. Boninger; Erik J. Wolf; Songfeng Guo

2003-01-01

32

Phenomena and modelling of flow-induced vibrations of bluff bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed treatment is undertaken of the transverse vibrations of single long bodies of bluff section in steady incident flow normal to their span. 'Bluff section' is understood to refer to one from which the flow separates, producing two shear layers that bound a relatively broad wake. The transverse vibrations are galloping and vortex-induced. Galloping is a self-excited vibration in

Geoffrey Parkinson

1989-01-01

33

Stereotactic body radiation therapy for liver metastases  

PubMed Central

Over the years, early diagnosis of metastatic disease has improved and the prevalence of oligometastatic patients is increasing. Liver is a most common site of progression from gastrointestinal, lung and breast cancer and in the setting of oligometastatic patients, surgical resection is associated with increased survival. Approximately 70-90% of liver metastases, however, are unresectable and an effective and safe alternative therapeutic option is necessary for these patients. The role of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) was investigated in the treatment of oligometastatic patients with promising results, thanks to the ability of this procedure to deliver a conformal high dose of radiation to the target lesion and a minimal dose to surrounding critical tissues. This paper was performed to review the current literature and to provide the practice guidelines on the use of stereotactic body radiotherapy in the treatment of liver metastases. We performed a literature search using Medical Subject Heading terms “SBRT” and “liver metastases”, considering a period of ten years.

Clerici, Elena; Comito, Tiziana

2014-01-01

34

Vibrational many-body methods for molecules and extended systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibrational many-body methods for molecules and extended systems have been developed that can account for the effects of anharmonicity in the potential energy surfaces (PESs) on energies and other observable properties. For molecules, we present a general scheme to calculate anharmonic vibrational frequencies and vibrationally-averaged structures along with applications to some key species in hydrocarbon combustion chemistry: HCO+, HCO, HNO, HOO, HOO--, CH3+, and CH3. We propose a hybrid, compact representation of PESs that combines the merits of two existing representations, which are a quartic force field (QFF) and numerical values on a rectilinear grid. We employed a combination of coupled-cluster singles and doubles (CCSD), CCSD with a second-order perturbation correction in the space of triples [CCSD(2)T] and in the space of triples and quadruples [CCSD(2)TQ], and a correlation-consistent basis set series to achieve the complete-correlation, complete-basis-set limits of the potential energy surfaces. The mean absolute deviation between the predicted and the observed frequencies is 11 cm --1. For extended systems, we generalized the formulations of the vibrational self-consistent field (VSCF), vibrational Moller--Plesset perturbation (VMP), and vibrational coupled-cluster (VCC) methods on the basis of a QFF in normal coordinates. We have identified algebraically and eliminated several terms in the formalisms of VSCF that have nonphysical size dependence, leading to compact and strictly size-extensive equations. This size-extensive VSCF method (XVSCF) thus defined has no contributions from cubic force constants and alters only the transition energies of the underlying harmonic-oscillator reference from a subset of quartic force constants. The mean-field potential of XVSCF felt by each mode is shown to be effectively harmonic, making the XVSCF equations subject to a self-consistent analytical solution without a basis-set expansion and matrix diagonalization, which are necessary in VSCF. We implemented the XVSCF method for finite systems, and applied it to polyacenes up to tetracene as well as to a model system of a linear chain of masses interacting through a quartic force field. We showed that the results of XVSCF and VSCF approach each other as the size of the system is increased, implicating the inclusion of unnecessary, nonphysical terms in VSCF. We have also shown that apart from reducing the scaling of the VSCF calculation from quartic to quadratic, XVSCF is nearly three orders of magnitude faster than VSCF implemented with a reduced set of force constants. The second-order VMP and VCC methods based on the XVSCF reference are shown to account for anharmonic effects due to all cubic and quartic force constants in a size-extensive fashion.

Keceli, Murat

35

Subjective and biomechanical responses to complex whole-body vibration stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

When an individual is exposed to whole-body vibration they are almost always exposed to vibration that occurs in the fore-and-aft, lateral and vertical directions simultaneously. In many cases there can also be significant components of roll, pitch and yaw. Despite the nature of vibration exposure being complex, almost all laboratory studies of the subjective and biomechanical responses to vibration have

Neil J Mansfield; Setsuo Maeda

36

Acute whole-body vibration does not affect static jump performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, whole-body vibration is being used to promote enhanced performance. Many coaches and athletes believe that it can acutely enhance explosive performance and power output. However, the scientific literature is unclear as to whether this enhancement occurs. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of whole-body vibration on static jump performance, including jump height, peak force,

Ashley Kavanaugh; Michael W. Ramsey; William A. Sands; G. Gregory Haff; Michael H. Stone

2011-01-01

37

Biodynamic response of the human body in the sitting position when subjected to vertical vibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies of the location of those areas in which the sensation of vibration is perceived under whole body vertical vibration have underlined the predominance of the relative movement between thorax and pelvis. Experiments were designed to explore systematically the transmissibility between the pelvis and thorax. These were supplemented by measurements of mechanical impedance of the body and absorbed power.

P. M. Donati; C. Bonthoux

1983-01-01

38

Two-degree-of-freedom controller to reduce the vibration of vehicle engine-body system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) controller which is formed by combining a feedback controller with a feedforward controller to control the vibration of the vehicle engine-body system. The robust feedback controller is designed by ?-synthesis to attenuate the effect of the engine vibration disturbance by modeling the vehicle engine-body system as a nominal 4-DOF vibration system with parameter variations

Jianming Yang; Yoshikazu Suematsu; Zibo Kang

2001-01-01

39

Neuromuscular fatigue induced by whole-body vibration exercise.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the magnitude and the origin of neuromuscular fatigue induced by half-squat static whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise, and to compare it to a non-WBV condition. Nine healthy volunteers completed two fatiguing protocols (WBV and non-WBV, randomly presented) consisting of five 1-min bouts of static half-squat exercise with a load corresponding to 50 % of their individual body mass. Neuromuscular fatigue of knee and ankle muscles was investigated before and immediately after each fatiguing protocol. The main outcomes were maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque, voluntary activation, and doublet peak torque. Knee extensor MVC torque decreased significantly (P < 0.01) and to the same extent after WBV (-23 %) and non-WBV (-25 %), while knee flexor, plantar flexor, and dorsiflexor MVC torque was not affected by the treatments. Voluntary activation of knee extensor and plantar flexor muscles was unaffected by the two fatiguing protocols. Doublet peak torque decreased significantly and to a similar extent following WBV and non-WBV exercise, for both knee extensors (-25 %; P < 0.01) and plantar flexors (-7 %; P < 0.05). WBV exercise with additional load did not accentuate fatigue and did not change its causative factors compared to non-WBV half-squat resistive exercise in recreationally active subjects. PMID:23344670

Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Saugy, Jonas; Cardinale, Marco; Micallef, Jean-Paul; Place, Nicolas

2013-06-01

40

[The effect of whole-body vibration: an unrecognized medical problem].  

PubMed

Exposure to whole-body vibration is a growing concern in industry, traffic and in other branches of the economy. This harmful physical factor endangers work efficiency and human health not only at work but also in everyday life, in public transportation and even at home. In spite of increasing exposure to vibrations, our medical practice does not pay adequate attention to the health effects of whole-body vibration. The paper deals with the basic characteristics of vibration (frequency, amplitude, velocity and acceleration), its adequate evaluation (effective or weighted average value, peak values, rating and weighting procedure of vibration measurement) and exposure (vibration direction, exposure time, transmission and dissipation). In industry and traffic, vibrations present complex oscillatory motions, characterized by a wide frequency spectrum, variable amplitude and acceleration, and different directions. To assess the harmful effects of vibration, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has proposed three standards for acceptable human exposure to whole-body vibration: fatigue-decreased proficiency boundary, exposure limit and reduced comfort boundary. Quantitative parameters of vibration for some vehicles, and for constructional, industrial and agricultural machinery are also given. The most pronounced long-term effect of whole-body vibration is damage to the spine. The spinal region most frequently affected is the lumbar part, where spinal deformation, lumbago and sciatica can develop. The possible cause of spinal damage could be mechanical overload and metabolic changes of the intervertebral disc. Other organ systems, such as peripheral and autonomic nervous, vestibular, vascular, digestive and female reproductive systems are also liable to become affected. Risk assessment of chronic health effects is based on the appropriate evaluation of whole-body vibration exposure and individual response. Health risk increases with the intensity and duration of vibration exposure. The concomitant factors are forced sitting posture and heavy physical work. Human response to whole-body vibration depends on factors promoting the development of degenerative changes such as constitution, previous spine disease and young age. The main problems in diagnosing whole-body vibration syndrome are differentiation of vibration induced disorders from age dependent changes of the spine and lack of a specific diagnostic method for assessing those changes. Therefore, only permanent medical surveillance can guarantee proper assessment of the damage induced by whole-body vibration. For vibration exposed workers preplacement and periodic examinations are recommended. Those should include a basic medical examination and an X-ray of the spine, or at least of its lumbar part. PMID:8311700

Bogadi-Sare, A

1993-09-01

41

Using consumer electronic devices to estimate whole-body vibration exposure.  

PubMed

The cost and complexity of commercially available devices for measuring whole-body vibration is a barrier to the systematic collection of the information required to manage this hazard at workplaces. The potential for a consumer electronic device to be used to estimate whole-body vibration was assessed by use of an accelerometer calibrator, and by collecting 42 simultaneous pairs of measurements from a fifth-generation iPod Touch and one of two gold standard vibration measurement devices (Svantech SV111 [Svantech, Warsaw, Poland] or Brüel & Kjær 4447 [Brüel & Kjær Sound & Vibration Measurement A/S, Nærum, Denmark]) while driving light vehicles on a variety of different roadway surfaces. While sampling rate limitations make the accelerometer data collected from the iPod Touch unsuitable for frequency analysis, the vibration amplitudes recorded are sufficiently accurate (errors less than 0.1 m/s(2)) to assist workplaces manage whole-body vibration exposures. PMID:24498944

Wolfgang, Rebecca; Burgess-Limerick, Robin

2014-01-01

42

Does body mass index increase the risk of low back pain in a population exposed to whole body vibration?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine whether body mass index (BMI) influences the risk of low back pain (LBP) in a population exposed to whole body vibration (WBV). For this a self-administered questionnaire was sent to 467 participants, driving occupational vehicles. Vibration measurements were performed according to ISO 2631–1 on a representative sample (n=30) of this population. For

Daniëlle Noorloos; Linda Tersteeg; Ivo J. H. Tiemessen; Carel T. J. Hulshof; Monique H. W. Frings-Dresen

2008-01-01

43

A Comparison of Whole-Body Vibration and Resistance Training on Total Work in the Rotator Cuff  

PubMed Central

Abstract Context: Whole-body vibration machines are a relatively new technology being implemented in the athletic setting. Numerous authors have examined the proposed physiologic mechanisms of vibration therapy and performance outcomes. Changes have mainly been observed in the lower extremity after individual exercises, with minimal attention to the upper extremity and resistance training programs. Objective: To examine the effects of a novel vibration intervention directed at the upper extremity as a precursor to a supervised, multijoint dynamic resistance training program. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA institution. Patients or Other Participants: Thirteen female student-athletes were divided into the following 2 treatment groups: (1) whole-body vibration and resistance training or (2) resistance training only. Intervention(s): Participants in the vibration and resistance training group used an experimental vibration protocol of 2 × 60 seconds at 4 mm and 50 Hz, in a modified push-up position, 3 times per week for 10 weeks, just before their supervised resistance training session. Main Outcome Measure(s): Isokinetic total work measurements of the rotator cuff were collected at baseline and at week 5 and week 10. Results: No differences were found between the treatment groups (P > .05). However, rotator cuff output across time increased in both groups (P < .05). Conclusions: Although findings did not differ between the groups, the use of whole-body vibration as a precursor to multijoint exercises warrants further investigation because of the current lack of literature on the topic. Our results indicate that indirectly strengthening the rotator cuff using a multijoint dynamic resistance training program is possible.

Hand, Jason; Verscheure, Susan; Osternig, Louis

2009-01-01

44

Non-linear dual-axis biodynamic response to vertical whole-body vibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seated human subjects have been exposed to vertical whole-body vibration so as to investigate the non-linearity in their biodynamic responses and quantify the response in directions other than the direction of excitation. Twelve males were exposed to random vertical vibration in the frequency range 0.25–25Hz at four vibration magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.625, and 1.25ms?2r.m.s.). The subjects sat in four sitting

N. Nawayseh; M. J Griffin

2003-01-01

45

Coupled rotor-body vibrations with inplane degrees of freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an effort to understand the vibration mechanisms of helicopters, the following basic studies are considered. A coupled rotor-fuselage vibration analysis including inplane degrees of freedom of both rotor and airframe is performed by matching of rotor and fuselage impedances at the hub. A rigid blade model including hub motion is used to set up the rotor flaplag equations. For the airframe, 9 degrees of freedom and hub offsets are used. The equations are solved by harmonic balance. For a 4-bladed rotor, the coupled responses and hub loads are calculated for various parameters in forward flight. The results show that the addition of inplane degrees of freedom does not significantly affect the vertical vibrations for the cases considered, and that inplane vibrations have similar resonance trends as do flapping vibrations.

Ming-Sheng, H.; Peters, D. A.

1985-01-01

46

Electromagnetic vibration transducer using polyimide elastic body for implantable middle ear hearing aid  

Microsoft Academic Search

For use as an implantable middle ear hearing aid, vibration transducer should have small size, high-energy efficiency and suitable frequency bandwidth. In order to optimize the electromagnetic force for greatest efficiency, finite element analysis (FEA) simulation was preformed. Additionally, for the investigation of frequency characteristics of vibration transducer, four FEA models of polyimide elastic body were presented and simulation was

Ki-Chan Lee; Jin-Ho Cho; Sang-Heun Lee

2002-01-01

47

Measurement of whole-body vibration exposure from speed control humps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of speed control humps is to introduce shocks and high vibration levels when a car passes over them if its speed is higher than the allowable limit. Hump geometry is a major factor in altering the level of these shocks and specifying the speed limit. However, there is no study of the relationship between whole body vibration

E. Khorshid; F. Alkalby; H. Kamal

2007-01-01

48

Stochastic Resonance Whole-Body Vibration, Musculoskeletal Symptoms, and Body Balance: A Worksite Training Study  

PubMed Central

Background Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training (SR-WBV) was tested to reduce work-related musculoskeletal complaints. Methods Participants were 54 white-collar employees of a Swiss organization. The controlled crossover design comprised two groups each given 4 weeks of exercise and no training during a second 4-week period. Outcome was daily musculoskeletal well-being, musculoskeletal pain, and surefootedness. In addition, participants performed a behavioral test on body balance prior to when SR-WBV started and after 4 weeks of SR-WBV. Results Across the 4-week training period, musculoskeletal well-being and surefootedness were significantly increased (p < 0.05), whereas musculoskeletal pain was significantly reduced only in those who reported low back pain during the last 4 weeks prior to the study (p < 0.05). Body balance was significantly increased by SR-WBV (p < 0.05). Conclusion SR-WBV seems to be an efficient option in primary prevention of musculoskeletal complaints and falls at work.

Elfering, Achim; Arnold, Sibille; Schade, Volker; Burger, Christian; Radlinger, Lorenz

2013-01-01

49

Stereotactic body radiation therapy: a comprehensive review.  

PubMed

Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a novel technique that takes advantage of the technologic advancements in image guidance and radiation dose delivery to direct ablative doses to tumors with acceptable toxicity that was not previously achievable with conventional techniques. SBRT requires a high degree of confidence in tumor location provided by high quality diagnostic and near real-time imaging studies for accurate treatment delivery and precise assessment of physiologic tumor motion. In addition, stringent dosimetric parameters must be applied, paying close attention to the spatial arrangement of functional subunits in the adjacent normal tissues, to optimize clinical outcomes. Phase I/II trials for tumors of the lung, liver, spine, pancreas, kidney, and prostate provide evidence that the potent doses delivered with SBRT may provide results that rival surgery while avoiding the typical morbidities associated with that invasive approach. Further clinical study in the form of multi-institutional Phase II trials is currently underway, and ultimately collaborative efforts on a national level to support Phase III trials will be necessary, to firmly establish SBRT as a comparable noninvasive alternative to surgery. PMID:18091059

Chang, Brian K; Timmerman, Robert D

2007-12-01

50

Whole-Body-Vibration–Induced Increase in Leg Muscle Activity During Different Squat Exercises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roelants, M., S.M.P. Verschueren, C. Delecluse, O. Levin, and V. Stijnen. Whole-body-vibration-induced increase in leg muscle activity during different squat exercises. J. Strength Cond. Res. 20(1):124-129. 2006.—This study analyzed leg mus- cle activity during whole-body vibration (WBV) training. Sub- jects performed standard unloaded isometric exercises on a vi- brating platform (Power Plate): high squat (HS), low squat (LS), and 1-legged

Machteld Roelants; Sabine M. P. Verschueren; Christophe Delecluse; Oron Levin; Valère Stijnen

2006-01-01

51

Strength Increase after Whole-Body Vibration Compared with Resistance Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

DELECLUSE, C., M. ROELANTS, and S. VERSCHUEREN. Strength Increase after Whole-Body Vibration Compared with Resistance Training. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 35, No. 6, pp. 1033-1041, 2003. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate and to compare the effect of a 12-wk period of whole-body vibration training and resistance training on human knee-extensor strength. Methods: Sixty-seven untrained females

CHRISTOPHE DELECLUSE; MACHTELD ROELANTS; SABINE VERSCHUEREN

2003-01-01

52

Vibration energy absorption in the whole-body system of a tractor operator.  

PubMed

Many people are exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) in their occupational lives, especially drivers of vehicles such as tractor and trucks. The main categories of effects from WBV are perception degraded comfort interference with activities-impaired health and occurrence of motion sickness. Absorbed power is defined as the power dissipated in a mechanical system as a result of an applied force. The vibration-induced injuries or disorders in a substructure of the human system are primarily associated with the vibration power absorption distributed in that substructure. The vibration power absorbed by the exposed body is a measure that combines both the vibration hazard and the biodynamic response of the body. The article presents measurement method for determining vibration power dissipated in the human whole body system called Vibration Energy Absorption (VEA). The vibration power is calculated from the real part of the force-velocity cross-spectrum. The absorbed power in the frequency domain can be obtained from the cross-spectrum of the force and velocity. In the context of the vibration energy transferred to a seated human body, the real component reflects the energy dissipated in the biological structure per unit of time, whereas the imaginary component reflects the energy stored/released by the system. The seated human is modeled as a series/parallel 4-DOF dynamic models. After introduction of the excitation, the response in particular segments of the model can be analyzed. As an example, the vibration power dissipated in an operator has been determined as a function of the agricultural combination operating speed 1.39 - 4.16 ms (-1) . PMID:24959797

Szczepaniak, Jan; Tana?, Wojciech; Kromulski, Jacek

2014-06-10

53

Nonlinear dual-axis biodynamic response of the semi-supine human body during longitudinal horizontal whole-body vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The resonance frequencies in frequency response functions of the human body (e.g. apparent mass and transmissibility) decrease with increasing vibration magnitude. This nonlinear biodynamic response is found with various sitting and standing postures requiring postural control. The present study measured the apparent mass of the body in a relaxed semi-supine posture with two types of longitudinal horizontal vibration (in the z-axis of the semi-supine body): (i) continuous random excitation (0.25-20 Hz) at five magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 ms -2 rms); (ii) intermittent random excitation (0.25-20 Hz) alternately at 0.25 and 1.0 ms -2 rms. With continuous random vibration, the dominant primary resonance frequency in the median normalised apparent mass decreased from 3.7 to 2.4 Hz as the vibration magnitude increased from 0.125 to 1.0 ms -2 rms. A nonlinear response was apparent in both the horizontal ( z-axis) apparent mass and the vertical ( x-axis) cross-axis apparent mass. With intermittent random vibration, as the vibration magnitude increased from 0.25 to 1.0 ms -2 rms, the median resonance frequency of the apparent mass decreased from 3.2 to 2.5 Hz whereas, with continuous random vibration over the same range of magnitudes, the resonance frequency decreased from 3.4 to 2.4 Hz. The median change in the resonance frequency (between 0.25 and 1.0 ms -2 rms) was 0.6 Hz with the intermittent random vibration and 0.9 Hz with the continuous random vibration. With intermittent vibration, the resonance frequency was higher at the high magnitude and lower at the low magnitude than with continuous vibration at the same magnitudes. The responses were consistent with passive thixotropy being a primary cause of nonlinear biodynamic responses to whole-body vibration, although reflex activity of the muscles may also have an influence.

Huang, Ya; Griffin, Michael J.

2008-04-01

54

Whole-body vibration applied during upper body exercise improves performance.  

PubMed

Whole-body vibration (WBV) training has exercisers perform static and dynamic resistance training exercises on a ground-based platform. Exposure to WBV exposure has demonstrated benefits and no effect on lower body strength, power, and performance. The aim of this study was to determine if WBV exposure (50 Hz, 2.51 mm) has any potentiating effects postexercise by measuring the kinematic variables of a set of upper body elbow-extensor exercise (70% one-repetition maximum [1RM]) to volitional exhaustion. Sixteen recreationally active students (12 male and 4 female) performed 3 different experimental conditions on separate days. Each condition had the subjects perform 1 set of elbow-extension exercise to fatigue with 1 of 3 WBV treatments: WBV simultaneously during the set (AE); 60 seconds after application of WBV for 30 seconds (RE); and no WBV (CTRL). Kinematic parameters of each repetition were monitored by linking a rotary encoder to the highest load plate. The mean velocity and acceleration throughout the set and perceived exertion were analyzed. A significant increase (p < 0.05) was observed in the mean velocity for the whole set in the AE condition vs. the CTRL condition. The mean acceleration was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the AE condition in comparison with RE (increased by 45.3%) and CTRL (increased by 50.4%) conditions. The positive effect induced by WBV on upper-limb performance is only achieved when the stimulus is applied during the exercise. However, WBV applied 60 seconds before upper body exercise results in no benefit. PMID:23085972

Marín, Pedro J; Herrero, Azael J; Milton, John G; Hazell, Tom J; García-López, David

2013-07-01

55

Dynamic Response of the Standing Human Body Exposed to Vertical Vibration: Influence of Posture and Vibration Magnitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of the posture of the legs and the vibration magnitude on the dynamic response of the standing human body exposed to vertical whole-body vibration has been investigated. Motions were measured on the body surface at the first and eighth thoracic and fourth lumbar vertebrae (T1, T8 and L4), at the right and left iliac crests and at the knee. Twelve subjects took part in the experiment with three leg postures (normal, legs bent and one leg), and five magnitudes of random vibration (0·125-2·0 ms-2r.m.s.) in the frequency range from 0[msde]5-30 Hz. The main resonance frequencies of the apparent masses at 1·0 ms-2r.m.s. differed between postures: 5·5 Hz in the normal posture, 2·75 Hz in the legs bent posture and 3·75 Hz in the one leg posture. In the normal posture, the transmissibilities to L4 and the iliac crests showed a similar trend to the apparent mass at low frequencies. With the legs straight, no resonance was observed in the legs at frequencies below 15 Hz. In the legs bent posture, a bending motion of the legs at the knee and a pitching or bending motion of the upper-body appeared to contribute to the resonance of the whole body as observed in the apparent mass, with attenuation of vibration transmission to the upper body at high frequencies. In the one leg posture, coupled rotational motion of the whole upper-body about the hip joint may have contributed to the resonance observed in the apparent mass at low frequencies and the attenuation of vertical vibration transmission at high frequencies. The resonance frequency of the apparent mass in the normal posture decreased from 6·75-5·25 Hz with increasing vibration magnitude from 0·125 to 2·0 ms-2r.m.s. This “softening” effect was also found in the transmissibilities to many parts of the body that showed resonances.

Matsumoto, Y.; Griffin, M. J.

1998-04-01

56

Apparent Mass and Absorbed Power during Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration and Repeated Shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure to mechanical shocks might pose a greater health risk than exposure to continuous vibration. Previous studies have investigated subjective responses, muscle activity or transmission of vibration to the spine or head during shock. If there is a difference between biomechanic responses of the seated body to shocks when compared to continuous vibration, then this may indicate a more, or less, hazardous vibration waveform. This paper presents measurements of apparent mass and absorbed power during exposure to random vibration, repeated shocks and combinations of shocks and random vibration. Eleven male and 13 female subjects were exposed to 15 vibration conditions generated using an electro-dynamic shaker. Subjects were exposed to five 20 s acceleration waveforms with nominally identical power spectra (random vibration, equally spaced shocks, unequally spaced shocks, random combined with equally spaced shocks, random combined with unequally spaced shocks) at each of 0·5, 1·0 and 1·5 m/s2r.m.s. The general shapes of the apparent mass or absorbed power curves were not affected by stimulus type, indicating that the biomechanical response of the body is fundamentally the same when exposed to shocks or random vibration. Two non-linear effects were observed: apparent mass resonance frequencies were slightly higher for exposure to shocks; apparent mass and absorbed power resonance frequencies decreased with increases in vibration magnitude for each stimulus type. It is concluded that the two non-linear mechanisms operate simultaneously: a stiffening effect during exposure to shocks and a softening effect as vibration magnitudes increase. Total absorbed powers were greatest for shock stimuli and least for random vibration.

MANSFIELD, N. J.; HOLMLUND, P.; LUNDSTRÖM, R.

2001-11-01

57

Nonlinear dual-axis biodynamic response of the semi-supine human body during vertical whole-body vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonlinear biodynamic responses are evident in many studies of the apparent masses of sitting and standing subjects in static postures that require muscle activity for postural control. In the present study, 12 male subjects adopted a relaxed semi-supine posture assumed to involve less muscle activity than during static sitting and standing. The supine subjects were exposed to two types of vertical vibration (in the x-axis of the semi-supine body): (i) continuous random vibration (0.25-20 Hz) at five magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 m s -2 rms); (ii) intermittent random vibration (0.25-20 Hz) alternately at 0.25 and 1.0 m s -2 rms. With continuous random vibration, the dominant primary resonance frequency in the median normalised apparent mass decreased from 10.35 to 7.32 Hz as the vibration magnitude increased from 0.125 to 1.0 m s -2 rms. This nonlinear response was apparent in both the vertical ( x-axis) apparent mass and in the horizontal ( z-axis) cross-axis apparent mass. As the vibration magnitude increased from 0.25 to 1.0 m s -2 rms, the median resonance frequency of the apparent mass with intermittent random vibration decreased from 9.28 to 8.06 Hz whereas, over the same range of magnitudes with continuous random vibration, the resonance frequency decreased from 9.62 to 7.81 Hz. The median change in the resonance frequency (between 0.25 and 1.0 m s -2 rms) was 1.37 Hz with the intermittent random vibration and 1.71 with the continuous random vibration. With the intermittent vibration, the resonance frequency was higher at the high magnitude and lower at the low magnitude than with continuous vibration of the same magnitudes. The response was typical of thixotropy that may be a primary cause of the nonlinear biodynamic responses to whole-body vibration.

Huang, Ya; Griffin, Michael J.

2008-04-01

58

Body awareness therapy for patients with fibromyalgia and chronic pain.  

PubMed

There are several therapies designed to increase body awareness. They are commonly known as body awareness therapies (BAT) and include Basic BAT, Mensendieck and Feldenkrais therapy. A focus on emotions is important in all these therapies. In this article the aim and development of Basic BAT is described together with evaluations of treatments including Basic BAT. Multidisciplinary studies have shown that Basic BAT can increase health-related quality of life and cost-effectiveness. However Basic BAT needs to be further studied in relation to patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and chronic pain. Studies so far indicate that Basic BAT has positive effects. PMID:16012065

Gard, Gunvor

2005-06-17

59

Effects of seated posture on erector spinae EMG activity during whole body vibration.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the electromyographic (EMG) response of the erector spinae to whole body vibration in three different unsupported seated postures: neutral upright, forward lean, and posterior lean. Subjects were 11 healthy college-age men. EMG was collected using bipolar surface electrodes placed bilaterally over the erector spinae at the L4 level. A modified chair with attached accelerometer was affixed to an induction type vibrator. Subjects were vibrated vertically at 4.5 Hz and 6.21 m.s-2 RMS. Data were collected in each of the three postures for 30 s pre- and post-vibration and for 2 min during vibration. Mean EMG values were determined for each sampling period and compared using ANOVA. The mean value for anterior lean was significantly larger (p < 0.05) than that for posterior lean and neutral. EMG data analysed by triggered averaging showed a phase-dependent response to the vibratory cycle for the forward leaning and neutral upright postures. The results of this study indicate that the magnitude of the vibration synchronous response of the erector spinae musculature is dependent upon body posture. This response may be an important factor in the onset of muscular fatigue and the increased incidence of back disorders among individuals exposed to whole body vibration. PMID:8513774

Zimmermann, C L; Cook, T M; Goel, V K

1993-06-01

60

Transverse vibration and buckling of a cantilevered beam with tip body under axial acceleration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transverse vibration and buckling of a cantilevered beam subject to constant axial acceleration with rigid tip body is investigated. Two classes of tip bodies are recognized: those with mass centers located along the beam tip tangent line, and those with mass centers having an arbitrary offset with respect to the beam attachment point (but not lying along the beam

J. Storch; S. Gates

1985-01-01

61

Body Awareness: a phenomenological inquiry into the common ground of mind-body therapies  

PubMed Central

Enhancing body awareness has been described as a key element or a mechanism of action for therapeutic approaches often categorized as mind-body approaches, such as yoga, TaiChi, Body-Oriented Psychotherapy, Body Awareness Therapy, mindfulness based therapies/meditation, Feldenkrais, Alexander Method, Breath Therapy and others with reported benefits for a variety of health conditions. To better understand the conceptualization of body awareness in mind-body therapies, leading practitioners and teaching faculty of these approaches were invited as well as their patients to participate in focus groups. The qualitative analysis of these focus groups with representative practitioners of body awareness practices, and the perspectives of their patients, elucidated the common ground of their understanding of body awareness. For them body awareness is an inseparable aspect of embodied self awareness realized in action and interaction with the environment and world. It is the awareness of embodiment as an innate tendency of our organism for emergent self-organization and wholeness. The process that patients undergo in these therapies was seen as a progression towards greater unity between body and self, very similar to the conceptualization of embodiment as dialectic of body and self described by some philosophers as being experienced in distinct developmental levels.

2011-01-01

62

Body Awareness: a phenomenological inquiry into the common ground of mind-body therapies.  

PubMed

Enhancing body awareness has been described as a key element or a mechanism of action for therapeutic approaches often categorized as mind-body approaches, such as yoga, TaiChi, Body-Oriented Psychotherapy, Body Awareness Therapy, mindfulness based therapies/meditation, Feldenkrais, Alexander Method, Breath Therapy and others with reported benefits for a variety of health conditions. To better understand the conceptualization of body awareness in mind-body therapies, leading practitioners and teaching faculty of these approaches were invited as well as their patients to participate in focus groups. The qualitative analysis of these focus groups with representative practitioners of body awareness practices, and the perspectives of their patients, elucidated the common ground of their understanding of body awareness. For them body awareness is an inseparable aspect of embodied self awareness realized in action and interaction with the environment and world. It is the awareness of embodiment as an innate tendency of our organism for emergent self-organization and wholeness. The process that patients undergo in these therapies was seen as a progression towards greater unity between body and self, very similar to the conceptualization of embodiment as dialectic of body and self described by some philosophers as being experienced in distinct developmental levels. PMID:21473781

Mehling, Wolf E; Wrubel, Judith; Daubenmier, Jennifer J; Price, Cynthia J; Kerr, Catherine E; Silow, Theresa; Gopisetty, Viranjini; Stewart, Anita L

2011-01-01

63

Varying whole body vibration amplitude differentially affects tendon and ligament structural and material properties  

PubMed Central

Whole Body Vibration (WBV) is becoming increasingly popular for helping to maintain bone mass and strengthening muscle. Vibration regimens optimized for bone maintenance often operate at hypogravity levels (<1 G) and regimens for muscle strengthening often employ hypergravity (>1 G) vibrations. The effect of vibratory loads on tendon and ligament properties is unclear though excessive vibrations may be injurious. Our objective was to evaluate how tendon gene expression and the mechanical/histological properties of tendon and ligament were affected in response to WBV in the following groups: no vibration, low vibration (0.3 G peak-to-peak), and high vibration (2 G peak-to-peak). Rats were vibrated for 20 min a day, 5 days a week, for 5 weeks. Upon sacrifice, the medial collateral ligament (MCL), patellar tendon (PT), and the Achilles Tendon (AT) were isolated with insertion sites intact. All tissues were tensile tested to determine structural and material properties or used for histology. Patellar tendon was also subjected to quantitative RT-PCR to evaluate expression of anabolic and catabolic genes. No differences in biomechanical data between the control and the low vibration groups were found. There was evidence of significant weakness in the MCL with high vibration, but no significant effect on the PT or AT. Histology of the MCL and PT showed a hypercellular tissue response and some fiber disorganization with high vibration. High vibration caused an increase in collagen expression and a trend for an increase in IGF-1 expression suggesting a potential anabolic response to prevent tendon overuse injury.

Keller, Benjamin V.; Davis, Matthew L.; Thompson, William R.; Dahners, Laurence E.; Weinhold, Paul S.

2014-01-01

64

A pilot study on the human body vibration induced by low frequency noise.  

PubMed

To understand the basic characteristics of the human body vibration induced by low frequency noise and to use it to evaluate the effects on health, we designed a measuring method with a miniature accelerometer and carried out preliminary measurements. Vibration was measured on the chest and abdomen of 6 male subjects who were exposed to pure tones in the frequency range of 20 to 50 Hz, where the method we designed was proved to be sensitive enough to detect vibration on the body surface. The level and rate of increase with frequency of the vibration turned out to be higher on the chest than on the abdomen. This difference was considered to be due to the mechanical structure of the human body. It also turned out that the measured noise-induced vibration negatively correlated with the subject's BMI (Body Mass Index), which suggested that the health effects of low frequency noise depended not only on the mechanical structure but also on the physical constitution of the human body. PMID:10052297

Takahashi, Y; Yonekawa, Y; Kanada, K; Maeda, S

1999-01-01

65

Benefits of whole body vibration training in patients hospitalised for COPD exacerbations - a randomized clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with stable COPD show improvements in exercise capacity and muscular function after the application of whole body vibration. We aimed to evaluate whether this modality added to conventional physiotherapy in exacerbated hospitalised COPD patients would be safe and would improve exercise capacity and quality of life. Methods 49 hospitalised exacerbated COPD patients were randomized (1:1) to undergo physiotherapy alone or physiotherapy with the addition of whole body vibration. The primary endpoint was the between-group difference of the 6-minute walking test (day of discharge – day of admission). Secondary assessments included chair rising test, quality of life, and serum marker analysis. Results Whole body vibration did not cause procedure-related adverse events. Compared to physiotherapy alone, it led to significantly stronger improvements in 6-minute walking test (95.55?±?76.29 m vs. 6.13?±?81.65 m; p?=?0.007) and St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (-6.43?±?14.25 vs. 5.59?±?19.15, p?=?0.049). Whole body vibration increased the expression of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator receptor gamma coactivator-1-? and serum levels of irisin, while it decreased serum interleukin-8. Conclusion Whole body vibration during hospitalised exacerbations did not cause procedure-related adverse events and induced clinically significant benefits regarding exercise capacity and health-related quality of life that were associated with increased serum levels of irisin, a marker of muscle activity. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00005979. Registered 17 March 2014.

2014-01-01

66

Fluid dynamic aspects of cardiovascular behavior during low-frequency whole-body vibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The behavior of the cardiovascular system during low frequency whole-body vibration, such as encountered by astronauts during launch and reentry, is examined from a fluid mechanical viewpoint. The vibration characteristics of typical manned spacecraft and other vibration environments are discussed, and existing results from in vivo studies of the hemodynamic aspects of this problem are reviewed. Recent theoretical solutions to related fluid mechanical problems are then used in the interpretation of these results and in discussing areas of future work. The results are included of studies of the effects of vibration on the work done by the heart and on pulsatile flow in blood vessels. It is shown that important changes in pulse velocity, the instantaneous velocity profile, mass flow rate, and wall shear stress may occur in a pulsatile flow due to the presence of vibration. The significance of this in terms of changes in peripheral vascular resistance and possible damage to the endothelium of blood vessels is discussed.

Nerem, R. M.

1973-01-01

67

Low back and neck pain in locomotive engineers exposed to whole-body vibration.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and excess risk of low back pain and neck pain in locomotive engineers, and to investigate the relationship of both with whole-body vibration exposure. A cross-sectional survey comparing locomotive engineers with other rail worker referents was conducted. Current vibration levels were measured, cumulative exposures calculated for engineers and referents, and low back and neck pain assessed by a self-completed questionnaire. Median vibration exposure in the z- (vertical) axis was 0.62 m/s(2). Engineers experienced more frequent low back and neck pain, odds ratios (ORs) of 1.77 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-2.64) and 1.92 (95% CI: 1.22-3.02), respectively. The authors conclude that vibration close to the "action levels" of published standards contribute to low back and neck pain. Vibration levels need to be assessed conservatively and control measures introduced. PMID:24499248

McBride, David; Paulin, Sara; Herbison, G Peter; Waite, David; Bagheri, Nasser

2014-01-01

68

Rigid mode and harmonic response analysis of three-body vibrating screen  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using the ADAMS, the dynamic parameters of three-body vibrating screen are extracted, and the simple finite element model is established on the basis of parameters in ANSYS. The amplitude-frequency curve and phase-frequency curve is obtained by using the harmonic analysis. According to the error between the simulated amplitude of the vibrating screen and the actual magnitude, the correctness of

Chuanguang Ding; Fangzhen Song; Bo Song

2011-01-01

69

The effects of whole body vibration on balance, joint position sense and cutaneous sensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole body vibration (WBV) may enhance muscular strength and power but little is known about its influence on sensory-motor\\u000a function. Vibration of a single muscle or tendon affects the afferent system in a manner that depends on amplitude and frequency.\\u000a WBV stimulates many muscle groups simultaneously and the frequencies and amplitudes used are different from many of the studies\\u000a on

Ross D. PollockSally ProvanFinbarr; Sally Provan; Finbarr C. Martin; Di J. Newham

70

Display strobing: An effective countermeasure against visual blur from whole-body vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crews and equipment in aerospace vehicles, including spacecraft at launch, can be exposed to significant vibration. Prior to this study, we examined the ability of vibrating observers to read alphanumeric symbology on stationary (i.e., non-vibrating) flight-relevant display formats and noted performance degradation with increasing vibration amplitude and decreasing font size. Here we test the efficacy of a display strobing countermeasure for the reading decrements caused by the same 12-Hz whole-body vibration in the surge (chest-to-spine) direction applied in our prior studies. To produce the strobe countermeasure, we triggered the backlight of a stationary liquid crystal diode (LCD) display panel to flash in synchrony with the 12-Hz vibration of the observer's seat while experimentally varying both the strobe duty cycle and phase angle between the strobe onset and the vibration cycle zero-crossings. Strobing proved an effective countermeasure, restoring reading error rates during 0.7g (6.9 m/s2 half-amplitude) whole-body vibration to levels indistinguishable from those achieved under the non-strobed (equivalent luminance) non-vibrating baseline condition and improving response times although not fully to the baseline. While we noted differences in the "preferred" phase angle of individual observers, on average, no overall effect of phase angle was detected. Likewise, no effect was seen for the two duty cycles and their respective equivalent luminance levels. Further studies are needed to determine the efficacy of strobing for multi-axis and multi-frequency vibration, and for displays with moving images.

Adelstein, Bernard D.; Kaiser, Mary K.; Beutter, Brent R.; McCann, Robert S.; Anderson, Mark R.

2013-11-01

71

Musculoskeletal Response to Whole-Body Vibration During Fracture Healing in Intact and Ovariectomized Rats  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effect of vibration on bone healing and muscle in intact and ovariectomized rats. Thirty ovariectomized (at 3 months of age) and 30 intact 5-month old female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent bilateral metaphyseal osteotomy of tibia. Five days later, half of the ovariectomized and of the intact rats were exposed to whole-body vertical vibration (90 Hz, 0.5 mm, 4 × g acceleration) for 15 min twice a day during 30 days. The other animals did not undergo vibration. After decapitation of rats, one tibia was used for computed tomographic, biomechanical, and histological analyses; the other was used for gene expression analyses of alkaline phosphatase (Alp), osteocalcin (Oc), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 1, and insulinlike growth factor 1. Serum Alp and Oc were measured. Mitochondrial activity, fiber area and distribution, and capillary densities were analyzed in M. gastrocnemius and M. longissimus. We found that vibration had no effect on body weight and food intake, but it improved cortical and callus densities (97 vs. 99%, 72 vs. 81%), trabecular structure (9 vs. 14 trabecular nodes), blood supply (1.7 vs. 2.1 capillaries/fiber), and oxidative metabolism (17 vs. 23 pmol O2/s/mg) in ovariectomized rats. Vibration generally increased muscle fiber size. Tibia biomechanical properties were diminished after vibration. Oc gene expression was higher in vibrated rats. Serum Alp was increased in ovariectomized rats. In ovariectomized rats, vibration resulted in an earlier bridging; in intact rats, callus bridging occurred later after vibration. The chosen vibration regimen (90 Hz, 0.5 mm, 4 × g acceleration, 15 min twice a day) was effective in improving musculoskeletal tissues in ovariectomized rats but was not optimal for fracture healing.

Stuermer, Ewa K.; Werner, Carsten; Wicke, Michael; Kolios, Leila; Sehmisch, Stephan; Tezval, Mohammad; Utesch, Clara; Mangal, Orzala; Zimmer, Sebastian; Dullin, Christian; Stuermer, Klaus M.

2010-01-01

72

Ten-week whole-body vibration training improves body composition and muscle strength in obese women.  

PubMed

This work explored the short-term effect of whole body vibration (WBV) training on anthropometry, body composition and muscular strength in obese women. Fifty obese women (age = 46.8 ± 7.81[SD]y; BMI = 35.1 ± 3.55 kg/m(2)) were assigned to a ten-week WBV training period, two times a week (in each session, 14 min vibration training, 5 min rest; vibration amplitude 2.0-5.0mm, frequency 40-60 Hz), with (n = 18) or without (n = 17) radiofrequency, or to a non-exercise control group (n = 15). Subjects were instructed not to change their habitual lifestyle. Before and after the ten-week experimental period, anthropometric measurements, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and the leg press, leg curl and leg extension strength tests were carried out. All changes in the two groups of WBV training, with or without radiofrequency, were similar and these groups were combined in a single WBV intervention group. As compared to controls, subjects submitted to WBV training had significantly lower BMI, total body and trunk fat, sum of skinfolds and body circumferences. On the other hand, lower limb strength tests were increased in the WBV group. These preliminary results suggest that WBV training may improve body composition and muscular strength in obese women and may be a useful adjuvant to lifestyle prescriptions. PMID:23423629

Milanese, Chiara; Piscitelli, Francesco; Zenti, Maria Grazia; Moghetti, Paolo; Sandri, Marco; Zancanaro, Carlo

2013-01-01

73

Ten-week Whole-body Vibration Training Improves Body Composition and Muscle Strength in Obese Women  

PubMed Central

This work explored the short-term effect of whole body vibration (WBV) training on anthropometry, body composition and muscular strength in obese women. Fifty obese women (age=46.8±7.81[SD]y; BMI=35.1±3.55kg/m2) were assigned to a ten-week WBV training period, two times a week (in each session, 14min vibration training, 5min rest; vibration amplitude 2.0-5.0mm, frequency 40-60Hz), with (n=18) or without (n=17) radiofrequency, or to a non-exercise control group (n=15). Subjects were instructed not to change their habitual lifestyle. Before and after the ten-week experimental period, anthropometric measurements, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and the leg press, leg curl and leg extension strength tests were carried out. All changes in the two groups of WBV training, with or without radiofrequency, were similar and these groups were combined in a single WBV intervention group. As compared to controls, subjects submitted to WBV training had significantly lower BMI, total body and trunk fat, sum of skinfolds and body circumferences. On the other hand, lower limb strength tests were increased in the WBV group. These preliminary results suggest that WBV training may improve body composition and muscular strength in obese women and may be a useful adjuvant to lifestyle prescriptions.

Milanese, Chiara; Piscitelli, Francesco; Zenti, Maria Grazia; Moghetti, Paolo; Sandri, Marco; Zancanaro, Carlo

2013-01-01

74

Treatment of posttraumatic arthrofibrosis of the radioulnar joint with vibration therapy (VMTX Vibromax Therapeutics(TM)): A case report and narrative review of literature  

PubMed Central

Objective To present the clinical features of post traumatic arthrofibrosis and response to treatment with Vibromax Therapeutics™ (VMTX™) in 28 year old male soccer player. Rationale Many studies have reported an increase in muscle performance after whole-body vibration, but to date none have evaluated the possibility of vibration application as a therapy for functional restoration after injury. Conclusions Vibration training is being utilized in, strength training, performance enhancement and rehabilitation. Despite the lack of research in this area, the literature that is currently available and the results of this case study imply that vibration therapy has the potential to aid in the management of acute soft tissue injury and the sequela of disuse and immobilization.

Macintyre, Ian; Kazemi, Mohsen

2008-01-01

75

Stereotactic body radiation therapy delivery validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work describes the use of a motion phantom and 1D, 2D, and 3D ion chamber, EBT3 film, electronic portal imaging device (EPID) and FXG gel measurements for dosimetric validation of a stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SBRT) technique in our clinic. Results show good agreement between the measurements and calculated treatment plan dose.

Olding, T.; Garcia, L.; Alexander, K.; Schreiner, L. J.; Joshi, C.

2013-06-01

76

[Effects of whole-body vibration on human tracking performance and visual-motor reaction].  

PubMed

Dual task test (light target tracking and visual-motor reaction of visual oddball mode) and pursuit aiming test were done in 17 male healthy subjects after 30min exposure to whole-body vibrations of 20 Hz 0.15 gz or 20 Hz 0.3 gz. Mean accuracy rate of visual-motor reaction and target stimulus reaction accuracy rate after 0.3 gz vibration were significantly lower than those of control group (P < 0.05), while after 0.15 gz vibration, the changes were not significant. Comparing with control group, the total number of right and wrong pointing, pointing speed in pursuit aiming test were significantly lower (P < 0.05) after vibration. However, light target tracking error, mean reaction time of visual-motor reaction and pointing accuracy rate of pursuit aiming test had no significant change after exposure to any kind of the vibrations. It may be concluded that some kinds of effect on human tracking performance and visual-motor reaction were observed after exposure to whole-body vibration. PMID:11541271

Yao, Y; Han, L; Wu, X; Zhang, Z; Dong, M

1998-02-01

77

Improved protocols for vibrational spectroscopic analysis of body fluids.  

PubMed

The applications of vibrational spectroscopy to the examination of human blood serum are explored. Although FTIR spectra can be recorded in aqueous solutions at (gelatin) concentrations as low as 100 mg/L, the high-wavenumber region remains obscured by water absorption. Using Raman spectroscopy, high quality spectra of gelatine solutions as low as 10 mg/L can be achieved, also covering the high-wavenumber regions. In human serum, spectral profiles are weak and partially obscured by water features. Dried deposits are shown to be physically and chemically inhomogeneous resulting in reduced measurement reproducibility. Concentration of the serum using commercially available centrifugal filter devices results in an improvement in the spectral intensity and quality. Additionally, in Raman spectroscopy, reduced background and significantly enhanced signal collection is achievable by measurement in an inverted geometry. The improved protocols for spectroscopic measurement of human serum are applicable to a range of bodily fluids and should accelerate potential clinical applications. PMID:24132993

Bonnier, Franck; Petitjean, François; Baker, Matthew J; Byrne, Hugh J

2014-04-01

78

Mind-Body Therapies and Osteoarthritis of the Knee  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis of the knee is a major cause of disability among adults worldwide. Important treatment options include nonpharmacologic therapies, and especially symptom management strategies in which patients take an active role. Among these, mind-body therapies may have particular promise for alleviating the distressful symptoms associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. However, systematic reviews are lacking. The objective of this paper is to review English-language articles describing clinical studies evaluating the effects of patient-driven mind-body therapies on symptoms of knee osteoarthritis. Eight studies, representing a total of 267 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Interventions included tai chi, qigong, and yoga. Collectively, these studies suggest that specific mind-body practices may help alleviate pain and enhance physical function in adults suffering from osteoarthritis of the knee. However, sample sizes are small, rigorous investigations are few, and the potential benefits of several mind-body therapies have not yet been systematically tested. Additional high-quality studies are needed to clarify the effects of specific mind-body therapies on standardized measures of pain, physical function, and related indices in persons with osteoarthritis of the knee, and to investigate possible underlying mechanisms.

Selfe, Terry Kit; Innes, Kim E.

2010-01-01

79

Strength-training with whole-body vibration in long-distance runners: a randomized trial.  

PubMed

A parallel group randomized trial was designed to analyze the impact of 6 weeks of strength training programs performed with or without whole-body vibration on muscular and endurance performance parameters in long-distance runners. 22 endurance runners were allocated into strength with whole-body vibration (n=8), without (n=8), and control (n=6) groups. Before and after the experimental period the subjects performed the following tests: a) maximum dynamic strength test, b) maximal incremental treadmill test, and c) time to exhaustion at velocity corresponding to maximal oxygen uptake. The fractions of the aerobic and anaerobic contribution in time to exhaustion test were also calculated. Both strength trained groups showed a similar increase in maximum dynamic strength (~18%). The aerobic contribution was enhanced for strength training group without whole-body vibration (~25%) after experimental period. No statistical differences were observed in any other variable. These results suggest that 6 weeks of strength training performed with or without whole-body vibration improve similarly the maximum dynamic strength in long-distance runners. In addition, both training modes studied had no deleterious effects on the traditional parameters of endurance performance, traditional strength training program results in increased aerobic contribution during high-intensity aerobic exercise. PMID:23559412

Bertuzzi, R; Pasqua, L A; Bueno, S; Damasceno, M V; Lima-Silva, A E; Bishop, D; Tricoli, V

2013-10-01

80

Effects of whole-body vibration training on sprint running kinematics and explosive strength performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 wk of whole body vibration (WBV) training on sprint running kine- matics and explosive strength performance. Twenty-four volun- teers (12 women and 12 men) participated in the study and were randomised (n = 12) into the experimental and control groups. The WBV group performed a 6-wk program (16-30

Giorgos Paradisis; Elias Zacharogiannis

2007-01-01

81

Evaluation of Whole-Body Vibration by the Category Judgment Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research is to establish a scale for comfort with regard to whole-body vibration by the category judgment method. Experiments were conducted with random signals as stimuli. These stimuli consisted of three types of signal, namely stimulus F, with flat PSD (Power Spectrum Density) ranging from 1 to 100 Hz, stimulus H with PSD, which became 20

Chikako KANEKO; Takahide HAGIWARA; Setsuo MAEDA

2005-01-01

82

Relationship between Whole-Body Vibration and Morbidity Patterns Among Motor Coach Operators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The long-term effects of whole-body vibration on the health of 1448 interstate bus drivers are investigated on the basis of the morbidity information extracted from periodic physical examination records. Chi-square tests of the prevalence of specific chro...

