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The prevalence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate and a plethora of complementary therapies are on offer claiming effectiveness for reducingbodyweight. The aim of this systematic review is to critically assess the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews of complementary therapies for reducingbodyweight. Literature searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, Amed,
Diet is one of the cornerstones of a weight loss programme. Although there is little evidence that diet composition plays a clinically important role in the absorption or expenditure of energy, it does appear to play a role in food intake. Diets with a deficit of 500–1000 kcal per day will produce weight losses of between 300 and 1000 g
Background: Lowering the dietary glycemic load and increasing protein intake may be advantageous for weight management. Objective: This randomized controlled trial was designed to eval- uate the effects of an ad libitum reduced-glycemic-load (RGL) diet on bodyweight, body composition, and cardiovascular disease (CVD)riskmarkersinoverweightandobeseadultsduringaninitial weight-loss phase (12 wk) and a weight-loss maintenance phase (weeks 24-36). Design:SubjectswereassignedtoRGL(n43)orlow-fat,portion- controlled (control; n 43)
Kevin C Maki; Tia M Rains; Valerie N Kaden; Kathleen R Raneri; Michael H Davidson
Weight-loss supplements typically fall into 1 of 4 categories depending on their hypothesized mechanism of action: products that block the absorption of fat or carbohydrate, stimulants that increase thermogenesis, products that change metabolism and improve body composition, and products that suppress appetite or give a sense of fullness. Each category is reviewed, and an overview of the current science related to their effectiveness is presented. While some weight-loss supplements produce modest effects (<2 kg weight loss), many have either no or few randomized clinical trials examining their effectiveness. A number of factors confound research results associated with the efficacy of weight-loss supplements, such as small sample sizes, short intervention periods, little or no follow-up, and whether the supplement is given in combination with an energy-restricted diet or increased exercise expenditure. There is no strong research evidence indicating that a specific supplement will produce significant weight loss (>2 kg), especially in the long term. Some foods or supplements such as green tea, fiber, and calcium supplements or dairy products may complement a healthy lifestyle to produce small weight losses or prevent weight gain over time. Weight-loss supplements containing metabolic stimulants (e.g., caffeine, ephedra, synephrine) are most likely to produce adverse side effects and should be avoided. PMID:22465867
Background Soluble leptin receptor (OBRe), one of several leptin receptor isoforms, is the only bona fide leptin binding protein in plasma. Our earlier studies demonstrated that OBRe modulates leptin levels in circulation. Both clinical and in vitro studies have shown that OBRe expression is inversely correlated to bodyweight and leptin levels. However, it is not clear whether OBRe plays an active role, either in collaboration with leptin or independently, in the maintenance of bodyweight. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate the function of OBRe in the regulation of energy homeostasis, we generated transgenic mice that express OBRe under the control of human serum amyloid P (hSAP) component gene promoter. The transgene led to approximately doubling of OBRe in circulation in the transgenic mice than in wild type control mice. Transgenic mice exhibited lower bodyweight at 4 weeks of age, and slower rate of weight gain when compared with control mice. Furthermore, transgenic mice had lower body fat content. Indirect calorimetry revealed that transgenic mice had reduced food intake, increased basal metabolic rate, and increased lipid oxidation, which could account for the differences in bodyweight and body fat content. Transgenic mice also showed higher total circulating leptin, with the majority of it being in the bound form, while the amount of free leptin is comparable between transgenic and control mice. Conclusions These results are consistent with the role of OBRe as a leptin binding protein in regulating leptin's bioavailability and activity.
APS Press Release of Journal Article "Regular exercise attenuates the metabolic drive to regain weight after long term weight loss" by Paul S. MacLean, Janine A. Higgins, Holly R. Wyatt, Edward L. Melanson, Ginger C. Johnson, Matthew R. Jackman, Erin D. Giles, Ian E. Brown and James O. Hill, found in American Journal of Physiology ÃÂ Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)
OBJECTIVE Because adipose tissue is highly vascularized, modifying adipose tissue vasculature may provide a novel method for reducingbody fat. A peptide sequence that elicits apoptosis of endothelium in white fat potently reducedbodyweight. We sought to determine how inhibiting adipose tissue vasculature changes key aspects of energy balance regulation and the neuroendocrine system that maintains energy balance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Lean and obese mice or rats were treated with proapoptotic peptide for 4 or 27 days. Daily energy intake and expenditure were measured in mice on a low- (LFD) or high-fat diet (HFD) and in rats on a HFD. A conditioned taste aversion test was performed to assess whether proapoptotic peptide produces visceral illness. Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y, agouti-related peptide, and proopiomelanocoritin (POMC) mRNA expression and plasma leptin levels were evaluated. RESULTS Proapoptotic peptide completely reversed HFD-induced obesity in mice and reducedbodyweight in mice and rats on a HFD but not in those on a LFD. Fat loss occurred with no change of energy expenditure but reduced food intake that occurred without signs of illness and despite reduced circulating leptin and reduced hypothalamic POMC gene expression, indicating that the decrease in food intake is independent of the action of leptin. CONCLUSIONS These experiments provide compelling evidence for a previously unknown relationship between the status of adipose tissue vasculature and the regulation of food intake.
Kim, Dong-Hoon; Woods, Stephen C.; Seeley, Randy J.
The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the possible role of leptin in food intake and bodyweight regulation in goldfish. We examined the effects of i.c.v. or i.p. acute leptin administration on food intake in food- deprived goldfish at different time intervals post-injection (0-2, 2-8 and 0-8 h). Food intake was reduced by i.p. administered leptin (1
Among the manifold effects of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) delivered as an add-on treatment to patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, a moderate loss of bodyweight has been observed in some individuals. We have now investigated this effect in rats. Exposure of rats to VNS for 4 weeks reduced feed conversion efficiency as well as bodyweight gain (by ?25%) and the amount of mesenteric adipose tissue (by ?45%) in comparison with those in sham-operated control animals. A pair-fed experiment showed that both lower dietary intake and increase energy expenditure independently contributed to the reduction of bodyweight and mesenteric adipose tissue. Moreover, VNS increased the level of non-esterified fatty acids in plasma and mesenteric adipose tissue by ?50 and 80%, respectively, without affecting that in the liver. In addition, VNS reduced the amounts of endocannabinoids and increased N-palmitoylethanolamide, an endogenous ligand of the transcription factor PPAR? (peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor ?) in mesenteric adipose tissue but not in the hypothalamus. These effects were accompanied by increased expression of the gene for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hypothalamus and up-regulation of the abundance of PPAR? in the liver. Our results suggest that the reduction in body fat induced by VNS in rats may result from the action of both central and peripheral mediators. The reduced feed conversion efficiency associated with VNS may be mediated by hypothalamic BDNF, down-regulation of endocannabinoid tone in mesenteric adipose tissue and a PPAR?-dependent increase in fatty acid oxidation in the liver, which in concerted action may account for the anorexic effect and increased energy expenditure.
Combination therapy is being increasingly used as a treatment paradigm for metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. In the peptide therapeutics realm, recent work has highlighted the therapeutic potential of chimeric peptides that act on two distinct receptors, thereby harnessing parallel complementary mechanisms to induce additive or synergistic benefit compared to monotherapy. Here, we extend this hypothesis by linking a known anti-diabetic peptide with an anti-obesity peptide into a novel peptide hybrid, which we termed a phybrid. We report on the synthesis and biological activity of two such phybrids (AC164204 and AC164209), comprised of a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1-R) agonist, and exenatide analog, AC3082, covalently linked to a second generation amylin analog, davalintide. Both molecules acted as full agonists at their cognate receptors in vitro, albeit with reduced potency at the calcitonin receptor indicating slightly perturbed amylin agonism. In obese diabetic Lep(ob)/Lep (ob) mice sustained infusion of AC164204 and AC164209 reduced glucose and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) equivalently but induced greater weight loss relative to exenatide administration alone. Weight loss was similar to that induced by combined administration of exenatide and davalintide. In diet-induced obese rats, both phybrids dose-dependently reduced food intake and bodyweight to a greater extent than exenatide or davalintide alone, and equal to co-infusion of exenatide and davalintide. Phybrid-mediated and exenatide + davalintide-mediated weight loss was associated with reduced adiposity and preservation of lean mass. These data are the first to provide in vivo proof-of-concept for multi-pathway targeting in metabolic disease via a peptide hybrid, demonstrating that this approach is as effective as co-administration of individual peptides. PMID:24167604
Trevaskis, James L; Mack, Christine M; Sun, Chengzao; Soares, Christopher J; D'Souza, Lawrence J; Levy, Odile E; Lewis, Diane Y; Jodka, Carolyn M; Tatarkiewicz, Krystyna; Gedulin, Bronislava; Gupta, Swati; Wittmer, Carrie; Hanley, Michael; Forood, Bruce; Parkes, David G; Ghosh, Soumitra S
Combination therapy is being increasingly used as a treatment paradigm for metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. In the peptide therapeutics realm, recent work has highlighted the therapeutic potential of chimeric peptides that act on two distinct receptors, thereby harnessing parallel complementary mechanisms to induce additive or synergistic benefit compared to monotherapy. Here, we extend this hypothesis by linking a known anti-diabetic peptide with an anti-obesity peptide into a novel peptide hybrid, which we termed a phybrid. We report on the synthesis and biological activity of two such phybrids (AC164204 and AC164209), comprised of a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1-R) agonist, and exenatide analog, AC3082, covalently linked to a second generation amylin analog, davalintide. Both molecules acted as full agonists at their cognate receptors in vitro, albeit with reduced potency at the calcitonin receptor indicating slightly perturbed amylin agonism. In obese diabetic Lepob/Lepob mice sustained infusion of AC164204 and AC164209 reduced glucose and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) equivalently but induced greater weight loss relative to exenatide administration alone. Weight loss was similar to that induced by combined administration of exenatide and davalintide. In diet-induced obese rats, both phybrids dose-dependently reduced food intake and bodyweight to a greater extent than exenatide or davalintide alone, and equal to co-infusion of exenatide and davalintide. Phybrid-mediated and exenatide + davalintide-mediated weight loss was associated with reduced adiposity and preservation of lean mass. These data are the first to provide in vivo proof-of-concept for multi-pathway targeting in metabolic disease via a peptide hybrid, demonstrating that this approach is as effective as co-administration of individual peptides.
Trevaskis, James L.; Mack, Christine M.; Sun, Chengzao; Soares, Christopher J.; D'Souza, Lawrence J.; Levy, Odile E.; Lewis, Diane Y.; Jodka, Carolyn M.; Tatarkiewicz, Krystyna; Gedulin, Bronislava; Gupta, Swati; Wittmer, Carrie; Hanley, Michael; Forood, Bruce; Parkes, David G.; Ghosh, Soumitra S.
Scutellaria baicalensis has been extensively employed for the clinical treatment of hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, hypertension, dysentery, inflammatory diseases, and the common cold. The present study was performed to investigate the anti-obesity and anti-dyslipidemia effect of Scutellaria baicalensis extracts (SBE) in type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Male db/db mice were divided into three groups (n?=?5) and orally administrated vehicle (control), SBE 10, and 100?mg/kg bodyweight/day for 4?weeks everyday. Administration of SBE improves weight gain, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperinsulinemia in db/db mice. In obese db/db mice, SBE treatment also reduced plasma alanine aminotransferase levels. In the livers of db/db mice, SBE promoted 5' AMP-activated protein kinase activity and restored metabolic process and insulin signaling pathways. Our data demonstrate that SBE exerts potent anti-obesity and anti-hypertriglyceride effects suggesting its useful potential function as adjuvant therapeutic agent for the treatment of weight gain and hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:22532505
Song, Kwang Hoon; Lee, Sun Hwa; Kim, Bu-Yeo; Park, Ah Yeon; Kim, Jong Yeol
Some studies suggest that increased consumption of soy protein hydrolysates may cause bodyweight loss but the mechanism of\\u000a action is unknown. The objective of this investigation was to determine whether intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion\\u000a of soy protein hydrolysates decrease food intake and bodyweight. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n?=?24) received i.c.v. injections of soy hydrolysate I (SH I) or
Nerissa Vaughn; Anthony Rizzo; Dolores Doane; J. Lee Beverly; Elvira Gonzalez de Mejia
Lacking compliance with liquid intake restrictions is one of the major problems in patients on hemodialysis and causes an increased mortality. In 120 patients on hemodialysis with an average interdialytic weight gain (IWG) exceeding 1.5?kg on at least 2 days during the 4 weeks preceding the intervention, the effect of telemetric bodyweight measurement (TBWM) on IWG, ultrafiltration rate, and blood pressure was evaluated over a period of 3 months. Patients of the telemetric group (TG) were supplied with automatic scales, which transferred the weight via telemetry on a daily basis. In the case of IWG of more than 0.75 kg/24?h, a telephonic contact was made as required, and in the case of an IWG of more than 1.5?kg, telephonic contacting was obligatory along with the advice of a liquid intake restriction to 0.5 L/day until the next dialysis. The patients of the control group (CG) received standard treatment without telemetric monitoring. We examined specific data of the second interdialytic interval (IDI2) and the average within 1 week. The average difference of IWG between TG and CG was not significant before the start of the study but 0.2?kg (p=0.027) (IDI2)/0.27kg (p=0.001) (WP) at the end of the study, respectively. The average difference in the ultrafiltration rate within 1 week was 19.0?mL/h (p=0.282) (IDI2)/8.2?mL/h (p=0.409) before the start of the study but 28.4?mL/h (p=0.122) (IDI2)/30.9?mL/h (p=0.004) at the end of the study, respectively. Thus, TBWM is a feasible method for optimizing the IWG and reducing the ultrafiltration rate. PMID:23614336
Melatonin is involved in the regulation of seasonal obesity in various species, including some rodents. This involvement has been demonstrated in nonphotoperiodic rodents like rats, but only in models of enhanced bodyweight such as genetically obese or middle-aged rats. The aim of this investigation was to determine the effects of melatonin on bodyweight and metabolic parameters in a model closer to that observed in Western populations, i.e. Sprague Dawley rats fed a high-fat diet. They were treated for 3 wk with melatonin (30 mg/kg) 4 h after lights-on [Zeitgeber time (ZT) 4] or 1 h before lights-out (ZT11). Given at ZT11, melatonin decreased bodyweight gain and feed efficiency by half. Melatonin had no effect on plasma insulin level, but it decreased plasma glucose (13%), leptin (28%), and triglyceride (28%) levels. Furthermore, in pinealectomized high-fat diet rats, bodyweight gain and feed efficiency were increased 4 wk after surgery. Adipose tissue weight, insulinemia, and glycemia had a tendency to increase. Treatment with melatonin prevented in part these changes. These data demonstrate that melatonin may act as a regulator of bodyweight in a model of obesity and may prevent some of the side effects on glucose homeostasis such as decreased insulin sensitivity. PMID:12970162
Beneficial effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) against obesity have been reported, however, the mechanism of this protection is not clear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify GTP-targeted genes in obesity using the high-fat-diet-induced obese rat model. A total of three groups (n?=?12/group) of Sprague Dawley (SD) female rats were tested, including the control group (rats fed with low-fat diet), the HF group (rats fed with high-fat diet), and the HF+GTP group (rats fed with high-fat diet and GTP in drinking water). The HF group increased bodyweight as compared to the control group. Supplementation of GTP in the drinking water in the HF+GTP group reducedbodyweight as compared to the HF group. RNA from liver samples was extracted for gene expression analysis. A total of eighty-four genes related to obesity were analyzed using PCR array. Compared to the rats in the control group, the rats in the HF group had the expression levels of 12 genes with significant changes, including 3 orexigenic genes (Agrp, Ghrl, and Nr3c1); 7 anorectic genes (Apoa4, Cntf, Ghr, IL-1?, Ins1, Lepr, and Sort); and 2 genes that relate to energy expenditure (Adcyap1r1 and Adrb1). Intriguingly, the HF+GTP group restored the expression levels of these genes in the high-fat-induced obese rats. The protein expression levels of IL-1? and IL-6 in the serum samples from the control, HF, and HF+GTP groups confirmed the results of gene expression. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) also showed GTP-regulated protective changes in this obese rat model. Collectively, this study revealed the beneficial effects of GTP on bodyweight via regulating obesity-related genes, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant capacity, and estrogen-related actions in high-fat-induced obese rats. PMID:22715380
HEALTH ISSUE: Bodyweight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight and obesity are indeed serious, there are also problems connected to being underweight. Weight prejudice and the dieting industry intensify body image concerns for Canadian women and can have
Objective: To investigate whether chronic administration of the long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 can elicit sustained reductions in food intake and bodyweight and whether its actions require an intact leptin system.Research Methods and Procedures: Male lean and obese Zucker (fa\\/fa) rats were infused intracerebroventricularly with exendin-4 using osmotic minipumps for 8 days.Results: Exendin-4 reducedbodyweight in both
Kamal A. Al-Barazanji; Jonathan R. S. Arch; Robin E. Buckingham; Mohammad Tadayyon
OBJECTIVE: Assessment of the effect of six months consumption of reduced fat or full fat products on energy intake and bodyweight, as a function of dietary restraint.DESIGN: A small realistic supermarket in the University departments provided full fat commercial products and their reduced fat alternatives. Volunteers visited the supermarket once a week. Half of them were required to take
Westerterp-Plantenga; NEG Wijckmans-Duijsens; WPG Verboeket-van de Venne; K de Graaf; KH van het Hof; JA Weststrate; Margriet S Westerterp-Plantenga
...product may be labeled with terms such as âdiet,â âdietetic,â âartificially sweetened...regulation, to any use of the term âdietâ that clearly shows that the product is...bodyweight, e.g., âfor low sodium diets.â (3) Paragraph...
...product may be labeled with terms such as âdiet,â âdietetic,â âartificially sweetened...regulation, to any use of the term âdietâ that clearly shows that the product is...bodyweight, e.g., âfor low sodium diets.â (3) Paragraph...
A double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study has been carried out in order to evaluate the effect of orally self-administered Slim339, a proprietary fixed combination of Garcinia cambogia extract with calcium pantothenate (standardized for the content of hydroxycitric acid and pantothenic acid) and extracts of Matricaria chamomilla, Rosa damascena, Lavandula officinalis and Cananga odorata, on bodyweight in overweight and obese volunteers. During a 60-day treatment period, the average reduction in bodyweight for the group receiving Slim339 (n = 30) was 4.67% compared with 0.63% for the placebo group (n = 28) (p < 0.0001). Weight losses of >or=3 kg were recorded for 23 subjects in the treatment group and only one in the placebo group. It is concluded that Slim339 represents a potential therapy for obesity. PMID:17639559
Toromanyan, Edward; Aslanyan, Gayane; Amroyan, Elmira; Gabrielyan, Emil; Panossian, Alexander
We have recently synthesized a new series of 4,5-dihydrobenzo-oxa-cycloheptapyrazole derivatives with the aim to discover novel CB1 antagonist agents characterized by anti-obesity activity comparable to that of SR141716A but with reduced adverse effects such as anxiety and depression. Within the novel class, the CB1 antagonist 8-chloro-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-piperidin-1-yl-4,5-dihydrobenzo-1H-6-oxa-cyclohepta(1,2-c)pyrazole-3-carboxamide (NESS06SM) has been selected as lead compound. We found that NESS06SM is a CB1 neutral antagonist, characterized by poor blood-brain barrier permeability. Moreover, NESS06SM chronic treatment determined both anti-obesity effect and cardiovascular risk factor improvement in C57BL/6N Diet Induced Obesity (DIO) mice fed with fat diet (FD mice). In fact, the mRNA gene expression in Central Nervous System (CNS) and peripheral tissues by real time PCR, showed a significant increase of orexigenic peptides and a decrease of anorexigenic peptides elicited by NESS06SM treatment, compared to control mice fed with the same diet. Moreover, in contrast to SR141716A treatment, the chronic administration of NESS06SM did not change mRNA expression of both monoaminergic transporters and neurotrophins highly related with anxiety and mood disorders. Our results suggest that NESS06SM reducesbodyweight and it can restore the disrupted expression profile of genes linked to the hunger-satiety circuit without altering monoaminergic transmission probably avoiding SR141716A side effects. Therefore the novel CB1 neutral antagonist could represent a useful candidate agent for the treatment of obesity and its metabolic complications. PMID:23756200
Mastinu, Andrea; Pira, Marilena; Pinna, Gérard Aimè; Pisu, Carla; Casu, Maria Antonietta; Reali, Roberta; Marcello, Stefania; Murineddu, Gabriele; Lazzari, Paolo
tert-Butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) is a commonly used antioxidant additive that is approved for human use by both the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization (FAO/WHO). In this study, we examined the effect of tBHQ on bodyweight gain and found that food supplementation with 0.001 % (w/w) tBHQ inhibited 61.4 % (P < 0.01) of bodyweight gain in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced C57BL/6 mice, and the oral administration of tBHQ (1.5 mg/kg) reduced 47.5 % (P < 0.05) of bodyweight gain in normal diet fed db/db mice. The HFD increased lipid deposit in adipocytes, but these were reduced significantly by tBHQ treatment in C57BL/6 mice. tBHQ supplementation significantly lowered the plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol, with reduced size of accumulated fat mass. The rate limiting enzyme of beta-oxidation (ACOX1) was significantly over-expressed in the liver with tBHQ treatment. These results indicate that tBHQ suppresses bodyweight gain in mice, possibly at least related to the up-regulation of ACOX1 gene expression. PMID:23585332
Nam, Kung-Woo; Kim, Yong Hyun; Kwon, Hyun Jung; Rhee, Sang-Ki; Kim, Wan-Jong; Han, Man-Deuk
This study investigated the effect of subcutaneously administered oxyntomodulin on bodyweight in healthy overweight and obese volunteers. Participants self-administered saline or oxyntomodulin subcutaneously in a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group protocol. Injections were self-administered for 4 weeks, three times daily, 30 min before each meal. The volunteers were asked to maintain their regular diet and level of physical exercise during the study period. Subjects' bodyweight, energy intake, and levels of adipose hormones were assessed at the start and end of the study. Bodyweight was reduced by 2.3 +/- 0.4 kg in the treatment group over the study period compared with 0.5 +/- 0.5 kg in the control group (P = 0.0106). On average, the treatment group had an additional 0.45-kg weight loss per week. The treatment group demonstrated a reduction in leptin and an increase in adiponectin. Energy intake by the treatment group was significantly reduced by 170 +/- 37 kcal (25 +/- 5%) at the initial study meal (P = 0.0007) and by 250 +/- 63 kcal (35 +/- 9%) at the final study meal (P = 0.0023), with no change in subjective food palatability. Oxyntomodulin treatment resulted in weight loss and a change in the levels of adipose hormones consistent with a loss of adipose tissue. The anorectic effect was maintained over the 4-week period. Oxyntomodulin represents a potential therapy for obesity. PMID:16046306
Wynne, Katie; Park, Adrian J; Small, Caroline J; Patterson, Michael; Ellis, Sandra M; Murphy, Kevin G; Wren, Alison M; Frost, Gary S; Meeran, Karim; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R
Health Issue Bodyweight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight and obesity are indeed serious, there are also problems connected to being underweight. Weight prejudice and the dieting industry intensify body image concerns for Canadian women and can have a major negative impact on self-esteem. Key Findings Women have lower BMIs than men, a lower incidence of being overweight and a higher incidence of being underweight. However, women across all weight categories are more dissatisfied with their bodies. Sixty percent of women are inactive, and women with a BMI of 27 or higher are more likely to be inactive than women with lower BMIs. The data show that women are aware of the health benefits of exercise, but there is a gap between knowledge and practice. When asked about barriers to health improvement, 39.7% of women cited lack of time and 39.2% lack of willpower. Data Gaps and Recommendations Weight prejudice must be made unacceptable and positive body image should be encouraged and diversity valued. Health policies should encourage healthy eating and healthy activity. Health curricula for young students should include information about healthy eating, active lifestyle, and self-esteem. Physical activities that mothers can participate in with their families should be encouraged. Research should be funded to elucidate the most effective methods of getting women to become and remain physically active without focusing on appearance.
Crude extracts from ginseng demonstrated anti-obesity properties. Ginsenoside Rb1 is the main component of ginseng, however, there are only few studies examining its effects in obesity. In the present study, we evaluated its potential anti-obesity effects in the murine model of diet-induced obesity. Seventy male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided to consume for 12 weeks either chow diet (N = 8) or high-fat (HF) diet (N = 62). The latter mice were then divided into four groups: diet-induced obesity group (DIO; N = 10), obesity-resistant group (OR; N = 10), HF group (N = 5), and the group whose diet was changed from HF to normal diet (DC; N = 5). Intraperitoneal injections of Rb-1 were administered daily to mice in the DIO and OR groups for 3 weeks. Bodyweight and energy intake were monitored, and fasting blood glucose, lipids, neuropeptide Y, Y2 receptor, and peptide YY were quantified. Compared with HF group, weight gain and food intake of DIO mice with Rb-1 injection was significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Further, levels of blood glucose and some lipids were also decreased in DIO-Rb1 group compared with HF group. Furthermore, Rb1 was also found to modulate serum levels of PYY and NPY, and mRNA expression of NPY, Y2 receptor and PYY in tissue samples of DIO mice. Taken together, ginsenoside Rb1 may be useful in the treatment of obesity via modifying the serum content and mRNA expression of NPY, Y2 receptor and PYY. PMID:23733675
Androgen levels are lower in obese men as compared to normal weight individuals. However, there are no safety data regarding the chronic use of androgen supplements in middle-aged men. The present study was undertaken to determine the cardiovascular and metabolic effects of chronic (10 weeks) testosterone treatment in male obese Zucker rats (OZR), starting at 22 weeks of age, when testosterone levels were significantly decreased. Testosterone supplements increased plasma levels, 10 fold in both OZR and lean Zucker rats (LZR). In OZR, testosterone supplements reducedbodyweight, plasma insulin and cholesterol levels and improved oral glucose tolerance test. None of these parameters were affected in LZR. Mean arterial pressure was significantly increased in OZR, but not LZR. Testosterone supplements increased proteinuria and accelerated renal injury in LZR only. Thus treatment of obese men with chronic testosterone supplements should be done with careful monitoring of blood pressure.
...food may be labeled with terms such as âdiet,â âdietetic,â âartificially sweetened...regulation, to any use of the term âdietâ that clearly shows that the food is offered...weight, e.g., âfor low-sodium diets.â (3) Paragraph...
4 Abstract: Recently, studies have focused on the effects of dietary calcium on the weight and fatness. Some of these studies have indicated that there is negative relationship between dietary calcium and body fat, while others have reported no such effects. There are also controversies over serum parathyroid hormone, as its mechanism, on body fat and weight. The objective of
J. M. Malekzadeh; S. A. Keshavarz; F. Siassi; M. Eshraghian; M. Kadkhodaee; A. R. Dorosty; A. Aliehpour; M. Chamari
...terms suggesting usefulness as low calorie or reduced calorie foods. (1) Except as provided...labeled with terms such as âdiet,â âdietetic,â âartificially...and the food is labeled âlow calorieâ or âreduced calorieâ or...
...terms suggesting usefulness as low calorie or reduced calorie foods. (1) Except as provided...labeled with terms such as âdiet,â âdietetic,â âartificially...and the food is labeled âlow calorieâ or âreduced calorieâ or...
SUMMARY We have modelled elaidyl-sulfamide (ES), a sulfamoyl analogue of oleoylethanolamide (OEA). ES is a lipid mediator of satiety that works through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?). We have characterised the pharmacological profile of ES (0.3–3 mg/kg bodyweight) by means of in silico molecular docking to the PPAR? receptor, in vitro transcription through PPAR?, and in vitro and in vivo administration to obese rats. ES interacts with the binding site of PPAR? in a similar way as OEA does, is capable of activating PPAR? and also reduces feeding in a dose-dependent manner when administered to food-deprived rats. When ES was given to obese male rats for 7 days, it reduced feeding and weight gain, lowered plasma cholesterol and reduced the plasmatic activity of transaminases, indicating a clear improvement of hepatic function. This pharmacological profile is associated with the modulation of both cholesterol and lipid metabolism regulatory genes, including the sterol response element-binding proteins SREBF1 and SREBF2, and their regulatory proteins INSIG1 and INSIG2, in liver and white adipose tissues. ES treatment induced the expression of thermogenic regulatory genes, including the uncoupling proteins UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 in brown adipose tissue and UCP3 in white adipose tissue. However, its chronic administration resulted in hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance, which represent a constraint for its potential clinical development.
Decara, Juan Manuel; Romero-Cuevas, Miguel; Rivera, Patricia; Macias-Gonzalez, Manuel; Vida, Margarita; Pavon, Francisco J.; Serrano, Antonia; Cano, Carolina; Fresno, Nieves; Perez-Fernandez, Ruth; Rodriguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suarez, Juan
We have modelled elaidyl-sulfamide (ES), a sulfamoyl analogue of oleoylethanolamide (OEA). ES is a lipid mediator of satiety that works through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?). We have characterised the pharmacological profile of ES (0.3-3 mg/kg bodyweight) by means of in silico molecular docking to the PPAR? receptor, in vitro transcription through PPAR?, and in vitro and in vivo administration to obese rats. ES interacts with the binding site of PPAR? in a similar way as OEA does, is capable of activating PPAR? and also reduces feeding in a dose-dependent manner when administered to food-deprived rats. When ES was given to obese male rats for 7 days, it reduced feeding and weight gain, lowered plasma cholesterol and reduced the plasmatic activity of transaminases, indicating a clear improvement of hepatic function. This pharmacological profile is associated with the modulation of both cholesterol and lipid metabolism regulatory genes, including the sterol response element-binding proteins SREBF1 and SREBF2, and their regulatory proteins INSIG1 and INSIG2, in liver and white adipose tissues. ES treatment induced the expression of thermogenic regulatory genes, including the uncoupling proteins UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 in brown adipose tissue and UCP3 in white adipose tissue. However, its chronic administration resulted in hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance, which represent a constraint for its potential clinical development. PMID:22736460
Decara, Juan Manuel; Romero-Cuevas, Miguel; Rivera, Patricia; Macias-González, Manuel; Vida, Margarita; Pavón, Francisco J; Serrano, Antonia; Cano, Carolina; Fresno, Nieves; Pérez-Fernández, Ruth; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan
|Background: Body satisfaction interventions have typically been multifaceted and targeted at clinical populations. The aim of the present research was to isolate the effects of self-affirmation on body satisfaction in a community sample and to see whether self-affirmation works by basing one's self-esteem on domains other than bodyweight and…
The CB1 receptor antagonist, rimonabant, affects the endocannabinoid system and causes a sustained reduction in bodyweight (BW) despite the transient nature of the reduction in food intake. Therefore, in a multiple-dose study, female candy-fed Wistar rats were treated with rimonabant (10 mg/kg) and matched with pair-fed rats to distinguish between hypophagic action and hypothesized effects on energy expenditure. Within the first week of treatment, rimonabant reduced BW nearly to levels of standard rat chow-fed rats. Evaluation of energy balance (energy expenditure measured by indirect calorimetry in relation to metabolizable energy intake calculated by bomb calorimetry) revealed that increased energy expenditure based on increased fat oxidation contributed more to sustained BW reduction than reduced food intake. A mere food reduction through pair feeding did not result in comparable effects because animals reduced their energy expenditure to save energy stores. Because fat oxidation measured by indirect calorimetry increased immediately after dosing in the postprandial state, the acute effect of rimonabant on lipolysis was investigated in postprandial male rats. Rimonabant elevated free fatty acids postprandially, demonstrating an inherent pharmacological activity of rimonabant to induce lipolysis and not secondarily postabsorptively due to reduced food intake. We conclude that the weight-reducing effect of rimonabant was due to continuously elevated energy expenditure based on increased fat oxidation driven by lipolysis from fat tissue as long as fat stores were elevated. When the amount of endogenous fat stores declined, rimonabant-induced increased energy expenditure was maintained by a re-increase in food intake. PMID:18276749
Herling, Andreas W; Kilp, Susanne; Elvert, Ralf; Haschke, Guido; Kramer, Werner
Tea (Camellia sinensis, Theaceae) has been shown to have obesity preventive effects in laboratory studies. We hypothesized that dietary epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) could reverse metabolic syndrome in high fat-fed obese C57bl/6J mice, and that these effects were related to inhibition of pancreatic lipase (PL). Following treatment with 0.32% EGCG for 6 weeks, a 44% decrease in bodyweight (BW) gain in high fat-fed, obese mice (P < 0.01) was observed compared to controls. EGCG treatment increased fecal lipid content by 29.4% (P < 0.05) compared to high fat-fed control, whereas in vitro, EGCG dose-dependently inhibited PL (IC(50) = 7.5 µmol/l) in a noncompetitive manner with respect to substrate concentration. (-)-Epicatechin-3-gallate exhibited similar inhibitory activity, whereas the nonester-containing (-)-epigallocatechin did not. In conclusion, EGCG supplementation reduced final BW and BW gain in obese mice, and some of these effects may be due to inhibition of PL by EGCG. PMID:21633405
Grove, Kimberly A; Sae-tan, Sudathip; Kennett, Mary J; Lambert, Joshua D
Background To elucidate whether rice protein can possess a vital function in improving lipids level and adiposity, the effects of rice proteins extracted by alkaline (RP-A) and ?-amylase (RP-E) on triglyceride metabolism were investigated in 7-week-old male Wistar rats fed cholesterol-enriched diets for 2 weeks, as compared with casein (CAS). Results Compared with CAS, plasma concentrations of glucose and lipids were significantly reduced by RP-feeding (P < 0.05), as well as hepatic accumulation of lipids (P < 0.05). RP-A and RP-E significantly depressed the hepatic activities of fatty acid synthase (FAS), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) (P < 0.05), whereas the activities of lipoprotein lipase (PL) and hepatic lipase (HL) were significantly stimulated (P < 0.05), as compared to CAS. Neither lipids level nor activities of enzymes were different between RP-A and RP-E (P > 0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between protein digestibility and deposit fat (r = 0.8567, P < 0.05), as well as the plasma TG concentration (r = 0.8627, P < 0.05). Conclusions The present study demonstrates that rice protein can modify triglyceride metabolism, leading to an improvement of bodyweight and adiposity. Results suggest that the triglyceride-lowering action as well as the potential of anti-adiposity induced by rice protein is attributed to upregulation of lipolysis and downregulation of lipogenesis, and the lower digestibility of rice protein may be the main modulator responsible for the lipid-lowering action.
Objective:To investigate whether a diet with a reduced glycaemic index (GI) has effects on appetite, energy intake, bodyweight and composition in overweight and obese female subjects.Design:Randomized crossover intervention study including two consecutive 12-week periods. Lower or higher GI versions of key carbohydrate-rich foods (breads, breakfast cereals, rice and pasta\\/potatoes) were provided to subjects to be incorporated into habitual diets
Parotid fluid samples (1,145) were collected from 403 healthy young adult males to ascertain the correlation between bodyweight and parotid flow rate. In four experiments samples were collected without exogenous stimulants and under the gustatory stimula...
Body fat accounts for much of the excess weight in obese persons; but the amount of lean body tissue (muscle and other protein tissue) in the\\u000a obese individual is similar to that found in the normal individual. In weight loss primarily excess fat should be lost; not\\u000a essential protein tissue.\\u000a \\u000a Complete fasting has been proposed as a technique for losing
Herbert P. Sarett; John B. Longenecker; Robert W. Harkins
A study was conducted to investigate associations between ethnicity and acculturation status and risk factors for eating disorders among young adult women. A community sample of 14,779 women aged 18–23 completed a comprehensive mail-out survey, which incorporated questions on country of birth, length of time spent in Australia, bodyweight, weight dissatisfaction, dieting, binge eating, and compensatory disordered eating behaviours.
Objective A proprietary natural fiber complex (Litramine IQP G-002AS) derived from Opuntia ficus-indica, and standardized on lipophilic activity, was previously shown in preclinical and human studies to reduce dietary fat absorption through gastrointestinal (GI) fat binding. Here, we investigated the efficacy and safety of IQP G-002AS in bodyweight reduction. Design and Methods One hundred twenty-five overweight and obese adults participated in the study. Subjects were advised on physical activity, and received nutritional counseling, including hypocaloric diet plans (30% energy from fat and 500 kcal deficit/day). After a 2-week placebo run-in phase, subjects were randomized to receive either 3 g/day of IQP G-002AS (IQ) or a placebo. The primary endpoint was change in bodyweight from baseline; secondary endpoints included additional obesity measures and safety parameters. Results One hundred twenty-three subjects completed the 12-week treatment phase (intention-to-treat (ITT) population: 30 male and 93 female; mean BMI: 29.6 ± 2.8 kg/m2 and age: 45.4 ± 11.3 years). The mean bodyweight change from baseline was 3.8 ± 1.8 kg in IQ vs. 1.4 ± 2.6 kg in placebo (P < 0.001). More IQ subjects lost at least 5% of their initial bodyweight compared to placebo (P = 0.027). Compared with placebo, IQ also showed significantly greater reduction in BMI, body fat composition, and waist circumference. IQ was well tolerated with no adverse reactions reported. Conclusions These results suggest that the natural fiber complex Litramine IQP G-002AS is effective in promoting weight loss.
