Sample records for body vibration therapy

  1. Reactions of the rat musculoskeletal system to compressive spinal cord injury (SCI) and whole body vibration (WBV) therapy.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, A; Pick, C; Harrach, R; Stein, G; Bendella, H; Ozsoy, O; Ozsoy, U; Schoenau, E; Jaminet, P; Sarikcioglu, L; Dunlop, S; Angelov, D N

    2015-06-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes a loss of locomotor function with associated compromise of the musculo-skeletal system. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a potential therapy following SCI, but little is known about its effects on the musculo-skeletal system. Here, we examined locomotor recovery and the musculo-skeletal system after thoracic (T7-9) compression SCI in adult rats. Daily WBV was started at 1, 7, 14 and 28 days after injury (WBV1-WBV28 respectively) and continued over a 12-week post-injury period. Intact rats, rats with SCI but no WBV (sham-treated) and a group that received passive flexion and extension (PFE) of their hind limbs served as controls. Compared to sham-treated rats, neither WBV nor PFE improved motor function. Only WBV14 and PFE improved body support. In line with earlier studies we failed to detect signs of soleus muscle atrophy (weight, cross sectional diameter, total amount of fibers, mean fiber diameter) or bone loss in the femur (length, weight, bone mineral density). One possible explanation is that, despite of injury extent, the preservation of some axons in the white matter, in combination with quadripedal locomotion, may provide sufficient trophic and neuronal support for the musculoskeletal system. PMID:26032204

  2. Vibration therapy: clinical applications in bone

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, William R.; Yen, Sherwin S.; Rubin, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review The musculoskeletal system is largely regulated through dynamic physical activity and is compromised by cessation of physical loading. There is a need to recreate the anabolic effects of loading on the musculoskeletal system, especially in frail individuals who cannot exercise. Vibration therapy is designed to be a nonpharmacological analogue of physical activity, with an intention to promote bone and muscle strength. Recent findings Animal and human studies suggest that high-frequency, low-magnitude vibration therapy improves bone strength by increasing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption. There is also evidence that vibration therapy is useful in treating sarcopenia, which confounds skeletal fragility and fall risk in aging. Enhancement of skeletal and muscle strength involves regulating the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to build these tissues; mesenchymal stem cell lineage allocation is positively promoted by vibration signals. Summary Vibration therapy may be useful as a primary treatment as well as an adjunct to both physical and pharmacological treatments, but future studies must pay close attention to compliance and dosing patterns, and importantly, the vibration signal, be it low-intensity vibration (<1g) appropriate for treatment of frail individuals or high-intensity vibration (>1g) marketed as a training exercise. PMID:25354044

  3. [The influence of posture on transmission and absorption of vibration energy in whole body vibration exercise].

    PubMed

    Berschin, G; Sommer, H-M

    2010-03-01

    Muscle exercise using whole body vibration platforms is well known as an alternative physical exercise in therapy as well as in high performance sports. Various studies could show an effectiveness in particular to improve maximal strength and springiness. Using these platforms there is no consideration to posture although the damage potential of vibration stress i. e. on intervertebral discs is well-known. Therefore the effect of posture on the transmission and absorption of vibration loads in bipedal standing was examined in a study with 20 sport students. They were exposed to a whole body vibration load in bipedal standing at a vibration frequency of 25 Hz. The transmission of energy was measured at the head in different postural positions. An average transmission of 9 % was measured in spontaneous bipedal standing. It significantly decreased with gradual changes of posture. After 6 weeks posture conditioning exercise this effect was significantly improved. In conclusion different posture in bipedal standing implies not only different energy absorption but also different effects on muscle performance which can explain the partly inconsistent results after vibration exercise. In addition whole body vibration exercise in a prone or sitting position may increase the risk of overload and should be avoided because of reduced energy absorption capacity. PMID:20229446

  4. Reducing whole body vibration in forklift drivers.

    PubMed

    Motmans, R

    2012-01-01

    Forklift drivers in warehouses are often exposed to whole body vibration (WBV) during the total day. There is however an association between working as a forklift operator and the development of low back pain. In this study the exposure to WBV was measured in five forklift drivers who performed a standardised order picking task during 10 minutes. The effect of driving surface (uneven concrete vs. new flat concrete), driving speed (15 km/h vs. 8 km/h) and seat suspension (mechanical suspension vs. air suspension) was investigated. Improving the driving surface was the most effective preventive measure by reducing the whole body vibration with 39%, from 1.14 to 0.69 m/s2. Lowering the speed limit resulted in a reduction of WBV with 26% (1.05 vs. 0.78 m/s2). An air suspension seat was 22% more effective compared to mechanical suspension (1.02 vs. 0.80 m/s2). On uneven concrete an air suspension seat performed even better by reducing the WBV by 29% (1.33 vs. 0.95 m/s2). A combination of a new driving surface, limiting the maximum speed and the introduction of an air suspension seat reduced the whole body vibrations below the action limit of 0.5 m/s2 as mentioned in the European directive. None of the interventions were effective enough on their own. PMID:22317090

  5. A comparison of three vibrators in static posturography: the effect of vibration amplitude on body sway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Uimonen; M. Sorri; K. Laitakari; T. Jämsä

    1996-01-01

    In static posturography, proprioception is often disturbed using vibrators applied bilaterally to the calf muscles. The effect of vibrator amplitude on body sway was compared in static posturography using bilateral vibrators on the calf muscles of 30 healthy male military conscripts at frequencies of 50 and 90 Hz. Postural stability was measured in terms of BSV (body sway velocity), and

  6. Potential beneficial effects of whole-body vibration for muscle recovery after exercise.

    PubMed

    Kosar, Angela C; Candow, Darren G; Putland, Jessica T

    2012-10-01

    Whole-body vibration is an emerging strategy used by athletes and exercising individuals to potentially accelerate muscle recovery. The vibration elicits involuntary muscle stretch reflex contractions leading to increased motor unit recruitment and synchronization of synergist muscles, which may lead to greater training adaptations over time. Intense exercise training, especially eccentric muscle contractions, will inevitably lead to muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness, which may interfere with the maintenance of a planned training program. Whole-body vibration before and after exercise shows promise for attenuating muscle soreness and may be considered as an adjunct to traditional therapies (i.e., massage, cryotherapy) to accelerate muscle recovery. PMID:22130390

  7. Vibration Exposure and Biodynamic Responses during Whole-Body Vibration Training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANDREW F. J. ABERCROMBY; WILLIAM E. AMONETTE; CHARLES S. LAYNE; BRIAN K. MCFARLIN; MARTHA R. HINMAN; WILLIAM H. PALOSKI

    2007-01-01

    ABERCROMBY, A. F. J., W. E. AMONETTE, C. S. LAYNE, B. K. MCFARLIN, M. R. HINMAN, and W. H. PALOSKI. Vibration Exposure and Biodynamic Responses during Whole-Body Vibration Training. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 39, No. 10, pp. 1794-1800, 2007. Purpose: Excessive, chronic whole-body vibration (WBV) has a number of negative side effects on the human body, including disorders of

  8. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for oligometastases.

    PubMed

    Lo, Simon S; Teh, Bin S; Mayr, Nina A; Olencki, Thomas E; Wang, Jian Z; Grecula, John C; Lu, Jiade J; Timmerman, Robert D

    2010-09-01

    There are data in the literature to suggest the presence of an oligometastatic state, and local aggressive therapy of the oligometastases may improve outcomes including survival. Stereotactic body radiation therapy has emerged as one of the local therapy options for oligometastases in various body sites, most commonly in the lung and the liver. Retrospective studies and clinical trials have demonstrated promising results with the use of stereotactic body radiation therapy for oligometastases. However, most of the studies have relatively short follow-up intervals. Longer follow-up is necessary to better define the role of stereotactic body radiation therapy in the management of patients with oligometastases. Given the high propensity for distant progression, the combination of novel systemic therapy and stereotactic body radiation therapy is to be explored. PMID:20875346

  9. Biodynamics of the human body under whole-body vibration: Synthesis of the reported data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Rakheja; R. G. Dong; S. Patra; P.-É. Boileau; P. Marcotte; C. Warren

    2010-01-01

    Identification of most probable ranges of biodynamic responses of the human body exposed to whole-body vibration is essential for developing effective integrated human-machine system design tools, improved vibration mitigation devices and frequency-weighting for exposure assessment. The international standard, ISO-5982 (2001), defines such ranges for very limited conditions, namely for body seated without a back support and exposed to vertical vibration.

  10. Case study: Use of vibration therapy in the treatment of diabetic peripheral small fiber neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junggi Hong; Meredith J. Barnes; Nathan J. Kessler

    The aim of the study was to describe a case of type II diabetic peripheral small fiber neuropathic pain treated with whole body vibration therapy after a failed trial of conventional drugs and interventional pain management. A 64-year-old male had chronic diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain in both his feet for about 2years. The patient tried multiple pain medications and various

  11. Wireless Network for Measurement of Whole-Body Vibration

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Diogo; Chiaramonte, Marilda S.; Balbinot, Alexandre

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the development of a system integrated to a ZigBee network to measure whole-body vibration. The developed system allows distinguishing human vibrations of almost 400Hz in three axes with acceleration of almost 50g. The tests conducted in the study ensured the correct functioning of the system for the project's purpose.

  12. Research on flow around bluff bodies, flow induced vibrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tianfeng Sun; Erjie Cui

    1987-01-01

    The flow around bluff bodies and the related flow induced vibrations are reviewed. The emphasis is placed on investigations of the flow around a circular cylinder and rectangular prism, and the interference between the two cylinders in various arrangements. The effects of body oscillation, incident shear and flow turbulence are discussed in detail. Some specific problems remaining to be solved

  13. Modeling of human reactions to whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Amirouche, F M

    1987-08-01

    A computer-automated approach for studying the human body vibration is presented. This includes vertical, horizontal, and torsional vibration. The procedure used is based on Finite Segment Modeling (FSM) of the human body, thus treating it as a mechanical structure. Kane's equations as developed by Huston et al. are used to formulate the governing equations of motion. The connective tissues are modeled by springs and dampers. In addition, the paper presents the transient response of different parts of the body due to a sinusoidal forcing function as well as an impulse function applied to the lower torso in the vertical direction. PMID:3657108

  14. Coupled vibration of passenger and lightweight car-body in consideration of human-body biomechanics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Nagai; H. Yoshida; T. Tohtake; Y. Suzuki

    2006-01-01

    Lightweight railway car body structure is a very important factor for the speeding up and energy saving of high-speed railway vehicles, such as magnetically levitated vehicles, and high-speed bullet train, Shinkansen. However, as lightening the car body decreases the bending rigidity of the car body, various elastic vibrations are liable to be induced in the car body, which results in

  15. Whole-body vibration exposure in sport: four relevant cases.

    PubMed

    Tarabini, Marco; Saggin, Bortolino; Scaccabarozzi, Diego

    2014-09-30

    This study investigates the whole-body vibration exposure in kite surfing, alpine skiing, snowboarding and cycling. The vibration exposure was experimentally evaluated following the ISO 2631 guidelines. Results evidenced that the most critical axis is the vertical one. The weighted vibration levels are always larger than 2.5 m/s(2) and the vibration dose values are larger than 25 m/s(1.75). The exposure limit values of the EU directive are reached after 8-37 min depending on the sport. The vibration magnitude is influenced by the athletes' speed, by their skill level and sometimes by the equipment. The large vibration values suggest that the practice of sport activities may be a confounding factor in the aetiology of vibration-related diseases. Practitioner Summary: The vibration exposure in some sports is expected to be large, but has never been quantified in the literature. Results of experiments performed in cycling, alpine and water sports outlined vibration levels exceeding the EU standard limit values. PMID:25267689

  16. Optimal Vibration Control of Vehicle Engine-Body System using Haar Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamid Reza Karimi

    2006-01-01

    In this note a method of designing optimal vibration control based on Haar functions to control of bounce and pitch vibrations in engine-body vibration structure is presented. Utilizing properties of Haar functions, a computational method to find optimal vibration control for the engine-body system is developed. It is shown that the optimal state trajectories and optimal vibration control are calculated

  17. Vibration Damping Via Acoustic Treatment Attached To Vehicle Body Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambino, Carlo

    Currently, in the automotive industry, the control of noise and vibration is the subject of much research, oriented towards the creation of innovative solutions to improve the comfort of the vehicle and to reduce its cost and weight. This thesis fits into this particular framework, as it aims to investigate the possibility of integrating the functions of sound absorptioninsulation and vibration damping in a unique component. At present the bituminous viscoelastic treatments, which are bonded to the car body panels, take charge of the vibration damping, while the sound absorption and insulation is obtained by means of the poroacoustic treatments. The solution proposed here consists of employing porous materials to perform both these functions, thus allowing the partial or complete removal of the viscoelastic damping treatments from the car body. This should decrease the weight of the vehicle, reducing fuel consumption and emissions, and it might also benefit production costs.

  18. Forced vibrations of a body supported by viscohyperelastic shear mountings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Zúñiga; M. F. Beatty

    2001-01-01

    The damped, finite-amplitude forced vibration of a rigid body supported symmetrically by simple shear springs and by a smooth inclined bearing surface is studied. The spring material is characterized as a compressible or incompressible, homogeneous and isotropic viscohyperelastic material for which the shear response function in a simple shear deformation is a quadratic function of the amount of shear. The

  19. Mind–Body Therapies in Integrative Oncology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Elkins; William Fisher; Aimee Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Opinion statement  There is growing interest in mind–body therapies as adjuncts to mainstream cancer treatment, and an increasing number of patients\\u000a turn to these interventions for the control of emotional stress associated with cancer. Increased research funding has enabled\\u000a many such interventions to be evaluated for their efficacy, including studies of mind–body interventions to reduce pain, anxiety,\\u000a insomnia, anticipatory, and treatment-related

  20. Modeling of Spinal Column of Seated Human Body under Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaoki, Gen; Yoshimura, Takuya; Kuriyama, Kaoru; Nakai, Kazuma

    In vehicle systems occupational drivers might expose themselves to vibration for a long time. This may cause illness of the spinal column such as low back pain. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the influence of vibration to the spinal column. Thus the modeling of seated human body is conducted in order to evaluate the effect of whole-body vibration to the spinal column. This model has the spinal column and the support structures such as the muscles of the back and the abdomen. The spinal column is made by the vertebrae and the intervertebral disks that are considered the rigid body and the rotational spring and damper respectively. The parameter of this model is decided by the literature and the body type of the subject with respect to the mass and the model structure. And stiffness and damping parameters are searched by fitting the model simulation results to the experimental measured data with respect to the vibration transmissibilities from the seat surface to the spinal column and the head and with respect to the driving-point apparent mass. In addition, the natural modes of the model compare with the result of experimental modal analysis. The influence of the abdomen and the muscles of the back are investigated by comparing three models with respect to above vibration characteristics. Three model are the proposed model, the model that has the spinal column and the model that has the muscles of the back in addition to the spinal column.

  1. REVIEW Open Access Stereotactic body radiation therapy for abdominal

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    REVIEW Open Access Stereotactic body radiation therapy for abdominal oligometastases: a biological of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) as an alternative treatment of extracranial oligometastases. New. Keywords: Cancer, Gastrointestinal, Liver, Radiotherapy, Radiation biology, Surgery Introduction

  2. Masking effects in vertical whole body vibrations C.R. Hernandez and E. Parizet

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Masking effects in vertical whole body vibrations C.R. Hernandez and E. Parizet Laboratoire Vibrations Acoustique INSA Lyon, 25 bis avenue Jean Capelle, Villeurbanne, F-69621 Lyon, France carmen-rosa.hernandez

  3. The effect of body weight and posture on acceleration of platform vibrating plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koz?owska, Roksana; Niewiadomski, Wiktor; Leonarcik, Rafa?; ?yli?ski, Marek; Cybulski, Gerard

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect the body weight and position on the mechanical output of vibration platform measured as maximal acceleration of vertical sinusoidal oscillations of vibrating plate. We examined five subjects applying the frequencies 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 Hz and different amplifier's voltage output fed to mechanical vibration generator. We found that at given frequency and voltage the greatest vibration of vibrating plate has been observed when subject stood on the forefoot; this effect was more distinctly pronounced at lower frequencies. The effect of body mass was less consistently evident. The effect of foot placement on the oscillations of vibration platform may be caused by different absorption of the mechanical energy by the body. We believe that in order to explain effect observed a mathematical model which accounts for body position on absorption of vibration along the trunk and mechanical properties of the platform should be constructed by combining already existing models of human body.

  4. Whole-body vibration increases upper and lower body muscle activity in older adults: potential use of vibration accessories.

    PubMed

    Marín, Pedro J; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Santin-Medeiros, Fernanda; Vicente-Rodriguez, German; Casajús, Jose A; Hazell, Tom J; Garatachea, Nuria

    2012-06-01

    The current study examined the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on upper and lower body muscle activity during static muscle contractions (squat and bicep curls). The use of WBV accessories such as hand straps attached to the platform and a soft surface mat were also evaluated. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was measured for the medial gastrocnemius (MG), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps brachii (BB) muscles in fourteen healthy older adults (74.8±4.5 years; mean±SD) with a WBV stimulus at an acceleration of 40 m s(-2) (30 Hz High, 2.5 mm or 46 Hz Low, 1.1 mm). WBV increased lower body (VL and MG) sEMG vs baseline (no WBV) though this was decreased with the use of the soft mat. The addition of the bicep curl with hand straps had no effect on lower body sEMG. WBV also increased BB sEMG vs baseline which was further increased when using the hand straps. There was no upper body effect of the soft mat. This study demonstrates WBV increases both lower and upper body muscle activity in healthy older adults. Moreover, WBV accessories such as hand straps attached to the platform or a soft surface mat may be used to alter exercise intensity. PMID:22406015

  5. Guidelines for Whole-Body Vibration Health Surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    POPE, M.; MAGNUSSON, M.; LUNDSTRÖM, R.; HULSHOF, C.; VERBEEK, J.; BOVENZI, M.

    2002-05-01

    There is strong epidemiological evidence that occupational exposure to WBV is associated with an increased risk of low back pain (LBP), sciatic pain, and degenerative changes in the spinal system, including lumbar intervertebral disc disorders. A prototype health surveillance scheme for WBV is presented in this paper. Surveillance is the collection, analysis, and dissemination of data for the purpose of prevention. The aims are to assess health status and diagnose vibration-induced disorders at an early stage, to inform the workers on the potential risk associated with vibration exposure, to give preventive advice to employers and employees and to control whether preventive measures which have been taken, were successful. It is suggested that a pre-placement health examination should be offered to each worker who will be exposed to WBV so as to make the worker aware of the hazards, to obtain baseline health data, and to identify medical conditions that may increase the risk due to WBV. The case history should focus on personal history, work history, and leisure activities involving driving of vehicles. The personal medical history should detail back pain complaints, disorders in the spine, any injuries or surgery to the musculoskeletal system. A physical examination on the lower back should be performed on workers who have experienced LBP symptoms over the past 12 months. The preplacement examination should be followed by periodic health reassessment with a regular interval according to the legislation of the country. It is suggested that periodic medical examination should be made available at least every 2 years to all workers who are exposed to WBV. Any change in vibration exposure at the workplace should be reported by the employer. If an increase in vibration exposure or a change in health status have occurred, the medical re-examination should be offered at shorter intervals at the discretion of the attending physician. There should be a periodic medical examination, which includes recording any change in exposure to WBV. The findings for the individual should be compared with previous examinations. Group data should also be compiled periodically. Medical removal may be considered along with re-placement in working practices without exposure to WBV. This paper presents opinions on health surveillance for whole-body vibration developed within a working group of partners funded on a European Community Network (BIOMED2 concerted action BMH4-CT98-3251: Research network on detection and prevention of injuries due to occupational vibration exposures). The health surveillance protocol and the draft questionnaire with explanation comments are presented for wider consideration by the science community and others before being considered appropriate for implementation.

  6. Stochastic many-body perturbation theory for anharmonic molecular vibrations.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Matthew R; Hirata, So

    2014-08-28

    A new quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method for anharmonic vibrational zero-point energies and transition frequencies is developed, which combines the diagrammatic vibrational many-body perturbation theory based on the Dyson equation with Monte Carlo integration. The infinite sums of the diagrammatic and thus size-consistent first- and second-order anharmonic corrections to the energy and self-energy are expressed as sums of a few m- or 2m-dimensional integrals of wave functions and a potential energy surface (PES) (m is the vibrational degrees of freedom). Each of these integrals is computed as the integrand (including the value of the PES) divided by the value of a judiciously chosen weight function evaluated on demand at geometries distributed randomly but according to the weight function via the Metropolis algorithm. In this way, the method completely avoids cumbersome evaluation and storage of high-order force constants necessary in the original formulation of the vibrational perturbation theory; it furthermore allows even higher-order force constants essentially up to an infinite order to be taken into account in a scalable, memory-efficient algorithm. The diagrammatic contributions to the frequency-dependent self-energies that are stochastically evaluated at discrete frequencies can be reliably interpolated, allowing the self-consistent solutions to the Dyson equation to be obtained. This method, therefore, can compute directly and stochastically the transition frequencies of fundamentals and overtones as well as their relative intensities as pole strengths, without fixed-node errors that plague some QMC. It is shown that, for an identical PES, the new method reproduces the correct deterministic values of the energies and frequencies within a few cm(-1) and pole strengths within a few thousandths. With the values of a PES evaluated on the fly at random geometries, the new method captures a noticeably greater proportion of anharmonic effects. PMID:25173003

  7. Forced vibration of flexible body systems. A dynamic stiffness method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T. S.; Lin, J. C.

    1993-10-01

    Due to the development of high speed machinery, robots, and aerospace structures, the research of flexible body systems undergoing both gross motion and elastic deformation has seen increasing importance. The finite element method and modal analysis are often used in formulating equations of motion for dynamic analysis of the systems which entail time domain, forced vibration analysis. This study develops a new method based on dynamic stiffness to investigate forced vibration of flexible body systems. In contrast to the conventional finite element method, shape functions and stiffness matrices used in this study are derived from equations of motion for continuum beams. Hence, the resulting shape functions are named as dynamic shape functions. By applying the dynamic shape functions, the mass and stiffness matrices of a beam element are derived. The virtual work principle is employed to formulate equations of motion. Not only the coupling of gross motion and elastic deformation, but also the stiffening effect of axial forces is taken into account. Simulation results of a cantilever beam, a rotating beam, and a slider crank mechanism are compared with the literature to verify the proposed method.

  8. Whole body vibration exercise for chronic low back pain: study protocol for a single-blind randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low back pain affects approximately 80% of people at some stage in their lives. Exercise therapy is the most widely used nonsurgical intervention for low back pain in practice guidelines. Whole body vibration exercise is becoming increasingly popular for relieving musculoskeletal pain and improving health-related quality of life. However, the efficacy of whole body vibration exercise for low back pain is not without dispute. This study aims to estimate the effect of whole body vibration exercise for chronic low back pain. Methods/Design We will conduct a prospective, single-blind, randomized controlled trial of 120 patients with chronic low back pain. Patients will be randomly assigned into an intervention group and a control group. The intervention group will participate in whole body vibration exercise twice a week for 3 months. The control group will receive general exercise twice a week for 3 months. Primary outcome measures will be the visual analog scale for pain, the Oswestry Disability Index and adverse events. The secondary outcome measures will include muscle strength and endurance of spine, trunk proprioception, transversus abdominis activation capacity, and quality of life. We will conduct intention-to-treat analysis if any participants withdraw from the trial. Discussion Important features of this study include the randomization procedures, single-blind, large sample size, and a standardized protocol for whole body vibration in chronic low back pain. This study aims to determine whether whole body vibration exercise produces more beneficial effects than general exercise for chronic low back pain. Therefore, our results will be useful for patients with chronic low back pain as well as for medical staff and health-care decision makers. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-13003708. PMID:24693945

  9. An overview of strategies to reduce whole-body vibration exposure on drivers: A systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivo J. Tiemessen; Carel T. J. Hulshof; Monique H. W. Frings-Dresen

    2007-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) at the workplace cost a lot. These MSD, low back pain in particular, can be caused by exposure to whole body vibration (WBV). Preventive strategies to reduce vibration exposure may contribute to a decrease in MSD. Therefore the aim of this study was to explore which evidence-based preventive strategies reduce vibration exposure on drivers. A systematic literature

  10. Effects of whole-body vibration on spinal reflexes in man.

    PubMed

    Roll, J P; Martin, B; Gauthier, G M; Mussa Ivaldi, F

    1980-11-01

    Recent studies have described sensory-motor function alterations resulting from vibrations applied to various parts of the body. The present work describes the effects produced at the myotatic loop level by long-term vibration. Hoffmann and Tendon reflexes as well as tendon vibration response were substantially depressed by 18 Hz, +/- 0.25 G vibration applied to the whole body or to the legs of seated human subjects. The reflex inhibition lasted throughout the 15-min vibration period and persisted minutes after stimulus cessation. In contrast, vibration limited to the S's head and trunk showed much weaker effects. This suggests that the vibration acts mainly upon extero- and proprioceptive receptors rather than upon the vestibular organs. The results are discussed in relation to findings derived from experiments involving locally applied short-duration vibration. PMID:7213269

  11. ANALYSIS OF BIODYNAMIC RESPONSES OF A SEATED BODY UNDER VERTICAL VIBRATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The objective assessment of occupational vibration exposure effects on the human body is largely determined from biodynamic functions obtained through measurement of the force-motion relationship at the body-seat interface. Such \\

  12. Simultaneous field measuring method of vibration and body posture for assessment of seated occupational driving tasks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingo Hermanns; Nastaran Raffler; Rolf P. Ellegast; Siegfried Fischer; Benno Göres

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to introduce a field measuring system which allows for continuous and simultaneous measurements of body posture and whole body vibration. Compared to observational or questionnaire studies, field measurements provide posture data in an objective and quantitative way, which precisely represent the loads of work activities. This evaluation system combines the instantaneous values of the vibration exposure

  13. Modelling the response of the spinal system to whole-body vibration and repeated shock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helmut Seidel; Michael J. Griffin

    2001-01-01

    Back problems are very common and contribute to discomfort and days off work. Some back disorders are attributed to inappropriate loading of the spine that can be combined with other influential factors such a body posture, whole-body vibration and shock. Many models have been developed to predict the forces in the spine associated with vibration and shock. However, the problem

  14. Good Vibrations – Effects of Whole Body Vibration on Attention in Healthy Individuals and Individuals with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; van der Zee, Eddy A.; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Most of the current treatment strategies of ADHD are associated with a number of disadvantages which strengthen the need for alternative or additional approaches for the treatment of ADHD. In this respect, Whole Body Vibration (WBV) might be interesting as it was found to have beneficial effects on a variety of physiological measures. The present study explored the effects of WBV on attention of healthy individuals and adults diagnosed with ADHD. Methods Eighty-three healthy individuals and seventeen adults diagnosed with ADHD participated in the study. WBV treatment was applied passively, while participants were sitting on a chair which was mounted on a vibrating platform. A repeated measure design was employed in order to explore potential effects of WBV treatment on attention within subjects. Attention (i.e. inhibitory control) was measured with a color-word interference paradigm. Results A period of two minutes of WBV treatment had significant beneficial effects of small to medium size on attention of both healthy individuals and adults with ADHD. The effect of WBV treatment on attention did not differ significantly between groups. Conclusions WBV was demonstrated to improve cognitive performance of healthy individuals as well as of individuals with ADHD. WBV treatment is relatively inexpensive and easy to apply and might therefore be of potential relevance for clinical use. The application of WBV treatment as a cognitive enhancement strategy and as a potential treatment of cognitive impairments is discussed. PMID:24587412

  15. Using consumer electronic devices to estimate whole-body vibration exposure.

    PubMed

    Wolfgang, Rebecca; Burgess-Limerick, Robin

    2014-01-01

    The cost and complexity of commercially available devices for measuring whole-body vibration is a barrier to the systematic collection of the information required to manage this hazard at workplaces. The potential for a consumer electronic device to be used to estimate whole-body vibration was assessed by use of an accelerometer calibrator, and by collecting 42 simultaneous pairs of measurements from a fifth-generation iPod Touch and one of two gold standard vibration measurement devices (Svantech SV111 [Svantech, Warsaw, Poland] or Brüel & Kjær 4447 [Brüel & Kjær Sound & Vibration Measurement A/S, Nærum, Denmark]) while driving light vehicles on a variety of different roadway surfaces. While sampling rate limitations make the accelerometer data collected from the iPod Touch unsuitable for frequency analysis, the vibration amplitudes recorded are sufficiently accurate (errors less than 0.1 m/s(2)) to assist workplaces manage whole-body vibration exposures. PMID:24498944

  16. Specific whole-body shifts induced by frequency-modulated vibrations of human plantar soles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Kavounoudias; Régine Roll; Jean-Pierre Roll

    1999-01-01

    This study sought to analyze the postural responses induced by separately or simultaneously vibrating with different frequencies the forefoot and rear foot zones of both soles in standing subjects. Stimulating each zone separately resulted in spatially oriented body tilts; their amplitude and velocity varied linearly according to the frequency, and their direction was always opposite to the plantar site vibrated.

  17. Self-reported back pain in tractor drivers exposed to whole-body vibration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hendriek C. Boshuizen; Paulien M. Bongers; Carel T. J. Hulshof

    1990-01-01

    Summary A postal questionnaire on symptoms of ill health and exposure to whole-body vibration was completed by 577 workers (response rate 79%) who were employed in certain functions by two companies 11 years before. The relation between the occupational history of driving vibrating vehicles (mainly agricultural tractors) and back pain has been analyzed. The prevalence of reported back pain is

  18. Whole Body Vibration Training - Improving Balance Control and Muscle Endurance

    PubMed Central

    Ritzmann, Ramona; Kramer, Andreas; Bernhardt, Sascha; Gollhofer, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Exercise combined with whole body vibration (WBV) is becoming increasingly popular, although additional effects of WBV in comparison to conventional exercises are still discussed controversially in literature. Heterogeneous findings are attributed to large differences in the training designs between WBV and “control” groups in regard to training volume, load and type. In order to separate the additional effects of WBV from the overall adaptations due to the intervention, in this study, a four-week WBV training setup was compared to a matched intervention program with identical training parameters in both training settings except for the exposure to WBV. In a repeated-measures matched-subject design, 38 participants were assigned to either the WBV group (VIB) or the equivalent training group (CON). Training duration, number of sets, rest periods and task-specific instructions were matched between the groups. Balance, jump height and local static muscle endurance were assessed before and after the training period. The statistical analysis revealed significant interaction effects of group×time for balance and local static muscle endurance (p<0.05). Hence, WBV caused an additional effect on balance control (pre vs. post VIB +13%, p<0.05 and CON +6%, p?=?0.33) and local static muscle endurance (pre vs. post VIB +36%, p<0.05 and CON +11%, p?=?0.49). The effect on jump height remained insignificant (pre vs. post VIB +3%, p?=?0.25 and CON ±0%, p?=?0.82). This study provides evidence for the additional effects of WBV above conventional exercise alone. As far as balance and muscle endurance of the lower leg are concerned, a training program that includes WBV can provide supplementary benefits in young and well-trained adults compared to an equivalent program that does not include WBV. PMID:24587114

  19. Localised muscle tissue oxygenation during dynamic exercise with whole body vibration.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Daniel; Elwell, Clare; Jimenez, Alfonso; Goss-Sampson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Despite increasing use of whole body vibration during exercise an understanding of the exact role of vibration and the supporting physiological mechanisms is still limited. An important aspect of exercise analysis is the utilisation of oxygen, however, there have been limited studies considering tissue oxygenation parameters, particularly during dynamic whole body vibration (WBV) exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of adding WBV during heel raise exercises and assessing changes in tissue oxygenation parameters of the lateral gastrocnemius using Near Infra Red Spectroscopy (NIRS). Twenty healthy subjects completed ten alternating sets of 15 heel raises (vibration vs. no vibration). Synchronous oxygenation and motion data were captured prior to exercise to determine baseline levels, for the duration of the exercise and 20 sec post exercise for the recovery period. Both vibration and no vibration conditions elicited a characteristic increase in deoxyhaemoglobin and decreases in oxyhaemoglobin, total haemoglobin, tissue oxygenation index and normalised tissue haemoglobin index which are indicative of local tissue hypoxia. However, the addition of vibration elicited significantly lower (p < 0. 001) depletions in oxyhaemoglobin, total haemoglobin, normalised tissue haemoglobin index but no significant differences in deoxyhaemoglobin. These findings suggest that addition of vibration to exercise does not increase the cost of the exercise for the lateral gastrocnemius muscle, but does decrease the reduction in local muscle oxygenation parameters, potentially resulting from increased blood flow to the calf or a vasospastic response in the feet. However, further studies are needed to establish the mechanisms underlying these findings. Key pointsWhole body vibration affects tissue oxygenation of the lateral gastrocnemius.The underlying mechanism could be either increased blood flow or a vasospastic response in the feet.The local metabolic cost of heel raise activity on the lateral gastrocnemius does not appear to be increased by whole body vibration. PMID:24149209

  20. Predicting discomfort from whole-body vertical vibration when sitting with an inclined backrest.

    PubMed

    Basri, Bazil; Griffin, Michael J

    2013-05-01

    Current methods for evaluating seat vibration to predict vibration discomfort assume the same frequency weightings and axis multiplying factors can be used at the seat surface and the backrest irrespective of the backrest inclination. This experimental study investigated the discomfort arising from whole-body vertical vibration when sitting on a rigid seat with no backrest and with a backrest inclined at 0° (upright), 30°, 60°, and 90° (recumbent). Within each of these five postures, 12 subjects judged the discomfort caused by vertical sinusoidal whole-body vibration (at frequencies from 1 to 20 Hz at magnitudes from 0.2 to 2.0 m s(-2) r.m.s.) relative to the discomfort produced by a reference vibration (8 Hz at 0.4 m s(-2) r.m.s.). With 8-Hz vertical vibration, the subjects also judged vibration discomfort with each backrest condition relative to the vibration discomfort with no backrest. The locations in the body where discomfort was experienced were determined for each frequency at two vibration magnitudes. Equivalent comfort contours were determined for the five conditions of the backrest and show how discomfort depends on the frequency of vibration, the presence of the backrest, and the backrest inclination. At frequencies greater than about 8 Hz, the backrest increased vibration discomfort, especially when inclined to 30°, 60°, or 90°, and there was greater discomfort at the head or neck. At frequencies around 5 and 6.3 Hz there was less vibration discomfort when sitting with an inclined backrest. PMID:23190680

  1. Acute effects of stochastic resonance whole body vibration

    PubMed Central

    Elfering, Achim; Zahno, Jasmine; Taeymans, Jan; Blasimann, Angela; Radlinger, Lorenz

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the acute effects of stochastic resonance whole body vibration (SR-WBV) training to identify possible explanations for preventive effects against musculoskeletal disorders. METHODS: Twenty-three healthy, female students participated in this quasi-experimental pilot study. Acute physiological and psychological effects of SR-WBV training were examined using electromyography of descending trapezius (TD) muscle, heart rate variability (HRV), different skin parameters (temperature, redness and blood flow) and self-report questionnaires. All subjects conducted a sham SR-WBV training at a low intensity (2 Hz with noise level 0) and a verum SR-WBV training at a higher intensity (6 Hz with noise level 4). They were tested before, during and after the training. Conclusions were drawn on the basis of analysis of variance. RESULTS: Twenty-three healthy, female students participated in this study (age = 22.4 ± 2.1 years; body mass index = 21.6 ± 2.2 kg/m2). Muscular activity of the TD and energy expenditure rose during verum SR-WBV compared to baseline and sham SR-WBV (all P < 0.05). Muscular relaxation after verum SR-WBV was higher than at baseline and after sham SR-WBV (all P < 0.05). During verum SR-WBV the levels of HRV were similar to those observed during sham SR-WBV. The same applies for most of the skin characteristics, while microcirculation of the skin of the middle back was higher during verum compared to sham SR-WBV (P < 0.001). Skin redness showed significant changes over the three measurement points only in the middle back area (P = 0.022). There was a significant rise from baseline to verum SR-WBV (0.86 ± 0.25 perfusion units; P = 0.008). The self-reported chronic pain grade indicators of pain, stiffness, well-being, and muscle relaxation showed a mixed pattern across conditions. Muscle and joint stiffness (P = 0.018) and muscular relaxation did significantly change from baseline to different conditions of SR-WBV (P < 0.001). Moreover, muscle relaxation after verum SR-WBV was higher than after sham SR-WBV (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Verum SR-WBV stimulated musculoskeletal activity in young healthy individuals while cardiovascular activation was low. Training of musculoskeletal capacity and immediate increase in musculoskeletal relaxation are potential mediators of pain reduction in preventive trials. PMID:24147265

  2. Variation in Neuromuscular Responses during Acute Whole-Body Vibration Exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANDREW F. J. ABERCROMBY; WILLIAM E. AMONETTE; CHARLES S. LAYNE; BRIAN K. MCFARLIN; MARTHA R. HINMAN; WILLIAM H. PALOSKI

    2007-01-01

    ABERCROMBY, A. F. J., W. E. AMONETTE, C. S. LAYNE, B. K. MCFARLIN, M. R. HINMAN, and W. H. PALOSKI. Variation in Neuromuscular Responses during Acute Whole-Body Vibration Exercise. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 39, No. 9, pp. 1642-1650, 2007. Purpose: Leg muscle strength and power are increased after whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise. These effects may result from increased neuromuscular

  3. Vibration energy absorption in the whole-body system of a tractor operator.

    PubMed

    Szczepaniak, Jan; Tana?, Wojciech; Kromulski, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Many people are exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) in their occupational lives, especially drivers of vehicles such as tractor and trucks. The main categories of effects from WBV are perception degraded comfort interference with activities-impaired health and occurrence of motion sickness. Absorbed power is defined as the power dissipated in a mechanical system as a result of an applied force. The vibration-induced injuries or disorders in a substructure of the human system are primarily associated with the vibration power absorption distributed in that substructure. The vibration power absorbed by the exposed body is a measure that combines both the vibration hazard and the biodynamic response of the body. The article presents measurement method for determining vibration power dissipated in the human whole body system called Vibration Energy Absorption (VEA). The vibration power is calculated from the real part of the force-velocity cross-spectrum. The absorbed power in the frequency domain can be obtained from the cross-spectrum of the force and velocity. In the context of the vibration energy transferred to a seated human body, the real component reflects the energy dissipated in the biological structure per unit of time, whereas the imaginary component reflects the energy stored/released by the system. The seated human is modeled as a series/parallel 4-DOF dynamic models. After introduction of the excitation, the response in particular segments of the model can be analyzed. As an example, the vibration power dissipated in an operator has been determined as a function of the agricultural combination operating speed 1.39 - 4.16 ms(-1). PMID:24959797

  4. Stochastic Resonance Whole-Body Vibration, Musculoskeletal Symptoms, and Body Balance: A Worksite Training Study

    PubMed Central

    Elfering, Achim; Arnold, Sibille; Schade, Volker; Burger, Christian; Radlinger, Lorenz

    2013-01-01

    Background Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training (SR-WBV) was tested to reduce work-related musculoskeletal complaints. Methods Participants were 54 white-collar employees of a Swiss organization. The controlled crossover design comprised two groups each given 4 weeks of exercise and no training during a second 4-week period. Outcome was daily musculoskeletal well-being, musculoskeletal pain, and surefootedness. In addition, participants performed a behavioral test on body balance prior to when SR-WBV started and after 4 weeks of SR-WBV. Results Across the 4-week training period, musculoskeletal well-being and surefootedness were significantly increased (p < 0.05), whereas musculoskeletal pain was significantly reduced only in those who reported low back pain during the last 4 weeks prior to the study (p < 0.05). Body balance was significantly increased by SR-WBV (p < 0.05). Conclusion SR-WBV seems to be an efficient option in primary prevention of musculoskeletal complaints and falls at work. PMID:24106645

  5. Nonlinear dual-axis biodynamic response of the semi-supine human body during longitudinal horizontal whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ya; Griffin, Michael J.

    2008-04-01

    The resonance frequencies in frequency response functions of the human body (e.g. apparent mass and transmissibility) decrease with increasing vibration magnitude. This nonlinear biodynamic response is found with various sitting and standing postures requiring postural control. The present study measured the apparent mass of the body in a relaxed semi-supine posture with two types of longitudinal horizontal vibration (in the z-axis of the semi-supine body): (i) continuous random excitation (0.25-20 Hz) at five magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 ms -2 rms); (ii) intermittent random excitation (0.25-20 Hz) alternately at 0.25 and 1.0 ms -2 rms. With continuous random vibration, the dominant primary resonance frequency in the median normalised apparent mass decreased from 3.7 to 2.4 Hz as the vibration magnitude increased from 0.125 to 1.0 ms -2 rms. A nonlinear response was apparent in both the horizontal ( z-axis) apparent mass and the vertical ( x-axis) cross-axis apparent mass. With intermittent random vibration, as the vibration magnitude increased from 0.25 to 1.0 ms -2 rms, the median resonance frequency of the apparent mass decreased from 3.2 to 2.5 Hz whereas, with continuous random vibration over the same range of magnitudes, the resonance frequency decreased from 3.4 to 2.4 Hz. The median change in the resonance frequency (between 0.25 and 1.0 ms -2 rms) was 0.6 Hz with the intermittent random vibration and 0.9 Hz with the continuous random vibration. With intermittent vibration, the resonance frequency was higher at the high magnitude and lower at the low magnitude than with continuous vibration at the same magnitudes. The responses were consistent with passive thixotropy being a primary cause of nonlinear biodynamic responses to whole-body vibration, although reflex activity of the muscles may also have an influence.

  6. Whole-body vibration applied during upper body exercise improves performance.

    PubMed

    Marín, Pedro J; Herrero, Azael J; Milton, John G; Hazell, Tom J; García-López, David

    2013-07-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) training has exercisers perform static and dynamic resistance training exercises on a ground-based platform. Exposure to WBV exposure has demonstrated benefits and no effect on lower body strength, power, and performance. The aim of this study was to determine if WBV exposure (50 Hz, 2.51 mm) has any potentiating effects postexercise by measuring the kinematic variables of a set of upper body elbow-extensor exercise (70% one-repetition maximum [1RM]) to volitional exhaustion. Sixteen recreationally active students (12 male and 4 female) performed 3 different experimental conditions on separate days. Each condition had the subjects perform 1 set of elbow-extension exercise to fatigue with 1 of 3 WBV treatments: WBV simultaneously during the set (AE); 60 seconds after application of WBV for 30 seconds (RE); and no WBV (CTRL). Kinematic parameters of each repetition were monitored by linking a rotary encoder to the highest load plate. The mean velocity and acceleration throughout the set and perceived exertion were analyzed. A significant increase (p < 0.05) was observed in the mean velocity for the whole set in the AE condition vs. the CTRL condition. The mean acceleration was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the AE condition in comparison with RE (increased by 45.3%) and CTRL (increased by 50.4%) conditions. The positive effect induced by WBV on upper-limb performance is only achieved when the stimulus is applied during the exercise. However, WBV applied 60 seconds before upper body exercise results in no benefit. PMID:23085972

  7. Nonlinear dual-axis biodynamic response of the semi-supine human body during vertical whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ya; Griffin, Michael J.

    2008-04-01

    Nonlinear biodynamic responses are evident in many studies of the apparent masses of sitting and standing subjects in static postures that require muscle activity for postural control. In the present study, 12 male subjects adopted a relaxed semi-supine posture assumed to involve less muscle activity than during static sitting and standing. The supine subjects were exposed to two types of vertical vibration (in the x-axis of the semi-supine body): (i) continuous random vibration (0.25-20 Hz) at five magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 m s -2 rms); (ii) intermittent random vibration (0.25-20 Hz) alternately at 0.25 and 1.0 m s -2 rms. With continuous random vibration, the dominant primary resonance frequency in the median normalised apparent mass decreased from 10.35 to 7.32 Hz as the vibration magnitude increased from 0.125 to 1.0 m s -2 rms. This nonlinear response was apparent in both the vertical ( x-axis) apparent mass and in the horizontal ( z-axis) cross-axis apparent mass. As the vibration magnitude increased from 0.25 to 1.0 m s -2 rms, the median resonance frequency of the apparent mass with intermittent random vibration decreased from 9.28 to 8.06 Hz whereas, over the same range of magnitudes with continuous random vibration, the resonance frequency decreased from 9.62 to 7.81 Hz. The median change in the resonance frequency (between 0.25 and 1.0 m s -2 rms) was 1.37 Hz with the intermittent random vibration and 1.71 with the continuous random vibration. With the intermittent vibration, the resonance frequency was higher at the high magnitude and lower at the low magnitude than with continuous vibration of the same magnitudes. The response was typical of thixotropy that may be a primary cause of the nonlinear biodynamic responses to whole-body vibration.

  8. Research on the flow around the bluff bodies and flow induced vibrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tianfeng Sun; Erjie Cui

    1987-01-01

    The flow around bluff bodies and the related flow-induced vibrations are reviewed. The emphasis is placed on investigations of the flow around circular cylinders and rectangular prisms and the interference between two cylinders in various arrangements. The effects of body oscillation, incident shear, and flow turbulence are discussed in detail. Some specific problems which remain to be solved are also

  9. Passive control of vortex induced vibration in internal flow using body shape

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sánchez--Sanz; A. Velazquez

    2011-01-01

    We present a concept for passive control of vortex induced vibration (VIV) that uses the body shape of a prismatic body as the control parameter in 2D internal flow. We consider that the Reynolds number based on the prism cross section height is 200 and that the blockage ratio of the channel is 2.5. The working fluid is water and

  10. Torsional vibration analysis of a multi-body single cylinder internal combustion engine model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Boysal; H. Rahnejat

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed multi-body numerical nonlinear dynamic model of a single cylinder internal combustion engine. The model comprises all rigid body inertial members, support bearings, joints, couplers, and connections between the various engine components, as well as means of vibration damping. The detailed model is parameterised, thus enabling virtual prototype testing of various engine designs, as well as

  11. Benefits of whole body vibration training in patients hospitalised for COPD exacerbations - a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with stable COPD show improvements in exercise capacity and muscular function after the application of whole body vibration. We aimed to evaluate whether this modality added to conventional physiotherapy in exacerbated hospitalised COPD patients would be safe and would improve exercise capacity and quality of life. Methods 49 hospitalised exacerbated COPD patients were randomized (1:1) to undergo physiotherapy alone or physiotherapy with the addition of whole body vibration. The primary endpoint was the between-group difference of the 6-minute walking test (day of discharge – day of admission). Secondary assessments included chair rising test, quality of life, and serum marker analysis. Results Whole body vibration did not cause procedure-related adverse events. Compared to physiotherapy alone, it led to significantly stronger improvements in 6-minute walking test (95.55?±?76.29 m vs. 6.13?±?81.65 m; p?=?0.007) and St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (-6.43?±?14.25 vs. 5.59?±?19.15, p?=?0.049). Whole body vibration increased the expression of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator receptor gamma coactivator-1-? and serum levels of irisin, while it decreased serum interleukin-8. Conclusion Whole body vibration during hospitalised exacerbations did not cause procedure-related adverse events and induced clinically significant benefits regarding exercise capacity and health-related quality of life that were associated with increased serum levels of irisin, a marker of muscle activity. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00005979. Registered 17 March 2014. PMID:24725369

  12. Low back and neck pain in locomotive engineers exposed to whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    McBride, David; Paulin, Sara; Herbison, G Peter; Waite, David; Bagheri, Nasser

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and excess risk of low back pain and neck pain in locomotive engineers, and to investigate the relationship of both with whole-body vibration exposure. A cross-sectional survey comparing locomotive engineers with other rail worker referents was conducted. Current vibration levels were measured, cumulative exposures calculated for engineers and referents, and low back and neck pain assessed by a self-completed questionnaire. Median vibration exposure in the z- (vertical) axis was 0.62 m/s(2). Engineers experienced more frequent low back and neck pain, odds ratios (ORs) of 1.77 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-2.64) and 1.92 (95% CI: 1.22-3.02), respectively. The authors conclude that vibration close to the "action levels" of published standards contribute to low back and neck pain. Vibration levels need to be assessed conservatively and control measures introduced. PMID:24499248

  13. Three-dimensional biomechanical model for simulating the response of the human body to vibration stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Fritz

    1998-01-01

    Several investigations have revealed that long-term exposure to whole-body vibrations can induce low back pain. In analogy\\u000a to materials handling, the health risk can be assessed if the forces transmitted in the spine during vibration are known.\\u000a To estimate the forces a biomechanical model has been developed in which the human trunk, neck, head and arms are represented\\u000a by 16

  14. Whole body vibration exposures in forklift operators: comparison of a mechanical and air suspension seat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan P. Blood; James D. Ploger; Peter W. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Using a repeated measures design, this study compared differences in whole body vibration (WBV) exposures when 12 forklift operators drove the same forklift with a mechanical suspension and an air suspension seat. A portable PDA-based WBV data acquisition system collected and analysed time-weighted and raw WBV data per ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5 WBV measurement standards. Tri-axial measurements of weighted vibration

  15. EMG activity during whole body vibration: motion artifacts or stretch reflexes?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramona Ritzmann; Andreas Kramer; Markus Gruber; Albert Gollhofer; Wolfgang Taube

    2010-01-01

    The validity of electromyographic (EMG) data recorded during whole body vibration (WBV) is controversial. Some authors ascribed\\u000a a major part of the EMG signal to vibration-induced motion artifacts while others have interpreted the EMG signals as muscular\\u000a activity caused at least partly by stretch reflexes. The aim of this study was to explore the origin of the EMG signal during

  16. The effects of whole body vibration on balance, joint position sense and cutaneous sensation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ross D. PollockSally ProvanFinbarr; Sally Provan; Finbarr C. Martin; Di J. Newham

    Whole body vibration (WBV) may enhance muscular strength and power but little is known about its influence on sensory-motor\\u000a function. Vibration of a single muscle or tendon affects the afferent system in a manner that depends on amplitude and frequency.\\u000a WBV stimulates many muscle groups simultaneously and the frequencies and amplitudes used are different from many of the studies\\u000a on

  17. Whole-body vibration: Evaluation of emission and exposure levels arising from agricultural tractors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Scarlett; J. S. Price; R. M. Stayner

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted to quantify whole-body vibration (WBV) emission and estimated exposure levels found upon a range of modern, state-of-the-art agricultural tractors, when operated in controlled conditions (traversing ISO ride vibration test tracks and performing selected agricultural operations) and whilst performing identical tasks during ‘on-farm’ use. The potential consequences of operator WBV exposure limitations, as prescribed by the European

  18. Effect of Whole-Body Vibration on Speech. Part 2; Effect on Intelligibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.

    2011-01-01

    The effect on speech intelligibility was measured for speech where talkers reading Diagnostic Rhyme Test material were exposed to 0.7 g whole body vibration to simulate space vehicle launch. Across all talkers, the effect of vibration was to degrade the percentage of correctly transcribed words from 83% to 74%. The magnitude of the effect of vibration on speech communication varies between individuals, for both talkers and listeners. A worst case scenario for intelligibility would be the most sensitive listener hearing the most sensitive talker; one participant s intelligibility was reduced by 26% (97% to 71%) for one of the talkers.

  19. The Effect of Whole-Body Resonance Vibration in a Porcine Model of Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Streijger, Femke; Lee, Jae H T; Chak, Jason; Dressler, Dan; Manouchehri, Neda; Okon, Elena B; Anderson, Lisa M; Melnyk, Angela D; Cripton, Peter A; Kwon, Brian K

    2015-06-15

    Whole-body vibration has been identified as a potential stressor to spinal cord injury (SCI) patients during pre-hospital transportation. However, the effect that such vibration has on the acutely injured spinal cord is largely unknown, particularly in the frequency domain of 5?Hz in which resonance of the spine occurs. The objective of the study was to investigate the consequences of resonance vibration on the injured spinal cord. Using our previously characterized porcine model of SCI, we subjected animals to resonance vibration (5.7±0.46?Hz) or no vibration for a period of 1.5 or 3.0?h. Locomotor function was assessed weekly and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected to assess different inflammatory and injury severity markers. Spinal cords were evaluated histologically to quantify preserved white and gray matter. No significant differences were found between groups for CSF levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and lL-8. Glial fibrillary acidic protein levels were lower in the resonance vibration group, compared with the non-vibrated control group. Spared white matter tissue was increased within the vibrated group at 7?d post-injury but this difference was not apparent at the 12-week time-point. No significant difference was observed in locomotor recovery following resonance vibration of the spine. Here, we demonstrate that exposure to resonance vibration for 1.5 or 3?h following SCI in our porcine model is not detrimental to the functional or histological outcomes. Our observation that a 3.0-h period of vibration at resonance frequency induces modest histological improvement at one week post-injury warrants further study. PMID:25567669

  20. Implementation of double-pulsed holography in evaluation of whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Wos, H; Svensson, L B; Norlander, S

    1991-11-01

    This study used a unique holographic technique to evaluate the effects of vibration on soft tissues and bones. It was possible to record forced whole-body vibration in humans by holograph interferometry using a double-pulsed ruby laser. The study investigated the manner in which the muscles of the back and vertebral column are affected by vibrations applied to the human buttocks in the sitting position. The subject was exposed to vibration at two frequencies: 40 and 60 Hz (vertical Z axis). Transmission of the vibrations along the subject's back was recorded by means of double-pulsed holography and electromyography. Evaluation of the vibration pattern showed that the vibrations are transmitted along the back all the way up to the neck and head. The pattern of vibration in the muscles of the back and vertebral column showed that the greatest effect was exerted on the lumbar region of the back and the area of transition between the thoracic and cervical regions. PMID:1800103

  1. Development of a biomechanical model of the human body in a sitting posture with vibration transmissibility in the vertical direction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tae-Hyeong Kim; Young-Tae Kim; Yong-San Yoon

    2005-01-01

    This study developed a biomechanical model of the human body for evaluating the vibration transmissibility and dynamic response to vertical vibrations in sitting posture. The biomechanical model consists of several lumped masses connected by linear spring and dampers. This model was selected from eight structural model after fitting measured data of apparent mass, vertical and rotational vibration transmissibilities to the

  2. Displacement compensation of beam vibrations caused by rigid-body motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehetner, C.; Irschik, H.

    2005-08-01

    The present contribution is concerned with the active suppression of plane flexural vibrations of a slender, cantilever linear elastic beam. The vibrations of the beam are considered to be due to a prescribed large rigid-body motion of the beam support, as well as imposed forces. The rigid-body motion under consideration defines a floating reference configuration with respect to which the vibrations are studied. We assume these vibrations to take place in the moderately large strain regime. The beam is considered to be additionally equipped with distributed piezoelectric actuators, which are perfectly bonded to the beam. It is the scope of the present paper to derive a spatial shape of the latter actuators, such that the above vibrations can be completely suppressed by the piezoelectric actuation. This problem is also known as vibration compensation or shape control by piezoelectric actuation. In the present paper, an analytic solution for shape control is presented within the Bernoulli-Euler-von Karman theory of a slender cantilever beam, taking into account the so-called stress-stiffening effect. The presented solution for shape control makes the initial boundary value problem under consideration homogeneous, such that the vanishing of vibrations indeed represents a solution. Possible instabilities, such as parametrically excited vibrations, can be studied in the usual manner, this not being the content of the present paper. For the dynamically stable example of a rotating beam, the influence of the stress stiffening effect in the presence of a distributed piezoelectric actuation is studied in some detail. It turns out that the stress stiffening effect must indeed be taken into account for an adequate modelling. The corresponding analytic solution for shape control is validated by means of non-linear 3D finite element computations, showing excellent evidence of the appropriateness of the presented analytic beam-type solution for vibration compensation.

  3. Neurocognitive responses to a single session of static squats with whole body vibration.

    PubMed

    Amonette, William E; Boyle, Mandy; Psarakis, Maria B; Barker, Jennifer; Dupler, Terry L; Ott, Summer D

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the head accelerations using a common whole body vibration (WBV) exercise protocol acutely reduced neurocognition in healthy subjects. Second, we investigated differential responses to WBV plates with 2 different delivery mechanisms: vertical and rotational vibrations. Twelve healthy subjects (N = 12) volunteered and completed a baseline (BASE) neurocognitive assessment: the Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT). Subjects then participated in 3 randomized exercise sessions separated by no more than 2 weeks. The exercise sessions consisted of five 2-minute sets of static hip-width stance squats, with the knees positioned at a 45° angle of flexion. The squats were performed with no vibration (control [CON]), with a vertically vibrating plate (vertical vibration [VV]), and with a rotational vibrating plate (rotational vibration [RV]) set to 30 Hz with 4 mm of peak-to-peak displacement. The ImPACT assessments were completed immediately after each exercise session and the composite score for 5 cognitive domains was analyzed: verbal memory, visual memory, visual motor speed, reaction time, and impulse control. Verbal memory scores were unaffected by exercise with or without vibration (p = 0.40). Likewise, visual memory was not different (p = 0.14) after CON, VV, or RV. Significant differences were detected for visual motor speed (p = 0.006); VV was elevated compared with BASE (p = 0.01). There were no significant differences (p = 0.26) in reaction time or impulse control (p = 0.16) after exercise with or without vibration. In healthy individuals, 10 minutes of 30 Hz, 4-mm peak-to-peak displacement vibration exposure with a 45° angle of knee flexion did not negatively affect neurocognition. PMID:25536489

  4. Body Percept Change in Obese Females after Weight Reduction Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, John K.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Measured video-image representations of body size for 68 females undergoing weight reduction counseling. All judged themselves significantly more obese than they actually were. After therapy, more realistic estimates of their physiques ensued. Dropouts saw themselves as significantly more obese than those who graduated from the program. (JAC)

  5. Exploring the effects of seated whole body vibration exposure on repetitive asymmetric lifting tasks.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Jay P; Lavender, Steven A; Jagacinski, Richard J; Sommerich, Carolyn M

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated changes in the physiological and behavioral responses to repetitive asymmetric lifting activity after exposure to whole body vibrations. Seventeen healthy volunteers repeatedly lifted a box (15% of lifter's capacity) positioned in front of them at ankle level to a location on their left side at waist level at the rate of 10 lifts/min for a period of 60 minutes. Prior to lifting, participants were seated on a vibrating platform for 60 minutes; in one of the two sessions the platform did not vibrate. Overall, the physiological responses assessed using near-infrared spectroscopy signals for the erector spinae muscles decreased significantly over time during the seating and the lifting tasks (p < 0.001). During repetitive asymmetric lifting, behavioral changes included increases in peak forward bending motion, twisting movement, and three-dimensional movement velocities of the spine. The lateral bending movement of the spine and the duration of each lift decreased significantly over the 60 minutes of repetitive lifting. With exposure to whole body vibration, participants twisted farther (p = 0.046) and twisted faster (p = 0.025). These behavioral changes would suggest an increase in back injury risk when repetitive lifting tasks are preceded by whole body vibration exposure. PMID:25264920

  6. The acute effect of whole body vibration training on flexibility and explosive strength of young gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Dallas, G; Kirialanis, P; Mellos, V

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effect of a single bout of whole body vibration (WBV) on flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in young artistic gymnasts. Thirty-two young competitive gymnasts volunteered to participate in this study, and were allocated to either the vibration group or traditional body weight training according to the vibration protocol. The vibration intervention consisted of a single bout of eccentric and concentric squatting movements on a vibration platform that was turned on (vibration group: VG n = 15), whereas the traditional body weight (no vibration) group performed the same training protocol with the WBV device turned off (NVG: n= 17). Flexibility (sit and reach test) and explosive strength tests [squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ), and single leg squat (right leg (RL) and left leg (LL))] were performed initially (pre-test), immediately after the intervention (post-test 1), and 15 minutes after the end of the intervention programme (post-test 15). Four 2x3 ANOVAs were used to examine the interaction between group (VG vs NVG) and time (pre, post 1, and post 15) with respect to examined variables. The results revealed that a significant interaction between group and time was found with respect to SJ (p < 0.05). However, no significant interaction between group and time was found with respect to flexibility, CMJ, RL and LL after the end of the intervention programme (p > 0.05). Further, the percentage improvement of the VG was significantly greater in all examined variables compared to the NVG. This study concluded that WBV training improves flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in young trained artistic gymnasts and maintains the initial level of performance for at least 15 minutes after the WBV intervention programme. PMID:25177103

  7. Improved protocols for vibrational spectroscopic analysis of body fluids.

    PubMed

    Bonnier, Franck; Petitjean, François; Baker, Matthew J; Byrne, Hugh J

    2014-04-01

    The applications of vibrational spectroscopy to the examination of human blood serum are explored. Although FTIR spectra can be recorded in aqueous solutions at (gelatin) concentrations as low as 100 mg/L, the high-wavenumber region remains obscured by water absorption. Using Raman spectroscopy, high quality spectra of gelatine solutions as low as 10 mg/L can be achieved, also covering the high-wavenumber regions. In human serum, spectral profiles are weak and partially obscured by water features. Dried deposits are shown to be physically and chemically inhomogeneous resulting in reduced measurement reproducibility. Concentration of the serum using commercially available centrifugal filter devices results in an improvement in the spectral intensity and quality. Additionally, in Raman spectroscopy, reduced background and significantly enhanced signal collection is achievable by measurement in an inverted geometry. The improved protocols for spectroscopic measurement of human serum are applicable to a range of bodily fluids and should accelerate potential clinical applications. PMID:24132993

  8. Effects of whole-body vibration training on sprint running kinematics and explosive strength performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giorgos Paradisis; Elias Zacharogiannis

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 wk of whole body vibration (WBV) training on sprint running kine- matics and explosive strength performance. Twenty-four volun- teers (12 women and 12 men) participated in the study and were randomised (n = 12) into the experimental and control groups. The WBV group performed a 6-wk program (16-30

  9. The effect of occupational whole-body vibration on standing balance: A systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramakrishnan Mani; Stephan Milosavljevic; S. John Sullivan

    2010-01-01

    Adverse health effects from exposure to occupational whole-body vibration (WBV) are common among drivers. In particular some researchers consider that there is kinaesthetic and balance disturbance from WBV exposure in the workplace and this might be one of the aetiological factors responsible for occupational low back pain in drivers. The purpose of this study was to undertake a critical review

  10. Reducing whole-body vibration and musculoskeletal injury with a new car seat design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Makhsous; R. Hendrix; Z. Crowther; E. Nam; F. Lin

    2005-01-01

    A new car seat design, which allows the back part of the seat (BPS) to lower down while a protruded cushion supports the lumbar spine, was quantitatively tested to determine its effectiveness and potentials in reducing whole-body vibration (WBV) and musculoskeletal disorders in automobile drivers. Nine subjects were tested to drive with the seat in: 1) the conventional seating arrangement

  11. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Spinal Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Kamran A. [Mayo Medical School, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Stauder, Michael C.; Miller, Robert C.; Bauer, Heather J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Rose, Peter S. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Olivier, Kenneth R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Brown, Paul D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Brinkmann, Debra H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Laack, Nadia N., E-mail: laack.nadia@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Based on reports of safety and efficacy, stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for treatment of malignant spinal tumors was initiated at our institution. We report prospective results of this population at Mayo Clinic. Materials and Methods: Between April 2008 and December 2010, 85 lesions in 66 patients were treated with SBRT for spinal metastases. Twenty-two lesions (25.8%) were treated for recurrence after prior radiotherapy (RT). The mean age of patients was 56.8 {+-} 13.4 years. Patients were treated to a median dose of 24 Gy (range, 10-40 Gy) in a median of three fractions (range, 1-5). Radiation was delivered with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and prescribed to cover 80% of the planning target volume (PTV) with organs at risk such as the spinal cord taking priority over PTV coverage. Results: Tumor sites included 48, 22, 12, and 3 in the thoracic, lumbar, cervical, and sacral spine, respectively. The mean actuarial survival at 12 months was 52.2%. A total of 7 patients had both local and marginal failure, 1 patient experienced marginal but not local failure, and 1 patient had local failure only. Actuarial local control at 1 year was 83.3% and 91.2% in patients with and without prior RT. The median dose delivered to patients who experienced local/marginal failure was 24 Gy (range, 18-30 Gy) in a median of three fractions (range, 1-5). No cases of Grade 4 toxicity were reported. In 1 of 2 patients experiencing Grade 3 toxicity, SBRT was given after previous radiation. Conclusion: The results indicate SBRT to be an effective measure to achieve local control in spinal metastases. Toxicity of treatment was rare, including those previously irradiated. Our results appear comparable to previous reports analyzing spine SBRT. Further research is needed to determine optimum dose and fractionation to further improve local control and prevent toxicity.

  12. Whole body vibration and posture as risk factors for low back pain among forklift truck drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoy, J.; Mubarak, N.; Nelson, S.; Sweerts de Landas, M.; Magnusson, M.; Okunribido, O.; Pope, M.

    2005-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the risks from whole-body vibration and posture demands for low back pain (LBP) among forklift truck (forklift) drivers. Using a validated questionnaire, information about health history was obtained over a period of two weeks in face-to-face interviews. The forklift drivers were observed in respect of their sitting posture, including frequency with which different positions were adopted (bending, leaning and twisting) and postural analyses were conducted using the OWAS and RULA techniques. Forklift vibrations at the seat (exposure) were measured in the three orthogonal axes ( x-fore and aft, y-lateral and z-vertical) under actual working conditions according to the recommendations of ISO 2631-1. The results showed that LBP was more prevalent amongst forklift drivers than among non-drivers and driving postures in which the trunk is considerably twisted or bent forward associated with greatest risk. Furthermore, forklift drivers showed to be exposed to acceptable levels of vibration in the x- and y-directions (i.e., below the EU Physical Agents Directive on Vibration Exposure recommended action level—0.5 m/s 2), but not in the z-direction. There were indications that whole-body vibration acts associatively with other factors (not independently) to precipitate LBP.

  13. An iOS Application for Evaluating Whole-body Vibration Within a Workplace Risk Management Process.

    PubMed

    McGlothlin, James; Burgess-Limerick, R; Lynas, D

    2015-07-01

    Workplace management of whole-body vibration exposure requires systematic collection of whole-body vibration data in conjunction with the numerous variables which influence vibration amplitudes. The cost and complexity of commercially available measurement devices is an impediment to the routine collection of such data by workplaces. An iOS application (WBV) has been developed which allows an iPod Touch to be used to measure whole-body vibration exposures. The utility of the application was demonstrated by simultaneously obtaining 98 pairs of whole-body vibration measurements from both the iPod Touch application and a commercially available whole-body vibration device during the operation of a variety of vehicles and mobile plant in operation at a surface coal mine. The iOS application installed on a fifth-generation iPod Touch was shown to provide a 95% confidence of +/- 0.077 m/s(2) r.m.s. constant error for the vertical direction. Situations in which vibration levels lay within the ISO2631.1 health guidance caution zone were accurately identified, and the qualitative features of the frequency spectra were reproduced. The low cost and relative simplicity of the application has potential to facilitate its use as a screening tool to identify situations in which musculoskeletal disorders may arise as a consequence of exposure to whole-body vibration. PMID:25625605

  14. An exploratory study of whole-body vibration exposure and dose while operating heavy equipment in the construction industry.