G. J. Gruber H. H. Ziperman

1974-01-01

83

The effect of occupational whole-body vibration on standing balance: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adverse health effects from exposure to occupational whole-body vibration (WBV) are common among drivers. In particular some researchers consider that there is kinaesthetic and balance disturbance from WBV exposure in the workplace and this might be one of the aetiological factors responsible for occupational low back pain in drivers. The purpose of this study was to undertake a critical review

Ramakrishnan Mani; Stephan Milosavljevic; S. John Sullivan

2010-01-01

84

Device for the Acquisition of Contoured Human Body Surface Vibration Signals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In accordance with the present invention, a device for acquiring contoured human body surface vibration signals is provided. The device comprises a first component for sensing the displacements of a skin surface as a function of time at multiple points on...

N. L. Owaley A. J. Hull

2000-01-01

85

Six-degree-of-freedom whole-body vibration exposure levels during routine skidder operations.  

PubMed

This research focuses on quantifying six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure levels that occur in Northern Ontario skidders during routine field operating tasks. 6-DOF vibration running root-mean-square (RMS) acceleration levels at the operator/seat interface were determined for eight skidders while driving loaded, driving unloaded, picking up a load, dropping off a load and ploughing logs under field operating conditions. The acceleration data were weighted in accordance with ISO 2631-1:1997 and evaluated for both health and comfort outcomes. The mean running RMS weighted translational and rotational accelerations all exceeded 0.36 m/s(2) and 0.14 rad/s(2). The greatest average accelerations occurred while driving unloaded with this condition displaying translational vibration total values (VTV) that exceeded the upper limit of the ISO 2631-1:1997 health caution zone within an average of 2.3 h. Utilizing 6-DOF VTV, virtually all operating conditions would be designated as uncomfortable. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study provides one of the most comprehensive reports on vibration exposures in seated vehicle operators. The results are geared towards ergonomists with discussions on health effects and measurement concerns, while providing the raw vibration exposure data that will be useful to vehicle, component and vibration sensor designers. PMID:20432089

Jack, R J; Oliver, M; Dickey, J P; Cation, S; Hayward, G; Lee-Shee, N

2010-05-01

86

Whole body vibration exposures in metropolitan bus drivers: A comparison of three seats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a repeated measures study design, three different seats were evaluated as 12 metropolitan bus drivers drove a standardized test route including city streets, old and new freeways, and a street segment containing 10 large speed humps. Three comparisons were made: (1) comparing seats made by different manufactures (Seats 1 and 2), (2) comparing seats with a standard foam (Seat 2) and silicone foam (Seat 3) seat pans, and (3) comparing WBV exposures based on individual factors such as seat pressure settings and body weight. Whole body vibration (WBV) exposures were measured using a tri-axial seat pan accelerometer and the attenuation capabilities of each seat were evaluated by comparing the vibrations measured at the floor and seat of the bus. There were significant WBV exposure differences between the various street types, which was shown across all seat types. The city street and older freeway segments had the highest WBV exposures with both segments producing WBV exposures slightly above the action limit for vibration dose value (VDV). Relative to Seat 2, Seat 1 performed better at attenuating impulsive and shock related WBV exposures; however, neither seat performed significantly better when average vibration ( A w) and VDV WBV exposures were compared. In addition, no performance differences were seen between the standard foam (Seat 2) and silicone foam (Seat 3) seat pans. Seat suspension stiffness (air pressure) was also examined, and the results indicated that the higher the seat air pressure the lower the A w, VDV, and static compressive dose ( S ed) vibration exposures. This study provided a unique opportunity to evaluate on-the-job whole body vibration exposures in a standardized, controlled setting.

Blood, R. P.; Ploger, J. D.; Yost, M. G.; Ching, R. P.; Johnson, P. W.

2010-01-01

87

Measurement of whole-body vibration exposure from speed control humps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of speed control humps is to introduce shocks and high vibration levels when a car passes over them if its speed is higher than the allowable limit. Hump geometry is a major factor in altering the level of these shocks and specifying the speed limit. However, there is no study of the relationship between whole body vibration due to passing over a speed control hump and lower back pain or occupational diseases. In this study, an experimental investigation is conducted to evaluate health risks associated with different geometry speed control humps. Vibration levels and shocks are measured by a seat pad accelerometer placed under the driver's seat to evaluate hazard risks on the human body's lower back. The assessment is based on two standard methods of measuring whole body vibration: the British standard BS 6841 and the new ISO/DIS standard 2631-5. These methods are used to assess the effects of vehicle type, passenger location in the vehicle, vehicle speed, and speed control hump geometry. It was found that circular speed control humps currently installed on many public roads should be modified in order to eliminate hazards. Two newly designed speed humps were proved to be less hazardous than circular speed control humps.

Khorshid, E.; Alkalby, F.; Kamal, H.

2007-07-01

88

Spectral composition of a measuring signal during measurements of vibration rates of a moving body  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cybernetics diagnostics of machines and mechanisms using the spectral approach is discussed. The problem of establishing the accuracy of determination of the spectral composition is investigated. In systems with rectilinear or rotary movement, the vibrations appear in the form of movement rate vibrations, which are equivalent to frequency modulation of the signal, in proportion to the mean movement rate of the body. The case of a harmonic signal which reproduces and analyzes the characteristics of the frequency modulated signal is discussed. Mathematical models are developed to show the relationships of the parameters.

Daynauskas, I. A. I.; Slepov, N. N.

1973-01-01

89

Whole body vibration compared to conventional physiotherapy in patients with gonarthrosis: a protocol for a randomized, controlled study  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common degenerative arthropathy. Load-bearing joints such as knee and hip are more often affected than spine or hands. The prevalence of gonarthrosis is generally higher than that of coxarthrosis. Because no cure for OA exists, the main emphasis of therapy is analgesic treatment through either mobility or medication. Non-pharmacologic treatment is the first step, followed by the addition of analgesic medication, and ultimately by surgery. The goal of non-pharmacologic and non-invasive therapy is to improve neuromuscular function, which in turn both prevents formation of and delays progression of OA. A modification of conventional physiotherapy, whole body vibration has been successfully employed for several years. Since its introduction, this therapy is in wide use at our facility not only for gonarthrosis, but also coxarthrosis and other diseases leading to muscular imbalance. Methods/Design This study is a randomized, therapy-controlled trial in a primary care setting at a university hospital. Patients presenting to our outpatient clinic with initial symptoms of gonarthrosis will be assessed against inclusion and exclusion criteria. After patient consent, 6 weeks of treatment will ensue. During the six weeks of treatment, patients will receive one of two treatments, conventional physiotherapy or whole-body-vibration exercises of one hour three times a week. Follow-up examinations will be performed immediately after treatment and after another 6 and 20 weeks, for a total study duration of 6 months. 20 patients will be included in each therapy group. Outcome measurements will include objective analysis of motion and ambulation as well as examinations of balance and isokinetic force. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index and SF-12 scores, the patients' overall status, and clinical examinations of the affected joint will be carried out. Discussion As new physiotherapy techniques develop for the treatment of OA, it is important to investigate the effectiveness of competing strategies. With this study, not only patient-based scores, but also objective assessments will be used to quantify patient-derived benefits of therapy. Trial registration Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien (DRKS) DRKS00000415 Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01037972 EudraCT 2009-017617-29

2010-01-01

90

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Body Dysmorphic Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The onset of appearance-related concerns associated with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) typically occurs in adolescence, and these concerns are often severe enough to interfere with normal development and psychosocial functioning. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for adults with BDD. However, no treatment studies…

Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Markowitz, Sarah; Petronko, Michael R.; Taylor, Caitlin E.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Wilson, G. Terence

2010-01-01

91

Stereotactic body radiation therapy: a novel treatment modality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) involves the delivery of a small number of ultra-high doses of radiation to a target volume using very advanced technology and has emerged as a novel treatment modality for cancer. The role of SBRT is most important at two cancer stages—in early primary cancer and in oligometastatic disease. This modality has been used in the

Achilles J. Fakiris; Eric L. Chang; Nina A. Mayr; Jian Z. Wang; Lech Papiez; Bin S. Teh; Ronald C. McGarry; Higinia R. Cardenes; Robert D. Timmerman; Simon S. Lo

2009-01-01

92

Dissociation reduction in body therapy during sexual abuse recovery.  

PubMed

The study purpose was to examine dissociation in body therapy for women receiving psychotherapy for childhood sexual abuse. An initial intervention study provided an opportunity to examine dissociation; the sample of 24 women received eight, 1-h body therapy sessions. The Dissociative Experiences Scale served as the predictor variable, and the outcome measures reflected psychological and physical health, and body connection. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to examine dissociation reduction across time. Pearson correlations were used to describe associations between the relative change in dissociation and outcomes. The results demonstrated that the greatest change was the reduction of dissociation; there was an incremental effect across time and a strong association between change in dissociation and health outcomes. High dissociation at baseline (moderate levels) predicted positive outcomes. The results demonstrated the importance of moderate dissociation as an indicator of distress, and the central role of dissociation reduction in health and healing. PMID:17400147

Price, Cynthia

2007-05-01

93

DISSOCIATION REDUCTION IN BODY THERAPY DURING SEXUAL ABUSE RECOVERY  

PubMed Central

The study purpose was to examine dissociation in body therapy for women receiving psychotherapy for childhood sexual abuse. An initial intervention study provided an opportunity to examine dissociation; the sample of 24 women received eight, one-hour body therapy sessions. The Dissociative Experiences Scale served as the predictor variable, and the outcome measures reflected psychological and physical health, and body connection. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to examine dissociation reduction across time. Pearson correlations were used to describe associations between the relative change in dissociation and outcomes. The results demonstrated that the greatest change was the reduction of dissociation; there was an incremental effect across time and a strong association between change in dissociation and health outcomes. High dissociation at baseline (moderate levels) predicted positive outcomes. The results demonstrated the importance of moderate dissociation as an indicator of distress, and the central role of dissociation reduction in health and healing.

Price, Cynthia

2007-01-01

94

On the significance of body mass and vibration magnitude for acceleration transmission of vibration through seats with horizontal suspensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seats with horizontal suspensions can help to reduce detrimental effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on health, comfort and performance. Two seats were used to examine the effect of body mass and WBV-magnitude on the transmission of WBV from the seat base to the cushion. Both seats have suspension in the x-direction while Seat 2 has suspension also in the y-direction. Twelve subjects with a body mass ranging from 59.0 to 97.3 kg volunteered for the study. A set of anthropometric characteristics was acquired. Three magnitudes of WBV were used with a truck-like signal (Seat 1, 0.3-0.59 m s -2w d-weighted rms values at the seat base, x-direction) and a tractor-like signal (Seat 2, 0.55-1.09 m s -2w d-weighted rms values at the seat base, x-direction, 0.52-1.07 m s -2w d-weighted rms values, y-direction). The magnitude of WBV had a significant effect on the transmissibility characterized by SEAT-values. A significant influence of the body mass on SEAT-values was found for the y-direction only. Other anthropometric characteristics proved to be more important for the prediction of SEAT values by multiple regressions. There was no significant correlation of SEAT-values, x-direction, with the body mass. Other anthropometric characteristics enabled a satisfactory prediction of SEAT values also for x-direction in several cases. Tests with only two subjects of extreme body mass are not suited to obtain comparable and representative results required for a comparison of different seats with a suspension in the x-direction. The effect of the WBV-magnitude on the WBV-transmissibility should be considered with the design, testing and application of suspended seats.

Blüthner, Ralph; Hinz, Barbara; Menzel, Gerhard; Schust, Marianne; Seidel, Helmut

2006-12-01

95

Effect of voluntary periodic muscular activity on nonlinearity in the apparent mass of the seated human body during vertical random whole-body vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principal resonance frequency in the driving-point impedance of the human body decreases with increasing vibration magnitude—a nonlinear response. An understanding of the nonlinearities may advance understanding of the mechanisms controlling body movement and improve anthropodynamic modelling of responses to vibration at various magnitudes. This study investigated the effects of vibration magnitude and voluntary periodic muscle activity on the apparent mass resonance frequency using vertical random vibration in the frequency range 0.5-20 Hz. Each of 14 subjects was exposed to 14 combinations of two vibration magnitudes (0.25 and 2.0 m s -2 root-mean square (rms)) in seven sitting conditions: two without voluntary periodic movement (A: upright; B: upper-body tensed), and five with voluntary periodic movement (C: back-abdomen bending; D: folding-stretching arms from back to front; E: stretching arms from rest to front; F: folding arms from elbow; G: deep breathing). Three conditions with voluntary periodic movement significantly reduced the difference in resonance frequency at the two vibration magnitudes compared with the difference in a static sitting condition. Without voluntary periodic movement (condition A: upright), the median apparent mass resonance frequency was 5.47 Hz at the low vibration magnitude and 4.39 Hz at the high vibration magnitude. With voluntary periodic movement (C: back-abdomen bending), the resonance frequency was 4.69 Hz at the low vibration magnitude and 4.59 Hz at the high vibration magnitude. It is concluded that back muscles, or other muscles or tissues in the upper body, influence biodynamic responses of the human body to vibration and that voluntary muscular activity or involuntary movement of these parts can alter their equivalent stiffness.

Huang, Ya; Griffin, Michael J.

2006-12-01

96

The transmission of vertical vibration through seats: Influence of the characteristics of the human body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transmission of vibration through a seat depends on the impedance of the seat and the apparent mass of the seat occupant. This study was designed to determine how factors affecting the apparent mass of the body (age, gender, physical characteristics, backrest contact, and magnitude of vibration) affect seat transmissibility. The transmission of vertical vibration through a car seat was measured with 80 adults (41 males and 39 females aged 18-65) at frequencies between 0.6 and 20 Hz with two backrest conditions (no backrest and backrest), and with three magnitudes of random vibration (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 m s -2 rms). Linear regression models were used to study the effects of subject physical characteristics (age, gender, and anthropometry) and features of their apparent mass (resonance frequency, apparent mass at resonance and at 12 Hz) on the measured seat transmissibility. The strongest predictor of both the frequency of the principal resonance in seat transmissibility and the seat transmissibility at resonance was subject age, with other factors having only marginal effects. The transmissibility of the seat at 12 Hz depended on subject age, body mass index, and gender. Although subject weight was strongly associated with apparent mass, weight was not strongly associated with seat transmissibility. The resonance frequency of the seat decreased with increases in the magnitude of the vibration excitation and increased when subjects made contact with the backrest. Inter-subject variability in the resonance frequency and transmissibility at resonance was less with greater vibration excitation, but was largely unaffected by backrest contact. A lumped parameter seat-person model showed that changes in seat transmissibility with age can be predicted from changes in apparent mass with age, and that the dynamic stiffness of the seat appeared to increase with increased loading so as to compensate for increases in subject apparent mass associated with increased sitting weight.

Toward, Martin G. R.; Griffin, Michael J.

2011-12-01

97

Effects of different amplitudes (high vs. low) of whole-body vibration training in active adults.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two different amplitudes of whole-body vibrations on the development of strength, mechanical power of the lower limb, and body composition. Thirty-eight recreationally active participants took part in the study. Participants were divided in two experimental groups (low amplitude group [GL] = 2 mm; high amplitude group [GH] = 4 mm) and a control group. The experimental groups performed an incremental vibratory training, 2 days per week during 6 weeks. The frequency of vibration (50 Hz), time of work (60 seconds), and time of rest (60 seconds) were constant for GL and GH groups. All the participants were on the platform in a static semi-squat position. Maximum isokinetic strength, body composition, and performance in vertical jumps (squat and countermovement jumps) were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of the training cycle. A significant increase of isokinetic strength was observed in GL and GH at angular velocities of 60°.s(-1), 180°.s(-1) and 270°.s(-1). Total lean mass was significantly increased in GH (0.9 ± 1.0 kg). There were no significant changes in the total fat mass in any of the groups. Significant changes were not observed in different variables (height, peak power, and rate of force development) derived from the vertical jumps for any of the groups submitted to study. The vibration training, whatever the amplitude, produced significant improvements in isokinetic strength. However, high vibration amplitude training presents better adaptations for hypertrophy than the training with low vibration amplitude. In this sense, GH would be a better training if the practitioners want to develop both strength and hypertrophy of the lower limbs. PMID:23096064

Martínez-Pardo, Esmeraldo; Romero-Arenas, Salvador; Alcaraz, Pedro E

2013-07-01

98

Body Weight, Body Fat Distribution, and Hormonal Replacement Therapy in Early Postmenopausal Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body weight was measured, and body fat distribution was deter- mined by dual energy x-ray in early postmenopausal women given either oral calcium (500 mg\\/day; control group; n 5 12) or hormonal replacement therapy (HRT), a combination of estradiol valerate (2 mg\\/day for 21 days) with cyproterone acetate (1 mg\\/day in the last 10 days of the treatment cycle; n

M. Gambacciani; M. CIAPONI; B. CAPPAGLI; L. PIAGGESI; L. DE SIMONE; R. ORLANDI; A. R. GENAZZANI

1997-01-01

99

Survey of Technical Preventative Measures to Reduce Whole-Body Vibration Effects when Designing Mobile Machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engineering solutions to minimize the effects on operators of vibrating mobile machinery can be conveniently grouped into three areas: Reduction of vibration at source by improvement of the quality of terrain, careful selection of vehicle or machine, correct loading, proper maintenance, etc.Reduction of vibration transmission by incorporating suspension systems (tyres, vehicle suspensions, suspension cab and seat) between the operator and the source of vibration.Improvement of cab ergonomics and seat profiles to optimize operator posture. These paper reviews the different techniques and problems linked to categories (2) and (3). According to epidemiological studies, the main health risk with whole-body vibration exposure would appear to be lower back pain. When designing new mobile machinery, all factors which may contribute to back injury should be considered in order to reduce risk. For example, optimized seat suspension is useless if the suspension seat cannot be correctly and easily adjusted to the driver's weight or if the driver is forced to drive in a bent position to avoid his head striking the ceiling due to the spatial requirement of the suspension seat.

DONATI, P.

2002-05-01

100

Evaluation of whole-body vibration by the category judgment method.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research is to establish a scale for comfort with regard to whole-body vibration by the category judgment method. Experiments were conducted with random signals as stimuli. These stimuli consisted of three types of signal, namely stimulus F, with flat PSD (Power Spectrum Density) ranging from 1 to 100 Hz, stimulus H with PSD, which became 20 dB higher at 100 Hz than at 1 Hz, and stimulus L that had a PSD 20 dB lower at 100 Hz. These signals were modified by Wk frequency weighting in accordance with ISO 2631-1, and the R.M.S. values were adjusted to be equal. In addition, the signal levels were varied over a range of five steps to create 15 kinds of individual stimuli. The subjects sat on a flat, horizontal metal plate mounted directly on the vibrator and were exposed to vertical vibrations before being asked to choose a numerical category to best indicate their perceived level of comfort (or otherwise) during each stimulus. The creation of this assessment scale, including the aforementioned categories, enabled not only clarification of the relationship between the vibration stimuli and the degree of comfort but also discovery of the connection between the frequency-weighted R.M.S. acceleration and the corresponding categories representing each degree of comfort without overlap. Moreover, it became clear that the subjects' assessment of the degree of comfort perceived differed with differences in the vibration spectrum. PMID:15732327

Kaneko, Chikako; Hagiwara, Takahide; Maeda, Setsuo

2005-01-01

101

Theoretical relationship between vibration transmissibility and driving-point response functions of the human body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between the vibration transmissibility and driving-point response functions (DPRFs) of the human body is important for understanding vibration exposures of the system and for developing valid models. This study identified their theoretical relationship and demonstrated that the sum of the DPRFs can be expressed as a linear combination of the transmissibility functions of the individual mass elements distributed throughout the system. The relationship is verified using several human vibration models. This study also clarified the requirements for reliably quantifying transmissibility values used as references for calibrating the system models. As an example application, this study used the developed theory to perform a preliminary analysis of the method for calibrating models using both vibration transmissibility and DPRFs. The results of the analysis show that the combined method can theoretically result in a unique and valid solution of the model parameters, at least for linear systems. However, the validation of the method itself does not guarantee the validation of the calibrated model, because the validation of the calibration also depends on the model structure and the reliability and appropriate representation of the reference functions. The basic theory developed in this study is also applicable to the vibration analyses of other structures.

Dong, Ren G.; Welcome, Daniel E.; McDowell, Thomas W.; Wu, John Z.

2013-11-01

102

Stereotactic body radiation therapy: scope of the literature.  

PubMed

Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is derived from the techniques of stereotactic radiosurgery used to treat lesions in the brain and spine. It combines multiple finely collimated radiation beams and stereotaxy to deliver a high dose of radiation to an extracranial target in the body in a single dose or a few fractions. This review provides a broad overview of the current state of SBRT for solid malignant tumors. Reviewers identified a total of 124 relevant studies. To our knowledge, no published comparative studies address the relative effectiveness and safety of SBRT versus other forms of external-beam radiation therapy. Stereotactic body radiation therapy seems to be widely diffused as a treatment of various types of cancer, although most studies have focused only on its use for treating thoracic tumors. Comparative studies are needed to provide evidence that the theoretical advantages of SBRT over other radiation therapies actually occur in the clinical setting; this area is currently being studied in only 1 small trial. PMID:21536933

Tipton, Kelley; Launders, Jason H; Inamdar, Rohit; Miyamoto, Curtis; Schoelles, Karen

2011-06-01

103

Analysis of damped vibrations of thin bodies embedded into a fractional derivative viscoelastic medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Damped vibrations of elastic thin bodies, such as plates and circular cylindrical shells, embedded into a viscoelastic medium, the rheological features of which are described by fractional derivatives, are considered in the present article. Besides the forces of viscous friction, a thin body is subjected to the action of external forces dependent on the coordinates of the middle surface and time. The boundary conditions are proposed in such a way that the governing equations allow the Navier-type solution. The Laplace integral transform method and the method of expansion of all functions entering into the set of governing equations in terms of the eigenfunctions of the given problem are used as the methods of solution. It is shown that as a result of such a procedure, the systems of equations in the generalized coordinates could be reduced to infinite sets of uncoupled equations, each of which describes damped vibrations of a mechanical oscillator based on the fractional derivative Kelvin-Voigt model.

Rossikhin, Yury A.; Shitikova, Marina V.

2013-04-01

104

Comparing the effects of 3 weeks of upper-body vibration training, vibration and stretching, and stretching alone on shoulder flexibility in college-aged men.  

PubMed

This study compared the effects of 3 weeks of upper-body vibration training, vibration and stretching, and stretching alone on shoulder flexibility in college-aged men. Twenty-one men were randomly assigned to vibration-stretching (VS; n = 8), vibration only (VO; n = 6), or stretching only (SO; n = 7) groups that trained 3 times per week for 3 weeks. All 3 groups performed 9 total sets of 30-second stretches. The VS group performed four 30-second upper-body vibration exercises and five 30-second upper-body stretching exercises. The VO group performed nine 30-second upper-body vibration exercises. The SO group performed nine 30-second upper-body stretching exercises. Shoulder flexion (SF), shoulder extension (SE), and shoulder transverse extension (STE) were assessed by a Leighton Flexometer and back scratch tests bilaterally (BSR, BSL) were measured via tape measure. A 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) evaluated groups at baseline and a 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA evaluated the interventions over time. At baseline, there were no group differences in age, height, or weight. There was a significant (p < 0.01) time main effect for each flexibility outcome variable (SF: +6.1%, +3.9%, +3.4%; SE: +8.9%, +13.5%, +26.9%; STE: +12.8%, +8.7%, +24.3%; BSR: +4.4 cm, +3.4 cm, +3.1 cm; BSL: +3.6 cm, +2.3 cm, +6.1 cm) for SO, VO, and VS, respectively. Shoulder extension was the only variable that showed a significant (p < 0.05) interaction effect for group by time. In conclusion, vibration training, alone or combined with stretching, is a viable alternative to a standard stretching routine when attempting to increase shoulder flexibility. Adding vibration training to a flexibility regimen may improve the likelihood of regularly performing flexibility sessions because of increased variety. PMID:23478479

Ferguson, Steven L; Kim, Eonho; Seo, Dong-Il; Bemben, Michael G

2013-12-01

105

Modelling resonances of the standing body exposed to vertical whole-body vibration: Effects of posture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lumped parameter mathematical models representing anatomical parts of the human body have been developed to represent body motions associated with resonances of the vertical apparent mass and the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the human body standing in five different postures: 'upright', 'lordotic', 'anterior lean', 'knees bent', and 'knees more bent'. The inertial and geometric parameters of the models were determined from published anthropometric data. Stiffness and damping parameters were obtained by comparing model responses with experimental data obtained previously. The principal resonance of the vertical apparent mass, and the first peak in the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass, of the standing body in an upright posture (at 5-6 Hz) corresponded to vertical motion of the viscera in phase with the vertical motion of the entire body due to deformation of the tissues at the soles of the feet, with pitch motion of the pelvis out of phase with pitch motion of the upper body above the pelvis. Upward motion of the body was in phase with the forward pitch motion of the pelvis. Changing the posture of the upper body had minor effects on the mode associated with the principal resonances of the apparent mass and cross-axis apparent mass, but the mode changed significantly with bending of the legs. In legs-bent postures, the principal resonance (at about 3 Hz) was attributed to bending of the legs coupled with pitch motion of the pelvis in phase with pitch motion of the upper body. In this mode, extension of the legs was in phase with the forward pitch motion of the upper body and the upward vertical motion of the viscera.

Subashi, G. H. M. J.; Matsumoto, Y.; Griffin, M. J.

2008-10-01

106

Oxygen uptake during whole-body vibration exercise: comparison with squatting as a slow voluntary movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   In this study we investigated metabolic power during whole-body vibration exercise (VbX) compared to mild resistance exercise.\\u000a Specific oxygen consumption (\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a ) and subjectively perceived exertion (rating of perceived exertion, RPE; Borg scale) were assessed in 12 young healthy subjects\\u000a (8 female and 4 male). The outcome parameters were assessed during the last minute of a 3-min exercise bout,

Jörn Rittweger; Hans Schiessl; Dieter Felsenberg

2001-01-01

107

Flow-Induced Vibrations of Prismatic Bodies and Grids of Prisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow-induced transverse, torsional, streamwise, and plunging vibrations of prismatic bodies and grids composed of prisms are reviewed for a wide range of cross-sectional shapes and angles of incidence. For flow at zero incidence, rectangular prisms are susceptible to three kinds of vortex-induced excitation, in addition to galloping and wake breathing, depending on their chord-to-thickness ratio. These include leading-edge vortex shedding

E. Naudascher; Y. Wang

1993-01-01

108

All-terrain vehicle use in agriculture: Exposure to whole body vibration and mechanical shock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole body vibration (WBV) and mechanical shock were measured in 12 New Zealand farmers during their daily use of all-terrain vehicles (ATVs). As per the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) guidelines for WBV exposure, frequencies between 0 and 100Hz were recorded via a seat-pad tri-axial accelerometer during 20min of ATV use. The farmers were also surveyed to estimate seasonal variation

Stephan Milosavljevic; Frida Bergman; Borje Rehn; Allan B. Carman

2010-01-01

109

DEFINITION OF A RANGE OF IDEALIZED VALUES TO CHARACTERIZE SEATED BODY BIODYNAMIC RESPONSE UNDER VERTICAL VIBRATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

While a considerable quantity of data has been published on driving-point mechanical impedance, apparent mass and seat-to-head transmissibility magnitude and phase characteristics of seated subjects under vertical whole-body vibration, significant variation is known to exist between various data sets. Such variations may be partly attributed to differences associated with the methodology, experimental conditions or subject population used by various investigators

P.-É. Boileau; X. Wu; S. Rakheja

1998-01-01

110

Vibrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low frequent vibrations may cause from disturbing up to damaging effects. There is no precise distinction between structure-borne sound and vibrations. However - depending on the frequency range - measurements and predictions require different techniques. In a wide frequency range, the generation, transmission and propagation of vibrations can be investigated similar to structure-borne sound (see Chap. 9).

Guggenberger, Johannes; Müller, Gerhard

111

Acute Whole-Body Vibration does not Facilitate Peak Torque and Stretch Reflex in Healthy Adults  

PubMed Central

The acute effect of whole-body vibration (WBV) training may enhance muscular performance via neural potentiation of the stretch reflex. The purpose of this study was to investigate if acute WBV exposure affects the stretch induced knee jerk reflex [onset latency and electromechanical delay (EMD)] and the isokinetic knee extensor peak torque performance. Twenty-two subjects were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention group received WBV in a semi-squat position at 30° knee flexion with an amplitude of 0.69 mm, frequency of 45 Hz, and peak acceleration of 27.6 m/s2 for 3 minutes. The control group underwent the same semii-squatting position statically without exposure of WBV. Two-way mixed repeated measures analysis of variance revealed no significant group effects differences on reflex latency of rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL; p = 0.934 and 0.935, respectively) EMD of RF and VL (p = 0.474 and 0.551, respectively) and peak torque production (p = 0.483) measured before and after the WBV. The results of this study indicate that a single session of WBV exposure has no potentiation effect on the stretch induced reflex and peak torque performance in healthy young adults. Key Points There is no acute potentiation of stretch reflex right after whole body vibration. Acute whole body vibration does not improve mus-cle peak torque performance in healthy young adults.

Yeung, Ella W.; Lau, Cheuk C.; Kwong, Ada P.K.; Sze, Yan M.; Zhang, Wei Y.; Yeung, Simon S.

2014-01-01

112

Non-linear dual-axis biodynamic response to fore-and-aft whole-body vibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seated subjects have participated in two experiments with fore-and-aft whole-body vibration to investigate dynamic responses at the seat and footrest in the direction of vibration and in other directions. In the first experiment, 12 males were exposed to fore-and-aft random vibration (0.25–20Hz) at four magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.625, and 1.25ms?2 rms) while sitting on a seat with no backrest in

N. Nawayseh; M. J. Griffin

2005-01-01

113

Transverse vibration and buckling of a cantilevered beam with tip body under constant axial base acceleration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The planar transverse bending behavior of a uniform cantilevered beam with rigid tip body subject to constant axial base acceleration was analyzed. The beam is inextensible and capable of small elastic transverse bending deformations only. Two classes of tip bodies are recognized: (1) mass centers located along the beam tip tangent line; and (2) mass centers with arbitrary offset towards the beam attachment point. The steady state response is studied for the beam end condition cases: free, tip mass, tip body with restricted mass center offset, and tip body with arbitrary mass center offset. The first three cases constitute classical Euler buckling problems, and the characteristic equation for the critical loads/accelerations are determined. For the last case a unique steady state solution exists. The free vibration response is examined for the two classes of tip body. The characteristic equation, eigenfunctions and their orthogonality properties are obtained for the case of restricted mass center offset. The vibration problem is nonhomogeneous for the case of arbitrary mass center offset. The exact solution is obtained as a sum of the steady state solution and a superposition of simple harmonic motions.

Storch, J.; Gates, S.

1983-01-01

114

Frequency weightings for fore-and-aft vibration at the back: effect of contact location, contact area, and body posture.  

PubMed

Fore-and-aft vibration of a backrest can influence discomfort and the risk of injury associated with whole-body vibration. Relevant standards (BS 6841:1987 and ISO2631-1:1997) recommend the W(c) frequency weighting for evaluating fore-and-aft vibration of backrests, but do not specify the precise location for measuring vibration. This study determined equivalent comfort contours for fore-and-aft vibration of the backs of seated persons from 2 to 80 Hz using the method of magnitude estimation, examining the effect of input location, contact area, and body posture. The equivalent comfort contours indicate decreased sensitivity to vibration acceleration at frequencies greater than 8 Hz. Equivalent comfort contours with a full backrest were similar to those with contact at only the highest location on the back. The derived frequency weightings are broadly consistent with frequency weighting W(c) but suggest somewhat greater sensitivity at frequencies greater than 30 Hz and vary in shape with changes in vibration magnitude. It is concluded that with low and moderate magnitudes of vibration the severity of fore-and-aft vibration of a backrest can be assessed from the frequency-weighted fore-and-aft acceleration measured at the highest point of contact between the backrest and the body if the frequency weighting W(c) is employed in the evaluation. PMID:20953071

Morioka, Miyuki; Griffin, Michael J

2010-01-01

115

The Influence of Whole-Body Vibration on Creatine Kinase Activity and Jumping Performance in Young Basketball Players  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To quantify creatine kinase (CK) activity changes across time following an acute bout of whole-body vibration (WBV) and determine the association between changes in CK activity and jumping performance. Method: Twenty-six elite young basketball players were assigned to 3 groups: 36-Hz and 46-Hz vibration groups (G36 and G46, respectively)…

Fachina, Rafael; da Silva, Antônio; Falcão, William; Montagner, Paulo; Borin, João; Minozzo, Fábio; Falcão, Diego; Vancini, Rodrigo; Poston, Brach; de Lira, Claudio

2013-01-01

116

Whole-body vibration and ergonomic study of US railroad locomotives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

US locomotive operators have exposure to multi-axis whole-body vibration (WBV) and shocks while seated. This study assessed operator-related and ergonomic seating design factors that may have confounding or mitigating influence on WBV exposure and its effects. Vibration exposure was measured according to international guidelines (ISO 2631-1; 1997); ergonomic work place factors and vibration effects were studied with a cross-sectional survey instrument distributed to a randomly selected group of railroad engineers ( n=2546) and a control group; and during vehicle inspections. The survey response rate was 47% for the RR engineers ( n=1195) and 41% for the controls ( n=323). Results of the mean basic vibration measurements were for the x, y, z-direction and vector sum 0.14, 0.22, 0.28 and 0.49 m/s 2 respectively; almost all crest factors (CF), MTVV and VDV values were above the critical ratios given in ISO 2631-1. The prevalence of serious neck and lower back disorders among locomotive engineers was found to be nearly double that of the sedentary control group without such exposure. Railroad engineers rated their seats mostly unacceptable regarding different adjustment and comfort aspects (3.02-3.51; scale 1=excellent to 4=unacceptable), while the control group rated their chairs more favorably (1.96-3.44). Existing cab and seat design in locomotives can result in prolonged forced awkward spinal posture of the operator combined with WBV exposure. In a logistic regression analysis, time at work being bothered by vibration (h/day) was significantly associated with an increased risk of low back pain, shoulder and neck pain, and sciatic pain among railroad engineers. Customized vibration attenuation seats and improved cab design of the locomotive controls should be further investigated.

Johanning, Eckardt; Landsbergis, Paul; Fischer, Siegfried; Christ, Eberhard; Göres, Benno; Luhrman, Raymond

2006-12-01

117

Flow-Induced Vibrations of Three-Dimensional Bluff Bodies in a Cross Flow, an Annotated Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Literature on flow-induced vibrations of spheres, spheroids, short cylinders and other three-dimensional bluff bodies has been reviewed. Information considered pertinent to the analysis and design of large submerged cable structures subjected to currents ...

R. D. Rail B. E. Hafen D. J. Meggitt

1977-01-01

118

Analyses of biodynamic responses of seated occupants to uncorrelated fore-aft and vertical whole-body vibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apparent mass and seat-to-head-transmissibility response functions of the seated human body were investigated under exposures to fore-aft (x), vertical (z), and combined fore-aft and vertical (x and z) axis whole-body vibration. The coupling effects of dual-axis vibration were investigated using two different frequency response function estimators based upon the cross- and auto-spectral densities of the response and excitation signals,

Santosh Mandapuram; Subhash Rakheja; Pierre Marcotte; Paul-Émile Boileau

2011-01-01

119

Second-order many-body perturbation expansions of vibrational Dyson self-energies.  

PubMed

Second-order many-body perturbation theories for anharmonic vibrational frequencies and zero-point energies of molecules are formulated, implemented, and tested. They solve the vibrational Dyson equation self-consistently by taking into account the frequency dependence of the Dyson self-energy in the diagonal approximation, which is expanded in a diagrammatic perturbation series up to second order. Three reference wave functions, all of which are diagrammatically size consistent, are considered: the harmonic approximation and diagrammatic vibrational self-consistent field (XVSCF) methods with and without the first-order Dyson geometry correction, i.e., XVSCF[n] and XVSCF(n), where n refers to the truncation rank of the Taylor-series potential energy surface. The corresponding second-order perturbation theories, XVH2(n), XVMP2[n], and XVMP2(n), are shown to be rigorously diagrammatically size consistent for both total energies and transition frequencies, yield accurate results (typically within a few cm(-1) at n = 4 for water and formaldehyde) for both quantities even in the presence of Fermi resonance, and have access to fundamentals, overtones, and combinations as well as their relative intensities as residues of the vibrational Green's functions. They are implemented into simple algorithms that require only force constants and frequencies of the reference methods (with no basis sets, quadrature, or matrix diagonalization at any stage of the calculation). The rules for enumerating and algebraically interpreting energy and self-energy diagrams are elucidated in detail. PMID:23883014

Hermes, Matthew R; Hirata, So

2013-07-21

120

The effects of random whole-body-vibration on motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

It is well known that applying vibrations to men influences multiple physiological functions. The authors analysed post effects of whole-body-vibration (WBV) on motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). Sixty-eight persons with PD were randomly subdivided into one experimental and one control group. Motor symptoms were assessed by the UPDRS (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale) motor score. A cross-over design was used to control treatment effects. The treatment consisted of 5 series of whole-body-vibration taking 60 seconds each. On average a highly significant (p<0.01) improvement of 16.8% in the UPDRS motor score was found in the treatment group. Only marginal changes (p>0.05) were found in the control group. The cross-over procedure showed comparable treatment effects (14.7% improvement after treatment). With respect to different symptom clusters only small changes were found in limb akinesia and cranial symptoms. By contrast, tremor and rigidity scores were improved by 25% and 24%, respectively. According to the structure of symptom changes it is unlikely that these effects are explainable on peripheral sensory level, exclusively. With respect to the findings of other studies one can speculate about changes in activation of the supplementary motor area and in neurotransmitter functions. PMID:16720935

Haas, Christian T; Turbanski, Stephan; Kessler, Kirn; Schmidtbleicher, Dietmar

2006-01-01

121

Vibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Man's reactions to vibration are emphasized rather than his reactions to the vibrational characteristics of vehicles. Vibrational effects studies include: performance effects reflected in tracking proficiency, reaction time, visual impairment, and other measures related to man's ability to control a system; physiological reactions; biodynamic responses; subjective reactions; and human tolerance limits. Technological refinements in shaker systems and improved experimental designs are used to validate the data.

Hornick, R. J.

1973-01-01

122

a Modal Analysis of Whole-Body Vertical Vibration, Using a Finite Element Model of the Human Body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-dimensional model of human biomechanical responses to whole-body vibration has been developed, by using the finite element method. Beam, spring and mass elements were used to model the spine, viscera, head, pelvis and buttocks tissue in the mid-sagittal plane. The model was developed by comparison of the vibration mode shapes with those previously measured in the laboratory. At frequencies below 10 Hz, the model produced seven modes which coincided well with the measurements. The principal resonance of the driving point response at about 5 Hz consisted of an entire body mode, in which the head, spinal column and the pelvis move almost rigidly, with axial and shear deformation of tissue beneath the pelvis occurring in phase with a vertical visceral mode. The second principal resonance at about 8 Hz corresponded to a rotational mode of the pelvis, with a possible contribution from a second visceral mode. A shift of the principal resonance of the driving point response, when changing posture, was achieved only by changing the axial stiffness of the buttocks tissue. It is suggested that an increase in contact area between the buttocks and the thighs and the seat surface, when changing posture from erect to slouched, may decrease the axial stiffness beneath the pelvis, with a non-linear force-deflection relationship of tissue resulting in decreases in the natural frequencies. A change in posture from erect to slouched also increased shear deformation of tissue beneath the pelvis in the entire body mode, and the natural frequency was decreased as a result of the much lower shear stiffness of tissue compared to the axial stiffness.

Kitazaki, S.; Griffin, M. J.

1997-02-01

123

Implementation of CHIEF in MATLAB for prediction of sound radiated from arbitrarily shaped vibrating bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Boundary Element Method can be used to predict sound pressure levels radiated from an arbitrarily shaped vibrating body. Using the direct, indirect, and approximation formulation one can solve such an exterior acoustic problem. In this work, the direct formulation is chosen. The two major methods employed for implementation of this formulation are the Combined Helmholtz Integral Equation Formulation (CHIEF) and the Burton-Miller Method. It was decided that the CHIEF method would be the focus of this research. Using the CHIEF method as a guide, a computer simulation was developed that incorporates quadratic elements, calculates the sound pressure and sound power, is able to import surface velocities, and uses the program IDEAS as a preprocessor. This program was verified using theoretical models as well as experimental measurements conducted in the Western Michigan University Noise and Vibration Laboratory. This program was written in Matlab with the understanding that it can be processed on a personal computer.

Christensen, Mark; Naghshineh, Koorosh

2002-05-01

124

Whole body vibration during fracture healing intensifies the effects of estradiol and raloxifene in estrogen-deficient rats.  

PubMed

Current osteoporosis therapies aim to delay bone destruction and have additional anabolic effects. While they have demonstrated some positive effects on bone healing, more progress is needed in this area. This study used the well-known osteoporotic agents estrogen (E) and raloxifene (R) in conjunction with biomechanical whole body vibration (WBV) at a frequency of 70 Hz twice daily for six weeks to stimulate bone healing. Eighty-four 3-month old female Sprague-Dawley rats (12 per group) were bilaterally ovariectomized to develop osteopenia within eight weeks. Osteotomy of the metaphyseal tibiae was performed and fracture healing was then studied using mechanical tests, histomorphometry, computed tomography (?CT), and gene analysis. We found that E and R improved the structure of osteopenic bones as did WBV alone, although significant levels for WBV were seldom reached. Combination treatments significantly enhanced stiffness (R+WBV; p<0.05), endosteal bone (R+WBV; p<0.01), and trabecular density (E+WBV; p<0.05, R+WBV; p<0.05). In addition, the expression of osteoclast-specific Trap was significantly reduced after treatment with E, R, or their combination with WBV (p<0.01). The effects were additive and not inhibitory, leading us to conclude that the combined applications of WBV with E or R may improve the healing of osteopenic bones. The therapies studied are all currently approved for human use, suggesting ready applicability to clinical practice. To better understand the effects of WBV on osteopenic bones, the ideal vibration regime will require further study. PMID:24735975

Stuermer, Ewa K; Komrakova, Marina; Sehmisch, Stephan; Tezval, Mohammad; Dullin, Christian; Schaefer, Nadine; Hallecker, Jan; Stuermer, Klaus M

2014-07-01

125

Study protocol: the effect of whole body vibration on acute unilateral unstable lateral ankle sprain- a biphasic randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Ankle sprains often result in ankle instability, which is most likely caused by damage to passive structures and neuromuscular impairment. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a neuromuscular training method improving those impaired neurologic parameters. The aim of this study is to compare the current gold standard functional treatment to functional treatment plus WBV in patients with acute unilateral unstable inversion ankle sprains. Methods/Design 60 patients, aged 18–40 years, presenting with an isolated, unilateral, acute unstable inversion ankle sprain will be included in this bicentric, biphasic, randomized controlled trial. Samples will be randomized by envelope drawing. All patients will be allowed early mobilization and pain-dependent weight bearing, limited functional immobilization by orthosis, PRICE, NSARDs as well as home and supervised physiotherapy. Supervised physical therapy will take place twice a week, for 30 minutes for a period of 6 weeks, following a standardized intervention protocol. During supervised physical therapy, the intervention group will perform exercises similar to those of the control group, on a side-alternating sinusoidal vibration platform. Two time-dependent primary outcome parameters will be assessed: short-term outcome after six weeks will be postural control quantified by the sway index; mid-term outcome after one year will be assessed by subjective instability, defined by the presence of giving-way attacks. Secondary outcome parameters include: return to pre-injury level of activities, residual pain, recurrence, objective instability, energy/coordination, Foot and Ankle Disability Index and EQ 5D. Discussion This is the first trial investigating the effects of WBV in patients with acute soft tissue injury. Inversion ankle sprains often result in ankle instability, which is most likely due to damage of neurological structures. Due to its unique, frequency dependent, influence on various neuromuscular parameters, WBV is a promising treatment method for patients with acute unstable inversion ankle sprains. Trial registration NCT01702597

2013-01-01

126

Low back pain and association with whole body vibration among military armoured vehicle drivers in Malaysia.  

PubMed

A cross sectional study was conducted among military armoured vehicle drivers in the two largest mechanized battalions with the objective to determine the prevalence of low back pain (LBP), and its association with whole body vibration (WBV) and other associated factors. A self-administered questionnaire and Human Vibration Meter were used in this study. A total of 159 respondents participated in this study and 102 (64.2%) of them were subjected to WBV measurement. One-hundred-and-seventeen respondents complained of LBP for the past 12 months giving a prevalence of 73.6%. The prevalence of LBP among tracked armoured vehicle drivers was higher (81.7%) as compared to wheeled armoured vehicle drivers (67.0%). The mean acceleration at Z-axis in tracked armoured vehicles (1.09 +/- 0.26 ms(-2)) and wheeled armoured vehicles (0.33 +/- 0.07 ms) were the dominant vibration directions. The mean estimated vibration dose value (eVDV) for eight-hour daily exposure at Z-axis (19.86 +/- 4.72 ms(-1.75)) in tracked armoured vehicles showed the highest estimation. Based on the European Vibration Directive (2002), the mean eVDV at Z-axis in tracked armoured vehicles exceeded exposure action value (EAV) (> 9.1 ms(-1.75), but did not exceed exposure limit value (ELV) (<21.0 ms(-1.75)). Logistic regression analysis revealed that only driving in forward bending sitting posture (OR = 3.63, 95% CI 1.06-12.42) and WBV exposure at X-axis (OR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.02-3.69) were significant risk factors to LBP. Preventive measures should be implemented to minimize risk of WBV and to improve ergonomic postures among drivers. PMID:20527267

Rozali, A; Rampal, K G; Shamsul Bahri, M T; Sherina, M S; Shamsul Azhar, S; Khairuddin, H; Sulaiman, A

2009-09-01

127

Inference-Based Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder  

PubMed Central

Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a debilitating disorder characterized by an excessive pre-occupation with an imagined or very slight defect in one’s physical appearance. Despite the overall success of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in treating BDD, some people do not seem to benefit as much from this approach. Those with high overvalued ideation (OVI), for instance, have been shown to not respond well with CBT. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an inference-based therapy (IBT) in treating BDD. IBT is a cognitive intervention that was first developed for obsessive–compulsive disorder with high OVI, but whose focus on beliefs can also apply to a BDD population. IBT conceptualizes BDD obsessions (e.g., ‘I feel like my head is deformed’) as idiosyncratic inferences arrived at through inductive reasoning processes. Such primary inferences represent the starting point of obsessional doubt and the treatment focuses on addressing the faulty inferences that maintain the doubt. Thirteen BDD participants, of whom 10 completed, underwent a 20-week IBT for BDD. The participants improved significantly over the course of therapy, with large diminutions in BDD and depressive symptoms. OVI also decreased throughout therapy and was not found to be related to reduction in BDD symptoms. Although a controlled-trial comparing CBT with IBT is needed, it is proposed that IBT constitutes a promising treatment alternative for BDD especially in cases where OVI is high.

Taillon, Annie; O'Connor, Kieron; Dupuis, Gilles; Lavoie, Marc

2013-01-01

128

Scaling in temporal occurrence of quasi-rigid-body vibration pulses due to macrofractures.  

PubMed

We subjected the time series of quasi-rigid-body vibration pulses (elastic emissions) from laboratory fracture carried out by a piezoelectric accelerometer on concrete and rock specimens under uniaxial compression to statistical analysis. In both cases, we find that the waiting-time distribution can be described by a scaling law extending over several orders of magnitude. This law is indistinguishable from a universal scaling law recently proposed for the waiting-time distributions of acoustic emissions in heterogeneous materials and earthquakes, suggesting its general validity for fracture processes independent of modes and magnitude scales. PMID:21230353

Niccolini, G; Schiavi, A; Tarizzo, P; Carpinteri, A; Lacidogna, G; Manuello, A

2010-10-01

129

Apparatus and method of inserting a microelectrode in body tissue or the like using vibration means  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An arrangement for and method of inserting a glass microelectrode having a tip in the micron range into body tissue is presented. The arrangement includes a microelectrode. The top of the microelectrode is attached to the diaphragm center of a first speaker. The microelectrode tip is brought into contact with the tissue by controlling a micromanipulator. Thereafter, an audio signal is applied to the speaker to cause the microelectrode to vibrate and thereby pierce the tissue surface without breaking the microelectrode tip. Thereafter, the tip is inserted into the tissue to the desired depth by operating the micromanipulator with the microelectrode in a vibratory or non-vibratory state.

Feldstein, C.; Crawford, D. W.; Kanabus, E. W. (inventors)

1979-01-01

130

A laser Doppler vibrometer featured with the in-housed mechanism for adaptive compensation of body vibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel and economic means to cope with the problem of laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) body vibration in the longitudinal direction of the measurement. The suggested approach does not require any external reference surface. Instead, a damper is fabricated and compactly housed in the LDV, and the LDV's body movement is indirectly inferred by adaptively processing the beam

Tae-Gyu Chang; Yong-Gi Son; Jae-Hwa Kim; Ho-Seung Kim; Min-Shik Kang

2000-01-01

131

Whole-body vibrations do not elevate the angiogenic stimulus when applied during resistance exercise.  

