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1

Complementary therapies for reducing body weight: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate and a plethora of complementary therapies are on offer claiming effectiveness for reducing body weight. The aim of this systematic review is to critically assess the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews of complementary therapies for reducing body weight. Literature searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, Amed,

M H Pittler; E Ernst

2005-01-01

2

Body Weight Reducing Effect of Oral Boric Acid Intake  

PubMed Central

Background: Boric acid is widely used in biology, but its body weight reducing effect is not researched. Methods: Twenty mice were divided into two equal groups. Control group mice drank standard tap water, but study group mice drank 0.28mg/250ml boric acid added tap water over five days. Total body weight changes, major organ histopathology, blood biochemistry, urine and feces analyses were compared. Results: Study group mice lost body weight mean 28.1% but in control group no weight loss and also weight gained mean 0.09% (p<0.001). Total drinking water and urine outputs were not statistically different. Cholesterol, LDL, AST, ALT, LDH, amylase and urobilinogen levels were statistically significantly high in the study group. Other variables were not statistically different. No histopathologic differences were detected in evaluations of all resected major organs. Conclusion: Low dose oral boric acid intake cause serious body weight reduction. Blood and urine analyses support high glucose, lipid and middle protein catabolisms, but the mechanism is unclear. PMID:22135611

Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir; Emre, Sinem Hocaoglu; Karaca, Cetin; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

2011-01-01

3

A prospective study of weight maintenance in obese subjects reduced to normal body weight without weight-loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the pattern of weight mainte- nance in 24 obese women (body mass index (BMI; in kg\\/m2) 27.6 ± 0.4 who were provided foods for a balanced deficit diet until each had lost ? 10 kg and attained normal body weight (BMI 22.9 ± 0.4). At 1 y subjects had regained a mean of 42% of their weight loss,

Donald D Hensrud; Roland L Weinsier; Betty E Darnell; Gary R Hunter

4

GLP-1 receptor signaling is not required for reduced body weight after RYGB in rodents.  

PubMed

Exaggerated GLP-1 and PYY secretion is thought to be a major mechanism in the reduced food intake and body weight after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Here, we use complementary pharmacological and genetic loss-of-function approaches to test the role of increased signaling by these gut hormones in high-fat diet-induced obese rodents. Chronic brain infusion of a supramaximal dose of the selective GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin-9-39 into the lateral cerebral ventricle significantly increased food intake and body weight in both RYGB and sham-operated rats, suggesting that, while contributing to the physiological control of food intake and body weight, central GLP-1 receptor signaling tone is not the critical mechanism uniquely responsible for the body weight-lowering effects of RYGB. Central infusion of the selective Y2R-antagonist BIIE0246 had no effect in either group, suggesting that it is not critical for the effects of RYGB on body weight under the conditions tested. In a recently established mouse model of RYGB that closely mimics surgery and weight loss dynamics in humans, obese GLP-1R-deficient mice lost the same amount of body weight and fat mass and maintained similarly lower body weight compared with wild-type mice. Together, the results surprisingly provide no support for important individual roles of either gut hormone in the specific mechanisms by which RYGB rats settle at a lower body weight. It is likely that the beneficial effects of bariatric surgeries are expressed through complex mechanisms that require combination approaches for their identification. PMID:24430883

Ye, Jianping; Hao, Zheng; Mumphrey, Michael B; Townsend, R Leigh; Patterson, Laurel M; Stylopoulos, Nicholas; Münzberg, Heike; Morrison, Christopher D; Drucker, Daniel J; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

2014-03-01

5

Administration of saccharin to neonatal mice influences body composition of adult males and reduces body weight of females.  

PubMed

Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice. PMID:24456165

Parlee, Sebastian D; Simon, Becky R; Scheller, Erica L; Alejandro, Emilyn U; Learman, Brian S; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; MacDougald, Ormond A

2014-04-01

6

Small molecule insulin mimetics reduce food intake and body weight and prevent development of obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity and insulin resistance are major risk factors for a number of metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insulin has been suggested to function as one of the adiposity signals to the brain for modulation of energy balance. Administration of insulin into the brain reduces food intake and body weight, and mice with a genetic deletion of neuronal

Ellen L. Air; Mathias Z. Strowski; Stephen C. Benoit; Stacey L. Conarello; Gino M. Salituro; Xiao-Ming Guan; Kun Liu; Stephen C. Woods; Bei B. Zhang

2002-01-01

7

Mechanism of Body Weight Reducing Effect of Oral Boric Acid Intake  

PubMed Central

Objective. The effect of oral boric acid intake on reducing body weight has been previously demonstrated although the mechanism has been unclear. This research study reveals the mechanism. Subjects. Twelve mice were used, in groups of six each in the control and study groups. For five days, control group mice drank standard tap water while during the same time period the study group mice drank tap water which contains 0.28?mg/250?mL boric acid. After a 5-day period, gene expression levels for uncoupling proteins (UCPs) in the white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle tissue (SMT) and total body weight changes were analyzed. Results. Real time PCR analysis revealed no significant change in UCP3 expressions, but UCP2 in WAT (P: 0.0317), BAT (P: 0.014), and SMT (P: 0.0159) and UCP1 in BAT (P: 0.026) were overexpressed in the boric acid group. In addition, mice in the boric acid group lost body weight (mean 28.1%) while mice in the control group experienced no weight loss but a slight weight gain (mean 0.09%, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Oral boric acid intake causes overexpression of thermogenic proteins in the adipose and skeletal muscle tissues. Increasing thermogenesis through UCP protein pathway results in the accelerated lipolysis and body weight loss. PMID:23861682

Aysan, Erhan; Telci, Dilek; Erdem, Merve; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut; Yard?mc?, Erkan; Bektasoglu, Huseyin

2013-01-01

8

Calcium supplementation for 1 y does not reduce body weight or fat mass in young girls1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Accumulating evidence from observational studies indicates that a high calcium intake may reduce body weight and body fat. However, few randomized trials have been conducted. Objective: We examined whether calcium supplementation affects bodyweightandbodyfatinyounggirlsandwhetherarelationexists between habitual calcium intake and body weight and body fat. Design: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled interven- tion study was conducted in 110 young girls. The subjects

Janne K Lorenzen; Christian Mřlgaard; Kim F Michaelsen; Arne Astrup

9

Exercise Minimizes Weight Regain By Reducing Appetite, Burning Fat, And Lowering 'Defended' Body Weight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

APS Press Release of Journal Article "Regular exercise attenuates the metabolic drive to regain weight after long term weight loss" by Paul S. MacLean, Janine A. Higgins, Holly R. Wyatt, Edward L. Melanson, Ginger C. Johnson, Matthew R. Jackman, Erin D. Giles, Ian E. Brown and James O. Hill, found in American Journal of Physiology Â? Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

2009-09-02

10

IQP-GC-101 reduces body weight and body fat mass: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.  

PubMed

IQP-GC-101 is a patented blend of the standardized extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, unroasted Coffea arabica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa. These individual ingredients of IQP-GC-101 have each shown promise in promoting weight loss; however, the efficacy of the blend has not been established. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study conducted over 14?weeks (including a 2-week run-in phase) aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IQP-GC-101 in reducing body weight and body fat mass in overweight Caucasian adults. Subjects took three IQP-GC-101 or placebo tablets, twice a day, 30?min before main meals. All subjects also adhered to a 500?kcal/day energy deficit diet with 30% of energy from fat. Ninety-one overweight and mildly obese subjects (46 in the IQP-GC-101 group, 45 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12-week intervention, IQP-GC-101 resulted in a mean (±SD) weight loss of 2.26?±?2.37?kg compared with 0.56?±?2.34?kg for placebo (pU ?=?0.002). There was also significantly more reduction in body fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the IQP-GC-101 group. No serious adverse events were reported. The use of IQP-GC-101 has been shown to result in body weight and body fat reduction in the current study, with good tolerability. PMID:24797657

Chong, Pee-Win; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Grube, Barbara; Riede, Linda

2014-10-01

11

Effects of ambient temperature on adaptive thermogenesis during maintenance of reduced body weight in mice  

PubMed Central

We showed previously that, at ambient room temperature (22°C), mice maintained at 20% below their initial body weight by calorie restriction expend energy at a rate below that which can be accounted for by the decrease of fat and fat-free mass. Food-restricted rodents may become torpid at subthermoneutral temperatures, a possible confounding factor when using mice as human models in obesity research. We examined the bioenergetic, hormonal, and behavioral responses to maintenance of a 20% body weight reduction in singly housed C57BL/6J +/+ and Lepob mice housed at both 22°C and 30°C. Weight-reduced high-fat-fed diet mice (HFD-WR) showed similar quantitative reductions in energy expenditure—adjusted for body mass and composition—at both 22°C and 30°C: ?1.4 kcal/24 h and ?1.6 kcal/24 h below predicted, respectively, and neither group entered torpor. In contrast, weight-reduced Lepob mice (OB-WR) housed at 22°C became torpid in the late lights-off period (0200–0500) but did not when housed at 30°C. These studies indicate that mice with an intact leptin axis display similar decreases in “absolute” energy expenditure in response to weight reduction at both 22°C and 30°C ambient temperature. More importantly, the “percent” decrease in total energy expenditure observed in the HFD-WR compared with AL mice is much greater at 30°C (?19%) than at 22°C (?10%). Basal energy expenditure demands are ?45% lower in mice housed at 30°C vs. 22°C, since the mice housed at thermoneutrality do not allocate extra energy for heat production. The higher total energy expenditure of mice housed at 22°C due to these increased thermogenic demands may mask physiologically relevant changes in energy expenditure showing that ambient temperature must be carefully considered when quantifying energy metabolism in both rodents and humans. PMID:22761182

Ravussin, Yann; LeDuc, Charles A.; Watanabe, Kazuhisa

2012-01-01

12

Aliskiren reduces body-weight gain, adiposity and plasma leptin during diet-induced obesity  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Overfeeding increases adipose tissue mass and leptin production and up-regulates the renin-angiotensin system in adipose tissue in rodents. Here, we determined the effect of chronic treatment with the renin inhibitor, aliskiren, in a model of diet-induced obesity in mice, on: (i) body weight, adipose tissue weight and plasma leptin; (ii) food intake and caloric efficiency; and (iii) angiotensin II (Ang II) in adipose tissue. Experimental approach: Four-week-old C57BL/6J mice (n= 40) received aliskiren (50 mg·kg?1·day?1; 6 weeks) by means of a subcutaneous osmotic Alzet minipump. Animals were given either a low-fat (10% kcal from fat) or a high-fat diet (45% kcal from fat) during this period. Food-intake and body-weight variation were monitored during treatment. Key results: In addition to a decrease of plasma renin activity, aliskiren reduced body-weight gain, adipose pads and plasma leptin concentration, independent of the diet. In adipose tissue, local concentrations of Ang II were also reduced by aliskiren. Conclusions and implications: Aliskiren limited the gain of adiposity in young mice. This effect was not due to changes in food intake or caloric efficiency and might be related to a down-regulation of the local renin-angiotensin system in adipose tissue. These effects were accompanied by reduced plasma leptin levels. As Ang II favours differentiation of adipocytes, it is possible that the decreased adipose tissue was linked to changes in adipocyte size and number. PMID:19694726

Stucchi, Paula; Cano, Victoria; Ruiz-Gayo, Mariano; Fernández-Alfonso, María S

2009-01-01

13

Vagus nerve stimulation reduces body weight and fat mass in rats.  