In their review (low-glycaemic index diets and bodyweight regulation (2006)), McMillan-Price and Brand-Miller argue that the low glycemic index (GI) diet is a simple and more popular diet that will successfully improve cardiovascular risk factors and reducebodyweight. We do not find that there is convincing evidence in the existing literature to suggest that a low GI diet
Objective To investigate the relation between total fat intake and bodyweight in adults and children. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies. Data sources Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to June 2010. Inclusion criteria Randomised controlled trials and cohort studies of adults or children that compared lower versus usual total fat intake and assessed the effects on measures of body fatness (bodyweight, body mass index, or waist circumference) after at least six months (randomised controlled trials) or one year (in cohorts). Randomised controlled trials with any intention to reduceweight in participants or confounded by additional medical or lifestyle interventions were excluded. Data extraction Data were extracted and validity was assessed independently and in duplicate. Random effects meta-analyses, subgroups, sensitivity analyses, and metaregression were done. Results 33 randomised controlled trials (73?589 participants) and 10 cohort studies were included, all from developed countries. Meta-analysis of data from the trials suggested that diets lower in total fat were associated with lower relative bodyweight (by 1.6 kg, 95% confidence interval ?2.0 to ?1.2 kg, I2=75%, 57?735 participants). Lower weight gain in the low fat arm compared with the control arm was consistent across trials, but the size of the effect varied. Metaregression suggested that greater reduction in total fat intake and lower baseline fat intake were associated with greater relative weight loss, explaining most of the heterogeneity. The significant effect of a low fat diet on weight was not lost in sensitivity analyses (including removing trials that expended greater time and attention on low fat groups). Lower total fat intake also led to lower body mass index (?0.51 kg/m2, 95% confidence interval ?0.76 to ?0.26, nine trials, I2=77%) and waist circumference (by 0.3 cm, 95% confidence interval ?0.58 to ?0.02, 15?671 women, one trial). There was no suggestion of negative effects on other cardiovascular risk factors (lipid levels or blood pressure). GRADE assessment suggested high quality evidence for the relation between total fat intake and bodyweight in adults. Only one randomised controlled trial and three cohort studies were found in children and young people, but these confirmed a positive relation between total fat intake and weight gain. Conclusions There is high quality, consistent evidence that reduction of total fat intake has been achieved in large numbers of both healthy and at risk trial participants over many years. Lower total fat intake leads to small but statistically significant and clinically meaningful, sustained reductions in bodyweight in adults in studies with baseline fat intakes of 28-43% of energy intake and durations from six months to over eight years. Evidence supports a similar effect in children and young people.
The bodyweight contingency of self-worth (bodyweight CSW) is the tendency for people to base their self-esteem on bodyweight. In two studies, the bodyweight contingency was evaluated against a general appearance contingency of self-worth (appearance CSW) to investigate whether or not individuals may base self-esteem on bodyweight. Compared to the appearance CSW, the bodyweight CSW
ABSTRACT Five clinical studies of calcium intake, designed with a primary skeletal end point, were reevaluated to explore associations be- tween calcium intake and bodyweight. All subjects were women, clustered in three main age groups: 3rd, 5th, and 8th decades. Total sample,size was,780. Four of the studies,were,observational;,two were cross-sectional, in which body mass index was regressed against entry level
K. Michael Davies; Robert P. Heaney; Robert R. Recker; Joan M. Lappe; M. Janet Barger-lux; Karen Rafferty; Sharilyn Hinders
Reduced-calorie diets are difficult to follow because they often require elimination of certain foods, leading to poor compliance and limited success. However, a low-calorie, nutrient-dense diet has the potential to accommodate a daily snack without exceeding energy requirements, even during weight loss. This pilot study evaluated the effects of a reduced-calorie diet including either a daily dark chocolate snack or a non-chocolate snack on anthropometric and body composition measurements. In a randomized clinical trial, 26 overweight and obese (body mass index ?25 to ?43) premenopausal women were assigned to a reduced-calorie diet that included either a daily dark chocolate snack or non-chocolate snack (n=13 per group) for 18 weeks. At baseline and end of study, bodyweight and waist and hip circumferences were measured along with fat mass, lean mass, and body fat percentage by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Energy and macronutrient intakes were estimated from 4-day food records. Within- and between-group changes from baseline were analyzed using paired t tests and independent t tests, respectively. Women in both snack groups reduced estimated daily energy intake (P<0.001). Women in both the dark chocolate snack and non-chocolate snack groups, respectively, experienced decreases (P<0.001) in bodyweight (-5.1 vs -5.1 kg), hip circumference (-5.8 vs -5.4 cm), waist circumference (-5.7 vs -3.5 cm), fat mass (-3.9 vs -3.6 kg), and body fat percentage (-3.4% vs -3.1%), with no change in lean mass. Improvements in anthropometric and body composition measurements among overweight and obese premenopausal women can be achieved with a reduced-calorie diet including either a daily dark chocolate snack or non-chocolate snack. PMID:21802567
Cevoglitazar is a dual agonist for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha and -gamma subtypes. Dual activation of PPARalpha and -gamma is a therapeutic approach in development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic dyslipidemia. In this report, we show that, in addition to improving insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism like other dual PPAR agonists, cevoglitazar also elicits beneficial effects on energy homeostasis in two animal models of obesity. In leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, administration of cevoglitazar at 0.5, 1, or 2 mg/kg for 18 d led to acute and sustained, dose-dependent reduction of food intake and bodyweight. Furthermore, plasma levels of glucose and insulin were normalized after 7 d of cevoglitazar treatment at 0.5 mg/kg. Plasma levels of free fatty acids and triglycerides were dose-dependently reduced. In obese and insulin-resistant cynomolgus monkeys, treatment with cevoglitazar at 50 and 500 mug/kg for 4 wk lowered food intake and bodyweight in a dose-dependent manner. In these animals, cevoglitazar also reduced fasting plasma insulin and, at the highest dose, reduced hemoglobin A1c levels by 0.4%. These preclinical results demonstrate that cevoglitazar holds promise for the treatment of diabetes and obesity-related disorders because of its unique beneficial effect on energy balance in addition to improving glycemic and metabolic control. PMID:20484464
Topai, M. and Macit, M. 2004. Prediction of bodyweight from body measurements in Morkaraman sheep. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 25: 97–100.In this research, linear regression models were used for estimation of bodyweights from various body measurements in Morkaraman sheep. Simple and multiple regression models were fitted with bodyweight (BW) as dependent variable and body length (BL), heart
Newborn brain:bodyweight ratios are generally considered to be constant in man. In autopsy studies many factors influence the measured weight of the brain, and therefore the conclusions based on such observations, including the gestational age of the material, the presence or absence of intrauterine growth retardation, and the cause of death. In this study these influences have been eliminated by careful selection of normally grown fullterm newborns not subject to the factors influencing brain weight. Using double logarithmic plots, brain size in fullterm newborns is found to be related to the 0.64 power of birth weight. There is a negative correlation between relative brain size and increasing fullterm birth size in man. PMID:1258985
Reduced-calorie diets (RCD) are difficult to follow, because they often require elimination of certain foods, leading to poor compliance and limited success. However, a low-calorie nutrient-dense diet has the potential to accommodate a daily snack without exceeding energy requirements, even during weight loss. This pilot study evaluated the effects of a RCD including either a daily dark chocolate snack (DCS) or a non-chocolate snack (NCS) on anthropometric and body composition measurements. In a randomized clinical trial, 26 overweight and obese (body mass index ?25 to ?43 kg/m2) premenopausal women were assigned to a RCD that included either a daily DCS or NCS (n=13/group) for 18 weeks. At baseline and end of study, bodyweight (BW, kg) and waist and hip circumferences (cm) were measured, along with fat mass (FM, kg), lean mass (LM, kg), and body fat percentage (BF%) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Energy and macronutrient intakes were estimated from four-day food records. Within and between group changes from baseline were analyzed using paired t-tests and independent t-tests, respectively. Women in both snack groups reduced estimated daily energy intake (p<0.001). Women in both the DCS and NCS groups, respectively, experienced decreases (p<0.001) in BW (?5.1 vs. ?5.1 kg), hip (?5.8 vs. ?5.4 cm) and waist circumferences (?5.7 vs. ?3.5 cm), FM (?3.9 vs. ?3.6 kg) and BF% (?3.4 vs. ?3.1 %), with no change in LM. Improvements in anthropometric and body composition measurements among overweight and obese premenopausal women can be achieved with a RCD including either a daily DCS or NCS. A reduced-calorie dietary pattern including a daily sweet snack promotes bodyweight reduction and body composition improvements in premenopausal women who are overweight and obese: a pilot study
One child was recruited for a study assessing the effectiveness of a device aimed at reducing excessive television viewing and increasing exercising. The device was comprised of a control box which attaches to the electrical cord of a television set, and two sensors which attached to the wheel and corresponding wheel rim of a stationary bicycle. The child in this
Background: In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight with weather, season, and gender. Methods: Fifty adults (35 wom...
SUMMARY The number of Americans who are overweight or obese has reached epidemic proportions. Elevated weight is associated with health problems and increased medical expenditures. This paper analyzes Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to investigate the role of alcohol consumption in weight gain. Alcohol is not only an addictive substance but also a high-calorie beverage that can interfere with metabolic function and cognitive processes. Because men and women differ in the type and amount of alcohol they consume, in the biological effects they experience as a result of alcohol consumption, and in the consequences they face as a result of obesity, we expect our results to differ by gender. We use first-difference models of body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption (frequency and intensity) to control for time-invariant unobservable factors that may influence changes in both alcohol use and weight status. Increasing frequency and intensity of alcohol use is associated with statistically significant yet quantitatively small weight gain for men but not for women. Moreover, the first-difference results are much smaller in magnitude and sometimes different in sign compared to the benchmark pooled cross-sectional estimates.
FRENCH, MICHAEL T.; NORTON, EDWARD C.; FANG, HAI; MACLEAN, JOHANNA CATHERINE
Body-weight management requires a multi-factorial approach. Recent findings suggest that an elevated protein intake seems to play such a key role in body-weight management, through (i) increased satiety related to increased diet-induced thermogenesis, (ii) its effect on thermogenesis, (iii) body composition, and (iv) decreased energy-efficiency. Supported by these mechanisms a relatively larger weight loss and stronger body-weight maintenance thereafter have
Margriet S. Westerterp-Plantenga; Manuela P. G. M. Lejeune
AIM: To estimate the standard liver weight for assessing adequacies of graft size in live donor liver transplantation and remnant liver in major hepatectomy for cancer. METHODS: In this study, anthropometric data of bodyweight and body height were tested for a correlation with liver weight in 159 live liver donors who underwent donor right hepatectomy including the middle hepatic
See Ching Chan; Chi Leung Liu; Chung Mau; Banny K Lam; Evelyn W Lee; Yik Wong; Sheung Tat Fan; Banny K Lo
Obesity and related metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are associated with a low-grade inflammatory state possibly through changes in gut microbiota composition and the development of higher plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels, i.e. metabolic endotoxemia. Various phytochemical compounds have been investigated as potential tools to regulate these metabolic features. Humulus lupulus L. (hops) contains several classes of compounds with anti-inflammatory potential. Recent evidence suggests that hops-derived compounds positively impact adipocyte metabolism and glucose tolerance in obese and diabetic rodents via undefined mechanisms. In this study, we found that administration of tetrahydro iso-alpha acids (termed META060) to high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese and diabetic mice for 8 weeks reducedbodyweight gain, the development of fat mass, glucose intolerance, and fasted hyperinsulinemia, and normalized insulin sensitivity markers. This was associated with reduced portal plasma LPS levels, gut permeability, and higher intestinal tight junction proteins Zonula occludens-1 and occludin. Moreover, META060 treatment increased the plasma level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 and decreased the plasma level of the pro-inflammatory cytokine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. In conclusion, this research allows us to decipher a novel mechanism contributing to the positive effects of META060 treatment, and supports the need to investigate such compounds in obese and type 2 diabetic patients.
Van Roye, Marie; Delzenne, Nathalie M.; Cani, Patrice D.
BACKGROUND: Given the documented links between body satisfaction, weight-related behaviors, and weight change in adolescents, we sought to examine the prevalence of poor body satisfaction in prepubescent girls and boys and its associations with bodyweight, socioeconomic factors, and rural residence. METHODS: We obtained data from 4254 girls and boys participating in a population-based survey of grade five students in
Recent results from prospective cohort studies have shown that moderate coffee consumption is associated with a reduced risk for diabetes mellitus type II or Alzheimer's disease. Since reactive oxygen species (ROS) are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases, antioxidants in coffee might contribute to this risk reduction. We aimed at elucidating whether a dark roast coffee beverage (CB) rich in N-methylpyridinium ions (NMP: 785??mol/L) and low in chlorogenic acids (CGA: 523??mol/L) has stronger antioxidant effects on human erythrocytes than a CB prepared from a light roast with opposite proportions (CGA: 4538??mol/L; NMP: 56??mol/L). Following a 2-wk wash out period, 500?mL of the respective CB was administered to 30 subjects daily for 4-wk. Blood and spot urine samples were collected at the beginning and at the end of each intervention. Intake of the dark roast CB most effectively improved the antioxidant status of erythrocytes: superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity decreased by 5.8 and 15%, respectively, whereas tocopherol and total glutathione concentrations increased by 41 and 14%, respectively. Furthermore, administration of the NMP-rich CB led to a significant bodyweight reduction in pre-obese subjects, whereas the CGA-rich CB did not. PMID:21809439
Background:Sensory factors are important determinants of appetite and food choices but little is known about the relationship between bodyweight and sensory capabilities.Objective:To investigate the relationship between measured bodyweights, misreporting of bodyweight and sensory capabilities.Design:In a cross-sectional sensory study, bodyweight was assessed by measured and self-reported bodyweight in healthy men (n=130) and women (n=181). Sensory capabilities
U Simchen; C Koebnick; S Hoyer; S Issanchou; H-JF Zunft
Benzylamine is found in Moringa oleifera, a plant used to treat diabetes in traditional medicine. In mammals, benzylamine is metabolized by semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) to benzaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide. This latter product has insulin-mimicking action, and is involved in the effects of benzylamine on human adipocytes: stimulation of glucose transport and inhibition of lipolysis. This study examined whether chronic, oral administration of benzylamine could improve glucose tolerance and the circulating lipid profile without increasing oxidative stress in overweight and pre-diabetic mice. The benzylamine diffusion across the intestine was verified using everted gut sacs. Then, glucose handling and metabolic markers were measured in mice rendered insulin-resistant when fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and receiving or not benzylamine in their drinking water (3600micromol/(kgday)) for 17 weeks. HFD-benzylamine mice showed lower bodyweight gain, fasting blood glucose, total plasma cholesterol and hyperglycaemic response to glucose load when compared to HFD control. In adipocytes, insulin-induced activation of glucose transport and inhibition of lipolysis remained unchanged. In aorta, benzylamine treatment partially restored the nitrite levels that were reduced by HFD. In liver, lipid peroxidation markers were reduced. Resistin and uric acid, surrogate plasma markers of metabolic syndrome, were decreased. In spite of the putative deleterious nature of the hydrogen peroxide generated during amine oxidation, and in agreement with its in vitro insulin-like actions found on adipocytes, the SSAO-substrate benzylamine could be considered as a potential oral agent to treat metabolic syndrome. PMID:20045461
It has long been known that primate species differ greatly in the weight of their testes relative to bodyweight1. Recently it has been suggested that among the three species of Pongidae (the great apes), the disparity in testes weights is associated with their different breeding systems2-4. Male gorillas and orangutans copulate infrequently, and when a female comes into oestrus
A. H. Harcourt; P. H. Harvey; S. G. Larson; R. V. Short
Body dissatisfaction and body image disturbances are prevelant in college age females and can contribute to reduced health and wellness. Therefore, it is important to understand factors that may be associated these body image-related concerns. This study compared the body satisfaction of body-imaged-disturbed college women involved in weight training to those not involved. Body satisfaction of body-image-disturbed undergraduate females (Mage
The number of Americans who are overweight or obese has reached epidemic proportions. Elevated weight is associated with health problems and increased medical expenditures. This paper analyzes Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions to investigate the role of alcohol consumption in weight gain. Alcohol is not only an addictive substance but also
Michael T. French; Edward C. Norton; Hai Fang; Johanna Catherine Maclean
In order to predict the bodyweight of grass cutters from linear body measurements, the weights and measurements of 50 intensively managed female grass cutters aged 5 months were fitted into linear, quadratic and cubic regression models. Highly significant (p < 0.01) R (2) values ranging from 74 to 98% were obtained indicating that all body measurements were good predictors of bodyweight. Although quadratic and cubic models gave slightly higher R (2) values than linear models, it is recommended that farmers should use a simple linear equation based on tail length or heart girth to predict the bodyweight of their grass cutters. The recommended equations are (weight in kg) = 0.47 + 0.08 (tail length in cm) and (weight in kg) = 0.32 + 0.07 (heart girth in cm). PMID:23378175
A novel mechatronic bodyweight support (BWS) system has been developed to provide precise bodyweight unloading for patients with neurological or other impairments during treadmill training. The system is composed of a passive elastic spring element to take over the main unloading force and an active closed-loop controlled electric drive to generate the exact desired force. Both force generating
Martin Frey; Gery Colombo; Martino Vaglio; Rainer Bucher; Matthias Jörg; Robert Riener
Objectives: To compare the effects of free access to reduced fat products or their full fat equivalents on fat and energy intake, bodyweight, plasma lipids and fat-soluble antioxidants concentrations and haemostasis variables.Design: A multicentre open randomised controlled trial in which intervention and control groups were followed in parallel for six months. Volunteers had free access to 44 different foods
J. A. Weststrate; KH van het Hof; H van den Berg; EJM Velthuis-te-Wierik; C de Graaf; NJH Zimmermanns; K. R. Westerterp; Westerterp-Plantenga; WPHG Verboeket-van de Venne
Background: Diacylglycerol is a natural component of edible oils that has metabolic characteristics that are distinct from those of triacylglycerol. Objective: We assessed the efficacy of an oil containing mainly 1,3-diacylglycerol in reducingbodyweight and fat mass when incorporated into a reduced-energy diet. Design: The study was a randomized, double-blind, parallel inter- vention trial that was conducted at an
Kevin C Maki; Michael H Davidson; Rikio Tsushima; Noboru Matsuo; Ichiro Tokimitsu; Denise M Umporowicz; Mary R Dicklin; Gregory S Foster; Kate A Ingram; Barbara D Anderson; Scott D Frost; Marjorie Bell
We studied 31 nondiabetic, habitually ([ge ]5 years) morbidly obese subjects (mean [plusmn] SD body mass index [BMI] 43 [plusmn] 8.7, median 43). Our specific aim was to determine whether metformin (2.55 g\\/d for 28 weeks) would ameliorate morbid obesity and reduce centripetal obesity; lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol, insulin, and leptin levels; and plasminogen activator inhibitor activity (PAI-Fx), risk factors
C. J. Glueck; R. N. Fontaine; Ping Wang; M. T. R. Subbiah; K. Weber; E. Illig; P. Streicher; Luann Sieve-Smith; T. M. Tracy; J. E. Lang; P. McCullough
Being able to exploit features of the human face to predict health and fitness can serve as an evolutionary advantage. Surface features such as facial symmetry, averageness, and skin colour are known to influence attractiveness. We sought to determine whether observers are able to extract more complex features, namely bodyweight. If possible, it could be used as a predictor for health and fitness. For instance, facial adiposity could be taken to indicate a cardiovascular challenge or proneness to infections. Observers seem to be able to glean bodyweight information from frontal views of a face. Is weight estimation robust across different viewing angles? We showed that participants strongly overestimated bodyweight for faces photographed from a lower vantage point while underestimating it for faces photographed from a higher vantage point. The perspective distortions of simple facial measures (e.g., width-to-height ratio) that accompany changes in vantage point do not suffice to predict bodyweight. Instead, more complex patterns must be involved in the height-weight illusion. PMID:22611670
Schneider, Tobias M; Hecht, Heiko; Carbon, Claus-Christian
The role of dietary carbohydrates in weight loss has received considerable attention in light of the current obesity epidemic. The authors investigated the association of body mass index (weight (kg)\\/height (m)(2)) with dietary intake of carbohydrates and with measures of the induced glycemic response, using data from an observational study of 572 healthy adults in central Massachusetts. Anthropometric measurements, 7-day
Yunsheng Ma; Barbara C. Olendzki; David E. Chiriboga; James R. Hebert; Youfu Li; Wenjun Li; MaryJane Campbell; Katherine Gendreau; Ira S. Ockene
It can be regarded as a general phenomenon in the animal kingdom that small animals exhibit a higher standard metabolic rate than related animals of greater bodyweight (Zeuthen, 1949). Rubner (1883) considered the homeotherm as a body at constant elevated temperature, losing heat from the exterior, and conse quently exhibiting a basal metabolic rate directly proportional to the external
This paper attempts to answer five questions. (1) How should we best measure overweight? Although life insurance tables and relative weights have been used, I propose that body mass index (BMI; wt\\/ht2) is the preferred method. It is currently used in most epidemiologic studies and can be used in clinical evaluation of individual patients. (2) What is a healthy body
Objective: Examine the relationship between the internal organ weight with bodyweight and body length. Material and Method: Analysis of data from 250 autopsies from the Ramathibodi Hospital from August 2003 to February 2005. The cases were from sudden unnatural death including accident, homicide and suicide and excluded decomposed bodies, fire related deaths and cases where medical treatment had been
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a component of polycarbonate and other plastics including resins that line food and beverage containers. BPA is known to leach from products in contact with food and drink, and is therefore thought to be routinely ingested. In a recent cross sectional study, BPA was detected in urine samples from 92.6% of the US population examined. The potential for BPA to influence bodyweight is suggested by in vitro studies demonstrating effects of BPA on adipocyte differentiation, lipid accumulation, glucose transport and adiponectin secretion. Data from in vivo studies have revealed dose-dependent and sex dependent effects on bodyweight in rodents exposed perinatally to BPA. The mechanisms through which perinatal BPA exposure acts to exert persistent effects on bodyweight and adiposity remain to be determined. Possible targets of BPA action are discussed.
Obesity is a global disease with epidemic proportions. Bariatric surgery or modified lifestyles go a long way in mitigating the vast weight gain. Patients following these interventions usually undergo massive weight loss. This results in redundant tissues in various parts of the body. Loose skin causes increased morbidity and psychological trauma. This demands various body contouring procedures that are usually excisional. These procedures are complex and part of a painstaking process that needs a committed patient and an industrious plastic surgeon. As complications in these patients can be quite frequent, both the patient and the surgeon need to be aware and willing to deal with them.
Langer, Vijay; Singh, Amitabh; Aly, Al S.; Cram, Albert E.
Purpose: To explore how adolescents who try to lose weight differ from those who do not in relation to body image, food intake, knowledge about food, and sources of information about food, nutrition, and weight loss. Methods: Data were collected from 12-15-year-old school students in North Queensland, Australia by ques- tionnaire. Results: Boys who attempted weight loss reduced sweet foods
The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been linked to rising rates of obesity in the United States. The standard explanation is that energy-containing liquids are less satiating than are solid foods. However, purely physiologic mechanisms do not fully account for the proposed links between liquid sugar energy and bodyweight change. First, a reevaluation of published epidemiologic studies of consumption of sweetened beverages and overweight shows that most such studies either are cross-sectional or are based on passive surveillance of temporal trends and thus permit no conclusions about causal links. Second, research evidence comparing the short-term satiating power of different types of liquids and of solids remains inconclusive. Numerous clinical studies have shown that sugar-containing liquids, when consumed in place of usual meals, can lead to a significant and sustained weight loss. The principal ingredient of liquid meal replacement shakes is sugar, often high-fructose corn syrup, which is present in amounts comparable to those in soft drinks. Far from suppressing satiety, one such liquid shake is marketed on the grounds that it helps control hunger and prevents hunger longer when consumed for the purpose of weight loss. These inconsistencies raise the question whether the issue of sugars and bodyweight should continue to be framed purely in metabolic or physiologic terms. The effect of sugar consumption on bodyweight can also depend on behavioral intent, context, and the mode of use, availability, and cost of sweetened liquids. PMID:17344485
The literature is reviewed for evidence concerning the relation between caloric intake, bodyweight, and cancer. Convincing experimental data regarding caloric intake and benign and malignant tumor incidence have been available since the 1940s and demonstrate that caloric restriction significantly reduces tumor incidence for a variety of tumor types in several animal models. Some epidemiological investigations provide evidence for a
LENNIE, T. A. Relationship of body energy status to inflammation-induced anorexia and weight loss. PHYSIOL BEHAV 64(4) 475–481, 1998.—The response to acute inflammation of rats at two levels of prior weight reduction were compared with normal-weight rats to examine how prior alterations in body energy status influence inflammation-induced anorexia and weight loss. Specifically, bodyweights were either reduced by 6%,
Background: The role of glycemic index (GI) in appetite and body- weight regulation is still not clear. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the long- term effects of a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet with either low glycemic index (LGI) or high glycemic index (HGI) on ad libitum energy intake, bodyweight, and composition, as well as on risk
Birgitte Sloth; Inger Krog-Mikkelsen; Anne Flint; Inge Tetens; Inger Björck; Sophie Vinoy; Helena Elmståhl; Arne Astrup; Vincent Lang; Anne Raben
Obesity is associated with complications during pregnancy and increased health risks in the newborn. The objective of the present study was to establish possible relationships between gut microbiota, bodyweight, weight gain and biochemical parameters in pregnant women. Fifty pregnant women were classified according to their BMI in normal-weight (n 34) and overweight (n 16) groups. Gut microbiota composition was analysed by quantitative real-time PCR in faeces and biochemical parameters in plasma at 24 weeks of pregnancy. Reduced numbers of Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides and increased numbers of Staphylococcus, Enterobacteriaceae and Escherichia coli were detected in overweight compared with normal-weight pregnant women. E. coli numbers were higher in women with excessive weight gain than in women with normal weight gain during pregnancy, while Bifidobacterium and Akkermansia muciniphila showed an opposite trend. In the whole population, increased total bacteria and Staphylococcus numbers were related to increased plasma cholesterol levels. Increased Bacteroides numbers were related to increased HDL-cholesterol and folic acid levels, and reduced TAG levels. Increased Bifidobacterium numbers were related to increased folic acid levels. Increased Enterobacteriaceae and E. coli numbers were related to increased ferritin and reduced transferrin, while Bifidobacterium levels showed the opposite trend. Therefore, gut microbiota composition is related to bodyweight, weight gain and metabolic biomarkers during pregnancy, which might be of relevance to the management of the health of women and infants. PMID:20205964
Santacruz, A; Collado, M C; García-Valdés, L; Segura, M T; Martín-Lagos, J A; Anjos, T; Martí-Romero, M; Lopez, R M; Florido, J; Campoy, C; Sanz, Y
Background and purpose Thrombolysis of acute ischaemic stroke is based strictly on bodyweight to ensure efficacy and to prevent bleeding complications. Many candidate stroke patients are unable to communicate their bodyweight, and there is often neither the means nor the time to weigh the patient. Instead, weight is estimated visually by the attending physician, but this is known to be inaccurate. Methods Based on a large general population sample of nearly 7000 subjects, we constructed approximation formulae for estimating bodyweight from simple anthropometric measurements (body height, and waist and hip circumference). These formulae were validated in a sample of 178 consecutive inpatients admitted to our stroke unit, and their accuracy was compared with the best visual estimation of two experienced physicians. Results The simplest formula gave the most accurate approximation (mean absolute difference 3.1 (2.6)?kg), which was considerably better than the best visual estimation (physician 1: 6.5 (5.2)?kg; physician 2: 7.4 (5.7)?kg). It reduced the proportion of weight approximations mismatched by >10% from 31.5% and 40.4% (physicians 1 and 2, respectively) to 6.2% (anthropometric approximation). Only the patient's own estimation was more accurate (mean absolute difference 2.7 (2.4)?kg). Conclusions By using an approximation formula based on simple anthropometric measurements (body height, and waist and hip circumference), it is possible to obtain a quick and accurate approximation of bodyweight. In situations where the exact weight of unresponsive patients cannot be ascertained quickly, we recommend using this approximation method rather than visual estimation.
Lorenz, M W; Graf, M; Henke, C; Hermans, M; Ziemann, U; Sitzer, M; Foerch, C
This study examined the combined effect of objective and subjective bodyweight, as well as gender, on illness-related absenteeism.\\u000a A sample of 162 Hong Kong white-collar employees was surveyed. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we were able to confirm\\u000a our hypotheses, derived from the objectified body consciousness (OBC) theory, that the positive relationship between objective\\u000a bodyweight and illness-related absenteeism is
Objective To compare reports of weight loss and actual measures of body composition to predict nutritional risk in patients with Parkinson's disease and matched control subjects.Design Patients and control subjects were asked to record prior changes in weight and activity. Body composition was then compared in both groups using percentage ideal bodyweight (IBW), body mass index (BMI), triceps skinfold
PETER L BEYER; MARY Y PALARINO; DEBRA MICHALEK; KAREN BUSENBARK; WILLIAM C KOLLER
Relationships between bodyweight, wither height, and various other body traits, including heart girth, body length, and hip width, were studied using data from six experiments with 2625 observa- tions. Bodyweight and wither height were regressed on the other body traits. Regressions of bodyweight including the linear, quadratic, and cubic effects of a single independent variable (heart girth,
Background/Objectives:We intended to (i) to compare the composition of weight loss and weight gain using densitometry, deuterium dilution (D?O), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the four-compartment (4C) model and (ii) to compare regional changes in fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM) and skeletal muscle as assessed by DXA and MRI.Subjects/Methods:Eighty-three study participants aged between 21 and 58 years with a body mass index range of 20.2-46.8 kg/m(2) had been assessed at two different occasions with a mean follow-up between 23.5 and 43.5 months. Body-weight changes within < 3% were considered as weight stable, a gain or a loss of >3% of initial weight was considered as a significant weight change.Results:There was a considerable bias between the body-composition data obtained by the individual methods. When compared with the 4C model, mean bias of D?O and densitometry was explained by the erroneous assumption of a constant hydration of FFM, thus, changes in FM were underestimated by D?O but overestimated by densitometry. Because hydration does not normalize after weight loss, all two-component models have a systematic error in weight-reduced subjects. The bias between 4C model and DXA was mainly explained by FM% at baseline, whereas FFM hydration contributed to additional 5%. As to the regional changes in body composition, DXA data had a considerable bias and, thus, cannot replace MRI.Conclusions:To assess changes in body composition associated with weight changes, only the 4C model and MRI can be used with confidence. PMID:23422922
Pourhassan, M; Schautz, B; Braun, W; Gluer, C-C; Bosy-Westphal, A; Müller, M J
Purpose: To model the EC-L portal film cassette to understand how its weight could be reduced without compromising image quality.Methods and Materials: The BEAM99 Monte Carlo code was used to simulate a 6-MV X-ray beam impinging on a water phantom 15 or 40 cm thick and subsequently reaching image receptors of different designs. The image receptor model included the front
LEARNING OUTCOME: To determine if percent body fat, energy intake and expenditure, and bodyweight dissatisfaction differ between age-, height-, and weight-matched female child gymnasts and controls.Among female college gymnasts, a significant number report dissatisfaction with current bodyweight. It is unclear, however, if female child gymnasts (GYM) differ from appropriately matched nongymnasts or controls (CON) on bodyweight dissatisfaction.
S. M. Nickols-Richardson; R. D. Lewis; P. J. O’Connor; A. M. Boyd
Objectives. To prospectively examine the relationship between bodyweight, frailty, and the disablement process. Method. Longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (1998–2006) were used to examine the relationship between being underweight, overweight, or obese (compared with normal weight) and the onset and progression of functional limitations and disabilities in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and activities of daily living (ADL) among a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling older adults (aged 50 and older) with characteristics of frailty (n = 11,491). Nonlinear multilevel models additionally adjusted for demographic characteristics and intra-individual changes in bodyweight, socioeconomic status, health behaviors, and health conditions over the course of 8 years. Results. Compared with their nonfrail normal weight counterparts, prefrail obese respondents have a 16% (p ? 0.001) reduction in the expected functional limitations rate and frail overweight and obese respondents have a 10% (p ? 0.01) and 36% (p ? 0.001) reduction in the expected functional limitations rate, respectively. In addition, frail obese respondents have a 27% (p ? 0.05) reduction in the expected ADL disability rate. Discussion. This study’s findings suggest that underweight, overweight, and obese status differentially affect the risk for functional limitations and disabilities in IADL and ADL. Among prefrail and frail adults, some excess bodyweight in later life may be beneficial, reducing the rate of functional limitations and disability.
The increasing prevalence of obesity and its comorbidities represents a major threat to human health globally. Pharmacological treatments exist to achieve weight loss, but the subsequent weight maintenance is prone to fail in the long run. Accordingly, efficient new strategies to persistently control bodyweight need to be elaborated. Exercise and dietary interventions constitute classical approaches to reduce and maintain bodyweight, yet people suffering from metabolic diseases are often unwilling or unable to move adequately. The administration of drugs that partially mimic exercise adaptation might circumvent this problem by easing and supporting physical activity. The thermogenic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1? (PGC-1?) largely mediates the adaptive response of skeletal muscle to endurance exercise and is a potential target for such interventions. Here, we review the role of PGC-1? in mediating exercise adaptation, coordinating metabolic circuits and enhancing thermogenic capacity in skeletal muscle. We suggest a combination of elevated muscle PGC-1? and exercise as a modified approach for the efficient long-term control of bodyweight and the treatment of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:22290535
BACKGROUND: While the benefits of vigorous exercise on bodyweight and regional adiposity are well established, whether these benefits affect equally the highest and lowest portions of the weight distribution have not been previously reported. The impact of exercise on the more extreme bodyweights and body circumferences is clinically important because these values represent individuals at greatest health risk.Method:
Data on empty body chemical composition of 18 breeds or breed crosses of non-lactating, non-pregnant mature cows, were used to estimate a standard reference empty bodyweight (SREBW) for each breed. The SREBW was defined as the empty bodyweight at skeletal maturity that contained 25% fat. Relationship between empty body fat percentage (EBFP) and empty bodyweight as a
The present study examined the psychological and weight-related correlates of body checking and avoidance behaviors in individuals who have lost weight through obesity treatment. Among 185 individuals in behavioral weight-control treatment, the prevalence of body checking and avoidance behavior was assessed, as well as the relationship of checking and avoidance to attitudinal disturbances, weight loss, and perception of struggling in
Aging in men is associated with a decline in trophic factors such as testosterone (T), alterations in body composition and impaired energy and bodyweight regulation. We performed studies to investigate the mechanisms underlying age-related changes in the neuroendocrine control of testis function, body composition, food intake and bodyweight in the Brown Norway (BN) rat. We found that similar
A. M Matsumoto; B. T Marck; D. A Gruenewald; T Wolden-Hanson; M. A Naai
Soft drink consumption has been hypothesized as one of the major factors in the growing rates of obesity in the US. Nearly two-thirds of all states currently tax soft drinks using excise taxes, sales taxes, or special exemptions to food exemptions from sales taxes to reduce consumption of this product, raise revenue, and improve public health. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of changes in state soft drink taxes on body mass index (BMI), obesity, and overweight. Our results suggest that soft drink taxes influence BMI, but that the impact is small in magnitude.
Background Childhood obesity is a continuing problem in the UK and South Asian children represent a group that are particularly vulnerable to its health consequences. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and obesity is well documented in older children and adults, but is less clear in young children, particularly South Asians. A better understanding of this relationship in young South Asian children will inform the design and delivery of obesity intervention programmes. The aim of this study is to describe body image size perception and dissatisfaction, and their relationship to weight status in primary school aged UK South Asian children. Methods Objective measures of height and weight were undertaken on 574 predominantly South Asian children aged 5-7 (296 boys and 278 girls). BMI z-scores, and weight status (underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese) were calculated based on the UK 1990 BMI reference charts. Figure rating scales were used to assess perceived body image size (asking children to identify their perceived body size) and dissatisfaction (difference between perceived current and ideal body size). The relationship between these and weight status were examined using multivariate analyses. Results Perceived body image size was positively associated with weight status (partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 0.63 (95% CI 0.26-0.99) and for BMI z-score was 0.21 (95% CI 0.10-0.31), adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity). Body dissatisfaction was also associated with weight status, with overweight and obese children more likely to select thinner ideal body size than healthy weight children (adjusted partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 1.47 (95% CI 0.99-1.96) and for BMI z-score was 0.54 (95% CI 0.40-0.67)). Conclusions Awareness of body image size and increasing body dissatisfaction with higher weight status is established at a young age in this population. This needs to be considered when designing interventions to reduce obesity in young children, in terms of both benefits and harms.
Auricular acupressure is widely used in complementary and alternative medicine to reducebodyweight, but little is known about the effects of auricular acupressure on bodyweight parameters in patients with chronic schizophrenia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of auricular acupressure on bodyweight parameters in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Eighty-six inpatients with schizophrenia were recruited from chronic wards in a psychiatric center. The participants were randomly divided into experimental (acupressure at 4 acupuncture sites: hunger, stomach, shenmen and endocrine) and control groups, and bodyweight parameters were determined weekly for 8 weeks. There was no significant difference between the experimental and control groups in mean bodyweight, waist circumference, or body fat percentage at the pretest or during the entire 8-week study period. Therefore, auricular acupressure did not cause bodyweight reduction in patients with chronic schizophrenia. PMID:22997527
|Objective: The authors assessed associations between bodyweight perception and weight loss strategies. Participants: They randomly selected male and female college students (N = 38,204). Methods: The authors conducted a secondary data analysis of the rates of weight loss strategies and bodyweight perception among students who completed the…
Wharton, Christopher M.; Adams, Troy; Hampl, Jeffrey S.
