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Sample records for body weight implication

  1. Neural Growth Hormone Implicated in Body Weight Sex Differences

    PubMed Central

    Bonthuis, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    As for many human diseases, the incidence of obesity and its associated health risks are sexually dimorphic: worldwide the rate of obesity is higher in women. Sex differences in metabolism, appetite, body composition, and fat deposition are contributing biological factors. Gonadal hormones regulate the development of many sexually dimorphic traits in humans and animals, and, in addition, studies in mice indicate a role for direct genetic effects of sex chromosome dosage on body weight, deposition of fat, and circadian timing of feeding behavior. Specifically, mice of either sex with 2 X chromosomes, typical of normal females, have heavier body weights, gain more weight, and eat more food during the light portion of the day than mice of either sex with a single X chromosome. Here we test the effects of X chromosome dosage on body weight and report that gonadal females with 2 X chromosomes express higher levels of GH gene (Gh) mRNA in the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus than females with 1 X chromosome and males. Furthermore, Gh expression in the POA of the hypothalamus of mice with 2 X chromosomes correlated with body weight; GH is known to have orexigenic properties. Acute infusion of GH into the POA increased immediate food intake in normal (XY) males. We propose that X inactivation–escaping genes modulate Gh expression and food intake, and this is part of the mechanism by which individuals with 2 X chromosomes are heavier than individuals with a single X chromosome. PMID:23861378

  2. Body Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart failure, and kidney disease. Good nutrition and exercise can help in losing weight. Eating extra calories within a well-balanced diet and treating any underlying medical problems can help to add weight.

  3. Body Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... to medicines, thyroid problems, heart failure, and kidney disease. Good nutrition and exercise can help in losing weight. Eating extra calories within a well-balanced diet and treating any underlying medical problems can help to add weight.

  4. Marijuana and body weight.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2014-07-01

    Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as "the munchies"). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status-i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases body weight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and body weight. PMID:25337447

  5. Historic Variations in Winter Indoor Domestic Temperatures and Potential Implications for Body Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, F.; Ucci, M.; Marmot, A.; Wardle, J.; Oreszczyn, T.; Summerfield, A.

    2013-01-01

    It has been argued that the amount of time spent by humans in thermoneutral environments has increased in recent decades. This paper examines evidence of historic changes in winter domestic temperatures in industrialised countries. Future trajectories for indoor thermal comfort are also explored. Whilst methodological differences across studies make it difficult to compare data and accurately estimate the absolute size of historic changes in indoor domestic temperatures, data analysis does suggest an upward trend, particularly in bedrooms. The variations in indoor winter residential temperatures might have been further exacerbated in some countries by a temporary drop in demand temperatures due to the 1970s energy crisis, as well as by recent changes in the building stock. In the United Kingdom, for example, spot measurement data indicate that an increase of up to 1.3°C per decade in mean dwelling winter indoor temperatures may have occurred from 1978 to 1996. The findings of this review paper are also discussed in the context of their significance for human health and well-being. In particular, historic indoor domestic temperature trends are discussed in conjunction with evidence on the links between low ambient temperatures, body energy expenditure and weight gain. PMID:26321874

  6. [Nutrition and body weight].

    PubMed

    Gohlke, H

    2002-01-01

    Certain dietary components play a key role for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). Complex carbohydrates lower the prevalence of CAD. Protein should provide 15% of daily calories. Populations with a high consumption of soy protein have a low coronary event rate and a high life expectancy. Soy protein has a favorable effect on LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol. Dietary cholesterol correlates with an increased incidence of CAD. Saturated fats increase cholesterol levels as well as the activity of clotting factor VII and promote progression of CAD. Mono-(MUFA) and poly-unsaturated fatty acids lower LDL-cholesterol to a similar extent. MUFA are contained in rape seed oil, olive oil and pea nut oil, but also in avocados and almonds. Omega-3-fatty acids are in fatty fish like salmon, tuna and herring and improve survival after myocardial infarction. They improve among others endothelial function (adhesion molecules). Eating 1-2 fish meals per week has a preventive effect on CAD and stroke. Dietary fiber decreases the risk for CAD up to 30% and favorably influences carbohydrate metabolism. Antioxidants have a favorable effect in their natural form (fruits and fresh vegetables). The secondary preventive effect of a mediterranean diet after myocardial infarction (probably by a combination of the above effects) has been validated. Body weight correlates with coronary risk, diabetes and use of health care resources. A reduction of body weight is best achieved by calory reduction plus an increase of physical activity. A calory-adjusted diet, low in total fat with a significant proportion of unsaturated fats and omega-3-fatty acids and rich in fiber is of great importance for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Fruits, vegetables and whole grain products are important components of this diet, which lowers the coronary event rate, increases longevity and is associated with a low rate of malignancies and osteoporosis. PMID

  7. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Dried Calyx Ethanol Extract on Fat Absorption-Excretion, and Body Weight Implication in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, O.; Hayward-Jones, P. M.; Orta-Flores, Z.; Nolasco-Hipólito, C.; Barradas-Dermitz, D. M.; Aguilar-Uscanga, M. G.; Pedroza-Hernández, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Hs) calyx extract on fat absorption-excretion and body weight in rats, was investigated. Rats were fed with either a basal diet (SDC = Control diet) or the same diet supplemented with Hs extracts at 5%, 10% and 15% (SD5, SD10 and SD15). Only SD5 did not show significant increases in weight, food consumption and efficiency compared to SDC. The opposite occurred in SD15 group which showed a significant decrease for these three parameters. The SD10 responses were similar to SD15, with the exception of food consumption. In both SDC and SD5 groups, no body weight loss was observed; however, only in the latter group was there a significantly greater amount of fatty acids found in feces. A collateral effect emerging from the study is that components of Hs extract at the intermediate and greater concentrations used in this experiment could be considered possible antiobesity agents. PMID:19756159

  8. Effect of clothing weight on body weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight with weather, season, and gender. Methods: Fifty adults (35 wom...

  9. ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AND BODY WEIGHT

    PubMed Central

    FRENCH, MICHAEL T.; NORTON, EDWARD C.; FANG, HAI; MACLEAN, JOHANNA CATHERINE

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The number of Americans who are overweight or obese has reached epidemic proportions. Elevated weight is associated with health problems and increased medical expenditures. This paper analyzes Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to investigate the role of alcohol consumption in weight gain. Alcohol is not only an addictive substance but also a high-calorie beverage that can interfere with metabolic function and cognitive processes. Because men and women differ in the type and amount of alcohol they consume, in the biological effects they experience as a result of alcohol consumption, and in the consequences they face as a result of obesity, we expect our results to differ by gender. We use first-difference models of body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption (frequency and intensity) to control for time-invariant unobservable factors that may influence changes in both alcohol use and weight status. Increasing frequency and intensity of alcohol use is associated with statistically significant yet quantitatively small weight gain for men but not for women. Moreover, the first-difference results are much smaller in magnitude and sometimes different in sign compared to the benchmark pooled cross-sectional estimates. PMID:19548203

  10. Body Weight Relationships in Early Marriage: Weight Relevance, Weight Comparisons, and Weight Talk

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Caron F.; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants’ body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601

  11. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. PMID:26347007

  12. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. PMID:26347007

  13. Body weight, metabolism and clock genes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Biological rhythms are present in the lives of almost all organisms ranging from plants to more evolved creatures. These oscillations allow the anticipation of many physiological and behavioral mechanisms thus enabling coordination of rhythms in a timely manner, adaption to environmental changes and more efficient organization of the cellular processes responsible for survival of both the individual and the species. Many components of energy homeostasis exhibit circadian rhythms, which are regulated by central (suprachiasmatic nucleus) and peripheral (located in other tissues) circadian clocks. Adipocyte plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, the signaling of satiety and cellular differentiation and proliferation. Also, the adipocyte circadian clock is probably involved in the control of many of these functions. Thus, circadian clocks are implicated in the control of energy balance, feeding behavior and consequently in the regulation of body weight. In this regard, alterations in clock genes and rhythms can interfere with the complex mechanism of metabolic and hormonal anticipation, contributing to multifactorial diseases such as obesity and diabetes. The aim of this review was to define circadian clocks by describing their functioning and role in the whole body and in adipocyte metabolism, as well as their influence on body weight control and the development of obesity. PMID:20712885

  14. Body weight, metabolism and clock genes.

    PubMed

    Zanquetta, Melissa M; Corrêa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia; Monteiro, Maria Beatriz; Villares, Sandra Mf

    2010-01-01

    Biological rhythms are present in the lives of almost all organisms ranging from plants to more evolved creatures. These oscillations allow the anticipation of many physiological and behavioral mechanisms thus enabling coordination of rhythms in a timely manner, adaption to environmental changes and more efficient organization of the cellular processes responsible for survival of both the individual and the species. Many components of energy homeostasis exhibit circadian rhythms, which are regulated by central (suprachiasmatic nucleus) and peripheral (located in other tissues) circadian clocks. Adipocyte plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, the signaling of satiety and cellular differentiation and proliferation. Also, the adipocyte circadian clock is probably involved in the control of many of these functions. Thus, circadian clocks are implicated in the control of energy balance, feeding behavior and consequently in the regulation of body weight. In this regard, alterations in clock genes and rhythms can interfere with the complex mechanism of metabolic and hormonal anticipation, contributing to multifactorial diseases such as obesity and diabetes. The aim of this review was to define circadian clocks by describing their functioning and role in the whole body and in adipocyte metabolism, as well as their influence on body weight control and the development of obesity. PMID:20712885

  15. Body weight of hypersonic aircraft, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    The load bearing body weight of wing-body and all-body hypersonic aircraft is estimated for a wide variety of structural materials and geometries. Variations of weight with key design and configuration parameters are presented and discussed. Both hot and cool structure approaches are considered in isotropic, organic composite, and metal matrix composite materials; structural shells are sandwich or skin-stringer. Conformal and pillow-tank designs are investigated for the all-body shape. The results identify the most promising hypersonic aircraft body structure design approaches and their weight trends. Geometric definition of vehicle shapes and structural analysis methods are presented in appendices.

  16. Maintaining ideal body weight counseling sessions

    SciTech Connect

    Brammer, S.H.

    1980-10-09

    The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.

  17. Body weight and the initiation of puberty.

    PubMed

    Baker, E R

    1985-09-01

    The onset and progression through the various stages of puberty are influenced by a number of factors (Fig. 2). In both animals and humans, the age of puberty appears to be related more to body weight than to chronologic age. Undernutrition and low body fat, or an altered ratio of lean mass to body fat, seem to delay the adolescent spurt and to retard the onset of menarche. According to Frisch, a minimum level of fatness (17% of body weight) is associated with menarche; however, a heavier minimum weight for height, representing an increased amount of body fat (22%), appears necessary for the onset and maintenance of regular menstrual cycles in girls over 16 years of age. This critical amount of body fat implies that a particular body composition, in addition to other environmental and psychosocial factors, is important in triggering and maintaining the pubertal process. PMID:4053451

  18. Body Weight Image and Gender Influence Emotional Response Patterns to Body Weight Related Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DelRosario, Marlene W.; And Others

    Young adult females' attitudes toward body weight regulation contain important emotional components. To study the effects of body weight cues on emotionality, 160 college students (75 females, 85 males) completed either a body weight related (Q1) or control (Q2) questionnaire prior to taking the California Test of Personality (CTP). An analysis of…

  19. Intake of High-intensity Sweeteners alters the Ability of Sweet Taste to Signal Caloric Consequences: Implications for the Learned Control of Energy and Body Weight Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Terry L.; Martin, Ashley A.; Clark, Kiely; Swithers, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    Recent results from both human epidemiological and experimental studies with animals suggest that intake of non-caloric sweeteners may promote, rather than protect against, weight gain and other disturbances of energy regulation. However, without a viable mechanism to explain how consumption of non-caloric sweeteners can increase energy intake and body weight, the persuasiveness of such results has been limited. Using a rat model, the present research showed that intake of non-caloric sweeteners reduces the effectiveness of learned associations between sweet tastes and postingestive caloric outcomes (Experiment 1) and that interfering with this association may impair the ability of rats to regulate their intake of sweet, but not nonsweet, high-fat and high-calorie food (Experiment 2). The results support the hypothesis that consuming noncaloric sweeteners may promote excessive intake and body weight gain by weakening a predictive relationship between sweet taste and the caloric consequences of eating. PMID:21424985

  20. Judging body weight from faces: the height-weight illusion.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Tobias M; Hecht, Heiko; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2012-01-01

    Being able to exploit features of the human face to predict health and fitness can serve as an evolutionary advantage. Surface features such as facial symmetry, averageness, and skin colour are known to influence attractiveness. We sought to determine whether observers are able to extract more complex features, namely body weight. If possible, it could be used as a predictor for health and fitness. For instance, facial adiposity could be taken to indicate a cardiovascular challenge or proneness to infections. Observers seem to be able to glean body weight information from frontal views of a face. Is weight estimation robust across different viewing angles? We showed that participants strongly overestimated body weight for faces photographed from a lower vantage point while underestimating it for faces photographed from a higher vantage point. The perspective distortions of simple facial measures (e.g., width-to-height ratio) that accompany changes in vantage point do not suffice to predict body weight. Instead, more complex patterns must be involved in the height-weight illusion. PMID:22611670

  1. Body Weight Independently Affects Articular Cartilage Catabolism

    PubMed Central

    Denning, W. Matt; Winward, Jason G.; Pardo, Michael Becker; Hopkins, J. Ty; Seeley, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    Although obesity is associated with osteoarthritis, it is unclear whether body weight (BW) independently affects articular cartilage catabolism (i.e., independent from physiological factors that also accompany obesity). The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the independent effect of BW on articular cartilage catabolism associated with walking. A secondary purpose was to determine how decreased BW influenced cardiovascular response due to walking. Twelve able-bodied subjects walked for 30 minutes on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill during three sessions: control (unadjusted BW), +40%BW, and -40%BW. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) was measured immediately before (baseline) and after, and 15 and 30 minutes after the walk. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured every three minutes during the walk. Relative to baseline, average serum COMP concentration was 13% and 5% greater immediately after and 15 minutes after the walk. Immediately after the walk, serum COMP concentration was 14% greater for the +40%BW session than for the -40%BW session. HR and RPE were greater for the +40%BW session than for the other two sessions, but did not differ between the control and -40%BW sessions. BW independently influences acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response due to walking: as BW increases, so does acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response. These results indicate that lower-body positive pressure walking may benefit certain individuals by reducing acute articular cartilage catabolism, due to walking, while maintaining cardiovascular response. Key points Walking for 30 minutes with adjustments in body weight (normal body weight, +40% and -40% body weight) significantly influences articular cartilage catabolism, measured via serum COMP concentration. Compared to baseline levels, walking with +40% body weight and normal body weight both elicited significant increases in

  2. Bisphenol A: Perinatal exposure and body weight

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Beverly S.; Soto, Ana M.

    2010-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a component of polycarbonate and other plastics including resins that line food and beverage containers. BPA is known to leach from products in contact with food and drink, and is therefore thought to be routinely ingested. In a recent cross sectional study, BPA was detected in urine samples from 92.6% of the US population examined. The potential for BPA to influence body weight is suggested by in vitro studies demonstrating effects of BPA on adipocyte differentiation, lipid accumulation, glucose transport and adiponectin secretion. Data from in vivo studies have revealed dose-dependent and sex dependent effects on body weight in rodents exposed perinatally to BPA. The mechanisms through which perinatal BPA exposure acts to exert persistent effects on body weight and adiposity remain to be determined. Possible targets of BPA action are discussed. PMID:19433248

  3. Body contouring following massive weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Vijay; Singh, Amitabh; Aly, Al S.; Cram, Albert E.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a global disease with epidemic proportions. Bariatric surgery or modified lifestyles go a long way in mitigating the vast weight gain. Patients following these interventions usually undergo massive weight loss. This results in redundant tissues in various parts of the body. Loose skin causes increased morbidity and psychological trauma. This demands various body contouring procedures that are usually excisional. These procedures are complex and part of a painstaking process that needs a committed patient and an industrious plastic surgeon. As complications in these patients can be quite frequent, both the patient and the surgeon need to be aware and willing to deal with them. PMID:21713202

  4. Excessive Body Weight in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N; Bales, Connie W

    2015-08-01

    The health challenges prompted by obesity in the older adult population are poorly recognized and understudied. A defined treatment of geriatric obesity is difficult to establish, as it must take into account biological heterogeneity, age-related comorbidities, and functional limitations (sarcopenia/dynapenia). This retrospective article highlights the current understanding of the optimal body mass index (BMI) in later life, addressing appropriate recommendations based on BMI category, age, and health history. The findings of randomized control trials of weight loss/maintenance interventions help one to move closer to evidence-based and appropriately individualized recommendations for body weight management in older adults. PMID:26195092

  5. Body weight of advanced concept hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, Mark D.; Terjesen, Eric J.; Roberts, Cathy D.; Chambers, Mark C.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, preliminary qualitative and quantitative comparisons of the body weight of five hypersonic aircraft configurations are conducted. The five configurations are briefly described as follows: (1) a wing-and-body arrangement with a power-law, circular cross-section body and a delta wing; (2) an all-body vehicle with delta planform and elliptical cross-sections; (3) a wingless wave rider configuration; (4) a winged wave rider configuration; and (5) the spacewing concept, an oblique flying wing at low speed that yaws to 90 deg sweep and flies end-on at hypersonic speeds. The vehicles are defined by their external moldline geometries and by the interior arrangement of their fuel tanks and other components. Intersecting, circular-lobed tankage is used in vehicles with noncircular bodies. The nonusable volume of such concepts is calculated. The structural concept, structural materials, Thermal Protection System, and heat load are allowed to vary with vehicle longitudinal station. Relative strengths and weaknesses of the various hypersonic aircraft concepts in terms of body weight are summarized.

  6. Weight status and the perception of body image in men

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Rick M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than are women. Cultural influences have been found to be important, with body size underestimations occurring in cultures

  7. Determinants of body weight regulation in humans.

    PubMed

    Moehlecke, Milene; Canani, Luis Henrique; Silva, Lucas Oliveira Junqueira E; Trindade, Manoel Roberto Maciel; Friedman, Rogerio; Leitão, Cristiane Bauermann

    2016-04-01

    Body weight is regulated by the ability of hypothalamic neurons to orchestrate behavioral, endocrine and autonomic responses via afferent and efferent pathways to the brainstem and the periphery. Weight maintenance requires a balance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Although several components that participate in energy homeostasis have been identified, there is a need to know in more detail their actions as well as their interactions with environmental and psychosocial factors in the development of human obesity. In this review, we examine the role of systemic mediators such as leptin, ghrelin and insulin, which act in the central nervous system by activating or inhibiting neuropeptide Y, Agouti-related peptide protein, melanocortin, transcript related to cocaine and amphetamine, and others. As a result, modifications in energy homeostasis occur through regulation of appetite and energy expenditure. We also examine compensatory changes in the circulating levels of several peripheral hormones after diet-induced weight loss. PMID:26910628

  8. [Postnatal skeletal and body weight in beagles].

    PubMed

    Salomon, F V; Schulze, A; Böhme, U; Arnold, U; Gericke, A; Gille, U

    1999-08-01

    Growth of beagles is described on the basis of body weight and 14 bone measures. Eighteen male and 19 female dogs were investigated at 14 different ages from birth to the 13th month of life. Characteristics of the growth curves were evaluated using the modified Janoschek growth curve. For the classification into dwarfish, low, normal, big and gigantic growth, the growth curves are presented with percentiles. The arithmetic means and standard deviations for both sexes are presented in tables. Additionally, the degrees of maturity at birth (relative proportion of final weight or bone measure), the point of inflection for the growth curve, the times to grow to 50 and 95% of the final measures, and the asymptotic measures are also presented in tables. Sex differences in growth for the body weight and bone measures are discussed. Growth differences between large and small dog breeds are considered. The conclusion is drawn that the feeding of dogs has to be adapted to the growth course. PMID:10488625

  9. Role of oxytocin signaling in the regulation of body weight

    PubMed Central

    Blevins, James E.; Ho, Jacqueline M.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and its associated metabolic disorders are growing health concerns in the US and worldwide. In the US alone, more than two-thirds of the adult population is classified as either overweight or obese [1], highlighting the need to develop new, effective treatments for these conditions. Whereas the hormone oxytocin is well known for its peripheral effects on uterine contraction during parturition and milk ejection during lactation, release of oxytocin from somatodendrites and axonal terminals within the central nervous system (CNS) is implicated in both the formation of prosocial behaviors and in the control of energy balance. Recent findings demonstrate that chronic administration of oxytocin reduces food intake and body weight in diet-induced obese (DIO) and genetically obese rodents with impaired or defective leptin signaling. Importantly, chronic systemic administration of oxytocin out to 6 weeks recapitulates the effects of central administration on body weight loss in DIO rodents at doses that do not result in the development of tolerance. Furthermore, these effects are coupled with induction of Fos (a marker of neuronal activation) in hindbrain areas (e.g. dorsal vagal complex (DVC)) linked to the control of meal size and forebrain areas (e.g. hypothalamus, amygdala) linked to the regulation of food intake and body weight. This review assesses the potential central and peripheral targets by which oxytocin may inhibit body weight gain, its regulation by anorexigenic and orexigenic signals, and its potential use as a therapy that can circumvent leptin resistance and reverse the behavioral and metabolic abnormalities associated with DIO and genetically obese models. PMID:24065622

  10. Body weight: implications for the prevention of coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus in a cohort study of middle aged men.

    PubMed Central

    Shaper, A. G.; Wannamethee, S. G.; Walker, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the body mass index associated with the lowest morbidity and mortality. DESIGN: Prospective study of a male cohort. SETTING: One general practice in each of 24 British towns. SUBJECTS: 7735 men aged 40-59 years at screening. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause death rate, heart attacks, and stroke (fatal and non-fatal) and development of diabetes, or any of these outcomes (combined end point) over an average follow up of 14.8 years. RESULTS: There were 1271 deaths from all causes, 974 heart attacks, 290 strokes, and 245 new cases of diabetes mellitus. All cause mortality was increased only in men with a body mass index (kg/m2) < 20 and in men with an index > or = 30. However, risk of cardiovascular death, heart attack, and diabetes increased progressively from an index of < 20 even after age, smoking, social class, alcohol consumption, and physical activity were adjusted for. For the combined end point the lowest risks were seen for an index of 20.0-23.9. In never smokers and former smokers, deaths from any cause rose progressively from an index of 20.0-21.9 and for the combined end point, from 20.0-23.9. Age adjusted levels of a wide range of cardiovascular risk factors rose or fell progressively from an index < 20. CONCLUSION: A healthy body mass index in these middle aged British men seems to be about 22. PMID:9158466

  11. Adolescent-parent interactions and communication preferences regarding body weight and weight management: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study aimed to canvass the nature of adolescent-parent interactions about weight, particularly overweight, and to explore ideas of how to foster supportive discussions regarding weight, both in the home and with family doctors. Methods A market research company was contracted to recruit and conduct a series of separate focus groups with adolescents and unrelated parents of adolescents from low-middle socio-economic areas in Sydney and a regional centre, Australia. Group discussions were audio recorded, transcribed, and then a qualitative content analysis of the data was performed. Results Nine focus groups were conducted; two were held with girls (n = 13), three with boys (n = 18), and four with parents (20 mothers, 12 fathers). Adolescent and parent descriptions of weight-related interactions could be classified into three distinct approaches: indirect/cautious (i.e. focus on eating or physical activity behaviors without discussing weight specifically); direct/open (i.e. body weight was discussed); and never/rarely discussing the subject. Indirect approaches were described most frequently by both adolescents and parents and were generally preferred over direct approaches. Parents and adolescents were circumspect but generally supportive of the potential role for family doctors to monitor and discuss adolescent weight status. Conclusions These findings have implications for developing acceptable messages for adolescent and family overweight prevention and treatment interventions. PMID:20205918

  12. Weight Loss Practices and Body Weight Perceptions among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharton, Christopher M.; Adams, Troy; Hampl, Jeffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed associations between body weight perception and weight loss strategies. Participants: They randomly selected male and female college students (N = 38,204). Methods: The authors conducted a secondary data analysis of the rates of weight loss strategies and body weight perception among students who completed the…

  13. Effects of Body Fat on Weight Concerns, Dating, and Sexual Activity: A Longitudinal Analysis of Black and White Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Udry, J. Richard; Suchindran, Chirayath; Campbell, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    Investigated implications of body-fat differences for dating and sexual activity and implications of heterosexual activity for dieting and weight concerns in adolescent girls. Found that among white girls, and blacks with college-educated mothers, more body fat was associated with lower dating probability, even among non-obese girls. Body fat was…

  14. Body weight and beauty: the changing face of the ideal female body weight.

    PubMed

    Bonafini, B A; Pozzilli, P

    2011-01-01

    By observing the art of different eras, as well as the more recent existence of the media, it is obvious that there have been dramatic changes in what is considered a beautiful body. The ideal of female beauty has shifted from a symbol of fertility to one of mathematically calculated proportions. It has taken the form of an image responding to men's sexual desires. Nowadays there seems to be a tendency towards the destruction of the feminine, as androgynous fashion and appearance dominate our culture. The metamorphosis of the ideal woman follows the shifting role of women in society from mother and mistress to a career-orientated individual. Her depiction by artists across the centuries reveals this change in role and appearance that should be interpreted within the social and historical context of each era with its own theories of what constituted the ideal female body weight. PMID:20492540

  15. Perceptions of Body Weight, Weight Management Strategies, and Depressive Symptoms among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harring, Holly Anne; Montgomery, Kara; Hardin, James

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine if inaccurate body weight perception predicts unhealthy weight management strategies and to determine the extent to which inaccurate body weight perception is associated with depressive symptoms among US college students. Participants: Randomly selected male and female college students in the United States (N = 97,357).…

  16. Correlates of Body Mass Index, Weight Goals, and Weight-Management Practices among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Raheem J.; Valois, Robert F.; Drane, J. Wanzer

    2004-01-01

    The study examined associations among physical activity, cigarette smoking, body mass index, perceptions of body weight, weight-management goals, and weight-management behaviors of public high school adolescents. The CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey provided a cross-sectional sample (n = 3,089) of public high school students in South Carolina.…

  17. Mechanisms of Body Weight Fluctuations in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kistner, Andrea; Lhommée, Eugénie; Krack, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Typical body weight changes are known to occur in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand, an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopaminergic treatment. Comprehension of the different mechanisms contributing to body weight is a prerequisite for the management of body weight and nutritional state of an individual PD patient. This review summarizes the present knowledge and highlights the necessity of evaluation of body weight and related factors, as eating behavior, energy intake, and expenditure in PD. PMID:24917848

  18. Particulate matter and early childhood body weight.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunjeong; Park, Hyesook; Park, Eun Ae; Hong, Yun-Chul; Ha, Mina; Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Ha, Eun-Hee

    2016-09-01

    Concerns over adverse effects of air pollution on children's health have been rapidly rising. However, the effects of air pollution on childhood growth remain to be poorly studied. We investigated the association between prenatal and postnatal exposure to PM10 and children's weight from birth to 60months of age. This birth cohort study evaluated 1129 mother-child pairs in South Korea. Children's weight was measured at birth and at six, 12, 24, 36, and 60months. The average levels of children's exposure to particulate matter up to 10μm in diameter (PM10) were estimated during pregnancy and during the period between each visit until 60months of age. Exposure to PM10 during pregnancy lowered children's weight at 12months. PM10 exposure from seven to 12months negatively affected weight at 12, 36, and 60months. Repeated measures of PM10 and weight from 12 to 60months revealed a negative association between postnatal exposure to PM10 and children's weight. Children continuously exposed to a high level of PM10 (>50μg/m(3)) from pregnancy to 24months of age had weight z-scores of 60 that were 0.44 times lower than in children constantly exposed to a lower level of PM10 (≤50μg/m(3)) for the same period. Furthermore, growth was more vulnerable to PM10 exposure in children with birth weight <3.3kg than in children with birth weight >3.3kg. Air pollution may delay growth in early childhood and exposure to air pollution may be more harmful to children when their birth weight is low. PMID:27344372

  19. Control of Body Weight by Eating Behavior in Children

    PubMed Central

    Zandian, Modjtaba; Bergh, Cecilia; Ioakimidis, Ioannis; Esfandiari, Maryam; Shield, Julian; Lightman, Stafford; Leon, Michael; Södersten, Per

    2015-01-01

    Diet, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have limited effects in counteracting the worldwide increase in pediatric body weight. Moreover, the promise that individualized drug design will work to induce weight loss appears to be exaggerated. We suggest that the reason for this limited success is that the cause of obesity has been misunderstood. Body weight is mainly under external control; our brain permits us to eat under most circumstances, and unless the financial or physical cost of food is high, eating and body weight increase by default. When energy-rich, inexpensive foods are continually available, people need external support to maintain a healthy body weight. Weight loss can thereby be achieved by continuous feedback on how much and how fast to eat on a computer screen. PMID:26539422

  20. Control of Body Weight by Eating Behavior in Children.

    PubMed

    Zandian, Modjtaba; Bergh, Cecilia; Ioakimidis, Ioannis; Esfandiari, Maryam; Shield, Julian; Lightman, Stafford; Leon, Michael; Södersten, Per

    2015-01-01

    Diet, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have limited effects in counteracting the worldwide increase in pediatric body weight. Moreover, the promise that individualized drug design will work to induce weight loss appears to be exaggerated. We suggest that the reason for this limited success is that the cause of obesity has been misunderstood. Body weight is mainly under external control; our brain permits us to eat under most circumstances, and unless the financial or physical cost of food is high, eating and body weight increase by default. When energy-rich, inexpensive foods are continually available, people need external support to maintain a healthy body weight. Weight loss can thereby be achieved by continuous feedback on how much and how fast to eat on a computer screen. PMID:26539422

  1. Body talk among undergraduate women: why conversations about exercise and weight loss differentially predict body appreciation.

    PubMed

    Wasylkiw, Louise; Butler, Nicole A

    2014-08-01

    Undergraduate women (N = 143) completed self-reports on exercise behavior, body orientation, body appreciation, and body-related talk. Results showed that conversations about weight loss/dieting and conversations about exercise differentially predicted body appreciation. Importantly, multiple regression analyses showed that the relationship between talk type and body appreciation was explained by the object-process dichotomy: Conversations about exercise oriented women to consider what their bodies can do which, in turn, predicted appreciation of one's body. In contrast, the relationship between conversations about weight loss/dieting and body appreciation was mediated by negative attitudes about one's body but not by an object orientation. PMID:23682060

  2. Lumbar spinal loads vary with body height and weight.

    PubMed

    Han, Kap-Soo; Rohlmann, Antonius; Zander, Thomas; Taylor, William R

    2013-07-01

    Knowledge about spinal loading is required for designing and preclinical testing of spinal implants. It is assumed that loading of the spine depends upon body weight and height, as well as on the spine level, but a direct measurement of the loading conditions throughout the spine is not yet possible. Here, computer models can allow an estimation of the forces and moments acting in the spine. The objective of the present study was to calculate spinal loads for different postures and activities at several levels of the thoracolumbar spine for various combinations of body height and weight. A validated musculoskeletal model, together with commercially available software (AnyBody Technology), were used to calculate the segmental loads acting on the centre of the upper endplate of the vertebrae T12 to L5. The body height was varied between 150 and 200 cm and the weight between 50 and 120 kg. The loads were determined for five standard static postures and three lifting tasks. The resultant forces and moments increased approximately linearly with increasing body weight. The body height had a nearly linear effect on the spinal loads, but in almost all loading cases, the effect on spinal loads was stronger for variation of body weight than of body height. Spinal loads generally increased from cranial to caudal. The presented data now allow the estimation of the spinal load during activities of daily living on a subject specific basis, if body height and weight are known. PMID:23040051

  3. Self-perception of body weight status and weight control practices among adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali; Manickam, Mala A; Baharudin, Azli; Omar, Azahadi; Cheong, Siew Man; Ambak, Rashidah; Ahmad, Mohamad Hasnan; Ghaffar, Suhaila Abdul

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents is rising rapidly in many countries, including Malaysia. This article aims to present the associations between body mass index-based body weight status, body weight perception, and weight control practices among adolescents in Malaysia. The Malaysia School Based Nutrition Survey 2012, which included a body weight perception questionnaire and anthropometric measurements, was conducted on a representative sample of 40 011 students from Standard 4 until Form 5, with a 90.5% response rate. Comparing actual and perceived body weight status, the findings show that 13.8% of adolescents underestimated their weight, 35.0% overestimated, and 51.2% correctly judged their own weight. Significantly more normal weight girls felt they were overweight, whereas significantly more overweight boys perceived themselves as underweight. The overall appropriateness of weight control practices to body weight was 72.6%. Adolescents attempting to lose or gain weight need to have better understanding toward desirable behavioral changes. PMID:25070695

  4. Body Weight Perception, Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors, and Suicidal Ideation among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examined the mediating function of body weight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal…

  5. Excess body weight during pregnancy and offspring obesity: potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Paliy, Oleg; Piyathilake, Chandrika J; Kozyrskyj, Anita; Celep, Gulcin; Marotta, Francesco; Rastmanesh, Reza

    2014-03-01

    The rates of child and adult obesity have increased in most developed countries over the past several decades. The health consequences of obesity affect both physical and mental health, and the excess body weight can be linked to an elevated risk for developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular problems, and depression. Among the factors that can influence the development of obesity are higher infant weights and increased weight gain, which are associated with higher risk for excess body weight later in life. In turn, mother's excess body weight during and after pregnancy can be linked to the risk for offspring overweight and obesity through dietary habits, mode of delivery and feeding, breast milk composition, and through the influence on infant gut microbiota. This review considers current knowledge of these potential mechanisms that threaten to create an intergenerational cycle of obesity. PMID:24103493

  6. Body Weight Gain during Altered Gravity: Spaceflight, Centrifugation and Transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Charles E.; Harper, J. S.; Daunton, N. G.; Corcoran, M. L.; Morey-Holton, E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Gravity is a force that influences all living systems, and is often disregarded in the study of environment on growth and development. To assess the effect of gravity exposure on growth, immature rats (130-200 g) were evaluated during chronic altered gravity exposure and during transition between gravity fields. The effects of 14 days of spaceflight on body weight gain were evaluated (n=12) and compared to controls. Spaceflight did not affect weight gain. In 6 rats, the transition from spaceflight to 1 G showed a significant (p less than 0.05) post flight weight loss over 48 hr of 13 g compared to controls. Over subsequent days this loss was compensated for with no difference noted after 5 days. Exposure to hypergravity, 2 G for 16 days, was evaluated in groups of n=6 (Control; On Center Control (OCC); Centrifuged). With centrifugation or OCC there was a reduction in body weight within 24 hr. The OCC regained control weights within 13 days. The weight difference, 26 +/- 1 g, persisted with 2 G with no subsequent difference in weight gain over days 3-16 compared to controls; 3.7 +/- 0.1 versus 3.9 +/- 0.1 g/day respectively. Transition from centrifugation to 1 G resulted in a weight increase within 48 hours. Over 16 days the rate of gain was increased 3.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for centrifuge compared to 2.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for controls between Day 3 to 16. However, differences from control were still noted on Day 16. Transition from one gravity field to another causes acute changes in body weight. Transition to microgravity or 1 G, following the acute changes, results in adjustments to attain a normal weight. In hypergravity the acute reduction in body weight persist, but weight gain is normal. Transitioning from hypergravity to 1G results in an increased weight gain to compensate for the persistent reduction during exposure.

  7. Body weight and composition dynamics of fall migrating canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serie, J.R.; Sharp, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    We studied body weights and composition of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) during fall migration 1975-77 on stopover sites along the upper Mississippi River near La Crosse, Wisconsin (Navigational Pools 7 and 8) and Keokuk, Iowa (Navigational Pool 19). Body weights varied (P < 0.001) by age and sex without interaction. Weights varied by year (P < 0.001) on Pools 7 and 8. Mean weights increased (P < 0.01) within age and sex classes by date and averaged 3.6 and 2.7 g daily on Pools 7 and 8 and Pool 19, respectively. Percent fat was highly correlated (P < 0.001) with carcass weight for each age and sex. Live weight was a good predictor of total body fat. Mean estimated total body fat ranged from 200 to 300 g and comprised 15-20% of live weights among age and sex classes. Temporal weight patterns were less variable for adults than immatures, but generally increased during migration. Length of stopover varied inversely with fat reserves among color-marked adult males. Variation in fat condition of canvasbacks during fall may explain the mechanism regulating population ingress and egress on stopover sites. Fat reserves attained by canvasbacks during fall stopover may have adaptive significance in improving survival by conditioning for winter.

  8. Weight Self-Regulation Process in Adolescence: The Relationship between Control Weight Attitudes, Behaviors, and Body Weight Status.

    PubMed

    Pich, Jordi; Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents' self-control weight behaviors were assessed (N = 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008) in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image, and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT), we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed) would be motivated either by a "promotion focus" (to show an attractive body), or a "prevention focus" (to avoid social rejection of fatness), or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13 and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were "Not at all" concerned about weight gain, and girls' percentages decreased to 13 and 11%, respectively. By contrast, 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to become slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious, emotional (self-defense), and cognitive (dissonance) mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty), and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics. PMID:26284248

  9. Weight Self-Regulation Process in Adolescence: The Relationship between Control Weight Attitudes, Behaviors, and Body Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Pich, Jordi; Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents’ self-control weight behaviors were assessed (N = 1961; 12–17 years old; 2007–2008) in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image, and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT), we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed) would be motivated either by a “promotion focus” (to show an attractive body), or a “prevention focus” (to avoid social rejection of fatness), or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13 and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were “Not at all” concerned about weight gain, and girls’ percentages decreased to 13 and 11%, respectively. By contrast, 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to become slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious, emotional (self-defense), and cognitive (dissonance) mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty), and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics. PMID:26284248

  10. Contributions of Weight Perceptions to Weight Loss Attempts: Differences by Body Mass Index and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Lemon, Stephenie C.; Rosal, Milagros C.; Zapka, Jane; Borg, Amy; Andersen, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have consistently observed that women are more likely to perceive themselves as overweight compared to men. Similarly, women are more likely than men to report trying to lose weight. Less is known about the impact that self-perceived weight has on weight loss behaviors of adults and whether this association differs by gender. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among an employee sample to determine the association of self-perceived weight on evidence-based weight loss behaviors across genders, accounting for body mass index (BMI) and demographic characteristics. Women were more likely than men to consider themselves to be overweight across each BMI category, and were more likely to report attempting to lose weight. However, perceiving oneself to be overweight was a strong correlate for weight loss attempts across both genders. The effect of targeting accuracy of self-perceived weight status in weight loss interventions deserves research attention. PMID:19188102

  11. Relationships between Weight and Body Dissatisfaction, Body Esteem, and Teasing in African American Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Chermaine; Johnston, Craig A.; Dalton, William T., III; Foreyt, John P.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the relation between weight and weight-related factors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, body esteem, teasing frequency, and the effects of teasing) in a community sample of prepubescent African American girls. African American girls (N = 97) in Grades 3 to 5 completed the McKnight Risk Factor Survey-Third Edition and had their…

  12. Body weight control practice as a cause of infertility.

    PubMed

    Bates, G W

    1985-09-01

    Evidence concerning the relationship between the ratio of lean mass to body fat in the female body and the maintenance of female reproductive functions was examined, and the results of a US clinical study in which a weight gain regime was used to treat unexplained in fertility in 29 fashionabely slim women were presented. During the female pubertal process, there is an average increase in the lean body weight of 44% and a mean increase in the body fat of 120%. Apparently, the accummulation of fat is a necessary prerequisite for the onset of menarche and the establishment and maintenance of regular ovulatory cycles. A small change in body weight produces a relatively large shift in the body weight to fat ratio. As a result, weight loss is frequently followed by amenorrhea. Studies of the endocrine and central nervous system changes in patients with anorexia nervosa, an extreme form of overzealous weight control, provides clues for understanding the effects of less extreme weight control practices on reproductive functions. The gonadotropin secretory pattern of anorexia nervosa patients is similar to the prepubertal pattern. When gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is administered to patients with 53%-64% of their ideal body weight (IBW), they have a weak luteinizing hormone (LH) response and a normal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) response. As their weight increases, the LH response becomes stronger, and at 90%-94% of their IBW, the LH response is frequently exaggerated. Other studies indicate that an exaggerated LH response also occurs when GnRH is administered to fashionably slim women. This finding suggests that gonadotropin secretory studies should be conducted when evaluating women with weight related menstrual dysfunctions. In the present study, 29 patients with unexplained infertility were identified as being overly, but not excessively, concerned with maintaining a slim body image. On the average, they were 91% below their IBW. The women were asked to

  13. The role of sleep in the regulation of body weight.

    PubMed

    Leger, Damien; Bayon, Virginie; de Sanctis, Alice

    2015-12-15

    Sleep participates in the regulation of body weight. The amount of sleep and synchronization of the biological clock are both necessary to achieve the energy balance and the secretion of hormones that contribute to weight regulation. In this review, we first reconsider what normal physiological sleep is and what the normative values of sleep are in the general population. Second, we explain how the biological clock regulates the hormones that may be involved in weight control. Third, we provide some recent data on how sleep may be disturbed by sleep disorders or reduced by sleep debt with consequences on weight. Finally, we explore the relationships between sleep debt and obesity. PMID:26123586

  14. The relationship between body weight and risk of death and serious injury in motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Mock, Charles N; Grossman, David C; Kaufman, Robert P; Mack, Christopher D; Rivara, Frederick P

    2002-03-01

    We sought to investigate the effect of increased body weight on the risk of death and serious injury to occupants in motor vehicle crashes. We employed a retrospective cohort study design utilizing data from the National Automotive Sampling System, Crashworthiness Data System (CDS), 1993-1996. Subjects in the study included occupants involved in tow-away crashes of passenger cars, light trucks, vans and sport utility vehicles. Two outcomes were analyzed: death within 30 days of the crash and injury severity score (ISS). Two exposures were considered: occupant body weight and body mass index (BMI; kg/m2). Occupant weight was available on 27263 subjects (76%) in the CDS database. Mortality was 0.67%. Increased body weight was associated with increased risk of mortality and increased risk of severe injury. The odds ratio for death was 1.013 (95% CI: 1.007, 1.018) for each kilogram increase in body weight. The odds ratio for sustaining an injury with ISS > or = 9 was 1.008 (95% CI: 1.004, 1.011) for each kilogram increase in body weight. After adjustment for potentially confounding variables (age, gender, seatbelt use, seat position and vehicle curbweight), the significant relationship between occupant weight and mortality persisted. After adjustment, the relationship between occupant weight and ISS was present, although less marked. Similar trends were found when BMI was analyzed as the exposure. In conclusion, increased occupant body weight is associated with increased mortality in automobile crashes. This is probably due in part to increased co-morbid factors in the more overweight occupants. However, it is possibly also due to an increased severity of injury in these occupants. These findings may have implications for vehicle safety design, as well as for transport safety policy. PMID:11829292

  15. Body Weight Reducing Effect of Oral Boric Acid Intake

    PubMed Central

    Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir; Emre, Sinem Hocaoglu; Karaca, Cetin; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2011-01-01

    Background: Boric acid is widely used in biology, but its body weight reducing effect is not researched. Methods: Twenty mice were divided into two equal groups. Control group mice drank standard tap water, but study group mice drank 0.28mg/250ml boric acid added tap water over five days. Total body weight changes, major organ histopathology, blood biochemistry, urine and feces analyses were compared. Results: Study group mice lost body weight mean 28.1% but in control group no weight loss and also weight gained mean 0.09% (p<0.001). Total drinking water and urine outputs were not statistically different. Cholesterol, LDL, AST, ALT, LDH, amylase and urobilinogen levels were statistically significantly high in the study group. Other variables were not statistically different. No histopathologic differences were detected in evaluations of all resected major organs. Conclusion: Low dose oral boric acid intake cause serious body weight reduction. Blood and urine analyses support high glucose, lipid and middle protein catabolisms, but the mechanism is unclear. PMID:22135611

  16. Anthropometric approximation of body weight in unresponsive stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, M W; Graf, M; Henke, C; Hermans, M; Ziemann, U; Sitzer, M; Foerch, C

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose Thrombolysis of acute ischaemic stroke is based strictly on body weight to ensure efficacy and to prevent bleeding complications. Many candidate stroke patients are unable to communicate their body weight, and there is often neither the means nor the time to weigh the patient. Instead, weight is estimated visually by the attending physician, but this is known to be inaccurate. Methods Based on a large general population sample of nearly 7000 subjects, we constructed approximation formulae for estimating body weight from simple anthropometric measurements (body height, and waist and hip circumference). These formulae were validated in a sample of 178 consecutive inpatients admitted to our stroke unit, and their accuracy was compared with the best visual estimation of two experienced physicians. Results The simplest formula gave the most accurate approximation (mean absolute difference 3.1 (2.6) kg), which was considerably better than the best visual estimation (physician 1: 6.5 (5.2) kg; physician 2: 7.4 (5.7) kg). It reduced the proportion of weight approximations mismatched by >10% from 31.5% and 40.4% (physicians 1 and 2, respectively) to 6.2% (anthropometric approximation). Only the patient's own estimation was more accurate (mean absolute difference 2.7 (2.4) kg). Conclusions By using an approximation formula based on simple anthropometric measurements (body height, and waist and hip circumference), it is possible to obtain a quick and accurate approximation of body weight. In situations where the exact weight of unresponsive patients cannot be ascertained quickly, we recommend using this approximation method rather than visual estimation. PMID:17494978

  17. Effects of independently altering body weight and body mass on the metabolic cost of running.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, Lennart P J; Grabowski, Alena; Kram, Rodger

    2007-12-01

    The metabolic cost of running is substantial, despite the savings from elastic energy storage and return. Previous studies suggest that generating vertical force to support body weight and horizontal forces to brake and propel body mass are the major determinants of the metabolic cost of running. In the present study, we investigated how independently altering body weight and body mass affects the metabolic cost of running. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that reducing body weight would decrease metabolic rate proportionally, and adding mass and weight would increase metabolic rate proportionally. Further, because previous studies show that adding mass alone does not affect the forces generated on the ground, we hypothesized that adding mass alone would have no substantial effect on metabolic rate. We manipulated the body weight and body mass of 10 recreational human runners and measured their metabolic rates while they ran at 3 m s(-1). We reduced weight using a harness system, increased mass and weight using lead worn about the waist, and increased mass alone using a combination of weight support and added load. We found that net metabolic rate decreased in less than direct proportion to reduced body weight, increased in slightly more than direct proportion to added load (added mass and weight), and was not substantially different from normal running with added mass alone. Adding mass alone was not an effective method for determining the metabolic cost attributable to braking/propelling body mass. Runners loaded with mass alone did not generate greater vertical or horizontal impulses and their metabolic costs did not substantially differ from those of normal running. Our results show that generating force to support body weight is the primary determinant of the metabolic cost of running. Extrapolating our reduced weight data to zero weight suggests that supporting body weight comprises at most 74% of the net cost of running. However, 74% is probably an

  18. Modeling of daily body weights and body weight changes of Nordic Red cows.

    PubMed

    Mäntysaari, P; Mäntysaari, E A

    2015-10-01

    Increased availability of automated weighing systems have made it possible to record massive amounts of body weight (BW) data in a short time. If the BW measurement is unbiased, the changes in BW reflect the energy status of the cow and can be used for management or breeding purposes. The usefulness of the BW data depends on the reliability of the measures. The noise in BW measurements can be smoothed by fitting a parametric or time series model into the BW measurements. This study examined the accuracy of different models to predict BW of the cows based on daily BW measurements and investigated the usefulness of modeling in increasing the value of BW measurements as management and breeding tools. Data included daily BW measurements, production, and intake from 230 Nordic Red dairy cows. The BW of the cows was recorded twice a day on their return from milking. In total, the data included 50,594 daily observations with 98,418 BW measurements. A clear diurnal change was present in the BW of the cows even if they had feed available 24 h. The daily average BW were used in the modeling. Five different models were tested: (1) a cow-wise fixed second-order polynomial regression model (FiX) including the exponential Wilmink term, (2) a random regression model with fixed and random animal lactation stage functions (MiX), (3) MiX with 13 periods of weighing added (PER), (4) natural cubic smoothing splines with 8 equally spaced knots (SPk8), and (5) spline model with no restriction on knots but a smoothing parameter corresponding to a fit of 5 degrees of freedom (SPdf5). In the original measured BW data, the within-animal variation was 6.4% of the total variance. Modeling decreased the within animal variation to levels of 2.9 to 5.1%. The smallest day-to-day variation and thereafter highest day-to-day repeatabilities were with PER and MiX models. The usability of modeled BW as energy balance (EB) indicator were evaluated by estimating relationships between EB, or EB

  19. Predicting body weight from body measurements in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Hile, M E; Hintz, H F; Erb, H N

    1997-12-01

    Accurate estimates of body weight can be useful in the evaluations of feeding programs, nutritional status and general health, and in calculation of dose levels (such as for anesthesia)-thus providing a valuable tool for captive elephant management. We used body measurements of 75 Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) to predict body weight. Weight, heart girth, height at the withers, body length, and foot-pad circumference were measured. All possible linear regressions of weight on one, two, three, or four body measurements were calculated. The highest correlation with a single measurement was that between heart girth and weight (R2 = 0.90). The data were also divided into age groups (1-13, 18-28, 29-39, and 40-57 yr), and all possible linear regressions were calculated for each group (there were no elephants aged 14-17 yr). Adding body length or pad circumference to heart girth resulted in a slight increase in R2. We conclude that body weight in Asian elephants can be predicted from body measurements and that heart girth is the best predictor. A second body measurement might improve predictive accuracy for some age groups. PMID:9523637

  20. No effects of monosodium glutamate consumption on the body weight or composition of adult rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Tordoff, Michael G; Aleman, Tiffany R; Murphy, Michelle C

    2012-10-10

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is pervasively consumed as a flavor enhancer so there are important implications to understanding its physiological actions, particularly its effects on body weight. Previous studies suggest that MSG increases, decreases, or has no effect on the body weight of rodents. However, most of these studies involved administration of MSG to immature rodents and consequently may not be relevant for understanding human obesity. We report here five experiments in which we measured the body weights of a total of 32 groups of 10-12 adult rats or mice given various diets to eat and MSG to eat or drink. We found no evidence that MSG influenced body weight, energy intake, or body composition. To the extent that experiments in rodents illuminate mechanisms involved in human obesity and body weight control, our results suggest that MSG is unlikely to be a useful anti-obesity supplement but neither is it responsible for exacerbating obesity. PMID:22868067

  1. The right weight: body fat, menarche and ovulation.

    PubMed

    Frisch, R E

    1990-09-01

    Women with moderate weight loss (10-15% of ideal weight), as well as women with the severe weight loss of anorexia nervosa (30% of ideal weight), have secondary or primary amenorrhoea. A high proportion of well-trained dancers and athletes also have amenorrhoea, though weight may be in the normal range, since muscles are heavy (80% water, compared to 5-10% water in adipose tissue). The amenorrhoea is usually reversible with weight gain, decreased exercise or both. The amenorrhoea is due to hypothalamic dysfunction; the pituitary-ovary axis is intact, suggesting that this type of amenorrhoea is adaptive, preventing an unsuccessful pregnancy outcome. Evidence is presented that the high percentage of body fat (26-28%) in mature women is necessary for regular ovulatory cycles. Target weights for height are given for the evaluation and treatment of primary and secondary amenorrhoea due to weight loss. The high percentage of body fat in women may influence reproductive ability directly: (1) as an extragonadal source of oestrogen by aromatization of androgen to oestrogen; (2) by influencing the direction of oestrogen metabolism to more potent or less potent forms; or (3) by changes in the binding properties of sex-hormone-binding globulin. Indirect signals may be of abnormal control of temperature and changes in energy metabolism, which accompany excessive leanness. PMID:2282736

  2. [Etiological and exacerbation factors for COPD. Body weight loss].

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Akihito

    2016-05-01

    Hunger or malnutrition is not only a historical issue but also a current problem worldwide. Biological responses to hunger are evolutionary prepared in our body, including energy generation by degradation of body proteins. Extreme weight loss (malnutrition) can cause air space enlargement in human and rodents. However, the changes in rodents could be reversible, since refeeding could repair the pathology. On the other hand, weight loss is a common feature in patients with more severe COPD. Complex factors, such as increased energy consumption, decreased food uptake by low grade inflammation, socio-economic factors and so on, are involved in weight loss. Weight loss in patients with COPD also increases the risk of exacerbation, hospitalization, and death. PMID:27254941

  3. Quantitative Genetics of Transgenic Mice: Components of Phenotypic Variation in Body Weights and Weight Gains

    PubMed Central

    Clutter, A. C.; Pomp, D.; Murray, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    Transgenic mice possessing an ovine growth hormone gene were used to study the effects of elevated growth hormone on quantitative genetic variation. Males hemizygous for the transgene were mated to wild-type females to produce half- and full-sib families in which approximately half the progeny were transgenic and half were wild type. Analyses of body weights at 3-10 weeks, and weight gains from 3 to 6, and 6 to 10 weeks produced estimates of the proportion of total variance due to additive genetic effects (h(2)) and common litter effects (c(2)), and the genetic correlation between transgenic and wild-type expression of each trait. At 10 weeks, body weight of transgenics exceeded that of wild types by 26 and 49% in males and females, respectively. Estimated genetic variances in the transgenic group were significantly greater than zero for body weights at most ages and for both measurements of gain. Common litter effects accounted for a similar proportion of variation in the wild-type and transgenic groups. Additive genetic correlations between wild-type and transgenic expression of body weights tended to decline with age, indicating that a partially different array of genes may have begun to affect body weight in the transgenic group. PMID:8844161

  4. Neurotrophic factor control of satiety and body weight.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baoji; Xie, Xiangyang

    2016-05-01

    Energy balance - that is, the relationship between energy intake and energy expenditure - is regulated by a complex interplay of hormones, brain circuits and peripheral tissues. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived cytokine that suppresses appetite and increases energy expenditure. Ironically, obese individuals have high levels of plasma leptin and are resistant to leptin treatment. Neurotrophic factors, particularly ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are also important for the control of body weight. CNTF can overcome leptin resistance in order to reduce body weight, although CNTF and leptin activate similar signalling cascades. Mutations in the gene encoding BDNF lead to insatiable appetite and severe obesity. PMID:27052383

  5. The effects of body mass on cremation weight.

    PubMed

    May, Shannon E

    2011-01-01

    Cremains have become increasingly frequent in forensic contexts, while higher body mass in the general population has simultaneously made cremation a more cost-effective mortuary practice. This study analyzed the relationship between body mass and bone mass, as reflected through cremation weight. Antemortem data were recorded for samples used in the multi-regional data set. Each was rendered through commercial crematoriums and reweighed postincineration. Pearson's correlation demonstrates clear association between body mass and cremation weight (r=0.56; p<0.0001). However, multiple linear regression revealed sex and age variables also have a significant relationship (t=7.198; t=-2.5, respectively). Regressed in conjunction, body mass, sex, and age contribute approximately 67% of all variation observed in cremation weight (r=0.668). Analysis of covariance indicates significant regional variation in body and cremation weight. Explanations include bone modification resulting from increased loading stress, as well as glucose intolerance and altered metabolic pathways related to obesity. PMID:20735701

  6. Influence of body weight on bone mass, architecture and turnover.

    PubMed

    Iwaniec, Urszula T; Turner, Russell T

    2016-09-01

    Weight-dependent loading of the skeleton plays an important role in establishing and maintaining bone mass and strength. This review focuses on mechanical signaling induced by body weight as an essential mechanism for maintaining bone health. In addition, the skeletal effects of deviation from normal weight are discussed. The magnitude of mechanical strain experienced by bone during normal activities is remarkably similar among vertebrates, regardless of size, supporting the existence of a conserved regulatory mechanism, or mechanostat, that senses mechanical strain. The mechanostat functions as an adaptive mechanism to optimize bone mass and architecture based on prevailing mechanical strain. Changes in weight, due to altered mass, weightlessness (spaceflight), and hypergravity (modeled by centrifugation), induce an adaptive skeletal response. However, the precise mechanisms governing the skeletal response are incompletely understood. Furthermore, establishing whether the adaptive response maintains the mechanical competence of the skeleton has proven difficult, necessitating the development of surrogate measures of bone quality. The mechanostat is influenced by regulatory inputs to facilitate non-mechanical functions of the skeleton, such as mineral homeostasis, as well as hormones and energy/nutrient availability that support bone metabolism. Although the skeleton is very capable of adapting to changes in weight, the mechanostat has limits. At the limits, extreme deviations from normal weight and body composition are associated with impaired optimization of bone strength to prevailing body size. PMID:27352896

  7. Does body weight affect wages? Evidence from Europe.

    PubMed

    Brunello, Giorgio; D'Hombres, Béatrice

    2007-03-01

    We use data from the European Community Household Panel to investigate the impact of body weight on wages in nine European countries. When we pool the available data across countries and years, we find that a 10% increase in the average body mass index reduces the real earnings of males and females by 3.27% and 1.86%, respectively. Since European culture, society and labour market are heterogeneous, we estimate separate regressions for Northern and Southern Europe and find that the negative impact of the body mass index on earnings is larger--and statistically significant--in the latter area. PMID:17174614

  8. Anorexia nervosa at normal body weight!--The abnormal normal weight control syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crisp, A H

    1981-01-01

    Disgust with "fatness" and a consequent preoccupation with body weight, coupled with an inability to reduce it to or sustain it at the desired low level, characterizes the abnormal normal weight control syndrome. Individuals remain sexually active in a biological sense and often also socially. Indeed their sexual behaviour may be as impulse ridden as is their eating behaviour, which often comprises phases of massive bingeing coupled with vomiting and/or purgation. The syndrome is unlike frank anorexia nervosa in that the latter involves a regression to a position of phobic avoidance of normal body weight and consequent low body weight control with inhibition of both biological and social sexual activity. In abnormal normal weight control there is a strong and sometimes desperate hedonistic and extrovert element that will often not be denied so long as body weight does not get too low. Individuals nevertheless feel desperately "out of control" and insecure beneath their bravura. The syndrome is much more common in females than in males. There is a clinical overlap with anorexia nervosa and obesity in many cases as the disorder evolves. Depression, stealing, drug dependence (including alcohol) and acute self-poisoning and self-mutilation are common complications. Clinic cases probably only represent the tip of the iceberg of the much more widespread morbidity within the general population. Like anorexia nervosa and for the same reasons the disorder is probably more common than it used to be. PMID:7309391

  9. Dietary effects on body weight of predatory mites (Acari, Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Goleva, Irina; Rubio Cadena, Esteban C; Ranabhat, Nar B; Beckereit, Caroline; Zebitz, Claus P W

    2015-08-01

    Pollen is offered as alternative or supplementary food for predacious mites; however, it may vary in its nutritional value. Body weight appears a representative parameter to describe food quality. Thus, we assessed the body weight for adults of the generalist mites Amblyseius swirskii, Amblydromalus limonicus, and Neoseiulus cucumeris reared on 22, 12, and 6 pollen species, respectively. In addition, A. swirskii and A. limonicus was reared on codling moth eggs. In all mite species, female body weight was higher than that of males, ranging between 4.33 and 8.18 µg for A. swirskii, 2.56-6.53 µg for A. limonicus, and 4.66-5.92 µg for N. cucumeris. Male body weight ranged between 1.78 and 3.28 µg, 1.37-3.06 µg, and 2.73-3.03 µg, respectively. Nutritional quality of pollen was neither consistent among the mite species nor among sex, revealing superior quality of Quercus macranthera pollen for females of A. swirskii and Tulipa gesneriana pollen for males, Alnus incana pollen for females of A. limonicus and Aesculus hippocastanum pollen for males, and Ae. hippocastanum pollen for both sexes of N. cucumeris. The results are discussed against the background of known or putative pollen chemistry and mite's nutritional physiology. PMID:26014648

  10. The role of whole grains in body weight regulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole grain (WG)-rich diets are purported to have a variety of health benefits including a favorable role in body weight regulation. Current dietary recommendations advocate substituting WG for refined grains (RG) as many of the beneficial bioactive components intrinsic to WG are lost during the re...

  11. Body Dissatisfaction, Dietary Restraint, Depression, and Weight Status in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfield, Gary S.; Moore, Ceri; Henderson, Katherine; Buchholz, Annick; Obeid, Nicole; Flament, Martine F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adolescence may be a crucial period for developing obesity and associated mental health problems. This study examined the relationship of weight status on body image, eating behavior, and depressive symptoms in youth. Methods: A survey was conducted on 1490 youth attending grades 7-12. Participants completed questionnaires on body…

  12. Associations between Body Weight and Bullying among South Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Seung-Gon; Yun, Ilhong; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Most previous studies on the association between bullying and body weight were performed using North American or White samples from Western countries. The present study is the first empirical endeavor to examine whether such an association exists in a sample of adolescents from East Asia. Specifically, the authors examined the associations between…

  13. Religion and body weight in an underserved population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Religions prominence in some underserved groups that bear a disproportionate burden of the obesity epidemic (e.g. rural, Southern, minority) may play an important role in body weight. Data (1662 African American and Caucasian adults aged 18+) from a representative U.S. sample of a predominately rura...