PubMed

Among the manifold effects of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) delivered as an add-on treatment to patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, a moderate loss of body weight has been observed in some individuals. We have now investigated this effect in rats. Exposure of rats to VNS for 4 weeks reduced feed conversion efficiency as well as body weight gain (by ?25%) and the amount of mesenteric adipose tissue (by ?45%) in comparison with those in sham-operated control animals. A pair-fed experiment showed that both lower dietary intake and increase energy expenditure independently contributed to the reduction of body weight and mesenteric adipose tissue. Moreover, VNS increased the level of non-esterified fatty acids in plasma and mesenteric adipose tissue by ?50 and 80%, respectively, without affecting that in the liver. In addition, VNS reduced the amounts of endocannabinoids and increased N-palmitoylethanolamide, an endogenous ligand of the transcription factor PPAR? (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?) in mesenteric adipose tissue but not in the hypothalamus. These effects were accompanied by increased expression of the gene for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hypothalamus and up-regulation of the abundance of PPAR? in the liver. Our results suggest that the reduction in body fat induced by VNS in rats may result from the action of both central and peripheral mediators. The reduced feed conversion efficiency associated with VNS may be mediated by hypothalamic BDNF, down-regulation of endocannabinoid tone in mesenteric adipose tissue and a PPAR?-dependent increase in fatty acid oxidation in the liver, which in concerted action may account for the anorexic effect and increased energy expenditure. PMID:23028630

Banni, Sebastiano; Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Cordeddu, Lina; Giordano, Elena; Marrosu, Francesco; Puligheddu, Monica; Floris, Gabriele; Asuni, Gino Paolo; Cappai, Angela Letizia; Deriu, Silvia; Follesa, Paolo

2012-01-01

14

Vagus Nerve Stimulation Reduces Body Weight and Fat Mass in Rats  

PubMed Central

Among the manifold effects of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) delivered as an add-on treatment to patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, a moderate loss of body weight has been observed in some individuals. We have now investigated this effect in rats. Exposure of rats to VNS for 4 weeks reduced feed conversion efficiency as well as body weight gain (by ?25%) and the amount of mesenteric adipose tissue (by ?45%) in comparison with those in sham-operated control animals. A pair-fed experiment showed that both lower dietary intake and increase energy expenditure independently contributed to the reduction of body weight and mesenteric adipose tissue. Moreover, VNS increased the level of non-esterified fatty acids in plasma and mesenteric adipose tissue by ?50 and 80%, respectively, without affecting that in the liver. In addition, VNS reduced the amounts of endocannabinoids and increased N-palmitoylethanolamide, an endogenous ligand of the transcription factor PPAR? (peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor ?) in mesenteric adipose tissue but not in the hypothalamus. These effects were accompanied by increased expression of the gene for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hypothalamus and up-regulation of the abundance of PPAR? in the liver. Our results suggest that the reduction in body fat induced by VNS in rats may result from the action of both central and peripheral mediators. The reduced feed conversion efficiency associated with VNS may be mediated by hypothalamic BDNF, down-regulation of endocannabinoid tone in mesenteric adipose tissue and a PPAR?-dependent increase in fatty acid oxidation in the liver, which in concerted action may account for the anorexic effect and increased energy expenditure. PMID:23028630

Banni, Sebastiano; Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Cordeddu, Lina; Giordano, Elena; Marrosu, Francesco; Puligheddu, Monica; Floris, Gabriele; Asuni, Gino Paolo; Cappai, Angela Letizia; Deriu, Silvia; Follesa, Paolo

2012-01-01

15

Lifestyle intervention reduces body weight and improves cardiometabolic risk factors in worksites123  

PubMed Central

Background: Worksites are potentially effective locations for obesity control because they provide opportunities for group intervention and social support. Studies are needed to identify effective interventions in these settings. Objective: We examined the effects of a multicomponent lifestyle intervention on weight loss and prevention of regain in 4 worksites (2 intervention and 2 control sites). Design: Overweight and obese employees (n = 133) enrolled in this pilot worksite-randomized controlled trial with a 0–6-mo weight-loss phase and a 6–12-mo structured weight-maintenance phase. The intervention combined recommendations to consume a reduced-energy, low–glycemic load, high-fiber diet with behavioral change education. Outcome measurements included changes in body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors. Results: The mean ± SEM weight loss was substantial in intervention participants, whereas control subjects gained weight (?8.0 ± 0.7 compared with +0.9 ± 0.5 kg, respectively; P < 0.001), and 89% of participants completed the weight-loss phase. Intervention effects were not significant at the 0.05 level but would have been at the 0.10 level (P = 0.08) in a mixed model in which the worksite nested within group was a random factor. There were also significant improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors in intervention compared with control subjects regarding fasting total cholesterol, glucose, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure (P ? 0.02 for each). No significant weight regain was observed in participants who enrolled in the structured weight-maintenance program (0.5 ± 0.7 kg; P = 0.65), and overweight and obese employees in intervention worksites who were not enrolled in the weight-loss program lost weight compared with subjects in control worksites (?1.3 ± 0.5 compared with +0.7 ± 0.2 kg, respectively; P = 0.02). Conclusion: Worksites can be effective for achieving clinically important reductions in body weight and improved cardiometabolic risk factors. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01470222. PMID:23426035

Salinardi, Taylor C; Batra, Payal; Roberts, Susan B; Urban, Lorien E; Robinson, Lisa M; Pittas, Anastassios G; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Deckersbach, Thilo; Saltzman, Edward

2013-01-01

16

IQP-GC-101 Reduces Body Weight and Body Fat Mass: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study  

PubMed Central

IQP-GC-101 is a patented blend of the standardized extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, unroasted Coffea arabica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa. These individual ingredients of IQP-GC-101 have each shown promise in promoting weight loss; however, the efficacy of the blend has not been established. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study conducted over 14 weeks (including a 2-week run-in phase) aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IQP-GC-101 in reducing body weight and body fat mass in overweight Caucasian adults. Subjects took three IQP-GC-101 or placebo tablets, twice a day, 30 min before main meals. All subjects also adhered to a 500 kcal/day energy deficit diet with 30% of energy from fat. Ninety-one overweight and mildly obese subjects (46 in the IQP-GC-101 group, 45 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12-week intervention, IQP-GC-101 resulted in a mean (±SD) weight loss of 2.26 ± 2.37 kg compared with 0.56 ± 2.34 kg for placebo (pU = 0.002). There was also significantly more reduction in body fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the IQP-GC-101 group. No serious adverse events were reported. The use of IQP-GC-101 has been shown to result in body weight and body fat reduction in the current study, with good tolerability. © 2014 InQpharm Group Sdn Bhd. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24797657

Chong, Pee-Win; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Grube, Barbara; Riede, Linda

2014-01-01

17

Body Weight and Body Image  

Microsoft Academic Search

HEALTH ISSUE: Body weight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight and obesity are indeed serious, there are also problems connected to being underweight. Weight prejudice and the dieting industry intensify body image concerns for Canadian women and can have

Marion P. Olmsted; Traci McFarlane

2004-01-01

18

Osteoarthritis and body weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease) is the most common type of arthritis, and is a significant source of pain and disability. Osteoarthritis has multiple risk factors, including some that are potentially modifiable, such as body weight. Increased body weight is associated with an increased risk of developing osteoarthritis. Relatively minor weight loss can effectively decrease the risk of the onset of

Patrick M. Foye; Todd P. Stitik; Boqing Chen; Scott F. Nadler

2000-01-01

19

Body weight and mortality.  

PubMed

Over the years ideal or desirable weights have been associated with the lowest mortality and defined in a number of ways. The widely used height-weight tables of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, developed in the 1940s, have been supplanted in the last decade by new weight standards based on findings of several population-based studies that compared body weight to mortality. The Quetelet or body mass index (BMI), now used as the de facto criterion for defining a desirable weight index, indicates relative fatness and is only minimally correlated with height. However, the optimal BMI or weight for longevity remains to be defined for a number of methodological reasons. This article reviews the strength of the evidence for increased mortality in adults who are overweight or underweight based on standard BMI ranges and in those who reported a change in body weight. Epidemiological studies show that excess body weight is associated with increased mortality, depending on fat patterning, gender, and age. A similar increase is shown for subjects with body weight below the relative weight range, although here associated life-style factors are greater contributors. Preliminary data suggest that change in body weight may also be associated with increased mortality. Overall, carefully measured weight and height remain the most easily performed and useful determinants of nutritional status and predictors of mortality for the general population. PMID:8332284

Kushner, R F

1993-05-01

20

Ginseng panaxoside Rb1 reduces body weight in diet-induced obese mice.  

PubMed

Crude extracts from ginseng demonstrated anti-obesity properties. Ginsenoside Rb1 is the main component of ginseng, however, there are only few studies examining its effects in obesity. In the present study, we evaluated its potential anti-obesity effects in the murine model of diet-induced obesity. Seventy male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided to consume for 12 weeks either chow diet (N = 8) or high-fat (HF) diet (N = 62). The latter mice were then divided into four groups: diet-induced obesity group (DIO; N = 10), obesity-resistant group (OR; N = 10), HF group (N = 5), and the group whose diet was changed from HF to normal diet (DC; N = 5). Intraperitoneal injections of Rb-1 were administered daily to mice in the DIO and OR groups for 3 weeks. Body weight and energy intake were monitored, and fasting blood glucose, lipids, neuropeptide Y, Y2 receptor, and peptide YY were quantified. Compared with HF group, weight gain and food intake of DIO mice with Rb-1 injection was significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Further, levels of blood glucose and some lipids were also decreased in DIO-Rb1 group compared with HF group. Furthermore, Rb1 was also found to modulate serum levels of PYY and NPY, and mRNA expression of NPY, Y2 receptor and PYY in tissue samples of DIO mice. Taken together, ginsenoside Rb1 may be useful in the treatment of obesity via modifying the serum content and mRNA expression of NPY, Y2 receptor and PYY. PMID:23733675

Lin, Ning; Cai, Dong-Lian; Jin, Di; Chen, Yi; Shi, Jiao-Jiao

2014-01-01

21

Blueberry polyphenol-enriched soybean flour reduces hyperglycemia, body weight gain and serum cholesterol in mice.  

PubMed

Defatted soybean flour (DSF) can sorb and concentrate blueberry anthocyanins and other polyphenols, but not sugars. In this study blueberry polyphenol-enriched DSF (BB-DSF) or DSF were incorporated into very high fat diet (VHFD) formulations and provided ad libitum to obese and hyperglycemic C57BL/6 mice for 13 weeks to investigate anti-diabetic effects. Compared to the VHFD containing DSF, the diet supplemented with BB-DSF reduced weight gain by 5.6%, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered fasting blood glucose levels in mice within 7 weeks of intervention. Serum cholesterol of mice consuming the BB-DSF-supplemented diet was 13.2% lower than mice on the diet containing DSF. Compounds were eluted from DSF and BB-DSF for in vitro assays of glucose production and uptake. Compared to untreated control, doses of BB-DSF eluate containing 0.05-10?g/?L of blueberry anthocyanins significantly reduced glucose production by 24-74% in H4IIE rat hepatocytes, but did not increase glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. The results indicate that delivery of blueberry polyphenols stabilized in a high-protein food matrix may be useful for the dietary management of pre-diabetes and/or diabetes. PMID:23220243

Roopchand, Diana E; Kuhn, Peter; Rojo, Leonel E; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

2013-02-01

22

Blueberry polyphenol-enriched soybean flour reduces hyperglycemia, body weight gain and serum cholesterol in mice  

PubMed Central

Defatted soybean flour (DSF) can sorb and concentrate blueberry anthocyanins and other polyphenols, but not sugars. In this study blueberry polyphenol-enriched DSF (BB-DSF) or DSF were incorporated into very high fat diet (VHFD) formulations and provided ad libitum to obese and hyperglycemic C57BL/6 mice for 13 weeks to investigate anti-diabetic effects. Compared to the VHFD containing DSF, the diet supplemented with BB-DSF reduced weight gain by 5.6%, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered fasting blood glucose levels in mice within 7 weeks of intervention. Serum cholesterol of mice consuming the BB-DSF-supplemented diet was 13.2% lower than mice on the diet containing DSF. Compounds were eluted from DSF and BB-DSF for in vitro assays of glucose production and uptake. Compared to untreated control, doses of BB-DSF eluate containing 0.05 – 10 ?g/?L of blueberry anthocyanins significantly reduced glucose production by 24% - 74% in H4IIE rat hepatocytes, but did not increase glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. The results indicate that delivery of blueberry polyphenols stabilized in a high-protein food matrix may be useful for the dietary management of pre-diabetes and/or diabetes. PMID:23220243

Roopchand, Diana E.; Kuhn, Peter; Rojo, Leonel E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

2013-01-01

23

21 CFR 105.66 - Label statements relating to usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...dietary food may contain a nonnutritive sweetener or other ingredient only...weight through the use of a nonnutritive sweetener shall bear on its label...percentage by weight of the nonnutritive sweetener. If a nutritive...

2014-04-01

24

21 CFR 105.66 - Label statements relating to usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...dietary food may contain a nonnutritive sweetener or other ingredient only...weight through the use of a nonnutritive sweetener shall bear on its label...percentage by weight of the nonnutritive sweetener. If a nutritive...

2012-04-01

25

21 CFR 105.66 - Label statements relating to usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...dietary food may contain a nonnutritive sweetener or other ingredient only...weight through the use of a nonnutritive sweetener shall bear on its label...percentage by weight of the nonnutritive sweetener. If a nutritive...