PubMed

Knowledge about biological factors involved in exercise-induced angiogenesis is to date still scanty. The present study aimed to investigate the angiogenic stimulus of resistance exercise with and without superimposed whole-body vibrations. Responses to the exercise regimen before and after a 6-week training intervention were investigated in twenty-six healthy male subjects. Serum was collected at the initial and final exercise sessions and circulating levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) -2 and -9, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and endostatin were determined via ELISA. Furthermore, we studied the proliferative effect of serum-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro via BrdU-incorporation assay. It was found that circulating MMP-2, MMP-9, VEGF and endostatin levels were significantly elevated (P<0.001) from resting levels after both exercise interventions, with higher post-exercise VEGF concentrations in the resistance exercise (RE) group compared to the resistive vibration exercise (RVE) group. Moreover, RE provoked increased endothelial cell proliferation in vitro and higher post-exercise circulating endostatin concentrations after 6 weeks of training. These effects were elusive in the RVE group. The present findings suggest that resistance exercise leads to a transient rise in circulating angiogenic factors and superimposing vibrations to this exercise type might not further trigger a potential signaling of angiogenic stimulation in skeletal muscle. PMID:24260349

Beijer, Åsa; Rosenberger, André; Bölck, Birgit; Suhr, Frank; Rittweger, Jörn; Bloch, Wilhelm

2013-01-01

132

Selected health risks caused by long-term, whole-body vibration.  

PubMed

The problem of a "vibration disease" caused by low-frequency whole-body vibration (wbv) is critically discussed. Disorders of the nervous, circulatory, and digestive systems are interpreted not to be predominantly wbv-specific, but to be related to the totality of working conditions. Long-term wbv exposure can probably contribute to the pathogenesis of disorders of female reproductive organs (menstrual disturbances, anomalies of position) and disturbances of pregnancy (abortions, stillbirths). Animal experiments suggest harmful effects on the fetus. WBV has a minor synergistic effect on the development of noise-induced hearing loss. Degenerative changes of the spine are more prevalent among wbv-exposed workers. Model calculations demonstrate an increased spinal load in pregnant women exposed to wbv or self-induced vibration, and illustrate a possibility for the comparison of data on stress, strain, and strength. The analysis of individual exposure-effect relationships is suggested as a future approach for evaluating potential occupation-related diseases. PMID:8480768

Seidel, H

1993-04-01

133

The effects of whole body vibration on balance, joint position sense and cutaneous sensation.  

PubMed

Whole body vibration (WBV) may enhance muscular strength and power but little is known about its influence on sensory-motor function. Vibration of a single muscle or tendon affects the afferent system in a manner that depends on amplitude and frequency. WBV stimulates many muscle groups simultaneously and the frequencies and amplitudes used are different from many of the studies on single musculotendinous units. We investigated the effects of WBV at two amplitudes on balance, joint position sense (JPS) and cutaneous sensation in young healthy subjects. Eighteen adults (24.3 ± 1.5 years, 15 females) were assessed before WBV (five 1 min bouts, 30 Hz) then immediately, 15 and 30 min afterwards. Two amplitudes (4 and 8 mm peak to peak) were investigated on different occasions. Standing balance was assessed with feet together and eyes closed, and standing on one leg with eyes open and closed. JPS at the knee and ankle was assessed by repositioning tasks while cutaneous sensation was recorded from six sites in the lower limb using pressure aesthesiometry. Neither amplitude affected JPS (P > 0.05). There were minimal effects on balance only in the vertical plane and only 30 min after WBV (P < 0.05). Low amplitude vibration only reduced sensation at the foot and ankle immediately after WBV (P < 0.008). High amplitude vibration impaired sensation at the foot, ankle and posterior shank for the entire test period (P < 0.008). In young healthy individuals WBV did not affect JPS or static balance, but reduced cutaneous sensation. These data may have implications for older and clinical populations with compromised postural control. PMID:21455611

Pollock, Ross D; Provan, Sally; Martin, Finbarr C; Newham, Di J

2011-12-01

134

Typical whole body vibration exposure magnitudes encountered in the open pit mining industry.  

PubMed

According to recent research, a causal link has been established between occupational exposure to whole body vibration and an increased occurrence of low back pain. To aid in the further development of an in-house health and safety program for a large open pit mining facility interested in reducing back pain among its operators, whole body vibration magnitudes were characterized for a range of jobs. Specifically, thirty-five individual jobs from five different areas across the facility were evaluated for tri-axial acceleration levels during normal operating conditions. Tri-axial acceleration magnitudes were categorized into thirteen job groups. Job groups were ranked according to exposure and compared to the ISO 2631-1 standard for health risk assessment. Three of the thirteen job groups produced tri-axial acceleration magnitudes below the ISO 2631-1 low/moderate health caution limit for a twelve hour exposure. Six of the thirteen job groups produced exposures within the moderate health risk range. Four job groups were found to subject operators to WBV acceleration magnitudes above the moderate/high health caution limit. PMID:20037244

Howard, Bryan; Sesek, Richard; Bloswick, Don

2009-01-01

135

Vibration therapy reduces plasma IL6 and muscle soreness after downhill running  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveIn this study, the effects of vibration therapy (VT) on delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and associated inflammatory markers after downhill running were determined.Methods29 male recreational runners (33 (8) years; Vo2peak 57 (6) ml kg?1 min?1) completed a 40-min downhill run and were randomly allocated to a VT group or Control group. For 5 days post-run, the VT group underwent once-daily

S. Broadbent; J. J. Rousseau; R. M. Thorp; S. L. Choate; F. S. Jackson; D. S. Rowlands

2010-01-01

136

The Use of a Manual Vibrator in the Speech Therapy Program of Four School-Age Mentally Retarded Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of a manual vibrator to supplement the traditional speech therapy program for four moderately mentally retarded six- and seven-year-old children attending a special education class is discussed. (Author/SEW)

Grant, Lauren

1982-01-01

137

Analyses of biodynamic responses of seated occupants to uncorrelated fore-aft and vertical whole-body vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The apparent mass and seat-to-head-transmissibility response functions of the seated human body were investigated under exposures to fore-aft ( x), vertical ( z), and combined fore-aft and vertical ( x and z) axis whole-body vibration. The coupling effects of dual-axis vibration were investigated using two different frequency response function estimators based upon the cross- and auto-spectral densities of the response and excitation signals, denoted as H1 and Hv estimators, respectively. The experiments were performed to measure the biodynamic responses to single and uncorrelated dual-axis vibration, and to study the effects of hands support, back support and vibration magnitude on the body interactions with the seatpan and the backrest, characterized in terms of apparent masses and the vibration transmitted to the head. The data were acquired with 9 subjects exposed to two different magnitudes of vibration applied along the individual x- and z-axis (0.25 and 0.4 m/s 2 rms), and along both the axis (0.28 and 0.4 m/s 2 rms along each axis) in the 0.5-20 Hz frequency range. The two methods resulted in identical single-axis responses but considerably different dual-axis responses. The dual-axis responses derived from the Hv estimator revealed notable effects of dual-axis vibration, as they comprised both the direct and cross-axis responses observed under single axis vibration. Such effect, termed as the coupling effect, was not evident in the dual-axis responses derived using the commonly used H1 estimator. The results also revealed significant effects of hands and back support conditions on the coupling effects and the measured responses. The back support constrained the upper body movements and thus showed relatively weaker coupling compared to that observed in the responses without the back support. The effect of hand support was also pronounced under the fore-aft vibration. The results suggest that a better understanding of the seated human body responses to uncorrelated multi-axis whole-body vibration could be developed using the power-spectral-density based Hv estimator.

Mandapuram, Santosh; Rakheja, Subhash; Marcotte, Pierre; Boileau, Paul-Émile

2011-08-01

138

Long-Term Effect of Whole Body Vibration Training on Jump Height: Meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Manimmanakorn, N, Hamlin, MJ, Ross, JJ, and Manimmanakorn, A. Long-term effect of whole body vibration training on jump height: meta-analysis. J Strength Cond Res 28(6): 1739-1750, 2014-Whole body vibration (WBV) is widely promoted as a means of improving muscle strength, but the evidence of a performance benefit is unclear with some reporting improvements and others finding none. The objective of this study was to analyze the current evidence for the effectiveness of WBV on jump height. We included randomized controlled trials or matched design studies comparing the effect of WBV training on countermovement and squat jump (SJ) height, which were gathered from MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, Sciencedirect, Proquest, Scopus, Google Scholar, and SPORTDiscus databases. The overall effect of WBV training (from the 15 studies included) compared with having no additional exercise on countermovement jump height yielded a positive standardized mean difference of 0.77 (95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.99). The effect of WBV training on SJ height was 0.68 (0.08-1.11). Vibration exercise consisting of a higher frequency (>30 Hz, 0.86, 0.62-1.10), higher amplitude (>3 mm, 0.84, 0.52-1.17), longer exposure duration (>10 minutes per session, 0.92, 0.48-1.36), longer training period (>12 weeks, 0.87, 0.56-1.19) and among nonathletes (0.96, 0.63-1.30) had greater benefit for jump height improvement than a lower frequency (?30 Hz, 0.56, 0.13-0.99), lower amplitude (?3 mm, 0.66, 0.35-0.98), shorter exposure duration (?10 minutes per session, 0.68, 0.45-0.92), intermediate training period (4-12 weeks, 0.72, 0.35-1.09), shorter training period (<4 weeks, 0.58, -0.08 to -1.23) and in athletes (0.59, 0.31-0.88). The effect of WBV training compared with a standard cardiovascular-type exercise group from 4 studies was 0.63 (0.10-1.15). In conclusion, WBV training produces a moderate-to-large effect on jump height. Vibration training protocols with higher frequencies, higher amplitudes, longer exposures per session, and longer training periods are more likely to enhance muscle power. PMID:24276295

Manimmanakorn, Nuttaset; Hamlin, Michael J; Ross, Jenny J; Manimmanakorn, Apiwan

2014-06-01

139

Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration improves postural control in health care professionals: a worksite randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Slip, trip, and fall injuries are frequent among health care workers. Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training was tested to improve postural control. Participants included 124 employees of a Swiss university hospital. The randomized controlled trial included an experimental group given 8 weeks of training and a control group with no intervention. In both groups, postural control was assessed as mediolateral sway on a force plate before and after the 8-week trial. Mediolateral sway was significantly decreased by stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training in the experimental group but not in the control group that received no training (p < .05). Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training is an option in the primary prevention of balance-related injury at work. PMID:24806038

Elfering, Achim; Schade, Volker; Stoecklin, Lukas; Baur, Simone; Burger, Christian; Radlinger, Lorenz

2014-05-01

140

Recall radiation dermatitis by sorafenib following stereotactic body radiation therapy  

PubMed Central

We report on a 63-year-old man with a history of hepatitis B virus–related hepatocellular carcinoma with a thrombus extending into the inferior vena cava, who received image-guided stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) with helical tomotherapy, followed by sorafenib. A total tumor dose of 48 Gy was delivered by 6 fractions within 2 weeks. The tumor responded dramatically, and the patient tolerated the courses well. Ten days after SBRT, sorafenib (200 mg), at 1.5 tablets twice a day, was prescribed. One week later, grade 2 recall radiation dermatitis subsequently developed in the previous SBRT off-target area. SBRT followed by sorafenib for the treatment of a portal vein thrombosis provided effective results, but the potential risk of enhanced adverse effects between radiation and sorafenib should be considered with caution, especially under a SBRT scheme.

Hsieh, Chen-Hsi; Lin, Shih-Chiang; Shueng, Pei-Wei; Kuo, Deng-Yu

2014-01-01

141

Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for genitourinary malignancies.  

PubMed

Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a novel treatment modality in radiation oncology that delivers a very high dose of radiation to the tumor target with high precision using single or a small number of fractions. SBRT is the result of technological advances in patient/tumor immobilization, image guidance, and treatment planning and delivery. This modality is safe and effective in both early stage primary cancer and oligometastases. Compared to the use of stereotactic radiosurgery for other tumor sites, SBRT is slow to be adopted in the management of genitourinary malignancies. There are now emerging data that show the safety and efficacy of this treatment modality in genitourinary (GU) malignancies especially in prostate cancer and renal cell carcinoma. Preclinical data, clinical experience, and challenges are reviewed and discussed. PMID:20875347

Teh, Bin S; Ishiyama, Hiromichi; Mathews, Thomas; Xu, Bo; Butler, E Brian; Mayr, Nina A; Lo, Simon S; Lu, Jiade J; Blanco, Angel I; Paulino, Arnold C; Timmerman, Robert D

2010-09-01

142

Modular Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder  

PubMed Central

This study pilot tested a newly developed modular cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) treatment manual for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). We tested feasibility, acceptability, and treatment outcome in a sample of 12 adults with primary BDD. Treatment was delivered in weekly individual sessions over 18 or 22 weeks. Standardized clinician ratings and self-report measures were used to assess BDD and related symptoms pre- and posttreatment and at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. At posttreatment, BDD and related symptoms (e.g., mood) were significantly improved. Treatment gains were maintained at follow-up. A relatively low drop-out rate, high patient satisfaction ratings, and patient feedback indicated that the treatment was highly acceptable to patients. To our knowledge, this represents the first test of a broadly applicable, individual psychosocial treatment for BDD.

Wilhelm, Sabine; Phillips, Katharine A.; Fama, Jeanne M.; Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Steketee, Gail

2011-01-01

143

Effects of whole body vibration on motor unit recruitment and threshold  

PubMed Central

Whole body vibration (WBV) has been suggested to elicit reflex muscle contractions but this has never been verified. We recorded from 32 single motor units (MU) in the vastus lateralis of 7 healthy subjects (34 ± 15.4 yr) during five 1-min bouts of WBV (30 Hz, 3 mm peak to peak), and the vibration waveform was also recorded. Recruitment thresholds were recorded from 38 MUs before and after WBV. The phase angle distribution of all MUs during WBV was nonuniform (P < 0.001) and displayed a prominent peak phase angle of firing. There was a strong linear relationship (r = ?0.68, P < 0.001) between the change in recruitment threshold after WBV and average recruitment threshold; the lowest threshold MUs increased recruitment threshold (P = 0.008) while reductions were observed in the higher threshold units (P = 0.031). We investigated one possible cause of changed thresholds. Presynaptic inhibition in the soleus was measured in 8 healthy subjects (29 ± 4.6 yr). A total of 30 H-reflexes (stimulation intensity 30% Mmax) were recorded before and after WBV: 15 conditioned by prior stimulation (60 ms) of the antagonist and 15 unconditioned. There were no significant changes in the relationship between the conditioned and unconditioned responses. The consistent phase angle at which each MU fired during WBV indicates the presence of reflex muscle activity similar to the tonic vibration reflex. The varying response in high- and low-threshold MUs may be due to the different contributions of the mono- and polysynaptic pathways but not presynaptic inhibition.

Woledge, Roger C.; Martin, Finbarr C.; Newham, Di J.

2012-01-01

144

Effects of whole body vibration on motor unit recruitment and threshold.  

PubMed

Whole body vibration (WBV) has been suggested to elicit reflex muscle contractions but this has never been verified. We recorded from 32 single motor units (MU) in the vastus lateralis of 7 healthy subjects (34 ± 15.4 yr) during five 1-min bouts of WBV (30 Hz, 3 mm peak to peak), and the vibration waveform was also recorded. Recruitment thresholds were recorded from 38 MUs before and after WBV. The phase angle distribution of all MUs during WBV was nonuniform (P < 0.001) and displayed a prominent peak phase angle of firing. There was a strong linear relationship (r = -0.68, P < 0.001) between the change in recruitment threshold after WBV and average recruitment threshold; the lowest threshold MUs increased recruitment threshold (P = 0.008) while reductions were observed in the higher threshold units (P = 0.031). We investigated one possible cause of changed thresholds. Presynaptic inhibition in the soleus was measured in 8 healthy subjects (29 ± 4.6 yr). A total of 30 H-reflexes (stimulation intensity 30% Mmax) were recorded before and after WBV: 15 conditioned by prior stimulation (60 ms) of the antagonist and 15 unconditioned. There were no significant changes in the relationship between the conditioned and unconditioned responses. The consistent phase angle at which each MU fired during WBV indicates the presence of reflex muscle activity similar to the tonic vibration reflex. The varying response in high- and low-threshold MUs may be due to the different contributions of the mono- and polysynaptic pathways but not presynaptic inhibition. PMID:22096119

Pollock, Ross D; Woledge, Roger C; Martin, Finbarr C; Newham, Di J

2012-02-01

145

The effects of whole-body vibration on the wingate test for anaerobic power when applying individualized frequencies.  

PubMed

Surowiec, RK, Wang, H, Nagelkirk, PR, Frame, JW, and Dickin, DC. The effects of whole-body vibration on the Wingate test for anaerobic power when applying individualized frequencies. J Strength Cond Res 28(7): 2035-2041, 2014-Recently, individualized frequency (I-Freq) has been introduced with the notion that athletes may elicit a greater reflex response at differing levels (Hz) of vibration. The aim of the study was to evaluate acute whole-body vibration as a feasible intervention to increase power in trained cyclists and evaluate the efficacy of using I-Freq as an alternative to 30Hz, a common frequency seen in the literature. Twelve highly trained, competitive male cyclists (age, 29.9 ± 10.0 years; body height, 175.4 ± 7.8 cm; body mass, 77.3 ± 13.9 kg) participated in the study. A Wingate test for anaerobic power was administered on 3 occasions: following a control of no vibration, 30 Hz, or I-freq. Measures of peak power, average power (AP), and the rate of fatigue were recorded and compared with the vibration conditions using separate repeated measures analysis of variance. Peak power, AP, and the rate of fatigue were not significantly impacted by either the 30 Hz or I-Freq vibration interventions (p > 0.05). Given the trained status of the individuals in this study, the ability to elicit an acute response may have been muted. Future studies should further refine the vibration parameters used and assess changes in untrained or recreationally trained populations. PMID:24378660

Surowiec, Rachel K; Wang, Henry; Nagelkirk, Paul R; Frame, Jeffrey W; Dickin, D Clark

2014-07-01

146

Role of stereotactic body radiation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

The integration of new technologies has raised an interest in liver tumor radiotherapy, with literature evolving to support its efficacy. These advances, particularly stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), have been critical in improving local control or potential cure in liver lesions not amenable to first-line surgical resection or radiofrequency ablation. Active investigation of SBRT, particularly for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), has recently started, yielding promising local control rates. In addition, data suggest a possibility that SBRT can be an alternative option for HCC unfit for other local therapies. However, information on optimal treatment indications, doses, and methods remains limited. In HCC, significant differences in patient characteristics and treatment availability exist by country. In addition, the prognosis of HCC is greatly influenced by underlying liver dysfunction and treatment itself in addition to tumor stage. Since they are closely linked to treatment approach, it is important to understand these differences in interpreting outcomes from various reports. Further studies are required to validate and maximize the efficacy of SBRT by a large, multi-institutional setting. PMID:24696597

Sanuki, Naoko; Takeda, Atsuya; Kunieda, Etsuo

2014-03-28

147

Improving strength and postural control in young skiers: whole-body vibration versus equivalent resistance training.  

PubMed

Context: Several groups have undertaken studies to evaluate the physiologic effects of whole-body vibration (WBV). However, the value of WBV in a training program remains unknown. Objective: To investigate whether a WBV program results in a better strength and postural control performance than an equivalent exercise program performed without vibration. Design: Randomized, controlled trial. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-three Belgian competitive skiers (ages = 9-15 years). Intervention(s): Subjects were assigned to either the WBV group or the equivalent resistance (ER) group for 6 weeks of training at 3 times per week. Main Outcome Measure(s): Isokinetic plantar and dorsiflexion peak torque, isokinetic knee flexion and extension peak torque, explosive strength (high box test), and postural control were assessed before and after the training period. Results: Both training programs significantly improved isokinetic ankle and knee muscle strength and explosive strength. Moreover, the increases in explosive strength and in plantar-flexor strength at low speed were significantly higher in the WBV group than in the ER group after 6 weeks. However, neither WBV training nor ER training seemed to have an effect on postural control. Conclusions: A strength training program that includes WBV appears to have additive effects in young skiers compared with an equivalent program that does not include WBV. Therefore, our findings support the hypothesis that WBV training may be a beneficial supplementary training technique in strength programs for young athletes. PMID:17043697

Mahieu, Nele N; Witvrouw, Erik; Van de Voorde, Danny; Michilsens, Diny; Arbyn, Valérie; Van den Broecke, Wouter

2006-01-01

148

The effects of whole body vibration on mobility and balance in Parkinson disease: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Whole body vibration (WBV) is a contemporary treatment modality that holds promise as an exercise training method in health-compromised individuals. A growing number of studies on individuals with Parkinson Disease are examining whether WBV improves balance and functional mobility. However, interpreting WBV studies is challenging since there is variability in the manner in which WBV intervention is conducted. The primary goal of this systematic review was to investigate the effect of WBV on improving mobility and balance as measured by a battery of clinical tests, in patients with Parkinson disease. Studies based on WBV parameters were characterized and a systematic search of peer-reviewed literature in five major databases was conducted. Randomized-controlled trials investigating the effects of WBV in patients with a Parkinson diagnosis and no cognitive impairment were included. A total of six publications met the inclusion criteria. Overall, studies demonstrated mixed results in favor of WBV for improving balance or mobility. The majority of studies seem to suggest a favorable benefit following WBV for mobility and balance, but not when compared to other active intervention or placebo. There was variability in the manner in which WBV intervention was applied. Variations among the six studies included: duration of intervention and rest, follow-up period, type of control groups, frequency of vibration, number of treatment sessions and sex distribution of subjects. Future research is needed to investigate the effects of different types of equipment and treatment dosage in individuals with Parkinson disease. PMID:25031483

Sharififar, Sharareh; Coronado, Rogelio A; Romero, Sergio; Azari, Hassan; Thigpen, Mary

2014-07-01

149

Changes in postural sway frequency and complexity in altered sensory environments following whole body vibrations.  

PubMed

Studies assessing whole body vibration (WBV) have produced largely positive effects, with some neutral, on postural control with frequencies between 25 and 40 Hz. However no conclusive evidence indicates that 25-40 Hz elicits the optimal beneficial effects. To address this issue, a larger range of vibration intensity (10-50 Hz at peak-to-peak amplitudes of 2 and 5mm) was employed while increasing the postural complexity (altered somatosensory and/or visual information) to assess acute effects of 4-min of WBV on postural control. Twelve healthy young adults underwent postural assessment at four time intervals (prior to, immediately following and 10 and 20 min post WBV). Findings revealed both postural sway frequency and sway complexity/regularity were affected by WBV. Baseline posture demonstrated increased sway frequency (p=.04) following WBV with no changes in sway complexity. When the support surface was altered, changes in both the frequency and complexity of sway were elicited (p=.027, .002, respectively). When both somatosensory and visual information were altered delayed improvements in postural control were elicited (p=.05 and .01, for frequency and complexity, respectively). Given the differential acute effects as a function of postural task complexity, future longitudinal studies could determine the overall training effect on sway frequency and complexity. PMID:22516837

Dickin, D Clark; McClain, Matthew A; Hubble, Ryan P; Doan, Jon B; Sessford, David

2012-10-01

150

Acute bone marker responses to whole-body vibration and resistance exercise in young women.  

PubMed

Whole-body vibration (WBV) augments the musculoskeletal effects of resistance exercise (RE). However, its acute effects on bone turnover markers (BTM) have not been determined. This study examined BTM responses to acute high-intensity RE and high-intensity RE with WBV (WBV+RE) in young women (n=10) taking oral contraceptives in a randomized, crossover repeated measures design. WBV+RE exposed subjects to 5 one-minute bouts of vibration (20 Hz, 3.38 peak-peak displacement, separated by 1 min of rest) before RE. Fasting blood samples were obtained before (Pre), immediately after WBV (PostVib), immediately after RE (IP), and 30-min after RE (P30). Bone alkaline phosphatase did not change at any time point. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b significantly increased (p<0.05) from the Pre to PostVib, then decreased from IP to P30 for both conditions. C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) significantly decreased (p<0.05) from Pre to PostVib and from Pre to P30 only for WBV+RE. WBV+RE showed a greater decrease in CTX than RE (-12.6% ± 4.7% vs -1.13% ± 3.5%). In conclusion, WBV was associated with acute decreases in CTX levels not elicited with RE alone in young women. PMID:22902255

Sherk, Vanessa D; Chrisman, Carmen; Smith, Jessica; Young, Kaelin C; Singh, Harshvardhan; Bemben, Michael G; Bemben, Debra A

2013-01-01

151

The Effects of Whole Body Vibration on Mobility and Balance in Parkinson Disease: a Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Whole body vibration (WBV) is a contemporary treatment modality that holds promise as an exercise training method in health–compromised individuals. A growing number of studies on individuals with Parkinson Disease are examining whether WBV improves balance and functional mobility. However, interpreting WBV studies is challenging since there is variability in the manner in which WBV intervention is conducted. The primary goal of this systematic review was to investigate the effect of WBV on improving mobility and balance as measured by a battery of clinical tests, in patients with Parkinson disease. Studies based on WBV parameters were characterized and a systematic search of peer-reviewed literature in five major databases was conducted. Randomized-controlled trials investigating the effects of WBV in patients with a Parkinson diagnosis and no cognitive impairment were included. A total of six publications met the inclusion criteria. Overall, studies demonstrated mixed results in favor of WBV for improving balance or mobility. The majority of studies seem to suggest a favorable benefit following WBV for mobility and balance, but not when compared to other active intervention or placebo. There was variability in the manner in which WBV intervention was applied. Variations among the six studies included: duration of intervention and rest, follow-up period, type of control groups, frequency of vibration, number of treatment sessions and sex distribution of subjects. Future research is needed to investigate the effects of different types of equipment and treatment dosage in individuals with Parkinson disease.

Sharififar, Sharareh; Coronado, Rogelio A.; Romero, Sergio; Azari, Hassan; Thigpen, Mary

2014-01-01

152

Mathematical models for the apparent masses of standing subjects exposed to vertical whole-body vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linear lumped parameter models of the apparent masses of human subjects in standing positions when exposed to vertical whole-body vibration have been developed. Simple models with a single degree-of-freedom (d.o.f.) and with two (d.o.f.) were considered for practical use. Model parameters were optimised using both the mean apparent mass of 12 male subjects and the apparent masses of individual subjects measured in a previous study. The calculated responses of two (d.o.f.) models with a massless support structure showed best agreement with the measured apparent mass and phase, with errors less than 0.1 in the normalised apparent mass (i.e., corresponding to errors less than 10% of the static mass) and errors less than 5° in the phase for a normal standing posture. The model parameters obtained with the mean measured apparent masses of the 12 subjects were similar to the means of the 12 sets of parameters obtained when fitting to the individual apparent masses. It was found that the effects of vibration magnitude and postural changes on the measured apparent mass could be represented by changes to the stiffness and damping in the two (d.o.f.) models.

Matsumoto, Y.; Griffin, M. J.

2003-02-01

153

Acute Bone Marker Responses to Whole-Body Vibration and Resistance Exercise in Young Women  

PubMed Central

Whole-body vibration (WBV) augments the musculoskeletal effects of resistance exercise (RE). However, its acute effects on bone turnover markers (BTM) have not been determined. This study examined BTM responses to acute high intensity RE and high intensity RE with WBV (WBV+RE) in young women (n=10) taking oral contraceptives in a randomized, cross-over repeated measures design. WBV+RE exposed subjects to 5 one-minute bouts of vibration (20 Hz, 3.38 peak–peak displacement, separated by 1 minute of rest) prior to RE. Fasting blood samples were obtained before (Pre), immediately post WBV (PostVib), immediately post RE (IP), and 30 minutes post RE (P30). Bone ALP did not change at any time point. TRAP5b significantly (p<0.05) increased from the Pre to PostVib, then decreased from IP to P30 for both conditions. CTX significantly decreased (p<0.05) from Pre to PostVib and from Pre to P30 only for WBV+RE. WBV+RE showed a greater decrease in CTX than RE (-12.6 ± 4.7% vs. -1.13 ± 3.5%). In conclusion, WBV was associated with acute decreases in CTX levels not elicited with resistance exercise alone in young women.

Sherk, Vanessa D.; Chrisman, Carmen; Smith, Jessica; Young, Kaelin C.; Singh, Harshvardhan; Bemben, Michael G.; Bemben, Debra A.

2014-01-01

154

Strength Training with Superimposed Whole Body Vibration Does Not Preferentially Modulate Cortical Plasticity  

PubMed Central

Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to investigate 4?wks of leg strength training with and without whole body vibration (WBV) on corticospinal excitability and short-latency intracortical inhibition (SICI). Participants (n = 12) were randomly allocated to either a control or experimental (WBV) group. All participants completed 12 squat training sessions either with (WBV group) or without (control group) exposure to WBV (f = 35?Hz, A = 2.5?mm). There were significant (P < 0.05) increases in squat strength and corticospinal excitability and significant (P < 0.05) reductions in SICI for both groups following the 4?wk intervention. There were no differences detected between groups for any dependant variable (P > 0.05). It appears that WBV training does not augment the increase in strength or corticospinal excitability induced by strength training alone.

Weier, Ashleigh T.; Kidgell, Dawson J.

2012-01-01

155

Adaptations in physiological properties of rat motor units following 5 weeks of whole-body vibration.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of 5-week whole-body vibration (WBV) on contractile parameters and force-frequency relationship of functionally isolated motor units of the rat medial gastrocnemius muscle: fast fatigable (FF), fast fatigue-resistant (FR), and slow (S). Moreover, myosin heavy chain isoform content was quantified. Following WBV, the maximum tetanic force of FF units was increased by ?25%. The twitch half-relaxation time in all types of motor units and the twitch contraction time in FR units were shortened. The twitch-to-tetanus force ratio was decreased and the force-frequency curves were shifted rightwards in S and FR units. Myosin heavy chain distribution was not changed. These findings suggest modifications of the excitation-contraction coupling towards shortening of a twitch contraction. The observed increase in force of FF units may contribute to gains in muscle dynamic strength reported following WBV treatment. PMID:23905655

Lochy?ski, Dawid; B?czyk, Marcin; Kaczmarek, Dominik; R?dowicz, Maria Jolanta; Celichowski, Jan; Krutki, Piotr

2013-09-01

156

Aerobic Exercise and Whole-Body Vibration in Offsetting Bone Loss in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis and its associated fractures are common complications of aging and most strategies to prevent and/or treat bone loss focused on antiresorptive medications. However, aerobic exercise (AEX) and/or whole-body vibration (WBV) might have beneficial effect on bone mass and provide an alternative approach to increase or maintain bone mineral density (BMD) and reduce the risk of fractures. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the potential benefits of AEX and WBV on BMD in older population and discuss the possible mechanisms of action. Several online databases were utilized and based on the available literature the consensus is that both AEX and WBV may increase spine and femoral BMD in older adults. Therefore, AEX and WBV could serve as nonpharmacological and complementary approaches to increasing/maintaining BMD. However, it is uncertain if noted effects could be permanent and further studies are needed to investigate sustainability of either type of the exercise.

Liu, Pei-Yang; Brummel-Smith, Kenneth; Ilich, Jasminka Z.

2011-01-01

157

Stereotactic body radiation therapy: a novel treatment modality.  

PubMed

Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) involves the delivery of a small number of ultra-high doses of radiation to a target volume using very advanced technology and has emerged as a novel treatment modality for cancer. The role of SBRT is most important at two cancer stages-in early primary cancer and in oligometastatic disease. This modality has been used in the treatment of early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer, prostate cancer, renal-cell carcinoma, and liver cancer, and in the treatment of oligometastases in the lung, liver, and spine. A large body of evidence on the use of SBRT for the treatment of primary and metastatic tumors in various sites has accumulated over the past 10-15 years, and efficacy and safety have been demonstrated. Several prospective clinical trials of SBRT for various sites have been conducted, and several other trials are currently being planned. The results of these clinical trials will better define the role of SBRT in cancer management. This article will review the radiobiologic, technical, and clinical aspects of SBRT. PMID:19997074

Lo, Simon S; Fakiris, Achilles J; Chang, Eric L; Mayr, Nina A; Wang, Jian Z; Papiez, Lech; Teh, Bin S; McGarry, Ronald C; Cardenes, Higinia R; Timmerman, Robert D

2010-01-01

158

[The stereotactic body radiation therapy: initiation and clinical program].  

PubMed

We fully describe an innovative radiotherapy technique called Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT), and explain how this technique is commonly used for clinical purpose at the anticancer center Léon-Bérard (Lyon, France). In this technique, a non-invasive stereotactic body frame is used to locate the tumor site with a great precision. This frame is combined with a system, which enables to track the respiratory motions (Active Breathing Control (ABC) or diaphragmatic compression (DC)) in order to reduce the treatment margins for organ motion due to breathing. Thus, the volume of normal tissues that will be irradiated is considerably reduced. The dosimetry is realized with 3 CT exams performed in treatment conditions. The 3D patient "repositioning" is done with a volume CT acquisition (kV) combined with orthogonal images (kV and MV). The SBRT requires a system to limit the organ motions. Although the ABC seems to be more fastidious for patient, it would enable to use smaller margins than with DC technique. Nevertheless, the ABC is not compatible with volume CT acquisitions, which considerably improve the patient repositioning. In conclusion, the quality of repositioning and the high level of conformation enable to deliver high equivalent doses (>100 Gy) in hypofractionated mode, without increasing the treatment toxicity. The SBRT employs the last technologic innovations in radiotherapy and is therefore considered as a new efficient tool for solid tumors treatment. PMID:16978899

Gassa, F; Biston, M-C; Malet, C; Lafay, F; Ayadi, M; Badel, J-N; Carrie, C; Ginestet, C

2006-11-01

159

Inter-cycle variation in whole-body vibration exposures of operators driving track-type loader machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whole-body vibration (WBV) measurements are an important aspect of performing risk assessments for those exposed to vibration. A large array of variables affect the outcome of a vibration measurement and its extrapolation to a daily dose measure: e.g. variability in driving style, road surface roughness, loading. The variability in vibration emission is an inherent property for most vibrating environments and there is a risk that a vibration measurement might not be representative of the long-term exposures. It is important to acknowledge the variation inherent to WBV exposure to help understand how this variation will affect health risk assessments. A field investigation was conducted in order to characterise the variation of WBV magnitudes between work cycles of track-type loaders. Six different track-type loaders were measured at four different work sites. The vibrations were measured at the operators seat in three translational axes ( x-, y-, and z-axis) in accordance with ISO 2631-1 (1997). The findings indicate the worst axis of vibration for the track-type loaders was predominantly the fore-and-aft ( x-axis), for most operations. The most severe emission values were measured for machine C at site 2 (1.12 ms -2 rms) and machine D at site 2 (1.03 ms -2 rms). These machines would exceed the action value of the Physical Agents (Vibration) Directive within 2 h of exposure. All of the machines measured would exceed the exposure action value of the Directive within an 8 h working period. The lateral ( y-axis) produced the greatest amount of variability between work cycles (coefficient of variation up to 20%). It is concluded that the inherent variability between work cycles and tasks reinforces the requirement to perform a full task analysis prior to measuring WBV exposures to ensure that all tasks are measured and that adequate cycles are measured to obtain a reliable indication of the vibration emission.

Newell, Geraldine S.; Mansfield, Neil J.; Notini, Luca

2006-12-01

160

Distinct frequency dependent effects of whole-body vibration on non-fractured bone and fracture healing in mice.  

PubMed

Low-magnitude high-frequency vibration (LMHFV) provokes anabolic effects in non-fractured bone; however, in fracture healing, inconsistent results were reported and optimum vibration conditions remain unidentified. Here, we investigated frequency dependent effects of LMHFV on fracture healing. Twelve-week-old, female C57BL/6 mice received a femur osteotomy stabilized using an external fixator. The mice received whole-body vibrations (20?min/day) with 0.3g peak-to-peak acceleration and a frequency of either 35 or 45?Hz. After 10 and 21 days, the osteotomized femurs and intact bones (contra-lateral femurs, lumbar spine) were evaluated using bending-testing, µ-computed tomography, and histomorphometry. In non-fractured trabecular bone, vibration with 35?Hz significantly increased the relative amount of bone (+28%) and the trabecular number (+29%), whereas cortical bone was not influenced. LMHFV with 45?Hz failed to provoke anabolic effects in trabecular or cortical bone. Fracture healing was not significantly influenced by whole-body vibration with 35?Hz, whereas 45?Hz significantly reduced bone formation (-64%) and flexural rigidity (-34%) of the callus. Although the exact mechanisms remain open, our results suggest that small vibration setting changes could considerably influence LMHFV effects on bone formation in remodeling and repair, and even disrupt fracture healing, implicating caution when treating patients with impaired fracture healing. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 32:1006-1013, 2014. PMID:24729351

Wehrle, Esther; Wehner, Tim; Heilmann, Aline; Bindl, Ronny; Claes, Lutz; Jakob, Franz; Amling, Michael; Ignatius, Anita

2014-08-01

161

Evaluation of Frequency Weighting (iso 2631-1) for Acute Effects of Whole-Body Vibration on Gastric Motility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) and the ISO 2631/1-1997 frequency weighting on gastric motility. The gastric motility was measured by electrogastrography (EGG) in nine healthy volunteers. Sinusoidal vertical vibration at a frequency of 4, 6·3, 8, 12, 16, 31·5, or 63 Hz was given to the subjects for 10 min. The magnitude of exposure at 4 Hz was 1·0m/s2 (r.m.s.). The magnitudes of the other frequencies gave the same frequency-weighted acceleration according to ISO 2631/1-1997. The pattern of the dominant frequency histogram (DFH) was changed to a broad distribution pattern by vibration exposure. Vibration exposure had the effect of significantly reducing the percentage of time for which the dominant component had a normal rhythm and increasing the percentage of time for which there was tachygastria (p<0·05). Vibration exposure generally reduced the mean percentage of time with the dominant frequency in normal rhythm component. There was a significant difference between the condition of no vibration and exposure to 4 and 6·3 Hz of vibration frequency (p<0·05). The frequency weighting curve given in ISO 2631/1-1997 was not adequate for use in evaluating the physiological effects of WBV exposure on gastric motility.

ISHITAKE, T.; MIYAZAKI, Y.; NOGUCHI, R.; ANDO, H.; MATOBA, T.

2002-05-01

162

[Diagnosis and therapy of Raynaud's phenomenon in occupationally-induced vibration trauma].  

PubMed

Raynaud's phenomenon often represents an early symptom of collagen diseases as well as of occlusive vascular disease; it can as well be due to vibration trauma following development of mechanical lesion of the acral capillary system. A rare case of professionally acquired vibration trauma in a miner who developed vasospastic ischaemia after 20 years subterranean work is reported. Non-invasive blood-flow measurements such as thermic relaxation time, transcutaneous O2-pressure, and laser-doppler perfusion rate, represent suitable means of diagnosis and observation of the course of the disease. Combination therapy including both primary inhibition of platelet aggregation as well as improvement of rheological properties has proved to be superior to other treatment plans. PMID:2501078

Roeser, B E; Stary, A; Rüping, K W

1989-01-01

163

Review of the Literature Whole-body vibration and postural stress among operators of construction equipment: A literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Operators of construction equipment perform various duties at work that expose them to a variety of risk factors that may lead to health problems. A few of the health hazards among operators of construction equipment are: (a) whole-body vibration, (b) awkward postural requirements (including static sitting), (c) dust, (d) noise, (e) temperature extremes, and (f) shift work. It has

N. Kumar Kittusamy; Bryan Buchholz

164

High-speed Vibrational Imaging and Spectral Analysis of Lipid Bodies by Compound Raman Microscopy  

PubMed Central

Cells store excess energy in the form of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. At present, it is unclear how different types of fatty acids contribute to the formation of lipid-droplets. We describe a compound Raman microscope capable of both high-speed chemical imaging and quantitative spectral analysis on the same platform. We use a picosecond laser source to perform coherent Raman scattering imaging of a biological sample and confocal Raman spectral analysis at points of interest. The potential of the compound Raman microscope is evaluated on lipid bodies of cultured cells and live animals. Our data indicate that the in vivo fat contains much more unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) than the fat formed via de novo synthesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Furthermore, in vivo analysis of subcutaneous adipocytes and glands revealed a drastic difference not only in the unsaturation level but also in the thermodynamic state of FAs inside their lipid bodies. Additionally, the compound Raman microscope allows tracking the cellular uptake of a specific fatty acid and its abundance in nascent cytoplasmic lipid droplets. The high-speed vibrational imaging and spectral analysis capability renders compound Raman microscopy an indispensible analytical tool to the studies of lipid-droplet biology.

Slipchenko, Mikhail N.; Le, Thuc T.; Chen, Hongtao; Cheng, Ji-Xin

2009-01-01

165

Stereotactic body radiation therapy for centrally-located lung tumors  

PubMed Central

The application of high-dose irradiation to centrally-located lung tumors is generally considered to be of high risk in causing bronchial injury. The aim of the present retrospective study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for patients with centrally-located lung tumors. In total, 28 patients who underwent SBRT for lung tumors within 2 cm of a major bronchus were retrospectively analyzed. The median total dose prescribed was 45 Gy (range, 36.3–52.5 Gy), the median fraction was 12 (range, 10–15) and the median dose per fraction was 3.6 Gy (range, 3–5 Gy). The median follow-up period for the surviving patients was 14 months (range, 10–41 months). The local control rate of SBRT was 100%, with a complete response (CR) rate of 32.1% (9/28); a partial response (PR) rate of 50% (14/28) and a stable disease (SD) rate of 17.9% (5/28). In total, 15 patients survived and 13 patients succumbed; 11 patients succumbed to tumor progression, one to congestive heart failure and one to a brain hemorrhage. The main side-effects included grade 2 esophagitis (17.9%; 5/28) atelectasis (10.7%; 3/28) and grade 2 late radiation pneumonitis (7.1%; 2/28). Severe late toxicity (? grade 3) was not observed in any patient. SBRT is an effective and safe therapy for centrally-located lung tumors.

SHEN, GE; WANG, YING-JIE; SHEN, WEN-JIANG; ZHOU, ZHEN-SHAN; WANG, JUN-LIANG; SHENG, HONG-GUO; DONG, DA-PENG; ZHOU, MING; YANG, GANG; WANG, QIN-WEN; ZENG, YANJUN

2014-01-01

166

Visual Acuity Decrements Associated with Whole Body Plus or Minus Gz Vibration Stress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fact that vibration has an adverse effect on visual acuity is well established but inadequately quantified. The operational acceleration environments of low altitude terrain avoidance flight, the increasing use of helicopters, and the potential vibrat...

C. R. O'Briant M. K. Ohlbaum

1970-01-01

167

Myoelectric reactions to ultra-low frequency and low-frequency whole body vibration.  

PubMed

5 healthy males were exposed to vertical sinusoidal whole body vibration (WBV) at 5 frequencies (F1 = 0.315 Hz, F2 = 0.63 Hz, F3 = 1.25 Hz, F4 = 2.5 Hz, F5 = 5.0 Hz) and 2 intensities (I1 = 1.2 ms-2 rms, F1-F5; I2 = 2.0 ms-2 rms, F2-F5). Erector spinae EMGs were derived at the levels of the first thoracic (T1) and third lumbar (L3) spinous processes, rectified and synchronously averaged, as were the accelerations of the seat and the head. WBV induced vibration-synchronous EMG activity (T1 and L3) which exceeded the activity without WBV during enhanced gravitation and decreased during lowered gravitation from F1 to F3. At F4 and F5, these phase relations changed drastically, thus suggesting a different trigger mechanism. The extreme average EMG-amplitudes remained nearly constant at F1 to F3 and increased at higher frequencies. Maximum EMG activity was higher at I2 than at I1. WBV from F1 to F3 is supposed to cause tonic muscular activity triggered by the otoliths; at higher frequencies, stretch reflexes probably gain additional importance. The results hint at an increasing sensory conflict with decreasing frequency of WBV and are interpreted within the theoretical framework of different modes of motor control. Relations between transmissibility and muscle activity suggest the usefulness of including time-variant spring-characteristics into biomechanical models. PMID:3396572

Seidel, H

1988-01-01

168

Gender differences in knee stability in response to whole-body vibration.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are kinematic and electromyographic (EMG) differences between men and women in how the knee is controlled during a single-legged drop landing in response to whole-body vibration (WBV). Forty-five healthy volunteers, 30 men (age 22 ± 3 years; weight 76.8 ± 8.8 kg; height 179.0 ± 6.8 cm) and 15 women (age 22 ± 3 years; weight 61.0 ± 7.7 kg; height 161.9 ± 7.2 cm) were recruited for this study. Knee angles, vertical ground reaction forces, and the time to stabilize the knee were assessed after single-legged drop landings from a 30-cm platform. Surface EMG data in rectus femoris (RF) and hamstrings (H) and knee and ankle accelerometry signals were also acquired. The participants performed 3 pretest landings, followed by a 3-minute recovery and then completed 1 minute of WBV (30 Hz to 4 mm). Before vibration, the female subjects had a significantly higher peak vertical force value, knee flexion angles, and greater H preactivity (EMG(RMS) 50 milliseconds before activation) than did the male subjects. In addition, although not significant, the medial-lateral (ML) acceleration in both knee and ankle was also higher in women. After WBV, no significant differences were found for any of the other variables. However, there was a decrease in the RF to H activation ratio during the precontact phase and an increase in the ratio during the postcontact phase just in women, which leads to a decrement in ML acceleration. The gender differences reported in knee stability in response to WBV underline the necessity to perform specific neuromuscular training programs based on WBV together with instruction of the proper technique, which can assist the clinician in the knee injury prevention. PMID:21997457

Sañudo, Borja; Feria, Adrian; Carrasco, Luis; de Hoyo, Moisés; Santos, Rui; Gamboa, Hugo

2012-08-01

169

Power absorbed during whole-body fore-and-aft vibration: Effects of sitting posture, backrest, and footrest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the discomfort or injury associated with whole-body vibration cannot be predicted directly from the power absorbed during exposure to vibration, the absorbed power may contribute to understanding of the biodynamics involved in such responses. From measurements of force and acceleration at the seat, the feet, and the backrest, the power absorbed at these three locations was calculated for subjects sitting in four postures (feet hanging, maximum thigh contact, average thigh contact, and minimum thigh contact) both with and without a rigid vertical backrest while exposed to four magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.625, and 1.25 m s -2 rms) of random fore-and-aft vibration. The power absorbed by the body at the supporting seat surface when there was no backrest showed a peak around 1 Hz and another peak between 3 and 4 Hz. Supporting the back with the backrest decreased the power absorbed at the seat at low frequencies but increased the power absorbed at high frequencies. Foot support influenced both the magnitude and the frequency of the peaks in the absorbed power spectra as well as the total absorbed power. The measurements of absorbed power are consistent with backrests being beneficial during exposure to low frequency fore-and-aft vibration but detrimental with high frequency fore-and-aft vibration.

Nawayseh, Naser; Griffin, Michael J.

2012-01-01

170

Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Boost in Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the clinical application of a stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) boost in locally advanced pancreatic cancer patients with a focus on local efficacy and toxicity. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 30 patients with locally advanced and nonmetastatic pancreatic cancer who had been treated between 2004 and 2006. Follow-up duration ranged from 4 to 41 months (median, 14.5 months). A total dose of 40 Gy was delivered in 20 fractions using a conventional three-field technique, and then a single fraction of 14, 15, 16, or 17 Gy SBRT was administered as a boost without a break. Twenty-one patients received chemotherapy. Overall and local progression-free survival were calculated and prognostic factors were evaluated. Results: One-year overall survival and local progression-free survival rates were 60.0% and 70.2%, respectively. One patient (3%) developed Grade 4 toxicity. Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 response was found to be an independent prognostic factor for survival. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that a SBRT boost provides a safe means of increasing radiation dose. Based on the results of this study, we recommend that a well controlled Phase II study be conducted on locally advanced pancreatic cancer.

Seo, Young Seok [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mi-Sook, E-mail: mskim@kcch.re.k [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Sung Yul; Cho, Chul Koo; Yang, Kwang Mo; Yoo, Hyung Jun; Choi, Chul Won [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Han [CyberKnife Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin [Department of Internal Medicine, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Suk [Department of Pathology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hye Jin [Department of Hemato-Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, YoungHan [Department of Radiology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2009-12-01

171

Mind-Body Therapies: Evidence and Implications in Advanced Oncology Practice  

PubMed Central

The idea that thoughts and emotions influence health outcomes is an ancient concept that was initially abandoned by Western medicine researchers. Today, researchers are showing a renewed interest in the interactions of the mind and body and the role these interactions play in disease formation and recovery. Complementary and alternative interventions, such as mind-body therapies, are increasingly being used by cancer survivors for disease prevention, immune system enhancement, and symptom control. Traditional training has not been structured to provide advanced practitioners with an in-depth knowledge of the clinical applications of mind-body therapies. The aim of this article is to acquaint the reader with common mind-body modalities (meditation/mindfulness-based stress reduction, relaxation therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, hypnosis, biofeedback, music therapy, art therapy, support groups, and aromatherapy) and to examine important evidence in support of or against their clinical application.

Mayden,, Kelley D.

2012-01-01

172

[The effect of betahistine on histological changes in rabbit brain in model of whole body wide-frequency vibration].  

PubMed

In acute experiments in conscious rabbits was studied protective action of selective blocker of histamine H3-receptor betahistine (2mg/kg i/v) against histological changes in precentral and postcentral gyrus, as well as in temporal lobe of cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, and cerebellum, arising in case of modeling of whole body wide-frequency vibration. Betahistine attenuates edematous and degenerative changes in neurons and reciprocal glial reaction, caused by vibration, but does not eliminate edema in perivascular spaces. This effect may be related to the improvement of blood supply as a result of of vasodilatory action and decrease of oxygen consumption via vestibuloprotective effect. PMID:24003483

Shimkus, Iu Iu; Sapegin, I D

2013-01-01

173

Whole-body vibration exposure study in U.S. railroad locomotives--an ergonomic risk assessment.  