  14. Food shopping and weight concern. Balancing consumer and body normality.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Annemette; Holm, Lotte

    2014-11-01

    The desire to achieve a normal, culturally acceptable body is often seen as the main driver of food-consumption practices adopted by individuals who are concerned about their body weight. In social research into weight management self-control is therefore often a central theme. Turning the focus towards practices and values related to food shopping, this study adds to our understanding of central features in perceptions of normality among people with weight concerns. In a qualitative study 25 people who participated in a dietary intervention trial in Denmark were interviewed and five people were observed. The study shows that the aim of achieving a normal body does not eclipse the importance of enacting values linked to ideas of the 'normal consumer'. Using empirical examples, the study illuminates how consumer freedom is attained in ways that are both complementary to, and in conflict with, practices and experiences of controlling food intake. The paper suggests that freedom and control are composite and complementary ideals of normality for people with weight concerns. On the basis of this insight, the authors discuss the contribution the paper makes to existing studies of weight management and food consumption. PMID:25086208

  15. Body contouring surgery for military personnel following massive weight loss.

    PubMed

    Chong, S J; Kok, Y O; Foo, C L

    2011-12-01

    The burgeoning global obesity epidemic extends to the military service, where 6-53% of military personnel are overweight. Obese military personnel who adhere to a strict training and diet regime may potentially achieve and maintain significant weight loss. They may however face physical problems such as excess skin folds causing discomfort, difficulty in uniform fitting, personal hygiene, interference with full physical activities and psychological issues such as body image dissatisfaction, low self esteem and difficulty in social acceptance. We present a case report of a highly motivated military conscript who achieved and maintained significant weight loss but had physical defects following Massive Weight Loss. Body contouring surgery was successfully utilised to correct his physical defects and allowed him to return to full physical duties. PMID:22319988

  16. Diffusion-weighted imaging in pediatric body magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Chavhan, Govind B; Caro-Dominguez, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Diffusion-weighted MRI is being increasingly used in pediatric body imaging. Its role is still emerging. It is used for detection of tumors and abscesses, differentiation of benign and malignant tumors, and detection of inflamed bowel segments in inflammatory bowel disease in children. It holds great promise in the assessment of therapy response in body tumors, with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value as a potential biomarker. Significant overlap of ADC values of benign and malignant processes and less reproducibility of ADC measurements are hampering its widespread use in clinical practice. With standardization of the technique, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is likely to be used more frequently in clinical practice. We discuss the principles and technique of DWI, selection of b value, qualitative and quantitative assessment, and current status of DWI in evaluation of disease processes in the pediatric body. PMID:27229502

  17. Elite athletes in aesthetic and Olympic weight-class sports and the challenge of body weight and body compositions.

    PubMed

    Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Garthe, Ina

    2011-01-01

    The use of dieting, rapid weight loss, and frequent weight fluctuation among athletes competing in weight-class and leanness sports have been considered a problem for years, but the extent of the problem and the health and performance consequences have yet to be fully examined. Most studies examining these issues have had weak methodology. However, results from this review indicate that a high proportion of athletes are using extreme weight-control methods and that the rules of some sports might be associated with the risk of continuous dieting, energy deficit, and/or use of extreme weight-loss methods that can be detrimental to health and performance. Thus, preventive strategies are justified for medical as well as performance reasons. The most urgent needs are: (1) to develop sport-specific educational programmes for athletic trainers, coaches, and athletes; (2) modifications to regulations; and (3) research related to minimum percentage body fat and judging patterns. PMID:21500080

  18. Associations between Obesity, Body Fat Distribution, Weight Loss and Weight Cycling on Serum Pesticide Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Frugé, Andrew Dandridge; Cases, Mallory Gamel; Schildkraut, Joellen Martha; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Objective Preliminary studies suggest pesticides may be linked to increased cancer risk. Since most pesticides are lipophilic and stored within adipose tissue, serum levels of organochlorines are affected not only by environmental exposures, but also by factors related to lipid turnover and storage. Our objective was to investigate whether serum organochlorines are influenced by weight loss, body fat distribution, and weight cycling. Methods Ten overweight women were recruited upon entry into a weight loss program and surveyed regarding weight history, childbearing/lactation, and exposure to environmental contaminants. Anthropometric measures and phlebotomy were conducted at baseline and at four weeks (mean weight loss=5.1 kg). Serum was analyzed for 19 common polychlorinated pesticides and metabolites and 10 PCB congeners. Results Organochlorine levels were not significantly affected by weight loss nor associated with body mass index (BMI). Strong positive correlations were noted between levels of DDE/DDT and age (DDE β=0.6986/p=0.0246/DDT β=0.6536/p=0.0404) and between DDE/DDT and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (DDE β=0.4356/p=0.0447/DDT β=0.8108/p=0.0044). Trends were noted for decreased levels of DDT in women who reported more episodes of weight cycling. Conclusion Serum organochlorine levels may be affected not only by age, but also factors related to lipid turnover (i.e., episodes of weight cycling and WHR), and warrants further study. PMID:27478857

  19. Social stress at work and change in women's body weight.

    PubMed

    Kottwitz, Maria U; Grebner, Simone; Semmer, Norbert K; Tschan, Franziska; Elfering, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Social stressors at work (such as conflict or animosities) imply disrespect or a lack of appreciation and thus a threat to self. Stress induced by this offence to self might result, over time, in a change in body weight. The current study investigated the impact of changing working conditions--specifically social stressors, demands, and control at work--on women's change in weighted Body-Mass-Index over the course of a year. Fifty-seven women in their first year of occupational life participated at baseline and thirty-eight at follow-up. Working conditions were assessed by self-reports and observer-ratings. Body-Mass-Index at baseline and change in Body-Mass-Index one year later were regressed on self-reported social stressors as well as observed work stressors, observed job control, and their interaction. Seen individually, social stressors at work predicted Body-Mass-Index. Moreover, increase in social stressors and decrease of job control during the first year of occupational life predicted increase in Body-Mass-Index. Work redesign that reduces social stressors at work and increases job control could help to prevent obesity epidemic. PMID:24429516

  20. Visual detection of body weight change in young women.

    PubMed

    Alley, T R

    1991-12-01

    To assess whether small changes in body weight can be visually detected, college students (58 women and 42 men) were asked to select the less heavy person shown in two photographs for each of 33 young women. All of these women had been photographed twice in a standardized pose and attire, separated by an 8-wk. interval during which most of them lost weight. These pairs were presented in varying orders to control for the order and side of presentation. One photograph was reliably selected as the lighter person for 64% of the pairs, but the picture selected was in fact lighter only 57% of the time. The accuracy of selecting the lighter photograph was not correlated with the percent weight change for the person shown in the pairs of photographs. The results suggest that small changes in women's weight may not have a significant perceptual effect, particularly for male perceivers. PMID:1792140

  1. Bayesian Analyses of Multiple Epistatic QTL Models for Body Weight and Body Composition in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Nengjun; Zinniel, Denise K.; Kim, Kyoungmi; Eisen, Eugene J.; Bartolucci, Alfred; Allison, David B.; Pomp, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Summary To comprehensively investigate the genetic architecture of growth and obesity, we performed Bayesian analyses of multiple epistatic quantitative trait locus (QTL) models for body weights at five ages (12 days, 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks) and body composition traits (weights of two fat pads and five organs) in mice produced from a cross of the F1 between M16i (selected for rapid growth rate) and CAST/Ei (wild-derived strain of small and lean mice) back to M16i. Bayesian model selection revealed a temporally regulated network of multiple QTL for body weight, involving both strong main effects and epistatic effects. No QTL had strong support for both early and late growth, although overlapping combinations of main and epistatic effects were observed at adjacent ages. Most main effects and epistatic interactions had an opposite effect on early and late growth. The contribution of epistasis was more pronounced for body weights at older ages. Body composition traits were also influenced by an interacting network of multiple QTL. Several main and epistatic effects were shared by the body composition and body weight traits, suggesting that pleiotropy plays an important role in growth and obesity. PMID:16545150

  2. Food addiction in adults seeking weight loss treatment. Implications for psychosocial health and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Burmeister, Jacob M; Hinman, Nova; Koball, Afton; Hoffmann, Debra A; Carels, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined food addiction symptomology and its relationship to eating pathology and psychological distress among adults seeking weight loss treatment. A primary interest was an examination of the relationship between food addiction symptoms and short-term weight loss. Adults beginning a behavioral weight loss program (N=57) were given the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) as well as measures of psychological distress, disordered eating, weight bias, and weight-focused attitudes. Weight loss was measured after 7 weeks. Severity of food addiction was related to increased depression, emotional eating, binge eating, anti-fat attitudes, internalized weight bias, body shame, and low eating self-efficacy, but not body satisfaction. Increased food addiction symptomology was also related to less weight lost at 7 weeks. Findings suggest that individuals attempting to lose weight while combating symptoms of food addiction may be especially prone to eating-related pathologies, internalized weight bias, and body shame. Importantly, findings provide evidence that food addiction may undermine efforts to lose weight. The pathology associated with addiction (e.g., tolerance, withdrawal) could make the adoption of more healthful eating habits especially difficult. PMID:23017467

  3. The role of whole grains in body weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Karl, J Philip; Saltzman, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Whole grain (WG)-rich diets are purported to have a variety of health benefits, including a favorable role in body weight regulation. Current dietary recommendations advocate substituting WG for refined grains (RG), because many of the beneficial bioactive components intrinsic to WG are lost during the refining process. Epidemiological studies consistently demonstrate that higher intakes of WG, but not RG, are associated with lower BMI and/or reduced risk of obesity. However, recent clinical trials have failed to support a role for WG in promoting weight loss or maintenance. Though the biochemical and structural characteristics of WG have been shown to modulate appetite, nutrient availability, and energy utilization, the capacity of WG foods to elicit these effects varies with the type and amount of grain consumed as well as the nature of its consumption. As such, WG foods differentially affect physiologic factors influencing body weight with the common practice of processing and reconstituting WG ingredients during food production likely mitigating the capacity for WG to benefit body weight regulation. PMID:22983848

  4. Adolescent Boys and Body Image: Weight and Muscularity Concerns as Dual Pathways to Body Dissatisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Diane Carlson; Crawford, Joy K.

    2005-01-01

    This research evaluated a dual pathway model for body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys. The study provides empirical support for the importance of distinguishing between weight and muscularity concerns in understanding male body image. A total of 128 boys from grades 8 and 11 completed a self-report questionnaire. Results indicated that…

  5. Body Weight Concerns and Antifat Attitude in Iranian Children

    PubMed Central

    Garousi, Saideh

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is increasing evidence that children are showing body image issues in recent years. Body image disturbances in childhood must be taken seriously. The thin ideal is becoming more prominent in Asian countries; however, there is little research examining how this issue affects Iranian children. This study explores body weight concerns and associated factors among children in Iranian elementary schools. Methods: This study was conducted in 500 elementary schools. An assessment of body image and antifat attitudes was undertaken using the figure rating scale. In addition, body mass index (BMI) and demographic variables were assessed. Results: Nearly, 27.4% of children were underweight, and 13.3% were obese. There was a significant difference between the mean score of body dissatisfaction (BD) between boys and girls (P < 0.05). There were no differences between BD and education of parents, age, and academic grades. In girls, antifat attitudes were significantly related to BMI. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate the paramount importance of undertaking further research in order to identify the predictive factors of body concerns and its consequences among Iranian children. In addition, researchers must plan prevention and educational program for these children. PMID:25709795

  6. Do body-related shame and guilt mediate the association between weight status and self-esteem?

    PubMed

    Pila, Eva; Sabiston, Catherine M; Brunet, Jennifer; Castonguay, Andree L; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    Individuals who are overweight or obese report body image concerns and lower self-esteem. However, little is known about the mechanisms underpinning these associations. The objective of this study was to test body-related shame and guilt as mediators in the association between weight status and self-esteem. Young adult participants (n = 790) completed assessments of self-esteem and body-related guilt and shame, and weight status indicators were measured by trained technicians. Findings from multiple mediation analyses suggest that body-related shame mediates the relationship between weight status and self-esteem. If replicated in longitudinal studies, these findings suggest that reducing body-related emotions may have important implications for improving self-esteem in clinical weight management. PMID:25903252

  7. Patterns of sexual dimorphism in body weight among prosimian primates.

    PubMed

    Kappeler, P M

    1991-01-01

    Many primatologists believe that there is no sexual dimorphism in body size in prosimian primates. Because this belief is based upon data that came from only a few species and were largely flawed in some aspect of sample quality, I re-examined the extent of sexual dimorphism in body weight, using weights of 791 adult prosimians from 34 taxa recorded over the last 17 years at the Duke University Primate Center. There was no significant sex difference in body weight in 17 species, but males were significantly larger in Nycticebus pygmaeus, Tarsius syrichta, Galago moholi, Galagoides demidovii, Otolemur crassicaudatus and Otolemur garnettii. Moreover, females were significantly larger in Microcebus murinus. Thus, the general lack of sexual dimorphism could be confirmed, notably for lemurs, but prosimians as a group show more variability in sexual size dimorphism than was previously thought. After including previously published data obtained in the wild from 8 additional species, I found significant heterogeneity in the degree of sexual dimorphism at the family level, but only the Indridae and Galagidae were significantly different from each other. Among the prosimian infraorders, the Lorisiformes were significantly more dimorphic than the Lemuriformes. Differences in dimorphism between higher taxonomic groups are discussed in the context of prosimian evolution, concluding that phylogenetic inertia cannot provide a causal explanation for the evolution of sexual dimorphism. The relative monomorphism of most prosimians may be related to allometric constraints and, especially in the Lemuriformes, to selective forces affecting male and female behavioral strategies. PMID:1794769

  8. Cardiometabolic risk markers of normal weight and excess body weight in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mastroeni, Silmara Salete de Barros Silva; Mastroeni, Marco Fabio; Gonçalves, Muryel de Carvalho; Debortoli, Guilherme; da Silva, Nilza Nunes; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Adamovski, Maristela; Veugelers, Paul J; Rondó, Patrícia Helen de Carvalho

    2016-06-01

    Excess body weight leads to a variety of metabolic changes and increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in adulthood. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of risk markers for CVD among Brazilian adolescents of normal weight and with excess body weight. The markers included blood pressure, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, tumor necrosis factor alpha, fibrinogen, fasting insulin and glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and triglycerides. We calculated odds ratios (OR) using logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounders such as age, sex, physical activity, and socioeconomic background. Compared with normal weight subjects, overweight/obese adolescents were more likely to have higher systolic blood pressure (OR = 3.49, p < 0.001), fasting insulin (OR = 8.03, p < 0.001), HOMA-IR (OR = 8.03, p < 0.001), leptin (OR = 5.55, p < 0.001), and LDL-c (OR = 5.50, p < 0.001) and lower serum HDL-c concentrations (OR = 2.76, p = 0.004). After adjustment for confounders, the estimates did not change substantially, except for leptin for which the risk associated with overweight increased to 11.09 (95% CI: 4.05-30.35). In conclusion, excess body weight in adolescents exhibits strong associations with several markers that are established as causes of CVD in adults. This observation stresses the importance of primary prevention and of maintaining a healthy body weight throughout adolescence to reduce the global burden of CVD. PMID:27227571

  9. Body composition analyses in normal weight obese women.

    PubMed

    Di Renzo, L; Del Gobbo, V; Bigioni, M; Premrov, M G; Cianci, R; De Lorenzo, A

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify new indexes of body composition that characterize the normal weight obese (NWO) women. We measured body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) by indirect calorimetry in a cohort of seventy-five healthy Italian women, subdivided into three groups (nonobese/controls, NWO, preobese-obese women). Despite a normal body mass index (BMI), the NWO women have a higher body fat mass percentage (FAT %) (38.99 +/- 6.03) associated to a significant (p = 0.02) lower amount of lean mass of legs (12.24 +/- 1.31) and lean mass of left leg (6.07 +/- 0.64) with respect to the control group. The NWO group showed a significant (p = 0.043) lower RMR (1201.25 +/- 349.02) in comparison with nonobese and preobese-obese women. To classify NWO individuals among general population, we identified three significant body composition indexes: abdominal index, leg index and trunk index. The NWO women showed significant increased value in the three indexes (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that, despite a normal BMI, the NWO women displayed a cluster of anthropometric characteristics (body fat mass percentage, leg indexes) not different to obese women ones. An appropriate diet-therapy and physical activity may be protecting NWO individuals from diabetes and cardiovascular diseases associated to preobese-obese women. PMID:16910350

  10. The Weight of a Guilty Conscience: Subjective Body Weight as an Embodiment of Guilt

    PubMed Central

    Day, Martin V.; Bobocel, D. Ramona

    2013-01-01

    Guilt is an important social and moral emotion. In addition to feeling unpleasant, guilt is metaphorically described as a “weight on one's conscience.” Evidence from the field of embodied cognition suggests that abstract metaphors may be grounded in bodily experiences, but no prior research has examined the embodiment of guilt. Across four studies we examine whether i) unethical acts increase subjective experiences of weight, ii) feelings of guilt explain this effect, and iii) whether there are consequences of the weight of guilt. Studies 1–3 demonstrated that unethical acts led to more subjective body weight compared to control conditions. Studies 2 and 3 indicated that heightened feelings of guilt mediated the effect, whereas other negative emotions did not. Study 4 demonstrated a perceptual consequence. Specifically, an induction of guilt affected the perceived effort necessary to complete tasks that were physical in nature, compared to minimally physical tasks. PMID:23936041

  11. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MATERNAL BODY MASS INDEX AND WEIGHT GAIN WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT IN EASTERN THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Sananpanichkul, Panya; Rujirabanjerd, Sinitdhorn

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a retrospective study to determine the association between maternal body mass index and pregnancy weight gain with low birth weight newborns (LBWN) at Phrapokklao Hospital in eastern Thailand. We evaluated the files of 2,012 women who delivered at the hospital. Data obtained from the charts were parity, maternal age, body mass index (BMI), prepregnancy weight, weight gained during pregnancy, gestational age, hematocrit level, referral status, place of residence, fetal presentation, completion of antenatal care visits and maternal HIV infection. Sixty-five point two percent of subjects were aged 20-34 years old. Fifty-seven percent of subjects had a normal BMI and 13.2% were anemic. Thirty- seven point five percent, 32.9% and 29.6% gained too little, the correct amount and too much weight during pregnancy, respectively. Primiparity, too little weight gain and gestational age less than 37 weeks at delivery were all significantly associated with LBWN. Preterm babies were 25 times more likely to have a low birth weight than term infants (adjusted OR = 24.995; 95% CI: 16.824-37.133, p < 0.001). When maternal weight gain of any BMI group was inadequate, the subject had a 3.4 times greater risk (adjusted OR = 3.357; 95% CI: 22.114-5.332, p < 0.001) of having a LBWN. Primiparous women had a 1.7 times (adjusted OR=1.720; 95% CI: 1.182-2.503, p-0.005) greater risk of having a LBWN. The results from this study may be useful to plan maternal health programs for eastern Thailand. PMID:26867367

  12. The hot body issue: Weight and caption tone in celebrity gossip magazines.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Andrea; Lin, Linda

    2016-09-01

    While representations of bodies and weight have been studied in regards to fashion and fitness magazines, little research exists that examines such representations in celebrity gossip magazines. Using data collected through content analysis of 262 photo-caption units published in June 2015 issues of American celebrity gossip magazines, this study examines representations of bodies within the genre and the relationship between the gender, race, and body size of pictured celebrities and the tone of accompanying captions. Results indicate that celebrity gossip magazines critique the bodies of both female and male subjects, but that women are more likely to be the subject of negative comments than men. Underweight women and overweight men are especially targeted for criticism. Latinos are praised more often than other racial groups. The implications of these representations are discussed. PMID:27367561

  13. Development and Validation of the Body Size Scale for Assessing Body Weight Perception in African Populations

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Emmanuel; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Ponty, Amandine; Ndao, Amadou; Amougou, Norbert; Saïd-Mohamed, Rihlat; Pasquet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background The social valorisation of overweight in African populations could promote high-risk eating behaviours and therefore become a risk factor of obesity. However, existing scales to assess body image are usually not accurate enough to allow comparative studies of body weight perception in different African populations. This study aimed to develop and validate the Body Size Scale (BSS) to estimate African body weight perception. Methods Anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 Senegalese were used to evaluate three criteria of adiposity: body mass index (BMI), overall percentage of fat, and endomorphy (fat component of the somatotype). To develop the BSS, the participants were photographed in full face and profile positions. Models were selected for their representativeness of the wide variability in adiposity with a progressive increase along the scale. Then, for the validation protocol, participants self-administered the BSS to assess self-perceived current body size (CBS), desired body size (DBS) and provide a “body self-satisfaction index.” This protocol included construct validity, test-retest reliability and convergent validity and was carried out with three independent samples of respectively 201, 103 and 1115 Cameroonians. Results The BSS comprises two sex-specific scales of photos of 9 models each, and ordered by increasing adiposity. Most participants were able to correctly order the BSS by increasing adiposity, using three different words to define body size. Test-retest reliability was consistent in estimating CBS, DBS and the “body self-satisfaction index.” The CBS was highly correlated to the objective BMI, and two different indexes assessed with the BSS were consistent with declarations obtained in interviews. Conclusion The BSS is the first scale with photos of real African models taken in both full face and profile and representing a wide and representative variability in adiposity. The validation protocol proved its

  14. An alternative to body mass index for standardizing body weight for stature.

    PubMed

    Bagust, A; Walley, T

    2000-09-01

    Although body mass index (BMI) has been adopted by WHO as an international measure of obesity, it lacks a theoretical basis, and empirical evidence suggests it is not valid for all populations. We determined standard weight-for-height using a model calibrated by multivariate analysis of observational data on body dimensions and health status in the USA (NHANES III). A multiple linear regression model based on a simple mathematical formulation accurately described the observed weight variations in this normal adult population. A standardized reference model using just two measurements (upper arm length and sitting height), readily applied in both clinical and research settings using lookup tables, improved explanatory power substantially compared to the best BMI formulation (r(2) increased 16.3% for males, 21.1% for females). Physical dysfunction and self-reported poor health showed strong trends with excess body weight. These findings need confirmation from larger population samples. PMID:10984553

  15. The Relationship of Body Image Perception and Weight Status to Recent Change in Weight Status of the Adolescent Female.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Barbara Ann

    1989-01-01

    Investigated relationship of body image perception and weight status to recent change in weight status of adolescent females. Nonobese, overweight, and obese girls (N=90) aged 13 through 17 completed Body-Cathexis Scale and self-report recent change in weight status and demographic questionnaire. Results revealed significant positive correlation…

  16. Phytochemicals in the Control of Human Appetite and Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Tucci, Sonia A.

    2010-01-01

    Since obesity has grown to epidemic proportions, its effective management is a very important clinical issue. Despite the great amount of scientific effort that has been put into understanding the mechanisms that lead to overconsumption and overweight, at the moment very few approaches to weight management are effective in the long term. On the other hand, modern society is also affected by the growing incidence of eating disorders on the other side of the spectrum such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa which are equally difficult to treat. This review will try to summarise the main findings available in the literature regarding the effect of plants or plant extracts (phytochemicals) on human appetite and body weight. The majority of plant extracts are not single compounds but rather a mixture of different molecules, therefore their mechanism of action usually targets several systems. In addition, since some cellular receptors tend to be widely distributed, sometimes a single molecule can have a widespread effect. This review will attempt to describe the main phytochemicals that have been suggested to affect the homeostatic mechanisms that influence intake and body weight. Clinical data will be summarised and scientific evidence will be reviewed.

  17. Body Mass Index Self-Perception and Weight Management Behaviors during Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Kyeongra; Turk, Melanie T.; Allison, Virginia L.; James, Khara A.; Chasens, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examined the relationship between actual body weight and self-perceived weight, and how perception of one's weight affects weight management behaviors among US adolescents. Methods: Adolescents ages 16-19 years with objectively-measured weight and height and self-reported perception of weight, weight-loss efforts, and…

  18. Ribose Accelerates Gut Motility and Suppresses Mouse Body Weight Gaining

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Li, Tong-Ruei R; Xu, Cong; Xu, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity is closely related to excessive energy consumption. Clinical intervention of energy intake is an attractive strategy to fight obesity. However, the current FDA-approved weight-loss drugs all have significant side effects. Here we show that ribose upregulates gut motility and suppresses mice body weight gain. Ribokinase, which is encoded by Rbks gene, is the first enzyme for ribose metabolism in vivo. Rbks mutation resulted in ribose accumulation in the small intestine, which accelerated gut movement. Ribose oral treatment in wild type mice also enhanced bowel motility and rendered mice resistance to high fat diets. The suppressed weight gain was resulted from enhanced ingested food excretion. In addition, the effective dose of ribose didn't cause any known side effects (i.e. diarrhea and hypoglycemia). Overall, our results show that ribose can regulate gut motility and energy homeostasis in mice, and suggest that administration of ribose and its analogs could regulate gastrointestinal motility, providing a novel therapeutic approach for gastrointestinal dysfunction and weight control. PMID:27194947

  19. Body Contouring Surgery in the Massive Weight Loss Patient.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, Dennis J; Ayeni, Omodele

    2016-08-01

    Plastic surgeons subspecializing in body contouring are meeting the challenge of postbariatric surgery massive weight loss patients. With an appreciation of the magnitude of the surface deformity, and altered metabolism, nutrition, and psychological makeup of these patients, innovative plastic surgeons have forged an organized approach to preparation, operative technique, and postoperative care. Patients at greatest risk for complications are identified, appraised, and either their condition improved or they are counselled to reduce expectations. Beyond the removal of excess skin and adipose tissue, advanced gender-specific techniques have improved aesthetics. PMID:27473807

  20. CART peptides: regulators of body weight, reward and other functions

    PubMed Central

    Rogge, G.; Jones, D.; Hubert, G. W.; Lin, Y.; Kuhar, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade or so, CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptides have emerged as major neurotransmitters and hormones. CART peptides are widely distributed in the CNS and are involved in regulating many processes, including food intake and the maintenance of body weight, reward and endocrine functions. Recent studies have produced a wealth of information about the location, regulation, processing and functions of CART peptides, but additional studies aimed at elucidating the physiological effects of the peptides and at characterizing the CART receptor(s) are needed to take advantage of possible therapeutic applications. PMID:18802445

  1. Normal-weight and overweight female adolescents with and without extreme weight-control behaviours: Emotional distress and body image concerns.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Sáez, Soledad; Pascual, Aitziber; Salaberria, Karmele; Echeburúa, Enrique

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse emotional distress and concerns related to body image in 712 normal-weight and overweight adolescent girls. A total of 12.3 per cent of the normal-weight girls and 25 per cent of the overweight girls showed extreme weight-control behaviours. In normal-weight adolescents, their engagement in extreme weight-control behaviours was associated with high levels of somatic symptoms, a drive for thinness and control over eating. In overweight girls, high levels of drive for thinness and anxiety were associated with extreme weight-control behaviours. Finally, the implications for preventive and therapeutic programmes are discussed. PMID:26032790

  2. Weight loss and weight cycling in amateur wrestlers: implications for performance and resting metabolic rate.

    PubMed

    Horswill, C A

    1993-09-01

    Amateur wrestlers practice weight loss for ergogenic reasons. The effects of rapid weight loss on aerobic performance are adverse and profound, but the effects of anaerobic performance are equivocal. Anaerobic performance--strength and power--may be the most relevant type of performance to the wrestler. Maintenance of or even small decrements in anaerobic performance may translate into improvements in performance relative to the weight class, the factor by which wrestlers are matched for competition. During the recovery period between the official weigh-in and competition, wrestlers achieve at least partial nutritional recovery, which appears to benefit performance. Successive bouts of (a) weight loss to make weight and (b) recovery for performance lead to weight cycling. There is speculation that weight cycling may contribute to chronic glycogen depletion, reductions in fat-free weight, a decrease in resting metabolic rate, and an increase in body fat. The latter two would augment the difficulty of losing weight for subsequent weigh-ins. Most research indicates that the suppressed resting metabolic rate with weight loss in wrestlers appears to be transient, but subsequent research is needed for confirmation. PMID:8220391

  3. Central transthyretin acts to decrease food intake and body weight

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fenping; Kim, Yonwook J.; Moran, Timothy H.; Li, Hong; Bi, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) is a blood and cerebrospinal fluid transporter of thyroxine and retinol. Gene expression profiling revealed an elevation of Ttr expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of rats with exercise-induced anorexia, implying that central TTR may also play a functional role in modulating food intake and energy balance. To test this hypothesis, we have examined the effects of brain TTR on food intake and body weight and have further determined hypothalamic signaling that may underlie its feeding effect in rats. We found that intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of TTR in normal growing rats decreased food intake and body weight. This effect was not due to sickness as icv TTR did not cause a conditioned taste aversion. ICV TTR decreased neuropeptide Y (NPY) levels in the DMH and the paraventricular nucleus (P < 0.05). Chronic icv infusion of TTR in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats reversed hyperphagia and obesity and reduced DMH NPY levels. Overall, these results demonstrate a previously unknown anorectic action of central TTR in the control of energy balance, providing a potential novel target for treating obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:27053000

  4. Normal-weight obesity syndrome: diagnosis, prevalence, and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Franco, Lana P; Morais, Carla C; Cominetti, Cristiane

    2016-09-01

    The growing concern about the impact of overweight on health has led to studies that shed light on types of obesity other than the classic model based on body mass index. Normal-weight obesity syndrome is characterized by excess body fat in individuals with adequate body mass index (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)). This condition increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and other conditions associated with chronic diseases, such as insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. The aims of this review are to define the diagnostic criteria for normal-weight obesity syndrome and to examine the risks associated with this condition in order to promote preventive measures and early treatment for affected individuals. PMID:27473199

  5. Body weight decreases induced by estradiol in female rhesus monkeys are dependent upon social status

    PubMed Central

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Wilson, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Gonadal steroids regulate appetite and thus body weight. In addition, continuous exposure to stressors negatively influences appetite through circuits likely distinct from those of gonadal steroids. The occurrence of adverse metabolic consequences due to chronic exposure to psychosocial stressors is twice as frequent in women as men, implicating a role for ovarian hormones, estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), in modulating stress-induced changes in appetite. Using social subordination in female macaques as a model of social stress, the current study tested the hypothesis that subordinate females would lose more weight during E2 treatment and gain less weight during P4 administration than dominant females. Because polymorphisms in the gene encoding the serotonin transporter (5HTT; SCL6A4) are known to alter responsivity to stress, we hypothesized that weight loss during E2 administration would be greatest in females with the short variant (s-variant) allele of 5HTT. Dominant females were significantly heavier than subordinate animals throughout the study, a result consistent with previous accounts of food intake when animals are fed a low-fat, high-fiber diet. Females with the s-variant 5HTT genotype weighed significantly less than l/l animals. Dominant animals lost significantly more weight than subordinate animals during E2 treatment. Administration of P4 blocked the weight-reducing effects of E2 in all females, regardless of social status. These data provide evidence that social subordination modulates the influence of ovarian steroid hormones on body weight in female rhesus monkeys independent of 5HTT genotype. Given the prosocial effects of these steroids, future studies are necessary to determine whether status differences in E2-induced weight loss are due to diminished food intake and or increases in energy expenditure and how the change in energy availability during E2 treatments relates to a female’s motivation to interact with conspecifics. PMID

  6. PET imaging predicts future body weight and cocaine preference

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelides M.; Wang G.; Michaelides M.; Thanos P.K. Kim R.; Cho J.; Ananth M.; Wang G.-J.; Volkow N.D.

    2011-08-28

    Deficits in dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) binding availability using PET imaging have been reported in obese humans and rodents. Similar deficits have been reported in cocaine-addicts and cocaine-exposed primates. We found that D2R/D3R binding availability negatively correlated with measures of body weight at the time of scan (ventral striatum), at 1 (ventral striatum) and 2 months (dorsal and ventral striatum) post scan in rats. Cocaine preference was negatively correlated with D2R/D3R binding availability 2 months (ventral striatum) post scan. Our findings suggest that inherent deficits in striatal D2R/D3R signaling are related to obesity and drug addiction susceptibility and that ventral and dorsal striatum serve dissociable roles in maintaining weight gain and cocaine preference. Measuring D2R/D3R binding availability provides a way for assessing susceptibility to weight gain and cocaine abuse in rodents and given the translational nature of PET imaging, potentially primates and humans.

  7. Jerk analysis of active body-weight-transfer.

    PubMed

    Baldinotti, Ivan; Timmann, Dagmar; Kolb, Florian P; Kutz, Dieter F

    2010-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that whole-body vibration improves posture and gait control in stroke patients. Patients with degenerative cerebellar disease suffer from ataxic gait also which is characterised by the variation of gait pattern. Our interest is to test whole-body vibration as a method for rehabilitation treatment in cerebellar patients and to assess the success of the treatment using dynamic tests. The aim of this study was to introduce a method for quantifying movement dynamics during an active voluntary sidestep that results in a body-weight-transfer. Subjects had to perform a step from a feet-apart-position to a feet-together-position and back again. The algorithms presented in this study allow automatic identification of the timing of the dynamic phases by analysing the centre of pressure trajectory. For this study the time flow of averaged speed, acceleration, and jerk was calculated for the active movement only. This study demonstrates that jerk provides a sensitive measure for the improvement in gait in rehabilitation and during training. PMID:20940098

  8. Is obesity stigmatizing? Body weight, perceived discrimination, and psychological well-being in the United States.

    PubMed

    Carr, Deborah; Friedman, Michael A

    2005-09-01

    We investigate the frequency and psychological correlates of institutional and interpersonal discrimination reported by underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese I, and obese II/III Americans. Analyses use data from the Midlife Development in the United States study, a national survey of more than 3,000 adults ages 25 to 74 in 1995. Compared to normal weight persons, obese II/III persons (body mass index of 35 or higher) are more likely to report institutional and day-to-day interpersonal discrimination. Among obese II/III persons, professional workers are more likely than nonprofessionals to report employment discrimination and interpersonal mistreatment. Obese II/III persons report lower levels of self-acceptance than normal weight persons, yet this relationship is fully mediated by the perception that one has been discriminated against due to body weight or physical appearance. Our findings offer further support for the pervasive stigma of obesity and the negative implications of stigmatized identities for life chances. PMID:16259147

  9. The role of the "Healthy Weight" discourse in body image and eating concerns: An extension of sociocultural theory.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Rachel F

    2016-08-01

    Sociocultural models of body image and eating concerns have highlighted the role of the social discourse in promoting the pursuit of the thin-ideal. Recently, another weight-focused social discourse has gained ground, focused on the goal of maintaining body weight within the boundaries of a weight-range defined as "Healthy." This discourse is somewhat different to the promotion of the thin-ideal; however, it might also be implicated in the development of body image and eating concerns. The present study aimed to extend sociocultural theories of the development of body image and eating concerns by (1) proposing a theoretical model accounting for pressure to maintain a "Healthy Weight", and (2) reviewing the existing evidence for the pathways included in this model. In the proposed model, pressure to maintain a Healthy Weight leads to the internalization of anti-fat attitudes and the need to control weight as well as beliefs in the controllability of weight through diet and exercise. These beliefs may then lead to body preoccupation and disordered eating. The extant literature provides initial support for these relationships; however, empirical testing of this model is necessary to determine its usefulness as an explanatory model and in providing intervention targets for future prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:27299698

  10. Evaluation of body weight, body mass index, and body fat percentage changes in early stages of fixed orthodontic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sandeep, K. Sai; Singaraju, Gowri Sankar; Reddy, V. Karunakar; Mandava, Prasad; Bhavikati, Venkata N.; Reddy, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage (BFP) during the initial stages of fixed orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: The sample for this observational prospective study included 68 individuals with fixed orthodontic appliance in the age group of 18–25 years of both the sexes (25 males and 43 females). The control group consisted of 60 individuals (24 males and 36 females). The weight, BMI, and BFP were measured using a Body Composition Monitor at three points of time “T1” initial; “T2” after 1 month; and “T2” after 3 months. The results were tabulated and analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. The mean changes between different parameters in both the study and control groups and between males and females in the study group was compared by using two-tailed unpaired student's t-test. The statistical significance is set atP ≤ 0.05. Results: There was an overall decrease in the body weight, BMI, and BFP after 1 month in the study cohort, which was statistically significant compared to the control group (P < 0.0001). This was followed by an increase in the parameters after the end of the 3rd month. Comparison of the parameters between the study and control group at the start of the treatment and at the end of the 3rd month had no statistical significance. There was a marked variation in the changes of these parameters between males and females of the study group, which is statistically significant (<0.0001). Conclusion: There is a definite reduction in the weight, BMP, and BMI at the end of the first month followed by a gain of weight, but not at the initial point by the end of the 3rd month. PMID:27583224

  11. The relationship between masticatory and swallowing behaviors and body weight.

    PubMed

    Isabel, Carlos Alberto Camargo; Moysés, Marcos Ribeiro; van der Bilt, Andries; Gameiro, Gustavo Hauber; Ribeiro, José Carlos Rabelo; Pereira, Luciano José

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed to compare the main objective parameters of mastication among individuals with different body mass indexes. One hundred and sixty participants matched for gender and age were divided in the following groups according to their body mass index (BMI): Obese group (30 ≤ BMI < 35), Overweight group (25 ≤ BMI < 30), normal range group (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25) and underweight group (17 ≤ BMI < 18.5). Each group was composed by forty subjects. The maximum bite force, the masticatory performance, chewing rate and three variables related to swallowing (number of chewing cycles, chewing time, and median particle size) were assessed in all groups. The oral conditions, including the number of teeth, number of occlusal units and salivary flow (unstimulated and stimulated) were also evaluated. Regardless of the BMI, males had a larger bite force and better masticatory and swallowing performances than females. They also chewed faster than females. Individuals of the obese group had the largest median particles sizes (both after 20 chewing cycles and at the moment of swallowing), which indicates a less good masticatory performance. The median particle sizes were negatively correlated with the number of teeth and number of occlusal units in the obese group. We did not observe large differences in masticatory performance and swallowing variables among the four weight groups, although there was a tendency that individuals of the obese group swallowed larger particles. The results of this study do not support the existence of an "obese chewing style". PMID:26253216

  12. Nutrigenomics of Body Weight Regulation: A Rationale for Careful Dissection of Individual Contributors

    PubMed Central

    Keijer, Jaap; Hoevenaars, Femke P. M.; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie; van Schothorst, Evert M.

    2014-01-01

    Body weight stability may imply active regulation towards a certain physiological condition, a body weight setpoint. This interpretation is ill at odds with the world-wide increase in overweight and obesity. Until now, a body weight setpoint has remained elusive and the setpoint theory did not provide practical clues for body weight reduction interventions. For this an alternative theoretical model is necessary, which is available as the settling point model. The settling point model postulates that there is little active regulation towards a predefined body weight, but that body weight settles based on the resultant of a number of contributors, represented by the individual’s genetic predisposition, in interaction with environmental and socioeconomic factors, such as diet and lifestyle. This review refines the settling point model and argues that by taking body weight regulation from a settling point perspective, the road will be opened to careful dissection of the various contributors to establishment of body weight and its regulation. This is both necessary and useful. Nutrigenomic technologies may help to delineate contributors to body weight settling. Understanding how and to which extent the different contributors influence body weight will allow the design of weight loss and weight maintenance interventions, which hopefully are more successful than those that are currently available. PMID:25338273

  13. Restricted selection index in mice designed to change body fat without changing body weight: correlated responses.

    PubMed

    Eisen, E J

    1992-07-01

    Correlated responses were studied in lines of mice selected for eight generations based on the criterion of a restricted selection index. Two replicate lines were selected in each treatment as follows: HE, high epididymal fat pad weight (EF) with zero change in body weight (BW) at 12 weeks of age; LE; low EF with zero change in BW; and RS, randomly. Correlated responses showed considerable variation between replicates, suggesting that genetic drift was important. Further, correlated responses for most traits were relatively small, probably because of low selection intensity. The HE line responded as expected in component traits of the restricted index. Associated compositional traits in HE responded as predicted since traits correlated with adiposity increased and hind carcass weight did not change significantly. Feed intake increased and feed efficiency (weight gain/feed intake) decreased in HE, as predicted. In contrast, the LE line did not respond in component traits as predicted since EF did not decrease and BW increased. Consequently, LE exhibited little change in traits associated with adiposity, but hind carcass weight, feed intake and feed efficiency increased. Of the correlated responses scored for fitness traits (littering rate, number of days from pairing of mate to littering, litter size and preweaning pup survival rate), significant effects were found for decreased littering rate in LE and increased prenatal survival rate in HE. In summary, correlated responses to restricted index selection generally agreed with expectation when responses in component traits of the index were considered. PMID:24203189

  14. Relationship between body satisfaction with self esteemand unhealthy body weight management

    PubMed Central

    Daniali, Shahrbanoo; Azadbakht, Leila; Mostafavi, Firoozeh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: A favorable or unfavorable attitude about self was named self esteem. According to Maslow theory to achieve quality of life and happiness, one must reach the gradual fulfillment of human needs, including a high degree of own self-esteem. Body dissatisfaction is a negative distortion of one's body which is especially mentioned by the women. Many studies have shown links between self esteem, body dissatisfaction, health and behaviors. this study intends to determine relationship between body satisfaction, self esteem and unhealthy weight control behaviors between women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 408 women employees in Isfahan University and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences during 1390. They were chosen according to the stratified random sampling method. Inclusion criteria were 1) willing to participate in the study and 2) lack of serious physical defect 3) not being in pregnancy or breastfeeding course. Exclusion criteria was filling out questionnaires incompletely. Data collection tool was a multidimensional questionnaire which comprised of 4 sections as following: demographic (5items), A self-administrative questionnaire for body Satisfaction (7 items), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (10 items) and a standard Weight Control Behavior Scale (18 items). Cranach's alpha was 0.9 or higher for the different sections. Finally, collected data was analyzed with SPSS18 using the independent T-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient, regression, Spearman correlation. Results: Frequencies of participants by weight category were 14.1% for obese, 35.3% for overweight, 47.6% for normal weight. The mean body satisfaction score in the studied women was 63.26 ± 16.27 (from 100). Mean score of self esteem was 76.70 ± 10.45. 51.5% of women had medium self esteem, 47.5% had high self esteem. Pearson correlation showed that the variables of body Satisfaction (r = 0.3, P = 0.02), BMI (r = - 0.14, P < 0.003), education level (r = 0

  15. Misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status predicts excessive gestational weight gain: findings from a US cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Herring, Sharon J; Oken, Emily; Haines, Jess; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Kleinman ScD, Ken P; Gillman, Matthew W

    2008-01-01

    Background Excessive gestational weight gain promotes poor maternal and child health outcomes. Weight misperception is associated with weight gain in non-pregnant women, but no data exist during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status with excessive gestational weight gain. Methods At study enrollment, participants in Project Viva reported weight, height, and perceived body weight status by questionnaire. Our study sample comprised 1537 women who had either normal or overweight/obese pre-pregnancy BMI. We created 2 categories of pre-pregnancy body weight status misperception: normal weight women who identified themselves as overweight ('overassessors') and overweight/obese women who identified themselves as average or underweight ('underassessors'). Women who correctly perceived their body weight status were classified as either normal weight or overweight/obese accurate assessors. We performed multivariable logistic regression to determine the odds of excessive gestational weight gain according to 1990 Institute of Medicine guidelines. Results Of the 1029 women with normal pre-pregnancy BMI, 898 (87%) accurately perceived and 131 (13%) overassessed their weight status. 508 women were overweight/obese, of whom 438 (86%) accurately perceived and 70 (14%) underassessed their pre-pregnancy weight status. By the end of pregnancy, 823 women (54%) gained excessively. Compared with normal weight accurate assessors, the adjusted odds of excessive gestational weight gain was 2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3, 3.0) in normal weight overassessors, 2.9 (95% CI: 2.2, 3.9) in overweight/obese accurate assessors, and 7.6 (95% CI: 3.4, 17.0) in overweight/obese underassessors. Conclusion Misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status was associated with excessive gestational weight gain among both normal weight and overweight/obese women, with the greatest likelihood of excessive gain among overweight

  16. Effects of diet, bacitracin, and body weight restrictions on the intestine of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Stutz, M W; Johnson, S L; Judith, F R

    1983-08-01

    Six experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of diet, bacitracin, and body weight restrictions on the intestine of the broiler chick. Bacitracin, at levels of 11 and 55 ppm, significantly increased body weight, significantly reduced small intestine weight, but had no significant effect on liver weight of chicks fed a soybean protein and sucrose-based diet. The greatest effects were observed in the ileum where weight, moisture, length per unit of body weight, and dry matter per unit of length were all significantly reduced. The least effects were observed in the duodenum where weight and length per unit of body weight were significantly reduced and dry matter per unit of length was significantly increased. Intestinal weight, as a percent of body weight, was not significantly affected when body weight was suppressed with a high level of nicarbazin added to a practical diet, but it was significantly reduced when bacitracin was added to the semipurified diet and chicks were restricted in food intake to 70% of controls. A level of 55 ppm of bacitracin added to the practical diet had no significant effect on body weight, intestinal weight, or liver weight. As discussed, the observed changes in the intestine, due to bacitracin, are probably indirect and most likely reflect the action of the antibiotic on the intestinal microflora. PMID:6634597

  17. The relation of weight suppression and body mass index to symptomatology and treatment response in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Berner, Laura A; Shaw, Jena A; Witt, Ashley A; Lowe, Michael R

    2013-08-01

    Weight suppression, the difference between highest past weight and current weight, is a robust predictor of clinical characteristics of bulimia nervosa; however, the influence of weight suppression in anorexia nervosa (AN) has been little studied, and to our knowledge, no study to date has investigated the ways in which the relevance of weight suppression in AN may depend upon an individual's current body mass index (BMI). The present study investigated weight suppression, BMI, and their interaction as cross-sectional and prospective predictors of psychological symptoms and weight in AN. Women with AN completed depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II) and eating disorder symptomatology measures (Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire and Eating Disorders Inventory-3) at residential treatment admission (N = 350) and discharge (N = 238). Weight suppression and BMI were weakly correlated (r = -.22). At admission, BMI was positively correlated with all symptom measures except Restraint and Depression scores. Weight suppression was also independently positively correlated with all measures except Weight Concern and Body Dissatisfaction subscale scores. In analyses examining discharge scores (including admission values as covariates), the admission weight suppression × BMI interaction consistently predicted posttreatment psychopathology. Controlling for weight gain in treatment and age, higher admission weight suppression predicted lower discharge scores (less symptom endorsement) among those with lower BMIs; among those with higher BMIs, higher weight suppression predicted higher discharge scores. These results are the first to our knowledge to demonstrate that absolute and relative weight status are joint indicators of AN severity and prognosis. These findings may have major implications for conceptualization and treatment of AN. PMID:24016010

  18. Effects of Auricular Acupressure on Body Weight Parameters in Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Han-Yi; Wu, Shang-Liang; Chen, Wen-Chi; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2012-01-01

    Auricular acupressure is widely used in complementary and alternative medicine to reduce body weight, but little is known about the effects of auricular acupressure on body weight parameters in patients with chronic schizophrenia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of auricular acupressure on body weight parameters in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Eighty-six inpatients with schizophrenia were recruited from chronic wards in a psychiatric center. The participants were randomly divided into experimental (acupressure at 4 acupuncture sites: hunger, stomach, shenmen and endocrine) and control groups, and body weight parameters were determined weekly for 8 weeks. There was no significant difference between the experimental and control groups in mean body weight, waist circumference, or body fat percentage at the pretest or during the entire 8-week study period. Therefore, auricular acupressure did not cause body weight reduction in patients with chronic schizophrenia. PMID:22997527

  19. The Effect of Weight Reduction on Body Composition and Strength in High School Wrestlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hejna, William F.; And Others

    A study assessed the relationship of weight reduction to the strength of various muscle groups in conjunction with a pre-season and in-season training and conditioning program. Twenty-nine high school wrestlers, with an average age of 16 years 4 months, significantly reduced their body weight. In the process, there were losses in lean body weight.…

  20. Predictors of women's concern with body weight: the roles of perceived self-media ideal discrepancies and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Posavac, Steven S; Posavac, Heidi D

    2002-01-01

    Researchers have expended significant effort trying to delineate determinants of body image disturbance in young women, in part because of the potential of body image disturbance to precipitate eating disordered behavior. In this research we demonstrate that the extent of the discrepancy women perceive between their own attractiveness and body shape and images representative of ideal feminine attractiveness presented in advertising and the broader media (i.e., self-media ideal discrepancy) predicts how concerned they are with their weight (a measure of body image disturbance). Perhaps more importantly, we also show that perceived self-media ideal discrepancy is a construct independent of global self-esteem. Specifically, our results demonstrate that perceived self-media ideal discrepancy is related to women's weight concern even when self-esteem is statistically controlled. Implications for theory and clinical intervention are discussed. PMID:16864255

  1. Perceiving the Black female body: Race and gender in police constructions of body weight

    PubMed Central

    Threadcraft, Shatema

    2015-01-01

    Representations of Black women in United States popular culture and public discourse frequently depict them stereotypically as fat and in need of policing for moral failures. As well, research has shown that Black women are perceived and constructed as non-prototypical for their gender. Taken together, observers within a White dominant social frame could be said to have difficulty correctly seeing Black women’s bodies and gender presentations. In this study we examined how Black women are seen in the context of New York City Police Department (NYPD) stops and searches (known as Stop & Frisk). We examined how officers categorized Black women’s body weight; investigated whether stops took place in public or private space; and assessed the extent to which body weight brought additional sanctions (i.e., being frisked). We used publicly available datasets from the NYPD’s Stop & Frisk program, in which stops numbering in the hundreds of thousands were recorded in yearly databases from 2003 to 2012. For each stop, officers record a number of attributes about the potential suspect and context, including race, gender, physique, date, and precinct. We conducted logistic regressions to model the odds of being categorized as heavy by race and gender, controlling for age, calculated BMI, location in a Black precinct, and season of the year. Results showed that across 10 years of data, Black women were more likely than White women to be labeled heavy. Black women were also much more likely than all other subgroups to be stopped inside rather than outside. Body size showed little association with stop locations or frisks. We interpret these findings as a reflection of Black women’s positioning with regard to racial and gender representations and the disciplinary projects of the state. PMID:26478750

  2. Shuttle-food consumption, body composition and body weight in women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Frye, Sherrie; Kloeris, Vickie; Rice, Barbara; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Spector, Elisabeth; Gretebeck, Randall J.

    1992-01-01

    An experiment is conducted to determine whether the NASA Space Shuttle food system can provide the food and fluid required to mitigate weight loss and physical decomposition in 12 female subjects for 28 days. Subjects receive only foods from the Space Shuttle system for four weeks within an 11-wk monitoring period. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is employed throughout the trial period to study lean body mass, percent body fat, and energy-intake levels with attention given to differences the experimental diet and the subjects' typical diet. Percent body fat is found to change significantly with losses of less than 0.05 percent, whereas energy intake based on autonomous diet choices by the participants does not vary significantly. Lean body mass remains unchanged throughout the study in which the subjects receive a relatively low-fat and low-protein menu. The 100 items on the space shuttle list of approved food items are shown to provide a palatable dietary framework for maintaining the health of female astronauts.

  3. The BODY-Q: A Patient-Reported Outcome Instrument for Weight Loss and Body Contouring Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Stefan J.; Alderman, Amy; Soldin, Mark; Thoma, Achilles; Robson, Sam; Kaur, Manraj; Papas, Athanasios; Van Laeken, Nancy; Taylor, Valerie H.; Pusic, Andrea L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Body contouring performed for cosmetic purposes, or after weight loss, has the potential to improve body image and health-related quality of life (HRQL). The BODY-Q is a new patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument designed to measure patient perceptions of weight loss and/or body contouring. In this article, we describe the psychometric properties of the BODY-Q scales after an international field-test. Methods: Weight loss and body contouring patients from Canada, United States, and United Kingdom were recruited between November 2013 and February 2015. Data were collected using an iPad directly into a web-based application or a questionnaire booklet. Rasch measurement theory analysis was used for item reduction and to examine reliability, validity, and ability to detect change. Results: The sample included 403 weight loss and 331 body contouring patients. Most BODY-Q items had ordered thresholds (134/138) and good item fit. Scale reliability was acceptable, ie, Person separation index >0.70 for 16 scales, Cronbach α ≥0.90 for 18 of 18 scales, and Test–retest ≥0.87 for 17 of 18 scales. Appearance and HRQL scores were lower in participants with more obesity-related symptoms, higher body mass index, and more excess skin and in those pre- versus postoperative body contouring. The 134 weight loss patients who completed the BODY-Q twice, either 6 weeks (weight loss/nonsurgical body contouring program) or 6 months (bariatric program) later, improved significantly on 7 appearance and 4 HRQL scales. Conclusion: The BODY-Q is a clinically meaningful and scientifically sound patient-reported outcome instrument that can be used to measure outcomes in patients who undergo weight loss and/or body contouring. PMID:27200241

  4. Association of Smoking with Body Weight in US High School Students, 1999-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Jiang, Nan; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the association of current smoking with body mass index (BMI) and perceived body weight among high school students in the United States. Methods: We analyzed data from the 1999-2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results: Perceived body weight and BMI were associated with adolescents' current smoking. Adjusted odds ratios…

  5. Prospect theory and body mass: characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices. PMID:25852628

  6. Antiepileptic drugs influences on body weight in people with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Sherifa Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Data from clinical trials, retrospective and cross-sectional studies have quantified the metabolic changes associated with long-term use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). AEDs can be associated with weight gain or weight loss, although most are weight neutral. Weight gain is not only a cosmetic problem but also a risk for obesity-related vascular disorders. Weight loss may compromise growth in children/adolescents. This review discusses the possible contribution of peripheral and central hormones/neuropeptides (as leptin, insulin, adiponectin, neuropeptide-Y, ghrelin and galanin) and pathways that influence energy balance in the pathogenesis of weight changes with AEDs. As AEDs may influence weight, physicians have to properly select and characterize the suitable AED as an initial step or modify the existing AED if it compromises patient's health. PMID:25487080

  7. Dieting practices, weight perceptions, and body composition: A comparison of normal weight, overweight, and obese college females

    PubMed Central

    Malinauskas, Brenda M; Raedeke, Thomas D; Aeby, Victor G; Smith, Jean L; Dallas, Matthew B

    2006-01-01

    Background Of concern to health educators is the suggestion that college females practice diet and health behaviors that contradict the 2005 dietary guidelines for Americans. In this regard, there remain gaps in the research related to dieting among college females. Namely, do normal weight individuals diet differently from those who are overweight or obese, and are there dieting practices used by females that can be adapted to promote a healthy body weight? Since it is well recognized that females diet, this study seeks to determine the dieting practices used among normal, overweight, and obese college females (do they diet differently) and identify dieting practices that could be pursued to help these females more appropriately achieve and maintain a healthy body weight. Methods A total of 185 female college students aged 18 to 24 years participated in this study. Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, and skinfold thickness were measured to assess body composition. Surveys included a dieting practices questionnaire and a 30-day physical activity recall. Participants were classified according to body mass index (BMI) as normal weight (n = 113), overweight (n = 35), or obese (n = 21). Data were analyzed using JMP IN® software. Descriptive statistics included means, standard deviations, and frequency. Subsequent data analysis involved Pearson X2 and one-way analysis of variance with comparison for all pairs that were significantly different using Tukey-Kramer honestly significant difference test. Results Outcomes of this study indicate the majority of participants (83%) used dieting for weight loss and believed they would be 2% to 6% greater than current weight if they did not diet; normal weight, overweight, and obese groups perceived attractive weight to be 94%, 85%, and 74%, respectively, of current weight; 80% of participants reported using physical activity to control weight, although only 19% exercised at a level that would promote weight loss; only

  8. Properties and clinical implications of body mass indices.

    PubMed Central

    Fung, K P; Lee, J; Lau, S P; Chow, O K; Wong, T W; Davis, D P

    1990-01-01

    The properties of body mass indices were evaluated in a cross sectional study of the weights and heights of 5016 Chinese boys and girls aged between 3 and 18 years. Of the indices examined (weight/height (W/H), weight/height2 (W/H2), weight/height3 (W/H3) and weight/heightp (W/Hp], W/Hp was the only one that consistently showed least correlation with height, and so could be regarded as the optimal body mass index by the criterion of independence of the index from height. The exponent 'p' of W/Hp is, however, highly dependent on age; the value increases steadily between the age of 3 and 7-9 years, and then varies considerably around puberty. Only the age specific exponent ensures a lack of correlation between body mass index (W/Hp) and height. Age specific W/Hp should therefore be used in intrapopulation studies of weight or problems associated with obesity in children. Interpopulation comparison of weight and adiposity by W/H, W/H2, or W/H3 may give misleading results because of their dependence on height. Our results also suggest that the conventional weight for height charts may not be accurate enough for clinical use. PMID:2357091

  9. Normal Weight Central Obesity: Implications for Total and Cardiovascular Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Sahakyan, Karine R.; Somers, Virend K.; Rodriguez-Escudero, Juan P.; Hodge, David O.; Carter, Rickey E.; Sochor, Ondrej; Coutinho, Thais; Jensen, Michael D.; Roger, Véronique L.; Singh, Prachi; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Background The relation between central obesity and survival in community-dwelling adults with a normal body mass index (BMI) is not well known. Objectives To examine the risk of total and cardiovascular mortality associated with central obesity but normal BMI Design Stratified multistage probability design Setting Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Participants We analyzed data on 15,184 people (52.3% women) aged 18 to 90 years.. Measurements We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards model to evaluate the relation of obesity patterns defined by BMI and WHR and total and cardiovascular mortality risk after adjustment for confounding factors. Results Persons with normal-weight central obesity had the worst long-term survival: a man with a normal BMI (22 kg/m2) and central obesity had greater total mortality risk than one with similar BMI but no central obesity (hazard ratio [HR], 1.87 [95% CI, 1.53–2.29]) and twice the mortality risk of participants who were overweight or obese by BMI only (HR, 2.24 [95% CI,1.52–3.32] and HR, 2.42 [95% CI, 1.30–4.53], respectively). Similarly, women with normal weight and central obesity had higher mortality risk than both women with similar BMI but no central obesity (HR, 1.48 [95% CI, 1.35–1.62]) and women who were obese by BMI only (HR, 1.32 [95% CI, 1.15–1.51]). Expected survival estimates were consistently lower for those with central obesity when controlled for age and BMI. Limitations Body fat distribution was assessed based on anthropometric indicators alone. Information on comorbidities was collected by self-report. Conclusion Normal-weight central obesity defined by WHR is associated with higher mortality than BMI–defined obesity, particularly in the absence of central fat distribution. PMID:26551006

  10. Estimation of body weight and development of a body weight score for adult equids using morphometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Martinson, K L; Coleman, R C; Rendahl, A K; Fang, Z; McCue, M E

    2014-05-01

    Excessive BW has become a major health issue in the equine (Equus caballus) industry. The objectives were to determine if the addition of neck circumference and height improved existing BW estimation equations, to develop an equation for estimation of ideal BW, and to develop a method for assessing the likelihood of being overweight in adult equids. Six hundred and twenty-nine adult horses and ponies who met the following criteria were measured and weighed at 2 horse shows in September 2011 in Minnesota: age ≥ 3 yr, height ≥ 112 cm, and nonpregnant. Personnel assessed BCS on a scale of 1 to 9 and measured wither height at the third thoracic vertebra, body length from the point of shoulder to the point of the buttock, neck and girth circumference, and weight using a portable livestock scale. Individuals were grouped into breed types on the basis of existing knowledge and were confirmed with multivariate ANOVA analysis of morphometric measurements. Equations for estimated and ideal BW were developed using linear regression modeling. For estimated BW, the model was fit using all individuals and all morphometric measurements. For ideal BW, the model was fit using individuals with a BCS of 5; breed type, height, and body length were considered as these measurements are not affected by adiposity. A BW score to assess the likelihood of being overweight was developed by fitting a proportional odds logistic regression model on BCS using the difference between ideal and estimated BW, the neck to height ratio, and the girth to height ratio as predictors; this score was then standardized using the data from individuals with a BCS of 5. Breed types included Arabian, stock, and pony. Mean (± SD) BCS was 5.6 ± 0.9. BW (kg) was estimated by taking [girth (cm)(1.48)6 × length (cm)(0.554) × height (cm)(0.599) × neck (cm)(0.173)]/3,596, 3,606, and 3,441 for Arabians, ponies, and stock horses, respectively (R(2) = 0.92; mean-squared error (MSE) = 22 kg). Ideal BW (kg) was

  11. Measurements and profiles of body weight misperceptions among Taiwanese teenagers: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ya-Wen; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Liou, Yiing Mei; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Chien, Li-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Children and adolescents tend to lose weight, which may be associated with misperceptions of weight. Previous studies have emphasized establishing correlations between eating disorders and an overestimated perception of body weight, but few studies have focused on an underestimated perception of body weight. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between misperceptions of body weight and weight-related risk factors, such as eating disorders, inactivity, and unhealthy behaviors, among overweight children who underestimated their body weight. We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive study between December 1, 2006 and February 15, 2007. A total of 29,313 children and adolescents studying in grades 4-12 were enrolled in this nationwide, cross-sectional survey, and they were asked to complete questionnaires. A multivariate logistic regression using maximum likelihood estimates was used. The prevalence of body weight misperception was 43.2% (26.4% overestimation and 16.8% underestimation). Factors associated with the underestimated perception of weight among overweight children were parental obesity, dietary control for weight loss, breakfast consumption, self-induced vomiting as a weight control strategy, fried food consumption, engaging in vigorous physical activities, and sleeping for >8 hours per day (odds ratios=0.86, 0.42, 0.88, 1.37, 1.13, 1.11, and 1.17, respectively). In conclusion, the early establishment of an accurate perception of body weight may mitigate unhealthy behaviors. PMID:26965769

  12. Overestimation of own body weights in female university students: associations with lifestyles, weight control behaviors and depression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miso; Lee, Hongmie

    2010-12-01

    The study aimed to analyze the lifestyles, weight control behavior, dietary habits, and depression of female university students. The subjects were 532 students from 8 universities located in 4 provinces in Korea. According to percent ideal body weight, 33 (6.4%), 181 (34.0%), 283 (53.2%), 22 (4.1%) and 13 (2.5%) were severely underweight, underweight, normal, overweight and obese, respectively, based on self-reported height and weight. As much as 64.1% and only 2.4%, respectively, overestimated and underestimated their body weight status. Six overweight subjects were excluded from overestimation group for the purpose of this study, resulting in overestimation group consisting of only underweight and normal weight subjects. Compared to those from the normal perception group, significantly more subjects from the overestimation group were currently smoking (P = 0.017) and drank more often than once a week (P = 0.015), without any significant differences in dietary habits. Despite similar BMIs, subjects who overestimated their own weight statuses had significantly higher weight dissatisfaction (P = 0.000), obesity stress (P = 0.000), obsession to lose weight (P = 0.007) and depression (P = 0.018). Also, more of them wanted to lose weight (P = 0.000), checked their body weights more often than once a week (P = 0.025) and had dieting experiences using 'reducing meal size' (P = 0.012), 'reducing snacks' (P = 0.042) and 'taking prescribed pills' (P = 0.032), and presented 'for a wider range of clothes selection' as the reason for weight loss (P = 0.039), although none was actually overweight or obese. Unlike the case with overestimating one's own weight, being overweight was associated with less drinking (P = 0.035) and exercising more often (P = 0.001) and for longer (P = 0.001) and healthier reasons for weight control (P = 0.002), despite no differences in frequency of weighing and depression. The results showed that weight overestimation, independent of weight status

  13. Public and health professionals’ misconceptions about the dynamics of body weight gain/loss

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Hamid, Tarek; Ankel, Felix; Battle-Fisher, Michele; Gibson, Bryan; Gonzalez-Parra, Gilberto; Jalali, Mohammad; Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Kalupahana, Nishan; Karanfil, Ozge; Marathe, Achla; Martinson, Brian; McKelvey, Karma; Sarbadhikari, Suptendra Nath; Pintauro, Stephen; Poucheret, Patrick; Pronk, Nicolaas; Qian, Ying; Sazonov, Edward; Van Oorschot, Kim; Venkitasubramanian, Akshay; Murphy, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Human body energy storage operates as a stock-and-flow system with inflow (food intake) and outflow (energy expenditure). In spite of the ubiquity of stock-and-flow structures, evidence suggests that human beings fail to understand stock accumulation and rates of change, a difficulty called the stock–flow failure. This study examines the influence of health care training and cultural background in overcoming stock–flow failure. A standardized protocol assessed lay people’s and health care professionals’ ability to apply stock-and-flow reasoning to infer the dynamics of weight gain/loss during the holiday season (621 subjects from seven countries). Our results indicate that both types of subjects exhibited systematic errors indicative of use of erroneous heuristics. Stock–flow failure was found across cultures and was not improved by professional health training. The problem of stock–flow failure as a transcultural global issue with education and policy implications is discussed. PMID:25620843

  14. Does this book make me look fat? The effect of protagonist body weight and body esteem on female readers' body esteem.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Melissa J; Magee, Robert G

    2013-03-01

    Effects of visual representations of the thin ideal in the media have been widely explored, but textual representations of the thin ideal in novels have received scant attention. The chick literature genre has been criticized for depicting characters who worry about their body weight and who have poor body esteem. Excerpts from two chick lit novels were used to examine the effect of a protagonist's body weight and body esteem on college women's (N=159) perceptions of their sexual attractiveness and weight concern. Two narratives were used to minimize the possibility that idiosyncratic characteristics of one excerpt might influence the study's results. Underweight (vs. healthy weight) protagonists predicted readers' lower perceived sexual attractiveness. Protagonists with low body esteem (vs. control) predicted readers' increased weight concern. Scholars and health officials should be concerned about the effect chick lit novels might have on women's body image. PMID:23219006

  15. Sociocultural influences and body change strategies in Spanish adolescent boys of different weight status.

    PubMed

    Almenara, Carlos A; Fauquet, Jordi; López-Guimerà, Gemma; Pàmias-Massana, Montserrat; Sánchez-Carracedo, David

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association between sociocultural influences to attain an ideal body and body change strategies (BCS) in Spanish adolescent boys of different weight status. A total of 594 Spanish boys (M=13.94 years, SD=0.20) participated. Measures included in the study were weight status according to body mass index (BMI), sociocultural influences (perceived pressures to attain an ideal body, general internalization of an ideal body, internalization of an athletic-ideal body), BCS to lose/control weight (dieting, healthy and unhealthy weight-control behaviors), and BCS to gain weight and muscles. Underweight boys engaged more frequently in weight-gain behaviors. Overweight boys reported higher levels of perceived sociocultural pressures and general internalization compared to normal-weight boys, and were more likely to be engaged in BCS to lose/control weight compared with the other weight-status groups. There were no differences between groups in terms of internalization of an athletic-ideal body and BCS to increase muscles. Future research and prevention programs should consider male-specific behaviors and weight-status differences. PMID:25261810

  16. Imaging Body Fat: Techniques and Cardiometabolic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, H.; Chen, Y. E; Eitzman, D.T.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a world-wide epidemic and is associated with multiple comorbidities. The mechanisms underlying the relationship between obesity and adverse health outcomes remain poorly understood. This may be due to several factors including the crude measures used to estimate adiposity, the striking heterogeneity between adipose tissue depots, and the influence of fat accumulation in multiple organs. In order to advance our understanding of fat stores and associated co-morbidities in humans, it will be necessary to image adiposity throughout the body and ultimately also assess its functionality. Large clinical studies are demonstrating the prognostic importance of adipose tissue imaging. Newer techniques capable of imaging fat metabolism and other functions of adipose tissue may provide additional prognostic utility and may be useful in guiding therapeutic interventions. PMID:25147343

  17. Differential effects of cigarette smoking on birth weight by maternal body mass index.

    PubMed

    Heinz-Partington, Sean; Condous, George; Mongelli, Max

    2016-07-01

    Links between low birth weight and tobacco exposure in utero are well established, as are associations between maternal body mass index (BMI) and birth weight. This study further develops those relationships. In particular, this article analyses whether high maternal weight acts to dampen the previously established link between tobacco exposure and low birth weight. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken, reviewing the birth weights of 13,473 live singleton pregnancies born at a Sydney regional hospital between 1998 and 2003. Results demonstrated a statistically significant decline in reduced birth weight as BMI increased. That is, as body weight increases, tobacco use has a smaller effect on reducing birth weight. Inversely, the effect on reducing birth weight for each cigarette smoked by leaner women was greater. In effect, the adverse influence of tobacco use on birth weight appears to be modulated by increasing maternal BMI. PMID:27013353

  18. High-fructose corn syrup causes characteristics of obesity in rats: increased body weight, body fat and triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Bocarsly, Miriam E; Powell, Elyse S; Avena, Nicole M; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2010-11-01

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) accounts for as much as 40% of caloric sweeteners used in the United States. Some studies have shown that short-term access to HFCS can cause increased body weight, but the findings are mixed. The current study examined both short- and long-term effects of HFCS on body weight, body fat, and circulating triglycerides. In Experiment 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for short term (8 weeks) on (1) 12 h/day of 8% HFCS, (2) 12 h/day 10% sucrose, (3) 24 h/day HFCS, all with ad libitum rodent chow, or (4) ad libitum chow alone. Rats with 12-h access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than animals given equal access to 10% sucrose, even though they consumed the same number of total calories, but fewer calories from HFCS than sucrose. In Experiment 2, the long-term effects of HFCS on body weight and obesogenic parameters, as well as gender differences, were explored. Over the course of 6 or 7 months, both male and female rats with access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than control groups. This increase in body weight with HFCS was accompanied by an increase in adipose fat, notably in the abdominal region, and elevated circulating triglyceride levels. Translated to humans, these results suggest that excessive consumption of HFCS may contribute to the incidence of obesity. PMID:20219526

  19. High-fructose corn syrup causes characteristics of obesity in rats: increased body weight, body fat and triglyceride levels

    PubMed Central

    Bocarsly, Miriam E.; Powell, Elyse S.; Avena, Nicole M.; Hoebel, Bartley G.