2013-04-01

26

21 CFR 105.66 - Label statements relating to usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...dietary food may contain a nonnutritive sweetener or other ingredient only...weight through the use of a nonnutritive sweetener shall bear on its label...percentage by weight of the nonnutritive sweetener. If a nutritive...

2011-04-01

27

21 CFR 105.66 - Label statements relating to usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...dietary food may contain a nonnutritive sweetener or other ingredient only...weight through the use of a nonnutritive sweetener shall bear on its label...percentage by weight of the nonnutritive sweetener. If a nutritive...

2010-04-01

28

Marijuana and Body Weight  

PubMed Central

Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as “the munchies”). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status—i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases body weight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and body weight. PMID:25337447

Sansone, Lori A.

2014-01-01

29

Increased Body Weight Reduces Voluntary Movement to Maintain Energy Expenditure of Rats Exposed to Increases in Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the increase in obesity related diseases there is heightened interest in mechanisms regulating body weight. To assess the influence of increases in body weight on energy expenditure and intake in rats we employed variable levels of gravity. Our approach afforded the means to measure interactions of energy expenditure and intake in response to increases in body weight (body mass x gravity level). We found a dose relationship between rapid elevation of body weight and reduction of voluntary movement, such that the energy requirements for activity are unchanged, and total energy expenditure and intake maintained. Reduction of movement appears to be a response to increased body weight, rather than a contributing factor, suggesting a new regulatory pathway.

Wade, C. E.; Moran, M. M.; Stein, T. P.; Sin, Sidney (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

30

Long term exendin-4 treatment reduces food intake and body weight and alters expression of brain homeostatic and reward markers.  

PubMed

Repeated administration of the long-acting glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist exendin-4 (EX-4) has been shown to reduce food intake and body weight and do so without a rebound increase in food intake after treatment termination. The current study examines the neural mechanisms underlying these actions. After 6 weeks of maintenance on a standard chow or a high-fat (HF) diet, male Sprague Dawley rats were treated with EX-4 (3.2 ?g/kg, i.p., twice a day) or vehicle for 9 consecutive days. Food intake and body weight (BW) were monitored daily. Expression of the genes for the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) peptides proopiomelanocortin (POMC), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and agouti gene-related protein was determined. Expression of the dopamine precursor tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene in the ventral tegmental area and genes for dopamine receptors 1 (D1R) and dopamine receptor 2 in the nucleus accumbens were also determined. Pair-fed groups were included to control for the effects of reduced food intake and BW. Treatment with EX-4 significantly decreased food intake and BW over the 9-day period in both the standard chow and HF groups. HF feeding decreased POMC without changing NPY/agouti gene-related protein gene expression in the ARC. Treatment with EX-4 increased POMC and decreased NPY expression independent of the reduction of food intake and BW. Mesolimbic TH and D1R gene expression were decreased significantly in chronic HF diet-fed rats, and these changes were reversed in both EX-4 and pair-fed conditions. These results suggest a role for increased POMC and decreased NPY expression in the ARC in the effects of EX-4 on food intake and BW. Our findings also suggest that EX-4 induced the recovery of mesolimbic TH and D1R expression in HF diet-fed rats may be secondary to HF intake reduction and/or weight loss. PMID:24949661

Yang, Yan; Moghadam, Alexander A; Cordner, Zachary A; Liang, Nu-Chu; Moran, Timothy H

2014-09-01

31

Psyllium husk combined with hydroxycitrate reduces body weight gain and body fat in diet-induced obese rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fortified physiological activities of psyllium with hydroxycitrate (HCA) will promote the use of this mixture in making nutraceutical foods. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed high-fat diets containing fiber-free (control), cellulose (F-control), psyllium husk (WF-1), and psyllium husk + HCA (WF-2) for 4 weeks. Weight gains in WF-2 were significantly lower than those of the control (P < .05). Relative

Duk Ho Kang; Eun Young Jung; Un Jae Chang; Song-Hwan Bae; Hyung Joo Suh

2007-01-01

32

Neither Milk Production, Milk Transfer Nor Pup Growth Hormone Account for Reduced Body Weights of Rat Pups Reared In Hypergravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies spanning the gravity continuum from 0 to 2-g are revealing new insights into how mammalian reproduction and development may proceed in the microgravity of space. Rat pups reared from either conception or midgestation in hypergravity (hg) weigh 6-15% less than 1-g controls. In the present study we analyzed maternal and pup factors that may account for reduced body weight of hg reared pups. Beginning on Gestational day (G)11 of the rats' 22 day pregnancy, rat dams and their litters were continuously exposed to either 1.5-g, 1.75-g or 2.0-g. Prolaction (Prl) and oxytocin (OT) were measured in hg-exposed dams during either pregnancy (G20) or lactation (Postnatal day [P] 10). Gravity related differences in Prl were not observed whereas OT was depressed during lactation in hg dams relative to controls (p less than 0.05). Milk transfer measured during a discrete suckling episode was actually increased in hg-reared litters and comparable numbers of milk-letdowns were observed in the two conditions. Recent reports using dwarfing phenotypes in mouse mutants have provided evidence for postnatal dependence on growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). Plasma GH measured in P10 pups using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was significantly elevated in hg pups relative to 1-g controls (mean +/- sd., ng/ml: 2.0-g, 10.6 [3.0], 1.5-g 8.9 [4.0], 1.0-g, 7.95 [3.1]). Together, these findings suggest that neither milk production, milk transfer nor pup GH play significant roles in reduced body weights of hg-reared pups. Studies underway are focused on insulin-like growth factors.

Bear, L. A.; Chowdhury, J. H.; Grindeland, R. E.; Wade, C. E.; Ronca, A. E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

33

Pre-germinated brown rice reduced both blood glucose concentration and body weight in Vietnamese women with impaired glucose tolerance.  

PubMed

We have reported that newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients in Vietnam have a low body mass index (BMI) of around 23 and that the major factor for this is high white rice (WR) intake. Brown rice (BR) is known to be beneficial in the control of blood glucose levels; however, it has the property of unpleasant palatability. Pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) is slightly germinated by soaking BR in water as this reduces the hardness of BR and makes it easier to eat. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of a 4-mo PGBR administration on various parameters in Vietnamese women aged 45-65 y with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Sixty subjects were divided into a WR or PGBR group. For the first 2 wk, WR was replaced by 50% PGBR, then for 2 wk by 75% PGBR and from the second month 100%. Before the beginning of the study and at the end of the study, 1) anthropometric measurements, 2) a nutrition survey for 3 nonconsecutive days by the 24 h recall method and 3) blood biochemical examinations were conducted. Fasting plasma concentrations of glucose and lipids and the obesity-related measurements and blood pressure were favorably improved only in the PGBR diet group. The present results suggest that replacing WR with PGBR for 4 mo may be useful in controlling body weight as well as blood glucose and lipid levels in Vietnamese women with IGT. PMID:25078374

Bui, Thi Nhung; Le, Thi Hop; Nguyen, Do Huy; Tran, Quang Binh; Nguyen, Thi Lam; Le, Danh Tuyen; Nguyen, Do Van Anh; Vu, Anh Linh; Aoto, Hiromichi; Okuhara, Yasuhide; Ito, Yukihiko; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Kise, Mitsuo

2014-01-01

34

Increased Energy Expenditure Contributes More to the Body Weight-Reducing Effect of Rimonabant than Reduced Food Intake in Candy-Fed Wistar Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CB1 receptor antagonist, rimonabant, affects the endo- cannabinoid system and causes a sustained reduction in body weight (BW) despite the transient nature of the reduction in foodintake.Therefore,inamultiple-dosestudy,femalecandy- fed Wistar rats were treated with rimonabant (10 mg\\/kg) and matched with pair-fed rats to distinguish between hypoph- agic action and hypothesized effects on energy expenditure. Within the first week of treatment,

Andreas W. Herling; Susanne Kilp; Ralf Elvert; Guido Haschke; Werner Kramer

2008-01-01

35

Food, Energy and Body Weight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This minds-on analysis and discussion activity helps students to understand the relationships between food molecules as a source of energy, cellular respiration, physical activity, and changes in body weight.

Ingrid Waldron

36

Body weight: the male and female perception.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between actual body weight, characterization of one's weight, and satisfaction with it. 246 students of medicine in the third (clinical) stage of their studies at the University of Vienna responded to a questionnaire asking about their weight and attitudes regarding their personal body weight. The results indicate that many young women and men are either unable to characterize their weight (as normal, underweight, overweight, or obese) or guess incorrectly. The results point to the fact that a lot of women and men do not estimate their body weight in correspondence to the valid definition of the BMI. Women in particular seem to model themselves more on the current beauty ideal than men. Women seem to be more influenced by the current ideal of slenderness than their male counterparts. Women are more frequently dissatisfied with their weight, and see themselves as considerably heavier than they actually are. Because of this perception, women attempt to reduce weight more often than men. This type of dissatisfaction with one's body weight and excessive attention paid to body image, particularly weight, are considered as risk factors for the development of eating disorders. Not surprisingly, women are significantly more prone to these conditions than are men. PMID:11210598

Kiefer, I; Leitner, B; Bauer, R; Rieder, A

2000-01-01

37

A Natural Fiber Complex Reduces Body Weight in the Overweight and Obese: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study  

PubMed Central

Objective A proprietary natural fiber complex (Litramine IQP G-002AS) derived from Opuntia ficus-indica, and standardized on lipophilic activity, was previously shown in preclinical and human studies to reduce dietary fat absorption through gastrointestinal (GI) fat binding. Here, we investigated the efficacy and safety of IQP G-002AS in body weight reduction. Design and Methods One hundred twenty-five overweight and obese adults participated in the study. Subjects were advised on physical activity, and received nutritional counseling, including hypocaloric diet plans (30% energy from fat and 500 kcal deficit/day). After a 2-week placebo run-in phase, subjects were randomized to receive either 3 g/day of IQP G-002AS (IQ) or a placebo. The primary endpoint was change in body weight from baseline; secondary endpoints included additional obesity measures and safety parameters. Results One hundred twenty-three subjects completed the 12-week treatment phase (intention-to-treat (ITT) population: 30 male and 93 female; mean BMI: 29.6 ± 2.8 kg/m2 and age: 45.4 ± 11.3 years). The mean body weight change from baseline was 3.8 ± 1.8 kg in IQ vs. 1.4 ± 2.6 kg in placebo (P < 0.001). More IQ subjects lost at least 5% of their initial body weight compared to placebo (P = 0.027). Compared with placebo, IQ also showed significantly greater reduction in BMI, body fat composition, and waist circumference. IQ was well tolerated with no adverse reactions reported. Conclusions These results suggest that the natural fiber complex Litramine IQP G-002AS is effective in promoting weight loss. PMID:23505169

Grube, Barbara; Chong, Pee-Win; Lau, Kai-Zhia; Orzechowski, Hans-Dieter

2013-01-01

38

Body weight loss, reduced urge for palatable food and increased release of GLP-1 through daily supplementation with green-plant membranes for three months in overweight women.  

PubMed

The frequency of obesity has risen dramatically in recent years but only few effective and safe drugs are available. We investigated if green-plant membranes, previously shown to reduce subjective hunger and promote satiety signals, could affect body weight when given long-term. 38 women (40-65?years of age, body mass index 25-33?kg/m(2)) were randomized to dietary supplementation with either green-plant membranes (5?g) or placebo, consumed once daily before breakfast for 12 weeks. All individuals were instructed to follow a three-meal paradigm without any snacking between the meals and to increase their physical activity. Body weight change was analysed every third week as was blood glucose and various lipid parameters. On days 1 and 90, following intake of a standardized breakfast, glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in plasma were measured, as well as subjective ratings of hunger, satiety and urge for different palatable foods, using visual analogue scales. Subjects receiving green-plant membranes lost significantly more body weight than did those on placebo (p?weight loss with green-plant extract was 5.0?±?2.3?kg compared to 3.5?±?2.3?kg in the control group. Consumption of green-plant membranes also reduced total and LDL-cholesterol (p?body fat and leptin decreased in both groups over the course of the study, however there were no differences between the groups. In conclusion, addition of green-plant membranes as a dietary supplement once daily induces weight loss, improves obesity-related risk-factors, and reduces the urge for palatable food. The mechanism may reside in the observed increased release of GLP-1. PMID:24993695

Montelius, Caroline; Erlandsson, Daniel; Vitija, Egzona; Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Egecioglu, Emil; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

2014-10-01

39

Body weight contingency of self-worth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The body weight contingency of self-worth (body weight CSW) is the tendency for people to base their self-esteem on body weight. In two studies, the body weight contingency was evaluated against a general appearance contingency of self-worth (appearance CSW) to investigate whether or not individuals may base self-esteem on body weight. Compared to the appearance CSW, the body weight CSW

Alison Clabaugh; Andrew Karpinski; Kelly Griffin

2008-01-01

40

Cevoglitazar, a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha/gamma dual agonist, potently reduces food intake and body weight in obese mice and cynomolgus monkeys.  