    PubMed

    Cann, Adam P; Salmoni, Alan W; Vi, Peter; Eger, Tammy R

    2003-12-01

    Whole-body vibration measurements were recorded for various types of heavy equipment used within the construction industry. The purpose of these measurements was to provide more information about the potential levels of whole-body vibration experienced by equipment operators in the construction industry, as well as to identify types of equipment warranting further research. In total, 67 pieces of equipment were tested from 14 different equipment types. Testing took place at various construction sites including corporate, public, and residential work projects. Measurements were made (following the 1997 International Standards Organization's 2631-1 whole-body vibration standards) for 20-minute testing periods using a Larson Davis HVM100 vibration monitor and a triaxial accelerometer. The mobile equipment tested was associated with greater levels of whole-body vibration than the stationary equipment. When whole-body vibration levels were compared to the International Standards Organization's 2631-1 standards, wheel loaders, off-road dump trucks, scrapers, skid steer vehicles, backhoes, bulldozers, crawler loaders, and concrete trowel vehicles exceeded the recommendations based on measured vibration dose values. Further research incorporating larger sample sizes and controlled testing conditions is required to better understand the levels of exposure experienced by operators as well as the amount to which seating, terrain, mobility, and vehicle structure might affect whole-body vibration. PMID:14612296

  15. Mind-body Therapies for Menopausal Symptoms: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Innes, Kim E; Selfe, Terry Kit; Vishnu, Abhishek

    2010-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the peer-reviewed literature regarding the effects of self-administered mind-body therapies on menopausal symptoms. Methods To identify qualifying studies, we searched 10 scientific databases and scanned bibliographies of relevant review papers and all identified articles. The methodological quality of all studies was assessed systematically using predefined criteria. Results Twenty-one papers representing 18 clinical trials from 6 countries met our inclusion criteria, including 12 randomized controlled trials (N=719), 1 non-randomized controlled trial (N=58), and 5 uncontrolled trials (N=105). Interventions included yoga and/or meditation-based programs, tai chi, and other relaxation practices, including muscle relaxation and breath-based techniques, relaxation response training, and low frequency sound-wave therapy. Eight of the nine studies of yoga, tai chi, and meditation-based programs reported improvement in overall menopausal and vasomotor symptoms; six of seven trials indicated improvement in mood and sleep with yoga-based programs, and four studies reported reduced musculoskeletal pain. Results from the remaining nine trials suggest that breath-based and other relaxation therapies also show promise for alleviating vasomotor and other menopausal symptoms, although intergroup findings were mixed. Most studies reviewed suffered methodological or other limitations, complicating interpretation of findings. Conclusions Collectively, findings of these studies suggest that yoga-based and certain other mind-body therapies may be beneficial for alleviating specific menopausal symptoms. However, the limitations characterizing most studies hinder interpretation of findings and preclude firm conclusions regarding efficacy. Additional large, methodologically sound trials are needed to determine the effects of specific mind-body therapies on menopausal symptoms, examine long-term outcomes, and investigate underlying mechanisms. PMID:20167444

  16. On the significance of body mass and vibration magnitude for acceleration transmission of vibration through seats with horizontal suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blüthner, Ralph; Hinz, Barbara; Menzel, Gerhard; Schust, Marianne; Seidel, Helmut

    2006-12-01

    Seats with horizontal suspensions can help to reduce detrimental effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on health, comfort and performance. Two seats were used to examine the effect of body mass and WBV-magnitude on the transmission of WBV from the seat base to the cushion. Both seats have suspension in the x-direction while Seat 2 has suspension also in the y-direction. Twelve subjects with a body mass ranging from 59.0 to 97.3 kg volunteered for the study. A set of anthropometric characteristics was acquired. Three magnitudes of WBV were used with a truck-like signal (Seat 1, 0.3-0.59 m s -2w d-weighted rms values at the seat base, x-direction) and a tractor-like signal (Seat 2, 0.55-1.09 m s -2w d-weighted rms values at the seat base, x-direction, 0.52-1.07 m s -2w d-weighted rms values, y-direction). The magnitude of WBV had a significant effect on the transmissibility characterized by SEAT-values. A significant influence of the body mass on SEAT-values was found for the y-direction only. Other anthropometric characteristics proved to be more important for the prediction of SEAT values by multiple regressions. There was no significant correlation of SEAT-values, x-direction, with the body mass. Other anthropometric characteristics enabled a satisfactory prediction of SEAT values also for x-direction in several cases. Tests with only two subjects of extreme body mass are not suited to obtain comparable and representative results required for a comparison of different seats with a suspension in the x-direction. The effect of the WBV-magnitude on the WBV-transmissibility should be considered with the design, testing and application of suspended seats.

  17. Effects of whole-body vibration training on fibrinolytic and coagulative factors in healthy young men

    PubMed Central

    Ghazalian, Farshad; Hakemi, Laleh; Pourkazemi, Lotfali; Akhoond, Mohammadreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim was to evaluate effects of 5-week whole body vibration (WBV) training with different amplitudes and progressive frequencies on fibrinolytic/coagulative factors. Materials and Methods: 25 subjects were divided randomly in high or low-amplitude vibration, and control groups. Training consisted of 5-week WBV with amplitudes 4 or 2 mm. Plasma samples were analyzed before and after training. Statistical analysis was done using one-way analysis of variance and Wilcoxon signed ranked test. P <0.05 was considered significant. Results: High-amplitude vibration caused an increase in tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) (P = 0.028) (pretest: 1744.61 ± 707.95; posttest: 2313.63 ± 997.19 pg/ml), and decrease in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) (P = 0.033) (pretest: 97.94 ± 34.37; posttest: 85.12 ± 36.92 ng/ml). Fibrinogen and plasminogen were not changed significantly. Low-amplitude vibration caused an increase in tPA (P = 0.006) (pretest: 2208.18 ± 1280.37; posttest: 3492.72 ± 3549.22 pg/ml). PAI-1, fibrinogen and plasminogen were not changed significantly. There were no significant differences between groups. Conclusion: Amplitude of vibrations in WBV training may affect fibrinolytic factors. PMID:25538784

  18. [Evaluation of forklift trucks operated in dockyards for reducing exposure to whole-body vibration].

    PubMed

    Tsujimura, Hiroji; Taoda, Kazushi; Nishiyama, Katsuo

    2005-03-01

    Our preceding study revealed that many fork-lift truck drivers in Japanese dockyards suffer from fatigue symptoms such as low back pain (LBP). It has been suggested that exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) is a cause of their LBP. Using forklift models manufactured from 1982 to 2000, we measured and evaluated the vibration of forklift trucks operated in dockyards, adopting experimental procedures based on the European Standard. We investigated various factors related to WBV, with the main focus on attenuating seat vibration. This study showed that (1) the seats did not attenuate vibration in the vertical direction, (2) forklift trucks and their seats had not improved in terms of WBV attenuation for a decade, (3) some forklift trucks in which the seat suspension could no longer be adjusted to the driver's weight continued to be used without being repaired, and impractical seat adjustment methods were adopted, and (4) the seats did not attenuate vertical vibration well in the most undesirable frequency range. We conclude that forklift trucks and especially their seats should urgently be improved with regard to WBV attenuation in order to prevent LBP in forklift truck drivers. PMID:15852682

  19. Evaluation of lumbar vertebra injury risk to the seated human body when exposed to vertical vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayari, H.; Thomas, M.; Doré, S.; Serrus, O.

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this research is to numerically determine the levels of vibration not to exceed accordingly to the corresponding dynamic stresses in the lumbar rachis when exposed to whole-body vibrations in order to identify the risk of adverse health effect to which professional heavy equipment drivers are particularly prone. A parametric finite element model of the lumbar rachis is generated in order to compute the modal parameters, the dynamic stresses and forces under harmonic excitations in a seated posture. The stress analysis reveals that the areas exposed to the highest fracture risk are the cancellous bone of the vertebral body as well as the vertebral endplate when vertical vibrations are transmitted from a seat to the lumbar spine of a driver. An injury risk factor has been developed in order to estimate the risk of adverse health effect arising from mechanical vibrations. It is shown that the injury risk factor increases with the age and consequently that the excitation amplitude must be limited to lower levels when age increases.

  20. The influence of dynamic properties of ground soil on vibration characteristics of rigid body on sand ground

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoon-Sang Kim; Tae-Gyun Ha; Jae-Jin Choi; Choong-Ki Chung

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the influence of dynamic properties of the ground soil on vibration properties of a rigid body\\u000a placed on the sand ground surface to clarify the vibration behavior of a structure in terms of the interaction between the\\u000a structure and the ground. A series of cyclic triaxial tests and three types of model vibration tests were

  1. Whole body vibration for older persons: an open randomized, multicentre, parallel, clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Institutionalized older persons have a poor functional capacity. Including physical exercise in their routine activities decreases their frailty and improves their quality of life. Whole-body vibration (WBV) training is a type of exercise that seems beneficial in frail older persons to improve their functional mobility, but the evidence is inconclusive. This trial will compare the results of exercise with WBV and exercise without WBV in improving body balance, muscle performance and fall prevention in institutionalized older persons. Methods/Design An open, multicentre and parallel randomized clinical trial with blinded assessment. 160 nursing home residents aged over 65 years and of both sexes will be identified to participate in the study. Participants will be centrally randomised and allocated to interventions (vibration or exercise group) by telephone. The vibration group will perform static/dynamic exercises (balance and resistance training) on a vibratory platform (Frequency: 30-35 Hz; Amplitude: 2-4 mm) over a six-week training period (3 sessions/week). The exercise group will perform the same exercise protocol but without a vibration stimuli platform. The primary outcome measure is the static/dynamic body balance. Secondary outcomes are muscle strength and, number of new falls. Follow-up measurements will be collected at 6 weeks and at 6 months after randomization. Efficacy will be analysed on an intention-to-treat (ITT) basis and 'per protocol'. The effects of the intervention will be evaluated using the "t" test, Mann-Witney test, or Chi-square test, depending on the type of outcome. The final analysis will be performed 6 weeks and 6 months after randomization. Discussion This study will help to clarify whether WBV training improves body balance, gait mobility and muscle strength in frail older persons living in nursing homes. As far as we know, this will be the first study to evaluate the efficacy of WBV for the prevention of falls. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01375790 PMID:22192313

  2. Whole body vibration and posture as risk factors for low back pain among forklift truck drivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hoy; N. Mubarak; S. Nelson; M. Sweerts de Landas; M. Magnusson; O. Okunribido; M. Pope

    2005-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the risks from whole-body vibration and posture demands for low back pain (LBP) among forklift truck (forklift) drivers. Using a validated questionnaire, information about health history was obtained over a period of two weeks in face-to-face interviews. The forklift drivers were observed in respect of their sitting posture, including frequency with which different

  3. The rate of muscle temperature increase during acute whole-body vibration exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Cochrane; S. R. Stannard; A. J. Sargeant; J. Rittweger

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the rate of muscle temperature (T\\u000a m) increase during acute whole-body vibration (WBV), to that of stationary cycling and passive warm-up. Additionally we wanted\\u000a to determine if the purported increase in counter-movement jump and peak power cycling from acute WBV could be explained by\\u000a changes in muscle temperature. Eight active participants volunteered for the study, which involved

  4. Effects of random whole-body vibration on postural control in Parkinson's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Turbanski; Christian T. Haas; Dietmar Schmidtbleicher; Antje Friedrich; Petra Duisberg

    2005-01-01

    We investigated spontaneous effects of random whole-body vibration (rWBV) on postural control in Parkinsonian subjects. Effects were examined in biomechanical tests from a total of 52 patients divided equally into one experimental and one control group. Postural control was tested pre- and post-treatment in two standardized conditions (narrow standing and tandem standing). The intervention was based on rWBV (y: 3

  5. Acute Whole-Body Vibration does not Facilitate Peak Torque and Stretch Reflex in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Ella W.; Lau, Cheuk C.; Kwong, Ada P.K.; Sze, Yan M.; Zhang, Wei Y.; Yeung, Simon S.

    2014-01-01

    The acute effect of whole-body vibration (WBV) training may enhance muscular performance via neural potentiation of the stretch reflex. The purpose of this study was to investigate if acute WBV exposure affects the stretch induced knee jerk reflex [onset latency and electromechanical delay (EMD)] and the isokinetic knee extensor peak torque performance. Twenty-two subjects were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention group received WBV in a semi-squat position at 30° knee flexion with an amplitude of 0.69 mm, frequency of 45 Hz, and peak acceleration of 27.6 m/s2 for 3 minutes. The control group underwent the same semii-squatting position statically without exposure of WBV. Two-way mixed repeated measures analysis of variance revealed no significant group effects differences on reflex latency of rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL; p = 0.934 and 0.935, respectively) EMD of RF and VL (p = 0.474 and 0.551, respectively) and peak torque production (p = 0.483) measured before and after the WBV. The results of this study indicate that a single session of WBV exposure has no potentiation effect on the stretch induced reflex and peak torque performance in healthy young adults. Key Points There is no acute potentiation of stretch reflex right after whole body vibration. Acute whole body vibration does not improve mus-cle peak torque performance in healthy young adults. PMID:24570602

  6. RESEARCH ON VIBRATION CHARACTERISTICS BETWEEN HUMAN BODY AND SEAT, STEERING WHEEL, AND PEDALS (EFFECTS OF SEAT POSITION ON RIDE COMFORT)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Nishiyama; N. Uesugi; T. Takeshima; Y. Kano; H. Togii

    2000-01-01

    Experimental results are presented of the vibrational characteristics of the automotive subsystem comprising the human body, seat, steering wheel and pedals. The magnitude of the vibrations transferred to a driver from the seat, steering wheel and pedals have been measured with both sinusoidal and random excitations in the vertical direction at frequencies up to 20 Hz. Measurement points were located

  7. Transverse vibration and buckling of a cantilevered beam with tip body under constant axial base acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storch, J.; Gates, S.

    1983-01-01

    The planar transverse bending behavior of a uniform cantilevered beam with rigid tip body subject to constant axial base acceleration was analyzed. The beam is inextensible and capable of small elastic transverse bending deformations only. Two classes of tip bodies are recognized: (1) mass centers located along the beam tip tangent line; and (2) mass centers with arbitrary offset towards the beam attachment point. The steady state response is studied for the beam end condition cases: free, tip mass, tip body with restricted mass center offset, and tip body with arbitrary mass center offset. The first three cases constitute classical Euler buckling problems, and the characteristic equation for the critical loads/accelerations are determined. For the last case a unique steady state solution exists. The free vibration response is examined for the two classes of tip body. The characteristic equation, eigenfunctions and their orthogonality properties are obtained for the case of restricted mass center offset. The vibration problem is nonhomogeneous for the case of arbitrary mass center offset. The exact solution is obtained as a sum of the steady state solution and a superposition of simple harmonic motions.

  8. Optimization of the contact damping and stiffness coefficients to minimize human body vibration.

    PubMed

    Amirouche, F M; Xie, M; Patwardhan, A

    1994-11-01

    In this paper, a lumped mass human model is used to minimize the energy absorption at the feet/hip level when the body is subjected to vertical vibration. The contact forces are assumed unknown. By coupling the dynamic response of the body with certain objective criteria, the optimum damping and stiffness coefficients of shoes/chairs are sought. The optimization technique is based on the quasi-Newton and finite-difference gradient method and is used to seek optimum coefficients of the contact forces in the solution of the body's response in the frequency domain. The criteria of acceleration, displacement and internal forces response area swept for a range of 0-15 Hz form the basis of our simulation study. In the seated/standing postures it is found that for each criteria the frequency response shifts the peak of resonance of each body segment response from 4.5/3.67 Hz to 2.5/2.255 Hz. In addition, the total energy reduces drastically when the contact conditions are optimum. The method presented in this paper is useful in modeling the medium of contacts and especially in controlling the effects of human body vibration. PMID:7869717

  9. Inference-Based Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Taillon, Annie; O’Connor, Kieron; Dupuis, Gilles; Lavoie, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a debilitating disorder characterized by an excessive pre-occupation with an imagined or very slight defect in one’s physical appearance. Despite the overall success of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in treating BDD, some people do not seem to benefit as much from this approach. Those with high overvalued ideation (OVI), for instance, have been shown to not respond well with CBT. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an inference-based therapy (IBT) in treating BDD. IBT is a cognitive intervention that was first developed for obsessive–compulsive disorder with high OVI, but whose focus on beliefs can also apply to a BDD population. IBT conceptualizes BDD obsessions (e.g., ‘I feel like my head is deformed’) as idiosyncratic inferences arrived at through inductive reasoning processes. Such primary inferences represent the starting point of obsessional doubt and the treatment focuses on addressing the faulty inferences that maintain the doubt. Thirteen BDD participants, of whom 10 completed, underwent a 20-week IBT for BDD. The participants improved significantly over the course of therapy, with large diminutions in BDD and depressive symptoms. OVI also decreased throughout therapy and was not found to be related to reduction in BDD symptoms. Although a controlled-trial comparing CBT with IBT is needed, it is proposed that IBT constitutes a promising treatment alternative for BDD especially in cases where OVI is high. PMID:21793103

  10. Inference-based therapy for body dysmorphic disorder.

    PubMed

    Taillon, Annie; O'Connor, Kieron; Dupuis, Gilles; Lavoie, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a debilitating disorder characterized by an excessive pre-occupation with an imagined or very slight defect in one's physical appearance. Despite the overall success of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in treating BDD, some people do not seem to benefit as much from this approach. Those with high overvalued ideation (OVI), for instance, have been shown to not respond well with CBT. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an inference-based therapy (IBT) in treating BDD. IBT is a cognitive intervention that was first developed for obsessive-compulsive disorder with high OVI, but whose focus on beliefs can also apply to a BDD population. IBT conceptualizes BDD obsessions (e.g., 'I feel like my head is deformed') as idiosyncratic inferences arrived at through inductive reasoning processes. Such primary inferences represent the starting point of obsessional doubt and the treatment focuses on addressing the faulty inferences that maintain the doubt. Thirteen BDD participants, of whom 10 completed, underwent a 20-week IBT for BDD. The participants improved significantly over the course of therapy, with large diminutions in BDD and depressive symptoms. OVI also decreased throughout therapy and was not found to be related to reduction in BDD symptoms. Although a controlled-trial comparing CBT with IBT is needed, it is proposed that IBT constitutes a promising treatment alternative for BDD especially in cases where OVI is high. PMID:21793103

  11. Can an iPod Touch be used to assess whole-body vibration associated with mining equipment?

    PubMed

    Wolfgang, Rebecca; Di Corleto, Luke; Burgess-Limerick, Robin

    2014-11-01

    The cost and complexity of commercially available whole-body vibration measurement devices is a barrier to the systematic collection of the information required to manage this hazard. The potential for a consumer electronic device to be used to estimate whole-body vibration was assessed by collecting 58 simultaneous pairs of acceleration measurements in three dimensions from a fifth-generation iPod Touch and gold standard whole-body vibration measurement devices, while a range of heavy mining equipment was operated at three surface coal mines. The results suggest that accelerometer data gathered from a consumer electronic device are able to be used to measure whole-body vibration amplitude with 95% confidence of ±0.06 m s(-2) root mean square for the vertical direction (1.96 × standard deviation of the constant error). PMID:25106947

  12. Image-Guidance for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Fuss, Martin [Department of Radiation Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States) and Cancer Therapy and Research Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)]. E-mail: fussm@ohsu.edu; Boda-Heggemann, Judit [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mannheim Medical Center, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Papanikolau, Nikos [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States); Cancer Therapy and Research Center, San Antonio, TX (United States); Salter, Bill J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Huntsman Cancer Institute, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The term stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) describes a recently introduced external beam radiation paradigm by which small lesions outside the brain are treated under stereotactic conditions, in a single or few fractions of high-dose radiation delivery. Similar to the treatment planning and delivery process for cranial radiosurgery, the emphasis is on sparing of adjacent normal tissues through the creation of steep dose gradients. Thus, advanced methods for assuring an accurate relationship between the target volume position and radiation beam geometry, immediately prior to radiation delivery, must be implemented. Such methods can employ imaging techniques such as planar (e.g., x-ray) or volumetric (e.g., computed tomography [CT]) approaches and are commonly summarized under the general term image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). This review summarizes clinical experience with volumetric and ultrasound based image-guidance for SBRT. Additionally, challenges and potential limitations of pre-treatment image-guidance are presented and discussed.

  13. Modelling resonances of the standing body exposed to vertical whole-body vibration: Effects of posture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subashi, G. H. M. J.; Matsumoto, Y.; Griffin, M. J.

    2008-10-01

    Lumped parameter mathematical models representing anatomical parts of the human body have been developed to represent body motions associated with resonances of the vertical apparent mass and the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the human body standing in five different postures: 'upright', 'lordotic', 'anterior lean', 'knees bent', and 'knees more bent'. The inertial and geometric parameters of the models were determined from published anthropometric data. Stiffness and damping parameters were obtained by comparing model responses with experimental data obtained previously. The principal resonance of the vertical apparent mass, and the first peak in the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass, of the standing body in an upright posture (at 5-6 Hz) corresponded to vertical motion of the viscera in phase with the vertical motion of the entire body due to deformation of the tissues at the soles of the feet, with pitch motion of the pelvis out of phase with pitch motion of the upper body above the pelvis. Upward motion of the body was in phase with the forward pitch motion of the pelvis. Changing the posture of the upper body had minor effects on the mode associated with the principal resonances of the apparent mass and cross-axis apparent mass, but the mode changed significantly with bending of the legs. In legs-bent postures, the principal resonance (at about 3 Hz) was attributed to bending of the legs coupled with pitch motion of the pelvis in phase with pitch motion of the upper body. In this mode, extension of the legs was in phase with the forward pitch motion of the upper body and the upward vertical motion of the viscera.

  14. Whole body vibration exposures in forklift operators: comparison of a mechanical and air suspension seat.

    PubMed

    Blood, Ryan P; Ploger, James D; Johnson, Peter W

    2010-11-01

    Using a repeated measures design, this study compared differences in whole body vibration (WBV) exposures when 12 forklift operators drove the same forklift with a mechanical suspension and an air suspension seat. A portable PDA-based WBV data acquisition system collected and analysed time-weighted and raw WBV data per ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5 WBV measurement standards. Tri-axial measurements of weighted vibration (A(w)), crest factor, vibration dose values, time-weighted average-peak, raw (+) peak, raw (-) peak and static compression dose (S(ed)) were compared between seats. There were significant differences in z-axis WBV exposures with the air suspension seat, yielding lower WBV exposures. In addition, there were differences between seats in how they attenuated WBV exposures based on the driver's weight. In the mechanical suspension seat, WBV exposures were weight-dependent, with lighter drivers having higher WBV exposures, whereas with the air suspension seat, the same trends were not as prevalent. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study contributes to the understanding of how different seat suspensions can influence WBV transmission and how some components of vibration transmission are dependent on the weight of the driver. Additional systematic studies are needed to quantify how various factors can influence WBV exposures. PMID:20967660

  15. Stochastic resonance whole body vibration reduces musculoskeletal pain: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Elfering, Achim; Thomann, Jan; Schade, Volker; Radlinger, Lorenz

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To examined the effects of stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training on musculoskeletal pain in young healthy individuals. METHODS: Participants were 43 undergraduate students of a Swiss University. The study was designed as a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with randomized group allocation. The RCT consisted of two groups each given 12 training sessions during four weeks with either 5 Hz- Training frequency (training condition) or 1.5 Hz Training frequency (control condition). Outcome was current musculoskeletal pain assessed in the evening on each day during the four week training period. RESULTS: Multilevel regression analysis showed musculoskeletal pain was significantly decreased in the training condition whereas there was no change in the control condition (B = -0.023, SE = 0.010, P = 0.021). Decrease in current musculoskeletal pain over four weeks was linear. CONCLUSION: Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration reduced musculoskeletal pain in young healthy individuals. Stochastic resonance vibration and not any other exercise component within training caused pain reduction. PMID:22474630

  16. Inter-individual postural variability in seated drivers exposed to whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Amari, Maël; Caruel, Eric; Donati, Patrice

    2015-07-01

    Long-term occupational exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) is a cause of low back pain for seated drivers. Poor and long-term seated postures are considered as a cofactor in the risk. It depends on the vehicle's ergonomics and tasks. Differences in posture may also be observed between operators doing identical tasks. An experiment has been performed in order to simultaneously measure posture and WBV for 12 drivers in 3 vehicles (loader, dumper and excavator) during controlled tasks. The inter-individual postural variability has been evaluated. The positions and movements of the body were measured with the CUELA system (computer-assisted recording and long-term analysis of musculoskeletal loads). Significant differences were observed between the three vehicles in the WBV, positions and movements of the body. Significant postural differences were observed between drivers (EN 1005-4 2005). Individual strategies for performing a task were also identified. PMID:25537005

  17. Modal analysis of human body vibration model for Indian subjects under sitting posture.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ishbir; Nigam, S P; Saran, V H

    2015-07-01

    Need and importance of modelling in human body vibration research studies are well established. The study of biodynamic responses of human beings can be classified into experimental and analytical methods. In the past few decades, plenty of mathematical models have been developed based on the diverse field measurements to describe the biodynamic responses of human beings. In this paper, a complete study on lumped parameter model derived from 50th percentile anthropometric data for a seated 54- kg Indian male subject without backrest support under free un-damped conditions has been carried out considering human body segments to be of ellipsoidal shape. Conventional lumped parameter modelling considers the human body as several rigid masses interconnected by springs and dampers. In this study, concept of mass of interconnecting springs has been incorporated and eigenvalues thus obtained are found to be closer to the values reported in the literature. Results obtained clearly establish decoupling of vertical and fore-and-aft oscillations. PMID:25323415

  18. Modeling of a seated human body exposed to vertical vibrations in various automotive postures.

    PubMed

    Liang, Cho-Chung; Chiang, Chi-Feng

    2008-04-01

    Although much research has been devoted to constructing specific models or to measuring the response characteristics of seated subjects, investigations on a mathematical human model on a seat with a backrest to evaluate vehicular riding comfort have not yet attracted the same level of attention. For the responses of a seated body to vertical vibrations, mathematical models of the mechanisms must be at least two-dimensional in the sagittal plane. In describing the motions of a seated body, two multibody models representative of the automotive postures found in the literature were investigated, one with and the other without a backrest support. Both models were modified to suitably represent the different automotive postures with and without backrest supports, and validated by various experimental data from the published literature pertaining to the same postural conditions. On the basis of the analytical study and the experimental validation, the fourteen-degrees-of-freedom model proposed in this research was found to be best fitted to the test results; therefore, this model is recommended for studying the biodynamic responses of a seated human body exposed to vertical vibrations in various automotive postures. PMID:18413965

  19. Apparatus and method of inserting a microelectrode in body tissue or the like using vibration means

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldstein, C.; Crawford, D. W.; Kanabus, E. W. (inventors)

    1979-01-01

    An arrangement for and method of inserting a glass microelectrode having a tip in the micron range into body tissue is presented. The arrangement includes a microelectrode. The top of the microelectrode is attached to the diaphragm center of a first speaker. The microelectrode tip is brought into contact with the tissue by controlling a micromanipulator. Thereafter, an audio signal is applied to the speaker to cause the microelectrode to vibrate and thereby pierce the tissue surface without breaking the microelectrode tip. Thereafter, the tip is inserted into the tissue to the desired depth by operating the micromanipulator with the microelectrode in a vibratory or non-vibratory state.

  20. Synchronous whole-body vibration increases VO? during and following acute exercise.

    PubMed

    Hazell, Tom J; Lemon, Peter W R

    2012-02-01

    Single bout whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise has been shown to produce small but significant increases in oxygen consumption (VO(2)). How much more a complete whole-body exercise session (multiple dynamic exercises targeting both upper and lower body muscles) can increase VO(2) is unknown. The purpose of this study was to quantify VO(2) during and for an extended time period (24 h) following a multiple exercise WBV exercise session versus the same session without vibration (NoV). VO(2) of healthy males (n = 8) was measured over 24 h on a day that included a WBV exercise session versus a day with the same exercise session without vibration (NoV), and versus a control day (no exercise). Upper and lower body exercises were studied (five, 30 s, 15 repetition sets of six exercises; 1:1 exercise:recovery ratio over 30 min). Diet was controlled. VO(2) was 23% greater (P = 0.002) during the WBV exercise session versus the NoV session (62.5 ± 12.0 vs. 50.7 ± 8.2 L O(2)) and elicited a higher (P = 0.033) exercise heart rate versus NoV (139 ± 6 vs. 126 ± 11 bpm). Total O(2) consumed over 8 and 24 h following the WBV exercise was also increased (P < 0.010) (240.5 ± 28.3 and 518.9 ± 61.2 L O(2)) versus both NoV (209.7 ± 22.9 and 471.1 ± 51.6 L O(2)) and control (151.4 ± 20.7 and 415.2 ± 51.6 L O(2)). NoV was also increased versus control (P < 0.003). A day with a 30-min multiple exercise, WBV session increased 24 h VO(2) versus a day that included the same exercise session without vibration, and versus a non-exercise day by 10 and 25%, respectively. PMID:21573780

  1. Multipoint Contact Approach to the Analysis of Interacting Flexible Bodies Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajžman, M.; Rychecký, D.

    The efficient method usable for the vibrational analysis of interacting flexible bodies is presented in this paper. It is motivated by the research of blades interaction in the framework of turbine bladed disks. The approach is based on the decomposition of a contact surface into a set of elementary areas and on the expression of contact and friction forces between these areas. The methodology is implemented in the MATLAB system and obtained results for the chosen test case are compared with the results obtained by the ANSYS software.

  2. The Effect of Whole-Body Vibration Frequency and Amplitude on the Myoelectric Activity of Vastus Medialis and Vastus Lateralis

    PubMed Central

    Krol, Piotr; Piecha, Magdalena; Slomka, Kajetan; Sobota, Grzegorz; Polak, Anna; Juras, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of training protocols for whole body vibration (WBV) training through the modulation of the frequency and amplitude of vibration. Despite the large number of studies regarding effects of such training, there is still lack of knowledge regarding optimum training protocols. The study analyzed the influence of whole-body vibration parameters (i.e., the frequency and amplitude) on the myoelectric activity of vastus lateralis and vastus medialis in 29 females with the use of electromyography (EMG). The first and second of the eight consecutive trials were performed without vibrations; the remaining six trials were performed in a randomized order on a platform vibrating at different amplitude (2mm and 4mm) and frequency (20 Hz, 40 Hz and 60 Hz) combinations. The results revealed significantly higher EMG amplitude of both muscles during the vibration as compared with the non- vibrated trials (trial 1 and 2). Furthermore, the EMG activity significantly increased both with the amplitude and frequency, being the highest when the frequency and amplitude of reached 60 Hz and 4 mm, respectively. The study aims to determine the optimal vibration parameters in the aspect of purposeful stimulation of chosen leg muscles. Based on the results of the presented investigation, sports trainers and physiotherapists may be able to optimize training programs involving vibration platforms. Key points The observed vibration effect significantly increases both with the amplitude and frequency. Certain frequency/amplitude combinations of mechanical vibrations cause the same level of myoelectric muscle activity. PMID:24149311

  3. Whole body vibration exposure in heavy earth moving machinery operators of metalliferrous mines.

    PubMed

    Vanerkar, A P; Kulkarni, N P; Zade, P D; Kamavisdar, A S

    2008-08-01

    As mining operations get mechanized, the rate of profit generation increases and so do the rate of occupational hazards. This study deals with one such hazard - occupational vibration. The present study was carried out to determine the whole body vibration (WBV) exposure of the heavy earth moving machinery (HEMM) operators in two types of metalliferous mines in India, when they were engaged in the mining activity. Cross-comparison was done of the vibration dose value (VDV) for HEMM operators as well as each type of mine. The VDV for the shovel operator in bauxite mine was observed to be 13.53 +/- 5.63 m/s(7/4) with 25% of the readings higher than the prescribed limit whereas in iron ore mine VDV for dumper operator was 10.81 +/- 3.44 m/s(7/4) with 14.62% readings on the higher side. Cross-comparison of the VDV values for bauxite and iron ore mines revealed that it was 9.57 +/- 4.93 and 8.21 +/- 5.12 m/s(7/4) with 21.28 and 14.95% of the readings on the higher side respectively. The Student's t test level was found to be insignificant for both type of mines, indicating that the WBV exposure is not dependent on the type of mine but is dependent on the working condition and type of HEMM in operation. PMID:17874194

  4. [Equipment and positioning technologies in stereotactic body radiation therapy].

    PubMed

    Marchesi, V; Dedieu, V; Lacornerie, T; Buchheit, I

    2014-01-01

    Strereotactic body radiation therapy needs adapted or dedicated equipment to allow fulfilling the particular conditions of the stereotactic treatments: submillimetric accuracy during the treatment delivery, high doses for a reduced number of sessions. This kind of treatment can be either performed using delivery equipment conceived and dedicated to the technique, or performed on conventional machines adapted to meet the criteria. Contrary to intracranial treatments, the positioning of the target volume raises new difficulties, mainly due to the diversity of localization to treat and also due to inter- and intrafraction movements that can occur. To reduce these effects that could affect the irradiation accuracy, positioning or movement compensation, mostly due to respiration, tools have been developed. PMID:24837350

  5. Role of stereotactic body radiation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sanuki, Naoko; Takeda, Atsuya; Kunieda, Etsuo

    2014-01-01

    The integration of new technologies has raised an interest in liver tumor radiotherapy, with literature evolving to support its efficacy. These advances, particularly stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), have been critical in improving local control or potential cure in liver lesions not amenable to first-line surgical resection or radiofrequency ablation. Active investigation of SBRT, particularly for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), has recently started, yielding promising local control rates. In addition, data suggest a possibility that SBRT can be an alternative option for HCC unfit for other local therapies. However, information on optimal treatment indications, doses, and methods remains limited. In HCC, significant differences in patient characteristics and treatment availability exist by country. In addition, the prognosis of HCC is greatly influenced by underlying liver dysfunction and treatment itself in addition to tumor stage. Since they are closely linked to treatment approach, it is important to understand these differences in interpreting outcomes from various reports. Further studies are required to validate and maximize the efficacy of SBRT by a large, multi-institutional setting. PMID:24696597

  6. Characterization and calibration of piezoelectric polymers: In situ measurements of body vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappel, Marcel; Abel, Markus; Gerhard, Reimund

    2011-07-01

    Piezoelectric polymers are known for their flexibility in applications, mainly due to their bending ability, robustness, and variable sensor geometry. It is an optimal material for minimal-invasive investigations in vibrational systems, e.g., for wood, where acoustical impedance matches particularly well. Many applications may be imagined, e.g., monitoring of buildings, vehicles, machinery, alarm systems, such that our investigations may have a large impact on technology. Longitudinal piezoelectricity converts mechanical vibrations normal to the polymer-film plane into an electrical signal, and the respective piezoelectric coefficient needs to be carefully determined in dependence on the relevant material parameters. In order to evaluate efficiency and durability for piezopolymers, we use polyvinylidene fluoride and measure the piezoelectric coefficient with respect to static pressure, amplitude of the dynamically applied force, and long-term stability. A known problem is the slow relaxation of the material towards equilibrium, if the external pressure changes; here, we demonstrate how to counter this problem with careful calibration. Since our focus is on acoustical measurements, we determine accurately the frequency response curve - for acoustics probably the most important characteristic. Eventually, we show that our piezopolymer transducers can be used as a calibrated acoustical sensors for body vibration measurements on a wooden musical instrument, where it is important to perform minimal-invasive measurements. A comparison with the simultaneously recorded airborne sound yields important insight of the mechanism of sound radiation in comparison with the sound propagating in the material. This is especially important for transient signals, where not only the long-living eigenmodes contribute to the sound radiation. Our analyses support that piezopolymer sensors can be employed as a general tool for the determination of the internal dynamics of vibrating systems.

  7. Effects of Whole-Body Vibration on Resistance Training for Untrained Adults

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, Yusuke; Oguma, Yuko

    2011-01-01

    Although resistance training (RT) combined with whole-body vibration (WBV) is becoming increasingly popular among untrained adults, the additional effects of WBV on muscle fitness are still not well understood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of WBV on muscle strength, muscle power, muscle endurance, and neuromuscular activities compared with the identical RT without WBV. Thirty-three individuals (6 males and 27 females; 22-49 years old) were randomly assigned to a training program using slow-velocity RT coupled with WBV (RT- WBV group, n = 17) or an identical exercise program without WBV (RT group, n = 16). Participants performed eight exercises per 60 min session on a vibration platform (RT-WBV group, frequency, 35 Hz; amplitude, 2 mm) twice weekly for seven weeks. To evaluate the effects of WBV, the maximal isometric and isokinetic knee extension strength, maximal isometric lumbar extension strength, countermovement-jump, and the number of sit-ups were measured before and after the trial. Significantly higher increases were observed in the maximal isometric and concentric knee extension strength (p = 0.02, p = 0.04 , respectively), and maximal isometric lumbar extension strength at 60 degrees of trunk flexion (p = 0.02) in the RT-WBV group (+36.8%, +38.4%, +26.4%, respectively) in comparison to the RT group (+16.5%, +12.8%, +14.3%, respectively). A significant difference was also observed between the RT-WBV group (+8.4%) and the RT group (+4.7%) in the countermovement jump height (p = 0.02). In conclusion, the results suggest that significant additional increases in maximal isometric and concentric knee extension and lumbar extension strength, and countermovement jump height can be achieved by incorporating WBV into a slow-velocity RT program during the initial stage of regular RT in untrained healthy adults. Key points A randomized controlled trial was conducted to investigate the effects of slow velocity resistance training combined with whole-body vibration on maximal muscle strength, power, muscle endurance, and neuromuscular activities in healthy untrained individuals. Resistance training program for lower extremities and trunk muscles were performed twice weekly for 7 weeks. A 7 weeks slow velocity resistance training program with whole-body vibration significantly increased maximal isometric knee extension and lumbar extension strength and power in healthy untrained individuals. PMID:24149879

  8. The impact of self-reported exposure to whole-body-vibrations on the risk of disability pension among men: a 15 year prospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Finn Tüchsen; Helene Feveile; Karl B Christensen; Niklas Krause

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whole-body-vibrations are often associated with adverse health effect but the long term effects are less known. This study investigates the association between occupational exposures to whole-body vibrations, and subsequent transition to disability pension. METHODS: A total of 4215 male employees were followed up for subsequent disability pension retirement. Exposure to whole-body-vibration was self-reported while new cases of disability pension

  9. Effect of whole-body vibration on lower-limb EMG activity in subjects with and without spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh-Meghrazi, Milad; Masani, Kei; Zariffa, José; Sayenko, Dimitry G; Popovic, Milos R; Craven, B Catharine

    2014-09-01

    Objective Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) results in substantial reductions in lower extremity muscle mass and bone mineral density below the level of the lesion. Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been proposed as a means of counteracting or treating musculoskeletal degradation after chronic motor complete SCI. To ascertain how WBV might be used to augment muscle and bone mass, we investigated whether WBV could evoke lower extremity electromyography (EMG) activity in able-bodied individuals and individuals with SCI, and which vibration parameters produced the largest magnitude of effect. Methods Ten male subjects participated in the study, six able-bodied and four with chronic SCI. Two different manufacturers' vibration platforms (WAVE(®) and Juvent™) were evaluated. The effects of vibration amplitude (0.2, 0.6 or 1.2 mm), vibration frequency (25, 35, or 45 Hz), and subject posture (knee angle of 140°, 160°, or 180°) on lower extremity EMG activation were determined (not all combinations of parameters were possible on both platforms). A novel signal processing technique was proposed to estimate the power of the EMG waveform while minimizing interference and artifacts from the plate vibration. Results WBV can elicit EMG activity among subjects with chronic SCI, if appropriate vibration parameters are employed. The amplitude of vibration had the greatest influence on EMG activation, while the frequency of vibration had lesser but statistically significant impact on the measured lower extremity EMG activity. Conclusion These findings suggest that WBV with appropriate parameters may constitute a promising intervention to treat musculoskeletal degradation after chronic SCI. PMID:24986541

  10. Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration improves postural control in health care professionals: a worksite randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Elfering, Achim; Schade, Volker; Stoecklin, Lukas; Baur, Simone; Burger, Christian; Radlinger, Lorenz

    2014-05-01

    Slip, trip, and fall injuries are frequent among health care workers. Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training was tested to improve postural control. Participants included 124 employees of a Swiss university hospital. The randomized controlled trial included an experimental group given 8 weeks of training and a control group with no intervention. In both groups, postural control was assessed as mediolateral sway on a force plate before and after the 8-week trial. Mediolateral sway was significantly decreased by stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training in the experimental group but not in the control group that received no training (p < .05). Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training is an option in the primary prevention of balance-related injury at work. PMID:24806038

  11. Effect of phase on discomfort caused by vertical whole-body vibration and shock-Experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Yasunao; Griffin, Michael J.

    2002-03-01

    An experimental study has investigated the effect of ``phase'' on the subjective responses of human subjects exposed to vertical whole-body vibration and shock. The stimuli were formed from two frequency components: 3 and 9 Hz for continuous vibrations and 3 and 12 Hz for shocks. The two frequency components, each having 1.0 ms-2 peak acceleration, were combined to form various waveforms. The effects of the vibration magnitude on the discomfort caused by the input stimuli were also investigated with both the continuous vibrations and the shocks. Various objective measurements of acceleration and force at the seat surface, the effects of different frequency weightings and second and fourth power evaluations were compared with judgments of the discomfort of the stimuli. It was found that a 6% to 12% increase in magnitude produced a statistically significant increase in discomfort with both the continuous vibrations and the shocks. Judgments of discomfort caused by changes in vibration magnitude were highly correlated with all of the objective measurements used in the study. The effects on discomfort of the phase between components in the continuous vibrations were not statistically significant, as predicted using evaluation methods with a power of 2. However, small changes in discomfort were correlated with the vibration dose value (VDV) of the Wb frequency-weighted acceleration. The effect of phase between frequency components within the shocks was statistically significant, although no objective measurement method used in the study was correlated with the subjective judgments.

  12. Effects of adding whole body vibration to squat training on isometric force/time characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lamont, Hugh S; Cramer, Joel T; Bemben, Debra A; Shehab, Randa L; Anderson, Mark A; Bemben, Michael G

    2010-01-01

    Resistance training interventions aimed at increasing lower-body power and rates of force development have produced varying results. Recent studies have suggested that whole-body low-frequency vibration (WBLFV) may elicit an acute postactivation potentiation response, leading to acute improvements in power and force development. Potentially, the use of WBLFV between sets of resistance training rather than during training itself may lead to increased recruitment and synchronization of high-threshold motor units, minimize fatigue potential, and facilitate the chronic adaptation to resistance exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of applying TriPlaner, WBLFV, prior to and then intermittently between sets of Smith machine squats on short-term adaptations in explosive isometric force expression. Thirty recreationally resistance trained men aged 18-30 were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: resistance training only (SQT, n = 11), resistance plus whole-body vibration (SQTV, n = 13), or active control (CON, n = 6). An isometric squat test was performed prior to and following a 6-week periodized Smith machine squat program. Whole-body low-frequency vibration was applied 180 seconds prior to the first work set (50 Hz, 2-4 mm, 30 seconds) and intermittently (50 Hz, 4-6 mm, 3 x 10 seconds, 60 seconds between exposures) within a 240-second interset rest period. Subjects were instructed to assume a quarter squat posture while positioning their feet directly under their center of mass, which was modified using a handheld goniometer to a knee angle of 135 +/- 5 degrees . Instructions were given to subjects to apply force as fast and as hard as possible for 3.5 seconds. Isometric force (N) and rates of force development (N.s(-1)) were recorded from the onset of contraction (F(0)) to time points corresponding to 30, 50, 80, 100, 150, and 250 milliseconds, as well as the peak isometric rate of force development (PISORFD), and rate of force development to initial peak in force (RFDinitial). Repeated measures analysis of variance and analysis of covariance revealed no significant group by trial interactions for isometric rate of force development (ISORFD) between 0-30, 0-50, 0-80, 0-100, 0-150, and 0-250 milliseconds and PISORFD (p > 0.05). A significant group x trial interaction was seen for RFDinitial with SQTV >CG (p = 0.04, mean difference 997.2 N.s(-1)) and SQTV >SQT (p = 0.04, mean difference 1,994.22 N.s(-1)). Significant trial by covariate interactions (week one measures for ISORFD) and main effects for trial were observed for ISORFD between 0-80, 0-100, 0-and 150 milliseconds; PISORFD; and RFDinitial (p < 0.01). A significant trial effect was seen for Finitial (%) when expressed as a relative percentage of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) (MVC = 100%) (p = 0.015; week 1 > week 7, mean difference, 5.82%). No significant differences were seen for any other force variables from the onset of contraction to MVC between weeks 1 and 7 (p > 0.05). The data suggest that there was a significant benefit afforded by adding WBLFV to a short-term resistance training protocol with regard to "explosive" strength expression. The addition of vibration prior to and between sets of resistance exercise may be a viable alternative to vibration applied during resistance exercise when trying to improve "explosive" isometric strength. PMID:19924007

  13. Mind-Body Therapies: Evidence and Implications in Advanced Oncology Practice

    PubMed Central

    Mayden,, Kelley D.

    2012-01-01

    The idea that thoughts and emotions influence health outcomes is an ancient concept that was initially abandoned by Western medicine researchers. Today, researchers are showing a renewed interest in the interactions of the mind and body and the role these interactions play in disease formation and recovery. Complementary and alternative interventions, such as mind-body therapies, are increasingly being used by cancer survivors for disease prevention, immune system enhancement, and symptom control. Traditional training has not been structured to provide advanced practitioners with an in-depth knowledge of the clinical applications of mind-body therapies. The aim of this article is to acquaint the reader with common mind-body modalities (meditation/mindfulness-based stress reduction, relaxation therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, hypnosis, biofeedback, music therapy, art therapy, support groups, and aromatherapy) and to examine important evidence in support of or against their clinical application. PMID:25031967

  14. Effects of Whole-body Vibration Training on Sprint Running Kinematics and Explosive Strength Performance

    PubMed Central

    Giorgos, Paradisis; Elias, Zacharogiannis

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 wk of whole body vibration (WBV) training on sprint running kinematics and explosive strength performance. Twenty-four volunteers (12 women and 12 men) participated in the study and were randomised (n = 12) into the experimental and control groups. The WBV group performed a 6-wk program (16-30 min·d-1, 3 times a week) on a vibration platform. The amplitude of the vibration platform was 2.5 mm and the acceleration was 2.28 g. The control group did not participate in any training. Tests were performed Pre and post the training period. Sprint running performance was measured during a 60 m sprint where running time, running speed, step length and step rate were calculated. Explosive strength performance was measured during a counter movement jump (CMJ) test, where jump height and total number of jumps performed in a period of 30 s (30CVJT). Performance in 10 m, 20 m, 40 m, 50 m and 60 m improved significantly after 6 wk of WBV training with an overall improvement of 2.7%. The step length and running speed improved by 5.1% and 3.6%, and the step rate decreased by 3.4%. The countermovement jump height increased by 3.3%, and the explosive strength endurance improved overall by 7.8%. The WBV training period of 6 wk produced significant changes in sprint running kinematics and explosive strength performance. Key pointsWBV training.Sprint running kinematics.Explosive strength performance PMID:24149223

  15. Mathematical models for the apparent masses of standing subjects exposed to vertical whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Y.; Griffin, M. J.

    2003-02-01

    Linear lumped parameter models of the apparent masses of human subjects in standing positions when exposed to vertical whole-body vibration have been developed. Simple models with a single degree-of-freedom (d.o.f.) and with two (d.o.f.) were considered for practical use. Model parameters were optimised using both the mean apparent mass of 12 male subjects and the apparent masses of individual subjects measured in a previous study. The calculated responses of two (d.o.f.) models with a massless support structure showed best agreement with the measured apparent mass and phase, with errors less than 0.1 in the normalised apparent mass (i.e., corresponding to errors less than 10% of the static mass) and errors less than 5° in the phase for a normal standing posture. The model parameters obtained with the mean measured apparent masses of the 12 subjects were similar to the means of the 12 sets of parameters obtained when fitting to the individual apparent masses. It was found that the effects of vibration magnitude and postural changes on the measured apparent mass could be represented by changes to the stiffness and damping in the two (d.o.f.) models.

  16. Effect of whole body vibration on the postural control of the spine in sitting.

    PubMed

    Arora, Neha; Graham, Ryan B; Grenier, Sylvain G

    2015-04-01

    Stability is defined by the ability to return to the initial (or unperturbed) state following a perturbation and hence can be assessed by quantifying the post-perturbation response. This response may be divided into two phases: an initial passive response phase, dependent upon both the steady state of the system and the system's intrinsic mechanical properties; and a recovery phase, dependent upon active control and reflexes. These two phases overlap and interact with each other. Whole body vibration (WBV) is assumed to influence neuro-sensory functions and perhaps both response stages. The current study observed the effect of WBV on several novel response factors that quantify the two phases in response to an external perturbation. The results indicate a significant effect of vibration exposure on: (1) the normalized maximum distance traveled by center of pressure (COP) from the neutral seated posture, and (2) the normalized time to maximum distance (?), such that B and ? increased after WBV exposure and decreased after sitting without WBV. These changes may be indicative of passive visco-elastic changes caused by WBV exposure on the spinal tissues which has been indicated as a creep deformation of tissues post-exposure. This change may make the spine vulnerable to injury. Similar trends were noticed in the variables calculated from center of mass data. PMID:25544340

  17. Whole body vibration at different exposure frequencies: infrared thermography and physiological effects.

    PubMed

    Sonza, Anelise; Robinson, Caroline C; Achaval, Matilde; Zaro, Milton A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) on physiological parameters, cutaneous temperature, tactile sensitivity, and balance. Twenty-four healthy adults (25.3 ± 2.6 years) participated in four WBV sessions. They spent 15 minutes on a vibration platform in the vertical mode at four different frequencies (31, 35, 40, and 44 Hz) with 1 mm of amplitude. All variables were measured before and after WBV exposure. Pressure sensation in five anatomical regions and both feet was determined using Von Frey monofilaments. Postural sway was measured using a force plate. Cutaneous temperature was obtained with an infrared camera. WBV influences the discharge of the skin touch-pressure receptors, decreasing sensitivity at all measured frequencies and foot regions (P ? 0.05). Regarding balance, no differences were found after 20 minutes of WBV at frequencies of 31 and 35 Hz. At 40 and 44 Hz, participants showed higher anterior-posterior center of pressure (COP) velocity and length. The cutaneous temperature of the lower limbs decreased during and 10 minutes after WBV. WBV decreases touch-pressure sensitivity at all measured frequencies 10 min after exposure. This may be related to the impaired balance at higher frequencies since these variables have a role in maintaining postural stability. Vasoconstriction might explain the decreased lower limb temperature. PMID:25664338

  18. Functional Genomics in the Study of Mind-Body Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Niles, Halsey; Mehta, Darshan H.; Corrigan, Alexandra A.; Bhasin, Manoj K.; Denninger, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mind-body therapies (MBTs) are used throughout the world in treatment, disease prevention, and health promotion. However, the mechanisms by which MBTs exert their positive effects are not well understood. Investigations into MBTs using functional genomics have revolutionized the understanding of MBT mechanisms and their effects on human physiology. Methods We searched the literature for the effects of MBTs on functional genomics determinants using MEDLINE, supplemented by a manual search of additional journals and a reference list review. Results We reviewed 15 trials that measured global or targeted transcriptomic, epigenomic, or proteomic changes in peripheral blood. Sample sizes ranged from small pilot studies (n=2) to large trials (n=500). While the reliability of individual genes from trial to trial was often inconsistent, genes related to inflammatory response, particularly those involved in the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) pathway, were consistently downregulated across most studies. Conclusion In general, existing trials focusing on gene expression changes brought about by MBTs have revealed intriguing connections to the immune system through the NF-?B cascade, to telomere maintenance, and to apoptotic regulation. However, these findings are limited to a small number of trials and relatively small sample sizes. More rigorous randomized controlled trials of healthy subjects and specific disease states are warranted. Future research should investigate functional genomics areas both upstream and downstream of MBT-related gene expression changes—from epigenomics to proteomics and metabolomics. PMID:25598735

  19. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Boost in Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Young Seok [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mi-Sook, E-mail: mskim@kcch.re.k [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Sung Yul; Cho, Chul Koo; Yang, Kwang Mo; Yoo, Hyung Jun; Choi, Chul Won [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Han [CyberKnife Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin [Department of Internal Medicine, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Suk [Department of Pathology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hye Jin [Department of Hemato-Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, YoungHan [Department of Radiology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical application of a stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) boost in locally advanced pancreatic cancer patients with a focus on local efficacy and toxicity. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 30 patients with locally advanced and nonmetastatic pancreatic cancer who had been treated between 2004 and 2006. Follow-up duration ranged from 4 to 41 months (median, 14.5 months). A total dose of 40 Gy was delivered in 20 fractions using a conventional three-field technique, and then a single fraction of 14, 15, 16, or 17 Gy SBRT was administered as a boost without a break. Twenty-one patients received chemotherapy. Overall and local progression-free survival were calculated and prognostic factors were evaluated. Results: One-year overall survival and local progression-free survival rates were 60.0% and 70.2%, respectively. One patient (3%) developed Grade 4 toxicity. Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 response was found to be an independent prognostic factor for survival. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that a SBRT boost provides a safe means of increasing radiation dose. Based on the results of this study, we recommend that a well controlled Phase II study be conducted on locally advanced pancreatic cancer.

  20. Whole-body vibration-related health disorders in occupational medicine - an international comparison.

    PubMed

    Johanning, Eckardt

    2015-07-01

    Workers with whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure are likely to report non-specific health complaints. Health and safety providers may not recognise such occupational injuries and may be unfamiliar with appropriate exposure assessment and prevention. This is a review of clinical studies, medical evidence, differential diagnostic evaluation protocols, surveillance programmes, national and international standards, and interventions recommendations utilising PubMed and other online resources. In summary, several studies show a clear trend: with increasing duration and intensity of occupational WBV exposure, primarily musculoskeletal or neurological disorders of the spine occur. Other organ damage has also been reported. In some European Union countries, spinal injury caused by WBV is recognised as an occupational disease and may be compensable. The WBV-related injury diagnosis includes a review of the work history, exposure assessment and differential diagnostic evaluation. WBV health surveillance should assess health status of WBV-exposed workers and address preventive measures. PMID:25655650

  1. Computation of eigenpairs of Ax = lambda Bx for vibrations of spinning deformable bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utku, S.; Clemente, J. L. M.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that, when linear theory is used, the general eigenvalue problem related with the free vibrations of spinning deformable bodies is of the type AX = lambda Bx, where A is Hermitian, and B is real positive definite. Since the order n of the matrices may be large, and A and B are banded or block banded, due to the economics of the numerical solution, one is interested in obtaining only those eigenvalues which fall within the frequency band of interest of the problem. The paper extends the well known method of bisections and iteration of R to the n power to n dimensional complex spaces, i.e., to C to the n power, so that it can be applied to the present problem.

  2. Strength Training with Superimposed Whole Body Vibration Does Not Preferentially Modulate Cortical Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Weier, Ashleigh T.; Kidgell, Dawson J.

    2012-01-01

    Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to investigate 4?wks of leg strength training with and without whole body vibration (WBV) on corticospinal excitability and short-latency intracortical inhibition (SICI). Participants (n = 12) were randomly allocated to either a control or experimental (WBV) group. All participants completed 12 squat training sessions either with (WBV group) or without (control group) exposure to WBV (f = 35?Hz, A = 2.5?mm). There were significant (P < 0.05) increases in squat strength and corticospinal excitability and significant (P < 0.05) reductions in SICI for both groups following the 4?wk intervention. There were no differences detected between groups for any dependant variable (P > 0.05). It appears that WBV training does not augment the increase in strength or corticospinal excitability induced by strength training alone. PMID:22654645

  3. The effects of vibration therapy on muscle force loss following eccentrically induced muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Matthew J; Perry, Blake G; Mündel, Toby; Cochrane, Darryl J

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acute vibration therapy (VT) on performance recovery after a bout of strenuous eccentric exercise. Eight healthy males completed 300 maximal eccentric contractions of the quadriceps of one leg on an isokinetic dynamometer. Immediately after exercise and 12 and 24 h post-exercise, the subjects underwent either VT or a control treatment of no VT. Five sets of 1 min VT was performed at 26 Hz, with 6 mm peak-to-peak displacement, on a commercially available vibration machine. At least 2 weeks after the initial trial, the subjects completed the second trial using the contralateral leg and other treatment. Peak and average peak isometric tension and isokinetic concentric and eccentric torque were measured prior to exercise and 24 and 48 h post-exercise. Treatment with VT resulted in significantly (all P < 0.05) greater decrements in peak (-38%) and average peak eccentric (-39%) torque 24 h after eccentric exercise as compared to a control treatment (-24 and -29%, respectively). These results suggest that the use of 26 Hz VT in the first 24 h after damaging exercise may be detrimental to the magnitude of force loss and/or recovery over this period. PMID:21750975

  4. THE FATE OF MRS ROBINSON: CRITERIA FOR RECOGNITION OF WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION INJURY AS AN OCCUPATIONAL DISEASE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. T. J. HULSHOF; G. VAN DER LAAN; I. T. J. BRAAM; J. H. A. M. VERBEEK

    2002-01-01

    Several recently published critical reviews conclude that there is strong epidemiological evidence for a relationship between occupational exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV), low back pain (LBP) and back disorders. Whether this exposure is only a modest or a substantial risk factor for the onset and recurrence of LBP is still a matter of debate. In spite of this controversy, four

  5. Review of the Literature Whole-body vibration and postural stress among operators of construction equipment: A literature review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Kumar Kittusamy; Bryan Buchholz

    Introduction: Operators of construction equipment perform various duties at work that expose them to a variety of risk factors that may lead to health problems. A few of the health hazards among operators of construction equipment are: (a) whole-body vibration, (b) awkward postural requirements (including static sitting), (c) dust, (d) noise, (e) temperature extremes, and (f) shift work. It has

  6. The Fate of Mrs Robinson: Criteria for Recognition of Whole-Body Vibration Injury as AN Occupational Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. T. J. Hulshof; G. van der Laan; I. T. J. Braam; J. H. A. M. Verbeek

    2002-01-01

    Several recently published critical reviews conclude that there is strong epidemiological evidence for a relationship between occupational exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV), low back pain (LBP) and back disorders. Whether this exposure is only a modest or a substantial risk factor for the onset and recurrence of LBP is still a matter of debate. In spite of this controversy, four

  7. Evaluation of an occupational health intervention programme on whole-body vibration in forklift truck drivers: a controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. T. J. Hulshof; J. H. A. M. Verbeek; I. T. J. Braam; M. Bovenzi; F. J. H. van Dijk

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate process and outcome of a multifaceted occupational health intervention programme on whole-body vibration (WBV) in forklift truck drivers. Methods: An experimental pretest\\/post-test control group study design. The authors trained occupational health services ( OHS) in the experimental group in the use of the programme. OHS in the control group were asked to deliver care as usual. In

  8. Seated whole body vibrations with high-magnitude accelerations—relative roles of inertia and muscle forces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Bazrgari; A. Shirazi-Adl; M. Kasra

    2008-01-01

    Reliable computation of spinal loads and trunk stability under whole body vibrations with high acceleration contents requires accurate estimation of trunk muscle activities that are often overlooked in existing biodynamic models. A finite element model of the spine that accounts for nonlinear load- and direction-dependent properties of lumbar segments, complex geometry and musculature of the spine, and dynamic characteristics of

  9. Whole body vibration added to endurance training in obese women - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wilms, B; Frick, J; Ernst, B; Mueller, R; Wirth, B; Schultes, B

    2012-09-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) training is an increasingly popular training method that is strongly promoted for weight loss, but scientific data on its effectiveness, particularly in obese subjects, are sparse. 14 obese women (BMI: 37.4 ± 1.3 kg/m2) randomized to 2 different groups (each n=7) participated in a 6-week endurance training program that was either combined or not combined with additional WBV training. Anthropometric measures, phase angle and body composition (assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis; BIA), and resting energy expenditure (REE) were obtained before and after the training program. Body weight did not change during the training period (P=0.87), but waist circumference decreased in both groups (P=0.007; WBV: -3.4 ± 1.4 cm; no-WBV: -1.7 ± 0.7 cm) independent of WBV training (P=0.29 for group×time interaction). BIA revealed an enhancing effect of WBV training in comparison to no-WBV training on the phase angle (+0.20 ± 0.12° vs. -0.19 ± 0.12°; P=0.04) and calculated body cell mass (+0.8 ± 0.2 vs. -0.3 ± 0.4 kg; P=0.02), while calculated percentage fat mass decreased in both conditions (P=0.05) to similar extent (P=0.59; WBV: -0.8 ± 0.2%; no-WBV: -0.4 ± 0.5%). REE increased across the training (P=0.01; WBV: +77 ± 33 kcal/24 h; no-WBV: +68 ± 34 kcal/24 h), with this increase again not depending on WBV condition (P=0.85). Results of our pilot study in obese women provide preliminary evidence for a beneficial effect of WBV, when added to endurance training, on the bioelectrical phase angle, an increasingly recognized marker of individual's health status. PMID:22562734

  10. Dynamic Lung Tumor Tracking for Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Kunos, Charles A; Fabien, Jeffrey M; Shanahan, John P; Collen, Christine; Gevaert, Thierry; Poels, Kenneth; Van den Begin, Robbe; Engels, Benedikt; De Ridder, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Physicians considering stereotactic ablative body radiation therapy (SBRT) for the treatment of extracranial cancer targets must be aware of the sizeable risks for normal tissue injury and the hazards of physical tumor miss. A first-of-its-kind SBRT platform achieves high-precision ablative radiation treatment through a combination of versatile real-time imaging solutions and sophisticated tumor tracking capabilities. It uses dual-diagnostic kV x-ray units for stereoscopic open-loop feedback of cancer target intrafraction movement occurring as a consequence of respiratory motions and heartbeat. Image-guided feedback drives a gimbaled radiation accelerator (maximum 15 x 15 cm field size) capable of real-time ±4 cm pan-and-tilt action. Robot-driven ±60° pivots of an integrated ±185° rotational gantry allow for coplanar and non-coplanar accelerator beam set-up angles, ultimately permitting unique treatment degrees of freedom. State-of-the-art software aids real-time six dimensional positioning, ensuring irradiation of cancer targets with sub-millimeter accuracy (0.4 mm at isocenter). Use of these features enables treating physicians to steer radiation dose to cancer tumor targets while simultaneously reducing radiation dose to normal tissues. By adding respiration correlated computed tomography (CT) and 2-[(18)F] fluoro-2-deoxy-?-glucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) images into the planning system for enhanced tumor target contouring, the likelihood of physical tumor miss becomes substantially less(1). In this article, we describe new radiation plans for the treatment of moving lung tumors. PMID:26131774

  11. Whole-Body Vibration Training Effect on Physical Performance and Obesity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chi-Chang; Tseng, Tzu-Ling; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chung, Yi-Hsiu; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Wu, Jyh-Horng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the beneficial effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training on exercise performance, physical fatigue and obesity in mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups: normal group (n=6), fed standard diet (control), and experimental group (n=18), fed a HFD. After 4-week induction, followed by 6-week WBV of 5 days per week, the 18 obese mice were divided into 3 groups (n=6 per group): HFD with sedentary control (HFD), HFD with WBV at relatively low-intensity (5.6 Hz, 0.13 g) (HFD+VL) or high-intensity (13 Hz, 0.68 g) (HFD+VH). A trend analysis revealed that WBV increased the grip strength in mice. WBV also dose-dependently decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels and increased glucose level after the swimming test. WBV slightly decreased final body weight and dose-dependently decreased weights of epididymal, retroperitoneal and perirenal fat pads and fasting serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, CK, glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol. Therefore, WBV could improve exercise performance and fatigue and prevent fat accumulation and obesity-associated biochemical alterations in obese mice. It may be an effective intervention for health promotion and prevention of HFD-induced obesity. PMID:25317067

  12. Apparent mass and cross-axis apparent mass of standing subjects during exposure to vertical whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subashi, G. H. M. J.; Matsumoto, Y.; Griffin, M. J.

    2006-05-01

    The effects of posture and vibration magnitude on the vertical apparent mass and the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the standing human body during exposure to vertical vibration have been investigated. Twelve male subjects were exposed to random vertical vibration over the frequency range 2.0-20 Hz at three vibration magnitudes: 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 m s -2 rms. Subjects stood in five different postures: upright, lordotic, anterior lean, knees bent and knees more bent. The vertical acceleration at the floor and the forces in the vertical and fore-and-aft directions at the floor were used to obtain the apparent mass and the cross-axis apparent mass. The resonance frequency of the apparent mass was significantly reduced with knees bent and knees more bent postures, but there were only minor effects on the resonance frequency by changing the position of the upper body. Considerable cross-axis apparent mass, up to about 30% of the static mass of subjects, was found. The cross-axis apparent mass was influenced by all postural changes used in the study. In all postures the resonance frequencies of the apparent mass and the cross-axis apparent mass tended to decrease with increasing vibration magnitude. This nonlinear characteristic tended to be less clear in some postures in which subjects increased muscle tension.

  13. Power absorbed during whole-body fore-and-aft vibration: Effects of sitting posture, backrest, and footrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawayseh, Naser; Griffin, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Although the discomfort or injury associated with whole-body vibration cannot be predicted directly from the power absorbed during exposure to vibration, the absorbed power may contribute to understanding of the biodynamics involved in such responses. From measurements of force and acceleration at the seat, the feet, and the backrest, the power absorbed at these three locations was calculated for subjects sitting in four postures (feet hanging, maximum thigh contact, average thigh contact, and minimum thigh contact) both with and without a rigid vertical backrest while exposed to four magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.625, and 1.25 m s -2 rms) of random fore-and-aft vibration. The power absorbed by the body at the supporting seat surface when there was no backrest showed a peak around 1 Hz and another peak between 3 and 4 Hz. Supporting the back with the backrest decreased the power absorbed at the seat at low frequencies but increased the power absorbed at high frequencies. Foot support influenced both the magnitude and the frequency of the peaks in the absorbed power spectra as well as the total absorbed power. The measurements of absorbed power are consistent with backrests being beneficial during exposure to low frequency fore-and-aft vibration but detrimental with high frequency fore-and-aft vibration.