    2010-01-01

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) accounts for as much as 40% of caloric sweeteners used in the United States. Some studies have shown that short-term access to HFCS can cause increased body weight, but the findings are mixed. The current study examined both short- and long-term effects of HFCS on body weight, body fat, and circulating triglycerides. In Experiment 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for short term (8 wks) on (1) 12-h/day of 8% HFCS, (2) 12-h/day 10% sucrose, (3) 24-h/day HFCS, all with ad libitum rodent chow, or (4) ad libitum chow alone. Rats with 12-h access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than animals given equal access to 10% sucrose, even though they consumed the same number of total calories but fewer calories from HFCS than sucrose. In Experiment 2, the long-term effects of HFCS on body weight and obesogenic parameters, as well as gender differences, were explored. Over the course of 6 or 7 months, both male and female rats with access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than control groups. This increase in body weight with HFCS was accompanied by an increase in adipose fat, notably in the abdominal region, and elevated circulating triglyceride levels. Translated to humans, these results suggest that excessive consumption of HFCS may contribute to the incidence of obesity. PMID:20219526

  20. Effects of sprint interval training and body weight reduction on power to weight ratio in experienced cyclists.

    PubMed

    Lunn, William R; Finn, Joan A; Axtell, Robert S

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of supramaximal sprint interval training (SIT), body weight reduction, and a combination of both treatments on peak and average anaerobic power to weight ratio (PPOan:Wt, APOan:Wt) by manipulating peak and average anaerobic power output (PPOan, APOan) and body weight (BW) in experienced cyclists. Participants (N = 34, age = 38.0 +/- 7.1 years) were assigned to 4 groups for a 10-week study. One group performed twice-weekly SIT sessions on a cycle ergometer while maintaining body weight (SIT). A second group did not perform SIT but intentionally reduced body weight (WR). A third group simultaneously performed SIT sessions and reduced body weight (SIT+WR). A control group cycled in their normal routine and maintained body weight (CON). The 30-second Wingate Test assessed pretest and posttest POan:Wt scores. There was a significant mean increase (p < 0.05) from pretest to posttest in PPOan:Wt and APOan:Wt (W x kg(-1)) scores in both SIT (10.82 +/- 1.71 to 11.92 +/- 1.77 and 8.05 +/- 0.64 to 8.77 +/- 0.64, respectively) and WR (10.33 +/- 2.91 to 11.29 +/- 2.80 and 7.04 +/- 1.45 to 7.62 +/- 1.24, respectively). PPOan and APOan (W) increased significantly only in SIT (753.7 +/- 121.0 to 834.3 +/- 150.1 and 561.3 +/- 62.5 to 612.7 +/- 69.0, respectively). Body weight (kg) decreased significantly in WR and SIT + WR (80.3 +/- 13.7 to 75.3 +/- 11.9 and 78.9 +/- 10.8 to 73.4 +/- 10.8, respectively). The results demonstrate that cyclists can use SIT sessions and body weight reduction as singular training interventions to effect significant increases in anaerobic power to weight ratio, which has been correlated to enhanced aerobic cycling performance. However, the treatments were not effective as combined interventions, as there was no significant change in either PPOan:Wt or APOan:Wt in SIT + WR. PMID:19568031

  1. Changing Body Image and Well-Being: Following the Experience of Massive Weight Loss and Body Contouring Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gilmartin, Jo; Long, Andrew F.; Soldin, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the perception of changing body image and well-being for patients who had undergone plastic surgery following massive weight loss. The exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken with 20 patients from one teaching hospital in the south of England. Semi-structured interviews were carried out and a thematic analysis of the data undertaken. The results provide important insights regarding body contouring influencing body image change and the adjustment process involved. The ability to pursue self-esteem and the accruing social benefits is emphasized in the interrelated sub themes including social acceptance, undoing depression and sexual vitality. Body contouring surgery following massive weight loss appears to facilitate improvement in body image and well-being. Adjustment to the changing body image is both empowering and challenging. Supportive educational programmes need to be developed to assist this transition to a more positive body image and appreciation; these could usefully include access to and involvement with patient support groups.

  2. Effects of neutering on food intake, body weight and body composition in growing female kittens.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Lucille G; Salt, Carina; Thomas, Gaelle; Butterwick, Richard

    2011-10-01

    To understand the effects of neutering on food intake, body weight (BW) and body composition in kittens, data from an unrelated study were subjected to post hoc analysis. A total of twelve pairs of 11-week-old female littermates were randomly assigned to either a neutered group (neutered at 19 weeks old) or an entire group (kept entire) and offered free access to a dry diet until the age of 1 year. Neutered kittens exhibited increased food intake and increased BW after neutering (both P < 0.00 001). Food intake (per kg BW) peaked 10 weeks after neutering; the mean intake of neutered kittens was 17 (95 % CI 8, 27) % more than entire littermates (P = 0.00 014). The intake was then reduced until there was no significant difference between the groups 18 weeks post-neutering. By 52 weeks of age, the neutered kittens were 24 (95 % CI 11, 39) % heavier than entire littermates (P < 0.0001) with a body condition score (BCS) 16.6 (95 % CI 0.9, 34.8) % higher (P = 0.0028). Neutered kittens continued to grow significantly fatter after neutering (all P < 0.0014), while entire kittens showed no significant change after 18 weeks of age. As neutered kittens consumed similar amounts of energy to their entire littermates from 18 weeks post-neutering, while their BW, BCS and percentage fat continued to increase, we suggest that neutered kittens have a reduced metabolisable energy requirement, and should therefore be fed to maintain an ideal BCS rather than ad libitum. Moreover, to maintain an ideal BCS, entire kittens consumed 93 (95 % CI 87, 100) % of their theoretical intake at 26 weeks of age, and 79 (95 % CI 72, 87) % at 52 weeks of age, suggesting that the current energy recommendation is inappropriate for these kittens. PMID:22005425

  3. Change in Diet, Physical Activity, and Body Weight in Female College Freshman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Scott M.; Black, David R.; Blue, Carolyn L.; Gretebeck, Randall J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine diet, physical activity, and body-weight changes associated with relocation from home to university. Methods: Diet, fitness/physical activity, body-weight parameters and self-efficacy were assessed among 54 freshman women upon college entry and 5 months later. Results: Although caloric intake significantly decreased, a…

  4. Progress in the molecular understanding of central regulation of body weight by estrogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estrogens can act in the brain to prevent body weight gain. Tremendous research efforts have been focused on estrogen physiology in the brain in the context of body weight control; estrogen receptors and the related signals have been attractive targets for development of new obesity therapies. The o...

  5. [Body-weight-development of children in Görlitz (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kirbis, U; Grzegorek, R; Richter, J

    1978-04-01

    The different phases of increase of body-weight in boys and girls are studied. The development of body-weight from three anual-sets of children, who are born in the town of Görlitz, from birth to time of school-absolvation is presented. PMID:665422

  6. LOTUS 1-2-3-BASED SYSTEM FOR RECORDING AND MAINTAINING BODY WEIGHT OF LABORATORY ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Body weight maintenance is required in a variety of behavioral and physiological studies. C-based animal weighing system is described which features automated data collection and allows for accurate control of body weight in test animals via manipulation of food intake. ajor syst...

  7. Comparison of Methods for Assessing Body Composition Changes during Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyers, Anna M.; Mazzetti, Scott A.; Love, Dawn M.; Gomez, Ana L.; Kraemer, William J.; Volek, Jeff S.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) would detect similar changes in body composition after moderate weight loss. Twenty adults had their body composition measured using DXA and ADP before and after an 8-week weight loss program. Overall, both DXA and ADP detected similar changes in…

  8. Cholesterol Metabolism and Body Composition in Women: The Effects of Moderate Weight Loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to determine how moderate weight loss protocol through diet and exercise may affect changes in body composition, to determine the effects of weight loss on cholesterol metabolism, and to examine the relationship between cholesterol metabolism and changes in body composition. Thirt...

  9. Is there evidence for a set point that regulates human body weight?

    PubMed Central

    Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence for the idea that there is biological (active) control of body weight at a given set point. Body weight is the product of genetic effects (DNA), epigenetic effects (heritable traits that do not involve changes in DNA), and the environment. Regulation of body weight is asymmetric, being more effective in response to weight loss than to weight gain. However, regulation may be lost or camouflaged by Western diets, suggesting that the failure of biological control is due mainly to external factors. In this situation, the body’s ‘set point’ (i.e., a constant ‘body-inherent’ weight regulated by a proportional feedback control system) is replaced by various ‘settling points’ that are influenced by energy and macronutrient intake in order for the body to achieve a zero energy balance. In a world of abundance, a prudent lifestyle and thus cognitive control are preconditions of effective biological control and a stable body weight. This idea also impacts future genetic research on body weight regulation. Searching for the genetic background of excess weight gain in a world of abundance is misleading since the possible biological control is widely overshadowed by the effect of the environment. In regard to clinical practice, dietary approaches to both weight loss and weight gain have to be reconsidered. In underweight patients (e.g., patients with anorexia nervosa), weight gain is supported by biological mechanisms that may or may not be suppressed by hyperalimentation. To overcome weight loss-induced counter-regulation in the overweight, biological signals have to be taken into account. Computational modeling of weight changes based on metabolic flux and its regulation will provide future strategies for clinical nutrition. PMID:21173874

  10. Administration of saccharin to neonatal mice influences body composition of adult males and reduces body weight of females.

    PubMed

    Parlee, Sebastian D; Simon, Becky R; Scheller, Erica L; Alejandro, Emilyn U; Learman, Brian S; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; MacDougald, Ormond A

    2014-04-01

    Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice. PMID:24456165

  11. Administration of Saccharin to Neonatal Mice Influences Body Composition of Adult Males and Reduces Body Weight of Females

    PubMed Central

    Parlee, Sebastian D.; Simon, Becky R.; Scheller, Erica L.; Alejandro, Emilyn U.; Learman, Brian S.; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice. PMID:24456165

  12. ZResponse to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between body weight and body size in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2012-03-01

    To quantify the response to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between weight and size of Litopenaeus vannamei, the body weight (BW), total length (TL), body length (BL), first abdominal segment depth (FASD), third abdominal segment depth (TASD), first abdominal segment width (FASW), and partial carapace length (PCL) of 5-month-old parents and of offspnng were measured by calculating seven body measunngs of offspnng produced by a nested mating design. Seventeen half-sib families and 42 full-sib families of L. vannamei were produced using artificial fertilization from 2-4 dams by each sire, and measured at around five months post-metamorphosis. The results show that hentabilities among vanous traits were high: 0.515±0.030 for body weight and 0.394±0.030 for total length. After one generation of selection. the selection response was 10.70% for offspring growth. In the 5th month, the realized heritability for weight was 0.296 for the offspnng generation. Genetic correlations between body weight and body size were highly variable. The results indicate that external morphological parameters can be applied dunng breeder selection for enhancing the growth without sacrificing animals for determining the body size and breed ability; and selective breeding can be improved significantly, simultaneously with increased production.

  13. Anthropometry and Body Composition Status during Ramadan among Higher Institution Learning Centre Staffs with Different Body Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Rozano, Nurismalina; Abd Hadi, Norhayati; Mat Nor, Mohd Nasir; Dandinasivara Venkateshaiah, Muralidhara

    2013-01-01

    This study was done to observe the anthropometry and body composition changes before, during, and after the holy month of Ramadan. This study was carried out on 46 staff from one of the local universities, which comprised of 14 males and 32 females ranging in age from 25 to 40 years old. There were four sessions done to complete this study, namely, a week before Ramadan (T1), 1st week of Ramadan (T2), 3rd week of Ramadan (T3), and a month after Ramadan (T4). All subjects were assessed according to weight, body circumference, and body composition status. It was found that subjects with different weight status showed a significant reduction in weight (P < 0.01) but no significant reduction in body fat percentage (P < 0.05). The findings suggest that weight reduction does not promise a reduction in body fat. Changes in neck circumference were only found in normal subjects. Hence, it can be said that overweight and obese subjects showed no changes in anthropometry status during Ramadan. No changes in body composition were reported in all three weight groups except for trunk body fat. In conclusion, normal subjects showed significant changes in various anthropometry parameters, but overweight and obese subjects showed no obvious difference. PMID:24311975

  14. Accuracy of Heart Rate Watches: Implications for Weight Management

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Wrist-worn monitors claim to provide accurate measures of heart rate and energy expenditure. People wishing to lose weight use these devices to monitor energy balance, however the accuracy of these devices to measure such parameters has not been established. Aim To determine the accuracy of four wrist-worn devices (Apple Watch, Fitbit Charge HR, Samsung Gear S and Mio Alpha) to measure heart rate and energy expenditure at rest and during exercise. Methods Twenty-two healthy volunteers (50% female; aged 24 ± 5.6 years) completed ~1-hr protocols involving supine and seated rest, walking and running on a treadmill and cycling on an ergometer. Data from the devices collected during the protocol were compared with reference methods: electrocardiography (heart rate) and indirect calorimetry (energy expenditure). Results None of the devices performed significantly better overall, however heart rate was consistently more accurate than energy expenditure across all four devices. Correlations between the devices and reference methods were moderate to strong for heart rate (0.67–0.95 [0.35 to 0.98]) and weak to strong for energy expenditure (0.16–0.86 [-0.25 to 0.95]). All devices underestimated both outcomes compared to reference methods. The percentage error for heart rate was small across the devices (range: 1–9%) but greater for energy expenditure (9–43%). Similarly, limits of agreement were considerably narrower for heart rate (ranging from -27.3 to 13.1 bpm) than energy expenditure (ranging from -266.7 to 65.7 kcals) across devices. Conclusion These devices accurately measure heart rate. However, estimates of energy expenditure are poor and would have implications for people using these devices for weight loss. PMID:27232714

  15. Cocaine's appetite for fat and the consequences on body weight.

    PubMed

    Billing, Lawrence; Ersche, Karen D

    2015-03-01

    For many individuals in treatment for cocaine dependence, weight gain is a substantial problem during recovery. This weight gain causes significant distress and seems to increase the risk of relapse. The mechanisms underlying cocaine's effects on weight remain elusive. It is widely assumed that this weight gain reflects a metabolic or behavioural compensatory response to the cessation of cocaine use. Here we challenge this assumption and outline potential mechanisms by which chronic cocaine use produces disturbances in the regulation of fat intake and storage, through its effects on the central and peripheral nervous systems, specifically the sympathetic nervous system. We hypothesize that the cocaine-induced alteration in fat regulation results in cocaine users developing a pronounced appetite for fatty food but keeps their fat mass low. This altered fat appetite subsequently leads to excessive weight gain when individuals enter treatment and stop using cocaine. Our aim is to shed light on the neurobiological mechanisms that may underlie the alterations in eating and fat regulation in cocaine-dependent individuals, to open up potential new avenues to support these individuals in recovery. PMID:25321424

  16. Variance Component Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis for Body Weight Traits in Purebred Korean Native Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Cahyadi, Muhammad; Park, Hee-Bok; Seo, Dong-Won; Jin, Shil; Choi, Nuri; Heo, Kang-Nyeong; Kang, Bo-Seok; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Jun-Heon

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) is a particular region of the genome containing one or more genes associated with economically important quantitative traits. This study was conducted to identify QTL regions for body weight and growth traits in purebred Korean native chicken (KNC). F1 samples (n = 595) were genotyped using 127 microsatellite markers and 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms that covered 2,616.1 centi Morgan (cM) of map length for 26 autosomal linkage groups. Body weight traits were measured every 2 weeks from hatch to 20 weeks of age. Weight of half carcass was also collected together with growth rate. A multipoint variance component linkage approach was used to identify QTLs for the body weight traits. Two significant QTLs for growth were identified on chicken chromosome 3 (GGA3) for growth 16 to18 weeks (logarithm of the odds [LOD] = 3.24, Nominal p value = 0.0001) and GGA4 for growth 6 to 8 weeks (LOD = 2.88, Nominal p value = 0.0003). Additionally, one significant QTL and three suggestive QTLs were detected for body weight traits in KNC; significant QTL for body weight at 4 weeks (LOD = 2.52, nominal p value = 0.0007) and suggestive QTL for 8 weeks (LOD = 1.96, Nominal p value = 0.0027) were detected on GGA4; QTLs were also detected for two different body weight traits: body weight at 16 weeks on GGA3 and body weight at 18 weeks on GGA19. Additionally, two suggestive QTLs for carcass weight were detected at 0 and 70 cM on GGA19. In conclusion, the current study identified several significant and suggestive QTLs that affect growth related traits in a unique resource pedigree in purebred KNC. This information will contribute to improving the body weight traits in native chicken breeds, especially for the Asian native chicken breeds. PMID:26732327

  17. Influence of ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms on body weight and body composition changes after a controlled weight-loss intervention.

    PubMed

    Szendrei, Barbara; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Amigo, Teresa; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Benito, Pedro J; Gomez-Candela, Carmen; Calderón, Francisco J; Cupeiro, Rocío

    2016-03-01

    The β-2 and β-3 adrenergic receptors (ADRB2 and ADRB3) are thought to play a role in energy expenditure and lipolysis. However, the effects of the ADRB2 glutamine (Gln) 27 glutamic acid (glutamate) (Glu) and ADRB3 tryptophan (Trp) 64 arginine (Arg) polymorphisms on weight loss remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these polymorphisms on changes in weight and body composition during a controlled weight-loss program. One hundred seventy-three healthy overweight and obese participants (91 women, 82 men) aged 18-50 years participated in a 22-week-long intervention based on a hypocaloric diet and exercise. They were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: strength, endurance, strength and endurance combined, and physical activity recommendations only. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), and body composition variables were assessed before and after the intervention. Genetic analysis was carried out according to standard protocols. No effect of the ADRB2 gene was shown on final weight, BMI, or body composition, although in the supervised male group, Glu27 carriers tended to have greater weight (p = 0.019, 2.5 kg) and BMI (p = 0.019, 0.88 kg/m(2)) reductions than did noncarriers. There seems to be an individual effect of the ADRB3 polymorphism on fat mass (p = 0.004) and fat percentage (p = 0.036), in addition to an interaction with exercise for fat mass (p = 0.038). After the intervention, carriers of the Arg64 allele had a greater fat mass and fat percentage than did noncarriers (p = 0.004, 2.8 kg). In conclusion, the ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms may influence weight loss and body composition, although the current evidence is weak; however, further studies are necessary to clarify their roles. PMID:26888112

  18. Transgenic Rescue of Adipocyte Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Receptor Expression Restores High Fat Diet-induced Body Weight Gain*

    PubMed Central

    Ugleholdt, Randi; Pedersen, Jens; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Füchtbauer, Ernst-Martin; Jørgensen, Signe Marie; Kissow, Hanne-Louise; Nytofte, Nikolaj; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie; Seino, Yutaka; Thams, Peter; Holst, Peter Johannes; Holst, Jens Juul

    2011-01-01

    The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor (GIPr) has been implicated in high fat diet-induced obesity and is proposed as an anti-obesity target despite an uncertainty regarding the mechanism of action. To independently investigate the contribution of the insulinotropic effects and the direct effects on adipose tissue, we generated transgenic mice with targeted expression of the human GIPr to white adipose tissue or beta-cells, respectively. These mice were then cross-bred with the GIPr knock-out strain. The central findings of the study are that mice with GIPr expression targeted to adipose tissue have a similar high fat diet -induced body weight gain as control mice, significantly greater than the weight gain in mice with a general ablation of the receptor. Surprisingly, this difference was due to an increase in total lean body mass rather than a gain in total fat mass that was similar between the groups. In contrast, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide-mediated insulin secretion does not seem to be important for regulation of body weight after high fat feeding. The study supports a role of the adipocyte GIPr in nutrient-dependent regulation of body weight and lean mass, but it does not support a direct and independent role for the adipocyte or beta-cell GIPr in promoting adipogenesis. PMID:22027838

  19. Systems genetics analysis of body weight and energy metabolism traits in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Obesity and phenotypic traits associated with this condition exhibit significant heritability in natural populations of most organisms. While a number of genes and genetic pathways have been implicated to play a role in obesity associated traits, the genetic architecture that underlies the natural variation in these traits is largely unknown. Here, we used 40 wild-derived inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster to quantify genetic variation in body weight, the content of three major metabolites (glycogen, triacylglycerol, and glycerol) associated with obesity, and metabolic rate in young flies. We chose these lines because they were previously screened for variation in whole-genome transcript abundance and in several adult life-history traits, including longevity, resistance to starvation stress, chill-coma recovery, mating behavior, and competitive fitness. This enabled us not only to identify candidate genes and transcriptional networks that might explain variation for energy metabolism traits, but also to investigate the genetic interrelationships among energy metabolism, behavioral, and life-history traits that have evolved in natural populations. Results We found significant genetically based variation in all traits. Using a genome-wide association screen for single feature polymorphisms and quantitative trait transcripts, we identified 337, 211, 237, 553, and 152 novel candidate genes associated with body weight, glycogen content, triacylglycerol storage, glycerol levels, and metabolic rate, respectively. Weighted gene co-expression analyses grouped transcripts associated with each trait in significant modules of co-expressed genes and we interpreted these modules in terms of their gene enrichment based on Gene Ontology analysis. Comparison of gene co-expression modules for traits in this study with previously determined modules for life-history traits identified significant modular pleiotropy between glycogen content, body weight, competitive

  20. Sexual maturation in underfed weight-matched rats. A test of the "critical body weight" theory of pubertal timing in males.

    PubMed

    Glass, A R; Anderson, J; Herbert, D

    1987-01-01

    A popular current theory proposes that the timing of puberty is related to attainment of a critical level of body weight or body fatness. These critical body weight and critical body fat theories have been studied almost exclusively in females. To explore these theories in males, we tested a corollary of these hypotheses: are male rats of the same weight all at the same level of sexual maturation irrespective of prior growth rate? Male rats growing in body weight at five different rates due to various degrees of underfeeding (beginning at weaning) were sacrificed at body weight milestones of 123 and 279 grams. At the first weight milestone, significant (P less than 0.01) inverse correlations were observed among these weight-matched rats between the preceding rate of body weight growth and prostate weight, seminal vesicle weight, testis weight, serum testosterone, and daily sperm production rate, indicating that the underfed animals were more sexually mature. Testis histology also showed that spermatogenic development increased progressively as the prior rate of body weight growth was reduced. These parameters of sexual maturation tended to correlate inversely with body fatness (i.e., leaner animals were more sexually mature) and directly with body length (i.e., longer animals were more sexually mature). By the second body weight milestone, however, the degree of prior underfeeding exerted little effect on those indices of sexual development. We conclude that the degree of sexual maturation in weight-matched animals with varying previous patterns of body weight growth correlates inversely with body fatness and the rate of body weight growth but correlates directly with body length.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3583906

  1. Longitudinal Trajectories of Perceived Body Weight: Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Li, Kaigang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine longitudinal trajectories of perceived weight from adolescence to early adulthood by gender. Methods: We analyzed 9 waves (1997-2005) of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 8302) using Mplus. Results: Perceived overweight increased over time among girls and did not level off until 23 years of age. Blacks…

  2. Body Weight and the Quality of Interpersonal Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Deborah; Friedman, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate whether underweight, normal-weight, overweight, and obese Americans differ in their evaluations of positive and negative aspects of their interpersonal relationships. Analyses are based on data from the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study, a survey of more than 3,000 adults ages 25 to 74 in 1995. We find no…

  3. Body Weight and Matching with a Physically Attractive Romantic Partner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmalt, Julie H.; Cawley, John; Joyner, Kara; Sobal, Jeffery

    2008-01-01

    Matching and attribute trade are two perspectives used to explain mate selection. We investigated patterns of matching and trade, focusing on obesity, using Add Health Romantic Pair data (N = 1,405 couples). Obese individuals, relative to healthy weight individuals, were less likely to have physically attractive partners, with this disadvantage…

  4. Stability of Pigeon Body Weight under Free-Feeding Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Brian D.; Branch, Marc N.

    2006-01-01

    Increases in regulatory oversight of animal research require verification of effects of standard practices. There are no formal guidelines for establishing free-feeding weights in adult pigeons. In the present study, pigeons were obtained from a commercial supplier, weighed upon arrival, and then held in quarantine for 7 days with free access to…

  5. [The somatotype and fatty body weight of medical students].

    PubMed

    Radev, A; Khandzhiev, S; Kostadinov, D

    1985-01-01

    The somatotype was determined of 247 healthy students of medicine, male Bulgarians, average age 22, according to the method of Heath and Carter. More than half of the examined subjects (55,9%) was established to belong to the group of mesomorphy with a predomination of the subgroup of endomorphic mesomorphy. The other morphological structures are presented in comparatively identical shares. The fatty body mass, being 16,29 per cent of the total body mass of the subjects studied was determined to the same subjects according to the method of Möhr and Milev. It was established that the fatty body mass was within the physiological limits among the students from the group of ectomorphy and from the group with balanced mesomorphy, non-manifested obesity had the subjects with ectomorphic endomorphy, endomorphic mesomorphy and with central somatotype and with manifested obesity--the students with balanced and mesomorphic endomorphy. PMID:4036089

  6. Smaller weight changes in standarized body mass index in response to treatment as weight classification increases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to compare the differential efficacy of a weight loss program for Mexican-American children who are overweight, obese, and severely obese. Study participants were enrolled in an intensive weight loss intervention aimed at improving eating and physical activity behaviors with behavi...

  7. Body-weight perceptions and selected weight-management goals and practices of high school students--United States, 1990.

    PubMed

    1991-11-01

    Among adults, overweight is associated with elevated serum cholesterol levels, elevated blood pressure, and noninsulin-dependent diabetes and is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease. Youth who are overweight and remain overweight as adults may increase their risk for certain chronic diseases in adulthood. However, overemphasis on thinness during adolescence may contribute to potentially harmful weight-management practices and eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. This report presents self-reported body-weight perceptions and selected weight-management goals and practices among high school students in the United States. PMID:1921967

  8. Mothers' and Fathers' Perceptions of Their Adolescent Daughters' Shape, Weight, and Body Esteem: Are They Accurate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Josie; Srikameswaran, Suja; Zaitsoff, Shannon L.; Cockell, Sarah J.; Poole, Gary D.

    2003-01-01

    Examined parents' awareness of their daughters' attitudes, beliefs, and feelings about their bodies. Sixty-six adolescent daughters completed an eating disorder scale, a body figure rating scale, and made ratings of their shape and weight. Greater discrepancies between parents' estimates of daughters' body esteem and daughters' self-reported body…

  9. Longitudinal body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The longitudinal trajectories of body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers have not been evaluated using precise body composition methods. This study investigated the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring body composition traj...

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Body Image and Strategies to Lose Weight and Increase Muscles among Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, M. P.; Ricciardelli, L. A.

    2005-01-01

    A longitudinal study was used to examine age differences in the role of body mass index (BMI) and sociocultural pressures in predicting changes in body image and strategies to both lose weight and increase muscles among 443 children aged between 8 and 12 years (207 boys, 236 girls) over a 16-month period. The strongest predictors of body image and…

  11. Diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS): features and potential applications in oncology

    PubMed Central

    Takahara, Taro; Ochiai, Reiji; Nievelstein, Rutger A. J.; Luijten, Peter R.

    2008-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) provides functional information and can be used for the detection and characterization of pathologic processes, including malignant tumors. The recently introduced concept of “diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression” (DWIBS) now allows acquisition of volumetric diffusion-weighted images of the entire body. This new concept has unique features different from conventional DWI and may play an important role in whole-body oncological imaging. This review describes and illustrates the basics of DWI, the features of DWIBS, and its potential applications in oncology. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00330-008-0968-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18446344

  12. Depressed Mood and Body Weight: Exploring Race Differences in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Christie-Mizell, C. Andre

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 1994-1998 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged Mother and Young Adult file, this article examines the relationship between depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI) in adolescence. The authors also examine whether this relationship varies by race and gender. Their findings indicate that over a 4-year…

  13. The Vulnerability of Female Body Image to Weight Related Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, DeAnna L.; Morey, Leslie

    A central component of anorexia nervosa is a body image disturbance (BID). BID, as it is experienced in anorexia nervosa, is defined as an inability to recognize how thin one really is and is exhibited by a sense of feeling overweight in spite of severe emaciation. Several researchers have recognized a relationship between depressive personality…

  14. The Combined Effect of Subjective Body Image and Body Mass Index (Distorted Body Weight Perception) on Suicidal Ideation

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jaeyong; Choi, Young; Han, Kyu-Tae; Cheon, Sung-Youn; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sang Gyu; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Mental health disorders and suicide are an important and growing public health concern in Korea. Evidence has shown that both globally and in Korea, obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing some psychiatric disorders. Therefore, we examined the association between distorted body weight perception (BWP) and suicidal ideation. Methods: Data were obtained from the 2007-2012 Korea National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey (KNHANES), an annual cross-sectional nationwide survey that included 14 276 men and 19 428 women. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the associations between nine BWP categories, which combined body image (BI) and body mass index (BMI) categories, and suicidal ideation. Moreover, the fitness of our models was verified using the Akaike information criterion. Results: Consistent with previous studies, suicidal ideation was associated with marital status, household income, education level, and perceived health status in both genders. Only women were significantly more likely to have distorted BWP; there was no relationship among men. In category B1 (low BMI and normal BI), women (odds ratio [OR], 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48 to 3.42) were more likely to express suicidal ideation than women in category B2 (normal BMI and normal BI) were. Women in overweight BWP category C2 (normal BMI and fat BI) also had an increased OR for suicidal ideation (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.48 to 3.42). Those in normal BWP categories were not likely to have suicidal ideation. Among women in the underweight BWP categories, only the OR for those in category A2 (normal BMI and thin BI) was significant (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.59). Conclusions: Distorted BWP should be considered an important factor in the prevention of suicide and for the improvement of mental health among Korean adults, especially Korean women with distorted BWPs. PMID:25857647

  15. Rats defend different body weights depending on palatability and accessibility of their food.

    PubMed

    Peck, J W

    1978-06-01

    Normal adult rats lived on powdered diets adulterated to contain as much as 1.6% quinine sulfate, on a palatable high-fat diet, or in Skinner boxes with 45-mg Noyes pellets available on fixed-ratio (FR) schedules as high as FR 156. They maintained lower body weights over periods of months in proportion to the percentage of quinine adulteration or the fixed ratio. Rats exposed to the high-fat diet overate as much and gained weight as rapidly as rats recovering from food deprivation, and became moderately obese. Rats having become lean or obese contingent on the palatability or accessibility of their diet defended body weight by eating more in the cold, less when force-fed by gavage, and more to restore weight after food deprivation. Yet on chow they restored and defended body weights typical of rats whose diet had been confined to commercially prepared chow. These results are interpreted to be inconsistent with motivational models that rigidly distinguish drive from incentive, that treat body weight changes as evidence for failure to regulate energy balance or body weight, or that rely exclusively on deprivation of food or reduction of body weight for definitions of need for calories. Instead, caloric homeostasis in rats may incorporate ecological constraints. PMID:98538

  16. Effects of seasonal changes in dietary energy on body weight of captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Aoki, Kouhei; Mitsutsuka, Syuuhei; Yamazaki, Ato; Nagai, Kazumi; Tezuka, Atsuko; Tsuji, Yamato

    2015-01-01

    Food availability varies seasonally for wild animals, and body weight fluctuates accordingly in the wild. In contrast, controlling availability of diet under captive condition is difficult from keepers' standpoint, and monotonous diet often causes health problems in captive animals. We evaluated the effects of a seasonally controlled diet on body weight of captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in an outside enclosure at Ueno Zoo, Tokyo, Japan. We fed a high-energy diet in spring and fall, and a more restricted diet in summer and winter for 3 years (2011-2013). Seasonal changes in body weight were similar to those that occur in wild macaques: for both sexes, body weight was higher in spring and fall and lower in winter. A decrease in body weight between fall and winter occurred only in adults, which implied that reducing dietary intake in winter had a more severe effect on adults than on juveniles. Different from wild populations, the body weight of captive macaques did not decrease between spring and summer, which we attributed to a lack of movement within the enclosure and to excess energy intake in summer. In addition to controlling dietary composition, providing large enclosure with complex structure and making efforts of giving unpredictability in feeding are necessary to motivate the captive animals to be more active, which would cause the macaques to show seasonal change in body weight, which is found in wild. PMID:25823966

  17. Associations between body weight and depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jia-In; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the associations between body weight and mental health indicators including depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents in Grades 7-12. The body mass index (BMI) of 5254 adolescents was calculated based on self-reported weight and height measurements. Body weight status was determined by the age- and gender-specific International Obesity Task Force reference tables. By using participants of average weight as the reference group, the association between body weight status (underweight, overweight, and obesity) and mental health indicators (depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem) were examined by using multiple regression analysis. The possible moderating effects of sociodemographic characteristics on the association were also examined. After controlling for the effects of sociodemographic characteristics, both overweight (p < 0.05) and obese adolescents (p < 0.001) had a lower level of self-esteem than did those of average weight; however, no significant differences in depression, social phobia, or insomnia were found between those who were overweight/obese and those of average weight. No significant differences in the four mental health indicators were found between those who were underweight and those of average weight. Sociodemographic characteristics had no moderating effect on the association between body weight and mental health indicators. In conclusion, mental health and school professionals must take the association between overweight/obesity and self-esteem into consideration when approaching the issue of mental health among adolescents. PMID:25476101

  18. Relationships of cow age and initial cow body weight with calf and cow grazing season weight changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary objective in a study implemented during 1975-2001 on northern mixed-grass prairie at the High Plains Grassland Research Station (HPGRS) near Cheyenne, Wyoming, was to evaluate long-term calf and cow grazing season body weight gain responses under 14 different management practices (e.g. t...

  19. Body image and HIV: implications for support and care.

    PubMed

    Chapman, L

    1998-06-01

    Very little formal research has looked at body image change over the course of HIV illness or assessed the implications of changes for support interactions. There are three main spheres of influence on body image: the physical, psychological and the social. HIV shares some of these aspects with other chronic or fatal illnesses, but has specific elements which are distinctive, such as particular physical manifestations and the negative impact of media, social representations and stigma resulting in a radically altered experience for an HIV-positive body. This paper outlines preliminary findings using a body image measure designed specifically for use in HIV. The results suggest that people with HIV may experience significant feelings of contamination, brought about through internalization of stigma and representations, in addition to physical decline as illness progresses. PMID:9743739

  20. Linking cellular zinc status to body weight and fat mass: mapping quantitative trait loci in Znt7 knockout mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc transporter 7 (Znt7, Slc30a7) knockout (KO) mice display abnormalities in body weight gain and body adiposity. Regulation of body weight and fatness is complex, involving multiple genetic and environmental factors. To understand how zinc homeostasis influences body weight gain and fat deposit a...

  1. A study of the influence of body weight and height on military parachute landing injuries.

    PubMed

    Pirson, J; Pirlot, M

    1990-08-01

    The weights and heights of 1,880 male military parachutists were recorded, and landing injury rates were calculated according to the weights and heights of the jumpers. Only the weight significantly influenced the injury rate. The set of data (weight, injury rate) are best fitted with a parabola of the form: y = 43.14 - 1.22x + 0.01x2. The concept of the maximal operating weight of a parachute is discussed with its implications for medical standards and for jumps with extra equipment. PMID:2119025

  2. Analysis of Genes Involved in Body Weight Regulation by Targeted Re-Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Pütter, Carolin; Haas, Stefan; Vogel, Carla I. G.; Knoll, Nadja; Struve, Christoph; Göbel, Maria; Haas, Katharina; Herrfurth, Nikolas; Jarick, Ivonne; Grallert, Harald; Schürmann, Annette; Al-Hasani, Hadi; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Genes involved in body weight regulation that were previously investigated in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and in animal models were target-enriched followed by massive parallel next generation sequencing. Methods We enriched and re-sequenced continuous genomic regions comprising FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, SDCCAG8, TKNS, MSRA and TBC1D1 in a screening sample of 196 extremely obese children and adolescents with age and sex specific body mass index (BMI) ≥ 99th percentile and 176 lean adults (BMI ≤ 15th percentile). 22 variants were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Genotyping was performed in up to 705 independent obesity trios (extremely obese child and both parents), 243 extremely obese cases and 261 lean adults. Results and Conclusion We detected 20 different non-synonymous variants, one frame shift and one nonsense mutation in the 7 continuous genomic regions in study groups of different weight extremes. For SNP Arg695Cys (rs58983546) in TBC1D1 we detected nominal association with obesity (pTDT = 0.03 in 705 trios). Eleven of the variants were rare, thus were only detected heterozygously in up to ten individual(s) of the complete screening sample of 372 individuals. Two of them (in FTO and MSRA) were found in lean individuals, nine in extremely obese. In silico analyses of the 11 variants did not reveal functional implications for the mutations. Concordant with our hypothesis we detected a rare variant that potentially leads to loss of FTO function in a lean individual. For TBC1D1, in contrary to our hypothesis, the loss of function variant (Arg443Stop) was found in an obese individual. Functional in vitro studies are warranted. PMID:26828654

  3. Physical Activity: An Important Adaptative Mechanism for Body-Weight Control

    PubMed Central

    Finelli, Carmine; Gioia, Saverio; La Sala, Nicolina

    2012-01-01

    We review the current concepts about energy expenditure and evaluate the physical activity (PhA) in the context of this knowledge and the available literature. Regular PhA is correlated with low body weight and low body fat mass. The negative fat balance is probably secondary to this negative energy balance. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) and physical activity, that is crucial for weight control, may be important in the physiology of weight change. An intriguing doubt that remains unresolved is whether changes in nutrient intake or body composition secondarily affect the spontaneous physical activity. PMID:24533208

  4. Physical activity: an important adaptative mechanism for body-weight control.

    PubMed

    Finelli, Carmine; Gioia, Saverio; La Sala, Nicolina

    2012-01-01

    We review the current concepts about energy expenditure and evaluate the physical activity (PhA) in the context of this knowledge and the available literature. Regular PhA is correlated with low body weight and low body fat mass. The negative fat balance is probably secondary to this negative energy balance. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) and physical activity, that is crucial for weight control, may be important in the physiology of weight change. An intriguing doubt that remains unresolved is whether changes in nutrient intake or body composition secondarily affect the spontaneous physical activity. PMID:24533208

  5. [Structure and function of the heart according to body weight in men of working age].

    PubMed

    Dudar, L V; Honcharenko, L I; Ovdiĭ, M O

    2014-01-01

    The scientific structure and function heart in 65 working age men according to weight and body composition. The shown that the excess body weight observed a significant increase in the size and volume left ventricle of the heart and myocardial mass. The percentage of muscle mass in the body of the patients positively correlated with systolic function of the heart, while the percentage of body fat had a negative correlation with this index. The shown that the individualization of health exercise should take into account the percentage of the active body weight and fat mass in the body, since the high content of fat intense exercise can lead to heart and remodeling worsening left ventricular systolic function heart, while increasing BMI due to muscle does not contribute to the structural and functional reorganization of the heart. PMID:24908966

  6. Weight discrepancy and body appreciation of Zimbabwean women in Zimbabwe and Britain.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Mada, Rujeko; Tovée, Martin J

    2012-09-01

    Few studies have investigated a cultural group's corporeal experiences in both its country of origin and a host, Western country using the same methodology. To overcome this dearth in the literature, the present study examined body image among 140 women in Harare, Zimbabwe, and an age-matched sample of 138 Zimbabwean migrants in Britain. Participants completed measures of actual-ideal weight discrepancy, body appreciation, and lifetime exposure to Western and Zimbabwean media. Preliminary analyses showed that there were no significant differences in body mass index between the two groups. Further analyses showed that Zimbabwean women in Britain had significantly greater weight discrepancy and lower body appreciation than their counterparts in Zimbabwe. In addition, weight discrepancy and body appreciation among both samples were significantly associated with exposure to Western media, but not Zimbabwean media. These findings support the contention that transcultural migration may place individuals at risk for symptoms of negative body image. PMID:22717762

  7. Social Engagement in Adolescence Moderates the Association between Weight Status and Body Image

    PubMed Central

    Caccavale, Laura J.; Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the association between adolescent weight status and body image varies by social engagement. A nationally representative sample of 6,909 students in grades 6 to 10 completed the 2006 HBSC survey. Separate linear regressions for boys and girls, controlling for age, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, were conducted with an interaction term (weight status x social engagement). Adolescents’ overweight/obese status was related to body dissatisfaction. Social engagement moderated the relationship between weight status and body image for girls but not for boys. Overweight/obese boys had more body dissatisfaction compared to their normal/underweight peers, regardless of their social engagement. However, overweight/obese girls with more social engagement were more likely to have body satisfaction compared to overweight/obese girls with less social engagement. Encouraging adolescent girls to develop healthy relationships with peers may prevent them from developing body dissatisfaction. PMID:22325852

  8. Body weight is not always a good predictor of longevity in mice.

    PubMed

    Anisimov, Vladimir N; Arbeev, Konstantin G; Popovich, Irina G; Zabezhinksi, Mark A; Rosenfeld, Svetlana V; Piskunova, Tatiana S; Arbeeva, Lyubov S; Semenchenko, Anna V; Yashin, Anatoli I

    2004-03-01

    There have been some observations that low body weight and a low level of some hormones (e.g. IGF-1) during the first half of life are predictors of longer life in mice. However, contradictions in the available data on the biomarkers of aging and predictors of longevity have shown that the research in these fields has become a controversial pursuit. In our study we addressed the following questions: (i) Can particular physiological parameters (body weight, food intake, estrus function, body temperature, incidence of chromosome aberrations in bone marrow cells) measured at the age of 3 and 12 months be a predictor of longevity and the rate of tumor development in five strains of mice? (ii) Can a heavy body weight at the age of 3 and 12 months be a predictor of longevity and high tumor risk in five strains of mice? Mice of five strains-CBA, SHR, SAMR, SAMP and transgenic HER-2/neu (FVB/N)-were under observation from the age of 2-3 months until natural death. Body weight and temperature, food consumption, and estrous cycle were longitudinally studied in all animals. Tumors discovered at autopsy were studied morphologically. We calculated the life span's parameters (mean, maximum, mortality rate, mortality rate doubling time) as well as their correlation with other parameters studied. The longest living CBA mice have the lowest body weight at the ages of 3 and 12 months, the lowest food consumption, body temperature, incidence of chromosome aberrations and spontaneous tumor incidence. In comparison with all other mouse strains they also have the latest disturbances in estrus function and highest body weight gain. The shortest living transgenic HER-2/neu mice have the lowest weight at the ages of 12 months, the lowest body weight gain, maximal body temperature, the most rapid disturbances in estrus function and the highest incidence of chromosome aberrations and tumor incidence in comparison to all other mouse strains. Our findings have shown that heavier body weight at

  9. Genetic parameters for body weight in meat quail

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, A.; Ono, R. K.; Cursino, L. L.; Farah, M. M.; Pires, M. P.; Bertipaglia, T. S.; Pires, A. V.; Cavani, L.; Carreño, L. O. D.; Fonseca, R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for BW in meat quail at different ages. A total of 24,382 weight records from 3,652 quail, born between 2009 and 2011, were evaluated. Weekly BW was measured from hatch until 42 d of age. The genetic parameters were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using a multivariate animal model. Heritability of BW ranged from 0.03 to 0.23. Genetic correlations were mainly high and positive. Selection for BW at 28 d of age yielded good indirect genetic progress in BW at 42 d of age. PMID:25589082

  10. Relationships between Neonatal Weight, Limb Lengths, Skinfold Thicknesses, Body Breadths and Circumferences in an Australian Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pomeroy, Emma; Stock, Jay T.; Cole, Tim J.; O'Callaghan, Michael; Wells, Jonathan C. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Low birth weight has been consistently associated with adult chronic disease risk. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis assumes that reduced fetal growth impacts some organs more than others. However, it remains unclear how birth weight relates to different body components, such as circumferences, adiposity, body segment lengths and limb proportions. We hypothesized that these components vary in their relationship to birth weight. Methods We analysed the relationship between birth weight and detailed anthropometry in 1270 singleton live-born neonates (668 male) from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (Brisbane, Australia). We tested adjusted anthropometry for correlations with birth weight. We then performed stepwise multiple regression on birth weight of: body lengths, breadths and circumferences; relative limb to neck-rump proportions; or skinfold thicknesses. All analyses were adjusted for sex and gestational age, and used logged data. Results Circumferences, especially chest, were most strongly related to birth weight, while segment lengths (neck-rump, thigh, upper arm, and especially lower arm and lower leg) were relatively weakly related to birth weight, and limb lengths relative to neck-rump length showed no relationship. Skinfolds accounted for 36% of birth weight variance, but adjusting for size (neck-rump, thigh and upper arm lengths, and head circumference), this decreased to 10%. There was no evidence that heavier babies had proportionally thicker skinfolds. Conclusions Neonatal body measurements vary in their association with birth weight: head and chest circumferences showed the strongest associations while limb segment lengths did not relate strongly to birth weight. After adjusting for body size, subcutaneous fatness accounted for a smaller proportion of birth weight variance than previously reported. While heavier babies had absolutely thicker skinfolds, this was proportional to their size. Relative limb to trunk length

  11. [Ideal body weight of a young woman--sociocultural and health aspects].

    PubMed

    Kärkkäinen, Ulla; Dadi, Yasmina; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna

    2015-01-01

    A common question made by a young person attending a practice concerns her/his ideal body weight. Culture and health may result in a conflicting definition of good weight. Discontent with one's own body can motivate for successful weight control, but may also lead to unnecessary dieting or disturbed eating. Too strict dieting and accentuating of weight control increase the risk of eating disorders, but on the other hand, adolescent overweight is a risk factor of obesity in adulthood as well. PMID:26245056

  12. Promoting weight loss methods in parenting magazines: Implications for women.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey H; Roberts, Katherine J; Samayoa-Kozlowsky, Sandra; Glaser, Debra B

    2016-01-01

    Weight gain before and after pregnancy is important for women's health. The purpose of this study was to assess articles and advertisements related to weight loss in three widely read parenting magazines, "Parenting School Years," "Parenting Early Years," and "Parenting," which have an estimated combined readership of approximately 24 million (mainly women readers). Almost a quarter (23.7%, n = 32) of the 135 magazine issues over a four year period included at least one feature article on weight loss. A variety of topics were covered in the featured articles, with the most frequent topics being on losing weight to please yourself (25.2%), healthy ways to lose weight (21.1%), and how to keep the weight off (14.7%). Less than half (45.9%) of the articles displayed author credentials, such as their degree, qualifications, or expertise. A fifth (20.0%, n = 27) of the magazines included at least one prominent advertisement for weight loss products. Almost half (46.9%) of the weight loss advertisements were for weight loss programs followed by weight loss food products (25.0%), weight loss aids (21.9%), and only 6.2% of the advertisements for weight loss were on fitness. Parenting magazines should advocate for healthy weight loss, including lifestyle changes for sustained health. PMID:26212259

  13. Connecting theory to fat talk: body dissatisfaction mediates the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance, and fat talk.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Analisa

    2014-06-01

    The fat talk literature is meager in terms of offering theoretical explanations for women's self-disparaging communication. The research presented here sought to establish a relationship between three prominent body image theories - self-discrepancy theory, social comparison theory, and objectification theory - and fat talk by proposing body dissatisfaction as a potential mediating mechanism. Young adult women (N=201) completed an online questionnaire. As predicted, results revealed that body dissatisfaction significantly mediated the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance and fat talk. Effect size estimates indicated that the size of each indirect effect was medium in magnitude. PMID:24958666

  14. Appetite and body weight regulation after bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Münzberg, Heike; Laque, Amanda; Yu, Sangho; Rezai-Zadeh, Kavon; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric surgery continues to be remarkably efficient in treating obesity and T2DM and a debate has started whether it should remain the last resort only or also be used for the prevention of metabolic diseases. Intense research efforts in humans and rodent models are underway to identify the critical mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects with a view towards non-surgical treatment options. This non-systematic review summarizes and interprets some of this literature, with an emphasis on changes in the controls of appetite. Contrary to earlier views, surgery-induced reduction of energy intake and subsequent weight loss appear to be the main drivers for rapid improvements of glycemic control. The mechanisms responsible for suppression of appetite, particularly in the face of the large weight loss, are not well understood. Although a number of changes in food choice, taste functions, hedonic evaluation, motivation, and self-control have been documented in both humans and rodents after surgery, their importance and relative contribution to diminished appetite has not yet been demonstrated. Furthermore, none of the major candidate mechanisms postulated in mediating surgery induced changes from the gut and other organs to the brain, such as gut hormones and sensory neuronal pathways, have been confirmed yet. Future research efforts should focus on interventional rather than descriptive approaches in both humans and rodent models. PMID:25614206

  15. Comparison of two methods for calculating percent body weight on a tilt table.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, M R

    1994-01-01

    Physical therapists commonly treat patients when knowledge of percent weight bearing is desirable during functional lower extremity exercise. The purpose of this study was to compare two methods for calculating percent body weight at different angles of inclination on a tilt table. Twenty healthy subjects were weighed on a spring scale in standing and on a tilt table at 5 degrees increments between 0 and 90 degrees of tilt. Percent body weight at each angle was compared to a value predicted from a trigonometric equation. Predicted values were significantly greater than measured values at all angles greater than 10 degrees of tilt. Predicted overestimation ranged from 2.8 to 14.2%. Compared to the trigonometric method, physical therapists can more easily and accurately determine percent body weight on a tilt table using a scale if total body weight is known. Partial weight-bearing rehabilitation could be performed on the tilt table by varying the degree of inclination, allowing functional lower extremity exercise for patients with weight-bearing restrictions. Guidelines could be established following a variety of injuries and orthopaedic procedures incorporating functional lower extremity exercises at varying percentages of body weight. PMID:8156058

  16. Overweight, obesity and perceptions about body weight among primary schoolchildren in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mpembeni, Rose N M; Muhihi, Alfa J; Maghembe, Mwanamkuu; Ngarashi, Davis; Lujani, Benjamin; Chillo, Omary; Kubhoja, Sulende; Anaeli, Amani; Njelekela, Marina A

    2014-10-01

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity among children has become a public health concern both in developing and developed countries. Previous research studies have shown that favourable perception of one's body weight is an important factor in weight control. This study determined prevalence of overweight and obesity and assessed perception about body weight among primary schoolchildren in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. In this cross sectional study, nine schools were selected randomly from a list of all primary schools in Dar es Salaam. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle information including perception about body weight. Height and weight were measured following standard procedures. Chi- square tests and multiple logistic regressions were used to determine factors which influence perceptions about body weight. A total of 446 children were included into the study. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 16.6 ± 4.0 kg/m2 (16.1 ± 4.0 for males and 17.0 ± 4.0 for females). Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 9.8% and 5.2%, respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was significantly higher among girls, 13.1% and 6.3% compared to boys with 6.3% and 3.8% overweight and obese respectively (P=0.0314). Overall, the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 15.0% (10.1% among boys and 19.4% among girls). One-third (33.3%) of the children perceived their body weight as overweight or obese. Among overweight and obese children, 35.4% had unfavourable perception of their body weights. There was a statistically significant difference between perceived body weight and actual body weight as indicated by BMI for both boys and girls (P < 0.05). Age of the child (AOR = 0.55 95% CI 0.36-0.85) and area of residence (COR = 0.64 95% CI 0.44-0.95) were found to be significant predictors of favourable perception of one's body weight. In conclusion, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is not very

  17. Obesity, Body Image, Depression, and Weight-control Behaviour Among Female University Students in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Eun Mi; Choi, Seung Bae

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become epidemic worldwide and 31.0% of Korean adults are obese. Obesity is the main cause of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiac disease, and cancer. The purpose of the study was to examine obesity, body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour among Korean female university students and investigate the differences in body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour with respect to obesity. Methods: This study examined obesity, body image, depression, and weight control in 700 female university students from 4 universities in South Korea. To evaluate obesity, both objective obesity (body mass index [BMI]) and subjective obesity (subjectively perceived) were measured. Results: There was a significant difference between objective and subjective obesity (χ2 = 231.280, P < 0.001). In addition, the objective obesity group had the lowest body image score (F = 19.867, P < 0.001) and difference in weight-control behaviour (F = 3.145, P = 0.045). Further, the subjective obesity group had the lowest body image score (F = 58.281, P < 0.001). The results revealed a statistically significant difference in body image and weight-control behaviour with respect to objective obesity. Conclusion: Objective and subjective obesity was negatively associated with body image, and no relationships between objective or subjective obesity and depression. PMID:25337594

  18. Explaining rigid dieting in normal-weight women: the key role of body image inflexibility.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Cláudia; Trindade, Inês A; Martinho, Ana

    2016-03-01

    Restrictive dieting is an increasing behavior presented by women in modern societies, independently of their weight. There are several known factors that motivate diet, namely a sense of dissatisfaction with one's body and unfavorable social comparisons based on physical appearance. However, dieting seems to have a paradoxical effect and has been considered a risk factor for weight gain and obesity in women and for maladaptive eating. Nevertheless, the study of the emotional regulation processes that explain the adoption of inflexible and rigid eating behaviors still remains little explored. In this line, the present study aims to explore why normal-weight women engage in highly rigid and inflexible diets. We hypothesize that body and weight dissatisfaction and unfavorable social comparisons based on physical appearance explain the adoption of inflexible eating rules, through the mechanisms of body image inflexibility. The current study comprised 508 normal-weight female college students. Path analyses were conducted to explore the study's hypotheses. Results revealed that the model explained 43 % of inflexible eating and revealed excellent fit indices. Furthermore, the unwillingness to experience unwanted events related to body image (body image inflexibility) mediated the impact of body dissatisfaction and unfavorable social comparisons on the adoption of inflexible eating rules. This study highlights the relevance of body image inflexibility to explain rigid eating attitudes, and it seems to be an important avenue for the development of interventions focusing on the promotion of adaptive attitudes towards body image and eating in young women. PMID:25753131

  19. Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index, Gestational Weight Gain, and Birth Weight: A Cohort Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Sheng; Wu, Jing; Zhao, Jinzhu; Zhang, Yiming; Wang, Jing; Lu, Yuan; Yu, Yuzhen; Zhang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess whether pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) modify the relationship between gestational weight gain (GWG) and child birth weight (specifically, presence or absence of low birth weight (LBW) or presence of absence of macrosomia), and estimates of the relative risk of macrosomia and LBW based on pre-pregnancy BMI were controlled in Wuhan, China. Methods From June 30, 2011 to June 30, 2013. All data was collected and available from the perinatal health care system. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the independent association among pregnancy weight gain, LBW, normal birth weight, and macrosomia within different pre-pregnancy BMI groups. We built different logistic models for the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) Guidelines and Chinese-recommended GWG which was made from this sample. The Chinese-recommended GWG was derived from the quartile values (25th-75th percentiles) of weight gain at the time of delivery in the subjects which comprised our sample. Results For LBW children, using the recommended weight gain of the IOM and Chinese women as a reference, the OR for a pregnancy weight gain below recommendations resulted in a positive relationship for lean and normal weight women, but not for overweight and obese women. For macrosomia, considering the IOM’s recommended weight gain as a reference, the OR magnitude for pregnancy weight gain above recommendations resulted in a positive correlation for all women. The OR for a pregnancy weight gain below recommendations resulted in a negative relationship for normal BMI and lean women, but not for overweight and obese women based on the IOM recommendations, significant based on the recommended pregnancy weight gain for Chinese women. Of normal weight children, 56.6% were above the GWG based on IOM recommendations, but 26.97% of normal weight children were above the GWG based on Chinese recommendations. Conclusions A GWG above IOM recommendations might not be helpful for Chinese women. We

  20. Bulimia nervosa symptomatology and body image disturbance associated with distance running and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Gleaves, D H; Williamson, D A; Fuller, R D

    1992-09-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that problems characteristic of eating disorders may often be associated with distance running, 20 women who had lost weight through distance running were compared with a control group who did not exercise and had not lost weight and a comparison group of bulimia nervosa patients. Dependent variables were measures of depression, bulimia nervosa symptomatology, and body image disturbance. No differences were found between the runner group and the normal controls. Bulimics differed from runners and controls on most measures. Thus, the results did not support the proposition that weight loss through running leads to problems related to eating and body image. The failure to find disturbances in body image in runners suggests that body image disturbances are not a direct result of weight loss, as suggested by some theorists. PMID:1422651

  1. Assessing stability of body weight in the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula).

    PubMed

    Cameron, Kristie E; Bizo, Lewis A; Starkey, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    When conducting controlled laboratory studies with non-traditional laboratory animals it is important that methods for determining body weight stability are reliable. This helps ensure the health and welfare of animals when they are maintained during periods of free feeding or food restriction. This study compared different methods for determining body weight stability in six common brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) maintained on a free-feeding diet under laboratory conditions. A criterion of five consecutive weighings with less than ±2.5% change across days and no more than two consecutive days of weight loss or weight gain was judged to be the most suitable criteria for determining stability. It is important to study non-traditional animals, especially endangered or pest species, under controlled laboratory conditions and to have robust methods for establishing body weight stability. PMID:24958547

  2. [Heritability of body weight and fork length for Oncorhynchus masou masou].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Yong; Jia, Zhi-Ying; Bai, Qing-Li; Chen, Shu-Qiang; Shi, Lian-Yu; Wang, Bing-Qian

    2013-02-01

    Body weight and body length have been considered as the most important production traits for the fish genetic improvement. For cold-water fish, body length was usually substituted by fork length. In order to estimate the heritability of body weight and fork length of the sixth generation Oncorhynchus masou masou, which was introduced into China, the method of unbalanced nest design and an artificial insemination technigue were used. Twenty-nine full-sib families and fourteen half-sib families were obtained. Body weight and fork length of O. masou masou were measured in 12 and 24 months after fertilization. Based on full-sib and half-sib families data, the causal components of phenotypic variance were calculated. The results showed that, (1) during the whole growth phase of O. masou masou, the coefficient variation (CV) of fork length was higher than body weight, and CV of 12-month old was higher than that of 24-month old; (2) body weight and fork length of O. masou masou among sires and dams among sires were significant difference (P<0.01) both at 12 months and at 24 months; (3) the maternal component estimates were significantly larger than those of paternal ones for body weight and fork length traits both at 12 months and at 24 months; (4) for 12 months of O. masou masou the heritabilities of body weight and fork length were 0.41~0.51 and 0.46~0.54, respectively. For 24 months the values were 0.55~0.60 and 0.53~0.59, respectively; and (5) it was concluded that the heritability of growth traits in O. masou masou was relatively high and this highlights the potential to improve its growth through selective breeding. This study shows important data supporting for further genetic improvement of O. masou masou. PMID:23448933

  3. Genetics of body weight in the LXS recombinant inbred mouse strains

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Beth; Carosone-Line, Phyllis; Lu, Lu; Chesler, Elissa J; Johnson, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This is the first phenotypic analysis of 75 new recombinant inbred (RI) strains derived from ILS and ISS progenitors. We analyzed body weight in two independent cohorts of female mice at various ages and in males at 60 days. Body weight is a complex trait which has been mapped in numerous crosses in rodents. The LXS RI strains displayed a large range of weights, transgressing those of the inbred progenitors, supporting the utility of this large panel for mapping traits not selected in the progenitors. Numerous QTLs for body weight mapped in singleand multilocus scans. We assessed replication between these and previously reported QTLs based on overlapping confidence intervals of published QTLs for body weight at 60 days and used meta-analyses to determine combined p values for three QTL regions located on Chromosomes 4, 5, and 11. Strain distribution patterns of microsatellite marker genotypes, weight, and other phenotypes are available on Web- QTL (http://www.webqtl.org/search.html) and allow genetic mapping of any heritable quantitative phenotype measured in these strains. We report one such analysis, correlating brain and body weights. Large reference panels of RI strains, such as the LXS, are invaluable for identifying genetic correlations, GXE (Gene X Environment) interactions, and replicating previously identified QTLs.

  4. Evaluation of body weight of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus by computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Liu, Shilin; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    A postichopus japonicus (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata) is an ecological and economic species in East Asia. Conventional biometric monitoring method includes diving for samples and weighing above water, with highly variable in weight measurement due to variation in the quantity of water in the respiratory tree and intestinal content of this species. Recently, video survey method has been applied widely in biometric detection on underwater benthos. However, because of the high flexibility of A. japonicus body, video survey method of monitoring is less used in sea cucumber. In this study, we designed a model to evaluate the wet weight of A. japonicus, using machine vision technology combined with a support vector machine (SVM) that can be used in field surveys on the A. japonicus population. Continuous dorsal images of free-moving A. japonicus individuals in seawater were captured, which also allows for the development of images of the core body edge as well as thorn segmentation. Parameters that include body length, body breadth, perimeter and area, were extracted from the core body edge images and used in SVM regression, to predict the weight of A. japonicus and for comparison with a power model. Results indicate that the use of SVM for predicting the weight of 33 A. japonicus individuals is accurate ( R 2=0.99) and compatible with the power model ( R 2 =0.96). The image-based analysis and size-weight regression models in this study may be useful in body weight evaluation of A. japonicus in lab and field study.

  5. The effect of job loss on body weight during an economic collapse.

    PubMed

    Jónsdóttir, Sif; Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey

    2014-07-01

    Studies on the relationship between unemployment and body weight show a positive relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and unemployment at the individual level, while aggregate unemployment is negatively related to a population's average BMI. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between job loss and changes in body weight following the Icelandic economic collapse of 2008. The analysis relies on a health and lifestyle survey "Heilsa og líðan", carried out by The Public Health Institute of Iceland in the years 2007 and 2009. The sample is a stratified random sample of 9,807 Icelanders between the ages of 18 and 79, with a net response rate of 42.1% for individuals responding in both waves. A linear regression model was used when estimating the relationship between job loss following the economic collapse and changes in body weight. Family income and mental health were explored as mediators. Point estimates indicated that both men and women gain less weight in the event of a job loss relative to those who retained their employment. The coefficients of job loss were only statistically significant for females, but not in the male population. The results from all three models were inconsistent with results from other studies where job loss has been found to increase body weight. However, body weight has been shown to be procyclical, and the fact that the data used were gathered during a severe economic downturn might separate these results from earlier findings. PMID:23757095

  6. Effect of antibiotics on gut microbiota, glucose metabolism and body weight regulation: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, K H; Allin, K H; Knop, F K

    2016-05-01

    Gut bacteria are involved in a number of host metabolic processes and have been implicated in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans. The use of antibiotics changes the composition of the gut microbiota and there is accumulating evidence from observational studies for an association between exposure to antibiotics and development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In the present paper, we review human studies examining the effects of antibiotics on body weight regulation and glucose metabolism and discuss whether the observed findings may relate to alterations in the composition and function of the gut microbiota. PMID:26818734

  7. Toward a quantitative theory of food consumption choices and body weight.

    PubMed

    Buttet, Sebastien; Dolar, Veronika

    2015-04-01

    We propose a calibrated dynamic model of food consumption choices and body weight to study changes in daily caloric intake, weight, and the away-from-home share of calories consumed by adult men and women in the U.S. during the period between 1971 and 2006. Calibration reveals substantial preference heterogeneity between men and women. For example, utility losses stemming from weight gains are ten times greater for women compared to men. Counterfactual experiments show that changes in food prices and household income account for half of the increase in weight of adult men, but only a small fraction of women's weight. We argue that quantitative models of food consumption choices and body weight have a unique role to play in future research in the economics of obesity. PMID:25453360

  8. Relationships between fertility and postpartum changes in body condition and body weight in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, P D; Souza, A H; Amundson, M C; Hackbart, K S; Fuenzalida, M J; Herlihy, M M; Ayres, H; Dresch, A R; Vieira, L M; Guenther, J N; Grummer, R R; Fricke, P M; Shaver, R D; Wiltbank, M C

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between energy status and fertility in dairy cattle was retrospectively analyzed by comparing fertility with body condition score (BCS) near artificial insemination (AI; experiment 1), early postpartum changes in BCS (experiment 2), and postpartum changes in body weight (BW; experiment 3). To reduce the effect of cyclicity status, all cows were synchronized with Double-Ovsynch protocol before timed AI. In experiment 1, BCS of lactating dairy cows (n = 1,103) was evaluated near AI. Most cows (93%) were cycling at initiation of the breeding Ovsynch protocol (first GnRH injection). A lower percentage pregnant to AI (P/AI) was found in cows with lower (≤ 2.50) versus higher (≥ 2.75) BCS (40.4 vs. 49.2%). In experiment 2, lactating dairy cows on 2 commercial dairies (n = 1,887) were divided by BCS change from calving until the third week postpartum. Overall, P/AI at 70-d pregnancy diagnosis differed dramatically by BCS change and was least for cows that lost BCS, intermediate for cows that maintained BCS, and greatest for cows that gained BCS [22.8% (180/789), 36.0% (243/675), and 78.3% (331/423), respectively]. Surprisingly, a difference existed between farms with BCS change dramatically affecting P/AI on one farm and no effect on the other farm. In experiment 3, lactating dairy cows (n = 71) had BW measured weekly from the first to ninth week postpartum and then had superovulation induced using a modified Double-Ovsynch protocol. Cows were divided into quartiles (Q) by percentage of BW change (Q1 = least change; Q4 = most change) from calving until the third week postpartum. No effect was detected of quartile on number of ovulations, total embryos collected, or percentage of oocytes that were fertilized; however, the percentage of fertilized oocytes that were transferable embryos was greater for cows in Q1, Q2, and Q3 than Q4 (83.8, 75.2, 82.6, and 53.2%, respectively). In addition, percentage of degenerated embryos was least for cows in Q1, Q2

  9. Associations of Candidate SNP on Age, Leptin Concentration, Backfat, and Body Weight at Puberty in Gilts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Body weight (BW), backfat thickness (BF), and leptin play important roles in livestock reproduction. The objective of this study was to determine whether polymorphisms in the leptin (LEP), leptin receptor (LEPR), PAX5, and POMC genes were associated with age, leptin concentration, body condition as ...