PubMed

Whole-body vibration exposure of locomotive engineers and the vibration attenuation of seats in 22 U.S. locomotives (built between 1959 and 2000) was studied during normal revenue service and following international measurement guidelines. Triaxial vibration measurements (duration mean 155 min, range 84-383 min) on the seat and on the floor were compared. In addition to the basic vibration evaluation (aw rms), the vector sum (av), the maximum transient vibration value (MTVV/aw), the vibration dose value (VDV/(aw T1/4)), and the vibration seat effective transmissibility factor (SEAT) were calculated. The power spectral densities are also reported. The mean basic vibration level (aw rms) was for the fore-aft axis x = 0.18 m/sec2, the lateral axis y = 0.28 m/sec2, and the vertical axis z = 0.32 m/sec2. The mean vector sum was 0.59 m/sec2 (range 0.27 to 1.44). The crest factors were generally at or above 9 in the horizontal and vertical axis. The mean MTVV/aw was 5.3 (x), 5.1 (y), and 4.8 (z), and the VDV/(aw T1/4) values ranged from 1.32 to 2.3 (x-axis), 1.33 to 1.7 (y-axis), and 1.38 to 1.86 (z-axis), generally indicating high levels of shocks. The mean seat transmissibility factor (SEAT) was 1.4 (x) and 1.2 (y) and 1 (z), demonstrating a general ineffectiveness of any of the seat suspension systems. In conclusion, these data indicate that locomotive rides are characterized by relatively high shock content (acceleration peaks) of the vibration signal in all directions. Locomotive vertical and lateral vibrations are similar, which appears to be characteristic for rail vehicles compared with many road/off-road vehicles. Tested locomotive cab seats currently in use (new or old) appear inadequate to reduce potentially harmful vibration and shocks transmitted to the seated operator, and older seats particularly lack basic ergonomic features regarding adjustability and postural support. PMID:12486777

Johanning, Eckardt; Fischer, Siegfried; Christ, Eberhard; Göres, Benno; Landsbergis, Paul

2002-01-01

174

Pulmonary hilar stereotactic body radiation therapy in the rat.  

PubMed

Stereotactic Body Radiation therapy (SBRT) is an emerging modality of treatment for early stage non-small cell lung carcinoma. Concerns have arisen related to increased toxicities for medial tumors. We have developed a model of high dose, hypofractionated radiotherapy to the pulmonary hilum using the Leksell Gamma-Knife. Sprague-Dawley rats received hypofractionated SBRT to the unilateral lung hilum using a custom immobilization device on the Gamma Knife. Each animal was individually scanned, treatment planned, and treated with either two 4 mm or one 8 mm collimated shots at escalating doses of 20, 40, and 80 Gy to the 50% isodose volume, encompassing the right mainstem bronchus. All animals were carefully followed post-treatment and imaged by plain film and CT. In addition, histopathological analysis of all rats was performed at selected time points. Animals treated with 4 mm collimated shots demonstrated no appreciable changes on plain films or sequential, follow-up CT scans, or histopathologically. Animals irradiated with the 8 mm collimator were less active, gained weight at a reduced rate, and demonstrated histopathological changes in 7/34 animals six months post-irradiation. Cellular atypia and interstitial pneumonitis were found, three of the seven of the animals showed clear bronchial damage and two showed vascular damage. Significant volume and time effects were found. Utilizing a novel Gamma Knife based animal model to study SBRT toxicity, it was found that the bronchus will tolerate small volumes of very high dose radiotherapy. It was postulated that radiation of the surrounding support stroma and normal tissue are important in the etiology of bronchial or hilar damage. PMID:17877431

Tinnel, B; Mendonca, M S; Henderson, M; Cummings, O; Chin-Sinex, H; Timmerman, R; McGarry, R C

2007-10-01

175

Voluntary activation of the ankle plantar flexors following whole-body vibration.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of whole-body vibration (WBV) on the voluntary activation of the ankle plantar flexors. Twelve healthy young adults were randomly exposed to two treatments on separate occasions. The first (non-WBV) involved stretching of the plantar flexors at end range of dorsiflexion for five 1-min bouts. The second involved the same stretch with WBV (26 Hz) for five 1-min bouts. Attempted maximal voluntary contractions (AMVCs) of the plantar flexors were performed on an isokinetic dynamometer (30 degrees s(-1)) before and after each treatment. A twitch interpolation technique was used to investigate voluntary activation. Post-treatment data were normalised against pre-treatment data. Subjects were classified as maximally (n = 6) or sub-maximally (n = 6) activated using the pre-treatment twitch interpolation data. The effects of WBV were assessed by repeated measure (RM) MANOVA. After WBV, the group of subjects classified as sub-maximally activated increased peak voluntary torque and rate of voluntary torque production (P < 0.05), whereas angular displacement to peak torque reduced (P < 0.05); i.e. peak torque was produced at a longer muscle length. No significant non-WBV treatment effects were found for this group. No significant WBV effects were found for the group of subjects classified as maximally activated. This study found that the response to WBV was dependent on the level of voluntary activation of the ankle plantar flexors during a set of AMVCs. PMID:19946699

Pellegrini, Michael J; Lythgo, Noel D; Morgan, David L; Galea, Mary P

2010-03-01

176

The acute effect of whole-body vibration on the vertical jump height.  

PubMed

To determine the effectiveness of a single, 1-minute bout of whole-body vibration (WBV) as a viable warm-up activity, 90 subjects (30 men; 60 women, mean age = 19 ± 1 years) were recruited and randomly assigned to either a nonvibration control group or 1 of 8 WBV treatments (4 frequencies × 2 AMplitudes). Subjects stood with the feet shoulder width apart and the knees flexed 10° on a Next Generation Power Plate for 1 minute with the frequency (30, 35, 40, or 50 Hz) and amplitude (2-4 or 4-6 mm) settings at the assigned levels. Before, 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes after the WBV or control treatment, subjects performed a series of countermovement vertical jumps (CMJs) measured using a Vertec vertical jump tester. Comparisons were made of changes in the countermovement vertical jump height (CMJH) over time and between groups, frequencies, and amplitudes using repeated measures analysis of variance (? ? 0.05). There were significant differences in CMJH over time (p = 0.008); however, these were similar for all groups, frequencies, and amplitudes (p > 0.88). Some athletes may benefit from using WBV as a warm-up activity, if the timing of WBV is optimized. The effect of WBV on performance is likely variable and minimal, with a small window of effectiveness. Gender differences were not examined, and the optimal duration, intensity, and postural position are still unclear and warrant further study. PMID:20885202

Armstrong, W Jeffrey; Grinnell, David C; Warren, Gabriel S

2010-10-01

177

Whole body vibration and post-activation potentiation: a study with repeated measures.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the acute effect of different intensities of whole body vibration (WBV) on muscle performance. 8 recreationally trained males were randomly subjected to one of 3 experimental conditions: (A) WBV 2?mm [45?Hz and 2?mm], (B) WBV 4?mm [45?Hz and 4?mm], and (C) no WBV. To assess PAP, the peak concentric torque of knee flexors and extensors was measured during a set of 3 unilateral knee flexor-extensions at 60°/s(-1) in an isokinetic dynamometer. The power output and height during vertical jumps were also evaluated. These measurements were performed both before and after the experimental conditions and then compared. Comparing the knee flexion data from the conditions with and without WBV indicate that WBV potentiated the peak torque during unilateral knee flexion in the isokinetic test (p<0.05). In addition, the power output (p=0.01) and vertical height of jump (p=0.03) were also potentiated by WBV. However, increasing the vibratory stimulus did not further potentiate the results. Thus, it is suggested that WBV be used before explosive events competition because WBV promotes post-activation potentiation. PMID:24408766

Avelar, N C; Salvador, F S; Ribeiro, V G C; Vianna, D M S; Costa, S J; Gripp, F; Coimbra, C C; Lacerda, A C R

2014-07-01

178

Effects of whole-body vibration with an unstable surface on muscle activation.  

PubMed

The current study examined the effects of using an unstable surface during whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise on leg and trunk muscle activity during a static semi-squat. Twenty-eight recreationally active university students completed 4 different test conditions: 1) stable surface with no WBV; 2) unstable surface with no WBV; 3) unstable surface with 30 Hz WBV low amplitude; and 4) unstable surface with 50 Hz WBV low amplitude. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was measured for the gastrocnemius medialis (GM), vastus medialis oblique (VMO), vastus lateralis (VL), rectus abdominis (RA), and multifidus (MF) muscles. Normalized to the stable condition, WBV at 30 Hz and an unstable surface increased EMG in the GM vs the unstable and stable surfaces (~35%; p<0.05). VMO EMG decreased in the unstable vs stable condition (~20%), WBV at 30 Hz and an unstable surface increased EMG vs all other conditions (~20-40%; p<0.05). MF EMG increased with WBV at 30 Hz (25%; p<0.05) vs the stable condition but not vs all other conditions. Using an unstable surface during WBV exposure increases EMG of muscles in the lower extremities and trunk suggesting the combination of an unstable surface combined with WBV may be an effective modality to further increase EMG. PMID:24879025

Marin, P J; Hazell, T J

2014-06-01

179

Computation of trunk muscle forces, spinal loads and stability in whole-body vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whole-body vibration has been indicated as a risk factor in back disorders. Proper prevention and treatment management, however, requires a sound knowledge of associated muscle forces and loads on the spine. Previous trunk model studies have either neglected or over-simplified the trunk redundancy with time-varying unknown muscle forces. Trunk stability has neither been addressed. A novel iterative dynamic kinematics-driven approach was employed to evaluate muscle forces, spinal loads and system stability in a seated subject under a random vertical base excitation with ˜±1 g peak acceleration contents. This iterative approach satisfied equations of motion in all directions/levels while accounting for the nonlinear passive resistance of the ligamentous spine. The effect of posture, co-activity in abdominal muscles and changes in buttocks stiffness were also investigated. The computed vertical accelerations were in good agreement with measurements. The input base excitation, via inertial and muscle forces, substantially influenced spinal loads and system stability. The flexed posture in sitting increased the net moment, muscle forces and passive spinal loads while improving the trunk stability. Similarly, the introduction of low to moderate antagonistic coactivity in abdominal muscles increased the passive spinal loads and improved the spinal stability. A trade-off, hence, exists between lower muscle forces and spinal loads on one hand and more stable spine on the other. Base excitations with larger peak acceleration contents substantially increase muscle forces/spinal loads and, hence, the risk of injury.

Bazrgari, B.; Shirazi-Adl, A.; Kasra, M.

2008-12-01

180

Countermeasures against lumbar spine deconditioning in prolonged bed rest: resistive exercise with and without whole body vibration.  

PubMed

To evaluate the effect of short-duration, high-load resistive exercise, with and without whole body vibration on lumbar muscle size, intervertebral disk and spinal morphology changes, and low back pain (LBP) incidence during prolonged bed rest, 24 subjects underwent 60 days of head-down tilt bed rest and performed either resistive vibration exercise (n = 7), resistive exercise only (n = 8), or no exercise (n = 9; 2nd Berlin Bed-Rest Study). Discal and spinal shape was measured from sagittal plane magnetic resonance images. Cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the multifidus, erector spinae, quadratus lumborum, and psoas were measured on para-axial magnetic resonance images. LBP incidence was assessed with questionnaires at regular intervals. The countermeasures reduced CSA loss in the multifidus, lumbar erector spinae and quadratus lumborum muscles, with greater increases in psoas muscle CSA seen in the countermeasure groups (P ? 0.004). There was little statistical evidence for an additional effect of whole body vibration above resistive exercise alone on these muscle changes. Exercise subjects reported LBP more frequently in the first week of bed rest, but this was only significant in resistive exercise only (P = 0.011 vs. control, resistive vibration exercise vs. control: P = 0.56). No effect of the countermeasures on changes in spinal morphology was seen (P ? 0.22). The results suggest that high-load resistive exercise, with or without whole body vibration, performed 3 days/wk can reduce lumbar muscle atrophy, but further countermeasure optimization is required. PMID:20864564

Belavý, Daniel L; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Gast, Ulf; Richardson, Carolyn A; Hides, Julie A; Felsenberg, Dieter

2010-12-01

181

The effects of whole-body vibration in isolation or combined with strength training in female athletes.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to assess the behavior of a vibrating platform under different conditions and to compare the effects of an 8-week periodized training program with whole-body vibration (WBV) alone or in combination with conventional strength training (ST). Vibrating frequencies, displacements, and peak accelerations were tested through a piezoelectric accelerometer under different conditions of load and subjects' position. Eighteen national-level female athletes were assigned to 1 of 3 different groups performing WBV, conventional ST, or a combination of the 2 (WBV + ST). Isometric maximal voluntary contraction, dynamic maximal concentric force, and vertical jump tests were performed before and after the conditioning program. Vibrating displacements and maximum accelerations measured on the device were not always consistent with their expected values calculated from the display and manufacturers' information (sinusoidal waveforms). The WBV alone or in combination with low-intensity resistance exercise did not seem to induce significant enhancements in force and power when compared with ST. It appears that WBV cannot substitute parts of ST loading in a cohort of young female athletes. However, vibration effects might be limited by the behavior of the commercial platforms as the one used in the study. More studies are needed to analyze the performances of devices and the effectiveness of protocols. PMID:22067255

Preatoni, Ezio; Colombo, Alessandro; Verga, Monica; Galvani, Christel; Faina, Marcello; Rodano, Renato; Preatoni, Ennio; Cardinale, Marco

2012-09-01

182

Whole-Body Vibration and Rehabilitation of Chronic Diseases: A Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

The objectives of the study were to review the current literature and findings on the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) as a training method on performance and its ability to aid in the rehabilitation of chronic diseases (neurological, musculoskeletal or metabolic conditions). Six electronic databases were searched. The combination of the search terminology used included WBV and several neurological, musculoskeletal and metabolic conditions. Twenty six papers were found to be relevant for this review and were included for critical evaluation with regards to sample characteristics, research intervention and methodology. Most studies were conducted on patients diagnosed with neurological conditions (n = 15) while less were performed on patients suffering from musculoskeletal (n = 7) or metabolic (n = 4) disorders. Comparisons were difficult to draw on because of the different pathologies and the differences in the methodology of each study. Some of the observed methodological flaws included limitations in relation to insufficient randomisation, lack of sample homogeneity (size, age variability) and poor blinding in most studies. No consensus could be reached as to whether WBV is more effective than other interventions or no intervention at all, while the additional effects that WBV may have in relation to other interventions could not be assumed. Nevertheless, chronic WBV training seems to only improve strength in neurological patients while balance and mobility improves only in patients suffering from musculoskeletal or metabolic but not from neurological conditions. Although WBV did not prove to be more effective compared to other training methods, it can be used, in some cases, as a less fatiguing and less time-consuming method to enhance physical capabilities. Future research should focus on the effectiveness of WBV in relation to no treatment at all, and to age. Key pointsChronic WBV training seems to only improve strength in neurological patients while balance and mobility improves only in patients suffering from musculoskeletal or metabolic conditions.WBV did not prove to be more effective than other interventions, while the positive effects of WBV in relation to no intervention at all could not be established.No consensus could be reached as to which vibration type is more effective.WBV training could be used as a safe, less fatiguing and less time-consuming type of exercise for patients with neurologic conditions instead of other more demanding interventions.

Chanou, Konstantina; Gerodimos, Vassilis; Karatrantou, Konstantina; Jamurtas, Athanasios

2012-01-01

183

To Compare the Effect of Vibration Therapy and Massage in Prevention of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS)  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To compare the effects of vibration therapy and massage in prevention of DOMS. Methods: Pre-test and Post-test Control-Group Design was used, 45 healthy female non athletic Subjects were recruited and randomly distributed to the three groups (15 subject in each group). After the subject’s initial status was measured experimental groups received vibration therapy (50 Hz vibration for five minutes) or massage therapy (15 minutes) intervention and control group received no treatment, just prior to the eccentric exercise. Subjects were undergoing the following measurements to evaluate the changes in the muscle condition: muscle soreness (pain perception), Range of Motion (ROM), Maximum Isometric Force (MIF), Repetition maximum (RM), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and Cretain Kinase (CK) level. All the parameters except LDH, CK and 1RM were measured before, immediately post intervention, immediately post exercise, 24 hours post exercise, 48 hours post exercise and 72 hours post exercise. LDH, CK and 1 RM were measured before and 48 hours post exercise. Result: Muscle soreness was reported to be significantly less for experimental (vibration and massage) group (p=0.000) as compared to control group at 24, 48, and 72 hours of post-exercise. Experimental and control group did not show any significant difference in MIF immediate (p=0.2898), 24 hours (p=0.4173), 48 hours (p=0.752) and 72 hours (p=0.5297) of post-exercise. Range of motion demonstrated significant recovery in experimental groups in 48 hours (p=0.0016) and 72 hours (p=0.0463). Massage therapy showed significant recovery in 1RM (p=0.000) compared to control group and vibration therapy shows significantly less LDH level (p=0.000) 48 hours of post exercise compare to control group. CK at 48 hours of post exercise in vibration group (p=0.000) and massage group showed (p=0.002) significant difference as compared to control group. Conclusion: Vibration therapy and massage are equally effective in prevention of DOMS. Massage is effective in restoration of concentric strength (1 RM). Yet vibration therapy shows clinically early reduction of pain and is effective in decreasing the level of LDH in 48 hours post exercise periods.

Imtiyaz, Shagufta; Veqar, Zubia; Shareef, M.Y.

2014-01-01

184

To Compare the Effect of Vibration Therapy and Massage in Prevention of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS).  

PubMed

Objectives: To compare the effects of vibration therapy and massage in prevention of DOMS. Methods: Pre-test and Post-test Control-Group Design was used, 45 healthy female non athletic Subjects were recruited and randomly distributed to the three groups (15 subject in each group). After the subject's initial status was measured experimental groups received vibration therapy (50 Hz vibration for five minutes) or massage therapy (15 minutes) intervention and control group received no treatment, just prior to the eccentric exercise. Subjects were undergoing the following measurements to evaluate the changes in the muscle condition: muscle soreness (pain perception), Range of Motion (ROM), Maximum Isometric Force (MIF), Repetition maximum (RM), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and Cretain Kinase (CK) level. All the parameters except LDH, CK and 1RM were measured before, immediately post intervention, immediately post exercise, 24 hours post exercise, 48 hours post exercise and 72 hours post exercise. LDH, CK and 1 RM were measured before and 48 hours post exercise. Result: Muscle soreness was reported to be significantly less for experimental (vibration and massage) group (p=0.000) as compared to control group at 24, 48, and 72 hours of post-exercise. Experimental and control group did not show any significant difference in MIF immediate (p=0.2898), 24 hours (p=0.4173), 48 hours (p=0.752) and 72 hours (p=0.5297) of post-exercise. Range of motion demonstrated significant recovery in experimental groups in 48 hours (p=0.0016) and 72 hours (p=0.0463). Massage therapy showed significant recovery in 1RM (p=0.000) compared to control group and vibration therapy shows significantly less LDH level (p=0.000) 48 hours of post exercise compare to control group. CK at 48 hours of post exercise in vibration group (p=0.000) and massage group showed (p=0.002) significant difference as compared to control group. Conclusion: Vibration therapy and massage are equally effective in prevention of DOMS. Massage is effective in restoration of concentric strength (1 RM). Yet vibration therapy shows clinically early reduction of pain and is effective in decreasing the level of LDH in 48 hours post exercise periods. PMID:24596744

Imtiyaz, Shagufta; Veqar, Zubia; Shareef, M Y

2014-01-01

185

Stereotactic body radiation therapy for thoracic cancers: recommendations for patient selection, setup and therapy.  

PubMed

Advanced technologies have facilitated the development of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) programs capable of delivering ablative radiation doses for the control of lung cancers. To date, experience with these programs has been highly favorable, as reflected in the results of careful clinical trials. The medically inoperable lung cancer patient, lacking more effective options, has served as the initial clinical base to test SBRT; the therapeutic outcomes have confirmed a significant role for this approach. For many patient groups, SBRT may become a noninvasive alternative to some thoracic surgeries, especially ones with more limited therapeutic goals such as wedge resection. Despite these results, long-term evaluation of the cases treated is required to allow greater understanding of the limitations and contributions of this new modality. The successful delivery of SBRT requires the development of a comprehensive, specialized clinical program providing advanced technology and the technical expertise of physicians, physicists and therapists specially trained in SBRT applications. To achieve successful clinical outcomes, careful patient selection and attention to therapy design and delivery are required since exacting clinical procedures are involved. This chapter will outline many details essential for establishing an effective SBRT program in clinical practice. PMID:21625165

Timmerman, Robert; Heinzerling, John; Abdulrahman, Ramzi; Choy, Hak; Meyer, John L

2011-01-01

186

Whole-body vibration and low back pain: a systematic, critical review of the epidemiological literature 1992–1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: A previous extensive review of the literature including that from the middle of 1992 concluded that whole-body vibrations\\u000a may contribute to low back pain, but that the exposure-response relationship had not been clarified. We reviewed the literature\\u000a of the past 7?years to find out: (i) whether there is evidence in the recent epidemiological literature for a causal association\\u000a between

S. Lings; C. Leboeuf-Yde

2000-01-01

187

Vehicle Design Influences Whole Body Vibration Exposures: Effect of the Location of the Front Axle Relative to the Cab  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a repeated measure design, this study compared differences in whole body vibration (WBV) exposures among 13 drivers who drove a truck with the cab over the front axle (cab-over design) and a truck with the cab situated behind the front axle (non-cab-over design). The drivers drove both trucks over a standardized route that comprised three distinct segments: a freeway

Ryan P. Blood; Patrik W. Rynell; Peter W. Johnson

2011-01-01

188

The effect of vibration therapy on spasticity and motor function in children with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

As the motor system relies heavily on deep sensory stimulation, recent studies have investigated the effect of vibration stimuli. Although research suggests a positive influence of vibration on motor performance in individuals with neurological disorders, there are very limited numbers of studies in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sound wave vibration therapy on spasticity and motor function in children with CP. In this 3-month trial, 89 children with spastic CP were randomized to either continue their physiotherapy treatment (PT) or to receive vibration therapy twice a week in addition to their PT program. The randomization was stratified according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level to ensure similar functional ability. Children were assessed at baseline and after the 12-week intervention period. The outcomes measured were spasticity level as assessed by Modified Modified Ashworth Scale (MMAS) and gross motor function as assessed by Gross Motor Function Measurement (GMFM-88). Subgroup analysis was performed for the GMFCS. Significant differences between groups were detected for changes in spasticity level and gross motor function after the three months intervention. In conclusion, vibration therapy may decrease spasticity and improve motor performance in children with CP. The results of the present trial serve as valuable input for evidence-based treatments in paediatric neurorehabilitation. PMID:23422453

Katusic, Ana; Alimovic, Sonja; Mejaski-Bosnjak, Vlatka

2013-01-01

189

BACK DISORDER INTERVENTION STRATEGIES FOR MASS TRANSIT OPERATORS EXPOSED TO WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION—COMPARISON OF TWO TRANSIT SYSTEM APPROACHES AND PRACTICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational long-term whole-body vibration (WBV) has been recognized as a major risk factor for low back disorders, one of the most important reasons for medical impairment and early permanent disability among mass transit operators. Although no firm health and safety vibration exposure threshold limits have been established, the available data suggests that rail vehicle operators would probably fall under the

E. Johanning

1998-01-01

190

Low back pain in drivers: The relative role of whole-body vibration, posture and manual materials handling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the relative role of whole-body vibration (WBV), posture and manual materials handling (MMH) as risk factors for low back pain (LBP). Using a validated questionnaire, information about health history, posture and MMH performed was obtained from 394 workers who drove vehicles as part of their job (according to seven predefined occupational groups) and 59 who did not. The intention was to reflect a wide range of exposures with the lower end of the exposure spectrum defined as that of non-manual workers who do not drive as part of their job. Based on the questionnaire responses and direct measurements of vibration exposure, personal aggregate measures of exposure were computed for each of the respondents, i.e., total vibration dose (TVD), posture score (PS) and manual handling score (MHS). Odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) for back pain were obtained from logistics regression models and log-linear backward elimination analysis was performed. The findings showed that 'combined exposure' due to posture and one or both of vibration and MMH, rather than the individual exposure to one of the three factors (WBV, posture, MMH) is the main contributor of the increased prevalence of LBP.

Okunribido, O. O.; Magnusson, M.; Pope, M. H.

2006-12-01

191

Osteoporosis and Other Adverse Body Composition Changes during Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoporosis and other body composition changes are important complications of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer. Bilateral orchiectomy and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment decrease bone mineral density and increase fracture risk. Other factors including diet and lifestyle may contribute to bone loss in men with prostate cancer. Estrogens play an important role in male bone metabolism. Androgen deprivation therapy

Matthew R. Smith

2002-01-01

192

Numerical Simulation of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Therapy with Volume Model of Human Body  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the HIFU therapy for the deeply placed cancer has been desired. On problem is the displacement of the focal point due to the inhomogeneity of human body. The objectives are to realize the appropriate phase control of an array transducer and to support the preoperative planning of HIFU therapy by the computational prediction of treatment regions. Our

Kohei Okita; Kazuyasu Sugiyama; Kenji Ono; Shu Takagi; Yoichiro Matsumoto

2010-01-01

193

Linac-based stereotactic body radiation therapy for treatment of glomus jugulare tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Glomus jugulare tumors are rare, typically benign, tumors that arise from the neural crest cells that are associated with the autonomic ganglia in and around the jugular bulb. Treatment options for glomus jugulare tumors include embolization followed by resection, fractionated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), and\\/or stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Materials and methods: 18 patients

Rodney E. Wegner; Kenneth D. Rodriguez; Dwight E. Heron; Barry E. Hirsch; Robert L. Ferris; Steven A. Burton

2010-01-01

194

The ISO standard: Guide for the evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The international guideline is discussed in terms of safety and human tolerance. Charts for equal subjective vibration intensity, subjective judgement of equal fatigue, and severe discomfort boundaries are included.

Vongierke, H. E.

1975-01-01

195

Effect of backrest and torso twist on the apparent mass of the seated body exposed to vertical vibration.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure to whole-body vibration is often combined with a requirement to perform twisting actions. This paper reports a study where the effect of twisting on the biomechanical response of the seated person was investigated. Twelve male subjects were exposed to vertical random whole-body vibration at 0.4 m/s2 r.m.s. Each subject sat in four different postures: 'back-on', 'back-off', 'twist' (where subjects were required to twist the torso by 90 degrees) and 'move' (where subjects were required to performing a moving task with extended arms). Similar apparent masses were measured for the 'back-on', 'back-off' and 'twist' conditions, where a peak occurred at about 6 Hz. For the 'move' condition, the peak in the apparent mass was attenuated indicating a different biomechanical response in this posture. The 6 Hz peak in fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass was eliminated in the 'move' condition. It is suggested that the change in biomechanical response is due to either the extended arms acting as a passive vibration absorber or that the twisting action interferes with the usual acceleration-muscle feedback system. Further work will be required to test these hypotheses. PMID:16100918

Mansfield, Neil J; Maeda, Setsuo

2005-07-01

196

Analysis of weekly complete blood counts in patients receiving standard fractionated partial body radiation therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Hematopoiesis is among the most sensitive systems in the body to radiation. Routine complete blood counts (CBCs) are common in clinical radiotherapy practice. Only a few studies have attempted to characterize the behavior of peripheral blood levels during partial body radiation therapy with field sizes smaller than those used in hemibody or total nodal irradiation. Such information is needed

Farley E. Yang; Florin Vaida; Lani Ignacio; Alan Houghton; Jaishanker Nautiyal; Howard Halpern; Harold Sutton; Srinivasan Vijayakumar

1995-01-01

197

Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Body Image Exposure for Bulimia Nervosa: A Case Example  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for bulimia nervosa (BN). However, among patients with BN, symptom improvement is more pronounced for behavioral eating symptoms (i.e., bingeing and purging) than for body image disturbance, and the persistence of body image disturbance is associated with relapse. The need for more…

Delinsky, Sherrie S.; Wilson, G. Terence

2010-01-01

198

Functional inclusion bodies produced in bacteria as naturally occurring nanopills for advanced cell therapies.  

PubMed

Inclusion bodies (50-500 nm in diameter) produced in recombinant bacteria can be engineered to contain functional proteins with therapeutic potential. Upon exposure, these protein particles are efficiently internalized by mammalian cells and promote recovery from diverse stresses. Being fully biocompatible, inclusion bodies are a novel platform, as tailored nanopills, for sustained drug release in advanced cell therapies. PMID:22410789

Vázquez, Esther; Corchero, José L; Burgueño, Joan F; Seras-Franzoso, Joaquin; Kosoy, Ana; Bosser, Ramon; Mendoza, Rosa; Martínez-Láinez, Joan Marc; Rinas, Ursula; Fernández, Ester; Ruiz-Avila, Luis; García-Fruitós, Elena; Villaverde, Antonio

2012-04-01

199

Benefits of whole-body vibration to people with COPD: a community-based efficacy trial  

PubMed Central

Background Benefits of community-based whole-body vibration (WBV) as a mode of exercise training for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have not been investigated. The low skill demand of WBV may enhance habitual sustainability to physical activity by people with COPD, provided efficacy of WBV can be established. The purpose of this trial was to compare a community-based WBV intervention with a sham WBV (SWBV) intervention and monitor exacerbations, exercise tolerance, and functional performance of the lower limbs of people with COPD. Methods Community-dwelling adults with a GOLD clinical diagnosis of COPD were recruited to the trial. This was a Phase II efficacy trial with crossover to sham intervention interspersed with two-week washout. Each six-week intervention consisted of two sessions per week of either WBV or SWBV. The interventions were completed in the home of each participant under supervision. The outcome measures were selected psychological (perceived dyspnoea) and physiological (heart rate and oxygen saturation) responses to exercise, simulated activities of daily living (timed-up-and got test and 5-chair stands test), and selected kinematic variables of gait across the 14-week trial. Results Sixteen adults with stable COPD were recruited to the trial. No exacerbations were reported during the WBV or SWBV interventions. After WBV, performance of activities of daily living (ADLs) and gait improved (p???0.05), while there was no change after SWBV (p?>?0.05). Despite five withdrawals during the washout period, a 100% compliance to each six-week intervention was noted. Conclusions Results showed that WBV did not exacerbate symptoms of COPD that can be associated with physical inactivity. The WBV intervention improved tests to simulate ADLs such as rising from a chair, turning, and walking gait with greater effect than a SWBV intervention. If a placebo effect was systemic to the WBV intervention, the effect was negligible. As a standalone community-based intervention, WBV was an efficacious mode of exercise training for people with stable COPD that did not negatively effect exercise tolerance or exacerbate the disease, while concurrently improving functional performance of the lower limbs. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000508875.

2014-01-01

200

Effects of low-frequency whole-body vibration on motor-evoked potentials in healthy men.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine whether low-frequency whole-body vibration (WBV) modulates the excitability of the corticospinal and intracortical pathways related to tibialis anterior (TA) muscle activity, thus contributing to the observed changes in neuromuscular function during and after WBV exercise. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the leg area of the motor cortex were recorded in TA and soleus (SOL) muscles of seven healthy male subjects whilst performing 330 s continuous static squat exercise. Each subject completed two conditions: control (no WBV) and WBV (30 Hz, 1.5 mm vibration applied from 111 to 220 s). Five single suprathreshold and five paired TMS were delivered during each squat period lasting 110 s (pre-, during and post-WBV). Two interstimulus intervals (ISIs) between the conditioning and the testing stimuli were employed in order to study the effects of WBV on short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI, ISI = 3 ms) and intracortical facilitation (ICF, ISI = 13 ms). During vibration relative to squat exercise alone, single-pulse TMS provoked significantly higher TA MEP amplitude (56 +/- 14%, P = 0.003) and total area (71 +/- 19%, P = 0.04), and paired TMS with ISI = 13 ms provoked smaller MEP amplitude (-21 +/- 4%, P = 0.01) but not in SOL. Paired-pulse TMS with ISI = 3 ms elicited significantly lower MEP amplitude (TA, -19 +/- 4%, P = 0.009; and SOL, -13 +/- 4%, P = 0.03) and total area (SOL, -17 +/- 6%, P = 0.02) during vibration relative to squat exercise alone in both muscles. Tibialis anterior MEP facilitation in response to single-pulse TMS suggests that WBV increased corticospinal pathway excitability. Increased TA and SOL SICI and decreased TA ICF in response to paired-pulse TMS during WBV indicate vibration-induced alteration of the intracortical processes as well. PMID:18658234

Mileva, Katya N; Bowtell, Joanna L; Kossev, Andon R

2009-01-01

201

Effect of seat surface angle on forces at the seat surface during whole-body vertical vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twelve male subjects have been exposed to whole-body vertical random vibration so as to investigate the effect of seat surface angle, vibration magnitude and contact with a backrest on the 'vertical apparent mass' (calculated from forces normal to the seat surface and vertical acceleration) and 'fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass' (calculated from forces parallel to the seat surface and vertical acceleration). At each of four seat surface angles (0°, 5°, 10°, and 15°), the subjects were exposed to four vibration magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.625, and 1.25 m s -2 rms) in the frequency range 0.25-15 Hz. The 'vertical apparent mass' and 'fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass' on the seat surface suggested resonances in the vicinity of 5 and 4 Hz, respectively. At all seat angles, both with and without a backrest, the resonance frequency in the 'vertical apparent mass' was greater than the resonance frequency in the 'fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass'. Within subjects, the two resonance frequencies were not correlated in any condition. Seat angles up to 15° had a negligible effect on the 'vertical apparent mass' but a considerable effect on the 'fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass' on the seat surface, where 'cross-axis apparent mass' increased with increasing seat angle. At all seat angles, increasing the vibration magnitude decreased the resonance frequency in both directions. The least significant decrease in resonance frequency with increasing vibration magnitude occurred in the 'fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass' at the maximum seat angle of 15°. At low frequencies, the backrest reduced the forces in both directions, with the reduction greatest in the 'fore-and-aft' direction. The 'fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass' at resonance was correlated with subject mass and subject stature.

Nawayseh, Naser; Griffin, Michael J.

2005-06-01

202

Biological-based optimization and volumetric modulated arc therapy delivery for stereotactic body radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To describe biological-based optimization and Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation-based treatment planning for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in lung, liver, and prostate patients. Methods: Optimization strategies and VMAT planning parameters using a biological-based optimization MC planning system were analyzed for 24 SBRT patients. Patients received a median dose of 45 Gy [range, 34-54 Gy] for lung tumors in 1-5 fxs and a median dose of 52 Gy [range, 48-60 Gy] for liver tumors in 3-6 fxs. Prostate patients received a fractional dose of 10 Gy in 5 fxs. Biological-cost functions were used for plan optimization, and its dosimetric quality was evaluated using the conformity index (CI), the conformation number (CN), the ratio of the volume receiving 50% of the prescription dose over the planning target volume (Rx/PTV50). The quality and efficiency of the delivery were assessed according to measured quality assurance (QA) passing rates and delivery times. For each disease site, one patient was replanned using physical cost function and compared to the corresponding biological plan. Results: Median CI, CN, and Rx/PTV50 for all 24 patients were 1.13 (1.02-1.28), 0.79 (0.70-0.88), and 5.3 (3.1-10.8), respectively. The median delivery rate for all patients was 410 MU/min with a maximum possible rate of 480 MU/min (85%). Median QA passing rate was 96.7%, and it did not significantly vary with the tumor site. Conclusions: VMAT delivery of SBRT plans optimized using biological-motivated cost-functions result in highly conformal dose distributions. Plans offer shorter treatment-time benefits and provide efficient dose delivery without compromising the plan conformity for tumors in the prostate, lung, and liver, thereby improving patient comfort and clinical throughput. The short delivery times minimize the risk of patient setup and intrafraction motion errors often associated with long SBRT treatment delivery times.

Diot, Quentin; Kavanagh, Brian; Timmerman, Robert; Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States)

2012-01-15

203

Dynamic fascial release and the role of mechanical/vibrational assist devices in manual therapies.  

PubMed

Machine-assisted vibrational devices have a following in current and historical approaches to bodywork. This article reviews several such devices, including the percussion vibrator, vibrational platforms, and deep tissue oscillation. The percussion vibrator, reintroduced by Robert Fulford, reflecting the author's practice style and is addressed in more detail. Usage, conceptualization of goals as well as possible mechanisms of effect on the fascial and neuromuscular system are discussed. Special attention is given to the physiologic phenomenon of tonic vibratory reflex. PMID:21147416

Comeaux, Zachary

2011-01-01

204

EMG and Heart Rate Responses Decline within 5 Days of Daily Whole-Body Vibration Training with Squatting  

PubMed Central

In this study, we examined the acute effects of a 5-day daily whole-body vibration (WBV) training on electromyography (EMG) responses of the m. rectus femoris and m. gastrocnemius lateralis, heart rate (HR, continuously recorded), and blood lactate levels. The purpose of the study was to investigate the adaptation of muscle activity, heart rate and blood lactate levels during 5 days of daily training. Two groups of healthy male subjects performed either squat exercises with vibration at 20 Hz on a side alternating platform (SE+V, n?=?20, age ?=?31.9±7.5 yrs., height ?=?178.8±6.2 cm, body mass ?=?79.2±11.4 kg) or squat exercises alone (SE, n?=?21, age ?=?28.4±7.3 years, height ?=?178.9±7.4 cm, body mass ?=?77.2±9.7 kg). On training day 1, EMG amplitudes of the m. rectus femoris were significantly higher (P<0.05) during SE+V than during SE. However, this difference was no longer statistically significant on training days 3 and 5. The heart rate (HR) response was significantly higher (P<0.05) during SE+V than during SE on all training days, but showed a constant decline throughout the training days. On training day 1, blood lactate increased significantly more after SE+V than after SE (P<0.05). On the following training days, this difference became much smaller but remained significantly different. The specific physiological responses to WBV were largest on the initial training day and most of them declined during subsequent training days, showing a rapid neuromuscular and cardiovascular adaptation to the vibration stimulus.

Rosenberger, Andre; Liphardt, Anna-Maria; Bargmann, Arne; Muller, Klaus; Beck, Luis; Mester, Joachim; Zange, Jochen

2014-01-01

205

Effect of an acute bout of whole body vibration exercise on muscle force output and motor neuron excitability.  

PubMed

The purpose of the current investigation was to assess the effect of an acute bout of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise on muscle force output and motor neuron excitability. Nineteen recreationally trained college-aged males were randomly assigned to a WBV (n = 10) or a sham (S, n = 9) group. The WBV group completed a series of static, body weight squats on a vibrating platform at 30 Hz and an amplitude of approximately 3.5 mm (vertical), whereas the S group performed the same series of exercises but without vibration. Measurements were performed before (Pre) and then immediately post-exercise (Imm Post), 8 minutes post-exercise (8-Min Post), or 16 minutes post-exercise (16-Min Post) during 3 different testing sessions. The measurements involved a ballistic isometric maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of the triceps surae muscle complex and electrical stimulation of the tibial nerve for assessment of motor neuron excitability by analyzing H-reflex and M-wave responses (H(max)/M(max) ratio). Electromyography was also obtained from the triceps surae muscle complex during the MVCs. The WBV group significantly (p < or = 0.05) increased peak force at Imm Post (9.4%) and 8-Min Post (10.4%). No significant change in peak force was observed in the S group. No significant changes were observed in either group for average integrated EMG, H(max)/M(max) ratio, or rate of force development at Imm Post, 8-Min Post, or 16-Min Post. The results from this investigation indicate that an acute bout of static, body weight squat exercises, combined with WBV, increases muscle force output up to 8 minutes post-exercise. However, this increase in muscle force is not accompanied by a significant increase in motor neuron excitability or muscle activation. Thus, it is plausible to use WBV as a method for acute increase in muscle force output for athletes immediately before competition. PMID:19816218

McBride, Jeffrey M; Nuzzo, James L; Dayne, Andrea M; Israetel, Michael A; Nieman, David C; Triplett, N Travis

2010-01-01

206

Changes in Total Body Sodium, and Body Water During Acute Cholera and During Maintenance Therapy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tracer studies of fluid compartment changes were made possible during the 1961 cholera outbreak in Manila, Philippine Islands. TBW, Nae, ECF and intracellular fluid shifts were measured during dehydration therapy and during controlled periods of diarrheal...

B. E. Vaughan R. L. Martin C. K. Wallace Q. Blackwell A. L. Reyes

1965-01-01

207

Descriptive analysis of combine cabin vibrations and their effect on the human body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All on- and off-road vehicles are exposed to vibrations caused by unevenness of road or soil profile, moving elements within the machine or implements. A higher prevalence of low back pain is found in drivers of off-road machinery than in other drivers. In this study, significantly higher levels of low-frequency vibrations are found in the cabin of a combine, driving at high speed (20 km/h) on a concrete surface, compared to driving slower on field road. Comfort values indicate that injury can result from long-term driving on the field as well as on a concrete road. As seats with suspension systems are the main transmission paths of vibration towards the spine of the driver, their vibration attenuating characteristics play an important role in comfort assessment. The resonant frequency of seats with passive suspension system, used in agricultural machinery, lies in the low-frequency range most excited in agricultural machinery. A seat with air suspension is found to attenuate better frequencies above 4 Hz and provide more comfort to the driver than a seat with a mechanical suspension.

Hostens, I.; Ramon, H.

2003-09-01

208

Effect of a combination of whole body vibration exercise and squat training on body balance, muscle power, and walking ability in the elderly  

PubMed Central

A randomized controlled trial was conducted to clarify the beneficial effect of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise plus squat training on body balance, muscle power, and walking ability in the elderly with knee osteoarthritis and/or spondylosis. Of 35 ambulatory patients (14 men and 21 women) who were recruited at our outpatient clinic, 28 (80.0%, 12 men and 16 women) participated in the trial. The subjects (mean age 72.4 years) were randomly divided into two groups (n=14 in each group), ie, a WBV exercise alone group and a WBV exercise plus squat training group. A 4-minute WBV exercise (frequency 20 Hz) was performed 2 days per week in both groups; squat training (20 times per minute) was added during the 4-minute WBV training session in the WBV exercise plus squat training group. The duration of the trial was 6 months. The exercise and training program was safe and well tolerated. WBV exercise alone improved indices of body balance and walking velocity from baseline values. However, WBV exercise plus squat training was more effective for improving tandem gait step number and chair-rising time compared with WBV exercise alone. These results suggest the benefit and safety of WBV exercise plus squat training for improving physical function in terms of body balance and muscle power in the elderly.

Osugi, Tomohiro; Iwamoto, Jun; Yamazaki, Michio; Takakuwa, Masayuki

2014-01-01

209

Measuring airborne components of seismic body vibrations in a Middle-Asian sand-dwelling Insectivora species, the piebald shrew (Diplomesodon pulchellum).  

PubMed

Self-produced seismic vibrations have been found for some subterranean rodents but have not been reported for any Insectivora species, although seismic sensitivity has been confirmed for blind sand-dwelling chrysochlorid golden moles. Studying the vocal behaviour of captive piebald shrews, Diplomesodon pulchellum, we documented vibrations, apparently generated by the whole-body wall muscles, from 11 (5 male, 6 female) of 19 animals, placed singly on a drum membrane. The airborne waves of the vibratory drumming were digitally recorded and then analysed spectrographically. The mean frequency of vibration was 160.5 Hz. This frequency matched the periodicity of the deep sinusoidal frequency modulation (159.4 Hz) found in loud screech calls of the same subjects. The body vibration was not related to thermoregulation, hunger-related depletion of energy resources or fear, as it was produced by well-fed, calm animals, at warm ambient temperatures. We hypothesize that in the solitary, nocturnal, digging desert piebald shrew, body vibrations may be used for seismic exploration of substrate density, to avoid energy-costly digging of packed sand for burrowing and foraging. At the same time, the piercing quality of screech calls due to the deep sinusoidal frequency modulation, matching the periodicity of body vibration, may be important for agonistic communication in this species. PMID:22837458

Volodin, Ilya A; Zaytseva, Alexandra S; Ilchenko, Olga G; Volodina, Elena V; Chebotareva, Anastasia L

2012-08-15

210

Factors associated with the use of mind body therapies among United States adults with musculoskeletal pain?  

PubMed Central

Summary Objective To determine the prevalence of mind body therapy use and correlates of use among adults with prolonged musculoskeletal pain, a group for whom mind body therapies are recommended. Design The U.S. 1999 National Health Interview Survey. Prolonged musculoskeletal pain was defined as any soft tissue, joint, or bony pain for at least 1 month. Analyses used SUDAAN and reflect national estimates. Main outcome measures Use of mind body medicine (relaxation techniques, imagery, biofeedback, and hypnosis) and prayer in the previous year. Results Respondents (n = 6079) with musculoskeletal pain were almost twice as likely as those without (n = 24,722) to use mind body medicine (9% versus 5%, respectively, p < .0001) and prayer (20% versus 12%, respectively, p < .0001). After adjustment, men were less likely than women to use mind body medicine (odds ratio 0.55 [0.43–0.71]) and prayer (odds ratio 0.56 [0.48–0.66]). Those who had a high school education were less likely than those with training beyond high school to use mind body medicine (odds ratio 0.36 [0.28–0.47]) and prayer (odds ratio 0.61 [0.52–0.71]). Conclusions Mind body therapies are not used commonly by adults with prolonged musculoskeletal pain. Understanding barriers to their use may facilitate wider application in this population.

Tindle, Hilary A.; Wolsko, Peter; Davis, Roger B.; Eisenberg, David M.; Phillips, Russell S.; McCarthy, Ellen P.

2010-01-01

211

Prevalence and pattern of occupational exposure to whole body vibration in Great Britain: findings from a national survey  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To estimate the number of workers in Great Britain with significant occupational exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) and to identify the common sources of exposure and the occupations and industries where such exposures arise.?METHODS—A postal questionnaire was posted to a random community sample of 22 194 men and women of working age. Among other things, the questionnaire asked about exposure to WBV in the past week, including occupational and common non-occupational sources. Responses were assessed by occupation and industry, and national prevalence estimates were derived from census information. Estimates were also made of the average estimated daily personal dose of vibration (eVDV).?RESULTS—From the 12 907 responses it was estimated that 7.2 million men and 1.8 million women in Great Britain are exposed to WBV at work in a 1 week period if the occupational use of cars, vans, buses, trains, and motor cycles is included within the definition of exposure. The eVDV of >374 000 men and 9000 women was estimated to exceed a proposed British Standard action level of 15 ms-1.75. Occupations in which the estimated exposures most often exceeded 15 ms-1.75 included forklift truck and mechanical truck drivers, farm owners and managers, farm workers, and drivers of road goods vehicles. These occupations also contributed the largest estimated numbers of workers in Great Britain with such levels of exposure. The highest estimated median occupational eVDVs were found in forklift truck drivers, drivers of road goods vehicles, bus and coach drivers, and technical and wholesale sales representatives, among whom a greater contribution to total dose was received from occupational exposures than from non-occupational ones; but in many other occupations the reverse applied. The most common sources of occupational exposure to WBV are cars, vans, forklift trucks, lorries, tractors, buses, and loaders.?CONCLUSIONS—Exposure to whole body vibration is common, but only a small proportion of exposures exceed the action level proposed in British standards, and in many occupations, non-occupational sources are more important than those at work. The commonest occupational sources of WBV and occupations with particularly high exposures have been identified, providing a basis for targeting future control activities.???Keywords: whole body vibration; population; prevalence; exposure

Palmer, K.; Griffin, M.; Bendall, H.; Pannett, B.; Coggon, D.

2000-01-01

212

Numerical assessment of fore-and-aft suspension performance to reduce whole-body vibration of wheel loader drivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While driving off-road vehicles, operators are exposed to whole-body vibration acting in the fore-and-aft direction. Seat manufacturers supply products equipped with fore-and-aft suspension but only a few studies report on their performance. This work proposes a computational approach to design fore-and-aft suspensions for wheel loader seats. Field tests were conducted in a quarry to analyse the nature of vibration to which the driver was exposed. Typical input signals were recorded to be reproduced in the laboratory. Technical specifications are defined for the suspension. In order to evaluate the suspension vibration attenuation performance, a model of a sitting human body was developed and coupled to a seat model. The seat model combines the models of each suspension component. A linear two-degree-of-freedom model is used to describe the dynamic behaviour of the sitting driver. Model parameters are identified by fitting the computed apparent mass frequency response functions to the measured values. Model extensions are proposed to investigate postural effects involving variations in hands and feet positions and interaction of the driver's back with the backrest. Suspension design parameters are firstly optimized by computing the seat/man model response to sinusoidal acceleration. Four criteria including transmissibility, interaction force between the driver's back and the backrest and relative maximal displacement of the suspension are computed. A new suspension design with optimized features is proposed. Its performance is checked from calculations of the response of the seat/man model subjected to acceleration measured on the wheel loader during real work conditions. On the basis of the computed values of the SEAT factors, it is found possible to design a suspension that would increase the attenuation provided by the seat by a factor of two.

Fleury, Gérard; Mistrot, Pierre

2006-12-01

213

Effects Related to Random Whole-Body Vibration and Posture on a Suspended Seatwith and Without Backrest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

WBV-exposures are often linked with forced postures as prolonged sitting, bent forward sitting, or sitting without a backrest. No quantitative data are available to describe the exposure-effect relationships for different conditions of seating, posture, and the biological variability of workers. Experiments and subsequent predictions of forces acting within the spine during WBV can help to improve the assessment of the health risk. An experimental study was performed with 39 male subjects sitting on a suspension seat with or with no backrest contact. They were exposed to random whole-body vibration with a weighted r.m.s. value of 0·6 m/s2 at a relaxed or a forward bending posture. A two-dimensional finite element model was used for the calculation of the internal spinal load. The model simulates the human response on a suspension driver seat. Individual exposure conditions were considered by including the transfer functions between the seat cushion and the seat base as well as between the backrest and the seat base for the calculation of the vibration input to the buttocks and to the back respectively. The average peak seat transmissibility was higher for the seat with the backrest, but the peak seat-to-head transmissibility was higher for the seat without the backrest for both postures. The peak transmissibilities between the accelerations at the seat base and the compressive forces at L5/S1 were highest for the seat without the backrest during the bending posture. Various biological effects can result from identical exposures combined with different backrest contact and postures. The backrest contact and posture conditions should not be neglected in the assessment of health risk caused by whole-body vibration.