  14. Acute effects of whole-body vibration on running gait in marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Padulo, Johnny; Filingeri, Davide; Chamari, Karim; Migliaccio, Gian Mario; Calcagno, Giuseppe; Bosco, Gerardo; Annino, Giuseppe; Tihanyi, Jozsef; Pizzolato, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a single bout of whole-body vibration (WBV) on running gait. The running kinematic of sixteen male marathon runners was assessed on a treadmill at iso-efficiency speed after 10 min of WBV and SHAM (i.e. no WBV) conditions. A high-speed camera (210 Hz) was used for the video analysis and heart rate (HR) was also monitored. The following parameters were investigated: step length (SL), flight time (FT), step frequency (SF), contact time (CT), HR and the internal work (WINT). Full-within one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the randomised crossover design indicated that when compared to SHAM conditions, WBV decreased the SL and the FT by ~4% (P < 0.0001) and ~7.2% (P < 0.001), respectively, and increased the SF ~4% (P < 0.0001) while the CT was not changed. This effect occurred during the first minute of running: the SL decreased ~3.5% (P < 0.001) and SF increased ~3.3% (P < 0.001). During the second minute the SL decreased ~1.2% (P = 0.017) and the SF increased ~1.1% (P = 0.02). From the third minute onwards, there was a return to the pre-vibration condition. The WINT was increased by ~4% (P < 0.0001) during the WBV condition. Ten minutes of WBV produced a significant alteration of the running kinematics during the first minutes post exposure. These results provide insights on the effects of WBV on the central components controlling muscle function. PMID:24576194

  15. Long-term effect of whole body vibration training on jump height: meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Manimmanakorn, Nuttaset; Hamlin, Michael J; Ross, Jenny J; Manimmanakorn, Apiwan

    2014-06-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) is widely promoted as a means of improving muscle strength, but the evidence of a performance benefit is unclear with some reporting improvements and others finding none. The objective of this study was to analyze the current evidence for the effectiveness of WBV on jump height. We included randomized controlled trials or matched design studies comparing the effect of WBV training on countermovement and squat jump (SJ) height, which were gathered from MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, Sciencedirect, Proquest, Scopus, Google Scholar, and SPORTDiscus databases. The overall effect of WBV training (from the 15 studies included) compared with having no additional exercise on countermovement jump height yielded a positive standardized mean difference of 0.77 (95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.99). The effect of WBV training on SJ height was 0.68 (0.08-1.11). Vibration exercise consisting of a higher frequency (>30 Hz, 0.86, 0.62-1.10), higher amplitude (>3 mm, 0.84, 0.52-1.17), longer exposure duration (>10 minutes per session, 0.92, 0.48-1.36), longer training period (>12 weeks, 0.87, 0.56-1.19) and among nonathletes (0.96, 0.63-1.30) had greater benefit for jump height improvement than a lower frequency (? 30 Hz, 0.56, 0.13-0.99), lower amplitude (? 3 mm, 0.66, 0.35-0.98), shorter exposure duration (? 10 minutes per session, 0.68, 0.45-0.92), intermediate training period (4-12 weeks, 0.72, 0.35-1.09), shorter training period (<4 weeks, 0.58, -0.08 to -1.23) and in athletes (0.59, 0.31-0.88). The effect of WBV training compared with a standard cardiovascular-type exercise group from 4 studies was 0.63 (0.10-1.15). In conclusion, WBV training produces a moderate-to-large effect on jump height. Vibration training protocols with higher frequencies, higher amplitudes, longer exposures per session, and longer training periods are more likely to enhance muscle power. PMID:24276295

  16. Muscle activity, cross-sectional area, and density following passive standing and whole body vibration: A case series.

    PubMed

    Masani, Kei; Alizadeh-Meghrazi, Milad; Sayenko, Dimitry G; Zariffa, Jose; Moore, Cameron; Giangregorio, Lora; Popovic, Milos R; Catharine Craven, B

    2014-09-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of intermittent passive standing (PS) and whole body vibration (WBV) on the electromyography (EMG) activity, cross-sectional area, and density of lower extremity muscles in individuals with chronic motor complete spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Case series. Methods Seven adult men with chronic (?2 years), thoracic motor complete (AIS A-B) SCI completed a 40-week course of thrice-weekly intermittent PS-WBV therapy, in a flexed knee posture (160°), for 45 minutes per session at a frequency of 45 Hz and 0.6-0.7 mm displacement using the WAVE(®) Pro Plate, with an integrated EasyStand™ standing frame. EMG was measured in major lower extremity muscles to represent muscle activity during PS-WBV. The cross-sectional area and density of the calf muscles were measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography at the widest calf cross-section (66% of the tibia length) at pre- and post-intervention. All measured variables were compared between the pre- and post-intervention measurements to assess change after the PS-WBV intervention. Results PS-WBV acutely induced EMG activity in lower extremity muscles of SCI subjects. No significant changes in lower extremity EMG activity, muscle cross-sectional area, or density were observed following the 40-week intervention. Conclusions Although acute exposure to PS-WBV can induce electrophysiological activity of lower extremity muscles during PS in men with motor complete SCI, the PS-WBV intervention for 40 weeks was not sufficient to result in enhanced muscle activity, or to increase calf muscle cross-sectional area or density. PMID:25059652

  17. Escape conditioning and low-frequency whole-body vibration - The effects of frequency, amplitude, and controls for noise and activation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wike, E. L.; Wike, S. S.

    1972-01-01

    Seven experiments are reported on low-frequency whole-body vibration and rats' escape conditioning in a modified Skinner box. In the first three studies, conditioning was observed but was independent of frequency. In experiment four, the number of escape responses was directly related to vibration amplitude. Experiment five was a control for vibration noise and noise termination; experiments six and seven studied vibration-induced activation. Noise termination did not produce conditioning. In experiment six, subjects made more responses when responding led to termination than when it did not. In experiment seven, subjects preferred a bar which terminated vibration to one which did not.

  18. Linac-based stereotactic body radiation therapy for treatment of glomus jugulare tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodney E. Wegner; Kenneth D. Rodriguez; Dwight E. Heron; Barry E. Hirsch; Robert L. Ferris; Steven A. Burton

    2010-01-01

    Background: Glomus jugulare tumors are rare, typically benign, tumors that arise from the neural crest cells that are associated with the autonomic ganglia in and around the jugular bulb. Treatment options for glomus jugulare tumors include embolization followed by resection, fractionated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), and\\/or stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Materials and methods: 18 patients

  19. Osteoporosis and Other Adverse Body Composition Changes during Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew R. Smith

    2002-01-01

    Osteoporosis and other body composition changes are important complications of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer. Bilateral orchiectomy and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment decrease bone mineral density and increase fracture risk. Other factors including diet and lifestyle may contribute to bone loss in men with prostate cancer. Estrogens play an important role in male bone metabolism. Androgen deprivation therapy

  20. Active Vibration Control of a CAR Body Based on Experimentally Evaluated Modal Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöbener, Uwe; Gaul, Lothar

    2001-01-01

    Active vibration control has been successfully tested for structures with simple geometry, such as beams and plates, by using modal controllers. Since the dynamical behaviour of a variety of mechanical structures can be expressed in terms of modal parameters, the application of modal control concepts can be extended to structures with more complex geometries. For such structures the evaluation of modal parameters from numerical calculations of local modes is complicated because the results strongly depend on proper boundary conditions of the truncated structure. Therefore, the modal data are identified by an experimental modal analysis. The transformation of the experimentally evaluated mode shapes into a closed analytical formulation and the extraction of modal input and output factors for sensors and actuators connect experimental modal analysis and modal control theory. The implementation of the input and output factors into a modal state-space formulation results in a modal filter for the point sensor array and a retransformation filter for the segmented actuator patches. In this study, PVDF foil is used for sensors and actuators. The modal controller is implemented on a digital controller board and experimental tests with the floor panel and centre panel of a car body are carried out to validate the proposed concept.

  1. Combination of external load and whole body vibration potentiates the GH-releasing effect of squatting in healthy females.

    PubMed

    Giunta, M; Rigamonti, A E; Agosti, F; Patrizi, A; Compri, E; Cardinale, M; Sartorio, A

    2013-08-01

    In recent years, whole body vibration (WBV) has become an efficient complement or alternative to resistance training. Very limited data on the effects of different WBV protocols on anabolic hormones are available. In this study, we compared the growth hormone (GH), blood lactate (LA), and cortisol responses to different protocols involving WBV. Six healthy women recreationally active performed 10 sets of 12 dynamic squats in the following conditions: squatting alone (S), squatting+vibration (SV), squatting+external load (SE), and squatting+external load+vibration (SEV). All responses at the different stimuli determined acute increases in GH, cortisol, and LA. In particular, GH secretion significantly increased in all 4 conditions immediately after the exercise session compared to other time points. Furthermore, a significantly larger increase was identified following SEV as compared to the other conditions. Cortisol concentrations significantly decreased after S, SV and SE whereas they increased significantly following SEV. LA peaks occurred immediately at the end of each condition. However it reached statistical significance only following SEV. The results of our study demonstrate that the combination of squatting+external load+vibration (SEV) could represent the most suitable modality to potentiate the somatotropic function and, indirectly, to obtain an increase in muscle strength and positive changes in the body composition. Further studies are necessary in order to determine the chronic effects of this exercise modality on the hormonal profile. PMID:23589230

  2. The apparent mass of the human body exposed to non-orthogonal horizontal vibration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. J. Mansfield; R. Lundström

    1999-01-01

    Apparent masses of 15 male and 15 female subjects have been measured during exposure to various directions of horizontal vibration. Twenty vibration conditions were used in the experiment. In each of five directions (0, 22.5, 45, 67.5 and 90° to the mid-sagittal plane) subjects were exposed to random vibration in the frequency range of 1.5–20Hz at 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0ms?2

  3. Whole-Body Vibration and Rehabilitation of Chronic Diseases: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chanou, Konstantina; Gerodimos, Vassilis; Karatrantou, Konstantina; Jamurtas, Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to review the current literature and findings on the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) as a training method on performance and its ability to aid in the rehabilitation of chronic diseases (neurological, musculoskeletal or metabolic conditions). Six electronic databases were searched. The combination of the search terminology used included WBV and several neurological, musculoskeletal and metabolic conditions. Twenty six papers were found to be relevant for this review and were included for critical evaluation with regards to sample characteristics, research intervention and methodology. Most studies were conducted on patients diagnosed with neurological conditions (n = 15) while less were performed on patients suffering from musculoskeletal (n = 7) or metabolic (n = 4) disorders. Comparisons were difficult to draw on because of the different pathologies and the differences in the methodology of each study. Some of the observed methodological flaws included limitations in relation to insufficient randomisation, lack of sample homogeneity (size, age variability) and poor blinding in most studies. No consensus could be reached as to whether WBV is more effective than other interventions or no intervention at all, while the additional effects that WBV may have in relation to other interventions could not be assumed. Nevertheless, chronic WBV training seems to only improve strength in neurological patients while balance and mobility improves only in patients suffering from musculoskeletal or metabolic but not from neurological conditions. Although WBV did not prove to be more effective compared to other training methods, it can be used, in some cases, as a less fatiguing and less time-consuming method to enhance physical capabilities. Future research should focus on the effectiveness of WBV in relation to no treatment at all, and to age. Key pointsChronic WBV training seems to only improve strength in neurological patients while balance and mobility improves only in patients suffering from musculoskeletal or metabolic conditions.WBV did not prove to be more effective than other interventions, while the positive effects of WBV in relation to no intervention at all could not be established.No consensus could be reached as to which vibration type is more effective.WBV training could be used as a safe, less fatiguing and less time-consuming type of exercise for patients with neurologic conditions instead of other more demanding interventions. PMID:24149191

  4. BODY-ORIENTED THERAPY IN RECOVERY FROM CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE: AN EFFICACY STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Price, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    Context There has been little research on body therapy for women in sexual abuse recovery. This study examines body-oriented therapy—an approach focused on body awareness and involving the combination of bodywork and the emotional processing of psychotherapy. Objective To examine the efficacy and the perceived influence on abuse recovery of body-oriented therapy. Massage therapy served as a relative control condition to address the lack of touch-based comparisons in bodywork research. Design A 2-group, repeated measures design was employed, involving randomization to either body-oriented therapy or massage group, conducted in 8, hour-long sessions by 1 of 4 research clinicians. Statistical and qualitative analysis was employed to provide both empirical and experiential perspectives on the study process. Setting Participants were seen in treatment rooms of a university in the northwestern United States and in clinician’s private offices. Participants Twenty-four adult females in psychotherapy for child sexual abuse. Interventions Body-oriented therapy protocol was delivered in three stages, involving massage, body awareness exercises, and inner-body focusing process. Massage therapy protocol was stan- dardized. Both protocols were delivered over clothes. Main Outcome Measures The outcomes reflected 3 key con-structs—psychological well being, physical well-being, and body connection. Repeated measures included: Brief Symptom Inventory, Dissociative Experiences Scale, Crime-Related Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale, Medical Symptoms Checklist, Scale of Body Connection and Scale of Body Investment. Results were gathered at 6 time points: baseline, 2 times during intervention, post-intervention, and at 1 month and 3 months follow-up. To examine the experiential perspective of the study process, written questionnaires were administered before and after intervention and at 1 month and 3 months follow-up. Results Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated significant improvement on all outcome measures for both intervention groups, providing support for the efficacy of body therapy in recovery from childhood sexual abuse. There were no statistically significant differences between groups; however, qualitative analysis of open-ended questions about participant intervention experience revealed that the groups differed on perceived experience of the intervention and its influence on therapeutic recovery. PMID:16189948

  5. A whole body vibration perception map and associated acceleration loads at the lower leg, hip and head.

    PubMed

    Sonza, Anelise; Völkel, Nina; Zaro, Milton A; Achaval, Matilde; Hennig, Ewald M

    2015-07-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) training has become popular in recent years. However, WBV may be harmful to the human body. The goal of this study was to determine the acceleration magnitudes at different body segments for different frequencies of WBV. Additionally, vibration sensation ratings by subjects served to create perception vibration magnitude and discomfort maps of the human body. In the first of two experiments, 65 young adults mean (± SD) age range of 23 (± 3.0) years, participated in WBV severity perception ratings, based on a Borg scale. Measurements were performed at 12 different frequencies, two intensities (3 and 5 mm amplitudes) of rotational mode WBV. On a separate day, a second experiment (n = 40) included vertical accelerometry of the head, hip and lower leg with the same WBV settings. The highest lower limb vibration magnitude perception based on the Borg scale was extremely intense for the frequencies between 21 and 25 Hz; somewhat hard for the trunk region (11-25 Hz) and fairly light for the head (13-25 Hz). The highest vertical accelerations were found at a frequency of 23 Hz at the tibia, 9 Hz at the hip and 13 Hz at the head. At 5 mm amplitude, 61.5% of the subjects reported discomfort in the foot region (21-25 Hz), 46.2% for the lower back (17, 19 and 21 Hz) and 23% for the abdominal region (9-13 Hz). The range of 3-7 Hz represents the safest frequency range with magnitudes less than 1 g(*)sec for all studied regions. PMID:25962379

  6. Biological-based optimization and volumetric modulated arc therapy delivery for stereotactic body radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Diot, Quentin; Kavanagh, Brian; Timmerman, Robert; Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: To describe biological-based optimization and Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation-based treatment planning for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in lung, liver, and prostate patients. Methods: Optimization strategies and VMAT planning parameters using a biological-based optimization MC planning system were analyzed for 24 SBRT patients. Patients received a median dose of 45 Gy [range, 34-54 Gy] for lung tumors in 1-5 fxs and a median dose of 52 Gy [range, 48-60 Gy] for liver tumors in 3-6 fxs. Prostate patients received a fractional dose of 10 Gy in 5 fxs. Biological-cost functions were used for plan optimization, and its dosimetric quality was evaluated using the conformity index (CI), the conformation number (CN), the ratio of the volume receiving 50% of the prescription dose over the planning target volume (Rx/PTV50). The quality and efficiency of the delivery were assessed according to measured quality assurance (QA) passing rates and delivery times. For each disease site, one patient was replanned using physical cost function and compared to the corresponding biological plan. Results: Median CI, CN, and Rx/PTV50 for all 24 patients were 1.13 (1.02-1.28), 0.79 (0.70-0.88), and 5.3 (3.1-10.8), respectively. The median delivery rate for all patients was 410 MU/min with a maximum possible rate of 480 MU/min (85%). Median QA passing rate was 96.7%, and it did not significantly vary with the tumor site. Conclusions: VMAT delivery of SBRT plans optimized using biological-motivated cost-functions result in highly conformal dose distributions. Plans offer shorter treatment-time benefits and provide efficient dose delivery without compromising the plan conformity for tumors in the prostate, lung, and liver, thereby improving patient comfort and clinical throughput. The short delivery times minimize the risk of patient setup and intrafraction motion errors often associated with long SBRT treatment delivery times.

  7. Effects of body image therapy on the activation of the extrastriate body area in anorexia nervosa: An fMRI study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silja Vocks; Martin Busch; Dietmar Schulte; Dietrich Grönermeyer; Stephan Herpertz; Boris Suchan

    2010-01-01

    To test effects of body image therapy in anorexia nervosa, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess neuronal responses to viewing photographs of one's own body before and after treatment. Activation decreases emerged in a distributed network and increases were observed in the extrastriate body area, possibly reflecting more intense body image processing.

  8. Effects of whole body vibration training on balance in adolescents with and without Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Villarroya, M Adoración; González-Agüero, Alejandro; Moros, Teresa; Gómez-Trullén, Eva; Casajús, José A

    2013-10-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether a whole body vibration training program (WBV) is able to improve static standing balance in adolescents with and without Down syndrome (DS). Thirty adolescents with DS aged 11-20 years (DSG) and 27 adolescent, age/sex matched, without DS (CG) joined the study. Participants of each group were divided into two comparable groups, those who performed WVB (in DSG: VDSG; in CG: VCG) and those who did not perform WVB (in DSG: nVDSG; in CG: nVCG). Static-standing-balance under four conditions (C1: open-eyes/fixed-foot-support; C2: closed-eyes/fixed-foot-support; C3: open-eyes/compliant-foot-support; C4: closed-eyes/compliant-foot-support) was examine, before and after a 20-week WBV training program. For balance study, Postural-Parameters (PPs), based on center of pressure (COP) oscillations (anterior/posterior and medial/lateral COP excursion and COP mean velocity), and PPs ratios among the four conditions were calculated. After WBV training, no significant differences were found in any parameter in the VCG and nVCG and neither in the nVDSG, but there was a decrease of mean values in the analyzed PPs under C4, with significant differences in medial/lateral COP excursion and COP mean velocity, and a significant decrease in the ratio C4/C1 of the mean velocity in VDSG. Therefore, WBV training had positive effects in the balance of DS adolescents although only under specific conditions, with vision and somatosensory input altered. The positive results of this study are encouraging and open a wide field of research, looking for the most efficient program for this population. PMID:23872530

  9. Comparison Between Whole-Body Vibration, Light-Emitting Diode, and Cycling Warm-up on High-Intensity Physical Performance During Sprint Bicycle Exercise.

    PubMed

    Teles, Maria C; Fonseca, Ivana A T; Martins, Jeanne B; de Carvalho, Marielle M; Xavier, Murilo; Costa, Sidney J; de Avelar, Núbia C P; Ribeiro, Vanessa G C; Salvador, Fabiano S; Augusto, Leonardo; Mendonça, Vanessa A; Lacerda, Ana C R

    2015-06-01

    Teles, MC, Fonseca, IAT, Martins, JB, de Carvalho, MM, Xavier, M, Costa, SJ, de Avelar, NCP, Ribeiro, VGC, Salvador, FS, Augusto, L, Mendonça, VA, and Lacerda, ACR. Comparison between whole-body vibration, light-emitting diode, and cycling warm-up on high-intensity physical performance during sprint bicycle exercise. J Strength Cond Res 29(6): 1542-1550, 2015-The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation and whole-body vibration (WBV) delivered either in isolation or combination (LED + WBV), warm-up (WU), and a control (C) treatment on performance during a sprint bicycle exercise. Ten cyclists performed a 30-second sprint cycle test under these conditions. The LED light was applied at 4 points bilaterally. Whole-body vibration consisted of 5 minutes of squats associated with WBV. LED + WBV consisted of WBV followed by LED therapy. Warm-up consisted of 17 minutes of moderate-intensity bicycle exercise. Control consisted of 10 minutes at rest. Blood lactate (BL) and ammonia (BA) levels and skin temperature (ST) were determined. Peak power (842 ± 117 vs. 800 ± 106 vs. 809 ± 128 W [p = 0.02 and p = 0.01]), relative power (12.1 ± 1.0 vs. 11.5 ± 0.9 vs. 11.6 ± 1.0 W·kg [p = 0.02 and p = 0.02]), and relative work (277 ± 23 vs. 263 ± 24 vs. 260 ± 23 J·kg [p = 0.02 and p = 0.003]) were higher in the WU group compared with the control and LED groups. In the LED + WBV group, peak (833 ± 115 vs. 800 ± 106 W [p = 0.02]) and relative (11.9 ± 0.9 vs. 11.5 ± 0.9 W·kg [p = 0.02]) power were higher than those in the control group, and relative work (272 ± 22 vs. 260 ± 23 J·kg [p = 0.02]) were improved compared with the LED group. There were no differences for BL, BA, and ST. The findings of this study confirmed the effectiveness of a warm-up as a preparatory activity and demonstrated that LED + WBV and WBV were as effective as WU in improving cyclist performance during a sprint bicycle exercise. PMID:25764492

  10. Analysis of whole-body vibration during manual wheelchair propulsion: a comparison of seat cushions and back supports for individuals without a disability.

    PubMed

    DiGiovine, Carmen P; Cooper, Rory A; Wolf, Erik; Fitzgerald, Shirley G; Boninger, Michael L

    2003-01-01

    Whole-body vibration exposure has been found to be detrimental to the health of humans owing to effects such as degraded comfort, disc degeneration, and lower back pain. The purpose of this study was to determine if selected seat cushions and back supports minimize the transmission of vibrations during manual wheelchair propulsion. Ten unimpaired participants traversed an activities of daily living course using four seat cushions and four back supports. Vibrations were measured using triaxial accelerometers. The time domain and frequency domain transmissibility was used to determine if differences exist among seat cushions and back supports. Differences were found among the four seat cushions and four back supports. Seat cushion and back support manufacturers should concentrate on single-event shocks and repeated shocks, as opposed to oscillatory motions and self-generated vibrations, because the vibrations generated by these events tend to reside in the range of frequencies most sensitive to humans. Vibrations in this range of frequencies have the greatest effect on the transmission of whole-body vibration during manual wheelchair propulsion. Differences among the seat cushions and back supports appear to be due to the seat cushion/back support design and postural support. From a clinical perspective, the time domain transmissibility best describes the transmission of whole-body vibration. PMID:15137730

  11. The ISO standard: Guide for the evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vongierke, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    The international guideline is discussed in terms of safety and human tolerance. Charts for equal subjective vibration intensity, subjective judgement of equal fatigue, and severe discomfort boundaries are included.

  12. A data correction method for surface measurement of vibration on the human body

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi Kitazaki; Michael J. Griffin

    1995-01-01

    A data correction method to eliminate the effect of local tissue-accelerometer vibration from surface measurements of vibration over the spine has been developed and compared with previous direct measurements. A single degree-of-freedom linear model for the local tissue-accelerometer system in the vertical and the fore-and-aft axes is assumed. The natural frequency and the damping ratio of the local system are

  13. Menopause, the metabolic syndrome, and mind-body therapies

    PubMed Central

    Innes, Kim E.; Selfe, Terry Kit; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease risk rises sharply with menopause, likely due to the coincident increase in insulin resistance and related atherogenic changes that together comprise the metabolic or insulin resistance syndrome, a cluster of metabolic and hemodynamic abnormalities strongly implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular disease. A growing body of research suggests that traditional mind-body practices such as yoga, tai chi, and qigong may offer safe and cost-effective strategies for reducing insulin resistance syndrome-related risk factors for cardiovascular disease in older populations, including postmenopausal women. Current evidence suggests that these practices may reduce insulin resistance and related physiological risk factors for cardiovascular disease; improve mood, well-being, and sleep; decrease sympathetic activation; and enhance cardiovagal function. However, additional rigorous studies are needed to confirm existing findings and to examine long-term effects on cardiovascular health. PMID:18779682

  14. Low-magnitude high-frequency loading, by whole-body vibration, accelerates early implant osseointegration in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    LIANG, YONG-QIANG; QI, MENG-CHUN; XU, JIANG; XU, JUAN; LIU, HUA-WEI; DONG, WEI; LI, JIN-YUAN; HU, MIN

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis deteriorates jaw bone quality and may compromise early implant osseointegration and early implant loading. The influence of low-magnitude, high-frequency (LMHF) vibration on peri-implant bone healing and implant integration in osteoporotic bones remains poorly understood. LMHF loading via whole-body vibration (WBV) for 8 weeks has previously been demonstrated to significantly enhance bone-to-implant contact, peri-implant bone fraction and implant mechanical properties in osteoporotic rats. In the present study, LMHF loading by WBV was performed in osteoporotic rats, with a loading duration of 4 weeks during the early stages of bone healing. The results indicated that 4-week LMHF loading by WBV partly reversed the negative effects of osteoporosis and accelerated early peri-implant osseointegration in ovariectomized rats. PMID:25270245

  15. Low-magnitude high-frequency loading, by whole-body vibration, accelerates early implant osseointegration in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yong-Qiang; Qi, Meng-Chun; Xu, Jiang; Xu, Juan; Liu, Hua-Wei; Dong, Wei; Li, Jin-Yuan; Hu, Min

    2014-12-01

    Osteoporosis deteriorates jaw bone quality and may compromise early implant osseointegration and early implant loading. The influence of low?magnitude, high?frequency (LMHF) vibration on peri?implant bone healing and implant integration in osteoporotic bones remains poorly understood. LMHF loading via whole?body vibration (WBV) for 8 weeks has previously been demonstrated to significantly enhance bone?to?implant contact, peri?implant bone fraction and implant mechanical properties in osteoporotic rats. In the present study, LMHF loading by WBV was performed in osteoporotic rats, with a loading duration of 4 weeks during the early stages of bone healing. The results indicated that 4?week LMHF loading by WBV partly reversed the negative effects of osteoporosis and accelerated early peri?implant osseointegration in ovariectomized rats. PMID:25270245

  16. Comparison of selective head cooling therapy and whole body cooling therapy in newborns with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy: short term results

    PubMed Central

    At?c?, Aytu?; Çelik, Yalç?n; Güla??, Selvi; Turhan, Ali Haydar; Okuyaz, Çetin; Sungur, Mehmet Ali

    2015-01-01

    Aim: In this study, it was aimed to investigate which method was superior by applying selective head cooling or whole body cooling therapy in newborns diagnosed with moderate or severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Materials and Method: Newborns above the 35th gestational age diagnosed with moderate or severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy were included in the study and selective head cooling or whole body cooling therapy was performed randomly. The newborns who were treated by both methods were compared in terms of adverse effects in the early stage and in terms of short-term results. Ethics committee approval was obtained for the study (06.01.2010/35). Results: Fifty three babies diagnosed with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy were studied. Selective head cooling was applied to 17 babies and whole body cooling was applied to 12 babies. There was no significant difference in terms of adverse effects related to cooling therapy between the two groups. When the short-term results were examined, it was found that the hospitalization time was 34 (7–65) days in the selective head cooling group and 18 (7–57) days in the whole body cooling group and there was no significant difference between the two groups (p=0.097). Four patients in the selective head cooling group and two patients in the whole body cooling group were discharged with tracheostomy because of the need for prolonged mechanical ventilation and there was no difference between the groups in terms of discharge with tracheostomy (p=0.528). Five patients in the selective head cooling group and three patients in the whole body cooling group were discharged with a gastrostomy tube because they could not be fed orally and there was no difference between the groups in terms of discharge with a gastrostomy tube (p=0.586). One patient who was applied selective head cooling and one patient who was applied whole body cooling died during hospitalization and there was no difference between the groups in terms of mortality (p=0.665). Conclusions: There is no difference between the methods of selective head cooling and whole body cooling in terms of adverse effects and short-term results.

  17. Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training for chair rising performance on untrained elderly: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rogan, Slavko; Hilfiker, Roger; Schmid, Stefan; Radlinger, Lorenz

    2012-01-01

    The present randomized controlled pilot study was conducted to determine the feasibility of the study protocol and the effects of four-week-long sessions involving stochastic resonance whole-body vibration (SR-WBV) training on chair rising in elderly individuals. Twenty elderly participants were divided into a SR-WBV group or a sham group. Peak force, rate of force development, rising time, time to stabilization and total time during chair rising performance were investigated. Intraclass correlation coefficients, Mann-Whitney U-tests and Wilcoxon signed-ranked tests were used. Low volume SR-WBV over 12 training sessions might provide a safe treatment method. PMID:22425243

  18. Insulin Therapy and Body Weight, Body Composition and Muscular Strength in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Gin, H.; Rigalleau, V.; Perlemoine, C.

    2010-01-01

    Aims. To determine the progression of body weight (BW) and body composition (BC) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) on insulin therapy and the consequences on muscle strength (MS) as a reflect of free fat mass increases. Research design and methods. We analysed BC using air displacement plethysmography and MS by hand grip dynamometry in 40 T2D before and after three (M3) and six months (M6) of insulin therapy. Results. at baseline HbA1c was 9.76 ±1.6% and BW was stable with fat mass (FM) 28 ± 10.7?kg; and fat free mass (FFM) 52.4 ± 11?kg; at M6, HbA1c improved to 7.56 ± 0.8%; insulin doses tended to increase. BW gain at M6 was + 3.2 ± 4.2?kg and with an increase of only 25% by M3; it was composed of FM, whereas FFM was unchanged. MS did not increase on insulin therapy. Conclusions. In T2D, BW gain was composed exclusively of FM with no improvement in MS. PMID:20721344

  19. Deconstructing the Mirror's Reflection: Narrative Therapy Groups for Women Dissatisfied with Their Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duba, Jill D.; Kindsvatter, Aaron; Priddy, Constance J.

    2010-01-01

    Women facing middle age and beyond are pressured by a cultural ideal of slimness. The authors review literature pertaining to the factors affecting the societal perceptions of body image and address relevant counseling interventions, specifically, group therapy based on narrative theory, that are aimed at this population.

  20. Antipyretic Therapy in Critically Ill Patients with Sepsis: An Interaction with Body Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhongheng; Chen, Lin; Ni, Hongying

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective The effect of antipyretic therapy on mortality in patients with sepsis remains undetermined. The present study aimed to investigate the role of antipyretic therapy in ICU patients with sepsis by using a large clinical database. Methods The multiparameter intelligent monitoring in intensive care II (MIMIC- II) database was employed for the study. Adult patients with sepsis were included for analysis. Antipyretic therapy included antipyretic medication and external cooling. Multivariable model with interaction terms were employed to explore the association of antipyretic therapy and mortality risk. Main Results A total of 15,268 patients fulfilled inclusion criteria and were included in the study. In multivariable model by treating temperature as a continuous variable, there was significant interaction between antipyretic therapy and the maximum temperature (Tmax). While antipyretic therapy had no significant effect on mortality in low temperature quintiles, antipyretic therapy was associated with increased risk of death in the quintile with body temperature >39°C (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.04–1.61). Conclusion Our study shows that there is no beneficial effect on reducing mortality risk with the use of antipyretic therapy in ICU patients with sepsis. External cooling may even be harmful in patients with sepsis. PMID:25822614

  1. Comparison of whole-body vibration exposures in buses: effects and interactions of bus and seat design.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Per M G; Rynell, Patrik W; Hagberg, Mats; Johnson, Peter W

    2015-07-01

    Bus and seat design may be important for the drivers' whole-body vibration (WBV). WBV exposures in buses during actual operation were assessed. WBV attenuation performance between an air-suspension seat and a static pedestal seat in low-floor buses was compared; there were no differences in WBV attenuation between the seats. Air-suspension seat performance in a high-floor and low-floor bus was compared. Relative to the pedestal seat with its relatively static, limited travel seat suspension, the air-suspension seat with its dynamic, longer travel suspension provided little additional benefit. Relative to the measurement collected at the bus floor, the air-suspension seat amplified the WBV exposures in the high-floor bus. All WBV exposures were below European Union (EU) daily exposure action values. The EU Vibration Directive only allows the predominant axis of vibration exposure to be evaluated but a tri-axial vector sum exposure may be more representative of the actual health risks. PMID:25290555

  2. Estimation and implications of random errors in whole-body dosimetry for targeted radionuclide therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flux, Glenn D.; Guy, Matthew J.; Beddows, Ruth; Pryor, Matthew; Flower, Maggie A.

    2002-09-01

    For targeted radionuclide therapy, the level of activity to be administered is often determined from whole-body dosimetry performed on a pre-therapy tracer study. The largest potential source of error in this method is due to inconsistent or inaccurate activity retention measurements. The main aim of this study was to develop a simple method to quantify the uncertainty in the absorbed dose due to these inaccuracies. A secondary aim was to assess the effect of error propagation from the results of the tracer study to predictive absorbed dose estimates for the therapy as a result of using different radionuclides for each. Standard error analysis was applied to the MIRD schema for absorbed dose calculations. An equation was derived to describe the uncertainty in the absorbed dose estimate due solely to random errors in activity-time data, requiring only these data as input. Two illustrative examples are given. It is also shown that any errors present in the dosimetry calculations following the tracer study will propagate to errors in predictions made for the therapy study according to the ratio of the respective effective half-lives. If the therapy isotope has a much longer physical half-life than the tracer isotope (as is the case, for example, when using 123I as a tracer for 131I therapy) the propagation of errors can be significant. The equations derived provide a simple means to estimate two potentially large sources of error in whole-body absorbed dose calculations.

  3. Effects of Eight Months of Whole-Body Vibration Training on the Muscle Mass and Functional Capacity of Elderly Women.

    PubMed

    Santin-Medeiros, Fernanda; Rey-López, Juan P; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Cristi-Montero, Carlos S; Garatachea Vallejo, Nuria

    2015-07-01

    Santin-Medeiros, F, Rey-López, JP, Santos-Lozano A, Cristi-Montero, CS, and Garatachea Vallejo, N. Effects of eight months of whole-body vibration training on the muscle mass and functional capacity of elderly women. J Strength Cond Res 29(7): 1863-1869, 2015-Few intervention studies have used whole-body vibration (WBV) training in the elderly, and there is inconclusive evidence about its health benefits. We examined the effect of 8 months of WBV training on muscle mass and functional capacity in elderly women. A total of 37 women (aged 82.4 ± 5.7 years) voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to a vibration group (n = 19) or a control group (n = 18). The vibration group trained on a vertical vibration platform twice a week. The control group was requested not to change their habitual lifestyle. The quadriceps femoris muscle cross-sectional area was determined by magnetic resonance imaging. All participants were evaluated by a battery of tests (Senior Fitness Test) to determine their functional capacity, as well as handgrip strength and balance/gait. General linear repeated-measure analysis of variance (group by time) was performed to examine the effect of the intervention on the outcomes variables. After 8 months, nonstatistically significant differences in the quadriceps CSA (pre-training: 8,516.16 ± 1,271.78 mm and post-training: 8,671.63 ± 1,389.03 mm) (p > 0.05) were found in the WBV group (Cohen's d: -0.12), whereas the CON group significantly decreased muscle mass (pre-training: 9,756.18 ± 1,420.07 mm and post-training: 9,326.82 ± 1,577.53 mm), with moderate effect size evident (Cohen's d: 0.29). In both groups, no changes were observed in the functional capacity, handgrip strength and balance/gait. The WBV training could prevent the loss of quadriceps CSA in elderly women. PMID:26102257

  4. ACTIVE VIBRATION CONTROL OF A CAR BODY BASED ON EXPERIMENTALLY EVALUATED MODAL PARAMETERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uwe Stöbener; Lothar Gaul

    2001-01-01

    Active vibration control has been successfully tested for structures with simple geometry, such as beams and plates, by using modal controllers. Since the dynamical behaviour of a variety of mechanical structures can be expressed in terms of modal parameters, the application of modal control concepts can be extended to structures with more complex geometries. For such structures the evaluation of

  5. Good vibrations? Vibrotactile self-stimulation reveals anticipation of body-related action effects in motor control.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Roland; Janczyk, Markus; Gressmann, Marcel; Fournier, Lisa R; Kunde, Wilfried

    2014-03-01

    Previous research suggests that motor actions are intentionally generated by recollecting their sensory consequences. Whereas this has been shown to apply to visual or auditory consequences in the environment, surprisingly little is known about the contribution of immediate, body-related consequences, such as proprioceptive and tactile reafferences. Here, we report evidence for a contribution of vibrotactile reafferences to action selection by using a response-effect compatibility paradigm. More precisely, anticipating actions to cause spatially incompatible vibrations delayed responding to a small but reliable degree. Whereas this observation suggests functional equivalence of body-related and environment-related reafferences to action control, the future application of the described experimental procedure might reveal functional peculiarities of specific types of sensory consequences in action control. PMID:24337232

  6. Prevalence and pattern of occupational exposure to whole body vibration in Great Britain: findings from a national survey

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, K.; Griffin, M.; Bendall, H.; Pannett, B.; Coggon, D.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To estimate the number of workers in Great Britain with significant occupational exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) and to identify the common sources of exposure and the occupations and industries where such exposures arise.?METHODS—A postal questionnaire was posted to a random community sample of 22 194 men and women of working age. Among other things, the questionnaire asked about exposure to WBV in the past week, including occupational and common non-occupational sources. Responses were assessed by occupation and industry, and national prevalence estimates were derived from census information. Estimates were also made of the average estimated daily personal dose of vibration (eVDV).?RESULTS—From the 12 907 responses it was estimated that 7.2 million men and 1.8 million women in Great Britain are exposed to WBV at work in a 1 week period if the occupational use of cars, vans, buses, trains, and motor cycles is included within the definition of exposure. The eVDV of >374 000 men and 9000 women was estimated to exceed a proposed British Standard action level of 15 ms-1.75. Occupations in which the estimated exposures most often exceeded 15 ms-1.75 included forklift truck and mechanical truck drivers, farm owners and managers, farm workers, and drivers of road goods vehicles. These occupations also contributed the largest estimated numbers of workers in Great Britain with such levels of exposure. The highest estimated median occupational eVDVs were found in forklift truck drivers, drivers of road goods vehicles, bus and coach drivers, and technical and wholesale sales representatives, among whom a greater contribution to total dose was received from occupational exposures than from non-occupational ones; but in many other occupations the reverse applied. The most common sources of occupational exposure to WBV are cars, vans, forklift trucks, lorries, tractors, buses, and loaders.?CONCLUSIONS—Exposure to whole body vibration is common, but only a small proportion of exposures exceed the action level proposed in British standards, and in many occupations, non-occupational sources are more important than those at work. The commonest occupational sources of WBV and occupations with particularly high exposures have been identified, providing a basis for targeting future control activities.???Keywords: whole body vibration; population; prevalence; exposure PMID:10810108

  7. Effects of whole-body vibration training on explosive strength and postural control in young female athletes.

    PubMed

    Fort, Azahara; Romero, Daniel; Bagur, Caritat; Guerra, Myriam

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a whole-body vibration training program to improve neuromuscular performance in young elite female athletes. Twenty-three women basketball players (14-18 years old) were randomly assigned to a control group (CG, n = 11) or to a whole-body vibration group (WBVG, n = 12). During the study period, both groups continued their usual training program, but the WBVG also underwent a 15-week vibration training program. We analyzed the countermovement jump test (CMJ), the 1-leg hop test for the right leg and for the left leg, and the single-limb standing balance for both legs and with eyes open and closed at 3 time points: before training (T1), after an 8-week training period (T2), and after a further 7-week training period (T3). Compared with the CG, CMJ increased significantly in the WBVG from T1 to T2 (6.47%, p < 0.001), T1 to T3 (10.07%, p = 0.005), and T2 to T3 (3.38%, p < 0.001). One-leg hop test for the right and left legs also showed significantly higher values in WBVG from T1 to T2 (10.12%, p < 0.001 and 9.63%, p = 0.002, respectively) and T1 to T3 (14.17%, p = 0.001 and 15.17%, p = 0.004, respectively). Lateral deviation of the center of pressure in the closed eyes test decreased significantly in WBVG for both right and left leg, from T1 to T2 (-22.20%, p = 0.043 and -34.77%, p < 0.001, respectively) and from T1 to T3 (-33.14%, p = 0.027 and -33.58%, p = 0.043, respectively) compared with the CG. In conclusion, our results show that a 15-week whole-body vibration training program improves explosive strength and postural stability in adolescent female basketball players. PMID:22446665

  8. Numerical assessment of fore-and-aft suspension performance to reduce whole-body vibration of wheel loader drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Gérard; Mistrot, Pierre

    2006-12-01

    While driving off-road vehicles, operators are exposed to whole-body vibration acting in the fore-and-aft direction. Seat manufacturers supply products equipped with fore-and-aft suspension but only a few studies report on their performance. This work proposes a computational approach to design fore-and-aft suspensions for wheel loader seats. Field tests were conducted in a quarry to analyse the nature of vibration to which the driver was exposed. Typical input signals were recorded to be reproduced in the laboratory. Technical specifications are defined for the suspension. In order to evaluate the suspension vibration attenuation performance, a model of a sitting human body was developed and coupled to a seat model. The seat model combines the models of each suspension component. A linear two-degree-of-freedom model is used to describe the dynamic behaviour of the sitting driver. Model parameters are identified by fitting the computed apparent mass frequency response functions to the measured values. Model extensions are proposed to investigate postural effects involving variations in hands and feet positions and interaction of the driver's back with the backrest. Suspension design parameters are firstly optimized by computing the seat/man model response to sinusoidal acceleration. Four criteria including transmissibility, interaction force between the driver's back and the backrest and relative maximal displacement of the suspension are computed. A new suspension design with optimized features is proposed. Its performance is checked from calculations of the response of the seat/man model subjected to acceleration measured on the wheel loader during real work conditions. On the basis of the computed values of the SEAT factors, it is found possible to design a suspension that would increase the attenuation provided by the seat by a factor of two.

  9. Synchronization of Two Homodromy Rotors Installed on a Double Vibro-Body in a Coupling Vibration System

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Pan; Hou, Yongjun; Nan, Yanghai

    2015-01-01

    A new mechanism is proposed to implement synchronization of the two unbalanced rotors in a vibration system, which consists of a double vibro-body, two induction motors and spring foundations. The coupling relationship between the vibro-bodies is ascertained with the Laplace transformation method for the dynamics equation of the system obtained with the Lagrange’s equation. An analytical approach, the average method of modified small parameters, is employed to study the synchronization characteristics between the two unbalanced rotors, which is converted into that of existence and the stability of zero solutions for the non-dimensional differential equations of the angular velocity disturbance parameters. By assuming the disturbance parameters that infinitely approach to zero, the synchronization condition for the two rotors is obtained. It indicated that the absolute value of the residual torque between the two motors should be equal to or less than the maximum of their coupling torques. Meanwhile, the stability criterion of synchronization is derived with the Routh-Hurwitz method, and the region of the stable phase difference is confirmed. At last, computer simulations are preformed to verify the correctness of the approximate solution of the theoretical computation for the stable phase difference between the two unbalanced rotors, and the results of theoretical computation is in accordance with that of computer simulations. To sum up, only the parameters of the vibration system satisfy the synchronization condition and the stability criterion of the synchronization, the two unbalanced rotors can implement the synchronization operation. PMID:25993472

  10. Occupational exposure to whole-body vibration: unfavourable effects due to the use of old earth-moving machinery in mine reclamation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valentina Dentoni; Giorgio Massacci

    2012-01-01

    Long-term exposure to high levels of whole-body vibration (WBV) is associated with an increased risk of low back pain (LBP), particularly for the drivers of off-road vehicles. Based on the results of an extensive vibration survey carried out in the mine reclamation sites of the Geo-Mineral Park of Sardinia, this article analyses the effect produced by the use of old

  11. Wake dynamics past a curved body of circular cross-section under forced cross-flow vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vecchi, A.; Sherwin, S. J.; Graham, J. M. R.

    2009-05-01

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations are presented of flow past a curved body at a Reynolds number of 100. The geometry consists of a circular cross-sectioned body, whose centreline axis is prescribed by a quarter ring with a horizontal extension. This plane of curvature of the body is aligned to the free-stream flow direction such that the outer part of the ring is the body's stagnation face (convex configuration). The bluff body is forced to sinusoidally vibrate in the cross-flow direction at different amplitudes and frequencies. The resulting vortex shedding is strongly influenced by the curvature of the body. Within the lock-in region for a straight cylinder, the shedding past the convex body exhibits a 2S mode for all the pairs of input parameters tested; outside this region, a “weak” form of shedding with two pairs of counter-rotating vortices per cycle occurs in the top part of the body. At lower amplitudes of oscillation and frequencies below the Strouhal value for a straight cylinder, dislocations are found in the near wake: these generally occur in the middle of the curved part of the body, at an angle of approximately 45 from the top plane, regardless of the amplitude of oscillation. However, at very low amplitudes, an increase in the input frequency is found to influence the spanwise position of the dislocations by shifting them towards the top sections. The wake dynamics and force distribution are associated with the relative importance of the different regions of the curved geometry: the top region, nearly perpendicular to the inflow and therefore comparable to a straight cylinder, and the lower region with the horizontal extension, which is parallel to the inflow direction and hence behaves similarly to a slender body. The influence of the force contributions from these regions and their different nature determine the occurrence of dislocations in the wake, as well as their position along the span. The energy transfer mechanism, which determines whether the body is excited or damped by the flow, is also affected by this balance: at very low amplitudes the top part undergoes a lift force due to vortex shedding, which is strong enough to overcome the dampening effect from the horizontal extension used in this case and therefore provides a positive energy transfer from the fluid to the structure.

  12. Modeling differences in the vibration response characteristics of the human body

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D Smith

    2000-01-01

    Mathematical models may provide a useful tool for the development and evaluation of seating systems for vibration mitigation. A five-degree-of-freedom (DOF) model was formulated based on the measured driving-point impedance and transmissibilities of major anatomical structures contributing to the observed resonance behaviors. The model was limited in its ability to simulate differences observed in the resonance behaviors of a broader

  13. Psychophysical relationships characterizing human response to whole-body sinusoidal vertical vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, J. D.; Dempsey, T. K.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental investigation determined that the psychophysical relationships between subjective discomfort evaluations to vibratory stimuli and subjective evaluations of the intensity of vibratory stimuli can be expressed in a linear fashion. Furthermore, significant differences were found to exist between discomfort and intensity subjective response for several but not all discrete frequencies investigated. The implication of these results is that ride quality criteria based upon subjective evaluation of vibration intensity should be applied cautiously in the development of criteria for human comfort.

  14. The Effect of Whole Body Vibration Exposure on Muscle Function in Children With Cystic Fibrosis: A Pilot Efficacy Trial

    PubMed Central

    O’Keefe, Kaitlin; Orr, Rhonda; Huang, Peite; Selvadurai, Hiran; Cooper, Peter; Munns, Craig Frank; Singh, Maria A Fiatarone

    2013-01-01

    Background To examine the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) exposure on muscle function in children with Cystic Fibrosis (CF). Non-randomised controlled cross-over trial. Methods The setting was home-based WBV exposure. The participants were children (8 - 15 years) with CF (n = 7). Intervention: participants served as their own controls for the first four weeks (usual care), then underwent four weeks of parentally-supervised home-based WBV exposure followed by four weeks washout (usual care). The WBV exposure consisted of 20 - 30 minutes of intermittent (1 min vibration:1 min rest) exposure on a Galileo platform (20 - 22Hz, 1 mm amplitude) 3 days/week. The primary outcome measures of absolute and relative lower body (leg extension (LE), leg press (LP)), upper body (chess press (CP)) strength and power, and power were measured at baseline, and weeks 4, 8 and 12. Secondary exploratory outcomes were cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function and health-related quality of life. Results Six participants completed the training without adverse events. Muscle function changes following WBV exposure were not statistically significant. However, moderate-to-large relative effect sizes (ES) favouring WBV were evident for leg extension strength (ES = 0.66 (-0.50, 1.82)), LP relative strength (ES = 0.92 (-0.27, 2.11)), leg press peak power (ES = 0.78 (-0.50, 2.07)) and CMJ height (ES = 0.60 (-0.56 to 1.76)). Conclusions The results from this first controlled trial indicate that WBV may be a potentially effective exercise modality to safely increase leg strength and explosive power in children with CF. Potentially clinically relevant changes support continued investigation of the efficacy, mechanism and feasibility of this intervention in future large-scale studies. PMID:23671546

  15. Outcomes of Manualized Cognitive-Behavioral Body Image Therapy with Eating Disordered Women Treated in a Private Clinical Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stacey Nye; Thomas F. Cash

    2006-01-01

    Body image change is an important component of the treatment of eating disorders, and cognitive behavioral body image therapy has substantial empirical support as efficacious in the improvement of body image difficulties and disorders. Most evidence comes from randomized, controlled, outcome studies and does not examine effectiveness for persons with clinical eating disorders in the context of “usual care” settings.

  16. Addition of synchronous whole-body vibration to body mass resistive exercise causes little or no effects on muscle damage and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Hazell, Tom J; Olver, T Dylan; Hamilton, Craig D; Lemon, Peter W R

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a moderate intensity whole-body vibration (WBV) body mass resistive exercise session causes additional muscle damage, soreness, and inflammation compared with the same exercise session without vibration (NoV). Ten recreationally active male university students completed 2 separate 24-hour study periods incorporating an exercise session with WBV or NoV. Muscle torque was measured (at 0, 60, and 240°·s-1 angular velocities), soreness (10-point scale) in the upper (UE [triceps]) and lower (LE [quadriceps]) extremities, and muscle inflammation markers (interleukin [IL]-1?, IL-6, IL-10) were measured at 4 time points (preexercise, immediately postexercise, 4 hours post, and 24 hours post). Diet was controlled. Compared with NoV, WBV increased (p < 0.01) muscle soreness at 24 hours postexercise in both the UE (2.2 ± 1.7 vs. 0.6 ± 0.9) and LE (2.0 ± 1.5 vs. 0.7 ± 0.7). Muscle torque was decreased immediately postexercise (p < 0.05) in the UE and LE at 0°·s and in the UE at 240°·s, but there was no difference between exercise treatments. The exercise session caused significant but small increases in IL-1? and IL-6 but with no differences between exercise treatments. Interleukin-10 was increased with WBV (2.9 ± 2.0 to 3.6 ± 1.9 pg·ml-1; p < 0.03). These data suggest that the addition of WBV to exercise has little effect on muscle function and damage, soreness, or inflammation. PMID:23615482

  17. Developing, Maintaining, and Using a Body of Knowledge for the Massage Therapy Profession

    PubMed Central

    Sefton, JoEllen M.; Shea, Michael; Hines, Chip

    2011-01-01

    Background: The diverse field of massage therapy has lacked a formal body of knowledge to serve as a practice and educational foundation and to guide future development. This deficit has hampered the growth of the profession and its acceptance and recognition by the medical and allied health care community. Purpose: To provide massage therapists, bodyworkers, physicians, educators, and associated allied health care professionals in the United States with a description of the purpose and development of the massage therapy body of knowledge (MTBOK) and recommendations for its future development and utilization. Methods: Professional groups in the massage therapy community came together and established a task force to develop a body of knowledge for the profession. Five groups became the stewards for this effort. A nationwide search produced a task force of eight volunteers from diverse areas of the profession charged with the responsibility of researching and developing the MTBOK document. Review of documents, curricula, state laws and regulations, certification exam content, interviews, and public comment resulted in the development of the MTBOK. During development multiple opportunities for comment and discussion by stakeholders (public) were provided in an effort to create a professional consensus. Results: The resulting MTBOK document establishes professional descriptions of the field; scope of practice; knowledge, skills, and abilities for entry-level massage therapists; and definitions for terminology to insure standardization, in order to provide a foundation for future discussion and growth. Conclusions: The MTBOK fulfills the goal for which it was developed, to serve as a foundation for the growth and development of the massage therapy profession as a whole. A living document, it should continue to evolve and grow with the profession. Maintenance and continued stewardship of this document by the massage therapy community is vital for continued professional progress. PMID:22016755

  18. Effects of hormone replacement therapy and social stress on body fat distribution in surgically postmenopausal monkeys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JM Wallace; CA Shively; TB Clarkson

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and social stress on body fat distribution in an animal model of women’s health, the female cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).DESIGN\\/SUBJECTS: Adult female cynomolgus monkeys were ovariectomized and fed an atherogenic diet for two years while housed in social groups of 3–8 monkeys each. Animals were then fed a lipid-lowering diet

  19. Thinking Through the Body: The Conceptualization of Yoga as Therapy for Individuals With Eating Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Douglass

    2010-01-01

    Yoga has historically been viewed as a discipline that increases self-awareness through body based practices, meditation, self-study, and the reading of philosophical texts. In the 21st century the mindfulness techniques of yoga have been adapted as an adjunct to the treatment of individuals with eating disorders. In an effort to understand the conceptualization of yoga as therapy for individuals with

  20. Statin therapy depresses total body fat oxidation in the absence of genetic limitations to fat oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. M. Fisher; K. Meksawan; A. Limprasertkul; P. J. Isackson; D. R. Pendergast; G. D. Vladutiu

    2007-01-01

    Summary  Cholesterol lowering drugs are associated with myopathic side effects in 7% of those on therapy, which is reversible in most,\\u000a but not all patients. This study tested the hypothesis that total body fat oxidation (TBFO) is reduced by statins in patients\\u000a with genetic deficiencies in FO, determined by white blood cells (FOwbc) and by molecular analysis of common deficiencies,\\u000a and

  1. Incorporating Patient Breathing Variability into a Stochastic Model of Dose Deposition for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah E. Geneser; Robert M. Kirby; Brian Wang; Bill Salter; Sarang C. Joshi

    2009-01-01

    Hypo-fractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) employs precisely-conforming high-level radiation dose delivery\\u000a to improve tumor control probabilities and sparing of healthy tissue. However, the delivery precision and conformity of SBRT\\u000a renders dose accumulation particularly susceptible to organ motion, and respiratory-induced motion in the abdomen may result\\u000a in significant displacement of lesion targets during the breathing cycle. Given the maturity of

  2. In-line and cross-flow multi-frequency vortex-induced vibrations of a long flexible cylinder are phase-locked under wake-body synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourguet, Remi; Karniadakis, George; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2012-11-01

    A slender flexible body with bluff cross-section immersed in cross-flow exhibits vortex-induced vibrations. The vibrations are excited by the flow under a condition of lock-in defined as the synchronization between vortex formation and body displacement. Within a sheared current, the possible occurrence of the lock-in condition at a number of different locations can lead to broadband vibrations involving a wide range of excited frequencies and structural wavenumbers. In a previous study focusing on the vortex-induced vibrations of a flexible cylinder at a single frequency in each direction, we have found that the lock-in condition is established through counter-clockwise figure-eight trajectories where the body moves upstream at the extremes of the cross-flow oscillation. In the present work, on the basis of direct numerical simulation results, we show that this mechanism can be generalized to multi-frequency responses: even if the trajectory shape substantially departs from a figure eight, the phase difference between the components of the in-line and cross-flow vibrations locally involved in the lock-in phenomenon remains within a particular range, associated with counter-clockwise figure-eight orbits in the mono-frequency case.

  3. Influence of forest machine function on operator exposure to whole-body vibration in a cut-to-length timber harvester.

    PubMed

    Sherwin, L M; Owende, P M O; Kanali, C L; Lyons, J; Ward, S M

    2004-09-15

    The influence of machine function (tree felling and processing, and machine movement over the terrain) on operator exposure to whole-body vibration in a cut-to-length (CTL) timber harvester was evaluated. Vibrations were measured on the seat and the cabin chassis in three orthogonal (x, y, z) axes for the tree felling and processing, and during motion on a test track. It was found that the level of vibration transmitted to the operator during felling and processing was mainly affected by the tree size (diameter). For tree diameter at breast height (dbh) range of 0.25-0.35 m that was investigated, the vertical (z-axis) vibration component during processing increased by up to 300%, and increased by 50% during felling. However, the associated vibration levels were not sufficient to pose any serious health risks to the operator for an exposure limit of 8 h. Vibration at the operator seat and cabin chassis was predominant in the lateral (y-axis) and vertical (z-axis) respectively, during vehicle motion over the standard test track. Vibration peaks of approximately 0.20 and 0.17 ms(-2) occurred at 5 and 3.2 Hz respectively. PMID:15370853

  4. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Patients With Lung Cancer Previously Treated With Thoracic Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Balter, Peter A. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Rebueno, Neal; Sharp, Hadley J.; Liao Zhongxing; Komaki, Ritsuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Chang, Joe Y., E-mail: jychang@mdanderson.or [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) provides excellent local control with acceptable toxicity for patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. However, the efficacy and safety of SBRT for patients previously given thoracic radiation therapy is not known. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed outcomes after SBRT for recurrent disease among patients previously given radiation therapy to the chest. Materials and Methods: A search of medical records for patients treated with SBRT to the thorax after prior fractionated radiation therapy to the chest at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center revealed 36 such cases. The median follow-up time after SBRT was 15 months. The endpoints analyzed were overall survival, local control, and the incidence and severity of treatment-related toxicity. Results: SBRT provided in-field local control for 92% of patients; at 2 years, the actuarial overall survival rate was 59%, and the actuarial progression-free survival rate was 26%, with the primary site of failure being intrathoracic relapse. Fifty percent of patients experienced worsening of dyspnea after SBRT, with 19% requiring oxygen supplementation; 30% of patients experienced chest wall pain and 8% Grade 3 esophagitis. No Grade 4 or 5 toxic effects were noted. Conclusions: SBRT can provide excellent in-field tumor control in patients who have received prior radiation therapy. Toxicity was significant but manageable. The high rate of intrathoracic failure indicates the need for further study to identify patients who would derive the most benefit from SBRT for this purpose.

  5. Body image interventions in cognitive-behavioural therapy of binge-eating disorder: a component analysis.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Anja; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2004-11-01

    The present study sought to investigate effects of body exposure in the treatment of binge-eating disorder (BED). Cognitive-behavioural therapy with a body exposure component (CBT-E) was compared with CBT with a cognitive restructuring component focused on body image (CBT-C). Twenty-eight patients diagnosed with BED were randomly assigned to CBT-E or CBT-C, both delivered in a group format. Negative automatic thoughts about one's body, dysfunctional assumptions about shape and weight, and body dissatisfaction were assessed using experimental thought-sampling techniques, a clinical interview (Eating Disorder Examination), and self-report questionnaires. At posttreatment and at 4-month follow-up, CBT-E and CBT-C were equally effective in improving body image disturbance on all indicators assessed. Both CBT-E and CBT-C produced substantial and stable improvements in the specific and general eating disorder psychopathology. Results suggest that both treatment components are equally effective in the treatment of BED. PMID:15381441

  6. The Effects of Intermittent, CD4-guided Antiretroviral Therapy on Body Composition and Metabolic Parameters

    PubMed Central

    MARTINEZ, Esteban; VISNEGARWALA, Fehmida; GRUND, Birgit; THOMAS, Avis; GIBERT, Cynthia; SHLAY, Judith; DRUMMOND, Fraser; PEARCE, Daniel; EDWARDS, Simon; REISS, Peter; EL-SADR, Wafaa; CARR, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of decreased antiretroviral therapy exposure on body fat and metabolic parameters. Design Sub-study of the SMART study in which participants were randomized to intermittent CD4-guided (DC group) or to continuous (VS group) antiretroviral therapy. Methods Participants at 33 sites were co-enrolled in the SMART Body Composition Sub-study. Regional fat was assessed annually by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal computed tomography. Fasting metabolic parameters were assessed at months 4, 8, and annually. Treatment groups were compared for changes in fat and metabolic markers using longitudinal mixed models. Results Two hundred seventy-five patients were randomized to the DC (n=142) or VS (n=133) groups, and followed for a median of 2.0 years. By month 12, limb fat (DC-VS difference 9.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.5 to 16.1; P=0.003) and subcutaneous abdominal fat (DC-VS difference 14.3 cm2, 95% CI ?0.1 to 28.7; P=0.05) increased in the DC group. There was no treatment difference on visceral abdominal fat (DC-VS difference ?2.1%, 95% CI ?13.5 to 9.4; P=0.72). Lipids significantly decreased in the DC group by month 4 and treatment differences persisted throughout follow-up (P?0.001). By 12 months, hemoglobin A1C increased in the DC (+0.3%) and remained stable in the VS group (P=0.003); the treatment difference remained significant through follow-up (P=0.02). Conclusions After 12 months, intermittent antiretroviral therapy increased subcutaneous fat, had no effect on visceral abdominal fat, decreased plasma lipids, and increased hemoglobin A1C compared with continuous antiretroviral therapy. PMID:20057309

  7. The development of an intervention programme to reduce whole-body vibration exposure at work induced by a change in behaviour: a study protocol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivo J. H. Tiemessen; Carel T. J. Hulshof; Monique H. W. Frings-Dresen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whole body vibration (WBV) exposure at work is common and studies found evidence that this exposure might cause low back pain (LBP). A recent review concluded there is a lack of evidence of effective strategies to reduce WBV exposure. Most research in this field is focussed on the technical implications, although changing behaviour towards WBV exposure might be promising

  8. Effect of standing posture during whole body vibration training on muscle morphology and function in older adults: A randomised controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica Mikhael; Rhonda Orr; Fleur Amsen; David Greene; Maria A Fiatarone Singh

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whole body vibration (WBV) is a novel modality of exercise shown to improve musculoskeletal function. This study aims to examine the effects of standing posture during low magnitude WBV training on muscle function and muscle morphology in older adults. METHODS: Nineteen men and women (50-80 years) were recruited to a three month randomised controlled trial and allocated to one

  9. The feasibility of whole body vibration in institutionalised elderly persons and its influence on muscle performance, balance and mobility: a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN62535013

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan Bautmans; Ellen Van Hees; Jean-Claude Lemper; Tony Mets

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fatigue or lack of interest can reduce the feasibility of intensive physical exercise in nursing home residents. Low-volume exercise interventions with similar training effects might be an alternative. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to investigate the feasibility of Whole Body Vibration (WBV) in institutionalised elderly, and its impact on functional capacity and muscle performance. METHODS: Twenty-four

  10. The relative importance of whole body vibration and occupational lifting as risk factors for low-back pain

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, K; Griffin, M; Syddall, H; Pannett, B; Cooper, C; Coggon, D

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To explore the impact of occupational exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) on low back pain (LBP) in the general population and to estimate the burden of LBP attributable to occupational WBV in comparison with that due to occupational lifting. Methods: A questionnaire including sections on WBV at work, LBP, and potential risk factors was mailed to a community sample of 22 194 men and women of working age. Sources and durations of exposure to occupational WBV were ascertained for the past week and personal vibration doses (eVDV) were estimated. Analysis was confined to subjects reporting exposures in the past week as typical of their work. Associations of LBP with eVDV, driving industrial vehicles, and occupational lifting were explored by logistic regression and attributable numbers were calculated. Results: Significant associations were found between daily lifting of weights greater than 10 kg at work and LBP, troublesome LBP (which made it difficult to put on hosiery), and sciatica (prevalence ratios 1.3 to 1.7); but the risk of these outcomes in both sexes varied little by eVDV and only weak associations were found with riding on industrial vehicles. Assuming causal associations, the numbers of cases of LBP in Britain attributable to occupational WBV were estimated to be 444 000 in men and 95 000 in women. This compared with an estimated 940 000 male cases and 370 000 female cases of LBP from occupational lifting. Conclusions: The burden of LBP in Britain from occupational exposure to WBV is smaller than that attributable to lifting at work. PMID:14504358

  11. Acute effect of whole body vibration on isometric strength, squat jump, and flexibility in well-trained combat athletes.

    PubMed

    Kurt, C; Pekünlü, E

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) training on maximal strength, squat jump, and flexibility of well-trained combat athletes. Twelve female and 8 male combat athletes (age: 22.8 ± 3.1 years, mass: 65.4 ± 10.7 kg, height: 168.8 ± 8.8 cm, training experience: 11.6 ± 4.7 years, training volume: 9.3 ± 2.8 hours/week) participated in this study. The study consisted of three sessions separated by 48 hours. The first session was conducted for familiarization. In the subsequent two sessions, participants performed WBV or sham intervention in a randomized, balanced order. During WBV intervention, four isometric exercises were performed (26 Hz, 4 mm). During the sham intervention, participants performed the same WBV intervention without vibration treatment (0 Hz, 0 mm). Hand grip, squat jump, trunk flexion, and isometric leg strength tests were performed after each intervention. The results of a two-factor (pre-post[2] × intervention[2]) repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant interaction (p = 0.018) of pre-post × intervention only for the hand grip test, indicating a significant performance increase of moderate effect (net increase of 2.48%, d = 0.61) after WBV intervention. Squat jump, trunk flexion, and isometric leg strength performances were not affected by WBV. In conclusion, the WBV protocol used in this study potentiated hand grip performance, but did not enhance squat jump, trunk flexion, or isometric leg strength in well-trained combat athletes. PMID:26060334

  12. Acute effect of whole body vibration on isometric strength, squat jump, and flexibility in well-trained combat athletes

    PubMed Central

    Pekünlü, E

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) training on maximal strength, squat jump, and flexibility of well-trained combat athletes. Twelve female and 8 male combat athletes (age: 22.8 ± 3.1 years, mass: 65.4 ± 10.7 kg, height: 168.8 ± 8.8 cm, training experience: 11.6 ± 4.7 years, training volume: 9.3 ± 2.8 hours/week) participated in this study. The study consisted of three sessions separated by 48 hours. The first session was conducted for familiarization. In the subsequent two sessions, participants performed WBV or sham intervention in a randomized, balanced order. During WBV intervention, four isometric exercises were performed (26 Hz, 4 mm). During the sham intervention, participants performed the same WBV intervention without vibration treatment (0 Hz, 0 mm). Hand grip, squat jump, trunk flexion, and isometric leg strength tests were performed after each intervention. The results of a two-factor (pre-post[2] × intervention[2]) repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant interaction (p = 0.018) of pre-post × intervention only for the hand grip test, indicating a significant performance increase of moderate effect (net increase of 2.48%, d = 0.61) after WBV intervention. Squat jump, trunk flexion, and isometric leg strength performances were not affected by WBV. In conclusion, the WBV protocol used in this study potentiated hand grip performance, but did not enhance squat jump, trunk flexion, or isometric leg strength in well-trained combat athletes. PMID:26060334

  13. Effective seat-to-head transmissibility in whole-body vibration: Effects of posture and arm position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmatalla, Salam; DeShaw, Jonathan

    2011-12-01

    Seat-to-head transmissibility is a biomechanical measure that has been widely used for many decades to evaluate seat dynamics and human response to vibration. Traditionally, transmissibility has been used to correlate single-input or multiple-input with single-output motion; it has not been effectively used for multiple-input and multiple-output scenarios due to the complexity of dealing with the coupled motions caused by the cross-axis effect. This work presents a novel approach to use transmissibility effectively for single- and multiple-input and multiple-output whole-body vibrations. In this regard, the full transmissibility matrix is transformed into a single graph, such as those for single-input and single-output motions. Singular value decomposition and maximum distortion energy theory were used to achieve the latter goal. Seat-to-head transmissibility matrices for single-input/multiple-output in the fore-aft direction, single-input/multiple-output in the vertical direction, and multiple-input/multiple-output directions are investigated in this work. A total of ten subjects participated in this study. Discrete frequencies of 0.5-16 Hz were used for the fore-aft direction using supported and unsupported back postures. Random ride files from a dozer machine were used for the vertical and multiple-axis scenarios considering two arm postures: using the armrests or grasping the steering wheel. For single-input/multiple-output, the results showed that the proposed method was very effective in showing the frequencies where the transmissibility is mostly sensitive for the two sitting postures and two arm positions. For multiple-input/multiple-output, the results showed that the proposed effective transmissibility indicated higher values for the armrest-supported posture than for the steering-wheel-supported posture.