  10. Body weight gain during adulthood and uterine myomas: Pró-Saúde Study

    PubMed Central

    Boclin, Karine de Lima Sírio; Torres, Fernanda Pelegrini; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study intended to investigate whether body weight gain during adulthood is associated with uterine myomas. 1,560 subjects were evaluated in a Pró-Saúde Study. Weight gain was evaluated in a continuous fashion and also in quintiles. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated through logistic regression models that were adjusted for education levels, color/race, body mass indices at age 20, age of menarche, parity, use of oral contraceptive methods, smoking, health insurance, and the Papanicolaou tests. No relevant differences were observed regarding the presence of uterine myomas among weight gain quintiles in that studied population. PMID:26558353

  11. Cannabinoid Receptor 1 in the Vagus Nerve Is Dispensable for Body Weight Homeostasis But Required for Normal Gastrointestinal Motility

    PubMed Central

    Vianna, Claudia R.; Donato, Jose; Rossi, Jari; Scott, Michael; Economides, Kyriakos; Gautron, Lauren; Pierpont, Stephanie; Elias, Carol F.; Elmquist, Joel K.

    2016-01-01

    The cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) is required for body weight homeostasis and normal gastrointestinal motility. However, the specific cell types expressing CB1R that regulate these physiological functions are unknown. CB1R is widely expressed, including in neurons of the parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. The vagus nerve has been implicated in the regulation of several aspects of metabolism and energy balance (e.g., food intake and glucose balance), and gastrointestinal functions including motility. To directly test the relevance of CB1R in neurons of the vagus nerve on metabolic homeostasis and gastrointestinal motility, we generated and characterized mice lacking CB1R in afferent and efferent branches of the vagus nerve (Cnr1flox/flox; Phox2b–Cre mice). On a chow or on a high-fat diet, Cnr1flox/flox; Phox2b–Cre mice have similar body weight, food intake, energy expenditure, and glycemia compared with Cnr1flox/flox control mice. Also, fasting-induced hyperphagia and after acute or chronic pharmacological treatment with SR141716 [N-piperidino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-3-pyrazole carboxamide] (CB1R inverse agonist) paradigms, mutants display normal body weight and food intake. Interestingly, Cnr1flox/flox; Phox2b–Cre mice have increased gastrointestinal motility compared with controls. These results unveil CB1R in the vagus nerve as a key component underlying normal gastrointestinal motility. PMID:22836266

  12. Body weight support by virtual model control of an impedance controlled exoskeleton (LOPES) for gait training.

    PubMed

    van der Kooij, Herman; Koopman, Bram; van Asseldonk, Edwin H F

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility of an alternative method to support body weight in a powered exoskeleton is demonstrated. Instead of using an overhead suspension system, body weight is supported by augmenting the joint moments through virtual model control. The advantages of this novel method is that it allows for independent support of the left and right leg, and does not interfere with the excitation of cutanous afferents and balance of the body or trunk. Results show that after a short familiarization period the activity of muscles during initial stance reduces and kinematics become close to normal. PMID:19163077

  13. Lifestyle Interventions Targeting Body Weight Changes during the Menopause Transition: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jull, Janet; Stacey, Dawn; Beach, Sarah; Dumas, Alex; Strychar, Irene; Ufholz, Lee-Anne; Prince, Stephanie; Abdulnour, Joseph; Prud'homme, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effectiveness of exercise and/or nutrition interventions and to address body weight changes during the menopause transition. Methods. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using electronic databases, grey literature, and hand searching. Two independent researchers screened for studies using experimental designs to evaluate the impact of exercise and/or nutrition interventions on body weight and/or central weight gain performed during the menopausal transition. Studies were quality appraised using Cochrane risk of bias. Included studies were analyzed descriptively. Results. Of 3,564 unique citations screened, 3 studies were eligible (2 randomized controlled trials, and 1 pre/post study). Study quality ranged from low to high risk of bias. One randomized controlled trial with lower risk of bias concluded that participation in an exercise program combined with dietary interventions might mitigate body adiposity increases, which is normally observed during the menopause transition. The other two studies with higher risk of bias suggested that exercise might attenuate weight loss or weight gain and change abdominal adiposity patterns. Conclusions. High quality studies evaluating the effectiveness of interventions targeting body weight changes in women during their menopause transition are needed. Evidence from one higher quality study indicates an effective multifaceted intervention for women to minimize changes in body adiposity. PMID:24971172

  14. Weight and body composition change over a six-week holiday period.

    PubMed

    Wagner, D R; Larson, J N; Wengreen, H

    2012-03-01

    Change in weight and body composition was assessed over a six-week holiday period. Baseline testing occurred the Monday or Tuesday prior to Thanksgiving Day (November 24 or 25, 2008), and the post-holiday assessment was the Monday or Tuesday after New Year's Day (January 5 or 6, 2009). Thirteen men and 21 women ranging in age from 23-61 years completed the study. The majority of participants (24 of 34) perceived that they had gained weight, and four did gain ≥2 kg. However, despite some changes to dietary and exercise habits, on average there was no difference between pre-holiday weight (74.0±17.8 kg) and post-holiday weight (73.9±18.1 kg), nor between pre-holiday body fat percentage (25.4±9.0%) and post-holiday body fat percentage (25.4±8.9%). Despite a perception of substantial weight gain, body weight and body fat remained unchanged over a six-week holiday period. PMID:22751272

  15. Body weight and some biometrical traits of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) at different ages.

    PubMed

    Górecki, Marcin T; Nowaczewski, Sebastian; Kontecka, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Although the growth of pheasants is an important issue, there are few publications providing information on body weight and morphometrics of pheasants at different ages. The aim of this study was to investigate body weight, tarsus length, wing length and wingspan in farmed pheasants aged 3-16 weeks. The study was carried out on 50 pheasants (31 females and 19 males). All one-day old birds were marked and kept until the 16th week of life. In the 3rd 8 h 12th and 16th weeks of life all pheasants were weighted and tarsus length, wing length and wingspan were measured. Male chicks appeared to be significantly heavier than females (P< or = 0.01) already in the third week of life. Also their wings were longer and their wingspan attained higher values (P < or = 0.05). Absolute gains of the majority of traits also differed between sexes (being larger in males) in all studied periods. Values of body weight, tarsus length and wingspan noted in the third week of life were significantly correlated with all later measurements. Thus body weight and some biometrical traits of pheasant chicks measured already at the 3rd week of life could be applied as predictors of future body weight and size. PMID:22428312

  16. A Longitudinal Analysis of Adolescent Smoking: Using Smoking Status to Differentiate the Influence of Body Weight Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Traci; Johnson, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research has reported mixed results on the association between body weight measures (ie, perception of weight and weight loss goal) and cigarette smoking prevalence--and how these associations vary by sex and race. This longitudinal study assessed the relationship between these 2 body weight measures and smoking prevalence by…

  17. Watching reality weight loss TV. The effects on body satisfaction, mood, and snack food consumption.

    PubMed

    Bourn, Rebecca; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated the influence of a weight loss reality TV show on body satisfaction, mood and food consumption. Young Australian women (N = 99) first completed baseline measures of state body satisfaction and mood. They were then randomly allocated to either a weight loss or a home renovation programme and were provided with snack foods during viewing. Post-measures included state body satisfaction, state mood and trait dietary restraint and snack food consumption. BMI moderated the relationship between condition and body satisfaction and mood. Larger women experienced less body satisfaction and less positive mood in response to the weight loss programme. Dietary restraint moderated the relationship between condition and food consumption. A greater percentage of women with lower dietary restraint ate in the control condition; whilst a greater percentage of women with higher dietary restraint ate food whilst watching the weight loss programme. These findings highlight the potential negative impact of weight-focused reality TV on mood, body satisfaction and snack food consumption among some women. PMID:25936290

  18. More than just body weight: the role of body image in psychological and physical functioning.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rebecca E; Latner, Janet D; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2013-09-01

    The current study examined BMI and body image dissatisfaction as predictors of physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQL) and psychosocial functioning in a sample of 414 undergraduate students (mean age=21.5, SD=4.9; mean BMI=23.6, SD=5.2). In men and women, higher BMI was correlated with body image dissatisfaction and physical HRQL, but not with any measures of psychosocial functioning, whereas higher body image dissatisfaction was associated with poorer physical HRQL and psychosocial functioning. Furthermore, body image dissatisfaction was observed to mediate the relationship between BMI and physical HRQL in men and women. Interestingly, in this model, higher BMI predicted increased self-esteem. These findings suggest that body image dissatisfaction may be an important target for health interventions. PMID:23726517

  19. Chronic administration of nalmefene leads to increased food intake and body weight gain in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Richard Z; Huang, Ruey-Ruey C; Shen, Chun-Pyn; MacNeil, Douglas J; Fong, Tung M

    2004-07-01

    Nalmefene is an orally available opioid receptor antagonist that has been shown to suppress appetite in humans, but its effects on chronic food intake and body weight remain unclear. Here, we report that chronic (21-day) oral administration of nalmefene at 2 or 10 mg/kg/day in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice led to significant increases (9-11%) in cumulative food intake. Mice in the nalmefene-treated groups also gained body weight at a rate faster than the control. Body composition analysis showed that the extra body weight gains in the treated animals were mostly due to increased fat accumulation. Since acute nalmefene treatment showed a trend toward a decrease rather than an increase in food intake, it is possible that the orexigenic effect of chronic oral administration of nalmefene was caused by pharmacologically active metabolites rather than the drug itself. Our results argue against the potential use of nalmefene for treating human obesity. PMID:15219821

  20. Neural network-based visual body weight estimation for drug dosage finding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfitzner, Christian; May, Stefan; Nüchter, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Body weight adapted drug dosages are important for emergency treatments: Inaccuracies in body weight estimation may lead to inaccurate drug dosing. This paper describes an improved approach to estimating the body weight of emergency patients in a trauma room, based on images from an RGB-D and a thermal camera. The improvements are specific to several aspects: Fusion of RGB-D and thermal camera eases filtering and segmentation of the patient's body from the background. Robustness and accuracy is gained by an artificial neural network, which considers geometric features from the sensors as input, e.g. the patient's volume, and shape parameters. Preliminary experiments with 69 patients show an accuracy close to 90 percent, with less than 10 percent relative error and the results are compared with the physician's estimate, the patient's statement and an established anthropometric method.

  1. Serum PCT and its Relation to Body Weight Gain in Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rohini, K; Bhat, Surekha; Srikumar, P S; Mahesh Kumar, A

    2015-07-01

    The present study was aimed at assessing alterations in serum PCT in terms of its relation to body weight gain in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients undergoing treatment. Among patients (25-75 years) diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis, those that were new smear positive, showed sputum conversion at the end of 2 months and were declared clinically cured at the end of 6 months, were included in the study (n = 40). Serum procalcitonin was determined by BRAHMS PCT-Q kit. Patients were divided into two study groups-Group 1 (n = 21; serum PCT > 2 ng/ml at diagnosis), Group 2 (n = 19; serum PCT > 10 ng/ml at diagnosis). Body weights of all patients were obtained at three different time points, PTB-0 (at diagnosis), PTB-2 (after 2 months of intensive treatment) and PTB-6 (after 6 months of treatment). In both groups, mean body weights at PTB-2 and PTB-6 were significantly higher than those at PTB-0 and at PTB-6 were significantly higher than those at PTB-2. However, percentage body weight gain following 2 months of intensive treatment was higher in group 1 (4.05 % gain, p < 0.01) than in group 2 (2.75 % body weight gain, p < 0.05). Thus, the percentage gain in group 1 was tending more towards the desirable minimum gain of 5 % during intensive phase. Increase in serum PCT levels in pulmonary tuberculosis is inversely associated with body weight gain during treatment. Thus, PCT could play a role in regulation of body weight gain in anorectic conditions like tuberculosis. PMID:26089621

  2. Targeted leptin receptor blockade: Role of VTA and NTS leptin receptors in body weight homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Matheny, M.; Strehler, K.Y.E.; King, M.; Tümer, N.; Scarpace, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation examined whether leptin stimulation of ventral tegmental area (VTA) or nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) has a role in body weight homeostasis independent of the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH). To this end, recombinant adeno-associated viral techniques were employed to target leptin overexpression or overexpression of a dominant negative leptin mutant (Leptin Antagonist). Leptin Antagonist overexpression in MBH or VTA increased food intake and body weight to similar extents over 14 days in rats. Simultaneous overexpression of leptin in VTA with antagonist in MBH resulted in food intake and body weight gain that were less than with control treatment but greater than with leptin alone in VTA. Notably, leptin overexpression in VTA increased P-STAT3 in MBH along with VTA, and Leptin Antagonist overexpression in the VTA partially attenuated P-STAT3 levels in MBH. Interestingly, leptin antagonist overexpression elevated body weight gain, but leptin overexpression in the NTS failed to modulate either food intake or body weight despite increased P-STAT3. These data suggest that leptin function in the VTA participates in the chronic regulation of food consumption and body weight in response to stimulation or blockade of VTA leptin receptors. Moreover, one component of VTA-leptin action appears to be independent of the MBH, and another component appears to be related to leptin receptor-mediated P-STAT3 activation in the MBH. Finally, leptin receptors in the NTS are necessary for normal energy homeostasis, but appear to have mostly a permissive role. Direct leptin activation of NTS slightly increases UCP1, but has little effect on food consumption or body weight. PMID:24920667

  3. Carrying a biological "backpack": Quasi-experimental effects of weight status and body fat change on perceived steepness.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Covill, Guy A H; Eves, Frank F

    2016-03-01

    The apparent steepness of hills and stairs is overestimated in explicit perception. These overestimations are malleable in that when physiological resources are compromised, apparent steepness is further overestimated. An alternative explanation of these experimental findings attributes them to demand characteristics. This article tests the relationship between estimated steepness and naturally occurring differences in body composition. A quasi-experimental field study revealed more exaggerated reports of staircase steepness in overweight than in healthy-weight participants in a situation where experimental demand would be an implausible explanation for any differences. A longitudinal follow-up study used dual X-ray absorptiometry to objectively measure participants' body composition at the beginning and end of a weight-loss program (N = 52). At baseline, higher levels of body fat were associated with steeper explicit estimates of staircase steepness. At follow-up, changes in body fat were associated with changes in estimated steepness such that a loss of fat mass co-occurred with shallower estimates. Discussion focuses on the malleability of perceived steepness at an individual level and the implication of these findings for the debate surrounding "embodied" models of perception. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26414167

  4. Lidar point density analysis: implications for identifying water bodies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Worstell, Bruce B.; Poppenga, Sandra; Evans, Gayla A.; Prince, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Most airborne topographic light detection and ranging (lidar) systems operate within the near-infrared spectrum. Laser pulses from these systems frequently are absorbed by water and therefore do not generate reflected returns on water bodies in the resulting void regions within the lidar point cloud. Thus, an analysis of lidar voids has implications for identifying water bodies. Data analysis techniques to detect reduced lidar return densities were evaluated for test sites in Blackhawk County, Iowa, and Beltrami County, Minnesota, to delineate contiguous areas that have few or no lidar returns. Results from this study indicated a 5-meter radius moving window with fewer than 23 returns (28 percent of the moving window) was sufficient for delineating void regions. Techniques to provide elevation values for void regions to flatten water features and to force channel flow in the downstream direction also are presented.

  5. Weight discrepancy and body appreciation among women in Poland and Britain.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Donna; Szpakowska, Ilona; Swami, Viren

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the process of transmigration has detrimental effects on the body image of migrants relative to women in the country of origin. In the present work, we examined the body image of Polish migrants in Britain (n=153), Polish women in Poland (n=153), and a comparison group of British White women (n=110). Participants completed a measure of actual-ideal weight discrepancy and the Body Appreciation Scale (BAS). Contrary to hypotheses, our results showed that Polish women in Poland had significantly higher weight discrepancy than their counterparts in Britain. Further analyses showed that the BAS reduced to two dimensions among Polish participants, with Polish participants in Poland having significantly lower body appreciation than Polish migrants. We suggest that the sociocultural changes that have taken place in Eastern Europe may place women in that region at relatively high risk for developing negative body image. PMID:23972729

  6. On-farm estimation of energy balance in dairy cows using only frequent body weight measurements and body condition score.

    PubMed

    Thorup, V M; Edwards, D; Friggens, N C

    2012-04-01

    Precise energy balance estimates for individual cows are of great importance to monitor health, reproduction, and feed management. Energy balance is usually calculated as energy input minus output (EB(inout)), requiring measurements of feed intake and energy output sources (milk, maintenance, activity, growth, and pregnancy). Except for milk yield, direct measurements of the other sources are difficult to obtain in practice, and estimates contain considerable error sources, limiting on-farm use. Alternatively, energy balance can be estimated from body reserve changes (EB(body)) using body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS). Automated weighing systems exist and new technology performing semi-automated body condition scoring has emerged, so frequent automated BW and BCS measurements are feasible. We present a method to derive individual EB(body) estimates from frequently measured BW and BCS and evaluate the performance of the estimated EB(body) against the traditional EB(inout) method. From 76 Danish Holstein and Jersey cows, parity 1 or 2+, on a glycerol-rich or a whole grain-rich total mixed ration, BW was measured automatically at each milking. The BW was corrected for the weight of milk produced and for gutfill. Changes in BW and BCS were used to calculate changes in body protein, body lipid, and EB(body) during the first 150 d in milk. The EB(body) was compared with the traditional EB(inout) by isolating the term within EB(inout) associated with most uncertainty; that is, feed energy content (FEC); FEC=(EB(body)+EMilk+EMaintenance+Eactivity)/dry matter intake, where the energy requirements are for milk produced (EMilk), maintenance (EMaintenance), and activity (EActivity). Estimated FEC agreed well with FEC values derived from tables (the mean estimate was 0.21 MJ of effective energy/kg of dry matter or 2.2% higher than the mean table value). Further, the FEC profile did not suggest systematic bias in EB(body) with stage of lactation. The EB(body

  7. Differences among skeletal muscle mass indices derived from height-, weight-, and body mass index-adjusted models in assessing sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Soo

    2016-01-01

    Aging processes are inevitably accompanied by structural and functional changes in vital organs. Skeletal muscle, which accounts for 40% of total body weight, deteriorates quantitatively and qualitatively with aging. Skeletal muscle is known to play diverse crucial physical and metabolic roles in humans. Sarcopenia is a condition characterized by significant loss of muscle mass and strength. It is related to subsequent frailty and instability in the elderly population. Because muscle tissue is involved in multiple functions, sarcopenia is closely related to various adverse health outcomes. Along with increasing recognition of the clinical importance of sarcopenia, several international study groups have recently released their consensus on the definition and diagnosis of sarcopenia. In practical terms, various skeletal muscle mass indices have been suggested for assessing sarcopenia: appendicular skeletal muscle mass adjusted for height squared, weight, or body mass index. A different prevalence and different clinical implications of sarcopenia are highlighted by each definition. The discordances among these indices have emerged as an issue in defining sarcopenia, and a unifying definition for sarcopenia has not yet been attained. This review aims to compare these three operational definitions and to introduce an optimal skeletal muscle mass index that reflects the clinical implications of sarcopenia from a metabolic perspective. PMID:27334763

  8. Successful maintenance of body weight reduction after individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Mardas, Marcin; Warchoł, Wojciech; Jamka, Małgorzata; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects based on narrative interview technique on the maintenance of body weight reduction, changes in dietary behaviors, including type of cooking and physical activity. One-hundred subjects out of four-hundred patients met the inclusion criteria. Individually, 45-minute educational program with motivation counseling was performed in 0, 6 and 12 weeks of the study. Patients were advised to follow individually well-balanced diet for 12 weeks. The individuals were asked about the changes in their dietary habits (Food Frequency Questionnaire). The mean percentage of body weight changes from the baseline were as follows: in 6th week- 5.9%, in 12th week - 10.9% and in 52th week - 9.7% (P < 0.0001), however there were no statistically significant changes while comparing body weight in 12th and 52th week. The maintenance of body weight reduction was connected with the dietary habits changes, mainly the type of cooking and increased consumption of vegetable oils. In conclusion, individualized dietary counseling, based on narrative interview technique is an effective intervention for obesity treatment that may help maintain body weight reduction and adapt the pro-healthy changes in type of cooking and sources of dietary fat. PMID:25311271

  9. Role of obesity and media in body weight concern among female university students in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Mannai, Mariam

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the association of media and obesity status with body weight concern among female university students in Kuwait. 228 female students, aged 19-25 years, were selected at convenience from the Women's College in Kuwait. A previously validated questionnaire was used to collect information on the role of media in body concern and how parents, peers and the girls themselves perceived girls' body shapes. Weight and height were gathered by self-reporting. Use of internet and reading women's magazines had a significant impact on dieting by the girls to lose weight (P<0.0007 and P<0.0114, respectively). The mass media had two to three times more influence on obese girls than non-obese girls. Only watching television had a significant impact on girls' body shape concern (P<0.053). About 30% of non-obese and 81% of obese girls were dissatisfied with their current weight. There were significant differences between obese and non-obese girls regarding the girls' views and the views of their peers and parents about the body weight of the girls (P<0.000 for all). The pressure from peers and parents, in addition to the mass media, may lead to disturbed attitudes towards eating among Kuwaiti girls. PMID:23557827

  10. Identification of genetic factors that modify motor performance and body weight using Collaborative Cross mice

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Jian -Hua; Langley, Sasha A.; Huang, Yurong; Hang, Michael; Bouchard, Kristofer E.; Celniker, Susan E.; Brown, James B.; Jansson, Janet K.; Karpen, Gary H.; Snijders, Antoine M.

    2015-11-09

    Evidence has emerged that suggests a link between motor deficits, obesity and many neurological disorders. However, the contributing genetic risk factors are poorly understood. Here we used the Collaborative Cross (CC), a large panel of newly inbred mice that captures 90% of the known variation among laboratory mice, to identify the genetic loci controlling rotarod performance and its relationship with body weight in a cohort of 365 mice across 16 CC strains. Body weight and rotarod performance varied widely across CC strains and were significantly negatively correlated. Genetic linkage analysis identified 14 loci that were associated with body weight. However, 45 loci affected rotarod performance, seven of which were also associated with body weight, suggesting a strong link at the genetic level. As a result, we show that genes identified in this study overlap significantly with those related to neurological disorders and obesity found in human GWA studies. In conclusion, our results provide a genetic framework for studies of the connection between body weight, the central nervous system and behavior.

  11. Identification of genetic factors that modify motor performance and body weight using Collaborative Cross mice

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mao, Jian -Hua; Langley, Sasha A.; Huang, Yurong; Hang, Michael; Bouchard, Kristofer E.; Celniker, Susan E.; Brown, James B.; Jansson, Janet K.; Karpen, Gary H.; Snijders, Antoine M.

    2015-11-09

    Evidence has emerged that suggests a link between motor deficits, obesity and many neurological disorders. However, the contributing genetic risk factors are poorly understood. Here we used the Collaborative Cross (CC), a large panel of newly inbred mice that captures 90% of the known variation among laboratory mice, to identify the genetic loci controlling rotarod performance and its relationship with body weight in a cohort of 365 mice across 16 CC strains. Body weight and rotarod performance varied widely across CC strains and were significantly negatively correlated. Genetic linkage analysis identified 14 loci that were associated with body weight. However,more » 45 loci affected rotarod performance, seven of which were also associated with body weight, suggesting a strong link at the genetic level. As a result, we show that genes identified in this study overlap significantly with those related to neurological disorders and obesity found in human GWA studies. In conclusion, our results provide a genetic framework for studies of the connection between body weight, the central nervous system and behavior.« less

  12. Identification of genetic factors that modify motor performance and body weight using Collaborative Cross mice

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Jian-Hua; Langley, Sasha A.; Huang, Yurong; Hang, Michael; Bouchard, Kristofer E.; Celniker, Susan E.; Brown, James B.; Jansson, Janet K.; Karpen, Gary H.; Snijders, Antoine M.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence has emerged that suggests a link between motor deficits, obesity and many neurological disorders. However, the contributing genetic risk factors are poorly understood. Here we used the Collaborative Cross (CC), a large panel of newly inbred mice that captures 90% of the known variation among laboratory mice, to identify the genetic loci controlling rotarod performance and its relationship with body weight in a cohort of 365 mice across 16 CC strains. Body weight and rotarod performance varied widely across CC strains and were significantly negatively correlated. Genetic linkage analysis identified 14 loci that were associated with body weight. However, 45 loci affected rotarod performance, seven of which were also associated with body weight, suggesting a strong link at the genetic level. Lastly, we show that genes identified in this study overlap significantly with those related to neurological disorders and obesity found in human GWA studies. In conclusion, our results provide a genetic framework for studies of the connection between body weight, the central nervous system and behavior. PMID:26548763

  13. Does reading keep you thin? Leisure activities, cultural tastes, and body weight in comparative perspective

    PubMed Central

    Pampel, Fred C.

    2011-01-01

    While sedentary leisure-time activities such as reading, going to movies, attending cultural events, attending sporting events, watching TV, listening to music, and socializing with friends would seem to contribute to excess weight, a perspective focusing on SES differences in cultural tastes suggests the opposite, that some sedentary activities are associated with lower rather than higher body weight. This study aims to test theories of cultural distinction by examining relationships between leisure-time activities and body weight. Using 2007 data on 17 nations from the International Social Survey Program, the analysis estimates relationships between the body mass index and varied leisure-time activities while controlling for SES, physical activities, and sociodemographic variables. Net of controls for SES and physical activities, participation time in cultural activities is associated with lower rather than higher body weight, particularly in high-income nations. The results suggest that both cultural activities and body weight reflect forms of distinction that separate SES-based lifestyles. PMID:21707664

  14. Successful maintenance of body weight reduction after individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects

    PubMed Central

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Mardas, Marcin; Warchoł, Wojciech; Jamka, Małgorzata; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects based on narrative interview technique on the maintenance of body weight reduction, changes in dietary behaviors, including type of cooking and physical activity. One-hundred subjects out of four-hundred patients met the inclusion criteria. Individually, 45-minute educational program with motivation counseling was performed in 0, 6 and 12 weeks of the study. Patients were advised to follow individually well-balanced diet for 12 weeks. The individuals were asked about the changes in their dietary habits (Food Frequency Questionnaire). The mean percentage of body weight changes from the baseline were as follows: in 6th week- 5.9%, in 12th week - 10.9% and in 52th week - 9.7% (P < 0.0001), however there were no statistically significant changes while comparing body weight in 12th and 52th week. The maintenance of body weight reduction was connected with the dietary habits changes, mainly the type of cooking and increased consumption of vegetable oils. In conclusion, individualized dietary counseling, based on narrative interview technique is an effective intervention for obesity treatment that may help maintain body weight reduction and adapt the pro-healthy changes in type of cooking and sources of dietary fat. PMID:25311271

  15. Body image change and improved eating self-regulation in a weight management intervention in women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Successful weight management involves the regulation of eating behavior. However, the specific mechanisms underlying its successful regulation remain unclear. This study examined one potential mechanism by testing a model in which improved body image mediated the effects of obesity treatment on eating self-regulation. Further, this study explored the role of different body image components. Methods Participants were 239 overweight women (age: 37.6 ± 7.1 yr; BMI: 31.5 ± 4.1 kg/m2) engaged in a 12-month behavioral weight management program, which included a body image module. Self-reported measures were used to assess evaluative and investment body image, and eating behavior. Measurements occurred at baseline and at 12 months. Baseline-residualized scores were calculated to report change in the dependent variables. The model was tested using partial least squares analysis. Results The model explained 18-44% of the variance in the dependent variables. Treatment significantly improved both body image components, particularly by decreasing its investment component (f2 = .32 vs. f2 = .22). Eating behavior was positively predicted by investment body image change (p < .001) and to a lesser extent by evaluative body image (p < .05). Treatment had significant effects on 12-month eating behavior change, which were fully mediated by investment and partially mediated by evaluative body image (effect ratios: .68 and .22, respectively). Conclusions Results suggest that improving body image, particularly by reducing its salience in one's personal life, might play a role in enhancing eating self-regulation during weight control. Accordingly, future weight loss interventions could benefit from proactively addressing body image-related issues as part of their protocols. PMID:21767360

  16. Chromium picolinate for reducing body weight: meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Pittler, M H; Stevinson, C; Ernst, E

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the evidence of chromium picolinate for reducing body weight. Literature searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, Amed and Ciscom. Nine experts and four manufacturers of commercial preparations containing chromium picolinate were asked to contribute published and unpublished studies. There were no restrictions regarding the language of publication. The screening of studies, selection, data extraction, validation and the assessment of methodological quality were performed independently by two reviewers. To be included, studies were required to state that they were randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled, and report on body weight. Ten trials met all inclusion criteria and provided data, which were suitable for statistical pooling. For body weight a significant differential effect was found in favour of chromium picolinate (weighted mean difference: -1.1 kg; 95% confidence interval (CI): -1.8 to -0.4 kg, n=489). Sensitivity analysis suggests that this effect is largely dependent on the results of a single trial (weighted mean difference: -0.9 kg; 95% CI: -2.0 to 0.2 kg, n=335). Three of the reviewed trials reported on adverse events, indicating their absence in the treatment groups. In conclusion, our meta-analysis suggests a relatively small effect of chromium picolinate compared with placebo for reducing body weight. The clinical relevance of the effect is debatable and the lack of robustness means that the result has to be interpreted with caution. PMID:12664086

  17. Dietary energy density and body weight in adults and children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Obbagy, Julie E; Altman, Jean M; Essery, Eve V; McGrane, Mary M; Wong, Yat Ping; Spahn, Joanne M; Williams, Christine L

    2012-05-01

    Energy density is a relatively new concept that has been identified as an important factor in body weight control in adults and in children and adolescents. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 encourages consumption of an eating pattern low in energy density to manage body weight. This article describes the systematic evidence-based review conducted by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC), with support from the US Department of Agriculture's Nutrition Evidence Library, which resulted in this recommendation. An update to the committee's review was prepared for this article. PubMed was searched for English-language publications from January 1980 to May 2011. The literature review included 17 studies (seven randomized controlled trials, one nonrandomized controlled trial, and nine cohort studies) in adults and six cohort studies in children and adolescents. Based on this evidence, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee concluded that strong and consistent evidence in adults indicates that dietary patterns relatively low in energy density improve weight loss and weight maintenance. In addition, the committee concluded that there was moderately strong evidence from methodologically rigorous longitudinal cohort studies in children and adolescents to suggest that there is a positive association between dietary energy density and increased adiposity. This review supports a relationship between energy density and body weight in adults and in children and adolescents such that consuming diets lower in energy density may be an effective strategy for managing body weight. PMID:22480489

  18. Short-term increase of body weight triggers immunological variables in dogs.

    PubMed

    Van de Velde, H; Janssens, G P J; Stuyven, E; Cox, E; Buyse, J; Hesta, M

    2012-01-15

    Overweight in dogs is, as in other companion animals, a major risk factor for several metabolic disorders. However, it is not yet known whether immunity is challenged by increased body weight in dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a short-term increase in body weight on immunological variables in adult healthy beagle dogs. Sixteen dogs, divided into a control group (CG) and weight gain group (WGG), were included. During a period of 13 weeks, the CG was fed at maintenance energy requirement (MER), whereas the WGG received a double amount of food. After 13 weeks, blood samples were taken for immunological and biochemical analyses. Weight gain and increased body condition score in the WGG were accompanied by a significant higher leptin concentration. Weight gain increased the number of lymphocytes and immunoglobulins A and M and was responsible for a higher proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Short-term increase of body weight thus seems to trigger immunological variables in dogs. PMID:22245229

  19. Low birth weight may increase body fat mass in adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Minooee, Sonia; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women engaged with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), as the commonest endocrine disorder, are known to have a specific type of adiposity. Birth weight is among different contributors reported to be responsible for this diversity. Objective: We aimed to compare the relation between birth weight and body fat mass (BFM)/ body lean mass (BLM) in PCOS and their age and body mass index (BMI) matched normal controls. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a total number of 70 reproductive aged women, diagnosed with PCOS and 70 age- BMI matched healthy women without hirsutism and/or ovulatory dysfunction were recruited., control group had no polycystic ovaries in ultrasonographic scans. A detailed history of birth weight was taken and was divided into the following categories: <2,500 (low birth weight, LBW) and 2,500-4,000 (normal birth weight; NBW). Results: Results showed that LBW prevalence was higher in women with PCOS than in controls (19.3% (27) vs. 15.7% (22)). Also body fat and lean mass (BFM, BLM) have increased in adult women with PCOS who were born underweight compared to their normal (19.8±9.05 vs. 12.9±4.5, p=0.001 and 48.9±6.9 vs. 43.2±5.8, p=0.004 respectively). Conclusion: Fetal birth weight influences on the adulthood obesity, BFM and BLM. This impact is different among women with and without PCOS. PMID:27326419

  20. Prenatal Centrifugation: A Mode1 for Fetal Programming of Body Weight?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, Lisa A.; Rushing, Linda; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.

    2005-01-01

    'Fetal programming' is a newly emerging field that is revealing astounding insights into the prenatal origins of adult disease, including metabolic, endocrine, and cardiovascular pathophysiology. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that rat pups conceived, gestated and born at 2-g have significantly reduced birth weights and increased adult body weights as compared to 1-g controls. Offspring were produced by mating young adult male and female rats that were adapted to 2-g centrifugation. Female rats underwent conception, pregnancy and birth at 2-g. Newborn pups in the 2-g condition were removed from the centrifuge and fostered to non-manipulated, newly parturient dams maintained at 1 -g. Comparisons were made with 1-g stationary controls, also crossfostered at birth. As compared to 1-g controls, birth weights of pups gestated and born at 2-g were significantly reduced. Pup body weights were significantly reduced until Postnatal day (P) 12. Beginning on P63, body weights of 2-g-gestated offspring exceeded those of 1-g controls by 7-10%. Thus, prenatal rearing at 2-g restricts neonatal growth and increases adult body weight. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that 2-g centrifugation alters the intrauterine milieu, thereby inducing persistent changes in adult phenotype.

  1. [FEATURES OF EATING BEHAVIOR IN PERSONS WITH NORMAL AND INCREASED BODY WEIGHT].

    PubMed

    Shevchenko, Yu; Vesnina, L; Kaydashev, I

    2015-01-01

    Using the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and Three-factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 (TFEQ-RI8), we defined the peculiarities of eating behavior and their impact on quality of life in young people aged 18-25 years. All participants were divided into two groups according to body mass index (BMI). The control group included 41 persons with normal body weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2). The group of young adults with increased body weight (BMI over 25 kg/M2) consisted of 27 persons. We found eating behavior disorders in 85,19 % of overweight people and in 41,46 % of persons with normal weight. The restrictive eating behaviors as well as a significant percentage of violations by external type had predominated in overweight individuals by the structure of disorders. The external and restrictive types of eating behavior disorders were predominated in persons with normal weight. Investigation of quality of life using the SF-36 questionnaire showed a significantly decline in the physical role functioning and pain. Index of general physical health component, being not high enough in both groups, was significantly lower in overweight people with 52.70 points against 56.11. We concluded that the eating behavior disorders in persons with normal weight and in overweight people required an individual approach to forming healthy lifestyle and fixing broken food stereotype. It will counteract the further increase of body weight and contribute to improving the quality of life. PMID:26495736

  2. The Association between Helicobacter pylori Infection and Body Weight among Children

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jun Sik; Ko, Kyung Og; Lim, Jae Woo; Cheon, Eun Jeong; Lee, Gyung Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We performed to reveal the association between the Helicobacter pylori infection and body weight among children. Methods Out retrospective study included patients who underwent the H. pylori immunoglobulin G testing at Konyang University Hospital between March 2011 and June 2014. These patients were classified as seropositive (28 boys, 27 girls; mean age: 9.89±3.28 years) or seronegative (55 boys, 54 girls; mean age: 9.84±3.02 years). Next, we compared various characteristics between the seropositive and negative groups, as well as between obese children (body weight ≥90th percentile) and non-obese children (body weight <90th percentile). Furthermore, we compared the change in body weight after 2 months of treatment with amoxicillin, clarithromycin and omeprazole among the 55 seropositive children (14 treated children and 41 non-treated children). Results There were no differences in the weights and laboratory data for the 55 seropositive children and 109 seronegative children (weight; 40.96±18.11 kg vs. 36.85±13.72 kg, respectively; p=0.14). And, there was no difference in the prevalence of H. pylori infection among the 29 obese and 135 non-obese children (p=0.581). However, after 2 months of eradication, the 14 treated patients exhibited a significant weight gain (+0.91±0.52 kg), compared to the 41 non-treated patients (-0.29±1.16 kg, p=0.025). Conclusion Our findings present that obesity was not associated with the H. pylori infection, although H. pylori eradication led to significant increase in body weight. PMID:27437187

  3. Association of Body Weight and Body Mass Index with Bone Mineral Density in Women and Men from Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Rexhepi, Sylejman; Bahtiri, Elton; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Sahatciu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective: Body weight and body mass index (BMI) are considered potentially modifiable determinants of bone mass. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the association between body weight and body mass index (BMI) with total hip and lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD). Methods: This cross-sectional study included a population of 100 women and 32 men from Kosovo into three BMI groups. All the study subjects underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements. Results: Total hip BMD levels of obese menopausal and premenopausal women and men were significantly higher compared to overweight or normal weight subjects, while lumbar spine BMD levels of only menopausal women and men were higher among obese subjects. Age-adjusted linear regression analysis showed that BMI is a significant independent associate of lumbar spine and total hip BMD in menopausal women and men. Conclusion: Despite positive association between BMI and lumbar spine and total hip BMD in menopausal women, presence of more obese and osteoporotic subjects among menopausal women represent a population at risk for fractures because of poor balance and frequent falls; therefore, both obesity and osteoporosis prevention efforts should begin early on in life. PMID:26543419

  4. IQP-GC-101 Reduces Body Weight and Body Fat Mass: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Pee-Win; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Grube, Barbara; Riede, Linda

    2014-01-01

    IQP-GC-101 is a patented blend of the standardized extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, unroasted Coffea arabica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa. These individual ingredients of IQP-GC-101 have each shown promise in promoting weight loss; however, the efficacy of the blend has not been established. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study conducted over 14 weeks (including a 2-week run-in phase) aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IQP-GC-101 in reducing body weight and body fat mass in overweight Caucasian adults. Subjects took three IQP-GC-101 or placebo tablets, twice a day, 30 min before main meals. All subjects also adhered to a 500 kcal/day energy deficit diet with 30% of energy from fat. Ninety-one overweight and mildly obese subjects (46 in the IQP-GC-101 group, 45 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12-week intervention, IQP-GC-101 resulted in a mean (±SD) weight loss of 2.26 ± 2.37 kg compared with 0.56 ± 2.34 kg for placebo (pU = 0.002). There was also significantly more reduction in body fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the IQP-GC-101 group. No serious adverse events were reported. The use of IQP-GC-101 has been shown to result in body weight and body fat reduction in the current study, with good tolerability. © 2014 InQpharm Group Sdn Bhd. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24797657

  5. Body Size Perceptions and Weight Status of Adults in a Nigerian Rural Community

    PubMed Central

    Akinpelu, AO; Oyewole, OO; Adekanla, BA

    2015-01-01

    Background: Overweight and obesity are now recognized worldwide as increasing public health problems throughout the life course and wrong perception of one's body size may reduce the motivation for an overweight person to lose weight. Aim: This study was conducted to investigate how Nigerian rural dwellers perceive their body size and how their perception agrees with their body mass index (BMI). Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional sample of 183 adults living in a rural community, South-West Nigeria was randomly recruited into the study. Their verbal and visual body size perceptions were assessed through structured questions and body images. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: Thirty-five percent (64/183) of participants were classified as either overweight or obese by BMI. More than half of the participants perceived themselves as normal weight. More women perceived themselves to be obese than men in both verbal and visual perceptions. Based on BMI classification, 43% (79/183) and 54% (98/183) of participants misperceived themselves in verbal and visual perception, respectively. Underestimation of body size was higher in men (38.3%, 36/94) while overestimation was higher in women (9.0%, 8/89). Men had consistently higher values of kappa coefficient which indicate greater agreement than women in both types of perception. Conclusion: We found considerable gender differences in body weight perception of adults in the Nigerian rural community. A large proportion of these rural dwellers could not appropriately classify their weight status; and over 30% (64/183) and nearly 50% (92/183) of them underestimated their own body weight in verbal and visual perceptions respectively. PMID:26500794

  6. Relationship of Body Satisfaction, with Nutrition and Weight Control Behaviors in Women

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi-Darani, Firoozeh; Daniali, Seyede-Shahrbanoo; Azadbakht, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Background: Considering the importance and prevalence of obesity and the desire to lose weight, especially among women, this study intended to investigate the relationship between Body Mass Index, body satisfaction, and weight control behavior among women employees in Isfahan. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among 408 women who were selected by stratified random sampling method among employees at Isfahan University and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences during 2012. The data collection tool was a multidimensional questionnaire which comprised two sections: Demographic Tool and Body Satisfaction Tool (7 items), Weight Control Behavior Scale (18 items). Results: Age, marital status, educational level, and multiparity were significantly correlated with body size satisfaction. Seventy-five participants were dissatisfied with their weight and 60.5% reported a desire to lose weight; 92.15% of women studied had participated in a healthy dieting behavior and 10.8% of them had participated in an unhealthy one during the past six months. There was an inverse correlation between body satisfaction and Body Mass Index (BMI) (r = –0.64, P = 0.001). Ninety percent of participants had at least one of the dieting behaviors. There was an inverse significant relationship between body satisfaction and dieting behaviors (r = –0.19, P = 0.001). Conclusions: Due to the importance of the prevention of obesity and the necessity of having a normal BMI in order to prevent subsequent complications, precise self-evaluation of body size can be used to focus on designing and conducting public health programs, especially for women. PMID:23671780

  7. Antihyperglycemic effect of Persea duthieion blood glucose levels and body weight in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Khushbakht; Zakir, Muhammad; Khan, Haroon; Khan, Ihsaan Ullah; Ayaz, Sultan; Khan, Iqbal; Khan, Jafar; Khan, Murad Ali

    2016-05-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the antihyperglycemic effect of Persea duthieion blood glucose concentration and body weight in alloxan induced diabetic hyperglycemic rabbits. The results illustrated significant antihyperglycemic activity of crude extract with 17.44% and 28.02% amelioration at 25 and 50mg/kg p.o. respectively after 24th day of drug treatment; equally supported by body weight recovery. Upon fractionation, most dominant antihyperglycemic effect was displayed by aqueous fraction with 22.12% and 34.43% effect followed by ethyl acetate fraction with 24.32% and 32.05% effect at 25 and 50mg/kg p.o. respectively after 24th day of drug treatment. The effect on blood glucose was also reflected on body weight of animals. In conclusion, our study documented marked antihyperglycemic activity of extract/fractions of P. duthiei. PMID:27166552

  8. Nuts Improve Diet Quality Compared to Other Energy-Dense Snacks While Maintaining Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Tey, Siew Ling; Brown, Rachel; Gray, Andrew; Chisholm, Alexandra; Delahunty, Conor

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that regular nut consumption reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and does not promote weight gain despite the fact that nuts are energy-dense. However, no studies have investigated the body composition of those regularly consuming nuts compared to similar intakes of other snacks of equal energy density. This parallel study (n = 118) examined the effects of providing daily portions (~1100 kJ/d) of hazelnuts, chocolate, or potato crisps compared to a control group receiving no snacks for twelve weeks. Effects on body weight and composition, blood lipids and lipoproteins, resting metabolic rate (RMR), appetite indices, and dietary quality were compared. At week 12, there was no significant difference in any of the outcome measurements between the groups except for dietary quality, which improved significantly in the nut group. Nuts can be incorporated into the diet without adversely affecting body weight and can improve diet quality. PMID:21845219

  9. BODY WEIGHT AND HEALTH FROM EARLY TO MID-ADULTHOOD: A LONGITUDINAL ANALYSIS*

    PubMed Central

    Zajacova, Anna; Burgard, Sarah A.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the influence of body weight in early adulthood, and changes in weight over time, on self rated health (SRH) as people age into mid-adulthood. While prior research focused on cross-sectional samples of older adults, we use longitudinal data from the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study (NHEFS) and double-trajectory latent growth models to study the association between body mass index (BMI) and SRH trajectories over twenty years. Results indicate that high BMI in early adulthood and gaining more weight over time are both associated with a faster decline in health ratings. Among white women only, those with a higher BMI at the baseline also report lower initial SRH. A small part of the weight-health associations is due to sociodemographic factors, but not baseline health behaviors or medical conditions. The findings provide new support for the cumulative disadvantage perspective, documenting the increasing health inequalities in a cohort of young adults. PMID:20420297

  10. Unhealthy Body Weight, Illness Absence, Presenteeism, Medical Payments, and Disability Leave: A Longitudinal View.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Brian

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study is to examine how much of the relationships between unhealthy body weight, and health and productivity outcomes are attributable to health status, and how much can be ameliorated by weight loss or improvements in health. Cross-sectional and first-difference regressions were conducted of employees' body mass index (BMI) category, illness absences, presenteeism, medical spending, and disability leaves. Employees in the obese BMI category have significantly worse outcomes than employees in the healthy and overweight BMI categories. Controlling for physical and emotional health status mediates much of the observed relationships. Improved health, stress, and psychological distress are associated with reduced illness absence and presenteeism among overweight and obese employees. Obese employees who lost weight experienced reduced presenteeism. The findings suggest that overweight and obese employees can realize improved productivity without weight loss. PMID:25375972

  11. Diet/Energy Balance Affect Sleep and Wakefulness Independent of Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Isaac J.; Pack, Allan I.; Veasey, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Excessive daytime sleepiness commonly affects obese people, even in those without sleep apnea, yet its causes remain uncertain. We sought to determine whether acute dietary changes could induce or rescue wake impairments independent of body weight. Design: We implemented a novel feeding paradigm that generates two groups of mice with equal body weight but opposing energetic balance. Two subsets of mice consuming either regular chow (RC) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 w were switched to the opposite diet for 1 w. Sleep recordings were conducted at Week 0 (baseline), Week 8 (pre-diet switch), and Week 9 (post-diet switch) for all groups. Sleep homeostasis was measured at Week 8 and Week 9. Participants: Young adult, male C57BL/6J mice. Measurements and Results: Differences in total wake, nonrapid eye movement (NREM), and rapid eye movement (REM) time were quantified, in addition to changes in bout fragmentation/consolidation. At Week 9, the two diet switch groups had similar body weight. However, animals switched to HFD (and thus gaining weight) had decreased wake time, increased NREM sleep time, and worsened sleep/wake fragmentation compared to mice switched to RC (which were in weight loss). These effects were driven by significant sleep/wake changes induced by acute dietary manipulations (Week 8 → Week 9). Sleep homeostasis, as measured by delta power increase following sleep deprivation, was unaffected by our feeding paradigm. Conclusions: Acute dietary manipulations are sufficient to alter sleep and wakefulness independent of body weight and without effects on sleep homeostasis. Citation: Perron IJ, Pack AI, Veasey S. Diet/energy balance affect sleep and wakefulness independent of body weight. SLEEP 2015;38(12):1893–1903. PMID:26158893

  12. Effects of age on recovery of body weight following REM sleep deprivation of rats.

    PubMed

    Koban, Michael; Stewart, Craig V

    2006-01-30

    Chronically enforced rapid eye (paradoxical) movement sleep deprivation (REM-SD) of rats leads to a host of pathologies, of which hyperphagia and loss of body weight are among the most readily observed. In recent years, the etiology of many REM-SD-associated pathologies have been elucidated, but one unexplored area is whether age affects outcomes. In this study, male Sprague-Dawley rats at 2, 6, and 12 months of age were REM sleep-deprived with the platform (flowerpot) method for 10-12 days. Two-month-old rats resided on 7-cm platforms, while 10-cm platforms were used for 6- and 12-month-old rats; rats on 15-cm platforms served as tank controls (TCs). Daily changes in food consumption (g/kg(0.67)) and body weight (g) during baseline, REM-SD or TCs, and post-experiment recovery in home cages were determined. Compared to TCs, REM-SD resulted in higher food intake and decreases in body weight. When returned to home cages, food intake rapidly declined to baseline levels. Of primary interest was that rates of body weight gain during recovery differed between the age groups. Two-month-old rats rapidly restored body weight to pre-REM-SD mass within 5 days; 6-month-old rats were extrapolated by linear regression to have taken about 10 days, and for 12-month-old rats, the estimate was about 35 days. The observation that restoration of body weight following its loss during REM-SD may be age-dependent is in general agreement with the literature on aging effects on how mammals respond to stress. PMID:16243367

  13. Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract reduces body weight and fat mass in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Cho, In-Jin; Choung, Se Young; Hwang, You-Cheol; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon; Jeong, In-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    Aster spathulifolius Maxim (AS), a perennial herb of the genus Aster within the family Asteraceae, induced weight loss in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that AS could also reduce body weight in obese humans. Therefore, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Korea to evaluate the effect of AS extract (ASE) on body weight and fat mass and its safety in obese humans. Forty-four obese participants (body mass index [BMI], 25-30 kg/m(2)) aged ≥20 years were randomly assigned to the placebo or ASE group (700 mg/d of ASE) and were instructed to take a once-daily pill for 12 weeks. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, fat mass (measured using bioimpedance, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and computed tomography), and laboratory tests were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks. Body weight significantly decreased after 12 weeks of treatment in the ASE group (placebo vs ASE: -0.08 ± 2.11 kg vs -3.30 ± 3.15 kg, P < .05), and so did body fat mass (placebo vs ASE; bioimpedance method: -0.51 ± 1.89 kg vs -2.38 ± 2.30 kg, P < .05; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: 0.38 ± 1.59 kg vs -2.26 ± 2.37 kg, P < .05). Changes in lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose, and hemoglobin A1c did not differ between the 2 groups. No drug-related adverse events were observed during the study. In conclusion, ASE significantly decreases body weight and fat mass in obese humans, suggesting that ASE may be a potential therapeutic candidate for reducing obesity. PMID:27333958

  14. Excess body weight in children may increase the length of hospital stay

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Maria Teresa Bechere; Danti, Gabriel Vecchi; Garcia, Denise Maximo Lellis; Ferraro, Alexandre A

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of excess body weight in the pediatric ward of University Hospital and to test both the association between initial nutritional diagnosis and the length of stay and the in-hospital variation in nutritional status. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study based on information entered in clinical records from University Hospital. The data were collected from a convenience sample of 91 cases among children aged one to 10 years admitted to the hospital in 2009. The data that characterize the sample are presented in a descriptive manner. Additionally, we performed a multivariate linear regression analysis adjusted for age and gender. RESULTS: Nutritional classification at baseline showed that 87.8% of the children had a normal weight and that 8.9% had excess weight. The linear regression models showed that the average weight loss z-score of the children with excess weight compared with the group with normal weight was −0.48 (p = 0.018) and that their length of stay was 2.37 days longer on average compared with that of the normal-weight group (p = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS: The length of stay and loss of weight at the hospital may be greater among children with excess weight than among children with normal weight. PMID:25789515

  15. Preferred Child Body Size and Parental Underestimation of Child Weight in Mexican-American Families.

    PubMed

    Pasch, Lauri A; Penilla, Carlos; Tschann, Jeanne M; Martinez, Suzanna M; Deardorff, Julianna; de Groat, Cynthia L; Gregorich, Steven E; Flores, Elena; Butte, Nancy F; Greenspan, Louise C

    2016-09-01

    Objective To determine whether parents who prefer a heavier child would underestimate their child's weight more than those who prefer a leaner child. Methods Participants were Mexican-American families (312 mothers, 173 fathers, and 312 children ages 8-10) who were interviewed and had height and weight measurements. Parents reported their preferred child body size and their perceptions of their child's weight. Parents' underestimation of their child's weight was calculated as the standardized difference between parent's perception of their child's weight and the child's body mass index (BMI) z-score. Demographic factors and parental BMI were also assessed. Results Although 50 % of children were overweight or obese, only 11 % of mothers and 10 % of fathers perceived their children as being somewhat or very overweight. Multiple regressions controlling for covariates (parental BMI and child age) showed that parents who preferred a heavier child body size underestimated their children's weight more, compared to those who preferred a leaner child (β for mothers = .13, p < .03; β for fathers = .17, p < .03). Conclusions for Practice Parents who preferred a heavier child body size underestimated their child's weight to a greater degree than parents who preferred a leaner child. Attempts by pediatricians to correct parents' misperceptions about child weight may damage rapport and ultimately fail if the misperception is actually a reflection of parents' preferences, which may not be readily amenable to change. Future research should address optimal methods of communication about child overweight which take into account parent preferences. PMID:27016351

  16. No effect of dietary calcium on body weight of lean and obese mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinmin; Tordoff, Michael G

    2004-04-01

    Recent epidemiological and animal studies have led to the hypothesis that low dietary calcium intakes contribute to obesity. Here, we evaluated whether calcium influenced the body weight of normal-weight and obese rodents. All experiments involved female C57BL/6J mice or Sprague-Dawley rats fed normal- or high-energy-density diets (3.8 o 4.7 kcal/g). Calcium intake was manipulated by allowing mice to drink sweetened 30 mM CaCl(2) solution or feeding mice and rats diets differing in calcium content (0.2%, 0.6%, o 1.8% Ca(2+)). Blood samples were taken from rats to confirm that the diets had their intended effects on metabolism. There were no effects of the calcium manipulations on energy intake, body weight, or carcass fat content and no simple elation between calciotropic hormones and body weight. One experiment found a significant decrease in body weight gain of lean and obese rats fed the 1.8% Ca(2+) diet, but we suspect that this was due to forced consumption of the unpalatable diet, reducing growth. These studies provide little support for the hypothesis that dietary calcium contributes to the etiology or maintenance of obesity. PMID:14684563

  17. Literature review: perceptions and management of body size among normal weight and moderately overweight people.

    PubMed

    Nissen, N K; Holm, L

    2015-02-01

    Improved understanding of how normal weight and moderately overweight people manage their body weight and shape could be used to inform initiatives to prevent and treat obesity. This literature review offers a thorough appraisal of existing research into perceptions and management of own body size among normal weight and moderately overweight people. The studies reported in the 47 publications reviewed here address various themes based on different conceptualizations. The studies point out that normal weight and moderately overweight people are much concerned about their body size, but huge discrepancies are found between their own perceptions and study categorizations. The studies also indicate that normal weight and moderately overweight people are actively engaged in managing their body size through numerous managing strategies, and dieting is widespread. Together the studies do not form a unified and coherent research field, and there is a bias towards North American study populations. Methodological problems were identified in some publications, raising questions about generalizability of the findings. Moreover, only few studies give deeper insight into the specific perceptions and actions. Repeated studies are needed in broader and more differentiated geographical, social and cultural contexts, and longitudinal studies and more in-depth explorations are especially needed. PMID:25487846

  18. Intense sweeteners, food intake, and the weight of a body of evidence.

    PubMed

    Renwick, A G

    1994-01-01

    A review of published data shows that although intense sweeteners have been shown to increase hunger ratings in some studies in humans, this has not been a consistent and reproducible observation. Any slight effect on perceived hunger has not been translated into an increase in food ingestion or effects on blood concentrations of insulin or glucose. Studies on the covert substitution of caloric sweeteners by intense sweeteners have shown either a decrease or no change in body weight. The published database does not support the concept that the consumption of intense sweeteners results in a paradoxical increase in calorie intake and body weight. PMID:8140158

  19. Nutraceuticals for body-weight management: The role of green tea catechins.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Pilou L H R; Hursel, Rick; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2016-08-01

    Green tea catechins mixed with caffeine have been proposed as adjuvants for maintaining or enhancing energy expenditure and for increasing fat oxidation, in the context of prevention and treatment of obesity. These catechins-caffeine mixtures seem to counteract the decrease in metabolic rate that occurs during weight loss. Their effects are of particular importance during weight maintenance after weight loss. Other metabolic targets may be fat absorption and the gut microbiota composition, but these effects still need further investigation in combination with weight loss. Limitations for the effects of green tea catechins are moderating factors such as genetic predisposition related to COMT-activity, habitual caffeine intake, and ingestion combined with dietary protein. In conclusion, a mixture of green tea catechins and caffeine has a beneficial effect on body-weight management, especially by sustained energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and preservation of fat free body-mass, after energy restriction induced body-weight loss, when taking the limitations into account. PMID:26836279

  20. Energy Density, Energy Intake, and Body Weight Regulation in Adults12345

    PubMed Central

    Karl, J. Philip; Roberts, Susan B.

    2014-01-01

    The role of dietary energy density (ED) in the regulation of energy intake (EI) is controversial. Methodologically, there is also debate about whether beverages should be included in dietary ED calculations. To address these issues, studies examining the effects of ED on EI or body weight in nonelderly adults were reviewed. Different approaches to calculating dietary ED do not appear to alter the direction of reported relations between ED and body weight. Evidence that lowering dietary ED reduces EI in short-term studies is convincing, but there are currently insufficient data to determine long-term effectiveness for weight loss. The review also identified key barriers to progress in understanding the role of ED in energy regulation, in particular the absence of a standard definition of ED, and the lack of data from multiple long-term clinical trials examining the effectiveness of low-ED diet recommendations for preventing both primary weight gain and weight regain in nonobese individuals. Long-term clinical trials designed to examine the impact of dietary ED on energy regulation, and including multiple ED calculation methods within the same study, are still needed to determine the importance of ED in the regulation of EI and body weight. PMID:25398750

  1. Is There Evidence that Friends Influence Body Weight? A Systematic Review of Empirical Research

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Solveig A.; Vaquera, Elizabeth; Maturo, Claire C.; Narayan, K.M. Venkat

    2012-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers from diverse fields are engaged in efforts to understand the biological and social causes of obesity in order to develop policies, interventions, and recommendations to stop or reverse increases in obesity. One potentially promising approach is to harness influence from social contacts. An important foundation for this approach involves critically analyzing available data regarding whether and how body weight can be affected by close social contacts, especially friends. This systematic review examines evidence from published studies addressing the influences of friends on body weight. The majority of the sixteen studies conclude that there is evidence of influence: six reported that friends influence body weight and ten reported evidence of influence in some circumstances or specifications. However, this literature sheds little light on mechanisms of influence. There is limited evidence that friends’ communication about weight is associated with weight status and no compelling evidence that friends’ behaviors affect one’s weight. Many of the studies best designed to examine influence were the ones that did not explore mechanisms of influence. A priority for future research is to understand how, when, and how much friends affect the risk of obesity. PMID:22749656

  2. Body weight variability in midlife and risk for dementia in old age

    PubMed Central

    Schnaider-Beeri, Michal; Goldbourt, Uri

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the relationship between body weight variability and dementia more than 3 decades later. Methods: The measurement of body weight variability was based on 3 successive weight recordings taken from over 10,000 apparently healthy tenured working men participating in the Israel Ischemic Heart Disease study, in which cardiovascular risk factors and clinical status were assessed in 1963, 1965, and 1968, when subjects were 40–70 years of age. Groups of men were stratified according to quartiles of SD of weight change among 3 measurements (1963/1965/1968): ≤1.15 kg, 1.16–1.73 kg, 1.74–2.65 kg, and ≥2.66 kg. The prevalence of dementia was assessed more than 36 years later in approximately one-sixth of them who survived until 1999/2000 (minimum age 76 years) and underwent cognitive evaluation (n = 1,620). Results: Survivors' dementia prevalence rates were 13.4%, 18.4%, 20.1%, and 19.2% in the first to fourth quartiles of weight change SD, respectively (p for trend = 0.034). Compared to the first quartile of weight change SD and adjusted for diabetes mellitus, body height, and socioeconomic status, a multivariate analysis demonstrated that the odds ratio for dementia was 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.95–2.13), 1.59 (95% CI 1.05–2.37), and 1.74 (95% CI 1.14–2.64) in quartiles 2–4 of weight change SD respectively. This relationship was independent of the direction of weight changes. Conclusion: Midlife variations in weight may antecede late-life dementia. PMID:23576627

  3. Body and organ weights of rats exposed to carbon monoxide at high altitude.

    PubMed

    McGrath, J J

    1988-01-01

    Although chronic exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) or high altitude produces pronounced cardiovascular changes in humans as well as animals, there is little information on the effects elicited by these stressors combined. Theoretical considerations, as well as data from acute studies, suggest that CO inhaled at high altitude may be more detrimental than CO inhaled at low altitude. The purpose of these studies was to construct a system in which CO and altitude could be controlled precisely, and to investigate the effects of continuous exposure to CO and high altitude on body weights and hematocrit ratios, as well as heart, spleen, adrenals, kidneys, and pituitary weights. Male, laboratory rats were exposed for 6 wk in steel barometric chambers to (1) 100 ppm CO, (2) 15,000 ft simulated high altitude (SHA), and (3) CO at SHA. Altitude was simulated by a system of gate valves and a vacuum pump, and measured by an altimeter. CO, from high-pressure cylinders, was introduced into the air supplying each chamber through a mass flow controller and measured by a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer. Although SHA had no affect on left ventricle plus septum (LV + S), adrenal, spleen, or kidney weights, SHA decreased body weights, and increased hematocrit ratios, as well as right ventricle (RV), total heart (HT), and pituitary weights. CO had no affect on body weights, RV, HT, adrenal, spleen, or kidney weights, but CO increased hematocrit ratios and LV + S weights. There was no significant interaction between SHA and CO on any parameter except kidney weight. These results indicate that, in general, the effects produced by 15,000 ft SHA are not intensified by exposure to 100 ppm CO. PMID:3351978

  4. Body Dissatisfaction Mediates the Association between Body Mass Index and Risky Weight Control Behaviors among White and Native American Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Wesley C.; Heil, Daniel P.; Wagner, Elise; Havens, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    The developmental path leading to eating disorders among adolescent girls often proceeds from increasing body size, to increasing body dissatisfaction, to increasing ED risk. To determine whether body dissatisfaction (BD) mediates the association between body size and risky weight control behaviors, we examined data from White (n = 709) and Native American (n = 253) girls, who differ substantially in terms of average body mass and reported weight control behaviors. Measures of BD included weight, shape, and appearance concerns. Measures of ED-risk included dieting, exercising to control weight, binge eating, and vomiting. Results showed body dissatisfaction was a highly significant mediator of the relationship between BMI and ED risk for both ethnic groups; although BD did not mediate the association between BMI and binge eating for either group. BD is apparently an important mediator of the association between body size and some, but not all, risky weight control behaviors. PMID:18342990

  5. Body and organ weights of rats exposed to carbon monoxide at high altitude

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    Male, laboratory rats were exposed for 6 wk in steel barometric chambers to (1) 100 ppm CO, (2) 15,000 ft simulated high altitude (SHA), and (3) CO at SHA. Altitude was simulated by a system of gate valves and a vacuum pump, and measured by an altimeter. CO, from high-pressure cylinders, was introduced into the air supplying each chamber through a mass flow controller and measured by a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer. Although SHA had no affect on left ventricle plus septum (LV + S), adrenal, spleen, or kidney weights, SHA decreased body weights, and increased hematocrit ratios, as well as right ventricle (RV), total heart (HT), and pituitary weights. CO had no affect on body weights, RV, HT, adrenal, spleen, or kidney weights, but CO increased hematocrit ratios and LV + S weights. There was no significant interaction between SHA and CO on any parameter except kidney weight. These results indicate that, in general, the effects produced by 15,000 ft SHA are not intensified by exposure to 100 ppm CO.