This study describes women's perceptions of the supports and barriers to maintaining a healthy weight among currently healthy weight women from urban and rural socio-economically disadvantaged areas. Using focus groups and interviews, we asked women about their experiences of maintaining a healthy weight. Overwhelmingly, women described their healthy weight practices in terms of concepts related to work and management. The
Increased calcium intake may reducebodyweight and fat in non-growing individuals. This study explored the long-term effects of high versus low calcium intake on bodyweight, body fat, BMC, BMD and bone size in growing male and female rats. Ninety male and 90 female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned either to a high calcium (1%) or low calcium (0.25%)
Body composition and live animal measurements of Holstein–Friesian lactating dairy cows (n=146) were obtained from a large herd to represent a range of animal factors including parity, live weight (LW), body condition score (BCS), milk yield and stage of lactation. Live animal measurements were recorded 3 or 4 days prior to slaughter, including LW, BCS, milk yield, heart girth, belly girth,
Diffusion-weighted sequence (DWI) of the entire body is a new promising technique feasible to evaluate multifocal disease. DWI has revealed great potential in the evaluation of patients with cancer or benign disease, as it supplies both quantitative and qualitative information of the whole body. The technical aspects of the diffusion-weighted whole body (DWWB) MR sequence are described with special emphasis
The purpose of this study was to compare the bodyweight concerns and dieting practices of female collegiate athletes participating in aesthetic, endurance, and team\\/anaerobic sports. Participants consisted of 425 female athletes from 7 universities across the United States. Bodyweight concerns and dieting practices were assessed by the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), the Eating Disorder Inventory Body Dissatisfaction Subscale
Body measurements, milk production, and bodyweight data were collected on 1898 lactations of 771 Holstein dairy cows from 1968 to 1986. Bodyweight and the body measurements of heart girth, paunch girth, wither height, chest depth, pelvic length, pelvic width, and body length were used. Milk production variables were milk yield, fat yield, 4% FCM, fat percentage, and SNF
A growing body of evidence suggests that energy balance (the difference between energy intake and expenditure) and body fuel stores in the form of adipose tissue are maintained by the body within a narrow range. This regulation of adiposity is mediated by the secretion of hormonal signals into the circulation in proportion to body adipose stores and their subsequent actions
Obesity and its associated metabolic disorders are growing health concerns in the US and worldwide. In the US alone, more than two-thirds of the adult population is classified as either overweight or obese , highlighting the need to develop new, effective treatments for these conditions. Whereas the hormone oxytocin is well known for its peripheral effects on uterine contraction during parturition and milk ejection during lactation, release of oxytocin from somatodendrites and axonal terminals within the central nervous system (CNS) is implicated in both the formation of prosocial behaviors and in the control of energy balance. Recent findings demonstrate that chronic administration of oxytocin reduces food intake and bodyweight in diet-induced obese (DIO) and genetically obese rodents with impaired or defective leptin signaling. Importantly, chronic systemic administration of oxytocin out to 6 weeks recapitulates the effects of central administration on bodyweight loss in DIO rodents at doses that do not result in the development of tolerance. Furthermore, these effects are coupled with induction of Fos (a marker of neuronal activation) in hindbrain areas (e.g. dorsal vagal complex (DVC)) linked to the control of meal size and forebrain areas (e.g. hypothalamus, amygdala) linked to the regulation of food intake and bodyweight. This review assesses the potential central and peripheral targets by which oxytocin may inhibit bodyweight gain, its regulation by anorexigenic and orexigenic signals, and its potential use as a therapy that can circumvent leptin resistance and reverse the behavioral and metabolic abnormalities associated with DIO and genetically obese models. PMID:24065622
The global prevalence of obesity has increased considerably in the last decade. Tools for obesity management including caffeine, and green tea have been proposed as strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance. These ingredients may increase energy expenditure and have been proposed to counteract the decrease in metabolic rate that is present during weight loss. Positive effects on body-weight management
the macronutrient flux balances and all previous models are special cases of this model. We show that the generic dynamical behavior of body composition for a clamped diet can be divided into two classes. In the first class, the body composition and mass are determined uniquely. In the second class, the body composition can exist at an infinite number of
|Examined relationships among adolescent girls' (N=203) satisfaction with bodyweight, body image, and perception/use of fad diets. Subjects wanting to lose weight were placed into two groups based on amount of weight-loss desired and compared in terms of body image scores, ratings of fad diets, and frequency of using the diets. (JN)|
Given the rising prevalence of overweight and sociocultural portrayal of increasingly thin female body ideals and muscular\\/lean\\u000a male body ideals, we examined trends in bodyweight evaluation using two cross-sectional surveys of US undergraduates in 1990\\u000a (n?=?794) and 2005 (n?=?794). Trends in bodyweight evaluation variables were examined and compared to respondents’ current body mass index. Results\\u000a suggest men are
Lori Neighbors; Jeffery Sobal; Claudia Liff; Dana Amiraian
Body, liver, heart and spleen weights were measured in 3 different breeds and 2 breed crosses over an age range of 0–8 weeks. Correlation coefficients, linear regression equations, standard deviations of observations around regression lines, and the standard errors of the slopes were calculated to study the effects of age, breed, and bodyweight on organ weight. The principal findings
|Objective: To determine if inaccurate bodyweight perception predicts unhealthy weight management strategies and to determine the extent to which inaccurate bodyweight perception is associated with depressive symptoms among US college students. Participants: Randomly selected male and female college students in the United States (N = 97,357).…
Harring, Holly Anne; Montgomery, Kara; Hardin, James
Objective: To determine if inaccurate bodyweight perception predicts unhealthy weight management strategies and to determine the extent to which inaccurate bodyweight perception is associated with depressive symptoms among US college students. Participants: Randomly selected male and female college students in the United States (N = 97,357). Methods: Data were from the 2006 National College Health Assessment. Analyses were
Objectives: The study explored associations between bodyweight, psychiatric disorders and body image in a nonclinical sample of female adolescents. It was also investigated whether complaints of negative body image could be an indicator of psychiatric morbidity. Methods: A sample of 136 Swiss female high school students, 15–20 years of age, initially had weight, height and body image (FBeK questionnaire)
Barbara Buddeberg-Fischer; Richard Klaghofer; Victoria Reed
Several studies have found that, all else equal, heavier women earn less. Previous research has been unable to determine whether high weight is the cause of low wages, the result of low wages, or whether unobserved factors cause both higher weight and lower wages. Applying the method of instrumental variables to data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this
BACKGROUND: Aging leads to increases in gait variability which may explain the large incidence of falls in the elderly. Bodyweight support training may be utilized to improve gait in the elderly and minimize falls. However, before initiating rehabilitation protocols, baseline studies are needed to identify the effect of bodyweight support on elderly gait variability. Our purpose was to
Anastasia Kyvelidou; Max J Kurz; Julie L Ehlers; Nicholas Stergiou
Thirty-nine adult Indian elephants (Elephas maximus indicus) of both sexes and various ages and weights, belonging to the Forest Department of the Government of Kerala (India), Temple Devaswoms, Gemini Circus and other private agencies, were used to derive formulae to predict bodyweight and height from body measurements. Several models were fitted separately for males and females and also for
Objective. This study was undertaken to identify predictors of bodyweight change in nursing home patients with possible to severe dementia. Methods. For 24 weeks, 108 elderly residents of a nursing home were followed. Bodyweight was measured every 2 weeks. Other anthropometric characteristics, dietary intake, food behavior restrictions, psychological characteristics, medical status, and use of medicines were measured at
Kim T. B. Knoops; Erika Slump; Groot de C. P. G. M; W. Wouters-Wesseling; M. L. Brouwer; Staveren van W. A
... might be signs that you're overdoing it. Set realistic weight-loss goals Most women lose more ... 11 Postpartum recovery: Week 12 Sex after pregnancy: Set your own timeline Exercise after pregnancy: How to ...
The global obesity epidemic has heightened the debate about dietary factors contributing to weight gain. Media stories have\\u000a promulgated the notion that obesity has increased despite reductions in dietary fat intake. Some have even speculated that\\u000a lower dietary fat levels may be driving the rapid rise in weight gain within the population. A close examination of the science\\u000a reveals a
Undergraduate women (N = 143) completed self-reports on exercise behavior, body orientation, body appreciation, and body-related talk. Results showed that conversations about weight loss/dieting and conversations about exercise differentially predicted body appreciation. Importantly, multiple regression analyses showed that the relationship between talk type and body appreciation was explained by the object-process dichotomy: Conversations about exercise oriented women to consider what their bodies can do which, in turn, predicted appreciation of one's body. In contrast, the relationship between conversations about weight loss/dieting and body appreciation was mediated by negative attitudes about one's body but not by an object orientation. PMID:23682060
Eucommia ulmoides Oliver leaf extracts (ELE) have been shown to exert a hypolipidemic effect in hamsters. Therefore, it was hypothesized that ELE might affect lipid metabolism via changes in autonomic nerve activities and causes changes in thermogenesis and bodyweight. We examined this hypothesis, and found that intraduodenal (ID) injection of ELE elevated epididymal white adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (WAT-SNA) and interscapular brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (BAT-SNA) in urethane-anesthetized rats and elevated the plasma concentration of free fatty acids (FFA) (a marker of lipolysis) and body temperature (BT) (a marker of thermogenesis) in conscious rats. Furthermore, it was observed that ID administration of ELE decreased gastric vagal nerve activity (GVNA) in urethane-anesthetized rats, and that ELE given as food reduced food intake, body and abdominal adipose tissue weights and decreased plasma triglyceride level. These findings suggest that ELE stimulates lipolysis and thermogenesis through elevations in WAT-SNA and BAT-SNA, respectively, suppresses appetite by inhibiting the activities of the parasympathetic nerves innervating the gastrointestinal tract, including GVNA, and decreases the amount of abdominal fat and bodyweight via these changes. PMID:20580657
The majority of women gain more weight during pregnancy than what is recommended. Since gestational weight gain is related\\u000a to short and long-term maternal health outcomes, it is important to identify women at greater risk of not adhering to guidelines.\\u000a The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between body image and gestational weight gain. The Body Image
Ushma J. Mehta; Anna Maria Siega-Riz; Amy H. Herring
Despite dramatic variations in day to day intake and energy expenditure, weight remains relatively stable in most animals and humans. There are clear physiological responses to over and underfeeding suggesting that the body strives to maintain a constant weight. Despite this, for most humans and experimental animals, there is a tendency for weight to increase slowly over the lifespan. Recent
Body mass index (BMI) and body type of female and male adolescent ballet dancers (n = 90) and school students (n = 156) were determined. Participants were asked for the bodyweight she or he would prefer, and ballet students were administered the Eating Attitudes Test-40 (EAT-40). Results between age groups and with reference values were compared. Both in dancers
Norman Bettle; Oliver Bettle; Ursula Neumärker; Klaus-Jürgen Neumärker
Nuts (ground and tree) are rich sources of multiple nutrients and their consumption is associated with health benefits, including reduced cardiovascular disease risk. This has prompted recommendations to increase their consumption. However, they are also high in fat (albeit largely unsaturated) and are energy dense. The associations between these properties, positive energy balance, and bodyweight raise questions about such recommendations. This issue is addressed through a review of the literature pertaining to the association between nut consumption and energy balance. Epidemiological studies document an inverse association between the frequency of nut consumption and BMI. Clinical trials reveal little or no weight change with inclusion of various types of nuts in the diet over 1-6 mo. Mechanistic studies indicate this is largely attributable to the high satiety property of nuts, leading to compensatory responses that account for 65-75% of the energy they provide. Limited data suggest chronic consumption is associated with elevated resting energy expenditure resulting in dissipation of another portion of the energy they provide. Additionally, due to poor bioaccessibility, there is limited efficiency of energy absorption from nuts. Collectively, these mechanisms offset much of the energy provided by nuts. The few trials contrasting weight loss through regimens that include or exclude nuts indicate improved compliance and greater weight loss when nuts are permitted. This consistent literature suggests nuts may be included in the diet, in moderation, to enhance palatability and nutrient quality without posing a threat for weight gain. PMID:18716179
Mattes, Richard D; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Foster, Gary D
Background Numerous natural products are marketed and sold claiming to decrease bodyweight and fat, but few undergo finished product-specific research demonstrating their safety and efficacy. Objective To determine the safety and efficacy of a multi-ingredient supplement containing primarily raspberry ketone, caffeine, capsaicin, garlic, ginger and Citrus aurantium (Prograde Metabolism™ [METABO]) as an adjunct to an eight-week weight loss program. Methods Using a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind design, 70 obese but otherwise healthy subjects were randomly assigned to METABO or a placebo and underwent 8?weeks of daily supplementation, a calorie restricted diet, and exercise training. Subjects were tested for changes in body composition, serum adipocytokines (adiponectin, resistin, leptin, TNF-?, IL-6) and markers of health including heart rate and blood pressure. Results Of the 45 subjects who completed the study, significant differences were observed in: bodyweight (METABO -2.0% vs. placebo -0.5%, P?0.01), fat mass (METABO -7.8 vs. placebo -2.8%, P?0.001), lean mass (METABO +3.4% vs. placebo +0.8%, P?0.03), waist girth (METABO -2.0% vs. placebo -0.2%, P?0.0007), hip girth (METABO -1.7% vs. placebo -0.4%, P?0.003), and energy levels per anchored visual analogue scale (VAS) (METABO +29.3% vs. placebo +5.1%, P?0.04). During the first 4?weeks, effects/trends for maintaining elevated serum leptin (P?0.03) and decreased serum resistin (P?0.08) in the METABO group vs. placebo were also observed. No changes in systemic hemodynamics, clinical blood chemistries, adverse events, or dietary intake were noted between groups. Conclusions METABO administration is a safe and effective adjunct to an eight-week diet and exercise weight loss program by augmenting improvements in body composition, waist and hip girth. Adherence to the eight-week weight loss program also led to beneficial changes in body fat in placebo. Ongoing studies to confirm these results and clarify the mechanisms (i.e., biochemical and neuroendocrine mediators) by which METABO exerts the observed salutary effects are being conducted.
LEARNING OUTCOME: To investigate relationships between body image score and 1) bodyweight; 2) % body fat; 3) body mass index (BMI); and 4) waist-to-hip (WHR) in older women.Relationships between bodyweight, percent body fat, BMI and WHR were described among 73 healthy, elderly women (69.54±0.82 years) who were sedentary (n=26) or engaged in moderate exercise (n=47). Data collection included
M. C. Mitchell; C. J. Alish; D. L. Habash; K. Ward
Background A recent in vitro study indicates that IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the traditional West African food plant Irvingia gabonensis, favorably impacts adipogenesis through a variety of critical metabolic pathways including PPAR gamma, leptin, adiponectin, and glycerol-3 phosphate dehydrogenase. This study was therefore aimed at evaluating the effects of IGOB131, an extract of Irvingia gabonensis, on bodyweight and associated metabolic parameters in overweight human volunteers. Methods The study participants comprised of 102 healthy, overweight and/or obese volunteers (defined as BMI > 25 kg/m2) randomly divided into two groups. The groups received on a daily basis, either 150 mg of IGOB131 or matching placebo in a double blinded fashion, 30–60 minutes before lunch and dinner. At baseline, 4, 8 and 10 weeks of the study, subjects were evaluated for changes in anthropometrics and metabolic parameters to include fasting lipids, blood glucose, C-reactive protein, adiponectin, and leptin. Results Significant improvements in bodyweight, body fat, and waist circumference as well as plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, blood glucose, C-reactive protein, adiponectin and leptin levels were observed in the IGOB131 group compared with the placebo group. Conclusion Irvingia gabonensis administered 150 mg twice daily before meals to overweight and/or obese human volunteers favorably impacts bodyweight and a variety of parameters characteristic of the metabolic syndrome. This is the first double blind randomized placebo controlled clinical trial regarding the anti-obesity and lipid profile modulating effects of an Irvingia gabonensis extract. The positive clinical results, together with our previously published mechanisms of gene expression modulation related to key metabolic pathways in lipid metabolism, provide impetus for much larger clinical studies. Irvingia gabonensis extract may prove to be a useful tool in dealing with the emerging global epidemics of obesity, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and their co-morbid conditions. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00645775
Ngondi, Judith L; Etoundi, Blanche C; Nyangono, Christine B; Mbofung, Carl MF; Oben, Julius E
The majority of women gain more weight during pregnancy than what is recommended. Since gestational weight gain is related to short and long-term maternal health outcomes, it is important to identify women at greater risk of not adhering to guidelines. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between body image and gestational weight gain. The Body Image Assessment for Obesity tool was used to measure ideal and current body sizes in 1,192 women participating in the Pregnancy, Infection and Nutrition Study. Descriptive and multivariable techniques were used to assess the effects of ideal body size and discrepancy score (current—ideal body sizes), which reflected the level of body dissatisfaction, on gestational weight gain. Women who preferred to be thinner had increased risk of excessive gain if they started the pregnancy at a BMI ?26 kg/m2 but a decreased risk if they were overweight or obese. Comparing those who preferred thin body silhouettes to those who preferred average size silhouettes, low income women had increased risk of inadequate weight gain [RR = 1.76 (1.08, 2.88)] while those with lower education were at risk of excessive gain [RR = 1.11 (1.00, 1.22)]. Our results revealed that body image was associated with gestational weight gain but the relationship is complex. Identifying factors that affect whether certain women are at greater risk of gaining outside of guidelines may improve our ability to decrease pregnancy-related health problems.
Dissatisfaction with body image is thought to be a key factor in the etiology of eating disorders among women. In contrast, men are reported to be generally satisfied with their bodyweight and body shape. The present survey study examined the relative desire for thinness or weight gain among 226 male and female freshman students. Most 18-year-old women (85%) wished
Diffusion-weighted sequence (DWI) of the entire body is a new promising technique feasible to evaluate multifocal disease. DWI has revealed great potential in the evaluation of patients with cancer or benign disease, as it supplies both quantitative and qualitative information of the whole body. The technical aspects of the diffusion-weighted whole body (DWWB) MR sequence are described with special emphasis on the processing and analysis of the imaging. DWWB MR sequence should be used combined with the other standard sequences such as FSE T1-weighted and STIR images. A complete whole-body MR imaging protocol including the DWI can be performed in less than 40 min. The possibilities, limitations and the preliminary clinical results of the whole-body MR imaging using a DWI of the entire body are reviewed. PMID:18430538
Background: This study examined the mediating function of bodyweight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal…
Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook
|Background: This study examined the mediating function of bodyweight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal…
Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook
The theory of body dimensional influence on muscular work is employed for calculating the racing time of heavy- and lightweight male, and female rowers. The developed equation predicts racing results with an accuracy of 1 s +/- 1.7 (SE). The prediction of a 2.6% advantage of the heavyweights (average bodyweight) 93 kg over the lightweights (70 kg) is in excellent agreement with observations (2.5%). Significant implications of the equation would be to row without a coxswain, to reduce boat weight to a minimum, and to increase racing distance e.g., for females to the racing distance rowed by the males (2,000 m) in order to reduce the influence of body dimensions on rowing performance. PMID:6686135
Forklift drivers in warehouses are often exposed to whole body vibration (WBV) during the total day. There is however an association between working as a forklift operator and the development of low back pain. In this study the exposure to WBV was measured in five forklift drivers who performed a standardised order picking task during 10 minutes. The effect of driving surface (uneven concrete vs. new flat concrete), driving speed (15 km/h vs. 8 km/h) and seat suspension (mechanical suspension vs. air suspension) was investigated. Improving the driving surface was the most effective preventive measure by reducing the whole body vibration with 39%, from 1.14 to 0.69 m/s2. Lowering the speed limit resulted in a reduction of WBV with 26% (1.05 vs. 0.78 m/s2). An air suspension seat was 22% more effective compared to mechanical suspension (1.02 vs. 0.80 m/s2). On uneven concrete an air suspension seat performed even better by reducing the WBV by 29% (1.33 vs. 0.95 m/s2). A combination of a new driving surface, limiting the maximum speed and the introduction of an air suspension seat reduced the whole body vibrations below the action limit of 0.5 m/s2 as mentioned in the European directive. None of the interventions were effective enough on their own. PMID:22317090
Relationships between bodyweight, wither height, and various other body traits, including heart girth, body length, and hip width, were studied using data from six experiments with 2625 observations. Bodyweight and wither height were regressed on the other body traits. Regressions of bodyweight including the linear, quadratic, and cubic effects of a single independent variable (heart girth, wither height, hip width or body length) indicated that each measurement would be useful in predicting bodyweight (R2 > .95); the regression of bodyweight on heart girth had the highest R2, followed by hip width. Similarly, regressions of wither height on heart girth, wither height, hip width, or body length, including linear, quadratic, and cubic effects, yielded R2 > .99. Regressions considering multiple traits as independent variables showed that the addition of a second body trait added little to the already high multiple correlations found with a single variable. In management situations for which bodyweight or wither height cannot be measured, various other traits can be used to estimate these body measurements accurately. PMID:1474218
Cross-sectional studies have reported significant temporal increases in prevalence of childhood obesity in both genders and various racial groups, but recently the rise has subsided. Childhood obesity prevention trials suggest that, on average, overweight/obese children lose bodyweight and nonoverweight children gain weight. This investigation tested the hypothesis that overweight children lose bodyweight/fat and nonoverweight children gain bodyweight/fat using a longitudinal research design that did not include an obesity prevention program. The participants were 451 children in 4th to 6th grades at baseline. Height, weight, and body fat were measured at month 0 and month 28. Each child's BMI percentile score was calculated specific for their age, gender and height. Higher BMI percentile scores and percent body fat at baseline were associated with larger decreases in BMI and percent body fat after 28 months. The BMI percentile mean for African-American girls increased whereas BMI percentile means for white boys and girls and African-American boys were stable over the 28-month study period. Estimates of obesity and overweight prevalence were stable because incidence and remission were similar. These findings support the hypothesis that overweight children tend to lose bodyweight and nonoverweight children tend to gain bodyweight. PMID:20885393
Williamson, Donald A; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D; Stewart, Tiffany M; Harsha, David W
Previous research on sexual orientation and bodyweight has relied primarily on small convenience samples. I use data from\\u000a two large representative public health surveys to examine the relationships between sexual orientation and bodyweight. First,\\u000a I present new estimates of obesity rates by sexual orientation from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey (which contains\\u000a information on self-reported sexual orientation)
Serotonin (5-HT) has been implicated in the control of eating behavior and bodyweight. Stimulants of this monoamine reduce food intake and weight gain and increase energy expenditure, both in animals and in humans. This article reviews evidence that supports a role for hypothalamic serotonergic receptor mechanisms in the mediation of these effects. A variety of studies in rodents indicate
Energy homeostasis is critical for the survival of species. Therefore, multiple and complex mechanisms have evolved to regulate energy intake and expenditure to maintain bodyweight. For weight maintenance, not only does energy intake have to match energy expenditure, but also macronutrient intake must balance macronutrient oxidation. However, this equilibrium seems to be particularly difficult to achieve in individuals with
Objective: Our objective was to examine the association between adherence to dietary patterns and weight change in women.Research Methods and Procedures: Women (51,670, 26 to 46 years old) in the Nurses’ Health Study II were followed from 1991 to 1999. Dietary intake and bodyweight were ascertained in 1991, 1995, and 1999. A Western pattern, characterized by high intakes of
Matthias B. Schulze; Teresa T. Fung; JoAnn E. Manson; Walter C. Willett; Frank B. Hu
A sharp increase in bariatric surgery has resulted in spike in the population of patients seeking body-contouring procedures. Skin and soft tissue redundancy of the trunk, buttocks, breasts, upper arms, and thighs following massive weight loss is unsightly and results in medical problems such as musculoskeletal strain from increased tissue weight, intertrigo or functional limitation with walking, maintaining adequate hygiene,
We studied bodyweights and composition of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) during fall migration 1975-77 on stopover sites along the upper Mississippi River near La Crosse, Wisconsin (Navigational Pools 7 and 8) and Keokuk, Iowa (Navigational Pool 19). Bodyweights varied (P < 0.001) by age and sex without interaction. Weights varied by year (P < 0.001) on Pools 7 and 8. Mean weights increased (P < 0.01) within age and sex classes by date and averaged 3.6 and 2.7 g daily on Pools 7 and 8 and Pool 19, respectively. Percent fat was highly correlated (P < 0.001) with carcass weight for each age and sex. Live weight was a good predictor of total body fat. Mean estimated total body fat ranged from 200 to 300 g and comprised 15-20% of live weights among age and sex classes. Temporal weight patterns were less variable for adults than immatures, but generally increased during migration. Length of stopover varied inversely with fat reserves among color-marked adult males. Variation in fat condition of canvasbacks during fall may explain the mechanism regulating population ingress and egress on stopover sites. Fat reserves attained by canvasbacks during fall stopover may have adaptive significance in improving survival by conditioning for winter.
The objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of a soluble dietary fiber, NUTRIOSE(®), on bodyweight, body composition, energy intake and hunger in overweight Chinese men. The volunteers were randomized in double-blind fashion to 250 ml fruit juice supplemented with NUTRIOSE(®) (Test, n = 60) or a maltodextrin (Control, n = 60) at a dosage of 17 g twice daily for 12 weeks. Bodyweight, body composition were performed at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks while daily energy intake and hunger were assessed every 3 days. Test subjects had reductions in bodyweight (1.5 kg, P < 0.001), body mass index (0.5 kg/m(2), P < 0.001) and body fat percentage (0.3%, P < 0.001) versus Controls. NUTRIOSE(®) supplementation resulted in a lower daily energy intake (3,079 kJ/day, P < 0.001) with group differences noted as early as 3 days. Test subjects reported less hunger across the study period versus Controls (P < 0.01). NUTRIOSE(®) supplementation for 12 weeks results in body composition improvements and reducesbodyweight, energy intake and hunger in overweight men. PMID:21591985
Guerin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Li, Shuguang; Pochat, Marine; Wils, Daniel; Mubasher, Mohamed; Reifer, Cheryl; Miller, Larry E
weight, race\\/ethnicity, parity, and lactation. Bodyweight at conception may be particularly important among race\\/ethnic groups in which the prevalence of obesity is high (8). Both mean gestational weight gain and prevalence of overweight women in the US popu- lation have increased over the past two decades (8, 11-13). It has not been established whether increased gestational weight gain is
Weight restriction has frequently been used to induce consumption of pharmacologically significant amounts of alcohol by rats. When previously weight-restricted rats are fed ad lib., however, their alcohol consumption is substantially reduced. This could occur because weight restriction per se causes increased alcohol consumption, or because the stimulus conditions (in this case, largely interoceptive) that were originally associated with drinking
The intra-abdominal visceral deposition of adipose tissue, which characterises upper body obesity, is a major contributor to the development of hypertension, glucose intolerance and hyperlipidaemia. Conversely, individuals with lower body obesity may have comparable amounts of adipose tissue but remain relatively free from the metabolic consequences of obesity. This raises an obvious question—are there particular weightreducing treatments which specifically
Objective:To determine whether alterations in diet and\\/or activity patterns during weekends contribute to weight gain or hinder weight loss.Methods and Procedures:Randomized, controlled trial comparing 1 year of caloric restriction (CR) with 1 year of daily exercise (EX). Subjects included 48 healthy adults (30F, 18M) aged 50–60 years with BMI 23.5–29.9 kg\\/m2. Bodyweight was measured on 7 consecutive mornings for
Susan B. Racette; Edward P. Weiss; Kenneth B. Schechtman; Karen Steger-May; Dennis T. Villareal; Kathleen A. Obert; John O. Holloszy
|Provides an overview of research about excessive preoccupation with body image, bodyweight, and dieting in children, adolescents, and young adults. Provides counselor information concerning the continuum from disordered eating to serious eating disorders. Suggests strategies for counselors to utilize when dealing with students experiencing these…
Osteoporosis is characterized by a reduction in bone mineral density (BMD). Women more than men are at risk for osteoporosis-related fractures, especially in the wrists, lumbar spine, and hips. Numerous diet and lifestyle factors, including bodyweight, influence BMD, and in turn, fracture risk. BMD in the total body, hip, lumbar spine, and radius is weakly to moder- ately correlated
|Background: Adolescence may be a crucial period for developing obesity and associated mental health problems. This study examined the relationship of weight status on body image, eating behavior, and depressive symptoms in youth. Methods: A survey was conducted on 1490 youth attending grades 7-12. Participants completed questionnaires on body…
Goldfield, Gary S.; Moore, Ceri; Henderson, Katherine; Buchholz, Annick; Obeid, Nicole; Flament, Martine F.
Sexual difficulties in women appear to be widespread in society; the relationship between female sexual function and obesity is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between bodyweight, the distribution of body fat and sexual function in women. Fifty-two, otherwise healthy women with abnormal values of female sexual function index (FSFI) score (?23) were compared with 66 control
K Esposito; M Ciotola; F Giugliano; C Bisogni; B Schisano; R Autorino; L Cobellis; M De Sio; N Colacurci; D Giugliano
Goldizen et al. (1988) reported that wild saddle-back tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis, Callitrichidae) show birth seasonality that is correlated with food supply and bodyweight. They suggested a sequence of\\u000a ultimate causality in which shortage of food leads to reducedbodyweight which leads to timing of weaning and lactation when\\u000a resources are more abundant. Cotton-top tamarins in captivity show birth
Behavioural therapy and bariatric surgery often produce rapid, massive bodyweight loss that may impact a patient's ability to gauge his/her new body shape. Although the patient is aware of the weight loss, he/she continues to feel obese, as if there was a conflict between the previous body schema and the new one. Here, we report the case of a 40-year-old woman who developed major body distortions after massive weight loss. Psychometric and behavioural assessments revealed strong disturbances in several tasks involving body representation. In particular, we observed abnormal behaviour in a body-scaled action task. Our findings suggest that the rapidity of our patient's weight loss prevented her central nervous system from correctly updating the body schema. PMID:23760908
Guardia, D; Metral, M; Pigeyre, M; Bauwens, I; Cottencin, O; Luyat, M
Methods, pharmaceutical, dietary supplement, and nutraceutical compositions, and compounds for reducingbodyweight, modulating body lipid metabolism, and reducing food intake in mammals are provided. The compounds of the invention include fatty acid etha...
Kidney (Y) and body (X) weights in kilograms are highly correlated (r = 0.88) in white-tailed deer. As in other mammals, the relationship between the two variables is curvilinear with Y = 2.493 X/sup 0/ /sup 746/. Habitat did not affect the parameters of the relationship although certain sex-age and sex month categories did. However, use of kidney weight in standardizing body condition indices in deer of different sizes still seems warranted for white-tailed deer in the Southeastern United States during the hunting season because of the relatively high predictability of the overall kidney-bodyweight relationship.
The effects were investigated of weight loss on the relationship between hyperinsulinemia, bodyweight and body fat distribution in two groups of women with central-type obesity (CTO) (waist-to-hip ratio WHR > 0.85) or peripheral-type obesity (PTO) (WHR < 0.85). An oral glucose tolerance test was carried out before and after a hypocaloric nutritional treatment lasting 4 months. Both groups were
Francesco Casimirri; Renato Pasquali; Maria Paola Cesari; Nazario Melchionda; Luigi Barbara
Previous research has addressed the issues of behavior change and eating disorder prevention among adolescents and young women. The current study was designed to evaluate: (a) whether an 8-week psychoeducational intervention can reduce maladaptive weight-management practices in women (University females, N=24) with sub-clinical levels of eating pathology; and (b) whether its implementation reduces the risk of developing more severe eating pathology across time. Participants were randomly assigned to an experimental (EX) group or a self-monitoring control (SMC) group. Statistically significant changes on measures of eating pathology, including the Eating Attitudes Test-26 [Garner, D. M., Olmsted, M. P., Bohr, Y., & Garfinkel, P. (1982). The Eating Attitudes Test: psychometric features and clinical correlates. Psychological Medicine, 12, 871-878]; Forbidden Food Survey [Ruggerio, L., Williamson, D. A., Davis, C. J., Schlundt, D. G., & Carey, M. P. (1988). Forbidden Food Survey: Measure of bulimic's anticipated emotional reactions to specific foods. Addictive Behaviors, 13, 267-274]; and Bulimia Test-Revised [Thelen, M. H., Farmer, J., Wonderlich, S., & Smith, M. (1991). A revision of the bulimia test: The BULIT-R. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 3(1), 119-124] were observed, as were changes in body image, as measured by the Body Shape Questionnaire [Cooper, P. J., Taylor, M. J., Cooper, Z., & Fairburn, C. G. (1987). The development and validation of the body shape questionnaire. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 6(4), 485-494]. Additional significant between-group differences in eating behavior, as measured by daily meal records, were also seen. Participants in the EX group evidenced improvements in scores which were significantly different from those observed in the SMC group. Unfortunately, attrition limited the utility of follow up data. PMID:17336790
|Despite knowledge that early pubertal timing predicts adolescent girls' substance use, it is still unclear whether this relationship persists beyond early adolescence and whether it is conditional on girls' bodyweight. This study examined the moderating role of bodyweight in the association between early pubertal timing and adolescent girls'…
This study assessed the relation between weight and weight-related factors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, body esteem, teasing frequency, and the effects of teasing) in a community sample of prepubescent African American girls. African American girls (N = 97) in Grades 3 to 5 completed the McKnight Risk Factor Survey-Third Edition and had their…
Tyler, Chermaine; Johnston, Craig A.; Dalton, William T., III; Foreyt, John P.
|This study assessed the relation between weight and weight-related factors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, body esteem, teasing frequency, and the effects of teasing) in a community sample of prepubescent African American girls. African American girls (N = 97) in Grades 3 to 5 completed the McKnight Risk Factor Survey-Third Edition and had their…
Tyler, Chermaine; Johnston, Craig A.; Dalton, William T., III; Foreyt, John P.
Context: Drinking lots of water is commonly suggested as a part of weight loss regimens. However, only few systematic studies have addressed this notion. In this study, the effect of drinking 1500 ml of water, over and above the daily water intake on bodyweight, body mass index (BMI) and body composition of overweight subjects was assessed. Aim: To evaluate the role of drinking excessive water in weight reduction and body fat reduction of overweight subjects. Settings and Design: This study was conducted on 50 overweight girls for eight weeks, during which they were instructed to drink 500 ml of water, three times a day, half an hour before breakfast, lunch and dinner, which was over and above their daily water intake. Material and Methods: Bodyweight was measured in kilograms (kgs). BMI was calculated as weight in kilograms, which was divided by the square of height in metres. Body composition score was calculated as a sum of skin fold thickness in millimetres at three different sites, which was measured by using skin fold calipers. Pre and post-study bodyweight, body mass index and body composition scores were measured. Statistical Analysis: SPSS, version 14.0.1 and paired t-test were used to find out the statistical significance of the results. Results: The mean values of the pre-study and post-study bodyweight, body mass index and body composition scores were 65.86 kg and 64.42 kg, 26.7002 and 26.1224 and 79.626 mm and 76.578 mm respectively. All the three results were highly significant statistically. Conclusions: The decrease in bodyweight, body mass index and body composition scores of overweight subjects at the end of study period establishes the role of water induced thermogenesis in weight reduction of overweight subjects.
Previous studies have consistently observed that women are more likely to perceive themselves as overweight compared to men. Similarly, women are more likely than men to report trying to lose weight. Less is known about the impact that self-perceived weight has on weight loss behaviors of adults and whether this association differs by gender. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among an employee sample (n=899) to determine the association of self-perceived weight on evidence-based weight loss behaviors across genders, accounting for body mass index (BMI) and demographic characteristics. Women were more likely than men to consider themselves to be overweight across each BMI category, and were more likely to report attempting to lose weight. However, perceiving oneself to be overweight was a strong correlate for weight loss attempts across both genders. The effect of targeting accuracy of self-perceived weight status in weight loss interventions deserves research attention. PMID:19188102
Previous studies have consistently observed that women are more likely to perceive themselves as overweight compared to men. Similarly, women are more likely than men to report trying to lose weight. Less is known about the impact that self-perceived weight has on weight loss behaviors of adults and whether this association differs by gender. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among an employee sample to determine the association of self-perceived weight on evidence-based weight loss behaviors across genders, accounting for body mass index (BMI) and demographic characteristics. Women were more likely than men to consider themselves to be overweight across each BMI category, and were more likely to report attempting to lose weight. However, perceiving oneself to be overweight was a strong correlate for weight loss attempts across both genders. The effect of targeting accuracy of self-perceived weight status in weight loss interventions deserves research attention.