  14. Thinking through the body: the conceptualization of yoga as therapy for individuals with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Douglass, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Yoga has historically been viewed as a discipline that increases self-awareness through body based practices, meditation, self-study, and the reading of philosophical texts. In the 21st century the mindfulness techniques of yoga have been adapted as an adjunct to the treatment of individuals with eating disorders. In an effort to understand the conceptualization of yoga as therapy for individuals with eating disorders, this article juxtaposes how mindfulness based yoga is regarded in three disciplines: sociology, neuroscience, and the "spiritual texts" of yoga. PMID:21181581

  15. Neoadjuvant stereotactic body radiation therapy, capecitabine, and liver transplantation for unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Welling, Theodore H; Feng, Mary; Wan, Shanshan; Hwang, Sin Ye; Volk, Michael L; Lawrence, Theodore S; Zalupski, Mark M; Sonnenday, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Hilar cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a difficult malignancy to treat surgically because of its anatomical location and its frequent association with primary sclerosing cholangitis. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by liver transplantation in lymph node-negative patients has been advanced by select liver transplant centers for the treatment of patients with unresectable disease. This approach has most commonly used external-beam radiotherapy in combination with biliary brachytherapy and 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. Our center recently embarked on a protocol using stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) followed by capecitabine in lymph node-negative patients until liver transplantation. We, therefore, retrospectively determined the tolerability and pathological response in this pilot study. During a 3-year period, 17 patients with unresectable hilar CCA were evaluated for treatment under this protocol. In all, 12 patients qualified for neoadjuvant therapy and were treated with SBRT (50-60 Gy in 3-5 fractions over the course of 2 weeks). After 1 week of rest, capecitabine was initiated at 1330 mg/m(2) /day, and it was continued until liver transplantation. During neoadjuvant therapy, there were 35 adverse events in all, with cholangitis and palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia being the most common. Capecitabine dose reductions were required on 5 occasions. Ultimately, 9 patients were listed for transplantation, and 6 patients received a liver transplant. The explant pathology of hilar tumors showed at least a partial treatment response in 5 patients, with extensive tumor necrosis and fibrosis noted. Additionally, high apoptotic indices and low proliferative indices were measured during histological examinations. Eleven transplant-related complications occurred, and the 1-year survival rate after transplantation was 83%. In this pilot study, neoadjuvant therapy with SBRT, capecitabine, and liver transplantation for unresectable CCA demonstrated acceptable tolerability. Further studies will determine the overall future efficacy of this therapy. PMID:24115315

  16. Dose as a function of liver volume and planning target volume in helical tomotherapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy–based stereotactic body radiation therapy for hepatic metastasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph M. Baisden; Andrew G. Reish; Ke Sheng; James M. Larner; Brian D. Kavanagh; Paul W.. Read

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has been shown to be an effective, well-tolerated treatment for local control of tumors metastatic to the liver. Multi-institutional Phase II trials are examining 60 Gy in 3 fractions delivered by linac-based, 3D-conformal IMRT. HiArt Helical TomoTherapy is a treatment unit that delivers co-planar helical IMRT that is capable of image-guided SBRT. We hypothesized

  17. Effect of Fractionation in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Using the Linear Quadratic Model

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jun, E-mail: JunBME@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Philadelphia Cyberknife, Havertown, Pennsylvania (United States); Lamond, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Philadelphia Cyberknife, Havertown, Pennsylvania (United States); Fowler, Jack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Lanciano, Rachelle [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Philadelphia Cyberknife, Havertown, Pennsylvania (United States); Feng, Jing [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Brady, Luther [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Philadelphia Cyberknife, Havertown, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: To examine the fractionation effect of stereotactic body radiation therapy with a heterogeneous dose distribution. Methods: Derived from the linear quadratic formula with measurements from a hypothetical 2-cm radiosurgical tumor, the threshold percentage was defined as (?/?{sub tissue}/?/?{sub tumor}), the balance ?/? ratio was defined as (prescription dose/tissue tolerance*?/?{sub tumor}), and the balance dose was defined as (tissue tolerance/threshold percentage). Results: With increasing fractions and equivalent peripheral dose to the target, the biological equivalent dose of “hot spots” in a target decreases. The relative biological equivalent doses of serial organs decrease only when the relative percentage of its dose to the prescription dose is above the threshold percentage. The volume of parallel organs at risk decreases only when the tumor's ?/? ratio is above the balance ?/? ratio and the prescription dose is lower than balance dose. Conclusions: The potential benefits of fractionation in stereotactic body radiation therapy depend on the complex interplay between the total dose, ?/? ratios, and dose differences between the target and the surrounding normal tissues.

  18. Stereotactic body radiation therapy salvage reirradiation of radiorecurrent prostatic carcinoma relapsed in the prostatic bed.

    PubMed

    Arcangeli, Stefano; Gambardella, Pasquale; Agolli, Linda; Monaco, Alessia; Dognini, Jessica; Regine, Giovanni; Donato, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    A 67-year-old man presented with a slow increase of prostate-specific antigen value after radical prostatectomy and postoperative radiotherapy for prostate cancer. The patient had received 3D conformal radiotherapy to a total dose of 66 Gy in 33 fractions of 2 Gy each on the prostatic bed. Three years later, a macroscopic local failure was diagnosed at the apical region. The patient could not receive androgenic deprivation therapy or other types of treatment owing to comorbid conditions. Thus, stereotactic body radiation therapy with helical image-guided tomotherapy was administered. The total dose was 30 Gy in 5 consecutive fractions of 6 Gy each to the site of the local failure. The treatment was preceded by a transperineal-guided injection of a self-absorbable hydrogel into the prostatic bed, between rectum and bladder, in order to preserve the rectal wall, which already had received significant doses from the first radiation course. Radiation therapy was well-tolerated. After a follow-up period of 6 months, the patient remains healthy, and there has been no further evidence of metastatic spread or recurrence. PMID:25721678

  19. Effect of stochastic resonance whole body vibration on functional performance in the frail elderly: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Jessica; Radlinger, Lorenz; Baur, Heiner; Rogan, Slavko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility and the effect size of a four-week stochastic resonance whole body vibration (SR-WBV) intervention on functional performance and strength in frail elderly individuals. Twenty-seven participants have been recruited and randomly distributed in an intervention group (IG) and a sham group (SG). Primary outcomes were feasibility objectives like recruitment, compliance and safety. Secondary outcomes were short physical performance battery (SPPB), isometric maximum voluntary contraction (IMVC) and isometric rate of force development (IRFD). The intervention was feasible and safe. Furthermore it showed significant effects (p=0.035) and medium effect size (0.43) within the IG in SPPB. SR-WBV training over four weeks with frail elderly individuals is a safe intervention method. The compliance was good and SR-WBV intervention seems to improve functional performance. Further research over a longer time frame for the strength measurements (IMVC and IRFD) is needed to detect potential intervention effects in the force measurements as well. Clinical Trial register: NTC01704976. PMID:25042993

  20. Short-term effect of whole-body vibration training on balance, flexibility and lower limb explosive strength in elite rhythmic gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Despina, Tsopani; George, Dallas; George, Tsiganos; Sotiris, Papouliakos; Alessandra, Di Cagno; George, Korres; Maria, Riga; Stavros, Korres

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether whole-body vibration (WBV) training results in short-term performance improvements in flexibility, strength and balance tests in comparison to an equivalent exercise program performed without vibration. Eleven elite rhythmic gymnasts completed a WBV trial, and a control, resistance training trial without vibration (NWBV). The vibration trial consisted of eccentric and concentric squatting exercises on a vibration platform that was turned on, whereas the NWBV involved the same training protocol with the platform turned off. Balance was assessed using the Rhythmic Weight Shift (RWS) based on the EquiTest Dynamic Posturography system; flexibility was measured using the sit & reach test, and lower limb explosive strength was evaluated using standard exercises (squat jump, counter movement jump, single leg squat). All measurements were performed before (pre) immediately after the training program (post 1), and 15 minutes after the end of the program (post 15). Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA was used with condition (WBV-NWBV) as the primary factor and time (pre, post 1, post 15) as the nested within subjects factor, followed by post-hoc pairwise comparison with Bonferroni corrections. Results confirmed the hypothesis of the superiority of WBV training, especially in the post 15 measurement, in all flexibility and strength measures, as well as in a number of balance tests. PMID:24055361

  1. Influence of tyre inflation pressure on whole-body vibrations transmitted to the operator in a cut-to-length timber harvester.

    PubMed

    Sherwin, L M; Owende, P M O; Kanali, C L; Lyons, J; Ward, S M

    2004-05-01

    The influence of tyre inflation pressure on whole-body vibrations transmitted to the operator during the movement of a cut-to-length timber harvester was evaluated. Vibration measurements were taken in three orthogonal (x, y, z) axes at tyre pressure settings of 138, 345 and 414 kPa. Vibration was predominant in the vertical (z) direction with the peak rms acceleration value for the operator seat (0.281 ms(-2)) occurring at approximately 3.2 Hz. The corresponding peak value for the operator cabin chassis was 0.425 m s(-2) at 4 Hz. At 414 kPa, there was potential health risk on the operator for exposures above 8h duration. The vibration total values recorded for the operator seat at the maximum tyre inflation pressure setting were classed as "fairly uncomfortable" (ISO standard 2631-1), and vertical seat vibration transmissibility was highest between 4 and 8 Hz at the 345 kPa tyre pressure setting. The recorded values of WBV were significantly reduced by a reduction in tyre inflation pressure which may therefore be used to moderate the magnitude of WBV on wheeled timber harvesters. PMID:15145288

  2. Frame-Based Immobilization and Targeting for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Bryan C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)]. E-mail: bryan.murray@utsouthwestern.edu; Forster, Kenneth [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Timmerman, Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Frame-based stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), such as that conducted with Elekta's Stereotactic Body Frame, can provide an extra measure of precision in the delivery of radiation to extracranial targets, and facilitates secure patient immobilization. In this paper, we review the steps involved in optimal use of an extra-cranial immobilization device for SBRT treatments. Our approach to using frame-based SBRT consists of 4 steps: patient immobilization, tumor and organ motion control, treatment/planning correlation, and daily targeting with pretreatment quality assurance. Patient immobilization was achieved with the Vac-Loc bag, which uses styrofoam beads to conform to the patient's shape comfortably within the body frame. Organ and motion control was assessed under fluoroscopy and controlled via a frame-mounted abdominal pressure plate. The compression screw was tightened until the diaphragmatic excursion range was < 1 cm. Treatment planning was performed using the Philips Pinnacle 6.2b system. In this treatment process, a 20 to 30 noncoplanar beam arrangement was initially selected and an inverse beam weight optimization algorithm was applied. Those beams with low beam weights were removed, leaving a manageable number of beams for treatment delivery. After planning, daily targeting using computed tomography (CT) to verify x-, y-, and z-coordinates of the treatment isocenter were used as a measure of quality assurance. We found our daily setup variation typically averaged < 5 mm in all directions, which is comparable to other published studies on Stereotactic Body Frame. Treatment time ranged from 30 to 45 minutes. Results demonstrate that patients have experienced high rates of local control with acceptable rates of severe side effects-by virtue of the tightly constrained treatment fields. The body frame facilitated comfortable patient positioning and quality assurance checks of the tumor, in relation to another set of independent set of coordinates defined by the body frame fiducials. The ability to impose abdominal compression proved to be a simple way to reduce target and tissue motion. SBRT with Stereotactic Body Frame enables comfortable patient immobilization and facilitates repeated registering and re-registering of the patient to the frame. With the body frame, large-dose-per fraction treatment is possible for localized tumor deposits with the aim of attaining a more therapeutic result.

  3. An updated review of epidemiologic studies on the relationship between exposure to whole-body vibration and low back pain (1986–1997)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bovenzi; C. T. J. Hulshof

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study is to update the information on the epidemiologic evidence of the adverse health effects of whole-body\\u000a vibration (WBV) on the spinal system by means of a review of the epidemiologic studies published between 1986 and 1997. In\\u000a a systematic search, using several databases, of epidemiologic studies of low back pain (LBP) disorders and occupations with

  4. Impact of Whole-Body Vibration Training Versus Fitness Training on Muscle Strength and Muscle Mass in Older Men: A 1Year Randomized Controlled Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    An Bogaerts; Christophe Delecluse; Albrecht L. Claessens; Walter Coudyzer; Steven Boonen; Sabine M. P. Verschueren

    2007-01-01

    Background. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 1-year whole-body vibration (WBV) training on isometric and explosive muscle strength and muscle mass in community-dwelling men older than 60 years. Methods. Muscle characteristics of the WBV group (n ¼31, 67.3 6 0.7 years) were compared with those of a fitness (FIT) group (n ¼ 30, 67.4 6 0.8 years) and

  5. Long-term sick leave and disability pensioning due to back disorders of tractor drivers exposed to whole-body vibration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hendriek C. Boshuizen; Carel T. J. Hulshof; Paulien M. Bongers

    1990-01-01

    Summary In a historical 11-year follow-up study, disability pensioning and the incidence of the first sick leave of 4 weeks or longer due to back disorders has been investigated in a group of drivers exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV), mainly of agricultural tractors. The reference group comprised workers not or only slightly exposed to WBV from the same and another

  6. Understanding the role of vibrations, exact exchange, and many-body van der Waals interactions in the cohesive properties of molecular crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, Anthony M.; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2013-07-01

    The development and application of computational methods for studying molecular crystals, particularly density-functional theory (DFT), is a large and ever-growing field, driven by their numerous applications. Here we expand on our recent study of the importance of many-body van der Waals interactions in molecular crystals [A. M. Reilly and A. Tkatchenko, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 1028 (2013), 10.1021/jz400226x], with a larger database of 23 molecular crystals. Particular attention has been paid to the role of the vibrational contributions that are required to compare experiment sublimation enthalpies with calculated lattice energies, employing both phonon calculations and experimental heat-capacity data to provide harmonic and anharmonic estimates of the vibrational contributions. Exact exchange, which is rarely considered in DFT studies of molecular crystals, is shown to have a significant contribution to lattice energies, systematically improving agreement between theory and experiment. When the vibrational and exact-exchange contributions are coupled with a many-body approach to dispersion, DFT yields a mean absolute error (3.92 kJ/mol) within the coveted "chemical accuracy" target (4.2 kJ/mol). The role of many-body dispersion for structures has also been investigated for a subset of the database, showing good performance compared to X-ray and neutron diffraction crystal structures. The results show that the approach employed here can reach the demanding accuracy of crystal-structure prediction and organic material design with minimal empiricism.

  7. Effect of 6 months of whole body vibration on lumbar spine bone density in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chung-Liang; Tseng, Shiuan-Yu; Chen, Chung-Nan; Liao, Wan-Chun; Wang, Chun-Hou; Lee, Meng-Chih; Hsu, Pi-Shan

    2013-01-01

    Background The issue of osteoporosis-induced fractures has attracted the world’s attention. Postmenopausal women are particularly at risk for this type of fracture. The nonmedicinal intervention for postmenopausal women is mainly exercise. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a simple and convenient exercise. There have been some studies investigating the effect of WBV on osteoporosis; however, the intervention models and results are different. This study mainly investigated the effect of high-frequency and high-magnitude WBV on the bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine in postmenopausal women. Methods This study randomized 28 postmenopausal women into either the WBV group or the control group for a 6-month trial. The WBV group received an intervention of high-frequency (30 Hz) and high-magnitude (3.2 g) WBV in a natural full-standing posture for 5 minutes, three times per week, at a sports center. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure the lumbar BMD of the two groups before and after the intervention. Results Six months later, the BMD of the WBV group had significantly increased by 2.032% (P=0.047), while that of the control group had decreased by 0.046% (P=0.188). The comparison between the two groups showed that the BMD of the WBV group had increased significantly (P=0.016). Conclusion This study found that 6 months of high-frequency and high-magnitude WBV yielded significant benefits to the BMD of the lumbar spine in postmenopausal women, and could therefore be provided as an alternative exercise. PMID:24348029

  8. Contributions of ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and the electrooculogram to periocular potentials produced by whole-body vibration

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Steven L.; Paillard, Aurore C.; Griffin, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report the results of an experiment to investigate the emergence of ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (OVEMPs) during the linear vestibular ocular reflex (LVOR) evoked by whole-body vibration (WBV). OVEMP and electrooculogram (EOG) montages were employed to record periocular potentials (POPs) from six subjects during WBV in the nasooccipital (NO) axis over a range of frequencies from 0.5 to 64 Hz with approximately constant peak head acceleration of 1.0 ms?2 (i.e., 0.1 g). Measurements were made in two context conditions: a fixation context to examine the effect of gaze eccentricity (0 vs. 20°), and a visual context, where a target was either head-fixed or earth-fixed. The principal results are that from 0.5 to 2 Hz POP magnitude in the earth-fixed condition is related to head displacement, so with constant acceleration at all frequencies it reduces with increasing frequency, but at frequencies greater than 2 Hz both POP magnitude and POP gain, defined as the ratio of POP magnitude at 20 and 0°, increase with increasing frequency. By exhibiting this high-pass characteristic, a property shared with the LVOR, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that the OVEMP, as commonly employed in the clinical setting, is a high-frequency manifestation of the LVOR. However, we also observed low-frequency acceleration following POPs in head-fixed conditions, consistent with a low-frequency OVEMP, and found evidence of a high-frequency visual context effect, which is also consistent with the OVEMP being a manifestation of the LVOR. PMID:22984251

  9. Effects of combining whole-body vibration with exercise on the consequences of detraining on muscle performance in untrained adults.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Yusuke; Oguma, Yuko

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated whether whole-body vibration (WBV) coupled with low-velocity exercise (EX) for 13 weeks retains muscle performance gains after 5 weeks of subsequent detraining compared with the results of an identical EX program without WBV. Thirty-two untrained healthy adults (22-49 years of age) were randomly assigned to groups that performed EX with or without WBV (EX-WBV and EX, respectively; n = 16 per group). The following outcome variables were evaluated: countermovement jump height; maximal isometric, concentric, and eccentric knee extension strengths; local muscular endurance; and lumbar extension torque before, during, and after the 13-week training period, and after 5 weeks of detraining. Compared with the EX group, significantly higher increases in countermovement jump height and isometric and concentric knee extension strengths were detected in the EX-WBV group after the 13-week training period. However, detraining caused significant declines in these 3 muscle performance tests only in the EX-WBV group (-4.8, -10.2, and -17.2%, respectively), resulting in no significant differences between the test and control groups after the detraining period. After detraining, all examined variables showed significantly better performance compared with pretraining (p < 0.05) and did not significantly differ from midtraining (7 weeks) in both groups (p > 0.05). These results suggest that muscle strength in the lower extremities, particularly isometric and concentric contractions, and muscle power might be more susceptible to short-term detraining effects when exercise is combined with WBV. Thus, it is necessary to perform regular exercise to maximize the benefits of WBV on muscle strength and power during the early stages of training in previously untrained individuals. PMID:22739330

  10. Evaluation of an occupational health intervention programme on whole?body vibration in forklift truck drivers: a controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hulshof, C T J; Verbeek, J H A M; Braam, I T J; Bovenzi, M; van Dijk, F J H

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate process and outcome of a multifaceted occupational health intervention programme on whole?body vibration (WBV) in forklift truck drivers. Methods An experimental pretest/post?test control group study design. The authors trained occupational health services (OHS) in the experimental group in the use of the programme. OHS in the control group were asked to deliver care as usual. In total, 15 OHS, 32 OHS professionals, 26 companies, and 260 forklift drivers were involved. Post?test measurements were carried out one year after the start of the programme. Results Baseline data before the start of the programme showed no difference between experimental and control group. Results of the outcome evaluation indicate a slight, although not statistically significant, reduction of WBV exposure in the experimental group (p?=?0.06). Process evaluation revealed a positive influence on company policy toward WBV, attitude and intended behaviour of forklift drivers, and a trend towards an increase in knowledge of OHS professionals and company managers. The number of observed control measures with a major impact (levelling of surface and reduction of speed) was rather low. In those cases where control measures had been taken, there was a significant reduction in WBV exposure. This limited effect of the programme might be caused by the short period of follow up and the dropout of participants. The feasibility and the usefulness of the programme within the OHS setting were rated good by the participants. Conclusions This programme to decrease WBV exposure was partially effective. Significant effects on intermediate objectives were observed. More research on the effectiveness of intervention in the field of WBV is needed. PMID:16551762

  11. The Fate of Mrs Robinson: Criteria for Recognition of Whole-Body Vibration Injury as AN Occupational Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HULSHOF, C. T. J.; VAN DER LAAN, G.; BRAAM, I. T. J.; VERBEEK, J. H. A. M.

    2002-05-01

    Several recently published critical reviews conclude that there is strong epidemiological evidence for a relationship between occupational exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV), low back pain (LBP) and back disorders. Whether this exposure is only a modest or a substantial risk factor for the onset and recurrence of LBP is still a matter of debate. In spite of this controversy, four European Union countries have decided to recognize and compensate LBP and certain spinal disorders as an occupational disease. In this paper, we review the criteria currently in use for the recognition of this occupational disease. A search of the literature was performed; additional information was obtained in work visits to national occupational disease institutes in Germany, France and Belgium, in annual reports and national statistics on occupational diseases. Belgium was the first country to add WBV injury to the official list of occupational diseases (1978), followed by Germany (1993), the Netherlands (1997), and France (1999). The incidence of newly recognized cases in 1999 varied considerably: 763 in Belgium, 269 in France, 16 in Germany, and 10 reported cases in the Netherlands. The findings of this review indicate that significant differences exist in the established and applied diagnostic and exposure criteria in the four EU countries. This is illustrated by the case of Mrs Robinson, a 41-year-old forklift driver with LBP, who would probably get recognition and compensation in the Netherlands and Belgium but would be rejected in France and Germany. The development of uniform internationally accepted criteria is recommended, also from an epidemiological point of view, as many data are collected in the process of recognition of this occupational disease.

  12. CASE-CONTROL STUDY OF LOW-BACK PAIN PRESENTING FOR MRI, WITH SPECIAL RELATION TO WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, KT; Harris, EC; Griffin, MJ; Bennett, J; Reading, I; Sampson, M; Coggon, D

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To investigate risk factors for low-back pain (LBP) presenting for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with special focus on whole-body vibration (WBV). Methods A case-control approach was used. The study population comprised working-aged subjects from a catchment area for radiology services. Cases were a consecutive series referred for a lumbar MRI because of LBP. Controls were age- sex-matched subjects X-rayed for other reasons. Subjects were questioned about physical factors loading the spine, psychosocial factors, driving, personal characteristics, mental health, and certain beliefs about LBP. Exposure to WBV was assessed by six measures, including weekly duration of professional driving, hours driven at a spell, and current r.m.s. A(8). Associations with WBV were examined with adjustment for age, sex, and other potential confounders. Results Altogether, 252 cases and 820 controls were studied, including 185 professional drivers. Strong associations were found with poor mental health and belief in work as a causal factor for LBP, and with occupational sitting for ?3 hours while not driving. Associations were also seen with taller stature, consulting propensity, BMI, smoking history, fear-avoidance beliefs, frequent twisting, low decision latitude and low support at work. However, associations with the six metrics of WBV were weak and not statistically significant, and no exposure-response relationships were found. Conclusions We found little evidence of a risk from professional driving or WBV. Drivers were substantially less heavily exposed to WBV than in some earlier surveys. Nonetheless, it seems that at the population level, WBV is not an important cause of LBP referred for MRI. PMID:18853063

  13. Wireless vibration monitoring on human machine operator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederik Petré; Frank Bouwens; Steven Gillijns; Fabien Massé; Marc Engels; Bert Gyselinckx; Kris Vanstechelman; Christophe Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Human machine operators are often subject to extreme shocks and vibrations while operating production machines and vehicles. To assess the impact on perceived comfort objectively, a wireless vibration monitoring system is needed that measures whole-body vibrations directly on the human body. To this end, we have developed a wireless body area network consisting of low-power vibration sensor nodes that have

  14. Synchronous malignant vagal paraganglioma with contralateral carotid body paraganglioma treated by radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kataria, Tejinder; Bisht, Shyam Singh; Mitra, Swarupa; Abhishek, Ashu; Potharaju, Suryaprakash; Chakarvarty, Devlina

    2010-01-01

    Paragangliomas are rare tumors and very few cases of malignant vagal paraganglioma with synchronous carotid body paraganglioma have been reported. We report a case of a 20-year old male who presented with slow growing bilateral neck masses of eight years duration. He had symptoms of dysphagia to solids, occasional mouth breathing and hoarseness of voice. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) performed where he lived showed a sinus histiocytosis and he was administered anti-tubercular treatment for six months without any improvement in his symptoms. His physical examination revealed pulsatile, soft to firm, non-tender swellings over the anterolateral neck confined to the upper-mid jugulo-diagastric region on both sides. Direct laryngoscopy examination revealed a bulge on the posterior pharyngeal wall and another over the right lateral pharyngeal wall. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 99mTc-labeled octreotide scan and angiography diagnosed the swellings as carotid body paraganglioma, stage III on the right side with left-sided vagal malignant paraganglioma. Surgery was ruled out as a high morbidity with additional risk to life was expected due to the highly vascular nature of the tumor. The patient was treated with radiation therapy by image guided radiation to a dose of 5040cGy in 28 fractions. At a follow-up at 16 months, the tumors have regressed bilaterally and the patient can take solids with ease. PMID:21139824

  15. The use of stereotactic body radiation therapy for local control of glomangiomatosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Horne, Zachary D.; Karam, Sana D.; Rashid, Abdul; Snider, J. W.; Lax, Allison; Ozdemirli, Metin; Harter, K. W.

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of glomangiomas are small, benign neoplasms that can occur anywhere in the body but typically arise in the subcutaneous tissues of the extremities and are capable of causing extreme pain. Typically, these lesions are managed surgically with excellent rates of tumor control. On occasion, patients present with a variant of the glomangioma tumor consisting of numerous or recurrent nodules, a condition classified as glomangiomatosis. The authors present a case report of a young patient with multiply recurrent painful glomangiomas of the left foot, who was ultimately diagnosed with glomangiomatosis pedis. After multiple surgeries and surgical consultations, no surgery other than amputation was recommended. Therefore, the patient sought consultation with regard to stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). In the absence of other options, and based on its effectiveness in treating glomus tumors of the head and neck which display similar natural history and histologic features, SBRT was offered. The patient underwent SBRT to the largest of his remaining tumors with excellent local control and significant reduction in pain at two and a half years follow-up. PMID:23467385

  16. Predicting the health risks related to whole-body vibration and shock: a comparison of alternative assessment methods for high-acceleration events in vehicles.

    PubMed

    Rantaharju, Taneli; Mansfield, Neil J; Ala-Hiiro, Jussi M; Gunston, Thomas P

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, alternative assessment methods for whole-body vibration and shocks are compared by means of 70 vibration samples measured from 13 work vehicles, deliberately selected to represent periods containing shocks. Five methodologies (ISO 2631-1:1997, BS 6841:1987, ISO 2631-5:2004, DIN SPEC 45697:2012 and one specified by Gunston [2011], 'G-method') were applied to the vibration samples. In order to compare different evaluation metrics, limiting exposures were determined by calculating times to reach the upper limit thresholds given in the methods. Over 10-fold shorter times to exposure thresholds were obtained for the tri-axial VDV (BS 6841) than for the dominant r.m.s. (ISO 2631-1) when exposures were of high magnitude or contained substantial shocks. Under these exposure conditions, the sixth power approaches (ISO 2631-5, DIN SPEC, G-method) are more stringent than a fourth power VDV method. The r.m.s. method may lead to misleading outcomes especially if a lengthy measurement includes a small number of severe impacts. In conclusion, methodologies produce different evaluations of the vibration severity depending on the exposure characteristics, and the correct method must be selected. PMID:25312024

  17. Earth moving machine whole-body vibration and the contribution of Sub-1Hz components to ISO 2631-1 metrics.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Neil J; Newell, Geraldine S; Notini, Luca

    2009-08-01

    Exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) is an occupational hazard for operators of industrial vehicles, such as earth-moving machines. Quantification of WBV exposure in terms of impact on health forms one aspect of the Standard ISO 2631-1 (1997). Regarding assessment of risk to health, ISO 2631-1 (1997) states that if WBV components below 1 Hz are not ;relevant nor important' then they can be excluded from the assessment. In this paper the influence of sub-1 Hz components in WBV acquired from a sample of 46 earth moving machines is evaluated in terms of their contribution to ISO 2631-1 WBV exposure dose metrics: frequency weighted r.m.s. and the vibration dose value (VDV). For the majority of machines, a high proportion of the horizontal (x- and y-axis) WBV r.m.s. and VDV values was generated by sub-1 Hz vibration components; there was a much lower proportion of the vertical (z-axis) vibration generated by such components. PMID:19672014

  18. Vibration disease.

    PubMed

    Kákosy, T

    1989-04-01

    Today, in this age of technology, vibration caused by machinery is an almost universal hazard. Vibration transferred from a machine to the human body may cause discomfort, a reduction of performance, and even injury. Vibratory manual tools may cause damage to the circulatory system of the upper extremities (Raynaud's syndrome), to the peripheral nerves (peripheral neuropathy), and to the bones and joints (aseptic necrosis, fatigue fractures, degenerative joint disease). Vehicles and machines causing floor vibration cause degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine. The pathogenesis of vibration injuries is still not completely clear and there is no effective treatment. Some of the abnormalities are irreversible and may cause permanent decrease of working ability, and even unemployment. This is why prevention is so important. Prevention is complex, including technical and organizational measures, use of individual protective clothing and footwear, and medical supervision both before and during employment. Workers who are exposed to vibration should be protected against other aggravating factors such as cold and noise, etc. Vibration-induced injuries are recognized in law in many countries as grounds for financial compensation. Their cost to industry is rising and, unless a means of prevention or cure is found, will continue to do so in the foreseeable future. PMID:2661029

  19. Impact of inhomogeneity corrections on dose coverage in the treatment of lung cancer using stereotactic body radiation therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George X. Ding; Dennis M. Duggan; Bo Lu; Dennis E. Hallahan; Anthony Cmelak; Arnold Malcolm; Jared Newton; Matthew Deeley; Charles W. Coffey

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the real target dose coverage when radiation treatments were delivered to lung cancer patients based on treatment planning according to the RTOG-0236 Protocol. We compare calculated dosimetric results between the more accurate anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) and the pencil beam algorithm for stereotactic body radiation therapy treatment planning in lung cancer. Ten

  20. Do whole-body vibration exercise and resistance exercise modify concentrations of salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A?

    PubMed

    Roschel, H; Barroso, R; Batista, M; Ugrinowitsch, C; Tricoli, V; Arsati, F; Lima-Arsati, Y B; Araújo, V C; Moreira, A

    2011-06-01

    A single bout of resistance exercise (RE) induces hormonal and immune responses, playing an important role in a long-term adaptive process. Whole-body vibration (WBV) has also been shown to affect hormonal responses. Evidence suggests that combining WBV with RE may amplify hormonal and immune responses due to the increased neuromuscular load. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate salivary cortisol (Scortisol) and salivary IgA (SIgA) concentrations following a RE session combined or not with WBV. Nine university students (22.9 ± 5.1 years, 175.8 ± 5.2 cm, and 69.2 ± 7.3 kg) performed five sets of squat exercise (70% one-repetition-maximum) combined (R+V30) or not (R) with WBV at 30 Hz. Saliva samples were obtained before and after exercise. Subjects also rated their effort according to the Borg CR-10 scale (RPE). Data were analyzed by a mixed model. RPE was higher after R+V30 (8.3 ± 0.7) compared to R (6.2 ± 0.7). However, Scortisol (pre: 10.6 ± 7.6 and 11.7 ± 7.6, post: 8.3 ± 6.3 and 10.2 ± 7.2 ng/mL for R and R+V30, respectively) and SIgA concentrations (pre: 98.3 ± 22.6 and 116.1 ± 51.2, post: 116.6 ± 64.7 and 143.6 ± 80.5 µg/mL for R and R+V30, respectively) were unaffected. No significant correlations were observed between Scortisol and RPE (r = 0.45, P = 0.22; r = 0.30, P = 0.42, for R and R+V30, respectively). On the basis of these data, neither protocol modified salivary cortisol or IgA, although RPE was higher after R+V30 than R. PMID:21584438

  1. Voxel-Based Dose Reconstruction for Total Body Irradiation With Helical TomoTherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chao Ming, E-mail: mchao@uams.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205-7199 (United States); Penagaricano, Jose; Yan Yulong; Moros, Eduardo G.; Corry, Peter; Ratanatharathorn, Vaneerat [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205-7199 (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: We have developed a megavoltage CT (MVCT)-based dose reconstruction strategy for total body irradiation (TBI) with helical TomoTherapy (HT) using a deformable registration model to account for the patient's interfraction changes. The proposed technique serves as an efficient tool for delivered dose verification and, potentially, plan adaptation. Methods and Materials: Four patients with acute myelogenous leukemia treated with TBI using HT were selected for this study. The prescription was 12 Gy, 2 Gy/fraction, twice per day, given at least 6 h apart. The original plan achieved coverage of 80% of the clinical target volume (CTV) by the 12 Gy isodose surface. MVCTs were acquired prior to each treatment. Regions of interest were contoured on each MVCT. The dose for each fraction was calculated based on the MVCT using the HT planned adaptive station. B-spline deformable registration was conducted to establish voxel-to-voxel correspondence between the MVCT and the planning CT. The resultant deformation vector was employed to map the reconstructed dose from each fraction to the same point as the plan dose, and a voxel-to-voxel summed dose from all six fractions was obtained. The reconstructed dose distribution and its dosimetric parameters were compared with those of the original treatment plan. Results: While changes in CTV contours occurred in all patients, the reconstructed dose distribution showed that the dose-volume histogram for CTV coverage was close (<1.5%) to that of the original plan. For sensitive structures, the differences between the reconstructed and the planned doses were less than 3.0%. Conclusion: Voxel-based dose reconstruction strategy that takes into account interfraction anatomical changes using MVCTs is a powerful tool for treatment verification of the delivered doses. This proposed technique can also be applied to adaptive TBI therapy using HT.

  2. The Role of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer: A Single-Institution Experience

    PubMed Central

    Moningi, Shalini; Dholakia, Avani S.; Raman, Siva P.; Blackford, Amanda; Cameron, John L.; Le, Dung T.; De Jesus-Acosta, Ana M. C.; Hacker-Prietz, Amy; Rosati, Lauren M.; Assadi, Ryan K.; Dipasquale, Shirl; Pawlik, Timothy M.; Zheng, Lei; Weiss, Matthew J.; Laheru, Daniel A.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Herman, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a promising option for patients with pancreatic cancer (PCA); however, limited data support its efficacy. This study reviews our institutional experience of SBRT in the treatment of locally advanced (LAPC) and borderline resectable (BRPC) PCA. Methods Charts of all PCA patients receiving SBRT at our institution from 2010 to 2014 were reviewed. Most patients received pre-SBRT chemotherapy. Primary endpoints included overall survival (OS) and local progression-free survival (LPFS). Patients received a total dose of 25–33 Gy in five fractions. Results A total of 88 patients were included in the analysis, 74 with LAPC and 14 with BRPC. The median age at diagnosis was 67.2 years, and median follow-up from date of diagnosis for LAPC and BRPC patients was 14.5 and 10.3 months, respectively. Median OS from date of diagnosis was 18.4 months (LAPC, 18.4 mo; BRPC, 14.4 mo) and median PFS was 9.8 months (95 % CI 8.0–12.3). Acute toxicity was minimal with only three patients (3.4 %) experiencing acute grade ?3 toxicity. Late grade ?2 gastrointestinal toxicity was seen in five patients (5.7 %). Of the 19 patients (21.6 %) who underwent surgery, 79 % were LAPC patients and 84 % had margin-negative resections. Conclusions Chemotherapy followed by SBRT in patients with LAPC and BRPC resulted in minimal acute and late toxicity. A large proportion of patients underwent surgical resection despite limited radiographic response to therapy. Further refinements in the integration of chemotherapy, SBRT, and surgery might offer additional advancements toward optimizing patient outcomes. PMID:25564157

  3. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy as an Alternative Treatment for Small Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sang Min; Lim, Young-Suk; Park, Mee Jin; Kim, So Yeon; Cho, Byungchul; Shim, Ju Hyun; Kim, Kang Mo; Lee, Han Chu; Chung, Young-Hwa; Lee, Yung Sang; Lee, Sung Gyu; Lee, Yu Sun; Park, Jin-hong; Kim, Jong Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Background Even with early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), patients are often ineligible for surgical resection, transplantation, or local ablation due to advanced cirrhosis, donor shortage, or difficult location. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has been established as a standard treatment option for patients with stage I lung cancer, who are not eligible for surgery, and may be a promising alternative treatment for patients with small HCC who are not eligible for curative treatment. Materials and Methods A registry database of 93 patients who were treated with SBRT for HCC between 2007 and 2009 was analyzed. A dose of 10-20 Gy per fraction was given over 3-4 consecutive days, resulting in a total dose of 30-60 Gy. The tumor response was determined using dynamic computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, which was performed 3 months after completion of SBRT. Results The median follow-up period was 25.6 months. Median size of tumors was 2 cm (range: 1-6 cm). Overall patients’ survival rates at 1 and 3 years were 86.0% and 53.8%, respectively. Complete and partial tumor response were achieved in 15.5% and 45.7% of patients, respectively. Local recurrence-free survival rate was 92.1% at 3 years. Most local failures were found in patients with HCCs > 3 cm, and local control rate at 3 years was 76.3% in patients with HCC > 3 cm, 93.3% in patients with tumors between 2.1-3 cm, and 100% in patients with tumors ? 2 cm, respectively. Out-of-field intrahepatic recurrence-free survival rates at 1 and 3 years were 51.9% and 32.4%, respectively. Grade ? 3 hepatic toxicity was observed in 6 (6.5%). Conclusions SBRT was effective in local control of small HCC. SBRT may be a promising alternative treatment for patients with small HCC which is unsuitable for other curative therapy. PMID:24255719

  4. Assessing combined exposures of whole-body vibration and awkward posture--further results from application of a simultaneous field measurement methodology.

    PubMed

    Raffler, Nastaran; Hermanns, Ingo; Sayn, Detlef; Göres, Benno; Ellegast, Rolf; Rissler, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    The drivers of ten vehicles (tram, helicopter, saloon car, van, forklift, two mobile excavators, wheel loader, tractor, elevating platform truck) were studied with regard to the combined exposures of whole-body vibration and awkward posture during occupational tasks. Seven degrees of freedom (DOFs), or body angles, were recorded as a function of time by means of the CUELA measuring system (Computer-assisted registration and long-term analysis of musculoskeletal workloads) for the purpose of posture assessment. The vibrational exposure is expressed as the vector sum of the frequency-weighted accelerations in the three Cartesian coordinates; these were recorded simultaneously with the posture measurement. Based upon the percentage of working time spent under different workloads, a scheme is proposed for classification of the two exposures into three categories. In addition, a risk of adverse health effects classified as low, possible or high can be assigned to the combination of the two exposures. With regard to posture, the most severe exposure was measured for the drivers of the wheel loader and for the tractor driver, whereas the lowest exposure was measured for the helicopter pilots and van drivers. With regard to the combination of whole-body and posture exposures, the tractor driver and the elevating platform truck driver exhibited the highest workloads. PMID:20953080

  5. Obesity Increases the Risk of Chest Wall Pain From Thoracic Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Welsh, James, E-mail: jwelsh@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Thomas, Jimmy; Shah, Deep; Allen, Pamela K.; Wei, Xiong; Mitchell, Kevin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Gao, Song; Balter, Peter [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Komaki, Ritsuko; Chang, Joe Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is increasingly being used to treat thoracic tumors. We attempted here to identify dose-volume parameters that predict chest wall toxicity (pain and skin reactions) in patients receiving thoracic SBRT. Patients and Methods: We screened a database of patients treated with SBRT between August 2004 and August 2008 to find patients with pulmonary tumors within 2.5 cm of the chest wall. All patients received a total dose of 50 Gy in four daily 12.5-Gy fractions. Toxicity was scored according to the NCI-CTCAE V3.0. Results: Of 360 patients in the database, 265 (268 tumors) had tumors within <2.5 cm of the chest wall; 104 (39%) developed skin toxicity (any grade); 14 (5%) developed acute pain (any grade), and 45 (17%) developed chronic pain (Grade 1 in 22 cases [49%] and Grade 2 or 3 in 23 cases [51%]). Both skin toxicity and chest wall pain were associated with the V{sub 30}, or volume of the chest wall receiving 30 Gy. Body mass index (BMI) was also strongly associated with the development of chest pain: patients with BMI {>=}29 had almost twice the risk of chronic pain (p = 0.03). Among patients with BMI >29, diabetes mellitus was a significant contributing factor to the development of chest pain. Conclusion: Safe use of SBRT with 50 Gy in four fractions for lesions close to the chest wall requires consideration of the chest wall volume receiving 30 Gy and the patient's BMI and diabetic state.

  6. Spline-based Rayleigh-Ritz methods for the approximation of the natural modes of vibration for flexible beams with tip bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, I. G.

    1985-01-01

    Rayleigh-Ritz methods for the approximation of the natural modes for a class of vibration problems involving flexible beams with tip bodies using subspaces of piecewise polynomial spline functions are developed. An abstract operator theoretic formulation of the eigenvalue problem is derived and spectral properties investigated. The existing theory for spline-based Rayleigh-Ritz methods applied to elliptic differential operators and the approximation properties of interpolatory splines are useed to argue convergence and establish rates of convergence. An example and numerical results are discussed.

  7. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Low- to Intermediate-risk Prostate Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for low- to intermediate-risk prostate adenocarcinoma. Thirty-nine patients were retrospectively reviewed. The SBRT was delivered using the CyberKnife with the fiducial tracking method combined with In-tempo imaging. The gross target volume, which included the prostate only, was delineated on the fused CT/MRI scans. The prescription dose was delivered every other day as 5 fractions of 7.5 Gy. Venous blood was obtained before and after SBRT to assess the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. Toxicity was evaluated using the CTCAE, v4.03. The median follow-up time was 30.0 months. The median initial PSA level was 7.7 ng/mL. PSA levels decreased in all patients treated with SBRT, and after 5 months, the median PSA was less than 2 ng/mL. The rate of overall 3-yr actuarial biochemical failure free survival was 93.9%. Acute side effects were generally comparable with those of previous studies. The PSA change and toxicity after SBRT for low- to intermediate-risk prostate adenocarcinoma indicates favorable biochemical responses and tolerable levels of toxicity. Additionally short course treatment may produce cost benefit and convenience to patients.

  8. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for abdominal oligometastases: a biological and clinical review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Advances in imaging and biological targeting have led to the development of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) as an alternative treatment of extracranial oligometastases. New radiobiological concepts, such as ceramide-induced endothelial apoptosis after hypofractionated high-dose SBRT, and the identification of patients with oligometastatic disease by microRNA expression may yet lead to further developments. Key factors in SBRT are delivery of a high dose per fraction, proper patient positioning, target localisation, and management of breathing–related motion. Our review addresses the radiation doses and schedules used to treat liver, abdominal lymph node (LN) and adrenal gland oligometastases and treatment outcomes. Reported local control (LC) rates for liver and abdominal LN oligometastases are high (median 2-year actuarial LC: 61 -100% for liver oligometastases; 4-year actuarial LC: 68% in a study of abdominal LN oligometastases). Early toxicity is low-to-moderate; late adverse effects are rare. SBRT of adrenal gland oligometastases shows promising results in the case of isolated lesions. In conclusion, properly conducted SBRT procedures are a safe and effective treatment option for abdominal oligometastases. PMID:22852764

  9. Whole body correction of mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA by intracerebrospinal fluid gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Haurigot, Virginia; Marcó, Sara; Ribera, Albert; Garcia, Miguel; Ruzo, Albert; Villacampa, Pilar; Ayuso, Eduard; Añor, Sònia; Andaluz, Anna; Pineda, Mercedes; García-Fructuoso, Gemma; Molas, Maria; Maggioni, Luca; Muñoz, Sergio; Motas, Sandra; Ruberte, Jesús; Mingozzi, Federico; Pumarola, Martí; Bosch, Fatima

    2013-01-01

    For most lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) affecting the CNS, there is currently no cure. The BBB, which limits the bioavailability of drugs administered systemically, and the short half-life of lysosomal enzymes, hamper the development of effective therapies. Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (MPS IIIA) is an autosomic recessive LSD caused by a deficiency in sulfamidase, a sulfatase involved in the stepwise degradation of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) heparan sulfate. Here, we demonstrate that intracerebrospinal fluid (intra-CSF) administration of serotype 9 adenoassociated viral vectors (AAV9s) encoding sulfamidase corrects both CNS and somatic pathology in MPS IIIA mice. Following vector administration, enzymatic activity increased throughout the brain and in serum, leading to whole body correction of GAG accumulation and lysosomal pathology, normalization of behavioral deficits, and prolonged survival. To test this strategy in a larger animal, we treated beagle dogs using intracisternal or intracerebroventricular delivery. Administration of sulfamidase-encoding AAV9 resulted in transgenic expression throughout the CNS and liver and increased sulfamidase activity in CSF. High-titer serum antibodies against AAV9 only partially blocked CSF-mediated gene transfer to the brains of dogs. Consistently, anti-AAV antibody titers were lower in CSF than in serum collected from healthy and MPS IIIA–affected children. These results support the clinical translation of this approach for the treatment of MPS IIIA and other LSDs with CNS involvement. PMID:23863627

  10. Increased Body Mass Index during Therapy for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Significant and Underestimated Complication

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Helen C.; Marsh, Julie A.; Rath, Shoshana R.; Kotecha, Rishi S.; Gottardo, Nicholas G.; Cole, Catherine H.; Choong, Catherine S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective & Design. We undertook a retrospective review of children diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and treated with modern COG protocols (n = 80) to determine longitudinal changes in body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence of obesity compared with a healthy reference population. Results. At diagnosis, the majority of patients (77.5%) were in the healthy weight category. During treatment, increases in BMI z-scores were greater for females than males; the prevalence of obesity increased from 10.3% to 44.8% (P < 0.004) for females but remained relatively unchanged for males (9.8% to 13.7%, P = 0.7). Longitudinal analysis using linear mixed-effects identified associations between BMI z-scores and time-dependent interactions with sex (P = 0.0005), disease risk (P < 0.0001), age (P = 0.0001), and BMI z-score (P < 0.0001) at diagnosis and total dose of steroid during maintenance (P = 0.01). Predicted mean BMI z-scores at the end of therapy were greater for females with standard risk ALL irrespective of age at diagnosis and for males younger than 4 years of age at diagnosis with standard risk ALL. Conclusion. Females treated on standard risk protocols and younger males may be at greatest risk of becoming obese during treatment for ALL. These subgroups may benefit from intervention strategies to manage BMI during treatment for ALL.

  11. Increased Body Mass Index during Therapy for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Significant and Underestimated Complication.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Helen C; Marsh, Julie A; Rath, Shoshana R; Kotecha, Rishi S; Gough, Hazel; Taylor, Mandy; Walwyn, Thomas; Gottardo, Nicholas G; Cole, Catherine H; Choong, Catherine S

    2015-01-01

    Objective & Design. We undertook a retrospective review of children diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and treated with modern COG protocols (n = 80) to determine longitudinal changes in body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence of obesity compared with a healthy reference population. Results. At diagnosis, the majority of patients (77.5%) were in the healthy weight category. During treatment, increases in BMI z-scores were greater for females than males; the prevalence of obesity increased from 10.3% to 44.8% (P < 0.004) for females but remained relatively unchanged for males (9.8% to 13.7%, P = 0.7). Longitudinal analysis using linear mixed-effects identified associations between BMI z-scores and time-dependent interactions with sex (P = 0.0005), disease risk (P < 0.0001), age (P = 0.0001), and BMI z-score (P < 0.0001) at diagnosis and total dose of steroid during maintenance (P = 0.01). Predicted mean BMI z-scores at the end of therapy were greater for females with standard risk ALL irrespective of age at diagnosis and for males younger than 4 years of age at diagnosis with standard risk ALL. Conclusion. Females treated on standard risk protocols and younger males may be at greatest risk of becoming obese during treatment for ALL. These subgroups may benefit from intervention strategies to manage BMI during treatment for ALL. PMID:26101530

  12. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Low- to Intermediate-risk Prostate Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Bae-Kwon; Jeong, Hojin; Ha, In Bong; Choi, Hoon Sik; Kam, Sung Chul; Hwa, Jeong Seok; Hyun, Jae Seog; Chung, Ky Hyun; Choi, See Min; Kang, Ki Mun

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for low- to intermediate-risk prostate adenocarcinoma. Thirty-nine patients were retrospectively reviewed. The SBRT was delivered using the CyberKnife with the fiducial tracking method combined with In-tempo imaging. The gross target volume, which included the prostate only, was delineated on the fused CT/MRI scans. The prescription dose was delivered every other day as 5 fractions of 7.5 Gy. Venous blood was obtained before and after SBRT to assess the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. Toxicity was evaluated using the CTCAE, v4.03. The median follow-up time was 30.0 months. The median initial PSA level was 7.7 ng/mL. PSA levels decreased in all patients treated with SBRT, and after 5 months, the median PSA was less than 2 ng/mL. The rate of overall 3-yr actuarial biochemical failure free survival was 93.9%. Acute side effects were generally comparable with those of previous studies. The PSA change and toxicity after SBRT for low- to intermediate-risk prostate adenocarcinoma indicates favorable biochemical responses and tolerable levels of toxicity. Additionally short course treatment may produce cost benefit and convenience to patients. PMID:26028922

  13. Interactions of hormone replacement therapy, body weight and bilateral oophorectomy in breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yong; Deming-Halverson, Sandra L.; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Lipworth, Loren; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Fair, Alecia M.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine potential modifying effects of body weight and bilateral oophorectomy on the association of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with risk of breast cancer, overall and by subtypes according to status of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human-epidermal-growth-factor receptor 2 (Her2) among postmenopausal women. Experimental Design This analysis included 2,510 postmenopausal white women recruited in the Nashville Breast Health Study, a population-based case-control study of breast cancer. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between HRT use and risk of breast cancer overall and by subtypes, adjusted for age and education. Results Among women with natural menopause and body-mass-index (BMI) <25 kg/m2, ever-use of HRT was associated with increased breast-cancer risk (OR=1.95, 95% CI=1.32-2.88). Risk was elevated with duration of HRT use (p-for-trend=0.002). Similar association patterns were found for ER+, ER+PR+, and luminal-A cancer subtypes but not ER-, ER-PR-, and triple-negative cancer. In contrast, ever-HRT-use in overweight women (BMI?25 kg/m2) showed no association with risk of breast cancer overall or by subtypes; interaction tests for modifying effect of BMI were statistically significant. Ever-HRT-use was associated with decreased breast-cancer risk (OR=0.70, 95% CI=0.38-1.31) among women with prior bilateral oophorectomy but elevated risk (OR=1.45, 95% CI=0.92-2.29) among those with hysterectomy without bilateral oophorectomy (p-for-interaction=0.057). Similar associations were seen for virtually all breast-cancer subtypes, although interaction tests were statistically significant for ER+ and luminal A only. Conclusion Body weight and bilateral oophorectomy modify associations between HRT use and breast-cancer risk, especially the risk of hormone-receptor-positive tumors. PMID:24423614

  14. Whole-body vibration can reduce calciuria induced by high protein intakes and may counteract bone resorption: A preliminary study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Cardinale; J. Leiper; P. Farajian; M. Heer

    2007-01-01

    Excess protein intake can adversely affect the bone via an increase in calcium excretion, while suitable mechanical loading promotes osteogenesis. We therefore investigated whether vibration exposure could alleviate the bone mineral losses associated with a metabolic acidosis. Ten healthy individuals aged 22 – 29 years (median = 25) underwent three 5-day study periods while monitoring their dietary intake. The study consisted of recording the

  15. Whole body vibration improves osseointegration by up-regulating osteoblastic activity but down-regulating osteoblast-mediated osteoclastogenesis via ERK1/2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi; Guan, Xiaoxu; Liu, Tie; Wang, Xinhua; Yu, Mengfei; Yang, Guoli; Wang, Huiming

    2015-02-01

    Due to the reduction in bone mass and deterioration in bone microarchitecture, osteoporosis is an important risk factor for impairing implant osseointegration. Recently, low-magnitude, high-frequency (LMHF) vibration (LM: <1×g; HF: 20-90Hz) has been shown to exhibit anabolic, but anti-resorptive effects on skeletal homeostasis. Therefore, we hypothesized that LMHF loading, in terms of whole body vibration (WBV), may improve implant fixation under osteoporotic status. In the in vivo study, WBV treatment (magnitude: 0.3g, frequency: 40Hz, time: 30min/12h, 5days/week) was applied after hydroxyapatite-coated titanium implants were inserted in the bilateral tibiae of ovariectomized rats. The bone mass and the osteospecific gene expressions were measured at 12weeks post implantation. In the in vitro study, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities were fully investigated using various experimental assays. Micro-CT examination showed that WBV could enhance osseointegration by improving microstructure parameters surrounding implants. WBV-regulated gene levels in favor of bone formation over resorption may be the reason for the favorable adaptive bone remolding on bone-implant surface. The in vitro study showed that vibration (magnitude: 0.3g, frequency: 40Hz, time: 30min/12h) up-regulated osteoblast differentiation, matrix synthesis and mineralization. However, mechanically regulated osteoclastic activity was mainly through the effect on osteoblastic cells producing osteoclastogenesis-associated key soluble factors, including RANKL and M-CSF. Osteoblasts were therefore the direct target cells during the mechanotransduction process. The ERK1/2 pathway was demonstrated to play an essential role in vibration-induced enhancement of bone formation and decreased bone resorption. Our data suggests that WBV was a helpful non-pharmacological intervention for improving osseointegration under osteoporosis. PMID:25304090

  16. The Study of External Dose Rate and Retained Body Activity of Patients Receiving 131I Therapy for Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiying; Jiao, Ling; Cui, Songye; Wang, Liang; Tan, Jian; Zhang, Guizhi; He, Yajing; Ruan, Shuzhou; Fan, Saijun; Zhang, Wenyi

    2014-01-01

    Radiation safety is an integral part of targeted radionuclide therapy. The aim of this work was to study the external dose rate and retained body activity as functions of time in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients receiving 131I therapy. Seventy patients were stratified into two groups: the ablation group (A) and the follow-up group (FU). The patients’ external dose rate was measured, and simultaneously, their retained body radiation activity was monitored at various time points. The equations of the external dose rate and the retained body activity, described as a function of hours post administration, were fitted. Additionally, the release time for patients was calculated. The reduction in activity in the group receiving a second or subsequent treatment was more rapid than the group receiving only the initial treatment. Most important, an expeditious method was established to indirectly evaluate the retained body activity of patients by measuring the external dose rate with a portable radiation survey meter. By this method, the calculated external dose rate limits are 19.2, 8.85, 5.08 and 2.32 ?Sv·h?1 at 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 m, respectively, according to a patient’s released threshold level of retained body activity <400 MBq. This study is beneficial for radiation safety decision-making. PMID:25337944

  17. The effect of androgen deprivation therapy on body composition in men with prostate cancer: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farhana Haseen; Liam J. Murray; Chris R. Cardwell; Joe M. O’Sullivan; Marie M. Cantwell

    2010-01-01

    Introduction  The use of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in the treatment of prostate cancer is associated with changes in body composition\\u000a including increased fat and decreased lean mass. Limited information exists regarding the rate and extent of these changes.\\u000a This systematic review was conducted to determine the effects of ADT on body composition in prostate cancer patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Literature searches were conducted

  18. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with (177)Lu DOTATATE in a case of recurrent carotid body paraganglioma with spinal metastases.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Santosh Kumar; Singla, Suhas; Karunanithi, Sellam; Damle, Nishikant; Bal, Chandrasekhar

    2014-05-01

    Paragangliomas are rare benign neuroendocrine tumors, and 80% of all paragangliomas are either carotid body tumors or glomus jugulare tumors. We present a case of recurrent unresectable carotid body paraganglioma with nodal and T7 vertebral metastases in a 30-year-old man 6 years postsurgery detected with Ga DOTANOC PET/CT and was administered with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy using Lu DOTATATE. After 5 cycles of Lu DOTATATE (total cumulative activity of 750 mCi [27 GBq]), significant response at the primary site on Ga DOTANOC PET/CT and complete disappearance of nodal and T7 vertebral metastases were noted. PMID:24217545

  19. [Effect of whole body vibration on the neuromuscular performance of females 65 years and older. One-year results of the controlled randomized ELVIS study].

    PubMed

    Kemmler, W; V Stengel, S; Mayer, S; Niedermayer, M; Hentschke, C; Kalender, W A

    2010-04-01

    Sarcopenia is linked to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality in the aging. Whole body vibration (WBV) exercises are currently discussed as a "gentle" alternative to conventional exercises to improve muscle mass. The present study scrutinized whether a multipurpose (exercise) training program using WBV can improve muscle mass and neuromuscular capacity, while lowering fall risk. A total of 151 postmenopausal women were randomized into three groups: exercise group (TG), exercise group with vibration (VTG), and fitness control group (CG). The TG group participated in an exercise program including leg strengthening training twice a week over 12 months, while the VTG carried out an identical program with the leg exercises performed under WBV. Despite a positive trend regarding lean body mass in the two exercise groups, there was no difference between groups. Both exercise groups showed a significant increase (vs. KG) in trunk strength. An improvement in both exercise groups was also measured with respect to leg strength, but only the VTG showed significant differences compared to the CG. In addition, a significant lower risk of falls compared with the CG was evident only in VTG. PMID:19789832

  20. Daily Alignment Results of In-Room Computed Tomography–Guided Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hitoshi Ikushima; Peter Balter; Ritsuko Komaki; Sandeep Hunjun; M. Kara Bucci; Zhongxing Liao; Mary F. McAleer; Zhiqian H. Yu; Yongbin Zhang; Joe Y. Chang; Lei Dong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the extent of interfractional setup errors and day-to-day organ motion errors by assessing daily bone alignment results and changes in soft tissue tumor position during hypofractionated, in-room computed tomography (CT)-guided stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Daily alignment results during SBRT were analyzed for 117 tumors in 112 patients. Patients received 40-50

  1. The use of gated and 4D CT imaging in planning for stereotactic body radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Warren D; Nazareth, Daryl P; Zhang, Bin; Deyoung, Chad; Suntharalingam, Mohan; Kwok, Young; Yu, Cedric X; Regine, William F

    2007-01-01

    The localization of treatment targets is of utmost importance for patients receiving stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), where the dose per fraction is large. While both setup or respiration-induced motion components affect the localization of the treatment volume, the purpose of this work is to describe our management of the intrafraction localization uncertainty induced by normal respiration. At our institution, we have implemented gated computed tomography (CT) acquisition with an active breathing control system (ABC), and 4-dimensional (4D) CT using a skin-based marker and retrospective respiration phase-based image sorting. During gated simulation, 3D CT images were acquired corresponding to end-inhalation and end-exhalation. For 4D CT imaging, 3D CT images were acquired corresponding to 8 phases of the respiratory cycle. In addition to gated or 4D CT images, we acquired a conventional free-breathing CT (FB). For both gated and 4D CT images, the target contours were registered to the FB scan in the planning system. These contours were then combined in the FB image set to form the internal target volume (ITV). Dynamic conformal arc treatment plans were generated for the ITV using the FB scan and the gated or 4D scans with an additional 7-mm margin for patient setup uncertainty. We have described our results for a pancreas and a lung tumor case. Plans were normalized so that the PTV received 95% of the prescription dose. The dose distribution for all the critical structures in the pancreas and lung tumor cases resulted in increased sparing when the ITV was defined using gated or 4D CT images than when the FB scan was used. Our results show that patient-specific target definition using gated or 4D CT scans lead to improved normal tissue sparing. PMID:17472888

  2. Feasibility of non-coplanar tomotherapy for lung cancer stereotactic body radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wensha; Jones, Ryan; Lu, Weiguo; Geesey, Constance; Benedict, Stanley; Read, Paul; Larner, James; Sheng, Ke

    2011-08-01

    To quantify the dosimetric gains from non-coplanar helical tomotherapy (HT) arcs for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of lung cancer, we created oblique helical arcs by rotating patient's CT images. Ten, 20 and 30 degrees of yaws were introduced in the treatment planning for a patient with a hypothetical lung tumor at the upper, middle and lower portion of the right lung, and the upper and middle left lung. The planning target volume (PTV) was 43 cm(3). 60 Gy was prescribed to the PTV. Dose to organs at risk (OARs), which included the lungs, heart, spinal cord and chest wall, was optimized using a 2.5 cm jaw, 0.287 pitch and modulation factor of 2.5. Composite plans were generated by dose summation of the resultant plans. These plans were evaluated for its conformity index (R(x)) and percentile volume of lung receiving radiation dose of x Gy (V(x)). Conformity index was defined by the ratio of x percent isodose volume and PTV. The results show that combination of non-coplanar arcs reduced R(50) by 4.5%, R(20) by 26% and R(10) by 30% on average. Non-coplanar arcs did not affect V(20) but reduced V(10) and V(5) by 10% and 24% respectively. Composite of the non-coplanar arcs also reduced maximum dose to the spinal cord by 20-39%. Volume of chest wall receiving higher than 30 Gy was reduced by 48% on average. Heart dose reduction was dependent on the location of the PTV and the choice of non-coplanar orientations. Therefore we conclude that non-coplanar HT arcs significantly improve critical organ sparing in lung SBRT without changing the PTV dose coverage. PMID:21728387

  3. Modular Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, Sabine; Phillips, Katharine A.; Didie, Elizabeth; Buhlmann, Ulrike; Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Fama, Jeanne M.; Keshaviah, Aparna; Steketee, Gail

    2014-01-01

    There are few effective treatments for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and a pressing need to develop such treatments. We examined the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of a manualized modular cognitive-behavioral therapy for BDD (CBT-BDD). CBT-BDD utilizes core elements relevant to all BDD patients (e.g., exposure, response prevention, perceptual retraining) and optional modules to address specific symptoms (e.g., surgery seeking). Thirty-six adults with BDD were randomized to 22 sessions of immediate individual CBT-BDD over 24 weeks (n = 17) or to a 12-week waitlist (n = 19). The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Modified for BDD (BDD-YBOCS), Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale, and Beck Depression Inventory-II were completed pre-treatment, monthly, post-treatment, and at 3- and 6-month follow-up. The Sheehan Disability Scale and Client Satisfaction Inventory (CSI) were also administered. Response to treatment was defined as ? 30% reduction in BDD-YBOCS total from baseline. By week 12, 50% of participants receiving immediate CBT-BDD achieved response versus 12% of waitlisted participants (p = 0.026). By post-treatment, 81% of all participants (immediate CBT-BDD plus waitlisted patients subsequently treated with CBT-BDD) met responder criteria. While no significant group differences in BDD symptom reduction emerged by week 12, by post-treatment CBT-BDD resulted in significant decreases in BDD-YBOCS total over time (d = 2.1, p <0.0001), with gains maintained during follow-up. Depression, insight, and disability also significantly improved. Patient satisfaction was high, with a mean CSI score of 87.3% (SD = 12.8%) at post-treatment. CBT-BDD appears to be a feasible, acceptable, and efficacious treatment that warrants more rigorous investigation. PMID:24680228

  4. Generalizable Class Solutions for Treatment Planning of Spinal Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Weksberg, David C.; Palmer, Matthew B.; Vu, Khoi N.; Rebueno, Neal C.; Sharp, Hadley J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Luo, Dershan; Yang, James N.; Shiu, Almon S. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rhines, Laurence D. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); McAleer, Mary Frances; Brown, Paul D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Chang, Eric L., E-mail: eric.L.chang@usc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Norris Cancer Hospital, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Spinal stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) continues to emerge as an effective therapeutic approach to spinal metastases; however, treatment planning and delivery remain resource intensive at many centers, which may hamper efficient implementation in clinical practice. We sought to develop a generalizable class solution approach for spinal SBRT treatment planning that would allow confidence that a given plan provides optimal target coverage, reduce integral dose, and maximize planning efficiency. Methods and Materials: We examined 91 patients treated with spinal SBRT at our institution. Treatment plans were categorized by lesion location, clinical target volume (CTV) configuration, and dose fractionation scheme, and then analyzed to determine the technically achievable dose gradient. A radial cord expansion was subtracted from the CTV to yield a planning CTV (pCTV) construct for plan evaluation. We reviewed the treatment plans with respect to target coverage, dose gradient, integral dose, conformality, and maximum cord dose to select the best plans and develop a set of class solutions. Results: The class solution technique generated plans that maintained target coverage and improved conformality (1.2-fold increase in the 95% van't Riet Conformation Number describing the conformality of a reference dose to the target) while reducing normal tissue integral dose (1.3-fold decrease in the volume receiving 4 Gy (V{sub 4Gy}) and machine output (19% monitor unit (MU) reduction). In trials of planning efficiency, the class solution technique reduced treatment planning time by 30% to 60% and MUs required by {approx}20%: an effect independent of prior planning experience. Conclusions: We have developed a set of class solutions for spinal SBRT that incorporate a pCTV metric for plan evaluation while yielding dosimetrically superior treatment plans with increased planning efficiency. Our technique thus allows for efficient, reproducible, and high-quality spinal SBRT treatment planning.

  5. A review of stereotactic body radiotherapy – is volumetric modulated arc therapy the answer?

    PubMed Central

    Sapkaroski, Daniel; Osborne, Catherine; Knight, Kellie A

    2015-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is a high precision radiotherapy technique used for the treatment of small to moderate extra-cranial tumours. Early studies utilising SBRT have shown favourable outcomes. However, major disadvantages of static field SBRT include long treatment times and toxicity complications. Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) may potentially mitigate these disadvantages. This review aims to assess the feasibility of emerging VMAT and IMRT-based SBRT treatment techniques and qualify which offers the best outcome for patients, whilst identifying any emerging and advantageous SBRT planning trends. A review and synthesis of data from current literature up to September 2013 was conducted on EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, Science Direct, Proquest central, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Database of Systematic reviews. Only full text papers comparing VMAT and or IMRT and or Static SBRT were included. Ten papers were identified that evaluated the results of VMAT/IMRT SBRT. Five related to medically inoperable stage 1 and 2 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), three to spinal metastasis, one related to abdominal lymph node malignancies, with the final one looking at pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Overall treatment times with VMAT were reduced by 66–70% for lung, 46–58% for spine, 42% and 21% for lymph node and pancreatic metastasis respectively, planning constraints were met with several studies showing improved organs at risk sparing with IMRT/VMAT to static SBRT. Both IMRT and VMAT were able to meet all planning constraints in the studies reviewed, with VMAT offering the greatest treatment efficiency. Early clinical outcomes with VMAT and IMRT SBRT have demonstrated excellent local control and favourable survival outcomes.