  6. Targeting TRPV1 for Body Weight Control using TRPV1(-/-) Mice and Electroacupuncture.

    PubMed

    Choowanthanapakorn, Monchanok; Lu, Kung-Wen; Yang, Jun; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Lin, Yi-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a global social medical problem resulting in morbidity as high as 20-30%. Here we investigated whether the manipulation of TRPV1 can control mice body weight through electroacupuncture (EA). The results demonstrated that body weight increased with time in the control group (108.19 ± 1.31%, n = 7). The increase of mice body weight was significantly less in the EA group (104.41 ± 0.76%, p < 0.05, compared with the control group, n = 7) but not in the sham EA group (109.1 ± 0.63%, p < 0.05, compared with EA group, n = 7). EA did not decrease the gain of body weight in TRPV1 knock mice (107.94 ± 0.41% and 107.79 ± 1.04% for TRPV1(-/-) and TRPV1(-/-) with EA, respectively, p > 0.05). The visceral white adipose tissue (WAT) weight was lower in the EA group at 4 weeks after manipulation. Moreover, the protein levels of TRPV1, pPKA, pPKC, and pERK were increased in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord (SC) after EA treatment but not in the sham EA and TRPV1(-/-) mice. This study suggests that targeting TRPV1 is beneficial in controlling body weight and TRPV1-associated mechanisms in mice. PMID:26621679

  7. Targeting TRPV1 for Body Weight Control using TRPV1−/− Mice and Electroacupuncture

    PubMed Central

    Choowanthanapakorn, Monchanok; Lu, Kung-Wen; Yang, Jun; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Lin, Yi-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a global social medical problem resulting in morbidity as high as 20–30%. Here we investigated whether the manipulation of TRPV1 can control mice body weight through electroacupuncture (EA). The results demonstrated that body weight increased with time in the control group (108.19 ± 1.31%, n = 7). The increase of mice body weight was significantly less in the EA group (104.41 ± 0.76%, p < 0.05, compared with the control group, n = 7) but not in the sham EA group (109.1 ± 0.63%, p < 0.05, compared with EA group, n = 7). EA did not decrease the gain of body weight in TRPV1 knock mice (107.94 ± 0.41% and 107.79 ± 1.04% for TRPV1−/− and TRPV1−/− with EA, respectively, p > 0.05). The visceral white adipose tissue (WAT) weight was lower in the EA group at 4 weeks after manipulation. Moreover, the protein levels of TRPV1, pPKA, pPKC, and pERK were increased in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord (SC) after EA treatment but not in the sham EA and TRPV1−/− mice. This study suggests that targeting TRPV1 is beneficial in controlling body weight and TRPV1-associated mechanisms in mice. PMID:26621679

  8. Risk of Thromboembolism Following Body-Contouring Surgery After Massive Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, M.; Akhavani, M. A.; Muirhead, N.; Fleming, A. N. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: “Postbariatric” patients are at significant risk for increased postoperative complications. This study aimed to define the risk of venous thromboembolism following body-contouring surgery after massive weight loss. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on all patients who had undergone all forms of body-contouring procedures after massive weight loss between January 2005 and August 2012 at St George's Hospital, South West London, United Kingdom. Data were collected on patient demographics, comorbidities, risks factors for thromboembolism, preoperative and postoperative body mass index, and type of surgery. Results: A total of 135 operations were performed on 53 patients (43 females, 10 male), with an average age of 44.8 years (range, 26–56 years). Most had staged procedures including 55 abdominoplasties, 23 brachioplasties, 31 thigh lifts, 14 lower-body lifts, and 12 mastopexies. All patients received venous thromboembolism prophylaxis postoperatively including low-molecular-weight heparin (dalteparin) within an average of 22.5 hours after surgery and the application of intraoperative graduated compression stockings. Patients received dalteparin for an average of 4 days (range, 2–14 days), which correlated to their length of stay. One patient had a deep venous thrombosis 14 days postoperatively and then 2 days later developed a nonfatal pulmonary embolus, giving a venous thromboembolism prevalence of 0.74% (1/135). Conclusions: The clinically apparent venous thromboembolism prevalence was low among patients undergoing body-contouring procedures after massive weight loss in this study. We provide evidence of a successful algorithm to prevent venous thromboembolism for patients undergoing body-contouring procedures after massive weight loss. PMID:26171089

  9. Novel modulators for body weight changes induced by fasting and re-feeding in mice.

    PubMed

    Nonogaki, Katsunori; Ohba, Yukie; Sumii, Makiko; Wakameda, Mamoru; Tamari, Tomohiro

    2009-01-01

    Catch-up weight gain after malnutrition is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Here we show that social isolation enhanced fasting-induced weight loss and suppressed weight gain induced by re-feeding for 6 days following a 24-h fast in prepubertal wild-type mice. These effects of social isolation on weight gain were not associated with significant changes in daily average food consumption. Under the same housing condition, genetic deletion of beta-endorphin reduced the fasting-induced weight loss and enhanced the re-feeding-induced weight gain in prepubertal mice. These effects of social isolation or genetic deletion of beta-endorphin on these weight changes were attenuated and reversed in postpubertal mice. Moreover, genetic deletion of beta-endorphin attenuated these effects of social isolation on the catch-up weight gain in prepubertal mice and reversed them in postpubertal mice. Thus, social isolation, endogenous beta-endorphin, and age can be novel modulators for body weight changes induced by fasting and re-feeding in mice. PMID:19017526

  10. Birth weight, early life course BMI, and body size change: Chains of risk to adult inflammation?

    PubMed

    Goosby, Bridget J; Cheadle, Jacob E; McDade, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how body size changes over the early life course to predict high sensitivity C-reactive protein in a U.S. based sample. Using three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we test the chronic disease epidemiological models of fetal origins, sensitive periods, and chains of risk from birth into adulthood. Few studies link birth weight and changes in obesity status over adolescence and early adulthood to adult obesity and inflammation. Consistent with fetal origins and sensitive periods hypotheses, body size and obesity status at each developmental period, along with increasing body size between periods, are highly correlated with adult CRP. However, the predictive power of earlier life course periods is mediated by body size and body size change at later periods in a pattern consistent with the chains of risk model. Adult increases in obesity had effect sizes of nearly 0.3 sd, and effect sizes from overweight to the largest obesity categories were between 0.3 and 1 sd. There was also evidence that risk can be offset by weight loss, which suggests that interventions can reduce inflammation and cardiovascular risk, that females are more sensitive to body size changes, and that body size trajectories over the early life course account for African American- and Hispanic-white disparities in adult inflammation. PMID:26685708

  11. Developmental Coordination Disorder, Gender, and Body Weight: Examining the Impact of Participation in Active Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairney, John; Kwan, Matthew Y. W.; Hay, John A.; Faught, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To examine whether differences in participation in active play (PAP) can account for gender differences in the relationship between Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and body weight/fat (BMI and percentage fat) in youth. Methods: A cross-sectional investigation of students in grades four through eight (n = 590). Height, weight…

  12. Food Consumption Patterns of Nigerian Adolescents and Effect on Body Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olumakaiye, M. F.; Atinmo, Tola; Olubayo-Fatiregun, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Association between nutritional status of adolescents and food consumption pattern. Design: Data on number of meals and snacks consumed daily were collected using structured questionnaires. Nutritional status was assessed as weight-for-age body mass index score less than fifth percentile of the National Center for Health…

  13. Direct and Indirect Effects of Teenage Body Weight on Adult Wages. NBER Working Paper No. 15027

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Euna; Norton, Edward C.; Powell, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous estimates on the association between body weight and wages in the literature have been contingent on education and occupation. This paper examines the direct effect of BMI on wages and the indirect effects operating through education and occupation choice, particularly for late-teen BMI and adult wages. Using the National Longitudinal…

  14. Variation in body weight and total length among families of fingerling white bass after communal rearing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variation in body weight and total length among 15 families of Phase I white bass Morone chrysops was evaluated in a communal pond. Family pedigrees were determined a posteriori using microsatellite molecular markers and trait heritabilities (h2) were estimated. Fingerlings averaged 36.7 (+ or - 2...

  15. High Blood Pressure in Adults with Disabilities: Influence of Gender, Body Weight and Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Chien-Ting; Liou, Shih-Wen; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the mean and distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and to examine the influence of gender, body weight and health behaviors on hypertension in adults with disabilities. We analyzed the 2010 annual community health examination chart of adults with disabilities in east Taiwan. The study samples…

  16. Contributions of the Hippocampus and Medial Prefrontal Cortex to Energy and Body Weight Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, T. L.; Chan, Kinho; Jarrard, Leonard E.; Kanoski, Scott E.; Clegg, Deborah J.; Benoit, Stephen C.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of selective ibotenate lesions of the complete hippocampus (CHip), the hippocampal ventral pole (VP), or the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in male rats were assessed on several measures related to energy regulation (i.e., body weight gain, food intake, body adiposity, metabolic activity general behavioral activity, conditioned appetitive responding). The testing conditions were designed to minimize the nonspecific debilitating effects of these surgeries on intake and body weight. Rats with CHip and VP lesions exhibited significantly greater weight gain and food intake compared to controls. Furthermore, CHip-lesioned rats, but not rats with VP lesions, showed elevated metabolic activity, general activity in the dark phase of the light-dark cycle, and greater conditioned appetitive behavior, compared to control rats without these brain lesions. In contrast, rats with mPFC lesions were not different from controls on any of these measures. These results indicate that hippocampal damage interferes with energy and body weight regulation, perhaps by disrupting higher-order learning and memory processes that contribute to the control of appetitive and consummatory behavior. PMID:18831000

  17. Effects of Body Weight and Nutrition on Histological Mammary Development in Holstein Heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine effects of rate of gain and body weight (BW) on mammary parenchymal tissue development. Mammary tissue samples were available from heifers (n = 54) reared on one of two dietary treatments, restricted (R) 650 g/d or elevated (E) 950 g/d of daily gain), and slaughtered ...

  18. Effects of transportation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge on body weight and feed intake of crossbred heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of transportation and LPS challenge on feed intake (FI) and body weight (BW) of calves. Brahman x British heifers (n=44) from Raymond, MS, were weaned and acclimated to a high roughage diet fed in GrowSafe® bunks for 25 d. Heifers were blocked by BW...

  19. Heritability of sudden death syndrome and its associated correlations to ascites and body weight in broilers.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, H K; McMillan, I; Chambers, J R; Julian, R J; Tranchant, C C

    2005-02-01

    (1) Genetic parameters for the sudden death syndrome (SDS) were estimated in meat-type chickens. Data were collected over 11 generations of selection for body weight within two distinct breeds (Cornish and White Rock). (2) The animal model was used exclusively with linear methods (LM) to estimate genetic parameters. Heritability (h2) of SDS on the liability scale was 0.30 +/- 0.002 and 0.25 +/- 0.002 in the Cornish and White Rock breeds, respectively. (3) A positive genetic correlation (r(g)) with ascites (AS) was determined (approximately 0.3 +/- 0.006). However, it was not possible to estimate the rg of SDS with body weight because of the low prevalence of the defect trait studied (1.8% in the Cornish and 1-5% in the White Rock). (4) Heritability of SDS calculated using male records only was 0.45 +/- 0.009 and 0.35 +/- 0.009, and r(g) with body weight was 0.30 +/- 0.010 and 0.27 +/- 0.009, in the Cornish and White Rock breeds, respectively. (5) In conclusion, the heart defect investigated was heritable with a positive genetic correlation with AS and body weight. PMID:15835252

  20. Treadmill Training with Partial Body-Weight Support in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutlu, Akmer; Krosschell, Kristin; Spira, Deborah Gaebler

    2009-01-01

    OKAim: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the literature on the effects of partial body-weight support treadmill training (PBWSTT) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) on functional outcomes and attainment of ambulation. Method: We searched the relevant literature from 1950 to July 2007. We found eight studies on the use of PWSBTT on…

  1. Genetic variations of body weight and GCRV resistance in a random mating population of grass carp

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Rong; Sun, Jiaxian; Luo, Qing; He, Libo; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; Guo, Fuhua; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

    2015-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is an important species in freshwater aquaculture both in China and on a global scale. Variety degeneration and frequent diseases have limited the further development of grass carp aquaculture. Thus, new and improved varieties are required. Here, we identified and assessed the body weight and disease resistance in a random mating population of 19 ♀ × 22 ♂ grass carp, which were derived from different water systems. In both the growth experimental group of 10,245 fish and grass carp reovirus (GCRV)-infected group with 10,000 fish, 78 full-sib families were statistically analyzed for body weight and GCRV resistance. The findings showed that body weight traits had low heritability (0.11 ± 0.04, 0.10 ± 0.03 and 0.12 ± 0.05), GCRV resistance traits had high heritability (0.63 ± 0.11); body weight was higher in 3 families, whereas GCRV resistance was significantly greater in 11 families. Our results confirmed that the natural germplasm resources of wild grass carp were genetically diverse. Breeding of GCRV resistant varieties of grass carp have better genetic basis. This study provides the basis for constructing basal populations for grass carp selective breeding, quantitative trait loci (QTL) and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) analysis. PMID:26439690

  2. Effects of Royal Jelly Supplementation on Body Weight and Dietary Intake in Type 2 Diabetic Females

    PubMed Central

    Pourmoradian, Samira; Mahdavi, Reza; Mobasseri, Majid; Faramarzi, Elnaz; Mobasseri, Mehrnoosh

    2012-01-01

    Background: The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of royal jelly supple-mentation on body weight, total daily energy and macronutrients intakes in type2 diabetic fe-males. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, fifty female volunteers with type2 diabetes were as-signed into the supplemented (n=25) and placebo (n=25) groups, given a daily dose of 1000 mg royal jelly soft gel or placebo, for 8 weeks, respectively. Before and after the intervention, body weight and height of subjects were measured and body mass index was calculated. Dietary intake of patients was assessed using 24-hour food recall questionnaire for three non consecutive days (including 1 weekend day) and analyzed with Nutritionist IV software. The normally distributed data were compared using paired and independent t-tests, where appropriate. Results: Royal jelly supplementation significantly (P<0.01) decreased the mean body weight (72.45±4.42 vs. 71.00±6.44 kg) while it increased insignificantly in placebo group (73.02±6.44 vs 73.52±6.80 kg). Royal jelly supplementation resulted in significant decrease of mean daily total energy (P<0.01) and carbohydrate (P<0.01) intakes, while in placebo group the mean daily total energy and fat intakes were increased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion: Supplementation with royal jelly may be beneficial in weight management of di-abetic patients. PMID:24688939

  3. Estrogen receptor-a in medial amygdala neurons regulates body weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estrogen receptor–a (ERa) activity in the brain prevents obesity in both males and females. However, the ERa-expressing neural populations that regulate body weight remain to be fully elucidated. Here we showed that single-minded–1 (SIM1) neurons in the medial amygdala (MeA) express abundant levels ...

  4. Glutamate mediates the function of melanocortin receptor 4 on sim1 neurons in body weight regulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is a well-established mediator of body weight homeostasis. However, the neurotransmitter(s) that mediate MC4R function remain largely unknown; as a result, little is known about the second-order neurons of the MC4R neural pathway. Single-minded 1 (Sim1)-expressing ...

  5. Effect of Lactose as a Prebiotic on Turkey Body Weight Under Commercial Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of a commercially available lactic acid bacteria (LAB) probiotic alone and supplemented with lactose as prebiotic, was evaluated for effects on turkey body weight during the brooding and grow out phases under commercial conditions in two experiments. Turkey poults were given the probioti...

  6. Effects of naltrexone on food intake and body weight gain in olanzapine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Kurbanov, Daniel B; Currie, Paul J; Simonson, Donald C; Borsook, David; Elman, Igor

    2012-09-01

    Blockade of opioidergic neurotransmission contributes to reduction in body weight. However, how such blockade affects body weight gain (BWG) attributed to second generation antipsychotic agents (SGAs) has not yet been established. Here we examined the effects of an opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone (NTX), on food intake and BWG associated with an SGA, olanzapine (OL). Four groups of Wistar Han IGS rats were treated for 28 days with either OL (2 mg/kg twice daily, intraperitoneal (IP)), a combination of OL (2 mg/kg twice daily, IP) + extended-release NTX (50 mg/kg, one-time, intramuscular (IM)), extended-release NTX (50 mg/kg, one-time, IM) or vehicle and their food intake and body weight were measured daily for the first nine days and every other day thereafter. Food intake and BWG that were increased by OL were decreased by the added NTX while NTX alone had no significant effects on food intake or on BWG. Plasma leptin concentrations were significantly elevated in the three groups receiving pharmacological agents, but did not differ among each other, suggesting that changes in leptin secretion and/or clearance alone would not explain the food intake and the body weight findings. Our results extend prior reports on anorexigenic effects of opioid antagonists by demonstrating that such effects may generalize to food intake increases and BWG arising in the context of OL pharmacotherapy. PMID:22723540

  7. Link between Food Energy Density and Body Weight Changes in Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Rodacki, Tomasz; Dobrowolska-Iwanek, Justyna; Brzozowska, Anna; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Wojtanowska-Krosniak, Agnieszka; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Bechthold, Angela; Mardas, Marcin; Boeing, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    Regulating the energy density of food could be used as a novel approach for successful body weight reduction in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a systemic review of the literature on the relationship between food energy density and body weight changes in obese adults to obtain solid evidence supporting this approach. The search process was based on the selection of publications in the English language listed in public databases. A meta-analysis was performed to combine individual study results. Thirteen experimental and observational studies were identified and included in the final analysis. The analyzed populations consist of 3628 individuals aged 18 to 66 years. The studies varied greatly in terms of study populations, study design and applied dietary approaches. The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between low energy density foods and body weight reduction, i.e., −0.53 kg when low energy density foods were eaten (95% CI: −0.88, −0.19). In conclusions, this study adds evidence which supports the energy density of food as a simple but effective measure to manage weight in the obese with the aim of weight reduction. PMID:27104562

  8. Ultrasonographic evaluation of adrenal gland size compared to body weight in normal dogs.

    PubMed

    Soulsby, Stacy N; Holland, Merrilee; Hudson, Judith A; Behrend, Ellen N

    2015-01-01

    The accepted cut-off value for adrenal gland maximum diameter of 0.74 cm to distinguish adrenal gland enlargement in dogs regardless of body weight may not be appropriate for small to medium breed dogs. The purpose of the current retrospective study was to examine adrenal gland dimensions as a function of body weight in healthy dogs in three weight categories (< 10 kg, 10-30 kg, and > 30 kg) representing small, medium, and large breeds, respectively, to establish greater confidence in determining if adrenal gland size is abnormal. The measurements of length (sagittal plane), cranial and caudal pole thickness (sagittal and transverse planes), and caudal pole width (transverse plane) of both adrenal glands were obtained ultrasonographically in clinically healthy dogs (n = 45) with 15 dogs in each weight group. Findings support our hypothesis that adrenal gland size correlates with body weight in normal dogs, and more precise reference intervals should be created for adrenal gland size by categorizing dogs as small, medium, or large breed. The caudal pole thickness of either adrenal gland in a sagittal plane was the best dimension for evaluating adrenal gland size based on low variability, ease, and reliability in measurement. PMID:25496665

  9. For Researchers on Obesity: Historical Review of Extra Body Weight Definitions

    PubMed Central

    Komaroff, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Rationale. The concept of obesity has been known since ancient world; however, the current standard definition of obesity was endorsed only about a decade ago. There is a need for researches to understand multiple approaches to defining obesity and how and why the standard definition was developed. The review will help to grasp the complexity of the problem and can lead to novel hypotheses in obesity research. Objective. This paper focuses on the objective to understand historical background on the development of “reference and standard tables” of weight as a platform for normal versus abnormal body weight definition. Methods. A systematic literature review was performed to chronologically summarize the definition of body weight from time of Hippocrates till the year of 2010. Conclusion. This paper presents the historical background on the development of “reference and standard tables” of weight as a platform for normal versus abnormal body weight definition. Knowledge of historical approaches to the concept of obesity can motivate researchers to find new hypotheses and utilize the appropriate obesity assessments to address their objectives. PMID:27313875

  10. Effects of artificial sweeteners on body weight, food and drink intake.

    PubMed

    Polyák, Eva; Gombos, K; Hajnal, B; Bonyár-Müller, K; Szabó, Sz; Gubicskó-Kisbenedek, A; Marton, K; Ember, I

    2010-12-01

    Artificial sweeteners are widely used all over the world. They may assist in weight management, prevention of dental caries, control of blood glucose of diabetics, and also can be used to replace sugar in foods. In the animal experimentation mice were given oral doses of water solutions of table top artificial sweeteners (saccharin, cyclamate based, acesulfame-K based, and aspartame) the amount of maximum Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) ad libitum. The controls received only tap water with the same drinking conditions as the treated groups. The mice were fed chow ad libitum.We measured food intake and body weight once a week, water and solutions of artificial sweeteners intake twice a week. The data were analysed by statistical methods (T-probe, regression analysis).Consumption of sweeteners resulted in significantly increased body weight; however, the food intake did not change.These results question the effect of non-caloric artificial sweeteners on weight-maintenance or body weight decrease. PMID:21138816

  11. Link between Food Energy Density and Body Weight Changes in Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Rodacki, Tomasz; Dobrowolska-Iwanek, Justyna; Brzozowska, Anna; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Wojtanowska-Krosniak, Agnieszka; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Bechthold, Angela; Mardas, Marcin; Boeing, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    Regulating the energy density of food could be used as a novel approach for successful body weight reduction in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a systemic review of the literature on the relationship between food energy density and body weight changes in obese adults to obtain solid evidence supporting this approach. The search process was based on the selection of publications in the English language listed in public databases. A meta-analysis was performed to combine individual study results. Thirteen experimental and observational studies were identified and included in the final analysis. The analyzed populations consist of 3628 individuals aged 18 to 66 years. The studies varied greatly in terms of study populations, study design and applied dietary approaches. The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between low energy density foods and body weight reduction, i.e., -0.53 kg when low energy density foods were eaten (95% CI: -0.88, -0.19). In conclusions, this study adds evidence which supports the energy density of food as a simple but effective measure to manage weight in the obese with the aim of weight reduction. PMID:27104562

  12. Gestational weight gain, prepregnancy body mass index related to pregnancy outcomes in KAZERUN, FARS, IRAN

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabaei, Mozhgan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between pregnancy outcomes and prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain among pregnant women who regularly attended health centers of Kazerun, Fars, Iran. Methods: In this descriptive study records from 5172 pregnant women were considered in this study, based on the methodology criteria. Women were distributed across 4 prepregnancy categories according to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) (1990) classification of body mass index, and to 4 end-of-pregnancy categories according to median weekly gestational weight gain. Results: The risks for gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, and preterm premature rupture of membranes were higher for those who were overweight or obese before becoming pregnant (P < 0.05). Moreover, a gestational weight gain of 0.50 kg per week or greater was associated with a higher risk for gestational hypertension, preterm premature rupture of membranes, and fetal macrosomia (P < 0.05). Women in the highest quartile for weight gain (≥ 0.59 kg per week) were at higher risk for pre-eclampsia (P < 0.05). Discussion: The results seems to indicate that excessive gestational weight gain and high prepregnancy body mass index were associated with increased risks for adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:22439074

  13. Can you be large and not obese? The distinction between body weight, body fat, and abdominal fat in occupational standards.

    PubMed

    Friedl, Karl E

    2004-10-01

    Weight control is an important early intervention in diabetes, but the nature of the association between weight and disordered metabolism has been confused because fat mass and its distribution are only partly associated with increasing body size. Weight, fat, and regional fat placement, specifically in the abdominal site, may each have distinctly different associations with diabetes risk. Abdominal circumference may be the common marker of poor fitness habits and of increased risk for metabolic diseases such as diabetes. This is an important question for public health policy as well as for occupational standards such as those of the military, which are intended to promote fitness for military missions and include strength and aerobic capacity, as well as military appearance considerations. U.S. soldiers are heavier than ever before, reflecting both increased muscle and fat components. They also have better health care than ever before and are required to exercise regularly, and even the oldest soldiers are required to remain below body fat limits that are more stringent than the current median values of the U.S. population over age 40. The body fat standards assessed by circumference-based equations are 20-26% and 30-36%, for various age groups of men and women, respectively, and the upper limits align with threshold values of waist circumference recommended in national health goals. The basis and effects of the Army standards are presented in this paper. U.S. Army body fat standards may offer practical and reasonable health guidelines suitable for all active Americans that might help stem the increasing prevalence of obesity that is predicted to increase the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes. PMID:15628823

  14. The effect of body weight and posture on acceleration of platform vibrating plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozłowska, Roksana; Niewiadomski, Wiktor; Leonarcik, Rafał; Żyliński, Marek; Cybulski, Gerard

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect the body weight and position on the mechanical output of vibration platform measured as maximal acceleration of vertical sinusoidal oscillations of vibrating plate. We examined five subjects applying the frequencies 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 Hz and different amplifier's voltage output fed to mechanical vibration generator. We found that at given frequency and voltage the greatest vibration of vibrating plate has been observed when subject stood on the forefoot; this effect was more distinctly pronounced at lower frequencies. The effect of body mass was less consistently evident. The effect of foot placement on the oscillations of vibration platform may be caused by different absorption of the mechanical energy by the body. We believe that in order to explain effect observed a mathematical model which accounts for body position on absorption of vibration along the trunk and mechanical properties of the platform should be constructed by combining already existing models of human body.

  15. Weight Loss at a Cost: Implications of High-Protein, Low- Carbohydrate Diets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Kathe A.; Lund, Robin J.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses three claims of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets: weight loss is attributed to the composition of the diet; insulin promotes the storage of fat, thereby, by limiting carbohydrates, dieters will decrease levels of insulin and body fat; and weight loss is the result of fat loss. The paper examines relevant scientific reports and notes…

  16. Heritabilities and genetic correlations of body weights and feather length in growing Muscovy selected in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y H; Poivey, J P; Rouvier, R; Wang, C T; Tai, C

    1999-12-01

    1. Heritabilities and genetic correlations in the base population of a closed strain of Muscovy duck, moderately selected for body weight at 10 weeks of age, have been estimated from the data of 9 successive generations for the following traits: male and female body weight at 10 and 18 weeks of age (BW10m, BW18m, BW10f, BW18f) and length of the 8th primary feather at 10 weeks of age (F110m, F110f). 2. Multivariate REML with an animal model was used, pooling data from the 9 generations (3283 and 3289 male and female offspring respectively). The same trait expressed in male and female was considered as 2 different traits. 3. The 8th primary feather was longer in females than in males by 6% to 22% at 10 weeks of age. Body weight was heavier in males than in females by 42% to 58% at 10 weeks of age and by 57% to 75% at 18 weeks of age. 3. The heritability estimates for body weight traits showed moderate values, being a little higher for females than for males at the same age, increasing with age from h2=0.24 at BW10m to h2=0.43 at BW18f. 4. The heritability estimates for feather length showed that a greater response would be obtained in selection for male feather length (h2=0.37) than for female length (h2=0.14). Both have high genetic correlations with body weight so they could be indirectly improved. 5. Heritabilities of the difference in body weights between males and females at 10 weeks (h2=0.07) and 18 weeks of age (h2=0.10) were small, as well as for feather length (h2=0.10). It would probably be difficult to modify sexual dimorphism in body weight through selection. 6. Genetic correlations between BW10m, BW18m and BW10f, BW18f were respectively r(g)=0.77 and r(g)=0.80. They were larger for body weight at the same ages between males and females, r(g)=0.90 (r(g)=0.88 between F110m and F110f). Body weight in males and females at the same age should be better considered as 2 different traits in a selection programme. 7. The cumulated predicted genetic gains

  17. Effect of body weight gain on insulin sensitivity after retirement from exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolkas, Constantine B.; Rodnick, Kenneth J.; Mondon, Carl E.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the body-weight gain after retirement from an exercise-training program on the retained increase in insulin sensitivity elicited by the training was investigated in exercise-trained (ET) rats. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by oral glucose tolerance and insulin suppression tests immediately after training and during retirement. Results show that, compared with sedentary controls, exercise training enhanced insulin-induced glucose uptake, but the enhanced sensitivity was gradually lost with the end of running activity until after seven days of retirement, when it became equal to that of controls. This loss of enhanced sensitivity to insulin was associated with an accelerated gain in body weight beginning one day after the start of retirement. However, those animals that gained weight only at rates similar to those of control rats, retained their enhanced sensitivity to insulin.

  18. Veteran Status and Body Weight: A Longitudinal Fixed-Effects Approach

    PubMed Central

    Teachman, Jay

    2014-01-01

    About 10–12 % of young men (and increasingly, women) have served a term in the military. Yet, we know relatively little about the consequences of military service for the lives of those who serve. In this article, we provide estimates of the relationship between men’s peacetime military service during the all-volunteer era (AVE) and body weight using longitudinal data on 6,304 men taken from the National Longitudinal Survey of 1979 (NLSY-79). Using fixed-effects estimators on up to 13 years of data and numerous controls for time-varying life-course characteristics linked to body weight, we find that veterans of active-duty military service have higher levels of BMI and obesity. We argue that eating habits learned during service, coupled with patterns of physical activity, lead to a situation whereby veterans making the transition to less active civilian lifestyles gain weight that is not lost over time. PMID:25580045

  19. Efficacy of Slim339 in reducing body weight of overweight and obese human subjects.

    PubMed

    Toromanyan, Edward; Aslanyan, Gayane; Amroyan, Elmira; Gabrielyan, Emil; Panossian, Alexander

    2007-12-01

    A double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study has been carried out in order to evaluate the effect of orally self-administered Slim339, a proprietary fixed combination of Garcinia cambogia extract with calcium pantothenate (standardized for the content of hydroxycitric acid and pantothenic acid) and extracts of Matricaria chamomilla, Rosa damascena, Lavandula officinalis and Cananga odorata, on body weight in overweight and obese volunteers. During a 60-day treatment period, the average reduction in body weight for the group receiving Slim339 (n = 30) was 4.67% compared with 0.63% for the placebo group (n = 28) (p < 0.0001). Weight losses of >or=3 kg were recorded for 23 subjects in the treatment group and only one in the placebo group. It is concluded that Slim339 represents a potential therapy for obesity. PMID:17639559

  20. Effect of Nutritional Supplements on Immune Function and Body Weight in Malnourished Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Margolick, Joseph; Kahan, Scott; Mitola, Andrea H.; Poddar, Kavita H.; Nilles, Tricia; Kolge, Sanjivani; Menendez, Frederick; Ridoré, Michelande; Wang, Shing-Jung; Chou, Jacob; Carlson, Eve

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, approximately 5% of the population is malnourished or has low body weight, which can adversely affect immune function. Malnutrition is more prevalent in older adults and is often a result of energy imbalance from various causes. Dietary supplementation to promote positive energy balance can reverse malnutrition, but has not been assessed for its effect on immune parameters. This 8-week clinical feeding trial evaluated the effect of a commercially available, high-protein, high-energy formula on body weight and immune parameters in 30 adult volunteers with body-mass indices (BMI) <21 kg/m2. After the intervention, participants gained a mean of 3.74 lbs and increased BMI by 0.58 kg/m2. The intervention improved lean body mass and limited body fat accumulation. However, no clinically significant improvements in immune measures were observed. These results support the use of high-protein, high-energy supplements in the treatment of underweight/malnutrition. Further investigation utilizing feeding studies of longer duration, and/or studying severely malnourished individuals may be needed to detect an effect on immune parameters of weight gain promoted by nutritional supplements. PMID:23966789

  1. Hormonal and Metabolic Effects of Olanzapine and Clozapine Related to Body Weight in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Albaugh, Vance L.; Henry, Cathy R.; Bello, Nicholas T.; Hajnal, Andras; Lynch, Susan L.; Halle, Beth; Lynch, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To characterize a model of atypical antipsychotic drug-induced obesity and evaluate its mechanism. Research Methods and Procedures Chronically, olanzapine or clozapine was self-administered via cookie dough to rodents (Sprague-Dawley or Wistar rats; C57Bl/6J or A/J mice). Chronic studies measured food intake, body weight, adiponectin, active ghrelin, leptin, insulin, tissue wet weights, glucose, clinical chemistry endpoints, and brain dopaminergic D2 receptor density. Acute studies examined food intake, ghrelin, leptin, and glucose tolerance. Results Olanzapine (1 to 8 mg/kg), but not clozapine, increased body weight in female rats only. Weight changes were detectable within 2 to 3 days and were associated with hyperphagia starting ~24 hours after the first dose. Chronic administration (12 to 29 days) led to adiposity, hyperleptinemia, and mild insulin resistance; no lipid abnormalities or changes in D2 receptor density were observed. Topiramate, which has reversed weight gain from atypical anti-psychotics in humans, attenuated weight gain in rats. Acutely, olanzapine, but not clozapine, lowered plasma glucose and leptin. Increases in glucose, insulin, and leptin following a glucose challenge were also blunted. Discussion A model of olanzapine-induced obesity was characterized which shares characteristics of patients with atypical antipsychotic drug-induced obesity; these characteristics include hyperphagia, hyperleptinemia, insulin resistance, and weight gain attenuation by topiramate. This model may be a useful and inexpensive model of uncomplicated obesity amenable to rapid screening of weight loss drugs. Olanzapine-induced weight gain may be secondary to hyperphagia associated with acute lowering of plasma glucose and leptin, as well as the inability to increase plasma glucose and leptin following a glucose challenge. PMID:16493121

  2. Gastric antral injections of botulinum toxin delay gastric emptying but do not reduce body weight

    PubMed Central

    Topazian, Mark; Camilleri, Michael; Enders, Felicity T.; Clain, Jonathan E.; Gleeson, Ferga C.; Levy, Michael J.; Rajan, Elizabeth; Nehra, Vandana; Dierkhising, Ross A.; Collazo-Clavell, Maria L.; Talley, Nicholas J.; Clark, Matthew M.

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims Gastric injections of botulinum toxin A (BTA) have been reported to delay gastric emptying, increase satiation, and reduce body weight, but there are few data from randomized, placebo-controlled studies. Methods We enrolled 60 obese participants in a 24-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, concealed allocation trial to compare the effects of gastric antral injections of BTA (100 U, 300 U, or 500 U) and saline placebo. The study was conducted at an outpatient clinical research unit. Participants were given one set of injections of BTA or placebo into the gastric antral muscularis propria, using endoscopic ultrasound guidance. Gastric emptying of solids (GES) was measured by scintigraphy; we also measured body weight, satiation (maximum tolerated volume in a caloric liquid drink test), calorie intake (by food frequency questionnaire), gastrointestinal symptoms, and psychologic aspects of eating behavior (by rating scale). Results Compared with baseline values, 2 weeks after injections, the mean t1/2 for GES increased by 0.8, 14, 24, and 14 minutes among subjects given placebo, 100 U, 300 U, or 500 U of BTA, respectively (P=.24 overall, P=.04 for the group given 300 U vs placebo); 16 weeks after the injections, mean body weights were reduced by 2.2, 0.2, 2.3, and 3.0 kg in these groups, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in mean body weight change, satiation volume, caloric intake, gastrointestinal symptoms, or psychological aspects of eating behavior among groups. Conclusions Gastric antral injections of BTA may delay gastric emptying at a dose of 300 U, but do not cause early satiety, altered eating behaviors, or loss of body weight. Clinicaltrials. gov identifier: NCT00976443 PMID:23063681

  3. Body weight misperception in adolescence and incident obesity in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Misperceptions of one's weight are common in adolescence. Adolescents of normal weight who misperceive themselves as being overweight tend to engage in unhealthy dieting practices and behaviors that are conducive to obesity. To examine whether this misperception is associated with a risk of obesity during early adulthood, we analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 6,523; mean age at baseline = 16 years; 58% female). Adolescents who misperceived themselves as being overweight had greater odds of becoming obese over the 12-year follow-up period than adolescents who perceived their weight accurately (odds ratio = 1.41, 95% confidence interval = [1.22, 1.64]). Although the increase in the odds associated with misperception of weight was apparent for both sexes, it was significantly stronger among boys (1.89 greater odds) than among girls (1.29 greater odds). The present research indicates that weight-based self-stigmatization, much like weight-based social stigmatization, is a powerful risk factor for incident obesity. This finding underscores the importance of addressing inaccurate body weight perceptions, even among adolescents of normal weight. PMID:25749701

  4. Metabolic consequences of chronic sleep restriction in rats: changes in body weight regulation and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Barf, R P; Van Dijk, G; Scheurink, A J W; Hoffmann, K; Novati, A; Hulshof, H J; Fuchs, E; Meerlo, P

    2012-10-10

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between short or disrupted sleep and an increased risk to develop obesity. In animal studies, however, sleep restriction leads to an attenuation of weight gain that cannot be explained by changes in energy intake. In the present study, we assessed whether the attenuated weight gain under conditions of restricted sleep is a consequence of an overall increase in energy expenditure. Adult male rats were subjected to a schedule of chronic sleep restriction (SR) for 8 days with a 4h window of unrestricted rest per day. Electroencephalogram and electromyogram recordings were performed to quantify the effect of the sleep restriction schedule on sleep-wake patterns. In a separate experiment, we measured sleep restriction-induced changes in body weight, food intake, and regulatory hormones such as glucose, insulin, leptin and corticosterone. To investigate whether a change in energy expenditure underlies the attenuation of weight gain, energy expenditure was measured by the doubly labeled water method from day 5 until day 8 of the SR protocol. Results show a clear attenuation of weight gain during sleep restriction but no change in food intake. Baseline plasma glucose, insulin and leptin levels are decreased after sleep restriction which presumably reflects the nutritional status of the rats. The daily energy expenditure during SR was significantly increased compared to control rats. Together, we conclude that the attenuation of body weight gain in sleep restricted rats is explained by an overall increase in energy expenditure together with an unaltered energy intake. PMID:22995976

  5. Diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression/T2-weighted image fusion of gastrointestinal cancers

    PubMed Central

    TOMIZAWA, MINORU; SHINOZAKI, FUMINOBU; FUGO, KAZUNORI; SUNAOSHI, TAKAFUMI; KANO, DAISUKE; TANAKA, SATOMI; OZAKI, AIKA; SUGIYAMA, ERIKO; SHITE, MISAKI; HAGA, RYOUTA; BABA, AKIRA; FUKAMIZU, YOSHIYA; FUJITA, TOSHIYUKI; KAGAYAMA, SATOSHI; HASEGAWA, RUMIKO; TOGAWA, AKIRA; SHIRAI, YOSHINORI; ICHIKI, NOBORU; MOTOYOSHI, YASUFUMI; SUGIYAMA, TAKAO; YAMAMOTO, SHIGENORI; KISHIMOTO, TAKASHI; ISHIGE, NAOKI

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) yields positive results for cancer against the surrounding tissues. The combination of DWIBS and T2-weighted images (DWIBS/T2) in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal tract cancers was retrospectively analyzed in the present study. Patients were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging after cancer was diagnosed through specimens obtained via biopsy or endoscopic mucosal resection. Sixteen patients were assessed between July, 2012 and June, 2013 and the correlation between detection with DWIBS/T2 and T staging was analyzed. Regarding patients who underwent surgery, the correlation between detection with DWIBS/T2 and the diameter or depth of invasion was analyzed. All cancers that had advanced to >T2 stage were detectable by DWIBS/T2, whereas all cancers staged as T2) or invading beyond the muscularis propria. PMID:27330763

  6. Supplementation with a fish protein hydrolysate (Micromesistius poutassou): effects on body weight, body composition, and CCK/GLP-1 secretion

    PubMed Central

    Nobile, Vincenzo; Duclos, Elisa; Michelotti, Angela; Bizzaro, Gioia; Negro, Massimo; Soisson, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Background Fish protein hydrolysates (FPHs) have been reported as a suitable source of proteins for human nutrition because of their balanced amino acid composition and positive effect on gastrointestinal absorption. Objective Here, we investigated the effect of a FPH, Slimpro®, obtained from blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) muscle by enzymatic hydrolysis, on body composition and on stimulating cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. Design A randomized clinical study was carried out on 120, slightly overweight (25 kg/m2 ≤ BMI<30 kg/m2), male (25%) and female (75%) subjects. FPH was tested in a food supplement at two doses (1.4 and 2.8 g) to establish if a dose–effect relationship exists. Product use was associated with a mild hypocaloric diet (−300 kcal/day). Body composition (body weight; fat mass; extracellular water; and circumference of waist, thighs, and hips) and CCK/GLP-1 blood levels were measured at the beginning of the study and after 45 and 90 days of product use. CCK/GLP-1 levels were measured since they are involved in controlling food intake. Results Treated subjects reported an improvement of body weight composition and an increased blood concentration of both CCK and GLP-1. No differences were found between the 1.4 and 2.8 g FPH doses, indicating a plateau effect starting from 1.4 g FPH. Conclusions Both 1.4 and 2.8 g of FPH were effective in improving body composition and in increasing CCK and GLP-1 blood levels. PMID:26829186

  7. Weight Status, Body Image and Bullying among Adolescents in the Seychelles

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Michael L.; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Rousson, Valentin; Bovet, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between being bullied and measured body weight and perceived body weight among adolescents of a middle-income sub Saharan African country. Our data originated from the Global School-based Health Survey, which targets adolescents aged 13–15 years. Student weights and heights were measured before administrating the questionnaire which included questions about personal data, health behaviors and being bullied. Standard criteria were used to assess thinness, overweight and obesity. Among 1,006 participants who had complete data, 16.5% (95%CI 13.3–20.2) reported being bullied ≥3 days during the past 30 days; 13.4% were thin, 16.8% were overweight and 7.6% were obese. Categories of actual weight and of perceived weight correlated only moderately (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.37 for boys and 0.57 for girls; p < 0.001). In univariate analysis, both actual obesity (OR 1.76; p = 0.051) and perception of high weight (OR 1.63 for “slightly overweight”; OR 2.74 for “very overweight”, both p < 0.05) were associated with being bullied. In multivariate analysis, ORs for categories of perceived overweight were virtually unchanged while ORs for actual overweight and obesity were substantially attenuated, suggesting a substantial role of perceived weight in the association with being bullied. Actual underweight and perceived thinness also tended to be associated with being bullied, although not significantly. Our findings suggest that more research attention be given to disentangling the significant association between body image, overweight and bullying among adolescents. Further studies in diverse populations are warranted. PMID:23644826

  8. Weight status, body image and bullying among adolescents in the Seychelles.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael L; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Rousson, Valentin; Bovet, Pascal

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the relationship between being bullied and measured body weight and perceived body weight among adolescents of a middle-income sub Saharan African country. Our data originated from the Global School-based Health Survey, which targets adolescents aged 13-15 years. Student weights and heights were measured before administrating the questionnaire which included questions about personal data, health behaviors and being bullied. Standard criteria were used to assess thinness, overweight and obesity. Among 1,006 participants who had complete data, 16.5% (95%CI 13.3-20.2) reported being bullied ≥ 3 days during the past 30 days; 13.4% were thin, 16.8% were overweight and 7.6% were obese. Categories of actual weight and of perceived weight correlated only moderately (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.37 for boys and 0.57 for girls; p < 0.001). In univariate analysis, both actual obesity (OR 1.76; p = 0.051) and perception of high weight (OR 1.63 for "slightly overweight"; OR 2.74 for "very overweight", both p < 0.05) were associated with being bullied. In multivariate analysis, ORs for categories of perceived overweight were virtually unchanged while ORs for actual overweight and obesity were substantially attenuated, suggesting a substantial role of perceived weight in the association with being bullied. Actual underweight and perceived thinness also tended to be associated with being bullied, although not significantly. Our findings suggest that more research attention be given to disentangling the significant association between body image, overweight and bullying among adolescents. Further studies in diverse populations are warranted. PMID:23644826

  9. Blood lead level association with lower body weight in NHANES 1999–2006

    SciTech Connect

    Scinicariello, Franco; Buser, Melanie C.; Mevissen, Meike; Portier, Christopher J.

    2013-12-15

    Background: Lead exposure is associated with low birth-weight. The objective of this study is to determine whether lead exposure is associated with lower body weight in children, adolescents and adults. Methods: We analyzed data from NHANES 1999–2006 for participants aged ≥ 3 using multiple logistic and multivariate linear regression. Using age- and sex-standardized BMI Z-scores, overweight and obese children (ages 3–19) were classified by BMI ≥ 85th and ≥ 95th percentiles, respectively. The adult population (age ≥ 20) was classified as overweight and obese with BMI measures of 25–29.9 and ≥ 30, respectively. Blood lead level (BLL) was categorized by weighted quartiles. Results: Multivariate linear regressions revealed a lower BMI Z-score in children and adolescents when the highest lead quartile was compared to the lowest lead quartile (β (SE) = − 0.33 (0.07), p < 0.001), and a decreased BMI in adults (β (SE) = − 2.58 (0.25), p < 0.001). Multiple logistic analyses in children and adolescents found a negative association between BLL and the percentage of obese and overweight with BLL in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartile (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.30–0.59; and OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.88, respectively). Adults in the highest lead quartile were less likely to be obese (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.35–0.50) compared to those in the lowest lead quartile. Further analyses with blood lead as restricted cubic splines, confirmed the dose-relationship between blood lead and body weight outcomes. Conclusions: BLLs are associated with lower body mass index and obesity in children, adolescents and adults. - Highlights: • NHANES analysis of BLL and body weight outcomes • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in children and adolescent • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in adults.

  10. Imaging body composition in obesity and weight loss: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Heidi J; Welch, E Brian; Avison, Malcolm J; Niswender, Kevin D

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is a threat to public health worldwide primarily due to the comorbidities related to visceral adiposity, inflammation, and insulin resistance that increase risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The translational research portfolio that originally described these risk factors was significantly enhanced by imaging techniques, such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this article, we briefly review the important contributions of these techniques to understand the role of body composition in the pathogenesis of obesity-related complications. Notably, these imaging techniques have contributed greatly to recent findings identifying gender and racial differences in body composition and patterns of body composition change during weight loss. Although these techniques have the ability to generate good-quality body composition data, each possesses limitations. For example, DEXA is unable to differentiate type of fat, CT has better resolution but provides greater ionizing radiation exposure, and MRI tends to require longer imaging times and specialized equipment for acquisition and analysis. With the serious need for efficacious and cost-effective therapies to appropriately identify and treat at-risk obese individuals, there is greater need for translational tools that can further elucidate the interplay between body composition and the metabolic aberrations associated with obesity. In conclusion, we will offer our perspective on the evolution toward an ideal imaging method for body composition assessment in obesity and weight loss, and the challenges remaining to achieve this goal. PMID:21437103

  11. On the value of seasonal mammals for identifying mechanisms underlying the control of food intake and body weight

    PubMed Central

    Ebling, Francis J.P.

    2014-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue “Energy Balance”. Seasonal cycles of adiposity and body weight reflecting changes in both food intake and energy expenditure are the norm in mammals that have evolved in temperate and polar habitats. Innate circannual rhythmicity and direct responses to the annual change in photoperiod combine to ensure that behavior and energy metabolism are regulated in anticipation of altered energetic demands such as the energetically costly processes of hibernation, migration, and lactation. In the last decade, major progress has been made into identifying the central mechanisms that underlie these profound long-term changes in behavior and physiology. Surprisingly they are distinct from the peptidergic and aminergic systems in the hypothalamus that have been identified in studies of the laboratory mouse and rat and implicated in timing meal intervals and in short-term responses to caloric restriction. Comparative studies across rodents, ungulates and birds reveal that tanycytes embedded in the ependymal layer of the third ventricle play a critical role in seasonal changes because they regulate the local availability of thyroid hormone. Understanding how this altered hormonal environment might regulate neurogenesis and plasticity in the hypothalamus should provide new insight into development of strategies to manage appetite and body weight. PMID:24681216

  12. Abnormal Weight and Body Mass Index in Children with Juvenile Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jessica K.; Gonzalez-Alegre, Pedro; Crane, Kaitlin; Dawson, Jeffrey; Nopoulos, Peg

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate anthropometric measures of growth and development (height, weight, body mass index (BMI)) in a group of children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with Juvenile Onset Huntington’s Disease (JHD). Methods Growth measures for 18 JHD patients, documented prior to or shortly after diagnosis, were obtained through medical records. JHD growth measures were compared to a large sample (n=274) of healthy children, as well as the Center for Disease Control (CDC) growth norms. Results After controlling for sex and age, the JHD subjects had no significant differences in height. However, they were an average of 10% lower than controls in weight and BMI. Using CDC norms, the JHD subjects had the same pattern of normal height but decrement in weight. Length of cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeat in the huntingtin gene was significantly correlated to measures of weight with longer CAG repeats being associated with more severe weight reduction. A subset of 4 subjects had measures that pre-dated onset of any symptom and were therefore prodromal JHD (preJHD). These subjects also had a significant decrement in BMI compared to CDC norms. Conclusions Children with JHD have normal height, but significantly reduced weight and BMI, indicative of a specific deficit in body weight. As the preJHD subjects were also low in BMI, this suggests that these changes are directly due to the effect of the mutated gene on development, rather than symptom manifestation of the disease itself. Potential mechanisms of the weight decrement include energy deficiency due to mitochondrial dysfunction during development. PMID:26443925

  13. An adaptive diffusion-weighted whole-body magnetic resonance imaging scheme using the multistation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yeji

    2016-02-01

    Whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a useful tool in oncology, which enables fast screening of disseminated tumors, lymph nodes or abscesses in the body. Multistation magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or continuously moving table (CMT) MRI can be performed to overcome the limited field of view (FOV) of the magnet bore in whole-body DWI. Although CMT-MRI is regarded as a more advanced form of whole-body MRI, it cannot be widely used because most of the available MR systems are not equipped with the required hardware/software to perform CMT. Thus, optimizing the multistation approach for whole-body DWI, which is more widely available and easier to perform with the existing MR systems, is worthwhile. To improve the quality of DW images acquired with the multistation approach, we used different combinations of the built-in body RF coil and the phased-array surface RF coils for reception of the signals in whole-body DWI in this work. If different coils are selectively used in the extended FOV and appropriate reconstruction algorithms are exploited, the screening ability of whole-body DWI can be improved while minimizing the patient's discomfort and the artifacts due to physiological motions.

  14. Level of satiety: In vitro energy metabolism in brain during hypophagic and hyperphagic body weight recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Kasser, T.R.; Harris, R.B.; Martin, R.J. )

    1989-12-01

    Rates of in vitro glucose and fatty acid oxidation were examined in four brain sites during hypophagic and hyperphagic recovery of normal body weight. Rats were fed 40, 100, or 160% of normal intake, via gastric intubation, for 3 wk. Another group of rats was starved until body weight loss was equivalent to weight loss in 40%-fed rats. Groups of rats were killed at the conclusion of tube feeding or fasting and at specific periods during recovery of body weight. Brain sites examined were the ventrolateral hypothalamus (VLH), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), a caudal brain stem site encompassing the area postrema-nucleus of the solitary tract (AP-NTS), and cortex. During recovery, rats previously fed 160% of normal intake (anorectic) maintained low rates of VLH fatty acid oxidation and were hypophagic until most excess fat was depleted. Conversely, rats previously fed 40% of normal intake (hungry) maintained high rates of VLH fatty acid oxidation and were hyperphagic until most deficient fat was repleted. Rats previously starved maintained high rates of VLH fatty acid oxidation during hyperphagic recovery, although levels of VLH fatty acid oxidation and food intake were initially low on refeeding. Rates of glucose oxidation in the brain sites examined did not relate well to energy balance status and the needed adjustments in food intake. The results indicated that the level of glucose oxidation in the VLH and AP-NTS responded to the level of energy immediately coming into the system (food intake).

  15. Weight loss in full-term negroid infants: relationship to body water compartments at birth?

    PubMed

    Offringa, P J; Boersma, E R; Brunsting, J R; Meeuwsen, W P; Velvis, H

    1990-02-01

    The possible influence of the body fluid compartments at birth on postnatal weight loss was studied in normal term negroid infants when on a standardized oral fluid, sodium and energy regimen during the first three days of life. Measurements of plasma volume (PV), total body water (TBW), and extracellular water (ECW) were performed simultaneously on vaginally-born infants on the first day of life, by using a triple indicator (Evans blue, deuterium oxide and sucrose) single injection dilution technique. PV was 54 +/- 7 ml/kg (N = 9), TBW was 751 +/- 50 ml/kg (N = 13) and ECW was 311 +/- 61 ml/kg (N = 13) (mean +/- S.D.). Postnatal weight loss (3.7% of birth weight) occurred during the first two days. The postnatal weight loss was not related to any of the body water compartments. However, there was a highly significant correlation with the (cumulative) urine water excretion (r = 0.833, P less than 0.001 on day 1, with similar values for days 1 and 2). PMID:2318126

  16. Health benefits of nut consumption with special reference to body weight control.

    PubMed

    Vadivel, Vellingiri; Kunyanga, Catherine N; Biesalski, Hans K

    2012-01-01

    Nuts are an integral part of the Mediterranean food patterns, and their incorporation into the regular diets of human beings is believed to provide many health benefits. The recent recognition of nuts as "heart-healthy" foods by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has given a major boost to the positive image of nuts. Nut consumption has been associated with several health benefits, such as antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic benefits, among other functional properties. However, although nuts possess these many health benefits, their consumption has been hampered by a lack of adequate information regarding those benefits. In addition, because nuts are energy-dense foods with high-fat content, there is a misconception among consumers that increased consumption may lead to unwanted gain in body weight with the risk of developing overweight/obesity. Nonetheless, available epidemiologic studies and short-term controlled feeding trials have supported the theory that the inclusion of nuts in the typical diet does not induce weight gain, despite an expected increase in total caloric intake. To address the misperception about nuts and body weight gain, the present review focuses mainly on the relation between nut consumption and body weight gain, in the context of the many health benefits of nuts. PMID:23044160

  17. Eating Behavior Dimensions: Associations With Energy Intake And Body Weight: A Review

    PubMed Central

    French, Simone A.; Epstein, Leonard H; Jeffery, Robert W.; Blundell, John E.; Wardle, Jane

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to spark integrative thinking in the area of eating behaviors by critically examining research on exemplary constructs in this area. The eating behaviors food responsiveness, enjoyment of eating, satiety responsiveness, eating in the absence of hunger, reinforcing value of food, eating disinhibition and impulsivity/self-control are reviewed in relation to energy intake, body mass index and weight gain over time. Each of these constructs has been developed independently, and little research has explored the extent to which they overlap or whether they differentially predict food choices, energy intake and weight gain in the naturalistic environment. Most available data show positive cross-sectional associations with body mass index, but fewer studies report associations with energy intake or food choices. Little prospective data are available to link measures of eating behaviors with weight gain. Disinhibition has the largest and most consistent body of empirical data that link it prospectively with weight gain. An overarching conceptual model to integrate the conceptual and empirical research base for the role of eating behavior dimensions in the field of obesity research would highlight potential patterns of interaction between individual differences in eating behaviors, specific aspects of the individual’s food environment and individual variation in state levels of hunger and satiety. PMID:22796186

  18. Weight-related self-efficacy in relation to maternal body weight from early pregnancy to 2 years post-partum.

    PubMed

    Lipsky, Leah M; Strawderman, Myla S; Olson, Christine M

    2016-07-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain may lead to long-term increases in maternal body weight and associated health risks. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal body weight and weight-related self-efficacy from early pregnancy to 2 years post-partum. Women with live, singleton term infants from a population-based cohort study were included (n = 595). Healthy eating self-efficacy and weight control self-efficacy were assessed prenatally and at 1 year and 2 years post-partum. Body weight was measured at early pregnancy, before delivery, and 6 weeks, 1 year and 2 years post-partum. Behavioural (smoking, breastfeeding) and sociodemographic (age, education, marital status, income) covariates were assessed by medical record review and baseline questionnaires. Multi-level linear regression models were used to examine the longitudinal associations of self-efficacy measures with body weight. Approximately half of the sample (57%) returned to early pregnancy weight at some point by 2 years post-partum, and 9% became overweight or obese at 2 years post-partum. Body weight over time was inversely related to healthy eating (β = -0.57, P = 0.02) and weight control (β = -0.99, P < 0.001) self-efficacy in the model controlling for both self-efficacy measures as well as time and behavioural and sociodemographic covariates. Weight-related self-efficacy may be an important target for interventions to reduce excessive gestational weight gain and post-partum weight gain. PMID:25244078

  19. Metabolic Abnormalities Are Common among South American Hispanics Subjects with Normal Weight or Excess Body Weight: The CRONICAS Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Benziger, Catherine P.; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H.; Checkley, William; Smeeth, Liam; Málaga, Germán; Miranda, J. Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to characterize metabolic status by body mass index (BMI) status. Methods The CRONICAS longitudinal study was performed in an age-and-sex stratified random sample of participants aged 35 years or older in four Peruvian settings: Lima (Peru’s capital, costal urban, highly urbanized), urban and rural Puno (both high-altitude), and Tumbes (costal semirural). Data from the baseline study, conducted in 2010, was used. Individuals were classified by BMI as normal weight (18.5–24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0–29.9 kg/m2), and obese (≥30 kg/m2), and as metabolically healthy (0–1 metabolic abnormality) or metabolically unhealthy (≥2 abnormalities). Abnormalities included individual components of the metabolic syndrome, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and insulin resistance. Results A total of 3088 (age 55.6±12.6 years, 51.3% females) had all measurements. Of these, 890 (28.8%), 1361 (44.1%) and 837 (27.1%) were normal weight, overweight and obese, respectively. Overall, 19.0% of normal weight in contrast to 54.9% of overweight and 77.7% of obese individuals had ≥3 risk factors (p<0.001). Among normal weight individuals, 43.1% were metabolically unhealthy, and age ≥65 years, female, and highest socioeconomic groups were more likely to have this pattern. In contrast, only 16.4% of overweight and 3.9% of obese individuals were metabolically healthy and, compared to Lima, the rural and urban sites in Puno were more likely to have a metabolically healthier profile. Conclusions Most Peruvians with overweight and obesity have additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, as well as a majority of those with a healthy weight. Prevention programs aimed at individuals with a normal BMI, and those who are overweight and obese, are urgently needed, such as screening for elevated fasting cholesterol and glucose. PMID:26599322

  20. Five-Factor Model Personality Traits and the Objective and Subjective Experience of Body Weight.

    PubMed

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    Research on personality and adiposity has focused primarily on middle-aged and older adults. The present research sought to (a) replicate these associations in a young adult sample, (b) examine whether sex, race, or ethnicity moderate these associations, and (c) test whether personality is associated with the subjective experience of body weight and discrepancies between perceived and actual weight. Participants (N = 15,669; M(age) = 29; 53% female; ∼40% ethnic/racial minority) from Wave 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health completed a Five-Factor Model personality measure and reported their weight, height, and perception of weight category (e.g., overweight); trained staff measured participants' height, weight, and waist circumference. Conscientiousness was associated with healthier weight, with a nearly 5 kg difference between the top and bottom quartiles. Neuroticism among women and Extraversion among men were associated with higher adiposity. Neuroticism was also associated with misperceived heavier weight, whereas Extraversion was associated with misperceived taller and leaner. The associations were similar across race/ethnic groups. Personality is associated with objective and subjective adiposity in young adulthood. Although modest, the effects are consistent with life span theories of personality, and the misperceptions are consistent with the conceptual worldviews associated with the traits. PMID:25329238

  1. Clinical Care Providers’ Perspectives on Body Size and Weight Management Among Long-Term Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Allison M.; Smith, Katherine C.; Coa, Kisha I; Helzlsouer, Kathy J.; Caulfield, Laura E.; Peairs, Kimberly S.; Shockney, Lillie D.; Klassen, Ann C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine clinical care providers’ perspectives on cancer survivors’ body size and weight management Study Design In-depth, semi-structured, qualitative interviews Methods Interviews were conducted with 33 providers (e.g., oncologists, surgeons, primary care providers, nurses, dietitians) across academic and community clinical settings. They were transcribed, coded, and analyzed thematically using constant comparative analysis. Results Providers conceptualized weight in relation to acute treatment, cancer outcomes, or overall health/comorbidities. These patterns were reflected in their reported framing of weight discussions, although providers indicated that they counsel patients on weight to varying extents. Perspectives differed based on professional roles and patient populations. Providers reported that survivors are motivated to lose weight, particularly due to comorbidity concerns, but face numerous barriers to doing so. Conclusion Providers described survivor-level and capacity-level factors influencing survivors’ weight management. Differences by provider type highlighted the role of provider knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs in clinical encounters. Opportunities for research and intervention include developing and disseminating evidence-based clinical resources for weight management among cancer survivors, addressing capacity barriers, and exploring communication strategies at interpersonal and population levels. PMID:25716349

  2. Effect of swimming activity on relative weight and body composition of juvenile rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpkins, D.G.; Hubert, W.A.; Del Rio, C.M.; Rule, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    Fisheries managers often assess body condition using relative weight (Wr) because it provides a comparative measure of fish plumpness among individuals and populations. However, it is not known whether the morphological information that Wr summarizes reflects physiological measures, such as relative lipid reserves, in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The purpose of this study was to determine whether swimming activity affects either the Wr or proximate body composition of juvenile (total length, 170-260 mm) rainbow trout. When rainbow trout from a hatchery were fed ad libitum for 147 d, inactive (no current) and active (15 cm/s current velocity) fish did not differ in Wr However, inactive rainbow trout maintained relatively constant lipid levels, whereas active fish declined in lipid content. Relative weight may provide a comparable measure of body form, but it is not an accurate index of lipid content between active and inactive rainbow trout fed an excess ration. For assessing the physiological condition of rainbow trout, measurement of proximate body composition appears to be more accurate than indices based on length and weight.

  3. Estrogen receptor–α in medial amygdala neurons regulates body weight

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pingwen; Cao, Xuehong; He, Yanlin; Zhu, Liangru; Yang, Yongjie; Saito, Kenji; Wang, Chunmei; Yan, Xiaofeng; Hinton, Antentor Othrell; Zou, Fang; Ding, Hongfang; Xia, Yan; Yan, Chunling; Shu, Gang; Wu, San-Pin; Yang, Bin; Feng, Yuxin; Clegg, Deborah J.; DeMarchi, Richard; Khan, Sohaib A.; Tsai, Sophia Y.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Wu, Qi; Tong, Qingchun; Xu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen receptor–α (ERα) activity in the brain prevents obesity in both males and females. However, the ERα-expressing neural populations that regulate body weight remain to be fully elucidated. Here we showed that single-minded–1 (SIM1) neurons in the medial amygdala (MeA) express abundant levels of ERα. Specific deletion of the gene encoding ERα (Esr1) from SIM1 neurons, which are mostly within the MeA, caused hypoactivity and obesity in both male and female mice fed with regular chow, increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity (DIO) in males but not in females, and blunted the body weight–lowering effects of a glucagon-like peptide-1–estrogen (GLP-1–estrogen) conjugate. Furthermore, selective adeno-associated virus-mediated deletion of Esr1 in the MeA of adult male mice produced a rapid body weight gain that was associated with remarkable reductions in physical activity but did not alter food intake. Conversely, overexpression of ERα in the MeA markedly reduced the severity of DIO in male mice. Finally, an ERα agonist depolarized MeA SIM1 neurons and increased their firing rate, and designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drug–mediated (DREADD-mediated) activation of these neurons increased physical activity in mice. Collectively, our results support a model where ERα signals activate MeA neurons to stimulate physical activity, which in turn prevents body weight gain. PMID:26098212

  4. Body weight prediction in early fossil hominids: towards a taxon-"independent" approach.

    PubMed

    Hartwig-Scherer, S

    1993-09-01

    The choice of a model taxon is crucial when investigating fossil hominids that clearly do not resemble any extant species (such as Australopithecus) or show significant differences from modern human proportions (such as Homo habilis OH 62). An "interhominoid" combination is not adequate either, as scaling with body weight is strongly divergent in African apes and humans for most skeletal predictors investigated here. Therefore, in relation to a study of seven long bone dimensions, a new taxon-"independent" approach is suggested. For a given predictor, its taxonomic "independence" is restricted to the size range over which the body weight-predictor relationship for African apes and humans converges. Different predictors produce converging body weight estimates (BWEs) for different size ranges: taxon-"independent" estimates can be calculated for small- and medium-sized hominids (e.g., for weights below 50 kg) using femoral and tibial dimensions, whereas upper limb bones provide converging results for large hominids (above 50 kg). If the remains of Australopithecus afarensis really belong to one species, the relationship of male (above 60 kg) to female body weight (approximately 30 kg) does not fall within the observed range of modern hominoids. Considering Sts 14 (22 kg) to represent a small-sized Australopithecus africanus, the level of encephalization lies well above that of extant apes. If OH 62 (approximately 25 kg), with limb proportions less human-like than those of australopithecines, indeed represents Homo habilis (which has been questioned previously), an increase in relative brain size would have occurred well before full bipedality, an assumption running counter to current assumptions concerning early human evolution. PMID:8238289

  5. The multidimensional relationship between early adult body weight and women's childbearing experiences.

    PubMed

    Frisco, Michelle L; Weden, Margaret M; Lippert, Adam M; Burnett, Kristin D

    2012-06-01

    This study has three primary goals that make an important contribution to the literature on body weight and childbearing experiences among United States' women. It sheds light on the physiological and social nature of this relationship by examining whether the consequences of early adult weight for lifetime childbearing are shaped by historical social context, women's social characteristics, and their ability to marry. We analyze data from two female cohorts who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY79). Cohort 1 entered early adulthood before the U.S. obesity prevalence increased. Cohort 2 entered early adulthood after the obesity prevalence increased. We find that early adult weight is negatively related to the childbearing trajectories and marital status of Cohort 1 but not Cohort 2. Failing to account for race/ethnicity and women's educational background as confounders masks some of these associations, which are evident for both White and Black women. Our results suggest that the health consequences of body weight do not fully drive its impact on childbearing. Rather, the lifetime fertility consequences of early adult weight are malleable, involve social processes, and are dependent on social context. PMID:21944717

  6. Reduced food intake and body weight in mice treated with fatty acid synthase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Loftus, T M; Jaworsky, D E; Frehywot, G L; Townsend, C A; Ronnett, G V; Lane, M D; Kuhajda, F P

    2000-06-30

    With the escalation of obesity-related disease, there is great interest in defining the mechanisms that control appetite and body weight. We have identified a link between anabolic energy metabolism and appetite control. Both systemic and intracerebroventricular treatment of mice with fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitors (cerulenin and a synthetic compound C75) led to inhibition of feeding and dramatic weight loss. C75 inhibited expression of the prophagic signal neuropeptide Y in the hypothalamus and acted in a leptin-independent manner that appears to be mediated by malonyl-coenzyme A. Thus, FAS may represent an important link in feeding regulation and may be a potential therapeutic target. PMID:10875926

  7. Increased Body Weight Reduces Voluntary Movement to Maintain Energy Expenditure of Rats Exposed to Increases in Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Moran, M. M.; Stein, T. P.; Sin, Sidney (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    With the increase in obesity related diseases there is heightened interest in mechanisms regulating body weight. To assess the influence of increases in body weight on energy expenditure and intake in rats we employed variable levels of gravity. Our approach afforded the means to measure interactions of energy expenditure and intake in response to increases in body weight (body mass x gravity level). We found a dose relationship between rapid elevation of body weight and reduction of voluntary movement, such that the energy requirements for activity are unchanged, and total energy expenditure and intake maintained. Reduction of movement appears to be a response to increased body weight, rather than a contributing factor, suggesting a new regulatory pathway.