Evidence concerning the relationship between the ratio of lean mass to body fat in the female body and the maintenance of female reproductive functions was examined, and the results of a US clinical study in which a weight gain regime was used to treat unexplained in fertility in 29 fashionabely slim women were presented. During the female pubertal process, there is an average increase in the lean bodyweight of 44% and a mean increase in the body fat of 120%. Apparently, the accummulation of fat is a necessary prerequisite for the onset of menarche and the establishment and maintenance of regular ovulatory cycles. A small change in bodyweight produces a relatively large shift in the bodyweight to fat ratio. As a result, weight loss is frequently followed by amenorrhea. Studies of the endocrine and central nervous system changes in patients with anorexia nervosa, an extreme form of overzealous weight control, provides clues for understanding the effects of less extreme weight control practices on reproductive functions. The gonadotropin secretory pattern of anorexia nervosa patients is similar to the prepubertal pattern. When gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is administered to patients with 53%-64% of their ideal bodyweight (IBW), they have a weak luteinizing hormone (LH) response and a normal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) response. As their weight increases, the LH response becomes stronger, and at 90%-94% of their IBW, the LH response is frequently exaggerated. Other studies indicate that an exaggerated LH response also occurs when GnRH is administered to fashionably slim women. This finding suggests that gonadotropin secretory studies should be conducted when evaluating women with weight related menstrual dysfunctions. In the present study, 29 patients with unexplained infertility were identified as being overly, but not excessively, concerned with maintaining a slim body image. On the average, they were 91% below their IBW. The women were asked to increase their bodyweight until they reached their IBW. Serum LH/FSH ratios were monitored. Blood samples were taken during the midfollicular phase of the menstrual cycle and at random times among those patients with amenorrhea. 3 women withdrew from the study as they did not want to gain weight. The remaining 26 women attained at least 98% of their IBW. At 95% of their IBW, the women attained normal LH/FSH ratios, and at 98% of their IBW, the women attained normal ovulatory cycles. 19 of the women eventually conceived. Clinicians who wise to use this technique for treating infertility should first rule out other possible causes for infertility. If weight gain treatment appears to be appropriate, the physician should be sensitive to the woman's concerns about her body image. The patient will require considerable encouragement during the weight gaining process. Patients should be advised to expect changes in breast size and configuration and an increase in endocervical canal secretions. The increased body fat will be unevenly distributed in the body, and patients should be instructed not to undertake fat redistribution exercises. Physicians should refrain from administering clomiphene citrate as a supplement to the weight gain regime. PMID:3931948
We investigated the relationship between fat content and condition indices in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar parr sampled from a wild population on a seasonal basis. Condition of individual fish was indexed by residuals from the least-squares regressions of fat weight, dry weight, wet weight, and water weight (separately on fork length) as well as by relative condition factor, Fulton's condition
Stephen G. Sutton; Tammo P. Bult; Richard L. Haedrich
Objective: Investigation of the effect of a green tea-caffeine mixture on weight maintenance after bodyweight loss in moderately obese subjects in relation to habitual caffeine intake.Research Methods and Procedures: A randomized placebo-controlled double blind parallel trial in 76 overweight and moderately obese subjects, (BMI, 27.5 ± 2.7 kg\\/m2) matched for sex, age, BMI, height, body mass, and habitual caffeine
Margriet S. Westerterp-Plantenga; Manuela P. G. M. Lejeune; Eva M. R. Kovacs
Bodyweight, body composition, and energy intake changes are described for 13 breastfeeding mothers followed for 18-24 months after delivery. Bodyweight was assessed at 1-6, 9, 12, 18, 24 months postpartum and 1 month after infant weaning, and energy intake was assessed at 2-6, 9, 12, 18, 24 months postpartum and 1 month after infant weaning. Compared to prepregnancy
This research evaluated a dual pathway model for body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys. The study provides empirical\\u000a support for the importance of distinguishing between weight and muscularity concerns in understanding male body image. A total\\u000a of 128 boys from grades 8 and 11 completed a self-report questionnaire. Results indicated that weight and muscularity concerns\\u000a each made unique contributions to body
As for many human diseases, the incidence of obesity and its associated health risks are sexually dimorphic: worldwide the rate of obesity is higher in women. Sex differences in metabolism, appetite, body composition, and fat deposition are contributing biological factors. Gonadal hormones regulate the development of many sexually dimorphic traits in humans and animals, and, in addition, studies in mice indicate a role for direct genetic effects of sex chromosome dosage on bodyweight, deposition of fat, and circadian timing of feeding behavior. Specifically, mice of either sex with 2 X chromosomes, typical of normal females, have heavier bodyweights, gain more weight, and eat more food during the light portion of the day than mice of either sex with a single X chromosome. Here we test the effects of X chromosome dosage on bodyweight and report that gonadal females with 2 X chromosomes express higher levels of GH gene (Gh) mRNA in the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus than females with 1 X chromosome and males. Furthermore, Gh expression in the POA of the hypothalamus of mice with 2 X chromosomes correlated with bodyweight; GH is known to have orexigenic properties. Acute infusion of GH into the POA increased immediate food intake in normal (XY) males. We propose that X inactivation-escaping genes modulate Gh expression and food intake, and this is part of the mechanism by which individuals with 2 X chromosomes are heavier than individuals with a single X chromosome. PMID:23861378
The midline thalamus (e.g., the paraventricular thalamic nuclei and the reuniens nucleus) of Siberian hamsters and other mammals has been reported to contain specific binding sites for melatonin, a hormone that is essential for photoperiodically induced winter adaptations such as reproductive quiescence, loss of bodyweight, daily torpor, and the winter molt. The first experiment investigated whether the midline thalamus is necessary for these winter adaptations. Adult Siberian hamsters received discrete neurotoxic lesions of the paraventricular thalamic nuclei or the reuniens nucleus while under pentobarbital sodium-induced anesthesia. After recovery, the hamsters were monitored for winter adaptations while they were exposed to short photoperiods (10 h light/day) for 12 wk at 22 degrees C then for 60 days at 7 degrees C. Lesions of the reuniens nucleus, but not of the paraventricular thalamic nuclei, significantly inhibited short photoperiod-induced loss of bodyweight and tended to increase food consumption and decrease daily torpor. The second experiment showed that lesions of the reuniens nucleus increased bodyweight gain compared with that in controls during exposure to long photoperiods at 22 degrees C for 16 wk. In summary, these findings show that the reuniens nucleus is an important site for regulation of bodyweight and suggest that lesions of the reuniens nucleus may attenuate winter metabolic adaptations by causing an increase in bodyweight. PMID:9249554
OBJECTIVE Weight loss reduces abdominal and intrahepatic fat, thereby improving metabolic and cardiovascular risk. Yet, many patients regain weight after successful diet-induced weight loss. Long-term changes in abdominal and liver fat, along with liver test results and insulin resistance, are not known. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed 50 overweight to obese subjects (46 ± 9 years of age; BMI, 32.5 ± 3.3 kg/m(2); women, 77%) who had participated in a 6-month hypocaloric diet and were randomized to either reduced carbohydrates or reduced fat content. Before, directly after diet, and at an average of 24 (range, 17-36) months follow-up, we assessed body fat distribution by magnetic resonance imaging and markers of liver function and insulin resistance. RESULTS Bodyweight decreased with diet but had increased again at follow-up. Subjects also partially regained abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. In contrast, intrahepatic fat decreased with diet and remained reduced at follow-up (7.8 ± 9.8% [baseline], 4.5 ± 5.9% [6 months], and 4.7 ± 5.9% [follow-up]). Similar patterns were observed for markers of liver function, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and hepatic insulin resistance. Changes in intrahepatic fat und intrahepatic function were independent of macronutrient composition during intervention and were most effective in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease at baseline. CONCLUSIONS A 6-month hypocaloric diet induced improvements in hepatic fat, liver test results, and insulin resistance despite regaining of weight up to 2 years after the active intervention. Bodyweight and adiposity measurements may underestimate beneficial long-term effects of dietary interventions. PMID:23963894
Haufe, Sven; Haas, Verena; Utz, Wolfgang; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Jeran, Stephanie; Böhnke, Jana; Mähler, Anja; Luft, Friedrich C; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Boschmann, Michael; Jordan, Jens; Engeli, Stefan
Accurate estimates of bodyweight can be useful in the evaluations of feeding programs, nutritional status and general health, and in calculation of dose levels (such as for anesthesia)-thus providing a valuable tool for captive elephant management. We used body measurements of 75 Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) to predict bodyweight. Weight, heart girth, height at the withers, body length, and foot-pad circumference were measured. All possible linear regressions of weight on one, two, three, or four body measurements were calculated. The highest correlation with a single measurement was that between heart girth and weight (R2 = 0.90). The data were also divided into age groups (1-13, 18-28, 29-39, and 40-57 yr), and all possible linear regressions were calculated for each group (there were no elephants aged 14-17 yr). Adding body length or pad circumference to heart girth resulted in a slight increase in R2. We conclude that bodyweight in Asian elephants can be predicted from body measurements and that heart girth is the best predictor. A second body measurement might improve predictive accuracy for some age groups. PMID:9523637
Other people can profoundly influence individuals’ feelings about their own body and physical abilities—important dimensions of personal identity and key factors related to lifestyle and bodyweight. Atotal of 103 adults shared narratives related to physical activity and body image. In relation to the influence of other people, some participants felt strengthened (e.g., praised, supported), and many participants reported damaging
Suzanne Pelican; Fred Vanden Heede; Betty Holmes; Linda M. Melcher; Mary Kay Wardlaw; Martha Raidl; Barbara Wheeler; Sylvia A. Moore
Changes in various body dimensions of special-fed veal calves were measured and correlated with bodyweight (BW) at three specific times during the growth period as contemporaries and over the entire feeding period as noncontemporaries. The calves (n = 826) were weighed and measured for body length, heart girth, wither height, and hip width at 2, 8, and 16 wk
Data obtained through the Angora goat performance testing pilot scheme, run by the Department of Agriculture at the Grootfontein Agricultural Development Institute, were analyzed. Data of kids born from 1990 until 1993 in 17 studs were used in the analysis. Traits analyzed were bodyweight (BW; n = 6240), greasy fleece weight (FW; n = 6239) and mean fibre diameter
Obesity has been associated with a higher risk of mortality, whereas caloric restriction reduces the risk. In this study, we examined how bodyweight development during life affects lifespan in a mouse model for obesity. Therefore, mice of the Berlin Fat Mouse Inbred line were set on either a standard or a high-fat diet (HFD). Median lifespans of standard diet-fed mice were 525 and 539 days for males and female animals, respectively. HFD feeding further decreased lifespan by increasing the risk of mortality. Our data provide evidence that the highest bodyweight reached in lifetime has only a minor effect on lifespan. More important is the age when the highest bodyweight is reached, which was positively correlated with lifespan (r=0.77, P<0.0001). Likewise, the daily gain of bodyweight was negatively correlated with the age of death (r=-0.76, P<0.0001). These data indicate that rapid weight gain in early life followed by rapid weight loss affect lifespan more than the bodyweight itself. These data suggest that intervention strategies to prevent rapid weight gain are of high impact for a long lifespan. PMID:23507966
Cremains have become increasingly frequent in forensic contexts, while higher body mass in the general population has simultaneously made cremation a more cost-effective mortuary practice. This study analyzed the relationship between body mass and bone mass, as reflected through cremation weight. Antemortem data were recorded for samples used in the multi-regional data set. Each was rendered through commercial crematoriums and reweighed postincineration. Pearson's correlation demonstrates clear association between body mass and cremation weight (r=0.56; p<0.0001). However, multiple linear regression revealed sex and age variables also have a significant relationship (t=7.198; t=-2.5, respectively). Regressed in conjunction, body mass, sex, and age contribute approximately 67% of all variation observed in cremation weight (r=0.668). Analysis of covariance indicates significant regional variation in body and cremation weight. Explanations include bone modification resulting from increased loading stress, as well as glucose intolerance and altered metabolic pathways related to obesity. PMID:20735701
Thirty-nine adult Indian elephants (Elephas maximus indicus) of both sexes and various ages and weights, belonging to the Forest Department of the Government of Kerala (India), Temple Devaswoms, Gemini Circus and other private agencies, were used to derive formulae to predict bodyweight and height from body measurements. Several models were fitted separately for males and females and also for adults irrespective of sex. The best prediction of bodyweight (W) in kg was obtained for adults irrespective of sex by using two parameters, the body length (L) in cm from the base of the forehead to the base of the tail, and the chest girth (G) in the formula W = -1010 + 0.036 (L x G). No single parameter gave as accurate a prediction of the bodyweight, and the inclusion of height as a third parameter did not improve the prediction. No significant improvement in the accuracy of prediction resulted from the use of different formulae for males and females. An equation to predict the height at the shoulders (H) in cm from the right forefoot circumference (C) in cm in adult elephants irrespective of sex was also derived. This was H = -1.60 + 1.99 C. PMID:2773303
The feasibility of an alternative method to support bodyweight in a powered exoskeleton is demonstrated. Instead of using an overhead suspension system, bodyweight is supported by augmenting the joint moments through virtual model control. The advantages of this novel method is that it allows for independent support of the left and right leg, and does not interfere with the excitation of cutanous afferents and balance of the body or trunk. Results show that after a short familiarization period the activity of muscles during initial stance reduces and kinematics become close to normal. PMID:19163077
van der Kooij, Herman; Koopman, Bram; van Asseldonk, Edwin H F
Low birth weight predisposes to renal disease in Aboriginal adults. This could be due to reduced nephronnumbers, which might be reflected in lower kidney volumes, at least early in life. In this study we evaluated the association of birth weight with renal volume in 174 children and in adolescents 5 to 18 years old in an Aboriginal community with high
Ideal bodyweight for maximum life expectancy increases with advancing age. Older people, however, tend to weigh less than younger adults, and old age is also associated with a tendency to lose weight. Weight loss in older people is associated with adverse outcomes, particularly if unintentional, and initial bodyweight is low. When older people lose weight, more of the tissue lost is lean tissue (mainly skeletal muscle) than in younger people. When excessive, the loss of lean muscle tissue results in sarcopenia, which is associated with poor health outcomes. Unintentional weight loss in older people may be a result of protein-energy malnutrition, cachexia, the physiological anorexia of aging, or a combination of these. The physiological anorexia of aging is a decrease in appetite and energy intake that occurs even in healthy people and is possibly caused by changes in the digestive tract, gastrointestinal hormone concentrations and activity, neurotransmitters, and cytokines. A greater understanding of this decrease in appetite and energy intake during aging, and the responsible mechanisms, may aid the search for ways to treat undernutrition and weight loss in older people. PMID:23522494
Weight loss in obese humans produces a relative leptin deficiency, which is postulated to activate potent orexigenic and energy conservation mechanisms to restrict weight loss and promote weight regain. Here we determined whether leptin replacement alone or with GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 attenuates weight regain or promotes greater weight loss in weight-reduced diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Forty percent restriction in daily intake of a high-fat diet in DIO rats for 4 wk reducedbodyweight by 12%, body fat by 29%, and plasma leptin by 67% and normalized leptin sensitivity. When food restriction ended, bodyweight, body fat, and plasma leptin increased rapidly. Daily administration of leptin [3-h intraperitoneal (ip) infusions (4 nmol·kg?1·h?1)] at onset and end of dark period for 3 wk did not attenuate hyperphagia and weight regain, nor did it affect mean daily meal sizes or meal numbers. Exendin-4 (50 pmol·kg?1·h?1) infusions during the same intervals prevented postrestriction hyperphagia and weight regain by normalizing meal size. Coadministration of leptin and exendin-4 did not reducebodyweight more than exendin-4 alone. Instead, leptin began to attenuate the inhibitory effects of exendin-4 on food intake, meal size, and weight regain by the end of the second week of administration. Plasma leptin in rats receiving leptin was sevenfold greater than in rats receiving vehicle and 17-fold greater than in rats receiving exendin-4. Together, these results do not support the hypothesis that leptin replacement alone or with exendin-4 attenuates weight regain or promotes greater weight loss in weight-reduced DIO rats.
Haver, Alvin; Chelikani, Prasanth K.; Apenteng, Bettye; Perriotte-Olson, Curtis; Anders, Krista; Steenson, Sharalyn; Blevins, James E.
Overview In mammals, bodyweight is normally regulated around a set point by coordinated changes in food intake and energy expenditure. These changes are integrated under the influence of specific neural pathways and circulating signals. Almost 50 years ago it was first proposed that circulating signals generated in
Religions prominence in some underserved groups that bear a disproportionate burden of the obesity epidemic (e.g. rural, Southern, minority) may play an important role in bodyweight. Data (1662 African American and Caucasian adults aged 18+) from a representative U.S. sample of a predominately rura...
A sample of 533 adults (268 women and 265 men) representative of the general population of Great Britain were interviewed so that the extent and effects of restraint, using the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ; Van Strien, Frijters, Bergers, & Defares, 1986) and the extent of overestimation of bodyweight could be examined. High-restraint subjects reported more guilt about food
Records (2263) from a single north Florida herd for 3 yr were evaluated in a series of analyses. Environment was sub- tropical. Data set included only cows that had normal milk records and became pregnant. Holsteins and Jerseys averaged 6799 and 4504 kg milk, 587 and 418 kg postpartum bodyweight, 164 and 141 days open, and 2.3 and 2.1
L. Badinga; R. J. Collier; C. J. Wilcox; W. W. Thatcher
Emerging literature highlights the need to incorporate physical activity into every strategy intended to prevent weight gain as well as to maintain weight loss over time. Furthermore, physical activity should be part of any plan to lose weight. The stimulus of exercise provides valuable metabolic adaptations that improve energy and macronutrient balance regulation. A tight coupling between energy intake and energy expenditure has been documented at high levels of physical exercise, suggesting that exercise may improve appetite control. The regular practice of physical activity has also been reported to reduce the risk of stress-induced weight gain. A more personalized approach is recommended when planning exercise programs in a clinical weight loss setting in order to limit the compensatory changes associated to exercise-induced weight loss. With modern environment promoting overeating and sedentary behavior, there is an urgent need for a concerted action including legislative measures to promote healthy active living in order to curb the current epidemic of chronic diseases.
In an attempt to find an optimum age during adolescence to target weight control programs successfully, 189 adolescents were surveyed using measures of eating self-efficacy and body-weight attributions. The sensitivity of the attribution measures was assessed in a pilot study using 100 adolescents. The major experiment indicated higher levels of eating control at 12 and 13 years of age, decreasing with age. However, the locus of control measure indicated an increase in internal attributions with age. It is argued that this paradox between degree of control subjects reported over their eating and the degree subjects believed their bodyweight to be controlled internally may have important clinical implications and should be investigated further. PMID:2048460
The burgeoning global obesity epidemic extends to the military service, where 6-53% of military personnel are overweight. Obese military personnel who adhere to a strict training and diet regime may potentially achieve and maintain significant weight loss. They may however face physical problems such as excess skin folds causing discomfort, difficulty in uniform fitting, personal hygiene, interference with full physical activities and psychological issues such as body image dissatisfaction, low self esteem and difficulty in social acceptance. We present a case report of a highly motivated military conscript who achieved and maintained significant weight loss but had physical defects following Massive Weight Loss. Body contouring surgery was successfully utilised to correct his physical defects and allowed him to return to full physical duties. PMID:22319988
Despite knowledge that early pubertal timing predicts adolescent girls’ substance use, it is still unclear whether this relationship\\u000a persists beyond early adolescence and whether it is conditional on girls’ bodyweight. This study examined the moderating\\u000a role of bodyweight in the association between early pubertal timing and adolescent girls’ substance use using three waves\\u000a of data from the National
Objective: Because post-bariatric surgery patients undergo massive weight loss, the resulting skin excess can lead to both functional problems and profound dissatisfaction with appearance. Correcting skin excess could improve all these corollaries, including body image. Presently, few data are available documenting body image and weight-related quality of life in this population.Research Methods and Procedures: Eighteen patients who underwent both bariatric
Angela Y. Song; J. Peter Rubin; Veena Thomas; Jason R. Dudas; Kacey G. Marra; Madelyn H. Fernstrom
The maximum acceptable weights of lift (MAWL) of obese and non-obese participants were empirically investigated. Three obesity levels were considered: non-obese (18.5 kg/m(2)< or= body mass index (BMI)or= 40 kg/m(2)). Ten male and 10 female participants were recruited for each obesity level. The participants determined their MAWL for 18 different lifting task conditions (six lifting frequencies x three lifting heights). An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to determine the effects of obesity level, gender, lifting height, lifting frequency and their interactions on MAWL. Overall, the ANOVA results indicated that obesity does not reduce MAWL, and thus, suggested that the existing MAWL data can be used to accommodate both general and obese workers. However, further studies based on the biomechanical and physiological approaches are required to provide more complete understanding of obesity effects on lifting tolerance limits. PMID:18501874
BACKGROUND: Excessive gestational weight gain promotes poor maternal and child health outcomes. Weight misperception is associated with weight gain in non-pregnant women, but no data exist during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of misperceived pre-pregnancy bodyweight status with excessive gestational weight gain. METHODS: At study enrollment, participants in Project Viva reported weight, height,
Sharon J Herring; Emily Oken; Jess Haines; Janet W Rich-Edwards; Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman; Ken P Kleinman ScD; Matthew W Gillman
|This research evaluated a dual pathway model for body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys. The study provides empirical support for the importance of distinguishing between weight and muscularity concerns in understanding male body image. A total of 128 boys from grades 8 and 11 completed a self-report questionnaire. Results indicated that…
Computed tomography (CT) is used increasingly to measure liver volume in patients undergoing evaluation for transplantation or resection. This study is designed to determine a formula predicting total liver volume (TLV) based on body surface area (BSA) or bodyweight in Western adults. TLV was measured in 292 patients from four Western centers. Liver volumes were calculated from helical computed
Jean-Nicolas Vauthey; Eddie K. Abdalla; Dorota A. Doherty; Philippe Gertsch; Marc J. Fenstermacher; Evelyne M. Loyer; Jan Lerut; Roland Materne; Xuemei Wang; Arthur Encarnacion; Delise Herron; Christian Mathey; Giovanni Ferrari; Chuslip Charnsangavej; Alban Denys
Background: Compliance with conventional weight-management programs is notoriously poor, and a plethora of over-the-counter slimming aids are sold with claims of effectiveness. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the evidence from rigorous clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses on the effectiveness of dietary supplements in reducingbodyweight. Design: The study was a systematic review. Literature searches
No bodyweight curves are available for preterm infants < 1000 g birth weight receiving early enterai and parenteral nutrition.\\u000a Postnatal weight changes of 136 infants with a birth weight < 1000 g were analysed retrospectively. Bodyweight curves for\\u000a the first 30 days of life were generated for five separate birth weight groups (430–599 g, 600–699 g, 700–799 g,
Background Excessive pregnancy weight gain is associated with obesity in the offspring, but this relationship may be confounded by genetic and other shared influences. We aimed to examine the association of pregnancy weight gain with body mass index (BMI) in the offspring, using a within-family design to minimize confounding. Methods and Findings In this population-based cohort study, we matched records of all live births in Arkansas with state-mandated data on childhood BMI collected in public schools (from August 18, 2003 to June 2, 2011). The cohort included 42,133 women who had more than one singleton pregnancy and their 91,045 offspring. We examined how differences in weight gain that occurred during two or more pregnancies for each woman predicted her children's BMI and odds ratio (OR) of being overweight or obese (BMI?85th percentile) at a mean age of 11.9 years, using a within-family design. For every additional kg of pregnancy weight gain, childhood BMI increased by 0.0220 (95% CI 0.0134–0.0306, p<0.0001) and the OR of overweight/obesity increased by 1.007 (CI 1.003–1.012, p?=?0.0008). Variations in pregnancy weight gain accounted for a 0.43 kg/m2 difference in childhood BMI. After adjustment for birth weight, the association of pregnancy weight gain with childhood BMI was attenuated but remained statistically significant (0.0143 kg/m2 per kg of pregnancy weight gain, CI 0.0057–0.0229, p?=?0.0007). Conclusions High pregnancy weight gain is associated with increased bodyweight of the offspring in childhood, and this effect is only partially mediated through higher birth weight. Translation of these findings to public health obesity prevention requires additional study. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Ludwig, David S.; Rouse, Heather L.; Currie, Janet
Bozkurt, Y. 2006. Prediction of bodyweight from body size measurements in brown swiss feedlot cattle fed under small-scale farming conditions. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 29: 29–32.To evaluate the use of some body measurements in predicting bodyweight of Brown Swiss cattle grown under small-scale farming conditions, relationships between bodyweight (BW) and body measurements such as heart girth (HG),
Previous studies have suggested that the process of transmigration has detrimental effects on the body image of migrants relative to women in the country of origin. In the present work, we examined the body image of Polish migrants in Britain (n=153), Polish women in Poland (n=153), and a comparison group of British White women (n=110). Participants completed a measure of actual-ideal weight discrepancy and the Body Appreciation Scale (BAS). Contrary to hypotheses, our results showed that Polish women in Poland had significantly higher weight discrepancy than their counterparts in Britain. Further analyses showed that the BAS reduced to two dimensions among Polish participants, with Polish participants in Poland having significantly lower body appreciation than Polish migrants. We suggest that the sociocultural changes that have taken place in Eastern Europe may place women in that region at relatively high risk for developing negative body image. PMID:23972729
Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to document any changes that might occur in bodyweight, body composition, RMR, and dietary intake in newly enrolled college freshmen. Methods: Bodyweight, RMR by ventilated O2 consumption, body composition by bioelectrical impedance and dietary intakes were recorded in 27 first-year college freshmen during their initial 16-week semester. Results: Mean body
Laleh Hajhosseini; Tawni Holmes; Vida Goudarzi; Lucy McProud; Clarie B. Hollenbeck
Patients with obesity experience psychosocial consequences because of their weight and report physician bias. We examined\\u000a whether obesity is associated with lower patient satisfaction with ambulatory care among 2,858 patients seen at 11 academically\\u000a affiliated primary care practices in Boston. Compared with normal weight patients (body mass index [BMI], 19.0 to 24.9 kg\\/M2), overweight (BMI, 25.0 to 29.9 kg\\/M2) and
Christina C. Wee; Russell S. Phillips; E. Francis Cook; Jennifer S. Haas; Ann Louise Puopolo; Troyen A. Brennan; Helen R. Burstin
This viewpoint aims to 1) review the available scientific literature on the relationship between whole grain consumption and bodyweight regulation; 2) evaluate the potential mechanisms whereby whole grain intake may help reduce overweight and 3) try to understand why epidemiological studies and clinical trials provide diverging results on this topic. All the prospective epidemiological studies demonstrate that a higher
Background: The rationale for bariatric surgery is to reduce food intake by gastric restriction and\\/or malabsorption by intestinal bypass. Unlike ghrelin, gastrin is released in response to food intake. Here we studied the possible role of gastrin in the reduction of bodyweight after gastric bypass surgery. Methods: Rats were divided into four experimental groups and were subjected to different
Björn Stenström; Chun-Mei Zhao; Karin Tømmerås; Carl-Jørgen Arum; Duan Chen
OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to assess the applicability of individual bodyweight-adapted tube current time settings in multidetector CT for detection of coro- nary calcifications and to evaluate the effect of reducing the radiation dose on the coronary calcium score. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. One hundred patients underwent retrospectively ECG- gated MDCT for detection of coronary calcifications. First,
A. H. Mahnken; J. E. Wildberger; J. Simon; R. Koos; T. G. Flohr; S. Schaller; R. W. Günther
Previous research has shown a relationship between body dissatisfaction and weight preoccupation. Body image is complex and multidimensional, and there may be mediating factors present in studies of body dissatisfaction and weight preoccupation. This study assessed the relationships between self- efficacy, body dissatisfaction, and weight preoccupation in young adult college females. Results indicate that self-efficacy with respect to body image,
Stephanie A. Valutis; Anthony J. Goreczny; Leena Abdullah; Emily Magee; Joseph A. Wister
Background: Weight gained during pregnancy and not lost post- partum may contribute to obesity in women of childbearing age. Objective: We aimed to determine whether breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention (PPWR) in a population among which full breastfeeding is common and breastfeeding duration is long. Design:WeselectedwomenfromtheDanishNationalBirthCohort whoeverbreastfed(98%),andweconductedtheinterviewsat6(n 36 030) and 18 (n 26 846) mo postpartum. We used regression analyses
Jennifer L Baker; Michael Gamborg; Berit L Heitmann; Lauren Lissner; Thorkild IA Sørensen; Kathleen M Rasmussen
Adiponectin (ADP) is an adipocyte hormone involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. We detected a rise in ADP in cerebrospinal fluid after intravenous (i.v.) injection, consistent with brain transport. In contrast to leptin, intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of ADP decreased bodyweight mainly by stimulating energy expenditure. Full-length ADP, mutant ADP with Cys39 replaced with serine, and globular ADP were effective,
Yong Qi; Nobuhiko Takahashi; Stanley M Hileman; Hiralben R Patel; Anders H Berg; Utpal B Pajvani; Philipp E Scherer; Rexford S Ahima
Abstract The current evidence regarding the usefulness of whole-body diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in lymphoma is reviewed. DWI is capable of combining anatomical and functional information and is becoming a valuable tool in oncology, in particular for staging purposes. DWI may prove to be a useful biomarker in clinical decision making for patients with lymphoma. Large-scaled prospective studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results.
Summary A feedback system for the regulation of food intake and bodyweight, consisting of two elements is proposed. One is related\\u000a to the quantitiy and quality of the food ingested. It consists of neural afferents, psychosocial conditioning factors, and\\u000a peptide signals from the gastrointestinal tract released by specific nutrient intake. The other is also sensitive to nutrient\\u000a intake, but importantly
Here we review the emerging neurobiological understanding of the role of the brain’s reward system in the regulation of body\\u000a weight in health and in disease. Common obesity is characterized by the over-consumption of palatable\\/rewarding foods, reflecting\\u000a an imbalance in the relative importance of hedonic versus homeostatic signals. The popular ‘incentive salience theory’ of\\u000a food reward recognises not only a
Emil Egecioglu; Karolina P. Skibicka; Caroline Hansson; Mayte Alvarez-Crespo; P. Anders Friberg; Elisabet Jerlhag; Jörgen A. Engel; Suzanne L. Dickson
Summary A recent study published in Cell may represent a paradigm shift in the way we look at cardiac metabolism: The study identifies the heart as an endocrine organ that regulates bodyweight. It raises two important questions: What would be the “slimming factor” released by the heart that regulates fuel homeostasis in distant organs? What are the possible mechanisms directing metabolic energy to either storage or dissipation?
Participants were 65 obese men and women who were randomly assigned to either weight control or weight control plus cognitive–behavioral body image therapy. Both conditions showed clinically significant improvements in body image at posttreatment and 1-year follow-up. Adding body image therapy to weight control did not result in greater psychological improvements and did not result in better maintenance of body
The purpose of this study was to identify new indexes of body composition that characterize the normal weight obese (NWO) women. We measured body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) by indirect calorimetry in a cohort of seventy-five healthy Italian women, subdivided into three groups (nonobese/controls, NWO, preobese-obese women). Despite a normal body mass index (BMI), the NWO women have a higher body fat mass percentage (FAT %) (38.99 +/- 6.03) associated to a significant (p = 0.02) lower amount of lean mass of legs (12.24 +/- 1.31) and lean mass of left leg (6.07 +/- 0.64) with respect to the control group. The NWO group showed a significant (p = 0.043) lower RMR (1201.25 +/- 349.02) in comparison with nonobese and preobese-obese women. To classify NWO individuals among general population, we identified three significant body composition indexes: abdominal index, leg index and trunk index. The NWO women showed significant increased value in the three indexes (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that, despite a normal BMI, the NWO women displayed a cluster of anthropometric characteristics (body fat mass percentage, leg indexes) not different to obese women ones. An appropriate diet-therapy and physical activity may be protecting NWO individuals from diabetes and cardiovascular diseases associated to preobese-obese women. PMID:16910350
Di Renzo, L; Del Gobbo, V; Bigioni, M; Premrov, M G; Cianci, R; De Lorenzo, A
Introduction Obesity is a complex condition with multifactorial origin. Assuming that such a state is genetically controlled, the aim of our study was to evaluate the degree of genetic homozygosity among overweight and obese individuals by the homozygously recessive characteristics (HRC) test. Material and methods We analysed the presence, distribution and individual combination of 15 selected genetically controlled recessive phenotype traits in a sample of 140 individuals with increased body mass index (overweight individuals n = 100 and obese individuals n = 40) and a control group of normal weight individuals (n = 300). Results Obese individuals have significantly higher mean values for genetic homozygosity than those with normal weight (normal weight: 3.61 ±1.48; obese: 4.13 ±1.47, p < 0.05) and difference in the presence of certain individual combinations of evaluated phenotype traits (??2 = 76.9; p < 0.01). There was no difference in average homozygosity of such genetic markers between groups of normal weight and overweight individuals (normal weight: 3.61 ±1.48; overweight: 3.93 ±1.51, p > 0.05) and between groups of overweight and obese individuals (overweight: 3.93 ±1.51; obese: 4.13 ±1.47, p > 0.05). There is no difference in the presence of certain individual combinations of evaluated phenotype traits between overweight and obese individuals (??2 = 20.6; p > 0.05). Conclusions There is a populational genetic difference in the degree of genetic homozygosity and variability between the group of normal weight and group of obese individuals, indicating a possible genetic component. Overweight and obese individuals have a genetic predisposition, but different expression of genetic loads could be one of the possible explanations for different susceptibility to increase of fat mass and body mass index.
Background and objectives: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common problem in women at fertile age. A prospective study was conducted to clarify the pathophysiological responses during an application of insulin sensitizer, metformin and weight reduction therapy at the Gynecology Center in Ohud hospital, in AL-Madinah AL-Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methodology: Twenty healthy women served as controls and 180 PCOS women divided into three groups participated in the study. First group was treated with Clomid citrate 100mg/day from the 2nd day of menses to the 6th day plus gonadotrophin from day three to the 13th. Group II was treated as group I plus 850mg metformin twice a day and group III was treated as group I plus weight reduction. Clinical symptoms, menstrual pattern, hirsutism, blood glucose, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, insulin, hormonal, and lipid profiles were assessed pre- and post treatment. Insulin resistance was calculated. Results: PCOS women had significantly higher values than the healthy women in most of the measurements. Metformin and weight reduction therapy resulted in a significant decrease in the fasting insulin, glucose/insulin ratio and HOMA-IR. Metformin and weight reduction therapy resulted in a significant decrease in the lipid parameters, testosterone, LH/FSH ratio, SHBG, and prolactin levels. HOMA-IR was significantly higher in women with PCOS. HOMA-IR was positively correlated with testosterone, estradiol, TG, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol parameters, and negatively correlated with HDL-cholesterol and FSH levels. Conclusion: Metformin therapy and weight reduction had favorable influences on the basic metabolic and hormonal profiles in women with PCOS and that metformin and lifestyle modification (weight reduction via diet restriction or exercise) resulted in a significantly greater weight loss than hormonal therapy alone. Metformin and weight reduction therapy decreased also hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance. PMID:23608322
Purpose Smoking during pregnancy is strongly associated with increased risk of small for gestational age (SGA) and low birth weight, while elevated prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) is associated with a decreased risk of SGA and higher birth weight. We investigated the combined effect of prenatal smoking and prepregnancy BMI on risk of SGA and on birth weight. Methods A total of 34,928 singleton, term pregnancies in residents of New York City between 1995 and 2003 were evaluated in multivariable regression models of birth weight and risk of SGA. Results Increasing prepregnancy BMI reduced the risk of SGA and increased birth weight. The effect of prenatal smoking on birth weight and SGA diminished in women as their prepregnancy BMI increased, such that prenatal smoking did not significantly impact the risk of SGA among women who were overweight or obese prior to pregnancy. Prenatal smoking decreased mean birth weight by 187 grams (95% confidence interval (CI): -337, -37) among underweight women, by 129 grams (95% CI: -170, -87) among normal weight women, by 46 grams (95% CI: -113, +20) among overweight women, and by 75 grams (95% CI: -162, +11) among obese women. Conclusions This study suggests that the effect of smoking during pregnancy on SGA and birth weight is present in underweight and normal weight women but markedly reduced among obese and overweight women.
La Merrill, Michele A.; Stein, Cheryl R.; Landrigan, Philip; Engel, Stephanie M.; Savitz, David A.
Objective: Cachexia and weight loss are frequently seen in cancer patients. We investigated lipid metabolism to elucidate a metabolic basis for adequate nutrition of cancer patients.Design: Lipid metabolism was assessed by indirect calorimetry and triglyceride clearance rates after randomised injection of a lipid bolus (long-chain triglycerides (LCT) or medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) during an euglycemic clamp protocol in cancer patients.Setting: Rudolf-Virchow
Olestra is a fat substitute made from fatty acids esterified to sucrose and can be used in the preparation of virtually any food made with fat. Foods made with olestra retain the mouthfeel, palatability and satiating effects of their full-fat counterparts without providing any digestible energy. Because olestra provides no energy, it has the potential to be a useful tool in weight loss and weight maintenance. Short-term studies of olestra replacement in foods demonstrate that fat replacement leads to a net reduction in fat intake. When excess total energy is available, fat replacement also reduces total energy intake in lean and obese men and women. In longer-term studies in which olestra is incorporated into the daily diet, there is an incomplete compensation for the fat energy replaced by olestra. When overweight men consumed olestra as part of a varied diet over nine months, weight loss continued for the duration of the study, whereas individuals receiving a typical low-fat diet regained most of the initial weight lost. Other studies are underway to examine the usefulness of olestra in long-term weight maintenance following weight loss. Post-marketing surveillance of olestra foods in the United States indicates that substitution of olestra for only 1-2 g of fat d-1 may be sufficient to prevent the average weight gain reported in adults of 0.5-1.0 kg year-1. PMID:12119656
BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that bodyweight support (BWS) has the potential to improve gait speed for individuals post-stroke. However, bodyweight support also reduces the optimal walking speed at which energy use is minimized over the gait cycle indicating that BWS should reduce walking speed capability. METHODS: Nonimpaired subjects and subjects post-stroke walked at a self-selected speed over
Jamie K Burgess; Gwendolyn C Weibel; David A Brown
Low-fat diets produce spontaneous weight loss in the research setting, but as a public health strategy, they have been disappointing. Insulin resistance and impairments in insulin secretory function leading to postprandial hyperglycaemia are now common, making the current context greatly different to that of 25 years ago. There is increasing evidence that reducing the proportion of energy derived from carbohydrate
Previous research has addressed the issues of behavior change and eating disorder prevention among adolescents and young women. The current study was designed to evaluate: (a) whether an 8-week psychoeducational intervention can reduce maladaptive weight-management practices in women (University females, N=24) with sub-clinical levels of eating pathology; and (b) whether its implementation reduces the risk of developing more severe eating
This study investigated reported bodyweight, concerns about bodyweight and eating styles in habitual heavy users (consume>825ml\\/day) and habitual non-users of artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs). Groups of habitual heavy users (N=51) and non-users (N=69) were compared on measures of weight using self-reported body mass index (BMI), and measures of weight concern and eating style using the Dutch Eating Behaviors
Background Successful weight management involves the regulation of eating behavior. However, the specific mechanisms underlying its successful regulation remain unclear. This study examined one potential mechanism by testing a model in which improved body image mediated the effects of obesity treatment on eating self-regulation. Further, this study explored the role of different body image components. Methods Participants were 239 overweight women (age: 37.6 ± 7.1 yr; BMI: 31.5 ± 4.1 kg/m2) engaged in a 12-month behavioral weight management program, which included a body image module. Self-reported measures were used to assess evaluative and investment body image, and eating behavior. Measurements occurred at baseline and at 12 months. Baseline-residualized scores were calculated to report change in the dependent variables. The model was tested using partial least squares analysis. Results The model explained 18-44% of the variance in the dependent variables. Treatment significantly improved both body image components, particularly by decreasing its investment component (f2 = .32 vs. f2 = .22). Eating behavior was positively predicted by investment body image change (p < .001) and to a lesser extent by evaluative body image (p < .05). Treatment had significant effects on 12-month eating behavior change, which were fully mediated by investment and partially mediated by evaluative body image (effect ratios: .68 and .22, respectively). Conclusions Results suggest that improving body image, particularly by reducing its salience in one's personal life, might play a role in enhancing eating self-regulation during weight control. Accordingly, future weight loss interventions could benefit from proactively addressing body image-related issues as part of their protocols.