PubMed

Cevoglitazar is a dual agonist for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha and -gamma subtypes. Dual activation of PPARalpha and -gamma is a therapeutic approach in development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic dyslipidemia. In this report, we show that, in addition to improving insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism like other dual PPAR agonists, cevoglitazar also elicits beneficial effects on energy homeostasis in two animal models of obesity. In leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, administration of cevoglitazar at 0.5, 1, or 2 mg/kg for 18 d led to acute and sustained, dose-dependent reduction of food intake and body weight. Furthermore, plasma levels of glucose and insulin were normalized after 7 d of cevoglitazar treatment at 0.5 mg/kg. Plasma levels of free fatty acids and triglycerides were dose-dependently reduced. In obese and insulin-resistant cynomolgus monkeys, treatment with cevoglitazar at 50 and 500 mug/kg for 4 wk lowered food intake and body weight in a dose-dependent manner. In these animals, cevoglitazar also reduced fasting plasma insulin and, at the highest dose, reduced hemoglobin A1c levels by 0.4%. These preclinical results demonstrate that cevoglitazar holds promise for the treatment of diabetes and obesity-related disorders because of its unique beneficial effect on energy balance in addition to improving glycemic and metabolic control. PMID:20484464

Chen, Hong; Dardik, Beatriz; Qiu, Ling; Ren, Xianglin; Caplan, Shari L; Burkey, Bryan; Boettcher, Brian R; Gromada, Jesper

2010-07-01

41

Effect of clothing weight on body weight  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight with weather, season, and gender. Methods: Fifty adults (35 wom...

42

Body Weight Relationships in Early Marriage: Weight Relevance, Weight Comparisons, and Weight Talk  

PubMed Central

This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants’ body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601

Bove, Caron F.; Sobal, Jeffery

2011-01-01

43

Changes in Body Weight and Metabolic Indexes in Overweight Breast Cancer Survivors Enrolled in a Randomized Trial of Low-Fat vs. Reduced Carbohydrate Diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overweight status is common among women breast cancer survivors and places them at greater risk for metabolic disorders, cardiovascular morbidity, and breast cancer recurrence than nonoverweight survivors. Efforts to promote weight control in this population are needed. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of low-fat or low-carbohydrate diet counseling on weight loss, body composition, and changes

Cynthia A. Thomson; Alison T. Stopeck; Jennifer W. Bea; Ellen Cussler; Emily Nardi; Georgette Frey; Patricia A. Thompson

2010-01-01

44

ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AND BODY WEIGHT  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The number of Americans who are overweight or obese has reached epidemic proportions. Elevated weight is associated with health problems and increased medical expenditures. This paper analyzes Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to investigate the role of alcohol consumption in weight gain. Alcohol is not only an addictive substance but also a high-calorie beverage that can interfere with metabolic function and cognitive processes. Because men and women differ in the type and amount of alcohol they consume, in the biological effects they experience as a result of alcohol consumption, and in the consequences they face as a result of obesity, we expect our results to differ by gender. We use first-difference models of body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption (frequency and intensity) to control for time-invariant unobservable factors that may influence changes in both alcohol use and weight status. Increasing frequency and intensity of alcohol use is associated with statistically significant yet quantitatively small weight gain for men but not for women. Moreover, the first-difference results are much smaller in magnitude and sometimes different in sign compared to the benchmark pooled cross-sectional estimates. PMID:19548203

FRENCH, MICHAEL T.; NORTON, EDWARD C.; FANG, HAI; MACLEAN, JOHANNA CATHERINE

2011-01-01

45

Body satisfaction and body weight: gender differences and sociodemographic determinants  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Given the documented links between body satisfaction, weight-related behaviors, and weight change in adolescents, we sought to examine the prevalence of poor body satisfaction in prepubescent girls and boys and its associations with body weight, socioeconomic factors, and rural residence. METHODS: We obtained data from 4254 girls and boys participating in a population-based survey of grade five students in

S Bryn Austin; Jess Haines; Paul J Veugelers

2009-01-01

46

Carbohydrate Modified Diet & Insulin Sensitizers Reduce Body Weight & Modulate Metabolic Syndrome Measures in EMPOWIR (Enhance the Metabolic Profile of Women with Insulin Resistance): A Randomized Trial of Normoglycemic Women with Midlife Weight Gain  

PubMed Central

Rationale Progressive midlife weight gain is associated with multiple adverse health outcomes and may represent an early manifestation of insulin resistance in a distinct subset of women. Emerging data implicate hyperinsulinema as a proximate cause of weight gain and support strategies that attenuate insulin secretion. Objective To assess a previously reported novel hypocaloric carbohydrate modified diet alone (D), and in combination with metformin (M) and metformin plus low-dose rosiglitazone (MR), in diverse women with midlife weight gain (defined as >20lbs since the twenties), normal glucose tolerance, and hyperinsulinemia. Participants 46 women, mean age 46.6±1.0, BMI 30.5±0.04 kg/m2, 54.5% white, 22.7% black, 15.9% Hispanic, at 2 university medical centers. Methods A dietary intervention designed to reduce insulin excursions was implemented in 4 weekly nutritional group workshops prior to randomization. Main Outcome Measure Change in 6-month fasting insulin. Pre-specified secondary outcomes were changes in body weight, HOMA-IR, metabolic syndrome (MS) measures, leptin, and adiponectin. Results Six-month fasting insulin declined significantly in the M group: 12.5 to 8.0 µU/ml, p?=?.026. Mean 6-month weight decreased significantly and comparably in D, M, and MR groups: 4.7, 5.4, and 5.5% (p’s.049, .002, and.032). HOMA–IR decreased in M and MR groups (2.5 to 1.6 and 1.9 to 1.3, p’s?=?.054, .013). Additional improvement in MS measures included reduced waist circumference in D and MR groups and increased HDL in the D and M groups. Notably, mean fasting leptin did not decline in a subset of subjects with weight loss (26.15±2.01 ng/ml to 25.99±2.61 ng/ml, p?=?.907. Adiponectin increased significantly in the MR group (11.1±1.0 to 18.5±7.4, p<.001) Study medications were well tolerated. Conclusions These findings suggest that EMPOWIR’s easily implemented dietary interventions, alone and in combination with pharmacotherapies that target hyperinsulinemia, merit additional investigation in larger, long-term studies. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00618072 PMID:25259787

Mogul, Harriette R.; Freeman, Ruth; Nguyen, Khoa; Frey, Michael; Klein, Lee-Ann; Jozak, Sheila; Tanenbaum, Karen

2014-01-01

47

Misperception of body weight and associated factors.  

PubMed

The prevalence of obesity is increasing. In Korea, this is especially true of men in general, and women of low socioeconomic status. Misperception of body weight poses a barrier to the prevention of obesity. In this study, the misperception of body weight in relation to actual body weight and associated factors in Korean adults was evaluated. Data from 7162 adults who participated in the 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Misperception of body weight was substantial in Koreans, with 48.9% underestimating and 6.8% overestimating their weight status. More men than women underestimated their weight status. Weight perception in women was affected more by sociodemographic characteristics. Women's underestimation was positively associated with older age, marital status, and lower socioeconomic status. This suggests that increasing public awareness of healthy weight will be helpful to counteract the current obesity epidemic in Korea. PMID:24942091

Boo, Sunjoo

2014-12-01

48

Body weight of hypersonic aircraft, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The load bearing body weight of wing-body and all-body hypersonic aircraft is estimated for a wide variety of structural materials and geometries. Variations of weight with key design and configuration parameters are presented and discussed. Both hot and cool structure approaches are considered in isotropic, organic composite, and metal matrix composite materials; structural shells are sandwich or skin-stringer. Conformal and pillow-tank designs are investigated for the all-body shape. The results identify the most promising hypersonic aircraft body structure design approaches and their weight trends. Geometric definition of vehicle shapes and structural analysis methods are presented in appendices.

Ardema, Mark D.

1988-01-01

49

Green tea extract with polyethylene glycol-3350 reduces body weight and improves glucose tolerance in db/db and high-fat diet mice.  

PubMed

Green tea extract (GTE) is regarded to be effective against obesity and type 2 diabetes, but definitive evidences have not been proven. Based on the assumption that the gallated catechins (GCs) in GTE attenuate intestinal glucose and lipid absorption, while enhancing insulin resistance when GCs are present in the circulation through inhibiting cellular glucose uptake in various tissues, this study attempted to block the intestinal absorption of GCs and prolong their residence time in the lumen. We then observed whether GTE containing the nonabsorbable GCs could ameliorate body weight (BW) gain and glucose intolerance in db/db and high-fat diet mice. Inhibition of the intestinal absorption of GCs was accomplished by co-administering the nontoxic polymer polyethylene glycol-3350 (PEG). C57BLKS/J db/db and high-fat diet C57BL/6 mice were treated for 4 weeks with drugs as follows: GTE, PEG, GTE+PEG, voglibose, or pioglitazone. GTE mixed with meals did not have any ameliorating effects on BW gain and glucose intolerance. However, the administration of GTE plus PEG significantly reduced BW gain, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance, without affecting food intake and appetite. The effect was comparable to the effects of an ?-glucosidase inhibitor and a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?/? agonist. These results indicate that prolonging the action of GCs of GTE in the intestinal lumen and blocking their entry into the circulation may allow GTE to be used as a prevention and treatment for both obesity and obesity-induced type 2 diabetes. PMID:23620335

Park, Jae-Hyung; Choi, Yoon Jung; Kim, Yong Woon; Kim, Sang Pyo; Cho, Ho-Chan; Ahn, Shinbyoung; Bae, Ki-Cheor; Im, Seung-Soon; Bae, Jae-Hoon; Song, Dae-Kyu

2013-08-01

50

Maintaining ideal body weight counseling sessions  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.

Brammer, S.H.

1980-10-09

51

Nature helps: food addition of micronized coconut and onion reduced worm load in horses and sheep and increased body weight in sheep.  

PubMed

Intense laboratory tests on experimentally infected mice and rats had shown that a mixture of micronized onions and coconut pulp decreases substantially (until disappearance) the worm load (trematodes, cestodes and nematodes) after oral uptake. As a consequence, feeding experiments of naturally infected sheep had been done in Egypt, in Saudi Arabia, and in Germany, which showed that treated animals grow up much better than untreated ones. The mean gain of body weight per animal was up to 6 kg within 4 weeks compared to untreated ones. These experiments were repeated again in the present study with naturally infected sheep and horses in Germany. Two types of professionally produced forage had been used: (1) mixture of 40% micronized onions, 40% coconut flakes, and 20% glucose besides sugar beet treacle; (2) mixture of 25% coconut flakes, 25% micronized onions, and 50% of the so-called muesli forage of Fa. Höveler, Dormagen, Germany consisting of some oils plus 20 different plant extracts and several vitamins. All experiments showed that feeding for 10 days led either to the full disappearance of the previously existing worm load or at least to an enormous reduction. When comparing the body weights of infected sheep before the start of the feeding and 4 weeks later, it was found that there was an increase of 5-8 kg (mean 7.5 kg) body weight in each treated animal, while nontreated ones had only weight increases between 0 and 5 kg (mean 2.37 kg). In the case of the horse treatment, the worm load decreased so enormously that mostly only single eggs or larvae were found in those horses that had accepted the onion-coconut food addition. PMID:24271156

Jatzlau, Antje; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Gliem, Günter; Mehlhorn, Heinz

2014-01-01

52

Body Weight Image and Gender Influence Emotional Response Patterns to Body Weight Related Cues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young adult females' attitudes toward body weight regulation contain important emotional components. To study the effects of body weight cues on emotionality, 160 college students (75 females, 85 males) completed either a body weight related (Q1) or control (Q2) questionnaire prior to taking the California Test of Personality (CTP). An analysis of…

DelRosario, Marlene W.; And Others

53

Body weight and the initiation of puberty.  