  6. Phase 1 Clinical Trial of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Concomitant With Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bondiau, Pierre-Yves, E-mail: pierre-yves.bondiau@nice.unicancer.fr [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Courdi, Adel [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Bahadoran, Phillipe [Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Nice, Nice (France)] [Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Nice, Nice (France); Chamorey, Emmanuel [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Queille-Roussel, Catherine [Centre de Pharmacologie Clinique Appliquée à la Dermatologie, Nice (France)] [Centre de Pharmacologie Clinique Appliquée à la Dermatologie, Nice (France); Lallement, Michel; Birtwisle-Peyrottes, Isabelle; Chapellier, Claire; Pacquelet-Cheli, Sandrine; Ferrero, Jean-Marc [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) allows stereotactic irradiation of thoracic tumors. It may have a real impact on patients who may not otherwise qualify for breast-conserving surgery. We conducted a phase 1 trial that tested 5 dose levels of SBRT concomitant with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) before to surgery. The purpose of the current dose escalation study was to determine the maximum tolerable dose of SBRT in the treatment of breast cancer. Methods and Materials: To define toxicity, we performed dermatologic examinations that included clinical examinations by 2 separate physicians and technical evaluations using colorimetry, dermoscopy, and skin ultrasonography. Dermatologic examinations were performed before NACT, 36 and 56 days after the beginning of NACT, and before surgery. Surgery was performed 4 to 8 weeks after the last chemotherapy session. Efficacy, the primary endpoint, was determined by the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate. Results: Maximum tolerable dose was not reached. Only 1 case of dose-limiting toxicity was reported (grade 3 dermatologic toxicity), and SBRT was overall well tolerated. The pCR rate was 36%, with none being observed at the first 2 dose levels, and the highest rate being obtained at dose level 3 (25.5 Gy delivered in 3 fractions). Furthermore, the breast-conserving surgery rate was up to 92% compared with an 8% total mastectomy rate. No surgical complications were reported. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that SBRT can be safely combined with NACT. Regarding the efficacy endpoints, this trial showed promising results in terms of pCR rate (36%) and breast-conserving rate (92%). The findings provide a strong rationale for extending the study into a phase 2 trial. In view of the absence of correlation between dose and pCR, and given that the data from dose level 3 met the statistical requirements, a dose of 25.5 Gy in 3 fractions should be used for the phase 2 trial.

  7. Probabilities of Radiation Myelopathy Specific to Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy to Guide Safe Practice

    SciTech Connect

    Sahgal, Arjun, E-mail: arjun.sahgal@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Weinberg, Vivian [University of California San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center Biostatistics Core, San Francisco, California (United States)] [University of California San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center Biostatistics Core, San Francisco, California (United States); Ma, Lijun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Chang, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California and University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California and University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Chao, Sam [Department of Radiation Oncology and Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology and Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Muacevic, Alexander [European Cyberknife Center Munich in affiliation with University Hospitals of Munich, Munich (Germany)] [European Cyberknife Center Munich in affiliation with University Hospitals of Munich, Munich (Germany); Gorgulho, Alessandra [Department of Neurosurgery, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)] [Department of Neurosurgery, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Soltys, Scott [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Gerszten, Peter C. [Departments of Neurological Surgery and Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Departments of Neurological Surgery and Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Ryu, Sam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Angelov, Lilyana [Department of Radiation Oncology and Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology and Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Gibbs, Iris [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Wong, C. Shun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Larson, David A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Dose-volume histogram (DVH) results for 9 cases of post spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) radiation myelopathy (RM) are reported and compared with a cohort of 66 spine SBRT patients without RM. Methods and Materials: DVH data were centrally analyzed according to the thecal sac point maximum (Pmax) volume, 0.1- to 1-cc volumes in increments of 0.1 cc, and to the 2 cc volume. 2-Gy biologically equivalent doses (nBED) were calculated using an {alpha}/{beta} = 2 Gy (units = Gy{sub 2/2}). For the 2 cohorts, the nBED means and distributions were compared using the t test and Mann-Whitney test, respectively. Significance (P<.05) was defined as concordance of both tests at each specified volume. A logistic regression model was developed to estimate the probability of RM using the dose distribution for a given volume. Results: Significant differences in both the means and distributions at the Pmax and up to the 0.8-cc volume were observed. Concordant significance was greatest for the Pmax volume. At the Pmax volume the fit of the logistic regression model, summarized by the area under the curve, was 0.87. A risk of RM of 5% or less was observed when limiting the thecal sac Pmax volume doses to 12.4 Gy in a single fraction, 17.0 Gy in 2 fractions, 20.3 Gy in 3 fractions, 23.0 Gy in 4 fractions, and 25.3 Gy in 5 fractions. Conclusion: We report the first logistic regression model yielding estimates for the probability of human RM specific to SBRT.

  8. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for liver tumours using flattening filter free beam: dosimetric and technical considerations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To report the initial institute experience in terms of dosimetric and technical aspects in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) delivered using flattening filter free (FFF) beam in patients with liver lesions. Methods and Materials From October 2010 to September 2011, 55 consecutive patients with 73 primary or metastatic hepatic lesions were treated with SBRT on TrueBeam using FFF beam and RapidArc technique. Clinical target volume (CTV) was defined on multi-phase CT scans, PET/CT, MRI, and 4D-CT. Dose prescription was 75 Gy in 3 fractions to planning target volume (PTV). Constraints for organs at risk were: 700 cc of liver free from the 15 Gy isodose, Dmax < 21 Gy for stomach and duodenum, Dmax < 30 Gy for heart, D0.1 cc < 18 Gy for spinal cord, V15 Gy < 35% for kidneys. The dose was downscaled in cases of not full achievement of dose constraints. Daily cone beam CT (CBCT) was performed. Results Forty-three patients with a single lesion, nine with two lesions and three with three lesions were treated with this protocol. Target and organs at risk objectives were met for all patients. Mean delivery time was 2.8 ± 1.0 min. Pre-treatment plan verification resulted in a Gamma Agreement Index of 98.6 ± 0.8%. Mean on-line co-registration shift of the daily CBCT to the simulation CT were: -0.08, 0.05 and -0.02 cm with standard deviations of 0.33, 0.39 and 0.55 cm in, vertical, longitudinal and lateral directions respectively. Conclusions SBRT for liver targets delivered by means of FFF resulted to be feasible with short beam on time. PMID:22296849

  9. Radioactive Body Burden Measurements in 131Iodine Therapy for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: Effect of Recombinant Thyroid Stimulating Hormone in Whole Body 131Iodine Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Al Saadi, Amal; Al Balushi, Naima

    2014-01-01

    Protocols in the management of differentiated thyroid cancer, recommend adequate thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation for radioactive 131I administrations, both for imaging and subsequent ablations. Commonly followed method is to achieve this by endogenous TSH stimulation by withdrawal of thyroxine. Numerous studies worldwide have reported comparable results with recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rhTSH) intervention as conventional thyroxine hormone withdrawal. Radiation safety applications call for the need to understand radioactive 131I (RA131I) clearance pattern to estimate whole body doses when this new methodology is used in our institution. A study of radiation body burden estimation was undertaken in two groups of patients treated with RA131I; (a) one group of patients having thyroxine medication suspended for 5 weeks prior to therapy and (b) in the other group retaining thyroxine support with two rhTSH injections prior to therapy with RA131I. Sequential exposure rates at 1 m in the air were measured in these patients using a digital auto-ranging beta gamma survey instrument calibrated for measurement of exposure rates. The mean measured exposure rates at 1 m in ?Sv/h immediately after administration and at 24 h intervals until 3 days are used for calculating of effective ½ time of clearance of administered activity in both groups of patients, 81 patients in conventionally treated group (stop thyroxine) and 22 patients with rhTSH administration. The 131I activities ranged from 2.6 to 7.9 GBq. The mean administered 131I activities were 4.24 ± 0.95 GBq (n = 81) in “stop hormone” group and 5.11 ± 1.40 GBq (n = 22) in rhTSH group. The fall of radioactive body burden showed two clearance patterns within observed 72 h. Calculated T½eff values were 16.45 h (stop hormone group) 12.35 h (rhTSH group) for elapsed period of 48 h. Beyond 48 h post administration, clearance of RA131I takes place with T½eff> 20 h in both groups. Neck and stomach exposure rate measurements showed reduced uptakes in the neck for rhTSH patients compared with “stop thyroxine” group and results are comparable with other studies. Whole body clearance is faster for patients with rhTSH injection, resulting in less whole body absorbed doses, and dose to blood. These patients clear circulatory radioactivity faster, enabling them to be discharged sooner, thus reduce costs of the hospitalization. Reduction in background whole body count rate may improve the residual thyroid images in whole body scan. rhTSH provides TSH stimulation without withdrawal of thyroid hormone and hence can help patients to take up therapy without hormone deficient problems in the withdrawn period prior to RA131I therapy. This also will help in reducing the restriction time periods for patients to mix up with the general population and children. PMID:25191114

  10. Her Body Speaks: The Experience of Dance Therapy for Women Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Letty J.; Daniluk, Judith C.

    2002-01-01

    This qualitative, phenomenological study explores the experiences of dance therapy for 5 women who had been sexually abused as children. Using in-depth, largely unstructured interviews, the women reflect on their dance therapy experiences: and on their perceptions of the role of these experiences in their psychological healing. (Contains 46…

  11. Whole Body Vibration Exercise Protocol versus a Standard Exercise Protocol after ACL Reconstruction: A Clinical Randomized Controlled Trial with Short Term Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Berschin, Gereon; Sommer, Björn; Behrens, Antje; Sommer, Hans-Martin

    2014-01-01

    The suitability and effectiveness of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise in rehabilitation after injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) was studied using a specially designed WBV protocol. We wanted to test the hypothesis if WBV leads to superior short term results regarding neuromuscular performance (strength and coordination) and would be less time consuming than a current standard muscle strengthening protocol. In this prospective randomized controlled clinical trial, forty patients who tore their ACL and underwent subsequent ligament reconstruction were enrolled. Patients were randomized to the whole body vibration (n=20) or standard rehabilitation exercise protocol (n=20). Both protocols started in the 2nd week after surgery. Isometric and isokinetic strength measurements, clinical assessment, Lysholm score, neuromuscular performance were conducted weeks 2, 5, 8 and 11 after surgery. Time spent for rehabilitation exercise was reduced to less than a half in the WBV group. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of clinical assessment, Lysholm score, isokinetic and isometric strength. The WBV group displayed significant better results in the stability test. In conclusion, preliminary data indicate that our whole body vibration muscle exercise protocol seems to be a good alternative to a standard exercise program in ACL-rehabilitation. Despite of its significant reduced time requirement it is at least equally effective compared to a standard rehabilitation protocol. Key points In this prospective randomized controlled clinical trial, we tested the hypothesis if WBV leads to superior short term results regarding neuromuscular performance (strength and coordination) and would be less time consuming than a current standard muscle strengthening protocol in forty patients who underwent ACL reconstruction. Time spent for rehabilitation exercise was reduced to less than a half in the WBV group as compared to the standard exercise group. Both protocols showed no differences regarding clinical assessment, Lysholm score, isokinetic and isometric strength. Despite a more than 50% reduction in time spent for exercise sessions, the WBV group achieved significant better results in the stability test. In conclusion, the presented WBV program can be considered as a practical alternative to a standard exercise program during ACL-rehabilitation. PMID:25177185

  12. Dose-Volume Metrics Associated With Radiation Pneumonitis After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuo, Yukinori, E-mail: ymatsuo@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Shibuya, Keiko; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Narabayashi, Masaru; Sakanaka, Katsuyuki; Ueki, Nami; Miyagi, Ken; Norihisa, Yoshiki; Mizowaki, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Nagata, Yasushi [Division of Radiation Oncology, Hiroshima University Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To identify dose-volume factors associated with radiation pneumonitis (RP) after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung cancer. Methods and Materials: This study analyzed 74 patients who underwent SBRT for primary lung cancer. The prescribed dose for SBRT was uniformly 48 Gy in four fractions at the isocenter. RP was graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v.3. Symptomatic RP was defined as grade 2 or worse. Optimal cut-offs dividing the patient population into two subgroups based on the incidence of symptomatic RP were sought using the following dose-volume metrics: PTV volume (ml), mean lung dose (Gy), and V5, V10, V15, V20, V25, V30, V35, and V40 (%) of both lungs excluding the PTV. Results: With a median follow-up duration of 31.4 months, symptomatic RP was observed in 15 patients (20.3%), including 1 patient with grade 3. Optimal cut-offs for pulmonary dose-volume metrics were V25 and V20. These two factors were highly correlated with each other, and V25 was more significant. Symptomatic RP was observed in 14.8% of the patients with V25 <4.2%, and the rate was 46.2% in the remainder (p = 0.019). PTV volume was another significant factor. The symptomatic RP rate was significantly lower in the group with PTV <37.7 ml compared with the larger PTV group (11.1% vs. 34.5%, p = 0.020). The patients were divided into three subgroups (patients with PTV <37.7 ml; patients with, PTV {>=}37.7 ml and V25 <4.2%; and patients with PTV {>=}37.7 ml and V25 {>=}4.2%); the incidence of RP grade 2 or worse was 11.1%, 23.5%, and 50.0%, respectively (p = 0.013). Conclusions: Lung V25 and PTV volume were significant factors associated with RP after SBRT.

  13. High-dose MVCT image guidance for stereotactic body radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Westerly, David C.; Schefter, Tracey E.; Kavanagh, Brian D.; Chao, Edward; Lucas, Dan; Flynn, Ryan T.; Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Accuray Inc., Madison, Wisconsin 53717 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a potent treatment for early stage primary and limited metastatic disease. Accurate tumor localization is essential to administer SBRT safely and effectively. Tomotherapy combines helical IMRT with onboard megavoltage CT (MVCT) imaging and is well suited for SBRT; however, MVCT results in reduced soft tissue contrast and increased image noise compared with kilovoltage CT. The goal of this work was to investigate the use of increased imaging doses on a clinical tomotherapy machine to improve image quality for SBRT image guidance. Methods: Two nonstandard, high-dose imaging modes were created on a tomotherapy machine by increasing the linear accelerator (LINAC) pulse rate from the nominal setting of 80 Hz, to 160 Hz and 300 Hz, respectively. Weighted CT dose indexes (wCTDIs) were measured for the standard, medium, and high-dose modes in a 30 cm solid water phantom using a calibrated A1SL ion chamber. Image quality was assessed from scans of a customized image quality phantom. Metrics evaluated include: contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs), high-contrast spatial resolution, image uniformity, and percent image noise. In addition, two patients receiving SBRT were localized using high-dose MVCT scans. Raw detector data collected after each scan were used to reconstruct standard-dose images for comparison. Results: MVCT scans acquired using a pitch of 1.0 resulted in wCTDI values of 2.2, 4.7, and 8.5 cGy for the standard, medium, and high-dose modes respectively. CNR values for both low and high-contrast materials were found to increase with the square root of dose. Axial high-contrast spatial resolution was comparable for all imaging modes at 0.5 lp/mm. Image uniformity was improved and percent noise decreased as the imaging dose increased. Similar improvements in image quality were observed in patient images, with decreases in image noise being the most notable. Conclusions: High-dose imaging modes are made possible on a clinical tomotherapy machine by increasing the LINAC pulse rate. Increasing the imaging dose results in increased CNRs; making it easier to distinguish the boundaries of low contrast objects. The imaging dose levels observed in this work are considered acceptable at our institution for SBRT treatments delivered in 3-5 fractions.

  14. Ride quality and international standard ISO 2631 (Guide for the evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, G. R.

    1975-01-01

    The evolution of the standard, which is aimed at promoting research and production of more data, and providing some design guidance, is outlined and its contents summarized. Some of the assumptions and information on which it is based are analyzed. Its application to vehicle ride quality is considered in the context of the safety, efficiency and comfort of crew and passengers. The importance of establishing the precise criteria against which vibration limits are required is underlined, particularly the difficulties of first defining comfort and then postulating appropriate levels. Some current and future work related to improving the standard is outlined and additional suggestions offered.

  15. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for nonmetastatic lung cancer: An analysis of 75 patients treated over 5 years

    SciTech Connect

    Beitler, Jonathan J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Staten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, NY (United States)]. E-mail: jbeitler92@alumni.gsb.columbia.edu; Badine, Edgard A. [Division of Medical Oncology, Staten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, NY (United States); El-Sayah, Danny [Division of Medical Oncology, Staten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, NY (United States); Makara, Denise [Department of Radiation Oncology, Staten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, NY (United States); Friscia, Phillip [Division of Medical Oncology, Staten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, NY (United States); Silverman, Phillip [Department of Radiation Oncology, Staten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, NY (United States); Terjanian, Terenig [Division of Medical Oncology, Staten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, NY (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may not be medically operable even in patients with surgically resectable disease. For patients who either refuse surgery or are medically inoperable, radiation therapy may be the best therapeutic choice. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) employs external fixation and hypofractionation to deliver a high dose per fraction of radiation to a small target volume. Methods and Materials: Retrospective review of 75 patients treated over 5 years at Staten Island University Hospital as definitive treatment for NSCLC or presumed NSCLC. Patients received a median of 5 fractions of 8 Gy per fraction over 27 days. Results: Overall 1-, 2-, and 5-year actuarial survivals were 63%, 45%, and 17%. Patients with a gross tumor volume (GTV) less than 65 cm{sup 3} enjoyed a longer median survival (25.7 vs. 9.9 months, p < 0.003), and at 5 years, the actuarial survival for the patients with GTVs less than 65 cm{sup 3} was 24% vs. 0% for those with GTVs larger than 65 cm{sup 3}. Conclusions: Stereotactic body radiation therapy as delivered was ineffective for curing the patients whose GTVs were larger than 65 cm{sup 3}. SBRT was promising for those with GTVs less than 65 cm{sup 3}.

  16. Effects of whole-body vibration with stochastic resonance on balance in persons with balance disability and falls history - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rogan, Slavko; Hilfiker, Roger; Schenk, Adrian; Vogler, Aldo; Taeymans, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to identify and evaluate the evidence of the efficacy of stochastic resonance whole-body vibration (SR-WBV) on static, dynamic and functional balance in the elderly and in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. English and German studies were consulted in the CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ISI Web of Knowledge, PEDro and PubMed databases. Eight of 138 eligible studies were included, involving 381 participants. The included studies showed a low to high risk of bias. Three studies focused on long-term effects after SR-WBV. One study evaluated SR-WBV impact over three days while four studies examined its immediate effects. There is only limited evidence that SR-WBV may be effective in improving static, dynamic and functional balance among elderly individuals and patients with neurodegenerative diseases. In the future, more studies of high methodological quality are needed to improve the level of evidence. PMID:24950116

  17. An Empirical Model of Body Image Disturbance Using Behavioral Principles found in Functional Analytic Psychotherapy and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Callaghan, Glenn M.; Duenas, Julissa A.; Nadeau, Sarah E.; Darrow, Sabrina M.; Van der Merwe, Jessica; Misko, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The literature examining body image disturbance and Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) is fraught with competing theoretical constructions of the etiology and nosology of these problems. Recent studies on various forms of psychopathology suggest that intrapersonal processes, including experiential avoidance, and interpersonal processes such as difficulties identifying and expressing emotions with others, correlate with higher levels of psychopathology. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship of body image disturbance and diagnosable BDD to the contemporary behavioral variables of experiential avoidance and interpersonal expression of affect. A large sample of participants including those who are diagnosable with BDD were examined. Results indicate that both intrapersonal and interpersonal variables are significant predictors of both body image disturbance in a large population and of BDD as a subsample and that these variables may be important targets for treatment. This principle-based conceptualization has parsimony and potential utility for clinical interventions of these problems. Implications are discussed for the use of contemporary behavioral treatments such as Functional Analytic Psychotherapy and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to address both body image disturbance and BDD. PMID:23997716

  18. Whole body vibration compared to conventional physiotherapy in patients with gonarthrosis: a protocol for a randomized, controlled study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregor Stein; Peter Knoell; Christoph Faymonville; Thomas Kaulhausen; Jan Siewe; Christina Otto; Peer Eysel; Kourosh Zarghooni

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common degenerative arthropathy. Load-bearing joints such as knee and hip are more often affected than spine or hands. The prevalence of gonarthrosis is generally higher than that of coxarthrosis. Because no cure for OA exists, the main emphasis of therapy is analgesic treatment through either mobility or medication. Non-pharmacologic treatment is the first step,

  19. Six-Dimensional Correction of Intra-Fractional Prostate Motion with CyberKnife Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Siyuan; Piel, Nathaniel; Oermann, Eric K.; Chen, Viola; Ju, Andrew W.; Dahal, Kedar N.; Hanscom, Heather N.; Kim, Joy S.; Yu, Xia; Zhang, Guowei; Collins, Brian T.; Jha, Reena; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Suy, Simeng; Collins, Sean P.

    2011-01-01

    Large fraction radiation therapy offers a shorter course of treatment and radiobiological advantages for prostate cancer treatment. The CyberKnife is an attractive technology for delivering large fraction doses based on the ability to deliver highly conformal radiation therapy to moving targets. In addition to intra-fractional translational motion (left–right, superior–inferior, and anterior–posterior), prostate rotation (pitch, roll, and yaw) can increase geographical miss risk. We describe our experience with six-dimensional (6D) intra-fraction prostate motion correction using CyberKnife stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Eighty-eight patients were treated by SBRT alone or with supplemental external radiation therapy. Trans-perineal placement of four gold fiducials within the prostate accommodated X-ray guided prostate localization and beam adjustment. Fiducial separation and non-overlapping positioning permitted the orthogonal imaging required for 6D tracking. Fiducial placement accuracy was assessed using the CyberKnife fiducial extraction algorithm. Acute toxicities were assessed using Common Toxicity Criteria v3. There were no Grade 3, or higher, complications and acute morbidity was minimal. Ninety-eight percent of patients completed treatment employing 6D prostate motion tracking with intra-fractional beam correction. Suboptimal fiducial placement limited treatment to 3D tracking in two patients. Our experience may guide others in performing 6D correction of prostate motion with CyberKnife SBRT. PMID:22655248

  20. [Exposure to whole-body vibration of forklift truck operators in dockyards--actual exposure in Japan and evaluation by EN 13059].

    PubMed

    Tsujimura, Hiroji; Taoda, Kazushi; Nishiyama, Katsuo

    2006-09-01

    Low-back disorders are well documented as occupational hazards among forklift truck operators. The potential risk factors that may lead to low-back pain include exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV). In Europe, test methods were developed to evaluate WBV in industrial trucks, and the European Standard which defines the methods has been published. We measured the vibrations of forklift trucks operated in the Hanshin harbour area adopting procedures based on the CEN test and report the evaluation results. If the WBV magnitudes of the ride on forklift trucks in the workplace were less than or comparable to those in the CEN test, the CEN test could be considered useful for the risk assessment of forklift truck operators exposed to WBV. In order to verify the applicability of the CEN test to the evaluation of WBV exposure in the field, we conducted measurements of the WBV of four forklift trucks for 19 d. The trucks had already been examined by the CEN test. The truck velocity, driver position (sitting or not), and gear lever position were also measured, and video footage was obtained for the study. The results indicate that the vertical WBV magnitudes of the four forklift trucks were below the CEN test values. No dominant WBV direction was observed on any of the measurement days. The Health value (obtained by combining the values determined from the vibration in orthogonal coordinates) was comparable to that from the CEN test for one truck. The values for the other three trucks were lower. The data obtained for three forklift trucks were analyzed in each operating condition. The vertical WBV magnitudes and Health values for the three trucks were below the CEN test values when the trucks were travelling forwards with a load. The WBV in the anterior-posterior direction had the largest adverse effect on the human body of the three orthogonal directions when the trucks were used for loading and unloading. The results suggest the CEN test can be applied to the evaluation of exposure to WBV from forklift trucks operating in the vicinity of the Hanshin harbour. It was observed that the anterior-posterior WBV is considerable, mostly through exposure occurring in the lifting mode. However, the CEN test is based on the travelling mode, and further WBV measurements under real working conditions with exact descriptions of detailed work situations and operating conditions are required. PMID:17062995

  1. Mechanical impedance of the sitting human body in single-axis compared to multi-axis whole-body vibration exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrik Holmlund; Ronnie Lundström

    2001-01-01

    Objective. The study was aimed to investigate the mechanical impedance of the sitting human body and to compare data obtained in laboratory single-axis investigations with multi-axis data from in vehicle measurements.Design. The experiments were performed in a laboratory for single-axis measurements. The multi-axis exposure was generated with an eight-seat minibus where the rear seats had been replaced with a rigid

  2. Systematic measurements of whole-body dose distributions for various treatment machines and delivery techniques in radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Haelg, Roger A.; Besserer, Juergen; Schneider, Uwe [Institute for Radiotherapy, Radiotherapie Hirslanden AG, Aarau 5000 (Switzerland); Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich 8057 (Switzerland) and Institute for Radiotherapy, Radiotherapie Hirslanden AG, Aarau 5000 (Switzerland)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Contemporary radiotherapy treatment techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy, could increase the radiation-induced malignancies because of the increased beam-on time, i.e., number of monitor units needed to deliver the same dose to the target and the larger volume irradiated with low doses. In this study, whole-body dose distributions from typical radiotherapy patient plans using different treatment techniques and therapy machines were measured using the same measurement setup and irradiation intention. Methods: Individually calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to measure absorbed dose in an anthropomorphic phantom at 184 locations. The dose distributions from 6 MV beams were compared in terms of treatment technique (3D-conformal, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, volumetric modulated arc therapy, helical TomoTherapy, stereotactic radiotherapy, hard wedges, and flattening filter-free radiotherapy) and therapy machine (Elekta, Siemens and Varian linear accelerators, Accuray CyberKnife and TomoTherapy). Results: Close to the target, the doses from intensity-modulated treatments (including flattening filter-free) were below the dose from a static treatment plan, whereas the CyberKnife showed a larger dose by a factor of two. Far away from the treatment field, the dose from intensity-modulated treatments showed an increase in dose from stray radiation of about 50% compared to the 3D-conformal treatment. For the flattening filter-free photon beams, the dose from stray radiation far away from the target was slightly lower than the dose from a static treatment. The CyberKnife irradiation and the treatment using hard wedges increased the dose from stray radiation by nearly a factor of three compared to the 3D-conformal treatment. Conclusions: This study showed that the dose outside of the treated volume is influenced by several sources. Therefore, when comparing different treatment techniques, the dose ratios vary with distance to the isocenter. The effective dose outside the treated volume of intensity-modulated treatments with or without flattening filter was 10%-30% larger when compared to 3D-conformal radiotherapy. This dose increase is much lower than the monitor unit scaled effective dose from a static treatment.

  3. Effects of Growth Hormone Deficiency on Body Composition and Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Risk after Definitive Therapy for Acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Lin, E; Wexler, TL; Nachtigall, L; Tritos, N; Swearingen, B; Hemphill, L; Loeffler, J; Biller, BMK; Klibanski, A; Miller, KK

    2012-01-01

    Background Both growth hormone (GH) excess and GH deficiency are associated with body composition and biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in patients with pituitary disorders. However, the effects of developing GH deficiency after definitive treatment of acromegaly are largely unknown. Objective To determine whether development of GH deficiency after definitive therapy for acromegaly is associated with increased visceral adiposity and biomarkers of cardiovascular risk compared to GH sufficiency after definitive therapy for acromegaly. Design Cross-sectional Patients We studied three groups of subjects, all with a history of acromegaly (n=76): subjects with subsequent GH deficiency (GHD; n=31), subjects with subsequent GH sufficiency (GHS; n=25), and subjects with active acromegaly (AA; n=20). No study subjects were receiving somatostatin analogues, dopamine agonists or hGH. Measurements Body composition (by DXA), abdominal adipose tissue depots (by cross-sectional CT), total body water (by bioimpedance analysis) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) were measured. Fasting morning serum was collected for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), lipids and lipoprotein levels. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed, and homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. Results Abdominal visceral adipose tissue, total adipose tissue, and total body fat were higher in subjects with GHD than GHS or AA (p < 0.05). Subcutaneous abdominal fat was higher, and fibrinogen and IMT were lower in GHD (but not GHS) than AA (p < 0.05). Patients with GHD had the highest hsCRP, followed by GHS, and hsCRP was lowest in AA (p < 0.05). Fasting glucose, 120-minute glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and percent total body water were lower in GHD and GHS than AA (p < 0.05). Triglycerides were higher in GHS than AA (p < 0.05). Lean body mass, mean arterial pressure, total cholesterol, HDL, and LDL were comparable among groups. Conclusions Development of GHD after definitive treatment of acromegaly may adversely affect body composition and inflammatory biomarkers of cardiovascular risk but does not appear to adversely affect glucose homeostasis, lipids and lipoproteins, or other cardiovascular risk markers. PMID:22315983

  4. Daptomycin combinations as alternative therapies in experimental foreign-body infection caused by meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    El Haj, Cristina; Murillo, Oscar; Ribera, Alba; Vivas, Mireia; Garcia-Somoza, Dolors; Tubau, Fe; Cabellos, Carmen; Cabo, Javier; Ariza, Javier

    2015-08-01

    Whilst levofloxacin (LVX) in combination with rifampicin (RIF) is considered the optimal treatment for prosthetic joint infection (PJI) caused by meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), no therapeutic alternatives have been accurately evaluated. Based on the high effectiveness of the combination of daptomycin (DAP) plus RIF against meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in this setting, in this study the efficacy of DAP+RIF and DAP+LVX combinations was tested as alternative therapies for foreign-body infections (FBIs) caused by MSSA. A tissue-cage infection model was performed using an MSSA strain. Male Wistar rats were treated for 7 days with LVX, DAP, RIF or the combinations LVX+RIF, DAP+RIF and DAP+LVX. Antibiotic efficacy was evaluated by bacterial counts from tissue cage fluid (TCF) and the cure rate was determined from adhered bacteria. Resistance was screened. Monotherapies were less effective than combinations (P<0.05), and resistance to DAP and RIF emerged. DAP+RIF (decrease in bacterial counts in TCF, -4.9logCFU/mL; cure rate, 92%) was the most effective therapy (P<0.05). There were no differences between LVX+RIF (-3.4logCFU/mL; 11%) and DAP+LVX (-3.3logCFU/mL; 47%). No resistant strains appeared with combined therapies. In conclusion, the combinations DAP+RIF and DAP+LVX showed good efficacy and prevented resistance. DAP+RIF provided higher efficacy than LVX+RIF. These DAP combinations were efficacious alternatives therapies for MSSA FBI. Further studies should confirm whether DAP+RIF may be useful as a first-line therapy in the setting of PJI caused by MSSA. PMID:26051988

  5. Measurements of the equivalent whole-body dose during radiation therapy by cytogenetic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, Marco; Yamada, Shigeru; Ando, Koichi; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Kawata, Tetsuya; Majima, Hideyuki; Nakano, Takashi; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    1999-05-01

    Estimates of equivalent whole-body dose following partial body exposure can be performed using different biophysical models. Calculations should be compared with biodosimetry data, but measurements are complicated by mitotic selection induced in target cells after localized irradiation. In this paper we measured chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes during radiotherapy, and estimated the equivalent whole-body dose absorbed, by using the novel technique of interphase chromosome painting. Premature chromosome condensation was induced in stimulated lymphocytes by incubation in calyculin A, and slides were hybridized in situ with whole-chromosome DNA probes specific for human chromosomes 2 and 4. Reciprocal exchanges were used to estimate the equivalent whole-body dose, based on individual pre-treatment in vitro calibration curves. Equivalent whole-body dose increased as a function of the number of fractions, and reached a plateau at high fraction numbers. Chromosomal aberration yields were dependent on field size, tumour position and concurrent chemotherapy. Results suggest that interphase chromosome painting is a simple technique able to give a reliable estimate of the equivalent whole-body dose absorbed during therapeutic partial-body irradiation.

  6. Therapy-resistant foreign body giant cell granuloma at the periapex of a root-filled human tooth

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, P.N.; Sjoegren, U.K.; Krey, G.; Sundqvist, G. (Dental Institute, University of Zurich (Switzerland))

    1990-12-01

    Although the primary etiological factor of periapical lesions is microbial, there are other independent factors that can adversely affect the outcome of endodontic treatment. In this communication, we present morphological evidence in support of the role of a foreign body reaction of periapical tissue to root-filling materials. The specimen consisted of a surgical biopsy of an asymptomatic periapical lesion which persisted after a decade of postendodontic follow-up. The biopsy was processed for correlated light and electron microscopy and was analyzed by various microtechniques. The unique feature of the lesion was the presence of vast numbers of large multinucleated cells and their cytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Morphologically, these multinucleated cells resembled foreign body giant cells. They contained characteristic birefringent cytoplasmic inclusions which on electron-probe x-ray microanalysis consistently revealed the presence of magnesium and silicon. The magnesium and silicon are presumably the remnants of a root-filling excess which protruded into the periapex and had been resorbed during the follow-up period. These observations strongly suggest that in the absence of microbial factors, root-filling materials which contain irritating substances can evoke a foreign body reaction at the periapex, leading to the development of asymptomatic periapical lesions that may remain refractory to endodontic therapy for long periods of time.

  7. Mixed quantum/classical theory of rotationally and vibrationally inelastic scattering in space-fixed and body-fixed reference frames

    SciTech Connect

    Semenov, Alexander; Babikov, Dmitri, E-mail: dmitri.babikov@mu.edu [Chemistry Department, Wehr Chemistry Building, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201-1881 (United States)] [Chemistry Department, Wehr Chemistry Building, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201-1881 (United States)

    2013-11-07

    We formulated the mixed quantum/classical theory for rotationally and vibrationally inelastic scattering process in the diatomic molecule + atom system. Two versions of theory are presented, first in the space-fixed and second in the body-fixed reference frame. First version is easy to derive and the resultant equations of motion are transparent, but the state-to-state transition matrix is complex-valued and dense. Such calculations may be computationally demanding for heavier molecules and/or higher temperatures, when the number of accessible channels becomes large. In contrast, the second version of theory requires some tedious derivations and the final equations of motion are rather complicated (not particularly intuitive). However, the state-to-state transitions are driven by real-valued sparse matrixes of much smaller size. Thus, this formulation is the method of choice from the computational point of view, while the space-fixed formulation can serve as a test of the body-fixed equations of motion, and the code. Rigorous numerical tests were carried out for a model system to ensure that all equations, matrixes, and computer codes in both formulations are correct.

  8. Mixed quantum/classical theory of rotationally and vibrationally inelastic scattering in space-fixed and body-fixed reference frames.

    PubMed

    Semenov, Alexander; Babikov, Dmitri

    2013-11-01

    We formulated the mixed quantum/classical theory for rotationally and vibrationally inelastic scattering process in the diatomic molecule + atom system. Two versions of theory are presented, first in the space-fixed and second in the body-fixed reference frame. First version is easy to derive and the resultant equations of motion are transparent, but the state-to-state transition matrix is complex-valued and dense. Such calculations may be computationally demanding for heavier molecules and/or higher temperatures, when the number of accessible channels becomes large. In contrast, the second version of theory requires some tedious derivations and the final equations of motion are rather complicated (not particularly intuitive). However, the state-to-state transitions are driven by real-valued sparse matrixes of much smaller size. Thus, this formulation is the method of choice from the computational point of view, while the space-fixed formulation can serve as a test of the body-fixed equations of motion, and the code. Rigorous numerical tests were carried out for a model system to ensure that all equations, matrixes, and computer codes in both formulations are correct. PMID:24206288

  9. The effects of triple therapy (acupuncture, diet and exercise) on body weight: a randomized, clinical trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Nourshahi; S Ahmadizad; H Nikbakht; M A Heidarnia; E Ernst

    2009-01-01

    Objectives:The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of diet and exercise vs acupuncture, diet and exercise on the body weight and related parameters of adult women.Methods:Twenty-seven obese women with a body fat percentage of more than 30% were randomized into three groups. The first experimental group had diet and exercise, whereas the second experimental group had diet,

  10. Muscle function, physical performance and body composition changes in men with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Storer, Thomas W; Miciek, Renee; Travison, Thomas G

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common visceral malignancy in men with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) the preferred therapy to suppress testosterone production and hence tumor growth. Despite its effectiveness in lowering testosterone, ADT is associated with side effects including loss of muscle mass, diminished muscle strength, decrements in physical performance, earlier fatigue and declining quality of life. This review reports a survey of the literature with a focus on changes in muscle strength, physical function and body composition, due to short-term and long-term ADT. Studies in these areas are sparse, especially well-controlled, prospective randomized trials. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data (up to 2 years) for men with PCa treated with ADT as well as patients with PCa not receiving ADT and age-matched healthy men are presented when available. Based on limited longitudinal data, the adverse effects of ADT on muscle function, physical performance and body composition occur shortly after the onset of ADT and tend to persist and worsen over time. Exercise training is a safe and effective intervention for mitigating these changes and initial guidelines for exercise program design for men with PCa have been published by the American College of Sports Medicine. Disparities in study duration, types of studies and other patient-specific variables such as time since diagnosis, cancer stage and comorbidities may all affect an understanding of the influence of ADT on health, physical performance and mortality. PMID:22367184

  11. Mild Increases in Body Temperature Could Improve Anticancer Therapy | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    One of the consistent characteristics of human solid tumors is that they exert a significant outward pressure that inhibits the ability of drugs to reach the inner recesses of the tumor. Most solid tumors are also hypoxic, that is, the oxygen concentration deep inside tumors is much lower than is normal in human tissues, and this hypoxia also works against many anticancer therapies.

  12. Systematic measurements of whole-body imaging dose distributions in image-guided radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Haelg, Roger A.; Besserer, Juergen; Schneider, Uwe [Radiotherapie Hirslanden AG, Institute for Radiotherapy, Aarau 5000 (Switzerland); Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich 8057 (Switzerland) and Radiotherapie Hirslanden AG, Institute for Radiotherapy, Aarau 5000 (Switzerland)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: The full benefit of the increased precision of contemporary treatment techniques can only be exploited if the accuracy of the patient positioning is guaranteed. Therefore, more and more imaging modalities are used in the process of the patient setup in clinical routine of radiation therapy. The improved accuracy in patient positioning, however, results in additional dose contributions to the integral patient dose. To quantify this, absorbed dose measurements from typical imaging procedures involved in an image-guided radiation therapy treatment were measured in an anthropomorphic phantom for a complete course of treatment. The experimental setup, including the measurement positions in the phantom, was exactly the same as in a preceding study of radiotherapy stray dose measurements. This allows a direct combination of imaging dose distributions with the therapy dose distribution. Methods: Individually calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to measure absorbed dose in an anthropomorphic phantom at 184 locations. The dose distributions from imaging devices used with treatment machines from the manufacturers Accuray, Elekta, Siemens, and Varian and from computed tomography scanners from GE Healthcare were determined and the resulting effective dose was calculated. The list of investigated imaging techniques consisted of cone beam computed tomography (kilo- and megavoltage), megavoltage fan beam computed tomography, kilo- and megavoltage planar imaging, planning computed tomography with and without gating methods and planar scout views. Results: A conventional 3D planning CT resulted in an effective dose additional to the treatment stray dose of less than 1 mSv outside of the treated volume, whereas a 4D planning CT resulted in a 10 times larger dose. For a daily setup of the patient with two planar kilovoltage images or with a fan beam CT at the TomoTherapy unit, an additional effective dose outside of the treated volume of less than 0.4 mSv and 1.4 mSv was measured, respectively. Using kilovoltage or megavoltage radiation to obtain cone beam computed tomography scans led to an additional dose of 8-46 mSv. For treatment verification images performed once per week using double exposure technique, an additional effective dose of up to 18 mSv was measured. Conclusions: Daily setup imaging using kilovoltage planar images or TomoTherapy megavoltage fan beam CT imaging can be used as a standard procedure in clinical routine. Daily kilovoltage and megavoltage cone beam computed tomography setup imaging should be applied on an individual or indication based protocol. Depending on the imaging scheme applied, image-guided radiation therapy can be administered without increasing the dose outside of the treated volume compared to therapies without image guidance.

  13. Combined modality therapy of diffuse histology non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, prednisone (CHOP) and total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Weick, J.K. (Cleveland Clinic, OH); Antunez, A.; Kraus, T.A.; Fabian, C.J.; Dixon, D.

    1983-08-01

    The combination of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) alternating with total body irradiation (TBI) has been shown earlier to be effective therapy in patients with malignant lymphoma who have received prior chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. A limited institutional pilot study was therefore done by the Southwest Oncology Group between October 1977, and November 1978 to test the benefit of this program in previously untreated persons with Stages 3 and 4 diffuse histology non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Eleven evaluable patients with the following histologies were treated: 7 poorly differentiated, 2 with histiocytic, 1 with mixed lymphoma and 1 with well-differentiated morphology. Responses were seen in 8/11 patients (6 CR and 2 PR); 5 persons are currently alive and 6 are dead. The median duration of remission is 15 months and the median survival for all patients is 48 months. The therapy was well tolerated with a mean nadir leukocyte count of 3020 x 10/sup 9//..mu..l (range 1.2 to 5.5) and a mean nadir platelet count of 188 x 10/sup 9//..mu..l (range 016 to 270). As delivered, this program is capable of producing durable remissions and needs to be verified in a larger series of patients.

  14. The development of an intervention programme to reduce whole-body vibration exposure at work induced by a change in behaviour: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Tiemessen, Ivo JH; Hulshof, Carel TJ; Frings-Dresen, Monique HW

    2007-01-01

    Background Whole body vibration (WBV) exposure at work is common and studies found evidence that this exposure might cause low back pain (LBP). A recent review concluded there is a lack of evidence of effective strategies to reduce WBV exposure. Most research in this field is focussed on the technical implications, although changing behaviour towards WBV exposure might be promising as well. Therefore, we developed an intervention programme to reduce WBV exposure in a population of drivers with the emphasis on a change in behaviour of driver and employer. The hypothesis is that an effective reduction in WBV exposure, in time, will lead to a reduction in LBP as WBV exposure is a proxy for an increased risk of LBP. Methods/Design The intervention programme was developed specifically for the drivers of vibrating vehicles and their employers. The intervention programme will be based on the most important determinants of WBV exposure as track conditions, driving speed, quality of the seat, etc. By increasing knowledge and skills towards changing these determinants, the attitude, social influence and self-efficacy (ASE) of both drivers and employers will be affected having an effect on the level of exposure. We used the well-known ASE model to develop an intervention programme aiming at a change or the intention to change behaviour towards WBV exposure. The developed programme consists of: individual health surveillance, an information brochure, an informative presentation and a report of the performed field measurements. Discussion The study protocol described is advantageous as the intervention program actively tries to change behaviour towards WBV exposure. The near future will show if this intervention program is effective by showing a decrease in WBV exposure. PMID:18005400

  15. Changes in balance, functional performance and fall risk following whole body vibration training and vitamin D supplementation in institutionalized elderly women. A 6 month randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bogaerts, An; Delecluse, Christophe; Boonen, Steven; Claessens, Albrecht L; Milisen, Koen; Verschueren, Sabine M P

    2011-03-01

    Falls in the elderly constitute a growing public health problem. This randomized controlled trial investigated the potential benefit of 6 months of whole body vibration (WBV) training and/or vitamin D supplementation on balance, functionality and estimated fall risk in institutionalized elderly women. A total of 113 women (mean age: 79.6) were randomly assigned to either a WBV or a no-training group, receiving either a conventional dose (880 IU/d) or a high dose (1600 IU/d) of vitamin D3. The WBV group performed exercises on a vibration platform 3×/week. Balance was evaluated by computerized posturography. Functionality was assessed by 10 m walk test, Timed up and Go (TUG) performance and endurance capacity (Shuttle Walk). Fall risk was determined with the Physiological Profile Assessment. Performance on the 10 m walk test and on TUG improved over time in all groups. For none of the parameters, high-dose vitamin D resulted in a better performance than conventional dosing. The improvements in the WBV group in endurance capacity, walking at preferred speed, and TUG were significantly larger than the changes with supplementation alone. No additional benefit of WBV training could be detected on fall risk and postural control, although sway velocity and maximal isometric knee extension strength improved only in the WBV group. This trial showed that a high-dose vitamin D supplementation is not more efficient than conventional dosing in improving functionality in institutionalized elderly. WBV training on top of vitamin D supplementation provided an added benefit with regard to walking, TUG performance, and endurance capacity. PMID:21256028

  16. Bone mass, bone turnover, body composition, and calcium homeostasis in former hyperthyroid patients treated by combined medical therapy.

    PubMed

    Langdahl, B L; Loft, A G; Eriksen, E F; Mosekilde, L; Charles, P

    1996-06-01

    It is still uncertain whether bone mass and bone turnover are completely normalized after treatment of hyperthyroidism. The aim of the present investigation was to determine bone mass, bone turnover, body composition, and calcium homeostasis in former hyperthyroid patients who had been euthyroid for at least 4 years following combined medical therapy. Thirty-nine former hyperthyroid patients and 67 normal sex- and age-matched controls participated. Height, body weight, and body composition were similar in the two groups. All patients were euthyroid. However, serum FT3I (free T3-index) was reduced by 9% (p < 0.01) in the patients compared to controls, serum FT4I was normal, while serum TSH was nonsignificantly reduced by 39%. No significant differences were observed between patients and controls with respect to total or regional bone mineral content (BMC) or density (BMD). The former hyperthyroid patients had slightly higher serum calcium (2.35 +/- 0.06 vs. 2.32 +/- 0.07 mmol/L, p < 0.05) and lower serum phosphate (1.15 +/- 0.15 vs. 1.24 +/- 0.15 mmol/L, p < 0.01) than their controls. Renal excretion of calcium and serum levels of magnesium, 1,25-vitamin D and intact PTH were unchanged. Renal excretion of pyridinoline was increased by 30% (p < 0.05) in the patients, whereas the remaining resorptive markers, renal excretion of hydroxyproline and deoxypyridinoline and serum cross-linked carboxy-terminal teleopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) were unaltered. Among the formative bone markers the average serum carboxy-terminal propeptide of human type I procollagen (PICP) level was 12% lower (p < 0.05) than in the control group, whereas serum levels of osteocalcin and total and bone alkaline phosphatase were normal. In conclusion, former hyperthyroid patients treated by combined medical therapy have normal bone mineral content and density in spite of minor variations in thyroid hormones and skeletal homeostasis. PMID:8837321

  17. NOTE: Individual radiation therapy patient whole-body phantoms for peripheral dose evaluations: method and specific software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alziar, I.; Bonniaud, G.; Couanet, D.; Ruaud, J. B.; Vicente, C.; Giordana, G.; Ben-Harrath, O.; Diaz, J. C.; Grandjean, P.; Kafrouni, H.; Chavaudra, J.; Lefkopoulos, D.; de Vathaire, F.; Diallo, I.

    2009-09-01

    This study presents a method aimed at creating radiotherapy (RT) patient-adjustable whole-body phantoms to permit retrospective and prospective peripheral dose evaluations for enhanced patient radioprotection. Our strategy involves virtual whole-body patient models (WBPM) in different RT treatment positions for both genders and for different age groups. It includes a software tool designed to match the anatomy of the phantoms with the anatomy of the actual patients, based on the quality of patient data available. The procedure for adjusting a WBPM to patient morphology includes typical dimensions available in basic auxological tables for the French population. Adjustment is semi-automatic. Because of the complexity of the human anatomy, skilled personnel are required to validate changes made in the phantom anatomy. This research is part of a global project aimed at proposing appropriate methods and software tools capable of reconstituting the anatomy and dose evaluations in the entire body of RT patients in an adapted treatment planning system (TPS). The graphic user interface is that of a TPS adapted to obtain a comfortable working process. Such WBPM have been used to supplement patient therapy planning images, usually restricted to regions involved in treatment. Here we report, as an example, the case of a patient treated for prostate cancer whose therapy planning images were complemented by an anatomy model. Although present results are preliminary and our research is ongoing, they appear encouraging, since such patient-adjusted phantoms are crucial in the optimization of radiation protection of patients and for follow-up studies.

  18. Sibutramine Plus Meal Replacement Therapy for Body Weight Loss and Maintenance in Obese Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James L. Early; Caroline M. Apovian; Louis J. Aronne; Madelyn H. Fernstrom; Arthur Frank; Frank L. Greenway; David Heber; Robert F. Kushner; Kristine M. Cwik; Julia K. Walch; Ann C. Hewkin; Vicky Blakesley

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to assess the efficacy and safety of sibutramine with a low-calorie diet (LCD) and commercial meal-replacement product in achieving weight loss and weight-loss maintenance in obese patients.Research Methods and Procedures: Eight U.S. centers recruited 148 obese patients for a 3-month comprehensive weight-loss therapy (Phase I) comprising daily sibutramine 10 mg + LCD (two Slim-Fast meal-replacement shakes,

  19. Accurate tumor localization and tracking in radiation therapy using wireless body sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Pourhomayoun, Mohammad; Jin, Zhanpeng; Fowler, Mark

    2014-07-01

    Radiation therapy is an effective method to combat cancerous tumors by killing the malignant cells or controlling their growth. Knowing the exact position of the tumor is a very critical prerequisite in radiation therapy. Since the position of the tumor changes during the process of radiation therapy due to the patient?s movements and respiration, a real-time tumor tracking method is highly desirable in order to deliver a sufficient dose of radiation to the tumor region without damaging the surrounding healthy tissues. In this paper, we develop a novel tumor positioning method based on spatial sparsity. We estimate the position by processing the received signals from only one implantable RF transmitter. The proposed method uses less number of sensors compared to common magnetic transponder based approaches. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated in two different cases: (1) when the tissue configuration is perfectly determined (acquired beforehand by MRI or CT) and (2) when there are some uncertainties about the tissue boundaries. The results demonstrate the high accuracy and performance of the proposed method, even when the tissue boundaries are imperfectly known. PMID:24832352

  20. Dose Escalation, Not "New Biology," Can Account for the Efficacy of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy With

    E-print Network

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    Editorial Dose Escalation, Not "New Biology," Can Account for the Efficacy of Stereotactic Body or a few large dose fractions of 8-30 Gy per fraction (1). This is a major paradigm shift from the practice tissues receiving doses close to the prescribed tumor dose, the goal was to maximize tumor response

  1. INVESTIGATION OF THE RECEPTORS OF THE IRRADIATED AREAS OF HUMAN BODY DURING RADIATION THERAPY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Delitsyna

    1959-01-01

    Investigations were carried out on persons subjected to the local action ; of x rays for the treatment of various diseases. At the time of the ; electroencephalographic recording the author performed tactile irritation of ; different areas or the body before and after the irradiation. Immediately ; following the irradiation there could be registered a change in the reaction

  2. Vibration manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, C.

    1971-01-01

    Guidelines of the methods and applications used in vibration technology at the MSFC are presented. The purpose of the guidelines is to provide a practical tool for coordination and understanding between industry and government groups concerned with vibration of systems and equipments. Topics covered include measuring, reducing, analyzing, and methods for obtaining simulated environments and formulating vibration specifications. Methods for vibration and shock testing, theoretical aspects of data processing, vibration response analysis, and techniques of designing for vibration are also presented.

  3. Neuromotor Transmissibility of Horizontal Seatpan Vibration

    E-print Network

    Channamallu, Raghu Ram

    2007-12-16

    Exposure to occupational whole body vibration (WBV) is associated with low back pain disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and degeneration of spine. Transmission of vibration to the neuromotor system may play a role in the etiology...

  4. Effects of estrogen replacement therapy on the circadian rhythms of serum cortisol and body temperature in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Gudmundsson, A; Goodman, B; Lent, S; Barczi, S; Grace, A; Boyle, L; Ershler, W B; Carnes, M

    1999-09-01

    Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) seems to enhance longevity in women. Both gender and aging have been shown to influence the regulation of circadian rhythms, yet little is known about the effect of ERT on circadian regulation. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ERT (oral conjugated estrogen: Premarin, 0.625 mg) for 6-8 weeks on circadian serum cortisol by continuous blood sampling every 15 min for 24 h with simultaneous measurements of body temperature in six healthy postmenopausal women (range, 54-61 years). The results are presented as median values (range in quartiles). The circadian amplitude of cortisol increased during ERT from 20.20 (18.35, 23.61) to 25.97 (24.94, 27.74) microg/dL (p = 0.016), whereas the timing of nocturnal nadir and morning acrophase did not differ significantly. ERT lowered the 24-h body temperature from 37.03 degrees C (36.95 degrees C, 37.07 degrees C) to 36.90 degrees C (36.77 degrees C, 36.97 degrees C) (p = 0.038), but did not alter the peak and trough body temperatures significantly. These findings are noteworthy because the increased circadian amplitude of serum cortisol during ERT contrasts with the reduction in circadian amplitude seen with normal aging. The reduction in body temperature confirms the regulatory effect of ERT in thermoregulation and has implications regarding the correlation between basal metabolic rate and life span. PMID:10579640

  5. Annual incidence of non-specific low back pain as an occupational disease attributed to whole-body vibration according to the National Dutch Register 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Kuijer, P Paul F M; van der Molen, Henk F; Schop, Astrid; Moeijes, Fred; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Hulshof, Carel T J

    2015-07-01

    Non-specific low back pain (nLBP) is the second most important reason for sick leave in the Netherlands, and more than 50% of the workers on sick leave attribute these complaints to their work. To stimulate recognition and prevention, an occupational disease (OD) registration-guideline was implemented for the assessment of the work-relatedness of nLBP in the Netherlands in 2005. The aim of this study is to present the annual incidence of nLBP as an OD and specifically for whole-body vibration (WBV) including patient characteristics such as age, sick leave and actions initiated by the occupational physician (OP). The data were retrieved from the National Dutch Register for 2005-2012. Each year about 118 OPs reported 509 cases (SD 139) of nLBP as an OD in a Dutch working population of 7.5 million workers (8% of all annual reported ODs). Less than 1% of these cases were attributed to WBV: 94% were men, 45% were between 51 and 60 years and 35% were on sick leave for more than 2 weeks. Most initiated actions were ergonomic interventions (35%). PMID:24823257

  6. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy as Primary Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer in the Elderly or Patients with Poor Performance

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Arya; McDermott, Jessica D.; Gan, Gregory; Bhatia, Shilpa; Sumner, Whitney; Fisher, Christine M.; Jimeno, Antonio; Bowles, Daniel W.; Raben, David; Karam, Sana D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is increasingly used to treat a variety of tumors, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in the recurrent setting. While there are published data for re-irradiation using SBRT for HNSCC, there are limited data supporting its use as upfront treatment for locally advanced disease. Study Design/Methods: Here, we describe three patients who received SBRT as the primary treatment for their HNSCC along with a review of the current literature and discussion of future pathways. Results: The three cases discussed tolerated treatment well with manageable acute toxicities and had either a clinical or radiographic complete response to therapy. Conclusion: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma presents a unique challenge in the elderly, where medical comorbidities make it difficult to tolerate conventional radiation, often given with a systemic sensitizer. For these individuals, providing a shortened course using SBRT may offer an effective alternative. PMID:25340041

  7. Medical borderlands: engineering the body with plastic surgery and hormonal therapies in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Edmonds, Alexander; Sanabria, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores medical borderlands where health and enhancement practices are entangled. It draws on fieldwork carried out in the context of two distinct research projects in Brazil on plastic surgery and sex hormone therapies. These two therapies have significant clinical overlap. Both are made available in private and public healthcare in ways that reveal the class dynamics underlying Brazilian medicine. They also have an important experimental dimension rooted in Brazil's regulatory context and societal expectations placed on medicine as a means for managing women's reproductive and sexual health. Off-label and experimental medical use of these treatments is linked to experimental social use: how women adopt them to respond to the pressures, anxieties and aspirations of work and intimate life. The paper argues that these experimental techniques are becoming morally authorized as routine management of women's health, integrated into mainstream Ob-Gyn healthcare, and subtly blurred with practices of cuidar-se (self-care) seen in Brazil as essential for modern femininity. PMID:25175295

  8. Measures of internal lumbar load in professional drivers - the use of a whole-body finite-element model for the evaluation of adverse health effects of multi-axis vibration.

    PubMed

    Schust, Marianne; Menzel, Gerhard; Hofmann, Jörg; Forta, Nazim Gizem; Pinto, Iole; Hinz, Barbara; Bovenzi, Massimo

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to (1) employ the method for evaluation of vibration containing multiple shocks according to ISO/CD 2631-5:2014 (Model 1) and DIN SPEC 45697:2012 in a cohort of 537 professional drivers, (2) deliver the results for a re-analysis of epidemiological data obtained in the VIBRISKS study, (3) clarify the extent to which vibration acceleration and individual variables influence risk values, such as the daily compressive dose Sed and the risk factor R, and (4) compare the results with in vivo measurements and those obtained in previous studies with similar models. The risk factor R was influenced by the acceleration, lifetime exposure duration, sitting posture, age at the start of exposure and body mass/body mass index in order of decreasing effect. Age and annual and daily exposure duration had only a marginal effect. The daily compressive dose Sed and the risk factor R showed weak linear association with the daily vibration exposure A(8) and the vibration dose value VDV. The study revealed high shear forces in the lumbar spine. PMID:25290764

  9. Dosimetric Implications of an Injection of Hyaluronic Acid for Preserving the Rectal Wall in Prostate Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chapet, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.chapet@chu-lyon.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Udrescu, Corina [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Department of Medical Physics, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Tanguy, Ronan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Ruffion, Alain [Department of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Fenoglietto, Pascal [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Val d'Aurelle, Montpellier (France); Sotton, Marie-Pierre [Department of Medical Physics, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Devonec, Marian [Department of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Colombel, Marc [Department of Urology, Hopital Edouard Herriot, Lyon (France); Jalade, Patrice [Department of Medical Physics, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Azria, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Val d'Aurelle, Montpellier (France)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: This study assessed the contribution of ahyaluronic acid (HA) injection between the rectum and the prostate to reducing the dose to the rectal wall in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: As part of a phase 2 study of hypofractionated radiation therapy (62 Gy in 20 fractions), the patients received a transperineal injection of 10 cc HA between the rectum and the prostate. A dosimetric computed tomographic (CT) scan was systematically performed before (CT1) and after (CT2) the injection. Two 9-beam intensity modulated radiation therapy-SBRT plans were optimized for the first 10 patients on both CTs according to 2 dosage levels: 5 × 6.5 Gy (PlanA) and 5 × 8.5 Gy (PlanB). Rectal wall parameters were compared with a dose–volume histogram, and the prostate–rectum separation was measured at 7 levels of the prostate on the center line of the organ. Results: For both plans, the average volume of the rectal wall receiving the 90% isodose line (V90%) was reduced up to 90% after injection. There was no significant difference (P=.32) between doses received by the rectal wall on CT1 and CT2 at the base of the prostate. This variation became significant from the median plane to the apex of the prostate (P=.002). No significant differences were found between PlanA without HA and PlanB with HA for each level of the prostate (P=.77, at the isocenter of the prostate). Conclusions: HA injection significantly reduced the dose to the rectal wall and allowed a dose escalation from 6.5 Gy to 8.5 Gy without increasing the dose to the rectum. A phase 2 study is under way in our department to assess the rate of acute and late rectal toxicities when SBRT (5 × 8.5 Gy) is combined with an injection of HA.

  10. Dose as a Function of Lung Volume and Planned Treatment Volume in Helical Tomotherapy Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy-Based Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Small Lung Tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph M. Baisden; Davis A. Romney; Andrew G. Reish; Jing Cai; Ke Sheng; David R. Jones; Stanley H. Benedict; Paul W. Read; James M.. Larner

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the limitations of Hi-Art Helical Tomotherapy (Middleton, WI) stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung lesions, and to provide an initial report on patients treated with this method. Stereotactic body radiotherapy was shown to be an effective, well-tolerated treatment for early-stage, non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0236 protocol is currently evaluating three-dimensional conformal

  11. EMG trapezius muscle activity pattern in string players: Part II—Influences of basic body awareness therapy on the violin playing technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anncristine Fjellman-Wiklund; Helena Grip; Hans Andersson; Jan Stefan Karlsson; Gunnevi Sundelin

    2004-01-01

    This study used electromyography (EMG) to investigate if violinists could play with a greater variation in the trapezius muscle activity pattern after an 8-week training program with Basic Body Awareness Therapy (Basic BAT), as compared with a reference group. Five professional orchestra violinists who trained Basic BAT were compared to nine violinists working as violin teachers or music students at

  12. Illustrative cases of false positive biopsies after stereotactic body radiation therapy for lung cancer based on abnormal FDG-PET-CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Singhvi, Mamta; Lee, Percy

    2013-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early stage lung cancer has made significant strides as an alternative to surgery.1 We present two cases of non-small cell lung cancer treated with SBRT and then followed serially with imaging in which suspicion of recurrence led to biopsies. PMID:23345491

  13. Illustrative cases of false positive biopsies after stereotactic body radiation therapy for lung cancer based on abnormal FDG-PET-CT imaging

    PubMed Central

    Singhvi, Mamta; Lee, Percy

    2013-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early stage lung cancer has made significant strides as an alternative to surgery.1 We present two cases of non-small cell lung cancer treated with SBRT and then followed serially with imaging in which suspicion of recurrence led to biopsies. PMID:23345491

  14. Changes in Bone Biomarkers, BMC, and Insulin Resistance Following a 10-Week Whole Body Vibration Exercise Program in Overweight Latino Boys

    PubMed Central

    Erceg, David N.; Anderson, Lindsey J.; Nickles, Chun M.; Lane, Christianne J.; Weigensberg, Marc J.; Schroeder, E. Todd

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: With the childhood obesity epidemic, efficient methods of exercise are sought to improve health. We tested whether whole body vibration (WBV) exercise can positively affect bone metabolism and improve insulin/glucose dynamics in sedentary overweight Latino boys. Methods: Twenty Latino boys 8-10 years of age were randomly assigned to either a control (CON) or 3 days/wk WBV exercise (VIB) for 10-wk. Results: Significant increases in BMC (4.5±3.2%; p=0.01) and BMD (1.3±1.3%; p<0.01) were observed for the VIB group when compared to baseline values. For the CON group BMC significantly increased (2.0±2.2%; p=0.02), with no change in BMD (0.8±1.3%; p=0.11). There were no significant between group changes in BMC or BMD. No significant change was observed for osteocalcin and (collagen type I C-telopeptide) CTx for the VIB group. However, osteocalcin showed a decreasing trend (p=0.09) and CTx significantly increased (p<0.03) for the CON group. This increase in CTx was significantly different between groups (p<0.02) and the effect size of between-group difference in change was large (-1.09). There were no significant correlations between osteocalcin and measures of fat mass or insulin resistance for collapsed data. Conclusion: Although bone metabolism was altered by WBV training, no associations were apparent between osteocalcin and insulin resistance. These findings suggest WBV exercise may positively increase BMC and BMD by decreasing bone resorption in overweight Latino boys.

  15. The effects of passive warm-up vs. whole-body vibration on high-intensity performance during sprint cycle exercise.

    PubMed

    Avelar, Núbia C P; Costa, Sidney J; da Fonseca, Sueli F; Tossige-Gomes, Rosalina; Gripp, Fernando J; Coimbra, Cândido C; Lacerda, Ana C R

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of passive warm-up (PW), whole-body vibration (WBV), and control (C) on high-intensity performance during sprint cycle exercise. Six recreationally trained men performed a 30-second sprint cycle test after the 3 aforementioned conditions; each test was carried out on a different day after balanced-order experimental tests. The WBV consisted of 5 minutes of squats associated with WBV (45 Hz, 2 mm). The PW consisted of 30 minutes of PW using a thermal blanket on the thighs and legs (35 W). The C consisted of 30 minutes of no warm-up with the subject lying down. Motor neuron excitability from the vastus lateralis muscle, evaluated by electromyography (EMG), was determined before exercise at rest and during sprint cycle exercise. Blood lactate levels (BLs), evaluated by spectroscopy, and muscle temperature (MT) of the thigh, estimated indirectly by measuring skin temperature, were determined at following time points: before exercise at rest (before and after experimental conditions), immediately, and 3 minutes after the 30-second sprint cycle test. Peak power, relative power, relative work, time of peak power, and pedaling cadence were significantly higher in the WBV compared with that for C (p < 0.05). Although MT was significantly greater in PW compared with that in WBV and C before exercise (p < 0.01), no significant differences were observed between the experimental conditions for BL immediately after sprint cycle exercise (p = 0.35) and in EMG during sprint cycle exercise (p = 0.16). Thus, it is plausible to suggest WBV as a method for an acute increase in high-intensity performance during sprint cycle exercise for athletes immediately before competition or training. PMID:22293678

  16. Ketone body therapy: from the ketogenic diet to the oral administration of ketone ester.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Sami A; VanItallie, Theodore B

    2014-09-01

    Ketone bodies (KBs), acetoacetate and ?-hydroxybutyrate (?HB), were considered harmful metabolic by-products when discovered in the mid-19th century in the urine of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. It took physicians many years to realize that KBs are normal metabolites synthesized by the liver and exported into the systemic circulation to serve as an energy source for most extrahepatic tissues. Studies have shown that the brain (which normally uses glucose for energy) can readily utilize KBs as an alternative fuel. Even when there is diminished glucose utilization in cognition-critical brain areas, as may occur early in Alzheimer's disease (AD), there is preliminary evidence that these same areas remain capable of metabolizing KBs. Because the ketogenic diet (KD) is difficult to prepare and follow, and effectiveness of KB treatment in certain patients may be enhanced by raising plasma KB levels to ?2 mM, KB esters, such as 1,3-butanediol monoester of ?HB and glyceryl-tris-3-hydroxybutyrate, have been devised. When administered orally in controlled dosages, these esters can produce plasma KB levels comparable to those achieved by the most rigorous KD, thus providing a safe, convenient, and versatile new approach to the study and potential treatment of a variety of diseases, including epilepsy, AD, and Parkinson's disease. PMID:24598140

  17. Is Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy an Attractive Option for Unresectable Liver Metastases? A Preliminary Report From a Phase 2 Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Scorsetti, Marta; Arcangeli, Stefano; Tozzi, Angelo; Comito, Tiziana [Radiotherapy and Radiosurgery Department, Humanitas Cancer Center, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milano (Italy)] [Radiotherapy and Radiosurgery Department, Humanitas Cancer Center, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milano (Italy); Alongi, Filippo, E-mail: filippo.alongi@humanitas.it [Radiotherapy and Radiosurgery Department, Humanitas Cancer Center, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milano (Italy)] [Radiotherapy and Radiosurgery Department, Humanitas Cancer Center, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milano (Italy); Navarria, Pierina; Mancosu, Pietro; Reggiori, Giacomo [Radiotherapy and Radiosurgery Department, Humanitas Cancer Center, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milano (Italy)] [Radiotherapy and Radiosurgery Department, Humanitas Cancer Center, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milano (Italy); Fogliata, Antonella [Medical Physics Unit, Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland)] [Medical Physics Unit, Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Torzilli, Guido [Surgery Department, Humanitas Cancer Center, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milano (Italy)] [Surgery Department, Humanitas Cancer Center, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milano (Italy); Tomatis, Stefano [Radiotherapy and Radiosurgery Department, Humanitas Cancer Center, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milano (Italy)] [Radiotherapy and Radiosurgery Department, Humanitas Cancer Center, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milano (Italy); Cozzi, Luca [Medical Physics Unit, Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland)] [Medical Physics Unit, Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of high-dose stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in the treatment of unresectable liver metastases. Methods and Materials: Patients with 1 to 3 liver metastases, with maximum individual tumor diameters less than 6 cm and a Karnofsky Performance Status of at least 70, were enrolled and treated by SBRT on a phase 2 clinical trial. Dose prescription was 75 Gy on 3 consecutive days. SBRT was delivered using the volumetric modulated arc therapy by RapidArc (Varian, Palo Alto, CA) technique. The primary end-point was in-field local control. Secondary end-points were toxicity and survival. Results: Between February 2010 and September 2011, a total of 61 patients with 76 lesions were treated. Among the patients, 21 (34.3%) had stable extrahepatic disease at study entry. The most frequent primary sites were colorectal (45.9%) and breast (18%). Of the patients, 78.7% had 1 lesion, 18.0% had 2 lesions, and 3.3% had 3 lesions. After a median of 12 months (range, 2-26 months), the in-field local response rate was 94%. The median overall survival rate was 19 months, and actuarial survival at 12 months was 83.5%. None of the patients experienced grade 3 or higher acute toxicity. No radiation-induced liver disease was detected. One patient experienced G3 late toxicity at 6 months, resulting from chest wall pain. Conclusions: SBRT for unresectable liver metastases can be considered an effective, safe, and noninvasive therapeutic option, with excellent rates of local control and a low treatment-related toxicity.