  8. Body contouring surgery in a massive weight loss patient: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Prabhat; Aggarwal, Aditya; Khazanchi, Rakesh Kumar

    2008-01-01

    The number of patients with history of extreme overweight and massive weight loss (MWL) has risen significantly. Majority of patients are left with loose, ptotic skin envelopes, and oddly shaped protuberances, subsequent to weight loss. Redundant skin and fat can be seen anywhere on the body following MWL. This group of population presents many unique problems and challenges. Body contouring surgery after MWL is a new and exciting field in plastic surgery that is still evolving. Conventional approaches do not adequately cater to the needs of these patients. Complete history, detailed physical examination, clinical photographs and lab investigations help to plan the most appropriate procedure for the individual patient. Proper counseling and comprehensive informed consent for each procedure are mandatory. The meticulous and precise markings based on the procedure selected are the cornerstones to achieve the successful outcome. Lower body contouring should be performed first followed six months later by breast, lateral chest and arm procedures. Thighplasty is usually undertaken at the end. Body contouring operations are staged at few months' intervals and often result in long scars. Staging is important as each procedure can have positive impact on adjacent areas of the body. Secondary procedures are often required. However, proper planning should lead to fewer complications and improved aesthetic outcome and patient satisfaction. PMID:20174535

  9. Rapid Changes of Body Weight after a Headstand: A Metrological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Acuña-Espinoza, Alejandro; Aragón-Vargas, Luis Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent rules from amateur wrestling sport-governing bodies intended to discourage extreme weight loss measures, wrestling culture still includes varied methods to make weight, including holding a headstand position immediately before stepping on the scale. The procedure, according to the notion, will reduce reported mass anywhere between 250 and 500g (weight between 2.45 and 4.89 N). The aim of this study was to compare any possible differences between the headstand procedure (HS) and a normal (CON) weight measure, using a metrological approach defined by the European Association of National Metrology Institutes. Seventeen adult men were weighed on a force plate before and after doing a headstand or standing normally for 30s. The order of treatment application was assigned randomly. Post-test weight was significantly larger than pre-test (mean±s.d.) (640.7±62.8 N and 640.3±62.7 N, respectively, p<0.0001) under both treatments. No treatment vs. time of test interaction was found. No significant difference was found between CON and HS weight (640.6±62.8 N and 640.9±62.9 N, respectively, p=0.3815). The metrological tests suggest that the statistical differences found are related to the force plate measuring errors in every pre-established time interval. The 45g (0.44 N) difference found between pretest and post-test lies within the uncertainty range identified for the equipment (±110 g or 1.08 N). In conclusion, a 30-second headstand has no significant effect on registered body weight. The small variations obtained were due to equipment-associated measuring errors. This experiment offers systematic empirical evidence to aid in the elimination of this unjustified practice among the wrestling community. PMID:25993631

  10. Body weight and rumen-reticulum capacity in tule elk and mule deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weckerly, F.W.; Bleich, V.C.; Chetkiewicz, C.-L.B.; Ricca, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between body size and rumen-reticulum capacity among conspecific individuals is predicted to be isometric. We examined whether the relationship between body weight and rumen-reticulum capacity was isometric in adult male and female rule elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes) and in adult female mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). We detected no effect of sex on this relationship in elk, and the slope of the regression was 1.0 for one measure of rumen-reticulum capacity and <1.0 for another. Among deer, the slope of the relationship was <1.0 in one measure of rumen-reticulum capacity, and we detected no relationship with the other.

  11. Relationships between body satisfaction and psychological functioning and weight-related cognitions and behaviors in overweight adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Cromley, Taya R.; Knatz, Stephanie; Rockwell, Roxanne; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; Boutelle, Kerri

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine how differences in body satisfaction may influence weight control behaviors, eating, weight and shape concerns, and psychological well-being among overweight adolescents. Methods A sample of 103 overweight adolescents completed a survey assessing body satisfaction, weight control behaviors, eating-related thoughts and behaviors, importance placed on thinness, self-esteem, anger, and symptoms of depression and anxiety between 2004-2006. Logistic regression analyses compared overweight adolescents with high and low body satisfaction. Results Higher body satisfaction was associated with a lower likelihood of engaging in unhealthy weight control behaviors, less frequent fears of losing control over eating, and less importance placed on thinness. Overweight adolescents with higher body satisfaction reported higher levels of self-esteem and were less likely to endorse symptoms of depression, anxiety, and anger than overweight adolescents with lower body satisfaction. Conclusions Adolescents with higher body satisfaction may be protected against the negative behavioral and psychological factors associated with overweight. PMID:22626496

  12. Maternal and Adolescent Report of Mothers’ Weight-Related Concerns and Behaviors: Longitudinal Associations with Adolescent Body Dissatisfaction and Weight Control Practices

    PubMed Central

    Keery, Helene; Eisenberg, Marla; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2010-01-01

    Objective This population-based study examined mothers’ weight-related concerns and behaviors (weight status, weight dissatisfaction, dieting, and encouraging child to diet) at baseline, as assessed by both mothers and adolescents, and associations with adolescents’ body dissatisfaction and weight control practices 5 years later. Methods Adolescents and their mothers (n = 443 pairs) were surveyed in 1998–1999; adolescents were resurveyed in 2003–2004. Results Baseline maternal report of higher levels of her weight-related concerns/behaviors was associated with greater body dissatisfaction in girls 5 years later, controlling for adolescent weight status and other covariates. Baseline maternal report of weight-related concerns/behaviors was also associated with greater prevalence of trying to lose weight in both boys and girls 5 years later. Baseline adolescent report of higher maternal weight-related concerns/behaviors was associated with a higher prevalence of trying to lose weight 5 years later in girls. Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of mothers’ weight-related concerns and behaviors for adolescents’ weight-related outcomes. PMID:20498008

  13. Relation between biomass and body weight of plankton in a steady state oceanic ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.; Mullin, M.M.

    1986-03-01

    In the size range from 10/sup -4/ to 10/sup 3/ ..mu..g (carbon) body weight, the biomass of plankton in the euphotic layer of the North Pacific Central Gyre decreases as an allometric function of body weight. Even in a steady state ecosystem such as that analyzed here, there is variability in space and time; this suggests that one must be careful in extrapolating the relation to less predictable marine areas. In obtaining dynamic information from biomass spectra, one must distinguish changes due to the flow of energy within the spectrum (growth, predation, reproduction) from changes due to emigration from or immigration into the spectrum of the particular area sampled, such as those due to the diel vertical migration of macrozooplankton in the largest size classes.

  14. A dynamical model for describing behavioural interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Barrientos, J-Emeterio; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M

    2011-01-12

    We present a dynamical model incorporating both physiological and psychological factors that predicts changes in body mass and composition during the course of a behavioral intervention for weight loss. The model consists of a three-compartment energy balance integrated with a mechanistic psychological model inspired by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The latter describes how important variables in a behavioural intervention can influence healthy eating habits and increased physical activity over time. The novelty of the approach lies in representing the behavioural intervention as a dynamical system, and the integration of the psychological and energy balance models. Two simulation scenarios are presented that illustrate how the model can improve the understanding of how changes in intervention components and participant differences affect outcomes. Consequently, the model can be used to inform behavioural scientists in the design of optimised interventions for weight loss and body composition change. PMID:21673826

  15. Microsatellite DNA polymorphisms and the relation with body weight in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiuli; Shan, Xue; Qiu, Xuemei; Meng, Xiangying; Chang, Yaqing

    2009-05-01

    The relationship between microsatellite polymorphism and body weight of captive bred Chinese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was investigated in two local populations in Dalian. Among ten loci discovered, nine show changes except for AJ07 loci. Seven loci were found highly polymorphic in both populations. For each locus in two populations, the average number of alleles is 6.428 6 and 6.285 7, the average observed heterozygosity at 0.225 7 and 0.245 9, the expected heterozygosity at 0.776 8 and 0.748 8, the polymorphism information content (PIC) at 0.709 2 and 0.674 6, respectively. Further analysis show significant correlation between A. japonicus body weight and occurrence markers AJ02 and AJ04. The findings of the relation may be helpful for molecular breeding, as well as the marker-assisted selection of sea cucumbers.

  16. Weight and weddings: expectations about wedding-specific body weight and shape ideals and dieting and exercise behavior among university students.

    PubMed

    Neighbors, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2008-12-01

    Weddings are significant life events when brides and grooms often seek a culturally-defined ideal appearance. A cross-sectional survey of 275 unmarried university students assessed current weight and shape, general ideal weight and shape, desired wedding weight and shape, and expectations to diet and/or exercise when contemplating their future wedding. Results indicated that men and women conceptualize the size and scope of their wedding similarly, but wedding appearance (including weight) was more important among women than men. Few men and women idealized a wedding-specific weight and shape that differed from their general ideal weight and shape. When contemplating their future wedding day, expectations about engaging in weight control behaviors were more common among women, and exercise was preferred over dieting among both genders. These findings suggest that although weddings focus attention on body weight and shape, young adults do not have overly unrealistic body weight and shape expectations when contemplating their future wedding and generally do not construct a specific body weight and shape for their future wedding. These relationships may change as marriage becomes more salient. PMID:18928906

  17. Evidence that Self-Affirmation Reduces Body Dissatisfaction by Basing Self-Esteem on Domains Other than Body Weight and Shape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armitage, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Body satisfaction interventions have typically been multifaceted and targeted at clinical populations. The aim of the present research was to isolate the effects of self-affirmation on body satisfaction in a community sample and to see whether self-affirmation works by basing one's self-esteem on domains other than body weight and…

  18. Inhalation of tobacco and marijuana in dog over a period of 30 months: effect on body weight, food intake and organ weight.

    PubMed

    Huy, N D; Roy, P E

    1976-03-01

    The measures of body weight and food intake in marijuana or tobacco smoking dogs and a non-smoking control group show no significant change after 27 months of inhalation; except a slowing of weight gain during 9 months, in spite of increased food consumption at 3 months. During this period, the tobacco smokers ate much less and at the 9 th month only a significant slowing in weight gain was noted. At the end of the experiment, the organ weight/total weight ratio of these 3 groupes of dogs presented no significant difference. PMID:935636

  19. Effects of chronic forced circadian desynchronization on body weight and metabolism in male mice.

    PubMed

    Casiraghi, Leandro P; Alzamendi, Ana; Giovambattista, Andrés; Chiesa, Juan J; Golombek, Diego A

    2016-04-01

    Metabolic functions are synchronized by the circadian clock setting daily patterns of food intake, nutrient delivery, and behavioral activity. Here, we study the impact of chronic jet-lag (CJL) on metabolism, and test manipulations aimed to overcome potential alterations. We recorded weight gain in C57Bl/6 mice under chronic 6 h advances or delays of the light-dark cycle every 2 days (ChrA and ChrD, respectively). We have previously reported ChrA, but not ChrD, to induce forced desynchronization of locomotor activity rhythms in mice (Casiraghi et al. 2012). Body weight was rapidly increased under ChrA, with animals tripling the mean weight gain observed in controls by day 10, and doubling it by day 30 (6% vs. 2%, and 15% vs. 7%, respectively). Significant increases in retroperitoneal and epidydimal adipose tissue masses (172% and 61%, respectively), adipocytes size (28%), and circulating triglycerides (39%) were also detected. Daily patterns of food and water intake were abolished under ChrA In contrast, ChrD had no effect on body weight. Wheel-running, housing of animals in groups, and restriction of food availability to hours of darkness prevented abnormal increase in body weight under ChrA Our findings suggest that the observed alterations under ChrA may arise either from a direct effect of circadian disruption on metabolism, from desynchronization between feeding and metabolic rhythms, or both. Direction of shifts, timing of feeding episodes, and other reinforcing signals deeply affect the outcome of metabolic function under CJL Such features should be taken into account in further studies of shift working schedules in humans. PMID:27125665

  20. Growth curve changes associated with long-term selection for body weight in Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Marks, H L

    1978-06-01

    Four quail lines were utilized to investigate growth patterns in quail. Three of these lines (P, T and S) had previously undergone long-term selection for high 4-week body weight, while line C was maintained as a nonselected control. Quail progeny from generation 37 and 38 breeders were fed diets containing 28% and 20% protein. Within each trial, the diet/line treatments were replicated 3 times with 12 quail per subclass. Body weight measurements suggested that the growth of all lines was best approximated by the logistic growth curve model. When fed a 28% protein diet the age at maximum growth (point of inflection) of selected lines was 4 to 6 days earlier than the corresponding age of controls. Similar rates of gain after 4 weeks of age between selected and control lines suggested that mechanisms influenced by selection for 4-week body weight in quail operate only during the period prior to the age at selection with little or no residual effect. PMID:680578

  1. Heritability of body weight and resistance to ammonia in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjia; Lu, Xia; Luan, Sheng; Luo, Kun; Sui, Juan; Kong, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia, toxic to aquaculture organisms, represents a potential problem in aquaculture systems, and the situation is exacerbated in closed and intensive shrimp farming operations, expecially for Litopenaeus vannamei. Assessing the potential for the genetic improvement of resistance to ammonia in L. vannamei requires knowledge of the genetic parameters of this trait. The heritability of resistance to ammonia was estimated using two descriptors in the present study: the survival time (ST) and the survival status at half lethal time (SS50) for each individual under high ammonia challenge. The heritability of ST and SS50 were low (0.154 4±0.044 6 and 0.147 5±0.040 0, respectively), but they were both significantly different from zero (P <0.01). Moreover, these two estimates were basically the same and showed no significant differences from each other (P >0.05), suggesting that ST and SS50 could be used as suitable indicators for resistance to ammonia. There were also positive phenotypic and genetic correlation between resistance to ammonia and body weight, which means that resistance to ammonia can be enhanced by the improvement of husbandry practices that increase the body weight. The results from the present study suggest that the selection for higher body weight does not have any negative consequences for resistance to ammonia. In addition to quantitative genetics, tools from molecular genetics can be applied to selective breeding programs to improve the efficiency of selection for traits with low heritability.

  2. Heritability of body weight and resistance to ammonia in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjia; Lu, Xia; Luan, Sheng; Luo, Kun; Sui, Juan; Kong, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Ammonia, toxic to aquaculture organisms, represents a potential problem in aquaculture systems, and the situation is exacerbated in closed and intensive shrimp farming operations, expecially for Litopenaeus vannamei. Assessing the potential for the genetic improvement of resistance to ammonia in L. vannamei requires knowledge of the genetic parameters of this trait. The heritability of resistance to ammonia was estimated using two descriptors in the present study: the survival time (ST) and the survival status at half lethal time (SS50) for each individual under high ammonia challenge. The heritability of ST and SS50 were low (0.154 4±0.044 6 and 0.147 5±0.040 0, respectively), but they were both significantly different from zero ( P<0.01). Moreover, these two estimates were basically the same and showed no significant differences from each other ( P>0.05), suggesting that ST and SS50 could be used as suitable indicators for resistance to ammonia. There were also positive phenotypic and genetic correlation between resistance to ammonia and body weight, which means that resistance to ammonia can be enhanced by the improvement of husbandry practices that increase the body weight. The results from the present study suggest that the selection for higher body weight does not have any negative consequences for resistance to ammonia. In addition to quantitative genetics, tools from molecular genetics can be applied to selective breeding programs to improve the efficiency of selection for traits with low heritability.

  3. Near-Perfect Synaptic Integration by Nav1.7 in Hypothalamic Neurons Regulates Body Weight.

    PubMed

    Branco, Tiago; Tozer, Adam; Magnus, Christopher J; Sugino, Ken; Tanaka, Shinsuke; Lee, Albert K; Wood, John N; Sternson, Scott M

    2016-06-16

    Neurons are well suited for computations on millisecond timescales, but some neuronal circuits set behavioral states over long time periods, such as those involved in energy homeostasis. We found that multiple types of hypothalamic neurons, including those that oppositely regulate body weight, are specialized as near-perfect synaptic integrators that summate inputs over extended timescales. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) are greatly prolonged, outlasting the neuronal membrane time-constant up to 10-fold. This is due to the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7 (Scn9a), previously associated with pain-sensation but not synaptic integration. Scn9a deletion in AGRP, POMC, or paraventricular hypothalamic neurons reduced EPSP duration, synaptic integration, and altered body weight in mice. In vivo whole-cell recordings in the hypothalamus confirmed near-perfect synaptic integration. These experiments show that integration of synaptic inputs over time by Nav1.7 is critical for body weight regulation and reveal a mechanism for synaptic control of circuits regulating long term homeostatic functions. PMID:27315482

  4. Palmitoylated PrRP analog decreases body weight in DIO rats but not in ZDF rats.

    PubMed

    Holubová, Martina; Zemenová, Jana; Mikulášková, Barbora; Panajotova, Vladimíra; Stöhr, Jiří; Haluzík, Martin; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Železná, Blanka; Maletínská, Lenka

    2016-05-01

    Anorexigenic neuropeptides produced and acting in the brain have the potential to decrease food intake and ameliorate obesity, but are ineffective after peripheral application, owing to a limited ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. We have designed lipidized analogs of prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), which is involved in energy balance regulation as demonstrated by obesity phenotypes of both Prrp-knockout and Prrp receptor-knockout mice. The aim of this study was to characterize the subchronic effect of a palmitoylated PrRP analog in two rat models of obesity and diabetes: diet-induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats and leptin receptor-deficient Zucker diabetic (ZDF) rats. In the rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO), a two-week intraperitoneal treatment with palmitoylated PrRP lowered food intake by 24% and body weight by 8%. This treatment also improved glucose tolerance and tended to decrease leptin levels and adipose tissue masses in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, in ZDF rats, the same treatment with palmitoylated PrRP lowered food intake but did not significantly affect body weight or glucose tolerance, probably in consequence of severe leptin resistance due to a nonfunctional leptin receptor. Our data indicate a good efficacy of lipidized PrRP in DIO rats. Thus, the strong anorexigenic, body weight-reducing, and glucose tolerance-improving effects make palmitoylated PrRP an attractive candidate for anti-obesity treatment. PMID:26906745

  5. Food Deprivation, Body Weight Loss and Anxiety-Related Behavior in Rats.

    PubMed

    Dietze, Silke; Lees, Katarina R; Fink, Heidrun; Brosda, Jan; Voigt, Jörg-Peter

    2016-01-01

    In behavioral studies, food deprivation protocols are routinely used to initiate or maintain motivational states that are required in a particular test situation. However, there is limited evidence as to when food deprivation compromises animal welfare. This study investigated the effects of different lengths of food deprivation periods and restricted (fixed-time) feeding on body weight loss as well as anxiety-related and motivated behavior in 5-6 month old male and female Wistar rats. The observed body weight loss was not influenced by sex and ranged between 4% (16 h deprivation) to approximately 9% (fixed-time feeding). Despite significant body weight loss in all groups, the motivation to eat under the aversive test conditions of the modified open field test increased only after 48 h of food deprivation. Long-lasting effects on anxiety as measured in the elevated plus maze test 24 h after refeeding have not been observed, although fixed-time feeding could possibly lead to a lasting anxiogenic effect in female rats. Overall, female rats showed a more anxiolytic profile in both tests when compared to male rats. Despite these sex differences, results suggest that food deprivation is not always paralleled by an increased motivation to feed in a conflict situation. This is an important finding as it highlights the need for tailored pilot experiments to evaluate the impact of food deprivation protocols on animals in regard to the principles of the 3Rs introduced by Russell and Burch. PMID:26751481

  6. Sepsis-induced morbidity in mice: effects on body temperature, body weight, cage activity, social behavior and cytokines in brain

    PubMed Central

    Granger, Jill I.; Ratti, Pietro-Luca; Datta, Subhash C.; Raymond, Richard M.; Opp, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Infection negatively impacts mental health, as evidenced by the lethargy, malaise, and cognitive deficits experienced during illness. These changes in central nervous system processes, collectively termed sickness behavior, have been shown in animal models to be mediated primarily by the actions of cytokines in brain. Most studies of sickness behavior to date have used bolus injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or selective administration of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or IL-6 as the immune challenge. Such models, although useful for determining mechanisms responsible for acute changes in physiology and behavior, do not adequately represent the more complex effects on central nervous system (CNS) processes of a true infection with replicating pathogens. In the present study, we used the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model to quantify sepsis-induced alterations in several facets of physiology and behavior of mice. We determined the impact of sepsis on cage activity, body temperature, food and water consumption and body weights of mice. Because cytokines are critical mediators of changes in behavior and temperature regulation during immune challenge, we also quantified sepsis-induced alterations in cytokine mRNA and protein in brain during the acute period of sepsis onset. We now report that cage activity and temperature regulation in mice that survive are altered for up to 23 days after sepsis induction. Food and water consumption are transiently reduced, and body weight is lost during sepsis. Furthermore, sepsis decreases social interactions for 24 – 48 hours. Finally, mRNA and protein for IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) are upregulated in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and brain stem during sepsis onset, from 6–72 hour post sepsis induction. Collectively, these data indicate that sepsis not only acutely alters physiology, behavior and cytokine profiles in brain, but that some brain functions are

  7. Development of a body motion interactive system with a weight voting mechanism and computer vision technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chern-Sheng; Chen, Chia-Tse; Shei, Hung-Jung; Lay, Yun-Long; Chiu, Chuang-Chien

    2012-09-01

    This study develops a body motion interactive system with computer vision technology. This application combines interactive games, art performing, and exercise training system. Multiple image processing and computer vision technologies are used in this study. The system can calculate the characteristics of an object color, and then perform color segmentation. When there is a wrong action judgment, the system will avoid the error with a weight voting mechanism, which can set the condition score and weight value for the action judgment, and choose the best action judgment from the weight voting mechanism. Finally, this study estimated the reliability of the system in order to make improvements. The results showed that, this method has good effect on accuracy and stability during operations of the human-machine interface of the sports training system.

  8. Snord116 is critical in the regulation of food intake and body weight

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yue; Purtell, Louise; Fu, Melissa; Lee, Nicola J.; Aepler, Julia; Zhang, Lei; Loh, Kim; Enriquez, Ronaldo F.; Baldock, Paul A.; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Campbell, Lesley V.; Herzog, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is the predominant genetic cause of obesity in humans. Recent clinical reports have suggested that micro-deletion of the Snord116 gene cluster can lead to PWS, however, the extent of the contributions of the encoded snoRNAs is unknown. Here we show that mice lacking Snord116 globally have low birth weight, increased body weight gain, energy expenditure and hyperphagia. Consistent with this, microarray analysis of hypothalamic gene expression revealed a significant alteration in feeding related pathways that was also confirmed by in situ hybridisation. Importantly, selective deletion of Snord116 only from NPY expressing neurons mimics almost exactly the global deletion phenotype including the persistent low birth weight, increased body weight gain in early adulthood, increased energy expenditure and hyperphagia. Mechanistically, the lack of Snord116 in NPY neurons leads to the upregulation of NPY mRNA consistent with the hyperphagic phenotype and suggests a critical role of Snord116 in the control of NPY neuronal functions that might be dysregulated in PWS. PMID:26726071

  9. Interlimb Coordination in Body-Weight Supported Locomotion: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Seiterle, Stefan; Susko, Tyler; Artemiadis, Panagiotis K.; Riener, Robert; Krebs, Hermano Igo

    2015-01-01

    Locomotion involves complex neural networks responsible for automatic and volitional actions. During locomotion, motor strategies can rapidly compensate for any obstruction or perturbation that could interfere with forward progression. In this pilot study, we examined the contribution of interlimb pathways for evoking muscle activation patterns in the contralateral limb when a unilateral perturbation was applied and in the case where body weight was externally supported. In particular, the latency of neuromuscular responses was measured, while the stimulus to afferent feedback was limited. The pilot experiment was conducted with six healthy young subjects. It employed the MIT-Skywalker (beta-prototype), a novel device intended for gait therapy. Subjects were asked to walk on the split-belt treadmill, while a fast unilateral perturbation was applied mid-stance by unexpectedly lowering one side of the split-treadmill walking surfaces. Subject's weight was externally supported via the body-weight support system consisting of an underneath bicycle seat and the torso was stabilized via a loosely fitted chest harness. Both the weight support and the chest harness limited the afferent feedback. The unilateral perturbations evoked changes in the electromyographic activity of the non-perturbed contralateral leg. The latency of all muscle responses exceeded 100 ms, which precludes the conjecture that spinal cord alone is responsible for the perturbation response. It suggests the role of supraspinal or midbrain level pathways at the inter-leg coordination during gait. PMID:25990210

  10. Interlimb coordination in body-weight supported locomotion: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Seiterle, Stefan; Susko, Tyler; Artemiadis, Panagiotis K; Riener, Robert; Igo Krebs, Hermano

    2015-08-20

    Locomotion involves complex neural networks responsible for automatic and volitional actions. During locomotion, motor strategies can rapidly compensate for any obstruction or perturbation that could interfere with forward progression. In this pilot study, we examined the contribution of interlimb pathways for evoking muscle activation patterns in the contralateral limb when a unilateral perturbation was applied and in the case where body weight was externally supported. In particular, the latency of neuromuscular responses was measured, while the stimulus to afferent feedback was limited. The pilot experiment was conducted with six healthy young subjects. It employed the MIT-Skywalker (beta-prototype), a novel device intended for gait therapy. Subjects were asked to walk on the split-belt treadmill, while a fast unilateral perturbation was applied mid-stance by unexpectedly lowering one side of the split-treadmill walking surfaces. Subject's weight was externally supported via the body-weight support system consisting of an underneath bicycle seat and the torso was stabilized via a loosely fitted chest harness. Both the weight support and the chest harness limited the afferent feedback. The unilateral perturbations evoked changes in the electromyographic activity of the non-perturbed contralateral leg. The latency of all muscle responses exceeded 100ms, which precludes the conjecture that spinal cord alone is responsible for the perturbation response. It suggests the role of supraspinal or midbrain level pathways at the inter-leg coordination during gait. PMID:25990210

  11. Snord116 is critical in the regulation of food intake and body weight.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yue; Purtell, Louise; Fu, Melissa; Lee, Nicola J; Aepler, Julia; Zhang, Lei; Loh, Kim; Enriquez, Ronaldo F; Baldock, Paul A; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Campbell, Lesley V; Herzog, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is the predominant genetic cause of obesity in humans. Recent clinical reports have suggested that micro-deletion of the Snord116 gene cluster can lead to PWS, however, the extent of the contributions of the encoded snoRNAs is unknown. Here we show that mice lacking Snord116 globally have low birth weight, increased body weight gain, energy expenditure and hyperphagia. Consistent with this, microarray analysis of hypothalamic gene expression revealed a significant alteration in feeding related pathways that was also confirmed by in situ hybridisation. Importantly, selective deletion of Snord116 only from NPY expressing neurons mimics almost exactly the global deletion phenotype including the persistent low birth weight, increased body weight gain in early adulthood, increased energy expenditure and hyperphagia. Mechanistically, the lack of Snord116 in NPY neurons leads to the upregulation of NPY mRNA consistent with the hyperphagic phenotype and suggests a critical role of Snord116 in the control of NPY neuronal functions that might be dysregulated in PWS. PMID:26726071

  12. Relationship of Weight and Body Mass Index with Bone Mineral Density in Adult Men from Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Hoxha, Rexhep; Islami, Hilmi; Qorraj-Bytyqi, Hasime; Thaçi, Shpetim; Bahtiri, Elton

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: Body weight and body mass index (BMI) are considered strong predictors of osteoporotic fractures, though optimal BMI levels remain unsettled. There are several studies conducted on women about the relationship between BMI and bone mineral density (BMD), and just a few so far on men. Therefore, the objective of current study was to analyze the relationship between weight and BMI and BMD measured in lumbar spine (L1-L4), femur neck and total hip in 64 men from Kosovo. Methods: This cross-sectional study included a population of 64 men divided into three BMI groups. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) measurements were done in all the study participants. Results: Pearson's correlation analysis showed a significant positive correlation between weight and BMI and BMD in femur neck and in total hip, and a significant negative correlation between age and femur neck BMD. Age-adjusted linear regression analysis showed that weight and BMI had a significant positive association with BMD levels. Conclusion: Although the results show significant relationship between BMI and BMD, the negative relationship between age and femur neck BMD may serve as guidance to initiate early assessment of the BMD in this region as well as preventive measures of osteoporosis and fractures among ageing men population PMID:25568627

  13. Trends in SSBs and snack consumption among children by age, body weight and race/ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe national trends in discretionary calories from sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) and snacks by age-specific body weight categories and by age- and weight-specific race/ethnicity groups. Examining these sub-populations is important as population averages may mask important differences. Design and Methods We used 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010 among children aged 2 to 19 (N=14,092). Logistic and linear regression methods were used to adjust for multiple covariates and survey design. Results The number of calories from SSBs declined significantly for nearly all age-specific body weight groups. Among overweight or obese children, significant declines in the number of calories from SSBs were observed among Hispanic children aged 2 to 5 (117 kcal vs. 174 kcal) and white adolescents aged 12 to 19 (299 kcal vs. 365 kcal). Significant declines in the number of calories from salty snacks were observed among white children aged 2 to 5 (192 kcal to 134 kcal) and 6 to 11 (273 kcal vs. 200 kcal). Conclusions The decrease in SSB consumption and increase in snack consumption observed in prior research are not uniform when children are examined within sub-groups accounting for age, weight and race/ethnicity. PMID:25919923

  14. Prospective relationships between body weight and physical activity: an observational analysis from the NAVIGATOR study

    PubMed Central

    Preiss, David; Thomas, Laine E; Wojdyla, Daniel M; Haffner, Steven M; Gill, Jason M R; Yates, Thomas; Davies, Melanie J; Holman, Rury R; McMurray, John J; Califf, Robert M; Kraus, William E

    2015-01-01

    Objectives While bidirectional relationships exist between body weight and physical activity, direction of causality remains uncertain and previous studies have been limited by self-reported activity or weight and small sample size. We investigated the prospective relationships between weight and physical activity. Design Observational analysis of data from the Nateglinide And Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research (NAVIGATOR) study, a double-blinded randomised clinical trial of nateglinide and valsartan, respectively. Setting Multinational study of 9306 participants. Participants Participants with biochemically confirmed impaired glucose tolerance had annual measurements of both weight and step count using research grade pedometers, worn for 7 days consecutively. Along with randomisation to valsartan or placebo plus nateglinide or placebo, participants took part in a lifestyle modification programme. Outcome measures Longitudinal regression using weight as response value and physical activity as predictor value was conducted, adjusted for baseline covariates. Analysis was then repeated with physical activity as response value and weight as predictor value. Only participants with a response value preceded by at least three annual response values were included. Results Adequate data were available for 2811 (30%) of NAVIGATOR participants. Previous weight (χ2=16.8; p<0.0001), but not change in weight (χ2=0.1; p=0.71) was inversely associated with subsequent step count, indicating lower subsequent levels of physical activity in heavier individuals. Change in step count (χ2=5.9; p=0.02) but not previous step count (χ2=0.9; p=0.34) was inversely associated with subsequent weight. However, in the context of trajectories already established for weight (χ2 for previous weight measurements 747.3; p<0.0001) and physical activity (χ2 for previous step count 432.6; p<0.0001), these effects were of limited clinical importance. Conclusions While a

  15. Hypothalamic leptin gene therapy reduces body weight without accelerating age-related bone loss.

    PubMed

    Turner, Russell T; Dube, Michael; Branscum, Adam J; Wong, Carmen P; Olson, Dawn A; Zhong, Xiaoying; Kweh, Mercedes F; Larkin, Iske V; Wronski, Thomas J; Rosen, Clifford J; Kalra, Satya P; Iwaniec, Urszula T

    2015-12-01

    Excessive weight gain in adults is associated with a variety of negative health outcomes. Unfortunately, dieting, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have had limited long-term success in weight control and can result in detrimental side effects, including accelerating age-related cancellous bone loss. We investigated the efficacy of using hypothalamic leptin gene therapy as an alternative method for reducing weight in skeletally-mature (9 months old) female rats and determined the impact of leptin-induced weight loss on bone mass, density, and microarchitecture, and serum biomarkers of bone turnover (CTx and osteocalcin). Rats were implanted with cannulae in the 3rd ventricle of the hypothalamus and injected with either recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding the gene for rat leptin (rAAV-Leptin, n=7) or a control vector encoding green fluorescent protein (rAAV-GFP, n=10) and sacrificed 18 weeks later. A baseline control group (n=7) was sacrificed at vector administration. rAAV-Leptin-treated rats lost weight (-4±2%) while rAAV-GFP-treated rats gained weight (14±2%) during the study. At study termination, rAAV-Leptin-treated rats weighed 17% less than rAAV-GFP-treated rats and had lower abdominal white adipose tissue weight (-80%), serum leptin (-77%), and serum IGF1 (-34%). Cancellous bone volume fraction in distal femur metaphysis and epiphysis, and in lumbar vertebra tended to be lower (P<0.1) in rAAV-GFP-treated rats (13.5 months old) compared to baseline control rats (9 months old). Significant differences in cancellous bone or biomarkers of bone turnover were not detected between rAAV-Leptin and rAAV-GFP rats. In summary, rAAV-Leptin-treated rats maintained a lower body weight compared to baseline and rAAV-GFP-treated rats with minimal effects on bone mass, density, microarchitecture, or biochemical markers of bone turnover. PMID:26487675

  16. Resting state cortical electroencephalographic rhythms in subjects with normal and abnormal body weight.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, Claudio; Marzano, Nicola; Lizio, Roberta; Valenzano, Anna; Triggiani, Antonio Ivano; Petito, Annamaria; Bellomo, Antonello; Lecce, Brunello; Mundi, Ciro; Soricelli, Andrea; Limatola, Cristina; Cibelli, Giuseppe; Del Percio, Claudio

    2011-09-15

    It is well known that resting state regional cerebral blood flow is abnormal in obese when compared to normal-weight subjects but the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms are poorly known. To address this issue, we tested the hypothesis that amplitude of resting state cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms differ among underweight, normal-weight, and overweight/obese subjects as a reflection of the relationship between cortical neural synchronization and regulation of body weight. Eyes-closed resting state EEG data were recorded in 16 underweight subjects, 25 normal-weight subjects, and 18 overweight/obese subjects. All subjects were psychophysically healthy (no eating disorders or major psychopathologies). EEG rhythms of interest were delta (2-4Hz), theta (4-8Hz), alpha 1 (8-10.5Hz), alpha 2 (10.5-13Hz), beta 1 (13-20Hz), beta 2 (20-30Hz), and gamma (30-40Hz). EEG cortical sources were estimated by low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Statistical results showed that parietal and temporal alpha 1 sources fitted the pattern underweight>normal-weight>overweight/obese (p<0.004), whereas occipital alpha 1 sources fitted the pattern normal-weight>underweight>overweight/obese (p<0.00003). Furthermore, amplitude of the parietal, occipital, and temporal alpha 2 sources was stronger in the normal-weight subjects than in the underweight and overweight/obese subjects (p<0.0007). These results suggest that abnormal weight in healthy overweight/obese subjects is related to abnormal cortical neural synchronization at the basis of resting state alpha rhythms and fluctuation of global brain arousal. PMID:21704716

  17. Body mass index, gestational weight gain and fatty acid concentrations during pregnancy: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Vidakovic, Aleksandra Jelena; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Gishti, Olta; Felix, Janine F; Williams, Michelle A; Hofman, Albert; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold; Tiemeier, Henning; Gaillard, Romy

    2015-11-01

    Obesity during pregnancy may be correlated with an adverse nutritional status affecting pregnancy and offspring outcomes. We examined the associations of prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with plasma fatty acid concentrations in mid-pregnancy. This study was embedded in a population-based prospective cohort study among 5636 women. We obtained prepregnancy body mass index and maximum weight gain during pregnancy by questionnaires. We measured concentrations of saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA) at a median gestational age of 20.5 (95% range 17.1-24.9) weeks. We used multivariate linear regression models. As compared to normal weight women, obese women had higher total SFA concentrations [difference: 0.10 standard deviation (SD) (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0, 0.19)] and lower total n-3 PUFA concentrations [difference: - 0.11 SD (95% CI - 0.20, - 0.02)]. As compared to women with sufficient gestational weight gain, those with excessive gestational weight gain had higher SFA concentrations [difference: 0.16 SD (95% CI 0.08, 0.25)], MUFA concentrations [difference: 0.16 SD (95% CI 0.08, 0.24)] and n-6 PUFA concentrations [difference: 0.12 SD (95% CI 0.04, 0.21)]. These results were not materially affected by adjustment for maternal characteristics. Our results suggest that obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy are associated with an adverse fatty acids profile. Further studies are needed to assess causality and direction of the observed associations. PMID:26666541

  18. Effects of protein intake and gender on body composition changes: a randomized clinical weight loss trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Limited data on sex differences in body composition changes in response to higher protein diets (PRO) compared to higher carbohydrate diets (CARB) suggest that a PRO diet helps preserve lean mass (LM) in women more so than in men. Objective To compare male and female body composition responses to weight loss diets differing in macronutrient content. Design Twelve month randomized clinical trial with 4mo of weight loss and 8mo weight maintenance. Subjects Overweight (N = 130; 58 male (M), 72 female (F); BMI = 32.5 ± 0.5 kg/m2) middle-aged subjects were randomized to energy-restricted (deficit ~500 kcal/d) diets providing protein at 1.6 g.kg-1.d-1 (PRO) or 0.8 g.kg-1.d-1 (CARB). LM and fat mass (FM) were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Body composition outcomes were tested in a repeated measures ANOVA controlling for sex, diet, time and their two- and three-way interactions at 0, 4, 8 and 12mo. Results When expressed as percent change from baseline, males and females lost similar amounts of weight at 12mo (M:-11.2 ± 7.1 %, F:-9.9 ± 6.0 %), as did diet groups (PRO:-10.7 ± 6.8 %, CARB:-10.1 ± 6.2 %), with no interaction of gender and diet. A similar pattern emerged for fat mass and lean mass, however percent body fat was significantly influenced by both gender (M:-18.0 ± 12.8 %, F:-7.3 ± 8.1 %, p < 0.05) and diet (PRO:-14.3 ± 11.8 %, CARB:-9.3 ± 11.1 %, p < 0.05), with no gender-diet interaction. Compared to women, men carried an extra 7.0 ± 0.9 % of their total body fat in the trunk (P < 0.01) at baseline, and reduced trunk fat during weight loss more than women (M:-3.0 ± 0.5 %, F:-1.8 ± 0.3 %, p < 0.05). Conversely, women carried 7.2 ± 0.9 % more total body fat in the legs, but loss of total body fat in legs was similar in men and women. Conclusion PRO was more effective in reducing percent body fat vs. CARB over 12mo weight loss

  19. Body Image Distortions, Weight, and Depression in Adolescent Boys: Longitudinal Trajectories into Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Blashill, Aaron J; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are common among the U.S. population, yet research into prospective risk factors of depression among men is limited. Distorted body image is also prevalent among adolescent boys, and may be linked with elevated depression; however, longitudinal associations have rarely been measured. Thus, the aim of the current study was to assess the prospective relationship between forms of body image distortion and depressive symptoms among adolescent boys, into adulthood. Data were extracted from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Participants were 2,139 U.S. adolescent boys (M age = 16) who were followed prospectively over 13-years (1996 to 2009), into adulthood. Longitudinal mixed-level modeling was employed to assess the temporal prediction of body image distortion on symptoms of depression. Results revealed that boys who were average weight and viewed themselves as either very underweight (very underweight distorted; Cohen's d = .47) or overweight (overweight distorted; Cohen's d = .29) reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms compared to boys who accurately viewed their weight as average; this effect remained constant over the 13-year study period. These findings indicated that distortions in body image, particularly extreme distortions, are risk factors for elevated depressive symptoms among adolescent boys, and persist into early adulthood. PMID:25383047

  20. Effect of Acupuncture on Body Weight Reduction and Inflammatory Mediators in Egyptian Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Laila Ahmed Abou; Ibrahim, Alshaymaa Ahmed; Abdel-Latif, Ghada A.; El-Haleem, Dalia Adel Abd; Helmy, Ghada; Labib, Lylah M.; El-Masry, M. Kadry

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of body acupuncture on body weight loss, routine laboratory tests and pro-inflammatory markers. METHODOLOGY: The study was performed on eighty obese patients. They were divided into three groups according to their body mass index. Subjects received acupuncture for three- six months in combination with a low-calorie diet. They were assessed pre and post acupuncture, by anthropometric measurement, routine laboratory tests and, tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α), interleukin- 6 (IL-6), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels in serum. RESULTS: The pre-acupuncture results showed significant difference between the three grades of obesity and the controls regarding TNFα, IL-6 and hsCRP. We found significant reduction in anthropometric measurement of adiposity after acupuncture. In comparing the pre &post acupuncture results of TNF-α, IL-6 and hsCRP showed high significant reduction after acupuncture. There are highly significant decrease in kidney function (creatinine and uric acid) and lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides) and fasting blood glucose, but there was no significant difference in urea, SGPT, SGOT, HDL and LDL. CONCLUSION: Body acupuncture in combination with diet restriction was found to be effective for weight loss and also reduction of the inflammatory reactions. Acupuncture could be used as a synergistic treatment option for obesity control.

  1. Secondary neurolymphomatosis detected by whole-body diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroaki; Yoshino, Kazuhiro; Sakaida, Emiko; Hashimoto, Shinichiro; Takeda, Yusuke; Kawajiri, Chika; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Nakaseko, Chiaki

    2013-01-01

    Neurolymphomatosis (NL) is a rare clinical entity defined as peripheral nervous system infiltration by lymphoma. The diagnosis is difficult and often elusive. Whole-body diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW MRI) was developed to enhance the detection of vaguely delineated tumors. Here, we describe the case of a 71-year-old male with secondary NL of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) that was successfully detected by whole-body DW MRI. The patient was diagnosed with DLBCL extending from the ethmoidal sinus to the nasal cavity, orbital cavity, and anterior cranial fossa. Although he was administered R-THP-COP chemotherapy and the tumor remarkably decreased in size, he developed painful paresthesia and weakness in the left upper and bilateral lower extremities during treatment. Because lymphoma cells were detected in his spinal fluid, high-dose methotrexate (MTX) and weekly intrathecal MTX and cytarabine injections were administered. Test results for lymphoma cells in the spinal fluid became negative ; however, the neurological disorders progressed. Whole-body DW MRI was performed as whole-body screening and could localize NL at the left cervical and bilateral lumbar nerve roots. Both cervical spine plain MRI and enhanced computed tomography performed around the same time could not detect the cervical lesion. Our case report suggests that whole-body DW MRI is a useful diagnostic imaging procedure, especially as whole-body screening in facilities where PET/CT is not available. PMID:24369224

  2. Betamethasone in Pregnancy: Influence of maternal body weight and multiple gestation on pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Della Torre, Micaela; Hibbard, Judith U.; Jeong, Hyunyoung; Fischer, James H

    2015-01-01

    Objective Goals of the study are to estimate the pharmacokinetic(PK) parameters of standard dose betamethasone in a large obstetrical population and evaluate the effect of maternal body size and multiple gestation on the PK parameters and their observed variability. Study Design Prospective PK study. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry was used to measure betamethasone plasma concentrations. PK parameters and significant clinical covariates were estimated using mixed effect modeling. Bootstrap analysis confirmed validity of the model. Results Two hundred and seventy four blood samples from 77 patients were obtained. Greatest effect on PK variability was observed with maternal lean body weight(LBW). The relationship between the PK parameters and LBW remained linear over a wide range of maternal body sizes. Multiple gestations did not affect the PK parameters. Conclusion Individualization of betamethasone dosing by maternal LBWreduces variability in drug exposure. Mutiple gestations do not require betamethasone dosing adjustment, because PK are the same as singleton gestations. PMID:20816148

  3. Effects of meal frequency on body composition during weight control in boxers.

    PubMed

    Iwao, S; Mori, K; Sato, Y

    1996-10-01

    The effects of meal frequency on changes in body composition by food restriction were investigated. Twelve boxers were divided between a two meals day-1 group (the 2M group) and a six meals day-1 group (the 6M group). Both groups ingested 5.02 MJ (1200 kcal) day-1 for 2 weeks. Although there was no difference in change of body weight by food restriction between the two groups, the decrease in lean body mass (LBM) was significantly greater in the 2M group than in the 6M group. The decrease in urinary 3-methylhistidine/creatinine was significantly greater in the 6M group than in the 2M group. These results suggest that the lower frequency of meal intake leads to a greater myoprotein catabolism even if the same diet is consumed. PMID:8960647

  4. yellow0, a marker for low body weight in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Li, XinHai; Deng, XueMei

    2009-07-01

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is an important modern breeding technique, but it has been found that the effect of the markers for quantitative trait loci (QTL) is inconsistent, leading in some cases to MAS failure and raising doubts about its effectiveness. Here the model organism Drosophila melanogaster was employed to study whether an effective marker could be found and applied to MAS. We crossed the stock carrying the y (0) marker (a recessive mutation allele of the yellow gene on the X chromosome) with three other stocks carrying corresponding wild-type markers in an F2 design, and found that the y (0) marker was in significant association with low body weight (P<0.001). This association was consistent across different backgrounds and the marker effects in female and male were approximately 0.95 sigma (P) (phenotypic standard deviation) and 0.68 sigma (P), respectively. We next introgressed a fragment via the y (0) marker into a wild stock background over 20 generations of marker-assisted introgression (MAI), and constructed the introgression stock y (0)(OR)20 in which body weight decreased by 13% and 7%, in female and male, respectively, compared to the wild stock (P<0.0001). This indicated that there must be a single QTL for low body weight that is tightly linked to the y (0) marker. We then shortened the introgressed fragment to less than 1.5 cM by a deeper MAI using the y (0) marker and the white marker. This narrower fragment also resulted in a similar decrease in body weight to that induced by y (0)(OR)20, indicating that the QTL for low body weight is located within this less-than-1.5 cM interval. Molecular characteristics of the y (0) marker by PCR amplification and Southern blotting revealed that yellow gene was deficient in the y (0) stock, leading to disappearance of melanin from the cuticle and probably influencing the developmental process. The above results confirmed the existence of effective QTL markers applicable to MAS breeding schemes, and

  5. Implicit theories of the body among college women: implications for physical activity.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Claire; Kaufman, Annette R; Rima, Brandi

    2015-09-01

    This study explored the relationship between implicit theories of the body (ITB) and self-reported physical activity. ITB are beliefs about the malleability of the body. Individuals may hold entity ITB (that body appearance is fixed) or incremental ITB (that body appearance can be changed). Female undergraduate students (N = 313) completed an online survey assessing ITB, physical activity, and discrepancy between actual and ideal body weight. Participants endorsing incremental ITB reported more physical activity. A significant ITB by weight discrepancy interaction emerged. Developing interventions targeting implicit theories of the body may be one way to increase physical activity. PMID:24271689

  6. Do body weight and gender shape the work force? The case of Iceland.

    PubMed

    Asgeirsdottir, Tinna Laufey

    2011-03-01

    Most studies of the relationship between body weight - as well as its corollary, beauty - and labor-market outcomes have indicated that it is a function of a gender bias, the negative relationship between excess weight or obesity and labor-market outcomes being greater for women than for men. Iceland offers an exceptional opportunity to examine this hypothesis, given that it scores relatively well on an index of gender equality comprising economic, political, educational, labor-market, and health-based criteria. Equipped with an advanced level of educational attainment, on average, women are well represented in Iceland's labor force. When it comes to women's presence in the political sphere, Iceland is out of the ordinary as well; that Icelanders were the first in the world to elect a woman to be president may suggest a relatively gender-blind assessment in the labor market. In the current study, survey data collected by Gallup Iceland in 2002 are used to examine the relationship between weight and employment within this political and social setting. Point estimates indicate that, despite apparently lesser gender discrimination in Iceland than elsewhere, the bias against excess weight and obesity remains gender-based, showing a slightly negative relationship between weight and the employment rate of women, whereas a slightly positive relationship was found for men. PMID:21196135

  7. The bacterial communities associated with fecal types and body weight of rex rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Bo; Han, Shushu; Wang, Ping; Wen, Bin; Jian, Wensu; Guo, Wei; Yu, Zhiju; Du, Dan; Fu, Xiangchao; Kong, Fanli; Yang, Mingyao; Si, Xiaohui; Zhao, Jiangchao; Li, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Rex rabbit is an important small herbivore for fur and meat production. However, little is known about the gut microbiota in rex rabbit, especially regarding their relationship with different fecal types and growth of the hosts. We characterized the microbiota of both hard and soft feces from rex rabbits with high and low body weight by using the Illumina MiSeq platform targeting the V4 region of the 16S rDNA. High weight rex rabbits possess distinctive microbiota in hard feces, but not in soft feces, from the low weight group. We detected the overrepresentation of several genera such as YS2/Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidales and underrepresentation of genera such as Anaeroplasma spp. and Clostridiaceae in high weight hard feces. Between fecal types, several bacterial taxa such as Ruminococcaceae, and Akkermansia spp. were enriched in soft feces. PICRUSt analysis revealed that metabolic pathways such as “stilbenoid, diarylheptanoid, gingerol biosynthesis” were enriched in high weight rabbits, and pathways related to “xenobiotics biodegradation” and “various types of N-glycan biosynthesis” were overrepresented in rabbit soft feces. Our study provides foundation to generate hypothesis aiming to test the roles that different bacterial taxa play in the growth and caecotrophy of rex rabbits. PMID:25791609

  8. The bacterial communities associated with fecal types and body weight of rex rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Bo; Han, Shushu; Wang, Ping; Wen, Bin; Jian, Wensu; Guo, Wei; Yu, Zhiju; Du, Dan; Fu, Xiangchao; Kong, Fanli; Yang, Mingyao; Si, Xiaohui; Zhao, Jiangchao; Li, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Rex rabbit is an important small herbivore for fur and meat production. However, little is known about the gut microbiota in rex rabbit, especially regarding their relationship with different fecal types and growth of the hosts. We characterized the microbiota of both hard and soft feces from rex rabbits with high and low body weight by using the Illumina MiSeq platform targeting the V4 region of the 16S rDNA. High weight rex rabbits possess distinctive microbiota in hard feces, but not in soft feces, from the low weight group. We detected the overrepresentation of several genera such as YS2/Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidales and underrepresentation of genera such as Anaeroplasma spp. and Clostridiaceae in high weight hard feces. Between fecal types, several bacterial taxa such as Ruminococcaceae, and Akkermansia spp. were enriched in soft feces. PICRUSt analysis revealed that metabolic pathways such as "stilbenoid, diarylheptanoid, gingerol biosynthesis" were enriched in high weight rabbits, and pathways related to "xenobiotics biodegradation" and "various types of N-glycan biosynthesis" were overrepresented in rabbit soft feces. Our study provides foundation to generate hypothesis aiming to test the roles that different bacterial taxa play in the growth and caecotrophy of rex rabbits. PMID:25791609

  9. Leptin-independent programming of adult body weight and adiposity in mice.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Elizabeth C; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; Luan, Jian'an; Berends, Lindsey M; Ozanne, Susan E

    2011-02-01

    Low birth weight and rapid postnatal weight gain are independent and additive risk factors for the subsequent development of metabolic disease. Despite an abundance of evidence for these associations, mechanistic data are lacking. The hormone leptin has received significant interest as a potential programming factor, because differences in the profile of leptin in early life have been associated with altered susceptibility to obesity. Whether leptin alone is a critical factor for programming obesity has, until now, remained unclear. Using the leptin-deficient ob/ob mouse, we show that low birth weight followed by rapid catch-up growth during lactation (recuperated offspring) leads to a persistent increase in body weight in adult life, both in wild-type and ob/ob animals. Furthermore, recuperated offspring are hyperphagic and epididymal fat pad weights are significantly increased, reflecting greater adiposity. These results show definitively that factors other than leptin are crucial in the programming of energy homeostasis in this model and are powerful enough to alter adiposity in a genetically obese strain. PMID:21209019

  10. Self-perceived body weight status and weight-control behaviors of high school students in a southern city of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kurdak, Hatice; Bozdemir, Nafiz; Saatci, Esra; Ozturk, Pelin; Ozcan, Sevgi; Akpinar, Ersin

    2010-12-01

    Defining "healthy weight" is not easy and for an adolescent with all concerns about newly developing physiognomy it is even harder. The aim of this study was to find out the frequency of obesity and the association between the body mass index (BMI), weight-control behaviors and self-perceived body weight status in high school students of a southern city of Turkey. The students from 10 schools were randomly selected among 46,271 students of 72 high schools in Adana from 1999 to 2000. The response rate was 94.8% (2352/2480). The Turkish version of Youth Risk Behavior Survey Questionnaire (YRBSQ) was completed by the students. The students' weights and heights were measured. The mean age was 16.5 +/- 1.0 years of age (range = 14-21 years). The mean BMI was 21.0 +/- 3.1, 25.5% of students were underweight, 65.7% were normal, 6.4% were overweight and 2.3% were obese (p = 0.0001). Of all students, 24.3% defined themselves as thin, 45.3% as normal, 24.9% as overweight and 5.5% as obese (p = 0.0001). The percentage of girls defining their body weight as overweight and obese was significantly higher than the boys (p = 0.0001). Of all students, 35.5% wanted to lose weight, 22.3% wanted to gain weight, 27.8% wanted to keep their current weight. Intention (p = 0.0001) and interventions to lose weight such as going on a diet (p = 0.0001), provocative vomiting (p = 0.0001) and 24-hours starving (p = 0.0001) were significantly higher in girls than boys. Of students, 26.8% (n=620) were on a diet program either to lose or to keep their body weight. There was significant relationship between being on a diet program and intention to change body weight (p = 0.047). We concluded that adolescents living in Adana have relatively higher risk of being underweight than being obese and have unhealthy weight changing plans due to their misperception of their body images. Adolescents may be unconscious on plans and attempts to change their body weights and nutrition and we suggest that

  11. Relationship between Body Weight of Primiparous Sows during Late Gestation and Subsequent Reproductive Efficiency over Six Parities

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Soo; Yang, Xiaojian; Baidoo, Samuel Kofi

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of parity 1 gilt body weight during late gestation (d 109) on subsequent reproductive performance of sows and performance of suckling pigs. A total of 2,404 farrowing records over 6 parities were divided into six groups on the basis of body weight (190, 200, 210, 220, 230, and 240 kg) at d 109 of gestation of 585 gilts. Significant effects (p< 0.05) of body weight on sow retention rate was noticed, with the 210 kg group having the lowest culling rate and highest total number of piglets born alive over the 6 parities. With increase of body weight, a linear increase (p<0.05) in losses of body weight and backfat during the lactation period of parity 1 and a linear decrease (p<0.05) in backfat loss for parities 4 and 6 were found. Compared with light sows, heavy sows had higher (p<0.05) litter weight at birth for parities 1 and 2 and at weaning in parity 1. Sow weaning-to-estrus interval of sows was not influenced (p>0.05) by body weight. In conclusion, maintaining optimal body weight during gestation would be beneficial to sows and suckling piglets. PMID:26954198

  12. Relationship between Body Weight of Primiparous Sows during Late Gestation and Subsequent Reproductive Efficiency over Six Parities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Soo; Yang, Xiaojian; Baidoo, Samuel Kofi

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated the impact of parity 1 gilt body weight during late gestation (d 109) on subsequent reproductive performance of sows and performance of suckling pigs. A total of 2,404 farrowing records over 6 parities were divided into six groups on the basis of body weight (190, 200, 210, 220, 230, and 240 kg) at d 109 of gestation of 585 gilts. Significant effects (p< 0.05) of body weight on sow retention rate was noticed, with the 210 kg group having the lowest culling rate and highest total number of piglets born alive over the 6 parities. With increase of body weight, a linear increase (p<0.05) in losses of body weight and backfat during the lactation period of parity 1 and a linear decrease (p<0.05) in backfat loss for parities 4 and 6 were found. Compared with light sows, heavy sows had higher (p<0.05) litter weight at birth for parities 1 and 2 and at weaning in parity 1. Sow weaning-to-estrus interval of sows was not influenced (p>0.05) by body weight. In conclusion, maintaining optimal body weight during gestation would be beneficial to sows and suckling piglets. PMID:26954198

  13. The Relationship Between Waterpipe Smoking and Body Weight: Population-Based Findings From Syria

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, SangNam; Mzayek, Fawaz; Al Ali, Radwan; Rastam, Samer; Asfar, Taghrid; Fouad, Fouad; Maziak, Wasim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cigarette smoking has well known effects on body weight, with current smokers weighing less than never-smokers, and cessation producing weight gain. Use of waterpipe (or “hookah”) is increasing in many parts of the world but its effects on body weight are not known. Methods: We compared body mass index (BMI) among 2,536 adults (age ≥18 years old), who were never, former, current nondaily, or current daily waterpipe smokers, drawn from 2 representative, population-based household surveys of adults in Aleppo, Syria. Results: Overall, 84.1% (n = 2,134) never-smoked waterpipe, 4.6% (n = 116) were former smokers, 9.9% (n = 251) were current nondaily smokers, and 1.4% (n = 35) were current daily smokers. Mean BMI of the sample was 30.2kg/m2 (SD = 6.3). Adjusted for cigarette smoking, number of chronic diseases, age, gender, income, and marital status, daily waterpipe users were 2.26 BMI units greater than never-smokers (beta = 2.26, 95% CI = 0.79–3.72), and had nearly threefold odds of being obese (odds ratio = 2.87, 95% CI = 1.06–7.76). Nondaily and former waterpipe users were similar to never-smokers in terms of BMI and obesity risk. Conclusion: Results indicate that daily waterpipe users, compared to never-users, have higher BMI, translating into 6 extra kilograms of weight on average, and are 3 times as likely to be obese. PMID:25096252

  14. The relationship of weight-height indices of obesity to body fat content.

    PubMed

    Strain, G W; Zumoff, B

    1992-12-01

    The measurement called desirable body weight (DBW) was derived by actuaries to indicate that weight which is associated with the lowest mortality. Percent deviation from DBW has become a standard measure of fatness. A different obesity index, body mass index (BMI), is weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters. Many workers consider both measures inferior to the measurement of body fat content (BFC). We compared the three measures of fatness in 40 men aged 18-50 and 48 women aged 21-47, ranging from nonobese to extremely obese. Total BFC was determined by isotope dilution of 3H-labeled water. DBWs used were those listed in the US Air Force Examination Manual of 1971; these approximate the midpoint of the range of medium-frame values in the 1959 Metropolitan Life Insurance Tables, but have the advantage of providing a single value for each height. We found nearly perfect correlation (r = 0.99, p < 0.001) between BMI and percent deviation from DBW in both men and women ranging from 14% below to 305% above DBW. Correlations between percent deviation from DBW and total BFC were extremely high: 0.95 (p < 0.001) for the men and 0.94 (p < 0.001) for the women, essentially the same as correlations between BMI and BFC, which were 0.96 (p < 0.001) for the men and 0.95 (p < 0.001) for the women. It appears that the two technically simple weight-height indices, BMI and percent deviation from DBW, give just as accurate a measurement of fatness as the technically complex measurement of total BFC.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1460187

  15. Targeting impulsive processes of eating behavior via the internet. Effects on body weight.

    PubMed

    Veling, Harm; van Koningsbruggen, Guido M; Aarts, Henk; Stroebe, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    Because eating behavior can take on an impulsive nature many people experience difficulty with dieting to lose weight. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of two interventions targeting impulsive processes of eating behavior to facilitate weight loss: Implementation intentions to remind people about dieting versus a go/no-go task to change impulses toward palatable foods. Dieters performed an online training program (four times in 4 weeks) in which they were randomly assigned to a 2 (implementation intention condition: dieting versus control) × 2 (go/no-go task condition: food versus control) design. They formed either dieting implementation intentions (e.g., If I open the fridge I will think of dieting!) or control implementation intentions. Furthermore, they received either a go/no-go task in which behavioral stop signals were presented upon presentation of palatable foods (food go/no-go task), or upon control stimuli. Participants' weight was measured in the laboratory before and after the intervention. Strength of participants' dieting goal and their Body Mass Index (BMI; as a proxy for impulsiveness toward food) were examined as moderators. Results showed that both dieting implementation intentions and the food go/no-go task facilitated weight loss. Moreover, dieting implementation intentions facilitated weight loss particularly among people with a strong current dieting goal, whereas the food go/no-go task facilitated weight loss independent of this factor. Instead, the food go/no-go task, but not formation of dieting implementation intentions, was primarily effective among dieters with a relatively high BMI. These results provide the first preliminary evidence that interventions aimed at targeting impulsive eating-related processes via the internet can facilitate weight loss. PMID:24675683

  16. Vagus Nerve Stimulation Reduces Body Weight and Fat Mass in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Banni, Sebastiano; Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Cordeddu, Lina; Giordano, Elena; Marrosu, Francesco; Puligheddu, Monica; Floris, Gabriele; Asuni, Gino Paolo; Cappai, Angela Letizia; Deriu, Silvia; Follesa, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Among the manifold effects of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) delivered as an add-on treatment to patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, a moderate loss of body weight has been observed in some individuals. We have now investigated this effect in rats. Exposure of rats to VNS for 4 weeks reduced feed conversion efficiency as well as body weight gain (by ∼25%) and the amount of mesenteric adipose tissue (by ∼45%) in comparison with those in sham-operated control animals. A pair-fed experiment showed that both lower dietary intake and increase energy expenditure independently contributed to the reduction of body weight and mesenteric adipose tissue. Moreover, VNS increased the level of non-esterified fatty acids in plasma and mesenteric adipose tissue by ∼50 and 80%, respectively, without affecting that in the liver. In addition, VNS reduced the amounts of endocannabinoids and increased N-palmitoylethanolamide, an endogenous ligand of the transcription factor PPARα (peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor α) in mesenteric adipose tissue but not in the hypothalamus. These effects were accompanied by increased expression of the gene for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hypothalamus and up-regulation of the abundance of PPARα in the liver. Our results suggest that the reduction in body fat induced by VNS in rats may result from the action of both central and peripheral mediators. The reduced feed conversion efficiency associated with VNS may be mediated by hypothalamic BDNF, down-regulation of endocannabinoid tone in mesenteric adipose tissue and a PPARα-dependent increase in fatty acid oxidation in the liver, which in concerted action may account for the anorexic effect and increased energy expenditure. PMID:23028630

  17. Weight status and perception of body image in children: the effect of maternal immigrant status

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that body image perception is an important factor in weight control and may be influenced by culture and ethnicity. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between immigrant status of the mother and weight status and body image perception of the child. Methods In total, 2706 schoolchildren (1405 boys and 1301 girls) aged 8–9 years and their mothers participated in a cross-sectional survey in Emilia-Romagna region (northern Italy). Weight and height of the children were measured and Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. Actual and ideal body image perception by the children and by the mothers with respect to their children was evaluated according to Collins’ body image silhouettes. Results The BMI values were significantly lower in children of immigrants than in children of Italian mothers (F:17.27 vs 17.99 kg/m2; M:17.77 vs 18.13 kg/m2). The prevalence of overweight/obesity was lower, and the prevalence of underweight higher, in children of immigrant mothers than in those of Italian mothers (overweight- F:21.3 vs 29.1%; M. 28.3 vs 31.4%; underweight- F:5.16 vs 3.84%; M:6.63 vs 2.82%). The children's body image perception was consistent with the differing pattern of nutritional status. In the comparison between actual and ideal figures, the Feel-Ideal Difference Index (FID) scores resulted different between the subsample with foreign-born mother in comparison to the native one (significantly lower in daughters of immigrants) (FID- F: 0.31 vs 0.57; M: 0.35 vs 0.32). There were significant differences in the choice of the ideal figure of the child between immigrant mothers and Italian mothers (FID- F: -0.05 vs 0.19; M: -0.35 vs −0.03): the ideal figure values were higher in the immigrant mothers of male children and lower in the Italian mothers of female children. Conclusion Our results suggest that cultural and behavioral factors linked to ethnicity play an important role in the nutritional status of

  18. The effects of weight loss treatments on upper and lower body fat.

    PubMed

    Kopelman, P G

    1997-08-01

    The intra-abdominal visceral deposition of adipose tissue, which characterises upper body obesity, is a major contributor to the development of hypertension, glucose intolerance and hyperlipidaemia. Conversely, individuals with lower body obesity may have comparable amounts of adipose tissue but remain relatively free from the metabolic consequences of obesity. This raises an obvious question-are there particular weight reducing treatments which specifically target intra-abdominal fat? In theory, surgical removal of upper body fat should be effective. In reality, neither liposuction nor apronectomy ('tummy tuck') have any beneficial metabolic effects, they simply remove subcutaneous adipose tissue which is often rapidly replaced. Vertical banded gastroplasty and gastric bypass operations may be dramatically effective in improving blood pressure, insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. However, these benefits result from a parallel reduction in visceral and total body fat. Studies of body fat distribution in postmenopausal women confirm that the marked decrease in adiposity, following a programme of very low calorie diet and exercise, reflects a comparable reduction in visceral and thigh fat. The reduction in waist circumference after a low fat/exercise programme suggests a similar situation in men. Exercise has an important role in treatment but, once again, the fat loss is generalised. Nevertheless, the improved metabolic parameters seen in exercising obese subjects, independent of weight loss, suggest other beneficial actions. Growth hormone (GH) has a marked lipolytic action. GH replacement treatment for GH deficient adults with pronounced abdominal fat deposition, has been shown to reduce intra-abdominal fat by 47% compared to 27% decrease in abdominal subcutaneous fat. Similar beneficial actions on abdominal fat have been reported following treatment with testosterone in obese men. The potential hazards of such treatments make them unsuitable therapy for

  19. Mid-winter food use and body weights of mallards and wood ducks in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delnicki, D.; Reinecke, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    We obtained esophageal food samples from 311 mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and 94 wood ducks (Aix sponsa) and body weights from 2,118 mallards and 315 wood ducks in western Mississippi during December and January 1979-83. On average, mallards ingested 3.0% animal food, principally aquatic invertebrates, and 97.0% plant food. Rice, soybeans, and seeds of 'moist soil' plants provided 41.3, 41.6, and 10-11% of the total food intake. Wood ducks ingested nearly 100% plant food, of which 23.4% was soybeans and 74.3% was acorns from Nuttall (Quercus nuttallii), water (Q. nigra), and willow oaks (Q. phellos). Mallard food use varied with water conditions; the use of rice decreased and soybeans increased during 1980-81 when cumulative November-January precipitation was < 50% of normal. Wood duck food use varied with habitat; the diet included more acorns at sites having larger acreages of intact bottomland hardwood forest. Mallard and wood duck body weights varied within and among winters. Mallard weights decreased by about 2% from December to January each year. We considered this a regulated loss, whereas we attributed increases and decreases of 4-5% in average weights during wet and dry winters to changes in feeding opportunities associated with winter precipitation. Wood duck weights followed similar trends. We concluded that continued drainage in the Mississippi Delta will adversely affect waterfowl foraging opportunities, and that research on winter feeding ecology will progress more rapidly if we develop an understanding of the foraging efficiencies associated with alternate food resources.