PubMed

The onset and progression through the various stages of puberty are influenced by a number of factors (Fig. 2). In both animals and humans, the age of puberty appears to be related more to body weight than to chronologic age. Undernutrition and low body fat, or an altered ratio of lean mass to body fat, seem to delay the adolescent spurt and to retard the onset of menarche. According to Frisch, a minimum level of fatness (17% of body weight) is associated with menarche; however, a heavier minimum weight for height, representing an increased amount of body fat (22%), appears necessary for the onset and maintenance of regular menstrual cycles in girls over 16 years of age. This critical amount of body fat implies that a particular body composition, in addition to other environmental and psychosocial factors, is important in triggering and maintaining the pubertal process. PMID:4053451

Baker, E R

1985-09-01

54

Eighty-peak kilovoltage 16-channel multidetector computed tomography and reduced contrast-medium doses tailored to body weight to diagnose pulmonary embolism in azotaemic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of minimising contrast-medium (CM) doses using 80-peak kilovoltage (kVp)\\u000a 16-channel multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with CM dose tailored to body weight, when diagnosing pulmonary embolism\\u000a (PE) in azotaemic patients. Twenty-nine patients (68–93 years; 38–79 kg) with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 12–49 ml\\/min\\u000a underwent 80 kVp MDCT at a median dose of

Fredrik Holmquist; Ulf Nyman

2006-01-01

55

Rice koji reduced body weight gain, fat accumulation, and blood glucose level in high-fat diet-induced obese mice  

PubMed Central

Rice koji is considered a readily accessible functional food that may have health-promoting effects. We investigated whether white, yellow, and red koji have the anti-obesity effect in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), which is a model for obesity. Mice were fed HFD containing 10% (w/w) of rice koji powder or steamed rice for 4 weeks. Weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue, and total adipose tissue weight were significantly lower in all rice koji groups than in the HFD-rice group after 4 weeks. Feed efficiency was significantly reduced in the yellow koji group. Blood glucose levels were significantly lower in the white and red koji groups with HOMA-R and leptin levels being reduced in the white koji group. White and red koji increased glucose uptake and GLUT4 protein expression in L6 myotube cells. These results showed that all rice koji have the anti-obesity or anti-diabetes effects although the mechanisms may differ depending on the type of rice koji consumed. PMID:25237599

Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Kawasaki, Chihiro; Cheng, Kai-Chun; Ushikai, Miharu; Amitani, Haruka; Asakawa, Akihiro; Okutsu, Kayu; Sameshima, Yoshihiro; Takamine, Kazunori

2014-01-01

56

Marital status and body weight, weight perception, and weight management among U.S. adults.  

PubMed

Married individuals often have higher body weights than unmarried individuals, but it is unclear how marital roles affect body weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. This study analyzed cross-sectional data for 4,089 adult men and 3,989 adult women using multinomial logistic regression to examine associations between marital status, perceived body weight, desired body weight, and weight management approach. Controlling for demographics and current weight, married or cohabiting women and divorced or separated women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired to weigh less than women who had never married. Marital status was unrelated to men's weight perception and desired weight change. Marital status was also generally unrelated to weight management approach, except that divorced or separated women were more likely to have intentionally lost weight within the past year compared to never married women. Additionally, never married men were more likely to be attempting to prevent weight gain than married or cohabiting men and widowed men. Overall, married and formerly married women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired a lower weight. Men's marital status was generally unassociated with weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. Women's but not men's marital roles appear to influence their perceived and desired weight, suggesting that weight management interventions should be sensitive to both marital status and gender differences. PMID:24183145

Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

2013-12-01

57

Gender Differences in Predictors of Body Weight and Body Weight Change in Healthy Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Overweight and obesity are important predictors of a wide variety of health problems. Analysis of naturally occurring changes in body weight can provide valuable insights in improving our understanding of the influence of demographic, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors on weight gain in middle-age adults.Objective:To identify gender-specific predictors of body weight using cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses.Methods and Procedures:Anthropometric, lifestyle and psychosocial

David E. Chiriboga; Yunsheng Ma; Wenjun Li; Barbara C. Olendzki; Sherry L. Pagoto; Philip A. Merriam; Charles E. Matthews; James R. Hebert; Ira S. Ockene

2008-01-01

58

Body Weight and Body Composition Changes after Treatment of Hyperthyroidism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body composition changes in nine adults with hyperthyroidism were determined with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and com- puted tomography at diagnosis and after 3 and 12 months of euthy- roidism achieved by surgery, antithyroid drugs, or treatment with radioiodine. Mean body weight was 67.6 kg at diagnosis and increased 2.7 kg (P 5 0.06) and 8.7 kg (P , 0.001)

LARS LONN; KAJ STENLOF; MALIN OTTOSSON; ANNA-KARIN LINDROOS; ERNST NYSTROM; LARS SJOSTROM

59

The Dynamics of Human Body Weight Change  

PubMed Central

An imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure will lead to a change in body weight (mass) and body composition (fat and lean masses). A quantitative understanding of the processes involved, which currently remains lacking, will be useful in determining the etiology and treatment of obesity and other conditions resulting from prolonged energy imbalance. Here, we show that a mathematical model of the macronutrient flux balances can capture the long-term dynamics of human weight change; all previous models are special cases of this model. We show that the generic dynamic behavior of body composition for a clamped diet can be divided into two classes. In the first class, the body composition and mass are determined uniquely. In the second class, the body composition can exist at an infinite number of possible states. Surprisingly, perturbations of dietary energy intake or energy expenditure can give identical responses in both model classes, and existing data are insufficient to distinguish between these two possibilities. Nevertheless, this distinction has important implications for the efficacy of clinical interventions that alter body composition and mass. PMID:18369435

Chow, Carson C.; Hall, Kevin D.

2008-01-01

60

The dynamics of human body weight change.  

PubMed

An imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure will lead to a change in body weight (mass) and body composition (fat and lean masses). A quantitative understanding of the processes involved, which currently remains lacking, will be useful in determining the etiology and treatment of obesity and other conditions resulting from prolonged energy imbalance. Here, we show that a mathematical model of the macronutrient flux balances can capture the long-term dynamics of human weight change; all previous models are special cases of this model. We show that the generic dynamic behavior of body composition for a clamped diet can be divided into two classes. In the first class, the body composition and mass are determined uniquely. In the second class, the body composition can exist at an infinite number of possible states. Surprisingly, perturbations of dietary energy intake or energy expenditure can give identical responses in both model classes, and existing data are insufficient to distinguish between these two possibilities. Nevertheless, this distinction has important implications for the efficacy of clinical interventions that alter body composition and mass. PMID:18369435

Chow, Carson C; Hall, Kevin D

2008-03-01

61

Has increased body weight made driving safer?  

PubMed

We develop a model of alcohol consumption that incorporates the negative biological relationship between body mass and inebriation conditional on total alcohol consumption. Our model predicts that the elasticity of inebriation with respect to weight is equal to the own-price elasticity of alcohol, consistent with body mass increasing the effective price of inebriation. Given that alcohol is generally considered price inelastic, this result implies that as individuals gain weight, they consume more alcohol but become less inebriated. We test this prediction and find that driver blood alcohol content (BAC) is negatively associated with driver weight. In fatal accidents with driver BAC above 0.10, the driver was 7.8 percentage points less likely to be obese than drivers in fatal accidents that did not involve alcohol. This relationship is not explained by driver attributes (age and sex), driver behaviors (speed and seatbelt use), vehicle attributes (weight class, model year, and number of occupants), or accident context (county of accident, time of day, and day of week). PMID:24038409

Dunn, Richard A; Tefft, Nathan W

2014-11-01

62

Interventions to reduce weight gain in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background Weight gain is common for people with schizophrenia and this has serious implications for health and well being. Objectives To determine the effects of both pharmacological (excluding medication switching) and non pharmacological strategies for reducing or preventing weight gain in people with schizophrenia. Search methods We searched key databases and the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group’s trials register (April 2006), reference sections within relevant papers, hand searched key journals, and contacted the first author of each relevant study and other experts to collect further information. Selection criteria We included all clinical randomised controlled trials comparing any pharmacological or non pharmacological intervention for weight gain (diet and exercise counselling) with standard care or other treatments for people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses. Data collection and analysis We reliably selected, quality assessed and extracted data from studies. As weight is a continuous outcome measurement, weighted mean differences (WMD) of the change from baseline were calculated. The primary outcome measure was weight loss. Main results Twenty-three randomised controlled trials met the inclusion criteria for this review. Five trials assessed a cognitive/behavioural intervention and eighteen assessed a pharmacological adjunct. In terms of prevention, two cognitive/behavioural trials showed significant treatment effect (mean weight change) at end of treatment (n=104, 2 RCTs, WMD ?3.38 kg CI ?4.2 to ?2.0). Pharmacological adjunct treatments were significant with a modest prevention of weight gain (n=274, 6 RCTs, WMD ? 1.16 kg CI ?1.9 to ?0.4). In terms of treatments for weight loss, we found significantly greater weight reduction in the cognitive behavioural intervention group (n=129, 3 RCTs, WMD ?1.69 kg CI ?2.8 to ?0.6) compared with standard care. Authors’ conclusions Modest weight loss can be achieved with selective pharmacological and non pharmacological interventions. However, interpretation is limited by the small number of studies, small sample size, short study duration and by variability of the interventions themselves, their intensity and duration. Future studies adequately powered, with longer treatment duration and rigorous methodology will be needed in further evaluating the efficacy and safety of weight loss interventions for moderating weight gain. At this stage, there is insufficient evidence to support the general use of pharmacological interventions for weight management in people with schizophrenia. PMID:17253540

Faulkner, Guy; Cohn, Tony; Remington, Gary

2014-01-01

63

Gender Differences in Predictors of Body Weight and Body Weight Change in Healthy Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Overweight and obesity are important predictors of a wide variety of health problems. Analysis of naturally occurring changes in body weight can provide valuable insights in improving our understanding of the influence of demographic, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors on weight gain in middle-age adults. Objective To identify gender-specific predictors of body weight using cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Methods and Procedures Anthropometric, lifestyle and psychosocial factors were measured at baseline and then quarterly for 1 year in 572 healthy adult volunteers from Central Massachusetts who were recruited between 1994 and 1998. Linear mixed models were used to analyze the relationship between body weight and potential predictors, including demographic (e.g., age, educational level), lifestyle (e.g., diet, physical activity, smoking), and psychosocial (e.g., anxiety, depression) factors. Results Over the 1-year study period, on average, men gained 0.3 kg and women lost 0.2 kg. Predictors of lower body weight at baseline in both men and women included current cigarette smoking, greater leisure-time physical activity, and lower depression and anxiety scores. Lower body weights were associated with a lower percentage of caloric intake from protein and greater occupational physical activity levels only among men; and with higher education level only among women. Longitudinal predictors of 1-year weight gain among women included increased total caloric intake and decreased leisure-time physical activity, and among men, greater anxiety scores. Discussion Demographic, lifestyle and psychosocial factors are independently related to naturally occurring changes in body weight and have marked differential gender effects. These effects should be taken into consideration when designing interventions for weight-loss and maintenance at the individual and population levels. PMID:18223626

Chiriboga, David E.; Ma, Yunsheng; Li, Wenjun; Olendzki, Barbara C.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Merriam, Philip A.; Matthews, Charles E.; Hebert, James R.; Ockene, Ira S.

2015-01-01

64

Reflecting layers reduce weight of insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metalized films placed between layers of fibrous material maintain equivalent thermal conductivity while cutting blanket density in half. Tests indicate that insulation with 1 lb/cu ft density with goldized films has thermal conductivity equal to 2 lb/cu ft of conventional insulation. Concept reduces weight in commercial aircraft and increases cargo space.

Cole, J. D.; Schlessinger, E. D.; Rockoff, H. J.

1981-01-01

65

Weight and weddings. Engaged men's body weight ideals and wedding weight management behaviors.  

PubMed

Most adults marry at some point in life, and many invest substantial resources in a wedding ceremony. Previous research reports that brides often strive towards culturally-bound appearance norms and engage in weight management behaviors in preparation for their wedding. However, little is known about wedding weight ideals and behaviors among engaged men. A cross-sectional survey of 163 engaged men asked them to complete a questionnaire about their current height and weight, ideal wedding body weight, wedding weight importance, weight management behaviors, formality of their upcoming wedding ceremony, and demographics. Results indicated that the discrepancy between men's current weight and reported ideal wedding weight averaged 9.61 lb. Most men considered being at a certain weight at their wedding to be somewhat important. About 39% were attempting to lose weight for their wedding, and 37% were not trying to change their weight. Attempting weight loss was more frequent among men with higher BMI's, those planning more formal weddings, and those who considered being the right weight at their wedding as important. Overall, these findings suggest that weight-related appearance norms and weight loss behaviors are evident among engaged men. PMID:23063607

Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

2013-01-01

66

Energy density, energy intake, and body weight regulation in adults.  