  18. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Primary, Recurrent, and Metastatic Tumors in the Head-and-Neck Region

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, Farzan; Patel, Mehul [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Khan, Mumtaz; McLean, Scott [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Dragovic, Jadranka; Jin, J.-Y.; Movsas, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Ryu, Samuel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)], E-mail: sryu1@hfhs.org

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), also known as radiosurgery, in patients with head-and-neck cancers. Methods and Materials: Patients with pathologically proven malignant lesions in the head-and-neck region were treated using single-dose SBRT (S-SBRT) or fractionated SBRT (F-SBRT). Radiation doses were either single-fraction 13-18 Gy for S-SBRT or 36-48 Gy in five to eight fractions for F-SBRT. Response evaluation was based on clinical examinations and computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging scans. Pre- and post-SBRT tumor dimensions were measured in three axes, and tumor volumes were calculated. Response evaluation also was performed using World Health Organization criteria. Results: Fifty-five lesions were treated in 44 patients (25 men, 19 women). There were three groups of patients: those with primary (n = 10), recurrent (n = 21), and metastatic tumors (n = 13). The predominant histologic type was squamous cell carcinoma (n = 33). The majority of lesions were treated using F-SBRT (n = 37). Based on radiographic and clinical assessment, a 77% (complete + partial response) response rate was noted. Percentage of reduction in tumor volume was 52% {+-} 38% based on follow-up scans in 24 patients. Tumor control rates at 1 year were 83.3% and 60.6% in the primary and recurrent groups, respectively. Median overall survival was 28.7, 6.7, and 5.6 months for the primary, recurrent, and metastatic groups, respectively. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 1-2 mucositis was noted in all patients treated for oropharyngeal or laryngeal lesions. Conclusions: The SBRT in single or fractionated doses offers a viable treatment option for selected patients with primary, recurrent, and metastatic head-and-neck cancers with functional preservation.

  19. The effects of vibration on explosive and reactive strength when applying individualized vibration frequencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Riccardo Di Giminiani; Jozsef Tihanyi; Sandor Safar; Renato Scrimaglio

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of 8 weeks of whole-body vibrations on explosive and reactive leg strength. Thirty-three physically active students took part in the study and were randomly assigned to an individualized-vibration group, a fixed-vibration group or a control group. The frequency of vibration was set to 30 Hz for the fixed-vibration group, whereas the

  20. Daily Alignment Results of In-Room Computed Tomography-Guided Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ikushima, Hitoshi; Balter, Peter [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Komaki, Ritsuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Hunjun, Sandeep [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Bucci, M. Kara; Liao Zhongxing; McAleer, Mary F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Yu, Zhiqian H.; Zhang, Yongbin [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Chang, Joe Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Dong, Lei, E-mail: ldong@mdanderson.or [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the extent of interfractional setup errors and day-to-day organ motion errors by assessing daily bone alignment results and changes in soft tissue tumor position during hypofractionated, in-room computed tomography (CT)-guided stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Daily alignment results during SBRT were analyzed for 117 tumors in 112 patients. Patients received 40-50 Gy of SBRT in four to five fractions using an integrated CT-LINAC system. The free-breathing CT scans acquired during treatment setup were retrospectively realigned to match with each of the bony references and the gross tumor volume (GTV) defined on the reference CT by rigid-body registration, and the daily deviations were calculated. Results: The mean magnitude ({+-} SD) three-dimensional shift from the initial skin marks to the final bone-aligned positions was 9.4 {+-} 5.7 mm. The mean daily GTV deviation from the bone position was 0.1 {+-} 3.8 mm in the anterior-posterior direction, -0.01 {+-} 4.2 mm in the superior-inferior direction, and 0.2 {+-} 2.5 mm in the lateral direction. A clinically noteworthy trend (net change >5 mm in any direction) in GTV position relative to the bone was observed in 23 cases (20%). Conclusions: Soft tissue target position can change significantly beyond the motion envelope defined in the original internal target volume in four-dimensional CT-based treatment planning for SBRT of lung cancer. Additional margin should be considered for adequate coverage of interfractional changes.

  1. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Centrally and Superiorly Located Stage I or Isolated Recurrent Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Joe Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)], E-mail: jychang@mdanderson.org; Balter, Peter A.; Dong Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Yang Qiuan; Liao Zhongxing; Jeter, Melenda; Bucci, M. Kara; McAleer, Mary F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Mehran, Reza J.; Roth, Jack A. [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Komaki, Ritsuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of image-guided stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in centrally/superiorly located non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and Methods: We delivered SBRT to 27 patients, 13 with Stage I and 14 with isolated recurrent NSCLC. A central/superior location was defined as being within 2 cm of the bronchial tree, major vessels, esophagus, heart, trachea, pericardium, brachial plexus, or vertebral body, but 1 cm away from the spinal canal. All patients underwent four-dimensional computed tomography-based planning, and daily computed tomography-on-rail guided SBRT. The prescribed dose of 40 Gy (n = 7) to the planning target volume was escalated to 50 Gy (n = 20) in 4 consecutive days. Results: With a median follow-up of 17 months (range, 6-40 months), the crude local control at the treated site was 100% using 50 Gy. However, 3 of 7 patients had local recurrences when treated using 40 Gy. Of the patients with Stage I disease, 1 (7.7%) and 2 (15.4%) developed mediastinal lymph node metastasis and distant metastases, respectively. Of the patients with recurrent disease, 3 (21.4%) and 5 (35.7%) developed mediastinal lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis, respectively. Four patients (28.6%) with recurrent disease but none with Stage I disease developed Grade 2 pneumonitis. Three patients (11.1%) developed Grade 2-3 dermatitis and chest wall pain. One patient developed brachial plexus neuropathy. No esophagitis was noted in any patient. Conclusions: Image-guided SBRT using 50 Gy delivered in four fractions is feasible and resulted in excellent local control.

  2. Chronic activity-based therapy does not improve body composition, insulin-like growth factor-I, adiponectin, or myostatin in persons with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Astorino, Todd A; Harness, Eric T; Witzke, Kara A

    2014-08-17

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces dramatic changes in body composition including reductions in fat-free mass (FFM) and increases in fat mass (FM). Objective To examine changes in body composition in response to chronic activity-based therapy (ABT) in persons with SCI. Design Longitudinal exercise intervention. Methods Seventeen men and women with SCI (mean age = 36.1 ± 11.5 years) completed 6 months of supervised ABT consisting of load bearing, resistance training, locomotor training, and functional electrical stimulation. At baseline and after 3 and 6 months of ABT, body weight, body fat, and FFM were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and fasting blood samples were obtained to assess changes in insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), adiponectin, and myostatin. Results Across all subjects, there was no change (P > 0.05) in body weight, percent body fat, or FFM of the leg, arm, or trunk, whereas whole-body FFM declined (P = 0.02, 50.4 ± 8.4 to 49.2 ± 7.4 kg). No changes (P = 0.21-0.41) were demonstrated in IGF-I, adiponectin, or myostatin during the study. Conclusions Chronic ABT focusing on the lower extremity does not slow muscle atrophy or alter body fat, body mass, or regional depots of FFM in persons with SCI. Further, it does not induce beneficial changes in adiponectin, myostatin, or IGF-I. Alternative exercise-based therapies are needed in SCI to reverse muscle atrophy and minimize the onset of related health risks. PMID:25130192

  3. Qigong as a Traditional Vegetative Biofeedback Therapy: Long-Term Conditioning of Physiological Mind-Body Effects

    PubMed Central

    Matos, Luís Carlos; Sousa, Cláudia Maria; Gonçalves, Mário; Gabriel, Joaquim; Machado, Jorge; Greten, Henry Johannes

    2015-01-01

    A contemporary understanding of Chinese Medicine (CM) regards CM diagnosis as a functional vegetative state that may be treated by vegetative reflex therapies such as acupuncture. Within this context, traditional mind-body exercises such as Qigong can be understood as an attempt to enhance physiological proprioception, by combining a special state of “awareness” with posture, movement, and breath control. We have formerly trained young auditing flutists in “White Ball” Qigong to minimize anxiety-induced cold hands and lower anxiety-induced heart rate. Functional changes occurred 2–5?min after training and were observed over the whole training program, allowing the children to control their symptoms. In our current work, we report that warm fingers and calm hearts could be induced by the children even without Qigong exercises. Thus, these positive changes once induced and “conditioned” vegetatively were stable after weeks of training. This may show the mechanism by which Qigong acts as a therapeutic measure in disease: positive vegetative pathways may be activated instead of dysfunctional functional patterns. The positive vegetative patterns then may be available in critical stressful situations. Qigong exercise programs may therefore be understood as an ancient vegetative biofeedback exercise inducing positive vegetative functions which are added to the individual reactive repertoire. PMID:26137485

  4. String Vibrations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Davidhazy, Andrew

    This site, by Andrew Davidhazy at the Rochester Institute of Technology, describes how to make interesting and artistic photographs of a vibrating string. Davidhazy explains how the string is vibrated, how the string is lit, and even the exposure time and the effect it has on the resulting image. Four images of the vibrating string are included.

  5. Oxygen Therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    Oxygen therapy is a treatment that provides you with extra oxygen. Oxygen is a gas that your body needs to function. Normally, your lungs absorb ... in your home. A different kind of oxygen therapy is called hyperbaric oxygen therapy. It uses oxygen ...

  6. Potentials and Limitations of Guiding Liver Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Set-Up on Liver-Implanted Fiducial Markers

    SciTech Connect

    Wunderink, Wouter, E-mail: w.wunderink@erasmusmc.n [Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Groene Hilledijk 301, 3008AE Rotterdam (Netherlands); Mendez Romero, Alejandra; Seppenwoolde, Yvette; Boer, Hans de; Levendag, Peter; Heijmen, Ben [Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Groene Hilledijk 301, 3008AE Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: We investigated the potentials and limitations of guiding liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) set-up on liver-implanted fiducial markers. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients undergoing compression-supported SBRT in a stereotactic body frame received fluoroscopy at treatment preparation and before each treatment fraction. In fluoroscopic videos we localized the markers and diaphragm tip at expiration and the spine (measurements on free-breathing and abdominal compression). Day-to-day displacements, rotations (markers only), and deformations were determined. Marker guidance was compared to conventional set-up strategies in treatment set-up simulations. Results: For compression, day-to-day motion of markers with respect to their centers of mass (COM) was {sigma} = 0.9 mm (random error SD), {Sigma} = 0.4 mm (systematic error SD), and <2.1 mm (maximum). Consequently, assuming that markers were closely surrounding spherical tumors, marker COM-guided set-up would have required safety margins of {approx}2 mm. Using marker COM as the gold standard, other set-up methods (using no correction, spine registration, and diaphragm tip craniocaudal registration) resulted in set-up errors of 1.4 mm < {sigma} < 2.8 mm, 2.6 mm < {Sigma} < 5.1 mm, and 6.3 mm < max < 12.4 mm. Day-to-day intermarker motion of <16.7%, 2.2% median, and rotations between 3.5{sup o} and 7.2{sup o} were observed. For markers not surrounding the tumor, e.g., 5 cm between respective COMs, these changes could effect residual tumor set-up errors up to 8.4 mm, 1.1 mm median (deformations), and 3.1 mm to 6.3 mm (rotations). Compression did not systematically contribute to deformations and rotations, since similar results were observed for free-breathing. Conclusions: If markers can be implanted near and around the tumor, residual set-up errors by marker guidance are small compared to those of conventional set-up methods, allowing high-precision tumor radiation set-up. However, substantial errors may result if markers are not implanted precisely, requiring further research to obtain adequate safety margins.

  7. Effects of Mind-Body Therapy on Quality of Life and Neuroendocrine and Cellular Immune Functions in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sigrid Elsenbruch; Jost Langhorst; Kalina Popkirowa; Twyla Müller; Rainer Luedtke; Ulla Franken; Anna Paul; Günther Spahn; Andreas Michalsen; Onno E. Janssen; Manfred Schedlowski; Gustav Dobos

    2005-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mind-body therapy on neuroendocrine and cellular immune measures, health-related quality of life and disease activity in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) in remission. Methods: Thirty UC patients in remission or with low disease activity were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n = 15) or a usual-care waiting

  8. Helical Tomotherapy-Based STAT Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: Dosimetric Evaluation for a Real-Time SBRT Treatment Planning and Delivery Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neal Dunlap; Alyson McIntosh; Ke Sheng; Wensha Yang; Benton Turner; Asal Shoushtari; Jason Sheehan; David R. Jones; Weigo Lu; Keneth Ruchala; Gustavo Olivera; Donald Parnell; James L. Larner; Stanley H. Benedict; Paul W. Read

    2010-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) treatments have high-dose gradients and even slight patient misalignment from the simulation to treatment could lead to target underdosing or organ at risk (OAR) overdosing. Daily real-time SBRT treatment planning could minimize the risk of geographic miss. As an initial step toward determining the clinical feasibility of developing real-time SBRT treatment planning, we determined the

  9. Prostate-specific antigen kinetics after primary stereotactic body radiation therapy using CyberKnife for localized prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong Hyun; Choi, In Young; Yoon, Sei Chul; Jang, Hong Seok; Moon, Hyong Woo; Hong, Sung-Hoo; Kim, Sae Woong; Hwang, Tae-Kon; Lee, Ji Youl

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics and report on the oncologic outcomes for patients with localized prostate cancer treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) using CyberKnife. Methods We extracted the list and data of 39 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer who had undergone primary SBRT using CyberKnife between January 2008 and December 2012 from the Smart Prostate Cancer database system of Seoul St. Mary's Hospital. Changes in PSA over time, PSA velocity, and PSA nadir were evaluated from the completion of SBRT using CyberKnife. Biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free survival after primary SBRT using CyberKnife was determined using Kaplan–Meier analysis. Results The rate of PSA decrease was maximal in the first month (median ?3.34 ng/mL/mo), which then fell gradually with median values of ?1.51, ?0.32, ?0.28, ?0.20, and ?0.03 ng/mL/mo for durations of 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 months after SBRT using CyberKnife, respectively. The median PSA nadir was 0.31 ng/mL after a median 23 months. Kaplan–Meier analysis calculates an actuarial 5-year BCR-free survival after SBRT using CyberKnife as 80.8%. Conclusions PSA decline occurred rapidly in the first month, and then the rate of PSA decline fell off steadily over time throughout 2 years after treatment. Also, SBRT using CyberKnife leads to long-term favorable BCR-free survival in localized prostate cancer.

  10. Integral dose and radiation-induced secondary malignancies: comparison between stereotactic body radiation therapy and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    D'Arienzo, Marco; Masciullo, Stefano G; de Sanctis, Vitaliana; Osti, Mattia F; Chiacchiararelli, Laura; Enrici, Riccardo M

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present paper is to compare the integral dose received by non-tumor tissue (NTID) in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) with modified LINAC with that received by three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), estimating possible correlations between NTID and radiation-induced secondary malignancy risk. Eight patients with intrathoracic lesions were treated with SBRT, 23 Gy × 1 fraction. All patients were then replanned for 3D-CRT, maintaining the same target coverage and applying a dose scheme of 2 Gy × 32 fractions. The dose equivalence between the different treatment modalities was achieved assuming ?/? = 10 Gy for tumor tissue and imposing the same biological effective dose (BED) on the target (BED = 76 Gy(10)). Total NTIDs for both techniques was calculated considering ?/? = 3 Gy for healthy tissue. Excess absolute cancer risk (EAR) was calculated for various organs using a mechanistic model that includes fractionation effects. A paired two-tailed Student t-test was performed to determine statistically significant differences between the data (p ? 0.05). Our study indicates that despite the fact that for all patients integral dose is higher for SBRT treatments than 3D-CRT (p = 0.002), secondary cancer risk associated to SBRT patients is significantly smaller than that calculated for 3D-CRT (p = 0.001). This suggests that integral dose is not a good estimator for quantifying cancer induction. Indeed, for the model and parameters used, hypofractionated radiotherapy has the potential for secondary cancer reduction. The development of reliable secondary cancer risk models seems to be a key issue in fractionated radiotherapy. Further assessments of integral doses received with 3D-CRT and other special techniques are also strongly encouraged. PMID:23202843

  11. Guaranteed epsilon-optimal treatment plans with the minimum number of beams for stereotactic body radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarmand, Hamed; Winey, Brian; Craft, David

    2013-09-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is characterized by delivering a high amount of dose in a short period of time. In SBRT the dose is delivered using open fields (e.g., beam’s-eye-view) known as ‘apertures’. Mathematical methods can be used for optimizing treatment planning for delivery of sufficient dose to the cancerous cells while keeping the dose to surrounding organs at risk (OARs) minimal. Two important elements of a treatment plan are quality and delivery time. Quality of a plan is measured based on the target coverage and dose to OARs. Delivery time heavily depends on the number of beams used in the plan as the setup times for different beam directions constitute a large portion of the delivery time. Therefore the ideal plan, in which all potential beams can be used, will be associated with a long impractical delivery time. We use the dose to OARs in the ideal plan to find the plan with the minimum number of beams which is guaranteed to be epsilon-optimal (i.e., a predetermined maximum deviation from the ideal plan is guaranteed). Since the treatment plan optimization is inherently a multi-criteria-optimization problem, the planner can navigate the ideal dose distribution Pareto surface and select a plan of desired target coverage versus OARs sparing, and then use the proposed technique to reduce the number of beams while guaranteeing epsilon-optimality. We use mixed integer programming (MIP) for optimization. To reduce the computation time for the resultant MIP, we use two heuristics: a beam elimination scheme and a family of heuristic cuts, known as ‘neighbor cuts’, based on the concept of ‘adjacent beams’. We show the effectiveness of the proposed technique on two clinical cases, a liver and a lung case. Based on our technique we propose an algorithm for fast generation of epsilon-optimal plans.

  12. Implementation and Acceptability of Mindful Awareness in Body-Oriented Therapy in Women's Substance Use Disorder Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Elizabeth A.; Donovan, Dennis M.; Brooks, Marissa

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation and acceptability of Mindful Awareness in Body-oriented Therapy (MABT), a novel adjunctive approach to substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. The primary aims of the study were to examine implementation of MABT as an adjunct to addiction treatment, and MABT acceptability to study participants and treatment staff. Methods MABT was delivered to participants randomly assigned to the intervention in a larger ongoing trial. This study focuses only on the implementation and acceptability of the intervention, as outcomes are not yet available. MABT was delivered once weekly for 8 weeks (1.5-hour sessions) and spanned inpatient and outpatient programs at a women-only treatment facility. Descriptive statistics were used to examine participant recruitment and retention to the intervention. To measure MABT acceptability, survey and written questionnaires were administered; analysis involved descriptive statistics and content analysis using Atlas.ti software. Results Thirty-one (31) of the women enrolled in the study were randomized to MABT. Eighteen (18) participants completed 75%–100% of the MABT sessions. Intervention implementation required flexibility on the part of both the researchers and the clinic staff, and minor changes were made to successfully implement MABT as an adjunct to usual care. MABT was perceived to increase emotional awareness and provide new tools to cope with stress, and to positively influence SUD treatment by facilitating emotion regulation. Conclusions It was feasible to implement MABT and to recruit and retain women to MABT in women's chemical-dependency treatment. MABT acceptability and perceived benefit was high. PMID:22524991

  13. Clinical applicability of biologically effective dose calculation for spinal cord in fractionated spine stereotactic body radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Heon; Lee, Kyu Chan; Choi, Jinho; Ahn, So Hyun; Lee, Seok Ho; Sung, Ki Hoon; Kil, Se Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to investigate whether biologically effective dose (BED) based on linear-quadratic model can be used to estimate spinal cord tolerance dose in spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) delivered in 4 or more fractions. Patients and methods. Sixty-three metastatic spinal lesions in 47 patients were retrospectively evaluated. The most frequently prescribed dose was 36 Gy in 4 fractions. In planning, we tried to limit the maximum dose to the spinal cord or cauda equina less than 50% of prescription or 45 Gy2/2. BED was calculated using maximum point dose of spinal cord. Results. Maximum spinal cord dose per fraction ranged from 2.6 to 6.0 Gy (median 4.3 Gy). Except 4 patients with 52.7, 56.4, 62.4, and 67.9 Gy2/2, equivalent total dose in 2-Gy fraction of the patients was not more than 50 Gy2/2 (12.1–67.9, median 32.0). The ratio of maximum spinal cord dose to prescription dose increased up to 82.2% of prescription dose as epidural spinal cord compression grade increased. No patient developed grade 2 or higher radiation-induced spinal cord toxicity during follow-up period of 0.5 to 53.9 months. Conclusions. In fractionated spine SBRT, BED can be used to estimate spinal cord tolerance dose, provided that the dose per fraction to the spinal cord is moderate, e.g. < 6.0 Gy. It appears that a maximum dose of up to 45–50 Gy2/2 to the spinal cord is tolerable in 4 or more fractionation regimen.

  14. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Early-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: The Pattern of Failure Is Distant

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jbradley@wustl.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine and Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, St. Louis, MO (United States); El Naqa, Issam; Drzymala, Robert E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine and the Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, St. Louis, MO (United States); Trovo, Marco [Department of Radiation Oncology at the Oncologic Referral Center of Aviano (Italy); Jones, Griffin; Denning, Mary Dee [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine and the Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Background: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) represents a substantial paradigm shift in the treatment of patients with medically inoperable Stage I/II non-small-cell lung cancer. We reviewed our experience using either three- or five-fraction SBRT for peripheral or central tumors, respectively. Methods and Materials: A total of 91 patients signed an institutional review board-approved consent form, were treated with SBRT, and have had {>=}6 months of follow-up. Patients were referred for SBRT because of underlying comorbidities (poor performance status in 31 or poor lung function in 52) or refusal of surgery (8 patients). Of the cancers, 83 were peripheral and eight were central. Peripheral cancers received a mean dose of 18 Gy x three fractions. Cancers within 2 cm of the bronchus, esophagus, or brachial plexus were treated with 9 Gy x five fractions. Results: The median follow-up duration for these patients was 18 months (range, 6-42 months). TNM staging was as follows: 58 patients with T1N0M0, 22 with T2N0M0, 2 with T3N0M0 (chest wall), and 6 with T1N0M1 cancers. The median tumor diameter was 2 cm (range, 1-5 cm). The median forced expiratory volume in 1 s was 46% (range, 17-133%) and the median carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO) was 49% (range, 15-144%). Two-year local tumor control was achieved in 86% of patients. The predominant pattern of failure was the development of distant metastasis or second lung cancer. The development of distant metastasis was the only significant prognostic factor for overall survival on multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Local tumor control was shown to be high using SBRT for non-small-cell lung cancer. Overall survival is highly coerrelated with the development of distant metastasis.

  15. Application of a whole-body pharmacokinetic model for targeted radionuclide therapy to NM404 and FLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grudzinski, Joseph J.; Floberg, John M.; Mudd, Sarah R.; Jeffery, Justin J.; Peterson, Eric T.; Nomura, Alice; Burnette, Ronald R.; Tomé, Wolfgang A.; Weichert, Jamey P.; Jeraj, Robert

    2012-03-01

    We have previously developed a model that provides relative dosimetry estimates for targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) agents. The whole-body and tumor pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of this model can be noninvasively measured with molecular imaging, providing a means of comparing potential TRT agents. Parameter sensitivities and noise will affect the accuracy and precision of the estimated PK values and hence dosimetry estimates. The aim of this work is to apply a PK model for TRT to two agents with different magnitudes of clearance rates, NM404 and FLT, explore parameter sensitivity with respect to time and investigate the effect of noise on parameter precision and accuracy. Twenty-three tumor bearing mice were injected with a ‘slow-clearing’ agent, 124I-NM404 (n = 10), or a ‘fast-clearing’ agent, 18F-FLT (3?-deoxy-3?-fluorothymidine) (n = 13) and imaged via micro-PET/CT pseudo-dynamically or dynamically, respectively. Regions of interest were drawn within the heart and tumor to create time-concentration curves for blood pool and tumor. PK analysis was performed to estimate the mean and standard error of the central compartment efflux-to-influx ratio (k12/k21), central elimination rate constant (kel), and tumor influx-to-efflux ratio (k34/k43), as well as the mean and standard deviation of the dosimetry estimates. NM404 and FLT parameter estimation results were used to analyze model accuracy and parameter sensitivity. The accuracy of the experimental sampling schedule was compared to that of an optimal sampling schedule found using Cramer-Rao lower bounds theory. Accuracy was assessed using correlation coefficient, bias and standard error of the estimate normalized to the mean (SEE/mean). The PK parameter estimation of NM404 yielded a central clearance, kel (0.009 ± 0.003 h-1), normal body retention, k12/k21 (0.69 ± 0.16), tumor retention, k34/k43 (1.44 ± 0.46) and predicted dosimetry, Dtumor (3.47 ± 1.24 Gy). The PK parameter estimation of FLT yielded a central elimination rate constant, kel (0.050 ± 0.025 min-1), normal body retention, k12/k21 (2.21 ± 0.62) and tumor retention, k34/k43 (0.65 ± 0.17), and predicted dosimetry, Dtumor (0.61 ± 0.20 Gy). Compared to experimental sampling, optimal sampling decreases the dosimetry bias and SEE/mean for NM404; however, it increases bias and decreases SEE/mean for FLT. For both NM404 and FLT, central compartment efflux rate constant, k12, and central compartment influx rate constant, k21, possess mirroring sensitivities at relatively early time points. The instantaneous concentration in the blood, C0, was most sensitive at early time points; central elimination, kel, and tumor efflux, k43, are most sensitive at later time points. A PK model for TRT was applied to both a slow-clearing, NM404, and a fast-clearing, FLT, agents in a xenograft murine model. NM404 possesses more favorable PK values according to the PK TRT model. The precise and accurate measurement of k12, k21, kel, k34 and k43 will translate into improved and precise dosimetry estimations. This work will guide the future use of this PK model for assessing the relative effectiveness of potential TRT agents.

  16. An analytic model of the in-line and cross-axis apparent mass of the seated human body exposed to vertical vibration with and without a backrest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangtai Zheng; Yi Qiu; Michael J Griffin

    2011-01-01

    During vertical excitation of the seated human body there are vertical and fore-and-aft forces at the seat that are influenced by contact with a backrest, so it is desirable to take into account the effect of a backrest when developing models of the seated human body. Initially, a seven degree-of-freedom multi-body dynamic model was developed for the human body sitting

  17. Radiation-Induced Rib Fractures After Hypofractionated Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: Risk Factors and Dose-Volume Relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Asai, Kaori [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Shioyama, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: shioyama@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Nakamura, Katsumasa; Sasaki, Tomonari; Ohga, Saiji; Nonoshita, Takeshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Yoshitake, Tadamasa [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Ohnishi, Kayoko [Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Terashima, Kotaro; Matsumoto, Keiji [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Hirata, Hideki [Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Honda, Hiroshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to clarify the incidence, the clinical risk factors, and the dose-volume relationship of radiation-induced rib fracture (RIRF) after hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: One hundred sixteen patients treated with SBRT for primary or metastatic lung cancer at our institution, with at least 6 months of follow-up and no previous overlapping radiation exposure, were included in this study. To determine the clinical risk factors associated with RIRF, correlations between the incidence of RIRF and the variables, including age, sex, diagnosis, gross tumor volume diameter, rib-tumor distance, and use of steroid administration, were analyzed. Dose-volume histogram analysis was also conducted. Regarding the maximum dose, V10, V20, V30, and V40 of the rib, and the incidences of RIRF were compared between the two groups divided by the cutoff value determined by the receiver operating characteristic curves. Results: One hundred sixteen patients and 374 ribs met the inclusion criteria. Among the 116 patients, 28 patients (46 ribs) experienced RIRF. The estimated incidence of rib fracture was 37.7% at 3 years. Limited distance from the rib to the tumor (<2.0 cm) was the only significant risk factor for RIRF (p = 0.0001). Among the dosimetric parameters used for receiver operating characteristic analysis, the maximum dose showed the highest area under the curve. The 3-year estimated risk of RIRF and the determined cutoff value were 45.8% vs. 1.4% (maximum dose, {>=}42.4 Gy or less), 51.6% vs. 2.0% (V40, {>=}0.29 cm{sup 3} or less), 45.8% vs. 2.2% (V30, {>=}1.35 cm{sup 3} or less), 42.0% vs. 8.5% (V20, {>=}3.62 cm{sup 3} or less), or 25.9% vs. 10.5% (V10, {>=}5.03 cm{sup 3} or less). Conclusions: The incidence of RIRF after hypofractionated SBRT is relatively high. The maximum dose and high-dose volume are strongly correlated with RIRF.

  18. Recursive Partitioning Analysis Index Is Predictive for Overall Survival in Patients Undergoing Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Spinal Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Samuel T., E-mail: chaos@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Koyfman, Shlomo A.; Woody, Neil [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Angelov, Lilyana [Department of Neurosurgery, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Soeder, Sherry L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Reddy, Chandana A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Rybicki, Lisa A. [Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Djemil, Toufik [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Suh, John H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To generate a prognostic index using recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) for patients undergoing spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (sSBRT) for spinal metastases (sMet). Methods and Materials: From an institutional review board-approved database, 174 patients were treated for sMet with sSBRT between February 2006 and August 2009. Median dose was 14 Gy (range, 8-24 Gy), typically in a single fraction (range, 1-5). Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to detect any correlation between survival and histology. Histologies were divided into favorable (breast and prostate), radioresistant (renal cell, melanoma and sarcoma), and other (all other histologies). RPA was performed to identify any association of the following variables with overall survival (OS) following sSBRT: histology, gender, age, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), control of primary, extraosseous metastases, time from primary diagnosis (TPD), dose of sSBRT ({<=}14 Gy vs. >14 Gy), extent of spine disease (epidural only, bone and epidural, bone only), upfront or salvage treatment, presence of paraspinal extension, and previous surgery. Results: Median follow-up was 8.9 months. Median OS time from sSBRT was 10.7 months. Median OS intervals for favorable histologies were 14 months, 11.2 months for radioresistant histologies, and 7.3 months for other histologies (p = 0.02). RPA analysis resulted in three classes (p < 0.0001). Class 1 was defined as TPD of >30 months and KPS of >70; Class 2 was TPD of >30 months and KPS of {<=}70 or a TPD of {<=}30 months and age <70 years old; Class 3 was TPD of {<=}30 months and age {>=}70 years old. Median OS was 21.1 months for Class 1 (n = 59), 8.7 months for Class 2 (n = 104), and 2.4 months for Class 3 (n = 11). Conclusion: sSBRT patients treated for sMet have a wide variability in OS. We developed an RPA classification system that is predictive of OS. While many patients are treated for palliation of pain or to avoid symptomatic progression, this index may be used to predict which patients may benefit most from sSBRT.

  19. Vibration isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on vibration isolation are presented. Techniques to control and isolate centrifuge disturbances were identified. Topics covered include: disturbance sources in the microgravity environment; microgravity assessment criteria; life sciences centrifuge; flight support equipment for launch; active vibration isolation system; active balancing system; and fuzzy logic control.

  20. Good Vibrations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    OMSI

    2004-01-01

    In this activity, learners experiment with their voices and noisemakers to understand the connections between vibrations and the sounds created by those vibrations. This resource includes three quick demonstration activities that can be used independently or as a group to introduce learners to the basic elements of sound.

  1. "When in the body, it makes you look fat and HIV negative": the constitution of antiretroviral therapy in local discourse among youth in Kahe, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ezekiel, Mangi Job; Talle, Aud; Juma, James M; Klepp, Knut-Inge

    2009-03-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is becoming increasingly more accessible within the health care system in Tanzania. However, the impact of the increased availability of ART on local conceptions about medicines, health and physical wellbeing has not been fully explored. In this article we examine how ART is constituted within local discourses about treatment and healing. Based on 21 focus group discussions with young people aged 14-24 years in a rural area (Kahe), we examine how local terms and descriptions of antiretroviral therapy relate to wider definitions about the body, health, illness and drug efficacy. Findings illustrate how local understandings of ART draw on a wider discourse about the therapeutic functions of medicines and clinical dimensions of HIV/AIDS. Therapeutic efficacy of antiretroviral medication appeared to overlap and sometimes contradict locally shared understandings of the clinical functions of medicines in the body. Implications of ART on bodily appearance and HIV signs may influence conceptions about sick role, perpetuate stigma and affect local strategies for HIV prevention. Structural inequities in access, limited information on therapeutic efficacy of ART and perceived difficulties with status disclosure appear to inform local conceptions and possible implications of ART. Policy and programme interventions to foster public understanding and acceptability of ART should emphasize treatment education about the benefits and limitations of therapy and increased access to ART in rural areas, and should integrate voluntary status disclosure and HIV prevention. PMID:19136190

  2. Control of nonlinear vibrations of vibrating ring microgyroscope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. G. Martynenko; I. V. Merkuryev; V. V. Podalkov

    2008-01-01

    The influence of the basement rotation on the variations in the spectrum of vibration frequencies of thin elastic shells and\\u000a rings was known already at the end of the 19th century [1]. The physical phenomenon of inertness of elastic waves occurring\\u000a free vibrations of an axisymmetric body, first explained in [2], were practically used in developing new types of gyros

  3. 20Hz whole body vibration training fails to counteract the decrease in leg muscle volume caused by 14 days of 6° head down tilt bed rest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen Zange; Joachim Mester; Martina Heer; Götz Kluge; Anna-Maria Liphardt

    2009-01-01

    A 6° head down tilt bed rest (HDT) was used to simulate the effects of muscle unloading in space. We tested whether vibration\\u000a training (VT) reduces the decrease in leg muscle volume induced by 14 days HDT. In two study phases eight healthy male subjects\\u000a received both (1) HDT and VT or (2) HDT and a control intervention. Twice daily five

  4. Radiation Therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... esophagitis . Since your body uses a lot of energy to heal during radiation therapy, it is important ... surprised if you are more tired, have less energy, or feel weak. Once you have finished treatment, ...

  5. Comparative Efficacies of Cloxacillin-Daptomycin and the Standard Cloxacillin-Rifampin Therapies against an Experimental Foreign-Body Infection by Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Murillo, Oscar; Ribera, Alba; Vivas, Mireia; Garcia-Somoza, Dolors; Tubau, Fe; Cabo, Javier; Ariza, Javier

    2014-01-01

    We compared the efficacies of daptomycin (doses equivalent to 8 to 10 mg/kg of body weight/day in humans) and cloxacillin alone with those of cloxacillin-rifampin and cloxacillin-daptomycin combinations, using a tissue cage methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infection model. Monotherapies were less effective than combinations (P < 0.05), and daptomycin resistance emerged. Cloxacillin-daptomycin proved as effective as cloxacillin-rifampin and prevented the appearance of resistance; this combination may be an alternative anti-MSSA therapy, which may offer greater benefits in the early treatment of prosthetic joint infections (PJI). PMID:24957833

  6. Vibration on board and health effects.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Anker; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2014-01-01

    There is only limited knowledge of the exposure to vibrations of ships' crews and their risk of vibration-induced health effects. Exposure to hand-arm vibrations from the use of vibrating tools at sea does not differ from that in the land-based trades. However, in contrast to most other work places, seafarers are also exposed to vibrations to the feet when standing on vibrating surfaces on board. Anecdotal reports have related the development of "white feet" to local exposure to vibration, e.g. in mining, but this connection has not been investigated in the maritime setting. As known from studies of the health consequences of whole body vibrations in land-transportation, such exposure at sea may affect ships' passengers and crews. While the relation of back disorders to high levels of whole body vibration has been demonstrated among e.g. tractor drivers, there are no reported epidemiological evidence for such relation among seafarers except for fishermen, who, however, are also exposed to additional recognised physical risk factors at work. The assessment and reduction of vibrations by naval architects relates to technical implications of this impact for the ships' construction, but has limited value for the estimation of health risks because they express the vibration intensity differently that it is done in a medical context. PMID:25231326

  7. Quantification and Minimization of Uncertainties of Internal Target Volume for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ge Hong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Henan Cancer Hospital, the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan (China); Cai Jing; Kelsey, Chris R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Yin Fangfang, E-mail: fangfang.yin@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To quantify uncertainties in delineating an internal target volume (ITV) and to understand how these uncertainties may be individually minimized for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Twenty patients with NSCLC who were undergoing SBRT were imaged with free-breathing 3-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) and 10-phase 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) for delineating gross tumor volume (GTV){sub 3D} and ITV{sub 10Phase} (ITV3). The maximum intensity projection (MIP) CT was also calculated from 10-phase 4DCT for contouring ITV{sub MIP} (ITV1). Then, ITV{sub COMB} (ITV2), ITV{sub 10Phase+GTV3D} (ITV4), and ITV{sub 10Phase+ITVCOMB} (ITV5) were generated by combining ITV{sub MIP} and GTV{sub 3D}, ITV{sub 10phase} and GTV{sub 3D}, and ITV{sub 10phase} and ITV{sub COMB}, respectively. All 6 volumes (GTV{sub 3D} and ITV1 to ITV5) were delineated in the same lung window by the same radiation oncologist. The percentage of volume difference (PVD) between any 2 different volumes was determined and was correlated to effective tumor diameter (ETD), tumor motion ranges, R{sub 3D}, and the amplitude variability of the recorded breathing signal (v) to assess their volume variations. Results: The mean (range) tumor motion (R{sub SI}, R{sub AP}, R{sub ML}, and R{sub 3D}) and breathing variability (v) were 7.6 mm (2-18 mm), 4.0 mm (2-8 mm), 3.3 mm (0-7.5 mm), 9.9 mm (4.1-18.7 mm), and 0.17 (0.07-0.37), respectively. The trend of volume variation was GTV{sub 3D} =}0.503, P{<=}.047). The PVDs for pairs of ITV2 vs ITV5 and ITV5 vs ITV4 negatively correlated with ETD (r=0.502, -0.626; P=.047, .010). No other correlation was found. Conclusion: Uncertainties in individualized ITVs for SBRT of early stage NSCLC could effectively be minimized by combining information from 3DCT, 4DCT, and MIP. If these images cannot be efficiently contoured, a combination of ITV{sub MIP} and GTV{sub 3D} could be an effective alternative.

  8. Vibration sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Amita; Singh, Ranvir; Ahmad, Amir; Kumar, Mahesh

    2003-10-01

    Today, vibration sensors with low and medium sensitivities are in great demand. Their applications include robotics, navigation, machine vibration monitoring, isolation of precision equipment & activation of safety systems e.g. airbags in automobiles. Vibration sensors have been developed at SSPL, using silicon micromachining to sense vibrations in a system in the 30 - 200 Hz frequency band. The sensing element in the silicon vibration sensor is a seismic mass suspended by thin silicon hinges mounted on a metallized glass plate forming a parallel plate capacitor. The movement of the seismic mass along the vertical axis is monitored to sense vibrations. This is obtained by measuring the change in capacitance. The movable plate of the parallel plate capacitor is formed by a block connected to a surrounding frame by four cantilever beams located on sides or corners of the seismic mass. This element is fabricated by silicon micromachining. Several sensors in the chip sizes 1.6 cm x 1.6 cm, 1 cm x 1 cm and 0.7 cm x 0.7 cm have been fabricated. Work done on these sensors, techniques used in processing and silicon to glass bonding are presented in the paper. Performance evaluation of these sensors is also discussed.

  9. The Potential Benefits and Inherent Risks of Vibration as a Non-Drug Therapy for the Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, M. Ete; Uzer, Gunes; Rubin, Clinton T.

    2013-01-01

    The delivery of mechanical signals to the skeleton using vibration is being considered as a non-drug treatment of osteoporosis. Delivered over a range of magnitudes and frequencies, vibration has been shown to be both anabolic and anti-catabolic to the musculoskeletal tissues, yet caution must be emphasized as these mechanical signals, particularly chronic exposure to higher intensities, is a known pathogen to many physiological systems. In contrast, accumulating preclinical and clinical evidence indicates that low intensity vibration (LIV) improves bone quality through regulating the activity of cells responsible for bone remodeling, as well as biasing the differentiation fate of their mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cell progenitors. In vitro studies provide insights into the biologic mechanisms of LIV, and indicate that cells respond to these low magnitude signals through a distinct mechanism driven not by matrix strain but acceleration. These cell, animal and human studies may represent the foundation of a safe, non-drug means to protect and improve the musculoskeletal system of the elderly, injured and infirm. PMID:23371467

  10. PAHA study: Psychological Active and Healthy Aging: psychological wellbeing, proactive attitude and happiness effects of whole-body vibration versus Multicomponent Training in aged women: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence demonstrates that physical exercise and psychological wellbeing are closely interlinked, particularly in older-aged women. However, research investigating how different forms of exercise influence mental health in older-aged women is underdeveloped. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial (N?=?300) will assess the relative effectiveness of two different exercise programs (whole-body vibration and Multicomponent Training) for improving psychological wellbeing in older-aged women. The following outcomes will be assessed at three time points (that is, pre, post, and follow-up): psychological wellbeing, proactive attitude, quality of life, and happiness. Discussion Results will have important implications for preventing psychological and physiological disease in older-aged women and for managing health-related costs for this population group. Trial registration Number NCT01966562 on Clinical Gov database the 8 October 2013 PMID:24886107

  11. Random Vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messaro. Semma; Harrison, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Ares I Zonal Random vibration environments due to acoustic impingement and combustion processes are develop for liftoff, ascent and reentry. Random Vibration test criteria for Ares I Upper Stage pyrotechnic components are developed by enveloping the applicable zonal environments where each component is located. Random vibration tests will be conducted to assure that these components will survive and function appropriately after exposure to the expected vibration environments. Methodology: Random Vibration test criteria for Ares I Upper Stage pyrotechnic components were desired that would envelope all the applicable environments where each component was located. Applicable Ares I Vehicle drawings and design information needed to be assessed to determine the location(s) for each component on the Ares I Upper Stage. Design and test criteria needed to be developed by plotting and enveloping the applicable environments using Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet Software and documenting them in a report Using Microsoft Word Processing Software. Conclusion: Random vibration liftoff, ascent, and green run design & test criteria for the Upper Stage Pyrotechnic Components were developed by using Microsoft Excel to envelope zonal environments applicable to each component. Results were transferred from Excel into a report using Microsoft Word. After the report is reviewed and edited by my mentor it will be submitted for publication as an attachment to a memorandum. Pyrotechnic component designers will extract criteria from my report for incorporation into the design and test specifications for components. Eventually the hardware will be tested to the environments I developed to assure that the components will survive and function appropriately after exposure to the expected vibration environments.

  12. Forcing lateral electron disequilibrium to spare lung tissue: a novel technique for stereotactic body radiation therapy of lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disher, Brandon; Hajdok, George; Gaede, Stewart; Mulligan, Matthew; Battista, Jerry J.

    2013-10-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has quickly become a preferred treatment option for early-stage lung cancer patients who are ineligible for surgery. This technique uses tightly conformed megavoltage (MV) x-ray beams to irradiate a tumour with ablative doses in only a few treatment fractions. Small high energy x-ray fields can cause lateral electron disequilibrium (LED) to occur within low density media, which can reduce tumour dose. These dose effects may be challenging to predict using analytic dose calculation algorithms, especially at higher beam energies. As a result, previous authors have suggested using low energy photons (<10 MV) and larger fields (>5 × 5 cm2) for lung cancer patients to avoid the negative dosimetric effects of LED. In this work, we propose a new form of SBRT, described as LED-optimized SBRT (LED-SBRT), which utilizes radiotherapy (RT) parameters designed to cause LED to advantage. It will be shown that LED-SBRT creates enhanced dose gradients at the tumour/lung interface, which can be used to manipulate tumour dose, and/or normal lung dose. To demonstrate the potential benefits of LED-SBRT, the DOSXYZnrc (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON) Monte Carlo (MC) software was used to calculate dose within a cylindrical phantom and a typical lung patient. 6 MV or 18 MV x-ray fields were focused onto a small tumour volume (diameter ˜1 cm). For the phantom, square fields of 1 × 1 cm2, 3 × 3 cm2, or 5 × 5 cm2 were applied. However, in the patient, 3 × 1 cm2, 3 × 2 cm2, 3 × 2.5 cm2, or 3 × 3 cm2 field sizes were used in simulations to assure target coverage in the superior-inferior direction. To mimic a 180° SBRT arc in the (symmetric) phantom, a single beam profile was calculated, rotated, and beams were summed at 1° segments to accumulate an arc dose distribution. For the patient, a 360° arc was modelled with 36 equally weighted (and spaced) fields focused on the tumour centre. A planning target volume (PTV) was generated by considering the extent of tumour motion over the patient's breathing cycle and set-up uncertainties. All patient dose results were normalized such that at least 95% of the PTV received at least 54 Gy (i.e. D95 = 54 Gy). Further, we introduce ‘LED maps’ as a novel clinical tool to compare the magnitude of LED resulting from the various SBRT arc plans. Results from the phantom simulation suggest that the best lung sparing occurred for RT parameters that cause severe LED. For equal tumour dose coverage, normal lung dose (2 cm outside the target region) was reduced from 92% to 23%, comparing results between the 18 MV (5 × 5 cm2) and 18 MV (1 × 1 cm2) arc simulations. In addition to reduced lung dose for the 18 MV (1 × 1 cm2) arc, maximal tumour dose increased beyond 125%. Thus, LED can create steep dose gradients to spare normal lung, while increasing tumour dose levels (if desired). In the patient simulation, a LED-optimized arc plan was designed using either 18 MV (3 × 1 cm2) or 6 MV (3 × 3cm2) beams. Both plans met the D95 dose coverage requirement for the target. However, the LED-optimized plan increased the maximum, mean, and minimum dose within the PTV by as much as 80 Gy, 11 Gy, and 3 Gy, respectively. Despite increased tumour dose levels, the 18 MV (3 × 1 cm2) arc plan improved or maintained the V20, V5, and mean lung dose metrics compared to the 6 MV (3 × 3 cm2) simulation. We conclude that LED-SBRT has the potential to increase dose gradients, and dose levels within a small lung tumour. The magnitude of tumour dose increase or lung sparing can be optimized through manipulation of RT parameters (e.g. beam energy and field size).

  13. Proton Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Clinically Challenging Cases of Centrally and Superiorly Located Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Register, Steven P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhang Xiaodong; Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Chang, Joe Y., E-mail: jychang@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To minimize toxicity while maintaining tumor coverage with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for centrally or superiorly located stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we investigated passive-scattering proton therapy (PSPT) and intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT). Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients with centrally or superiorly located (within 2 cm of critical structures) stage I NSCLC were treated clinically with three-dimensional photon SBRT (50 Gy in 4 fractions). The photon SBRT plan was compared with the PSPT and IMPT plans. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was defined as the dose that exceeded the dose--volume constraints in the critical structures. Results: Only 6 photon plans satisfied the >95% planning target volume (PTV) coverage and MTD constraints, compared to 12 PSPT plans (p = 0.009) and 14 IMPT plans (p = 0.001). Compared with the photon SBRT plans, the PSPT and IMPT plans significantly reduced the mean total lung dose from 5.4 Gy to 3.5 Gy (p < 0.001) and 2.8 Gy (p < 0.001) and reduced the total lung volume receiving 5 Gy, 10 Gy, and 20 Gy (p < 0.001). When the PTV was within 2 cm of the critical structures, the PSPT and IMPT plans significantly reduced the mean maximal dose to the aorta, brachial plexus, heart, pulmonary vessels, and spinal cord. Conclusions: For centrally or superiorly located stage I NSCLC, proton therapy, particularly IMPT, delivered ablative doses to the target volume and significantly reduced doses to the surrounding normal tissues compared with photon SBRT.

  14. Therapy-resistant foreign body giant cell granuloma at the periapex of a root-filled human tooth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. N. Ramachandran Nair; U. K. Sjoegren; Gunthild Krey; Göran Sundqvist

    1990-01-01

    Although the primary etiological factor of periapical lesions is microbial, there are other independent factors that can adversely affect the outcome of endodontic treatment. In this communication, we present morphological evidence in support of the role of a foreign body reaction of periapical tissue to root-filling materials. The specimen consisted of a surgical biopsy of an asymptomatic periapical lesion which

  15. The Impact of Tumor Size on Outcomes After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Medically Inoperable Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Allibhai, Zishan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto (Canada); Taremi, Mojgan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stronach Regional Cancer Centre, Newmarket (Canada); Bezjak, Andrea; Brade, Anthony; Hope, Andrew J.; Sun, Alexander [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto (Canada); Cho, B.C. John, E-mail: john.cho@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto (Canada)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy for medically inoperable early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) offers excellent control rates. Most published series deal mainly with small (usually <4 cm), peripheral, solitary tumors. Larger tumors are associated with poorer outcomes (ie, lower control rates, higher toxicity) when treated with conventional RT. It is unclear whether SBRT is sufficiently potent to control these larger tumors. We therefore evaluated and examined the influence of tumor size on treatment outcomes after SBRT. Methods and Materials: Between October 2004 and October 2010, 185 medically inoperable patients with early (T1-T2N0M0) NSCLC were treated on a prospective research ethics board-approved single-institution protocol. Prescription doses were risk-adapted based on tumor size and location. Follow-up included prospective assessment of toxicity (as per Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0) and serial computed tomography scans. Patterns of failure, toxicity, and survival outcomes were calculated using Kaplan-Meier method, and the significance of tumor size (diameter, volume) with respect to patient, treatment, and tumor factors was tested. Results: Median follow-up was 15.2 months. Tumor size was not associated with local failure but was associated with regional failure (P=.011) and distant failure (P=.021). Poorer overall survival (P=.001), disease-free survival (P=.001), and cause-specific survival (P=.005) were also significantly associated with tumor size (with tumor volume more significant than diameter). Gross tumor volume and planning target volume were significantly associated with grade 2 or worse radiation pneumonitis. However, overall rates of grade ?3 pneumonitis were low and not significantly affected by tumor or target size. Conclusions: Currently employed stereotactic body radiation therapy dose regimens can provide safe effective local therapy even for larger solitary NSCLC tumors (up to 5.7 cm in tumor diameter or 100 cm{sup 3} in tumor volume) but are associated with more nonlocal failures as well as poorer survival. These observations suggest these patients may benefit from more extensive staging or consideration of adjuvant therapy.

  16. Building bridges for yoga therapy research: the Aetna, Inc. mind-body pilot study on chronic and high stress.

    PubMed

    Kusnick, Catherine; Kraftsow, Gary; Hilliker, Mary

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Aetna, Inc., invited Gary Kraftsow and the American Viniyoga Institute (AVI) to contribute to a research study on modulating stress. This partnership represented the first formal recognition of the potential role of yoga therapy in modern healthcare by an insurance company. This project exemplified the power and value of a collaboration in which yoga therapists made the ancient yoga teachings relevant to healthcare research. We must under-stand our own ancient traditions, learn the language of Western medicine, and recognize opportunities to build bridges to medical disciplines, academic partners, insurers, funders, and policy makers. PMID:23070677

  17. Vibration analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The invention relates to monitoring circuitry for the real time detection of vibrations of a predetermined frequency and which are greater than a predetermined magnitude. The circuitry produces an instability signal in response to such detection. The circuitry is particularly adapted for detecting instabilities in rocket thrusters, but may find application with other machines such as expensive rotating machinery, or turbines. The monitoring circuitry identifies when vibration signals are present having a predetermined frequency of a multi-frequency vibration signal which has an RMS energy level greater than a predetermined magnitude. It generates an instability signal only if such a vibration signal is identified. The circuitry includes a delay circuit which responds with an alarm signal only if the instability signal continues for a predetermined time period. When used with a rocket thruster, the alarm signal may be used to cut off the thruster if such thruster is being used in flight. If the circuitry is monitoring tests of the thruster, it generates signals to change the thruster operation, for example, from pulse mode to continuous firing to determine if the instability of the thruster is sustained once it is detected.

  18. Modeling muscle activity to study the effects of footwear on the impact forces and vibrations of the human body during running

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amir Abbas Zadpoor; Ali Asadi Nikooyan

    2010-01-01

    A previously developed mass-spring-damper model of the human body is improved in this paper, taking muscle activity into account. In the improved model, a nonlinear controller mimics the functionality of the Central Nervous System (CNS) in tuning the mechanical properties of the soft-tissue package. Two physiological hypotheses are used to determine the control strategies that are used by the controller.

  19. The effects of L-thyroxin replacement therapy on bone minerals and body composition in hypothyroid children

    PubMed Central

    El-Dayem, Soha A.; Yousef, Hala; Fawzy, Ashraf; Abou-Ismail, Laila; El-lebedy, Dalia

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Prolonged treatment with levothyroxine 4 (L-T4) is a well known risk factor for osteoporosis. Patients on L-T4 replacement occasionally have a subnormal TSH, which carries a risk of development of bone loss. Thyroid hormones directly affect bone cells, stimulating osteoclastic and osteoblastic activity with a predominance of bone resorption and decrease of bone mineral density (BMD). Material and methods The study included 35 hypothyroid patients with mean age 11.57 ±5.06, while 26 age- and sex-matched children served as controls. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was done to detect the bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC) and Z score in lumbar and femur neck regions. Body composition was also studied by DXA. Calcium, phosphorus, osteocalcin as a bone formation marker, osteoprotegerin as an indicator of osteoclast activity and urinary deoxypyridinoline as a bone collagen breakdown marker were assessed. Results No significant differences were detected in lumbar Z score (?0.12 ±0.66) and femur Z score (?0.17 ±0.58) compared to controls (?0.33 ±0.74 and ?0.21 ±0.53 respectively). Bone mineral density and BMC were not significantly different from controls. No significant difference was detected between cases and controls in body composition. A positive correlation was detected between BMD and age (r=0.857, p<0.01), and with the period of treatment (r=0.766, p<0.01). A positive correlation was found between BMD and total body fat (r=0.693, p<0.01), and with abdominal fat (r=0.667, p<0.01). Conclusions Levothyroxine 4 treatment in hypothyroid children does not alter bone metabolism and body composition. PMID:22371779

  20. Assessment of organ-specific neutron equivalent doses in proton therapy using computational whole-body age-dependent voxel phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharatou Jarlskog, Christina; Lee, Choonik; Bolch, Wesley E.; Xu, X. George; Paganetti, Harald

    2008-02-01

    Proton beams used for radiotherapy will produce neutrons when interacting with matter. The purpose of this study was to quantify the equivalent dose to tissue due to secondary neutrons in pediatric and adult patients treated by proton therapy for brain lesions. Assessment of the equivalent dose to organs away from the target requires whole-body geometrical information. Furthermore, because the patient geometry depends on age at exposure, age-dependent representations are also needed. We implemented age-dependent phantoms into our proton Monte Carlo dose calculation environment. We considered eight typical radiation fields, two of which had been previously used to treat pediatric patients. The other six fields were additionally considered to allow a systematic study of equivalent doses as a function of field parameters. For all phantoms and all fields, we simulated organ-specific equivalent neutron doses and analyzed for each organ (1) the equivalent dose due to neutrons as a function of distance to the target; (2) the equivalent dose due to neutrons as a function of patient age; (3) the equivalent dose due to neutrons as a function of field parameters; and (4) the ratio of contributions to secondary dose from the treatment head versus the contribution from the patient's body tissues. This work reports organ-specific equivalent neutron doses for up to 48 organs in a patient. We demonstrate quantitatively how organ equivalent doses for adult and pediatric patients vary as a function of patient's age, organ and field parameters. Neutron doses increase with increasing range and modulation width but decrease with field size (as defined by the aperture). We analyzed the ratio of neutron dose contributions from the patient and from the treatment head, and found that neutron-equivalent doses fall off rapidly as a function of distance from the target, in agreement with experimental data. It appears that for the fields used in this study, the neutron dose lateral to the field is smaller than the reported scattered photon doses in a typical intensity-modulated photon treatment. Most importantly, our study shows that neutron doses to specific organs depend considerably on the patient's age and body stature. The younger the patient, the higher the dose deposited due to neutrons. Given the fact that the risk also increases with decreasing patient age, this factor needs to be taken into account when treating pediatric patients of very young ages and/or of small body size. The neutron dose from a course of proton therapy treatment (assuming 70 Gy in 30 fractions) could potentially (depending on patient's age, organ, treatment site and area of CT scan) be equivalent to up to ~30 CT scans.

  1. Assessment of organ-specific neutron equivalent doses in proton therapy using computational whole-body age-dependent voxel phantoms.

    PubMed

    Zacharatou Jarlskog, Christina; Lee, Choonik; Bolch, Wesley E; Xu, X George; Paganetti, Harald

    2008-02-01

    Proton beams used for radiotherapy will produce neutrons when interacting with matter. The purpose of this study was to quantify the equivalent dose to tissue due to secondary neutrons in pediatric and adult patients treated by proton therapy for brain lesions. Assessment of the equivalent dose to organs away from the target requires whole-body geometrical information. Furthermore, because the patient geometry depends on age at exposure, age-dependent representations are also needed. We implemented age-dependent phantoms into our proton Monte Carlo dose calculation environment. We considered eight typical radiation fields, two of which had been previously used to treat pediatric patients. The other six fields were additionally considered to allow a systematic study of equivalent doses as a function of field parameters. For all phantoms and all fields, we simulated organ-specific equivalent neutron doses and analyzed for each organ (1) the equivalent dose due to neutrons as a function of distance to the target; (2) the equivalent dose due to neutrons as a function of patient age; (3) the equivalent dose due to neutrons as a function of field parameters; and (4) the ratio of contributions to secondary dose from the treatment head versus the contribution from the patient's body tissues. This work reports organ-specific equivalent neutron doses for up to 48 organs in a patient. We demonstrate quantitatively how organ equivalent doses for adult and pediatric patients vary as a function of patient's age, organ and field parameters. Neutron doses increase with increasing range and modulation width but decrease with field size (as defined by the aperture). We analyzed the ratio of neutron dose contributions from the patient and from the treatment head, and found that neutron-equivalent doses fall off rapidly as a function of distance from the target, in agreement with experimental data. It appears that for the fields used in this study, the neutron dose lateral to the field is smaller than the reported scattered photon doses in a typical intensity-modulated photon treatment. Most importantly, our study shows that neutron doses to specific organs depend considerably on the patient's age and body stature. The younger the patient, the higher the dose deposited due to neutrons. Given the fact that the risk also increases with decreasing patient age, this factor needs to be taken into account when treating pediatric patients of very young ages and/or of small body size. The neutron dose from a course of proton therapy treatment (assuming 70 Gy in 30 fractions) could potentially (depending on patient's age, organ, treatment site and area of CT scan) be equivalent to up to approximately 30 CT scans. PMID:18199910

  2. A Novel Method to Evaluate Local Control of Lung Cancer in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) Treatment Using 18F-FDG Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathriarachchi, Vindu Wathsala

    An improved method is introduced for prediction of local tumor control following lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET). A normalized background-corrected tumor maximum Standard Uptake Value (SUVcmax) is introduced using the mean uptake of adjacent aorta (SUVref), instead of the maximum uptake of lung tumor (SUVmax). This method minimizes the variations associated with SUVmax and objectively demonstrates a strong correlation between the low SUVcmax (< 2.5-3.0) and local control of post lung SBRT. The false positive rates of both SUVmax and SUVcmax increase with inclusion of early (<6 months) PET scans, therefore such inclusion is not recommended for assessing local tumor control of post lung SBRT.

  3. Your Body After Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... breasts removed, followed by radiation therapy and breast reconstruction. Her hair fell out, she lost the color ... to improve body image and appreciate a new post-cancer body. A changing body Breast cancer can ...

  4. Is robotic arm stereotactic body radiation therapy 'virtual high-dose rate brachytherapy' effective for prostate cancer? An analysis of comparative effectiveness using published data.

    PubMed

    Zaorsky, Nicholas George; Hurwitz, Mark D; Dicker, Adam P; Showalter, Timothy N; Den, Robert B

    2015-05-01

    High-dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) monotherapy and robotic arm (i.e., CyberKnife) stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) are emerging technologies that have become popular treatment options for prostate cancer. Proponents of both HDR-BT monotherapy and robotic arm SBRT claim that these modalities are as efficacious as intensity-modulated radiation therapy in treating prostate cancer. Moreover, proponents of robotic arm SBRT believe it is more effective than HDR-BT monotherapy because SBRT is non-invasive, touting it as 'virtual HDR-BT.' We perform a comparative effective analysis of the two technologies. The tumor control rates and toxicities of HDR-BT monotherapy and robotic arm SBRT are promising. However, at present, it would be inappropriate to state that HDR-BT monotherapy and robotic arm SBRT are as efficacious or effective as other treatment modalities for prostate cancer, which have stronger foundations of evidence. Studies reporting on these technologies have relatively short follow-up time, few patients and are largely retrospective. PMID:25540018

  5. Health-Related Quality of Life After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: Results From a Multi-institutional Consortium of Prospective Trials

    SciTech Connect

    King, Christopher R., E-mail: crking@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Collins, Sean [Department of Radiation Oncology, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Fuller, Donald [Genesis Healthcare Partners, San Diego, California (United States); Wang, Pin-Chieh; Kupelian, Patrick; Steinberg, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Katz, Alan [Flushing Radiation Oncology, Flushing, New York (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the early and late health-related quality of life (QOL) outcomes among prostate cancer patients following stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Patient self-reported QOL was prospectively measured among 864 patients from phase 2 clinical trials of SBRT for localized prostate cancer. Data from the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) instrument were obtained at baseline and at regular intervals up to 6 years. SBRT delivered a median dose of 36.25 Gy in 4 or 5 fractions. A short course of androgen deprivation therapy was given to 14% of patients. Results: Median follow-up was 3 years and 194 patients remained evaluable at 5 years. A transient decline in the urinary and bowel domains was observed within the first 3 months after SBRT which returned to baseline status or better within 6 months and remained so beyond 5 years. The same pattern was observed among patients with good versus poor baseline function and was independent of the degree of early toxicities. Sexual QOL decline was predominantly observed within the first 9 months, a pattern not altered by the use of androgen deprivation therapy or patient age. Conclusion: Long-term outcome demonstrates that prostate SBRT is well tolerated and has little lasting impact on health-related QOL. A transient and modest decline in urinary and bowel QOL during the first few months after SBRT quickly recovers to baseline levels. With a large number of patients evaluable up to 5 years following SBRT, it is unlikely that unexpected late adverse effects will manifest themselves.

  6. Dose as a Function of Lung Volume and Planned Treatment Volume in Helical Tomotherapy Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy-Based Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Small Lung Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Baisden, Joseph M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Romney, Davis A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Reish, Andrew G. [Medical School, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Cai Jing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Sheng Ke [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Jones, David R. [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Benedict, Stanley H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Read, Paul W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Larner, James M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA (United States)]. E-mail: JML2P@virginia.edu

    2007-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the limitations of Hi-Art Helical Tomotherapy (Middleton, WI) stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung lesions, and to provide an initial report on patients treated with this method. Stereotactic body radiotherapy was shown to be an effective, well-tolerated treatment for early-stage, non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0236 protocol is currently evaluating three-dimensional conformal SBRT that delivers 60 Gy in three fractions. Methods and Materials: Inverse treatment planning for hypothetical lung gross tumor volumes (GTV) and planned treatment volume (PTV) expansions were performed. We tested the hypothesis that the maximum acceptable dose (MAD) to be delivered to the lesion by SBRT could be predicted by PTV and lung volume. Dose constraints on normal tissue were as designated by the RTOG protocol. Inverse planning was performed to find the maximum tolerated SBRT dose up to 60 Gy. Results: Regression analysis of the data obtained indicated a linear relationship between MAD, PTV, and lung volume. This generated two equations which may be useful predictive tools. Seven patients with Stage I and II NSCLC treated at University of Virginia with this method tolerated the treatment extremely well, and suffered no greater than grade I toxicity, with no evidence of disease recurrence in follow-up from 2-20 months. Conclusions: Helical tomotherapy SBRT for lung lesions is well-tolerated. In addition, the likely MAD for patients considered for this type of treatment can be predicted by PTV and lung volume.