HINZ, B.; SEIDEL, H.; MENZEL, G.; BLÜTHNER, R.

2002-05-01

214

Cognitive-behavioral therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: a review of its efficacy  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to review the efficacy of different methods of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies used to treat body dysmorphic disorder. We evaluated all case series, open studies, controlled trials, and meta-analyses of cognitive and/or behavioral treatment approaches to body dysmorphic disorder published up to July 2012, identified through a search in the PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases. Our findings indicate that individual and group cognitive behavioral therapies are superior to waiting list for the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder. While the efficacy of cognitive therapy is supported by one controlled trial, utility of behavioral therapy is suggested by one open study and one controlled relapse prevention follow-up study. There is a pressing need to conduct head-to-head studies, with appropriate, active, control treatment groups, in order to examine further the efficacy of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies for body dysmorphic disorder.

Prazeres, Angelica M; Nascimento, Antonio L; Fontenelle, Leonardo F

2013-01-01

215

Lack of effect of lovastatin therapy on the parameters of whole-body cholesterol metabolism.  

PubMed Central

The effects of lovastatin therapy on the parameters of body cholesterol metabolism were explored in nine hypercholesterolemic patients. Long-term cholesterol turnover studies were performed before therapy, and were repeated after 15 mo of lovastatin therapy (40 mg/d) while continuing on therapy. The major question addressed was whether a reduction in plasma cholesterol level with lovastatin would be associated with a reduction in the whole-body production rate of cholesterol or with the sizes of exchangeable body cholesterol pools as determined by the three-pool model of cholesterol turnover. The mean plasma cholesterol level decreased 19.4% (from 294 to 237 mg/dl), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased 23.8% (from 210 to 159 mg/dl) with lovastatin therapy. Changes in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level were not significant. The cholesterol production rate did not change significantly with therapy (1.09 +/- 0.10 [mean +/- S.D.] vs. 1.17 +/- 0.09 g/d). By comparison, colestipol and niacin treatment in three other subjects more than doubled the cholesterol production rate (1.14 +/- 0.28 vs. 2.42 +/- 0.34 g/d). Thus, hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibition by lovastatin at the therapeutic dose used here did not change the steady-state rate of whole-body cholesterol synthesis. Despite the changes in plasma cholesterol levels, no significant changes were seen in the values of M1, of M3 or of Mtot, the sizes of the pools of rapidly, of slowly, and of total body exchangeable cholesterol. Conclusion: lovastatin therapy to lower plasma cholesterol does not lead to corresponding reductions in body cholesterol pools or to a reduction in the rate of whole-body cholesterol synthesis. In the new steady state that exists during long-term lovastatin therapy, along with increased expression of the genes for HMG-CoA reductase and the LDL receptor, the body compensates for the effects of the drug so that cholesterol production rate and tissue pool sizes are not changed from pretreatment values.

Goldberg, I J; Holleran, S; Ramakrishnan, R; Adams, M; Palmer, R H; Dell, R B; Goodman, D S

1990-01-01

216

Nuclear quantum many-body dynamics. From collective vibrations to heavy-ion collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A summary of recent researches on nuclear dynamics with realistic microscopic quantum approaches is presented. The Balian-Vénéroni variational principle is used to derive the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) equation describing the dynamics at the mean-field level, as well as an extension including small-amplitude quantum fluctuations which is equivalent to the time-dependent random-phase approximation (TDRPA). Such formalisms as well as their practical implementation in the nuclear physics framework with modern three-dimensional codes are discussed. Recent applications to nuclear dynamics, from collective vibrations to heavy-ion collisions are presented. Particular attention is devoted to the interplay between collective motions and internal degrees of freedom. For instance, the harmonic nature of collective vibrations is questioned. Nuclei are also known to exhibit superfluidity due to pairing residual interaction. Extensions of the theoretical approach to study such pairing vibrations are now available. Large amplitude collective motions are investigated in the framework of heavy-ion collisions leading, for instance, to the formation of a compound system. How fusion is affected by the internal structure of the collision partners, such as their deformation, is discussed. Other mechanisms in competition with fusion, and responsible for the formation of fragments which differ from the entrance channel (transfer reactions, deep-inelastic collisions, and quasi-fission) are investigated. Finally, studies of actinide collisions forming, during very short times of few zeptoseconds, the heaviest nuclear systems available on Earth, are presented.

Simenel, Cédric

2012-11-01

217

Whole-body vibration experienced by haulage truck operators in surface mining operations: A comparison of various analysis methods utilized in the prediction of health risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole body vibration (WBV) was measured on eight surface haulage trucks in three size classes (35, 100, 150ton haul capacities). Vibration was measured at the seat\\/operator interface in accordance with the ISO 2631-1 standard during 1h of normal operation. Highest acceleration readings were observed in the z-axis (vertical). Estimated equivalent daily exposure values in the range of 0.44–0.82 ms?2 were

Martin P. H. Smets; Tammy R. Eger; Sylvain G. Grenier

2010-01-01

218

Effect of 6Month Whole Body Vibration Training on Hip Density, Muscle Strength, and Postural Control in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-frequency mechanical strain seems to stimulate bone strength in animals. In this random- ized controlled trial, hip BMD was measured in postmenopausal women after a 24-week whole body vibration (WBV) training program. Vibration training significantly increased BMD of the hip. These findings suggest that WBV training might be useful in the prevention of osteoporosis. Introduction: High-frequency mechanical strain has been

Sabine MP Verschueren; Machteld Roelants; Christophe Delecluse; Stephan Swinnen; Dirk Vanderschueren; Steven Boonen

2004-01-01

219

The Effect of One-To-One Music Therapy On Attitudes, Behaviors, and Body Image Dissatisfaction for University Students with Body Image Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body image, body dissatisfaction, and eating disorders are issues for which more and more people are seeking treatment. Children and adults alike are experiencing these problems in our society, and there are many aspects to body image problems and disordered eating that merit assistance. Research shows that recovery from eating disorders is possible with a variety of interventions, including therapy,

Rachel N. Dinkel

2010-01-01

220

A summary of current Bureau research into the effects of whole-body vibration and shock on operators of underground mobile equipment  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses current research by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) and shock on underground mobile equipment operators. The highlights of a comprehensive literature review of WBV, shock, and seating are presented. Factors discussed include health and physiological effects, comfort, performance, and fatigue. Vibration data were collected from shuttle cars and ramcars at several underground coal mines in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Illinois. The data were formatted so that they could be used to drive the Bureau's motion platform, and to compare them with ANSI S3-1979, Guide for the Evaluation of Human Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration. Human subject testing in the Bureau's vibration research laboratory evaluated the effects of two different seat angles and of the presence or absence of vibration and of foam padding on heart rate, blood pressure, and subjective discomfort. Only vibration significantly increased heart rate and systolic and mean blood pressures. Vibration and a steel seat had a significant effect on subjective discomfort. The apparatus used for these tests and the experimental procedures are described in detail. Recommendations are made for additional research on the exposure of underground mining machine operators to WBV and shock.

Love, A.C.; Unger, R.L.; Bobick, T.G.; Fowkes, R.S.

1992-01-01

221

The Effect of Whole Body Vibration Exposure on Muscle Function in Children With Cystic Fibrosis: A Pilot Efficacy Trial  

PubMed Central

Background To examine the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) exposure on muscle function in children with Cystic Fibrosis (CF). Non-randomised controlled cross-over trial. Methods The setting was home-based WBV exposure. The participants were children (8 - 15 years) with CF (n = 7). Intervention: participants served as their own controls for the first four weeks (usual care), then underwent four weeks of parentally-supervised home-based WBV exposure followed by four weeks washout (usual care). The WBV exposure consisted of 20 - 30 minutes of intermittent (1 min vibration:1 min rest) exposure on a Galileo platform (20 - 22Hz, 1 mm amplitude) 3 days/week. The primary outcome measures of absolute and relative lower body (leg extension (LE), leg press (LP)), upper body (chess press (CP)) strength and power, and power were measured at baseline, and weeks 4, 8 and 12. Secondary exploratory outcomes were cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function and health-related quality of life. Results Six participants completed the training without adverse events. Muscle function changes following WBV exposure were not statistically significant. However, moderate-to-large relative effect sizes (ES) favouring WBV were evident for leg extension strength (ES = 0.66 (-0.50, 1.82)), LP relative strength (ES = 0.92 (-0.27, 2.11)), leg press peak power (ES = 0.78 (-0.50, 2.07)) and CMJ height (ES = 0.60 (-0.56 to 1.76)). Conclusions The results from this first controlled trial indicate that WBV may be a potentially effective exercise modality to safely increase leg strength and explosive power in children with CF. Potentially clinically relevant changes support continued investigation of the efficacy, mechanism and feasibility of this intervention in future large-scale studies.

O'Keefe, Kaitlin; Orr, Rhonda; Huang, Peite; Selvadurai, Hiran; Cooper, Peter; Munns, Craig Frank; Singh, Maria A Fiatarone

2013-01-01

222

Comparison of methods for assessing patient body burden following /sup 131/I therapy for thyroid cancer  

SciTech Connect

The effectiveness of three methods of assessing the patient body burden following /sup 131/I therapy was compared: (a) urine assay; (b) external exposure rate measurements, and (c) predictions based on a pretherapy diagnostic work-up. The urine assay method exhibited the greatest potential for error and personnel risk. The diagnostic work-up provided predictions of the body burden as a function of time, which may be applied to estimate the expected hospital stay. The direct external exposure rate survey showed the potential for being an accurate, reliable, and relatively safe method of monitoring the patient body burden.

Thomas, S.R.; Maxon, H.R.; Fritz, K.M.; Kereiakes, J.G.; Connell, W.D.

1980-12-01

223

Obesity Increases the Risk of Chest Wall Pain From Thoracic Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is increasingly being used to treat thoracic tumors. We attempted here to identify dose-volume parameters that predict chest wall toxicity (pain and skin reactions) in patients receiving thoracic SBRT. Patients and Methods: We screened a database of patients treated with SBRT between August 2004 and August 2008 to find patients with pulmonary tumors within

James Welsh; Jimmy Thomas; Deep Shah; Pamela K. Allen; Xiong Wei; Kevin Mitchell; Song Gao; Peter Balter; Ritsuko Komaki; Joe Y. Chang

2011-01-01

224

Skeletal site-specific effects of whole body vibration in mature rats: from deleterious to beneficial frequency-dependent effects.  

PubMed

Whole body vibration (WBV) is receiving increasing interest as an anti-osteoporotic prevention strategy. In this context, selective effects of different frequency and acceleration magnitude modalities on musculoskeletal responses need to be better defined. Our aim was to investigate the bone effects of different vibration frequencies at constant g level. Vertical WBV was delivered at 0.7 g (peak acceleration) and 8, 52 or 90 Hz sinusoidal vibration to mature male rats 10 min daily for 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Peak accelerations measured by skin or bone-mounted accelerometers at L2 vertebral and tibia crest levels revealed similar values between adjacent skin and bone sites. Local accelerations were greater at 8 Hz compared with 52 and 90 Hz and were greater in vertebra than tibia for all the frequencies tested. At 52 Hz, bone responses were mainly seen in L2 vertebral body and were characterized by trabecular reorganization and stimulated mineral apposition rate (MAR) without any bone volume alteration. At 90 Hz, axial and appendicular skeletons were affected as were the cortical and trabecular compartments. Cortical thickness increased in femur diaphysis (17%) along with decreased porosity; trabecular bone volume increased at distal femur metaphysis (23%) and even more at L2 vertebral body (32%), along with decreased SMI and increased trabecular connectivity. Trabecular thickness increased at the tibia proximal metaphysis. Bone cellular activities indicated a greater bone formation rate, which was more pronounced at vertebra (300%) than at long bone (33%). Active bone resorption surfaces were unaffected. At 8 Hz, however, hyperosteoidosis with reduced MAR along with increased resorption surfaces occurred in the tibia; hyperosteoidosis and trend towards decreased MAR was also seen in L2 vertebra. Trabecular bone mineral density was decreased at femur and tibia. Thus the most favorable regimen is 90 Hz, while deleterious effects were seen at 8 Hz. We concluded that the skeleton is frequency-scalable, thus highlighting the importance of WBV regimen conditions and suggesting that cautions are required for frequencies less than 10 Hz, at least in rats. PMID:23545229

Pasqualini, Marion; Lavet, Cédric; Elbadaoui, Mohamed; Vanden-Bossche, Arnaud; Laroche, Norbert; Gnyubkin, Vasily; Vico, Laurence

2013-07-01

225

A BODY MASS DEPENDENT MECHANICAL IMPEDANCE MODEL FOR APPLICATIONS IN VIBRATION SEAT TESTING  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three degree-of-freedom model is proposed to predict the biodynamic responses of the seated human body of different masses. A baseline model is initially derived to satisfy both the mean apparent mass and seat-to-head transmissibility responses proposed in ISO\\/DIS 5982:2000 applicable for mean body mass of 75 kg. The validity of the resultant generic mass dependent model is verified by

P.-É. BOILEAU; S. Rakheja; X. Wu

2002-01-01

226

The effects of 11 weeks whole body vibration training on jump height, contractile properties and activation of human knee extensors.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether 11 weeks of whole body vibration (WBV) training applied in a way that is commonly seen in practice, i.e. without additional loads, would improve muscle activation and/or contractile properties of the knee extensor muscles and counter movement jump height in healthy subjects. Ten subjects belonging to the experimental group trained three times a week and stood bare-foot with a 110 degrees knee angle on a vibration platform (30 Hz, 8 mm amplitude). They underwent five to eight sets of 1-min vibration with 1 min rest in between. Ten control subjects followed the same training programme but stood (110 degrees knee angle) beside the platform. Before, during and following the training period the subjects were tested. Values [mean (SEM)] obtained in the last test were expressed as percentages of the baseline value and presented for control and experimental groups. Quadriceps femoris isometric muscle force [105.4 (6.2)%, 99.9 (2.0)%; P=0.69], voluntary activation [107.1 (6.0)%, 101.1 (2.3)%; P=0.55] and maximal rate of voluntary force rise [95.4 (6.0)%, 103.3 (7.7)%; P=0.57] did not improve. The maximal rate of force rise during electrical stimulation was increased [102.3 (4.5)%, 123.6 (7.5)%; P=0.02]. Counter movement jump height was not affected by WBV [103.7 (1.8)%, 103.0 (2.8)%; P=0.71]. In conclusion, 11 weeks of standard two-legged WBV training without additional training loads did not improve functional knee extensor muscle strength in healthy young subjects. PMID:12923646

de Ruiter, C J; Van Raak, S M; Schilperoort, J V; Hollander, A P; de Haan, A

2003-11-01

227

Development of a Protocol for Epidemiologal Studies of Whole-Body Vibration and Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Lower Back  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It seems evident from a large number of studies that there is a positive relationship between exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) and the occurrence of low back pain. There are existing standards for evaluating the human exposure to WBV, which are based on other factors than the effect of musculoskeletal disorders. Several national and international standards also exist for evaluating human exposure to WBV. The exposure limit values or health guidance caution zones included in some of these standards are not or only to a limited extent based on systematic epidemiological investigations. It has not yet been possible to establish a clear exposure-response relationship. There are many confounding or contributing factors which influence the hazards to workers caused by exposure to WBV. Reliable methods for the detection and prevention of injury due to vibration exposure at work, alone or in combination with other risk factors, need to be implemented. The aim of this paper was to design a protocol and a questionnaire for conducting collaborative studies of WBV and musculoskeletal back disorders. The protocol will be tested in a pilot study before it will be used in multi-center studies.

Magnusson, M. L.; Pope, M. H.; Hulshof, C. T. J.; Bovenzi, M.

1998-08-01

228

A numerical scheme for the identification of hybrid systems describing the vibration of flexible beams with tip bodies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cubic spline based Galerkin-like method is developed for the identification of a class of hybrid systems which describe the transverse vibration to flexible beams with attached tip bodies. The identification problem is formulated as a least squares fit to data subject to the system dynamics given by a coupled system of ordnary and partial differential equations recast as an abstract evolution equation (AEE) in an appropriate infinite dimensional Hilbert space. Projecting the AEE into spline-based subspaces leads naturally to a sequence of approximating finite dimensional identification problems. The solutions to these problems are shown to exist, are relatively easily computed, and are shown to, in some sense, converge to solutions to the original identification problem. Numerical results for a variety of examples are discussed.

Rosen, I. G.

1984-01-01

229

Feasibility of using whole body vibration as a means for controlling spasticity in post-stroke patients: a pilot study.  

PubMed

To examine the feasibility of adapting whole body vibration (WBV) in the hemiplegic legs of post-stroke patients and to investigate the anti-spastic effects, and the improvement of motor function and walking ability. Twenty-five post-stroke patients with lower-limb spasticity were enrolled in the study. Each subject sat with hip joint angles to approximately 90° of flexion, and with knee joint angles to 0° of extension. WBV was applied at 30 Hz (4-8 mm amplitude) for 5 min on hamstrings, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. The modified Ashworth scale was significantly decreased, active and passive range of motion (A-ROM, P-ROM) for ankle dorsiflexion and straight leg raising increased, and walking speed and cadence both improved during the 5-min intervention. Our proposed therapeutic approach could therefore be a novel neuro-rehabilitation strategy among patients with various severities. PMID:24439649

Miyara, Kodai; Matsumoto, Shuji; Uema, Tomohiro; Hirokawa, Takuya; Noma, Tomokazu; Shimodozono, Megumi; Kawahira, Kazumi

2014-02-01

230

a Body Mass Dependent Mechanical Impedance Model for Applications in Vibration Seat Testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three degree-of-freedom model is proposed to predict the biodynamic responses of the seated human body of different masses. A baseline model is initially derived to satisfy both the mean apparent mass and seat-to-head transmissibility responses proposed in ISO/DIS 5982:2000 applicable for mean body mass of 75 kg. The validity of the resultant generic mass dependent model is verified by comparing the apparent mass and driving-point mechanical impedance responses computed for total body masses of 55, 75 and 90 kg with the range of idealized values proposed for body masses within the 49-93 kg range. Considering the lack of data that could be found to define the apparent mass/mechanical impedance of subjects with different body masses when applying the experimental conditions defined in ISO/DIS 5982:2000, an attempt is made to adapt the parameters of the base model to fit the measured apparent mass data applicable to groups of automobile occupants within different mass ranges. This is achieved through constrained parametric optimization which consists of minimizing the sum of squared errors between the computed response and the mean apparent mass data measured for automobile occupants within four mass groups: less than 60 kg, 60·5-70·5 kg, 70·5-80 kg and above 80 kg. The results show a reasonably good agreement between the model responses and the measured apparent mass data, particularly at frequencies below 10 Hz. The results suggest that the proposed mass dependent model can effectively predict the apparent mass responses of automobile occupants over a wide range of body masses and for two different postures: passenger (hands-in-lap) and driver (hands-on-steering wheel) postures.

BOILEAU, P.-É.; RAKHEJA, S.; WU, X.

2002-05-01

231

Apparatus and Method of Inserting a Microelectrode in Body Tissue or the Like Using Vibration Means.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An arrangement for and method of inserting a glass microelectrode, having a tip in the micron range, into body tissue is disclosed. The top of the microelectrode is attached to the diaphragm center of a first speaker. The microelectrode tip is brought int...

C. Feldstein D. W. Crawford E. W. Kanabus

1976-01-01

232

Effects of whole body vibration plus diet on insulin-resistance in middle-aged obese subjects.  

PubMed

We investigated the early effects of whole body vibration (WBV) added to hypocaloric diet on insulin-resistance and other parameters associated with glucose regulation in sedentary obese individuals. We randomly assigned 34 patients to WBV plus hypocaloric diet (WBV group) or diet alone (CON group) for 8 weeks. Fasting and post-load glucose, insulin, lipids, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-?, leptin, adiponectin were assessed. Insulin sensitivity index (ISI) was derived from oral-glucose-tolerance test. Body composition was evaluated with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Both groups lost approximately 5% of weight, with greater reduction of body fat in WBV than in CON (-7.1±1.2?Kg vs. -5.3±1.0?Kg, p=0.003). Percent variation of ISI was more pronounced in WBV than in CON group (+35±4% vs. +?22±5%, p=0.002), accompanied by slight improvement in post-load glucose (-1.07±0.02 vs. -?0.12±0.01?mmol/l, p=0.031) but without changes in fasting levels. Adiponectin significantly increased in WBV group compared with CON (p=0.021 for comparison) whereas no differences in leptin and inflammatory markers were observed. In middle-aged sedentary obese subjects, WBV added to hypocaloric diet for 8 weeks improved body composition, insulin-resistance, glucose regulation and adiponectin levels to a greater extent compared with diet alone. Efficacy and feasibility of this approach in the long term need to be ascertained. PMID:24227120

Bellia, A; Sallì, M; Lombardo, M; D'Adamo, M; Guglielmi, V; Tirabasso, C; Giordani, L; Federici, M; Lauro, D; Foti, C; Sbraccia, P

2014-06-01

233

Control Group Design: Enhancing Rigor in Research of Mind-Body Therapies for Depression  

PubMed Central

Although a growing body of research suggests that mind-body therapies may be appropriate to integrate into the treatment of depression, studies consistently lack methodological sophistication particularly in the area of control groups. In order to better understand the relationship between control group selection and methodological rigor, we provide a brief review of the literature on control group design in yoga and tai chi studies for depression, and we discuss challenges we have faced in the design of control groups for our recent clinical trials of these mind-body complementary therapies for women with depression. To address the multiple challenges of research about mind-body therapies, we suggest that researchers should consider 4 key questions: whether the study design matches the research question; whether the control group addresses performance, expectation, and detection bias; whether the control group is ethical, feasible, and attractive; and whether the control group is designed to adequately control for nonspecific intervention effects. Based on these questions, we provide specific recommendations about control group design with the goal of minimizing bias and maximizing validity in future research.

Kinser, Patricia Anne; Robins, Jo Lynne

2013-01-01

234

Effect of Muscle Tension on Non-Linearities in the Apparent Masses of Seated Subjects Exposed to Vertical Whole-Body Vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In subjects exposed to whole-body vibration, the cause of non-linear dynamic characteristics with changes in vibration magnitude is not understood. The effect of muscle tension on the non-linearity in apparent mass has been investigated in this study. Eight seated male subjects were exposed to random and sinusoidal vertical vibration at five magnitudes (0·35-1·4 m/s2 r.m.s.). The random vibration was presented for 60 s over the frequency range 2·0-20 Hz; the sinusoidal vibration was presented for 10 s at five frequencies (3·15, 4·0, 5·0, 6·3 and 8·0 Hz). Three sitting conditions were adopted such that, in two conditions, muscle tension in the buttocks and the abdomen was controlled. It was assumed that, in these two conditions, involuntary changes in muscle tension would be minimized. The force and acceleration at the seat surface were used to obtain apparent masses of subjects. With both sinusoidal and random vibration, there was statistical support for the hypothesis that non-linear characteristics were less clear when muscle tension in the buttocks and the abdomen was controlled. With increases in the magnitude of random vibration from 0·35 to 1·4 m/s2 r.m.s., the apparent mass resonance frequency decreased from 5·25 to 4·25 Hz with normal muscle tension, from 5·0 to 4·38 Hz with the buttocks muscles tensed, and from 5·13 to 4·5 Hz with the abdominal muscles tensed. Involuntary changes in muscle tension during whole-body vibration may be partly responsible for non-linear biodynamic responses.

MATSUMOTO, Y.; GRIFFIN, M. J.

2002-05-01

235

Interactions between Body Mass Index and Hormone Therapy and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Risk (United States)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To assess interactions between use of estrogen plus progestin hormone therapy (EPHT) and body mass index (BMI) in relation\\u000a to risks of different types of breast cancer, based on histology and hormone receptor status.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We conducted a population-based case-control study that compared 975 postmenopausal breast cancer cases to 1,007 controls.\\u000a Interactions between menopausal hormone therapy (HT) and BMI in relation

Christopher I. Li; Kathleen E. Malone; Janet R. Daling

2006-01-01

236

The feasibility of whole body vibration in institutionalised elderly persons and its influence on muscle performance, balance and mobility: a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN62535013  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Fatigue or lack of interest can reduce the feasibility of intensive physical exercise in nursing home residents. Low-volume exercise interventions with similar training effects might be an alternative. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to investigate the feasibility of Whole Body Vibration (WBV) in institutionalised elderly, and its impact on functional capacity and muscle performance. METHODS: Twenty-four

Ivan Bautmans; Ellen Van Hees; Jean-Claude Lemper; Tony Mets

2005-01-01

237

Vibrational investigation of calcium-silicate cements for endodontics in simulated body fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcium-silicate MTA (Mineral Trioxide Aggregate) cements have been recently developed for oral and endodontic surgery. This study was aimed at investigating commercial (White ProRoot MTA, White and Grey MTA-Angelus) and experimental (wTC-Bi) accelerated calcium-silicate cements with regards to composition, hydration products and bioactivity upon incubation for 1-28 days at 37 °C, in Dulbecco's Phosphate Buffered Saline (DPBS). Deposits on the surface of the cements and the composition changes during incubation were investigated by micro-Raman and ATR/FT-IR spectroscopy, and pH measurements. Vibrational techniques disclosed significant differences in composition among the unhydrated cements, which significantly affected the bioactivity as well as pH, and hydration products of the cements. After one day in DPBS, all the cements were covered by a more or less homogeneous layer of B-type carbonated apatite. The experimental cement maintained a high bioactivity, only slightly lower than the other cements and appears a valid alternative to commercial cements, in view of its adequate setting time properties. The bioactivity represents an essential property to favour bone healing and makes the calcium-silicate cements the gold standard materials for root-apical endodontic surgery.

Taddei, Paola; Modena, Enrico; Tinti, Anna; Siboni, Francesco; Prati, Carlo; Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna

2011-05-01

238

Mathematical Models for the Apparent Mass of the Seated Human Body Exposed to Vertical Vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alternative mathematical models of the vertical apparent mass of the seated human body are developed. The optimum parameters of four models (two single-degree-of-freedom models and two two-degree-of-freedom models) are derived from the mean measured apparent masses of 60 subjects (24 men, 24 women, 12 children) previously reported. The best fits were obtained by fitting the phase data with single-degree-of-freedom and two-degree-of-freedom models having rigid support structures. For these two models, curve fitting was performed on each of the 60 subjects (so as to obtain optimum model parameters for each subject), for the averages of each of the three groups of subjects, and for the entire group of subjects. The values obtained are tabulated. Use of a two-degree-of-freedom model provided a better fit to the phase of the apparent mass at frequencies greater than about 8 Hz and an improved fit to the modulus of the apparent mass at frequencies around 5 Hz. It is concluded that the two-degree-of-freedom model provides an apparent mass similar to that of the human body, but this does not imply that the body moves in the same manner as the masses in this optimized two-degree-of-freedom model.

Wei, L.; Griffin, M. J.

1998-05-01

239

Outcomes of Manualized Cognitive-Behavioral Body Image Therapy with Eating Disordered Women Treated in a Private Clinical Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body image change is an important component of the treatment of eating disorders, and cognitive behavioral body image therapy has substantial empirical support as efficacious in the improvement of body image difficulties and disorders. Most evidence comes from randomized, controlled, outcome studies and does not examine effectiveness for persons with clinical eating disorders in the context of “usual care” settings.

Stacey Nye; Thomas F. Cash

2006-01-01

240

Effects of hormone replacement therapy and social stress on body fat distribution in surgically postmenopausal monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and social stress on body fat distribution in an animal model of women’s health, the female cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).DESIGN\\/SUBJECTS: Adult female cynomolgus monkeys were ovariectomized and fed an atherogenic diet for two years while housed in social groups of 3–8 monkeys each. Animals were then fed a lipid-lowering diet

JM Wallace; CA Shively; TB Clarkson

1999-01-01

241

Evaluation of high-dose daptomycin for therapy of experimental Staphylococcus aureus foreign body infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Daptomycin is a novel cyclic lipopeptide whose bactericidal activity is not affected by current antibiotic resistance mechanisms displayed by S. aureus clinical isolates. This study reports the therapeutic activity of high-dose daptomycin compared to standard regimens of oxacillin and vancomycin in a difficult-to-treat, rat tissue cage model of experimental therapy of chronic S. aureus foreign body infection. METHODS: The

Heinz J Schaad; Manuela Bento; Daniel P Lew; Pierre Vaudaux

2006-01-01

242

Developing, Maintaining, and Using a Body of Knowledge for the Massage Therapy Profession  

PubMed Central

Background: The diverse field of massage therapy has lacked a formal body of knowledge to serve as a practice and educational foundation and to guide future development. This deficit has hampered the growth of the profession and its acceptance and recognition by the medical and allied health care community. Purpose: To provide massage therapists, bodyworkers, physicians, educators, and associated allied health care professionals in the United States with a description of the purpose and development of the massage therapy body of knowledge (MTBOK) and recommendations for its future development and utilization. Methods: Professional groups in the massage therapy community came together and established a task force to develop a body of knowledge for the profession. Five groups became the stewards for this effort. A nationwide search produced a task force of eight volunteers from diverse areas of the profession charged with the responsibility of researching and developing the MTBOK document. Review of documents, curricula, state laws and regulations, certification exam content, interviews, and public comment resulted in the development of the MTBOK. During development multiple opportunities for comment and discussion by stakeholders (public) were provided in an effort to create a professional consensus. Results: The resulting MTBOK document establishes professional descriptions of the field; scope of practice; knowledge, skills, and abilities for entry-level massage therapists; and definitions for terminology to insure standardization, in order to provide a foundation for future discussion and growth. Conclusions: The MTBOK fulfills the goal for which it was developed, to serve as a foundation for the growth and development of the massage therapy profession as a whole. A living document, it should continue to evolve and grow with the profession. Maintenance and continued stewardship of this document by the massage therapy community is vital for continued professional progress.

Sefton, JoEllen M.; Shea, Michael; Hines, Chip

2011-01-01

243

The relative importance of whole body vibration and occupational lifting as risk factors for low-back pain  

PubMed Central

Aims: To explore the impact of occupational exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) on low back pain (LBP) in the general population and to estimate the burden of LBP attributable to occupational WBV in comparison with that due to occupational lifting. Methods: A questionnaire including sections on WBV at work, LBP, and potential risk factors was mailed to a community sample of 22 194 men and women of working age. Sources and durations of exposure to occupational WBV were ascertained for the past week and personal vibration doses (eVDV) were estimated. Analysis was confined to subjects reporting exposures in the past week as typical of their work. Associations of LBP with eVDV, driving industrial vehicles, and occupational lifting were explored by logistic regression and attributable numbers were calculated. Results: Significant associations were found between daily lifting of weights greater than 10 kg at work and LBP, troublesome LBP (which made it difficult to put on hosiery), and sciatica (prevalence ratios 1.3 to 1.7); but the risk of these outcomes in both sexes varied little by eVDV and only weak associations were found with riding on industrial vehicles. Assuming causal associations, the numbers of cases of LBP in Britain attributable to occupational WBV were estimated to be 444 000 in men and 95 000 in women. This compared with an estimated 940 000 male cases and 370 000 female cases of LBP from occupational lifting. Conclusions: The burden of LBP in Britain from occupational exposure to WBV is smaller than that attributable to lifting at work.

Palmer, K; Griffin, M; Syddall, H; Pannett, B; Cooper, C; Coggon, D

2003-01-01

244

An Updated Review of Epidemiologic Studies on the Relationship Between Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration and Low Back Pain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to update the information on the epidemiologic evidence of the adverse health effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on the spinal system by means of a review of the epidemiologic studies published between 1986 and 1996. In a systematic search of epidemiologic studies of low back pain (LBP) disorders and occupations with exposure to WBV, 37 articles were retrieved. The quality of each study was evaluated according to criteria concerning the assessment of vibration exposure, assessment of health effects, and methodology. The epidemiologic studies reaching an adequate score on each of the above mentioned criteria, were included in the final review. A meta-analysis was also conducted in order to combine the results of independent epidemiologic studies. After applying the selection criteria, 16 articles reporting the occurrence of LBP disorders in 19 WBV-exposed occupational groups, reached a sufficient score. The study design was cross-sectional for 13 occupational groups, longitudinal for 5 groups and of case-control type for one group. The main reasons for the exclusion of studies were insufficient quantitative information on WBV exposure and the lack of control groups. The findings of the selected studies and the results of the meta-analysis of both cross-sectional and cohort studies showed that occupational exposure to WBV is associated with an increased risk of LBP, sciatic pain, and degenerative changes in the spinal system, including lumbar intervertebral disc disorders. Owing to the cross-sectional design of the majority of the reviewed studies, this epidemiologic evidence is not sufficient to outline a clear exposure-response relationship between WBV exposure and LBP disorders. Upon comparing the epidemiological studies included in this review with those conducted before 1986, it is concluded that research design and the quality of exposure and health effect data in the field of WBV have improved in the last decade.

Bovenzi, M.; Hulshof, C. T. J.

1998-08-01

245

Effect of whole-body vibration in combined axes and with noise on subjective evaluation of ride quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects on ratings of ride quality of discomfort produced by complex vibration and noise stimuli were investigated. The initial study examined effects of simultaneous vibration in the vertical and lateral axes in a simulated passenger aircraft. The second study examined the effects of simultaneously presented vertical vibration and noise stimuli. In both studies the components of complex stimuli were

RAYMOND H. KIRBY; GLYNN D. COATES; PETER J. MIKULKA; PETER S. WINNE; THOMAS K. DEMPSEY; JACK D. LEATHERWOOD

1977-01-01

246

Value of post-therapy whole-body I-131 imaging in the evaluation of patients with thyroid carcinoma having undergone high-dose I-131 therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-therapy whole-body I-131 images were compared to 5 mCi pretherapy diagnostic studies in 39 cases of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma treated with I-131 to evaluate the utility of this procedure for the detection of residual thyroid tissue and functioning metastases. The post-therapy studies were performed immediately before hospital discharge, when the patient's whole-body retained dose had just fallen below 30 mCi.

WILLIAM G. SPIES; CONSTANCE H. WOJTOWICZ; STEWART M. SPIES; ALKA Y. SHAH; A MICHAEL ZIMMER

1989-01-01

247

Weight Bearing through Lower Limbs in a Standing Frame with and without Arm Support and Low-Magnitude Whole Body Vibration in Men and Women with Complete Motor Paraplegia  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the proportion of body weight (BW) borne through the lower limbs in persons with complete, motor paraplegia using a standing frame, with and without support of their arms. We also examined the effect of low-magnitude whole body vibration on loads borne by the lower extremities. Design Vertical ground reaction forces (GRF) were measured in 11 participants (6 men and 5 women) with paraplegia of traumatic origin (injury level T3 to T12) standing on a low-magnitude vibrating plate using a standing frame. GRF were measured in four conditions: 1) no vibration with arms on standing frame tray; 2) no vibration with arms at side; 3) vibration with arms on tray; 4) vibration with arms at side. Results GRF with arms on tray, without vibration, was 0.76 ± 0.07 BW. With arms at the side, GRF increased to 0.85 ± 0.12 BW. With vibration, mean GRF did not significantly differ from no-vibration conditions for either arm positions. Oscillation of GRF with vibration was significantly different from no-vibration conditions (p<0.001) but similar in both arm positions. Conclusion Men and women with paraplegia using a standing frame bear the majority of their weight through their lower limbs. Supporting their arms on the tray reduces the GRF by ~10% BW. Low-magnitude vibration provided additional oscillation of the load-bearing forces and was proportionally similar regardless of arm position.

Bernhardt, Kathie A.; Beck, Lisa A.; Lamb, Jeffry L.; Kaufman, Kenton R.; Amin, Shreyasee; Wuermser, Lisa-Ann

2014-01-01

248

Therapy monitoring of skeletal metastases with whole-body diffusion MRI.  

PubMed

Current methods of assessing tumor response at skeletal sites with metastatic disease use a combination of imaging tests, serum and urine biochemical markers, and symptoms assessment. These methods do not always enable the positive assessment of therapeutic benefit to be made but instead provide an evaluation of progression, which then guides therapy decisions in the clinic. Functional imaging techniques such as whole-body diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) when combined with anatomic imaging and other emerging "wet" biomarkers can improve the classification of therapy response in patients with metastatic bone disease. A range of imaging findings can be seen in the clinic depending on the type of therapy and duration of treatment. Successful response to systemic therapy is usually depicted by reductions in signal intensity accompanied by apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) increases. Rarer patterns of successful treatment include no changes in signal intensity accompanying increases in ADC values (T2 shine-through pattern) or reductions in signal intensity without ADC value changes. Progressive disease results in increases in extent/intensity of disease on high b-value images with variable ADC changes. Diffusion MRI therapy response criteria need to be developed and tested in prospective studies in order to address current, unmet clinical and pharmaceutical needs for reliable measures of tumor response in metastatic bone disease. PMID:24510426

Padhani, Anwar R; Makris, Andreas; Gall, Peter; Collins, David J; Tunariu, Nina; de Bono, Johann S

2014-05-01

249

Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Patients With Lung Cancer Previously Treated With Thoracic Radiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) provides excellent local control with acceptable toxicity for patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. However, the efficacy and safety of SBRT for patients previously given thoracic radiation therapy is not known. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed outcomes after SBRT for recurrent disease among patients previously given radiation therapy to the chest. Materials and Methods: A search of medical records for patients treated with SBRT to the thorax after prior fractionated radiation therapy to the chest at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center revealed 36 such cases. The median follow-up time after SBRT was 15 months. The endpoints analyzed were overall survival, local control, and the incidence and severity of treatment-related toxicity. Results: SBRT provided in-field local control for 92% of patients; at 2 years, the actuarial overall survival rate was 59%, and the actuarial progression-free survival rate was 26%, with the primary site of failure being intrathoracic relapse. Fifty percent of patients experienced worsening of dyspnea after SBRT, with 19% requiring oxygen supplementation; 30% of patients experienced chest wall pain and 8% Grade 3 esophagitis. No Grade 4 or 5 toxic effects were noted. Conclusions: SBRT can provide excellent in-field tumor control in patients who have received prior radiation therapy. Toxicity was significant but manageable. The high rate of intrathoracic failure indicates the need for further study to identify patients who would derive the most benefit from SBRT for this purpose.

Kelly, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Balter, Peter A. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Rebueno, Neal; Sharp, Hadley J.; Liao Zhongxing; Komaki, Ritsuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Chang, Joe Y., E-mail: jychang@mdanderson.or [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2010-12-01

250

The effect of whole-body vibration training and conventional strength training on performance measures in female athletes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of regular whole-body vibration (WBV) training on lower body strength and power. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III softball athletes (n = 9) completed the 9-week protocol as part of their off-season strength and conditioning program. The athletes were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. Week 1, pretesting included 3 repetition maximum (3RM) back squat, standing long jump (SLJ), and vertical countermovement jump (VCMJ). Phase I training (weeks 2-4) consisted of either WBV training (group 1) or conventional strength training (CST, group 2). The primary programmatic difference between WBV and CST was the inclusion of WBV sets after squat sets. Posttesting (3RM squat, SLJ, VCMJ) occurred at week 5. Phase II training (weeks 6-8) consisted of either WBV training (group 2) or CST (group 1). Posttesting was repeated at week 9 after the completion of phase II. Three 2 × 2 mixed factorial analyses of variance were computed. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between groups or between groups and testing period for the SLJ, VCMJ, and estimated 1RM back squat. Increases (p < 0.05) were observed in SLJ, VCMJ, and back squat from pretest to posttest 1. Back squat increased (p < 0.05) from posttest 1 to posttest 2. All the athletes experienced significantly greater (p < 0.05) percent changes from pretest to posttest 1 for SLJ and VCMJ. These results indicate that the inclusion of WBV as part of an off-season strength and conditioning program has no apparent benefit over CST methods for collegiate softball players. PMID:21792072

Jones, Margaret T; Parker, Barry M; Cortes, Nelson

2011-09-01

251

Effect of whole body vibration training on lower limb performance in selected high-level ballet students.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of 8 weeks of whole body vibration (WBV) training on vertical jump ability (CMJ) and knee-extensor performance at selected external loads (50, 70, and 100 kg; leg-press exercise) in elite ballerinas. Twenty-two (age, 21.25 +/- 1.5 years) full-time ballerinas were assigned randomly to the experimental (E, n = 11) and control (C, n = 11) groups. The experimental group was submitted to WBV training 3 times per week before ballet practice. During the training period, the E and C groups undertook the same amount of ballet practice. Posttraining CMJ performance significantly increased in E group (6.3 +/- 3.8%, p < 0.001). Furthermore, E group showed significant (p < 0.05-0.001) posttraining average leg-press power and velocity improvements at all the external loads considered. Consequently, the force-velocity and power-velocity relationship shifted to the right after WBV training in the E group. The results of the present study show that WBV training is an effective short-term training methodology for inducing improvements in knee-extensor explosiveness in elite ballerinas. PMID:18076222

Annino, Giuseppe; Padua, Elvira; Castagna, Carlo; Di Salvo, Valter; Minichella, Stefano; Tsarpela, Olga; Manzi, Vincenzo; D'Ottavio, Stefano

2007-11-01

252

The Effects of Mind-Body Therapies on the Immune System: Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Importance Psychological and health-restorative benefits of mind-body therapies have been investigated, but their impact on the immune system remain less defined. Objective To conduct the first comprehensive review of available controlled trial evidence to evaluate the effects of mind-body therapies on the immune system, focusing on markers of inflammation and anti-viral related immune responses. Methods Data sources included MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and PsycINFO through September 1, 2013. Randomized controlled trials published in English evaluating at least four weeks of Tai Chi, Qi Gong, meditation, or Yoga that reported immune outcome measures were selected. Studies were synthesized separately by inflammatory (n?=?18), anti-viral related immunity (n?=?7), and enumerative (n?=?14) outcomes measures. We performed random-effects meta-analyses using standardized mean difference when appropriate. Results Thirty-four studies published in 39 articles (total 2, 219 participants) met inclusion criteria. For inflammatory measures, after 7 to 16 weeks of mind-body intervention, there was a moderate effect on reduction of C-reactive protein (effect size [ES], 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04 to 1.12), a small but not statistically significant reduction of interleukin-6 (ES, 0.35; 95% CI, ?0.04 to 0.75), and negligible effect on tumor necrosis factor-? (ES, 0.21; 95% CI, ?0.15 to 0.58). For anti-viral related immune and enumerative measures, there were negligible effects on CD4 counts (ES, 0.15; 95% CI, ?0.04 to 0.34) and natural killer cell counts (ES, 0.12, 95% CI ?0.21 to 0.45). Some evidence indicated mind-body therapies increase immune responses to vaccination. Conclusions Mind-body therapies reduce markers of inflammation and influence virus-specific immune responses to vaccination despite minimal evidence suggesting effects on resting anti-viral or enumerative measures. These immunomodulatory effects, albeit incomplete, warrant further methodologically rigorous studies to determine the clinical implications of these findings for inflammatory and infectious disease outcomes.

Morgan, Nani; Irwin, Michael R.; Chung, Mei; Wang, Chenchen

2014-01-01

253

Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiation Therapy for Octogenarians With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To retrospectively investigate treatment outcomes of stereotactic ablative body radiation therapy (SABR) for octogenarians with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Between 2005 and 2012, 109 patients aged ?80 years with T1-2N0M0 NSCLC were treated with SABR: 47 patients had histology-unproven lung cancer; 62 patients had pathologically proven NSCLC. The prescribed doses were either 50 Gy/5 fractions for peripheral tumors or 40 Gy/5 fractions for centrally located tumors. The treatment outcomes, toxicities, and the correlating factors for overall survival (OS) were evaluated. Results: The median follow-up duration after SABR was 24.2 (range, 3.0-64.6) months. Only limited toxicities were observed, except for 1 grade 5 radiation pneumonitis. The 3-year local, regional, and distant metastasis-free survival rates were 82.3%, 90.1%, and 76.8%, respectively. The OS and lung cancer-specific survival rates were 53.7% and 70.8%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that medically inoperable, low body mass index, high T stage, and high C-reactive protein were the predictors for short OS. The OS for the operable octogenarians was significantly better than that for inoperable (P<.01). Conclusions: Stereotactic ablative body radiation therapy for octogenarians was feasible, with excellent OS. Multivariate analysis revealed that operability was one of the predictors for OS. For medically operable octogenarians with early-stage NSCLC, SABR should be prospectively compared with resection.

Takeda, Atsuya; Sanuki, Naoko; Eriguchi, Takahisa [Radiation Oncology Center, Ofuna Chuo Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan)] [Radiation Oncology Center, Ofuna Chuo Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan); Kaneko, Takeshi [Respiratory Disease Center, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Kanagawa (Japan) [Respiratory Disease Center, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Kanagawa (Japan); Department of Respirology, Ofuna Chuo Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan); Morita, Satoshi [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama City University, Kanagawa (Japan)] [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama City University, Kanagawa (Japan); Handa, Hiroshi [Respiratory Disease Center, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Kanagawa (Japan) [Respiratory Disease Center, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Kanagawa (Japan); Division of Respiratory and Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan); Aoki, Yousuke; Oku, Yohei [Radiation Oncology Center, Ofuna Chuo Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan)] [Radiation Oncology Center, Ofuna Chuo Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan); Kunieda, Etsuo, E-mail: kunieda-mi@umin.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokai University, Kanagawa (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokai University, Kanagawa (Japan)

2013-06-01

254

Effect of whole-body vibration in combined axes and with noise on subjective evaluation of ride quality.  

PubMed

The effects on ratings of ride quality of discomfort produced by complex vibration and noise stimuli were investigated. The initial study examined effects of simultaneous vibration in the vertical and lateral axes in a simulated passenger aircraft. The second study examined the effects of simultaneously presented vertical vibration and noise stimuli. In both studies the components of complex stimuli were found to combine their effects at low levels of stimulation but to act separately at higher levels. PMID:871104

Kirby, R H; Coates, G D; Mikulka, P J; Winne, P S; Dempsey, T K; Leatherwood, J D

1977-03-01

255

Vertical and dual-axis vibration of the seated human body: Nonlinearity, cross-axis coupling, and associations between resonances in transmissibility and apparent mass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vertical apparent mass of the human body exhibits nonlinearity, with the principal resonance frequency reducing as the vibration magnitude increases. Measures of the transmission of vibration to the spine and the pelvis have suggested complex modes are responsible for the dominant resonance during vertical excitation, but the modes present with dual-axis excitation have not been investigated. This study was designed to examine how the apparent mass and transmissibility of the human body depend on the magnitude of vertical excitation and the addition of fore-and-aft excitation, and the relation between the apparent mass and the transmissibility of the body. The movement of the body (over the first, fifth and twelfth thoracic vertebrae, the third lumbar vertebra, and the pelvis) in the fore-and-aft and vertical directions (and in pitch at the pelvis) was measured in 12 male subjects sitting with their hands on their laps during random vertical vibration excitation (over the range 0.25-20 Hz) at three vibration magnitudes (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 m s-2 rms). At the highest magnitude of vertical excitation (1.0 m s-2 rms) the effect of adding fore-aft vibration (at 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 m s-2 rms) was investigated. The forces in the vertical and fore-and-aft directions on the seat surface were also measured so as to calculate apparent masses. Resonances in the apparent mass and transmissibility to the spine and pelvis in the fore-and-aft and vertical directions, and pitch transmissibility to the pelvis, shifted to lower frequencies as the magnitude of vertical excitation increased and as the magnitude of the additional fore-and-aft excitation increased. The nonlinear resonant behaviour of the apparent mass and transmissibility during dual-axis vibration excitation suggests coupling between the principal mode associated with vertical excitation and the cross-axis influence of fore-and-aft excitation. The transmissibility measures are consistent with complex modes contributing to motion of the body at the principal resonance: pitch motions of the upper thoracic and lumbar spine, and vertical and fore-aft motion of the pelvis and spine. The mode varies with the magnitude of vertical and fore-and-aft excitation.

Zheng, Guangtai; Qiu, Yi; Griffin, Michael J.

2012-12-01

256

Rationale for stereotactic body radiation therapy in treating patients with oligometastatic hormone-naïve prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Despite advances in treatment for metastatic prostate cancer, patients eventually progress to castrate-resistant disease and ultimately succumb to their cancer. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the standard treatment for metastatic prostate cancer and has been shown to improve median time to progression and median survival time. Research suggests that castrate-resistant clones may be present early in the disease process prior to the initiation of ADT. These clones are not susceptible to ADT and may even flourish when androgen-responsive clones are depleted. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a safe and efficacious method of treating clinically localized prostate cancer and metastases. In patients with a limited number of metastatic sites, SBRT may have a role in eliminating castrate-resistant clones and possibly delaying progression to castrate-resistant disease. PMID:24350058

Bhattasali, Onita; Chen, Leonard N; Tong, Michael; Lei, Siyuan; Collins, Brian T; Krishnan, Pranay; Kalhorn, Christopher; Lynch, John H; Suy, Simeng; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Dawson, Nancy A; Collins, Sean P

2013-01-01

257

Vibrational modes and diffusion of self-interstitial atoms in body-centered-cubic transition metals: A tight-binding molecular-dynamics study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a tight-binding molecular-dynamics method, we have calculated the formation energies, diffusivity, and localized vibrational frequencies of self-interstitial atoms (SIA's) in body-centered-cubic (bcc) transition metals: vanadium, niobium, molybdenum, and tantalum. As a test of our methods, we compare to experiment for the perfect bcc phonon spectra and we compare to previous ab initio SIA formation energies. In addition, we present

Daniel Finkenstadt; N. Bernstein; J. L. Feldman; M. J. Mehl; D. A. Papaconstantopoulos

2006-01-01

258

Dose estimation for internal organs during boron neutron capture therapy for body-trunk tumors.  

PubMed

Radiation doses during boron neutron capture therapy for body-trunk tumors were estimated for various internal organs, using data from patients treated at Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute. Dose-volume histograms were constructed for tissues of the lung, liver, kidney, pancreas, and bowel. For pleural mesothelioma, the target total dose to the normal lung tissues on the diseased side is 5Gy-Eq in average for the whole lung. It was confirmed that the dose to the liver should be carefully considered in cases of right lung disease. PMID:24679832

Sakurai, Y; Tanaka, H; Suzuki, M; Masunaga, S; Kinashi, Y; Kondo, N; Ono, K; Maruhashi, A

2014-06-01

259

A Pilot Study of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a Workshop Intervention for Body Dissatisfaction and Disordered Eating Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body image dissatisfaction is a source of significant distress among non-eating-disordered women, but because it is subclinical it is generally not treated. It remains stable throughout adulthood, and has proven resistant to many prevention interventions. This study presents a pilot test of a practical alternative: a 1-day Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) workshop targeting body dissatisfaction and disordered eating attitudes.