PubMed

The role of dietary energy density (ED) in the regulation of energy intake (EI) is controversial. Methodologically, there is also debate about whether beverages should be included in dietary ED calculations. To address these issues, studies examining the effects of ED on EI or body weight in nonelderly adults were reviewed. Different approaches to calculating dietary ED do not appear to alter the direction of reported relations between ED and body weight. Evidence that lowering dietary ED reduces EI in short-term studies is convincing, but there are currently insufficient data to determine long-term effectiveness for weight loss. The review also identified key barriers to progress in understanding the role of ED in energy regulation, in particular the absence of a standard definition of ED, and the lack of data from multiple long-term clinical trials examining the effectiveness of low-ED diet recommendations for preventing both primary weight gain and weight regain in nonobese individuals. Long-term clinical trials designed to examine the impact of dietary ED on energy regulation, and including multiple ED calculation methods within the same study, are still needed to determine the importance of ED in the regulation of EI and body weight. PMID:25398750

Karl, J Philip; Roberts, Susan B

2014-11-01

67

Platform design targets reduced weight requirements  

SciTech Connect

This article deals with the design of the Phase 1 Troll gas platform which has production set to start in 1996. The design must aim at reducing material capital and operating costs over the long production period according to this article. The article attempts to define the number of process trains required. Attention is given to gas availability; flare systems; risk assessment studies; process control systems; and weight and control.

Stubbs, J.; Hajek, G.; Frugaard, A. (Norske Shell, Tananger (NO))

1988-09-19

68

HERITABILITY OF THE DIFFERENCES IN BODY WEIGHT BETWEEN SEXES  

E-print Network

HERITABILITY OF THE DIFFERENCES IN BODY WEIGHT BETWEEN SEXES AT DIFFERENT AGES IN TWO STRAINS 4 and White Plyn:outh Rock. The estimates of heritabilities of sex differences in body weight from weight at market age. Regarding the fact, that males reach the suitable weight before females, due to sex-difference

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

69

A novel mechatronic body weight support system.  

PubMed

A novel mechatronic body weight support (BWS) system has been developed to provide precise body weight unloading for patients with neurological or other impairments during treadmill training. The system is composed of a passive elastic spring element to take over the main unloading force and an active closed-loop controlled electric drive to generate the exact desired force. Both force generating units, the passive spring and the active electric drive, act on the patient via a polyester rope connected to a harness worn by the patient. The length of the rope can be adjusted with an electric winch to adapt the system to different patient sizes. The system is fully computer controlled. At unloading loads of up to 60 kg and walking speeds of up to 3.2 km/h, the mean unloading error and the maximum unloading error of the presented BWS system was less than 1 and 3 kg, respectively. The performance was compared with those of two purely passive BWS systems currently being used by most other rehabilitation groups. This comprised counterweight systems and static BWS systems with fixed rope lengths. Counterweight systems reached mean and maximum unloading errors of up to 5.34 and 16.22 kg, respectively. The values for the static BWS were 11.02 kg and 27.67 kg, respectively. The novel mechatronic BWS system presented in this study adjusts desired unloading changes of up to 20 kg within less than 100 ms. Thus, not only constant BWS, but also gait cycle dependent or time variant oscillations of the desired force can be realized with high accuracy. Precise and constant unloading force is believed to be an important prerequisite for BWS gait therapy, where it is important to generate physiologically correct segmental dynamics and ground reaction forces. Thus, the novel BWS system presented in this paper is an important contribution to maximize the therapeutic outcome of human gait rehabilitation. PMID:17009491

Frey, Martin; Colombo, Gery; Vaglio, Martino; Bucher, Rainer; Jörg, Matthias; Riener, Robert

2006-09-01

70

Beam Steering Devices Reduce Payload Weight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientists have long been able to shift the direction of a laser beam, steering it toward a target, but often the strength and focus of the light is altered. For precision applications, where the quality of the beam cannot be compromised, scientists have typically turned to mechanical steering methods, redirecting the source of the beam by swinging the entire laser apparatus toward the target. Just as the mechanical methods used for turning cars has evolved into simpler, lighter, power steering methods, so has the means by which researchers can direct lasers. Some of the typical contraptions used to redirect lasers are large and bulky, relying on steering gimbals pivoted, rotating supports to shift the device toward its intended target. These devices, some as large and awkward as a piece of heavy luggage, are subject to the same issues confronted by mechanical parts: Components rub, wear out, and get stuck. The poor reliability and bulk not to mention the power requirements to run one of the machines have made mechanical beam steering components less than ideal for use in applications where weight, bulk, and maneuverability are prime concerns, such as on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or a microscope. The solution to developing reliable, lighter weight, nonmechanical steering methods to replace the hefty steering boxes was to think outside the box, and a NASA research partner did just that by developing a new beam steering method that bends and redirects the beam, as opposed to shifting the entire apparatus. The benefits include lower power requirements, a smaller footprint, reduced weight, and better control and flexibility in steering capabilities. Such benefits are realized without sacrificing aperture size, efficiency, or scanning range, and can be applied to myriad uses: propulsion systems, structures, radiation protection systems, and landing systems.

2012-01-01

71

A novel 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type1 inhibitor CNX-010-49 improves hyperglycemia, lipid profile and reduces body weight in diet induced obese C57B6/J mice with a potential to provide cardio protective benefits  

PubMed Central

Background 11ß–hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type1 (11?-HSD1) converts inactive glucocorticoids to active glucocorticoids which, in excess, leads to development of the various risk factors of the metabolic syndrome. Recent studies clearly suggest that both increased expression and activity of 11?-HSD1 in metabolically active tissues such as liver, muscle and adipose are implicated in tissue specific dysregulation which collectively contribute to the whole body pathology seen in metabolic syndrome. In the present study we have evaluated CNX-010-49, a highly potent, selective and ‘pan tissue’ acting 11?-HSD1 inhibitor, for its potential to modulate multiple risk factors of the metabolic syndrome. Methods Male C57B6/J mice on high fat diet (DIO mice) were orally dosed with CNX-010-49 (30 mg/kg twice daily; n = 8) or vehicle for 10 weeks. Fasting glucose, triglycerides, glycerol, free fatty acids, body weight and feed intake were measured at selected time points. At the end of the treatment an OGTT and subsequently organ histology was performed. In vitro, CNX-010-49 was evaluated in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to assess impact on adipocytes differentiation, hypertrophy and lipolysis whereas in fully differentiated C2C12 cells and in primary mouse hepatocytes to assess the impact on glucose metabolism and hepatic glucose output respectively. Results CNX-010-49 a highly potent and selective pan tissue acting 11?-HSD1 inhibitor (EC50?=?6 nM) significantly inhibits glucocorticoids and isoproterenol mediated lipolysis in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes, improves muscle glucose oxidation, reduces proteolysis and enhances mitochondrial biogenesis. Also a significant inhibition of gluconeogenesis in primary mouse hepatocytes was observed. The treatment with CNX-010-49 resulted in a significant decrease in fasting glucose, improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. Treatment also resulted in a significant decrease in serum triglycerides levels and a complete inhibition of body weight gain without affecting feed consumption. A significant reduction in the serum biomarkers like Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and Fetuin-A with CNX-010-49 treatment was observed indicating a potential to modulate processes implicated in cardiovascular benefits. Conclusions These results indicate that inhibition of 11?-HSD1 with CNX-010-49 can give a potential benefit in the management of metabolic dysregulations that are seen in type 2 diabetes. PMID:25098735

2014-01-01

72

Gamma-linolenate reduces weight regain in formerly obese humans.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine whether gamma-linolenate (GLA) supplementation would suppress weight regain following major weight loss. Fifty formerly obese humans were randomized into a double-blind study and given either 890 mg/d of GLA (5 g/d borage oil) or 5 g/d olive oil (controls) for 1 y. Body weight and composition and adipose fatty acids of fasting subjects were assessed at 0, 3, 12, and 33 mo. After 12 subjects in each group had completed 1 y of supplementation, weight regain differed between the GLA (2.17 +/- 1.78 kg) and control (8.78 +/- 2.78 kg) groups (P < 0.03). The initial study was terminated, and all remaining subjects were assessed over a 6-wk period. Unblinding revealed weight regains of 1.8 +/- 1.6 kg in the GLA group and 7.6 +/- 2.1 kg in controls for the 13 and 17 subjects, respectively, who completed a minimum of 50 wk in the study. Weight regain did not differ in the remaining 10 GLA and 5 control subjects who completed <50 wk in the study. In a follow-up study, a subgroup from both the original GLA (GLA-GLA, n = 9) and the original control (Control-GLA, n = 14) populations either continued or crossed over to GLA supplementation for an additional 21 mo. Interim weight regains between 15 and 33 mo were 6.48 +/- 1.79 kg and 6.04 +/- 2.52 kg for the GLA-GLA and Control-GLA groups, respectively. Adipose triglyceride GLA levels increased 152% (P < 0.0001) in the GLA group at 12 mo, but did not increase further after 33 mo of GLA administration. In conclusion, GLA reduced weight regain in humans following major weight loss, suggesting a role for essential fatty acids in fuel partitioning in humans prone to obesity. PMID:17513402

Schirmer, Marie A; Phinney, Stephen D

2007-06-01

73

Human growth and body weight dynamics: an integrative systems model.  

PubMed

Quantifying human weight and height dynamics due to growth, aging, and energy balance can inform clinical practice and policy analysis. This paper presents the first mechanism-based model spanning full individual life and capturing changes in body weight, composition and height. Integrating previous empirical and modeling findings and validated against several additional empirical studies, the model replicates key trends in human growth including A) Changes in energy requirements from birth to old ages. B) Short and long-term dynamics of body weight and composition. C) Stunted growth with chronic malnutrition and potential for catch up growth. From obesity policy analysis to treating malnutrition and tracking growth trajectories, the model can address diverse policy questions. For example I find that even without further rise in obesity, the gap between healthy and actual Body Mass Indexes (BMIs) has embedded, for different population groups, a surplus of 14%-24% in energy intake which will be a source of significant inertia in obesity trends. In another analysis, energy deficit percentage needed to reduce BMI by one unit is found to be relatively constant across ages. Accompanying documented and freely available simulation model facilitates diverse applications customized to different sub-populations. PMID:25479101

Rahmandad, Hazhir

2014-01-01

74

Reduced Inverse Distance Weighting Interpolation for Painterly Rendering  

E-print Network

Reduced Inverse Distance Weighting Interpolation for Painterly Rendering Giuseppe Papari of the inverse distance weighting interpolation formula is proposed, making computa- tion time independent], multiquadric surfaces (MQS) [8], inverse distance weighting (IDW) [9], and natural neighbor interpolation (NNI

Papari, Giuseppe

75

Role of oxytocin signaling in the regulation of body weight.  

PubMed

Obesity and its associated metabolic disorders are growing health concerns in the US and worldwide. In the US alone, more than two-thirds of the adult population is classified as either overweight or obese [1], highlighting the need to develop new, effective treatments for these conditions. Whereas the hormone oxytocin is well known for its peripheral effects on uterine contraction during parturition and milk ejection during lactation, release of oxytocin from somatodendrites and axonal terminals within the central nervous system (CNS) is implicated in both the formation of prosocial behaviors and in the control of energy balance. Recent findings demonstrate that chronic administration of oxytocin reduces food intake and body weight in diet-induced obese (DIO) and genetically obese rodents with impaired or defective leptin signaling. Importantly, chronic systemic administration of oxytocin out to 6 weeks recapitulates the effects of central administration on body weight loss in DIO rodents at doses that do not result in the development of tolerance. Furthermore, these effects are coupled with induction of Fos (a marker of neuronal activation) in hindbrain areas (e.g. dorsal vagal complex (DVC)) linked to the control of meal size and forebrain areas (e.g. hypothalamus, amygdala) linked to the regulation of food intake and body weight. This review assesses the potential central and peripheral targets by which oxytocin may inhibit body weight gain, its regulation by anorexigenic and orexigenic signals, and its potential use as a therapy that can circumvent leptin resistance and reverse the behavioral and metabolic abnormalities associated with DIO and genetically obese models. PMID:24065622

Blevins, James E; Ho, Jacqueline M

2013-12-01

76

Role of oxytocin signaling in the regulation of body weight  

PubMed Central

Obesity and its associated metabolic disorders are growing health concerns in the US and worldwide. In the US alone, more than two-thirds of the adult population is classified as either overweight or obese [1], highlighting the need to develop new, effective treatments for these conditions. Whereas the hormone oxytocin is well known for its peripheral effects on uterine contraction during parturition and milk ejection during lactation, release of oxytocin from somatodendrites and axonal terminals within the central nervous system (CNS) is implicated in both the formation of prosocial behaviors and in the control of energy balance. Recent findings demonstrate that chronic administration of oxytocin reduces food intake and body weight in diet-induced obese (DIO) and genetically obese rodents with impaired or defective leptin signaling. Importantly, chronic systemic administration of oxytocin out to 6 weeks recapitulates the effects of central administration on body weight loss in DIO rodents at doses that do not result in the development of tolerance. Furthermore, these effects are coupled with induction of Fos (a marker of neuronal activation) in hindbrain areas (e.g. dorsal vagal complex (DVC)) linked to the control of meal size and forebrain areas (e.g. hypothalamus, amygdala) linked to the regulation of food intake and body weight. This review assesses the potential central and peripheral targets by which oxytocin may inhibit body weight gain, its regulation by anorexigenic and orexigenic signals, and its potential use as a therapy that can circumvent leptin resistance and reverse the behavioral and metabolic abnormalities associated with DIO and genetically obese models. PMID:24065622

Blevins, James E.; Ho, Jacqueline M.