  20. The effect of pedometer use on physical activity and body weight in obese women.

    PubMed

    Cayir, Yasemin; Aslan, Secil Menekse; Akturk, Zekeriya

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity and healthy eating are of the utmost importance in treatment of obesity. However obese generally tend to have a sedentary lifestyle. Walking is a form of physical activity that is both simple and can be performed by everyone, but it requires an objective measurement. Number of steps taken during tracking can be recorded with the pedometer, a device used to measure the level of physical activity. We aimed to investigate whether or not using pedometers as a motivational technique to increase the level of physical activity in obese women has an impact on weight loss. Eighty-four obese women who are similar age referring to Ataturk University Faculty of Medicine Healthy Living Clinic, Turkey were randomly divided into two groups. Intervention group were given pedometers, and control group were prescribed similar diet and physical activity with a three-month follow-up plan without pedometers. Mean weight in pedometer group initially was 88.9 ± 8.4 kg, which decreased to 80.2 ± 8.7 kg after the programme. Mean weight in control group was 86.1 ± 9.2 kg at the beginning, and it decreased to 84.7 ± 8.8 kg after three months. It was observed in pedometer group that the mean number of steps 8817 ± 2725 steps/day at the beginning increased to mean 9716 ± 2811 steps/day at the end of the study. Weight, body mass index, body fat percentage and waist circumference measurements decreased more greatly in the pedometer when compared to the control group (p < 0.001). Pedometers may be recommended to obese patients to monitor and increase the level of physical activity and to promote weight loss. PMID:25068676

  1. Metabolic and Nutritional Needs to Normalize Body Mass Index by Doubling the Admission Body Weight in Severe Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Maria Gabriella; Lessa, Chiara; Cattaneo, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa exhibits one of the highest death rates among psychiatric patients and a relevant fraction of it is derived from undernutrition. Nutritional and medical treatment of extreme undernutrition present two very complex and conflicting tasks: (1) to avoid “refeeding syndrome” caused by a too fast correction of malnutrition; and (2) to avoid “underfeeding” caused by a too cautious refeeding. To obtain optimal treatment results, the caloric intake should be planned starting with indirect calorimetry measurements and electrolyte abnormalities accurately controlled and treated. This article reports the case of an anorexia nervosa young female affected by extreme undernutrition (BMI 9.6 kg/m2) who doubled her admission body weight (from 22.5 kg to 44 kg) in a reasonable time with the use of enteral tube feeding for gradual correction of undernutrition. Refeeding syndrome was avoided through a specialized and flexible program according to clinical, laboratory, and physiological findings. PMID:23645991

  2. Prevalence of distorted body image in young Koreans and its association with age, sex, body weight status, and disordered eating behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seong-Chul; Jung, Young-Eun; Kim, Moon-Doo; Lee, Chang-In; Hyun, Mi-Yeul; Bahk, Won-Myong; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Lee, Kwang Heun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To define the prevalence of distorted body image in 10–24-year-old Koreans and determine its relationship with sex, age, body weight status, and disordered eating behaviors. Methods A total of 3,227 young Koreans were recruited from elementary, middle, and high schools, as well as from universities. The participants completed a self-reported questionnaire on body image, eating behaviors (Eating Attitude Test-26), and body weight status. Results The prevalence of a distorted body image in males was 49.7% and that in females was 51.2%. Distorted body image was more frequent in adolescents (age, 10–17 years) than in young adults (age, 18–24 years). The highest prevalence (55.3%) was reported in female elementary school students (age, 10–12 years). Distorted body image was associated with disordered eating behaviors and abnormal body weight status. Conclusion These results suggest that distorted body image is a public health problem, given its high frequency in young Koreans, and that it is associated with abnormal body weight status and disordered eating behaviors. PMID:25914537

  3. Very low birth weight infants who are fed human milk have decreased body fat as assessed by air displacement plethysmography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods to evaluate body composition in infants have recently been enhanced. There are few data regarding body composition in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Our objective was to evaluate body composition in VLBW infants consuming human milk or formula using novel techniques. Using air-displac...

  4. Effects of a physical exercise session on state body image: The influence of pre-experimental body dissatisfaction and concerns about weight and shape.

    PubMed

    Vocks, S; Hechler, T; Rohrig, S; Legenbauer, T

    2009-07-01

    The effects of a physical exercise session on state body image and mood were examined. In a cross-over design, participants were randomised to two groups starting either with physical exercise (PE; experimental condition) or with reading a newspaper (RN; control condition). Before and after PE and RN, participants (N = 65) rated their body dimensions using a digital photo distortion technique and indicated their attitudinal body image and mood. Participants' judgements of their 'felt' body dimensions and attitudes toward their own body were affected differently by PE and RN, indicating that participants felt slightly slimmer and were more satisfied with their bodies after PE. Exercise-induced changes in body perception were greater, the higher the pre-experimental drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and weight/shape concerns were. Especially in those participants with higher body image disturbances, physical exercise can have a reinforcing effect on immediate body image and mood improvement. PMID:20205022

  5. On the use of trace-weighted images in body diffusional kurtosis imaging.

    PubMed

    Giannelli, Marco; Toschi, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    Diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) has proven to be a promising diffusion-MRI technique whose first and most established applications are in neuroimaging. Recently, a number of preliminary studies have assessed the feasibility and potential usefulness of DKI in extra-cranial regions such as prostate, liver, kidney, bladder and breast. The stringent time constraints in most routine body MRI exams frequently mandate the acquisition of diffusion-weighted images (DWIs) with (only) three diffusion weighting directions (i.e. the main orthogonal directions). The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential error introduced in the estimation of the average of the three directional diffusional kurtosis values (K) by using, for each b-value, the geometric mean (trace-weighted image) of acquired DWIs (as is common practice in most diffusion-MRI studies of the body) instead of fitting the DKI model to DWIs acquired along each direction prior to averaging. By solving the DKI model analytically while imposing three orthogonal diffusion weighting directions and two non-null b-values (800 and 2000s/mm(2)), extensive simulations were performed for different K values (0-3) and a wide range of diffusion anisotropy values. The error in the estimates of K induced by geometrical averaging of DWIs was assessed and compared to the uncertainty in K caused by DWIs noise for low (20), medium (40) and high (80) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values. The simulations showed that geometrical averaging of the DWIs introduces a noticeable error in estimated K. While the error in K varies non-monotonically with K and with the degree of diffusion anisotropy, there is a trend of increasing absolute error with both increasing K and increasing degree of diffusion anisotropy. In particular, for values of K close to 1 and low/moderate (0-0.4) diffusion anisotropy degrees (typical of various body tissues), the absolute error in K can range up to 60% of K. In this case, at all SNR values (20, 40, 80), the

  6. Modulation of adipose tissue lipolysis and body weight by high-density lipoproteins in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wei, H; Averill, M M; McMillen, T S; Dastvan, F; Mitra, P; Subramanian, S; Tang, C; Chait, A; LeBoeuf, R C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity is associated with reduced levels of circulating high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) and its major protein, apolipoprotein (apo) A-I. As a result of the role of HDL and apoA-I in cellular lipid transport, low HDL and apoA-I may contribute directly to establishing or maintaining the obese condition. Methods: To test this, male C57BL/6 wild-type (WT), apoA-I deficient (apoA-I−/−) and apoA-I transgenic (apoA-Itg/tg) mice were fed obesogenic diets (ODs) and monitored for several clinical parameters. We also performed cell culture studies. Results: ApoA-I−/− mice gained significantly more body weight and body fat than WT mice over 20 weeks despite their reduced food intake. During a caloric restriction regime imposed on OD-fed mice, apoA-I deficiency significantly inhibited the loss of body fat as compared with WT mice. Reduced body fat loss with caloric restriction in apoA-I−/− mice was associated with blunted stimulated adipose tissue lipolysis as verified by decreased levels of phosphorylated hormone-sensitive lipase (p-HSL) and lipolytic enzyme mRNA. In contrast to apoA-I−/− mice, apoA-Itg/tg mice gained relatively less weight than WT mice, consistent with other reports. ApoA-Itg/tg mice showed increased adipose tissue lipolysis, verified by increased levels of p-HSL and lipolytic enzyme mRNA. In cell culture studies, HDL and apoA-I specifically increased catecholamine-induced lipolysis possibly through modulating the adipocyte plasma membrane cholesterol content. Conclusions: Thus, apoA-I and HDL contribute to modulating body fat content by controlling the extent of lipolysis. ApoA-I and HDL are key components of lipid metabolism in adipose tissue and constitute new therapeutic targets in obesity. PMID:24567123

  7. Interoceptive sensitivity, body weight and eating behavior in children: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Anne; Pollatos, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Previous research indicates that interindividual differences in the ability to perceive one's own bodily signals (interoceptive sensitivity, IS) are associated with disordered eating behavior and weight problems. But representative and prospective data in children are lacking and therefore, the exact nature of these observed associations remains unclear. Data on IS measured by heartbeat perception ability in 1657 children between 6 and 11 years of age were collected on the basis of two measurement points with a year distance in time. Stability of the construct and its prospective association with different food approach behaviors [assessed via parent questionnaires (Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire and Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire)] as well as with weight status were analyzed via structural equation modeling. Main results were that only in overweight children external and emotional eating behavior were predictive for later IS, whereas no such relation was found in normal weight children. There was no direct relation between IS and body mass index. For the first time, we could show that eating behavior and IS in middle childhood are prospectively related to each other. But surprisingly, our data indicate that altered interoceptive processes rather follow than precede non-adaptive eating behavior patterns in overweight children. This suggests a possible crucial role of faulty learning mechanisms in eating behavior early in life, undermining the later confidence in one's body. PMID:25250006

  8. Next generation of weight management medications: implications for diabetes and CVD risk.

    PubMed

    Wharton, S; Serodio, K J

    2015-05-01

    Since the 1980s, the prevalence of obesity has almost doubled worldwide. Treatments for obesity include lifestyle modification, medications and surgery. Newer anti-obesity medications have been shown to be effective at inducing initial weight management in addition to successful long-term weight maintenance. Historically, weight management medications have been associated with public safety concerns that have resulted in the majority being withdrawn from the market or never receiving medicinal authorization. Recently, several countries have approved some newer generation weight management medications which may be beneficial to combat obesity. These medications have varying effects on cardiometabolic parameters, both positive and potentially negative. This review will outline the mechanisms of action of these medications and their implications for both diabetes and cardiovascular risks. PMID:25894803

  9. Daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable intake, and water consumption: a feasible and effective long-term weight loss maintenance approach.

    PubMed

    Akers, Jeremy D; Cornett, Rachel A; Savla, Jyoti S; Davy, Kevin P; Davy, Brenda M

    2012-05-01

    Maintenance of weight loss remains a challenge for most individuals. Thus, practical and effective weight-loss maintenance (WTLM) strategies are needed. A two-group 12-month WTLM intervention trial was conducted from June 2007 to February 2010 to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of a WTLM intervention for older adults using daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable (F/V) intake, and water consumption. Forty weight-reduced individuals (mean weight lost=6.7±0.6 kg; body mass index [calculated as kg/m²] 29.2±1.1), age 63±1 years, who had previously participated in a 12-week randomized controlled weight-loss intervention trial, were instructed to record daily body weight, step count, and F/V intake (WEV [defined as weight, exercise, and F/V]). Experimental group (WEV+) participants were also instructed to consume 16 fl oz of water before each main meal (ie, three times daily), and to record daily water intake. Outcome measures included weight change, diet/physical activity behaviors, theoretical constructs related to health behaviors, and other clinical measures. Statistical analyses included growth curve analyses and repeated measures analysis of variance. Over 12 months, there was a linear decrease in weight (β=-0.32, P<0.001) and a quadratic trend (β=0.02, P<0.01) over time, but no group difference (β=-0.23, P=0.08). Analysis of the 365 days of self-reported body weight for each participant determined that weight loss was greater over the study period in the WEV+ group than in the WEV group, corresponding to weight changes of -0.67 kg and 1.00 kg, respectively, and an 87% greater weight loss (β=-0.01, P<0.01). Overall compliance to daily tracking was 76%±5%. Daily self-monitoring of weight, physical activity, and F/V consumption is a feasible and effective approach for maintaining weight loss for 12 months, and daily self-monitoring of increased water consumption may provide additional WTLM benefits. PMID:22709772

  10. The influence of body weight on social network ties among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mir M; Amialchuk, Aliaksandr; Rizzo, John A

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of negative stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination towards obese individuals has been widely documented. However, the effect of a larger body size on social network ties or friendship formations is less well understood. In this paper, we explore the extent to which higher body weight results in social marginalization of adolescents. Using data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents, we estimate endogeneity-corrected models including school-level fixed effects that account for bi-directionality and unobserved confounders to ascertain the effect of body weight on social network ties. We find that obese adolescents have fewer friends and are less socially integrated than their non-obese counterparts. We also find that such penalties in friendship networks are present among whites but not African-Americans or Hispanics, with the largest effect among white females. These results are robust to common environmental influences at the school-level and to controls for preferences, risk attitudes, low self-esteem and objective measures of physical attractiveness. PMID:22056235

  11. PRL-releasing peptide interacts with leptin to reduce food intake and body weight.

    PubMed

    Ellacott, Kate L J; Lawrence, Catherine B; Rothwell, Nancy J; Luckman, Simon M

    2002-02-01

    PRL-releasing peptide (PrRP) is a novel anorexigen that reduces food intake and body weight gain in rats. In common with other anorexigens, PrRP mRNA expression is reduced during states of negative energy balance, i.e. lactation and fasting in female rats. In this study, we examined the interaction between PrRP and the adiposity signal, leptin, which interacts with a number of peptidergic systems in the brain to regulate energy homeostasis. Intracerebroventricular coadministration of 4 nmol PrRP and 1 microg leptin in rats resulted in additive reductions in nocturnal food intake and body weight gain and an increase in core body temperature compared with each peptide alone. We show also, by quantitative in situ hybridization, that PrRP mRNA is reduced in fasted male rats and obese Zucker rats, indicating that PrRP mRNA expression, like that of other anorexigens, may be regulated by leptin. Finally we show, using immunohistochemistry, that greater than 90% of PrRP neurons in all regions where PrRP is expressed contain leptin receptors. Thus, we provide evidence for PrRP neurons forming part of the leptin-sensitive brain circuitry involved in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. PMID:11796488

  12. Body weight status, eating behavior, sensitivity to reward/punishment, and gender: relationships and interdependencies

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Anja; Federbusch, Martin; Grellmann, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Horstmann, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and personality characteristics are factors that may jointly regulate body weight. This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and self-reported behavioral and personality measures. These measures included eating behavior (based on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire; Stunkard and Messick, 1985), sensitivity to reward and punishment (based on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales) (Carver and White, 1994) and self-reported impulsivity (based on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11; Patton et al., 1995). We found an inverted U-shaped relationship between restrained eating and BMI. This relationship was moderated by the level of disinhibited eating. Independent of eating behavior, BIS and BAS responsiveness were associated with BMI in a gender-specific manner with negative relationships for men and positive relationships for women. Together, eating behavior and BIS/BAS responsiveness accounted for a substantial proportion of BMI variance (men: ∼25%, women: ∼32%). A direct relationship between self-reported impulsivity and BMI was not observed. In summary, our results demonstrate a system of linear and non-linear relationships between the investigated factors and BMI. Moreover, body weight status was not only associated with eating behavior (cognitive restraint and disinhibition), but also with personality factors not inherently related to an eating context (BIS/BAS). Importantly, these relationships differ between men and women. PMID:25368586

  13. Prepregnancy and Early Adulthood Body Mass Index and Adult Weight Change in Relation to Fetal Loss

    PubMed Central

    Gaskins, Audrey J.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Colaci, Daniela S.; Afeiche, Myriam C.; Toth, Thomas L.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Chavarro, Jorge E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine prospectively the relationships of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), BMI at age 18, and weight change since age 18 with risk of fetal loss. Methods Our prospective cohort study included 25,719 pregnancies reported by 17,027 women in the Nurses’ Health Study II between 1990 and 2009. In 1989, height, current weight, and weight at age 18 were self-reported. Current weight was updated every 2 years thereafter. Pregnancies were self-reported, with case pregnancies lost spontaneously and comparison pregnancies ending in ectopic pregnancy, induced abortion, or live birth. Results Incident fetal loss was reported in 4,494 (17.5%) pregnancies. Compared to those of normal BMI, the multivariate relative risk (RR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of fetal loss was 1.07 (1.00, 1.15) for overweight women, 1.10 (0.98, 1.23) for class I obese women, and 1.27 (1.11, 1.45) for class II & III obese women (P, trend=<0.001). BMI at age 18 was not associated with fetal loss (P, trend=0.59). Compared to women who maintained a stable weight (+/− 4 kg) between age 18 and before pregnancy, women who lost weight had a 20% (95% CI 9, 29%) lower risk of fetal loss. This association was stronger among women who were overweight at age 18. Conclusion Being overweight or obese prior to pregnancy was associated with higher risk of fetal loss. In women overweight or obese at age 18, losing 4 kg or more was associated with a lower risk of fetal loss. PMID:25198273

  14. [Effect of long-term monosodium glutamate administration on structure and functional state of the stomach and body weight in rats].

    PubMed

    Falalieieva, T M; Kukhars'kyĭ, V M; Berehova, T V

    2010-01-01

    The influence of prolonged administration of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on basal gastric acid secretion, body weight and gastric mucosa in rats was studied. We found that 10-, 20-, 30-days feeding by MSG in doses 15 to 30 mg/kg (equivalent to I and 2 g/person) leads to erosive and ulcerative lesions of the gastric mucosa and an increased secretion of hydrochloric acid and an increased body weight. It is concluded that the stimulating effect of MSG on the basal secretion of hydrochloric acid in the stomach may be implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of acid-dependent diseases. An excessive consumption of MSG can cause a "Chinese Restaurant Syndrome" and gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers. Therefore, the maximum dose of MSG should be reconsidered taking into account its influence on the secretory capacity of the stomach. We also conclude that prolonged, excessive and systemic consumption of MSG causes obesity. PMID:20968043

  15. The Virtual Dollhouse: Body Image and Weight Stigma in Second Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linares, R.; Bailenson, J.; Bailey, J.; Stevenson Won, A.

    2012-12-01

    Second Life is a virtual world where fantasy and reality collide as users can customize their digital representation or avatar. The act of wanting to ignore or avoid the real world's physical limitations can be called "avatar escapism" (Ducheneaut, Wen, Yee, Wadley, 2009). In the media the increasingly thin standard of beauty (Berel, Irving, 1998) has augmented negative stereotypes of overweight people to the point of making it acceptable for people to ridicule others' bodies image (Wang, Brownell, Wadden, 2004). In the real world, these concepts hurt people who are unable or unwilling to achieve an "acceptable" body size often leading them to be ridiculed. In the virtual world, a person may portray their desired body potentially escaping judgment from others. Can this more liberated form of bodily expression lead people to expect and need that perfection to a point where they abandon the real world in order to live in that perfection? With this knowledge we looked at the implications of the real world idolization of the perfect body and how this is transferred into the virtual space. In addition, we investigated how the reactions and behaviors that people have when others rebel against the "Barbie doll" appearance (Ducheneaut, Wen, Yee, Wadley, 2009) affect us in the real world.

  16. Child gender and weight status moderate the relation of maternal feeding practices to body esteem in 1st grade children.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Lenka H; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Harrist, Amanda W; Topham, Glade; Page, Melanie

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of body dissatisfaction development is critical for minimizing adverse effects of poor body esteem on eating behaviors, self-esteem, and overall health. Research has examined body esteem and its correlates largely in pre-adolescents and adolescents; however, important questions remain about factors influencing body esteem of younger children. The main purpose of this study was to test moderation by children's gender and weight status of the relation of maternal controlling feeding practices to 1st graders' body esteem. The Body Esteem Scale (BES) and anthropometric measurements were completed during one-on-one child interviews at school. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (restriction, monitoring, concern, self-assessed maternal weight). A total of 410 mother/child dyads (202 girls) participated. Percent of children classified as overweight (BMI-for-age ≥85th) was: girls - 29%; boys - 27%. Gender moderated the relation between restriction and body esteem (β = -.140, p = .05), with maternal restriction predicting body esteem in girls but not boys. The hypothesized three-way interaction among gender, child weight status, and monitoring was confirmed. Monitoring was significantly inversely related to body esteem only for overweight/obese girls (b = -1.630). The moderating influence of gender or gender and weight status on the link between maternal feeding practices and body esteem suggests the importance of body esteem interventions for girls as early as first grade. PMID:25624022

  17. Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) Pressurized Fuselage Modeling, Analysis, and Design for Weight Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the interim progress for an in-house study that is directed toward innovative structural analysis and design of next-generation advanced aircraft concepts, such as the Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) and the Advanced Mobility Concept-X flight vehicles, for structural weight reduction and associated performance enhancement. Unlike the conventional, skin-stringer-frame construction for a cylindrical fuselage, the box-type pressurized fuselage panels in the HWB undergo significant deformation of the outer aerodynamic surfaces, which must be minimized without significant structural weight penalty. Simple beam and orthotropic plate theory is first considered for sizing, analytical verification, and possible equivalent-plate analysis with appropriate simplification. By designing advanced composite stiffened-shell configurations, significant weight reduction may be possible compared with the sandwich and ribbed-shell structural concepts that have been studied previously. The study involves independent analysis of the advanced composite structural concepts that are presently being developed by The Boeing Company for pressurized HWB flight vehicles. High-fidelity parametric finite-element models of test coupons, panels, and multibay fuselage sections, were developed for conducting design studies and identifying critical areas of potential failure. Interim results are discussed to assess the overall weight/strength advantages.

  18. Body Mass Index, Gestational Weight Gain, and Obstetric Complications in Moroccan Population

    PubMed Central

    Mochhoury, Latifa; Razine, Rachid; Kasouati, Jalal; Kabiri, Mariam; Barkat, Amina

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the impact of the body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy and the weight gain during pregnancy, on the occurrence of maternal and neonatal morbidity in the Moroccan population, as well as to analyze the quality of the weight gain depending on the BMI. Methods. A study was carried out over a period of one year from October 1, 2010 to October 1, 2011, using data collected from a descriptive-transversal study. We recruited nondiabetic women without several HTAs, delivering singletons from 37 completed weeks up to 42 weeks gestation. Results. Total of 1408 were analyzed. The risks of moderate hypertension, macrosomia, dystocia, and resort to cesarean section were higher among overweight or obese women, as well as among women whose weight gain was >16 kg. The differences were significant <0.05. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that overweight women before pregnancy and weight gain during pregnancy are associated with higher risks of maternal and neonatal complications. These data provide ideas on prevention opportunities. PMID:23936654

  19. Do Meio- and Macrobenthic Nematodes Differ in Community Composition and Body Weight Trends with Depth?

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Jyotsna; Baguley, Jeffrey; Bluhm, Bodil A.; Rowe, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    Nematodes occur regularly in macrobenthic samples but are rarely identified from them and are thus considered exclusively a part of the meiobenthos. Our study compares the generic composition of nematode communities and their individual body weight trends with water depth in macrobenthic (>250/300 µm) samples from the deep Arctic (Canada Basin), Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and the Bermuda slope with meiobenthic samples (<45 µm) from GOM. The dry weight per individual (µg) of all macrobenthic nematodes combined showed an increasing trend with increasing water depth, while the dry weight per individual of the meiobenthic GOM nematodes showed a trend to decrease with increasing depth. Multivariate analyses showed that the macrobenthic nematode community in the GOM was more similar to the macrobenthic nematodes of the Canada Basin than to the GOM meiobenthic nematodes. In particular, the genera Enoploides, Crenopharynx, Micoletzkyia, Phanodermella were dominant in the macrobenthos and accounted for most of the difference. Relative abundance of non-selective deposit feeders (1B) significantly decreased with depth in macrobenthos but remained dominant in the meiobenthic community. The occurrence of a distinct assemblage of bigger nematodes of high dry weight per individual in the macrobenthos suggests the need to include nematodes in macrobenthic studies. PMID:21253595

  20. Effects of Prepregnancy Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain on Pregnancy Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui Hong; Liu, Xiang Yu; Zhan, Yi Wei; Zhang, Long; Huang, Yan Jie; Zhou, Hong

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the single and joint effects of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) on pregnancy outcomes, electronic medical records of 14,196 women who delivered singleton live infant at a maternal and child health hospital in Beijing, China, in 2012 were reviewed. Logistic regression was used to assess the associations, adjusting for maternal age, height, education, parity, and offspring sex. Women of high prepregnancy BMI or excessive GWG had higher risks of gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, postpartum hemorrhage, caesarean delivery, macrosomia, and large for gestational age infant, while women of inadequate GWG had higher risks of preterm delivery, low birth weight, and small for gestational age infant. Findings suggest that antenatal care providers should help pregnant women control their GWG to normal. PMID:26058899

  1. Stimulation of body weight increase and epiphyseal cartilage growth by insulin like growth factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, S.

    1981-01-01

    The ability of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) to induce growth in hypophysectomized immature rats was tested by continuous infusion of the partially purified factor at daily doses of 6, 21, and 46 mU for an 8-day period. A dose-dependent growth of the proximal epiphyseal cartilage of the tibia and an associated stimulation of the primary spongiosa were produced by these amounts of IGF. The two highest doses of IGF also resulted in dose-dependent increases of body weight. Gel permeation of the sera at neutrality showed that the large-molecular-weight IGF binding protein was not induced by the infusion of IGF, whereas it ws generated in the sera of hypophysectomized rats that were infused with daily doses of 86 mU of human growth hormone.

  2. Phenotypic and genetic variability for body weight of ostriches (Struthio camelus).

    PubMed

    Ramos, S B; Savegnago, R P; Caetano, S L; Venturini, G C; Ramos, A A; Munari, D P

    2014-01-01

    1. objective of the present study was to estimate heritability for hatch weight (HW), body weight at 90 (W90) and 180 (W180) d of age in Brazilian ostriches. 2. The heritability estimates were obtained through the restricted maximum likelihood method for an animal model. Least squares method was used to define possible fixed effects for consideration in the analysis model. 3. The estimates of heritability were 0.42 ± 0.05, 0.16 ± 0.04 and 0.24 ± 0.08 for HW, W90 and W180, respectively. 4. Heritability estimates showed that there are sufficient levels of additive genetic variation present in the traits studied, and these traits may respond to selection. PMID:25269694

  3. Body dysmorphic disorder in different settings: A systematic review and estimated weighted prevalence.

    PubMed

    Veale, David; Gledhill, Lucinda J; Christodoulou, Polyxeni; Hodsoll, John

    2016-09-01

    Our aim was to systematically review the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in a variety of settings. Weighted prevalence estimate and 95% confidence intervals in each study were calculated. The weighted prevalence of BDD in adults in the community was estimated to be 1.9%; in adolescents 2.2%; in student populations 3.3%; in adult psychiatric inpatients 7.4%; in adolescent psychiatric inpatients 7.4%; in adult psychiatric outpatients 5.8%; in general cosmetic surgery 13.2%; in rhinoplasty surgery 20.1%; in orthognathic surgery 11.2%; in orthodontics/cosmetic dentistry settings 5.2%; in dermatology outpatients 11.3%; in cosmetic dermatology outpatients 9.2%; and in acne dermatology clinics 11.1%. Women outnumbered men in the majority of settings but not in cosmetic or dermatological settings. BDD is common in some psychiatric and cosmetic settings but is poorly identified. PMID:27498379

  4. A reexamination of age-related variation in body weight and morphometry of Maryland nutria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherfy, M.H.; Mollett, T.A.; McGowan, K.R.; Daugherty, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    Age-related variation in morphometry has been documented for many species. Knowledge of growth patterns can be useful for modeling energetics, detecting physiological influences on populations, and predicting age. These benefits have shown value in understanding population dynamics of invasive species, particularly in developing efficient control and eradication programs. However, development and evaluation of descriptive and predictive models is a critical initial step in this process. Accordingly, we used data from necropsies of 1,544 nutria (Myocastor coypus) collected in Maryland, USA, to evaluate the accuracy of previously published models for prediction of nutria age from body weight. Published models underestimated body weights of our animals, especially for ages <3. We used cross-validation procedures to develop and evaluate models for describing nutria growth patterns and for predicting nutria age. We derived models from a randomly selected model-building data set (n = 192-193 M, 217-222 F) and evaluated them with the remaining animals (n = 487-488 M, 642-647 F). We used nonlinear regression to develop Gompertz growth-curve models relating morphometric variables to age. Predicted values of morphometric variables fell within the 95% confidence limits of their true values for most age classes. We also developed predictive models for estimating nutria age from morphometry, using linear regression of log-transformed age on morphometric variables. The evaluation data set corresponded with 95% prediction intervals from the new models. Predictive models for body weight and length provided greater accuracy and less bias than models for foot length and axillary girth. Our growth models accurately described age-related variation in nutria morphometry, and our predictive models provided accurate estimates of ages from morphometry that will be useful for live-captured individuals. Our models offer better accuracy and precision than previously published models

  5. Xanthohumol lowers body weight and fasting plasma glucose in obese male Zucker fa/fa rats.

    PubMed

    Legette, Leecole L; Luna, Arlyn Y Moreno; Reed, Ralph L; Miranda, Cristobal L; Bobe, Gerd; Proteau, Rosita R; Stevens, Jan F

    2013-07-01

    Obesity contributes to increased risk for several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Xanthohumol, a prenylated flavonoid from hops (Humulus lupulus), was tested for efficacy on biomarkers of metabolic syndrome in 4 week old Zucker fa/fa rats, a rodent model of obesity. Rats received daily oral doses of xanthohumol at 0, 1.86, 5.64, and 16.9 mg/kg BW for 6 weeks. All rats were maintained on a high fat (60% kcal) AIN-93G diet for 3 weeks to induce severe obesity followed by a normal AIN-93G (15% kcal fat) diet for the last 3 weeks of the study. Weekly food intake and body weight were recorded. Plasma cholesterol, glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels were assessed using commercial assay kits. Plasma and liver tissue levels of XN and its metabolites were determined by liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma and liver tissue levels of xanthohumol were similar between low and medium dose groups and significantly (p<0.05) elevated in the highest dose group. There was a dose-dependent effect on body weight and plasma glucose levels. The highest dose group (n=6) had significantly lower plasma glucose levels compared to the control group (n=6) in male but not female rats. There was also a significant decrease in body weight for male rats in the highest dose group (16.9 mg/kg BW) compared to rats that received no xanthohumol, which was also not seen for female rats. Plasma cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, and MCP-1 as well as food intake were not affected by treatment. The findings suggest that xanthohumol has beneficial effects on markers of metabolic syndrome. PMID:22640929

  6. The Association between Body Weight Misperception and Psychosocial Factors in Korean Adult Women Less than 65 Years Old with Normal Weight

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoonhee; Choi, Eunjoo; Shin, Doosup; Park, Sang Min

    2015-01-01

    With society's increasing interest in weight control and body weight, we investigated the association between psychological factors and body image misperception in different age groups of adult Korean women with a normal weight. On a total of 4,600 women from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009, a self-report questionnaire was used to assess body weight perception and 3 psychological factors: self-rated health status, stress recognition, and depressed mood. Through logistic regression analysis, a poor self-rated health status (P = 0.001) and a higher recognition of stress (P = 0.001) were significantly associated with body image misperception and this significance remained after controlling for several sociodemographic (Model 1: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-2.00), health behavior and psychological factors (Model 2: aOR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.29-1.96; Model 3: aOR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.84). Especially, highly stressed middle-aged (50-64 yr) women were more likely to have body image misperception (Model 2: aOR, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.30-6.26). However, the correlation between depressed mood and self-reported body weight was inconsistent between different age groups. In conclusion, self-rated health status and a high recognition rate of severe stress were related to body weight misperception which could suggest tailored intervention to adult women especially women in younger age or low self-rated health status or a high recognition rate of severe stress. PMID:26538998

  7. Food Deprivation, Body Weight Loss and Anxiety-Related Behavior in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dietze, Silke; Lees, Katarina R.; Fink, Heidrun; Brosda, Jan; Voigt, Jörg-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Food deprivation protocols are frequently used in behavioral studies. However, there is limited evidence as to when food deprivation compromises animal welfare. Regarding the refinement of experiments involving animals, this study investigated the effects of food deprivation on body weight loss and behavior in male and female rats. Sex difference in behavior and motivational state after food deprivation is the main finding of the study. The data highlights the need for tailored pilot experiments to evaluate the impact of food deprivation on animals with regard to the 3Rs principles (replacement, reduction, refinement) in animal science. Abstract In behavioral studies, food deprivation protocols are routinely used to initiate or maintain motivational states that are required in a particular test situation. However, there is limited evidence as to when food deprivation compromises animal welfare. This study investigated the effects of different lengths of food deprivation periods and restricted (fixed-time) feeding on body weight loss as well as anxiety-related and motivated behavior in 5–6 month old male and female Wistar rats. The observed body weight loss was not influenced by sex and ranged between 4% (16 h deprivation) to approximately 9% (fixed-time feeding). Despite significant body weight loss in all groups, the motivation to eat under the aversive test conditions of the modified open field test increased only after 48 h of food deprivation. Long-lasting effects on anxiety as measured in the elevated plus maze test 24 h after refeeding have not been observed, although fixed-time feeding could possibly lead to a lasting anxiogenic effect in female rats. Overall, female rats showed a more anxiolytic profile in both tests when compared to male rats. Despite these sex differences, results suggest that food deprivation is not always paralleled by an increased motivation to feed in a conflict situation. This is an important finding as it highlights

  8. Pharmacological and Genetic Manipulation of p53 in Brown Fat at Adult But Not Embryonic Stages Regulates Thermogenesis and Body Weight in Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Al-Massadi, Omar; Porteiro, Begoña; Kuhlow, Doreen; Köhler, Markus; Gonzalez-Rellan, María J; Garcia-Lavandeira, Montserrat; Díaz-Rodríguez, Esther; Quiñones, Mar; Senra, Ana; Alvarez, Clara V; López, Miguel; Diéguez, Carlos; Schulz, Tim J; Nogueiras, Rubén

    2016-07-01

    p53 is a well-known tumor suppressor that plays multiple biological roles, including the capacity to modulate metabolism at different levels. However, its metabolic role in brown adipose tissue (BAT) remains largely unknown. Herein we sought to investigate the physiological role of endogenous p53 in BAT and its implication on BAT thermogenic activity and energy balance. To this end, we generated and characterized global p53-null mice and mice lacking p53 specifically in BAT. Additionally we performed gain-and-loss-of-function experiments in the BAT of adult mice using virogenetic and pharmacological approaches. BAT was collected and analyzed by immunohistochemistry, thermography, real-time PCR, and Western blot. p53-deficient mice were resistant to diet-induced obesity due to increased energy expenditure and BAT activity. However, the deletion of p53 in BAT using a Myf5-Cre driven p53 knockout did not show any changes in body weight or the expression of thermogenic markers. The acute inhibition of p53 in the BAT of adult mice slightly increased body weight and inhibited BAT thermogenesis, whereas its overexpression in the BAT of diet-induced obese mice reduced body weight and increased thermogenesis. On the other hand, pharmacological activation of p53 improves body weight gain due to increased BAT thermogenesis by sympathetic nervous system in obese adult wild-type mice but not in p53(-/-) animals. These results reveal that p53 regulates BAT metabolism by coordinating body weight and thermogenesis, but these metabolic actions are tissue specific and also dependent on the developmental stage. PMID:27183316

  9. Screening for body-weight disorders in Nigerian children using contrasting definitions.

    PubMed

    Goon, D T; Toriola, A L; Shaw, B S

    2010-07-01

    Several indices for body-weight disorders exist in scientific literature, but it is inconclusive whether or not they can yield comparable results when applied to Nigerian children. The prevalence of weight disorders in Nigerian children was examined using the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) body mass index (BMI) for age charts and the International Obesity Task Force's (IOTF) age- and sex-specific BMI cut-off points. Participants were 2015 pupils (979 boys and 1036 girls) aged 9-12 years, attending 19 public primary schools in Makurdi, Nigeria. Stature and body mass were measured using standard techniques. Results were analysed using student t-test and Chi-squared statistics, with the probability level set at body mass-for-stature in the children. However, more disconcerting is the fact that CDC charts showed a high prevalence of underweight for the boys (87.1%) and girls (79.7%). Prevalent underweight conditions in our sample need urgent intervention. The IOTF method is limited in its utility to identify children who are underweight and may be at risk of growth faltering. PMID:19874528

  10. Body image and weight consciousness among South Asian, Italian and general population women in Britain.

    PubMed

    Bush, H M; Williams, R G; Lean, M E; Anderson, A S

    2001-12-01

    Italians in Britain have low rates of coronary heart disease while South Asians have high rates, which correspond to a tendency to central abdominal fat deposition and overweight. World variations in attitudes to body size are thought to be related to economic security. This cross-sectional study employed a range of measures including photographic silhouettes of known BMI to investigate the attitudes of 259 South Asian, Italian and general population women (aged 20-42 years) towards body size. Migrants are compared with British-born minority members. Our results indicate that although migrant South Asians were less happy with their weight than migrant Italians, fewer had tried to lose weight in the past or had experienced external pressures to change their bodies. More migrant South Asians than Italians or general population women equated one of the four largest shapes (BMI 28-38) with health and successful reproduction. All groups wanted to resemble one of the two thinnest shapes, equating them with longevity, likelihood of marriage and job success. British-born South Asians generally showed a considerable degree of convergence towards general population women's negative attitudes to large body size, but British-born Italians' attitudes were significantly more negative even than general population women. The study's conclusions were that South Asian health beliefs are an important focus of resistance to slimness. The tendency of migrant South Asians to equate large size with health contrasts with the opposing views of Italian and general population women. British-born South Asians' views are modifying from those of migrants, but significant differences remain when compared with general population women and British-born Italians. Present differences in economic security offer only a partial explanation; South Asian attitudes may be explained by economic insecurity in the past. PMID:11895321

  11. Antibody-producing cells correlated to body weight in juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) acclimated to optimal and elevated temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrahy, L.N.M.; Schreck, C.B.; Maule, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    The immune response of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ranging in weight from approximately 10 to 55 g was compared when the fish were acclimated to either 13 or 21?? C. A haemolytic plaque assay was conducted to determine differences in the number of antibody-producing cells (APC) among fish of a similar age but different body weights. Regression analyses revealed significant increases in the number of APC with increasing body weight when fish were acclimated to either water temperature. These results emphasise the importance of standardising fish weight in immunological studies of salmonids before exploring the possible effects of acclimation temperatures. ?? 2001 Academic Press.

  12. Diffusion-weighted imaging in pediatric body MR imaging: principles, technique, and emerging applications.

    PubMed

    Chavhan, Govind B; Alsabban, Zehour; Babyn, Paul S

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging is an emerging technique in body imaging that provides indirect information about the microenvironment of tissues and lesions and helps detect, characterize, and follow up abnormalities. Two main challenges in the application of DW imaging to body imaging are the decreased signal-to-noise ratio of body tissues compared with neuronal tissues due to their shorter T2 relaxation time, and image degradation related to physiologic motion (eg, respiratory motion). Use of smaller b values and newer motion compensation techniques allow the evaluation of anatomic structures with DW imaging. DW imaging can be performed as a breath-hold sequence or a free-breathing sequence with or without respiratory triggering. Depending on the mobility of water molecules in their microenvironment, different normal tissues have different signals at DW imaging. Some normal tissues (eg, lymph nodes, spleen, ovarian and testicular parenchyma) are diffusion restricted, whereas others (eg, gallbladder, corpora cavernosa, endometrium, cartilage) show T2 shine-through. Epiphyses that contain fatty marrow and bone cortex appear dark on both DW images and apparent diffusion coefficient maps. Current and emerging applications of DW imaging in pediatric body imaging include tumor detection and characterization, assessment of therapy response and monitoring of tumors, noninvasive detection and grading of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, detection of abscesses, and evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:24819803

  13. Predicting anti-fat attitudes: individual differences based on actual and perceived body size, weight importance, entity mindset, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Scott, Shannon Rich; Rosen, Lisa H

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relative impact of actual and perceived weight, weight importance, entity mindset, and ethnicity on anti-fat attitudes as well as to examine whether certain variables play the role of mediator. Participants included a multiethnic U.S. sample of 923 female undergraduates who completed a series of measures online. Lower BMI, higher perceived weight, higher importance of weight, endorsement of an entity mindset, and identification as White as compared to Black, Hispanic, or Asian predicted higher overall anti-fat attitudes. Examination of the individual Antifat Attitudes Questionnaire subscales (i.e. dislike, fear of fat, and willpower) using Relative Weight Analysis suggested that weight importance is an important predictor of multiple aspects of anti-fat attitudes. In addition, weight importance mediated the relationship between perceived weight and fear of fat as well as the relationship between ethnicity and dislike. Implications of findings and future research directions are discussed. PMID:25326878

  14. Body Satisfaction, Weight Gain, and Binge Eating Among Overweight Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Calzo, Jerel P.; Horton, Nicholas J.; Haines, Jess; Austin, S. Bryn; Field, Alison E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine if body satisfaction is associated with body mass index (BMI) change and whether it protects against the development of frequent binge eating among overweight and obese adolescent girls. Methods We used prospective data from 9 waves of an ongoing cohort study of adolescents, the Growing Up Today Study. At enrollment in 1996, participants were 9 to 14 years old. Questionnaires were mailed to participants annually until 2001, then biennially through 2007. Girls who were overweight or obese in 1996 were included in the analysis (n=1 559). Our outcomes were annual change in BMI and incident frequent binge eating, defined as binge eating at least weekly and no use of compensatory behaviors. Results At baseline, 57.2% of the overweight and obese girls were at least somewhat satisfied with their bodies. During 11 years of follow-up, 9.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) [7.8, 10.8]) of the girls started to binge eat frequently. Controlling for BMI and other confounders, overweight and obese girls who reported being at least somewhat satisfied with their bodies made smaller BMI gains (β=−0.10 kg/m2, 95% CI [−0.19, −0.02]) and had 61% lower odds of starting to binge eat frequently (odds ratio (OR)=0.39, 95% CI [0.24, 0.64]) than their less satisfied peers. Compared to girls who were the least satisfied with their bodies, girls who were the most satisfied had 85% lower odds of starting to binge eat frequently (OR=0.15, 95% CI [0.06, 0.37]). The association between body satisfaction and starting to binge eat frequently was stronger for younger adolescents than older adolescents. Conclusions While body dissatisfaction is common among overweight and obese girls, body satisfaction may protect against excessive weight gain and binge eating. Prevention of body dissatisfaction must begin early and should be considered as a component of both obesity and eating disorder prevention programs. PMID:22565419

  15. Low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity of children and adolescents from a Brazilian region of low economic status

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Dartagnan Pinto; Almeida, Francisléia Nascimento; M., Jaime Tolentino; Maia, Maria de Fátima de M.; Tolentino, Thatiana Maia

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity in a representative sample of children and adolescents from a Brazilian region with low economic development. METHODS: A total of 982 girls and 986 boys, aged seven to 17 years old and assisted by Segundo Tempo Program, from Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were included in the study. Low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity were defined based on body mass cut-off indexes recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. The prevalence of the nutritional status according to sex and age was compared by chi-square test. RESULTS: In girls, the frequency of low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity was 4.1, 18.4 and 3.8%, respectively; in boys, these percentages were 6.3, 13.2 and 2.9%, respectively. The low body weight/thinness for girls raised from 2.7% (7-10 years old) to 5.5% (15-17 years old); the body weight excess (overweight and obesity) decreased from 30.1 to 16.2% for the same age groups. In boys, the corresponding trends were from 3.2 to 9.4% for low body weight/thinness, and from 23.4 to 9.2%, for body weight excess. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that, even in a region with low economic status, the body weight excess was the main problem associated with nutritional health. The high overweight and obesity prevalence rates indicate the need of public policies for promoting healthy feeding behaviors and physical activity. PMID:24473947

  16. Differential perceptions of body image and body weight among adults of different socioeconomic status in a sub-urban population.

    PubMed

    Maruf, Fatai A; Akinpelu, Aderonke O; Udoji, Nwannedimma V

    2014-05-01

    This study explored the association of socioeconomic status with individuals' perception of their body image (BI) and body weight (BW) among adults in a sub-urban Nigerian population. The cross-sectional sample comprised 1521 residents (775 males and 746 females) of the town of Nnewi. Perceived BI was assessed using figural representations of different sizes for males and females. Perceived BW was determined by presenting participants with BW category options to choose from. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from objectively measured BW and height using standardized procedures. Actual BW categories were derived from participants' BMIs using WHO criteria. Perceived BI and BW differed from actual BW among unskilled and non-tertiary males (p<0.001) and female (p<0.001 to p<0.04) in all BW categories whereas these variables differed (p<0.001) among skilled and tertiary males and females in normal weight, overweight and obese categories. Perceived BW differed (p<0.001) from actual BW among unskilled and non-tertiary males in underweight, overweight and obese categories whereas these variables differed (p<0.001) among unskilled and non-tertiary females, skilled and tertiary males and females in overweight and obese categories. Underweight 'unskilled' and 'non-tertiary' males perceived their BI to be different from their actual BW (p<0.001). Overweight and obese 'skilled' and 'unskilled', and 'tertiary' and 'non-tertiary', males and females perceived their BI and BW to be different from their actual BW (p<0.001). Significant differences in perceived BI existed between 'skilled' and 'unskilled' (p<0.001), and 'tertiary' and 'non-tertiary' (p=0.005), overweight males, and between 'skilled' and 'unskilled' (p<0.001), and 'tertiary' and 'non-tertiary' (p=0.008), normal-weight females. The 'skilled' participants had a lower risk of perceiving a larger BI (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.41-0.64; p<0.001) and larger BW (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.53-0.96; p=0.03) than the 'unskilled' participants

  17. Gut microbiota composition correlates with changes in body fat content due to weight loss.

    PubMed

    Remely, M; Tesar, I; Hippe, B; Gnauer, S; Rust, P; Haslberger, A G

    2015-01-01

    Genetics, lifestyle, and dietary habits contribute to metabolic syndrome, but also an altered gut microbiota has been identified. Based on this knowledge it is suggested that host bacterial composition tends to change in response to dietary factors and weight loss. The aim of this study was to identify bacteria affecting host metabolism in obesity during weight loss and to correlate them with changes of the body composition obtained from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). We recruited obese individuals receiving a dietary intervention according DACH (German, Austrian, and Swiss Society of Nutrition) reference values and guidelines for 'prevention and therapy of obesity' of DAG e.V., DDG, DGE e.V., and DGEM e.V. over three months. Faecal microbiota and BIA measurements were conducted at three time points, before, during, and after the intervention. Gut microbiota was analysed on the basis of 16S rDNA with quantitative real time PCR. Additionally, a food frequency questionnaire with questions to nutritional behaviour, lifestyle, and physical activity was administered before intervention. After weight reduction, obese individuals showed a significant increase of total bacterial abundance. The ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes significantly decreased during intervention. Lactobacilli significantly increased between the first and the second time point. These differences also correlated with differences in weight percentage. During the intervention period Clostridium cluster IV increased significantly between the second and the third time point. In contrast Clostridium cluster XIVa showed a decreased abundance. The dominant butyrate producer, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, significantly increased as did the abundance of the butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA-transferase gene. Archaea and Akkermansia were significantly more prevalent after weight reduction. Our results show a clear difference in the gut bacterial composition before and after dietary intervention with a rapid

  18. I can't stop looking at them: interactive effects of body mass index and weight dissatisfaction on attention towards body shape photographs.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiao; Li, Xiaojing; Yang, Xiaoying; Wang, Yang; Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2013-03-01

    Although attentional biases toward body-related information contribute to the etiology and maintenance of body dissatisfaction (BD) and eating disorders (EDs), attentional disengagement in women with BD and EDs is not clear. The present study investigated the association between weight dissatisfaction and attentional disengagement from body-related pictures and the possible moderating effect of body mass index (BMI) on this relation. Two hundred and four undergraduate women engaged in an experiment using a pictorial spatial cueing paradigm including fat/thin bodies and neutral household photos. Partial correlations and simple slopes regression analyses were conducted with attentional disengagement index scores of each category of cues. Findings suggested that independent of BMI, weight dissatisfaction was directly associated with attentional disengagement from both fat and thin pictures. In addition, among women with low and medium BMIs, the more they were dissatisfied with their bodyweight, the more difficulty they had disengaging their attention from fat body pictures. PMID:23352761

  19. Evaluation of a Mathematical Model of Rat Body Weight Regulation in Application to Caloric Restriction and Drug Treatment Studies

    PubMed Central

    Selimkhanov, Jangir; Patterson, Terrell A.; Scott, Dennis O.; Maurer, Tristan S.; Musante, Cynthia J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a mathematical model of energy balance and body weight regulation that can predict species-specific response to common pre-clinical interventions. To this end, we evaluate the ability of a previously published mathematical model of mouse metabolism to describe changes in body weight and body composition in rats in response to two short-term interventions. First, we adapt the model to describe body weight and composition changes in Sprague-Dawley rats by fitting to data previously collected from a 26-day caloric restriction study. The calibrated model is subsequently used to describe changes in rat body weight and composition in a 23-day cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist (CB1Ra) study. While the model describes body weight data well, it fails to replicate body composition changes with CB1Ra treatment. Evaluation of a key model assumption about deposition of fat and fat-free masses shows a limitation of the model in short-term studies due to the constraint placed on the relative change in body composition components. We demonstrate that the model can be modified to overcome this limitation, and propose additional measurements to further test the proposed model predictions. These findings illustrate how mathematical models can be used to support drug discovery and development by identifying key knowledge gaps and aiding in the design of additional experiments to further our understanding of disease-relevant and species-specific physiology. PMID:27227543

  20. Mechanisms of body weight reduction and metabolic syndrome alleviation by tea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chung S; Zhang, Jinsong; Zhang, Le; Huang, Jinbao; Wang, Yijun

    2016-01-01

    Tea, a popular beverage made from leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis, has been shown to reduce body weight, alleviate metabolic syndrome, and prevent diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in animal models and humans. Such beneficial effects have generally been observed in most human studies when the level of tea consumption was three to four cups (600-900 mg tea catechins) or more per day. Green tea is more effective than black tea. In spite of numerous studies, the fundamental mechanisms for these actions still remain unclear. From a review of the literature, we propose that the two major mechanisms are: (i) decreasing absorption of lipids and proteins by tea constituents in the intestine, thus reducing calorie intake; and (ii) activating AMP-activated protein kinase by tea polyphenols that are bioavailable in the liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissues. The relative importance of these two mechanisms depends on the types of tea and diet consumed by individuals. The activated AMP-activated protein kinase would decrease gluconeogenesis and fatty acid synthesis and increase catabolism, leading to body weight reduction and metabolic syndrome alleviation. Other mechanisms and the health relevance of these beneficial effects of tea consumption remain to be further investigated. PMID:26577614

  1. CALHM1 Deletion in Mice Affects Glossopharyngeal Taste Responses, Food Intake, Body Weight, and Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Schmolling, Jared; Marambaud, Philippe; Rose-Hellekant, Teresa A.

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of Type II taste receptor cells (TRCs) with T1R taste receptors causes sweet or umami taste, whereas T2Rs elicit bitter taste. Type II TRCs contain the calcium channel, calcium homeostasis modulator protein 1 (CALHM1), which releases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) transmitter to taste fibers. We have previously demonstrated with chorda tympani nerve recordings and two-bottle preference (TBP) tests that mice with genetically deleted Calhm1 (knockout [KO]) have severely impaired perception of sweet, bitter, and umami compounds, whereas their sour and salty tasting ability is unaltered. Here, we present data from KO mice of effects on glossopharyngeal (NG) nerve responses, TBP, food intake, body weight, and life span. KO mice have no NG response to sweet and a suppressed response to bitter compared with control (wild-type [WT]) mice. KO mice showed some NG response to umami, suggesting that umami taste involves both CALHM1- and non-CALHM1-modulated signals. NG responses to sour and salty were not significantly different between KO and WT mice. Behavioral data conformed in general with the NG data. Adult KO mice consumed less food, weighed significantly less, and lived almost a year longer than WT mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sweet taste majorly influences food intake, body weight, and life span. PMID:25855639

  2. CALHM1 Deletion in Mice Affects Glossopharyngeal Taste Responses, Food Intake, Body Weight, and Life Span.

    PubMed

    Hellekant, Göran; Schmolling, Jared; Marambaud, Philippe; Rose-Hellekant, Teresa A

    2015-07-01

    Stimulation of Type II taste receptor cells (TRCs) with T1R taste receptors causes sweet or umami taste, whereas T2Rs elicit bitter taste. Type II TRCs contain the calcium channel, calcium homeostasis modulator protein 1 (CALHM1), which releases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) transmitter to taste fibers. We have previously demonstrated with chorda tympani nerve recordings and two-bottle preference (TBP) tests that mice with genetically deleted Calhm1 (knockout [KO]) have severely impaired perception of sweet, bitter, and umami compounds, whereas their sour and salty tasting ability is unaltered. Here, we present data from KO mice of effects on glossopharyngeal (NG) nerve responses, TBP, food intake, body weight, and life span. KO mice have no NG response to sweet and a suppressed response to bitter compared with control (wild-type [WT]) mice. KO mice showed some NG response to umami, suggesting that umami taste involves both CALHM1- and non-CALHM1-modulated signals. NG responses to sour and salty were not significantly different between KO and WT mice. Behavioral data conformed in general with the NG data. Adult KO mice consumed less food, weighed significantly less, and lived almost a year longer than WT mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sweet taste majorly influences food intake, body weight, and life span. PMID:25855639

  3. Response to Ascaridia galli infection in growing chickens in relation to their body weight.

    PubMed

    Daş, Gürbüz; Gauly, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    It was hypothesized that chickens with extremely varying body weights (BW) from an otherwise homogeneous host sample cope differently with Ascaridia galli (Schrank 1788) infection. Small and large birds, falling into either the lower or the upper 5% quantiles of BW distribution of a parent stock flock, were selected at an age of 4 weeks, housed separately and fed restrictively with the same amount of feed. At week 5, all the small and large birds (635 and 1,297 g/bird, respectively; P < 0.001) were inoculated with 1,000 A. galli eggs and euthanized 52 days post-infection. Small birds had higher daily weight gains (P = 0.004) but final BWs of larger birds were still higher (P < 0.001) at slaughter. Prevalence, intensity of infection as well as worm abundance were higher in small birds when compared with the large birds (P < 0.05), whereas plasma concentrations of A. galli-specific antibodies and worm length remained unaffected (P > 0.05). In conclusion, large birds resist A. galli infection more effectively than do small ones, possibly through different mechanisms acting on allocation of available nutrient and body reserves under the exposure of the infection. PMID:24585156

  4. Hepatocyte β-Klotho regulates lipid homeostasis but not body weight in mice.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kanako; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Okada, Sadanori; Morimoto, Yuki; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Manio, Mark Christian C; Inoue, Kazuo; Kimura, Kumi; Yagi, Takashi; Saito, Yoshihiko; Fushiki, Tohru; Inoue, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Michihiro; Nabeshima, Yo-Ichi

    2016-02-01

    β-Klotho (β-Kl), a transmembrane protein expressed in the liver, pancreas, adipose tissues, and brain, is essential for feedback suppression of hepatic bile acid synthesis. Because bile acid is a key regulator of lipid and energy metabolism, we hypothesized potential and tissue-specific roles of β-Kl in regulating plasma lipid levels and body weight. By crossing β-kl(-/-) mice with newly developed hepatocyte-specific β-kl transgenic (Tg) mice, we generated mice expressing β-kl solely in hepatocytes (β-kl(-/-)/Tg). Gene expression, metabolomic, and in vivo flux analyses consistently revealed that plasma level of cholesterol, which is over-excreted into feces as bile acids in β-kl(-/-), is maintained in β-kl(-/-) mice by enhanced de novo cholesterogenesis. No compensatory increase in lipogenesis was observed, despite markedly decreased plasma triglyceride. Along with enhanced bile acid synthesis, these lipid dysregulations in β-kl(-/-) were completely reversed in β-kl(-/-)/Tg mice. In contrast, reduced body weight and resistance to diet-induced obesity in β-kl(-/-) mice were not reversed by hepatocyte-specific restoration of β-Kl expression. We conclude that β-Kl in hepatocytes is necessary and sufficient for lipid homeostasis, whereas nonhepatic β-Kl regulates energy metabolism. We further demonstrate that in a condition with excessive cholesterol disposal, a robust compensatory mechanism maintains cholesterol levels but not triglyceride levels in mice. PMID:26514166

  5. Effect of exercise and feed restriction on body weight and lipogenesis in the male Wistar rat

    SciTech Connect

    Dellwo, M.; Wright, D.L.; Beauchene, R.E.

    1986-03-01

    Male Wistar rats were swum for either 1.5 or 3.0 hours per day from 6 through 32 weeks of age. At 32 weeks of age, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with /sup 3/H/sub 2/O and sacrificed 1 hour later. Liver activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and malic enzyme (MF) were also measured. Feed intakes of exercised rats were slightly higher, whereas their body weights were slightly lower when compared to those of non-exercised ad libitum-fed rats (controls). Liver ME and G6PD activities of exercised rats were 30% and 50% higher, respectively, than those of control rats. Non-exercised rats, whose body weights were controlled by feed restriction to match those of exercised rats, also showed increases in liver ME and G6PD activities (30%). The relationship between rates of incorporation of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O into liver fat and activities of liver ME and G6PD as affected by exercise and feed restriction will be discussed.

  6. The skinny on cocaine: insights into eating behavior and body weight in cocaine-dependent men.

    PubMed

    Ersche, Karen D; Stochl, Jan; Woodward, Jeremy M; Fletcher, Paul C

    2013-12-01

    There is a general assumption that weight loss associated with cocaine use reflects its appetite suppressing properties. We sought to determine whether this was justified by characterizing, in detail, alterations in dietary food intake and body composition in actively using cocaine-dependent individuals. We conducted a cross-sectional case-control comparison of 65 male volunteers from the local community, half of whom satisfied the DSM-IV-TR criteria for cocaine dependence (n=35) while the other half had no personal or family history of a psychiatric disorder, including substance abuse (n=30). Assessments were made of eating behavior and dietary food intake, estimation of body composition, and measurement of plasma leptin. Although cocaine users reported significantly higher levels of dietary fat and carbohydrates as well as patterns of uncontrolled eating, their fat mass was significantly reduced compared with their non-drug using peers. Levels of leptin were associated with fat mass, and with the duration of stimulant use. Tobacco smoking status or concomitant use of medication did not affect the significance of the results. Weight changes in cocaine users reflect fundamental perturbations in fat regulation. These are likely to be overlooked in clinical practice but may produce significant health problems when cocaine use is discontinued during recovery. PMID:23920064

  7. Medical officers, bodies, gender and weight fluctuation in irish convict prisons, 1877-95.

    PubMed

    Breathnach, Ciara

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the function of the convict prison infirmary and views it as a site of arbitration, resistance and 'contested power'. In accordance with the rules and regulations periods of incarceration in convict prisons began and ended with an obligatory medical examination. While the primary function of the initial test was to measure the convict body in order ascertain physical ability to conduct hard labour it also provided a thorough bio-metrical description for future identification purposes. The final examination was not as comprehensively undertaken but also concerned itself with anthropometrical observations. It would be reasonable to assume that the balance of power was weighted in the authority's favour but this research has found evidence to the contrary. For instance, that there was a fair degree of physiological knowledge within the convict population and that some convicts used the infirmary for dietary gains and reprieve from hard labour. Using body mass index (BMI) as an instrument to measure physical wellbeing this article views the doctor-convict interface as a crucial component of the penal experience. It analyses 251 convict medical records to show that the balance of diet and work led to what might be considered a counterintuitive outcome - a preponderance of weight gain, particularly for males in Irish prisons. PMID:24331215

  8. Inflammatory Cytokines and Antipsychotic-Induced Weight Gain: Review and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Fonseka, Trehani M; Müller, Daniel J; Kennedy, Sidney H

    2016-05-01

    Antipsychotic medications (APs), particularly second-generation APs, are associated with significant weight gain in schizophrenia patients. Recent evidence suggests that the immune system may contribute to antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG) via AP-mediated alterations of cytokine levels. Antipsychotics with a high propensity for weight gain, such as clozapine and olanzapine, influence the expression of immune genes, and induce changes in serum cytokine levels to ultimately down-regulate neuroinflammation. Since inflammatory cytokines are normally involved in anorexigenic responses, reduced inflammation has been independently shown to mediate changes in feeding behaviours and other metabolic parameters, resulting in obesity. Genetic variation in pro-inflammatory cytokines is also associated with both general obesity and weight change during AP treatment, and thus, may be implicated in the pharmacogenetics of AIWG. At this time, preliminary data support a cytokine-mediated model of AIWG which may have clinical utility in developing more effective metabolic monitoring guidelines and prevention measures. However, further research is still needed to clearly elucidate the validity of this immune model. This article reviews the evidence implicating inflammatory cytokines in AIWG and its potential clinical relevance. PMID:27606316

  9. Cue weighting in auditory categorization: implications for first and second language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Holt, Lori L; Lotto, Andrew J

    2006-05-01

    The ability to integrate and weight information across dimensions is central to perception and is particularly important for speech categorization. The present experiments investigate cue weighting by training participants to categorize sounds drawn from a two-dimensional acoustic space defined by the center frequency (CF) and modulation frequency (MF) of frequency-modulated sine waves. These dimensions were psychophysically matched to be equally discriminable and, in the first experiment, were equally informative for accurate categorization. Nevertheless, listeners' category responses reflected a bias for use of CF. This bias remained even when the informativeness of CF was decreased by shifting distributions to create more overlap in CF. A reversal of weighting (MF over CF) was obtained when distribution variance was increased for CF. These results demonstrate that even when equally informative and discriminable, acoustic cues are not necessarily equally weighted in categorization; listeners exhibit biases when integrating multiple acoustic dimensions. Moreover, changes in weighting strategies can be affected by changes in input distribution parameters. This methodology provides potential insights into acquisition of speech sound categories, particularly second language categories. One implication is that ineffective cue weighting strategies for phonetic categories may be alleviated by manipulating variance of uninformative dimensions in training stimuli. PMID:16708961

  10. Empagliflozin reduces body weight and indices of adipose distribution in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Neeland, Ian J; McGuire, Darren K; Chilton, Robert; Crowe, Susanne; Lund, Søren S; Woerle, Hans J; Broedl, Uli C; Johansen, Odd Erik

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To determine the effects of empagliflozin on adiposity indices among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Changes in weight, waist circumference, estimated total body fat, index of central obesity and visceral adiposity index were assessed using analysis of covariance and testing of treatment by strata for age, sex and baseline waist circumference in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus randomized to blinded treatment with empagliflozin versus placebo in clinical trials of 12 weeks (cohort 1) or 24 weeks (cohort 2) duration. Results: This study comprised 3300 patients (cohort 1, N = 823; cohort 2, N = 2477). Empagliflozin reduced weight, waist circumference and adiposity indices versus placebo in both cohorts. Adjusted mean (95% confidence interval) change from baseline in empagliflozin versus placebo was −1.7 kg (−2.1 to −1.4 kg) and −1.9 kg (−2.1 to −1.7 kg) for body weight (p < 0.001); −1.3 cm (−1.8 to −0.7 cm) and −1.3 cm (−1.7 to −1.0 cm) for waist circumference (p < 0.001); −0.2% (−0.7% to 0.3%; p = 0.45) and −0.3% (−0.7% to 0.0%; p = 0.08) for estimated total body fat; −0.007 (−0.011 to −0.004) and −0.008 (−0.010 to −0.006) for index of central obesity (p < 0.001); and −0.3 (−0.5 to 0.0; p = 0.07) and −0.4 (−0.7 to −0.1; p = 0.003) for visceral adiposity index in cohorts 1 and 2, respectively. Adipose reductions were seen across most age, sex and waist circumference subgroups. Conclusion: Empagliflozin significantly reduced weight and adiposity indices with the potential to improve cardiometabolic risk among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:26873905

  11. Inhibitory effect of green coffee bean extract on fat accumulation and body weight gain in mice

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Hiroshi; Seki, Emi; Aitani, Michio

    2006-01-01

    Background An epidemiological study conducted in Italy indicated that coffee has the greatest antioxidant capacity among the commonly consumed beverages. Green coffee bean is rich in chlorogenic acid and its related compounds. The effect of green coffee bean extract (GCBE) on fat accumulation and body weight in mice was assessed with the objective of investigating the effect of GCBE on mild obesity. Methods Male ddy mice were fed a standard diet containing GCBE and its principal constituents, namely, caffeine and chlorogenic acid, for 14 days. Further, hepatic triglyceride (TG) level was also investigated after consecutive administration (13 days) of GCBE and its constituents. To examine the effect of GCBE and its constituents on fat absorption, serum TG changes were evaluated in olive oil-loaded mice. In addition, to investigate the effect on hepatic TG metabolism, carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) activity in mice was evaluated after consecutive ingestion (6 days) of GCBE and its constituents (caffeine, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and feruloylquinic acid mixture). Results It was found that 0.5% and 1% GCBE reduced visceral fat content and body weight. Caffeine and chlorogenic acid showed a tendency to reduce visceral fat and body weight. Oral administration of GCBE (100 and 200 mg/kg· day) for 13 days showed a tendency to reduce hepatic TG in mice. In the same model, chlorogenic acid (60 mg/kg· day) reduced hepatic TG level. In mice loaded with olive oil (5 mL/kg), GCBE (200 and 400 mg/kg) and caffeine (20 and 40 mg/kg) reduced serum TG level. GCBE (1%), neochlorogenic acid (0.028% and 0.055%) and feruloylquinic acid mixture (0.081%) significantly enhanced hepatic CPT activity in mice. However, neither caffeine nor chlorogenic acid alone was found to enhance CPT activity. Conclusion These results suggest that GCBE is possibly effective against weight gain and fat accumulation by inhibition of fat absorption and activation of fat metabolism in the

  12. BODY WEIGHT AS A DETERMINANT OF CLINICAL EVOLUTION IN HAMSTERS (Mesocricetus auratus) INFECTED WITH Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Galindo, Ángela María; Delgado-Murcia, Lucy Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The clinical outcome of infection with Leishmania species of the subgenus Viannia in hamster model (Mesocricetus auratus) has shown to be different depending on experimental protocol. Body weight has been a relevant determinant of the clinical outcome of the infection in hamsters with visceral leishmaniasis but its importance as a clinical parameter in hamsters with cutaneous leishmaniasis is not known. In this study, the clinical evolution of infection with L. (V) panamensis was evaluated in juvenile and adult male hamsters during 11 weeks by comparing clinical parameters such as attitude, temperature, respiratory rate, appearance of the stool, and body weight between infected and non-infected groups. Results showed that body weight decreased in adult hamsters after infection by L. (V) panamensis; this observation supports the use of body weight as an additional parameter to define the management or treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in infected adult hamsters used as an animal experimental model for leishmaniasis. PMID:24037292

  13. Downward spirals of body surveillance and weight/shape concern among African American and Caucasian college women.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimmons, Ellen E; Bardone-Cone, Anna M

    2011-06-01

    Within dominant American culture, females often learn to view themselves from an observer's perspective and to treat themselves as objects to be looked at (i.e., self-objectification), which can result in negative outcomes. Body surveillance (the indicator of self-objectification) has been found to predict concern with weight/shape in predominantly Caucasian samples, but research has not yet examined the potential reciprocal relations between body surveillance and weight/shape concern. Participants were 226 women attending a Midwestern university (70 self-identified as African American and 156 as Caucasian) who provided data at two time points, spaced about 5 months apart. Results revealed that downward spirals of body surveillance and weight/shape concern were apparent for the Caucasian but not the African American women. However, there was evidence that body surveillance helped account for change in weight/shape concern for the African American women. PMID:21596635

  14. Empty plates and larger waists: a cross-sectional study of factors associated with plate clearing habits and body weight.