Adria N. Pearson; Victoria M. Follette; Steven C. Hayes

260

Relationship between Chronic Transfusion Therapy and Body Composition in Subjects with Thalassemia  

PubMed Central

Objective To measure body composition in patients with thalassemia and explore its relationship to abnormal growth and bone mass. Study design Cross-sectional, multi-center study. Fat, lean, and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed by DXA. Medical history, food frequency and physical activity questionnaires were conducted in 257 transfused thalassemia patients (23.7 ± 11 yr, Mean±SD, 51% male) compared with 113 non-transfused patients (21.3 ± 13 yr, 44% male). Results Subjects with thalassemia were leaner compared with healthy Americans from NHANES III data. Transfused subjects had higher percentage body fat compared with non- transfused after controlling for age, sex and ethnicity; 11.8% of non-transfused pediatric subjects were considered underweight, significantly lower than NHANES data (p=0.03). Hemoglobin level was positively related to lean mass (p=0.008). Body fat and lean mass were positive predictors for both height and BMD Z-scores after adjustment for transfusion status, age, sex, ethnicity, calcium intake and physical activity (all p<0.001). Conclusions Though the majority of adult patients with thalassemia had healthy body composition with rare obesity, young, non-transfused patients appear at risk for being underweight. Optimizing physical activity and appropriate use of transfusion therapy may improve growth and bone health in these at risk patients.

Fung, Ellen B.; Xu, Yan; Kwiatkowski, Janet; Vogiatzi, Maria G; Neufeld, Ellis; Olivieri, Nancy; Vichinsky, Elliott P.; Giardina, Patricia J

2010-01-01

261

4? Noncoplanar Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Centrally Located or Larger Lung Tumors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric improvements in stereotactic body radiation therapy for patients with larger or central lung tumors using a highly noncoplanar 4? planning system. Methods and Materials: This study involved 12 patients with centrally located or larger lung tumors previously treated with 7- to 9-field static beam intensity modulated radiation therapy to 50 Gy. They were replanned using volumetric modulated arc therapy and 4? plans, in which a column generation method was used to optimize the beam orientation and the fluence map. Maximum doses to the heart, esophagus, trachea/bronchus, and spinal cord, as well as the 50% isodose volume, the lung volumes receiving 20, 10, and 5 Gy were minimized and compared against the clinical plans. A dose escalation study was performed to determine whether a higher prescription dose to the tumor would be achievable using 4? without violating dose limits set by the clinical plans. The deliverability of 4? plans was preliminarily tested. Results: Using 4? plans, the maximum heart, esophagus, trachea, bronchus and spinal cord doses were reduced by 32%, 72%, 37%, 44%, and 53% (P?.001), respectively, and R{sub 50} was reduced by more than 50%. Lung V{sub 20}, V{sub 10}, and V{sub 5} were reduced by 64%, 53%, and 32% (P?.001), respectively. The improved sparing of organs at risk was achieved while also improving planning target volume (PTV) coverage. The minimal PTV doses were increased by the 4? plans by 12% (P=.002). Consequently, escalated PTV doses of 68 to 70 Gy were achieved in all patients. Conclusions: We have shown that there is a large potential for plan quality improvement and dose escalation for patients with larger or centrally located lung tumors using noncoplanar beams with sufficient quality and quantity. Compared against the clinical volumetric modulated arc therapy and static intensity modulated radiation therapy plans, the 4? plans yielded significantly and consistently improved tumor coverage and critical organ sparing. Given the known challenges in central structure dose constraints in stereotactic body radiation therapy to the lung, 4? planning may increase efficacy and reduce toxicity.

Dong, Peng; Lee, Percy; Ruan, Dan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Long, Troy; Romeijn, Edwin [Department of Industrial and Operations Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Industrial and Operations Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Low, Daniel A.; Kupelian, Patrick; Abraham, John; Yang, Yingli [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Sheng, Ke, E-mail: ksheng@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)

2013-07-01

262

Effect of 6 months of whole body vibration on lumbar spine bone density in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The issue of osteoporosis-induced fractures has attracted the world’s attention. Postmenopausal women are particularly at risk for this type of fracture. The nonmedicinal intervention for postmenopausal women is mainly exercise. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a simple and convenient exercise. There have been some studies investigating the effect of WBV on osteoporosis; however, the intervention models and results are different. This study mainly investigated the effect of high-frequency and high-magnitude WBV on the bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine in postmenopausal women. Methods This study randomized 28 postmenopausal women into either the WBV group or the control group for a 6-month trial. The WBV group received an intervention of high-frequency (30 Hz) and high-magnitude (3.2 g) WBV in a natural full-standing posture for 5 minutes, three times per week, at a sports center. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure the lumbar BMD of the two groups before and after the intervention. Results Six months later, the BMD of the WBV group had significantly increased by 2.032% (P=0.047), while that of the control group had decreased by 0.046% (P=0.188). The comparison between the two groups showed that the BMD of the WBV group had increased significantly (P=0.016). Conclusion This study found that 6 months of high-frequency and high-magnitude WBV yielded significant benefits to the BMD of the lumbar spine in postmenopausal women, and could therefore be provided as an alternative exercise.

Lai, Chung-Liang; Tseng, Shiuan-Yu; Chen, Chung-Nan; Liao, Wan-Chun; Wang, Chun-Hou; Lee, Meng-Chih; Hsu, Pi-Shan

2013-01-01

263

Effect of whole-body vibration for 3 months on arterial stiffness in the middle-aged and elderly  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a common problem of middle-aged and older adults. Increased arterial stiffness is a CVD risk factor. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a simple and convenient exercise for middle-aged and older adults; however, there have been few studies investigating the effect of WBV on arterial stiffness. This study mainly investigated the effect of WBV on arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults. Methods A total of 38 (21 women and 17 men) middle-aged and elderly subjects (average age, 61.9 years) were randomly divided into the WBV group and the control group for a 3-month trial. The WBV group received an intervention of 30 Hz and 3.2 g WBV in a natural full standing posture at a sports center. The brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a marker of systemic arterial stiffness, and blood pressure and heart rate were measured before and after the intervention. Results After 3 months, there were no significant changes in blood pressure or heart rate in both groups. However, the bilateral baPWV was significantly reduced in the WBV group (decreased by 0.65 m/second [P=0.014]; 0.63 m/second [P=0.041] in either side), but not in the control group. The comparison between the two groups was not statistically significant. Conclusion This study found that 3 months of WBV had a positive effect on arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults and could therefore be regarded as a supplementary exercise. Larger-scale studies are needed to confirm the effects of WBV in the future.

Lai, Chung-Liang; Chen, Han-Yu; Tseng, Shiuan-Yu; Liao, Wan-Chun; Liu, Bing-Tang; Lee, Meng-Chih; Chen, Hsin-Shui

2014-01-01

264

Contributions of ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and the electrooculogram to periocular potentials produced by whole-body vibration.  

PubMed

In this paper we report the results of an experiment to investigate the emergence of ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (OVEMPs) during the linear vestibular ocular reflex (LVOR) evoked by whole-body vibration (WBV). OVEMP and electrooculogram (EOG) montages were employed to record periocular potentials (POPs) from six subjects during WBV in the nasooccipital (NO) axis over a range of frequencies from 0.5 to 64 Hz with approximately constant peak head acceleration of 1.0 ms(-2) (i.e., 0.1 g). Measurements were made in two context conditions: a fixation context to examine the effect of gaze eccentricity (0 vs. 20°), and a visual context, where a target was either head-fixed or earth-fixed. The principal results are that from 0.5 to 2 Hz POP magnitude in the earth-fixed condition is related to head displacement, so with constant acceleration at all frequencies it reduces with increasing frequency, but at frequencies greater than 2 Hz both POP magnitude and POP gain, defined as the ratio of POP magnitude at 20 and 0°, increase with increasing frequency. By exhibiting this high-pass characteristic, a property shared with the LVOR, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that the OVEMP, as commonly employed in the clinical setting, is a high-frequency manifestation of the LVOR. However, we also observed low-frequency acceleration following POPs in head-fixed conditions, consistent with a low-frequency OVEMP, and found evidence of a high-frequency visual context effect, which is also consistent with the OVEMP being a manifestation of the LVOR. PMID:22984251

Todd, Neil P M; Bell, Steven L; Paillard, Aurore C; Griffin, Michael J

2012-11-01

265

Contributions of ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and the electrooculogram to periocular potentials produced by whole-body vibration  

PubMed Central

In this paper we report the results of an experiment to investigate the emergence of ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (OVEMPs) during the linear vestibular ocular reflex (LVOR) evoked by whole-body vibration (WBV). OVEMP and electrooculogram (EOG) montages were employed to record periocular potentials (POPs) from six subjects during WBV in the nasooccipital (NO) axis over a range of frequencies from 0.5 to 64 Hz with approximately constant peak head acceleration of 1.0 ms?2 (i.e., 0.1 g). Measurements were made in two context conditions: a fixation context to examine the effect of gaze eccentricity (0 vs. 20°), and a visual context, where a target was either head-fixed or earth-fixed. The principal results are that from 0.5 to 2 Hz POP magnitude in the earth-fixed condition is related to head displacement, so with constant acceleration at all frequencies it reduces with increasing frequency, but at frequencies greater than 2 Hz both POP magnitude and POP gain, defined as the ratio of POP magnitude at 20 and 0°, increase with increasing frequency. By exhibiting this high-pass characteristic, a property shared with the LVOR, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that the OVEMP, as commonly employed in the clinical setting, is a high-frequency manifestation of the LVOR. However, we also observed low-frequency acceleration following POPs in head-fixed conditions, consistent with a low-frequency OVEMP, and found evidence of a high-frequency visual context effect, which is also consistent with the OVEMP being a manifestation of the LVOR.

Bell, Steven L.; Paillard, Aurore C.; Griffin, Michael J.

2012-01-01

266

Effect of Fractionation in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Using the Linear Quadratic Model  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To examine the fractionation effect of stereotactic body radiation therapy with a heterogeneous dose distribution. Methods: Derived from the linear quadratic formula with measurements from a hypothetical 2-cm radiosurgical tumor, the threshold percentage was defined as (?/?{sub tissue}/?/?{sub tumor}), the balance ?/? ratio was defined as (prescription dose/tissue tolerance*?/?{sub tumor}), and the balance dose was defined as (tissue tolerance/threshold percentage). Results: With increasing fractions and equivalent peripheral dose to the target, the biological equivalent dose of “hot spots” in a target decreases. The relative biological equivalent doses of serial organs decrease only when the relative percentage of its dose to the prescription dose is above the threshold percentage. The volume of parallel organs at risk decreases only when the tumor's ?/? ratio is above the balance ?/? ratio and the prescription dose is lower than balance dose. Conclusions: The potential benefits of fractionation in stereotactic body radiation therapy depend on the complex interplay between the total dose, ?/? ratios, and dose differences between the target and the surrounding normal tissues.

Yang, Jun, E-mail: JunBME@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Philadelphia Cyberknife, Havertown, Pennsylvania (United States); Lamond, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Philadelphia Cyberknife, Havertown, Pennsylvania (United States); Fowler, Jack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Lanciano, Rachelle [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Philadelphia Cyberknife, Havertown, Pennsylvania (United States); Feng, Jing [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Brady, Luther [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Philadelphia Cyberknife, Havertown, Pennsylvania (United States)

2013-05-01

267

DOSE-RESPONSE Relationships Between Whole-Body Vibration and Lumbar Disk DISEASE—A Field Study on 388 Drivers of Different Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a longitudinal study, the dose-response relationships between long term occupational exposure to whole-body vibration and degenerative processes in the lumbar spine caused by the lumbar disks were examined. From 1990 to 1992, 388 vibration-exposed workers from different driving jobs were examined medically and by lumbar X-ray. For each individual, a history of all exposure conditions was recorded, and a cumulative vibration dose was calculated allowing comparisons between groups of low, middle, and high intensity of exposure. 310 subjects were selected for a follow-up four years later, of whom 90·6% (n=281) agreed to participate. In comparing the exposure groups, the results indicate that the limit value ofazw(8h)=0·8 m/s2should be reviewed. The best fit between the lifelong vibration dose and the occurrence of a lumbar syndrome was obtained by applying a daily reference ofazw(8h)=0·6 ms2as a limit value. The results became more distinct still when only those subjects were included in the statistical analysis who had had no lumbar symptoms up to the end of the first year of exposure. The prevalence of lumbar syndrome is 1·55 times higher in the highly exposed group when compared to the reference group with low exposure (CI95%=1·24/1·95). Calculating the cumulative incidence of new cases of lumbar syndrome in the follow-up period yields a relative risk ofRRMH=1·37 (CI95%=0·86/2·17) for the highly exposed group. It is concluded that the limit value for the calculation of an individual lifelong vibration dose should be based on a daily reference exposure ofazw(8h)=0·6 m/s2. With increasing dose it is more and more probable that cases of lumbar syndrome are caused by exposure to vibration.

Schwarze, S.; Notbohm, G.; Dupuis, H.; Hartung, E.

1998-08-01

268

Frame-Based Immobilization and Targeting for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Frame-based stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), such as that conducted with Elekta's Stereotactic Body Frame, can provide an extra measure of precision in the delivery of radiation to extracranial targets, and facilitates secure patient immobilization. In this paper, we review the steps involved in optimal use of an extra-cranial immobilization device for SBRT treatments. Our approach to using frame-based SBRT consists of 4 steps: patient immobilization, tumor and organ motion control, treatment/planning correlation, and daily targeting with pretreatment quality assurance. Patient immobilization was achieved with the Vac-Loc bag, which uses styrofoam beads to conform to the patient's shape comfortably within the body frame. Organ and motion control was assessed under fluoroscopy and controlled via a frame-mounted abdominal pressure plate. The compression screw was tightened until the diaphragmatic excursion range was < 1 cm. Treatment planning was performed using the Philips Pinnacle 6.2b system. In this treatment process, a 20 to 30 noncoplanar beam arrangement was initially selected and an inverse beam weight optimization algorithm was applied. Those beams with low beam weights were removed, leaving a manageable number of beams for treatment delivery. After planning, daily targeting using computed tomography (CT) to verify x-, y-, and z-coordinates of the treatment isocenter were used as a measure of quality assurance. We found our daily setup variation typically averaged < 5 mm in all directions, which is comparable to other published studies on Stereotactic Body Frame. Treatment time ranged from 30 to 45 minutes. Results demonstrate that patients have experienced high rates of local control with acceptable rates of severe side effects-by virtue of the tightly constrained treatment fields. The body frame facilitated comfortable patient positioning and quality assurance checks of the tumor, in relation to another set of independent set of coordinates defined by the body frame fiducials. The ability to impose abdominal compression proved to be a simple way to reduce target and tissue motion. SBRT with Stereotactic Body Frame enables comfortable patient immobilization and facilitates repeated registering and re-registering of the patient to the frame. With the body frame, large-dose-per fraction treatment is possible for localized tumor deposits with the aim of attaining a more therapeutic result.

Murray, Bryan C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)]. E-mail: bryan.murray@utsouthwestern.edu; Forster, Kenneth [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Timmerman, Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

2007-07-01

269

Numerical Simulation of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Therapy with Volume Model of Human Body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of the HIFU therapy for the deeply placed cancer has been desired. On problem is the displacement of the focal point due to the inhomogeneity of human body. The objectives are to realize the appropriate phase control of an array transducer and to support the preoperative planning of HIFU therapy by the computational prediction of treatment regions. Our approach is to solve the mass and momentum equations for mixture with the equation of state of media. The heat equation with a heat source of a viscous dissipation is solved to estimate the ablation region of tissue. The ablation, i.e., the heat denaturation of protein, is modeled as a phase transition by the phase field model. The HIFU therapy with a bowl-shape array transducer for a liver cancer is simulated. As the result with a phase control, we obtain a clear focus which is closer to a target point than the focus without a phase control, when the ultrasound propagates through lib bones. In addition, the development of the ablation region is reproduced numerically.

Okita, Kohei; Sugiyama, Kazuyasu; Ono, Kenji; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

2010-03-01

270

Changes in auditory evoked brain potentials during ultra-low frequency whole-body vibration of man or of his visual surround.  

PubMed

Auditory evoked brain potentials (AEP) were recorded from nine healthy male subjects during three types of condition: A - subject and visual field stationary; B - subject vibrated (z-axis, 0.6 Hz, 1.85 ms-2 rms), visual field stationary; C - subject stationary, visual field vibrated (as for B). The visual surround was confined to a checkerboard pattern in front of the subject. Auditory stimuli (1000 Hz, 86 dB, interstimulus interval 7 s) were delivered via headphones to evoke AEP. Vibration-synchronous activity in the EEG was eliminated by a subtraction technique. In comparison with condition A, conditions B and C caused an attenuation of P2 and N1P2 components of AEP together with an increased latency of N1. Effects of conditions B and C did not differ. Direct vestibular stimulation and mechanisms specific for whole-body vibration were rejected as modes of action. The AEP-changes and the subjective evaluation of experimental conditions, arousal and performance, as well as symptoms of kinetosis (motion sickness) suggest a sensory mismatch, leading to a "latent kinetosis" with de-arousal, as the dominating mechanism by which the processing of information was affected. This suggestion was supported by an additional pilot study. Under real working conditions a similar effect can be expected during relative motion between the driver and his visual surround, i.e. even with perfect vibro-isolation of the driver's seat. PMID:2079053

Seidel, H; Schuster, U; Menzel, G; Nikolajewitsch Kurerov, N; Richter, J; Schajpak, E J; Blüthner, R; Meister, A; Ullsperger, P

1990-01-01

271

Value of post-therapy whole-body I-131 imaging in the evaluation of patients with thyroid carcinoma having undergone high-dose I-131 therapy  

SciTech Connect

Post-therapy whole-body I-131 images were compared to 5 mCi pretherapy diagnostic studies in 39 cases of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma treated with I-131 to evaluate the utility of this procedure for the detection of residual thyroid tissue and functioning metastases. The post-therapy studies were performed immediately before hospital discharge, when the patient's whole-body retained dose had just fallen below 30 mCi. The mean therapeutic dose given was 121 mCi, and the mean interval between administration of the therapy dose and imaging was 2.4 days. In 18 cases (46.2%), the post-therapy images demonstrated either additional findings, such as unsuspected cervical node or pulmonary uptake, or more accurate localization of abnormalities seen on the diagnostic study. In 6 additional cases (15.4%), questionable new findings were noted. Although the precise implications of these additional findings are uncertain at present, they may have a significant effect on future patient management and follow-up. Therefore, the authors recommend that post-therapy imaging be included in the post-therapy evaluation of these patients. In addition, these findings would also suggest reevaluation of the advisability of using 1-2 mCi doses of I-131 for diagnostic whole-body imaging.

Spies, W.G.; Wojtowicz, C.H.; Spies, S.M.; Shah, A.Y.; Zimmer, A.M. (Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (USA))

1989-11-01

272

Characterization of dose in stereotactic body radiation therapy of lung lesions via Monte Carlo calculation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy is a new form of treatment where hypofractionated (i.e., large dose fractions), conformal doses are delivered to small extracranial target volumes. This technique has proven to be especially effective for treating lung lesions. The inability of most commercially available algorithms/treatment planning systems to accurately account for electron transport in regions of heterogeneous electron density and tissue interfaces make prediction of accurate doses especially challenging for such regions. Monte Carlo which a model based calculation algorithm has proven to be extremely accurate for dose calculation in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous environment. This study attempts to accurately characterize the doses received by static targets located in the lung, as well as critical structures (contra and ipsi -lateral lung, major airways, esophagus and spinal cord) for the serial tomotherapeutic intensity-modulated delivery method used for stereotactic body radiation therapy at the Cancer Therapy and Research Center. PEREGRINERTM (v 1.6. NOMOS) Monte Carlo, doses were compared to the Finite Sized Pencil Beam/Effective Path Length predicted values from the CORVUS 5.0 planning system. The Monte Carlo based treatment planning system was first validated in both homogenous and inhomogeneous environments. 77 stereotactic body radiation therapy lung patients previously treated with doses calculated using the Finite Sized Pencil Beam/Effective Path Length, algorithm were then retrieved and recalculated with Monte Carlo. All 77 patients plans were also recalculated without inhomogeneity correction in an attempt to counteract the known overestimation of dose at the periphery of the target by EPL with increased attenuation. The critical structures were delineated in order to standardize the contouring. Both the ipsi-lateral and contra-lateral lungs were contoured. The major airways were contoured from the apex of the lungs (trachea) to 4 cm below the carina. Both the esophagus and spinal cord were contoured to roughly 1.5 cm above and below the lesion, well outside the treated serial tomotherapy slices. The plans were computed with planning target volume margins of 5 mm in the left, right, anterior and posterior direction and 10 mm in the superior and inferior direction. The spinal cord and esophagus had margins of 2 mm in all directions. The Finite Sized Pencil Beam/Effective Path Length dose calculation, over-predicts dose to target volumes located in lung. The doses to the esophagus, spinal cord and major airways seem to be in good agreement with doses predicted by Monte Carlo. Greater discrepancy is seen in the prediction of maximum doses in the lung. Calculations carried out with no inhomogeneity correction are in better agreement with Monte Carlo in most cases. Monte Carlo dose calculation may prove valuable in accurately assessing the delivered dose in Stereotactic body radiation therapy and may, thus, contribute to a more informed decision on the optimal dose and fractionation scheme.

Rassiah, Premavathy

273

General strategy for the protection of organs at risk in IMRT therapy of a moving body  

SciTech Connect

We investigated protection strategies of organs at risk (OARs) in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). These strategies apply to delivery of IMRT to moving body anatomies that show relative displacement of OAR in close proximity to a tumor target. We formulated an efficient genetic algorithm which makes it possible to search for global minima in a complex landscape of multiple irradiation strategies delivering a given, predetermined intensity map to a target. The optimal strategy was investigated with respect to minimizing the dose delivered to the OAR. The optimization procedure developed relies on variability of all parameters available for control of radiation delivery in modern linear accelerators, including adaptation of leaf trajectories and simultaneous modification of beam dose rate during irradiation. We showed that the optimization algorithms lead to a significant reduction in the dose delivered to OAR in cases where organs at risk move relative to a treatment target.

Abolfath, Ramin M.; Papiez, Lech [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States)

2009-07-15

274

Adult Polyglucosan Body Disease (APBD): Anaplerotic diet therapy (Triheptanoin) and demonstration of defective methylation pathways.  

PubMed

APBD is a rare disorder most often affecting adults of Ashkenazi Jewish origin due to partial deficiency of the glycogen brancher enzyme (GBE). It is characterized by progressive involvement of both the central and peripheral nervous systems and deposition of amylopectin-like polyglucosan bodies. There have been no metabolic derangements that might suggest effective therapy nor have there been any clinical improvements for control of its relentless progression. The APBD patients, in this study, experienced stabilization of disease progression, and limited functional improvement in most patients with dietary triheptanoin. Due to a plateau in clinical improvement, the reduced plasma creatinine and methionine levels prompted evaluation of other plasma methylation intermediates in this complex integrated pathway system: decreased S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) (p<0.002), increased S-adenosylhomocysteine (p<0.001), elevated creatine (p=0.001) and increased free choline (p<0.001). Plasma levels of homocysteine and guanidinoacetate were normal. Impaired metabolism of choline and creatine may relate to the progressive dysmyelination and progressive muscle weakness associated with APBD. The partial deficiency of GBE appears to produce a secondary energy deficit possibly related to inadequate reserves of normal glycogen for efficient degradation to free glucose. Dysfunctional regulation of glycogen synthase (GS) may result in continued synthesis and deposition of polyglucosan bodies. This investigation has demonstrated, for the first time, arrest of clinical deterioration with limited functional recovery with triheptanoin diet therapy and the existence of significant derangement of methylation pathways that, when corrected, may lead to even greater therapeutic benefits. PMID:20655781

Roe, Charles R; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Wallace, Mary; Arning, Erland; Martin, Alan

2010-01-01

275

Feasibility of stereotactic body radiation therapy with volumetric modulated arc therapy and high intensity photon beams for hepatocellular carcinoma patients  

PubMed Central

Background To report technical features, early outcome and toxicity of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) treatments with volumetric modulated arc therapy (RapidArc) for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods Twenty patients (22 lesions) were prospectively enrolled in a feasibility study. Dose prescription was 50Gy in 10 fractions. Seven patients (35%) were classified as AJCC stage I-II while 13 (65%) were stages III-IV. Eighteen patients (90%) were Child-Pugh stage A, the remaining were stage B. All patients were treated with RapidArc technique with flattening filter free (FFF) photon beams of 10MV from a TrueBeam linear accelerator. Technical, dosimetric and early clinical assessment was performed to characterize treatment and its potential outcome. Results Median age was 68 years, median initial tumor volume was 124 cm3 (range: 6–848). Median follow-up time was 7.4 months (range: 3–13). All patients completed treatment without interruption. Mean actuarial overall survival was of 9.6?±?0.9 months (95%C.L. 7.8-11.4), median survival was not reached; complete response was observed in 8/22 (36.4%) lesions; partial response in 7/22 (31.8%), stable disease in 6/22 (27.3%), 1/22 (4.4%) showed progression. Toxicity was mild with only 1 case of grade 3 RILD and all other types were not greater than grade 2. Concerning dosimetric data, Paddick conformity index was 0.98?±?0.02; gradient index was 3.82?±?0.93; V95% to the clinical target volume was 93.6?±?7.7%. Mean dose to kidneys resulted lower than 3.0Gy; mean dose to stomach 4.5?±?3.0Gy; D1cm3 to spinal cord was 8.2?±?4.5Gy; D1% to the esophagus was 10.2?±?9.7Gy. Average beam on time resulted 0.7?±?0.2 minutes (range: 0.4-1.4) with the delivery of an average of 4.4 partial arcs (range: 3–6) of those 86% non-coplanar. Conclusions Clinical results could suggest to introduce VMAT-RapidArc as an appropriate SBRT technique for patients with HCC in view of a prospective dose escalation trial.

2014-01-01

276

Diurnal blood and urine glucose and acetone bodies in labile juvenile diabetics on one — and two-injection insulin therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Diurnal levels of blood and urine glucose and acetone bodies were studied in 13 labile juvenile diabetics to see whether the control of diabetes could be improved by giving insulin twice instead of once daily. Lente insulin was used in most patients for one-injection therapy, and the biphasic Rapitard insulin (Novo) for two-injection therapy. Blood specimens were obtained six times

Hans K. Åkerblom; Hilkka Hiekkala

1970-01-01

277

The tolerance of gastrointestinal organs to stereotactic body radiation therapy: what do we know so far?  

PubMed Central

As stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for gastrointestinal (GI) gains popularity, there is a need to optimize doses and fractionation to minimize GI toxicity. GI organs that have classically developed radiation-induced toxicity include the liver & biliary system, small bowel, esophagus, and rectum. While the literature quantifies dose restrictions for these organs under standard fractionation, there is limited data regarding toxicity with the ablative dose schedules used in SBRT. We conducted a review of the literature to identify prospective and retrospective studies that detail GI toxicities when SBRT was employed. Based on the literature, the median SBRT dose for abdominal and thoracic tumors ranged from 24 to 60 Gy, at 5 to 25 Gy per fraction. The respective observed frequencies of grade 3 and 4 toxicities for the liver, biliary system, small bowel, and esophagus were variable among different studies. Typically, patients who suffered grade 3 and 4 toxicities were more likely to have had some form of systemic therapy as well. The effect of dose, fractionation, timing, and volume on GI toxicities has been described in the literature but more data is necessary to develop uniform treatment guidelines for SBRT.

Thomas, Tarita O.; Hasan, Shaakir; Small, William; Herman, Joseph M.; Lock, Michael; Kim, Edward Y.; Mayr, Nina A.; Teh, Bin S.

2014-01-01

278

Low Incidence of Fatigue after Hypofractionated Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: Fatigue is a common side effect of conventional prostate cancer radiation therapy. The increased delivery precision necessitated by the high dose per fraction of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) offers the potential of reduce target volumes and hence the exposure of normal tissues to high radiation doses. Herein, we examine the level of fatigue associated with SBRT treatment. Methods: Forty patients with localized prostate cancer treated with hypofractionated SBRT, and a minimum of 12?months follow-up were included in this analysis. Self-reported fatigue and other quality of life measures were assessed at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12?months post-SBRT. Results: Mean levels of fatigue were elevated at 1?month post-SBRT compared to baseline values (P?=?0.02). Fatigue at the 3-month follow-up and later were higher but not statistically significantly different compared to baseline. African-American patients reported higher fatigue post-SBRT than Caucasian patients. Fatigue was correlated with hormonal symptoms as measured by the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) quality of life questionnaire, but not with urinary, bowel, or sexual symptoms. Age, co-morbidities, smoking, prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels, testosterone levels, tumor stage, and treatment variables were not associated with fatigue. Conclusion: This is the first study to investigate fatigue as a side effect of SBRT. In contrast to standard radiation therapy, results suggest SBRT-related fatigue is short-term rather than a long-term side effect of SBRT. These results also suggest post-SBRT fatigue to be a more frequent complication in African-Americans than Caucasians.

Dash, Chiranjeev; Demas, Kristina; Uhm, Sunghae; Hanscom, Heather N.; Kim, Joy S.; Suy, Simeng; Davis, Kimberly M.; Sween, Jennifer; Collins, Sean; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L.

2012-01-01

279

Low incidence of fatigue after hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Background: Fatigue is a common side effect of conventional prostate cancer radiation therapy. The increased delivery precision necessitated by the high dose per fraction of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) offers the potential of reduce target volumes and hence the exposure of normal tissues to high radiation doses. Herein, we examine the level of fatigue associated with SBRT treatment. Methods: Forty patients with localized prostate cancer treated with hypofractionated SBRT, and a minimum of 12?months follow-up were included in this analysis. Self-reported fatigue and other quality of life measures were assessed at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12?months post-SBRT. Results: Mean levels of fatigue were elevated at 1?month post-SBRT compared to baseline values (P?=?0.02). Fatigue at the 3-month follow-up and later were higher but not statistically significantly different compared to baseline. African-American patients reported higher fatigue post-SBRT than Caucasian patients. Fatigue was correlated with hormonal symptoms as measured by the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) quality of life questionnaire, but not with urinary, bowel, or sexual symptoms. Age, co-morbidities, smoking, prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels, testosterone levels, tumor stage, and treatment variables were not associated with fatigue. Conclusion: This is the first study to investigate fatigue as a side effect of SBRT. In contrast to standard radiation therapy, results suggest SBRT-related fatigue is short-term rather than a long-term side effect of SBRT. These results also suggest post-SBRT fatigue to be a more frequent complication in African-Americans than Caucasians. PMID:23087903

Dash, Chiranjeev; Demas, Kristina; Uhm, Sunghae; Hanscom, Heather N; Kim, Joy S; Suy, Simeng; Davis, Kimberly M; Sween, Jennifer; Collins, Sean; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L

2012-01-01

280

Massage therapy for cancer patients: a reciprocal relationship between body and mind  

PubMed Central

Some cancer patients use therapeutic massage to reduce symptoms, improve coping, and enhance quality of life. Although a meta-analysis concludes that massage can confer short-term benefits in terms of psychological wellbeing and reduction of some symptoms, additional validated randomized controlled studies are necessary to determine specific indications for various types of therapeutic massage. In addition, mechanistic studies need to be conducted to discriminate the relative contributions of the therapist and of the reciprocal relationship between body and mind in the subject. Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques can be used to capture dynamic in vivo responses to biomechanical signals induced by massage of myofascial tissue. The relationship of myofascial communication systems (called “meridians”) to activity in the subcortical central nervous system can be evaluated. Understanding this relationship has important implications for symptom control in cancer patients, because it opens up new research avenues that link self-reported pain with the subjective quality of suffering. The reciprocal body–mind relationship is an important target for manipulation therapies that can reduce suffering.

Sagar, S.M.; Dryden, T.; Wong, R.K.

2007-01-01

281

Vibrational spectroscopy characterization of low level laser therapy on mammary culture cells: a micro-FTIR study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low level laser therapy (LLLT) is an emerging therapeutic approach for several clinical conditions. The clinical effects induced by LLLT presumably go from the photobiostimulation/photobioinibition at cellular level to the molecular level. The detailed mechanism underlying this effect is still obscure. This work is dedicated to quantify some relevant aspects of LLLT related to molecular and cellular variations. This goal was attached by exposing malignant breast cells (MCF7) to spatially filtered light of a He-Ne laser (633 nm) with 28.8 mJ/cm2 of fluency. The cell viability was evaluated by microscopic observation using Trypan Blue viability test. The vibrational spectra of each experimental group (micro- FTIR technique) were used to identify the relevant biochemical alterations occurred due the process. The red light had influence over RNA, phosphate and serine/threonine/tyrosine bands. Light effects on cell number or viability were not detected. However, the irradiation had direct influence on metabolic activity of cells.

Magrini, Taciana D.; Villa Dos Santos, Nathalia; Pecora Milazzotto, Marcella; Cerchiaro, Giselle; da Silva Martinho, Herculano

2011-02-01

282

[Long-term stability of body experience after in-patient group psychotherapy with concentrative movement therapy].  

PubMed

Body experience of 34 patients was investigated two years after the end of treatment with Concentrative Movement Therapy (KBT) in an in-patient integrative psychotherapy. Change in body experience at the end of treatment and after the two year period was compared to symptomatic strain and the amount of interpersonal problems. Body experience was rather restricted in the beginning of treatment. The improvement of body experience during treatment showed to be stable after two years, as did the symptomatic strain. Interpersonal problems were not reduced as much during treatment but in the follow-up period. Patients with benefit from KBT treatment through a better approach to their body, felt more bodily self-confident at the end of treatment. They also had less feelings of insecurity and apprehension concerning their body than those who could profit little from KBT. In both groups a reduction of symptomatic strain was found. Patients with little profit from KBT had higher symptomatic and interpersonal strain and more feelings of insecurity concerning their body in the beginning of the treatment. Their improvement at the time of follow-up was low. Results are discussed regarding the relevance of different elements of integrative in-patient therapy and the possibility of differential indications for body-oriented psychotherapy. PMID:16049873

Schreiber-Willnow, Karin; Seidler, Klaus-Peter

2005-08-01

283

Spline-based Rayleigh-Ritz methods for the approximation of the natural modes of vibration for flexible beams with tip bodies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rayleigh-Ritz methods for the approximation of the natural modes for a class of vibration problems involving flexible beams with tip bodies using subspaces of piecewise polynomial spline functions are developed. An abstract operator theoretic formulation of the eigenvalue problem is derived and spectral properties investigated. The existing theory for spline-based Rayleigh-Ritz methods applied to elliptic differential operators and the approximation properties of interpolatory splines are useed to argue convergence and establish rates of convergence. An example and numerical results are discussed.

Rosen, I. G.

1985-01-01

284

The effects of acute whole body vibration as a recovery modality following high-intensity interval training in well-trained, middle-aged runners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of acute whole body vibration (WBV) on recovery following\\u000a a 3 km time trial (3 km TT) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) (8 × 400 m). Post-HIIT measures included 3 km time-trial\\u000a performance, exercise metabolism and markers of muscle damage (creatine kinase, CK) and inflammation (c-reactive protein,\\u000a CRP). A second purpose was to determine

J. Edge; T. Mündel; K. Weir; D. J. Cochrane

2009-01-01

285

Acute changes in neuromuscular excitability after exhaustive whole body vibration exercise as compared to exhaustion by squatting exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The effects of hard squatting exercise with (VbX+) and without (VbX)) vibration on neuromuscular function were tested in 19 healthy young volunteers. Before and after the exercise, three different tests were performed: maximum serial jumping for 30 s, electromyography during isometric knee extension at 70% of the maximum voluntary torque, and the quantitative analysis of the patellar tendon reflex.

Jorn Rittweger; Marcus Mutschelknauss; Dieter Felsenberg

2003-01-01

286

Effect of whole-body vibration in the vertical axis on cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels in piglets1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibration, being a consequence of mo- tion during transport, may impair the welfare of pigs. Therefore, the primary objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate during transport simulation the use of ACTH and cortisol plasma levels, which are part of a basic adaptation mechanism of pigs and 2) to define comfort conditions for pigs related to the frequency and

S. Perremans; J. M. Randall; G. Rombouts; E. Decuypere; R. Geers

287

Vibrational modes and diffusion of self-interstitial atoms in body-centered-cubic transition metals: A tight-binding molecular-dynamics study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a tight-binding molecular-dynamics method, we have calculated the formation energies, diffusivity, and localized vibrational frequencies of self-interstitial atoms (SIA’s) in body-centered-cubic (bcc) transition metals: vanadium, niobium, molybdenum, and tantalum. As a test of our methods, we compare to experiment for the perfect bcc phonon spectra and we compare to previous ab initio SIA formation energies. In addition, we present vibrational spectra calculated from molecular dynamics via the velocity autocorrelation method. For all of the systems studied, we find that the localized vibration frequency of a SIA dumbbell pair is roughly twice the frequency of the bcc phonon-density-of-states peak. We also find an Arrhenius temperature dependence for SIA hopping, with frequency prefactors ranging between the cutoff of the ideal bcc lattice and the highest frequencies of the SIA dumbbell. In all cases, we find that the energy barrier to SIA diffusion is approximately 0.1eV .

Finkenstadt, Daniel; Bernstein, N.; Feldman, J. L.; Mehl, M. J.; Papaconstantopoulos, D. A.

2006-11-01

288

Observation of a Dose–Control Relationship for Lung and Liver Tumors After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To determine prognostic factors for local control of primary or metastatic tumors within the lung or liver treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) within a single institution. Methods and Materials: The records of 141 consecutive patients with 246 lesions treated with three-fraction SBRT from Oct 1999 through Aug 2005 were reviewed. Local control was assessed radiographically. Univariate and

Robert McCammon; Tracey E. Schefter; Laurie E. Gaspar; Rebekah Zaemisch; Daniel Gravdahl; Brian Kavanagh

2009-01-01

289

Body mass index and resistance to recombinant human erythropoietin therapy in maintenance hemodialysis patients.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between resistance to recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) therapy and body mass index (BMI) in hemodialysis (HD) patients. We evaluated 191 HD patients and 25 healthy individuals. Complete blood count, reticulocyte count, and circulating levels of ferritin, transferrin, iron, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), transferrin saturation, hepcidin, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), albumin, and adiponectin were measured in all patients and controls. Non-responder patients (n?=?16), as compared with responder patients (n?=?175), showed statistically significant lower BMI values, an enhanced inflammatory and higher adiponectin levels, associated with disturbances in iron metabolism. Analyzing the results according to BMI, we found that underweight patients required higher rhEPO doses than normal, overweight, and obese patients, and a higher percentage of non-responders patients were found within the underweight group of HD patients. Moreover, underweight patients presented lower levels of transferrin and higher levels of adiponectin compared to overweight and obese patients, and lower levels of iron compared with normal weight patients. Multiple regression analysis identified the sTfR, hemoglobin, BMI, and albumin as independent variables associated with rhEPO doses. In conclusion, our work showed that HD patients resistant to rhEPO therapy present a functional iron deficiency and a higher degree of inflammation, despite their lower BMI values and higher levels of adiponectin. Actually, BMI is poorly related with markers of systemic inflammation, such as IL-6 and CRP, while adiponectin works a fairly good indirect marker of adiposity within HD patients. PMID:23991655

do Sameiro-Faria, Maria; Ribeiro, Sandra; Rocha-Pereira, Petronila; Fernandes, João; Reis, Flávio; Bronze-da-Rocha, Elsa; Miranda, Vasco; Quintanilha, Alexandre; Costa, Elísio; Belo, Luís; Santos-Silva, Alice

2013-01-01

290

Stereotactic body radiation therapy in the treatment of oligometastatic prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose/objective(s): To report outcomes and toxicity for patients with oligometastatic (?5 lesions) prostate cancer (PCa) treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Materials/methods: Seventeen men with 21 PCa lesions were treated with SBRT between February 2009 and November 2011. All patients had a detectable prostate-specific antigen (PSA) at the time of SBRT, and 11 patients (65%) had hormone-refractory (HR) disease. Treatment sites included bone (n = 19), lymph nodes (n = 1), and liver (n = 1). For patients with bone lesions, the median dose was 20 Gy (range, 8–24 Gy) in a single fraction (range, 1–3). All but two patients received some form of anti-androgen therapy after completing SBRT. Results: Local control (LC) was 100%, and the PSA nadir was undetectable in nine patients (53%). The first post-SBRT PSA was lower than pre-treatment levels in 15 patients (88%), and continued to decline or remain undetectable in 12 patients (71%) at a median follow-up of 6 months (range, 2–24 months). Median PSA measurements before SBRT and at last follow-up were 2.1 ng/dl (range, 0.13–36.4) and 0.17 ng/dl (range, <0.1–140), respectively. Six (55%) of the 11 patients with HR PCa achieved either undetectable or declining PSA at a median follow-up of 4.8 months (range, 2.2–6.0 months). Reported toxicities included one case each of grade 2 dyspnea and back pain, there were no cases of grade ?3 toxicity following treatment. Conclusion: We report excellent LC with SBRT in oligometastatic PCa. More importantly, over half the patients achieved an undetectable PSA after SBRT. Further follow-up is necessary to assess the long-term impact of SBRT on LC, toxicity, PSA response, and clinical outcomes.

Ahmed, Kamran A.; Barney, Brandon M.; Davis, Brian J.; Park, Sean S.; Kwon, Eugene D.; Olivier, Kenneth R.

2013-01-01

291

Critical Appraisal of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Metastases to Abdominal Lymph Nodes  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: A planning study was performed comparing volumetric modulated arcs, RapidArc (RA), fixed beam IMRT (IM), and conformal radiotherapy (CRT) with multiple static fields or short conformal arcs in a series of patients treated with hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for solitary or oligo-metastases from different tumors to abdominal lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: Fourteen patients were included in the study. Dose prescription was set to 45 Gy (mean dose to clinical target volume [CTV]) in six fractions of 7.5 Gy. Objectives for CTV and planning target volume (PTV) were as follows: Dose{sub min} >95%, Dose{sub max} <107%. For organs at risk the following objectives were used: Maximum dose to spine <18 Gy; V{sub 15Gy} <35% for both kidneys, V{sub 36Gy} <1% for duodenum, V{sub 36Gy} <3% for stomach and small bowel, V{sub 15Gy} <(total liver volume - 700 cm{sup 3}) for liver. Dose-volume histograms were evaluated to assess plan quality. Results: Planning objectives on CTV and PTV were achieved by all techniques. Use of RA improved PTV coverage (V{sub 95%} = 90.2% +- 5.2% for RA compared with 82.5% +- 9.6% and 84.5% +- 8.2% for CRT and IM, respectively). Most planning objectives for organs at risk were met by all techniques except for the duodenum, small bowel, and stomach, in which the CRT plans exceeded the dose/volume constraints in some patients. The MU/fraction values were as follows: 2186 +- 211 for RA, 2583 +- 699 for IM, and 1554 +- 153 for CRT. Effective treatment time resulted as follows: 3.7 +- 0.4 min for RA, 10.6 +- 1.2 min for IM, and 6.3 +- 0.5 min for CRT. Conclusions: Delivery of SBRT by RA showed improvements in conformal avoidance with respect to standard conformal irradiation. Delivery parameters confirmed logistical advantages of RA, particularly compared with IM.

Bignardi, Mario [Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Radiation Oncology, Rozzano (Italy); Cozzi, Luca, E-mail: lucozzi@iosi.c [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Fogliata, Antonella [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Lattuada, Paola; Mancosu, Pietro; Navarria, Piera; Urso, Gaetano; Vigorito, Sabrina; Scorsetti, Marta [Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Radiation Oncology, Rozzano (Italy)

2009-12-01

292

Obesity Increases the Risk of Chest Wall Pain From Thoracic Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is increasingly being used to treat thoracic tumors. We attempted here to identify dose-volume parameters that predict chest wall toxicity (pain and skin reactions) in patients receiving thoracic SBRT. Patients and Methods: We screened a database of patients treated with SBRT between August 2004 and August 2008 to find patients with pulmonary tumors within 2.5 cm of the chest wall. All patients received a total dose of 50 Gy in four daily 12.5-Gy fractions. Toxicity was scored according to the NCI-CTCAE V3.0. Results: Of 360 patients in the database, 265 (268 tumors) had tumors within <2.5 cm of the chest wall; 104 (39%) developed skin toxicity (any grade); 14 (5%) developed acute pain (any grade), and 45 (17%) developed chronic pain (Grade 1 in 22 cases [49%] and Grade 2 or 3 in 23 cases [51%]). Both skin toxicity and chest wall pain were associated with the V{sub 30}, or volume of the chest wall receiving 30 Gy. Body mass index (BMI) was also strongly associated with the development of chest pain: patients with BMI {>=}29 had almost twice the risk of chronic pain (p = 0.03). Among patients with BMI >29, diabetes mellitus was a significant contributing factor to the development of chest pain. Conclusion: Safe use of SBRT with 50 Gy in four fractions for lesions close to the chest wall requires consideration of the chest wall volume receiving 30 Gy and the patient's BMI and diabetic state.

Welsh, James, E-mail: jwelsh@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Thomas, Jimmy; Shah, Deep; Allen, Pamela K.; Wei, Xiong; Mitchell, Kevin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Gao, Song; Balter, Peter [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Komaki, Ritsuko; Chang, Joe Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2011-09-01

293

Football training improves lean body mass in men with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy.  

PubMed

Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) remains a cornerstone in the management of patients with prostate cancer (PCa) despite adverse effects on body composition and functional parameters. We compared the effects of football training with standard care in PCa patients managed with ADT (>?6 months). Fifty-seven men aged 67 (range: 43-74) were randomly assigned to a football group (FG, n?=?29) or a usual care control group (CON, n?=?28). The primary outcome was change in lean body mass (LBM) assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. Secondary outcomes included changes in knee-extensor muscle strength (one repetition maximum), fat percentage, and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ). Mean heart rate during training was 137.7 (standard deviation 13.7) bpm or 84.6 (3.9)% HRmax. In FG, LBM increased by 0.5?kg [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1-0.9; P?=?0.02] with no change in CON (mean group difference 0.7?kg; 95% CI 0.1-1.2; P?=?0.02). Also, muscle strength increased in FG (8.9?kg; 95% CI 6.0-11.8; P?

Uth, J; Hornstrup, T; Schmidt, J F; Christensen, J F; Frandsen, C; Christensen, K B; Helge, E W; Brasso, K; Rørth, M; Midtgaard, J; Krustrup, P

2014-08-01

294

Association of endogenous insulin secretion and mode of therapy with body fat and serum leptin levels in diabetic subjects.  

PubMed

Insulin is one of the hormonal regulators of leptin synthesis and participates in adipose tissue maintenance. The present study was undertaken to clarify the association of endogenous insulin secretion and mode of therapy with body fat and serum leptin levels in diabetic subjects. We measured the fasting serum C-peptide level, as an estimate of endogenous insulin secretion, and the serum leptin level in 176 Japanese diabetic subjects (79 men and 97 women; age, 55.9+/-14.3 years; body mass index [BMI], 23.8+/-4.1 kg/m2 [mean+/-SD]). Thirty-one subjects were treated with diet therapy alone, 66 with sulfonylurea (SU), and 79 with insulin (including 29 with type I diabetes mellitus). Body fat was analyzed by the impedance method. Serum leptin levels significantly correlated with the BMI and body fat and were higher in women, mainly because of their greater body fat. Serum C-peptide concentrations positively correlated with body fat and serum leptin in subjects treated with diet and SU. In insulin-treated type II diabetic subjects, both serum C-peptide and the daily insulin dose were weakly associated with body fat and serum leptin. In those subjects, despite a lower percent body fat and body fat mass, serum leptin concentrations (10.3+/-8.4 ng/mL) were comparable to the levels in subjects treated with diet (8.8+/-8.5 ng/mL). When compared within the same BMI and body fat groups (BMI 20 to 25 and > 25 kg/m2) including the control subjects matched for age and sex, serum leptin levels were higher in insulin-treated type II diabetic subjects versus the control subjects and diabetic patients treated with diet or SU. Stepwise regression analysis for all of the diabetic subjects showed that both the serum C-peptide level and exogenous insulin administration, as well as the BMI, gender, and age, were determinants of the serum leptin level. In conclusion, endogenous insulin secretion is closely associated with body fat and serum leptin in diabetic subjects treated with diet therapy and SU. In Japanese insulin-treated type II diabetic subjects, both endogenous and exogenous insulin are associated with body fat and serum leptin, which is maintained at levels comparable to or somewhat higher than the levels in control subjects and diabetic patients treated without insulin. PMID:9826219

Nagasaka, S; Ishikawa, S; Nakamura, T; Kawakami, A; Rokkaku, K; Hayashi, H; Kusaka, I; Higashiyama, M; Saito, T

1998-11-01

295

Interinstitutional Variations in Planning for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess interinstitutional variations in planning for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung cancer before the start of the Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG) 0403 trial. Methods and Materials: Eleven institutions created virtual plans for four cases of solitary lung cancer. The created plans should satisfy the target definitions and the dose constraints for the JCOG 0403 protocol. Results: FOCUS/XiO (CMS) was used in six institutions, Eclipse (Varian) in 3, Cadplan (Varian) in one, and Pinnacle3 (Philips/ADAC) in one. Dose calculation algorithms of Clarkson with effective path length correction and superposition were used in FOCUS/XiO; pencil beam convolution with Batho power law correction was used in Eclipse and Cadplan; and collapsed cone convolution superposition was used in Pinnacle3. For the target volumes, the overall coefficient of variation was 16.6%, and the interinstitutional variations were not significant. For maximal dose, minimal dose, D95, and the homogeneity index of the planning target volume, the interinstitutional variations were significant. The dose calculation algorithm was a significant factor in these variations. No violation of the dose constraints for the protocol was observed. Conclusion: There can be notable interinstitutional variations in planning for SBRT, including both interobserver variations in the estimate of target volumes as well as dose calculation effects related to the use of different dose calculation algorithms.