2014-01-01

77

Body weight loss increases plasma and adipose tissue concentrations of potentially toxic pollutants in obese individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: While there appears to be a consensus among scientists and clinicians that body weight loss reduces the risk of several chronic diseases, these apparently favourable effects should be balanced against any potentially harmful side effect of weight loss. In this regard, weight loss has been shown to produce an increase in blood concentration of potentially toxic organochlorine pollutants in

J Chevrier; É Dewailly; P Ayotte; P Mauričge; J-P Després; A Tremblay

2000-01-01

78

Weighing Weight: Trends in Body Weight Evaluation Among Young Adults, 1990 and 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the rising prevalence of overweight and sociocultural portrayal of increasingly thin female body ideals and muscular\\/lean\\u000a male body ideals, we examined trends in body weight evaluation using two cross-sectional surveys of US undergraduates in 1990\\u000a (n?=?794) and 2005 (n?=?794). Trends in body weight evaluation variables were examined and compared to respondents’ current body mass index. Results\\u000a suggest men are

Lori Neighbors; Jeffery Sobal; Claudia Liff; Dana Amiraian

2008-01-01

79

Correlates of Body Mass Index, Weight Goals, and Weight-Management Practices among Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined associations among physical activity, cigarette smoking, body mass index, perceptions of body weight, weight-management goals, and weight-management behaviors of public high school adolescents. The CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey provided a cross-sectional sample (n = 3,089) of public high school students in South Carolina.…

Paxton, Raheem J.; Valois, Robert F.; Drane, J. Wanzer

2004-01-01

80

Perceptions of Body Weight, Weight Management Strategies, and Depressive Symptoms Among US College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine if inaccurate body weight perception predicts unhealthy weight management strategies and to determine the extent to which inaccurate body weight perception is associated with depressive symptoms among US college students. Participants: Randomly selected male and female college students in the United States (N = 97,357). Methods: Data were from the 2006 National College Health Assessment. Analyses were

Holly Anne Harring; Kara Montgomery; James Hardin

2011-01-01

81

Mechanisms of Body Weight Fluctuations in Parkinson’s Disease  

PubMed Central

Typical body weight changes are known to occur in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand, an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopaminergic treatment. Comprehension of the different mechanisms contributing to body weight is a prerequisite for the management of body weight and nutritional state of an individual PD patient. This review summarizes the present knowledge and highlights the necessity of evaluation of body weight and related factors, as eating behavior, energy intake, and expenditure in PD. PMID:24917848

Kistner, Andrea; Lhommée, Eugénie; Krack, Paul

2014-01-01

82

Body weight changes in elderly psychogeriatric nursing home residents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. This study was undertaken to identify predictors of body weight change in nursing home patients with possible to severe dementia. Methods. For 24 weeks, 108 elderly residents of a nursing home were followed. Body weight was measured every 2 weeks. Other anthropometric characteristics, dietary intake, food behavior restrictions, psychological characteristics, medical status, and use of medicines were measured at

Kim T. B. Knoops; Erika Slump; Groot de C. P. G. M; W. Wouters-Wesseling; M. L. Brouwer; Staveren van W. A

2005-01-01

83

Women's work. Maintaining a healthy body weight.  

PubMed

This study describes women's perceptions of the supports and barriers to maintaining a healthy weight among currently healthy weight women from urban and rural socio-economically disadvantaged areas. Using focus groups and interviews, we asked women about their experiences of maintaining a healthy weight. Overwhelmingly, women described their healthy weight practices in terms of concepts related to work and management. The theme of 'managing health' comprised issues of managing multiple responsibilities, time, and emotions associated with healthy practices. Rural women faced particular difficulties in accessing supports at a practical level (for example, lack of childcare) and due to the gendered roles they enacted in caring for others. Family background (in particular, mothers' attitudes to food and weight) also appeared to influence perceptions about healthy weight maintenance. In the context of global increases in the prevalence of obesity, the value of initiatives aimed at supporting healthy weight women to maintain their weight should not be under-estimated. Such initiatives need to work within the social and personal constraints that women face in maintaining good health. PMID:19446587

Welch, Nicky; Hunter, Wendy; Butera, Karina; Willis, Karen; Cleland, Verity; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

2009-08-01

84

Critical periods for the effects of alcohol exposure on brain weight, body weight, activity and investigation.  

PubMed

Using an animal model of fetal alcohol syndrome - which equates peak blood alcohol concentrations across different developmental periods - critical periods for the effect of alcohol on brain weight, activity and investigative behavior were examined. The periods of alcohol exposure were from gestational day (GD) 1 through 10, GD 11 through 22, postnatal day (PD) 2 through 10, or all three periods combined. The critical period of alcohol exposure for an increase in activity in juveniles was GD 11 through 22. This pattern was not seen in the same animals in adulthood; instead, increases in both activity and investigation were seen in animals exposed from PD 2 through 10 and not seen in animals exposed during all three periods combined. Brain weight was reduced by alcohol exposure from GD 11 through 22, PD 2 through 10 and all three periods combined. The period from PD 2 through 10 was the only period when the brain weight to body weight ratio was reduced. In conclusion, exposure to alcohol during the periods in the latter half of gestation or early postnatal period seem to have the most deleterious effects on the brain, activity and investigation in the rat. In addition, the effects of alcohol exposure over both the prenatal and postnatal period cannot be easily predicted from the effects of shorter periods of exposure. PMID:11090889

Tran, T D; Cronise, K; Marino, M D; Jenkins, W J; Kelly, S J

2000-11-15

85

SEASONAL BODY WEIGHT VARIATION IN FIVE SPECIES OF WOODPECKERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated patterns of seasonal variation in body weight in six populations of five resident species of temperate-zone woodpeckers: Acorn Woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus), Red-bellied Woodpecker (M. carolinus), Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoi- des borealis), Downy Woodpecker (P. pubescens), and Great Spotted Woodpecker (Den- drocopos major). After controlling for time of day and overall body size, annual variation in body weight was small

Walter D. Koenig; Eric L. Walters; Jeffrey R. Walters; James S. Kellam; Klaus G. Michalek; Matthew S. Schrader

2005-01-01

86

Self-perception of body weight status and weight control practices among adolescents in Malaysia.  

PubMed

The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents is rising rapidly in many countries, including Malaysia. This article aims to present the associations between body mass index-based body weight status, body weight perception, and weight control practices among adolescents in Malaysia. The Malaysia School Based Nutrition Survey 2012, which included a body weight perception questionnaire and anthropometric measurements, was conducted on a representative sample of 40 011 students from Standard 4 until Form 5, with a 90.5% response rate. Comparing actual and perceived body weight status, the findings show that 13.8% of adolescents underestimated their weight, 35.0% overestimated, and 51.2% correctly judged their own weight. Significantly more normal weight girls felt they were overweight, whereas significantly more overweight boys perceived themselves as underweight. The overall appropriateness of weight control practices to body weight was 72.6%. Adolescents attempting to lose or gain weight need to have better understanding toward desirable behavioral changes. PMID:25070695

Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali; Manickam, Mala A; Baharudin, Azli; Omar, Azahadi; Cheong, Siew Man; Ambak, Rashidah; Ahmad, Mohamad Hasnan; Ghaffar, Suhaila Abdul

2014-09-01

87

BODY WEIGHT AND COGNITIVE DECLINE IN MCI  

E-print Network

Abstract Objective: To examine body mass index (BMI) and cognitive decline in subjects diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: Neuropsychological testing was conducted of 286 MCI subjects. General estimating equations (GEE) assessed...

Cronk, Ben B.

2008-08-08

88

Effects of the Obese Gene Product on Body Weight Regulation in Ob\\/Ob Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

C57BL\\/6J-mice with a mutation in the obese (ob) gene are obese, diabetic, and exhibit reduced activity, metabolism, and body temperature. Daily intraperitoneal injection of these mice with recombinant OB protein lowered their body weight, percent body fat, food intake, and serum concentrations of glucose and insulin. In addition, metabolic rate, body temperature, and activity levels were increased by this treatment.

Mary Ann Pelleymounter; Mary Jane Cullen; Mary Beth Baker; Randy Hecht; Dwight Winters; Thomas Boone; Frank Collins

1995-01-01

89

Morphine After Tubal Ligation With Bupivacaine: Dosage Versus Body Weight  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: We investigated whether there was a statistically significant difference in patient need for postoperative analgesia based on adjusted body weight between heavier and lighter women who underwent laparoscopic tubal ligation with bupivacaine injection at the skin incision. Methods: We examined 49 records of women who underwent laparoscopic tubal ligation at Oklahoma State University Medical Center between 2000 and 2005 and received an injection of bupivacaine at the surgical site during the procedure. Postsurgical morphine was measured as doses per kilogram of body weight against total body weight and as total milligrams per kilogram of body weight against total body weight. A regression was performed for each measurement. Results: Heavier women required significantly fewer total milligrams of morphine per kilogram of body weight and fewer total doses of morphine per kilogram of body weight than lighter women (2-tailed P = .0035 and P = .0018, respectively). Conclusion: Our data may suggest that lipophilic bupivacaine injected at a surgical site is held in place better and works for a longer period when more fat is present. PMID:25408604

Roehl, Bryan C.; Payton, Mark E.; Witter, LouAnn C.

2014-01-01

90

Men and Body Image: Are Males Satisfied with Their Body Weight?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissatisfaction with body image is thought to be a key factor in the etiology of eating disorders among women. In contrast, men are reported to be generally satisfied with their body weight and body shape. The present survey study examined the relative desire for thinness or weight gain among 226 male and female freshman students. Most 18-year-old women (85%) wished

ADAM DREWNOWSKI; DORIS K. YEE

91

Body Weight Perception, Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors, and Suicidal Ideation among Korean Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study examined the mediating function of body weight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal…

Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook

2009-01-01

92

Gender differences, physical activity and body weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the effect of physical activity on bodyweight and the gender differences in such effects, following the copula approach to endogenous switching regression. Using data from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), we find differentiated effects of socio-demographic variables on exercise and on Body Mass Indexes (BMIs), and differentiated effects of exercise on BMI, between genders. Regular

Steven T. Yen

2012-01-01

93

Gender differences, physical activity and body weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the effect of physical activity on bodyweight and the gender differences in such effects, following the copula approach to endogenous switching regression. Using data from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), we find differentiated effects of socio-demographic variables on exercise and on Body Mass Indexes (BMIs), and differentiated effects of exercise on BMI, between genders. Regular

Steven T. Yen

2011-01-01

94

Excess body weight during pregnancy and offspring obesity: potential mechanisms.  