With the evolution of robotic systems to facilitate overground walking rehabilitation, it is important to understand the effect of robotic-aided body-weight supported loading on lower limb muscle activity, if we are to optimize neuromotor recovery. To achieve this objective, we have collected and studied electromyography (EMG) data from key muscles in the lower extremity from healthy subjects walking over a wide range of body-weight off-loading levels as provided by a bespoke gait robot. By examining the impact of body-weight off-loading, it was found that muscle activation patterns were sensitive to the level of off-loading. In addition, a large off-loading might introduce disturbance of muscle activation pattern, led to a wider range of motion in terms of dorsiflexion/plantarflexion. Therefore, any future overground training machine should be enhanced to exclude unnecessary effect of body off-loading in securing the sustaining upright posture and providing assist-as-needed BWS over gait rehabilitation. PMID:22275558
Wang, Ping; Low, K H; Lim, Peter A C; McGregor, A H
The primary aim of this study was to test for changes in body image in men and women enrolled in the Look AHEAD trial. Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) is a multi-center, randomized controlled trial designed to test whether intentional weight loss reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in overweight individuals with type 2 diabetes. Participants included 157 adults at one site (Pennington Biomedical Research Center) of the Look AHEAD study. At baseline, the mean body mass index (BMI) of the female participants was 36.4, and the mean BMI for males was 33.5. Following baseline assessment, participants were randomly assigned to the Intensive Lifestyle intervention (ILI, n = 81) or Diabetes Support and Education (DSE, n = 76). The Body Morph Assessment version 2.0 (BMA 2.0) was used to assess estimates of perceived current body size, ideal body size, acceptable body size, and body image dissatisfaction at baseline and one year. Over the 1 year, participants in the ILI group had significantly greater reductions in weight (10.1% for men and 8.9% for women) than those in the DSE group (+ 0.8% for men and ?0.2%, for women). Perceived current body size was reduced significantly more in both men and women in the ILI group, relative to DSE. There were also significantly greater reductions in body image dissatisfaction in the ILI group, relative to the DSE group for men and women. The results of this study indicate that body image dissatisfaction improved following participation in an intensive behavioral weight loss program.
Stewart, T. M.; Bachand, A. R.; Han, H.; Ryan, D. H.; Bray, G. A.; Williamson, D. A.
Background: Assessing body image self-perception has used BMI as an indicator of nutritional status. The visual analogue scale is a highly effective instrument for assessing people’s level of dissatisfaction with their bodyweight while evaluating the perceptual component of body image. Objective: By knowing body mass index of female medical students, to find out their pattern of body image perception and any attempts done to change their weight. Materials and Methods: All the students residing in MBBS ladies hostel were included in this study and a questionnaire regarding body image perception, diet, physical activity and attempts to change weight was instituted. Their responses were collected, tabulated, analyzed and interpreted. Results: Among 147 study subjects, according to BMI, 25(17%) were undernourished while 111(75.5%) and 11(7.5%) were normally nourished and overweight respectively. 35(23.8%) of the subjects felt they were lean, 95(64.6%) felt they were normal and 17(11.6%) felt they were overweight. Regarding image satisfaction, 98(66.7%) of them were satisfied with their image and out of 49 who were not satisfied 30 (20.4 %) wanted to reduceweight. Skipping meals was practiced by 42 (28.6%) of subjects. Conclusion: About 75.5% of the study group were having normal BMI. Most of them perceived their image correctly regarding to their weight. Most of the underweight and all overweight females were not satisfied. Underweight females preferred to gain weight and overweight females preferred to lose weight.
Priya, D; Prasanna, K S; Sucharitha, S; Vaz, Nafisa C
On Earth, when standing on two feet, we experience particular patterns of force and pressure on the soles of our feet. As we lift one foot and balance on the other, little or no increase in force or pressure is perceived on the sole of the stance foot even though the contact forces of support on that foot have doubled. The failure to perceive this increase is actually an illusion resulting from the operation of spatial constancy mechanisms serving to preserve feelings of near constant force and pressure on the support surface(s) of the body. On Earth, bodyweight and body mass are perceived as remaining constant regardless as to whether we are standing on two feet or one and whether we are carrying large objects. In the high force phase(2 g acceleration) of parabolic flight, bodyweight is perceived as doubling, and a great increase in force is perceived on the soles of our feet if we are standing. When shifting balance from two feet to one, an increase in force of approximately 0.5 mg is felt on the sole of the stance foot. The actual increase in force is 1.0 mg but perceptual compensation is only being made for a 0.5 mg increase such as would be characteristic of shifting balance on Earth; accordingly an additional 0.5 mg (1.0-0.5 mg) residue is perceived. These findings indicate that bodyweight is dependent on the magnitude of the gravitoinertial forces acting on the body. Variations in the contact forces supporting the body due to passive or active locomotion of the body or to objects that are being carried are monitored and disregarded in computing apparent bodyweight. When stepping up and down from a low platform during the high force phases of parabolic flight, aberrant motion of the body and the aircraft is experienced. These illusory motions result because the doubling of bodyweight in a 2 g force background alters the normal relationship between patterns of alpha and gamma activation of antigravity muscles, muscle spindle activity, and the movements of the body. Accordingly, sensory-motor control and perceptual and postural stability on Earth are dependent on an active calibration to a 1 g background force level. PMID:6697150
Replicated within full-sib family restricted index selection was conducted for eight generations in mice for high or low epididymal fat pad weight (EF) holding bodyweight (BW) constant. Pooled realized heritability estimates of index units based on high, low and divergent selection were 0.42±0.20, 0.44±0.19 and 0.42± 0.05, respectively, which were not different from the base population estimate of 0.33±0.10.
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore perceptions and beliefs about body size, weight, and weight loss among obese African American women in order to form a design of weight loss intervention with this target population. Six focus groups were conducted at a community health clinic. Participants were predominantly middle-aged with a mean Body Mass Index of 40.3
Christie A. Befort; Janet L. Thomas; Christine M. Daley; Paula C. Rhode; Jasjit S. Ahluwalia
Three hundred and twenty 1-week old ducklings (160 males and 160 females) were used to evaluate the bodyweight, body parts\\u000a and carcass characteristics of the African Muscovy duck. Sexual dimorphism was in favour of the male for all the parameters\\u000a throughout the experimental period, however the difference was significant (P?0.05) only after week 2. The 12-week old male\\u000a weighed
A. Téguia; H. Mafouo Ngandjou; H. Defang; J. Tchoumboue
Bodyweight was measured, and body fat distribution was deter- mined by dual energy x-ray in early postmenopausal women given either oral calcium (500 mg\\/day; control group; n 5 12) or hormonal replacement therapy (HRT), a combination of estradiol valerate (2 mg\\/day for 21 days) with cyproterone acetate (1 mg\\/day in the last 10 days of the treatment cycle; n
M. Gambacciani; M. CIAPONI; B. CAPPAGLI; L. PIAGGESI; L. DE SIMONE; R. ORLANDI; A. R. GENAZZANI
Understanding of the benefits of self-weighing are currently mixed, particularly with respect to women’s psychological health.\\u000a Applying Objectification theory (Fredrickson and Roberts 1997), we explored the role of body surveillance as a mechanism in the link between self-weighing, a common weight management\\u000a technique, and body dissatisfaction. The study was cross-sectional and the sample included primarily Caucasian, US college\\u000a students from
Genetic (co)variances between body condition score (BCS), bodyweight (BW), milk production, and fertility-related traits were estimated. The data analyzed included 8591 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with records for BCS, BW, milk production, and\\/or fertility from 78 seasonal calving grass-based farms throughout southern Ireland. Of the cows included in the analysis, 4402 had repeated records across the 2 yr of the
D. P. Berry; F. Buckley; P. Dillon; R. D. Evans; M. Rath; R. F. Veerkamp
It is not yet known whether early-life physical activity reduces the risk of developing breast cancer. Subgroup analyses according to menopausal status and body mass may help clarify this association. Data from a population-based case-control study of female residents of Wisconsin, Massachusetts, Maine, and New Hampshire were used to examine associations between body mass and breast cancer risk. Cases (n = 4614) were identified by each state's tumor registry; controls (n = 5817) were randomly selected from population lists. Frequency of participation in strenuous physical activity when 14-22 years of age, weight at age 18 and 5 years before interview, height, and other factors were ascertained through structured telephone interviews. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using logistic regression. Reductions in postmenopausal breast cancer risk associated with strenuous physical activity were greatest for women in the fourth quartile of body mass index at age 18; the OR for women with the highest activity frequency on average (> or =once/day) was 0.45 (95% CI = 0.26-0.79). Associations with frequency of activity also varied by weight change. Compared to women with no activity and little adult weight gain, frequent physical activity was associated with reduced postmenopausal breast cancer risk in women who had lost weight since age 18 (OR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.05-0.70) or had gained little or modest amounts of weight (weight gain: first tertile, OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.05-0.85; second tertile, OR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.14-0.66). Weighted MET score analyses yielded similar but less inverse results. These findings suggest that the reduced risk of postmenopausal breast cancer associated with frequent, early-life physical activity may be greatest in women who, over the adult years, either lost weight or gained only modest amounts. PMID:10868694
Shoff, S M; Newcomb, P A; Trentham-Dietz, A; Remington, P L; Mittendorf, R; Greenberg, E R; Willett, W C
Energy metabolism and some performance parameters were investigated in laying hens of 3 different bodyweight-genotypes: 6 x 7 (normal-sized, crossbred from normal-sized male and female lines, group 1), 47 x 38 (dwarf-sized, breeding from a dwarf-sized male line and a normal-sized female line, group 2) and 44 x 47 (dwarf-sized, breeding from dwarf-sized male and female lines, group 3). Energy balance was measured by indirect calorimetry through C- and N-balances in 12 animals of each group during 10 consecutive days at production peak, within the period between the 27th and the 37th week of age. Hens were caged individually at 23 degrees C environmental temperature and fed ad libitum on a laying mash. The mean bodyweight in the dwarf-sized groups 2 and 3 was 32% lower than in the normal-sized group 1 during the energy balance period. The daily gross energy intake in group 2 and 3 was decreased by 33 and 34%, respectively. There were no significant differences in digestibility and metabolizability of gross energy between the groups. The energy requirements for maintenance [kJ ME/kg0.75.d] derived from the energy balances were lower by 4% (P > 0.05) and 14% (P < 0.05) in the dwarf-sized groups 2 and 3 as compared with the normal-sized group 1, when equal coefficients of partial efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization for energy retention in body and eggs are assumed for the 3 body-mass genotypes. There were no relevant differences in body composition at the end of the energy balance periods as well as in egg composition between the 3 experimental groups. PMID:9850795
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether fibre supplementation is effective in weight-reduced subjects for maintenance of weight-loss in the long-term. DESIGN: Longitudinal, randomly assigned intervention study with supplementation of 20 g of water soluble fibre (guar gum) daily for 14 months after an energy-restricted period of two months (VLCD). SUBJECTS: Thirty-one female, obese subjects (age: 41.4±7.4 y: BMI 33.2±3.7 kg\\/m?2); 20 subjects
WJ Pasman; M. Westerterp-Plantenga; E. Muls; G Vansant; J van Ree; WHM Saris
We developed a new model of hypodynamic loading to support mice in chronic conditions of partial weight bearing, enabling simulations of reduced gravity environments and related clinical conditions. The novel hardware allows for reduced loading between 10 and 80% of normal bodyweight on all four limbs and enables characteristic quadrupedal locomotion. Ten-week-old female BALB/cByJ mice were supported for 21 days under Mars-analog suspension (38% weight bearing) and compared with age-matched and jacketed (100% weight bearing) controls. After an initial adaptation, weight gain did not differ between groups, suggesting low levels of animal stress. Relative to age-matched controls, mice exposed to Mars-analog loading had significantly lower muscle mass (?23% gastrocnemius wet mass, P < 0.0001); trabecular and cortical bone morphology (i.e., trabecular bone volume: ?24% at the distal femur, and cortical thickness: ?11% at the femoral midshaft, both P < 0.001); and biomechanical properties of the femoral midshaft (i.e., ?27% ultimate moment, P < 0.001). Bone formation indexes were decreased compared with age-matched full-weight-bearing mice, whereas resorption parameters were largely unchanged. Singly housed, full-weight-bearing controls with forelimb jackets were largely similar to age-matched, group-housed controls, although a few variables differed and warrant further investigation. Altogether, these data provide strong rationale for use of our new model of partial weight bearing to further explore the musculoskeletal response to reduced loading environments.
Granzella, Nicholas P.; Saito, Hiroaki; Newman, Dava J.; Young, Laurence R.; Bouxsein, Mary L.
Charts for body length and height, bodyweight, and height- and weight velocity basing on a longitudinal study with 306 children from the newborn age to 3 years of age, are presented. Length and weight velocity are strongest in the time between the 4th and 8th week of life. From the first to the fourth trimester velocities decrease continuously. PMID:2067872
Hesse, V; Bernhardt, I; Hofmann, A; Kunath, H; Hesse, G
Research has shown that exercise for weight control is associated with disordered eating indices in older adolescent or adult\\u000a exercisers in fitness centers. This study examined whether these relationships could be replicated in a more general sample\\u000a of 140 Dutch adolescent girls between 13 and 18 years old. Questions about sport participation, items from the Multidimensional\\u000a Body Image Questionnaire and BULIT-R,
Liesbeth Woertman; Frank C. Bakker; Raôul R. D. Oudejans
Eucommia ulmoides Oliver leaf extracts (ELE) have been shown to exert a hypolipidemic effect in hamsters. Therefore, it was hypothesized that ELE might affect lipid metabolism via changes in autonomic nerve activities and causes changes in thermogenesis and bodyweight. We examined this hypothesis, and found that intraduodenal (ID) injection of ELE elevated epididymal white adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity
Genetic and phenotypic parameters of bodyweight (BW), hip height, heart girth, and linear conforma- tion traits were estimated from field data for 7344 lactating Holstein heifers from 560 herds. Mean BW was around 540 kg at calving, decreased to a mini- mum of 514 kg by wk 6, and increased to >590 kg by wk 45 of lactation. The
Body image and weight loss beliefs and behaviors were assessed in 341 female and 221 male high school students. Estimates of body dissatisfaction varied depending on the measurement strategy used. Despite having similar weight distributions around the expected norm, girls were significantly more dissatisfied with their bodies than boys. Body Mass Index was positively related to body dissatisfaction in girls
Susan J. Paxton; Eleanor H. Wertheim; Kay Gibbons; George I. Szmukler; Lynne Hillier; Janice L. Petrovich
The maximum acceptable weights of lift (MAWL) of obese and non-obese participants were empirically investigated. Three obesity levels were considered: non-obese (18.5kg\\/m2?body mass index (BMI)?24.9kg\\/m2), moderately obese (35kg\\/m2?BMI?39.9kg\\/m2) and extremely obese (BMI? 40kg\\/m2). Ten male and 10 female participants were recruited for each obesity level. The participants determined their MAWL for 18 different lifting task conditions (six lifting frequencies×three lifting
BACKGROUND: Current understanding of the associations between actual bodyweight status, weight perception, body dissatisfaction, and weight control practices among low-income urban African American adolescents is limited. The knowledge can help direct future intervention efforts. METHODS: Cross-sectional data including measured weight and height and self-reported weight status collected from 448 adolescents in four Chicago Public Schools were used. RESULTS: The
The discovery of cannabinoid receptors, together with the development of selective cannabinoid receptor antagonists, has encouraged a resurgence of cannabinoid pharmacology. With the identification of endogenous agonists, such as anandamide, scientists have sought to uncover the biological role of endocannabinoid systems; initially guided by the long-established actions of cannabis and exogenous cannabinoids such as delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). In particular, considerable research has examined endocannabinoid involvement in appetite, eating behaviour and bodyweight regulation. It is now confirmed that endocannabinoids, acting at brain CB1 cannabinoid receptors, stimulate appetite and ingestive behaviours, partly through interactions with more established orexigenic and anorexigenic signals. Key structures such as the nucleus accumbens and hypothalamic nuclei are sensitive sites for the hyperphagic actions of these substances, and endocannabinoid activity in these regions varies in relation to nutritional status and feeding expression. Behavioural studies indicate that endocannabinoids increase eating motivation by enhancing the incentive salience and hedonic evaluation of ingesta. Moreover, there is strong evidence of an endocannabinoid role in energy metabolism and fuel storage. Recent developments point to potential clinical benefits of cannabinoid receptor antagonists in the management of obesity, and of agonists in the treatment of other disorders of eating and bodyweight regulation. PMID:16148436
Bodyweight is determined by a balance between food intake and energy expenditure. Multiple neural circuits in the brain have evolved to process information about food, food-related cues and food consumption to control feeding behavior. Numerous gastrointestinal endocrine cells produce and secrete satiety hormones in response to food consumption and digestion. These hormones suppress hunger and promote satiation and satiety mainly through hindbrain circuits, thus governing meal-by-meal eating behavior. In contrast, the hypothalamus integrates adiposity signals to regulate long-term energy balance and bodyweight. Distinct hypothalamic areas and various orexigenic and anorexigenic neurons have been identified to homeostatically regulate food intake. The hypothalamic circuits regulate food intake in part by modulating the sensitivity of the hindbrain to short-term satiety hormones. The hedonic and incentive properties of foods and food-related cues are processed by the corticolimbic reward circuits. The mesolimbic dopamine system encodes subjective "liking" and "wanting" of palatable foods, which is subjected to modulation by the hindbrain and the hypothalamic homeostatic circuits and by satiety and adiposity hormones. Satiety and adiposity hormones also promote energy expenditure by stimulating brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity. They stimulate BAT thermogenesis mainly by increasing the sympathetic outflow to BAT. Many defects in satiety and/or adiposity hormone signaling and in the hindbrain and the hypothalamic circuits have been described and are believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of energy imbalance and obesity. PMID:23990408
This study compared the relative effectiveness of two means of energy deficit, food restriction (FR) and increased physical activity (EX), on bodyweight, body composition and concentrations of serum leptin, insulin, glucose, and lipids in female subjects. Thirteen adult female volunteers participated in a two-phase crossover-treatment study. Each phase involved a 9-day energy deficit period and a 5-day follow up
Excessive bodyweight, particularly in children, is a growing concern in the United States and around the world. Bodyweight is affected by feeding behavior and physical activity. Environmental factors affect feeding behaviors and physical activity; there...
Abstract Objective This study reports on the effects of laser acupuncture on blood pressure, bodyweight, and heart rate variability by stimulating acupuncture points and meridians on college students and faculty members. Methods Forty-five students and faculty members from a chiropractic college were recruited in the study. All subjects signed a written informed consent before their participation in the study. This study was a randomized controlled pilot study with subjects divided into control and experimental groups. The control group received a sham low-level laser therapy treatment with no power output to the laser during their “treatment.” The experimental group was treated with an activated laser. The acupuncture points used in this study were LI 4 and LI 11 for bodyweight and blood pressure. The treatment groups received 16 J of laser energy output for a total treatment time of 8 minutes (4 minutes for each of the 2 points). Results After using the laser treatment for 90 days (at least 12 treatments per subject), both the systolic and diastolic blood pressures decreased significantly (P < .01). The mean systolic blood pressure was 129.6 ± 14.7 mm Hg before the treatment and was reduced to 122.5 ± 17.2 mm Hg (P < .001). The mean diastolic blood pressure was 85.6 ± 8.0 mm Hg before treatment and was reduced to 77.2 ± 8.7 mm Hg (P < .001). Subject's bodyweight was reduced in the active acupoint group, but the weight reduction did not reach a significant level. There were no significant changes in the heart rate variability. Conclusion It was concluded that low-level laser treatment of acupoint resulted in lower blood pressure by stimulating the LI 11 and LI 4. No significant difference was observed in both the bodyweight and heart rate variability after the laser acupoint treatment.
Summary Data on 436 Mehraban fat-tailed ewe lambs collected during 1985 to 1988 were analysed. A 4-year study of factors affecting\\u000a age and bodyweight at puberty in Mehraban ewe lambs showed that the year of birth did not affect age at puberty but body\\u000a weight at puberty. Sires significantly influenced age and bodyweight at puberty with bodyweight being
The mouse is an important model organism for investigating the molecular mechanisms of bodyweight regulation, but a quantitative understanding of mouse energy metabolism remains lacking. Therefore, we created a mathematical model of mouse energy metabolism to predict dynamic changes of bodyweight, body fat, energy expenditure, and metabolic fuel selection. Based on the principle of energy balance, we constructed
It has been recently proposed that obestatin, a peptide en- coded by the ghrelin gene, reduces food intake by activating the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR39. To gain fur- ther insights into the role of GPR39 in bodyweight homeosta- sis, we characterized the phenotype of mice with targeted disruption of the GPR39 gene. Bodyweight, adiposity, and food intake
Frederic Tremblay; Mylene Perreault; Lori D. Klaman; James F. Tobin; Erica Smith; Ruth E. Gimeno
Our aim was to critically evaluate the relations among smoking, bodyweight,bodyfatdistribution,andinsulinresistanceasreported in the literature. In the short term, nicotine increases energy expen- diture and could reduce appetite, which may explain why smokers tendtohavelowerbodyweightthandononsmokersandwhysmok- ing cessation is frequently followed by weight gain. In contrast, heavysmokerstendtohavegreaterbodyweightthandolightsmok- ers or nonsmokers, which likely reflects a clustering of risky behav- iors(eg,lowdegreeofphysicalactivity,poordiet,andsmoking)that is conducive to weight
Arnaud Chiolero; David Faeh; Fred Paccaud; Jacques Cornuz
The effect of habitual exercise on vascular function, including central arterial distensibility and endothelial function, in obese subjects has not yet been clarified. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training affects central arterial distensibility and endothelial function in middle-age overweight and obese men. A total of 21 overweight and obese men (age 50 +/- 2 years, body mass index 30 +/- 1 kg/m(2)) completed a 12-week aerobic exercise intervention. Aerobic exercise training significantly reduced their bodyweight and resulted in a significant decrease in body mass index. After the weight-reduction exercise program, carotid arterial compliance (determined by simultaneous B-mode ultrasonography and arterial applanation tonometry on the common carotid artery) significantly increased; and the beta-stiffness index, an index of arterial compliance adjusted for distending pressure, significantly decreased. The concentrations of plasma endothelin-1, a potent vasoconstrictor peptide produced by vascular endothelial cells, significantly decreased and plasma nitric oxide (measured as the stable end product [nitrite/nitrate]), a potent vasodilator produced by vascular endothelial cells, significantly increased after the weight-reduction exercise program. In conclusion, weight reduction by aerobic exercise training in overweight and obese men increased the central arterial distensibility. This increase might contribute to the improvement in endothelial function, as assessed by a decrease in endothelin-1 and an increase in nitric oxide, after exercise training-induced weight loss. PMID:19733718
Three experiments were performed to examine the heritability of bodyweight among adult Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) evaluated in Yaquina Bay, Oregon, USA, and to determine if selection on individual bodyweight could result in changes in offspring survival and yield. The first two experiments utilized midparent–offspring regressions to estimate the heritability (h2) of adult oyster bodyweight and the
BACKGROUND: A sedentary lifestyle is often assumed to lead to increases in bodyweight and potentially obesity and related diseases but in fact little is known about the genetic association between physical activity and bodyweight. We tested for such an association between bodyweight and the distance, duration, and speed voluntarily run by 310 mice from the F2 generation
Concern about weight gain after tobacco cessation is a potential barrier to quitting tobacco. Few studies, however, have examined the role of body image in cessation-related weight concerns and anticipated relapse. This study investigated relationships between current body image dissatisfaction, anticipated body image dissatisfaction (discrepancy between anticipated post-cessation body shape and desired body shape), cessation-related weight concerns, and intention to
Anne C. Dobmeyer; Alan L. Peterson; Christine R. Runyan; Christine M. Hunter; Lisa R. Blackman
Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus have been shown to produce aflatoxins in stored foodstuffs such as peanuts, cottonseed meal, rice, and grains. Aflatoxin-treated animals, especially those that have not matured, fail to gain bodyweight as rapidly as controls and protein synthesis is reduced. Zinc is a necessary trace element in the diet. Slight deficiencies produce growth retardation, an inhibition of the animal's general well-being, and a reduction in feed efficiency. Many changes observed in bone of zinc deficient animals were similar to those observed with decreased feed intake. High levels of zinc are relatively non-toxic. Copper is required in the diet for prevention of anemia. It has been suggested to have a protective effect against several carcinogens, and is an essential component of many oxidative enzyme systems. In an effort to determine the potential effects of the interaction of metals and aflatoxins, these studies were initiated. Reported herein are bodyweights, organ weights, bone sizes and radiographic evaluations.
Llewellyn, G.C.; Floyd, E.A.; Hoke, G.D.; Weekley, L.B.; Kimbrough, T.D.
The pancreatic B-cell hormone amylin has been proposed to be both a satiation signal and an adiposity signal. The effects of peripheral amylin on energy balance are well investigated, but the effects of central amylin are less clear. We determined the effects of low doses of amylin administered into the 3rd cerebral ventricle (i3vt) on food intake, bodyweight and other indices of energy balance. Amylin (2 pmol/h) significantly lowered bodyweight compared to saline after 2 weeks of infusion, independent of whether prior bodyweight was decreased by fasting, increased by voluntary overfeeding or unmanipulated. A bolus injection of amylin (10 pmol, i3vt) increased energy expenditure and body temperature, whereas chronic i3vt amylin infusion had no effect on energy expenditure above that of control rats even though body temperature was increased. Chronic amylin also reduced RQ, implying a preferential oxidation of fat. Overall, the data provide new evidence that amylin is an adiposity signal that acts within the brain, and informing the brain about the status of peripheral energy stores.
WIELINGA, Peter Y.; LOWENSTEIN, Christian; MUFF, Sabine; MUNZ, Manuela; WOODS, Stephen C.; LUTZ, Thomas A.
Background Based on recent studies, the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) updated its guideline to recommend that empiric vancomycin dosing should be calculated on actual bodyweight, rather than conventional fixed dosing. A vancomycin trough level is a surrogate for its efficacy, and sub- and supra-therapeutic levels are risks for bacterial resistance and nephrotoxicity respectively. Objective To determine if IDSA-recommended weight-based dosing achieves timely therapeutic vancomycin levels, and avoids sub- and supratherapeutic levels across body mass index (BMI) categories. Methods Retrospective study of patients who received vancomycin for a suspected or proven gram-positive infection from March–June 2012 at The Queen's Medical Center. Inclusion criteria: (1) age ?18 years old; (2) vancomycin>3 doses; and (3) vancomycin trough level measured at appropriate time. Exclusion criteria: (1) CrCl<60 ml/min; (2) non-standard vancomycin dosing regimen and/or schedule. Patients were divided into 5 BMI (kg/m2) groups: <20, 20–24.9, 25–29.9, 30–34.9, and ?35. The primary outcome was the proportion of initial vancomycin trough levels that were sub-therapeutic (<10 mg/L), therapeutic (10–20 mg/L), and supra-therapeutic (>20 mg/L). Results We identified 171 eligible patients. Overall, only 44.4% of patients had a therapeutic trough level, 32.7% with sub-therapeutic and 22.8% supra-therapeutic. The proportion of patients with therapeutic, sub- and supra-therapeutic trough levels differed significantly by BMI group (P=.005). With increasing BMI category, the proportion of patients with supra-therapeutic levels significantly increased (P=.003). For example, among patients with BMI ?35, 48% were supra-therapeutic and 17% were sub-therapeutic, compared with 12% and 37% respectively in patients with BMI 20–24.9. With each increase in BMI of 5 kg/m2, the odds of being supratherapeutic increased by 35% (P=.005). Conclusion Adherence to the revised IDSA recommendations for weight-based vancomycin dosing is associated with variation in trough levels, a proxy for efficacy and safety, that is related to weight. More studies are needed to determine the optimal dosing of vancomycin in obese patients.
Seto, Todd B; Davis, James; Dement, Lois; Bello, Erlaine F
Our objective was to examine whether elevated ?-lactalbumin (?lac) protein intake compared to elevated supra sustained milk protein (SSP) and sustained milk protein (SP) intake results into a difference in bodyweight and body composition over a 6-month energy-restriction intervention. Bodyweight, body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), satiety and blood- and urine-parameters of 87 subjects (BMI 31 ± 5
Stijn Soenen; Ananda Hochstenbach-Waelen; Margriet S. Westerterp-Plantenga
This study examined factors that influence body image and strategies to either lose weight or increase muscle among children. Participants were 237 boys and 270 girls. Body mass index (BMI), body dissatisfaction, cognitions and behaviors to both lose weight and increase muscles, as well as self-esteem and positive and negative affect, were evaluated. Self-esteem was associated with body satisfaction, positive
Nutrition plays a major role in the pathogenesis of the most widespread forms of nephrolithiasis, i.e. calcium (calcium oxalate and phosphate) and uric acid stone disease. For this reason, dietary measures are the first level of intervention in primary prevention, as well as in secondary prevention of recurrences. An unbalanced diet or particular sensitivity to various foods in stone formers can lead to urinary alterations such as hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, hypocitraturia and an excessively acid urinary pH. Over the course of time, these conditions contribute to the formation or recurrence of kidney stones, due to the effect they exert on the lithogenous salt profile. The fundamental aspects of the nutritional approach to the treatment of idiopathic nephrolithiasis are bodyweight, diet and water intake. This paper will present data resulting from our own investigations and the most significant evidence in literature. PMID:15133330
Purpose Estrogens and androgens are elevated in obesity and associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer risk, but the effect of weight loss on these biomarkers is unknown. We evaluated the individual and combined effects of a reduced-calorie weight loss diet and exercise on serum sex hormones in overweight and obese postmenopausal women. Patients and Methods We conducted a single-blind, 12-month, randomized controlled trial from 2005 to 2009. Participants (age 50 to 75 years; body mass index > 25.0 kg/m2, exercising < 100 minutes/wk) were randomly assigned using a computer-generated sequence to (1) reduced-calorie weight loss diet (“diet”; n = 118), (2) moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise (“exercise”; n = 117), (3) combined reduced-calorie weight loss diet and moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise (“diet + exercise”; n = 117), or (4) control (n = 87). Outcomes were estrone concentration (primary) and estradiol, free estradiol, total testosterone, free testosterone, androstenedione, and sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations (secondary). Results Mean age and body mass index were 58 years and 30.9 kg/m2, respectively. Compared with controls, estrone decreased 9.6% (P = .001) with diet, 5.5% (P = .01) with exercise, and 11.1% (P < .001) with diet + exercise. Estradiol decreased 16.2% (P < .001) with diet, 4.9% (P = .10) with exercise, and 20.3% (P < .001) with diet + exercise. SHBG increased 22.4% (P < .001) with diet and 25.8% (P < .001) with diet + exercise. Free estradiol decreased 21.4% (P < .001) with diet and 26.0% (P < .001) with diet + exercise. Free testosterone decreased 10.0% (P < .001) with diet and 15.6% (P < .001) with diet + exercise. Greater weight loss produced stronger effects on estrogens and SHBG. Conclusion Weight loss significantly lowered serum estrogens and free testosterone, supporting weight loss for risk reduction through lowering exposure to breast cancer biomarkers.
Campbell, Kristin L.; Foster-Schubert, Karen E.; Alfano, Catherine M.; Wang, Chia-Chi; Wang, Ching-Yun; Duggan, Catherine R.; Mason, Caitlin; Imayama, Ikuyo; Kong, Angela; Xiao, Liren; Bain, Carolyn E.; Blackburn, George L.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; McTiernan, Anne
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) provides functional information and can be used for the detection and\\u000a characterization of pathologic processes, including malignant tumors. The recently introduced concept of “diffusion-weighted\\u000a whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression” (DWIBS) now allows acquisition of volumetric diffusion-weighted\\u000a images of the entire body. This new concept has unique features different from conventional DWI and may
Thomas C. Kwee; Taro Takahara; Reiji Ochiai; Rutger A. J. Nievelstein; Peter R. Luijten
Background: Short-term studies have demonstrated a modest weight-reducing to weight-neutral effect among patients receiving bupropion sustained-release (SR) for the treatment of depression.Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the long-term effects of bupropion SR on bodyweight in patients with depression.Methods: This analysis was conducted within a long-term relapse-prevention study in patients with major depression. Those whose depression had responded
Harry Croft; Trisha L. Houser; Brenda D. Jamerson; Robert Leadbetter; Carolyn Bolden-Watson; Rafe Donahue; Alan Metz
Research suggests that poor body image, low self-esteem, and depression may be associated with failure to maintain weight loss (Lean, 2000). However, definitive results are lacking, necessitating further research. Both successful and unsuccessful weight maintainers (N = 148) were recruited from weight-loss programs. Self-report measures on dimensions of body image, depression, and self-esteem were administered at baseline and a three-month
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of short-term repeated weight cycling (WC) above and below the baseline (BL) bodyweight (BW) on bodyweight regulation, feeding efficiency, and fat content in old female Wistar rats when dietary fat content was kept constant.DESIGN: Completely randomized.ANIMALS AND METHODS: Female Wistar rats, 11 months old at the beginning of the study, were randomly divided
Background: Epidemiologic data have shown that obesity independently increases colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Obesity is an inflammatory state, and chronic colonic inflammation induces CRC. Objective: We conducted this proof-of-principle study to seek evidence of obesity-associated colorectal inflammation and to evaluate effects of diet-induced weight loss. Design: We measured inflammatory cytokines, gene arrays, and macrophage infiltration in rectosigmoid mucosal biopsies of 10 obese premenopausal women [mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m2): 35 ± 3.5] before and after weight loss induced by a very-low-calorie diet. Results: Subjects lost a mean (±SD) of 10.1 ± 1% of their initial weight. Weight loss significantly reduced fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interleukin (IL)-8 concentrations (P < 0.05). After weight loss, rectosigmoid biopsies showed a 25–57% reduction in TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-8, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 concentrations (P < 0.05). T cell and macrophage counts decreased by 28% and 42%, respectively (P < 0.05). Gene arrays showed dramatic down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine pathways, prostaglandin metabolism, and the transcription factors STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) and nuclear transcription factor ?B. Weight loss reduced expression of FOS and JUN genes and down-regulated oxidative stress pathways and the transcription factors ATF (activating transcription factor) and CREB (cyclic AMP response element-binding). Conclusions: Our data show that diet-induced weight loss in obese individuals reduces colorectal inflammation and greatly modulates inflammatory and cancer-related gene pathways. These data imply that obesity is accompanied by inflammation in the colorectal mucosa and that diet-induced weight loss reduces this inflammatory state and may thereby lower CRC risk.
Pendyala, Swaroop; Neff, Lisa M; Suarez-Farinas, Mayte; Holt, Peter R
Previous studies using current or recent adult bodyweight and body mass index are inconclusive as to a possible effect of increased body mass on premenopausal breast cancer incidence. Only five studies have presented data onearly adult body mass, and no study has reported these data for premenopausalbilateral breast cancer. Because premenopausal bilateral breast cancer is assumed to be partly
Giske Ursin; Annlia Paganini-Hill; Jack Siemiatycki; W. Douglas Thompson; Robert W. Haile
Background Bodyweight is at least partly controlled by the choices made by a human in response to external stimuli. Changes in bodyweight are mainly caused by energy intake. By analyzing the mechanisms involved in food intake, we considered that molecular diffusion plays an important role in bodyweight changes. We propose a model based on Fick's second law of diffusion to simulate the relationship between energy intake and bodyweight. Results This model was applied to food intake and bodyweight data recorded in humans; the model showed a good fit to the experimental data. This model was also effective in predicting future bodyweight. Conclusions In conclusion, this model based on molecular diffusion provides a new insight into the bodyweight mechanisms. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Dr. Cabral Balreira (nominated by Dr. Peter Olofsson), Prof. Yang Kuang and Dr. Chao Chen.