Matsuo, Yukinori [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Takayama, Kenji [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Nagata, Yasushi [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)]. E-mail: nag@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kunieda, Etsuo [Department of Radiology, Keio University, Tokyo (Japan); Tateoka, Kunihiko [Radiation Oncology, Imaging and Diagnosis, Molecular and Organ Regulation, Sapporo Medical University, Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Ishizuka, Naoki [Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Community Health and Medicine, Research Institute, International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Mizowaki, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Norihisa, Yoshiki [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Sakamoto, Masato [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Narita, Yuichiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Ishikura, Satoshi [Radiation Oncology Division, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa (Japan); Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

2007-06-01

296

Cyberknife Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Nonresectable Tumors of the Liver: Preliminary Results  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has emerged as a treatment option for local tumor control of primary and secondary malignancies of the liver. We report on our updated experience with SBRT in patients with non-resectable tumors of the liver. Methods. Our first 17 consecutive patients (mean age 58.1 years) receiving SBRT for HCC (n = 6), IHC (n = 3), and LM (n = 8) are presented. Mean radiation dose was 34Gy delivered over 1–3 fractions. Results. Treated patients had a mean decrease in maximum pretreatment tumor diameter from 6.9 ± 4.6?cm to 5.0 ± 2.1?cm at three months after treatment (P < .05). The mean total tumor volume reduction was 44% at six months (P < .05). 82% of all patients (14/17) achieved local control with a median follow-up of 8 months. 100% of patients with HCC (n = 6) achieved local control. Patients with surgically placed fiducial markers had no complications related to marker placement. Conclusion. Our preliminary results showed that SBRT is a safe and effective local treatment modality in selected patients with liver malignancies with minimal adverse events. Further studies are needed to define its role in the management of these malignancies.

Goyal, K.; Einstein, D.; Yao, M.; Kunos, C.; Barton, F.; Singh, D.; Siegel, C.; Stulberg, J.; Sanabria, J.

2010-01-01

297

Body mass index changes during highly active antiretroviral therapy in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Wasting remains an important condition in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). In this study, 120 patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection were prospectively evaluated to determine the effect of HAART on body mass index (BMI). Eighty-nine (83.1%) patients gained weight, 5 (4.7%) had no weight change, and 13 (12.2%) lost weight. There was a significant increase in overweight and obese patients. On multivariate analysis, time-updated CD4 count and higher baseline BMI were associated with a greater increase in BMI. Anaemia at diagnosis was associated with a significant increase in BMI. There were no significant effects of age, sex, disease severity, viral load or educational status on BMI changes. About 27% of the HIV patients presented with weight loss, which emphasizes that weight loss and wasting remain important AIDS-defining conditions, despite the advent of HAART. A linear association was observed between time-updated CD4 count and increase in BMI. The association between time-updated CD4 count and greater increase in BMI suggests that BMI could be a surrogate for CD4 count in monitoring treatment response in resource-limited settings. PMID:24995767

Denue, B A; Ikunaiye, P N Y; Denue, C B A

2014-01-01

298

A phase I trial of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for liver metastases  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for liver metastases. Methods and Materials: A multicenter Phase I clinical trial was conducted. Eligible patients had one to three liver metastases, tumor diameter <6 cm, and adequate liver function. The first cohort received 36 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV) in three fractions (F). Subsequent cohorts received higher doses up to a chosen maximum of 60 Gy/3F. At least 700 mL of normal liver had to receive a total dose <15 Gy. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) included acute Grade 3 liver or intestinal toxicity or any acute Grade 4 toxicity. The MTD was exceeded if 2/6 patients in a cohort experienced DLT. Results: Eighteen patients were enrolled (10 male, 8 female): median age, 55 years (range, 26-83 years); most common primary site, colorectal (6 patients); median aggregate gross tumor volume, 18 ml (range, 3-98 ml). Four patients had multiple tumors. No patient experienced a DLT, and dose was escalated to 60 Gy/3F without reaching MTD. Conclusions: Biologically potent doses of SBRT are well tolerated in patients with limited liver metastases. Results of this study form the basis for an ongoing Phase II SBRT study of 60 Gy over three fractions for liver metastases.

Schefter, Tracey E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO (United States)]. E-mail: Tracey.Schefter@uchsc.edu; Kavanagh, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO (United States); Timmerman, Robert D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas-Southwestern, Dallas, TX (United States); Cardenes, Higinia R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Baron, Anna [Department of Biostatics, University of Colorado Comprehensive Cancer Center, Aurora, CO (United States); Gaspar, Laurie E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO (United States)

2005-08-01

299

Whole body correction of mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA by intracerebrospinal fluid gene therapy  

PubMed Central

For most lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) affecting the CNS, there is currently no cure. The BBB, which limits the bioavailability of drugs administered systemically, and the short half-life of lysosomal enzymes, hamper the development of effective therapies. Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (MPS IIIA) is an autosomic recessive LSD caused by a deficiency in sulfamidase, a sulfatase involved in the stepwise degradation of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) heparan sulfate. Here, we demonstrate that intracerebrospinal fluid (intra-CSF) administration of serotype 9 adenoassociated viral vectors (AAV9s) encoding sulfamidase corrects both CNS and somatic pathology in MPS IIIA mice. Following vector administration, enzymatic activity increased throughout the brain and in serum, leading to whole body correction of GAG accumulation and lysosomal pathology, normalization of behavioral deficits, and prolonged survival. To test this strategy in a larger animal, we treated beagle dogs using intracisternal or intracerebroventricular delivery. Administration of sulfamidase-encoding AAV9 resulted in transgenic expression throughout the CNS and liver and increased sulfamidase activity in CSF. High-titer serum antibodies against AAV9 only partially blocked CSF-mediated gene transfer to the brains of dogs. Consistently, anti-AAV antibody titers were lower in CSF than in serum collected from healthy and MPS IIIA–affected children. These results support the clinical translation of this approach for the treatment of MPS IIIA and other LSDs with CNS involvement.

Haurigot, Virginia; Marco, Sara; Ribera, Albert; Garcia, Miguel; Ruzo, Albert; Villacampa, Pilar; Ayuso, Eduard; Anor, Sonia; Andaluz, Anna; Pineda, Mercedes; Garcia-Fructuoso, Gemma; Molas, Maria; Maggioni, Luca; Munoz, Sergio; Motas, Sandra; Ruberte, Jesus; Mingozzi, Federico; Pumarola, Marti; Bosch, Fatima

2013-01-01

300

A Survey of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Use in the United States  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a technique used to deliver high, ablative doses of radiation in a limited number of fractions to one or more extracranial target(s). The prevalence of SBRT use among radiation oncologists in the United States is unknown. METHODS A random sample of 1600 American radiation oncologists was surveyed via email and fax regarding SBRT usage, including year of adoption, motivations, disease sites treated, and common prescriptions used. RESULTS Of 1373 contactable physicians, 551 responses (40.1%) were received. The proportion of physicians using SBRT was 63.9% (95% confidence interval: 60-68%), of whom nearly half adopted it in 2008 or later. The most commonly cited reasons for adopting SBRT were to allow delivery of higher than conventional radiation doses (90.3%) and to allow retreatment (73.9%) in select patients. Academic physicians were more likely to report research as a motivation for SBRT adoption, whereas physicians in private practice were more likely to list competitive reasons. Among SBRT users, the most common disease sites treated were lung (89.3%), spine (67.5%), and liver (54.5%) tumors. Overall, 76.0% of SBRT current users planned to increase their use, while 66.5% of nonusers planned to adopt the technology in the future. CONCLUSIONS SBRT has rapidly become a widely adopted treatment approach among American radiation oncologists. Further research and prospective trials are necessary to assess benefits and risks of this novel technology.

Pan, Hubert; Simpson, Daniel R.; Mell, Loren K.; Mundt, Arno J.; Lawson, Joshua D.

2011-01-01

301

Impact of tissue heterogeneity corrections in stereotactic body radiation therapy treatment plans for lung cancer  

PubMed Central

This study aims at evaluating the impact of tissue heterogeneity corrections on dosimetry of stereotactic body radiation therapy treatment plans. Four-dimensional computed tomography data from 15 low stage non-small cell lung cancer patients was used. Treatment planning and dose calculations were done using pencil beam convolution algorithm of Varian Eclipse system with Modified Batho Power Law for tissue heterogeneity. Patient plans were generated with 6 MV co-planar non-opposing four to six field beams optimized with tissue heterogeneity corrections to deliver a prescribed dose of 60 Gy in three fractions to at least 95% of the planning target volume, keeping spinal cord dose <10 Gy. The same plans were then regenerated without heterogeneity correction by recalculating previously optimized treatment plans keeping identical beam arrangements, field fluences and monitor units. Compared with heterogeneity corrected plans, the non-corrected plans had lower average minimum, mean, and maximum tumor doses by 13%, 8%, and 6% respectively. The results indicate that tissue heterogeneity is an important determinant of dosimetric optimization of SBRT plans.

Herman, Tania De La Fuente; Gabrish, Heather; Herman, Terence S.; Vlachaki, Maria T.; Ahmad, Salahuddin

2010-01-01

302

Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) for clinically localized prostate cancer: the Georgetown University experience  

PubMed Central

Background Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) delivers fewer high-dose fractions of radiation which may be radiobiologically favorable to conventional low-dose fractions commonly used for prostate cancer radiotherapy. We report our early experience using SBRT for localized prostate cancer. Methods Patients treated with SBRT from June 2008 to May 2010 at Georgetown University Hospital for localized prostate carcinoma, with or without the use of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), were included in this retrospective review of data that was prospectively collected in an institutional database. Treatment was delivered using the CyberKnife® with doses of 35 Gy or 36.25 Gy in 5 fractions. Biochemical control was assessed using the Phoenix definition. Toxicities were recorded and scored using the CTCAE v.3. Quality of life was assessed before and after treatment using the Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF-12), the American Urological Association Symptom Score (AUA) and Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) questionnaires. Late urinary symptom flare was defined as an AUA score???15 with an increase of???5 points above baseline six months after the completion of SBRT. Results One hundred patients (37 low-, 55 intermediate- and 8 high-risk according to the D’Amico classification) at a median age of 69 years (range, 48–90 years) received SBRT, with 11 patients receiving ADT. The median pre-treatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was 6.2 ng/ml (range, 1.9-31.6 ng/ml) and the median follow-up was 2.3 years (range, 1.4-3.5 years). At 2 years, median PSA decreased to 0.49 ng/ml (range, 0.1-1.9 ng/ml). Benign PSA bounce occurred in 31% of patients. There was one biochemical failure in a high-risk patient, yielding a two-year actuarial biochemical relapse free survival of 99%. The 2-year actuarial incidence rates of GI and GU toxicity???grade 2 were 1% and 31%, respectively. A median baseline AUA symptom score of 8 significantly increased to 11 at 1 month (p?=?0.001), however returned to baseline at 3 months (p?=?0.60). Twenty one percent of patients experienced a late transient urinary symptom flare in the first two years following treatment. Of patients who were sexually potent prior to treatment, 79% maintained potency at 2 years post-treatment. Conclusions SBRT for clinically localized prostate cancer was well tolerated, with an early biochemical response similar to other radiation therapy treatments. Benign PSA bounces were common. Late GI and GU toxicity rates were comparable to conventionally fractionated radiation therapy and brachytherapy. Late urinary symptom flares were observed but the majority resolved with conservative management. A high percentage of men who were potent prior to treatment remained potent two years following treatment.

2013-01-01

303

Initial non-weight-bearing therapy is important for preventing vertebral body collapse in elderly patients with clinical vertebral fractures  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of the present conventional observational study was to compare the clinical outcomes of initial non-weight-bearing therapy and conventional relative rest therapy among elderly patients with clinical vertebral fractures. Methods In total, 196 consecutive patients with clinical vertebral fractures (mean age: 78 years) who were hospitalized for treatment between January 1999 and March 2007 were analyzed. Initial non-weight-bearing therapy consisted of complete bed rest allowing rolling on the bed without any weight-bearing to the spine for 2 weeks, followed by rehabilitation wearing a soft brace. The indications for initial non-weight-bearing therapy were vertebral fracture involving the posterior portion of the vertebral body at the thoraco-lumbar spine, mild neurological deficit, instability of the fracture site, severe pain, multiple vertebral fractures arising from trauma, malalignment at the fracture site, and mild spinal canal stenosis caused by the fracture. Patients who met the indication criteria were treated with initial non-weight-bearing therapy (n = 103), while the other patients were treated with conventional relative rest (n = 93). All the patients were uniformly treated with intramuscular elcatonin to relieve pain. The primary endpoint was progression of the vertebral fracture. The secondary endpoints included bony union and subjective back pain. The follow-up period was 12 weeks. Results Compared with the conventional relative rest group, the collapse rate of the anterior and posterior portions of the vertebral body was significantly smaller in the initial non-weight-bearing group. The bony union rate was 100% in the initial non-weight-bearing group and 97% in the conventional relative rest group. The number of patients who experienced back pain was significantly lower in the initial non-weight-bearing group than in the conventional relative rest group. Conclusion These results suggest that initial non-weight-bearing therapy is important for preventing vertebral body collapse and for relieving pain among elderly patients with clinical vertebral fractures.

Kishikawa, Yoichi

2012-01-01

304

Ride quality and international standard ISO 2631 (Guide for the evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution of the standard, which is aimed at promoting research and production of more data, and providing some design guidance, is outlined and its contents summarized. Some of the assumptions and information on which it is based are analyzed. Its application to vehicle ride quality is considered in the context of the safety, efficiency and comfort of crew and passengers. The importance of establishing the precise criteria against which vibration limits are required is underlined, particularly the difficulties of first defining comfort and then postulating appropriate levels. Some current and future work related to improving the standard is outlined and additional suggestions offered.

Allen, G. R.

1975-01-01

305

The impact of respiratory motion and treatment technique on stereotactic body radiation therapy for liver cancer  

SciTech Connect

Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), which delivers a much higher fractional dose than conventional treatment in only a few fractions, is an effective treatment for liver metastases. For patients who are treated under free-breathing conditions, however, respiration-induced tumor motion in the liver is a concern. Limited clinical information is available related to the impact of tumor motion and treatment technique on the dosimetric consequences. This study evaluated the dosimetric deviations between planned and delivered SBRT dose in the presence of tumor motion for three delivery techniques: three-dimensional conformal static beams (3DCRT), dynamic conformal arc (DARC), and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Five cases treated with SBRT for liver metastases were included in the study, with tumor motions ranging from 0.5 to 1.75 cm. For each case, three different treatment plans were developed using 3DCRT, DARC, and IMRT. The gantry/multileaf collimator (MLC) motion in the DARC plans and the MLC motion in the IMRT plans were synchronized to the patient's respiratory motion. Retrospectively sorted four-dimensional computed tomography image sets were used to determine patient-organ motion and to calculate the dose delivered during each respiratory phase. Deformable registration, using thin-plate-spline models, was performed to encode the tumor motion and deformation and to register the dose-per-phase to the reference phase images. The different dose distributions resulting from the different delivery techniques and motion ranges were compared to assess the effect of organ motion on dose delivery. Voxel dose variations occurred mostly in the high gradient regions, typically between the target volume and normal tissues, with a maximum variation up to 20%. The greatest CTV variation of all the plans was seen in the IMRT technique with the largest motion range (D99: -8.9%, D95: -8.3%, and D90: -6.3%). The greatest variation for all 3DCRT plans was less than 2% for D95. Dose variations for DARC fell between the 3DCRT and IMRT techniques. The dose volume histogram variations for normal organs were negligible. Therefore, the IMRT technique may be a preferable treatment choice in cases where the target volume and critical organs are in close proximity, or when normal organ protection is a high priority, provided that motion effect for the target volume can be managed.

Wu, Q. Jackie; Thongphiew, Danthai; Wang Zhiheng; Chankong, Vira; Yin Fangfang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

2008-04-15

306

The biological effectiveness of targeted radionuclide therapy based on a whole-body pharmacokinetic model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biologically effective dose (BED) may be more of a relevant quantity than absorbed dose for establishing tumour response relationships. By taking into account the dose rate and tissue-specific parameters such as repair and radiosensitivity, it is possible to compare the relative biological effects of different targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) agents. The aim of this work was to develop an analytical tumour BED calculation for TRT that could predict a relative biological effect based on normal body and tumour pharmacokinetics. This work represents a step in the direction of establishing relative pharmacokinetic criteria of when the BED formalism is more applicable than absorbed dose for TRT. A previously established pharmacokinetic (PK) model for TRT was used and adapted into the BED formalism. An analytical equation for the protraction factor, which incorporates dose rate and repair rate, was derived. Dose rates within the normal body and tumour were related to the slopes of their time-activity curves which were determined by the ratios of their respective PK parameters. The relationships between the tumour influx-to-efflux ratio (k34:k43), central compartment efflux-to-influx ratio (k12:k21), central elimination (kel), and tumour repair rate (?), and tumour BED were investigated. As the k34:k43 ratio increases and the k12:k21 ratio decreases, the difference between tumour BED and D increases. In contrast, as the k34:k43 ratios decrease and the k12:k21 ratios increase, the tumour BED approaches D. At large k34:k43 ratios, the difference between tumour BED and D increases to a maximum as kel increases. At small k34:k43 ratios, the tumour BED approaches D at very small kel. At small ? and small k34:k43 ratios, the tumour BED approaches D. For large k34:k43 ratios, large ? values cause tumour BED to approach D. This work represents a step in the direction of establishing relative PK criteria of when the BED formalism is more applicable than absorbed dose for TRT. It also provides a framework by which the biological effects of different TRT agents can be compared in order to predict efficacy.

Grudzinski, Joseph J.; Tomé, Wolfgang; Weichert, Jamey P.; Jeraj, Robert

2010-10-01

307

The effect of androgen deprivation therapy on body composition in men with prostate cancer: Systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The use of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in the treatment of prostate cancer is associated with changes in body composition\\u000a including increased fat and decreased lean mass. Limited information exists regarding the rate and extent of these changes.\\u000a This systematic review was conducted to determine the effects of ADT on body composition in prostate cancer patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Literature searches were conducted

Farhana Haseen; Liam J. Murray; Chris R. Cardwell; Joe M. O’Sullivan; Marie M. Cantwell

2010-01-01

308

Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy With 177Lu DOTATATE in a Case of Recurrent Carotid Body Paraganglioma With Spinal Metastases.  

PubMed

Paragangliomas are rare benign neuroendocrine tumors, and 80% of all paragangliomas are either carotid body tumors or glomus jugulare tumors. We present a case of recurrent unresectable carotid body paraganglioma with nodal and T7 vertebral metastases in a 30-year-old man 6 years postsurgery detected with Ga DOTANOC PET/CT and was administered with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy using Lu DOTATATE. After 5 cycles of Lu DOTATATE (total cumulative activity of 750 mCi [27 GBq]), significant response at the primary site on Ga DOTANOC PET/CT and complete disappearance of nodal and T7 vertebral metastases were noted. PMID:24217545

Gupta, Santosh Kumar; Singla, Suhas; Karunanithi, Sellam; Damle, Nishikant; Bal, Chandrasekhar

2014-05-01

309

Generalizable Class Solutions for Treatment Planning of Spinal Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Spinal stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) continues to emerge as an effective therapeutic approach to spinal metastases; however, treatment planning and delivery remain resource intensive at many centers, which may hamper efficient implementation in clinical practice. We sought to develop a generalizable class solution approach for spinal SBRT treatment planning that would allow confidence that a given plan provides optimal target coverage, reduce integral dose, and maximize planning efficiency. Methods and Materials: We examined 91 patients treated with spinal SBRT at our institution. Treatment plans were categorized by lesion location, clinical target volume (CTV) configuration, and dose fractionation scheme, and then analyzed to determine the technically achievable dose gradient. A radial cord expansion was subtracted from the CTV to yield a planning CTV (pCTV) construct for plan evaluation. We reviewed the treatment plans with respect to target coverage, dose gradient, integral dose, conformality, and maximum cord dose to select the best plans and develop a set of class solutions. Results: The class solution technique generated plans that maintained target coverage and improved conformality (1.2-fold increase in the 95% van't Riet Conformation Number describing the conformality of a reference dose to the target) while reducing normal tissue integral dose (1.3-fold decrease in the volume receiving 4 Gy (V{sub 4Gy}) and machine output (19% monitor unit (MU) reduction). In trials of planning efficiency, the class solution technique reduced treatment planning time by 30% to 60% and MUs required by {approx}20%: an effect independent of prior planning experience. Conclusions: We have developed a set of class solutions for spinal SBRT that incorporate a pCTV metric for plan evaluation while yielding dosimetrically superior treatment plans with increased planning efficiency. Our technique thus allows for efficient, reproducible, and high-quality spinal SBRT treatment planning.

Weksberg, David C.; Palmer, Matthew B.; Vu, Khoi N.; Rebueno, Neal C.; Sharp, Hadley J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Luo, Dershan; Yang, James N.; Shiu, Almon S. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rhines, Laurence D. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); McAleer, Mary Frances; Brown, Paul D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Chang, Eric L., E-mail: eric.L.chang@usc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Norris Cancer Hospital, Los Angeles, California (United States)

2012-11-01

310

The efficacy of stereotactic body radiation therapy on huge hepatocellular carcinoma unsuitable for other local modalities  

PubMed Central

Background and aim To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Cyberknife stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and its effect on survival in patients with unresectable huge hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) unsuitable of other standard treatment option. Methods Between 2009 and 2011, 22 patients with unresectable huge HCC (?10 cm) were treated with SBRT. dose ranged from 26 Gy to 40 Gy in five fractions. Overall survival (OS) and disease-progression free survival (DPFS) were determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Tumor response and toxicities were also assessed. Results After a median follow-up of 11.5 month (range 2–46 months). The objective response rate was achieved in 86.3% (complete response (CR): 22.7% and partial response (PR): 63.6%). The 1-yr. local control rate was 55.56%. The 1-year OS was 50% and median survival was 11 months (range 2–46 months). In univariate analysis, Child-Pugh stage (p?=?0.0056) and SBRT dose (p?=?0.0017) were significant factors for survival. However, in multivariate analysis, SBRT dose (p?=?0.0072) was the most significant factor, while Child-Pugh stage of borderline significance. (p?=?0.0514). Acute toxicities were mild and well tolerated. Conclusion This study showed that SBRT can be delivered safely to huge HCC and achieved a substantial tumor regression and survival. The results suggest this technique should be considered a salvage treatment. However, local and regional recurrence remain the major cause of failure. Further studies of combination of SBRT and other treatment modalities may be reasonable.

2014-01-01

311

Feasibility of non-coplanar tomotherapy for lung cancer stereotactic body radiation therapy.  

PubMed

To quantify the dosimetric gains from non-coplanar helical tomotherapy (HT) arcs for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of lung cancer, we created oblique helical arcs by rotating patient's CT images. Ten, 20 and 30 degrees of yaws were introduced in the treatment planning for a patient with a hypothetical lung tumor at the upper, middle and lower portion of the right lung, and the upper and middle left lung. The planning target volume (PTV) was 43 cm(3). 60 Gy was prescribed to the PTV. Dose to organs at risk (OARs), which included the lungs, heart, spinal cord and chest wall, was optimized using a 2.5 cm jaw, 0.287 pitch and modulation factor of 2.5. Composite plans were generated by dose summation of the resultant plans. These plans were evaluated for its conformity index (R(x)) and percentile volume of lung receiving radiation dose of x Gy (V(x)). Conformity index was defined by the ratio of x percent isodose volume and PTV. The results show that combination of non-coplanar arcs reduced R(50) by 4.5%, R(20) by 26% and R(10) by 30% on average. Non-coplanar arcs did not affect V(20) but reduced V(10) and V(5) by 10% and 24% respectively. Composite of the non-coplanar arcs also reduced maximum dose to the spinal cord by 20-39%. Volume of chest wall receiving higher than 30 Gy was reduced by 48% on average. Heart dose reduction was dependent on the location of the PTV and the choice of non-coplanar orientations. Therefore we conclude that non-coplanar HT arcs significantly improve critical organ sparing in lung SBRT without changing the PTV dose coverage. PMID:21728387

Yang, Wensha; Jones, Ryan; Lu, Weiguo; Geesey, Constance; Benedict, Stanley; Read, Paul; Larner, James; Sheng, Ke

2011-08-01

312

Hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy as monotherapy for intermediate-risk prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has been advanced as monotherapy for low-risk prostate cancer. We examined the dose distributions and early clinical outcomes using this modality for the treatment of intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Methods Forty-one sequential hormone-naïve intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients received 35–36.25 Gy of CyberKnife-delivered SBRT in 5 fractions. Radiation dose distributions were analyzed for coverage of potential microscopic ECE by measuring the distance from the prostatic capsule to the 33 Gy isodose line. PSA levels, toxicities, and quality of life (QOL) measures were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Results All patients completed treatment with a mean coverage by the 33 Gy isodose line extending >5 mm beyond the prostatic capsule in all directions except posteriorly. Clinical responses were documented by a mean PSA decrease from 7.67 ng/mL pretreatment to 0.64 ng/mL at the median follow-up of 21 months. Forty patients remain free from biochemical progression. No Grade 3 or 4 toxicities were observed. Mean EPIC urinary irritation/obstruction and bowel QOL scores exhibited a transient decline post-treatment with a subsequent return to baseline. No significant change in sexual QOL was observed. Conclusions In this intermediate-risk patient population, an adequate radiation dose was delivered to areas of expected microscopic ECE in the majority of patients. Although prospective studies are needed to confirm long-term tumor control and toxicity, the short-term PSA response, biochemical relapse-free survival rate, and QOL in this interim analysis are comparable to results reported for prostate brachytherapy or external beam radiotherapy. Trial registration The Georgetown Institutional Review Board has approved this retrospective study (IRB 2009–510).

2013-01-01

313

The prevalence and correlates of mind-body therapy practices in patients with acute coronary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Summary Objectives While the benefits of mind-body therapy (MBT) for cardiac secondary prevention continues to be investigated, the prevalence of such practices by cardiac patients is not well known. The aim of this study was to quantitatively examine the prevalence of MBT practice and its sociodemographic, clinical, psychosocial and behavioral correlates among patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods Six hundred and sixty-one ACS in-patients (75% response rate) recruited from three hospitals completed a demographic survey, and clinical data were extracted from charts. Four hundred and sixty five patients (81% retention rate; 110 (23.7%) female) responded to an 18-month post-discharge survey that queried about MBT use and its correlates. Results One hundred and sixty-three (35.1%) ACS patients practised MBT in their lifetime, and 118 (25.4%) were currently practising. MBT users were more often women (OR = 2.98), non-white (OR = 2.17), had higher levels of education (OR = 2.22), past smokers (OR = 3.33), reported poorer mental health (OR =2.15), and engaged in more exercise (OR = 1.65). Conclusion One-third of ACS patients practised some form of MBT. The greater MBT practice among female ACS patients is noteworthy, given their generally lower physical activity and lower receipt of evidence-based treatments including cardiac rehabilitation. In addition, there is some evidence that MBT can promote mental well-being, and thus such practice might reduce risk related to negative affect in cardiac patients.

Leung, Yvonne W.; Tamim, Hala; Stewart, Donna E.; Arthur, Heather M.; Grace, Sherry L.

2010-01-01

314

Vertebral Compression Fracture (VCF) After Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT): Analysis of Predictive Factors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) are increasingly observed after spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). The aim of this study was to determine the risk of VCF after spine SBRT and identify clinical and dosimetric factors predictive for VCF. The analysis incorporated the recently described Spinal Instability Neoplastic Score (SINS) criteria. Methods and Materials: The primary endpoint of this study was the development of a de novo VCF (ie, new endplate fracture or collapse deformity) or fracture progression based on an existing fracture at the site of treatment after SBRT. We retrospectively scored 167 spinal segments in 90 patients treated with spine SBRT according to each of the 6 SINS criteria. We also evaluated the presence of paraspinal extension, prior radiation, various dosimetric parameters including dose per fraction ({>=}20 Gy vs <20 Gy), age, and histology. Results: The median follow-up was 7.4 months. We identified 19 fractures (11%): 12 de novo fractures (63%) and 7 cases of fracture progression (37%). The mean time to fracture after SBRT was 3.3 months (range, 0.5-21.6 months). The 1-year fracture-free probability was 87.3%. Multivariate analysis confirmed that alignment (P=.0003), lytic lesions (P=.007), lung (P=.03) and hepatocellular (P<.0001) primary histologies, and dose per fraction of 20 Gy or greater (P=.004) were significant predictors of VCF. Conclusions: The presence of kyphotic/scoliotic deformity and the presence of lytic tumor were the only predictive factors of VCF based on the original 6 SINS criteria. We also report that patients with lung and hepatocellular tumors and treatment with SBRT of 20 Gy or greater in a single fraction are at a higher risk of VCF.

Cunha, Marcelo V.R. [Division of Neurosurgery, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Division of Neurosurgery, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Al-Omair, Ameen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Atenafu, Eshetu G. [Department of Biostatistics, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Department of Biostatistics, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Masucci, Giuseppina Laura; Letourneau, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Korol, Renee [Department of Medical Physics, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Department of Medical Physics, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Yu, Eugene [Department of Radiology and Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University Health Network, Mount Sinai Hospital and Women's College Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Department of Radiology and Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University Health Network, Mount Sinai Hospital and Women's College Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Howard, Peter [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Lochray, Fiona [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Costa, Leodante B. da [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Fehlings, Michael G. [Division of Neurosurgery and Spinal Program, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Division of Neurosurgery and Spinal Program, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sahgal, Arjun, E-mail: arjun.sahgal@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

2012-11-01

315

Patient-reported urinary incontinence following stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for clinically localized prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Urinary incontinence (UI) following prostate radiotherapy is a rare toxicity that adversely affects a patient’s quality of life. This study sought to evaluate the incidence of UI following stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for prostate cancer. Methods Between February, 2008 and October, 2010, 204 men with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated definitively with SBRT at Georgetown University Hospital. Patients were treated to 35–36.25 Gray (Gy) in 5 fractions delivered with the CyberKnife (Accuray). UI was assessed via the Expanded Prostate Index Composite (EPIC)-26. Results Baseline UI was common with 4.4%, 1.0% and 3.4% of patients reporting leaking?>?1 time per day, frequent dribbling and pad usage, respectively. Three year post treatment, 5.7%, 6.4% and 10.8% of patients reported UI based on leaking?>?1 time per day, frequent dribbling and pad usage, respectively. Average EPIC UI summary scores showed an acute transient decline at one month post-SBRT then a second a gradual decline over the next three years. The proportion of men feeling that their UI was a moderate to big problem increased from 1% at baseline to 6.4% at three years post-SBRT. Conclusions Prostate SBRT was well tolerated with UI rates comparable to conventionally fractionated radiotherapy and brachytherapy. More than 90% of men who were pad-free prior to treatment remained pad-free three years following treatment. Less than 10% of men felt post-treatment UI was a moderate to big problem at any time point following treatment. Longer term follow-up is needed to confirm late effects.

2014-01-01

316

Probabilities of Radiation Myelopathy Specific to Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy to Guide Safe Practice  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Dose-volume histogram (DVH) results for 9 cases of post spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) radiation myelopathy (RM) are reported and compared with a cohort of 66 spine SBRT patients without RM. Methods and Materials: DVH data were centrally analyzed according to the thecal sac point maximum (Pmax) volume, 0.1- to 1-cc volumes in increments of 0.1 cc, and to the 2 cc volume. 2-Gy biologically equivalent doses (nBED) were calculated using an {alpha}/{beta} = 2 Gy (units = Gy{sub 2/2}). For the 2 cohorts, the nBED means and distributions were compared using the t test and Mann-Whitney test, respectively. Significance (P<.05) was defined as concordance of both tests at each specified volume. A logistic regression model was developed to estimate the probability of RM using the dose distribution for a given volume. Results: Significant differences in both the means and distributions at the Pmax and up to the 0.8-cc volume were observed. Concordant significance was greatest for the Pmax volume. At the Pmax volume the fit of the logistic regression model, summarized by the area under the curve, was 0.87. A risk of RM of 5% or less was observed when limiting the thecal sac Pmax volume doses to 12.4 Gy in a single fraction, 17.0 Gy in 2 fractions, 20.3 Gy in 3 fractions, 23.0 Gy in 4 fractions, and 25.3 Gy in 5 fractions. Conclusion: We report the first logistic regression model yielding estimates for the probability of human RM specific to SBRT.

Sahgal, Arjun, E-mail: arjun.sahgal@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Weinberg, Vivian [University of California San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center Biostatistics Core, San Francisco, California (United States)] [University of California San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center Biostatistics Core, San Francisco, California (United States); Ma, Lijun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Chang, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California and University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California and University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Chao, Sam [Department of Radiation Oncology and Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology and Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Muacevic, Alexander [European Cyberknife Center Munich in affiliation with University Hospitals of Munich, Munich (Germany)] [European Cyberknife Center Munich in affiliation with University Hospitals of Munich, Munich (Germany); Gorgulho, Alessandra [Department of Neurosurgery, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)] [Department of Neurosurgery, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Soltys, Scott [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Gerszten, Peter C. [Departments of Neurological Surgery and Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Departments of Neurological Surgery and Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Ryu, Sam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Angelov, Lilyana [Department of Radiation Oncology and Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology and Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Gibbs, Iris [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Wong, C. Shun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Larson, David A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)

2013-02-01

317

Dosimetric comparison of patient setup strategies in stereotactic body radiation therapy for lung cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In this work, the authors retrospectively compared the accumulated dose over the treatment course for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of lung cancer for three patient setup strategies. Methods: Ten patients who underwent lung SBRT were selected for this study. At each fraction, patients were immobilized using a vacuum cushion and were CT scanned. Treatment plans were performed on the simulation CT. The planning target volume (PTV) was created by adding a 5-mm uniform margin to the internal target volume derived from the 4DCT. All plans were normalized such that 99% of the PTV received 60 Gy. The plan parameters were copied onto the daily CT images for dose recalculation under three setup scenarios: skin marker, bony structure, and soft tissue based alignments. The accumulated dose was calculated by summing the dose at each fraction along the trajectory of a voxel over the treatment course through deformable image registration of each CT with the planning CT. The accumulated doses were analyzed for the comparison of setup accuracy. Results: The tumor volume receiving 60 Gy was 91.7 {+-} 17.9%, 74.1 {+-} 39.1%, and 99.6 {+-} 1.3% for setup using skin marks, bony structures, and soft tissue, respectively. The isodose line covering 100% of the GTV was 55.5 {+-} 7.1, 42.1 {+-} 16.0, and 64.3 {+-} 7.1 Gy, respectively. The corresponding average biologically effective dose of the tumor was 237.3 {+-} 29.4, 207.4 {+-} 61.2, and 258.3 {+-} 17.7 Gy, respectively. The differences in lung biologically effective dose, mean dose, and V20 between the setup scenarios were insignificant. Conclusions: The authors' results suggest that skin marks and bony structure are insufficient for aligning patients in lung SBRT. Soft tissue based alignment is needed to match the prescribed dose delivered to the tumors.

Wu Jianzhou; He, Tongming T. [Radiation Oncology, Swedish Cancer Institute, Seattle, Washington 98104 (United States); Betzing, Christopher; Fuss, Martin [Department of Radiation Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239 (United States); D'Souza, Warren D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21044 (United States)

2013-05-15

318

Clinical Practice Patterns of Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in the United States: A Secondary Analysis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a technique used to deliver high, ablative doses of radiation in a limited number of fractions to ?1 extracranial target(s). While recent studies have shown that SBRT provides effective local tumor control in medically inoperable early stage lung cancer patients, its implementation in clinical practice is unknown. METHODS A random sample of 1600 American radiation oncologists was surveyed regarding lung SBRT usage, including year adopted, most common prescription, respiratory motion management, and target localization. A biological equivalent dose (BED) was calculated using the linear quadratic model with ?/?=10. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients (rs) were calculated to identify factors associated with BED. RESULTS Of 1373 contactable physicians, 551 responses (40%) were received. Of 510 evaluable responses, 275 physicians (54%) reported using lung SBRT, over half of whom adopted it in 2008 or later. The most commonly reported prescriptions were 20 Gy × 3 (22%), 18 Gy × 3 (21%), and 12 Gy × 4 (17%). Three fraction regimens were most common (48%), with nearly all (89%) prescribing ?18 Gy/fraction. The median BED was 132 Gy, with 95% of reported prescriptions having BED ?100 Gy. Factors associated with increased BED included use of fiducial markers (rs=0.26, p<0.001), use of planar imaging (rs=0.18, p<0.01), and years experience with lung SBRT (rs=0.13, p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS Lung SBRT has rapidly become a widely adopted treatment approach in the United States with a range of varying implementations. Further research and additional prospective trials are necessary to optimize this novel approach.

Pan, Hubert; Rose, Brent S.; Simpson, Daniel R.; Mell, Loren K.; Mundt, Arno J.; Lawson, Joshua D.

2012-01-01

319

Phase 1 Clinical Trial of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Concomitant With Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) allows stereotactic irradiation of thoracic tumors. It may have a real impact on patients who may not otherwise qualify for breast-conserving surgery. We conducted a phase 1 trial that tested 5 dose levels of SBRT concomitant with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) before to surgery. The purpose of the current dose escalation study was to determine the maximum tolerable dose of SBRT in the treatment of breast cancer. Methods and Materials: To define toxicity, we performed dermatologic examinations that included clinical examinations by 2 separate physicians and technical evaluations using colorimetry, dermoscopy, and skin ultrasonography. Dermatologic examinations were performed before NACT, 36 and 56 days after the beginning of NACT, and before surgery. Surgery was performed 4 to 8 weeks after the last chemotherapy session. Efficacy, the primary endpoint, was determined by the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate. Results: Maximum tolerable dose was not reached. Only 1 case of dose-limiting toxicity was reported (grade 3 dermatologic toxicity), and SBRT was overall well tolerated. The pCR rate was 36%, with none being observed at the first 2 dose levels, and the highest rate being obtained at dose level 3 (25.5 Gy delivered in 3 fractions). Furthermore, the breast-conserving surgery rate was up to 92% compared with an 8% total mastectomy rate. No surgical complications were reported. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that SBRT can be safely combined with NACT. Regarding the efficacy endpoints, this trial showed promising results in terms of pCR rate (36%) and breast-conserving rate (92%). The findings provide a strong rationale for extending the study into a phase 2 trial. In view of the absence of correlation between dose and pCR, and given that the data from dose level 3 met the statistical requirements, a dose of 25.5 Gy in 3 fractions should be used for the phase 2 trial.

Bondiau, Pierre-Yves, E-mail: pierre-yves.bondiau@nice.unicancer.fr [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Courdi, Adel [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Bahadoran, Phillipe [Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Nice, Nice (France)] [Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Nice, Nice (France); Chamorey, Emmanuel [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Queille-Roussel, Catherine [Centre de Pharmacologie Clinique Appliquée à la Dermatologie, Nice (France)] [Centre de Pharmacologie Clinique Appliquée à la Dermatologie, Nice (France); Lallement, Michel; Birtwisle-Peyrottes, Isabelle; Chapellier, Claire; Pacquelet-Cheli, Sandrine; Ferrero, Jean-Marc [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France)

2013-04-01

320

Stereotactic body radiation therapy using the CyberKnife® system for patients with liver metastases  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in the treatment of patients with liver metastases. Between August 2006 and July 2011, patients with 1–4 liver metastases were enrolled and treated with SBRT using the CyberKnife® system at Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital. The metastases were from different primary tumors, with a maximum tumor diameter of less than 6 cm. The primary endpoint was local control. Secondary endpoints were overall survival, progression-free survival, distant progression-free survival, and adverse events. Fifty-seven patients with 80 lesions were treated with SBRT. The 1-year and 2-year local control rates were 94.4% and 89.7%, respectively. The difference in local control between patients who received adjuvant treatment before SBRT and those who did not reached statistical significance (P=0.049). The median overall survival for the entire cohort was 37.5 months. According to the primary tumor sites, the median overall survival was not reached. The 2-year overall survival rate was 72.2% in the favorable group (primary tumors originating from the colon, breast, or stomach, as well as sarcomas); however, in the unfavorable group (primary tumors originating from the pancreas, lung, ovary, gallbladder, uterus, hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as olfactory neuroblastoma), the median overall survival and 2-year overall survival rates were 37.5 months and 55.9%, respectively (P=0.0001). Grade 1–2 fatigue, nausea, and vomiting were the most common adverse events, and no grade 3 and higher adverse events were observed. With excellent local control in the absence of severe toxicity, SBRT provides an alternative for patients with 1–4 liver metastases who cannot undergo surgery or other treatments.

Yuan, Zhi-Yong; Meng, Mao-Bin; Liu, Chun-Lei; Wang, Huan-Huan; Jiang, Chao; Song, Yong-Chun; Zhuang, Hong-Qing; Yang, Dong; Wang, Jing-Sheng; Wei, Wang; Li, Feng-Tong; Zhao, Lu-Jun; Wang, Ping

2014-01-01

321

Prostate-Specific Antigen Bounce Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce after brachytherapy has been well-documented. This phenomenon has also been identified in patients undergoing stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). While the parameters that predict PSA bounce have been extensively studied in prostate brachytherapy patients, this study is the first to analyze the clinical and pathologic predictors of PSA bounce in prostate SBRT patients. Materials and Methods: Our institution has maintained a prospective database of patients undergoing SBRT for prostate cancer since 2006. Our study population includes patients between May 2006 and November 2011 who have at least 18?months of follow-up. All patients were treated using the CyberKnife treatment system. The prescription dose was 35–36.25?Gy in five fractions. Results: One hundred twenty patients were included in our study. Median PSA follow-up was 24?months (range 18–78?months). Thirty-four (28%) patients had a PSA bounce. The median time to PSA bounce was 9?months, and the median bounce size was 0.50?ng/mL. On univariate analysis, only younger age (p?=?0.011) was shown to be associated with an increased incidence of PSA bounce. Other patient factors, including race, prostate size, prior treatment by hormones, and family history of prostate cancer, did not predict PSA bounces. None of the tumor characteristics studied, including Gleason score, pre-treatment PSA, T-stage, or risk classification by NCCN guidelines, were associated with increased incidence of PSA bounces. Younger age was the only statistically significant predictor of PSA bounce on multivariate analysis (OR?=?0.937, p?=?0.009). Conclusion: PSA bounce, which has been reported after prostate brachytherapy, is also seen in a significant percentage of patients after CyberKnife SBRT. Close observation rather than biopsy can be considered for these patients. Younger age was the only factor that predicted PSA bounce.

Vu, Charles C.; Haas, Jonathan A.; Katz, Aaron E.; Witten, Matthew R.

2014-01-01

322

Long-term risk of local failure after proton therapy for choroidal/ciliary body melanoma.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: To quantitate long-term risk of local treatment failure after proton irradiation of choroidal/ciliary body melanomas and to evaluate risk of metastasis-related deaths after local failure. METHODS: We followed prospectively 1,922 patients treated at the Harvard Cyclotron between January 1975 and December 1996 for local recurrences of their tumors. Mortality surveillance was completed through June 1999. For analysis, patient follow-up continued until tumor regrowth was detected or, in patients without recurrence, until the date of the last dilated examination prior to April 1998. Actuarial methods were used to calculate rates of recurrence and metastatic deaths. Cox regression models were constructed to evaluate risk factors for these outcomes. RESULTS: Median ocular follow-up after irradiation was 5.2 years. Local recurrence was documented in 45 patients by ultrasound and/or sequential fundus photographs; in 17 more patients, the eye was enucleated due to suspected but unconfirmed tumor growth. Recurrences were documented between 2 months and 11.3 years after irradiation. The 5- and 10-year rates of regrowth, including suspected cases, were 3.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5%-4.2%), and 4.3% (95% CI, 3.3%-5.6%). Among the 45 documented recurrences, about one half (21) occurred at the margin, presumably due to treatment planning errors. The remaining cases represented extrascleral extensions (nine cases), ring melanomas (six cases), or uncontrolled tumor (nine cases). Recurrence of the tumor was independently related to risk of tumor-related death. CONCLUSION: These data, based on relatively long-term follow-up, demonstrate that excellent local control is maintained after proton therapy and that patients with recurrences experience poorer survival.

Gragoudas, Evangelos S; Lane, Anne Marie; Munzenrider, John; Egan, Kathleen M; Li, Wenjun

2002-01-01

323

Effect of growth hormone therapy and puberty on bone and body composition in children with idiopathic short stature and growth hormone deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of bone health and the effect of growth hormone (GH) therapy on bone and body composition in children with idiopathic short stature (ISS) are largely unknown. A direct role of GH deficiency (GHD) on bone density is controversial. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, this study measured total body bone mineral content (TB BMC), body composition, and volumetric bone mineral

Wolfgang Högler; Julie Briody; Bin Moore; Pei Wen Lu; Christopher T. Cowell

2005-01-01

324

[Power of music that moves mind and body--music therapy in the Hansen's disease sanatorium in Japan].  

PubMed

Average age of residents living in National sanatorium Hoshizuka-Keiaien where people have past history of Hansen disease is around 80 years old at present, and many of them spend their whole days in watching TV or sleeping almost alone in their rooms. Therefore music therapy was introduced in order to improve their daily activities in our sanatorium. Singing, listening to music, playing the musical instruments, and dancing were performed, either in a group or individually. Reactivation of their brain function such as recollection, sense of unity and relaxation were expected. Improvement of cardiopulmonary function was also expected. Solidarity and relaxed state were observed by being with the other participants in the group therapy. For example, when using musical instruments, some participants with hesitation tried to use their instruments, and had good performance. They seemed to be satisfied and became confident with the musical instruments. Then their confidence and satisfaction activated the group. After the sessions, mutual conversation increased. These processes obtained a synergy effect, which means that a group affects of individuals at first and next alteration of individual behavior influences the group. We could observe a better effect in their motivation and activity in their daily life in the individual therapy. The music therapy was applied to the senior participants by the music therapist in this study. The participants could easily reinforce their mind and body through this therapy. Music therapy will be continued for the improvement of quality of life of residents in the sanatorium. PMID:19227147

Fukamizu, Yuu; En, Junichiro; Kano, Tatsuo; Arikawa, Isao

2009-02-01

325

The effects of acute whole body vibration as a recovery modality following high-intensity interval training in well-trained, middle-aged runners.  

PubMed

The main purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of acute whole body vibration (WBV) on recovery following a 3 km time trial (3 km TT) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) (8 x 400 m). Post-HIIT measures included 3 km time-trial performance, exercise metabolism and markers of muscle damage (creatine kinase, CK) and inflammation (c-reactive protein, CRP). A second purpose was to determine the effects of a 3 km TT and HIIT on performance and metabolism the following day. Nine well-trained, middle-aged, male runners [(mean +/- SD) age 45 +/- 6 years, body mass 75 +/- 7 kg, VO2peak 58 +/- 5 ml kg(-1 )min(-1)] performed a constant pace run at 60 and 80% velocity at VO2peak (v VO2peak) followed by a 3-km TT and a 8 x 400-m HIIT session on two occasions. Following one occasion, the athletes performed 2 x 15 min of low frequency (12 Hz) WBV, whilst the other occasion was a non-WBV control. Twenty-four hours after each HIIT session (day 2) participants performed the constant pace run (60 and 80% v VO2peak) and 3 km TT again. There was a significant decrease in 3 km TT performance (~10 s) 24 h after the HIIT session (P < 0.05); however, there were no differences between conditions (control vs. vibration, P > 0.05). Creatine kinase was significantly elevated on day 2, though there were no differences between conditions (P > 0.05). VO2peak and blood lactate were lower on day 2 (P < 0.05), again with no differences between conditions (P > 0.05). These results show no benefit of WBV on running performance recovery following a HIIT session. However, we have shown that there may be acute alterations in metabolism 24 h following such a running session in well-trained, middle-aged runners. PMID:19011891

Edge, J; Mündel, T; Weir, K; Cochrane, D J

2009-02-01

326

Improving quality of life using compound mind-body therapies: evaluation of a course intervention with body movement and breath therapy, guided imagery, chakra experiencing and mindfulness meditation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective Assess changes in quality of life and in sense of coherence (SOC), after an intervention involving a self-development course\\u000a using mind–body medicine (MBM) activities.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design A questionnaire study using a health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instrument, the SWEDQUAL, with 13 subscales and scores\\u000a ranging from 0 to 100, combined with the SOC-13 scale, healthcare utilisation, medication and sick listing

Lotta Fernros; Anna-Karin Furhoff; Per E. Wändell

2008-01-01

327

[Procedure guideline for radioiodine therapy and 131iodine whole-body scintigraphy in paediatric patients with differentiated thyroid cancer].  