  7. Low in vitro third-body wear on total hip prostheses induced by calcium sulphate used for local antibiotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Heuberger, R; Wahl, P; Krieg, J; Gautier, E

    2014-01-01

    In case of implant associated infection, implant preservation is associated with high failure rates. Therefore, a removal or exchange of the implant is most often mandatory for treatment success. Alternatively, under certain conditions, local antibiotic delivery can be applied - preserving the implant, using for example calcium sulphate as a resorbable carrier. In this work, third-body wear on total hip prostheses caused by calcium sulphate particles was tested in a hip simulator. Inlays made of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) against 28 mm CoCrMo heads and 36 mm alumina pairings were tested in triplicate, both with and without calcium sulphate particles in the test liquid. Neither the alumina articulations nor the CoCrMo heads were affected by the calcium sulphate particles since calcium sulphate is a relatively soft material. The polyethylene inlays showed 39-89 % higher wear during exposure compared to references, but wear returned to normal when no more particles were added. Thus, calcium sulphate might be used as antibiotic carrier even in the presence of total hip prostheses without fearing excessive third-body wear. PMID:25340804

  8. CT appearance of radiation injury of the lung and clinical symptoms after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung cancers: Are patients with pulmonary emphysema also candidates for SBRT for lung cancers?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoki. Kimura; Kanji Matsuura; Yuji Murakami; Yasutoshi Hashimoto; Masahiro Kenjo; Yuko Kaneyasu; Koichi Wadasaki; Yutaka Hirokawa; Katsuhide Ito; Motoomi Okawa

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the computed tomographic (CT) appearance of radiation injury to the lung and clinical symptoms after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and evaluate the difference by the presence of pulmonary emphysema (PE) for small lung cancers. Methods and Materials: In this analysis, 45 patients with 52 primary or metastatic lung cancers were

  9. The effects of exercise training on abdominal visceral fat, body composition, and indicators of the metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women with and without estrogen replacement therapy: The HERITAGE family study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John S. Green; Philip R. Stanforth; Tuomo Rankinen; Arthur S. Leon; D. C. Rao; James S. Skinner; Claude Bouchard; Jack H. Wilmore

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of apriori estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) and endurance exercise training in postmenopausal women on abdominal visceral fat (AFV) and other selected variables related to body composition and the metabolic syndrome (MS). Forty-eight healthy and previously sedentary postmenopausal women (mean age, 54.3 years) who were enrolled in the HERITAGE Family Study

  10. Helical Tomotherapy-Based STAT Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: Dosimetric Evaluation for a Real-Time SBRT Treatment Planning and Delivery Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlap, Neal; McIntosh, Alyson; Sheng Ke; Yang Wensha; Turner, Benton; Shoushtari, Asal [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Sheehan, Jason [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Jones, David R. [Department of Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Lu Weigo; Ruchala, Keneth; Olivera, Gustavo; Parnell, Donald [TomoTherapy, Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Larner, James L.; Benedict, Stanley H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Read, Paul W., E-mail: pwr3u@virginia.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) treatments have high-dose gradients and even slight patient misalignment from the simulation to treatment could lead to target underdosing or organ at risk (OAR) overdosing. Daily real-time SBRT treatment planning could minimize the risk of geographic miss. As an initial step toward determining the clinical feasibility of developing real-time SBRT treatment planning, we determined the calculation time of helical TomoTherapy-based STAT radiation therapy (RT) treatment plans for simple liver, lung, and spine SBRT treatments to assess whether the planning process was fast enough for practical clinical implementation. Representative SBRT planning target volumes for hypothetical liver, peripheral lung, and thoracic spine lesions and adjacent OARs were contoured onto a planning computed tomography scan (CT) of an anthropomorphic phantom. Treatment plans were generated using both STAT RT 'full scatter' and conventional helical TomoTherapy 'beamlet' algorithms. Optimized plans were compared with respect to conformality index (CI), heterogeneity index (HI), and maximum dose to regional OARs to determine clinical equivalence and the number of required STAT RT optimization iterations and calculation times were determined. The liver and lung dosimetry for the STAT RT and standard planning algorithms were clinically and statistically equivalent. For the liver lesions, 'full scatter' and 'beamlet' algorithms showed a CI of 1.04 and 1.04 and HI of 1.03 and 1.03, respectively. For the lung lesions, 'full scatter' and 'beamlet' algorithms showed a CI of 1.05 and 1.03 and HI of 1.05and 1.05, respectively. For spine lesions, 'full scatter' and 'beamlet' algorithms showed a CI of 1.15 and 1.14 and HI of 1.22 and 1.14, respectively. There was no difference between treatment algorithms with respect to maximum doses to the OARs. The STAT RT iteration time with current treatment planning systems is 45 sec, and the treatment planning required 3 iterations or 135 sec for STAT RT liver and lung SBRT plans and 7 iterations or 315 sec for STAT RT spine SBRT plans. Helical TomoTherapy-based STAT RT treatment planning with the 'full scatter' algorithm provides levels of dosimetric conformality, heterogeneity, and OAR avoidance for SBRT treatments that are clinically equivalent to those generated with the Helical TomoTherapy 'beamlet' algorithm. STAT RT calculation times for simple SBRT treatments are fast enough to warrant further investigation into their potential incorporation into an SBRT program with daily real-time planning. Development of methods for accurate target and OAR determination on megavoltage computed tomography scans incorporating high-resolution diagnostic image co-registration software and CT detector-based exit dose measurement for quality assurance are necessary to build a real-time SBRT planning and delivery program.

  11. Communication strategies and intensive interaction therapy meet the theology of the body: bioethics in dialogue with people with profound disabilities.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Pia

    2013-01-01

    Academic bioethics does not appear to be interested in communication and its ethical concerns unless communication is to do with issues such as capacity, consent, truth telling and confidentiality. In contrast practitioners are interested in actually communicating with their patients and they are often particularly perplexed when it comes to people with profound disabilities where communication appears disrupted. Although some new and not so new communication strategies, and especially intensive interaction, are available, little has been written on either the ethical concerns these may present or the deeper concepts that underpin them. This article explores the practical applications of some of these communication strategies. By engaging these strategies with theology, and specifically Pope John Paul's Theology of the Body, this article identifies and addresses some significant ethical issues that may arise, notably the risk of dualism and of objectifying the human person. Moreover it provides communication strategies with a rationale that goes beyond practicalities to one based on respect for human dignity, justice and solidarity. PMID:25109127

  12. Modulation of in utero total body irradiation induced newborn mouse growth retardation by maternal manganese superoxide dismutase-plasmid liposome (MnSOD-PL) gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Epperly, M W; Smith, T; Zhang, X; Goff, J P; Franicola, D; Greenberger, B; Komanduri, P; Wang, H; Greenberger, J S

    2011-06-01

    To determine the effects of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) plasmid liposome (PL) maternal radioprotection on fetal mice, timed pregnant female mice (E14 gestation) were irradiated to 3.0?Gy total body irradiation (TBI) dose, and the number, weight and growth and development over 6 months after birth of newborn mice was quantitated compared with irradiated controls. Maternal MnSOD-PL treatment at E13 improved pup survival at birth (5.4±0.9 per litter) compared with non-irradiated 3.0?Gy controls 4.9±1.1. There was no statistically significant difference in newborn abnormalities, male to female ratio in newborn litters, or other evidence of teratogenesis in surviving newborn mice from MnSOD-PL treated compared with irradiated controls. However, E14 3?Gy irradiated pups from gene therapy-treated mothers showed a significant increase in both growth and overall survival over 6 months after birth (P=0.0022). To determine if transgene product crossed the placenta pregnant E13 mice were injected intravenously with hemagglutinin-epitope-tagged MnSOD (100??g plasmid in 100??l liposomes), then after 24?h, fetal mice, placentas and maternal tissues were removed and tested by both immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase-PCR for transgene and product. There was no evidence of transgene or product in placenta or any fetal tissue while maternal liver was positive by both assays. The data provide evidence for fetal radioprotection by maternal MnSOD-PL gene therapy before irradiation, which is mediated by an indirect bystander effect and is associated with a significant improvement in both survival at birth and growth and development of newborn mice. PMID:21248791

  13. Efficacy, compliance and toxicity factors are affecting the rate of normalization of body iron stores in thalassemia patients using the deferiprone and deferoxamine combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Kolnagou, Annita; Kleanthous, Marios; Kontoghiorghes, George J

    2011-01-01

    The international committee on chelation (ICOC) of deferiprone (L1) and deferoxamine (DFO) combination therapy was the first protocol reported to have achieved normal range body iron store levels (NRBISL) in ?-thalassemia major (?-TM) patients. A follow-up study in eight ?-TM patients has been designed to investigate the factors affecting the rate of iron removal leading to NRBISL. The patients had variable serum ferritin [mean ± SE (standard error) =1692 ± 366, range 539-3845 ?g/L)] and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2* relaxation times cardiac (mean ± SE =11.1 ± 2.5, range 4.5-24.2 ms) and liver (mean ± SE = 4.3 ± 1.8, range 1.4-14 ms). Organ function, blood and other biochemical parameters were regularly monitored for toxicity. The ICOC L1 (80-100 mg/kg/day) and DFO (40-60 mg/kg, at least 3 days per week) combination therapy caused an increase in cardiac (mean ± SE =30.2 ± 2.3, range 22-41 ms) and liver (mean ± SE =27.6 ± 2.8, range 9.1-35 ms) T2* and reduction in serum ferritin (mean ± SE = 158 ± 49, range 40-421 ?g/L) to within the NRBISL. The rate of normalization was variable and in one case was achieved within 9 months, whereas the longest was about 3 years. The initial iron load, the rate of transfusions, the combination dose protocol and the level of compliance were the major factors affecting the rate of normalization of the iron stores. No serious toxicity was observed during the study period, which lasted a total of 24.7 patient years. PMID:21599431

  14. Single-Fraction Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy and Sequential Gemcitabine for the Treatment of Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Schellenberg, Devin [Department of Radiation Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada); Kim, Jeff; Christman-Skieller, Claudia; Chun, Carlene L.; Columbo, Laurie Ann [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford, CA (United States); Ford, James M.; Fisher, George A.; Kunz, Pamela L. [Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford, CA (United States); Van Dam, Jacques [Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford, CA (United States); Quon, Andrew; Desser, Terry S. [Department of Radiology, Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford, CA (United States); Norton, Jeffrey [Department of Surgery, Division of General Surgery, Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford, CA (United States); Hsu, Annie; Maxim, Peter G.; Xing, Lei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford, CA (United States); Goodman, Karyn A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering, New York, NY (United States); Chang, Daniel T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford, CA (United States); Koong, Albert C., E-mail: akoong@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: This Phase II trial evaluated the toxicity, local control, and overall survival in patients treated with sequential gemcitabine and linear accelerator-based single-fraction stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Twenty patients with locally advanced, nonmetastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma were enrolled on this prospective single-institution, institutional review board-approved study. Gemcitabine was administered on Days 1, 8, and 15, and SBRT on Day 29. Gemcitabine was restarted on Day 43 and continued for 3-5 cycles. SBRT of 25 Gy in a single fraction was delivered to the internal target volume with a 2- 3-mm margin using a nine-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy technique. Respiratory gating was used to account for breathing motion. Follow-up evaluations occurred at 4-6 weeks, 10-12 weeks, and every 3 months after SBRT. Results: All patients completed SBRT and a median of five cycles of chemotherapy. Follow-up for the 2 remaining alive patients was 25.1 and 36.4 months. No acute Grade 3 or greater nonhematologic toxicity was observed. Late Grade 3 or greater toxicities occurred in 1 patient (5%) and consisted of a duodenal perforation (G4). Three patients (15%) developed ulcers (G2) that were medically managed. Overall, median survival was 11.8 months, with 1-year survival of 50% and 2-year survival of 20%. Using serial computed tomography, the freedom from local progression was 94% at 1 year. Conclusion: Linear accelerator-delivered SBRT with sequential gemcitabine resulted in excellent local control of locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Future studies will address strategies for reducing long-term duodenal toxicity associated with SBRT.

  15. Volumetric Arc Intensity-Modulated Therapy for Spine Body Radiotherapy: Comparison With Static Intensity-Modulated Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Q. Jackie, E-mail: Jackie.Wu@Duke.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Yoo, Sua; Kirkpatrick, John P.; Thongphiew, Danthai; Yin Fangfang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: This clinical study evaluates the feasibility of using volumetric arc-modulated treatment (VMAT) for spine stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) to achieve highly conformal dose distributions that spare adjacent organs at risk (OAR) with reduced treatment time. Methods and Materials: Ten spine SBRT patients were studied retrospectively. The intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and VMAT plans were generated using either one or two arcs. Planning target volume (PTV) dose coverage, OAR dose sparing, and normal tissue integral dose were measured and compared. Differences in treatment delivery were also analyzed. Results: The PTV DVHs were comparable between VMAT and IMRT plans in the shoulder (D{sub 99%}-D{sub 90%}), slope (D{sub 90%}-D{sub 10%}), and tail (D{sub 10%}-D{sub 1%}) regions. Only VMAT{sub 2arc} had a better conformity index than IMRT (1.09 vs. 1.15, p = 0.007). For cord sparing, IMRT was the best, and VMAT{sub 1arc} was the worst. Use of IMRT achieved greater than 10% more D{sub 1%} sparing for six of 10 cases and 7% to 15% more D{sub 10%} sparing over the VAMT{sub 1arc}. The differences between IMRT and VAMT{sub 2arc} were smaller and statistically nonsignificant at all dose levels. The differences were also small and statistically nonsignificant for other OAR sparing. The mean monitor units (MUs) were 8711, 7730, and 6317 for IMRT, VMAT{sub 1arc}, and VMAT{sub 2arc} plans, respectively, with a 26% reduction from IMRT to VMAT{sub 2arc}. The mean treatment time was 15.86, 8.56, and 7.88 min for IMRT, VMAT{sub 1arc,} and VMAT{sub 2arc}. The difference in integral dose was statistically nonsignificant. Conclusions: Although VMAT provided comparable PTV coverage for spine SBRT, 1arc showed significantly worse spinal cord sparing compared with IMRT, whereas 2arc was comparable to IMRT. Treatment efficiency is substantially improved with the VMAT.

  16. [Auricle therapy].

    PubMed

    Masip Sales, Mireia

    2005-05-01

    Auricle therapy is the method which diagnoses and treats the human body via the external ear. The author describes its simple application as its principal characteristics and contrasts these with the efficiency of its results. Furthermore, the author provides a wide range of therapeutic possibilities. PMID:15981969

  17. Downhole vibration sensing by vibration energy harvesting

    E-print Network

    Trimble, A. Zachary

    2007-01-01

    This thesis outlines the design of a prototype electromagnetic induction vibration energy harvesting device for use in a downhole environment. First order models of the necessary components for a generic vibration energy ...

  18. What Would Be the Most Appropriate ?/? Ratio in the Setting of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Alexander; Wen, Sijin; Liao, Zhongxing; Fowler, Jack; Xu, Jiahong; Nguyen, Nam P.; Welsh, James S.; Komaki, Ritsuko

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesize that the correlation between the radiation dose expressed as the biologically effective dose (BED) and the clinical endpoints will correlate better as the value of the ?/? ratio is increased to >10?Gy, which theoretically minimizes the overestimation of the dose potency associated with the linear quadratic (LQ) formula in the setting of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A search was conducted in the PubMed electronic databases in August 2011. In the studies analyzed, increasing the ?/? ratio is associated with an increase in the strength of the correlation between isocenter BED and local control, especially in the studies with median followup of ?24 months, for which Spearman's correlation coefficients of 0.74–0.76 were achieved for ?/? of 20?Gy, 30?Gy, and 50?Gy (P = ?0.007–0.008). A trend toward statistical significance was observed for the correlation of isocenter BED and the 2-year overall survival when an ?/? of 20?Gy was used approached statistical significance (P = 0.073). Our results suggest that an ?/? > 10?Gy may be more appropriate for the prediction of dose response in the setting of lung SBRT. PMID:24350266

  19. The Time Course of Dynamic Computed Tomographic Appearance of Radiation Injury to the Cirrhotic Liver Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Tomoki; Takahashi, Shigeo; Takahashi, Ippei; Nishibuchi, Ikuno; Doi, Yoshiko; Kenjo, Masahiro; Murakami, Yuji; Honda, Yohji; Aikata, Hiroshi; Chayama, Kazuaki; Nagata, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the dynamic computed tomographic (CT) appearance of focal radiation injury to cirrhotic liver tissue around the tumor following stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Seventy-seven patients with 92 HCCs were observed for >6 months. Sixty-four and 13 patients belonged to Child–Pugh class A and B, respectively. The median SBRT dose was 48 Gy/4fr. Dynamic CT scans were performed in non–enhanced, arterial, portal, and venous phases. The median follow-up period was 18 months. Dynamic CT appearances were classified into 3 types: type 1, hyperdensity in all enhanced phases; type 2, hypodensity in arterial and portal phases; type 3, isodensity in all enhanced phases. Half of the type 2 or 3 appearances significantly changed to type 1, particularly in patients belonging to Child–Pugh class A. After 3–6 months, Child–Pugh class B was a significant factor in type 3 patients. Thus, dynamic CT appearances were classified into 3 patterns and significantly changed over time into the enhancement group (type 1) in most patients belonging to Child–Pugh class A. Child–Pugh class B was a significant factor in the non–enhancement group (type 3). PMID:26067065

  20. Correction for ‘artificial’ electron disequilibrium due to cone-beam CT density errors: implications for on-line adaptive stereotactic body radiation therapy of lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disher, Brandon; Hajdok, George; Wang, An; Craig, Jeff; Gaede, Stewart; Battista, Jerry J.

    2013-06-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has rapidly become a clinically useful imaging modality for image-guided radiation therapy. Unfortunately, CBCT images of the thorax are susceptible to artefacts due to scattered photons, beam hardening, lag in data acquisition, and respiratory motion during a slow scan. These limitations cause dose errors when CBCT image data are used directly in dose computations for on-line, dose adaptive radiation therapy (DART). The purpose of this work is to assess the magnitude of errors in CBCT numbers (HU), and determine the resultant effects on derived tissue density and computed dose accuracy for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of lung cancer. Planning CT (PCT) images of three lung patients were acquired using a Philips multi-slice helical CT simulator, while CBCT images were obtained with a Varian On-Board Imaging system. To account for erroneous CBCT data, three practical correction techniques were tested: (1) conversion of CBCT numbers to electron density using phantoms, (2) replacement of individual CBCT pixel values with bulk CT numbers, averaged from PCT images for tissue regions, and (3) limited replacement of CBCT lung pixels values (LCT) likely to produce artificial lateral electron disequilibrium. For each corrected CBCT data set, lung SBRT dose distributions were computed for a 6 MV volume modulated arc therapy (VMAT) technique within the Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system. The reference prescription dose was set such that 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) received at least 54 Gy (i.e. D95). Further, we used the relative depth dose factor as an a priori index to predict the effects of incorrect low tissue density on computed lung dose in regions of severe electron disequilibrium. CT number profiles from co-registered CBCT and PCT patient lung images revealed many reduced lung pixel values in CBCT data, with some pixels corresponding to vacuum (-1000 HU). Similarly, CBCT data in a plastic lung phantom were reduced by 200 HU compared with known CT number values. For the three patients, dose results using the CBCT number data registered with PCT showed a prescription dose reduction ranging from 4 to 13% (D95 = 47 Gy). Therefore, accurate determination of lung density, especially for very low lung density (<0.2 g cm-3) is essential, but difficult to achieve using the CBCT data. Applying corrective techniques (1) and (2) to CBCT patient data produced unacceptable dose differences. For one typical VMAT SBRT patient, the D95 for the corrected CBCT and BCT image-based plans differed by -4% (D95 = 52 Gy) and 9% (D95 = 59 Gy) compared to the co-registered PCT image-based plan. However, corrective technique (3) produced negligible dose differences comparing LCT and PCT image-based plans. With regard to implementing on-line DART, dose errors must be minimized because they affect re-optimization decisions, and prevent accurate accumulation of the dose distribution.

  1. Correction for 'artificial' electron disequilibrium due to cone-beam CT density errors: implications for on-line adaptive stereotactic body radiation therapy of lung.

    PubMed

    Disher, Brandon; Hajdok, George; Wang, An; Craig, Jeff; Gaede, Stewart; Battista, Jerry J

    2013-06-21

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has rapidly become a clinically useful imaging modality for image-guided radiation therapy. Unfortunately, CBCT images of the thorax are susceptible to artefacts due to scattered photons, beam hardening, lag in data acquisition, and respiratory motion during a slow scan. These limitations cause dose errors when CBCT image data are used directly in dose computations for on-line, dose adaptive radiation therapy (DART). The purpose of this work is to assess the magnitude of errors in CBCT numbers (HU), and determine the resultant effects on derived tissue density and computed dose accuracy for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of lung cancer. Planning CT (PCT) images of three lung patients were acquired using a Philips multi-slice helical CT simulator, while CBCT images were obtained with a Varian On-Board Imaging system. To account for erroneous CBCT data, three practical correction techniques were tested: (1) conversion of CBCT numbers to electron density using phantoms, (2) replacement of individual CBCT pixel values with bulk CT numbers, averaged from PCT images for tissue regions, and (3) limited replacement of CBCT lung pixels values (LCT) likely to produce artificial lateral electron disequilibrium. For each corrected CBCT data set, lung SBRT dose distributions were computed for a 6 MV volume modulated arc therapy (VMAT) technique within the Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system. The reference prescription dose was set such that 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) received at least 54 Gy (i.e. D95). Further, we used the relative depth dose factor as an a priori index to predict the effects of incorrect low tissue density on computed lung dose in regions of severe electron disequilibrium. CT number profiles from co-registered CBCT and PCT patient lung images revealed many reduced lung pixel values in CBCT data, with some pixels corresponding to vacuum (-1000 HU). Similarly, CBCT data in a plastic lung phantom were reduced by 200 HU compared with known CT number values. For the three patients, dose results using the CBCT number data registered with PCT showed a prescription dose reduction ranging from 4 to 13% (D95 = 47 Gy). Therefore, accurate determination of lung density, especially for very low lung density (<0.2 g cm(-3)) is essential, but difficult to achieve using the CBCT data. Applying corrective techniques (1) and (2) to CBCT patient data produced unacceptable dose differences. For one typical VMAT SBRT patient, the D95 for the corrected CBCT and BCT image-based plans differed by -4% (D95 = 52 Gy) and 9% (D95 = 59 Gy) compared to the co-registered PCT image-based plan. However, corrective technique (3) produced negligible dose differences comparing LCT and PCT image-based plans. With regard to implementing on-line DART, dose errors must be minimized because they affect re-optimization decisions, and prevent accurate accumulation of the dose distribution. PMID:23689060

  2. Analysis of dose distribution and risk of pneumonitis in stereotactic body radiation therapy for centrally located lung tumors: a comparison of robotic radiosurgery, helical tomotherapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy.

    PubMed

    Kannarunimit, Danita; Descovich, Martina; Garcia, Aaron; Chen, Josephine; Weinberg, Vivian; Mcguinness, Christopher; Pinnaduwage, Dilini; Murnane, John; Gottschalk, Alexander R; Yom, Sue S

    2015-02-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) to central lung tumors is associated with normal -tissue toxicity. Highly conformal technologies may reduce the risk of complications. This study compares physical dose characteristics and anticipated risks of radiation pneumonitis (RP) among three SBRT modalities: robotic radiosurgery (RR), helical tomotherapy (HT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Nine patients with central lung tumors ?5?cm were compared. RR, HT and VMAT plans were developed per RTOG 0831. Dosimetric comparisons included target coverage, conformity index, heterogeneity index, gradient index, maximal dose at 2?cm from target (D2?cm), and dose-volume parameters for organs at risk (OARs). Efficiency endpoints included total beam-on time and monitor units. RP risk was derived from Lyman-Kutcher-Burman modeling on in-house software. The average GTV and PTV were 11.6?± 7.86?cm(3) and 36.8?± 18.1?cm(3). All techniques resulted in similar target coverage (p =?0.64) and dose conformity (p =?0.88). While RR had sharper fall-off gradient (p =?0.002) and lower D2?cm (p =?0.02), HT and VMAT produced greater homogeneity (p < 0.001) and delivery efficiency (p =?0.001). RP risk predicted from whole or contralateral lung volumes was less than 10%, but was 2-3 times higher using ipsilateral volumes. Using whole (p =?0.04, p =?0.02) or ipsilateral (p =?0.004, p =?0.0008) volumes, RR and VMAT had a lower risk of RP than HT. Using contralateral volumes, RR had the lowest RP risk (p =?0.0002, p =?0.0003 versus HT, VMAT). RR, HT and VMAT were able to provide clinically acceptable plans following the guidelines provided by RTOG 0813. All techniques provided similar coverage and conformity. RR seemed to produce a lower RP risk for a scenario of small PTV-OAR overlap and small PTV. VMAT and HT produced greater homogeneity, potentially desirable for a large PTV-OAR overlap. VMAT probably yields the lowest RP risk for a large PTV. Understanding subtle differences among these technologies may assist in situations where multiple choices of modality are available. PMID:24325136

  3. Resonance behaviour of the seated human body and effects of posture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi Kitazaki; Michael J Griffin

    1997-01-01

    Understanding of the resonance behaviour of the human body is important in the identification of vibration frequencies and body postures associated with back problems. In this study, experimental modal analysis was applied to whole-body vibration. Eight subjects were exposed to vertical random vibration while adopting three different postures on a rigid seat without a backrest. Motions of the spine, pelvis

  4. Dosimetric errors during treatment of centrally located lung tumors with stereotactic body radiation therapy: Monte Carlo evaluation of tissue inhomogeneity corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Altunbas, Cem, E-mail: cem.altunbas@ucdenver.edu; Kavanagh, Brian; Dzingle, Wayne; Stuhr, Kelly; Gaspar, Laurie; Miften, Moyed

    2013-01-01

    Early experience with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of centrally located lung tumors indicated increased rate of high-grade toxicity in the lungs. These clinical results were based on treatment plans that were computed using pencil beam–like algorithms and without tissue inhomogeneity corrections. In this study, we evaluated the dosimetric errors in plans with and without inhomogeneity corrections and with planning target volumes (PTVs) that were within the zone of the proximal bronchial tree (BT). For 10 patients, the PTV, lungs, and sections of the BT either inside or within 2 cm of the PTV were delineated. Two treatment plans were generated for each patient using the following dose-calculation methods: (1) pencil beam (PB) algorithm without inhomogeneity correction (IC) (PB ? IC) and (2) PB with inhomogeneity correction (PB + IC). Both plans had identical beam geometry but different beam segment shapes and monitor units (MU) to achieve similar conformal dose coverage of PTV. To obtain the baseline dose distributions, each plan was recalculated using a Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm by keeping MUs the same in the respective plans. The median maximum dose to the proximal BT and PTV dose coverage in the PB + IC plans were overestimated by 8% and 11%, respectively. However, the median maximum dose to the proximal BT and PTV dose coverage in PB ? IC plans were underestimated by 15% and 9%. Similar trends were observed in low-dose regions of the lung within the irradiated volume. Our study indicates that dosimetric bias introduced by unit tissue density plans cannot be characterized as underestimation or overestimation of dose without taking the tumor location into account. This issue should be considered when analyzing clinical toxicity data from early lung SBRT trials that utilized unit tissue density for dose calculations.

  5. SU-E-T-351: Verification of Monitor Unit Calculation for Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Using a Secondary Independent Planning System

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuruta, Y; Nakata, M; Higashimura, K [Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto, Kyoto (Japan); Nakamura, M; Miyabe, Y; Akimoto, M; Ono, T; Mukumoto, N; Ishihara, Y; Matsuo, Y; Mizowaki, T; Hiraoka, M [Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare isocenter (IC) dose between X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) and Acuros XB (AXB) as part of an independent verification of monitor unit (MU) calculation for lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) using a secondary independent treatment planning system (TPS). Methods: Treatment plans of 110 lesions from 101 patients who underwent lung SBRT with Vero4DRT (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Japan, and BrainLAB, Feldkirchen, Germany) were evaluated retrospectively. Dose distribution was calculated with X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) in iPlan 4.5.1 (BrainLAB, Feldkirchen, Germany) on averaged intensity projection images. A spatial resolution and mean variance were 2 mm and 2%, respectively. The clinical treatment plans were transferred from iPlan to Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA), and doses were recalculated with well commissioned AXB ver. 11.0.31 while maintaining the XVMC-calculated MUs and beam arrangement. Dose calculations were made in the dose-to-medium dose reporting mode with the calculation grid size of 2.5 mm. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of the IC dose difference between XVMC and AXB were calculated. The tolerance level was defined as |mean|+2SD. Additionally, the relationship between IC dose difference and the size of planning target volume (PTV) or computed tomography (CT) value of internal target volume (ITV) was evaluated. Results: The mean±SD of the IC dose difference between XVMC and AXB was ?0.32±0.73%. The tolerance level was 1.8%. Absolute IC dose differences exceeding the tolerance level were observed in 3 patients (2.8%). There were no strong correlations between IC dose difference and PTV size (R=?0.14) or CT value of ITV (R=?0.33). Conclusion: The present study suggested that independent verification of MU calculation for lung SBRT using a secondary TPS is useful.

  6. Image-Guided Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Patients With Isolated Para-Aortic Lymph Node Metastases From Uterine Cervical and Corpus Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Chul Won [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Chul Koo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: chcho@kcch.re.kr; Yoo, Seong Yul; Kim, Mi Sook; Yang, Kwang Mo; Yoo, Hyung Jun; Seo, Young Seok; Kang, Jin Kyu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Han [CyberKnife Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Hee; Lee, Eui Don; Rhu, Sang Young; Choi, Suck Chul; Kim, Moon Hong; Kim, Beob Jong [Department of Gynecology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to evaluate the role of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) as a local treatment for isolated para-aortic lymph node (PALN) metastases originating from uterine cervical and corpus cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively enrolled 30 patients with isolated PALN metastases originating from uterine cervical and corpus cancer who had received SBRT using the CyberKnife (CK). All patients were shown to have isolated PALN metastases by computed tomography (CT) and/or positron emission tomography (PET)-CT. The overall survival (OS), local control (LC) rate, and disease progression-free survival (DPFS) rate were calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Comparison between prognosis groups was performed using log-rank analysis. Toxicities were also evaluated. Results: The 4-year OS rate was 50.1%, and the median survival time was not reached. The OS rate among symptomatic patients was significantly lower than that among asymptomatic patients (p = 0.002). The 4-year actuarial LC rate was 67.4%. Patients with a planning target volume of {<=}17 ml had significantly higher LC rates (p = 0.009). The 4-year DPFS rate was 45.0%, and the median time to disease progression was 32 months. Small planning target volume was a favorable prognostic factor (p = 0.043). Grade 3 or 4 complications requiring hospitalization were reported in 1 patient at 20 months after SBRT. Conclusion: The OS and LS rates were promising, and the incidence of toxicities was low. Use of SBRT with the CyberKnife is an effective modality for treating isolated PALN metastases in patients with uterine cervical and corpus cancer.

  7. Clinical Significance of Observation without Repeated Radioiodine Therapy in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma Patients with Positive Surveillance Whole-Body Scans and Negative Thyroglobulin

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Dong-Jun; O, Joo Hyun; Kim, Min-Hee; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Kang, Moo-Il; Cha, Bong-Yun; Lee, Kwang-Woo

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims Currently, there is no consensus on the necessity of repeated radioiodine therapy (RAI) in patients who show iodine uptake in the thyroid bed on a diagnostic whole-body scan (DxWBS) despite undetectable thyroglobulin (Tg) levels after remnant ablation. The present study investigated the clinical outcomes of scan-positive, Tg-negative patients (WBS+Tg-) who did or did not receive additional RAI. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 389 differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients who underwent a total thyroidectomy and received high-dose RAI from January 2003 through December 2005. The patients were classified according to surveillance DxWBS findings and TSH-stimulated Tg levels 6 to 12 months after the initial RAI. Results Forty-four of the 389 patients (11.3%) showed thyroid bed uptake on a DxWBS despite negative Tg levels (WBS+Tg-). There was no difference in clinical and pathological parameters between WBS+Tg- and WBS-Tg- patients, except for an increased frequency of thyroiditis in the WBS+Tg- group. Among the 44 WBS+Tg- patients, 27 subjects were treated with additional RAI; 25 subjects showed no uptake in subsequent DxWBS. Two patients were evaluated only by ultrasonography (US) and displayed no persistent/recurrent disease. The other 17 patients received no further RAI; Eight patients and two patients showed no uptake and persistent uptake, respectively, on subsequent DxWBS. Six patients presented negative subsequent US findings, and one was lost to follow-up. Over the course of 53.2 ± 10.1 months, recurrence/persistence was suspicious in two patients in the treatment group. Conclusions There were no remarkable differences in clinical outcomes between observation and treatment groups of WBS+Tg- patients. Observation without repeated RAI may be an alternative management option for WBS+Tg- patients. PMID:21179279

  8. Retrospective Cohort Study of Bronchial Doses and Radiation-Induced Atelectasis After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Lung Tumors Located Close to the Bronchial Tree

    SciTech Connect

    Karlsson, Kristin, E-mail: kristin.karlsson@karolinska.se [Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Nyman, Jan [Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Baumann, Pia; Wersäll, Peter [Department of Oncology, Radiumhemmet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Drugge, Ninni [Department of Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Gagliardi, Giovanna [Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Johansson, Karl-Axel [Department of Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Persson, Jan-Olov [Statistical Research Group, Mathematical Statistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Rutkowska, Eva [Physics Department, Clatterbridge Cancer Centre, Wirral (United Kingdom); Tullgren, Owe [Department of Oncology, Radiumhemmet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Lax, Ingmar [Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dose–response relationship between radiation-induced atelectasis after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and bronchial dose. Methods and Materials: Seventy-four patients treated with SBRT for tumors close to main, lobar, or segmental bronchi were selected. The association between incidence of atelectasis and bronchial dose parameters (maximum point-dose and minimum dose to the high-dose bronchial volume [ranging from 0.1 cm{sup 3} up to 2.0 cm{sup 3}]) was statistically evaluated with survival analysis models. Results: Prescribed doses varied between 4 and 20 Gy per fraction in 2-5 fractions. Eighteen patients (24.3%) developed atelectasis considered to be radiation-induced. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between the incidence of radiation-induced atelectasis and minimum dose to the high-dose bronchial volumes, of which 0.1 cm{sup 3} (D{sub 0.1cm3}) was used for further analysis. The median value of D{sub 0.1cm3} (?/? = 3 Gy) was EQD{sub 2,LQ} = 147 Gy{sub 3} (range, 20-293 Gy{sub 3}). For patients who developed atelectasis the median value was EQD{sub 2,LQ} = 210 Gy{sub 3}, and for patients who did not develop atelectasis, EQD{sub 2,LQ} = 105 Gy{sub 3}. Median time from treatment to development of atelectasis was 8.0 months (range, 1.1-30.1 months). Conclusion: In this retrospective study a significant dose–response relationship between the incidence of atelectasis and the dose to the high-dose volume of the bronchi is shown.

  9. Pain Flare Is a Common Adverse Event in Steroid-Naïve Patients After Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: A Prospective Clinical Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Zeng, Liang; Zhang, Liying; Lochray, Fiona; Korol, Renee; Loblaw, Andrew; Chow, Edward [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Sahgal, Arjun, E-mail: arjun.sahgal@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of pain flare after spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in steroid-naïve patients and identify predictive factors. Methods and Materials: Forty-one patients were treated with spine SBRT between February 2010 and April 2012. All patients had their pain assessed at baseline, during, and for 10 days after SBRT using the Brief Pain Inventory. All pain medications were recorded daily and narcotics converted to an oral morphine equivalent dose. Pain flare was defined as a 2-point increase in worst pain score as compared with baseline with no decrease in analgesic intake, a 25% increase in analgesic intake as compared with baseline with no decrease in worst pain score, or if corticosteroids were initiated at any point during or after SBRT because of pain. Results: The median age and Karnofsky performance status were 57.5 years (range, 27-80 years) and 80 (range, 50-100), respectively. Eighteen patients were treated with 20-24 Gy in a single fraction, whereas 23 patients were treated with 24-35 Gy in 2-5 fractions. Pain flare was observed in 68.3% of patients (28 of 41), most commonly on day 1 after SBRT (29%, 8 of 28). Multivariate analysis identified a higher Karnofsky performance status (P=.02) and cervical (P=.049) or lumbar (P=.02) locations as significant predictors of pain flare. In those rescued with dexamethasone, a significant decrease in pain scores over time was subsequently observed (P<.0001). Conclusions: Pain flare is a common adverse event after spine SBRT and occurs most commonly the day after treatment completion. Patients should be appropriately consented for this adverse event.

  10. Good Vibrations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-06-01

    Nineteenth monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. Bone cells and fat cells in the body come from the same type of original cells. If low-impact exercise could help "direct" those original cells to make bone rather than fat, then perhaps obesity could be reduced and bones strengthened. Work by Dr. Clifford Rosen and Dr. Clinton Rubin illuminates this idea.

  11. Influence of vibration amplitude on laminar flow over a plate vibrating at low Strouhal number

    SciTech Connect

    Venkat, N.K. (Spaulding Environmental Associates, Inc., Wakefield, RI (United States)); Spaulding, M. (Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States). Dept. of Ocean Engineering)

    1993-09-01

    The spectral and hydrodynamic response of laminar flow over a flat plate with a vibrating section forced in sinusoidal motion with a dimensionless amplitude ratio, H[sub 0] (vibration amplitude divided by plate length) varying in the range 0.0 < H[sub 0] < 0.1 is analyzed using numerical simulations. The Reynolds number, Re, based on the length of the vibrating plate, is fixed at 1,000. The flow is simulated for Strouhal number, St, = 0.25 (low frequency). The spectral characteristics are obtained by performing Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) on the pressure coefficient time series data. The hydrodynamic analysis is performed by plotting stream function contour plot in the vicinity of the vibrating section for one vibration cycle. The model predicted results show that the friction and pressure coefficients over the vibrating body vary with vibration amplitude. For low amplitude ratios, the interaction of the external flow with the vibrating section is linear and there is little up or downstream influence. For high H[sub 0], there is considerable downstream influence of the disturbance. Nonlinear energy transfer, as evidenced by the existence of a significant first harmonic in the pressure wave, takes place between the vibrating plate and the flow field. Energy transfer to the higher harmonics is less significant.

  12. Masking of thresholds for the perception of fore-and-aft vibration of seat backrests.

    PubMed

    Morioka, Miyuki; Griffin, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    The detection of a vibration may be reduced by the presence of another vibration: a phenomenon known as 'masking'. This study investigated how the detection of one frequency of vibration is influenced by vibration at another frequency. With nine subjects, thresholds for detecting fore-and-aft backrest vibration were determined (for 4, 8, 16, and 31.5-Hz sinusoidal vibration) in the presence of a masker vibration (4-Hz random vibration, 1/3-octave bandwidth at six intensities). The masker vibration increased thresholds for perceiving vibration at each frequency by an amount that reduced with increasing difference between the frequency of the sinusoidal vibration and the frequency of the masker vibration. The 4-Hz random vibration almost completely masked 4-Hz sinusoidal vibration, partially masked 8- and 16-Hz vibration, and only slightly masked 31.5-Hz vibration. The findings might be explained by the involvement of different sensory systems and different body locations in the detection of different frequencies of vibration. PMID:25959335

  13. Mind–body interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wahbeh, Helané; Elsas, Siegward-M.; Oken, Barry S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Half of the adults in the United States use complementary and alternative medicine with mind–body therapy being the most commonly used form. Neurology patients often turn to their physicians for insight into the effectiveness of the therapies and resources to integrate them into their care. The objective of this article is to give a clinical overview of mind–body interventions and their applications in neurology. Methods Medline and PsychInfo were searched on mind–body therapies and neurologic disease search terms for clinical trials and reviews and published evidence was graded. Results Meditation, relaxation, and breathing techniques, yoga, tai chi, and qigong, hypnosis, and biofeedback are described. Mind–body therapy application to general pain, back and neck pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, headaches, fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, muscular dysfunction, stroke, aging, Parkinson disease, stroke, and attention deficit–hyperactivity disorder are reviewed. Conclusions There are several conditions where the evidence for mind–body therapies is quite strong such as migraine headache. Mind–body therapies for other neurology applications have limited evidence due mostly to small clinical trials and inadequate control groups. PMID:18541886

  14. Vibration suppression of flexible spacecraft during attitude control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gangbing Song; Brij N. Agrawal

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to vibration reduction of flexible spacecraft during attitude control by using pulse width pulse frequency (PWPF) modulator for thruster firing and smart materials for active vibration suppression. The experiment was conducted on the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS)'s flexible spacecraft simulator (FSS), which consists of a central rigid body and an L-shape flexible appendage. A

  15. Plantar vibration improves leg fluid flow in perimenopausal women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian M. Stewart; Carol Karman; Leslie D. Montgomery

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have indicated that plantar based vibration may be an effective approach for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. We addressed the hypothesis of whether the plantar vibration operated by way of the skeletal muscle pump, resulting in enhanced blood and fluid flow to the lower body. We combined,plantar stimulation with upright tilt table testing in 18 women

  16. A Study of Vibration Control Systems for Superconducting Maglev Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Watanabe; Hiroshi Yoshioka; Erimitsu Suzuki; Takayuki Tohtake; Masao Nagai

    2007-01-01

    To enhance ride comfort in the superconducting magnetically levitated transport (Maglev) system, vibrations were reduced by controlling the secondary suspension between the car body and bogie. To reduce vibrations at the relatively high characteristic frequencies of the primary suspension, attention has been directed toward control using damping forces output by a linear generator system integrated into a bogie for on-board

  17. Passive Control of Vortex-Induced Vibrations: An Overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raghavan A. Kumar; Chan-Hyun Sohn; Bangalore H. L. Gowda

    2010-01-01

    Vortex-Induced Vibration (VIV) is a possible phenomenon in situations where a bluff body interacts with a fluid flow. There are many potential areas where this phenomenon could be observed such as in heat exchanger tube bundles, marine structures, bridges, power transmission lines etc. Due to VIV, the structures could be subjected to very large transverse vibrations which may lead to

  18. Determination of optimal whole body vibration amplitude and frequency parameters with plyometric exercise and its influence on closed-chain lower extremity acute power output and EMG activity in resistance trained males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Nikki J.

    The optimal combination of Whole body vibration (WBV) amplitude and frequency has not been established. Purpose. To determine optimal combination of WBV amplitude and frequency that will enhance acute mean and peak power (MP and PP) output EMG activity in the lower extremity muscles. Methods. Resistance trained males (n = 13) completed the following testing sessions: On day 1, power spectrum testing of bilateral leg press (BLP) movement was performed on the OMNI. Days 2 and 3 consisted of WBV testing with either average (5.8 mm) or high (9.8 mm) amplitude combined with either 0 (sham control), 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Hz frequency. Bipolar surface electrodes were placed on the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), bicep femoris (BF) and gastrocnemius (GA) muscles for EMG analysis. MP and PP output and EMG activity of the lower extremity were assessed pre-, post-WBV treatments and after sham-controls on the OMNI while participants performed one set of five repetitions of BLP at the optimal resistance determined on Day 1. Results. No significant differences were found between pre- and sham-control on MP and PP output and on EMG activity in RF, VL, BF and GA. Completely randomized one-way ANOVA with repeated measures demonstrated no significant interaction of WBV amplitude and frequency on MP and PP output and peak and mean EMGrms amplitude and EMG rms area under the curve. RF and VL EMGrms area under the curve significantly decreased (p < 0.05) with high WBV amplitude, whereas low amplitude significantly decreased GA mean and peak EMGrms amplitude and EMGrms area under the curve. VL mean EMGrms amplitude and BF mean and peak EMGrms amplitudes were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) with high WBV amplitude when compared to sham-control. WBV frequency significantly decreased (p < 0.05) VL mean and peak EMGrms amplitude. WBV frequency at 30 and 40 Hz significantly decreased (p < 0.05) GA mean EMGrms amplitude and 20 and 30 Hz significantly decreased GA peak EMGrms amplitude. MP and PP output was not significantly effected by either treatment. Conclusions. It is concluded that WBV combined with plyometric exercise does not induce alterations in subsequent MP and PP output and EMGrms activity of the lower extremity. Future studies need to address the time of WBV exposure and magnitude of external loads that will maximize strength and/or power output.

  19. On the free vibration behavior of cylindrical shell structures

    E-print Network

    Ustundag, Burak

    2011-01-01

    Shell structures, especially cylindrical shells, are widely used in aerospace and naval architectural industries. Submarine hulls and aircraft bodies can be idealized as cylindrical shell structures. The study of vibrations ...

  20. 13.013J Dynamics and Vibration, Fall 2002

    E-print Network

    Patrikalakis, N. M. (Nicholas M.)

    Introduction to dynamics and vibration of lumped-parameter models of mechanical systems. Three-dimensional particle kinematics. Force-momentum formulation for systems of particles and for rigid bodies (direct method). ...

  1. NSLS II Vibration and Acoustic Criteria Vibration Experiment Hall

    E-print Network

    Ohta, Shigemi

    NSLS II Vibration and Acoustic Criteria Vibration ­ Experiment Hall The vibration limits at this time. It may only be possible to represent the vibration requirements of this space using generic vibration criteria. The vibration needs of the vast majority of research equipment available today would

  2. A Dose-Volume Analysis of Radiation Pneumonitis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Barriger, R. Bryan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Forquer, Jeffrey A. [Toledo Radiation Oncology Inc., Toledo, OH (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Brabham, Jeffrey G. [Florida Hospital Cancer Institute Waterman, Tavares, Florida (United States); Andolino, David L.; Shapiro, Ronald H.; Henderson, Mark A.; Johnstone, Peter A.S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Fakiris, Achilles J., E-mail: afakiris@iupui.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the rates and risk factors of radiation pneumonitis (RP) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Dosimetry records for 251 patients with lymph node-negative Stage I-IIB NSCLC and no prior chest radiation therapy (RT) treated with SBRT were reviewed. Patients were coded on the basis of the presence of at least Grade (G) 2 RP using the Common Toxicity Criteria version 2 criteria. Radiation doses, V5, V10, V20, and mean lung dose (MLD) data points were extracted from the dose-volume histogram (DVH). Results: Median PTV volume was 48 cc. Median prescribed radiation dose was 60 Gy delivered in three fractions to the 80% isodose line. Median age at treatment was 74 years. Median follow-up was 17 months. RP was reported after treatment of 42 lesions: G1 in 19 (8%), G2 in 17 (7%), G3 in 5 (2%), and G4 in 1 (0.4%). Total lung DVHs were available for 143 patients. For evaluable patients, median MLD, V5, V10, and V20 were 4.1 Gy, 20%, 12%, and 4%, respectively. Median MLDs were 4 Gy and 5 Gy for G0-1 and G2-4 groups, respectively (p = 0.14); median V5 was 20% for G0-1 and 24% for G2-4 (p = 0.70); median V10 was 12% in G0-1 and 16% in G2-4 (p = 0.08), and median V20 was 4% in G0-1 and 6.6% in G2-4 (p = 0.05). G2-4 RP was noted in 4.3% of patients with MLD {<=}4 Gy compared with 17.6% of patients with MLD >4 Gy (p = 0.02), and in 4.3% of patients with V20 {<=}4% compared with 16.4% of patients with V20 >4% (p = 0.03). Conclusion: Overall rate of G2-4 RP in our population treated with SBRT was 9.4%. Development of symptomatic RP in this series correlated with MLD and V20.

  3. Modeling Local Control After Hypofractionated Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Report From the Elekta Collaborative Lung Research Group

    SciTech Connect

    Ohri, Nitin, E-mail: ohri.nitin@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Werner-Wasik, Maria [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Grills, Inga S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Belderbos, Jose [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hope, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital and University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital and University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Yan Di; Kestin, Larry L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Guckenberger, Matthias [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Sonke, Jan-Jakob [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital and University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital and University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Xiao, Ying [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has emerged as an effective treatment option for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using data collected by the Elekta Lung Research Group, we generated a tumor control probability (TCP) model that predicts 2-year local control after SBRT as a function of biologically effective dose (BED) and tumor size. Methods and Materials: We formulated our TCP model as follows: TCP = e{sup [BED10-c Asterisk-Operator L-TCD50]/k} Division-Sign (1 + e{sup [BED10-c Asterisk-Operator L-TCD50]/k}), where BED10 is the biologically effective SBRT dose, c is a constant, L is the maximal tumor diameter, and TCD50 and k are parameters that define the shape of the TCP curve. Least-squares optimization with a bootstrap resampling approach was used to identify the values of c, TCD50, and k that provided the best fit with observed actuarial 2-year local control rates. Results: Data from 504 NSCLC tumors treated with a variety of SBRT schedules were available. The mean follow-up time was 18.4 months, and 26 local recurrences were observed. The optimal values for c, TCD50, and k were 10 Gy/cm, 0 Gy, and 31 Gy, respectively. Thus, size-adjusted BED (sBED) may be defined as BED minus 10 times the tumor diameter (in centimeters). Our TCP model indicates that sBED values of 44 Gy, 69 Gy, and 93 Gy provide 80%, 90%, and 95% chances of tumor control at 2 years, respectively. When patients were grouped by sBED, the model accurately characterized the relationship between sBED and actuarial 2-year local control (r=0.847, P=.008). Conclusion: We have developed a TCP model that predicts 2-year local control rate after hypofractionated SBRT for early-stage NSCLC as a function of biologically effective dose and tumor diameter. Further testing of this model with additional datasets is warranted.

  4. SU-E-J-260: Dose Recomputation Versus Dose Deformation for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Lung Tumors: A Dosimetric Study

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, M; Flynn, R; Xia, J [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States); Bayouth, J [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric accuracy between recomputed dose and deformed dose for stereotactic body radiation therapy in lung tumors. Methods: Two non-small-cell lung cancer patients were analyzed in this study, both of whom underwent 4D-CT and breath-hold CT imaging. Treatment planning was performed using the breath-hold CT images for the dose calculation and the 4D-CT images for determining internal target volumes. 4D-CT images were reconstructed with ten breathing amplitude for each patient. Maximum tumor motion was 13 mm for patient 1, and 7 mm for patient 2. The delivered dose was calculated using the 4D-CT images and using the same planning parameters as for the breath-hold CT. The deformed dose was computed by deforming the planning dose using the deformable image registration between each binned CT and the breath-hold CT. Results: For patient 1, the difference between recomputed dose and deformed mean lung dose (MLD) ranged from 11.3%(0.5 Gy) to 1.1%(0.06 Gy), mean tumor dose (MTD) ranged from 0.4%(0.19 Gy) to ?1.3%(?0.6 Gy), lung V20 ranged from +0.74% to ?0.33%. The differences in all three dosimetric criteria remain relatively invariant to target motion. For patient 2, V20 ranged from +0.42% to ?2.41%, MLD ranged from ?0.2%(?0.05 Gy) to ?10.4%(?2.12 Gy), and MTD ranged from ?0.5%(?0.31 Gy) to ?5.3%(?3.24 Gy). The difference between recomputed dose and deformed dose shows strong correlation with tumor motion in all three dosimetric measurements. Conclusion: The correlation between dosimetric criteria and tumor motion is patient-specific, depending on the tumor locations, motion pattern, and deformable image registration accuracy. Deformed dose can be a good approximation for recalculated dose when tumor motion is small. This research is supported by Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc and Iowa Center for Research By Undergraduates.

  5. SVMs for Vibration-based Terrain Classification Christian Weiss, Matthias Stark, and Andreas Zell

    E-print Network

    Zell, Andreas

    SVMs for Vibration-based Terrain Classification Christian Weiss, Matthias Stark, and Andreas Zell mobile robot traverses different types of ground surfaces, different types of vibrations are induced in the body of the robot. These vibrations can be used to learn a discrimination between different surfaces

  6. Ground-borne vibrations due to press-in piling operations

    E-print Network

    Bolton, Malcolm

    noise and ground vibration. A body of vibration data gathered from press-in sites in Japan and the UKGround-borne vibrations due to press-in piling operations D.J. Rockhill, M.D. Bolton and D.J. White Cambridge University Engineering Department Abstract The press-in method has the potential to facilitate

  7. ROTATION-VIBRATION TETRAHEDRAL

    E-print Network

    Sadovskií, Dmitrií

    ANALYSIS OF ROTATION-VIBRATION RELATIVE EQUILIBRIA ON THE EXAMPLE OF A TETRAHEDRAL FOUR ATOM (RE) of a nonrigid molecule which vibrates about a well de#12;ned equilibrium con#12;guration and rotates as a whole. Our analysis uni#12;es the theory of rotational and vibrational RE. We rely

  8. Gerson Therapy (PDQ)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that take place in a cell to make energy and basic materials needed for the body's life ... of the Gerson therapy reports on retrospective studies (reviews of past cases). Dr. Gerson published case histories ( ...

  9. Vibration Training: An Overview of the Area, Training Consequences, and Future Considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew J. Jordan; Stephen R. Norris; David J. Smith; Walter Herzog

    2005-01-01

    Jordan, M.J., S.R. Norris, D.J. Smith, and W. Her- zog. Vibration training: an overview of the area, training con- sequences, and future considerations. J. Strength Cond. Res. 19(2):459-466. 2005.—The effects of vibration on the human body have been documented for many years. Recently, the use of vibration for improving the training regimes of athletes has been investigated. Vibration has been

  10. Anti-vibration gloves?

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Sue; Dong, Ren G; Welcome, Daniel E; McDowell, Thomas W

    2015-03-01

    For exposure to hand-transmitted vibration (HTV), personal protective equipment is sold in the form of anti-vibration (AV) gloves, but it remains unclear how much these gloves actually reduce vibration exposure or prevent the development of hand-arm vibration syndrome in the workplace. This commentary describes some of the issues that surround the classification of AV gloves, the assessment of their effectiveness and their applicability in the workplace. The available information shows that AV gloves are unreliable as devices for controlling HTV exposures. Other means of vibration control, such as using alternative production techniques, low-vibration machinery, routine preventative maintenance regimes, and controlling exposure durations are far more likely to deliver effective vibration reductions and should be implemented. Furthermore, AV gloves may introduce some adverse effects such as increasing grip force and reducing manual dexterity. Therefore, one should balance the benefits of AV gloves and their potential adverse effects if their use is considered. PMID:25381184

  11. Eggshell Cutter Using Ultrasonic Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Hikaru

    2003-05-01

    An eggshell cutting apparatus which utilizes ultrasonic vibration was developed, replacing the conventional apparatus which uses an air cutter, to cut eggshells at the blunt end of eggs. Two ultrasonic vibration sources were used: one with longitudinal vibration only and the other with torsional vibration plus longitudinal vibration. Eggshell cutting experiments using these vibration sources were conducted. The eggshell cutting time sharply decreased with increasing longitudinal vibration amplitude as well as increasing input power. When the source with torsional vibration plus longitudinal vibration was used and the amplitude of longitudinal vibration was 12 ?m or less, the torsional vibration was effective for cutting eggshells. Furthermore, at the same input power, the eggshell cutting time by the source with longitudinal vibration only was shorter than that by the source with torsional vibration plus longitudinal vibration. When an egg was cut using the apparatus, there was essentially no cutting noise and the cut surface was smooth.

  12. The physical therapy prescription.

    PubMed

    Onks, Cayce A; Wawrzyniak, John

    2014-07-01

    Physical therapy was first noted in the time of Hippocrates. The physical therapy visit includes a complete history, physical examination, and development of a treatment plan. Health care providers usually initiate a referral based on physical examination, symptoms, or a specific diagnosis. Physical therapy has been shown to be particularly helpful for musculoskeletal ailments, and has a growing body of evidence for use. PMID:24994057

  13. The relative discomfort of noise and vibration: effects of stimulus duration.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Griffin, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    How noise discomfort and vibration discomfort depend on duration has not previously been compared. For five durations (2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 s), the subjective equivalence of noise and vibration was investigated with all 49 combinations of 7 levels of noise and 7 magnitudes of whole-body vertical vibration. The rates of increase in discomfort with increasing duration were similar for noise and vibration, whereas they are currently assumed to be 3 dB per doubling of noise duration and 1.5 dB per doubling of vibration duration. The discomfort caused by low levels of noise was masked by high magnitudes of vibration, and the discomfort caused by low magnitudes of vibration was masked by high levels of noise. As stimuli durations increased from 2 to 32 s, the influence of vibration on the judgement of noise discomfort decreased, whereas the influence of noise on the judgement of vibration discomfort was unchanged. PMID:24814654

  14. Dosimetric and deformation effects of image-guided interventions during stereotactic body radiation therapy of the prostate using an endorectal balloon

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Bernard L.; Gan, Gregory; Diot, Quentin; Kavanagh, Brian; Timmerman, Robert D.; Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: During stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for the treatment of prostate cancer, an inflatable endorectal balloon (ERB) may be used to reduce motion of the target and reduce the dose to the posterior rectal wall. This work assessed the dosimetric impact of manual interventions on ERB position in patients receiving prostate SBRT and investigated the impact of ERB interventions on prostate shape. Methods: The data of seven consecutive patients receiving SBRT for the treatment of clinical stage T1cN0M0 prostate cancer enrolled in a multi-institutional, IRB-approved trial were analyzed. The SBRT dose was 50 Gy in five fractions to a planning target volume (PTV) that included the prostate (implanted with three fiducial markers) with a 3-5 mm margin. All plans were based on simulation images that included an ERB inflated with 60 cm{sup 3} of air. Daily kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging was performed to localize the PTV, and an automated fusion with the planning images yielded displacements required for PTV relocalization. When the ERB volume and/or position were judged to yield inaccurate repositioning, manual adjustment (ERB reinflation and/or repositioning) was performed. Based on all 59 CBCT image sets acquired, a deformable registration algorithm was used to determine the dose received by, displacement of, and deformation of the prostate, bladder (BLA), and anterior rectal wall (ARW). This dose tracking methodology was applied to images taken before and after manual adjustment of the ERB (intervention), and the delivered dose was compared to that which would have been delivered in the absence of intervention. Results: Interventions occurred in 24 out of 35 (69%) of the treated fractions. The direct effect of these interventions was an increase in the prostate radiation dose that included 95% of the PTV (D95) from 9.6 {+-} 1.0 to 10.0 {+-} 0.2 Gy (p = 0.06) and an increase in prostate coverage from 94.0% {+-} 8.5% to 97.8% {+-} 1.9% (p = 0.03). Additionally, ERB interventions reduced prostate deformation in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction, reduced errors in the sagittal rotation of the prostate, and increased the similarity in shape of the prostate to the radiotherapy plan (increased Dice coefficient from 0.76 {+-} 0.06 to 0.80 {+-} 0.04, p = 0.01). Postintervention decreases in prostate volume receiving less than the prescribed dose and decreases in the voxel-wise displacement of the prostate, bladder, and anterior rectal wall were observed, which resulted in improved dose-volume histogram (DVH) characteristics. Conclusions: Image-guided interventions in ERB volume and/or position during prostate SBRT were necessary to ensure the delivery of the dose distribution as planned. ERB interventions resulted in reductions in prostate deformations that would have prevented accurate localization of patient anatomy.

  15. Noise & Vibration Ctrl What's noise and what's vibration?

    E-print Network

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    Institut für Technische Akustik Noise & Vibration Ctrl · What's noise and what's vibration? ­ Noise = unwanted sound ­ Vibration = oscillations of structures © Prof. B.A.T. Petersson #12;Institut für Technische Akustik Noise & Vibration Ctrl. · What's Noise & Vibration Control? Genera t ion Transmiss ion

  16. Effect of vibration duration on human discomfort. [passenger comfort and random vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clevenson, S. A.; Dempsey, T. K.; Leatherwood, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    The duration effects of random vertical vibration on passenger discomfort were studied in a simulated section of an aircraft cabin configured to seat six persons in tourist-class style. Variables of the study included time of exposure (0.25 min to 60 min) and the rms amplitude of vibration (0.025g to 0.100g). The vibrations had a white noise spectrum with a bandwidth of 10 Hz centered at 5 Hz. Data indicate that the discomfort threshold occurred at an rms vertical acceleration level of 0.027g for all durations of vibration. However, for acceleration levels that exceeded the discomfort threshold, a systematic decrease in discomfort occurred as a function of increasing duration of vibration. For the range of accelerations used, the magnitude of the discomfort decrement was shown to be independent of acceleration level. The results suggest that discomfort from vertical vibration applied in the frequency range at which humans are most sensitive decreases with longer exposure, which is the opposite of the recommendation of the International Standard ISO 2631-1974 (E) Guide for the Evaluation of Human Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration.

  17. Internal vibrations of a molecule consisting of rigid segments. I - Non-interacting internal vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, X. M.; Craven, B. M.

    1993-01-01

    For molecular crystals, a procedure is proposed for interpreting experimentally determined atomic mean square anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs) in terms of the overall molecular vibration together with internal vibrations with the assumption that the molecule consists of a set of linked rigid segments. The internal librations (molecular torsional or bending modes) are described using the variable internal coordinates of the segmented body. With this procedure, the experimental ADPs obtained from crystal structure determinations involving six small molecules (sym-trinitrobenzene, adenosine, tetra-cyanoquinodimethane, benzamide, alpha-cyanoacetic acid hydrazide and N-acetyl-L-tryptophan methylamide) have been analyzed. As a consequence, vibrational corrections to the bond lengths and angles of the molecule are calculated as well as the frequencies and force constants for each internal torsional or bending vibration.

  18. Flow-induced vibration - 1986

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Chen; J. C. Simonis; Y. S. Shin

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference which examined mechanical vibrations in pipes caused by fluid flow. Topics considered at the conference included fluid excitation forces, axial flow induced vibration, fluid damping, crossflow induced vibration of multiple cylinders, two-phase flow, a computer program for vibration analysis, hydrodynamics, heat exchangers, and flow-induced vibrations of condenser tubes.

  19. HandGrip Muscle Strength, Lean Body Mass, and Plasma Proteins as Markers of Nutritional Status in Patients With Chronic Renal Failure Close to Start of Dialysis Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olof Heimbürger; Abdul Rashid Qureshi; William S. Blaner; Lars Berglund; Peter Stenvinkel

    2000-01-01

    We studied 115 patients (69 men, 46 women) with chronic renal failure (CRF) aged younger than 70 years close to the start of dialysis therapy to assess the prevalence of malnutrition and study the relationship between various nutritional parameters in these patients. Nutritional status was classified by means of subjective global assessment. Anthropometric measurements (AMs) were performed, and hand-grip strength

  20. PREFACE: Vibrations at surfaces Vibrations at surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Talat S.

    2011-12-01

    This special issue is dedicated to the phenomenon of vibrations at surfaces—a topic that was indispensible a couple of decades ago, since it was one of the few phenomena capable of revealing the nature of binding at solid surfaces. For clean surfaces, the frequencies of modes with characteristic displacement patterns revealed how surface geometry, as well as the nature of binding between atoms in the surface layers, could be different from that in the bulk solid. Dispersion of the surface phonons provided further measures of interatomic interactions. For chemisorbed molecules on surfaces, frequencies and dispersion of the vibrational modes were also critical for determining adsorption sites. In other words, vibrations at surfaces served as a reliable means of extracting information about surface structure, chemisorption and overlayer formation. Experimental techniques, such as electron energy loss spectroscopy and helium-atom-surface scattering, coupled with infra-red spectroscopy, were continually refined and their resolutions enhanced to capture subtleties in the dynamics of atoms and molecules at surfaces. Theoretical methods, whether based on empirical and semi-empirical interatomic potential or on ab initio electronic structure calculations, helped decipher experimental observations and provide deeper insights into the nature of the bond between atoms and molecules in regions of reduced symmetry, as encountered on solid surfaces. Vibrations at surfaces were thus an integral part of the set of phenomena that characterized surface science. Dedicated workshops and conferences were held to explore the variety of interesting and puzzling features revealed in experimental and theoretical investigations of surface vibrational modes and their dispersion. One such conference, Vibrations at Surfaces, first organized by Harald Ibach in Juelich in 1980, continues to this day. The 13th International Conference on Vibrations at Surfaces was held at the University of Central Florida, Orlando, in March 2010. Several speakers at this meeting were invited to contribute to the special section in this issue. As is clear from the articles in this special section, the phenomenon of vibrations at surfaces continues to be a dynamic field of investigation. In fact, there is a resurgence of effort because the insights provided by surface dynamics are still fundamental to the development of an understanding of the microscopic factors that control surface structure formation, diffusion, reaction and structural stability. Examination of dynamics at surfaces thus complements and supplements the wealth of information that is obtained from real-space techniques such as scanning tunneling microscopy. Vibrational dynamics is, of course, not limited to surfaces. Surfaces are important since they provide immediate deviation from the bulk. They display how lack of symmetry can lead to new structures, new local atomic environments and new types of dynamical modes. Nanoparticles, large molecules and nanostructures of all types, in all kinds of local environments, provide further examples of regions of reduced symmetry and coordination, and hence display characteristic vibrational modes. Given the tremendous advance in the synthesis of a variety of nanostructures whose functionalization would pave the way for nanotechnology, there is even greater need to engage in experimental and theoretical techniques that help extract their vibrational dynamics. Such knowledge would enable a more complete understanding and characterization of these nanoscale systems than would otherwise be the case. The papers presented here provide excellent examples of the kind of information that is revealed by vibrations at surfaces. Vibrations at surface contents Poisoning and non-poisoning oxygen on Cu(410)L Vattuone, V Venugopal, T Kravchuk, M Smerieri, L Savio and M Rocca Modifying protein adsorption by layers of glutathione pre-adsorbed on Au(111)Anne Vallée, Vincent Humblot, Christophe Méthivier, Paul Dumas and Claire-Marie Pradier Relating temperature dependence of atom

  1. Multi axes vibration fixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, C. R. (inventor); Taylor, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    A simplified technique and apparatus are described for testing the effects of vibration on various material specimen. Particular attention was given to tests along the orthogonal vibrational planes in order to prove the strength of the item under extraordinary conditions to which it will be subjected.

  2. Foundation Vibration Isolation Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ASHWANI JAIN; D. K. SONI

    2007-01-01

    All machine foundations except very small ones should be regarded as engineering problem to be dealt with cautiously. The larger ones give rise to enormous dynamic loads, causing vibrations, which the designer must take into account. Care must be taken to ensure smooth running of machine by avoiding harmful vibrations in the base or in the sub-soil or if the

  3. Multiple direction vibration fixture

    DOEpatents

    Cericola, Fred (Albuquerque, NM); Doggett, James W. (Albuquerque, NM); Ernest, Terry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Priddy, Tommy G. (Rockville, MD)

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for simulating a rocket launch environment on a test item undergoing centrifuge testing by subjecting the item simultaneously or separately to vibration along an axis of centripetal force and along an axis perpendicular to the centripetal force axis. The apparatus includes a shaker motor supported by centrifuge arms and a right angle fixture pivotally connected to one of the shaker motor mounts. When the shaker motor vibrates along the centripetal force axis, the vibrations are imparted to a first side of the right angle fixture. The vibrations are transmitted 90 degrees around the pivot and are directed to a second side of the right angle fixture which imparts vibrations perpendicular to the centripetal force axis. The test item is in contact with a third side of the right angle fixture and receives both centripetal-force-axis vibrations and perpendicular axis vibrations simultaneously. A test item can be attached to the third side near the flexible coupling or near the air bag to obtain vibrations along the centripetal force axis or transverse to the centripetal force axis.