Three hundred and twenty 1-week old ducklings (160 males and 160 females) were used to evaluate the bodyweight, body parts and carcass characteristics of the African Muscovy duck. Sexual dimorphism was in favour of the male for all the parameters throughout the experimental period, however the difference was significant (P<0.05) only after week 2. The 12-week old male weighed 1832.0+/-180.4 g while the female reached only 68.2% of the male weight. Metatarsus diameter, thoracic perimeter, body length, length of bill, foot and wing in cm were respectively 1.3, 29.5, 57.5, 7.0, 27.1 and 27.8 for the male as compared with 1.2, 25.8, 51.0, 6.3, 23.3 and 26.9 for the female. Body measurements were highly (P<0.01) correlated with bodyweight for both sexes, however the highest correlation coefficients were obtained with wing length (0.990 and 0.995) and thoracic perimeter (0.993 and 0.973) for female and male respectively. Live bodyweight had a linear relationship with both wing length (R2=0.991 and 0.81) and thoracic perimeter (R2=0.948 and 0.986) for male and female respectively. The female duck yielded higher percent ready-to-cook carcass (66.3%), breast (13.6%), liver (2.8%), heart (1.5%) and gizzard (3.8%) as compared to the male (65.0%, 12.0%, 2.5%, 1.1% and 3.4% respectively) although the difference was not significant (P>0.05). The male small intestine (185.1+/-3.4 cm), colon (14.8+/-1.0 cm) and caecum (17.9+/-0.4 cm) were significantly (P<0.05) longer than that of the female (152.2+/-1.8, 10.8+/-0.7 and 14.85+/-0.6 cm respectively). PMID:18551772
Introduction: A favorable or unfavorable attitude about self was named self esteem. According to Maslow theory to achieve quality of life and happiness, one must reach the gradual fulfillment of human needs, including a high degree of own self-esteem. Body dissatisfaction is a negative distortion of one's body which is especially mentioned by the women. Many studies have shown links between self esteem, body dissatisfaction, health and behaviors. this study intends to determine relationship between body satisfaction, self esteem and unhealthy weight control behaviors between women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 408 women employees in Isfahan University and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences during 1390. They were chosen according to the stratified random sampling method. Inclusion criteria were 1) willing to participate in the study and 2) lack of serious physical defect 3) not being in pregnancy or breastfeeding course. Exclusion criteria was filling out questionnaires incompletely. Data collection tool was a multidimensional questionnaire which comprised of 4 sections as following: demographic (5items), A self-administrative questionnaire for body Satisfaction (7 items), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (10 items) and a standard Weight Control Behavior Scale (18 items). Cranach's alpha was 0.9 or higher for the different sections. Finally, collected data was analyzed with SPSS18 using the independent T-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient, regression, Spearman correlation. Results: Frequencies of participants by weight category were 14.1% for obese, 35.3% for overweight, 47.6% for normal weight. The mean body satisfaction score in the studied women was 63.26 ± 16.27 (from 100). Mean score of self esteem was 76.70 ± 10.45. 51.5% of women had medium self esteem, 47.5% had high self esteem. Pearson correlation showed that the variables of body Satisfaction (r = 0.3, P = 0.02), BMI (r = - 0.14, P < 0.003), education level (r = 0.22, P < 0.001), income (r = 0.14, P < 0.004), consumption of fruit (r = 0.13, P < 0.008) all correlated with self-esteem significantly. Women with higher self esteem used higher fruits had a good nutrition overall (r = 0.11, P = 0.02). 92.15%, 10.8% of women respectively participated in one of healthy and unhealthy weight control behavior. There was not any Relationship between self esteem and healthy weight control behavior while finding showed reverse relationship between self esteem and Unhealthy Dieting Behaviors. Conclusion: It seemed women identity in our society tied to social appreciations that formed and supported by body satisfaction. When they feel their current appearance is differ from ideal appearance, they feel down and have lower self esteem and used unhealthy dieting behavior and low fruits daily. Due to importance of precise self evaluation, self esteem can be used to design and conduct public health programs, especially for women.
A total of 194 kids' monthly bodyweight and body measurements (heart girth, height at wither and body length) records were analysed at the University of Maiduguri to determine the appropriate model for estimating bodyweight at both preweaning and postweaning ages. The average weights at birth were 1.8kg and 1.67kg for males and females, respectively. The corresponding values for
Oxyntomodulin (OXM) is a peptide secreted postprandially from the L-cells of the gut that has a weak affinity for both the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1R) and the glucagon receptor (GCGR). Peripheral administration of OXM in humans and rodents causes weight loss reducing food intake and increasing energy expenditure. It has been suggested that OXM modulates energy intake solely through GLP1R agonism. Because glucagon decreases food intake in rodents and humans, we examined whether activation of the GCGR is involved in the bodyweight-lowering effects of OXM. We identified an equipotent GLP1R-selective peptide agonist that differs from OXM by only one residue (Q3?E, OXMQ3E), but has no significant GCGR agonist activity in vitro and ~100-fold reduced ability to stimulate liver glycogenolysis. Chronic treatment of obese mice with OXM and OXMQ3E demonstrated that OXM exhibits superior weight loss and lipid-lowering efficacy, and antihyperglycemic activity that is comparable to the corresponding GLP1R-selective agonist. Studies in Glp1r?/? mice and coadministration of OXM and a GCGR antagonist revealed that the antiobesity effect of OXM requires activation of both GLP1R and GCGR. Our data provide new insight into the mechanism of action of OXM and suggest that activation of GCGR is involved in the bodyweight-lowering action of OXM.
Kosinski, Jennifer R.; Hubert, James; Carrington, Paul E.; Chicchi, Gary G.; Mu, James; Miller, Corey; Cao, Jin; Bianchi, Elisabetta; Pessi, Antonello; SinhaRoy, Ranabir; Marsh, Donald J.; Pocai, Alessandro
For obese individuals seeking to optimize health and well-being, healthy dietary strategies are important. Vegetables and fruits contribute to a healthy diet, and increased consumption may cause weight reduction by displacing foods high in energy and fat. The objective of this study was to determine if advising high vegetable (8 servings) and moderate fruit (2-3 servings) consumption would result in weight reduction in obese individuals. We compared this to advising a more traditional strategy of reducing daily energy intake by 500 kcal (2.1 MJ)/d and limiting energy from fat to Weight and body composition were measured at baseline and after 3, 12, and 18 mo. Fasting serum lipid panel, insulin, glucose, hematocrit, and C-reactive protein were measured at baseline, 3, and 12 mo. Both groups lost weight after 3 mo (P=0.0087 for high vegetable diet and P<0.0001 for energy reduction diet), and the energy and fat reduction diet resulted in lower weight over time (P<0.0001, treatment effect). Total cholesterol and cholesterol:HDL decreased after 3 mo in both groups (Pweight loss at 3 mo, but only the group following the caloric and fat reduction advice maintained weight loss at the 12- and 18-mo follow-up assessments. Nonetheless, the group following the high vegetable advice did not regain weight above baseline. In conclusion, traditional messages to reduce calories and fat are important, and increasing vegetable intake can assist individuals to maintain weight. PMID:19234056
Tanumihardjo, Sherry A; Valentine, Ashley R; Zhang, Zhumin; Whigham, Leah D; Lai, HuiChuan J; Atkinson, Richard L
Gonadal steroids regulate appetite and thus bodyweight. In addition, continuous exposure to stressors negatively influences appetite through circuits likely distinct from those of gonadal steroids. The occurrence of adverse metabolic consequences due to chronic exposure to psychosocial stressors is twice as frequent in women as men, implicating a role for ovarian hormones, estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), in modulating stress-induced changes in appetite. Using social subordination in female macaques as a model of social stress, the current study tested the hypothesis that subordinate females would lose more weight during E2 treatment and gain less weight during P4 administration than dominant females. Because polymorphisms in the gene encoding the serotonin transporter (5HTT; SCL6A4) are known to alter responsivity to stress, we hypothesized that weight loss during E2 administration would be greatest in females with the short variant (s-variant) allele of 5HTT. Dominant females were significantly heavier than subordinate animals throughout the study, a result consistent with previous accounts of food intake when animals are fed a low-fat, high-fiber diet. Females with the s-variant 5HTT genotype weighed significantly less than l/l animals. Dominant animals lost significantly more weight than subordinate animals during E2 treatment. Administration of P4 blocked the weight-reducing effects of E2 in all females, regardless of social status. These data provide evidence that social subordination modulates the influence of ovarian steroid hormones on bodyweight in female rhesus monkeys independent of 5HTT genotype. Given the prosocial effects of these steroids, future studies are necessary to determine whether status differences in E2-induced weight loss are due to diminished food intake and or increases in energy expenditure and how the change in energy availability during E2 treatments relates to a female’s motivation to interact with conspecifics.
Placental growth is a strong predictor of fetal growth, but little is known about maternal predictors of placental growth in malnourished populations. Our objective was to investigate in a prospective study the associations of maternal weight and body composition [total body water (TBW) estimated by bioelectrical impedance and fat and fat-free mass derived from upper arm fat and muscle areas (UAFA, UAMA)] and changes in these with placental and birth weights. Within a cluster-randomized trial of maternal micronutrient supplementation, a subsample of 350 women was measured 3 times across gestation. Longitudinal analysis was used to examine independent associations of ?10-wk measurements and ?10–20 wk and ?20–32 wk changes with birth outcomes. Weight, TBW, and UAMA, but not UAFA, at ?10 wk were each positively and independently associated with placental weight and birth weight (P < 0.05). Of the maternal ?10–20 wk changes in measurements, only TBW change and placental weight, and maternal weight and birth weight were positively associated (P < 0.05). Gains in weight, TBW, and UAMA from 20 to 32 wk were positively and UAFA gain was negatively associated with placental weight (P ? 0.01). Gains in weight and UAMA from 20 to 32 wk were positively associated with birth weight (P ? 0.01). Overall, higher maternal weight and measures of fat-free mass at ?10 wk gestation and gains from 20 to 32 wk are independently associated with higher placental and birth weight.
Gernand, Alison D.; Christian, Parul; Paul, Rina Rani; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Labrique, Alain B.; Schulze, Kerry J.; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; West, Keith P.
Siberian hamsters display photoperiodically regulated annual cycles in bodyweight, appetite, and reproduction. Previous studies have revealed a profound up-regulation of type 3 deiodinase (DIO3) mRNA in the ventral ependyma of the hypothalamus associated with hypophagia and weight loss in short-day photoperiods. DIO3 reduces the local availability of T(3), so the aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that decreased hypothalamic T(3) availability underlies the short-day-induced catabolic state. The experimental approach was to determine whether a local increase in T(3) in the hypothalamus of hamsters exposed to short days could reverse the behavioral and physiological changes induced by this photoperiod. In study 1, microimplants releasing T(3) were placed bilaterally into the hypothalamus. This treatment rapidly induced a long-day phenotype including increased appetite and bodyweight within 3 wk of treatment and increased fat mass and testis size by the end of the 10-wk study period. In study 2, hypothalamic T(3) implants were placed into hamsters carrying abdominal radiotelemetry implants. Again bodyweight increased significantly, and the occurrence of winter torpor bouts was dramatically decreased to less than one bout per week, whereas sham-implanted hamsters entered torpor up to six times a week. Our findings demonstrate that increased central T(3) induces a long-day metabolic phenotype, but in neither study was the molt cycle affected, so we infer that we had not disrupted the initial detection of photoperiod. We conclude that hypothalamic thyroid hormone availability plays a key role in seasonal regulation of appetite, bodyweight, and torpor. PMID:22028444
Murphy, Michelle; Jethwa, Preeti H; Warner, Amy; Barrett, Perry; Nilaweera, Kanishka N; Brameld, John M; Ebling, Francis J P
A critical period for weight gain may occur during the transition from high school to university. This descriptive, noncontrolled cohort study of 116 healthy females examined the effect of this transition over three study visits in first year university. The main outcome measure was bodyweight; others were height, body composition, waist circumference, dietary intake, and participation in physical and
Melinda J. Edmonds; Kelly J. Ferreira; Erica A. Nikiforuk; Alida K. Finnie; Sarah H. Leavey; Alison M. Duncan; Janis A. Randall Simpson
To determine the effect of initial food restriction on sub sequent bodyweight gain and body fat accumulation, rats were restricted to 75, 50, or 25% of the intake of control rats for 1 week and were subse quently pair-fed on a food intake basis to the control rats. As expected, restricted rats gained weight at a slower rate and
To clarify the independent relationships of obesity and overweight to cardiovascular disease risk factors and sex steroid levels, three age-matched groups of men were studied: (i) 8 normal weight men, less than 15% body fat, by hydrostatic weighing; (ii) 16 overweight, obese men, greater than 25% body fat and 135-160% of ideal bodyweight (IBW); and (iii) 8 overweight, lean men, 135-160% IBW, but less than 15% fat. Diastolic blood pressure was significantly greater for the obese (mean +/- SEM, 82 +/- 2 mmHg) than the normal (71 +/- 2) and overweight lean (72 +/- 2) groups, as were low density lipoprotein levels (131 +/- 9 vs. 98 + 11 and 98 + 14 mg/dl), the ratio of high density lipoprotein to total cholesterol (0.207 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.308 +/- 0.03 and 0.302 +/- 0.03), fasting plasma insulin (22 +/- 3 vs. 12 +/- 1 and 13 +/- 2 microU/ml), and the estradiol/testosterone ratio (0.076 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.042 +/- 0.02 and 0.052 +/- 0.02); P less than 0.05. Estradiol was 25% greater for the overweight lean group (40 +/- 5 pg/ml) than the obese (30 +/- 3 pg/ml) and normal groups (29 +/- 2 pg/ml), P = 0.08, whereas total testosterone was significantly lower in the obese (499 +/- 33 ng/dl) compared with the normal and overweight, lean groups (759 +/- 98 and 797 +/- 82 ng/dl). Estradiol was uncorrelated with risk factors and the estradiol/testosterone ratio appeared to be a function of the reduced testosterone levels in obesity, not independently correlated with lipid levels after adjustment for body fat content. Furthermore, no risk factors were significantly different between the normal and overweight lean groups. We conclude that (a) body composition, rather than bodyweight per se, is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk factors; and (b) sex steroid alterations are related to body composition and are not an independent cardiovascular disease risk factor.
Segal, K R; Dunaif, A; Gutin, B; Albu, J; Nyman, A; Pi-Sunyer, F X
Background: A diet with a high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) may promote overconsumption of energy and increase the risk of weight gain. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the relation between GI and GL of habitual diets and subsequent 6-y changes in bodyweight, body fat distribution, and body composition in a ran- dom
Dietary fibers (DF) may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group): low DF control (C), 5% DF from cellulose (5-CEL), CEL + 5% DF from whole (5-WL) or ground linseed (5-GL), CEL + 5% DF from linseed DF extract (5-LDF), and CEL + 10% DF from linseed DF extract (10-LDF). Diets were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Feed intake and faecal output were measured during days 17-21. Faecal fat excretion increased with increasing DF content and was highest in the 10-LDF group. Apparent fat digestibility was highest with the C diet (94.9% ± 0.8%) and lowest (74.3% ± 0.6%) with the 10-LDF diet, and decreased in a non-linear manner with increasing DF (p < 0.001). Apparent fat digestibility also decreased with increased accessibility of DF (5-WL vs. 5-GL) and when the proportion of viscous DF increased (5-GL vs. 5-LDF). The 10-LDF resulted in a lower final bodyweight (258 ± 6.2 g) compared to C (282 ± 5.9 g), 5-CEL (281 ± 5.9 g), and 5-WL (285 ± 5.9 g) (p < 0.05). The 10-LDF diet reducedbody fat compared to 5-CEL (p < 0.01). In conclusion, DF extracted from linseed reduced apparent energy and fat digestibility and resulted in restriction of bodyweight gain in growing rats. PMID:23966109
Kristensen, Mette; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Jørgensen, Henry; Oomah, David; Bügel, Susanne; Toubro, Søren; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne
Dietary fibers (DF) may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group): low DF control (C), 5% DF from cellulose (5-CEL), CEL + 5% DF from whole (5-WL) or ground linseed (5-GL), CEL + 5% DF from linseed DF extract (5-LDF), and CEL + 10% DF from linseed DF extract (10-LDF). Diets were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Feed intake and faecal output were measured during days 17–21. Faecal fat excretion increased with increasing DF content and was highest in the 10-LDF group. Apparent fat digestibility was highest with the C diet (94.9% ± 0.8%) and lowest (74.3% ± 0.6%) with the 10-LDF diet, and decreased in a non-linear manner with increasing DF (p < 0.001). Apparent fat digestibility also decreased with increased accessibility of DF (5-WL vs. 5-GL) and when the proportion of viscous DF increased (5-GL vs. 5-LDF). The 10-LDF resulted in a lower final bodyweight (258 ± 6.2 g) compared to C (282 ± 5.9 g), 5-CEL (281 ± 5.9 g), and 5-WL (285 ± 5.9 g) (p < 0.05). The 10-LDF diet reducedbody fat compared to 5-CEL (p < 0.01). In conclusion, DF extracted from linseed reduced apparent energy and fat digestibility and resulted in restriction of bodyweight gain in growing rats.
Objective:The gene TSPAN8 was recently identified in a genome-wide association study as the most likely causal gene in a locus that was correlated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in northern European individuals. To assess whether Tspan8 is the actual T2D-causal gene in this locus, we ablated its expression in mice and determined the consequences of this ablation
M-F Champy; L Le Voci; M Selloum; L B Peterson; A M Cumiskey; D Blom
Weight loss is a common problem in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and this might be associated with an increased risk for mortality. Recent evidences have suggested that certain brain dysfunctions may result in impaired nutritional status in AD patients. However, the mechanism of bodyweight loss in AD remains enigmatic. To investigate a possible association between low bodyweight
The accuracy of weight loss in estimating successful changes in body composition (BC), namely fat mass (FM) loss, is not known and was addressed in our study. To assess the correlation between change in bodyweight and change in FM, fat% and fat-free mass (FFM), 465 participants (41% male; 41 ± 13 years), who met the criteria for weight change
Paulina Cruz; Bruce D. Johnson; Susan C. Karpinski; Katherine A. Limoges; Beth A. Warren; Kerry D. Olsen; Virend K. Somers; Michael D. Jensen; Matthew M. Clark; Francisco Lopez-Jimenez
Correlations between neonatal bodyweight, and bodyweight and several brain parameters at 30 days of age were studied in normal rats. At 30 days (‘adolescence’) cortex has already reached its final thickness and the rat exhibits long-term memory. Brain parameters included cerebral weight, DNA, protein and cholesterol contents and densities, as well as cortical and cerebral dimensions (cerebral sections).
Background Medical students are exposed to a growing number of obese patients in clinical encounters. Many medical students harbor negative attitudes and stereotypes regarding obese patients, which lead to negative interpersonal behaviors. This study pilot-tested the effectiveness of an educational intervention in reducing bias towards obese patients. Methods Second and third year medical students (N=64) watched a 17- minute video, “Weight Bias in Health Care,” and participated in interactive discussion to share experiences with encountering obese patients. The Beliefs About Obese Persons (BAOP), Attitudes Toward Obese Persons (ATOP), and Fat Phobia Scales (FPS) were administered pre- and post-intervention. Change in mean scores from pre- to post-intervention was tested for statistical significance using the paired samples t-test. General linear models were used to examine associations of subject characteristics with mean scores for each scale. Results The intervention increased beliefs that genetic and environmental factors play an important role in the cause of obesity as opposed to lack of personal control (mean BAOP increased from 16.53 to 19.27, p=0.0006). It also decreased students’ negative stereotypes regarding obese patients (mean FPS decreased from 3.65 to 3.45, p<0.0001). There were independent associations of subject characteristics with post-intervention ATOP scores, with more positive attitudes in younger, male, and white participants. Conclusions Implementing a short educational intervention was effective in improving medical students’ beliefs and stereotypes regarding obese patients. This widely accessible and easily replicable program can serve as a model and springboard for further development of educational interventions to reduceweight bias among medical students.
|Objectives: To investigate the association of current smoking with body mass index (BMI) and perceived bodyweight among high school students in the United States. Methods: We analyzed data from the 1999-2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results: Perceived bodyweight and BMI were associated with adolescents' current smoking. Adjusted odds ratios…
Body measurements (heart and paunch girths, wither height, chest depth, pelvic length and width, and body length), bodyweight, and calving evaluation data (calf birth weight, calf sex, calf presentation, and calving assistance needed) were col- lected from 1974 parities of 762 Holstein cows between 1968 and 1986. Degree of calving assistance was scored continu- ously from 1 (no assistance)
OBJECTIVE Metformin can decrease adiposity and ameliorate obesity-related comorbid conditions, including abnormalities in glucose homeostasis in adolescents, but there are few data evaluating the efficacy of metformin among younger children. Our objective was to determine whether metformin treatment causes weight loss and improves obesity-related comorbidities in obese children, who are insulin-resistant. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This study was a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial consisting of 100 severely obese (mean BMI 34.6 ± 6.6 kg/m2) insulin-resistant children aged 6–12 years, randomized to 1,000 mg metformin (n = 53) or placebo (n = 47) twice daily for 6 months, followed by open-label metformin treatment for 6 months. All children and their parents participated in a monthly dietitian-administered weight-reduction program. RESULTS Eighty-five percent completed the 6-month randomized phase. Children prescribed metformin had significantly greater decreases in BMI (difference ?1.09 kg/m2, CI ?1.87 to ?0.31, P = 0.006), bodyweight (difference ?3.38 kg, CI ?5.2 to ?1.57, P < 0.001), BMI Z score (difference between metformin and placebo groups ?0.07, CI ?0.12 to ?0.01, P = 0.02), and fat mass (difference ?1.40 kg, CI ?2.74 to ?0.06, P = 0.04). Fasting plasma glucose (P = 0.007) and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) insulin resistance index (P = 0.006) also improved more in metformin-treated children than in placebo-treated children. Gastrointestinal symptoms were significantly more prevalent in metformin-treated children, which limited maximal tolerated dosage in 17%. During the 6-month open-label phase, children treated previously with placebo decreased their BMI Z score; those treated continuously with metformin did not significantly change BMI Z score further. CONCLUSIONS Metformin had modest but favorable effects on bodyweight, body composition, and glucose homeostasis in obese insulin-resistant children participating in a low-intensity weight-reduction program.
Yanovski, Jack A.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Salaita, Christine G.; McDuffie, Jennifer R.; Kozlosky, Merel; Sebring, Nancy G.; Reynolds, James C.; Brady, Sheila M.; Calis, Karim A.
Studies examining the health benefits of high-protein diets typical of most affluent and many developing countries are not consistent. Prospective epidemiological studies relating dietary protein to clinical and metabolic endpoints suggest increased weight gain and increased risk of diabetes amongst those with a high protein intake and an increased risk of cancer with high intakes of red meat, but lower blood pressure and possibly a reduced risk of heart disease with higher protein intakes. The potential for high-protein diets to confer greater benefit than other diets has been examined using ad libitum and energy restricted diets. Of greatest interest have been the comparisons between high-protein and high-carbohydrate diets. Many trials have reported greater weight loss especially in the context of ad libitum diets over the short-to medium-term, sparing of lean body mass, lowering of triglyceride levels, improved HDL: total cholesterol ratio and improved glycaemic control. Limited data regarding insulin sensitivity are less consistent. A major difficulty in interpreting the results of these studies is that carbohydrate quality has not been taken into account. Furthermore, longer term comparisons of weightreducing diets differing in macronutrient composition have reported similar outcomes, suggesting that compliance is a more important consideration. Nevertheless dietary patterns with high-protein intakes are appropriate for weight reduction and weight maintenance and may be useful for those who have high triglyceride levels and other features of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:23107524
Dietary fibres are believed to reduce subjective appetite, energy intake and bodyweight. However, different types of dietary fibre may affect these outcomes differently. The aim of this review was to systematically investigate the available literature on the relationship between dietary fibre types, appetite, acute and long-term energy intake, and bodyweight. Fibres were grouped according to chemical structure and physicochemical properties (viscosity, solubility and fermentability). Effect rates were calculated as the proportion of all fibre-control comparisons that reduced appetite (n = 58 comparisons), acute energy intake (n = 26), long-term energy intake (n = 38) or bodyweight (n = 66). For appetite, acute energy intake, long-term energy intake and bodyweight, there were clear differences in effect rates depending on chemical structure. Interestingly, fibres characterized as being more viscous (e.g. pectins, ?-glucans and guar gum) reduced appetite more often than those less viscous fibres (59% vs. 14%), which also applied to acute energy intake (69% vs. 30%). Overall, effects on energy intake and bodyweight were relatively small, and distinct dose-response relationships were not observed. Short- and long-term effects of dietary fibres appear to differ and multiple mechanisms relating to their different physicochemical properties seem to interplay. This warrants further exploration. PMID:21676152
Wanders, A J; van den Borne, J J G C; de Graaf, C; Hulshof, T; Jonathan, M C; Kristensen, M; Mars, M; Schols, H A; Feskens, E J M
High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) accounts for as much as 40% of caloric sweeteners used in the United States. Some studies have shown that short-term access to HFCS can cause increased bodyweight, but the findings are mixed. The current study examined both short- and long-term effects of HFCS on bodyweight, body fat, and circulating triglycerides. In Experiment 1, male
Miriam E. Bocarsly; Elyse S. Powell; Nicole M. Avena; Bartley G. Hoebel
Objective:The aim of this longitudinal study is to examine the relationship between weight loss from maximum bodyweight, body mass index (BMI), and mortality in a nationally representative sample of men and women.Design:Longitudinal cohort study.Subjects:In all, 6117 whites, blacks, and Mexican-Americans 50 years and over at baseline who survived at least 3 years of follow-up, from the Third National Health
Objectives To investigate the contribution of novelty and simplicity to compliance with a low energy diet among obese outpatients. Design Three arm randomised trial for 16 weeks. Setting NHS hospital obesity clinic. Subjects 45 patients aged over 17 years with a body mass index >27 who were not diabetic, pregnant, or lactating. Interventions Conventional 3.4 MJ diet (control), isoenergetic novel diet of milk only, or milk plus one designated food daily. Follow up visit every 4 weeks. Main outcome measure Weight loss. Results Mean weight loss (kg) after 16 weeks on control, milk only, and milk plus diets was 1.7 (95% confidence interval ?0.3 to 3.7), 9.4 (5.9 to 12.9), and 7.0 (2.7 to 11.3) respectively. Weight loss on the novel diets was significantly greater than on the control diet. Conclusions Dietary treatment can achieve as much weight loss in obese outpatients over 16 weeks as has been reported for the most successful drug treatment, but compliance with the prescribed diet is poor unless the diet is novel and simple. Key messagesEnergy reducing diets often work poorly in obese outpatients, although they are effective for inpatientsIn this study patients put on a milk only diet had significant weight lossWeight loss was comparable with that achieved by drugsPatients are more likely to respond to a simple diet which they have not tried before than to advice on conventional diets
Summerbell, Carolyn D; Watts, Carolyn; Higgins, Julian P T; Garrow, John S
The objectives of this study were to estimate herita- bility for daily bodyweight (BW) and genetic correla- tions of daily BW with daily milk yield (MY), body condition score (BCS), dry matterintake, fat yield, and protein yield. The Afiweigh cow body weighing system records BW of every cow exiting the milking parlor. The Afiweigh system was installed at the
J. K. Toshniwal; C. D. Dechow; B. G. Cassell; G. A. Varga
Self-perception of bodyweight, management practices and goals, and other weight-related factors were assessed among a sample of 2,566 adolescents from 30 high schools in Hungary, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Romania, Ukraine, and Poland. Students who perceived themselves as much too fat were more likely than those with other weight perceptions to engage in weight management practices to lose weight, have higher body mass index, rate themselves lower on physical attractiveness, and estimate higher percentages of their same-sex friends as trying to lose weight. Similar to other research, boys and girls differed on self-perception of weight and other weight-related factors. Cross-cultural comparisons between central and eastern European adolescents and U.S. adolescents, as well as east and southeast Asian youth are made. Implications for health education practice are discussed. PMID:18039628
Page, Randy M; Ihász, Ferenc; Uvacsek, Martina; Kalabiska, Irén; Johnson, Erin; Hantiu, Iacob; Klarova, Renata; Simonek, Jaromir
Height and weight at menarche were found for each subject in three longitudinal growth studies. Early and late maturing girls have menarche at the same mean weight, but late maturers are taller at menarche. Two other major events of adolescence, initiation of the weight growth spurt and maximum rate of weight gain, also occur at an invariant mean weight. The
Maintenance of weight loss remains a challenge for most individuals. Thus, practical and effective weight-loss maintenance (WTLM) strategies are needed. A two-group 12-month WTLM intervention trial was conducted from June 2007 to February 2010 to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of a WTLM intervention for older adults using daily self-monitoring of bodyweight, step count, fruit/vegetable (F/V) intake, and water consumption. Forty weight-reduced individuals (mean weight lost=6.7±0.6 kg; body mass index [calculated as kg/m²] 29.2±1.1), age 63±1 years, who had previously participated in a 12-week randomized controlled weight-loss intervention trial, were instructed to record daily bodyweight, step count, and F/V intake (WEV [defined as weight, exercise, and F/V]). Experimental group (WEV+) participants were also instructed to consume 16 fl oz of water before each main meal (ie, three times daily), and to record daily water intake. Outcome measures included weight change, diet/physical activity behaviors, theoretical constructs related to health behaviors, and other clinical measures. Statistical analyses included growth curve analyses and repeated measures analysis of variance. Over 12 months, there was a linear decrease in weight (?=-0.32, P<0.001) and a quadratic trend (?=0.02, P<0.01) over time, but no group difference (?=-0.23, P=0.08). Analysis of the 365 days of self-reported bodyweight for each participant determined that weight loss was greater over the study period in the WEV+ group than in the WEV group, corresponding to weight changes of -0.67 kg and 1.00 kg, respectively, and an 87% greater weight loss (?=-0.01, P<0.01). Overall compliance to daily tracking was 76%±5%. Daily self-monitoring of weight, physical activity, and F/V consumption is a feasible and effective approach for maintaining weight loss for 12 months, and daily self-monitoring of increased water consumption may provide additional WTLM benefits. PMID:22709772
Akers, Jeremy D; Cornett, Rachel A; Savla, Jyoti S; Davy, Kevin P; Davy, Brenda M
Herbal weight-loss supplements are marketed with claims of effectiveness. Our earlier systematic review identified data from double-blind, randomized controlled trials for a number of herbal supplements. The aim of this systematic review was to assess all clinical evidence of adverse events of herbal food supplements for bodyweight reduction for which effectiveness data from rigorous clinical trials exist. We assessed Ephedra sinica, Garcinia cambogia, Paullinia cupana, guar gum, Plantago psyllium, Ilex paraguariensis and Pausinystalia yohimbe. Literature searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, Amed and The Cochrane Library. Data were also requested from the spontaneous reporting scheme of the World Health Organization. We hand-searched relevant medical journals and our own files. There were no restrictions regarding the language of publication. The results show that adverse events including hepatic injury and death have been reported with the use of some herbal food supplements. For herbal ephedra and ephedrine-containing food supplements an increased risk of psychiatric, autonomic or gastrointestinal adverse events and heart palpitations has been reported. In conclusion, adverse events are reported for a number of herbal food supplements, which are used for reducingbodyweight. Although the quality of the data does not justify definitive attribution of causality in most cases, the reported risks are sufficient to shift the risk-benefit balance against the use of most of the reviewed herbal weight-loss supplements. Exceptions are Garcinia cambogia and yerba mate, which merit further investigation. PMID:15836459
The objective of this study was to determine adult Bermudians' perceptions of ideal weight, overweight, and body image and to decide if a discrepancy exists between their perceptions and World Health Organization standards. A cross-sectional survey of bodyweight perceptions was administered to 462 men (n = 207) and women (n = 255), 18-65 years of age and various bodyweights, living on the Island of Bermuda. Additionally, measurement of height, and weight was collected. There was a significant difference in mean current body mass index (BMI) between men (M = 28.6, SD = 5.82), and women (M = 30.1, SD = 6.80) (p < .05). Significant gender differences were evident in mean self-perceived BMI, ideal BMI, and perceived body image. The data presented have important implications for understanding perceptions, knowledge, and beliefs concerning bodyweight and body image. Public health programs must stress to adults the correct definition of overweight and obesity acceptable by medical standards. PMID:20570803
Raynor, Kyla J; Modeste, Naomi; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Santos, Hildemar Dos
The report presents findings on weight, height and selected body dimensions of adults, United States 1960-1962. Measurements include age and sex distributions for weight, height, erect sitting height, normal sitting height, knee height, popliteal height, ...
BackgroundActual bodyweight (ABW) is important for accurate drug dosing in emergency settings. Oftentimes, patients are unable to stand to be weighed accurately or clearly state their most recent weight.
Robert G. Buckley; Christine R. Stehman; Frank L. Dos Santos; Robert H. Riffenburgh; Aaron Swenson; Nathan Mjos; Matt Brewer; Sheila Mulligan
The goals of this study were to examine gender differences in body satisfaction, obesity status, and weight loss strategies among African Americans. A self-administered survey was completed by a convenient sample of 789 African Americans, but 763 provided weight and height information. Significantly more men than women were satisfied or very satisfied with their weight. Based on self-reported weights, the
The relationship between obesity and ketonuria is not well-established. We conducted a retrospective observational study to evaluate whether their bodyweight reduction response differed by the presence of ketonuria after fasting in the healthy obese. We used the data of 42 subjects, who had medical records of initial urinalysis at routine health check-up and follow-up urinalysis in the out-patient clinic, one week later. All subjects in the initial urinalysis showed no ketonuria. However, according to the follow-up urinalysis after three subsequent meals fasts, the patients were divided into a non-ketonuria group and ketonuria group. We compared the data of conventional low-calorie diet programs for 3 months for both groups. Significantly greater reduction of bodyweight (-8.6 ± 3.6 kg vs -1.1 ± 2.2 kg, P < 0.001), body mass index (-3.16 ± 1.25 kg/m2 vs -0.43 ± 0.86 kg/m2, P < 0.001) and waist circumference (-6.92 ± 1.22 vs -2.32 ± 1.01, P < 0.001) was observed in the ketonuria group compared to the non-ketonuria group. Fat mass and lean body mass were also more reduced in the ketonuria group. In addition, serum free fatty acid concentration after intervention in the ketonuria group showed significant more increment than in the non-ketonuria group. The presence of ketonuria after fasting may be a predicting factor of further bodyweight reduction.
Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Joo, Nam-Seok; Kim, Kwang-Min; Lee, Duck-Joo
Background Of concern to health educators is the suggestion that college females practice diet and health behaviors that contradict the 2005 dietary guidelines for Americans. In this regard, there remain gaps in the research related to dieting among college females. Namely, do normal weight individuals diet differently from those who are overweight or obese, and are there dieting practices used by females that can be adapted to promote a healthy bodyweight? Since it is well recognized that females diet, this study seeks to determine the dieting practices used among normal, overweight, and obese college females (do they diet differently) and identify dieting practices that could be pursued to help these females more appropriately achieve and maintain a healthy bodyweight. Methods A total of 185 female college students aged 18 to 24 years participated in this study. Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, and skinfold thickness were measured to assess body composition. Surveys included a dieting practices questionnaire and a 30-day physical activity recall. Participants were classified according to body mass index (BMI) as normal weight (n = 113), overweight (n = 35), or obese (n = 21). Data were analyzed using JMP IN® software. Descriptive statistics included means, standard deviations, and frequency. Subsequent data analysis involved Pearson X2 and one-way analysis of variance with comparison for all pairs that were significantly different using Tukey-Kramer honestly significant difference test. Results Outcomes of this study indicate the majority of participants (83%) used dieting for weight loss and believed they would be 2% to 6% greater than current weight if they did not diet; normal weight, overweight, and obese groups perceived attractive weight to be 94%, 85%, and 74%, respectively, of current weight; 80% of participants reported using physical activity to control weight, although only 19% exercised at a level that would promote weight loss; only two of 15 dieting behaviors assessed differed in terms of prevalence of use among groups, which were consciously eating less than you want (44% normal weight, 57% overweight, 81% obese) and using artificial sweeteners (31% normal weight and overweight, 5% obese); and the most prevalent explicit maladaptive weight loss behavior was smoking cigarettes (used by 9% of participants) and most unhealthy was skipping breakfast (32%). Conclusion Collectively, results indicate female college students, regardless of weight status, would benefit from open discussions with health educators regarding healthy and effective dieting practices to achieve/maintain a healthy bodyweight. The results are subject to replication among high school, middle-aged, and older females.
Malinauskas, Brenda M; Raedeke, Thomas D; Aeby, Victor G; Smith, Jean L; Dallas, Matthew B
Objective.To prospectively examine bodyweight changes in women with newly diagnosed ovarian cancer receiving surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. Body composition was examined in a subset of these women.