PubMed

The procedure guideline for radioiodine ((131)I) therapy and (131)I whole-body scintigraphy of differentiated thyroid cancer in paediatric patients is the counterpart to the procedure guidelines (version 3) for adult patients and specify the interdisciplinary guideline for thyroid cancer of the Deutsche Krebsgesellschaft concerning the nuclear medicine part. Characteristics of thyroid cancer in children are the higher aggressiveness of papillary thyroid cancer, the higher frequency of extrathyroidal extension and of disseminated pulmonary metastases as well as the high risk of local recurrences. Radioiodine therapy is generally recommended in children, the (131)I activity depends on the children's body weight. Radioiodine ablation in children with small papillary cancer (< or =1 cm) should be considered. TSH stimulation is reached two weeks (children) or three weeks (adolescents) after withdrawal of thyroid hormones. Anti-emetic drugs are highly recommended. CT of the chest and examination of pulmonary function are clearly indicated if there is any suspicion on metastases. 3-6 months after (131)I ablation, the (131)I whole-body scintigraphy is highly recommended as lymph node metastases are frequently detected in paediatric patients. Follow-up care should be arranged in shorter intervals than in adults to test the compliance and to adapt dosage of thyroid hormones to the children's body weight. Reference values of fT3 are higher in children than in adults. Evidence is insufficient to describe in which constellation the TSH may be kept within the low normal level. Therefore, TSH suppression is generally recommended. PMID:17938759

Franzius, C; Dietlein, M; Biermann, M; Frühwald, M; Linden, T; Bucsky, P; Reiners, C; Schober, O

2007-01-01

328

Spatial and dose–response analysis of fibrotic lung changes after stereotactic body radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is becoming the standard of care for early stage nonoperable lung cancers. Accurate dose–response modeling is challenging for SBRT because of the decreased number of clinical toxicity events. As a surrogate for a clinical toxicity endpoint, studies have proposed to use radiographic changes in follow up computed tomography (CT) scans to evaluate lung SBRT normal tissue effects. The purpose of the current study was to use local fibrotic lung regions to spatially and dosimetrically evaluate lung changes in patients that underwent SBRT.Methods: Forty seven SBRT patients treated at our institution from 2003 to 2009 were used for the current study. Our patient cohort had a total of 148 follow up CT scans ranging from 3 to 48 months post-therapy. Post-treatment scans were binned into intervals of 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months after the completion of treatment. Deformable image registration was used to align the follow up CT scans with the pretreatment CT and dose distribution. Areas of visible fibrotic changes were contoured. The centroid of each gross tumor volume (GTV) and contoured fibrosis volume was calculated and the fibrosis volume location and movement (magnitude and direction) relative to the GTV and 30 Gy isodose centroid were analyzed. To perform a dose–response analysis, each voxel in the fibrosis volume was sorted into 10 Gy dose bins and the average CT number value for each dose bin was calculated. Dose–response curves were generated by plotting the CT number as a function of dose bin and time posttherapy.Results: Both fibrosis and GTV centroids were concentrated in the upper third of the lung. The average radial movement of fibrosis centroids relative to the GTV centroids was 2.6 cm with movement greater than 5 cm occurring in 11% of patients. Evaluating dose–response curves revealed an overall trend of increasing CT number as a function of dose. The authors observed a CT number plateau at doses ranging from 30 to 50 Gy for the 3, 6, and 12 months posttherapy time points. There was no evident plateau for the dose–response curves generated using data from the 18, 24, 30, and 36 months posttherapy time points.Conclusions: Regions of local fibrotic lung changes in patients that underwent SBRT were evaluated spatially and dosimetrically. The authors found that the average fibrosis movement was 2.6 cm with movement greater than 5 cm possible. Evaluating dose–response curves revealed an overall trend of increasing CT number as a function of dose. Furthermore, our dose–response data also suggest that one of the possible explanations of the CT number plateau effect may be the time posttherapy of the acquired data. Understanding normal tissue dose–response is important for reducing toxicity after SBRT, especially in cases where larger tumors are treated. The methods presented in the current work build on prior quantitative studies and further enhance the understanding of normal lung dose–response after SBRT.

Vinogradskiy, Yevegeniy; Diot, Quentin; Kavanagh, Brian; Schefter, Tracey; Gaspar, Laurie; Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States)

2013-08-15

329

High-dose MVCT image guidance for stereotactic body radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a potent treatment for early stage primary and limited metastatic disease. Accurate tumor localization is essential to administer SBRT safely and effectively. Tomotherapy combines helical IMRT with onboard megavoltage CT (MVCT) imaging and is well suited for SBRT; however, MVCT results in reduced soft tissue contrast and increased image noise compared with kilovoltage CT. The goal of this work was to investigate the use of increased imaging doses on a clinical tomotherapy machine to improve image quality for SBRT image guidance. Methods: Two nonstandard, high-dose imaging modes were created on a tomotherapy machine by increasing the linear accelerator (LINAC) pulse rate from the nominal setting of 80 Hz, to 160 Hz and 300 Hz, respectively. Weighted CT dose indexes (wCTDIs) were measured for the standard, medium, and high-dose modes in a 30 cm solid water phantom using a calibrated A1SL ion chamber. Image quality was assessed from scans of a customized image quality phantom. Metrics evaluated include: contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs), high-contrast spatial resolution, image uniformity, and percent image noise. In addition, two patients receiving SBRT were localized using high-dose MVCT scans. Raw detector data collected after each scan were used to reconstruct standard-dose images for comparison. Results: MVCT scans acquired using a pitch of 1.0 resulted in wCTDI values of 2.2, 4.7, and 8.5 cGy for the standard, medium, and high-dose modes respectively. CNR values for both low and high-contrast materials were found to increase with the square root of dose. Axial high-contrast spatial resolution was comparable for all imaging modes at 0.5 lp/mm. Image uniformity was improved and percent noise decreased as the imaging dose increased. Similar improvements in image quality were observed in patient images, with decreases in image noise being the most notable. Conclusions: High-dose imaging modes are made possible on a clinical tomotherapy machine by increasing the LINAC pulse rate. Increasing the imaging dose results in increased CNRs; making it easier to distinguish the boundaries of low contrast objects. The imaging dose levels observed in this work are considered acceptable at our institution for SBRT treatments delivered in 3-5 fractions.

Westerly, David C.; Schefter, Tracey E.; Kavanagh, Brian D.; Chao, Edward; Lucas, Dan; Flynn, Ryan T.; Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Accuray Inc., Madison, Wisconsin 53717 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States)

2012-08-15

330

Determination of optimal whole body vibration amplitude and frequency parameters with plyometric exercise and its influence on closed-chain lower extremity acute power output and EMG activity in resistance trained males  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimal combination of Whole body vibration (WBV) amplitude and frequency has not been established. Purpose. To determine optimal combination of WBV amplitude and frequency that will enhance acute mean and peak power (MP and PP) output EMG activity in the lower extremity muscles. Methods. Resistance trained males (n = 13) completed the following testing sessions: On day 1, power

Nikki J. Hughes

2005-01-01

331

Mixed quantum/classical theory of rotationally and vibrationally inelastic scattering in space-fixed and body-fixed reference frames  

SciTech Connect

We formulated the mixed quantum/classical theory for rotationally and vibrationally inelastic scattering process in the diatomic molecule + atom system. Two versions of theory are presented, first in the space-fixed and second in the body-fixed reference frame. First version is easy to derive and the resultant equations of motion are transparent, but the state-to-state transition matrix is complex-valued and dense. Such calculations may be computationally demanding for heavier molecules and/or higher temperatures, when the number of accessible channels becomes large. In contrast, the second version of theory requires some tedious derivations and the final equations of motion are rather complicated (not particularly intuitive). However, the state-to-state transitions are driven by real-valued sparse matrixes of much smaller size. Thus, this formulation is the method of choice from the computational point of view, while the space-fixed formulation can serve as a test of the body-fixed equations of motion, and the code. Rigorous numerical tests were carried out for a model system to ensure that all equations, matrixes, and computer codes in both formulations are correct.

Semenov, Alexander; Babikov, Dmitri, E-mail: dmitri.babikov@mu.edu [Chemistry Department, Wehr Chemistry Building, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201-1881 (United States)] [Chemistry Department, Wehr Chemistry Building, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201-1881 (United States)

2013-11-07

332

Mixed quantum/classical theory of rotationally and vibrationally inelastic scattering in space-fixed and body-fixed reference frames.  

PubMed

We formulated the mixed quantum/classical theory for rotationally and vibrationally inelastic scattering process in the diatomic molecule + atom system. Two versions of theory are presented, first in the space-fixed and second in the body-fixed reference frame. First version is easy to derive and the resultant equations of motion are transparent, but the state-to-state transition matrix is complex-valued and dense. Such calculations may be computationally demanding for heavier molecules and/or higher temperatures, when the number of accessible channels becomes large. In contrast, the second version of theory requires some tedious derivations and the final equations of motion are rather complicated (not particularly intuitive). However, the state-to-state transitions are driven by real-valued sparse matrixes of much smaller size. Thus, this formulation is the method of choice from the computational point of view, while the space-fixed formulation can serve as a test of the body-fixed equations of motion, and the code. Rigorous numerical tests were carried out for a model system to ensure that all equations, matrixes, and computer codes in both formulations are correct. PMID:24206288

Semenov, Alexander; Babikov, Dmitri

2013-11-01

333

An Empirical Model of Body Image Disturbance Using Behavioral Principles found in Functional Analytic Psychotherapy and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy  

PubMed Central

The literature examining body image disturbance and Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) is fraught with competing theoretical constructions of the etiology and nosology of these problems. Recent studies on various forms of psychopathology suggest that intrapersonal processes, including experiential avoidance, and interpersonal processes such as difficulties identifying and expressing emotions with others, correlate with higher levels of psychopathology. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship of body image disturbance and diagnosable BDD to the contemporary behavioral variables of experiential avoidance and interpersonal expression of affect. A large sample of participants including those who are diagnosable with BDD were examined. Results indicate that both intrapersonal and interpersonal variables are significant predictors of both body image disturbance in a large population and of BDD as a subsample and that these variables may be important targets for treatment. This principle-based conceptualization has parsimony and potential utility for clinical interventions of these problems. Implications are discussed for the use of contemporary behavioral treatments such as Functional Analytic Psychotherapy and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to address both body image disturbance and BDD.

Callaghan, Glenn M.; Duenas, Julissa A.; Nadeau, Sarah E.; Darrow, Sabrina M.; Van der Merwe, Jessica; Misko, Jennifer

2012-01-01

334

Measurement Cardin-respiratory fitness body composition clinical setting. Pollock ML Schmidt DH Jackson AS. Comprehensive Therapy 6(9): 12-27 1980. Measurement Cardin-respiratory fitness body composition clinical setting Pollock ML Schmidt DH Jackson AS  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Did you mean: Measurement Cardin-respiratory fitness body composition clinical setting. Pollock ML Schmidt DH Jackson AS. Comprehensive Therapy 6(9): 12-27 1980. Measurement Cardin-respiratory fitness body composition clinical setting Pollock ML Schmidt DH Jackson AS ?

335

Effects of isolated and combined exposures to whole-body vibration and noise on auditory-event related brain potentials and psychophysical assessment.  

PubMed

Auditory event-related brain potentials (ERP) in response to two different tone stimuli (1.1 kHz or 1 kHz, 80 dB, 50 ms; given by headphones at a regular interstimulus interval of 5 s with a probability distribution of 70:30) were recorded from 12 healthy male subjects (Ss) during four different conditions with two repetitions: A-60 dBA white noise (wN), no whole-body vibration (WBV); B-60 dBA wN plus sinusoidal WBV in the az-direction with a frequency of 2.01 Hz and acceleration of 2 m.s-2 root mean square; C-80 dBA wN, no WBV; D-80 dBA wN plus WBV. Each condition consisted of two runs of about 11 min interrupted by a break of 4 min. During the break with continuing exposure, but without auditory stimuli, Ss judged the difficulty of the tone-detection task and intensity of noise by means of cross-modality matching (CMM). Vibration-synchronous activity in the electrocardiogram was eliminated by a subtraction-technique. Noise caused an attenuation of the N1 and P2 amplitudes and prolongation of P3 latencies. The WBV did not cause systematic ERP effects. Condition B was associated with higher N1 and smaller P3 amplitudes. The factor "condition" had a significant effect on the peak latencies of P3 to target stimuli and the task difficulty judged by CMM. Both effects exhibited significant linear increases in the sequence of conditions A, B, C, D. For the evaluation of exposure conditions at work, it can be suggested that noise has a strong systematic effect which can be enhanced by WBV.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1425639

Seidel, H; Blüthner, R; Martin, J; Menzel, G; Panuska, R; Ullsperger, P

1992-01-01

336

Endurance training improves insulin sensitivity and body composition in prostate cancer patients treated with androgen deprivation therapy.  

PubMed

Insulin resistance and changes in body composition are side effects of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) given to prostate cancer patients. The present study investigated whether endurance training improves insulin sensitivity and body composition in ADT-treated prostate cancer patients. Nine men undergoing ADT for prostate cancer and ten healthy men with normal testosterone levels underwent 12 weeks of endurance training. Primary endpoints were insulin sensitivity (euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps with concomitant glucose-tracer infusion) and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging). The secondary endpoint was systemic inflammation. Statistical analysis was carried out using two-way ANOVA. Endurance training increased VO2max (ml(O2)/min per kg) by 11 and 13% in the patients and controls respectively (P<0.0001). The patients and controls demonstrated an increase in peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity of 14 and 11% respectively (P<0.05), with no effect on hepatic insulin sensitivity (P=0.32). Muscle protein content of GLUT4 (SLC2A4) and total AKT (AKT1) was also increased in response to the training (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively). Body weight (P<0.0001) and whole-body fat mass (FM) (P<0.01) were reduced, while lean body mass (P=0.99) was unchanged. Additionally, reductions were observed in abdominal (P<0.01), subcutaneous (P<0.05), and visceral (P<0.01) FM amounts. The concentrations of plasma markers of systemic inflammation were unchanged in response to the training. No group × time interactions were observed, except for thigh intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) (P=0.01), reflecting a significant reduction in the amount of IMAT in the controls (P<0.05) not observed in the patients (P=0.64). In response to endurance training, ADT-treated prostate cancer patients exhibited improved insulin sensitivity and body composition to a similar degree as eugonadal men. PMID:23744766

Hvid, Thine; Winding, Kamilla; Rinnov, Anders; Dejgaard, Thomas; Thomsen, Carsten; Iversen, Peter; Brasso, Klaus; Mikines, Kari J; van Hall, Gerrit; Lindegaard, Birgitte; Solomon, Thomas P J; Pedersen, Bente K

2013-10-01

337

Six-Dimensional Correction of Intra-Fractional Prostate Motion with CyberKnife Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy  

PubMed Central

Large fraction radiation therapy offers a shorter course of treatment and radiobiological advantages for prostate cancer treatment. The CyberKnife is an attractive technology for delivering large fraction doses based on the ability to deliver highly conformal radiation therapy to moving targets. In addition to intra-fractional translational motion (left–right, superior–inferior, and anterior–posterior), prostate rotation (pitch, roll, and yaw) can increase geographical miss risk. We describe our experience with six-dimensional (6D) intra-fraction prostate motion correction using CyberKnife stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Eighty-eight patients were treated by SBRT alone or with supplemental external radiation therapy. Trans-perineal placement of four gold fiducials within the prostate accommodated X-ray guided prostate localization and beam adjustment. Fiducial separation and non-overlapping positioning permitted the orthogonal imaging required for 6D tracking. Fiducial placement accuracy was assessed using the CyberKnife fiducial extraction algorithm. Acute toxicities were assessed using Common Toxicity Criteria v3. There were no Grade 3, or higher, complications and acute morbidity was minimal. Ninety-eight percent of patients completed treatment employing 6D prostate motion tracking with intra-fractional beam correction. Suboptimal fiducial placement limited treatment to 3D tracking in two patients. Our experience may guide others in performing 6D correction of prostate motion with CyberKnife SBRT.

Lei, Siyuan; Piel, Nathaniel; Oermann, Eric K.; Chen, Viola; Ju, Andrew W.; Dahal, Kedar N.; Hanscom, Heather N.; Kim, Joy S.; Yu, Xia; Zhang, Guowei; Collins, Brian T.; Jha, Reena; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Suy, Simeng; Collins, Sean P.

2011-01-01

338

Six-Dimensional Correction of Intra-Fractional Prostate Motion with CyberKnife Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy.  

PubMed

Large fraction radiation therapy offers a shorter course of treatment and radiobiological advantages for prostate cancer treatment. The CyberKnife is an attractive technology for delivering large fraction doses based on the ability to deliver highly conformal radiation therapy to moving targets. In addition to intra-fractional translational motion (left-right, superior-inferior, and anterior-posterior), prostate rotation (pitch, roll, and yaw) can increase geographical miss risk. We describe our experience with six-dimensional (6D) intra-fraction prostate motion correction using CyberKnife stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Eighty-eight patients were treated by SBRT alone or with supplemental external radiation therapy. Trans-perineal placement of four gold fiducials within the prostate accommodated X-ray guided prostate localization and beam adjustment. Fiducial separation and non-overlapping positioning permitted the orthogonal imaging required for 6D tracking. Fiducial placement accuracy was assessed using the CyberKnife fiducial extraction algorithm. Acute toxicities were assessed using Common Toxicity Criteria v3. There were no Grade 3, or higher, complications and acute morbidity was minimal. Ninety-eight percent of patients completed treatment employing 6D prostate motion tracking with intra-fractional beam correction. Suboptimal fiducial placement limited treatment to 3D tracking in two patients. Our experience may guide others in performing 6D correction of prostate motion with CyberKnife SBRT. PMID:22655248

Lei, Siyuan; Piel, Nathaniel; Oermann, Eric K; Chen, Viola; Ju, Andrew W; Dahal, Kedar N; Hanscom, Heather N; Kim, Joy S; Yu, Xia; Zhang, Guowei; Collins, Brian T; Jha, Reena; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Suy, Simeng; Collins, Sean P

2011-01-01

339

Stereotactic body radiation therapy for melanoma and renal cell carcinoma: impact of single fraction equivalent dose on local control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Melanoma and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are traditionally considered less radioresponsive than other histologies. Whereas\\u000a stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) involves radiation dose intensification via escalation, we hypothesize SBRT might\\u000a result in similar high local control rates as previously published on metastases of varying histologies.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The records of patients with metastatic melanoma (n = 17 patients, 28 lesions) or RCC

Michelle A Stinauer; Brian D Kavanagh; Tracey E Schefter; Rene Gonzalez; Thomas Flaig; Karl Lewis; William Robinson; Mark Chidel; Michael Glode; David Raben

2011-01-01

340

A hybrid endolaparoscopic therapy for the treatment of foreign bodies in the stomach with esophageal perforation.  

PubMed

Recently, the combination of a laparoscopic and endoscopic approach for surgical treatment has increased interest in minimally invasive surgery. Minimally invasive surgery has many advantages over traditional open procedures, and the management of foreign body ingestion is an interesting field in which the combination approach can be used. Herein, we describe the combined approach (laparoscopic and endoscopic) for removal of foreign bodies with the presence of esophageal perforation. PMID:23752007

Vilallonga, Ramon; Pimentel, Ronnie; Rosenthal, Raul J

2013-06-01

341

[Is body oriented psychotherapy a female matter? A clinical process-outcome-study of concentrative movement therapy].  

PubMed

It is often thought, that men have more difficulties in body oriented psychotherapy than women because of the gender specific differences in the attitude towards the body. Using a sample of 62 in-patients, the present study considers the question, whether in clinical psychotherapy influences of sex and age (as control variables) on course and outcome of treatment with Concentrative Movement Therapy (KBT) are found. Course of treatment is recorded by the Group Experience Questionnaire for KBT. Global results of treatment are recorded multidimensionally. KBT related results are determined by ratings of the group therapist. Both global scores are computed. Main result is, that sex and age have no predictive meaning for treatment results and do not clearly differentiate the treatment course. Some effects of sex and age are found concerning the connection of group experience and treatment results. The results lead to hypotheses about differential therapeutic mechanism of KBT depending on age and sex. They need further empirical confirmation. PMID:12152128

Schreiber-Willnow, Karin; Seidler, Klaus-Peter

2002-08-01

342

Therapy-resistant foreign body giant cell granuloma at the periapex of a root-filled human tooth  

SciTech Connect

Although the primary etiological factor of periapical lesions is microbial, there are other independent factors that can adversely affect the outcome of endodontic treatment. In this communication, we present morphological evidence in support of the role of a foreign body reaction of periapical tissue to root-filling materials. The specimen consisted of a surgical biopsy of an asymptomatic periapical lesion which persisted after a decade of postendodontic follow-up. The biopsy was processed for correlated light and electron microscopy and was analyzed by various microtechniques. The unique feature of the lesion was the presence of vast numbers of large multinucleated cells and their cytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Morphologically, these multinucleated cells resembled foreign body giant cells. They contained characteristic birefringent cytoplasmic inclusions which on electron-probe x-ray microanalysis consistently revealed the presence of magnesium and silicon. The magnesium and silicon are presumably the remnants of a root-filling excess which protruded into the periapex and had been resorbed during the follow-up period. These observations strongly suggest that in the absence of microbial factors, root-filling materials which contain irritating substances can evoke a foreign body reaction at the periapex, leading to the development of asymptomatic periapical lesions that may remain refractory to endodontic therapy for long periods of time.

Nair, P.N.; Sjoegren, U.K.; Krey, G.; Sundqvist, G. (Dental Institute, University of Zurich (Switzerland))

1990-12-01

343

A pilot study of intensity modulated radiation therapy with hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) boost in the treatment of intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Clinical data suggest that large radiation fractions are biologically superior to smaller fraction sizes in prostate cancer radiotherapy. The CyberKnife is an appealing delivery system for hypofractionated radiosurgery due to its ability to deliver highly conformal radiation and to track and adjust for prostate motion in real-time. We report our early experience using the CyberKnife to deliver a hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) boost to patients with intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer. Twenty-four patients were treated with hypofractionated SBRT and supplemental external radiation therapy plus or minus androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Patients were treated with SBRT to a dose of 19.5 Gy in 3 fractions followed by intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to a dose of 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. Quality of life data were collected with American Urological Association (AUA) symptom score and Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) questionnaires before and after treatment. PSA responses were monitored; acute urinary and rectal toxicities were assessed using Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) v3. All 24 patients completed the planned treatment with an average follow-up of 9.3 months. For patients who did not receive ADT, the median pre-treatment PSA was 10.6 ng/ml and decreased in all patients to a median of 1.5 ng/ml by 6 months post-treatment. Acute effects associated with treatment included Grade 2 urinary and gastrointestinal toxicity but no patient experienced acute Grade 3 or greater toxicity. AUA and EPIC scores returned to baseline by six months post-treatment. Hypofractionated SBRT combined with IMRT offers radiobiological benefits of a large fraction boost for dose escalation and is a well tolerated treatment option for men with intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer. Early results are encouraging with biochemical response and acceptable toxicity. These data provide a basis for the design of a phase II clinical trial. PMID:20815416

Oermann, Eric K; Slack, Rebecca S; Hanscom, Heather N; Lei, Sue; Suy, Simeng; Park, Hyeon U; Kim, Joy S; Sherer, Benjamin A; Collins, Brian T; Satinsky, Andrew N; Harter, K William; Batipps, Gerald P; Constantinople, Nicholas L; Dejter, Stephen W; Maxted, William C; Regan, James B; Pahira, John J; McGeagh, Kevin G; Jha, Reena C; Dawson, Nancy A; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Lynch, John H; Collins, Sean P

2010-10-01

344

Long-term effects of whole-body vibration on motor unit contractile function and myosin heavy chain composition in the rat medial gastrocnemius.  

PubMed

Structural and physiological mechanisms underling functional adaptations of a muscle to chronic whole-body vibration (WBV) are poorly understood. The study aimed at examining the contractile properties of motor units and the myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression in rat medial gastrocnemius muscle in response to 3- or 6-month periods of the WBV. The three-month WBV induced modifications of contractile properties principally in slow (S) and fast resistant to fatigue (FR) motor units. In S units an increase in the maximum tetanus force, a reduction in the twitch force and a decrease in the twitch-to-tetanus force ratio were found. In FR units a shortening in the twitch time parameters, a decrease in the twitch-to-tetanus ratio and an increase in the fatigue resistance were observed. In addition, a decrease in the type I and an increase in the type IIax MHC content were revealed. The six-month WBV caused a decrease in the twitch-to-tetanus force ratio in S and FR units. Other structural and physiological changes in MU properties previously seen were no longer apparent. In conclusion, responses to the long-term WBV stimulus vary between particular types of motor units, what suggests that multiple adaptive processes in muscle tissue are involved. PMID:24292613

?ochy?ski, D; Kaczmarek, D; R?dowicz, M J; Celichowski, J; Krutki, P

2013-12-01

345

Systematic measurements of whole-body imaging dose distributions in image-guided radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The full benefit of the increased precision of contemporary treatment techniques can only be exploited if the accuracy of the patient positioning is guaranteed. Therefore, more and more imaging modalities are used in the process of the patient setup in clinical routine of radiation therapy. The improved accuracy in patient positioning, however, results in additional dose contributions to the integral patient dose. To quantify this, absorbed dose measurements from typical imaging procedures involved in an image-guided radiation therapy treatment were measured in an anthropomorphic phantom for a complete course of treatment. The experimental setup, including the measurement positions in the phantom, was exactly the same as in a preceding study of radiotherapy stray dose measurements. This allows a direct combination of imaging dose distributions with the therapy dose distribution. Methods: Individually calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to measure absorbed dose in an anthropomorphic phantom at 184 locations. The dose distributions from imaging devices used with treatment machines from the manufacturers Accuray, Elekta, Siemens, and Varian and from computed tomography scanners from GE Healthcare were determined and the resulting effective dose was calculated. The list of investigated imaging techniques consisted of cone beam computed tomography (kilo- and megavoltage), megavoltage fan beam computed tomography, kilo- and megavoltage planar imaging, planning computed tomography with and without gating methods and planar scout views. Results: A conventional 3D planning CT resulted in an effective dose additional to the treatment stray dose of less than 1 mSv outside of the treated volume, whereas a 4D planning CT resulted in a 10 times larger dose. For a daily setup of the patient with two planar kilovoltage images or with a fan beam CT at the TomoTherapy unit, an additional effective dose outside of the treated volume of less than 0.4 mSv and 1.4 mSv was measured, respectively. Using kilovoltage or megavoltage radiation to obtain cone beam computed tomography scans led to an additional dose of 8-46 mSv. For treatment verification images performed once per week using double exposure technique, an additional effective dose of up to 18 mSv was measured. Conclusions: Daily setup imaging using kilovoltage planar images or TomoTherapy megavoltage fan beam CT imaging can be used as a standard procedure in clinical routine. Daily kilovoltage and megavoltage cone beam computed tomography setup imaging should be applied on an individual or indication based protocol. Depending on the imaging scheme applied, image-guided radiation therapy can be administered without increasing the dose outside of the treated volume compared to therapies without image guidance.

Haelg, Roger A.; Besserer, Juergen; Schneider, Uwe [Radiotherapie Hirslanden AG, Institute for Radiotherapy, Aarau 5000 (Switzerland); Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich 8057 (Switzerland) and Radiotherapie Hirslanden AG, Institute for Radiotherapy, Aarau 5000 (Switzerland)

2012-12-15

346

Effect of hormone therapy on lean body mass, falls, and fractures: Six-year results from the Women's Health Initiative Hormone Trials  

PubMed Central

Objective Loss of lean body mass with aging may contribute to falls and fractures. The objective of this analysis was to determine if taking postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT: estrogen plus progestogen therapy, EPT or estrogen therapy alone, ET) favorably affects age-related changes in lean body mass and if these changes partially account for decreased falls or fractures with HT. Methods Participants randomly assigned to either EPT (n=543) or control (n=471) and ET (n= 453) or control (n= 474) and receiving dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans to estimate body composition during the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) were evaluated. Falls and fracture occurrence were obtained by annual self-report. Fractures were confirmed by clinical chart review. Results At 6yrs post-randomization, lean body mass was not different between HT and control groups. Although lean body mass positively influenced BMD, independent of HT status, the preserved lean body mass observed in the HT arms in the first 3 years did not significantly contribute to models evaluating HT influence on falls and fractures between years 3 and 6. Women taking at least 80% of their medication in the HT arms demonstrated fewer falls compared to placebo; this difference was not attributable to change in lean body mass. Conclusions Despite early preservation of lean body mass with HT (3years), HT did not ameliorate long-term (6 years) loss in lean body mass with aging.

Bea, Jennifer W.; Zhao, Qiuhong; Cauley, Jane A.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Bassford, Tamsen; Lewis, Cora E.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Chen, Zhao

2010-01-01

347

Muscle function, physical performance and body composition changes in men with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common visceral malignancy in men with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) the preferred therapy to suppress testosterone production and hence tumor growth. Despite its effectiveness in lowering testosterone, ADT is associated with side effects including loss of muscle mass, diminished muscle strength, decrements in physical performance, earlier fatigue and declining quality of life. This review reports a survey of the literature with a focus on changes in muscle strength, physical function and body composition, due to short-term and long-term ADT. Studies in these areas are sparse, especially well-controlled, prospective randomized trials. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data (up to 2 years) for men with PCa treated with ADT as well as patients with PCa not receiving ADT and age-matched healthy men are presented when available. Based on limited longitudinal data, the adverse effects of ADT on muscle function, physical performance and body composition occur shortly after the onset of ADT and tend to persist and worsen over time. Exercise training is a safe and effective intervention for mitigating these changes and initial guidelines for exercise program design for men with PCa have been published by the American College of Sports Medicine. Disparities in study duration, types of studies and other patient-specific variables such as time since diagnosis, cancer stage and comorbidities may all affect an understanding of the influence of ADT on health, physical performance and mortality. PMID:22367184

Storer, Thomas W; Miciek, Renee; Travison, Thomas G

2012-03-01

348

Perceived outcomes of music therapy with Body Tambura in end of life care - a qualitative pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, music therapy is increasingly used in palliative care. The aim of this pilot study was to record and describe the subjective experiences of patients and their relatives undergoing music therapy with a Body Tambura in a German hospice and to develop hypotheses for future studies. Methods In a qualitative interview pilot study, data collection and analyses were performed according to the methodological framework of grounded theory. We included German-speaking patients, or relatives of patients, receiving end of life care in an inpatient hospice setting. Results 11 persons consisting of 8 patients (age range 51–82 years, 4 male and 4 female) and 3 relatives were treated and interviewed. All patients suffered from cancer in an advanced stage. The most often described subjective experiences were a relaxing and calming effect, sensations that the body feels lighter, and the generation of relaxing images and visualizations. Family members enjoyed listening to the music and felt more connected with the sick family member. Conclusion Patient reported beneficial aspects. The small sample size could be seen as a limitation. Assessment instruments measuring relaxation, stress, quality of life and should be included in future quantitative studies.

2014-01-01

349

Mindful Awareness in Body-oriented Therapy as an Adjunct to Women's Substance Use Disorder Treatment: A Pilot Feasibility Study  

PubMed Central

This study examined Mindful Awareness in Body-oriented Therapy (MABT) feasibility as a novel adjunct to women’s substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. An individual therapy, MABT combines manual and mind-body approaches to develop interoception and self-care tools for emotion regulation. A 2-group RCT repeated measures design was used, comparing MABT to treatment-as-usual (TAU) on relapse to substance use and related health outcomes. Sixty-one women were screened for eligibility and 46 enrolled. Participants randomized to MABT received 8 weekly MABT sessions. Results showed moderate to large effects, including significantly fewer days on substance use, the primary outcome, for MABT compared to TAU at post-test. Secondary outcomes showed improved eating disorder symptoms, depression, anxiety, dissociation, perceived stress, physical symptom frequency, and bodily dissociation for MABT compared to TAU at 9 month follow-up. In conclusion, it is feasible to implement MABT in women’s SUD treatment and results suggest that MABT is worthy of further efficacy testing.

Price, Cynthia J.; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Donovan, Dennis M.; Rue, Tessa

2011-01-01

350

The effect of vagus nerve stimulation therapy on body mass index in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of vagus nerve stimulation on weight in individuals with epilepsy are not fully characterized. A retrospective review was performed of all pediatric patients who underwent placement of a vagus nerve stimulator at Duke University Medical Center. Baseline body mass index (BMI) percentile was compared with percentile on follow-up visits. We studied 23 patients who had undergone VNS placement

Sujay Kansagra; Nour Ataya; Darrell Lewis; William Gallentine; Mohamad A. Mikati

2010-01-01

351

Combined modality therapy of diffuse histology non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, prednisone (CHOP) and total body irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The combination of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) alternating with total body irradiation (TBI) has been shown earlier to be effective therapy in patients with malignant lymphoma who have received prior chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. A limited institutional pilot study was therefore done by the Southwest Oncology Group between October 1977, and November 1978 to test the benefit of this program in previously untreated persons with Stages 3 and 4 diffuse histology non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Eleven evaluable patients with the following histologies were treated: 7 poorly differentiated, 2 with histiocytic, 1 with mixed lymphoma and 1 with well-differentiated morphology. Responses were seen in 8/11 patients (6 CR and 2 PR); 5 persons are currently alive and 6 are dead. The median duration of remission is 15 months and the median survival for all patients is 48 months. The therapy was well tolerated with a mean nadir leukocyte count of 3020 x 10/sup 9//..mu..l (range 1.2 to 5.5) and a mean nadir platelet count of 188 x 10/sup 9//..mu..l (range 016 to 270). As delivered, this program is capable of producing durable remissions and needs to be verified in a larger series of patients.

Weick, J.K. (Cleveland Clinic, OH); Antunez, A.; Kraus, T.A.; Fabian, C.J.; Dixon, D.

1983-08-01

352

NOTE: Individual radiation therapy patient whole-body phantoms for peripheral dose evaluations: method and specific software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents a method aimed at creating radiotherapy (RT) patient-adjustable whole-body phantoms to permit retrospective and prospective peripheral dose evaluations for enhanced patient radioprotection. Our strategy involves virtual whole-body patient models (WBPM) in different RT treatment positions for both genders and for different age groups. It includes a software tool designed to match the anatomy of the phantoms with the anatomy of the actual patients, based on the quality of patient data available. The procedure for adjusting a WBPM to patient morphology includes typical dimensions available in basic auxological tables for the French population. Adjustment is semi-automatic. Because of the complexity of the human anatomy, skilled personnel are required to validate changes made in the phantom anatomy. This research is part of a global project aimed at proposing appropriate methods and software tools capable of reconstituting the anatomy and dose evaluations in the entire body of RT patients in an adapted treatment planning system (TPS). The graphic user interface is that of a TPS adapted to obtain a comfortable working process. Such WBPM have been used to supplement patient therapy planning images, usually restricted to regions involved in treatment. Here we report, as an example, the case of a patient treated for prostate cancer whose therapy planning images were complemented by an anatomy model. Although present results are preliminary and our research is ongoing, they appear encouraging, since such patient-adjusted phantoms are crucial in the optimization of radiation protection of patients and for follow-up studies.

Alziar, I.; Bonniaud, G.; Couanet, D.; Ruaud, J. B.; Vicente, C.; Giordana, G.; Ben-Harrath, O.; Diaz, J. C.; Grandjean, P.; Kafrouni, H.; Chavaudra, J.; Lefkopoulos, D.; de Vathaire, F.; Diallo, I.

2009-09-01

353

The Use of Low-Level Laser Therapy for Noninvasive Body Contouring  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A well-established faction of photomedicine is the use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT), which yields a valuable response\\u000a without generating a photothermal or photoacoustic means. LLLT is categorized by two distinctive phases: (1) a primary phase\\u000a that describes the absorption of light energy by a photoabsorbing molecule and (2) a secondary phase that is characterized\\u000a by a biological cascade responsible

Robert F. Jackson; Ryan Maloney

354

Accurate tumor localization and tracking in radiation therapy using wireless body sensor networks.  

PubMed

Radiation therapy is an effective method to combat cancerous tumors by killing the malignant cells or controlling their growth. Knowing the exact position of the tumor is a very critical prerequisite in radiation therapy. Since the position of the tumor changes during the process of radiation therapy due to the patient?s movements and respiration, a real-time tumor tracking method is highly desirable in order to deliver a sufficient dose of radiation to the tumor region without damaging the surrounding healthy tissues. In this paper, we develop a novel tumor positioning method based on spatial sparsity. We estimate the position by processing the received signals from only one implantable RF transmitter. The proposed method uses less number of sensors compared to common magnetic transponder based approaches. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated in two different cases: (1) when the tissue configuration is perfectly determined (acquired beforehand by MRI or CT) and (2) when there are some uncertainties about the tissue boundaries. The results demonstrate the high accuracy and performance of the proposed method, even when the tissue boundaries are imperfectly known. PMID:24832352

Pourhomayoun, Mohammad; Jin, Zhanpeng; Fowler, Mark

2014-07-01

355

Vibration manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Guidelines of the methods and applications used in vibration technology at the MSFC are presented. The purpose of the guidelines is to provide a practical tool for coordination and understanding between industry and government groups concerned with vibration of systems and equipments. Topics covered include measuring, reducing, analyzing, and methods for obtaining simulated environments and formulating vibration specifications. Methods for vibration and shock testing, theoretical aspects of data processing, vibration response analysis, and techniques of designing for vibration are also presented.

Green, C.

1971-01-01

356

Predictions of health risks associated with the operation of load-haul-dump mining vehicles: Part 1—Analysis of whole-body vibration exposure using ISO 2631-1 and ISO2631-5 standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predicted health risks, associated with the operation of load-haul-dump (LHD) vehicles, based on ISO 2631-1 criteria are limited and have not yet been determined according to ISO 2631-5 criteria. Therefore, health risks predicted by ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5 criteria are reported and compared in this paper. Whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure was measured according to procedures established in ISO 2631-1. A

T. Eger; J. Stevenson; P.-É. Boileau; A. Salmoni

2008-01-01

357

Biomechanical studies of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT): quantifying the movements of vertebral bodies during SMT  

PubMed Central

The relative movements between vertebral bodies T10 and T11, and T11 and T12 were measured during clinical-type SMTs to T11 in unembalmed post-rigor human cadavers, using embedded stainless steel bone pins and high speed cinematography. Significant relative movements between target and adjacent vertebrae occurred primarily in sagittal and axial rotation during the thrust phases of the SMTs. The relative positions of the vertebral bodies were compared at similar force levels, before and after the rapid thrust phases. The sagittal angles between T11 and T12 following the SMTs, were significantly different from their pre-thrust values. Two non-invasive methods (surface markers and uni-axial accelerometers) were compared to the invasive bone pins, in order to assess their suitability to accurately measure posterior-anterior translation. The results showed that both non-invasive techniques significantly underestimated the absolute movements of all vertebral bodies during the SMTs. The relative posterior-anterior translations using the non-invasive techniques however, were not significantly different from those determined from the bone pins. ImagesFigure 2

Gal, Julianna; Herzog, Walter; Kawchuk, Gregory; Conway, Phillip; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

1994-01-01

358

Subjective Reaction to Dual Frequency Vibration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study was to provide information regarding subjective reaction to dual frequency vibration. Eight male volunteers rated 'Perceptible', 'Mildly Annoying', and 'Extremely Annoying' levels of body resonant vibration (4, 5, 6, 8 and 10 cycl...

S. H. Brumaghim

1967-01-01

359

Vibration, Proprioception, and Low Back Stability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health report 'Musculoskeletal disorders and workplace factors' lists vibration as one of the five physical workplace factors associated with low back disorders with whole body vibration increasing risk fr...

S. E. Wilson

2009-01-01

360

Comparative effects of whole-body vibration on sensorimotor performance achieved with a mini-stick and a macro-stick in force and position control modes.  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation was to assess the performance of subjects in a target recentering task, performed under both normal and vibration conditions. A conventional helicopter stick and an arm-side controller were used in both position and force control modes. The task was designed to simulate instrument flying. The results showed that in the no-vibration situation, the highest performance was achieved in the force control mode and little difference was observed between the two sticks. They also showed that vibration impaired the velocity control of the performance. It is suggested that the subject might be switching over from a visual and arm afferent and efferent control in the no-vibration situation, to a visual control only under vibration condition. From this study, it appears that the more efficient stick to execute the designed task is the mini-stick operating in the force control mode. PMID:3753364

Ribot, E; Roll, J P; Gauthier, G M

1986-08-01

361

Reirradiation of head and neck cancer focusing on hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy  

PubMed Central

Reirradiation is a feasible option for patients who do not otherwise have treatment options available. Depending on the location and extent of the tumor, reirradiation may be accomplished with external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, radiosurgery, or intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Although there has been limited experience with hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (hSRT), it may have the potential for curative or palliative treatment due to its advanced precision technology, particularly for limited small lesion. On the other hand, severe late adverse reactions are anticipated with reirradiation than with initial radiation therapy. The risk of severe late complications has been reported to be 20- 40% and is related to prior radiotherapy dose, primary site, retreatment radiotherapy dose, treatment volume, and technique. Early researchers have observed lethal bleeding in such patients up to a rate of 14%. Recently, similar rate of 10-15% was observed for fatal bleeding with use of modern hSRT like in case of carotid blowout syndrome. To determine the feasibility and efficacy of reirradiation using modern technology, we reviewed the pertinent literature. The potentially lethal side effects should be kept in mind when reirradiation by hSRT is considered for treatment, and efforts should be made to minimize the risk in any future investigations.

2011-01-01

362

Whole-body vibration as a mode of dyspnoea free physical activity: a community-based proof-of-concept trial  

PubMed Central

Background The potential of whole-body vibration (WBV) as a mode of dyspnoea free physical activity for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unknown among community-based settings. Furthermore, the acute effects of WBV on people with COPD have not been profiled in community-based settings. The aim of this community-based proof-of-concept trial was to describe acute effects of WBV by profiling subjective and objective responses to physical activity. Findings Seventeen community-dwelling older adults with COPD were recruited to participate in two sessions; WBV and sham WBV (SWBV). Each session consisted of five one-minute bouts interspersed with five one-minute passive rest periods. The gravitational force was ~2.5?g for WBV and ~0.0?g for SWBV. Reliability of baseline dyspnoea, heart rate, and oxygen saturation was first established and then profiled for both sessions. Acute responses to both WBV and SWBV were compared with repeated measures analysis of variance and repeated contrasts. Small changes in dyspnoea and oxygen saturation lacked subjective and clinical meaningfulness. One session of WBV and SWBV significantly increased heart rate (p???0.02), although there was no difference among WBV and SWBV (p?=?0.67). Conclusions This community-based proof-of-concept trial showed that a session of WBV can be completed with the absence of dyspnoea for people with COPD. Furthermore, there were no meaningful differences among WBV and SWBV for heart rate and oxygen saturation. There is scope for long-term community-based intervention research using WBV given the known effects of WBV on peripheral muscle function and functional independence.

2013-01-01

363

Whole-body vibration and resistance exercise prevent long-term hindlimb unloading-induced bone loss: independent and interactive effects.  

PubMed

Skeletal unloading induced by disuse or immobilization causes a decrease in bone mass and strength. We investigated the relationship between whole-body vibration (WBV) and resistance exercise (RE) in preventing bone loss induced by 8-week hindlimb unloading in young male rats. Sixty male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to 6 groups: age-matched control group (CON, n = 10), hindlimb unloading group (HU, n = 10), hindlimb unloading + standing group (HU + ST, n = 10), hindlimb unloading + WBV group (HU + WBV, n = 10), hindlimb unloading + RE group (HU + RE, n = 10) and hindlimb unloading + WBV + RE group (HU + WBV + RE, n = 10). After 8-week hindlimb unloading, micro-CT scanning and three-point bending test were performed in the femur. Sera were collected for analysis of bone formation and resorption markers. Compared with HU group, WBV, RE and the combination of WBV and RE (WBV + RE) significantly improved (P < 0.01) one repetition maximum (1RM) (expressed as the percentage change from baseline, HU: -23%, HU + WBV: 21%, HU + RE: 48%, HU + WBV + RE: 51%), and maintained (P < 0.05) cancellous volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and trabecular structure. No difference of cortical vBMD was found among all groups (P > 0.05). WBV had no effects on biomechanical properties of the femur diaphysis (P > 0.05). RE and WBV + RE significantly increased maximum load and cross-sectional moment of inertia of the femur diaphysis in hindlimb unloading rats (P < 0.05). There was an interaction between WBV and RE in improving cancellous bone. These results demonstrate that WBV and RE interactively maintain cancellous structure and vBMD, and independently partially mitigate the reduction of bone strength in long-term hindlimb unloading rats. PMID:22371114

Li, Zhili; Tan, Cheng; Wu, Yonghua; Ding, Ye; Wang, Huijuan; Chen, Wenjuan; Zhu, Yu; Ma, Honglei; Yang, Honghui; Liang, Wenbin; Jiang, Shizhong; Wang, Desheng; Wang, Linjie; Tang, Guohua; Wang, Jun

2012-11-01

364

Vibrational spectroscopy characterization of low level laser therapy on mammary culture cells: a micro-FTIR study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low level laser therapy (LLLT) is an emerging therapeutic approach for several clinical conditions. The clinical effects induced by LLLT presumably go from the photobiostimulation\\/photobioinibition at cellular level to the molecular level. The detailed mechanism underlying this effect is still obscure. This work is dedicated to quantify some relevant aspects of LLLT related to molecular and cellular variations. This goal

Taciana D. Magrini; Nathalia Villa Dos Santos; Marcella Pecora Milazzotto; Giselle Cerchiaro; Herculano da Silva Martinho

2011-01-01

365

Bone scan findings of chest wall pain syndrome after stereotactic body radiation therapy: implications for the pathophysiology of the syndrome  

PubMed Central

We present a case of a 72-year-old woman treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for peripherally located stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). After treatment she developed ipsilateral grade II chest wall pain. A bone scan showed nonspecific and heterogeneous increased radiotracer uptake in the volume of ribs receiving 30% of the prescription dose of radiation (V30). We present a color wash image demonstrating excellent concordance between the V30 and the area of scintigraphic uptake on bone scan. We present a discussion of the current state of knowledge of dose volume parameters for chest wall toxicity following SBRT. This is the first case in the literature demonstrating bone scan findings corresponding to chest wall pain from SBRT. To explain these findings we propose a mechanism whereby SBRT results in bone degeneration, which prompts an increase in bone repair and an increased inflammatory state.

Lloyd, Shane; Decker, Roy H.

2013-01-01

366

Bone scan findings of chest wall pain syndrome after stereotactic body radiation therapy: implications for the pathophysiology of the syndrome.  

PubMed

We present a case of a 72-year-old woman treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for peripherally located stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). After treatment she developed ipsilateral grade II chest wall pain. A bone scan showed nonspecific and heterogeneous increased radiotracer uptake in the volume of ribs receiving 30% of the prescription dose of radiation (V30). We present a color wash image demonstrating excellent concordance between the V30 and the area of scintigraphic uptake on bone scan. We present a discussion of the current state of knowledge of dose volume parameters for chest wall toxicity following SBRT. This is the first case in the literature demonstrating bone scan findings corresponding to chest wall pain from SBRT. To explain these findings we propose a mechanism whereby SBRT results in bone degeneration, which prompts an increase in bone repair and an increased inflammatory state. PMID:23585956

Lloyd, Shane; Decker, Roy H; Evans, Suzanne B

2013-04-01

367

The treatment of primary and metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with image-guided stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT)  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Brain metastases from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have been successfully treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Metastases to extra-cranial sites may be treated with similar success using stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), where image-guidance allows for the delivery of precise high-dose radiation in a few fractions. This paper reports the authors’ initial experience with image-guided SBRT in treating primary and metastatic RCC. Materials and methods: The image-guided Brainlab Novalis stereotactic system was used. Fourteen patients with 23 extra-cranial metastatic RCC lesions (orbits, head and neck, lung, mediastinum, sternum, clavicle, scapula, humerus, rib, spine and abdominal wall) and two patients with biopsy-proven primary RCC (not surgical candidates) were treated with SBRT (24-40 Gy in 3-6 fractions over 1-2 weeks). All patients were immobilised in body cast or head and neck mask. Image-guidance was used for all fractions. PET/CT images were fused with simulation CT images to assist in target delineation and dose determination. SMART (simultaneous modulated accelerated radiation therapy) boost approach was adopted. 4D-CT was utilised to assess tumour/organ motion and assist in determining planning target volume margins. Results: Median follow-up was nine months. Thirteen patients (93%) who received SBRT to extra-cranial metastases achieved symptomatic relief. Two patients had local progression, yielding a local control rate of 87%. In the two patients with primary RCC, tumour size remained unchanged but their pain improved, and their renal function was unchanged post SBRT. There were no significant treatment-related side effects. Conclusion: Image-guided SBRT provides excellent symptom palliation and local control without any significant toxicity. SBRT may represent a novel, non-invasive, nephron-sparing option for the treatment of primary RCC as well as extra-cranial metastatic RCC.

Teh, BS; Bloch, C; Galli-Guevara, M; Doh, L; Richardson, S; Chiang, S; Yeh, P; Gonzalez, M; Lunn, W; Marco, R; Jac, J; Paulino, AC; Lu, HH; Butler, EB; Amato, RJ

2007-01-01

368

Hypothesizing the body's genius to trigger and self-organize its healing: 25 years using a standardized neurophysics therapy  

PubMed Central

We aim for this contribution to operate bi-directionally, both as a “bedside to bench” reverse-translational fractal physiological hypothesis and as a methodological innovation to inform clinical practice. In 25 years using gym equipment therapeutically in non-research settings, the standardized therapy is consistently observed to trigger universal responses of micro to macro waves of system transition dynamics in the human nervous system. These are associated with observably desirable impacts on disorders, injuries, diseases, and athletic performance. Requisite conditions are therapeutic coaching, erect posture, extremely slow movements in mild resistance exercises, and executive control over arousal and attention. To motivate research into the physiological improvements and in validation studies, we integrate from across disciplines to hypothesize explanations for the relationships among the methods, the system dynamics, and evident results. Key hypotheses include: (1) Correctly-directed system efforts may reverse a system's heretofore misdirected efforts, restoring healthier neurophysiology. (2) The enhanced information processing accompanying good posture is an essential initial condition. (3) Behaviors accompanying exercises performed with few degrees of freedom amplify information processing, triggering destabilization and transition dynamics. (4) Executive control over arousal and attention is essential to release system constraints, amplifying and complexifying information. (5) The dynamics create necessary and in many cases evidently sufficient conditions for the body to resolve or improve its own conditions within often short time periods. Literature indicates how the human system possesses material self-awareness. A broad explanation for the nature and effects of the therapy appears rooted in the cascading recursions of the systems' dynamics, which appear to trigger health-fostering self-reorganizing processes when this therapy provides catalytic initial conditions.

Ross, Sara N.; Ware, Ken

2013-01-01

369

Cell-to-cell miRNA transfer: from body homeostasis to therapy  

PubMed Central

The role of non-protein coding RNAs (ncRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs) in particular, as fine-tuners of both pathological and physiological processes is no longer a matter of debate. With the recent discovery of miRNAs in a wide variety of body fluids and considering them as tools employed in horizontal gene transfer between cells, a new horizon opens in the field of diagnosis and therapeutics. Circulating miRNAs not only enable the communication among cells, but also provide insight into the pathological and physiological state of the originating cells. In this review we summarize the recent advances made in this field, arguing for compelling translation of miRNAs into clinical practice. Moreover, we provide overview of their characteristics and how they impact the evolution of tumor microenvironment and cell-to-cell communication, advancing the idea that miRNAs may function as hormones.

Redis, Roxana S; Calin,