  4. Vibration Harvesting using Electromagnetic Transduction

    E-print Network

    Waterbury, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    asset monitoring or tracking where the vibrations from themonitoring. Further investigation into characterizing industrial vibrationmonitoring 6.1. Large industrial motor deployment 6.1.1. Motor vibration

  5. Vibration as an exercise modality: how it may work, and what its potential might be.

    PubMed

    Rittweger, Jörn

    2010-03-01

    Whilst exposure to vibration is traditionally regarded as perilous, recent research has focussed on potential benefits. Here, the physical principles of forced oscillations are discussed in relation to vibration as an exercise modality. Acute physiological responses to isolated tendon and muscle vibration and to whole body vibration exercise are reviewed, as well as the training effects upon the musculature, bone mineral density and posture. Possible applications in sports and medicine are discussed. Evidence suggests that acute vibration exercise seems to elicit a specific warm-up effect, and that vibration training seems to improve muscle power, although the potential benefits over traditional forms of resistive exercise are still unclear. Vibration training also seems to improve balance in sub-populations prone to fall, such as frail elderly people. Moreover, literature suggests that vibration is beneficial to reduce chronic lower back pain and other types of pain. Other future indications are perceivable. PMID:20012646

  6. Quantitative Vibrational Dynamics of Iron in Carbonyl Porphyrins

    PubMed Central

    Leu, Bogdan M.; Silvernail, Nathan J.; Zgierski, Marek Z.; Wyllie, Graeme R. A.; Ellison, Mary K.; Scheidt, W. Robert; Zhao, Jiyong; Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Alp, E. Ercan; Sage, J. Timothy

    2007-01-01

    We use nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy and computational predictions based on density functional theory (DFT) to explore the vibrational dynamics of 57Fe in porphyrins that mimic the active sites of histidine-ligated heme proteins complexed with carbon monoxide. Nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy yields the complete vibrational spectrum of a Mössbauer isotope, and provides a valuable probe that is not only selective for protein active sites but quantifies the mean-squared amplitude and direction of the motion of the probe nucleus, in addition to vibrational frequencies. Quantitative comparison of the experimental results with DFT calculations provides a detailed, rigorous test of the vibrational predictions, which in turn provide a reliable description of the observed vibrational features. In addition to the well-studied stretching vibration of the Fe-CO bond, vibrations involving the Fe-imidazole bond, and the Fe-Npyr bonds to the pyrrole nitrogens of the porphyrin contribute prominently to the observed experimental signal. All of these frequencies show structural sensitivity to the corresponding bond lengths, but previous studies have failed to identify the latter vibrations, presumably because the coupling to the electronic excitation is too small in resonance Raman measurements. We also observe the FeCO bending vibrations, which are not Raman active for these unhindered model compounds. The observed Fe amplitude is strongly inconsistent with three-body oscillator descriptions of the FeCO fragment, but agrees quantitatively with DFT predictions. Over the past decade, quantum chemical calculations have suggested revised estimates of the importance of steric distortion of the bound CO in preventing poisoning of heme proteins by carbon monoxide. Quantitative agreement with the predicted frequency, amplitude, and direction of Fe motion for the FeCO bending vibrations provides direct experimental support for the quantum chemical description of the energetics of the FeCO unit. PMID:17350996

  7. Vibration isolating engine mount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Stanley I.; Dawes, Peter W.; Butler, Lawrence

    1993-07-01

    An improved engine suspension system is provided for attenuating vibration in a gas turbine engine. In one embodiment, the invention is directed to an aircraft engine suspension system for mounting a gas turbine engine to a supporting frame by mounts arranged in first and second parallel, spaced axial mounting planes of the engine. First and second vibration isolation mounts are aligned in the first mounting plane and couple the engine to the supporting frame. Each of the first and second mounts provides both radial and axial vibration damping to the engine as well as radial and axial stiffness. A third vibration isolation mount is aligned in the second mounting plane and couples the engine and support frame together to provide radial and tangential vibration damping to the engine as well as radial and tangential stiffness. The mounts are arranged axially and radially such that the suspension system is statically and dynamically determinate.

  8. Vibration control in accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Montag, C.

    2011-01-01

    In the vast majority of accelerator applications, ground vibration amplitudes are well below tolerable magnet jitter amplitudes. In these cases, it is necessary and sufficient to design a rigid magnet support structure that does not amplify ground vibration. Since accelerator beam lines are typically installed at an elevation of 1-2m above ground level, special care has to be taken in order to avoid designing a support structure that acts like an inverted pendulum with a low resonance frequency, resulting in untolerable lateral vibration amplitudes of the accelerator components when excited by either ambient ground motion or vibration sources within the accelerator itself, such as cooling water pumps or helium flow in superconducting magnets. In cases where ground motion amplitudes already exceed the required jiter tolerances, for instance in future linear colliders, passive vibration damping or active stabilization may be considered.

  9. Physiology responses of Rhesus monkeys to vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajebrahimi, Zahra; Ebrahimi, Mohammad; Alidoust, Leila; Arabian Hosseinabadi, Maedeh

    Vibration is one of the important environmental factors in space vehicles that it can induce severe physiological responses in most of the body systems such as cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, endocrine, and etc. This investigation was to assess the effect of different vibration frequencies on heart rate variability (HRV), electrocardiograms (ECG) and respiratory rate in Rhesus monkeys. Methods: two groups of rhesus monkey (n=16 in each group) was selected as control and intervention groups. Monkeys were held in a sitting position within a specific fixture. The animals of this experiment were vibrated on a table which oscillated right and left with sinusoidal motion. Frequency and acceleration for intervention group were between the range of 1 to 2000 Hz and +0.5 to +3 G during 36 weeks (one per week for 15 min), respectively. All of the animals passed the clinical evaluation (echocardiography, sonography, radiography and blood analysis test) before vibration test and were considered healthy and these tests repeated during and at the end of experiments. Results and discussions: Our results showed that heart and respiratory rates increased significantly in response to increased frequency from 1 to 60 Hz (p <0.05) directly with the +G level reaching a maximum (3G) within a seconds compare to controls. There were no significant differences in heart and respiratory rate from 60 t0 2000 Hz among studied groups. All monkeys passed vibration experiment successfully without any arrhythmic symptoms due to electrocardiography analysis. Conclusion: Our results indicate that vibration in low frequency can effect respiratory and cardiovascular function in rhesus monkey. Keywords: Vibration, rhesus monkey, heart rate, respiratory rate

  10. Robust optimization of an automobile rearview mirror for vibration reduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K.-H. Hwang; K.-W. Lee; G.-J. Park

    2001-01-01

    .   An automobile outside rearview mirror system has been analysed and designed to reduce vibration with a finite element model.\\u000a Modal analysis is conducted for the calculation of natural frequencies. Harmonic analysis is utilized to estimate the displacements\\u000a of the glass surface under dynamic loads. The model is verified with the vibration experiment for the parts and the assembled\\u000a body.

  11. The Effects of Vibration on the Gait Pattern and Vibration Perception Threshold of Children With Idiopathic Toe Walking.

    PubMed

    Fanchiang, Hsinchen Daniel; Geil, Mark; Wu, Jianhua; Chen, Yu-Ping; Wang, Yong Tai

    2015-07-01

    The effectiveness of idiopathic toe walking treatments is not conclusive. The study investigated the use of vibration as a therapeutic/treatment method for children with idiopathic toe walking. Fifteen children with idiopathic toe walking and 15 typically developing children, aged 4 to 10 years, completed the study. The study included a barefoot gait examination and a vibration perception threshold test before and after standing on a whole body vibration machine for 60 seconds. Temporal-spatial parameters were recorded along with HR32, a calculation designed to distinguish on aspects of the toe-walking pattern. No significant gait pattern differences were found between children with idiopathic toe walking and typically developing children after one bout of vibration intervention. HR32 was found to be a means to identify the toe-walking pattern (P < .001). Hypersensitivity to vibration of children with idiopathic toe walking was not found in the current study (P = .921). PMID:25260915

  12. Vibration diagnosis and vibration source analysis of aircraft engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xifa; Qiu, Lun; Yi, Juan; Meng, Zhaobing

    1990-07-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in aircraft-engine vibration monitoring and diagnosis in flight. An airborne vibration data acquisition unit, the ground analysis equipment, and the method for analyzing vibration signals are given. Applications prove that it is feasible to perform vibration signal recording and frequency spectrum analysis in flight.

  13. A HARPSS polysilicon vibrating ring gyroscope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farrokh Ayazi; Khalil Najafi

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, and testing of an 80-?m-thick, 1.1 mm in diameter high aspect-ratio (20:1) polysilicon ring gyroscope (PRG). The vibrating ring gyroscope was fabricated through the high aspect-ratio combined poly and single-crystal silicon MEMS technology (HARPSS). This all-silicon single-wafer technology is capable of producing electrically isolated vertical electrodes as tall as the main body structure (50

  14. Pet therapy research: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Hooker, Shirley D; Freeman, Linda Holbrook; Stewart, Pamela

    2002-10-01

    From its unpretentious beginnings in pastoral England to the current interest in scientific research and trials of its use, pet therapy is clearly drawing attention to its benefits. Throughout the 40-year history of pet therapy, nursing and nursing research has been at the very heart. The growing body of research in pet therapy reflects nursing's own evolutionary process. This article reviews the history of pet therapy and discusses the growing body of research illustrating the healing power of animal use. PMID:12465214

  15. Intramolecular Vibration-to-Vibration Energy Transfer in Carbon Dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James T. Yardley; C. Bradley Moore

    1967-01-01

    We have used a vibrational fluorescence technique to study the deactivation of the asymmetric stretching vibration (00°1) of CO2 by intramolecular vibration-to-vibration energy transfer during CO2—rare-gas collisions. The efficiency for deactivation has only a slight dependence on mass, with a peak corresponding to resonance between the duration of the collision and the frequency difference between the vibrational levels involved. We

  16. Unstable vibration of roller mills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Fujita; T. Saito

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the mechanism of unstable vibration occurring in the grinding operation of roller mills and to show the design guidelines for reducing the vibration. To study the basic cause of the unstable vibration, we first investigated the dynamic characteristics of the mill vibration in its stable state and its unstable state, using a

  17. NIF Ambient Vibration Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, C.R.; Hoehler, M.S., S.C. Sommer

    1999-11-29

    LLNL has an ongoing research and development project that includes developing data acquisition systems with remote wireless communication for monitoring the vibrations of large civil engineering structures. In order to establish the capability of performing remote sensing over an extended period of time, the researchers needed to apply this technology to a real structure. The construction of the National Ignition Facility provided an opportunity to test the data acquisition system on a large structure to monitor whether the facility is remaining within the strict ambient vibration guidelines. This document will briefly discuss the NIF ambient vibration requirements and summarize the vibration measurements performed during the Spring and Summer of 1999. In addition, a brief description of the sensors and the data acquisition systems will be provided in Appendix B.

  18. 2008 Vibrational Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Philip J. Reid

    2009-09-21

    The conference focuses on using vibrational spectroscopy to probe structure and dynamics of molecules in gases, liquids, and interfaces. The goal is to bring together a collection of researchers who share common interests and who will gain from discussing work at the forefront of several connected areas. The intent is to emphasize the insights and understanding that studies of vibrations provide about a variety of systems.

  19. Acoustics and Vibration Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Russell, Daniel A.

    Dan Russell, a professor of Applied Physics at Ketting University, created this site to provide students animated images of sounds and vibrations produced by instruments such as loudspeakers and guitars. The site is divided into three sections, which include: "Acoustics I: Sounds and Sources," "Acoustics II: Sound and Vibration," and "Other Wave Phenomena (not acoustics, but still waves)." This site will surely be of assistance to those struggling with the intangible realities of wave phenomena.

  20. [Effect of stevia on the picture of peripheral blood under exposure to vibration].

    PubMed

    Adamyan, Ts I; Gevorkyan, E S

    2014-01-01

    There were investigated changes in the peripheral blood of rabbits under prolonged exposure to vibration (5, 10, 20, 30 days). In a separate series of experiments, the nature of changes in the peripheral blood was investigated under the combined action of vibration and stevia leaves. Contained in stevia biologically active substances were found to accelerate metabolism in bone marrow stem cells, promote the compensatory ability of the organism, thereby providing the resistance of the body to the vibration factor. PMID:25306709

  1. Effects of mechanical vibration of the foot sole and ankle tendons on cutaneomuscular responses in man.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew C; Mummidisetty, Chaithanya K; Rymer, William Zev; Knikou, Maria

    2013-06-17

    The modulation of cutaneomuscular responses in response to mechanical vibration applied to the foot sole and to the ankle tendons was established in ten healthy subjects. The effects of mechanical vibration applied to the skin adjacent to the tibialis anterior (TA) and Achilles tendons were examined in two subjects. With the subjects seated, mechanical vibration applied to the TA and/or Achilles tendons significantly depressed the cutaneomuscular responses in all subjects, regardless of the frequency (50, 150, 250 Hz) of vibration. Mechanical vibration applied either to the foot sole or to the skin adjacent to the tendons induced no significant effects. The demonstration that mechanical vibration applied to muscle tendons exerts an inhibitory effect on cutaneomuscular responses supports the hypothesis that receptors that mediate body kinesthesia can be used as a vehicle to alter the spinal excitability state. The data suggests that tendon vibration could be utilized in neurological disorders to induce exogenous-mediated potentiation of presynaptic inhibition. PMID:23643990

  2. Comparison of complementary and alternative medicine with conventional mind–body therapies for chronic back pain: protocol for the Mind–body Approaches to Pain (MAP) randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The self-reported health and functional status of persons with back pain in the United States have declined in recent years, despite greatly increased medical expenditures due to this problem. Although patient psychosocial factors such as pain-related beliefs, thoughts and coping behaviors have been demonstrated to affect how well patients respond to treatments for back pain, few patients receive treatments that address these factors. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which addresses psychosocial factors, has been found to be effective for back pain, but access to qualified therapists is limited. Another treatment option with potential for addressing psychosocial issues, mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), is increasingly available. MBSR has been found to be helpful for various mental and physical conditions, but it has not been well-studied for application with chronic back pain patients. In this trial, we will seek to determine whether MBSR is an effective and cost-effective treatment option for persons with chronic back pain, compare its effectiveness and cost-effectiveness compared with CBT and explore the psychosocial variables that may mediate the effects of MBSR and CBT on patient outcomes. Methods/Design In this trial, we will randomize 397 adults with nonspecific chronic back pain to CBT, MBSR or usual care arms (99 per group). Both interventions will consist of eight weekly 2-hour group sessions supplemented by home practice. The MBSR protocol also includes an optional 6-hour retreat. Interviewers masked to treatment assignments will assess outcomes 5, 10, 26 and 52 weeks postrandomization. The primary outcomes will be pain-related functional limitations (based on the Roland Disability Questionnaire) and symptom bothersomeness (rated on a 0 to 10 numerical rating scale) at 26 weeks. Discussion If MBSR is found to be an effective and cost-effective treatment option for patients with chronic back pain, it will become a valuable addition to the limited treatment options available to patients with significant psychosocial contributors to their pain. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01467843. PMID:24906419

  3. Vibration white finger: a follow up study.

    PubMed Central

    Ekenvall, L; Carlsson, A

    1987-01-01

    To study the course of vibration white finger (VWF) 55 men were re-examined three and a half to six years after the first examination. The patients were interviewed and finger systolic pressure after general body and local finger cooling was measured. The test results at the two examinations were compared. At the follow up examination some patients experienced a subjective improvement of VWF symptoms but not until more than three years had passed after they had stopped working with vibrating tools. To study the effect of diminished cold exposure on subjective symptoms, vibration exposed outdoor workers who changed to unexposed indoor work were studied separately. In this subgroup also improvement was reported only when more than three years has passed after the change of work, indicating that diminished cold exposure is not the primary explanation for the improvement. The cold provocation test, however, showed no tendency towards a diminished reaction of the vessels to cooling. Patients who continue to work with vibrating tools report a subjective increase in symptoms. This subjective impairment was reflected in an increased reaction to cold as measured in the cold provocation test. PMID:3620371

  4. Some Aspects of the Investigation of Random Vibration Influence on Ride Comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DEMI?, M.; LUKI?, J.; MILI?, Ž.

    2002-05-01

    Contemporary vehicles must satisfy high ride comfort criteria. This paper attempts to develop criteria for ride comfort improvement. The highest loading levels have been found to be in the vertical direction and the lowest in lateral direction in passenger cars and trucks. These results have formed the basis for further laboratory and field investigations. An investigation of the human body behaviour under random vibrations is reported in this paper. The research included two phases; biodynamic research and ride comfort investigation. A group of 30 subjects was tested. The influence of broadband random vibrations on the human body was examined through the seat-to-head transmissibility function (STHT). Initially, vertical and fore and aft vibrations were considered. Multi-directional vibration was also investigated. In the biodynamic research, subjects were exposed to 0·55, 1·75 and 2·25 m/s2 r.m.s. vibration levels in the 0·5- 40 Hz frequency domain. The influence of sitting position on human body behaviour under two axial vibrations was also examined. Data analysis showed that the human body behaviour under two-directional random vibrations could not be approximated by superposition of one-directional random vibrations. Non-linearity of the seated human body in the vertical and fore and aft directions was observed. Seat-backrest angle also influenced STHT. In the second phase of experimental research, a new method for the assessment of the influence of narrowband random vibration on the human body was formulated and tested. It included determination of equivalent comfort curves in the vertical and fore and aft directions under one- and two-directional narrowband random vibrations. Equivalent comfort curves for durations of 2·5, 4 and 8 h were determined.

  5. Outcomes by Tumor Histology and KRAS Mutation Status After Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Early-Stage Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Raymond H.; Hermann, Gretchen; Lewis, John H.; Aerts, Hugo J.W.L.; Baldini, Elizabeth H.; Chen, Aileen B.; Colson, Yolonda L.; Hacker, Fred H.; Kozono, David; Wee, Jon O.; Chen, Yu-Hui; Catalano, Paul J.; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Sher, David J.

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed outcomes after lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for early-stage non–small-cell lung carcinoma in patients by histology and KRAS mutation status. Histology was not associated with outcomes, but KRAS mutation was associated with lower freedom from recurrence on univariable analysis and decreased cancer-specific survival on multivariable analysis. Given the small sample sizes, these results are hypothesis generating, and further study of SBRT outcomes by tumor genotype in larger data sets is needed. Background We analyzed outcomes after lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for early-stage non–small cell lung-carcinoma (NSCLC) by histology and KRAS genotype. Patients and Methods We included 75 patients with 79 peripheral tumors treated with SBRT (18 Gy × 3 or 10 to 12 Gy × 5) at our institution from 2009 to 2012. Genotyping for KRAS mutations was performed in 10 patients. Outcomes were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method/Cox regression, or cumulative incidence method/Fine-Gray analysis. Results The median patient age was 74 (range, 46 to 93) years, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 0 to 1 in 63%. Tumor histology included adenocarcinoma (44%), squamous cell carcinoma (25%), and NSCLC (18%). Most tumors were T1a (54%). Seven patients had KRAS-mutant tumors (9%). With a median follow-up of 18.8 months among survivors, the 1-year estimate of overall survival was 88%, cancer-specific survival (CSS) 92%, primary tumor control 94%, and freedom from recurrence (FFR) 67%. In patients with KRAS-mutant tumors, there was a significantly lower tumor control (67% vs. 96%; P = .04), FFR (48% vs. 69%; P = .03), and CSS (75% vs. 93%; P = .05). On multivariable analysis, histology was not associated with outcomes, but KRAS mutation (hazard ratio, 10.3; 95% confidence interval, 2.3–45.6; P = .0022) was associated with decreased CSS after adjusting for age. Conclusion In this SBRT series, histology was not associated with outcomes, but KRAS mutation was associated with lower FFR on univariable analysis and decreased CSS on multivariable analysis. Because of the small sample size, these hypothesis-generating results need to be studied in larger data sets. PMID:25450872

  6. Vibration reduction for flexible spacecraft attitude control using PWPF modulator and smart structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gangbing Song; Brij N. Agrawal

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to vibration reduction of flexible spacecraft during attitude control by using pulse width pulse frequency (PWPF) modulator for thruster firing and smart materials for active vibration suppression. The experiment was conducted on the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS)'s Flexible Spacecraft Simulator (FSS), which consists of a central rigid body and an L-shape flexible appendage. A

  7. A Randomized Trial on the Effect of Bone Tissue on Vibration-induced Muscle Strength Gain and Vibration-induced Reflex Muscle Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cidem, Muharrem; Karacan, ?lhan; Diraço?lu, Demirhan; Y?ld?z, Aysel; Küçük, Suat Hayri; Uluda?, Murat; Gün, Kerem; Özkaya, Murat; Karamehmeto?lu, ?afak Sahir

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whole-body vibration (WBV) induces reflex muscle activity and leads to increased muscle strength. However, little is known about the physiological mechanisms underlying the effects of whole-body vibration on muscular performance. Tonic vibration reflex is the most commonly cited mechanism to explain the effects of whole-body vibration on muscular performance, although there is no conclusive evidence that tonic vibration reflex occurs. The bone myoregulation reflex is another neurological mechanism used to explain the effects of vibration on muscular performance. Bone myoregulation reflex is defined as a reflex mechanism in which osteocytes exposed to cyclic mechanical loading induce muscle activity. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess whether bone tissue affected vibration-induced reflex muscle activity and vibration-induced muscle strength gain. Study Design: A prospective, randomised, controlled, double-blind, parallel-group clinical trial. Methods: Thirty-four participants were randomised into two groups. High-magnitude whole-body vibration was applied in the exercise group, whereas low-magnitude whole-body vibration exercises were applied in the control group throughout 20 sessions. Hip bone mineral density, isokinetic muscle strength, and plasma sclerostin levels were measured. The surface electromyography data were processed to obtain the Root Mean Squares, which were normalised by maximal voluntarily contraction. Results: In the exercise group, muscle strength increased in the right and left knee flexors (23.9%, p=0.004 and 27.5%, p<0.0001, respectively). However, no significant change was observed in the knee extensor muscle strength. There was no significant change in the knee muscle strength in the control group. The vibration-induced corrected Root Mean Squares of the semitendinosus muscle was decreased by 2.8 times (p=0.005) in the exercise group, whereas there was no change in the control group. Sclerostin index was decreased by 15.2% (p=0.031) in the exercise group and increased by 20.8% (p=0.028) in the control group. A change in the sclerostin index was an important predictor of a change in the vibration-induced normalised Root Mean Square of the semitendinosus muscle (R2=0.7, p=0.0001). Femoral neck bone mineral density was an important predictor of muscle strength gain (R2=0.26, p=0.035). Conclusion: This study indicates that bone tissue may have an effect on vibration-induced muscle strength gain and vibration-induced reflex muscle activity. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01310348. PMID:25207162

  8. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung malignancies: preliminary toxicity results using a flattening filter-free linear accelerator operating at 2400 monitor units per minute

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Flattening filter-free (FFF) linear accelerators (linacs) are capable of delivering dose rates more than 4-times higher than conventional linacs during SBRT treatments, causing some to speculate whether the higher dose rate leads to increased toxicity owing to radiobiological dose rate effects. Despite wide clinical use of this emerging technology, clinical toxicity data for FFF SBRT are lacking. In this retrospective study, we report the acute and late toxicities observed in our lung radiosurgery experience using a FFF linac operating at 2400 MU/min. Methods We reviewed all flattening filter-free (FFF) lung SBRT cases treated at our institution from August 2010 through July 2012. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they had at least one clinical assessment at least 30 days following SBRT. Pulmonary, cardiac, dermatologic, neurologic, and gastrointestinal treatment related toxicities were scored according to CTCAE version 4.0. Toxicity observed within 90 days of SBRT was categorized as acute, whereas toxicity observed more than 90 days from SBRT was categorized as late. Factors thought to influence risk of toxicity were examined to assess relationship to grade?>?=2 toxicity. Results Sixty-four patients with >30 day follow up were eligible for inclusion. All patients were treated using 10 MV unflattened photons beams with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) inverse planning. Median SBRT dose was 48 Gy in 4 fractions (range: 30–60 Gy in 3–5 fractions). Six patients (9%) experienced?>?= grade 2 acute pulmonary toxicity; no non-pulmonary acute toxicities were observed. In a subset of 49 patients with greater than 90 day follow up (median 11.5 months), 11 pulmonary and three nerve related grade?>?=2 late toxicities were recorded. Pulmonary toxicities comprised six grade 2, three grade 3, and one each grade 4 and 5 events. Nerve related events were rare and included two cases of grade 2 chest wall pain and one grade 3 brachial plexopathy which spontaneously resolved. No grade?>?=2 late gastrointestinal, skin, or cardiac toxicities were observed. Tumor size, biologically effective dose (BED10, assuming ?/? of 10), and tumor location (central vs peripheral) were not significantly associated with grade?>?=2 toxicity. Conclusions In this early clinical experience, lung SBRT using a FFF linac operating at 2400 MU/min yields minimal acute toxicity. Preliminary results of late treatment related toxicity suggest reasonable rates of grade?>?=2 toxicities. Further assessment of late effects and confirmation of the clinical efficacy of FFF SBRT is warranted. PMID:24256563

  9. Optimisation of vibration sensor location for an industrial ball mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yigen

    1994-07-01

    Ball mills play an important role in both energy consumption and metal wear in mineral processing plants. To maintain high operating efficiency, the material transportation inside the tumbling body has to be monitored in time. It is known that the vibration signal pattern varies corresponding to the operating state of the mill. Besides the basic vibration signature from the rotary drum and machine assembly, the tumbling of steel balls and the material are the major vibration sources. Since the steel balls and the material are unevenly distributed along the rotating axis the vibration sources are spread widely. The location of the vibration sensor has to be optimised to obtain representative signals for the process. Nine locations on the trunnion bearings and the bearing for the pinion axis have been investigated to select the best place for situating a vibration sensor. The vibration signal was picked up by an accelerometer in the form of time-domain waveform, which was firstly recorded by a DAT deck and then digitised by an oscilloscope. The digital signal processing and system identification were performed using software specially developed for an IBM compatible personal computer. The power spectra from different locations were studied and one best sensor location was recommended for picking up a representative signal from the ball mill. More sensors on different bearings are required for mapping the whole picture of the milling state.

  10. A Study of Vibration Control Systems for Superconducting Maglev Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Ken; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Erimitsu; Tohtake, Takayuki; Nagai, Masao

    To enhance ride comfort in the superconducting magnetically levitated transport (Maglev) system, vibrations were reduced by controlling the secondary suspension between the car body and bogie. To reduce vibrations at the relatively high characteristic frequencies of the primary suspension, attention has been directed toward control using damping forces output by a linear generator system integrated into a bogie for on-board power. Because this control can apply damping directly to the primary suspension, it is considered optimal in reducing high-frequency vibrations. Using a Maglev model focusing on vertical motions, this work describes the effectiveness of reducing vibrations using damping force control of the linear generator system for primary suspension and linear quadratic (LQ) control in the actuators for secondary suspension.

  11. Fiber optic vibration sensor

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, Joseph B. (Harriman, TN); Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenoir City, TN); Tobin, Kenneth W. (Harriman, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity.

  12. Fiber optic vibration sensor

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, J.B.; Muhs, J.D.; Tobin, K.W.

    1995-01-10

    A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity. 2 figures.

  13. Externally tuned vibration absorber

    DOEpatents

    Vincent, Ronald J. (Latham, NY)

    1987-09-22

    A vibration absorber unit or units are mounted on the exterior housing of a hydraulic drive system of the type that is powered from a pressure wave generated, e.g., by a Stirling engine. The hydraulic drive system employs a piston which is hydraulically driven to oscillate in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the hydraulic drive system. The vibration absorbers each include a spring or other resilient member having one side affixed to the housing and another side to which an absorber mass is affixed. In a preferred embodiment, a pair of vibration absorbers is employed, each absorber being formed of a pair of leaf spring assemblies, between which the absorber mass is suspended.

  14. Dosimetry analyses comparing high-dose-rate brachytherapy, administered as monotherapy for localized prostate cancer, with stereotactic body radiation therapy simulated using CyberKnife.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Shoichi; Seo, Yuji; Shiomi, Hiroya; Yamada, Yuji; Ogata, Toshiyuki; Morimoto, Masahiro; Konishi, Koji; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform dosimetry analyses comparing high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) with simulated stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). We selected six consecutive patients treated with HDR-BT monotherapy in 2010, and a CyberKnife SBRT plan was simulated for each patient using computed tomography images and the contouring set used in the HDR-BT plan for the actual treatment, but adding appropriate planning target volume (PTV) margins for SBRT. Then, dosimetric profiles for PTVs of the rectum, bladder and urethra were compared between the two modalities. The SBRT plan was more homogenous and provided lower dose concentration but better coverage for the PTV. The maximum doses in the rectum were higher in the HDR-BT plans. However, the HDR-BT plan provided a sharper dose fall-off around the PTV, resulting in a significant and considerable difference in volume sparing of the rectum with the appropriate PTV margins added for SBRT. While the rectum D5cm(3) for HDR-BT and SBRT was 30.7 and 38.3 Gy (P < 0.01) and V40 was 16.3 and 20.8 cm(3) (P < 0.01), respectively, SBRT was significantly superior in almost all dosimetric profiles for the bladder and urethra. These results suggest that SBRT as an alternative to HDR-BT in hypofractionated radiotherapy for prostate cancer might have an advantage for bladder and urethra dose sparing, but for the rectum only when proper PTV margins for SBRT are adopted. PMID:24957754

  15. Low Incidence of Chest Wall Pain with a Risk-Adapted Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Approach Using Three or Five Fractions Based on Chest Wall Dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, John H.; Baldini, Elizabeth H.; Chen, Aileen B.; Colson, Yolonda L.; Hacker, Fred L.; Hermann, Gretchen; Kozono, David; Mannarino, Edward; Molodowitch, Christina; Wee, Jon O.; Sher, David J.; Killoran, Joseph H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the frequency and potential of dose-volume predictors for chest wall (CW) toxicity (pain and/or rib fracture) for patients receiving lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) using treatment planning methods to minimize CW dose and a risk-adapted fractionation scheme. Methods We reviewed data from 72 treatment plans, from 69 lung SBRT patients with at least one year of follow-up or CW toxicity, who were treated at our center between 2010 and 2013. Treatment plans were optimized to reduce CW dose and patients received a risk-adapted fractionation of 18 Gy×3 fractions (54 Gy total) if the CW V30 was less than 30 mL or 10–12 Gy×5 fractions (50–60 Gy total) otherwise. The association between CW toxicity and patient characteristics, treatment parameters and dose metrics, including biologically equivalent dose, were analyzed using logistic regression. Results With a median follow-up of 20 months, 6 (8.3%) patients developed CW pain including three (4.2%) grade 1, two (2.8%) grade 2 and one (1.4%) grade 3. Five (6.9%) patients developed rib fractures, one of which was symptomatic. No significant associations between CW toxicity and patient and dosimetric variables were identified on univariate nor multivariate analysis. Conclusions Optimization of treatment plans to reduce CW dose and a risk-adapted fractionation strategy of three or five fractions based on the CW V30 resulted in a low incidence of CW toxicity. Under these conditions, none of the patient characteristics or dose metrics we examined appeared to be predictive of CW pain. PMID:24728448

  16. Vibration-dependent trajectories and their effects on vibrational dephasing

    E-print Network

    Vibration-dependent trajectories and their effects on vibrational dephasing Q. Ma a,*, R.H. Tipping b , C. Boulet c , F. Thibault d , J. Bonamy e a NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies; they tacitly made an assumption that the trajectories of interest are vibrationally independent. As a result

  17. Radiation therapy planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. M. Bleehen; E. Glatstein; J. L. Haybittle

    1983-01-01

    This book presents papers on radiotherapy. Topics considered include clinical and biological aspects, general physics principles, dose measurement, treatment simulation, the role of computerized tomography in treatment planning, beam modification, computer calculations of dose distributions, beam direction, accuracy of treatment, dose prescription, electron beams, neutron therapy, unsealed radionuclides, total and partial body irradiation, the central nervous system, head and neck

  18. [The Bioptron light therapy].

    PubMed

    Dediulescu, Lucretia

    2004-01-01

    The Bioptron light therapy system acts naturally, upholding the capacity of regeneration of the body. Since the discovery of the therapeutical effects of the Bioptron light, over 20 years ago, its use as treatment has been developed for a large variety of diseases, among which also the eye-diseases (simplex and zoster herpes, conjunctivitis). PMID:15782767

  19. Magnetic Tracking System for Radiation Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wing-Fai Loke; Tae-Young Choi; Teimour Maleki; Lech Papiez; Babak Ziaie; Byunghoo Jung

    2010-01-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) requires precise delivery of the prescribed dose of radiation to the target and surrounding tissue. Irradiation of moving body anatomy is possible only if stable, accurate, and reliable information about the moving body structures are provided in real time. This paper presents a magnetic position tracking system for radiation therapy. The proposed system uses only four

  20. SU-E-J-269: Assessing the Precision of Dose Delivery in CBCT-Guided Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Lung and Soft Tissue Metastatic Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Parsai, S; Dalhart, A; Chen, C; Parsai, E; Pearson, D; Sperling, N; Reddy, K [University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Ensuring reproducibility of target localization is critical to accurate stereotactic body radiation treatment (SBRT) for lung and soft tissue metastatic lesions. To characterize interfraction variability in set-up and evaluate PTV margins utilized for SBRT, daily CBCTs were used to calculate delivered target and OAR doses compared to those expected from planning. Methods: CBCT images obtained prior to each fraction of SBRT for a lung and thyroid metastatic lesion were evaluated. The target CTV/ITV and OARs on each of 8 CBCT data sets were contoured. Using MIM fusion software and Pinnacle{sup 3} RTP system, delivered dose distribution was reconstructed on each CBCT, utilizing translational shifts performed prior to treatment. Actual delivered vs. expected doses received by target CTV/ITV and adjacent critical structures were compared to characterize accuracy of pre-treatment translational shifts and PTV margins. Results: The planned CTV/ITV D95% and V100% were 4595cGy and 91.47% for the lung lesion, and 3010cGy and 96.34% for the thyroid lesion. Based on CBCT analysis, actual mean D95% and V100% for lung ITV were 4542±344.4cGy and 91.54±3.45%; actual mean D95% and V100% for thyroid metastasis CTV were 3005±25.98cGy and 95.20±2.522%. For the lung lesion, ipsilateral lung V20, heart V32 (cc) and spinal cord (.03 cc) max were 110.15cc, 3.33cc, and 1680cGy vs. 110.27±14.79cc, 6.74±3.76cc, and 1711±46.56cGy for planned vs. delivered doses, respectively. For the thyroid metastatic lesion, esophagus V18, trachea (.03 cc) max, and spinal cord (.03 cc) max were 0.35cc, 2555cGy, and 850cGy vs. 0.16±0.13cc, 2147±367cGy, and 838±45cGy for planned vs. delivered treatments, respectively. Conclusion: Minimal variability in SBRT target lesion dose delivered based on pre-treatment CBCT-based translational shifts suggests tighter PTV margins may be considered to further decrease dose to surrounding critical structures. Guidelines for optimal target alignment during CBCT-guidance for lung and soft tissue metastatic lesions treated with SBRT are being established.

  1. Decoupled decentral control of electromagnetic actuators for car vibration excitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich Koch; D. Wiedemann; H. Ulbrich

    2009-01-01

    Electromagnetic actuators have proven useful for the vibration excitation of components. Their inherent instability can be compensated by adequate feedback control. For realistic car excitation, at least two actuators are necessary that are clamped to the car body. Their interaction is governed by the dynamic behaviour of the jacking points and is especially high at a system resonance frequency. The

  2. Vibration damping and heat transfer using material phase changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kloucek, Petr (Inventor); Reynolds, Daniel R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method and apparatus wherein phase changes in a material can dampen vibrational energy, dampen noise and facilitate heat transfer. One embodiment includes a method for damping vibrational energy in a body. The method comprises attaching a material to the body, wherein the material comprises a substrate, a shape memory alloy layer, and a plurality of temperature change elements. The method further comprises sensing vibrations in the body. In addition, the method comprises indicating to at least a portion of the temperature change elements to provide a temperature change in the shape memory alloy layer, wherein the temperature change is sufficient to provide a phase change in at least a portion of the shape memory alloy layer, and further wherein the phase change consumes a sufficient amount of kinetic energy to dampen at least a portion of the vibrational energy in the body. In other embodiments, the shape memory alloy layer is a thin film. Additional embodiments include a sensor connected to the material.

  3. A FEM Model for Active Vibration Control of Flexible Linkages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoyun Wang; James K. Mills

    2004-01-01

    For the design of active vibration control laws for flexible linkages in high-speed mechanisms, dynamic models incorporating the coupling of rigid body motion and flexible motion and the electromechanical coupling of transduction devices and the host linkage are very important. In the first part of this paper, the Lagrange finite element (FE) formulation is used to derive such a dynamic

  4. Prey Detection by Chaetognatha via a Vibration Sense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Horridge; P. S. Boulton

    1967-01-01

    Chaetognaths (arrow worms) have two types of tufts along the body, not previously distinguished. The bristles seen in life are non-sensory processes of epithelial cells. The ciliary tufts visible in sections are groups of sensory neurons each of which bears a non-motile cilium at the tip of its dendrite. The high sensitivity to vibrations set up by a nearby oscillating

  5. The 18th ICOC Proceedings in Athens, Greece: New breakthrough in thalassemia leading to the complete treatment of iron overload and to hundreds of patients achieving and maintaining normal body iron stores. Ethical questions on chelation therapy.

    PubMed

    Kontoghiorghes, George J

    2010-06-01

    A new era in thalassemia and other transfusional iron loading conditions was highlighted during the 18th International Conference on Chelation (ICOC) with reports that all excess iron accumulated from transfusions could be removed using the ICOC combination protocol of deferiprone (L1) (80-100 mg/kg/day) and subcutaneous deferoxamine (DFO) (40-60 mg/kg/day, at least 3 days per week), and that normal range body iron store levels (NRBISL) could be maintained using L1 monotherapy. Hundreds of patients in Cyprus, Greece, Italy, UK and elsewhere, maintain NRBISL, some for more than 9 years, and without complications. This gold standard of complete iron overload treatment is likely to change current practices, aims and protocols because it could prevent and also reverse cardiac, liver, endocrine and other organ complications as well as the incidence of infections and hepatocellular carcinomas. The overall morbidity and mortality in thalassemia and other transfusional iron loading conditions is expected to be substantially reduced. New applications of chelating drugs include renal, neurodegenerative, infectious diseases and ischemia reperfusion injury patients. Ethical questions have been raised on the role of pharmaceutical companies, the clinicians and the Hippocratic oath in relation to chelation therapy. PMID:20524809

  6. Vibrational Spectroscopy and Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaban, Galina M.; Kwak, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Role of vibrational spectroscopy in solving problems related to astrobiology will be discussed. Vibrational (infrared) spectroscopy is a very sensitive tool for identifying molecules. Theoretical approach used in this work is based on direct computation of anharmonic vibrational frequencies and intensities from electronic structure codes. One of the applications of this computational technique is possible identification of biological building blocks (amino acids, small peptides, DNA bases) in the interstellar medium (ISM). Identifying small biological molecules in the ISM is very important from the point of view of origin of life. Hybrid (quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics) theoretical techniques will be discussed that may allow to obtain accurate vibrational spectra of biomolecular building blocks and to create a database of spectroscopic signatures that can assist observations of these molecules in space. Another application of the direct computational spectroscopy technique is to help to design and analyze experimental observations of ice surfaces of one of the Jupiter's moons, Europa, that possibly contains hydrated salts. The presence of hydrated salts on the surface can be an indication of a subsurface ocean and the possible existence of life forms inhabiting such an ocean.

  7. Vibrations of fractal drums

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Sapoval; Th. Gobron; A. Margolina

    1991-01-01

    Fractal boundary conditions drastically alter wave excitations. The low-frequency vibrations of a membrane bounded by a rigid fractal contour are observed and localized modes are found. The first lower eigenmodes are computed using an analogy between the wave and the diffusion equations. The fractal frontier induces a strong confinement of the wave analogous to superlocalization. The wave forms exhibit singular

  8. Friction induced rail vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kralov, Ivan; Sinapov, Petko; Nedelchev, Krasimir; Ignatov, Ignat

    2012-11-01

    A model of rail, considered as multiple supported beam, subjected on friction induced vibration is studied in this work using FEM. The model is presented as continuous system and the mass and elastic properties of a real object are taken into account. The friction forces are nonlinear functions of the relative velocity during slipping. The problem is solved using Matlab Simulink.

  9. Compact Vibration Damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanco, Thomas G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A vibration damper includes a rigid base with a mass coupled thereto for linear movement thereon. Springs coupled to the mass compress in response to the linear movement along either of two opposing directions. A converter coupled to the mass converts the linear movement to a corresponding rotational movement. A rotary damper coupled to the converter damps the rotational movement.

  10. A micromachined vibrating gyroscope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Tanaka; Y. Mochida; M. Sugimoto; K. Moriya; T. Hasegawa; K. Atsuchi; K. Ohwada

    1995-01-01

    A vibrating microgyroscope with a thin polysilicon resonator fabricated by silicon surface micromachining is described. The 400 ?m × 800 ?m resonator is driven in a lateral direction by electrostatic force, and the angular rate is detected as the capacitance change between the resonator and its substrate. Mechanical Q-factors for the driving mode and the detecting mode of the polysilicon

  11. Vibrational Conical Intersections: Implications for Ultrafast Vibrational Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawadi, Mahesh; Prasad Thapaliya, Bishnu; Bhatta, Ram; Perry, David

    2015-03-01

    The presence of conical intersections (CIs) between electronic potential energy surfaces is known to play a key role in ultrafast electronic relaxation in diverse circumstances. Recent reports have documented the existence of vibrational CIs connecting vibrationally adiabatic surfaces. Just as electronic CIs are now appreciated to be ubiquitous, controlling the rates of many photochemical processes, the present work on methanol and methyl mercaptan suggests that vibrational CIs may also be widespread, possibly controlling the outcome of some high-energy processes where vibrationally excited species are present. Other examples of vibrational CIs include the vibrational Jahn-Teller effect in C3V organic molecules and transition metal complexes. While the present work addresses only the couplings within bound molecules, the concept of vibrational CIs providing pathways for ultrafast relaxation also applies to molecular collisions. This work is supported by DOE (DEFG02-90ER14151).

  12. Apparent mass of the human body in the vertical direction: Inter-subject variability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin G. R. Toward; Michael J. Griffin

    2011-01-01

    The biodynamic responses of the seated human body to whole-body vibration vary considerably between people, but the reasons for the variability are not well understood. This study was designed to determine how the physical characteristics of people affect their apparent mass and whether inter-subject variability is influenced by the magnitude of vibration and the support of a seat backrest. The

  13. Horticultural Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eunhee Kim

    2003-01-01

    Horticultural therapy is a treatment modality that utilizes plants and gardening activities as vehicles in adjunctive therapy programs for all ages and for diverse diagnoses. This paper provides a brief background of horticultural therapy, and reviews Web sites and bibliographic databases to the literature on horticultural therapy.

  14. Vibration sensing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Barna, B.A.

    1987-07-07

    A method and apparatus for nondestructive evaluation of a structure is disclosed. Resonant audio frequency vibrations are excited in the structure to be evaluated and the vibrations are measured and characterized to obtain information about the structure. The vibrations are measured and characterized by reflecting a laser beam from the vibrating structure and directing a substantial portion of the reflected beam back into the laser device used to produce the beam which device is capable of producing an electric signal containing information about the vibration. 4 figs.

  15. Vibration sensing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Barna, Basil A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1989-04-25

    A method and apparatus for nondestructive evaluation of a structure is disclosed. Resonant audio frequency vibrations are excited in the structure to be evaluated and the vibrations are measured and characterized to obtain information about the structure. The vibrations are measured and characterized by reflecting a laser beam from the vibrating structure and directing a substantial portion of the reflected beam back into the laser device used to produce the beam which device is capable of producing an electric signal containing information about the vibration.

  16. Vibration sensing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Barna, B.A.

    1989-04-25

    A method and apparatus for nondestructive evaluation of a structure are disclosed. Resonant audio frequency vibrations are excited in the structure to be evaluated and the vibrations are measured and characterized to obtain information about the structure. The vibrations are measured and characterized by reflecting a laser beam from the vibrating structure and directing a substantial portion of the reflected beam back into the laser device used to produce the beam which device is capable of producing an electric signal containing information about the vibration. 4 figs.

  17. Animal Communications Through Seismic Vibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Peggy (University of Tulsa) [University of Tulsa

    2001-05-02

    Substrate vibration has been important to animals as a channel of communication for millions of years, but our literature on vibration in this context of biologically relevant information is only decades old. The jaw mechanism of the earliest land vertebrates allowed them to perceive substrate vibrations as their heads lay on the ground long before airborne sounds could be heard. Although the exact mechanism of vibration production and the precise nature of the wave produced are not always understood, recent development of affordable instrumentation to detect and measure vibrations has allowed researchers to answer increasingly sophisticated questions about how animals send and receive vibration signals. We now know that vibration provides information used in predator defense, prey detection, recruitment to food, mate choice, intrasexual competition, and maternal/brood social interactions in a variety of insect orders, spiders, crabs, scorpions, chameleons, frogs, golden moles, mole rats, kangaroos rats, wallabies, elephants and bison.

  18. The treatment of aggression using arts therapies in forensic psychiatry: Results of a qualitative inquiry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henk Smeijsters; Gorry Cleven

    2006-01-01

    The article describes the body of knowledge of arts therapies in forensic psychiatry based on recent practice, theory and research. The first part gives an overview of observational details, interventions, effects and rationales of drama therapy, music therapy, art therapy and dance-movement therapy in general and more specifically in the Netherlands. It shows that arts therapies can help to decrease

  19. 1 Art Therapy ART THERAPY

    E-print Network

    Vertes, Akos

    1 Art Therapy ART THERAPY Art Therapy Graduate Program trains exceptionally skilled therapists whose professional practice is grounded in a broad understanding of the most current clinical art unique art therapist identity. GRADUATE Master's programs · Master of Arts in the field of art therapy

  20. Directional vibration sensing in the termite Macrotermes natalensis.

    PubMed

    Hager, Felix A; Kirchner, Wolfgang H

    2014-07-15

    Although several behavioural studies demonstrate the ability of insects to localise the source of vibrations, it is still unclear how insects are able to perceive directional information from vibratory signals on solid substrates, because time-of-arrival and amplitude difference between receptory structures are thought to be too small to be processed by insect nervous systems. The termite Macrotermes natalensis communicates using vibrational drumming signals transmitted along subterranean galleries. When soldiers are attacked by predators, they tend to drum with their heads against the substrate and create a pulsed vibration. Workers respond by a fast retreat into the nest. Soldiers in the vicinity start to drum themselves, leading to an amplification and propagation of the signal. Here we show that M. natalensis makes use of a directional vibration sensing in the context of colony defence. In the field, soldiers are recruited towards the source of the signal. In arena experiments on natural nest material, soldiers are able to localise the source of vibration. Using two movable platforms allowing us to vibrate the legs of the left and right sides of the body with a time delay, we show that the difference in time-of-arrival is the directional cue used for orientation. Delays as short as 0.2 ms are sufficient to be detected. Soldiers show a significant positive tropotaxis to the platform stimulated earlier, demonstrating for the first time perception of time-of-arrival delays and vibrotropotaxis on solid substrates in insects. PMID:25031457

  1. Vibration isolation technology experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keckler, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of the vibration isolation technology experiment are to demonstrate the viability of the magnetic suspension technology in providing the isolation of large structures elements from the external environment and to quantify the degree of isolation provided by this system. The approach proposed for this experiment is to mount a six-degrees-of-freedom magnetic bearing suspension system at the free end of a shuttle-attached flexible structure such as MAST. The disturbance generator, located on top of the isolation system, will be energized at selected and broadband frequencies to simulate a typical spacecraft vibration environment. Sensors located on the isolation system and the flexible structures element will be used to quantify the degree of isolation provided by this system.

  2. Harvesting Vibrational Energy Using Material Work Functions

    PubMed Central

    Varpula, Aapo; Laakso, Sampo J.; Havia, Tahvo; Kyynäräinen, Jukka; Prunnila, Mika

    2014-01-01

    Vibration energy harvesters scavenge energy from mechanical vibrations to energise low power electronic devices. In this work, we report on vibration energy harvesting scheme based on the charging phenomenon occurring naturally between two bodies with different work functions. Such work function energy harvester (WFEH) is similar to electrostatic energy harvester with the fundamental distinction that neither external power supplies nor electrets are needed. A theoretical model and description of different operation modes of WFEHs are presented. The WFEH concept is tested with macroscopic experiments, which agree well with the model. The feasibility of miniaturizing WFEHs is shown by simulating a realistic MEMS device. The WFEH can be operated as a charge pump that pushes charge and energy into an energy storage element. We show that such an operation mode is highly desirable for applications and that it can be realised with either a charge shuttle or with switches. The WFEH is shown to give equal or better output power in comparison to traditional electrostatic harvesters. Our findings indicate that WFEH has great potential in energy harvesting applications. PMID:25348004

  3. Harvesting vibrational energy using material work functions.

    PubMed

    Varpula, Aapo; Laakso, Sampo J; Havia, Tahvo; Kyynäräinen, Jukka; Prunnila, Mika

    2014-01-01

    Vibration energy harvesters scavenge energy from mechanical vibrations to energise low power electronic devices. In this work, we report on vibration energy harvesting scheme based on the charging phenomenon occurring naturally between two bodies with different work functions. Such work function energy harvester (WFEH) is similar to electrostatic energy harvester with the fundamental distinction that neither external power supplies nor electrets are needed. A theoretical model and description of different operation modes of WFEHs are presented. The WFEH concept is tested with macroscopic experiments, which agree well with the model. The feasibility of miniaturizing WFEHs is shown by simulating a realistic MEMS device. The WFEH can be operated as a charge pump that pushes charge and energy into an energy storage element. We show that such an operation mode is highly desirable for applications and that it can be realised with either a charge shuttle or with switches. The WFEH is shown to give equal or better output power in comparison to traditional electrostatic harvesters. Our findings indicate that WFEH has great potential in energy harvesting applications. PMID:25348004

  4. Vibration-Resistant Fastener

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    An engineer at Philips Broadband Networks (PBN) tested the Spiralock thread based on information he found in NASA Tech Briefs. After testing the product, PBN began to use it in most of its products, eliminating an installation problem and reducing production costs. Spiralock, manufactured by Detroit Tool Industries, is a superfastener NASA tested for use in the Space Shuttle engines that resists great shock and vibration.

  5. Vibrational Relaxation in Gases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Lambert; R. Salter

    1959-01-01

    The velocity of ultrasonic waves has been measured in a number of gases at 25 degrees C and for values of the ratio, ultrasonic frequency\\/pressure, ranging from 2 × 105 to 2 × 107 c s-1 atm-1. Dispersion, corresponding to a single vibrational relaxation process was shown by acetylene, CD3Br and hexafluoro-ethane; and, to a double relaxation process, by ethane.

  6. Results of ground vibration tests on a YF-12 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. J.; Cazier, F. W., Jr.; Larson, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    Ground vibration tests were conducted on a YF-12 airplane. To approximate a structural free-free boundary condition during the tests, each of the landing gears was supported on a support system designed to have a low natural frequency. The test equipment and the procedures used for the ground vibration tests are described. The results are presented in the form of frequency response data, measured mode lines, and elastic mode shapes for the wing/body, rudder, and fuselage ventral fin. In the frequency range between 3.4 cps and 28.8 cps, nine symmetrical wing/body modes, six antisymmetrical wing/body modes, two rudder modes, and one ventral fin mode were measured.

  7. Simulations of vibrational relaxation in dense molecular fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Holian, B.L.

    1985-07-01

    In the understanding of high-temperatre and -pressure chemistry in explosives, first step is the study of the transfer of energy from translational degrees of freedom into internal vibrations of the molecules. We present new methods using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) for measuring vibrational relaxation in a diatomic fluid, where we expect a classical treatment of many-body collisions to be relevant because of the high densities (2 to 3 times compressed compared to the normal fluid) and high temperatures (2000 to 4000 K) involved behind detonation waves. NEMD techniques are discussed, including their limitations, and qualitative results presented.

  8. Radiation therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    Radiation therapy uses high-powered x-rays, particles, or radioactive seeds to kill cancer cells. ... radiation is most harmful to quickly growing cells, radiation therapy damages cancer cells more than normal cells. This ...

  9. Getting Therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... psychotherapy. That is because it helps with your psychology — the mental and emotional parts of your life. ... for depression , anxiety , and several other problems is cognitive behavioral therapy. This type of therapy teaches you ...

  10. Vibration damping method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Redmond, J.M.; Barney, P.S.; Parker, G.G.; Smith, D.A.

    1999-06-22

    The present invention provides vibration damping method and apparatus that can damp vibration in more than one direction without requiring disassembly, that can accommodate varying tool dimensions without requiring re-tuning, and that does not interfere with tool tip operations and cooling. The present invention provides active dampening by generating bending moments internal to a structure such as a boring bar to dampen vibration thereof. 38 figs.

  11. Vibrationally Excited C$_4$H

    E-print Network

    Cooksy, Andrew L; Killian, T C; Thaddeus, P; Patel, Nimesh A; Young, Ken H; McCarthy, M C

    2015-01-01

    Rotational spectra in four new excited vibrational levels of the linear carbon chain radical C$_4$H radical were observed in the millimeter band between 69 and 364 GHz in a low pressure glow discharge, and two of these were observed in a supersonic molecular beam between 19 and 38 GHz. All have rotational constants within 0.4% of the $^2\\Sigma^+$ ground vibrational state of C$_4$H and were assigned to new bending vibrational levels, two each with $^2\\Sigma$ and $^2\\Pi$ vibrational symmetry. The new levels are tentatively assigned to the $1\

  12. Electronic damping of mechanical vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasilyev, P.; Navitskas, A.

    1973-01-01

    The conditions required for measuring and recording the patterns of vibration of a process are discussed. It is stated that the frequency of the process being investigated must be an order of magnitude lower than the natural frequency of the sensitive receiving element for sufficient accuracy. The elastic element must damp so the frequency range of the vibrational patterns being investigated can be expanded. This is especially true of the tensile stresses of a moving signal carrier. A method is proposed for damping mechanical vibrations of elastic sensitive elements with semiconductor strain gages, based on electronic compensation of the natural vibrations. A schematic diagram is provided to show the conditions.

  13. Frequency shift of a rotating-imbalance vibration source caused by radiative damping in the surrounding medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen R. Novascone; Michael J. Anderson; David M. Weinberg; Jack H. Cole

    2003-01-01

    The motion of vibrating bodies in a surrounding fluid is often used to infer the transport properties of the fluid. A new sensor configuration is presented that consists of a rotating imbalance source radiating into an unbounded fluid medium. Under these circumstances, the reaction of the fluid medium onto the vibration source includes a steady state torque that opposes the

  14. Comparison of Methods to Reduce Vibrations in Superconducting Maglev Vehicles by Primary Suspension Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erimitsu Suzuki; Jun Shirasaki; Ken Watanabe; Hironori Hoshino; Masao Nagai

    2008-01-01

    The vehicles of the superconducting magnetically levitated transport (Maglev) system travel at high speeds of over 500 km\\/h. These vehicles are composed of lightweight car bodies and relatively heavy bogies which are mounted with devices such as superconducting magnets (SCMs) and an onboard refrigerating system. The lightweight structure of the car bodies result in vibrations at relatively high frequencies, and

  15. Vibrational relaxation and vibrational cooling in low temperature molecular crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Jeffrey R.; Chronister, Eric L.; Chang, Ta-Chau; Kim, Hackjin; Postlewaite, Jay C.; Dlott, Dana D.

    1988-01-01

    The processes of vibrational relaxation (VR) and vibrational cooling (VC) are investigated in low temperature crystals of complex molecules, specifically benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, and durene. In the VR process, a vibration is deexcited, while VC consists of many sequential and parallel VR steps which return the crystal to thermal equilibrium. A theoretical model is developed which relates the VR rate to the excess vibrational energy, the molecular structure, and the crystal structure. Specific relations are derived for the vibrational lifetime T1 in each of three regimes of excess vibrational energy. The regimes are the following: Low frequency regime I where VR occurs by emission of two phonons, intermediate frequency regime II where VR occurs by emission of one phonon and one vibration, and high frequency regime III where VR occurs by evolution into a dense bath of vibrational combinations. The VR rate in each regime depends on a particular multiphonon density of states and a few averaged anharmonic coefficients. The appropriate densities of states are calculated from spectroscopic data, and together with available VR data and new infrared and ps Raman data, the values of the anharmonic coefficients are determined for each material. The relationship between these parameters and the material properties is discussed. We then describe VC in a master equation formalism. The transition rate matrix for naphthalene is found using the empirically determined parameters of the above model, and the time dependent redistribution in each mode is calculated.

  16. Structural Acoustics and Vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaigne, Antoine

    This chapter is devoted to vibrations of structures and to their coupling with the acoustic field. Depending on the context, the radiated sound can be judged as desirable, as is mostly the case for musical instruments, or undesirable, like noise generated by machinery. In architectural acoustics, one main goal is to limit the transmission of sound through walls. In the automobile industry, the engineers have to control the noise generated inside and outside the passenger compartment. This can be achieved by means of passive or active damping. In general, there is a strong need for quieter products and better sound quality generated by the structures in our daily environment.

  17. 14 CFR 27.251 - Vibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vibration. 27.251 Section 27.251 ...Flight Requirements § 27.251 Vibration. Each part of the rotorcraft must be free from excessive vibration under each appropriate speed and...

  18. 14 CFR 27.251 - Vibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vibration. 27.251 Section 27.251 ...Flight Requirements § 27.251 Vibration. Each part of the rotorcraft must be free from excessive vibration under each appropriate speed and...

  19. 14 CFR 27.251 - Vibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vibration. 27.251 Section 27.251 ...Flight Requirements § 27.251 Vibration. Each part of the rotorcraft must be free from excessive vibration under each appropriate speed and...

  20. 14 CFR 29.251 - Vibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Vibration. 29.251 Section 29.251 ...Flight Requirements § 29.251 Vibration. Each part of the rotorcraft must be free from excessive vibration under each appropriate speed and...

  1. 14 CFR 27.251 - Vibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Vibration. 27.251 Section 27.251 ...Flight Requirements § 27.251 Vibration. Each part of the rotorcraft must be free from excessive vibration under each appropriate speed and...

  2. 14 CFR 29.251 - Vibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vibration. 29.251 Section 29.251 ...Flight Requirements § 29.251 Vibration. Each part of the rotorcraft must be free from excessive vibration under each appropriate speed and...

  3. 14 CFR 29.251 - Vibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vibration. 29.251 Section 29.251 ...Flight Requirements § 29.251 Vibration. Each part of the rotorcraft must be free from excessive vibration under each appropriate speed and...

  4. 14 CFR 29.251 - Vibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vibration. 29.251 Section 29.251 ...Flight Requirements § 29.251 Vibration. Each part of the rotorcraft must be free from excessive vibration under each appropriate speed and...

  5. 14 CFR 29.251 - Vibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vibration. 29.251 Section 29.251 ...Flight Requirements § 29.251 Vibration. Each part of the rotorcraft must be free from excessive vibration under each appropriate speed and...

  6. 14 CFR 27.251 - Vibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vibration. 27.251 Section 27.251 ...Flight Requirements § 27.251 Vibration. Each part of the rotorcraft must be free from excessive vibration under each appropriate speed and...

  7. Melt Stirring by Horizontal Crucible Vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, M. F.; Elwell, D.; Feigelson, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    Horizontal vibration suggested as technique for more effective stirring of melts in crystal-growth apparatus. Vibrational technique may replace accelerated crucible rotation. Potential superiority of vibrational technique shown by preliminary experiments in which ink stirred into water.

  8. Body Piercing

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Laura M; Carnes, Molly

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the current information on medical complications, psychological implications, and legislative issues related to body piercing, a largely unregulated industry in the United States. METHODS We conducted a MEDLINE search of English language articles from 1966 until May 1998 using the search terms “body piercing” and “ear piercing.” Bibliographies of these references were reviewed for additional citations. We also conducted an Internet search for “body piercing” on the World Wide Web. MAIN RESULTS: In this manuscript, we review the available body piercing literature. We conclude that body piercing is an increasingly common practice in the United States, that this practice carries substantial risk of morbidity, and that most body piercing in the United States is being performed by unlicensed, unregulated individuals. Primary care physicians are seeing growing numbers of patients with body pierces. Practitioners must be able to recognize, treat, and counsel patients on body piercing complications and be alert to associated psychological conditions in patients who undergo body piercing. PMID:10354260

  9. The Influence of Tractor-Seat Height above the Ground on Lateral Vibrations

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Gil, Jaime; Gomez-Gil, Francisco Javier; Martin-de-Leon, Rebeca

    2014-01-01

    Farmers experience whole-body vibrations when they drive tractors. Among the various factors that influence the vibrations to which the driver is exposed are terrain roughness, tractor speed, tire type and pressure, rear axle width, and tractor seat height above the ground. In this paper the influence of tractor seat height above the ground on the lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed is studied by means of a geometrical and an experimental analysis. Both analyses show that: (i) lateral vibrations experienced by a tractor driver increase linearly with tractor-seat height above the ground; (ii) lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed can equal or exceed vertical vibrations; (iii) in medium-size tractors, a feasible 30 cm reduction in the height of the tractor seat, which represents only 15% of its current height, will reduce the lateral vibrations by around 20%; and (iv) vertical vibrations are scarcely influenced by tractor-seat height above the ground. The results suggest that manufacturers could increase the comfort of tractors by lowering tractor-seat height above the ground, which will reduce lateral vibrations. PMID:25340448

  10. Ultrasonic characterization of soft tissue vibrations based on the two-dimensional Fourier transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikdar, Siddhartha; Kim, Yongmin; Beach, Kirk W.

    2005-09-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that soft tissue vibrations in the body, traditionally associated with vascular bruits and cardiac murmurs, can potentially be used for the ultrasonic diagnosis of coronary artery disease and vascular trauma. In this paper, the ultrasonic spectrum of soft tissue vibrations is formulated using the two-dimensional Fourier transform, making full use of the information present in the backscattered ultrasound echoes from vibrating tissue. Parametric simulation studies show that vibrations with amplitude 1 ?m may be detected even with tissue velocity of 20 cm/s and acceleration of 5 m/s2, e.g., during peak cardiac motion. Vibrations with amplitude as low as 0.1 ?m may be detected when the tissue acceleration is negligible, e.g., during mid-diastole. Also, it was found that tissue vibrations in a direction transverse to the ultrasound beam can be detected. In vivo examples of cardiac wall vibrations in patients with coronary artery disease are presented. Tissue vibrations can provide improved sensitivity over conventional duplex ultrasound since the scattering strength from tissue is significantly higher than that from blood. In addition, detection of tissue vibrations has reduced angle dependency and does not require visualization of the vessel lumen, making the exam less dependent on operator skill.

  11. The vibrational Raman spectrum of CS?

    E-print Network

    Ballard, Harold Noble

    1950-01-01

    THE VIBRATIONAL RAMAN SPECTRUM OF CSp A Thesis By HAROLD NOBLE BALLARD Approved as to style and content by Chairman o| Committee THE VIBRATIONAL RAMAN SPECTRUM OF CS2 HAROLD NOBLE BALLARD A Thesis Suhmitted to the Graduate School... in the procurement of necessary equipment. SECTION I: INTRODUCTION. SECTION II: CLASSICAL THEORY OF RAHAM SCATTERING . SECTION III: THEORY OF NORMAL VIBRATIONS AND VIBRATIONAL WAVE EQUATIONS. A, Morsel Vibrations B. Vibrational Wave Eqnation and lhergy Levels...

  12. Clinical Predictors of Early Infarct-Related Artery Patency Following Thrombolytic Therapy: Importance of Body Weight, Smoking History, Infarct-Related Artery and Choice of Thrombolytic Regimen: The GUSTO-I Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CONOR F. LUNDERGAN; JONATHAN S. REINER; FACC WILLIAM F. MCCARTHY; KARIN S. COYNE; ROBERT M. CALIFF

    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to determine patient characteristics that are a priori predictors of early infarct related artery patency following thrombolytic therapy, and to provide a paradigm which may identify patients who would be most likely to achieve restoration of normal (TIMI 3) coronary flow in response to thrombolytic therapy. Background. Restoration of infarct-related artery perfusion in

  13. Clinical predictors of early infarct-related artery patency following thrombolytic therapy: importance of body weight, smoking history, infarct-related artery and choice of thrombolytic regimen: the GUSTO-I experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Conor F Lundergan; Jonathan S Reiner; William F McCarthy; Karin S Coyne; Robert M Califf; Allan M Ross

    1998-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to determine patient characteristics that are a priori predictors of early infarct related artery patency following thrombolytic therapy, and to provide a paradigm which may identify patients who would be most likely to achieve restoration of normal (TIMI 3) coronary flow in response to thrombolytic therapy.Background. Restoration of infarct-related artery perfusion in acute

  14. Development of vibrating insoles.

    PubMed

    Hijmans, Juha M; Geertzen, Jan H B; Schokker, Bart; Postema, Klaas

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the development of vibrating insoles. Insoles, providing a subsensory mechanical noise signal to the plantar side of the feet, may improve balance in healthy young and older people and in patients with stroke or diabetic neuropathy. This study describes the requirements for the tactors, (tactile actuators) insole material and noise generator. A search for the components of vibrating insoles providing mechanical noise to the plantar side of the feet was performed. The mechanical noise signal should be provided by tactors built in an insole or shoe and should obtain an input signal from a noise generator and an amplifier. Possible tactors are electromechanical tactors, a piezo actuator or the VBW32 skin transducer. The Minirator MR1 of NTI, a portable MP3 player or a custom-made noise generator can provide these tactors with input. The tactors can be built in foam, silicone or cork insoles. In conclusion, a C2 electromechanical tactor, a piezo actuator or the VBW32 skin transducer, activated by a custom-made noise generator, built in a cork insole covered with a leather layer seems the ideal solution. PMID:17975456

  15. Vibration detection of component operability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Baird

    1976-01-01

    In order to prevent catastrophic failure and eliminate unnecessary periodic maintenance in the Space Shuttle Orbiter dynamic components, instrumentation for detecting incipient failure in these components is required. This study investigated the utilization of vibrational phenomena as one of the principal physical parameters on which to base the design of this instrumentation. Baseline vibration data was collected from three aircraft

  16. HARVESTING ENERGY FROM MOTH VIBRATIONS DURING FLIGHT S.C. Chang1, F.M. Yaul1, A. Dominguez-Garcia3, F. O'Sullivan2, D.M. Otten1, J.H. Lang1

    E-print Network

    Liberzon, Daniel

    energy harvesting has compared concepts for moths [1], studied piezoelectric-based vibration harvestersHARVESTING ENERGY FROM MOTH VIBRATIONS DURING FLIGHT S.C. Chang1, F.M. Yaul1, A. Dominguez-Garcia3 the design, fabrication, and testing of a harvester that extracts energy from moth-body vibrations during

  17. Dinosaur Bodies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson plan asks students to think about the ways in which living animals use their bodies and the ways in which dinosaurs might have used their bodies based on fossil evidence and our best educated guesses. These topics serve as a prelude to studying evolution and adaptation.

  18. The application of SEAT values for predicting how compliant seats with backrests influence vibration discomfort.

    PubMed

    Basri, Bazil; Griffin, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    The extent to which a seat can provide useful attenuation of vehicle vibration depends on three factors: the characteristics of the vehicle motion, the vibration transmissibility of the seat, and the sensitivity of the body to vibration. The 'seat effective amplitude transmissibility' (i.e., SEAT value) reflects how these three factors vary with the frequency and the direction of vibration so as to predict the vibration isolation efficiency of a seat. The SEAT value is mostly used to select seat cushions or seat suspensions based on the transmission of vertical vibration to the principal supporting surface of a seat. This study investigated the accuracy of SEAT values in predicting how seats with backrests influence the discomfort caused by multiple-input vibration. Twelve male subjects participated in a four-part experiment to determine equivalent comfort contours, the relative discomfort, the location of discomfort, and seat transmissibility with three foam seats and a rigid reference seat at 14 frequencies of vibration in the range 1-20 Hz at magnitudes of vibration from 0.2 to 1.6 ms(-2) r.m.s. The 'measured seat dynamic discomfort' (MSDD) was calculated for each foam seat from the ratio of the vibration acceleration required to cause similar discomfort with the foam seat and with the rigid reference seat. Using the frequency weightings in current standards, the SEAT values of each seat were calculated from the ratio of overall ride values with the foam seat to the overall ride values with the rigid reference seat, and compared to the corresponding MSDD at each frequency. The SEAT values provided good predictions of how the foam seats increased vibration discomfort at frequencies around the 4-Hz resonance but reduced vibration discomfort at frequencies greater than about 6.3 Hz, with discrepancies explained by a known limitation of the frequency weightings. PMID:24793821