Karen M. Gil; Heidi E. Frasure; Michael P. Hopkins; Eric L. Jenison; Vivian E. von Gruenigen
The article describes a 20-year longitudinal study of bodyweight, dieting, and disordered eating in women and men. Bodyweight increased significantly over time in both women and men. However, women’s weight perception and dieting frequency decreased over time, whereas men’s weight perception and dieting frequency increased, and disordered eating declined more in women than in men from late adolescence
Pamela K. Keel; Mark G. Baxter; Todd F. Heatherton; Thomas E. Joiner
The influence of dietary restraint and food exposure on body satisfaction was tested. Body and weight satisfaction were measured before and after exposure to either high- or low-caloric food, without actual eating. Independent of caloric condition, higher dietary restraint was associated with a decrease in body satisfaction after food exposure. With regard to weight satisfaction, however, the association between higher dietary restraint and decreased weight satisfaction was specific for the high-caloric condition. Thus, the actual eating of food is not necessary for decreased body and weight satisfaction to occur, suggesting an exposure-induced activation of dysfunctional cognitions in restrained eaters. PMID:18584913
Bodyweights were obtained monthly for mutant groups with the C57BL\\/6J genetic background which differ in bodyweight (bg, cJ, Ay, ob), and for a control group (C57BL\\/6J) (n = 16, N = 80). The mean longevity was significantly lower for all mutant groups compared with the mean longevity of the control group. Although obese mice (ob) had a shorter
Studies have suggested associations between personality dimensions and body image constructs, but these have not been conclusively established. In two studies, we examined direct associations between the Big Five dimensions and two body image constructs, actual-ideal weight discrepancy and body appreciation. In Study 1, 950 women completed measures of both body image constructs and a brief measure of the Big Five dimensions. In Study 2,339 women completed measures of the body image constructs and a more reliable measure of the Big Five. Both studies showed that Neuroticism was significantly associated with actual-ideal weight discrepancy (positively) and body appreciation (negatively) once the effects of body mass index and social status had been accounted for. These results are consistent with the suggestion that Neuroticism is a trait of public health significance requiring attention by body image scholars. PMID:23198845
While body fat is the most accurate measure of obesity, its measurement requires special equipment that can be costly and time consuming to operate. Attention has thus typically focused on the easier to calculate body mass index (BMI). However, the ability of BMI to accurately identify obesity has been increasingly questioned. This paper focuses attention on whether more general body
Maintenance of weight loss remains a challenge for most individuals, thus practical and effective weight loss maintenance (WTLM) strategies are needed. A two-group (WEV versus WEV+) 12-month WTLM intervention trial was conducted (June 2007–February 2010) to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of weight loss maintenance intervention for older adults using daily self-monitoring of bodyweight, step count, fruit/vegetable intake and water consumption. Forty weight-reduced (mean weight lost = 6.7 ± 0.6 kg; BMI 29.2 ± 1.1 kg/m2) individuals aged 63 ± 1 yrs, who had previously participated in a 12-week randomized controlled weight loss intervention trial, were instructed to record daily bodyweight (Weight), step count (Exercise), and fruit/vegetable intake (Vegetable). Experimental group (WEV+) participants were also instructed to consume 16 floz of water before each main meal (i.e., three times daily), and to record daily water intake. Outcome measures included weight change, diet/physical activity behaviors, theoretical constructs related to health behaviors, and other clinical measures. Statistical analyses included growth curve analyses and repeated measures ANOVA. Over 12 months, there was a linear decline in weight (? = ?0.32, P < 0.001) and a quadratic trend (? = 0.02, P < 0.01) over time, but no group difference (? = ?0.23, P = 0.08). Analysis of the 365 days of self-reported bodyweight for each participant determined that weight loss was greater over the study period in WEV+ than WEV, corresponding to weight changes of ?0.67 kg and 1.00 kg respectively, and an 87% greater weight loss (? = ?0.01, P < 0.01). Overall compliance to daily tracking was 76 ± 5%. Daily self-monitoring of weight, physical activity, and fruit/vegetable consumption is a feasible and effective approach for maintaining weight loss for 12 months, and daily self-monitoring of increased water consumption may provide additional WTLM benefits.
Akers, Jeremy D.; Cornett, Rachel A.; Savla, Jyoti S.; Davy, Kevin P.; Davy, Brenda M.
Although prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing, prevailing sociocultural influences lead females to desire a thin body and males a muscular body, often resulting in body dissatisfaction (BD) because many cannot achieve the cultural ideal. This study examined the magnitude of BD in university undergraduates (n=310). Bodyweight dissatisfaction (BWD) was measured as the difference between current and idealized
Television programs portray characters with idealized body types that for most viewers are unattainable. These body types have become a common source of comparison for many young viewers who evaluate their own self-worth and bodies based on the models they see on television. This study examines bodyweight, both in terms of frequency and portrayals, focusing on how preadolescent and
|Examined parents' awareness of their daughters' attitudes, beliefs, and feelings about their bodies. Sixty-six adolescent daughters completed an eating disorder scale, a body figure rating scale, and made ratings of their shape and weight. Greater discrepancies between parents' estimates of daughters' body esteem and daughters' self-reported body…
Geller, Josie; Srikameswaran, Suja; Zaitsoff, Shannon L.; Cockell, Sarah J.; Poole, Gary D.
Effects of visual representations of the thin ideal in the media have been widely explored, but textual representations of the thin ideal in novels have received scant attention. The chick literature genre has been criticized for depicting characters who worry about their bodyweight and who have poor body esteem. Excerpts from two chick lit novels were used to examine the effect of a protagonist's bodyweight and body esteem on college women's (N=159) perceptions of their sexual attractiveness and weight concern. Two narratives were used to minimize the possibility that idiosyncratic characteristics of one excerpt might influence the study's results. Underweight (vs. healthy weight) protagonists predicted readers' lower perceived sexual attractiveness. Protagonists with low body esteem (vs. control) predicted readers' increased weight concern. Scholars and health officials should be concerned about the effect chick lit novels might have on women's body image. PMID:23219006
Previously we reported that prepubertally ovariectomized mice that received young, transplanted ovaries at a postreproductive age displayed a 40% increase in life expectancy. To study this increase in life expectancy in greater detail, prepubertally ovariectomized and ovary-intact CBA/J mice underwent ovarian transplantation at 11 months with 60-day-old ovaries or a sham surgery. Life span was significantly increased in transplant recipients. Body-weight changes of mice in each group were measured from the time of surgery (11 months) to death. Neither ovariectomy nor ovarian transplantation influenced the amount of peak body-weight attained or body-weight retained at death. However, the time (days) to peak body-weight was decreased by ovariectomy and ovarian transplant recipients displayed a trend toward an increase in time to peak weight. In addition, ovarian transplantation decreased the rate of weight loss to death. These results demonstrate that ovarian status, examined by means of ovariectomy and ovarian transplantation, clearly influenced the rate of weight change, but not the total amount of weight gain or loss in female mice. PMID:20304041
Mason, Jeffrey B; Cargill, Shelley L; Anderson, Gary B; Carey, James R
Given the increased prevalence of obesity in the United States, despite reduced fat intake, there has been increasing interest\\u000a in the effect of dietary fat on bodyweight, lipoproteins, and glycemic status. Despite predictions from epidemiologic and\\u000a physiologic studies, recent prospective trials have demonstrated equivalent weight loss on high-fat versus low-fat diets.\\u000a Nevertheless, the type of dietary fat consumed has
Therapeutic use of atypical antipsychotic agents is often associated with weight gain and impaired glucose tolerance. The once-daily human GLP-1 analog liraglutide improves glycemic control and reducesbodyweight. We have investigated the ability of liraglutide to improve olanzapine-induced metabolic effects in female rats.Female Sprague–Dawley rats were implanted with subcutaneous osmotic mini pumps for delivery of olanzapine (1.75 mg\\/24 h) or vehicle
Kirsten Lykkegaard; Philip J. Larsen; Niels Vrang; Camilla Bock; Troels Bock; Lotte Bjerre Knudsen
The use of dieting, rapid weight loss, and frequent weight fluctuation among athletes competing in weight-class and leanness sports have been considered a problem for years, but the extent of the problem and the health and performance consequences have yet to be fully examined. Most studies examining these issues have had weak methodology. However, results from this review indicate that
The use of dieting, rapid weight loss, and frequent weight fluctuation among athletes competing in weight-class and leanness sports have been considered a problem for years, but the extent of the problem and the health and performance consequences have yet to be fully examined. Most studies examining these issues have had weak methodology. However, results from this review indicate that
Uncontrolled bodyweight due to ad libitum (AL) overfeeding is the most significant variable affecting the rodent bioassay. The correlation between AL food consumption, the resultant excessive adult bodyweight, and the low 2-yr survival in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was highly significant. However, initial bodyweight does not correlate with adult bodyweight or survival. AL feeding of diets that
Weight-length data from 115 chain pickerel Esox niger populations from 13 states and one Canadian province were used to develop a standard weight (Ws) equation that would allow calculation of relative weight (Wr) values. We developed the 75th-percentile Ws equation using the regression-line-percentile (RLP) method. The proposed Ws equation is log10Ws(g) = ?5.824 + 3.243 log10total length (TL; mm). The
Changes in various body dimensions of special fed veal calves were measured and correlated with bodyweight (BW) at three specific times during the growth period as contemporaries and over the entire feeding period as noncontemporaries. The calves (n = 826) were weighed and measured for body length, heart girth, wither height, and hip width at 2, 8, and 16 wk after arrival at the veal farms. Each of the four measurements, expressed as ratios to BW, decreased over the feeding period; decline in the ratio of hip width to BW was less than the decreases in the other ratios. Linear models to predict contemporary BW within each age group based on all body measurements were developed; R2 values for models for 2, 8, and 16 wk were 0.72, 0.77, and 0.76, respectively. Within each of the three age classes, a model including linear, quadratic, and cubic terms of heart girth yielded the highest R2 values of any single measurement (0.46, 0.63, and 0.67 for data for 2, 8, and 16 wk, respectively). The addition of heart girth as a second linear measurement to three-term models containing only one other measurement increased the R2 more than did the addition of any other single linear expression, except for the equation based on body length. When all records on all calves were combined and the observations were treated as noncontemporaries, the R2 was 0.97 for a linear model that included all four measurements. However, this R2 was essentially the same as the R2 from a three-term model using only heart girth. The cubic models in descending order of R2 values were heart girth, body length, hip width, and wither height. These results suggest that BW can be predicted accurately in a group of noncontemporary male veal calves ranging from 2 to 16 wk after the start of the feeding period. However, the BW of calves within contemporary groups (2, 8, and 16 wk) cannot be predicted accurately according to R2 values. PMID:9406103
Background:High calcium intakes seem to be ineffective at reduc- ingbonelossinearlypostmenopausalwomen.However,theinverse relation between calcium intake and bodyweight can attenuate the negative effect of a low dietary calcium intake. Objective: The objective was to assess the role of dietary calcium and body mass index (BMI) on osteoporosis, defined according to World Health Organization criteria as a lumbar bone density 2.5 SD
Massimo Varenna; Lucia Binelli; Silvia Casari; Francesca Zucchi; Luigi Sinigaglia
High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) accounts for as much as 40% of caloric sweeteners used in the United States. Some studies have shown that short-term access to HFCS can cause increased bodyweight, but the findings are mixed. The current study examined both short- and long-term effects of HFCS on bodyweight, body fat, and circulating triglycerides. In Experiment 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for short term (8 wks) on (1) 12-h/day of 8% HFCS, (2) 12-h/day 10% sucrose, (3) 24-h/day HFCS, all with ad libitum rodent chow, or (4) ad libitum chow alone. Rats with 12-h access to HFCS gained significantly more bodyweight than animals given equal access to 10% sucrose, even though they consumed the same number of total calories but fewer calories from HFCS than sucrose. In Experiment 2, the long-term effects of HFCS on bodyweight and obesogenic parameters, as well as gender differences, were explored. Over the course of 6 or 7 months, both male and female rats with access to HFCS gained significantly more bodyweight than control groups. This increase in bodyweight with HFCS was accompanied by an increase in adipose fat, notably in the abdominal region, and elevated circulating triglyceride levels. Translated to humans, these results suggest that excessive consumption of HFCS may contribute to the incidence of obesity.
Bocarsly, Miriam E.; Powell, Elyse S.; Avena, Nicole M.; Hoebel, Bartley G.
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore perceptions and beliefs about body size, weight, and weight loss among obese African American women in order to form a design of weight loss intervention with this target population. Six focus groups were conducted at a community health clinic. Participants were predominantly middle-aged with a mean Body Mass Index of 40.3 +/- 9.2 kg/m(2). Findings suggest that participants (a) believe that people can be attractive and healthy at larger sizes; (b) still feel dissatisfied with their weight and self-conscious about their bodies; (c) emphasize eating behavior as the primary cause for weight gain; (d) view pregnancy, motherhood, and caregiving as major precursors to weight gain; (e) view health as the most important reason to lose weight; (f) have mixed experiences and expectations for social support for weight loss; and (g) prefer treatments that incorporate long-term lifestyle modification rather than fad diets or medication. PMID:17142244
Befort, Christie A; Thomas, Janet L; Daley, Christine M; Rhode, Paula C; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S
Modeling activity-based anorexia, food-deprived rats consistently show that activity increases as weight decreases. This effect was explored in 8 food-deprived, Sprague-Dawley rats as potentially mediated by intrinsic value of activity. Running-wheel activity rates were recorded for free-fed weight, reduction to 90% of free-fed weight, and to 80% of free-fed weight. As expected, activity increased as weight decreased. Further, significant differences appeared in the trends of individual run rates when compared across all trials. These individual trends were expressed as varied rates of running, with extreme high and low run rates prevalent. The rewarding nature of exercise itself might serve to predict these trends in individual rats and reveal potential indicators for the development of activity-based anorexia. PMID:22185056
Brinegar, Jennifer L; Wood, Kaylen P; Sims, William D
Human adipose tissue is not only a storage organ but also an active endocrine organ to release adipokines. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among serum taurine and adipokine levels, and body composition during 8-week human bodyweight control program in obese female college students. The program consisted of diet therapy, exercise, and behavior modification. After the program, bodyweight, body fat mass, percent body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly decreased. Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased. Also serum adiponectin level was significantly increased and serum leptin level was significantly decreased. There were no differences in serum taurine and homocysteine levels. The change of serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with change of body fat mass and percent body fat. These results may suggest that body fat loss by human bodyweight control program is associated with an increase in serum adiponectin in obese female college students. Therefore, further study such as taurine intervention study is needed to know more exact correlation between dietary taurine intake and serum adipokines or body composition. PMID:23392876
You, Jeong Soon; Park, Ji Yeon; Zhao, Xu; Jeong, Jin Seok; Choi, Mi Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja
Metabolic processes that regulate muscle energy use are major determinants of bodily energy balance. Here, we find that sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channels, which couple membrane excitability with cellular metabolic pathways, set muscle energy expenditure under physiological stimuli. Disruption of K(ATP) channel function provoked, under conditions of unaltered locomotor activity and blood substrate availability, an extra energy cost of cardiac and skeletal muscle performance. Inefficient fuel metabolism in K(ATP) channel-deficient striated muscles reduced glycogen and fat body depots, promoting a lean phenotype. The propensity to lesser bodyweight imposed by K(ATP) channel deficit persisted under a high-fat diet, yet obesity restriction was achieved at the cost of compromised physical endurance. Thus, sarcolemmal K(ATP) channels govern muscle energy economy, and their downregulation in a tissue-specific manner could present an antiobesity strategy by rendering muscle increasingly thermogenic at rest and less fuel efficient during exercise. PMID:20074528
Alekseev, Alexey E; Reyes, Santiago; Yamada, Satsuki; Hodgson-Zingman, Denice M; Sattiraju, Srinivasan; Zhu, Zhiyong; Sierra, Ana; Gerbin, Marina; Coetzee, William A; Goldhamer, David J; Terzic, Andre; Zingman, Leonid V
Genetic and phenotypic parameters of bodyweight (BW), hip height, heart girth, and linear conformation traits were estimated from field data for 7344 lactating Holstein heifers from 560 herds. Mean BW was around 540 kg at calving, decreased to a minimum of 514 kg by wk 6, and increased to > 590 kg by wk 45 of lactation. The statistical model for BW included month of recording, lactation stage, pregnancy stage, proportion of Holstein genes, parity of the dam, calving age, herd, and animal. Variation between herds accounted for 33% of the phenotypic variation of BW. Estimated heritability was 0.33 for BW and ranged from 0.32 to 0.54 for heart girth, hip height, and conformation traits. Genetic correlations of BW with heart girth, hip height, body depth, rump width, and muscularity ranged from 0.48 to 0.77. The accuracy of a selection index was 0.90 for direct selection and 0.83 for indirect selection using information on those conformation traits of 50 daughters. Genetic variation of BW is considerable, and genetic evaluation of BW can be based on data for conformation traits from a field recording system with only a limited loss of accuracy. PMID:9684178
Recent studies have shown that whole-body vibration improves posture and gait control in stroke patients. Patients with degenerative cerebellar disease suffer from ataxic gait also which is characterised by the variation of gait pattern. Our interest is to test whole-body vibration as a method for rehabilitation treatment in cerebellar patients and to assess the success of the treatment using dynamic
Ivan Baldinotti; Dagmar Timmann; Florian P. Kolb; Dieter F. Kutz
The global obesity epidemic is an ever-growing concern, with approximately a third of North Americans fitting the criteria for obesity. It is therefore important to assess obesity and be able to classify its severity. The Body Mass Index (BMI) classification is the most widely used tool for assessing obesity. However, due to inaccuracies in BMI in measuring body composition in the obese population, other tools like anthropometry, bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) and Quantitative Magnetic Resonance (QMR), are being evaluated. The regulation of obesity requires a multidisciplinary approach, which combines diet, lifestyle, and pharmaceutical regimens. However in the morbidly obese population, bariatric surgery is the only proven treatment modality, with an average excess weight-loss of over 60%. The specific types of bariatric surgeries place different emphasis on restriction of oral intake of nutrients versus reducing the absorption of those nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract. While these procedures do achieve clinically significant weight-loss and comorbid resolution, their lack of availability, cost and potential morbid complications have led to other procedures, specifically endoluminal techniques, emerging as possible candidates for the regulation of the obesity epidemic. In this article, we review the assessment of body composition in the obese population, the regulation of this obesity with bariatric surgery and emerging techniques in the field of bariatrics.
It has been proposed that there may be a general psychological mechanism which interacts with resource availability to influence preferences for human bodyweight, which may also extend to non-human objects. To test this hypothesis, we first replicated previous studies of preferences for human bodyweight using a new set of line drawings. The results of this study showed that
|Investigated whether dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) would detect similar changes in body composition after moderate weight loss. Twenty adults had their body composition measured using DXA and ADP before and after an 8-week weight loss program. Overall, both DXA and ADP detected similar changes…
Weyers, Anna M.; Mazzetti, Scott A.; Love, Dawn M.; Gomez, Ana L.; Kraemer, William J.; Volek, Jeff S.
Data on linear body measurements (LBM) of 403 sheep collected in three areas of KwaZulu-Natal were utilized to develop a prediction equation for live bodyweight of Zulu sheep. Data were collected on live weight (LW), heart girth (HG), wither height (WH) and scrotum circumference (SC) on sheep of all ages. The age of sheep was estimated by dentition. The
Few studies have been conducted in sub-Saharan Africa where multiple recordings of heart girth and bodyweight were made for the same cattle population. In this study, monthly measurements were taken of working oxen on 24 smallholder farms in the Ethiopian highlands for 1 year. The overall yearly mean bodyweight of oxen across working and nonworking periods was 281±37
OBJECTIVES: To examine differences in the pattern of weight changes during and after pregnancy among four pregravid body mass index (BMI) groups.STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of women who had two consecutive births at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) between 1980 and 1990.MEASUREMENTS: Maternal bodyweights were available before conception and delivery, and at 6 weeks postpartum for
|Objective: To examine diet, physical activity, and body-weight changes associated with relocation from home to university. Methods: Diet, fitness/physical activity, body-weight parameters and self-efficacy were assessed among 54 freshman women upon college entry and 5 months later. Results: Although caloric intake significantly decreased, a…
Butler, Scott M.; Black, David R.; Blue, Carolyn L.; Gretebeck, Randall J.
Despite the popular belief that the thinstandard of female attractiveness currently presented inthe media is a primary contributor to the high level ofconcern with bodyweight among women, experimental studies have not shown that exposure to mediaimages increases women's weight concern. Threeexperiments are reported demonstrating that exposure tomedia images does often result in increased weightconcern among women, but that body
Heidi D. Posavac; Steven S. Posavac; Emil J. Posavac
The objectives of this award are to establish a viable program of research focusing on weight and body composition management in breast cancer, and to lay the groundwork for a feasibility study of a home-based exercise intervention for weight and body com...
This study explored rhythmic gymnasts’ perceptions of the influence of their retirement transition on body satisfaction and weight control behaviors. Eight retired elite female rhythmic gymnasts participated in semi-structured interviews. Findings were interpreted to suggest that these retired gymnasts experienced an increase in body dissatisfaction upon retirement and that they felt guilty about their weight gain, loss of muscle mass
Ashley E. Stirling; Lisanne C. Cruz; Gretchen A. Kerr
Over the past decade, there has been a tremendous increase in the understanding of the molecular and neural mechanisms that control food intake and bodyweight. Yet eating disorders and cachexia are still common, and obesity cases are rising at alarming rates. Thus, despite recent progress, an increased understanding of the molecular and neural substrates that control bodyweight homeostasis
Five commercial botanical products (Shilianhua [SLH] tablets, Shiu Huo pills, Fenulyn, Bitter Melon, and Glucose Metabolic Support), available in the US market, with reported claims for regulation of metabolism were screened for their effect on bodyweight gain in high-fat diet–induced obese mice. Pilot results suggested that SLH tablets attenuated bodyweight gain, whereas Shiu Huo pills and Fenulyn tended
Jun Yin; Aamir Zuberi; Zhanguo Gao; Dong Liu; Zhijun Liu; William T. Cefalu; Jianping Ye
Objective: To estimate the expected weight gain through midlife for those in a given BMI category in young adulthood. Design and Methods: Group-based trajectory modeling and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 data from 1990 to 2008 were used to quantify weight trajectories through midlife for 10,038 young adult men and women stratified by BMI category. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of trajectory membership with obesity-related conditions (hypertension, diabetes, arthritis) in middle age. Results: Annual weight gain averaged 0.53 kg (1.17 lb) across the entire sample. However, there was considerable variation by and within BMI categories. More than 98% of men and 92% of women were on upward-sloping trajectories, generally moving into a higher BMI category by middle age. Those who experienced early and rapid weight gain during young adulthood were most likely to be on a steeper trajectory and had greater risks for obesity-related conditions. Conclusion: This study points to the health and weight benefits of entering young adulthood with a normal BMI, but further reveals that this is no guarantee of maintaining a healthy weight through midlife. For those who are young adults today, weight maintenance is unlikely to occur without significant environmental or technical innovation. PMID:23408493
Malhotra, Rahul; Ostbye, Truls; Riley, Crystal M; Finkelstein, Eric A
Weight gain associated with neuroleptics or antipsychotic treatment is well known by psychiatrists, but is too rarely considered as justifying a specific treatment program. Overweight is a risk factor for somatic disorders and can have a negative influence on self-esteem and self-confidence. This can lead to poor observance, and relapse of psychotic symptoms. Some studies try to describe the weight fluctuations according to the different neuroleptics and taking into account other variables like treatment duration, age or sex. Mechanisms of weight gain are less studied, in spite of evidence that neuroleptics interact with receptors of dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, histamine and acetylcholin, all implicated in a way or another, in weight regulation. Antipsychotics, like clozapine and olanzapine, are more concerned with neuroendocrine and neurovegetative interactions, and are responsible for the most severe weight increases. Loxapine and molindone induce weight decreases, and these exceptions are difficult to explain. The paper discusses the clinical and the epidemiological data, and indicates the methodological problems for such studies. Some hypotheses about the pathophysiological aspects of this side effect are made, in regard to growing knowledge about the biological mechanisms of weight regulation. Some solutions for a better consideration and caretaking of patients with such problems or "at risk" treatment are proposed. PMID:11488257
Comparison of self-reported and measured weights in a working population of 2046 men and 2393 women revealed systematic underreporting of 1.3% in men and l.7% in women. Underreporting was significantly related to weight, height, and current participation in a weight reduction program in both men and women. In men only, it was also related to age, education, history of weight-control
Background This study analyzed the impact of weight reduction method, preoperative, and intraoperative variables on the outcome of reconstructive\\u000a body contouring surgery following massive weight reduction.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods All patients presenting with a maximal BMI ?35 kg\\/m2 before weight reduction who underwent body contouring surgery of the trunk following massive weight loss (excess body mass\\u000a index loss (EBMIL)???30%) between January 2002 and June 2007
S. de Kerviler; R. Hüsler; A. Banic; M. A. Constantinescu
This study examined the secular changes in height, bodyweight, body mass index and pubertal development in male children and adolescents in Krakow (Poland) over the past 80 years, with an emphasis on the last decade (2000-2010). The survey of the population of Krakow is a continuation of observations conducted in that area for many years. The analysis aims to determine whether in the last decade Krakow still witnessed the secular trend, and what form the trend took. The body height and weight, and body mass index (BMI), of 1862 boys aged 3.5-18.5 years were analysed, against the background of a survey series from the years 1938 (N = 1801), 1971 (N = 2045), 1983 (N = 3124) and 2000 (N = 2328). The mean body height, in almost all age categories, was greater than in the past; however the final height over the last decade remained the same. The mean values of bodyweight and BMI increased, especially in the last decade. Also, an acceleration of puberty in boys was observed. The last 10 years saw an over 3-month decrease in the age of initial appearance of pubic hair in boys. In conclusion, the last decade saw cessation of the growing taller trend: maximum body height stabilized at approximately 179 cm, but weight and BMI increased. Also, a distinct acceleration of puberty was noticed. Lack of height increase, at the same time as weight gain and puberty acceleration, indicate a progressing developmental disharmony. PMID:22225553
Kryst, ?ukasz; Kowal, Ma?gorzata; Woronkowicz, Agnieszka; Sobiecki, Jan; Cichocka, Barbara Anna
Viewing thin models, pervasive in popular culture, is correlated with body dissatisfaction and anxiety in women. Whether or not the same is true when viewing healthy weight models is unknown. In this study we tested whether viewing healthy weight models increases the ideal female body size. Body image, anxiety, happiness and depression were measured in 44 female participants following viewing of images of thin or healthy weight models (within-subject separated by two weeks). We found that after viewing images of healthy weight models, women's body ideals (as measured by a participant-adjusted virtual model) were significantly larger than when the same women viewed images of very thin models. This effect was greatest in those women with the highest levels of baseline anxiety (as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). These results suggest that viewing healthy weight models results in more healthy body ideals than those typically promoted through media. PMID:23722050
The objectives of this study were to examine changes in bodyweight, body mass index (BMI), body composition, and shape in a group of male and female students over the 4-year college period. Anthropometric assessments including height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and body shape (via 3-dimensional body scanning) were conducted at the beginning of the freshman year and end of the senior year in 131 college students. Four-year changes included significant (p < 0.0001) gains in weight (3.0 kg), BMI (1.0 kg·m(-2)), body fat (3.6%), and absolute fat mass (3.2 kg). Males gained significantly (p < 0.0001) greater amounts of weight, BMI, percent and absolute fat mass, and fat-free mass than females. Weight change ranged from (-)8.7 to (+)16.8 kg. About 70% of the participants gained weight, which averaged 5.3 kg; significant (p < 0.0001) gains in BMI, fat-free mass, absolute fat mass, and percent body fat and significant (p < 0.0005) increases in neck, chest-bust, waist, hips, seat, and biceps circumferences were also observed in this weight gain group. The percentage of participants classified as overweight-obese increased from 18% to 31%. The number of females and males with ?30% and 20% body fat, respectively, increased from n = 14 to n = 26 (with n = 4 exhibiting normal weight obesity) over the 4-year period. The waist circumference changes were significantly (p < 0.0001) correlated with both weight and percent body fat changes. In conclusion, the increasing prevalence of obesity and normal weight obesity among this college population suggests the need for additional health promotion strategies on college campuses. PMID:22978391
Gropper, Sareen S; Simmons, Karla P; Connell, Lenda Jo; Ulrich, Pamela V
Purpose: To examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI), bodyweight perception (BWP), and indicators of internalizing and externalizing distress and social, attention and thought problems in a large representative sample of Dutch youth. Methods: A total of 1826 pupils in the eighth grade of primary education and 5730 students in the first four years of secondary education gave
Bogt ter T. F. M; K. Monshouwer; J. E. E. Verdurmen; R. C. M. E. Engels; W. A. M. Vollebergh
Perceptual and projective aspects of body image in obese youngsters (not in psychological treatment) and normal-weight youngsters 8–9 years of age and 12–13 years of age were investigated. The results indicate that perceptual distortions in estimating various body dimensions of oneself are primarily a function of age rather than weight status. The accuracy of estimating the weight of peers and
Gloria R. Leon; Kelly M. Bemis; Mary Meland; Daniel Nussbaum
Objective: Children’s self perception of bodyweight and the medical definition of obesity show poor correlation. This study examined the independent associations of body mass index (BMI) and self-perceived weight status (considered self over-, under-, or right weight) with food reporting, nutrient intake estimates, and biomarkers of dietary exposure.Research Methods and Procedures: Dietary (one 24-hour recall), anthropometric, and biochemical data
Objective: To investigate the difference in the effect of non–weight-bearing body fat mass on bone mineral density between premenopausal and postmenopausal women.Methods: We studied 252 regularly menstruating premenopausal women and 213 postmenopausal women with right side dominance. Age, years since menopause (in postmenopausal women), height, weight, and body mass index were recorded. Bone mineral density of non–weight-bearing sites (ie, arms),
Bodyweight, heart girth and condition score were monitored in 75 Boran cows over an eight-month period. Condition score was highly correlated with both weight and heart girth when these variables were measured at the end of the dry season. Over the whole period the correlation coefficient between weight and condition score was r = 0.76 and the relationship was
Objective: To evaluate the effects of gestational weight gain on maternal and neonatal outcomes in different body mass index (BMI) classes. Methods: We compared maternal and neonatal outcomes based on gestational weight gain in underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese (BMI 40.00) women. The study group was a population-based cohort of women with singleton gestations who delivered between
Joan M. G. Crane; Joanne White; Phil Murphy; Lorraine Burrage; Donna Hutchens
Objective Lean bodyweight (LBW) decreases with age while total body fat increases, resulting in altered drug pharmacokinetics. A semi-mechanistic\\u000a equation estimating LBW using height, weight and sex has been developed for potential use across a wide range of body compositions.\\u000a The aim of this study was to determine the ability of the LBW equation to estimate dual energy x-ray absorptiometry-derived
S. J. Mitchell; S. N. Hilmer; C. M. J. Kirkpatrick; R. D. Hansen; D. A. Williamson; N. A. Singh; T. P. Finnegan; B. J. Allen; T. H. Diamond; A. D. Diwan; B. D. Lloyd; E. U. R. Smith; M. A. Fiatarone Singh
Topal, M., Yildiz, N., Esenbu?a, N., Aksakal, V., Macit, M. and Özdemir, M. 2003. Determination of best fitted regression model for estimation of bodyweight in Awassi sheep. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 23: 201–208.In this research, linear regression models were improved for estimation of bodyweights using various body measurements from Awassi sheep. Simple and multiple regression models were formed
Parenteral anticoagulation is a cornerstone in the management of venous and arterial thrombosis. Unfractionated heparin has a wide dose/response relationship, requiring frequent and troublesome laboratorial follow-up. Because of all these factors, low-molecular-weight heparin use has been increasing. Inadequate dosage has been pointed out as a potential problem because the use of subjectively estimated weight instead of real measured weight is common practice in the emergency department (ED). To evaluate the impact of inadequate weight estimation on enoxaparin dosage, we investigated the adequacy of anticoagulation of patients in a tertiary ED where subjective weight estimation is common practice. We obtained the estimated, informed, and measured weight of 28 patients in need of parenteral anticoagulation. Basal and steady-state (after the second subcutaneous shot of enoxaparin) anti-Xa activity was obtained as a measure of adequate anticoagulation. The patients were divided into 2 groups according the anticoagulation adequacy. From the 28 patients enrolled, 75% (group 1, n = 21) received at least 0.9 mg/kg per dose BID and 25% (group 2, n = 7) received less than 0.9 mg/kg per dose BID of enoxaparin. Only 4 (14.3%) of all patients had anti-Xa activity less than the inferior limit of the therapeutic range (<0.5 UI/mL), all of them from group 2. In conclusion, when weight estimation was used to determine the enoxaparin dosage, 25% of the patients were inadequately anticoagulated (anti-Xa activity <0.5 UI/mL) during the initial crucial phase of treatment. PMID:20825842
dos Reis Macedo, Leon Gustavo; de Oliveira, Luciana; Pintão, Maria Carolina; Garcia, Andrea Aparecida; Pazin-Filho, Antônio
Previous studies have revealed correlations among prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain and the birth weight of the infant. However, as a variety of indices relating to the physique have been used to assess the optimal weight of pregnant women, no conclusions have yet been established regarding the Japanese population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the correlations among prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain and the birth weight of the infant in primiparous and multiparous females. The study was a retrospective analysis of pregnancy charts from a single birthing center from August 1998 to the end of September 2007. The subjects were primiparous (n=220) and multiparous (n=340) females, and the mean prepregnancy weights of the two groups were 52.8±8.8 and 54.3±9.0 kg, respectively. The mean prepregnancy BMI of the primiparous females was 20.8±3.1 kg/m2, compared with 21.6±3.5 kg/m2 for the multiparous females, and the mean birth weights of the infants were 3,153.0±364.1 g and 3,262.3±370.4 g for primiparous and multiparous females, respectively. When the correlation between the maternal factors and the birth weight of the infant was analyzed, the birth weight was revealed to be positively correlated with delivery weight and gestational weight gain in primiparous females. However, no correlations were observed between the birth weight of the infant and prepregnancy weight or BMI. In multiparous females, birth weight was revealed to be positively correlated with prepregnancy weight, BMI and the maternal delivery weight; however, no correlation was observed between the birth weight of the infant and gestational weight gain. The results of the present study also demonstrated that there were significant differences between the primiparous and multiparous females, with regard to gestational weight gain and weight reduction following delivery. The study indicated that the factors influencing birth weight may be different for primiparous and multiparous females.
Objective:To investigate weight perception, dieting and emotional well being across the range of body mass index (BMI) in a population-based multiethnic sample of early adolescents.Design:Cross-sectional population-based survey.Subjects:In total, 2789 adolescents 11–14 years of age from three highly deprived regional authorities in East London, in 2001.Measurements:Data were collected by student-completed questionnaire on weight perception, dieting history, mental and physical health, health
R M Viner; M M Haines; S J C Taylor; J Head; R Booy; S Stansfeld
|A longitudinal study was used to examine age differences in the role of body mass index (BMI) and sociocultural pressures in predicting changes in body image and strategies to both lose weight and increase muscles among 443 children aged between 8 and 12 years (207 boys, 236 girls) over a 16-month period. The strongest predictors of body image…
This study examined associations between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and two measures of body image, namely actual–ideal weight discrepancy and body appreciation. A total of 108 women completed the Photographic Figure Rating Scale, the Body Appreciation Scale, the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, the Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire-3, and provided their demographic details. Correlations showed that all trait EI
A longitudinal study was used to examine age differences in the role of body mass index (BMI) and sociocultural pressures in predicting changes in body image and strategies to both lose weight and increase muscles among 443 children aged between 8 and 12 years (207 boys, 236 girls) over a 16-month period. The strongest predictors of body image and…
esteem. Results: Relative to the other two groups, competitive bodybuilders had greater body mass due to fat-free body mass. Although groups did not differ in their situational body image discomfort, competitive bodybuilders and weight trainers had a more positive global appearance evaluation and were more psychologically invested in their physical appearance. Compared with active controls, men in both weightlifting groups
BACKGROUND: A relatively high percentage of energy intake as protein has been shown to increase satiety and decrease energy efficiency during overfeeding.AIM: To investigate whether addition of protein may improve weight maintenance by preventing or limiting weight regain after weight loss of 5–10% in moderately obese subjects.DESIGN OF THE STUDY: In a randomized parallel design, 148 male and female subjects
M S Westerterp-Plantenga; M P G M Lejeune; I Nijs; M van Ooijen; E M R Kovacs; Westerterp-Plantenga
Background: In 2009, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) released revised pregnancy weight gain guidelines. There are limited data regarding the effect of maternal weight gain on newborn adiposity. Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate neonatal fat mass, lean body mass, and percentage body fat according to current Institute of Medicine (IOM) pregnancy weight gain guidelines. Design: This is a secondary analysis of a prospective observational cohort study of neonates delivered at least 36 wk gestation and evaluated for fat mass, lean body mass, and percentage body fat. Women with abnormal glucose tolerance testing and other known medical disorders or pregnancies with known fetal anomalies were excluded. Pregravid body mass index (BMI) was categorized as normal weight (<25 kg/m2), overweight (25–30 kg/m2), or obese (>30 kg/m2). Maternal weight gain was quantified as less than, equal to, or greater than current IOM guidelines. Newborn body composition measurements were compared according to weight gain and BMI categories. Results: A total of 439 maternal-newborn pairs were evaluated; 19.8% (n = 87) of women gained less than IOM guidelines; 31.9% (n = 140), equal to IOM guidelines; and 48.3% (n = 212), greater than IOM guidelines. Significant differences for each component of body composition were found when evaluated by IOM weight gain categories (all ANOVA, P < 0.001). When controlling for pregravid BMI, only weight gain for women who were of normal weight before pregnancy remained significant. Conclusion: Maternal weight gain during pregnancy is a significant contributor to newborn body composition, particularly for women who are of normal weight before pregnancy.
Background The family environment offers several opportunities through which to improve adolescents' weight and weight-related behaviors. This study aims to examine the cross-sectional relationships between multiple factors in the family environment and physical activity (PA), television use (TV), soft drink intake, fruit and vegetable (FV) intake, body mass index (BMI), and body composition among a sample of sociodemographically-diverse adolescent girls. Methods Subjects included girls (mean age = 15.7), 71% of whom identified as a racial/ethnic minority, and one of their parents (dyad n = 253). Parents completed surveys assessing factors in the family environment including familial support for adolescents' PA, healthful dietary intake, and limiting TV use; parental modeling of behavior; and resources in the home such as availability of healthful food. Girls' PA and TV use were measured by 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) and dietary intake by survey measures. BMI was measured by study staff, and body fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Hierarchical linear regression models tested individual and mutually-adjusted relationships between family environment factors and girls' outcomes. Results In the individual models, positive associations were observed between family support for PA and girls' total PA (p = .011) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (p=.016), home food availability and girls' soft drink (p < .001) and FV (p < .001) intake, and family meal frequency and girls' FV intake (p = .023). Across the individual and mutually-adjusted models, parental modeling of PA, TV, and soft drink and FV intake was consistently associated with girls' behavior. Conclusions Helping parents improve their physical activity and dietary intake, as well as reduce time watching television, may be an effective way to promote healthful behaviors and weight among adolescent girls.