    PubMed

    Robinson, E; Hardman, C A

    2016-06-01

    Clearing one's plate out of habit when eating may promote excess energy consumption. This study examined whether plate clearing is related to increased body weight in a sample of young adults. It also sought to identify potential determinants of plate clearing. A cross-sectional design was used in which 385 young adults from a UK university completed self-report measures of plate clearing, weight and height, and demographic characteristics. Plate clearing was predictive of heavier body weight in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Parental encouragement to clear one's plate during childhood (retrospectively reported) and personal concerns about food waste were both independent predictors of plate clearing tendencies. Clearing one's plate when eating is associated with heavier body weight, and the prevalence of this behaviour may depend on parenting practices and concerns about food waste. Further work examining the longitudinal effect of plate clearing on weight gain is now needed. PMID:26695723

  15. Changes in water and sugar-containing beverage consumption and body weight outcomes in children.

    PubMed

    Muckelbauer, Rebecca; Gortmaker, Steven L; Libuda, Lars; Kersting, Mathilde; Clausen, Kerstin; Adelberger, Bettina; Müller-Nordhorn, Jacqueline

    2016-06-01

    An intervention study showed that promoting water consumption in schoolchildren prevented overweight, but a mechanism linking water consumption to overweight was not substantiated. We investigated whether increased water consumption replaced sugar-containing beverages and whether changes in water or sugar-containing beverages influenced body weight outcomes. In a secondary analysis of the intervention study in Germany, we analysed combined longitudinal data from the intervention and control groups. Body weight and height were measured and beverage consumption was self-reported by a 24-h recall questionnaire at the beginning and end of the school year 2006/2007. The effect of a change in water consumption on change in sugar-containing beverage (soft drinks and juices) consumption, change in BMI (kg/m2) and prevalence of overweight and obesity at follow-up was analysed using regression analyses. Of 3220 enroled children, 1987 children (mean age 8·3 (sd 0·7) years) from thirty-two schools were analysed. Increased water consumption by 1 glass/d was associated with a reduced consumption of sugar-containing beverages by 0·12 glasses/d (95 % CI -0·16, -0·08) but was not associated with changes in BMI (P=0·63). Increased consumption of sugar-containing beverages by 1 glass/d was associated with an increased BMI by 0·02 (95 % CI 0·00, 0·03) kg/m2 and increased prevalence of obesity (OR 1·22; 95 % CI 1·04, 1·44) but not with overweight (P=0·83). In conclusion, an increase in water consumption can replace sugar-containing beverages. As sugar-containing beverages were associated with weight gain, this replacement might explain the prevention of obesity through the promotion of water consumption. PMID:27040694

  16. Thin is "in" and stout is out" what animated cartoons tell viewers about body weight.

    PubMed

    Klein, H; Shiffman, K S

    2005-06-01

    Relying upon a content analysis of one specific type of medium to which young people are exposed beginning at an early age, on a regular basis, and for many years (i.e., animated cartoons), the present study examines what types of messages are provided about being underweight, overweight and normal weight. This research examines the following issues: (1) How prevalent is weight-related content in animated cartoons? (2) Has this prevalence changed over time? (3) What "types" of characteristics tend to be associated with being thinner-than-normal or heavier-than normal? Results indicate that the prevalence of both underweight and overweight characters has changed dramatically over the course of the past several decades. These relationships are both curvilinear in nature, but in recent decades have demonstrated a significant increase in the proportion of all cartoons showing characters that are underweight and a simultaneous decrease in the prevalence of characters that are overweight. Many variables were found to differ based on cartoon characters' body weight including gender, age, intelligence, physical attractiveness, emotional states experienced, prosocial behaviors, antisocial behaviors, and overall goodness/badness. Whenever differences were found, the overriding tendency was for cartoons to provide positive messages about being thin and negative messages about being overweight. PMID:16114224

  17. Comparing Methods for Identifying Biologically Implausible Values in Height, Weight, and Body Mass Index Among Youth.

    PubMed

    Lawman, Hannah G; Ogden, Cynthia L; Hassink, Sandra; Mallya, Giridhar; Vander Veur, Stephanie; Foster, Gary D

    2015-08-15

    As more epidemiologic data on childhood obesity become available, researchers are faced with decisions regarding how to determine biologically implausible values (BIVs) in height, weight, and body mass index. The purpose of the current study was 1) to track how often large, epidemiologic studies address BIVs, 2) to review BIV identification methods, and 3) to apply those methods to a large data set of youth to determine the effects on obesity and BIV prevalence estimates. Studies with large samples of anthropometric data (n > 1,000) were reviewed to track whether and how BIVs were defined. Identified methods were then applied to a longitudinal sample of 13,662 students (65% African American, 52% male) in 55 urban, low-income schools that enroll students from kindergarten through eighth grade (ages 5-13 years) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, during 2011-2012. Using measured weight and height at baseline and 1-year follow-up, we compared descriptive statistics, weight status prevalence, and BIV prevalence estimates. Eleven different BIV methods were identified. When these methods were applied to a large data set, severe obesity and BIV prevalence ranged from 7.2% to 8.6% and from 0.04% to 1.68%, respectively. Approximately 41% of large epidemiologic studies did not address BIV identification, and existing identification methods varied considerably. Increased standardization of the identification and treatment of BIVs may aid in the comparability of study results and accurate monitoring of obesity trends. PMID:26182944

  18. Influences on body weight of female Moroccan migrants in the Netherlands: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, M; Benjelloun, S; Stronks, K; van Dam, R M; Seidell, J C; Doak, C M

    2012-07-01

    We aimed to gain insight into the influences on Moroccan migrant women's weight and weight-related behavior by enriching their perspectives with those of their non-migrant compatriots living in Morocco. In focus groups with migrant women in Amsterdam, participants attributed overweight to traditional Moroccan foods and food culture. In contrast, focus group participants in Morocco emphasized that overweight in migrants was largely due to their adoption of the Western diet. Results from women in both locations indicate a general lack of knowledge regarding appropriate physical activity. Migrants attributed their lower levels of physical activity to changes in lifestyle due to migration and reported having problems adjusting to these changes. All participants reported a cultural shift in preference towards slimmer body sizes. However, weight gain still tends to be seen as a sign of success. In designing interventions, universal approaches may be sufficient to address migration-related influences on behavior; however behavior that is driven by migrants' socio-cultural context may require more culturally appropriate strategies. PMID:22464159

  19. Comparing Methods for Identifying Biologically Implausible Values in Height, Weight, and Body Mass Index Among Youth

    PubMed Central

    Lawman, Hannah G.; Ogden, Cynthia L.; Hassink, Sandra; Mallya, Giridhar; Vander Veur, Stephanie; Foster, Gary D.

    2015-01-01

    As more epidemiologic data on childhood obesity become available, researchers are faced with decisions regarding how to determine biologically implausible values (BIVs) in height, weight, and body mass index. The purpose of the current study was 1) to track how often large, epidemiologic studies address BIVs, 2) to review BIV identification methods, and 3) to apply those methods to a large data set of youth to determine the effects on obesity and BIV prevalence estimates. Studies with large samples of anthropometric data (n > 1,000) were reviewed to track whether and how BIVs were defined. Identified methods were then applied to a longitudinal sample of 13,662 students (65% African American, 52% male) in 55 urban, low-income schools that enroll students from kindergarten through eighth grade (ages 5–13 years) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, during 2011–2012. Using measured weight and height at baseline and 1-year follow-up, we compared descriptive statistics, weight status prevalence, and BIV prevalence estimates. Eleven different BIV methods were identified. When these methods were applied to a large data set, severe obesity and BIV prevalence ranged from 7.2% to 8.6% and from 0.04% to 1.68%, respectively. Approximately 41% of large epidemiologic studies did not address BIV identification, and existing identification methods varied considerably. Increased standardization of the identification and treatment of BIVs may aid in the comparability of study results and accurate monitoring of obesity trends. PMID:26182944

  20. Family weight talk and dieting: How much do they matter for body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors in adolescent girls?

    PubMed Central

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Bauer, Katherine W.; Friend, Sarah; Hannan, Peter J.; Story, Mary; Berge, Jerica M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To learn about parent weight talk, parent dieting, and family weight-teasing in the homes of adolescent girls at risk for obesity and weight-related problems. To examine associations between these family variables and girls’ weight status, body satisfaction, and disordered eating behaviors. Methods Data were collected at baseline from girls participating in a school-based intervention to prevent weight-related problems. Participants included 365 adolescent girls from 12 high schools. The girls’ mean age was 15.8 years; 46% were overweight or obese; and over 75% were racial/ethnic minorities. Results A high percentage of girls reported parent weight talk (i.e., comments about one’s own weight and encouragement of daughter to diet), parent dieting, and family weight-teasing. For example, 45% of the girls reported that their mothers encouraged them to diet and 58% reported weight-teasing by family members. Weight-teasing was strongly associated with higher BMI, body dissatisfaction, unhealthy and extreme weight control behaviors, and binge eating with loss of control in the girls. Parent weight talk, particularly by mothers, was associated with a number of disordered eating behaviors. Mother dieting was associated with girls’ unhealthy and extreme weight control behaviors. In no instances were family weight talk and dieting variables associated with better outcomes in the girls. Conclusions Parent weight-related comments and dieting behaviors, and family weight-teasing, may contribute to disordered eating behaviors in adolescent girls. Health care providers can help parents provide a supportive home environment by discouraging weight-based comments, which may be intended to be helpful, but can have unintentional harmful consequences. PMID:20708566

  1. Altered Visual Adaptation to Body Shape in Eating Disorders: Implications for Body Image Distortion.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Harald M; Rickmeyer, Constanze; Hummel, Dennis; Ernst, Mareike; Grabhorn, Ralph

    2016-07-01

    Previous research has shown that after adapting to a thin body, healthy participants (HP) perceive pictures of their own bodies as being fatter and vice versa. This aftereffect might contribute to the development of perceptual body image disturbances in eating disorders (ED).In the present study, HP and ED completed a behavioral experiment to rate manipulated pictures of their own bodies after adaptation to thin or fat body pictures. After adapting to a thin body, HP judged a thinner than actual body picture to be the most realistic and vice versa, resembling a typical aftereffect. ED only showed such an adaptation effect when they adapted to fat body pictures.The reported results indicate a relationship between body image distortion in ED and visual body image adaptation. It can be suspected that due to a pre-existing, long-lasting adaptation to thin body shapes in ED, an additional visual adaption to thin body shapes cannot be induced. Hence this pre-existing adaptation to thin body shapes could induce perceptual body image distortions in ED. PMID:26921409

  2. Effect of increasing dietary calcium through supplements and dairy food on body weight and body composition: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Booth, Alison O; Huggins, Catherine E; Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Nowson, Caryl A

    2015-10-14

    This meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials assessed the effect of Ca on body weight and body composition through supplementation or increasing dairy food intake. Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria (including fifty-one trial arms; thirty-one with dairy foods (n 2091), twenty with Ca supplements (n 2711). Ca intake was approximately 900 mg/d higher in the supplement groups compared with control. In the dairy group, Ca intake was approximately 1300 mg/d. Ca supplementation did not significantly affect body weight (mean change ( - 0·17, 95% CI - 0·70, 0·37) kg) or body fat (mean change ( - 0·19, 95% CI - 0·51, 0·13) kg) compared to control. Similarly, increased dairy food intake did not affect body weight ( - 0·06, 95% CI - 0·54, 0·43) kg or body fat change ( - 0·36, 95% CI - 0·80, 0·09) kg compared to control. Sub-analyses revealed that dairy supplementation resulted in no change in body weight (nineteen studies, n 1010) ( - 0·32, 95% CI - 0·93, 0·30 kg, P= 0·31), but a greater reduction in body fat (thirteen studies, n 564) ( - 0·96, 95% CI - 1·46, - 0·46 kg, P < 0·001) in the presence of energy restriction over a mean of 4 months compared to control. Increasing dietary Ca intake by 900 mg/d as supplements or increasing dairy intake to approximately 3 servings daily (approximately 1300 mg of Ca/d) is not an effective weight reduction strategy in adults. There is, however, an indication that approximately 3 servings of dairy may facilitate fat loss on weight reduction diets in the short term. PMID:26234296

  3. Lifestyle interventions targeting changes in body weight and composition among youth with an intellectual disability: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Maïano, Christophe; Normand, Claude L; Aimé, Annie; Bégarie, Jérôme

    2014-08-01

    Over the past three decades, the potential effects of lifestyle interventions targeting changes in body weight and composition (weight, body mass index, fat mass, waist circumference) among adults with an intellectual disability (ID) have been examined in various systematic reviews. Nevertheless, since the middle of the 1980s, the potential effects of these interventions for youth with an ID remain an open question. The purpose of this article is to review the effects of lifestyle interventions targeting changes in body weight and composition among youth with an ID. This review will focus on changes in body weight and composition, healthy lifestyle, and secondary health conditions. A systematic review of English- and French-language studies, published between 1981 and 2013, was performed on Academic Search Complete, PsycARTICLES, Medline and Scopus. The nine studies included in this review focused mainly on: a sample with a wide age range (e.g., 7-22 years); males; overweight-obese youth having a mild-to-moderate ID with Down or Prader-Willi syndrome; physical activity interventions; cohort pre- and post-test designs with/without a control group; and changes in body weight and composition. Taken together, results from these studies suggest successful changes in weight, body mass index and fat mass. However, intervention effects on healthy lifestyle and secondary health conditions are scarce and inconclusive. Given the weaknesses of the reviewed studies, the present findings should be considered preliminary and indicative of the need for future research. PMID:24830882

  4. Maternal low protein diet causes body weight loss in male, neonate Sprague-Dawley rats involving UCP-1 mediated thermogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in regulating body weight (BW) by modifying thermogenesis. Maternal low protein (LP) diets reduce offspring birth weight. Increased BAT thermogenesis in utero may be one mechanism for the lower BW. However, whether maternal LP nutrition alters BAT...

  5. Is Frequent Self-Weighing Associated with Poorer Body Satisfaction? Findings from a Phone-Based Weight Loss Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Ericka M.; Sherwood, Nancy E.; VanWormer, Jeffrey J.; Hotop, Anne Marie; Jeffery, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of self-weighing frequency on weight change and body satisfaction. Design: Observational study based on findings from a 6-month randomized controlled telephone-based weight loss trial. Data collected at baseline and 6 months. Setting: Metropolitan community-based sample. Participants: Sixty-three obese adults. Mean…

  6. Teacher and Friend Social Support: Association with Body Weight in African-American Adolescent Females.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Jevetta; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Webb, Fern J; Lee, Jenny; Doldren, Michelle; Rathore, Mobeen

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect ecological influences of teacher and friend social support on body weight and diet behaviors in African-American adolescent females. Using a quantitative, cross-sectional research design, a convenience sample of 182 urban African-American adolescent females (12-17 years old) completed a 39-item questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed perceived teacher social support, friend social support, nutrition self-efficacy, and diet behaviors (with internal reliability values of scale items: alpha = 0.74, 0.81, 0.77, and 0.69 respectively). Anthropometric assessments were conducted to measure height and weight to compute BMI. Majority of the participants were in middle or early high school (65 %) and were overweight or obese (57.7 %). Both teacher social support and friend social support demonstrated a positive, indirect influence on child weight status through nutrition self-efficacy and diet behaviors following two different and specific paths of influence. Diet behaviors, in turn, demonstrated a positive, direct effect on child weight status. In the structural model, teacher social support had the greatest effect on diet behaviors, demonstrating a direct, positive influence on diet behaviors (B = 0.421, p < 0.05), but its direct effect on nutrition self-efficacy was not significant. Friend social support demonstrated a positive, direct effect on nutrition self-efficacy (B = 0.227, p < 0.05), but its direct effect on diet behaviors was not statistically significant. The study's findings call for actively addressing the childhood obesity epidemic in the school environment by implementing health behavior change strategies at various social and ecological environmental levels. PMID:26863465

  7. Improved glucose control and reduced body weight in rodents with dual mechanism of action peptide hybrids.

    PubMed

    Trevaskis, James L; Mack, Christine M; Sun, Chengzao; Soares, Christopher J; D'Souza, Lawrence J; Levy, Odile E; Lewis, Diane Y; Jodka, Carolyn M; Tatarkiewicz, Krystyna; Gedulin, Bronislava; Gupta, Swati; Wittmer, Carrie; Hanley, Michael; Forood, Bruce; Parkes, David G; Ghosh, Soumitra S

    2013-01-01

    Combination therapy is being increasingly used as a treatment paradigm for metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. In the peptide therapeutics realm, recent work has highlighted the therapeutic potential of chimeric peptides that act on two distinct receptors, thereby harnessing parallel complementary mechanisms to induce additive or synergistic benefit compared to monotherapy. Here, we extend this hypothesis by linking a known anti-diabetic peptide with an anti-obesity peptide into a novel peptide hybrid, which we termed a phybrid. We report on the synthesis and biological activity of two such phybrids (AC164204 and AC164209), comprised of a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1-R) agonist, and exenatide analog, AC3082, covalently linked to a second generation amylin analog, davalintide. Both molecules acted as full agonists at their cognate receptors in vitro, albeit with reduced potency at the calcitonin receptor indicating slightly perturbed amylin agonism. In obese diabetic Lep(ob)/Lep (ob) mice sustained infusion of AC164204 and AC164209 reduced glucose and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) equivalently but induced greater weight loss relative to exenatide administration alone. Weight loss was similar to that induced by combined administration of exenatide and davalintide. In diet-induced obese rats, both phybrids dose-dependently reduced food intake and body weight to a greater extent than exenatide or davalintide alone, and equal to co-infusion of exenatide and davalintide. Phybrid-mediated and exenatide + davalintide-mediated weight loss was associated with reduced adiposity and preservation of lean mass. These data are the first to provide in vivo proof-of-concept for multi-pathway targeting in metabolic disease via a peptide hybrid, demonstrating that this approach is as effective as co-administration of individual peptides. PMID:24167604

  8. Maternal Body Weight and Gestational Diabetes Differentially Influence Placental and Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Martino, J.; Sebert, S.; Segura, M. T.; García-Valdés, L.; Florido, J.; Padilla, M. C.; Marcos, A.; Rueda, R.; McArdle, H. J.; Budge, H.; Campoy, C.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) can both contribute to adverse neonatal outcomes. The extent to which this may be mediated by differences in placental metabolism and nutrient transport remains to be determined. Objective: Our objective was to examine whether raised maternal body mass index (BMI) and/or GDM contributed to a resetting of the expression of genes within the placenta that are involved in energy sensing, oxidative stress, inflammation, and metabolic pathways. Methods: Pregnant women from Spain were recruited as part of the “Study of Maternal Nutrition and Genetics on the Foetal Adiposity Programming” survey at the first antenatal visit (12–20 weeks of gestation) and stratified according to prepregnancy BMI and the incidence of GDM. At delivery, placenta and cord blood were sampled and newborn anthropometry measured. Results: Obese women with GDM had higher estimated fetal weight at 34 gestational weeks and a greater risk of preterm deliveries and cesarean section. Birth weight was unaffected by BMI or GDM; however, women who were obese with normal glucose tolerance had increased placental weight and higher plasma glucose and leptin at term. Gene expression for markers of placental energy sensing and oxidative stress, were primarily affected by maternal obesity as mTOR was reduced, whereas SIRT-1 and UCP2 were both upregulated. In placenta from obese women with GDM, gene expression for AMPK was also reduced, whereas the downstream regulator of mTOR, p70S6KB1 was raised. Conclusions: Placental gene expression is sensitive to both maternal obesity and GDM which both impact on energy sensing and could modulate the effect of either raised maternal BMI or GDM on birth weight. PMID:26513002

  9. Improved Glucose Control and Reduced Body Weight in Rodents with Dual Mechanism of Action Peptide Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Trevaskis, James L.; Mack, Christine M.; Sun, Chengzao; Soares, Christopher J.; D’Souza, Lawrence J.; Levy, Odile E.; Lewis, Diane Y.; Jodka, Carolyn M.; Tatarkiewicz, Krystyna; Gedulin, Bronislava; Gupta, Swati; Wittmer, Carrie; Hanley, Michael; Forood, Bruce; Parkes, David G.; Ghosh, Soumitra S.

    2013-01-01

    Combination therapy is being increasingly used as a treatment paradigm for metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. In the peptide therapeutics realm, recent work has highlighted the therapeutic potential of chimeric peptides that act on two distinct receptors, thereby harnessing parallel complementary mechanisms to induce additive or synergistic benefit compared to monotherapy. Here, we extend this hypothesis by linking a known anti-diabetic peptide with an anti-obesity peptide into a novel peptide hybrid, which we termed a phybrid. We report on the synthesis and biological activity of two such phybrids (AC164204 and AC164209), comprised of a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1-R) agonist, and exenatide analog, AC3082, covalently linked to a second generation amylin analog, davalintide. Both molecules acted as full agonists at their cognate receptors in vitro, albeit with reduced potency at the calcitonin receptor indicating slightly perturbed amylin agonism. In obese diabetic Lepob/Lepob mice sustained infusion of AC164204 and AC164209 reduced glucose and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) equivalently but induced greater weight loss relative to exenatide administration alone. Weight loss was similar to that induced by combined administration of exenatide and davalintide. In diet-induced obese rats, both phybrids dose-dependently reduced food intake and body weight to a greater extent than exenatide or davalintide alone, and equal to co-infusion of exenatide and davalintide. Phybrid-mediated and exenatide + davalintide-mediated weight loss was associated with reduced adiposity and preservation of lean mass. These data are the first to provide in vivo proof-of-concept for multi-pathway targeting in metabolic disease via a peptide hybrid, demonstrating that this approach is as effective as co-administration of individual peptides. PMID:24167604

  10. Identification, expression and variation of the GNPDA2 gene, and its association with body weight and fatness traits in chicken

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Hongjia; Zhang, Huan; Li, Weimin; Liang, Sisi; Jebessa, Endashaw; Abdalla, Bahareldin A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The GNPDA2 (glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase 2) gene is a member of Glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P) deaminase subfamily, which encoded an allosteric enzyme of GlcN6P. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shown that variations of human GNPDA2 are associated with body mass index and obesity risk, but its function and metabolic implications remain to be elucidated.The object of this study was to characterize the gene structure, expression, and biological functions of GNPDA2 in chickens. Methods. Variant transcripts of chicken GNPDA2 and their expression were investigated using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) system and real-time quantitative PCR technology. We detected the GNPDA2 expression in hypothalamic, adipose, and liver tissue of Xinghua chickens with fasting and high-glucose-fat diet treatments, and performed association analysis of variations of GNPDA2 with productive traits in chicken. The function of GNPDA2 was further studied by overexpression and small interfering RNA (siRNA) methods in chicken preadipocytes. Results.Four chicken GNPDA2 transcripts (cGNPDA2-a∼cGNPDA2-d) were identified in this study. The complete transcript GNPDA2-a was predominantly expressed in adipose tissue (subcutaneous fat and abdominal fat), hypothalamus, and duodenum. In fasting chickens, the mRNA level of GNPDA2 was decreased by 58.8% (P < 0.05) in hypothalamus, and returned to normal level after refeeding. Chicken fed a high-glucose-fat diet increased GNPDA2 gene expression about 2-fold higher in adipose tissue (P < 0.05) than that in the control (fed a basal diet), but decreased its expression in hypothalamus. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the GNPDA2 gene were significantly associated with body weight and a number of fatness traits in chicken (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Our findings indicated that the GNPDA2 gene has a potential role in the regulation of body weight, fat and energy metabolism in chickens. PMID:27326383

  11. Identification, expression and variation of the GNPDA2 gene, and its association with body weight and fatness traits in chicken.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Hongjia; Zhang, Huan; Li, Weimin; Liang, Sisi; Jebessa, Endashaw; Abdalla, Bahareldin A; Nie, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Background. The GNPDA2 (glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase 2) gene is a member of Glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P) deaminase subfamily, which encoded an allosteric enzyme of GlcN6P. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shown that variations of human GNPDA2 are associated with body mass index and obesity risk, but its function and metabolic implications remain to be elucidated.The object of this study was to characterize the gene structure, expression, and biological functions of GNPDA2 in chickens. Methods. Variant transcripts of chicken GNPDA2 and their expression were investigated using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) system and real-time quantitative PCR technology. We detected the GNPDA2 expression in hypothalamic, adipose, and liver tissue of Xinghua chickens with fasting and high-glucose-fat diet treatments, and performed association analysis of variations of GNPDA2 with productive traits in chicken. The function of GNPDA2 was further studied by overexpression and small interfering RNA (siRNA) methods in chicken preadipocytes. Results.Four chicken GNPDA2 transcripts (cGNPDA2-a∼cGNPDA2-d) were identified in this study. The complete transcript GNPDA2-a was predominantly expressed in adipose tissue (subcutaneous fat and abdominal fat), hypothalamus, and duodenum. In fasting chickens, the mRNA level of GNPDA2 was decreased by 58.8% (P < 0.05) in hypothalamus, and returned to normal level after refeeding. Chicken fed a high-glucose-fat diet increased GNPDA2 gene expression about 2-fold higher in adipose tissue (P < 0.05) than that in the control (fed a basal diet), but decreased its expression in hypothalamus. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the GNPDA2 gene were significantly associated with body weight and a number of fatness traits in chicken (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Our findings indicated that the GNPDA2 gene has a potential role in the regulation of body weight, fat and energy metabolism in chickens. PMID:27326383

  12. Lorcaserin, A 5-HT2C Receptor Agonist, Reduces Body Weight by Decreasing Energy Intake without Influencing Energy Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Corby K.; Redman, Leanne M.; Zhang, Jinkun; Sanchez, Matilde; Anderson, Christen M.; Smith, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Lorcaserin, a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2C receptor agonist, reduces body weight. It is unclear whether weight loss is due to reduced energy intake (EI) or also to enhanced energy expenditure (EE). Objective: This study tested the effect of lorcaserin on EI and EE. Design, Participants, and Intervention: In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 57 (39 women) overweight and obese (body mass index, 27–45 kg/m2) adults were randomized to placebo (n = 28) or 10 mg twice daily lorcaserin (n = 29) for 56 d. Weight maintenance was imposed during d 1–7. Beginning on d 8, participants followed a diet and exercise plan targeting a 600 kcal/d deficit. Outcomes: At baseline and after 7 and 56 d of treatment, we measured body weight, body composition (dual x-ray absorptiometry), blood pressure, heart rate, EI at lunch and dinner, subjective appetite ratings, and 24-h EE and 24-h-respiratory quotient (RQ), measured by indirect calorimetry in a respiratory chamber. Results: After 7 d of weight maintenance, EI was significantly (P < 0.01) reduced with lorcaserin but not placebo (mean ± sem for lorcaserin, −286 ± 86 kcal; placebo, −147 ± 89 kcal). After 56 d, lorcaserin resulted in significantly larger reductions in body weight (lorcaserin, −3.8 ± 0.4 kg; placebo, −2.2 ± 0.5 kg; P < 0.01), EI (lorcaserin, −470 ± 87 kcal; placebo, −205 ± 91 kcal; P < .05), and appetite ratings than in placebo. Changes in 24-h EE and 24-h RQ did not differ between groups, even after 24-h EE was adjusted for body weight and composition. Compared with placebo, lorcaserin had no effect on systolic or diastolic blood pressure or heart rate after 56 d. Conclusions: Lorcaserin reduces body weight through reduced EI, not altered EE or RQ. PMID:21190985

  13. [Experiences of a nation-wide integrated program for healthy body weight among students].

    PubMed

    Liou, Yiing Mei; Chen, Mei-Yen; Chiang, Li-Chi; Chien, Li-Yin; Chang, Po-Lun; Hung, Yung-Tai

    2007-10-01

    Taiwan has good support systems for obesity prevention and management. The percentage of elementary school students with normal body weight, however, has undergone a sustained decrease to 55%. Many factors are associated with this trend, such as lack of physical activity, dissatisfaction with body image, unbalanced dietary pattern, and unsupportive environment. Even though the rate of overweight and obesity is under control, the rate of underweight among girls has undergone a sustained increase, to 28%. Nurses therefore organized the "Aid students to fit" project, which emphasizes the bipolar issue of overweight and underweight. This national project is sponsored by the Ministry of Education and is expected to establish a beneficial environment, in which students can easily adopt healthy lifestyles and increase self-esteem. The program incorporates the AID triangle concept (Active, Image, Diet) and five strategies for achieving the goals. These strategies are: 1. Develop a persuasive statement to fit in with the philosophies of parents, students and teachers. 2. Set up measurable behavior indices and slogans. (Active life: 210 minutes per week. Image: confident and elegant. Diet: balanced and wise choice of low fat and high fiber foods.) 3. Establish a nation-wide interactive surveillance system for body weight control. 4. Develop an internet system that emphasizes tailored case management for overweight students. 5. Develop a supportive teaching plan, material, and aids to promote a healthy school environment. Five modeling schools, moreover, can be used to demonstrate the program. Educators can also download a free teaching plan, material, and aids at the website for healthy weight management (www.ym.edu.tw/active/aid). The authors brought together scholars from eight universities to accomplish the program. In support of the program, the Taiwan Ministry of Education addressed the new recommendation for physical activity which is to engage in moderate intensity

  14. Oleoylethanolamide, an endogenous PPAR-alpha agonist, lowers body weight and hyperlipidemia in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jin; Oveisi, Fariba; Gaetani, Silvana; Lin, Edward; Piomelli, Daniele

    2005-06-01

    The fatty-acid ethanolamide, oleoylethanolamide (OEA), is a naturally occurring lipid that regulates feeding and body weight [Rodriguez de Fonseca, F., Navarro, M., Gomez, R., Escuredo, L., Nava, F., Fu, J., Murillo-Rodriguez, E., Giuffrida, A., LoVerme, J., Gaetani, S., Kathuria, S., Gall, C., Piomelli, D., 2001. An anorexic lipid mediator regulated by feeding. Nature 414, 209-212], and serves as an endogenous agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha) [Fu, J., Gaetani, S., Oveisi, F., Lo Verme, J., Serrano, A., Rodriguez De Fonseca, F., Rosengarth., A., Luecke, H., Di Giacomo, B., Tarzia, G., Piomelli, D., 2003. Oleoylethanolamide regulates feeding and body weight through activation of the nuclear receptor PPAR-alpha. Nature 425, 90-93], a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates several aspects of lipid metabolism [. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: nuclear control of metabolism. Endocr. Rev. 20, 649-688]). OEA reduces food intake in wild-type mice, but not in mice deficient in PPAR-alpha (PPAR-alpha(-/-)), an effect that is also observed with the PPAR-alpha agonists Wy-14643 and GW7647 [Brown, P.J., Chapman, J.M., Oplinger, J.A., Stuart, L.W., Willson, T.M. and Wu, Z., 2000. Chemical compounds as selective activators of PPAR-alpha. PCT Int. Appl., 32; . The PPARs: from orphan receptors to drug discovery. J. Med. Chem. 43, 527-550]. By contrast, specific agonists of PPAR-delta/beta (GW501516) or PPAR-gamma (ciglitazone) have no such effect. In obese Zucker rats, which lack functional leptin receptors, OEA reduces food intake and lowers body-weight gain along with plasma lipid levels. Similar effects are seen in diet-induced obese rats and mice. In the present study, we report that subchronic OEA treatment (5mgkg(-1), intraperitoneally, i.p., once daily for two weeks) in Zucker rats initiates transcription of PPAR-alpha and other PPAR-alpha target genes, including fatty-acid translocase (FAT/CD36), liver fatty

  15. Green Tea Polyphenols Reduce Body Weight in Rats by Modulating Obesity-Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chuanwen; Zhu, Wenbin; Shen, Chwan-Li; Gao, Weimin

    2012-01-01

    Beneficial effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) against obesity have been reported, however, the mechanism of this protection is not clear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify GTP-targeted genes in obesity using the high-fat-diet-induced obese rat model. A total of three groups (n = 12/group) of Sprague Dawley (SD) female rats were tested, including the control group (rats fed with low-fat diet), the HF group (rats fed with high-fat diet), and the HF+GTP group (rats fed with high-fat diet and GTP in drinking water). The HF group increased body weight as compared to the control group. Supplementation of GTP in the drinking water in the HF+GTP group reduced body weight as compared to the HF group. RNA from liver samples was extracted for gene expression analysis. A total of eighty-four genes related to obesity were analyzed using PCR array. Compared to the rats in the control group, the rats in the HF group had the expression levels of 12 genes with significant changes, including 3 orexigenic genes (Agrp, Ghrl, and Nr3c1); 7 anorectic genes (Apoa4, Cntf, Ghr, IL-1β, Ins1, Lepr, and Sort); and 2 genes that relate to energy expenditure (Adcyap1r1 and Adrb1). Intriguingly, the HF+GTP group restored the expression levels of these genes in the high-fat-induced obese rats. The protein expression levels of IL-1β and IL-6 in the serum samples from the control, HF, and HF+GTP groups confirmed the results of gene expression. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) also showed GTP-regulated protective changes in this obese rat model. Collectively, this study revealed the beneficial effects of GTP on body weight via regulating obesity-related genes, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant capacity, and estrogen-related actions in high-fat-induced obese rats. PMID:22715380

  16. Living donor liver transplantation with body-weight more or less than 10 kilograms

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sheng-Chun; Huang, Chia-Jung; Chen, Chao-Long; Wang, Chih-Hsien; Wu, Shao-Chun; Shih, Tsung-Hsiao; Juang, Sin-Ei; Lee, Ying-En; Jawan, Bruno; Cheng, Yu-Feng; Cheng, Kwok-Wai

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the outcomes of pediatric patients weighing less than or more than 10 kg who underwent liver transplantation. METHODS: Data for 196 pediatric patients who underwent living donor liver transplantation between June 1994 and February 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. The information for each patient was anonymized and de-identified before analysis. The data included information regarding the pre-transplant conditions, intraoperative fluid replacement and outcomes for each patient. The 196 patients were divided into two groups: those with body weights of less than 10 kg were included in group 1 (G1; n = 101), while those with body weights of more than 10 kg were included in group 2 (G2; n = 95). For each group, the patients’ ages, body weights, heights, pediatric end stage liver disease scores, anesthesia times, and warm and cold ischemic times were analyzed. In addition, between-group comparisons were also made. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare all the variables except for complications and survival rates, which were analyzed using χ2 tests and Kaplan-Meier tests, respectively. RESULTS: The general medical conditions of the G1 patients were worse than those of the G2 patients, as shown by the higher pediatric end stage liver disease scores and poorer Z-scores. In addition, the pre-operative Hb and serum albumin levels were all lower for the G1 patients than for the G2 patients. The G1 patients also had significantly more intraoperative blood loss than the G2 patients. In addition, the intraoperative fluid requirements for the G1 patients, including leukocyte poor red blood cell transfusions, 5% albumin infusions and crystalloid infusions, were significantly higher than those for the G2 patients. The risk of intraoperative portal vein thrombosis was higher for the patients in G1 than for those in G2. However, the one-year survival rates (95.9% and 96.8% for G1 and G2, respectively) and three-year survival rates (94.9% and 94.6% for G1 and

  17. Effects of genetic strain on stress-induced weight and body fat loss in rats: Application to air pollution research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to some air pollutants is suspected of contributing to obesity. Hazelton chambers are commonly used in air pollution studies but we found unexpected reductions in body weight and body fat of rats housed in Hazelton chambers under control conditions. We suspect that stres...

  18. Analysis of factors to predict piglet body weight at the end of the nursery phase.

    PubMed

    Paredes, S P; Jansman, A J M; Verstegen, M W A; Awati, A; Buist, W; den Hartog, L A; Van Hees, H M J; Quiniou, N; Hendriks, W H; Gerrits, W J J

    2012-09-01

    In pig (Sus Scrofa) production, within-batch variation in bw gain of piglets during the nursery period (up to 10 wk of age) can be high and is of high economic importance. Homogeneity of BW within batches of animals is important as it influences the efficiency of use of the grower and finisher facilities, and provides an extra value for the fattening farms. In the current study, factors for a light BW at the end of the nursery period of pigs were determined by analyzing datasets from 3 different swine research centers in the Netherlands and France. The entire dataset contained information on 77,868 individual piglets born between 2005 and 2010. Body weight was determined at different time points over the pre- and post-weaning phase, and sex, season of birth, litter information (litter size at day of birth and after cross-fostering, number of piglets born alive per litter, number of total born littermates, sow parity number), cross-fostered animals (yes or no), and pen group size over the post-weaning period were recorded. A risk factor analysis approach was used to analyze the datasets to determine factors that predict piglet bw at the end of the nursery period. Body weight at the end of the nursery period corrected for age was mainly determined by season (P < 0.001), birth weight (BiW, P < 0.001), weaning weight (WW, P < 0.001), and BW at 6 wk of age (P < 0.001). These variables were consistent among datasets and explained approximately 70% of the overall variation in BW at the end of the nursery period. Litter information did not significantly (P > 0.05) contribute to explaining the BW at the end of the nursery period. To discard the possibility of intrauterine growth retarded piglets (IUGR) being the reason for the influence of BiW as an explanatory factor in the regression model, a further analysis was performed on the effect of this category of piglets on the results of the regression analysis. Overall, it was concluded that the bw of piglets at the end of the

  19. Does the Method of Weight Loss Effect Long-Term Changes in Weight, Body Composition or Chronic Disease Risk Factors in Overweight or Obese Adults? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, Richard A.; Szabo, Amanda N.; Lambourne, Kate; Willis, Erik A.; Ptomey, Lauren T.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Differences in biological changes from weight loss by energy restriction and/or exercise may be associated with differences in long-term weight loss/regain. Objective To assess the effect of weight loss method on long-term changes in weight, body composition and chronic disease risk factors. Data Sources PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990-October 2013) for studies with data on the effect of energy restriction, exercise (aerobic and resistance) on long-term weight loss. Twenty articles were included in this review. Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source, peer reviewed randomized trials published in English with an active weight loss period of >6 months, or active weight loss with a follow-up period of any duration, conducted in overweight or obese adults were included. Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Considerable heterogeneity across trials existed for important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and grouped by comparisons (e.g. diet vs. aerobic exercise, diet vs. diet + aerobic exercise etc.) and study design (long-term or weight loss/follow-up). Results Forty percent of trials reported significantly greater long-term weight loss with diet compared with aerobic exercise, while results for differences in weight regain were inconclusive. Diet+aerobic exercise resulted in significantly greater weight loss than diet alone in 50% of trials. However, weight regain (∼55% of loss) was similar in diet and diet+aerobic exercise groups. Fat-free mass tended to be preserved when interventions included exercise. PMID:25333384

  20. In it together: Mother talk of weight concerns moderates negative outcomes of encouragement to lose weight on daughter body dissatisfaction and disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Hillard, Erin E; Gondoli, Dawn M; Corning, Alexandra F; Morrissey, Rebecca A

    2016-03-01

    Mothers' influence on their daughters is important for understanding girls' disordered eating and body dissatisfaction. Direct maternal encouragement of daughters to lose weight is linked to daughters' development of bulimic symptoms, and additional findings indicate that daughters whose mothers merely talk about dieting and body dissatisfaction are more likely to be diagnosed with an eating disorder. The current study extends such research by examining the interactive contributions of maternal encouragement to lose weight and maternal dieting discussions to the prediction of early adolescent daughters' body dissatisfaction and disordered eating over the middle school period. Participants were 89 adolescent girls who were in the 6th grade at Time 1. Regression analyses were conducted to examine interactive effects of mother encouragement to diet and talk of weight concerns on daughter body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and dieting behavior. Results suggest an interactive effect in which mothers' dieting talk may act as a buffer against the negative effects of direct encouragement to lose weight. PMID:26551484

  1. Education for healthy body weight: helping adolescents balance the cultural pressure for thinness.

    PubMed

    Collins, M E

    1988-08-01

    Though education for healthy body weight traditionally has focused on obesity, the increased incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia among young women suggests education also is needed to address the opposite end of the spectrum. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia are complex and multidimensional disorders associated with individual, family, and sociocultural factors. This article examines the cultural pressure for dieting and thinness currently experienced in America and its impact as a possible predisposing factor for developing eating disorders among adolescent females. Literature is reviewed related to the changing American standard of attractiveness for females reflected by 20th century mass media and its subsequent influence on adolescent concerns for dieting and thinness. Preventive strategies are recommended to help adolescents balance the cultural pressure for thinness and their own desires for attractiveness within the larger context of overall good health. PMID:3216626

  2. Body Weight Support Treadmill Training for Children With Developmental Delay Who Are Ambulatory

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Leah; McMillan, Amy Gross; Yates, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effect of body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) on gait and gross motor skill development in children (2–5 years old) with developmental delay who are ambulatory. Methods Twenty-four subjects (12 control, 12 BWSTT) were enrolled in this randomized control trial. All subjects continued to receive physical therapy. Subjects were tested at baseline, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, and at 6 weeks following completion of BWSTT. Outcomes were assessed using the 10 Meter Walk Test (10MWT) and Gross Motor Function Measure- D and E. Results Significant improvements were seen in gait velocity and gross motor skill attainment. With positive interactions in both the 10MWT and GMFM-E, the BWSTT group as compared to the control group demonstrated functional gains in gait velocity and gross motor skills, P = .033 and.017, respectively. Conclusions A 6-week high intensity BWSTT program can improve gait velocity and influence functional gains. PMID:26397083

  3. [Dietetic determinants on food intake and effects in body weight regulation].

    PubMed

    Nobre, Luciana Neri; Monteiro, Josefina Bressan

    2003-09-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial pathology currently considered one of the main public health problems. Its prevalence is increasing dramatically in the last decades, reaching huge rates in Brazil and many other countries. Regardless of the factors associated with genetic predisposition, this pathology is often associated with abnormal food intake, and also with high consumption of caloric foods and sedentary habits. Thus, obesity is the result of an imbalance between food intake and energy expenditure. One of the greatest research interests in nutrition has currently been the dietetic determinants that may exert an influence on the process of food intake, as well as the role of foods on physiological, physical and chemical factors most related to the processes of satiation and satiety. Based on these aspects, this paper analyzes several research works to gain a better insight of the dietetic factors affecting food intake and body weight regulation. PMID:14694806

  4. Animal models of sugar and fat bingeing: relationship to food addiction and increased body weight.

    PubMed

    Avena, Nicole M; Bocarsly, Miriam E; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2012-01-01

    Binge eating is a behavior that occurs in some eating disorders, as well as in obesity and in nonclinical populations. Both sugars and fats are readily consumed by human beings and are common components of binges. This chapter describes animal models of sugar and fat bingeing, which allow for a detailed analysis of these behaviors and their concomitant physiological effects. The model of sugar bingeing has been used successfully to elicit behavioral and neurochemical signs of dependence in rats; e.g., indices of opiate-like withdrawal, increased intake after abstinence, cross-sensitization with drugs of abuse, and the repeated release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens following repeated bingeing. Studies using the model of fat bingeing suggest that it can produce some, but not all, of the signs of dependence that are seen with sugar binge eating, as well as increase body weight, potentially leading to obesity. PMID:22231826

  5. A systematic review and meta-analysis of changes in body weight in clinical trials of vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Neal D; Levin, Susan M; Yokoyama, Yoko

    2015-06-01

    In observational studies, vegetarians generally have lower body weights compared with omnivores. However, weight changes that occur when vegetarian diets are prescribed have not been well quantified. We estimated the effect on body weight when vegetarian diets are prescribed. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for articles through December 31, 2013. Additional articles were identified from reference lists. We included intervention trials in which participants were adults, interventions included vegetarian diets of ≥4 weeks' duration without energy intake limitations, and effects on body weight were reported. Two investigators independently extracted data using predetermined fields. Estimates of body weight change, comparing intervention groups to untreated control groups, were derived using a random effects model to estimate the weighted mean difference. To quantify effects on body weight of baseline weight, sex, age, study duration, study goals, type of diet, and study authorship, additional analyses examined within-group changes for all studies reporting variance data. We identified 15 trials (17 intervention groups), of which 4 included untreated controls. Prescription of vegetarian diets was associated with a mean weight change of -3.4 kg (95% CI -4.4 to -2.4; P<0.001) in an intention-to-treat analysis and -4.6 kg (95% CI -5.4 to -3.8; P<0.001) in a completer analysis (omitting missing post-intervention values). Greater weight loss was reported in studies with higher baseline weights, smaller proportions of female participants, older participants, or longer durations, and in studies in which weight loss was a goal. Using baseline data for missing values, I(2) equaled 52.3 (P=0.10), indicating moderate heterogeneity. When missing data were omitted, I(2) equaled 0 (P=0.65), indicating low heterogeneity. Studies are relatively few, with variable quality. The prescription of vegetarian diets reduces mean body

  6. Loss of Body Weight and Fat and Improved Lipid Profiles in Obese Rats Fed Apple Pomace or Apple Juice Concentrate

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyung-Dong; Han, Chan-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of apple pomace (AP) and apple juice concentrate (AC) supplementation on body weight and fat loss as well as lipid metabolism in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Diet-induced obese rats were assigned to three groups (n=8 for each group): high fat diet (HFD) control, HFD containing 10% (w/w) AP, and HFD containing 10% (w/w) AC. There was also a normal diet group (n=8). After 5 weeks, body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, liver morphology, and adipocyte size were measured. Body weight gain, white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, epididymal adipocyte size, and lesion scores were significantly lower and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and brown adipose tissue weights were significantly higher in the AP and AC groups compared with the HFD group. In addition, atherogenic indices in the AP and AC groups were significantly lower than in the HFD group. These results indicate that supplementing apple products such as AP and AC may help suppress body weight and WAT gain, as well as improve lipid profiles in diet-induced obese rats. PMID:23909905

  7. Whole-Body Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in Chronic Recurrent Multifocal Osteomyelitis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Leclair, Nadine; Thörmer, Gregor; Sorge, Ina; Ritter, Lutz; Schuster, Volker; Hirsch, Franz Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Objective Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis/ chronic non-bacterial osteomyelitis (CRMO/ CNO) is a rare auto-inflammatory disease and typically manifests in terms of musculoskeletal pain. Because of a high frequency of musculoskeletal disorders in children/ adolescents, it can be quite challenging to distinguish CRMO/ CNO from nonspecific musculosketetal pain or from malignancies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visibility of CRMO lesions in a whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging (WB-DWI) technique and its potential clinical value to better characterize MR-visible lesions. Material and Methods Whole-body imaging at 3T was performed in 16 patients (average: 13 years) with confirmed CRMO. The protocol included 2D Short Tau Inversion Recovery (STIR) imaging in coronal and axial orientation as well as diffusion-weighted imaging in axial orientation. Visibility of lesions in DWI and STIR was evaluated by two readers in consensus. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was measured for every lesion and corresponding reference locations. Results A total of 33 lesions (on average 2 per patient) visible in STIR and DWI images (b = 800 s/mm2 and ADC maps) were included, predominantly located in the long bones. With a mean value of 1283 mm2/s in lesions, the ADC was significantly higher than in corresponding reference regions (782 mm2/s). By calculating the ratio (lesion to reference), 82% of all lesions showed a relative signal increase of 10% or higher and 76% (25 lesions) showed a signal increase of more than 15%. The median relative signal increase was 69%. Conclusion This study shows that WB-DWI can be reliably performed in children at 3T and predominantly, the ADC values were substantially elevated in CRMO lesions. WB-DWI in conjunction with clinical data is seen as a promising technique to distinguish benign inflammatory processes (in terms of increased ADC values) from particular malignancies. PMID:26799970

  8. Changes in childhood food consumption patterns: a cause for concern in light of increasing body weights.

    PubMed

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Keller, Kathleen L; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2003-12-01

    Childhood obesity is currently at its highest: recent statistics show that 16% of children between the ages of 6 and 11 y are overweight [> or =95th percentile of body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) for age] and that an additional 14.3% are at risk of becoming overweight (> or =85th percentile but < 95th percentile of BMI for age). As children's body weights have increased, so has their consumption of fast foods and soft drinks. The proportion of foods that children consumed from restaurants and fast food outlets increased by nearly 300% between 1977 and 1996. Children's soft drink consumption has also increased during those years, and now soft drinks provide soft drink consumers 188 kcal/d beyond the energy intake of nonconsumers. These changes in food intakes among children may partly explain the rise in childhood obesity observed in the past few years. Although the mechanism of appetite regulation will not be explored in this report, it is hypothesized that the greater energy intakes in children who consume large amounts of soft drinks and fast foods are not compensated for by increased physical activity or decreased energy intakes. Furthermore, overweight and obesity in childhood may predispose persons to morbidity in adulthood. Blood pressure and fasting insulin and cholesterol concentrations are higher in overweight children than in normal-weight children. This review focuses on current food patterns and eating habits of children, in an attempt to explain their increasing BMI. In addition, a critical review of food service and political practices regarding food choices for children at school is included. PMID:14668265

  9. Genetic parameters for carcass traits and body weight using a Bayesian approach in the Canchim cattle.

    PubMed

    Meirelles, S L C; Mokry, F B; Espasandín, A C; Dias, M A D; Baena, M M; de A Regitano, L C

    2016-01-01

    Correlation between genetic parameters and factors such as backfat thickness (BFT), rib eye area (REA), and body weight (BW) were estimated for Canchim beef cattle raised in natural pastures of Brazil. Data from 1648 animals were analyzed using multi-trait (BFT, REA, and BW) animal models by the Bayesian approach. This model included the effects of contemporary group, age, and individual heterozygosity as covariates. In addition, direct additive genetic and random residual effects were also analyzed. Heritability estimated for BFT (0.16), REA (0.50), and BW (0.44) indicated their potential for genetic improvements and response to selection processes. Furthermore, genetic correlations between BW and the remaining traits were high (P > 0.50), suggesting that selection for BW could improve REA and BFT. On the other hand, genetic correlation between BFT and REA was low (P = 0.39 ± 0.17), and included considerable variations, suggesting that these traits can be jointly included as selection criteria without influencing each other. We found that REA and BFT responded to the selection processes, as measured by ultrasound. Therefore, selection for yearling weight results in changes in REA and BFT. PMID:27323151

  10. Genome-wide association with residual body weight gain in Bos indicus cattle.

    PubMed

    Santana, M H A; Gomes, R C; Utsunomiya, Y T; Neves, H H R; Novais, F J; Bonin, M N; Fukumasu, H; Garcia, J F; Alexandre, P A; Oliveira Junior, G A; Coutinho, L L; Ferraz, J B S

    2015-01-01

    Weight gain is a key performance trait for beef cat-tle; however, attention should be given to the production costs for better profitability. Therefore, a feed efficiency trait based on per-formance can be an interesting approach to improve performance without increasing food costs. To identify candidate genes and ge-nomic regions associated with residual body weight gain (RWG), we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with 720 Nellore cattle using the GRAMMAR-Gamma association test. We identified 30 significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), especially on chromosomes 2, 8, 12, and 17. Several genes and quantitative train loci (QTLs) present in the regions identified were appointed; we highlight DMRT2 (doublesex and mab-3 related tran-scription factor 2), IFFO2 (intermediate filament family orphan 2), LNX2 (ligand of numb-protein X 2), MTIF3 (mitochondrial transla-tional initiation factor 3), and TRNAG-CCC (transfer RNA glycine anticodon CCC). The metabolic pathways that can explain part of the phenotypic variation in RWG are related to oxidative stress and muscle control. PMID:26125717

  11. Maternal low-dose estradiol-17β exposure during pregnancy impairs postnatal progeny weight development and body composition

    SciTech Connect

    Werner Fürst, Rainer; Pistek, Veronika Leopoldine; Kliem, Heike; Skurk, Thomas; Hauner, Hans; Meyer, Heinrich Herman Dietrich; Ulbrich, Susanne Ernestine

    2012-09-15

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals with estrogenic activity play an important role as obesogens. However, studies investigating the most potent natural estrogen, estradiol-17β (E2), at low dose are lacking. We examined endocrine and physiological parameters in gilts receiving distinct concentrations of E2 during pregnancy. We then investigated whether adverse effects prevail in progeny due to a potential endocrine disruption. E2 was orally applied to gilts during the entire period of pregnancy. The concentrations represented a daily consumption at the recommended ADI level (0.05 μg/kg body weight/day), at the NOEL (10 μg/kg body weight/day) and at a high dosage (1000 μg/kg body weight/day). Plasma hormone concentrations were determined using enzyme immuno assays. Offspring body fat was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. In treated gilts receiving 1000 μg E2/kg body weight/day we found significantly elevated plasma E2 levels during pregnancy, paralleled by an increased weight gain. While offspring showed similar weight at birth, piglets exhibited a significant reduction in weight at weaning even though their mothers had only received 0.05 μg E2/kg body weight/day. At 8 weeks of age, specifically males showed a significant increase in overall body fat percentage. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to low doses of E2 affected pig offspring development in terms of body weight and composition. In line with findings from other obesogens, our data suggest a programming effect during pregnancy for E2 causative for the depicted phenotypes. Therefore, E2 exposure may imply a possible contribution to childhood obesity. -- Highlights: ► We investigate the potential role of estradiol-17β (E2) as an obesogen. ► We orally apply E2 at the ADI, NOEL and a high dose to gilts during pregnancy. ► Offspring weight is similar at birth but reduced at weaning even after ADI treatment. ► Male offspring only exhibit an increase in overall body fat percentage

  12. Scaling of adult body weight to height across sex and race/ethnic groups: relevance to BMI1234

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Heo, Moonseong; Schuna, John M; Hong, Sangmo; Choi, Woong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Body mass index (BMI) is formulated on the assumption that body weight (BW) scales to height with a power of 2 (BW∝height2), independent of sex and race-ethnicity. Powers differing from 2 are observed in studies of selected samples, thus raising the question if BMI is a generalizable metric that makes BW independent of height across populations. Objectives: The objectives were to test the hypothesis that adult BW scales to height with a power of 2 independent of sex and race-ethnicity and to advance an understanding of BMI as a measure of shape by extending allometric analyses to waist circumference (WC). Design: We conducted cross-sectional subject evaluations, including body composition, from the NHANES and the Korean NHANES (KNHANES). Variations of the allometric model (Y = αXβ) were used to establish height scaling powers (β ± SE) across non-Hispanic white and black, Mexican American, and Korean men and women. Results: Exploratory analyses in population samples established age and adiposity as important independent determinants of height scaling powers (i.e., β). After age and adiposity in the next series of analyses were controlled for, BW scaling powers were nonsignificantly different between race/ethnic groups within each sex group; WC findings were similar in women, whereas small but significant between-race differences were observed in the men. Sex differences in β values were nonsignificant except for BW in non-Hispanic blacks and WC in Koreans (P < 0.05). Nationally representative powers for BW were (NHANES/KNHANES) 2.12 ± 0.05/2.11 ± 0.06 for men and 2.02 ± 0.04/1.99 ± 0.06 for women and for WC were 0.66 ± 0.03/0.67 ± 0.05 for men and 0.61 ± 0.04/0.56 ± 0.05 for women. Conclusions: Adult BW scales to height with a power of ∼2 across the 8 sex and race/ethnic groups, an observation that makes BMI a generalizable height-independent measure of shape across most populations. WC also follows generalizable scaling rules, a

  13. Health technology assessment of non-invasive interventions for weight loss and body shape in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nojomi, Marzieh; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Velayati, Ashraf; Naghibzadeh-Tahami, Ahmad; Dadgostar, Haleh; Ghorabi, Gholamhossein; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad; Yaghoubi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Background: The burden of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases is increasing in Iran, and prevention and treatment strategies are needed to address this problem. The aim of this study was to determine the outcome, cost, safety and cost-consequence of non-invasive weight loss interventions in Iran. Methods: We performed a systematic review to compare non-invasive interventions (cryolipolysis and radiofrequency/ ultrasonic cavitation) with semi-invasive (lipolysis) and invasive (liposuction). A sensitive electronic searching was done to find available interventional studies. Reduction of abdomen circumference (cm), reduction in fat layer thickness (%) and weight reduction (kg) were outcomes of efficacy. Meta-analysis with random models was used for pooling efficacy estimates among studies with the same follow-up duration. Average cost per intervention was estimated based on the capital, maintenance, staff, consumable and purchase costs. Results: Of 3,111 studies identified in our reviews, 13 studies assessed lipolysis, 10 cryolipolysis and 8 considered radiofrequency. Nine studies with the same follow-up duration in three different outcome group were included in meta-analysis. Radiofrequency showed an overall pooled estimate of 2.7 cm (95% CI; 2.3-3.1) of mean reduction in circumference of abdomen after intervention. Pooled estimate of reduction in fat layer thickness was 78% (95% CI; 73%-83%) after Lipolysis and a pooled estimate of weight loss was 3.01 kg (95% CI; 2.3-3.6) after lipousuction. The cost analysis revealed no significant differences between the costs of these interventions. Conclusion: The present study showed that non-invasive interventions appear to have better clinical efficacy, specifically in the body shape measurement, and less cost compared to invasive intervention (liposuction) PMID:27390717

  14. Timing and Intensity of Light Correlate with Body Weight in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Kelly G.; Wilson, John; Kang, Joseph; Zee, Phyllis C.

    2014-01-01

    Light exposure can influence sleep and circadian timing, both of which have been shown to influence weight regulation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ambient light, sleep and body mass index. Participants included 54 individuals (26 males, mean age 30.6, SD = 11.7 years). Light levels, sleep midpoint and duration were measured with wrist actigraphy (Actiwatch-L) for 7 days. BMI was derived from self-reported height and weight. Caloric intake was determined from 7 days of food logs. For each participant, light and activity data were output in 2 minute epochs, smoothed using a 5 point (10 minute) moving average and then aggregated over 24 hours. The mean light timing above 500 lux (MLiT500) was defined as the average clock time of all aggregated data points above 500 lux. MLiT500 was positively correlated with BMI (r = 0.51, p<0.001), and midpoint of sleep (r = 0.47, p<0.01). In a multivariable linear regression model including MLiT500 and midpoint of sleep, MLiT500 was a significant predictor of BMI (B = 1.26 SE = 0.34, β = 0.53 p = 0.001, r2Δ = 0.22). Adjusting for covariates, MLiT500 remained an independent predictor of BMI (B = 1.28 SE = 0.36, β = 0.54, p = 0.002, r2Δ = 0.20). The full model accounted for 34.7% of the variance in BMI (p = 0.01). Exposure to moderate levels of light at biologically appropriate times can influence weight, independent of sleep timing and duration. PMID:24694994

  15. Measurements of the Influence of Acceleration and Temperature of Bodies on their Weight

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriev, Alexander L.

    2008-01-21

    A brief review of experimental research of the influence of acceleration and temperatures of test mass upon gravitation force, executed between the 1990s and the beginning of 2000 at the St.-Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics in cooperation with D. I. Mendeleev's Institute of Metrology is provided. According to a phenomenological notion, the acceleration of a test mass caused by external action, for example electromagnetic forces, results in changes of the gravitational properties of this mass. Consequences are a dependence upon gravity on the size and sign of test mass acceleration, and also on its absolute temperature. Results of weighing a rotor of a mechanical gyroscope with a horizontal axis, an anisotropic crystal with the big difference of the speed of longitudinal acoustic waves, measurements of temperature dependence of weight of metal bars of nonmagnetic materials, and also measurement of restitution coefficients at quasi-elastic impact of a steel ball about a massive plate are given. In particular, a reduction of apparent mass of a horizontal rotor with relative size 3.10{sup -6} at a speed of rotation of 18.6 thousand rev/min was observed. A negative temperature dependence of the weight of a brass core with relative size near 5.10{sup -4} K{sup -1} at room temperature was measured; this temperature factor was found to be a maximum for light and elastic metals. All observably experimental effects, have probably a general physical reason connected with the weight change dependent upon acceleration of a body or at thermal movement of its microparticles. The reduction of mass at high temperatures is of particular interest for propulsion applications.

  16. Measurements of the Influence of Acceleration and Temperature of Bodies on their Weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, Alexander L.

    2008-01-01

    A brief review of experimental research of the influence of acceleration and temperatures of test mass upon gravitation force, executed between the 1990s and the beginning of 2000 at the St.-Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics in cooperation with D. I. Mendeleev's Institute of Metrology is provided. According to a phenomenological notion, the acceleration of a test mass caused by external action, for example electromagnetic forces, results in changes of the gravitational properties of this mass. Consequences are a dependence upon gravity on the size and sign of test mass acceleration, and also on its absolute temperature. Results of weighing a rotor of a mechanical gyroscope with a horizontal axis, an anisotropic crystal with the big difference of the speed of longitudinal acoustic waves, measurements of temperature dependence of weight of metal bars of nonmagnetic materials, and also measurement of restitution coefficients at quasi-elastic impact of a steel ball about a massive plate are given. In particular, a reduction of apparent mass of a horizontal rotor with relative size 3.10-6 at a speed of rotation of 18.6 thousand rev/min was observed. A negative temperature dependence of the weight of a brass core with relative size near 5.10-4 K-1 at room temperature was measured; this temperature factor was found to be a maximum for light and elastic metals. All observably experimental effects, have probably a general physical reason connected with the weight change dependent upon acceleration of a body or at thermal movement of its microparticles. The reduction of mass at high temperatures is of particular interest for propulsion applications.

  17. Timing and intensity of light correlate with body weight in adults.

    PubMed

    Reid, Kathryn J; Santostasi, Giovanni; Baron, Kelly G; Wilson, John; Kang, Joseph; Zee, Phyllis C

    2014-01-01

    Light exposure can influence sleep and circadian timing, both of which have been shown to influence weight regulation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ambient light, sleep and body mass index. Participants included 54 individuals (26 males, mean age 30.6, SD = 11.7 years). Light levels, sleep midpoint and duration were measured with wrist actigraphy (Actiwatch-L) for 7 days. BMI was derived from self-reported height and weight. Caloric intake was determined from 7 days of food logs. For each participant, light and activity data were output in 2 minute epochs, smoothed using a 5 point (10 minute) moving average and then aggregated over 24 hours. The mean light timing above 500 lux (MLiT500) was defin