The aim of this study was to explore obese adults’ accounts of their experiences and feelings during their attempts to lose weight and to maintain a reducedweight. Qualitative research methods were used, based on interviews with individuals and groups. Eighteen obese men and women were recruited from the general public, with BMIs ranging from 30 to 50. All participants
|We investigate whether underweight, normal-weight, overweight, and obese Americans differ in their evaluations of positive and negative aspects of their interpersonal relationships. Analyses are based on data from the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study, a survey of more than 3,000 adults ages 25 to 74 in 1995. We find no…
Matching and attribute trade are two perspectives used to explain mate selection. We investigated patterns of matching and trade, focusing on obesity, using Add Health Romantic Pair data (N = 1,405 couples). Obese individuals, relative to healthy weight individuals, were less likely to have physically attractive partners, with this disadvantage…
|Objective: To examine longitudinal trajectories of perceived weight from adolescence to early adulthood by gender. Methods: We analyzed 9 waves (1997-2005) of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 8302) using Mplus. Results: Perceived overweight increased over time among girls and did not level off until 23 years of age. Blacks…
Objective:Young women in the United States and Western Europe are notoriously concerned about weight but less is known about attitudes to weight in other regions of the world. This study explores the associations between body mass index (BMI), weight perceptions, and attempts to lose weight in male and female university students from 22 countries.Methods:Data were collected from 18 512 university
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to canvass the nature of adolescent-parent interactions about weight, particularly overweight, and to explore ideas of how to foster supportive discussions regarding weight, both in the home and with family doctors. METHODS: A market research company was contracted to recruit and conduct a series of separate focus groups with adolescents and unrelated parents of adolescents from
Vanessa A Shrewsbury; Lesley A King; Libby A Hattersley; Sarah A Howlett; Louise L Hardy; Louise A Baur
The evolution of composite material applications for primary structure of Airbus aircraft will be continued with A380, delivering significant weight savings. Selection of composite materials and manufacturing processes for A380 targets the same cost level for primary aircraft components as for advanced metal structures. The paper outlines how the cost target can be achieved using Resin Film Infusion (RFI) and
This paper compares the efficacy of two widely used weight-loss diets differing in macronutrient composition - a low-carbohydrate diet versus a low-fat diet. Although "a calorie is a calorie" under the controlled conditions of a metabolic unit (i.e., only the level of calorie intake matters and not ...
Self-perception of bodyweight and other weight-related factors were assessed among 2665 Taipei, Taiwan high school students. A high percent of the girls (70.7%) and boys (42.2%) reported that they were too fat and these percentages were much higher than those reported by U.S. students in a recent Youth Risk Behavior Survey. In addition, only 13.2% of girls and 22.0% of boys reported being completely satisfied with their weight and the level of dissatisfaction with weight appeared to be greater than among U.S. students. Yet, in comparison to U.S. students, the Taiwanese students were considerably less likely than their U.S. counterparts to engage in weight management practices (e.g., dieting, eating less food, using diet pills). Taiwanese students with a self-perception of being too fat were more likely than those with perceptions of being just right or too thin to engage in weight management practices, to be dissatisfied with their weight, feel that they were unattractive, estimate that their same-sex peers were trying to lose weight, and have a higher body mass index. The findings from this study showed a relationship between self-perception of body size and engaging in weight control behaviors was consistent with other research. It suggested that self-perception of bodyweight, more so than objective weight status, was predictive of weight loss behavior and also negative psychological outcomes associated with poor bodyweight image. As a result, self-perception of weight may be an important point of focus for the design and implementation of clinical and public health initiatives targeted at this adolescent population as well as others. PMID:15971733
After spinal cord injury (SCI) of the cat or rat neuronal centres below the level of lesion exhibit plasticity that can be exploited by specific training paradigms. In individuals with complete or incomplete SCI, human spinal locomotor centers can be activated by appropriate afferent input. This includes to facilitate and assist stepping movements of the legs and to provide body
After spinal cord injury (SCI) of the cat or rat neuronal centres below the level of lesion exhibit plasticity that can be exploited by specific training paradigms. In individuals with complete or incomplete SCI, human spinal locomotor centers can be activated by appropriate afferent input. This includes to facilitate and assist stepping movements of the legs and to provide body
|A central component of anorexia nervosa is a body image disturbance (BID). BID, as it is experienced in anorexia nervosa, is defined as an inability to recognize how thin one really is and is exhibited by a sense of feeling overweight in spite of severe emaciation. Several researchers have recognized a relationship between depressive personality…
Market pigs today have a degree of leanness that may be associated with delayed puberty. It is known that a degree of body fat is required for initiation and maintenance of reproductive function. Leptin produced by adipocytes acts through leptin receptors in the upper brain centers to control appeti...
Background/Objectives Monitoring changes in total fat mass and abdominal adiposity are important in understanding the impact of different types of weight loss interventions on health risks. Our objective was to assess the usefulness of anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in predicting fat mass changes during moderate weight loss. Subjects/Methods Fat mass changes were assessed in 34 overweight adults (24 females, 10 males) after a 12-week supervised weight loss induced by caloric restriction (?30% of requirement) using BIA and DXA. Agreement between BIA and DXA measurements were assessed by Bland-Altman plots. Linear regression modeling was used to predict body and truncal fat mass from anthropometric measures. Results Diet intervention resulted in a significant decrease in bodyweight (? 7.86 ± 2.87 kg), body mass index (BMI ? 2.69 ± 0.98 kg/m2), total body fat (? 5.22 ± 2.32 kg), truncal fat (? 2.80 ± 1.94 kg) and waist circumference (? 5.52 ± 3.57 cm). BMI and bodyweight were highly correlated with body fat (0.83 and 0.92 in females and 0.94 and 0.92 in males respectively) and truncal fat (0.75 and 0.87 in females; 0.90 and 0.84 in males respectively) during weight loss. Waist circumference was more correlated with truncal fat in males than females (0.94 vs. 0.85 in females). Compared to DXA, BIA underestimated total body fat changes in males (? 8.8 kg, p<0.001) and overestimated total body fat changes in females (+ 2.1 kg, p< 0.001). Conclusions Body mass index, bodyweight, and waist circumference provide simple and more accurate than BIA estimates of relative changes in total and truncal fat during moderate weight loss in adults.
Aslam, Muhammad; Eckhauser, Aaron W.; Dorminy, Cindy A.; Dossett, Cynthia M.; Choi, Leena; Buchowski, Maciej S.
Few studies have investigated a cultural group's corporeal experiences in both its country of origin and a host, Western country using the same methodology. To overcome this dearth in the literature, the present study examined body image among 140 women in Harare, Zimbabwe, and an age-matched sample of 138 Zimbabwean migrants in Britain. Participants completed measures of actual-ideal weight discrepancy, body appreciation, and lifetime exposure to Western and Zimbabwean media. Preliminary analyses showed that there were no significant differences in body mass index between the two groups. Further analyses showed that Zimbabwean women in Britain had significantly greater weight discrepancy and lower body appreciation than their counterparts in Zimbabwe. In addition, weight discrepancy and body appreciation among both samples were significantly associated with exposure to Western media, but not Zimbabwean media. These findings support the contention that transcultural migration may place individuals at risk for symptoms of negative body image. PMID:22717762
This study examined whether the association between adolescent weight status and body image varies by social engagement. A nationally representative sample of 6,909 students in grades 6 to 10 completed the 2006 HBSC survey. Separate linear regressions for boys and girls, controlling for age, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, were conducted with an interaction term (weight status x social engagement). Adolescents’ overweight/obese status was related to body dissatisfaction. Social engagement moderated the relationship between weight status and body image for girls but not for boys. Overweight/obese boys had more body dissatisfaction compared to their normal/underweight peers, regardless of their social engagement. However, overweight/obese girls with more social engagement were more likely to have body satisfaction compared to overweight/obese girls with less social engagement. Encouraging adolescent girls to develop healthy relationships with peers may prevent them from developing body dissatisfaction.
Caccavale, Laura J.; Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J.
Body image, as measured by the Appearance Evaluation and Body Areas Satisfaction scales of the Multidimensional Body–Self Relations Questionnaire (T. F. Cash, 1994b), was assessed in 59 obese women before, during, and after 48 weeks of weight loss treatment. Before treatment, positive ratings of body image were associated with higher levels of self-esteem, lower levels of dysphoria, and fewer previous
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of strategies to both decrease weight and increase muscle tone on negative (depression, anxiety) and positive affect among adolescent males and females. The respondents were 1185 adolescents (587 males, 598 females) who were enrolled in grades 7 and 9 (mean age for males=13.22 years; mean age for females=13.21 years). Respondents
Marita P. McCabe; Lina A. Ricciardelli; Sophie Banfield
Summary Bilateral ovariectomies or sham surgeries were performed in female Sprague Dawley rats that were 78 days of age and weighed\\u000a an average of 210 g. Food was available ad libitum to the control rats and to a group of ovariectomized rats (obese OVX).\\u000a The food consumption of a second group of ovariectomized rats (weight-matched OVX) was restricted to match their
T. J. Wronski; P. A. Schenck; M. Cintrón; C. C. Walsh
Ciclazindol, a tetracyclic compound originally developed as an antidepressant, was compared to placebo in a double-blind trial involving 114 individuals who were at least 15% overweight. Following a one week control period patients were allocated to active or placebo groups by random distribution for a period of 4 weeks and this was followed by a final one-week observation period. The mean weight loss of 47 patients who completed the trial on ciclazindol was 6·95 lbs (3·13 kg) and of 48 patients who completed the trial on placebo it was 5·0 lbs (2·25 kg) a difference which is statistically significant in favour of ciclazindol (P < 0·05). The trial demonstrated a marked placebo effect resulting in loss of weight in these patients, but the drug effect was significantly greater.
While there are many mechanisms that may be involved in the regulation of body mass in humans and other animals, it is not so clear how much regulation is needed beyond the negative feedback effect of body mass itself. Here we model weight changes as a stochastic process, and show that it behaves approximately as an autoregressive process. Using published estimates of the energy cost of weight gain, the effect of weight on resting metabolic rate and the daily variation in intake and activity, we show that fluctuations in weight will be small. The effect of excess intake is also examined, and the assumptions and limitations of the model are discussed. PMID:21078329
In a 12-year prospective study, the authors examined the relation between body mass index (BMI) and mortality among the 20,346 middle-aged (25-54 years) and older (55-84 years) non-Hispanic white cohort members of the Adventist Health Study (California, 1976-1988) who had never smoked cigarettes and had no history of coronary heart disease, cancer, or stroke. In analyses that accounted for putative
Pramil N. Singh; Kristian D. Lindsted; Gary E. Fraser
Background Advanced studies on adipose tissue have established that subcutaneous adipose tissue acts as an endocrine organ to help maintain\\u000a homeostasis. Based on this information, many plastic surgeons have evaluated the metabolic effects of liposuction because\\u000a liposuction is the most common surgical procedure in plastic surgery. Liposuction removes a substantial amount of subcutaneous\\u000a fat from a specific area of the body.
Murat SariciM; M. Erol Demirseren; Mustafa Durgun; Candemir Ceran; M. Oguz Yenidunya
Differences in weight, body mass index (BMI), percent and absolute body fat, fat-free mass, and waist circumference were investigated in a group of males and females during the first three years (from 2007 to 2010) of college. Significant three-year gains were observed for weight 2.1 ± 4.7?kg, BMI 0.7 ± 1.6?kg/m2, percent body fat 2.7 ± 3.3%, and fat mass 2.3 ± 3.5?kg. A significant loss of fat-free mass, ?0.5?kg, was observed among females. Absolute gains in weight, BMI, and percent and absolute body fat were highest during the freshman year, followed by the junior year, and lowest during the sophomore year. Among the 70% of students gaining weight over the three years, weight gain averaged 4.3?kg. The numbers of females with over 30% body fat doubled, and the number of males with over 20% body fat increased fivefold. Initially 15% of students were classified as obese/overweight and 79% normal weight; by the end of the junior year, 24% were obese/overweight and 70% were normal weight. Efforts on college campuses to promote healthy lifestyles among its student population are needed throughout the college years.
Gropper, Sareen S.; Simmons, Karla P.; Connell, Lenda Jo; Ulrich, Pamela V.
BACKGROUND Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may cause excessive weight gain. We aimed to assess the effect on weight gain of an intervention that included the provision of noncaloric beverages at home for overweight and obese adolescents. METHODS We randomly assigned 224 overweight and obese adolescents who regularly consumed sugar-sweetened beverages to experimental and control groups. The experimental group received a 1-year intervention designed to decrease consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, with follow-up for an additional year without intervention. We hypothesized that the experimental group would gain weight at a slower rate than the control group. RESULTS Retention rates were 97% at 1 year and 93% at 2 years. Reported consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was similar at baseline in the experimental and control groups (1.7 servings per day), declined to nearly 0 in the experimental group at 1 year, and remained lower in the experimental group than in the control group at 2 years. The primary outcome, the change in mean body-mass index (BMI, the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) at 2 years, did not differ significantly between the two groups (change in experimental group minus change in control group, ?0.3; P = 0.46). At 1 year, however, there were significant between-group differences for changes in BMI (?0.57, P = 0.045) and weight (?1.9 kg, P = 0.04). We found evidence of effect modification according to ethnic group at 1 year (P = 0.04) and 2 years (P = 0.01). In a prespecified analysis according to ethnic group, among Hispanic participants (27 in the experimental group and 19 in the control group), there was a significant between-group difference in the change in BMI at 1 year (?1.79, P = 0.007) and 2 years (?2.35, P = 0.01), but not among non-Hispanic participants (P>0.35 at years 1 and 2). The change in body fat as a percentage of total weight did not differ significantly between groups at 2 years (?0.5%, P = 0.40). There were no adverse events related to study participation. CONCLUSIONS Among overweight and obese adolescents, the increase in BMI was smaller in the experimental group than in the control group after a 1-year intervention designed to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, but not at the 2-year follow-up (the prespecified primary outcome). (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00381160.)
Ebbeling, Cara B.; Feldman, Henry A.; Chomitz, Virginia R.; Antonelli, Tracy A.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Osganian, Stavroula K.; Ludwig, David S.
Food intake, diet selection and bodyweight gain were examined in three separate experiments in which rats received saline or one of three serotonergic agonists, dexfenfluramine, RU 24969 and fluoxetine. In all experiments, food was available only in the dark period during which time rats were given simultaneous access to two isoenergetic diets which differed in their protein and carbohydrate content. After habituation to this feeding paradigm and intraperitoneal injections, rats were assigned to control or drug group. Saline or a serotonergic agonist was given to the same rat once daily, 15 min prior to feeding, for six consecutive days. All three agonists (1.5 mg/kg for dexfenfluramine and RU 24969; 3 mg/kg for fluoxetine) caused immediate (first two h of feeding) hypophagia which was accounted for by the selective suppression in intake of the high-carbohydrate-low-protein diet. This selective shift in diet choice was sustained upon repeated exposure. Although the effects of these agonists on daily (12-h) feeding was less pronounced, appetite suppression was due entirely to reduced intake of the high-carbohydrate-low-protein diet. Of the three agonists tested, partial tolerance was observed only after dexfenfluramine. Nevertheless, all three agonists caused comparable declines in weight gain. These results suggest that repeated administration of serotonergic agonists has sustained impacts on food intake, diet choice and weight gain. PMID:2068186
Forward dynamic simulation of human movement has the potential to investigate the biomechanical effects of weight loss in obese individuals. However, guidelines for altering body segment inertial parameters (BSIPs) of a biomechanical model to approximate changes that occur with weight loss are currently unavailable. Therefore, the goal of this study was to quantify three-dimensional changes in BSIPs with weight loss. Nineteen Caucasian men of age 43.6 ± 7.5 years (mean ± standard deviation) were evaluated. Body mass and body mass index prior to weight loss were 102.7 ± 3.6 kg and 32.6 ± 3.2 kg/m2, respectively. Both before and after weight loss, magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired along the length of the body to discriminate muscle, bone, organ, and adipose tissues. Segment masses, center of mass (COM) positions, and radii of gyration were determined from these scans using published tissue densities and established methods. A number of significant changes in BSIPs occurred with the 13.8 ± 2.4 % average weight loss. Mass decreased in all segments. COM position moved distally for the thigh and upper arm, superiorly for the trunk, and inferiorly for the whole body. Radius of gyration, in general, decreased in all segments. The changes in BSIPs with weight loss reported here could be used in forward dynamic simulations investigating the biomechanical implications of weight loss.
Matrangola, Sara L.; Madigan, Michael L.; Nussbaum, Maury A.; Ross, Robert; Davy, Kevin P.
During recovery from social stress in a visible burrow system (VBS), during which a dominance hierarchy is formed among the males, rats display hyperphagia and gain weight preferentially as visceral adipose tissue. By proportionally increasing visceral adiposity, social stress may contribute to the establishment of metabolic disorder. Amylin was administered to rats fed ad libitum during recovery from VBS stress in an attempt to prevent hyperphagia and the resultant gain in bodyweight and fat mass. Amylin treatment reduced food intake, weight gain, and accumulation of fat mass in male burrow rats, but not in male controls that spent time housed with a single female rather than in the VBS. Amylin did not alter neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), or proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA expression in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus as measured at the end of the recovery period, nor did it affect plasma corticosterone or leptin. Amylin exerted most of its effect on food intake during the first few days of recovery, possibly through antagonism of NPY and/or increasing leptin sensitivity. The potential for chronic social stress to contribute to metabolic disorder is diminished by amylin treatment, though the neuroendocrine mechanisms behind this effect remain elusive.
Smeltzer, Michael; Scott, Karen; Melhorn, Susan; Krause, Eric
... chronic illness .…” “It is also used in the treatment of cancer patient [sic] to reduce the side effect of chemotherapy or radiotherapy.” Wild Ling Zhi ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/enforcementactivitiesbyfda
Weight cycling may cause a redistribution of body fat to the upper body fat compartments. We investigated the distribution of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in 30 overweight women with a history of weight-cycling and age-matched controls (167 normal weight and 97 overweight subjects). Measurements of SAT were performed using an optical device, the Lipometer. The SAT topography describes the thicknesses of SAT layers at 15 anatomically well-defined body sites from neck to calf. The overweight women with a history of weight cycling had significantly thicker SAT layers on the upper body compared to the overweight controls, but even thinner SAT layers on their legs than the normal weight women. An android fat pattern was attributed to overweight females and, even more pronounced, to the weight cyclers. The majority of normal weight women showed a gynoid fat pattern. Using stepwise discriminant analysis, 89.0% of all weight cyclers and overweight controls could be classified correctly into the two groups. These findings show the importance of normal weight maintenance as a health-promoting factor. PMID:15263924
Wallner, S J; Luschnigg, N; Schnedl, W J; Lahousen, T; Sudi, K; Crailsheim, K; Möller, R; Tafeit, E; Horejsi, R
Objective To investigate the roles of sociodemographic and health lifestyle factors in affecting body mass index (BMI) across ethnic\\u000a groups in Malaysia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Data are obtained from 2,436 observations from the Malaysia Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1. The multi-ethnic sample\\u000a is segmented into Malay, Chinese, and Indian\\/other ethnicities. Ordered probit analysis is conducted and marginal effects\\u000a of sociodemographic and health lifestyle variables on BMI
Andrew K. G. TanSteven; Steven T. Yen; Mustapha I. Feisul
While lifestyle modifications are currently used as first-line treatment for subjects with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), the pathogenetic role of lifestyle factors and consequently, the efficacy of lifestyle measures is controversial. Our aim was to systematically review the pathogenetic link between overweight/obesity, dietary habits, physical activity and GERD, and the beneficial effect of specific recommended changes, by means of the available literature from the 1999 to the present. Obesity, in particular, abdominal obesity, plays a key role in determining GERD symptoms and complications through mechanical and metabolic effects. Controlled weight loss (by diet or surgery) is effective in improving GERD symptoms. No definitive data exist regarding the role of diet and, in particular, of specific foods or drinks, in influencing GERD clinical manifestations. Moderate physical activity seems to be beneficial for GERD, while vigorous activity may be dangerous in predisposed individuals. In conclusion, being obese/overweight and GERD-specific symptoms and endoscopic features are related, and weight loss significantly improves GERD clinical-endoscopic manifestations. The role of dietary behavior, mainly in terms of specific dietary components, remains controversial. Mild routine physical activity in association with diet modifications, i.e. a diet rich in fiber and low in fat, is advisable in preventing reflux symptoms.
Festi, Davide; Scaioli, Eleonora; Baldi, Fabio; Vestito, Amanda; Pasqui, Francesca; Biase, Anna Rita Di; Colecchia, Antonio
We examined the effect of dietary energy density change on bodyweight in participants of a randomized trial. Intervention participants markedly increased fruit and vegetable intake while reducing energy intake from fat. Participants were 2,718 breast cancer survivors, aged 26?74 yr, with baseline mean body mass index of 27.3 kg/m2 (SD = 6.3). We assessed dietary intake by sets of four 24-h dietary recalls and validated with plasma carotenoid concentrations. Weight and height were measured at baseline, 1 yr, and 4 yr. Dietary energy density was calculated using food but excluding beverages. Intervention participants significantly reduced dietary energy density compared to controls and maintained it over 4 yr—both in cross-sectional (P < 0.0001) and longitudinal (Group × Time interaction, P < 0.0001) analyses. Total energy intake or physical activity did not vary between groups. The intervention group had a small but significant weight loss at 1 yr (Group × Time interaction, P < 0.0001), but no between-group weight difference was observed at 4 yr. Our study showed that reducing dietary energy density did not result in a reduction in total energy intake and suggests that this strategy alone is not sufficient to promote long-term weight loss in a free-living population.
Saquib, Nazmus; Natarajan, Loki; Rock, Cheryl L.; Flatt, Shirley W.; Madlensky, Lisa; Kealey, Sheila; Pierce, John P.
The relationship between cardiac output and central blood volume as a function of bodyweight was investigated in tranquilized adult baboons. Cardiac output was determined by the dye dilution method. Central blood volume was calculated as the product of c...
The report presents an analysis of the potential for weight reduction through lightweight material and component substitutions in a 1977 General Motors Corporation B body vehicle. The changes were limited to those that appeared producible in the 1980 to 1...
Although obesity is associated with multiple features of the metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance, leptin resistance, hepatic steatosis, chronic inflammation, etc.), the molecular changes that promote these conditions are not completely understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that elevated ceramide biosynthesis contributes to the pathogenesis of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Chronic treatment for 8 wk of genetically obese (ob/ob), and, high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) mice with myriocin, an inhibitor of de novo ceramide synthesis, decreased circulating ceramides. Decreased ceramide was associated with reducedweight, enhanced metabolism and energy expenditure, decreased hepatic steatosis, and improved glucose hemostasis via enhancement of insulin signaling in the liver and muscle. Inhibition of de novo ceramide biosynthesis decreased adipose expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3) and induced adipose uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3). Moreover, ceramide directly induced SOCS-3 and inhibited UCP3 mRNA in cultured adipocytes suggesting a direct role for ceramide in regulation of metabolism and energy expenditure. Inhibition of de novo ceramide synthesis had no effect on adipose tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) expression but dramatically reduced adipose plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and monocyte chemoattactant protein-1 (MCP-1). This study highlights a novel role for ceramide biosynthesis in bodyweight regulation, energy expenditure, and the metabolic syndrome.
A robust body of literature spanning several countries indicates a positive association between maternal employment and child body mass index (BMI). Fewer studies have examined the role of paternal employment. More importantly, little empirical work examines the mechanisms that might explain the relationships between parental employment and children's BMI. Our paper tests the relationship between the cumulative experience of maternal and spouse employment over a child's lifetime and that child's BMI, overweight, and obesity at age 13 or 14. We further examine several mechanisms that may explain these associations. We use data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) merged mother-child file on cohorts of children who were born during a period of dramatic increase in both childhood obesity and maternal employment. We find that the number of hours that highly-educated mothers work over her child's lifetime is positively and statistically significantly associated with her child's BMI and risk of overweight at ages 13 or 14. The work hours of mothers' spouses and partners, on the other hand, are not significantly associated with these outcomes. Results suggest that, for children of highly-educated mothers, the association between maternal work hours and child BMI is partially mediated by television viewing time. PMID:23031605
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M; Dunifon, Rachel E; Kalil, Ariel
To investigate the relationship between bodyweight, body dissatisfaction and depression symptoms among Chinese children. METHODS: The fasting bodyweight and height of the third and fourth grade students (n = 3886, aged 9 or 10 years) from 20 schools in Beijing, China, were measured, and the students were asked to choose the figures of body image and to complete
Y. P. Li; G. S. Ma; E. G. Schouten; X. Q. Hu; Z. H. Cui; D. Wang; F. J. Kok
The purpose of this study was to assess effects of gender and measures of Body Mass Index on estimates of normal body size (NBS), current body size (CBS), and discrepancies between attainable (ABS) and desirable (LTB) sizes. A total of 98 women and 74 men, shown 9 male and 9 female thin-to-heavy figure silhouette drawings, chose one drawing (or between
The effect of the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist, (?)11-hydroxy-?8-tetrahydrocannabinol-dymethylheptyl (HU 210), on rat bodyweight and eating and drinking behaviour was examined. In Experiment 1, the drug (25, 50 or 100 ?g\\/kg), sub-chronically administered for 4 days, produced a dose- and time-dependent loss of bodyweight that, at the highest dose, was not regained by 7 days after the drug
Daniela Giuliani; Alessandra Ottani; Francesca Ferrari
Over the past 20 years the taking of anabolic steroids by healthy athletes for the purpose of increasing bodyweight and strength has become very widespread. The ability of these agents to cause potentially serious side effects is discussed. In a series of 20 subjects studied over 18 months, no side effects of significance were recorded, and marked increases in strength and bodyweight were achieved. PMID:979776
5-HT1B receptors have a regulatory role in serotonergic activity and influence feeding behavior and bodyweight. Because the absence of 5-HT1B receptors may cause changes in this regulation, bodyweight was measured in male and female 5-HT1B receptor knockout (5-HT1B KO) and wildtype (WT) mice from weaning until the age of 30 weeks. In both genders, 5-HT1B KO mice had
J. Adriaan Bouwknecht; Jan van der Gugten; Theo H. Hijzen; Robert A. A. Maes; Rene Hen; Berend Olivier
In this retrospective study, we evaluated the predictability of PBSC dose for hematopoietic engraftment comparing that calculated by ideal bodyweight (IBW) vs another calculated by actual bodyweight (ABW) for each patient. Sixty-three consecutive patients treated similarly using one transplant protocol were analyzed. While all patients had data available on CFU-GM and nucleated cells (NC), data on CD34+ enumeration
JM Waples; JS Moreb; M Sugrue; G Belanger; P Kubilis; JW Lynch; V Gian; J Wingard
Cyclophosphamide pharmacolinetics have been studied in 16 female patients with advanced breast cancer. The group included 7 patients who were >20%, =30% over ideal bodyweight and 5 patients who were >30% over ideal bodyweight. Cyclophosphamide plasma elimination half-lives ranged between 152 and 984 min (mean 457 min), the apparent volume of distribution between 19.1 and 62.31 (mean 36.11),
Garth Powis; Phillip Reece; David L. Ahmann; James N. Ingle
Cadmium (Cd) exposure has been recognized to result in a wide variety of cellular responses, including oxidative stress and\\u000a bodyweight loss. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of lycopene supplementation on the antioxidant defense\\u000a system, lipid peroxidation (LPO) level, nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) production, and bodyweight\\u000a in Cd-exposed rats.
Cheng P-T, Wu S-H, Liaw M-Y, Wong AMK, Tang F-T. Symmetrical body-weight distribution training in stroke patients and its effect on fall prevention. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:1650-4. Objective: To determine the role of symmetrical body-weight distribution training in preventing falls among patients with hemiplegic stroke. Design: A prospective study using a standing biofeedback trainer. Setting: Hospital-based rehabilitation units. Patients:
Pao-Tsai Cheng; Shu-Hsia Wu; Mei-Yun Liaw; Alice M. K. Wong; Fuk-Tan Tang
We sought to investigate the effect of increased bodyweight on the risk of death and serious injury to occupants in motor vehicle crashes. We employed a retrospective cohort study design utilizing data from the National Automotive Sampling System, Crashworthiness Data System (CDS), 1993-1996. Subjects in the study included occupants involved in tow-away crashes of passenger cars, light trucks, vans and sport utility vehicles. Two outcomes were analyzed: death within 30 days of the crash and injury severity score (ISS). Two exposures were considered: occupant bodyweight and body mass index (BMI; kg/m2). Occupant weight was available on 27263 subjects (76%) in the CDS database. Mortality was 0.67%. Increased bodyweight was associated with increased risk of mortality and increased risk of severe injury. The odds ratio for death was 1.013 (95% CI: 1.007, 1.018) for each kilogram increase in bodyweight. The odds ratio for sustaining an injury with ISS > or = 9 was 1.008 (95% CI: 1.004, 1.011) for each kilogram increase in bodyweight. After adjustment for potentially confounding variables (age, gender, seatbelt use, seat position and vehicle curbweight), the significant relationship between occupant weight and mortality persisted. After adjustment, the relationship between occupant weight and ISS was present, although less marked. Similar trends were found when BMI was analyzed as the exposure. In conclusion, increased occupant bodyweight is associated with increased mortality in automobile crashes. This is probably due in part to increased co-morbid factors in the more overweight occupants. However, it is possibly also due to an increased severity of injury in these occupants. These findings may have implications for vehicle safety design, as well as for transport safety policy. PMID:11829292
Mock, Charles N; Grossman, David C; Kaufman, Robert P; Mack, Christopher D; Rivara, Frederick P
The aim of the study was to verify if the accuracy of weight perception among young women depends on their socio-economic status and BMI-based weight status. In addition, the survey contained questions whether women were satisfied with their weight and tested if the desire to change weight is affected by real bodyweight and weight perception. The sample consisted of 1,129 female university students, aged 20-24. BMI was calculated from measured weight and height. The questionnaire contained questions about socio-economic status, weight perception and desired bodyweight. 71.9% of the surveyed students correctly estimated, 24.2% overestimated and 3.9% underestimated their bodyweight. Underweight women tended to incorrectly assess their bodyweight more often than normal weight women or overweight women (43.2% vs. 75.4% vs. 77.2%). Students from families of high socio-economic status slightly more often estimated their weight status correctly than students with average and low status, but the difference was statistically significant only in the case of the factor "mother's education". Most of surveyed women expressed the desire to weigh less or/and to have thinner waist, hips or thighs. The desire to be thinner was associated with bodyweight status and bodyweight perception. PMID:24069860
Wronka, Iwona; Suliga, Edyta; Pawli?ska-Chmara, Romana
Bodyweight and body length have been considered as the most important production traits for the fish genetic improvement. For cold-water fish, body length was usually substituted by fork length. In order to estimate the heritability of bodyweight and fork length of the sixth generation Oncorhynchus masou masou, which was introduced into China, the method of unbalanced nest design and an artificial insemination technigue were used. Twenty-nine full-sib families and fourteen half-sib families were obtained. Bodyweight and fork length of O. masou masou were measured in 12 and 24 months after fertilization. Based on full-sib and half-sib families data, the causal components of phenotypic variance were calculated. The results showed that, (1) during the whole growth phase of O. masou masou, the coefficient variation (CV) of fork length was higher than bodyweight, and CV of 12-month old was higher than that of 24-month old; (2) bodyweight and fork length of O. masou masou among sires and dams among sires were significant difference (P<0.01) both at 12 months and at 24 months; (3) the maternal component estimates were significantly larger than those of paternal ones for bodyweight and fork length traits both at 12 months and at 24 months; (4) for 12 months of O. masou masou the heritabilities of bodyweight and fork length were 0.41~0.51 and 0.46~0.54, respectively. For 24 months the values were 0.55~0.60 and 0.53~0.59, respectively; and (5) it was concluded that the heritability of growth traits in O. masou masou was relatively high and this highlights the potential to improve its growth through selective breeding. This study shows important data supporting for further genetic improvement of O. masou masou. PMID:23448933
Rats weighing 110 to 150 g or 250 g initially were utilized in five experiments to determine the effect of the form of the diet (dry versus liquid) and the pattern of feeding (meal-feeding, force-feeding, nibbling, or ad libitum) on bodyweight gain and on body fat. A high- carbohydrate, 20% casein or 20r\\/c lactalbumin diet was fed for 4
AYSEL OZELCI; DALE R. ROMSOS; ANDGILBERT A. LEVEILLE
A reduction in new bone formation occurred as a result of space flight (Cosmos 1129) and in the suspended animal model of Morey-Holton. Our results indicate that alkaline phosphatase activity of the bone forming cells is also reduced under these conditions, and the cells in the diaphysis are more affected than those in the metaphyseal region. In addition, these cells show (1) reduced proline incorporation into bone matrix, and (2) increased intracellular lysosomal activity. A change in the cytoskeleton could be the common factor in explaining these results. This suggestion is further supported by our previous observations that colchicine injections result in decreased osteoblastic function. PMID:11539017
Studies on the relationship between unemployment and bodyweight show a positive relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and unemployment at the individual level, while aggregate unemployment is negatively related to a population's average BMI. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between job loss and changes in bodyweight following the Icelandic economic collapse of 2008. The analysis relies on a health and lifestyle survey "Heilsa og líðan", carried out by The Public Health Institute of Iceland in the years 2007 and 2009. The sample is a stratified random sample of 9,807 Icelanders between the ages of 18 and 79, with a net response rate of 42.1 % for individuals responding in both waves. A linear regression model was used when estimating the relationship between job loss following the economic collapse and changes in bodyweight. Family income and mental health were explored as mediators. Point estimates indicated that both men and women gain less weight in the event of a job loss relative to those who retained their employment. The coefficients of job loss were only statistically significant for females, but not in the male population. The results from all three models were inconsistent with results from other studies where job loss has been found to increase bodyweight. However, bodyweight has been shown to be procyclical, and the fact that the data used were gathered during a severe economic downturn might separate these results from earlier findings. PMID:23757095
Background: Previous results suggested that increased intake of dairy calcium is associated with reducedweight and fat mass. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether long-term increases in consumption of dairy calcium alter bodyweight and fat mass in young, healthy women. Design: We used a randomized, 1-y intervention for dairy calcium. Subjects were 155 young (aged
Carolyn W Gunther; Pamela A Legowski; Roseann M Lyle; George P McCabe; Marianne S Eagan; Munro Peacock; Dorothy Teegarden
Objective:Initiation and intensification of insulin therapy commonly causes weight gain, a barrier to therapy. A contrasting body of evidence indicates that insulin functions as an adiposity negative feedback signal and reduces food intake, weight gain and adiposity via action in the central nervous system. Basal insulin analogs, detemir (Det) and glargine (Glar), have been associated with less hypoglycemia compared with
Obesity is a major health concern. Strategies to reduce obesity including weight loss by energy restriction have disease risk reduction benefits, however, energy restriction alone often leads to the loss of muscle mass. Muscle is a very important tissues in the body particularly from a metabolic standpoint, thus, efforts to maintain it by promoting weight loss with the greatest ratio
This is the first phenotypic analysis of 75 new recombinant inbred (RI) strains derived from ILS and ISS progenitors. We analyzed bodyweight in two independent cohorts of female mice at various ages and in males at 60 days. Bodyweight is a complex trait which has been mapped in numerous crosses in rodents. The LXS RI strains displayed a large range of weights, transgressing those of the inbred progenitors, supporting the utility of this large panel for mapping traits not selected in the progenitors. Numerous QTLs for bodyweight mapped in singleand multilocus scans. We assessed replication between these and previously reported QTLs based on overlapping confidence intervals of published QTLs for bodyweight at 60 days and used meta-analyses to determine combined p values for three QTL regions located on Chromosomes 4, 5, and 11. Strain distribution patterns of microsatellite marker genotypes, weight, and other phenotypes are available on Web- QTL (http://www.webqtl.org/search.html) and allow genetic mapping of any heritable quantitative phenotype measured in these strains. We report one such analysis, correlating brain and bodyweights. Large reference panels of RI strains, such as the LXS, are invaluable for identifying genetic correlations, GXE (Gene X Environment) interactions, and replicating previously identified QTLs.
Bennett, Beth [University of Colorado, Boulder; Carosone-Line, Phyllis [University of Colorado, Boulder; Lu, Lu [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Johnson, Thomas [University of Colorado, Boulder
The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether it was possible to prevent the metabolic and behavioral vulnerability related to weight regain generally observed in a reduced-obese state with a supervised diet–exercise clinical intervention. In this regard, the anthropometric and physiological effects of a bodyweight loss program were studied in 11 obese men and the impact of
In an effort to control bodyweight, many women diet or adopt a restrained approach to eating. Although common, dieting and dietary restraint remain poorly understood. Clarification of their association with health-related factors, such as bodyweight and overeating, is required. In this study, we explored how dieting and dietary restraint were associated with body mass index (BMI; calculated as
Input from the foot plays an essential part in perceiving support surfaces and determining kinematic events in human walking. To simulate adequate tactile pressure inputs under bodyweight support (BWS) conditions that represent an effective form of locomotion training, we here developed a new method of phasic mechanical foot stimulation using light-weight pneumatic insoles placed inside the shoes (under the
S. Gravano; Y. P. Ivanenko; G. Maccioni; V. Macellari; R. E. Poppele; F. Lacquaniti
1. Estimates of genetic parameters for reproductive traits, live weight and body measurements were obtained using data from a pair-mated ostrich flock at Oudtshoorn in South Africa. Reproductive traits included total egg and chick production, along with hatchability percentage. Live weight, chest circumference and tail circumferences were recorded at the commencement and cessation of breeding.2. Heritability estimates (h ) were
S. W. P. Cloete; K. L. Bunter; H. Lambrechts; Z. Brand; D. Swart; J. P. C. Greyling