PubMed

The rates of child and adult obesity have increased in most developed countries over the past several decades. The health consequences of obesity affect both physical and mental health, and the excess body weight can be linked to an elevated risk for developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular problems, and depression. Among the factors that can influence the development of obesity are higher infant weights and increased weight gain, which are associated with higher risk for excess body weight later in life. In turn, mother's excess body weight during and after pregnancy can be linked to the risk for offspring overweight and obesity through dietary habits, mode of delivery and feeding, breast milk composition, and through the influence on infant gut microbiota. This review considers current knowledge of these potential mechanisms that threaten to create an intergenerational cycle of obesity. PMID:24103493

Paliy, Oleg; Piyathilake, Chandrika J; Kozyrskyj, Anita; Celep, Gulcin; Marotta, Francesco; Rastmanesh, Reza

2014-03-01

95

Body Weight Gain during Altered Gravity: Spaceflight, Centrifugation and Transitions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gravity is a force that influences all living systems, and is often disregarded in the study of environment on growth and development. To assess the effect of gravity exposure on growth, immature rats (130-200 g) were evaluated during chronic altered gravity exposure and during transition between gravity fields. The effects of 14 days of spaceflight on body weight gain were evaluated (n=12) and compared to controls. Spaceflight did not affect weight gain. In 6 rats, the transition from spaceflight to 1 G showed a significant (p less than 0.05) post flight weight loss over 48 hr of 13 g compared to controls. Over subsequent days this loss was compensated for with no difference noted after 5 days. Exposure to hypergravity, 2 G for 16 days, was evaluated in groups of n=6 (Control; On Center Control (OCC); Centrifuged). With centrifugation or OCC there was a reduction in body weight within 24 hr. The OCC regained control weights within 13 days. The weight difference, 26 +/- 1 g, persisted with 2 G with no subsequent difference in weight gain over days 3-16 compared to controls; 3.7 +/- 0.1 versus 3.9 +/- 0.1 g/day respectively. Transition from centrifugation to 1 G resulted in a weight increase within 48 hours. Over 16 days the rate of gain was increased 3.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for centrifuge compared to 2.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for controls between Day 3 to 16. However, differences from control were still noted on Day 16. Transition from one gravity field to another causes acute changes in body weight. Transition to microgravity or 1 G, following the acute changes, results in adjustments to attain a normal weight. In hypergravity the acute reduction in body weight persist, but weight gain is normal. Transitioning from hypergravity to 1G results in an increased weight gain to compensate for the persistent reduction during exposure.

Wade, Charles E.; Harper, J. S.; Daunton, N. G.; Corcoran, M. L.; Morey-Holton, E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

96

Body Weights of Ohio Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa umbellus)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Average annual winter (December-February) body weights of Ohio ruffed grouse (Bonasa um- bellus) from both the glaciated northeast and the more southern unglaciated hill country ranges showed only small deviations from the 4-year (1974-1977) mean. Hill country grouse were heavier (P < 0.05) than northeastern birds in winter, but not in fall (October-November). Year-around (1969-1982) body weights were obtained only

ROBERT J. STOLL; W. MCCLAIN

1988-01-01

97

Birth weight and body fat distribution in adolescent girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo examine the association between birth weight and body fat distribution in a group of adolescent girls.DESIGNA total of 216 white girls who were born in Southampton had their heights, weights, waist and hip circumferences, and skinfold thicknesses measured when they were aged between 14 and 16 years.RESULTSThe girls who were smallest at birth, but who were fattest at time

M Barker; S Robinson; C Osmond; D J P Barker

1997-01-01

98

Body weight and composition dynamics of fall migrating canvasbacks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied body weights and composition of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) during fall migration 1975-77 on stopover sites along the upper Mississippi River near La Crosse, Wisconsin (Navigational Pools 7 and 8) and Keokuk, Iowa (Navigational Pool 19). Body weights varied (P < 0.001) by age and sex without interaction. Weights varied by year (P < 0.001) on Pools 7 and 8. Mean weights increased (P < 0.01) within age and sex classes by date and averaged 3.6 and 2.7 g daily on Pools 7 and 8 and Pool 19, respectively. Percent fat was highly correlated (P < 0.001) with carcass weight for each age and sex. Live weight was a good predictor of total body fat. Mean estimated total body fat ranged from 200 to 300 g and comprised 15-20% of live weights among age and sex classes. Temporal weight patterns were less variable for adults than immatures, but generally increased during migration. Length of stopover varied inversely with fat reserves among color-marked adult males. Variation in fat condition of canvasbacks during fall may explain the mechanism regulating population ingress and egress on stopover sites. Fat reserves attained by canvasbacks during fall stopover may have adaptive significance in improving survival by conditioning for winter.

Serie, J.R.; Sharp, D.E.

1989-01-01

99

Weight And Body Composition Change In Male Freshman Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weight and body composition change in male freshman students. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if participation in mandatory physical training (PT) by Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) cadets would promote favorable body composition (BC) changes during the first year at university versus general population students with high and low levels of physical activity (PA). Methods: Thirty-seven

Aaron Patrick Crombie

2009-01-01

100

Negotiating the Early Developing Body: Pubertal Timing, Body Weight, and Adolescent Girls' Substance Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite knowledge that early pubertal timing predicts adolescent girls' substance use, it is still unclear whether this relationship persists beyond early adolescence and whether it is conditional on girls' body weight. This study examined the moderating role of body weight in the association between early pubertal timing and adolescent girls'…

Tanner-Smith, Emily E.

2010-01-01

101

Relationships between Weight and Body Dissatisfaction, Body Esteem, and Teasing in African American Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the relation between weight and weight-related factors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, body esteem, teasing frequency, and the effects of teasing) in a community sample of prepubescent African American girls. African American girls (N = 97) in Grades 3 to 5 completed the McKnight Risk Factor Survey-Third Edition and had their…

Tyler, Chermaine; Johnston, Craig A.; Dalton, William T., III; Foreyt, John P.

2009-01-01

102

Long-Lasting Improvements in Liver Fat and Metabolism Despite Body Weight Regain After Dietary Weight Loss  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Weight loss reduces abdominal and intrahepatic fat, thereby improving metabolic and cardiovascular risk. Yet, many patients regain weight after successful diet-induced weight loss. Long-term changes in abdominal and liver fat, along with liver test results and insulin resistance, are not known. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed 50 overweight to obese subjects (46 ± 9 years of age; BMI, 32.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2; women, 77%) who had participated in a 6-month hypocaloric diet and were randomized to either reduced carbohydrates or reduced fat content. Before, directly after diet, and at an average of 24 (range, 17–36) months follow-up, we assessed body fat distribution by magnetic resonance imaging and markers of liver function and insulin resistance. RESULTS Body weight decreased with diet but had increased again at follow-up. Subjects also partially regained abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. In contrast, intrahepatic fat decreased with diet and remained reduced at follow-up (7.8 ± 9.8% [baseline], 4.5 ± 5.9% [6 months], and 4.7 ± 5.9% [follow-up]). Similar patterns were observed for markers of liver function, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and hepatic insulin resistance. Changes in intrahepatic fat und intrahepatic function were independent of macronutrient composition during intervention and were most effective in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease at baseline. CONCLUSIONS A 6-month hypocaloric diet induced improvements in hepatic fat, liver test results, and insulin resistance despite regaining of weight up to 2 years after the active intervention. Body weight and adiposity measurements may underestimate beneficial long-term effects of dietary interventions. PMID:23963894

Haufe, Sven; Haas, Verena; Utz, Wolfgang; Birkenfeld, Andreas L.; Jeran, Stephanie; Böhnke, Jana; Mähler, Anja; Luft, Friedrich C.; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Boschmann, Michael; Jordan, Jens; Engeli, Stefan

2013-01-01

103

Weight status and the perception of body image in men.  

PubMed

Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%-7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than are women. Cultural influences have been found to be important, with body size underestimations occurring in cultures where a larger body is found to be desirable. Methodological issues are reviewed with recommendations for future studies. PMID:25114606

Gardner, Rick M

2014-01-01

104

Weight status and the perception of body image in men  

PubMed Central

Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than are women. Cultural influences have been found to be important, with body size underestimations occurring in cultures where a larger body is found to be desirable. Methodological issues are reviewed with recommendations for future studies. PMID:25114606

Gardner, Rick M

2014-01-01

105

SCALING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY WEIGHT AND FERMENTATION GUT CAPACITY IN AXIS DEER  

E-print Network

SCALING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY WEIGHT AND FERMENTATION GUT CAPACITY IN AXIS DEER DAWN M 78666, USA The scaling relationship between body weight and fermentation gut capacity presumably impacts dietary patterns of ruminants. Interspecific scaling relationships between body weight and fermentation

Aspbury, Andrea S. - Department of Biology, Texas State University

106

The age of attaining highest body weight correlates with lifespan in a genetically obese mouse model  

PubMed Central

Obesity has been associated with a higher risk of mortality, whereas caloric restriction reduces the risk. In this study, we examined how body weight development during life affects lifespan in a mouse model for obesity. Therefore, mice of the Berlin Fat Mouse Inbred line were set on either a standard or a high-fat diet (HFD). Median lifespans of standard diet-fed mice were 525 and 539 days for males and female animals, respectively. HFD feeding further decreased lifespan by increasing the risk of mortality. Our data provide evidence that the highest body weight reached in lifetime has only a minor effect on lifespan. More important is the age when the highest body weight is reached, which was positively correlated with lifespan (r=0.77, P<0.0001). Likewise, the daily gain of body weight was negatively correlated with the age of death (r=?0.76, P<0.0001). These data indicate that rapid weight gain in early life followed by rapid weight loss affect lifespan more than the body weight itself. These data suggest that intervention strategies to prevent rapid weight gain are of high impact for a long lifespan. PMID:23507966

Wagener, A; Müller, U; Brockmann, G A

2013-01-01

107

Relationships between Neonatal Weight, Limb Lengths, Skinfold Thicknesses, Body Breadths and Circumferences in an Australian Cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Low birth weight has been consistently associated with adult chronic disease risk. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis assumes that reduced fetal growth impacts some organs more than others. However, it remains unclear how birth weight relates to different body components, such as circumferences, adiposity, body segment lengths and limb proportions. We hypothesized that these components vary in their relationship to birth weight. Methods We analysed the relationship between birth weight and detailed anthropometry in 1270 singleton live-born neonates (668 male) from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (Brisbane, Australia). We tested adjusted anthropometry for correlations with birth weight. We then performed stepwise multiple regression on birth weight of: body lengths, breadths and circumferences; relative limb to neck-rump proportions; or skinfold thicknesses. All analyses were adjusted for sex and gestational age, and used logged data. Results Circumferences, especially chest, were most strongly related to birth weight, while segment lengths (neck-rump, thigh, upper arm, and especially lower arm and lower leg) were relatively weakly related to birth weight, and limb lengths relative to neck-rump length showed no relationship. Skinfolds accounted for 36% of birth weight variance, but adjusting for size (neck-rump, thigh and upper arm lengths, and head circumference), this decreased to 10%. There was no evidence that heavier babies had proportionally thicker skinfolds. Conclusions Neonatal body measurements vary in their association with birth weight: head and chest circumferences showed the strongest associations while limb segment lengths did not relate strongly to birth weight. After adjusting for body size, subcutaneous fatness accounted for a smaller proportion of birth weight variance than previously reported. While heavier babies had absolutely thicker skinfolds, this was proportional to their size. Relative limb to trunk length was unrelated to birth weight, suggesting that limb proportions at birth do not index factors relevant to prenatal life. PMID:25162658

Pomeroy, Emma; Stock, Jay T.; Cole, Tim J.; O'Callaghan, Michael; Wells, Jonathan C. K.

2014-01-01

108

Perceived stress and freshman weight change: the moderating role of baseline body mass index.  

PubMed

The transition from high-school to university is a critical period of weight change. Popular media suggest that freshman students gain 15 lb (6.80 kg) of body weight during their first year at university (i.e., the freshman 15). In contrast, a recent meta-analysis calculated freshman weight gain to be 1.75 kg, with statistics suggesting that only a proportion of freshman students are prone to gain weight. Researchers are beginning to investigate how certain variables and interactions between such variables predict freshman weight status. The current study focused on body mass index (BMI) and psychological stress. In isolation, previous research has tested how these two variables predict freshman student's weight status. However, because BMI and stress interact to predict weight gain and weight loss in adult samples, the current study tested the interaction between student's baseline BMI and baseline stress levels to predict weight change in a New Zealand sample of freshman students (N=65). Participants completed two separate online surveys in March and October 2012 (i.e., New Zealand's academic year). Although only three students gained over 6.80 kg (i.e., the freshman 15), participants did gain a statistically significant 1.10 kg of body weight during the year. Consistent with previous research, students with a higher baseline BMI gained a higher amount of body weight. However, this main effect was qualified by an interaction between stress and BMI. Students who entered university with high levels of stress gained weight if they also had high BMIs; if they had lower BMIs then they lost weight. In order to reduce unhealthy levels of freshman weight change, vulnerable students need to be taught stress-reduction techniques and coping strategies early in the academic year. PMID:25484356

Boyce, Jessica A; Kuijer, Roeline G

2015-02-01

109

Prevalence of Weight Reducing and Weight Gaining in Adolescent Girls and Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a survey of the prevalence of weight reducing and weight gaining in high school children. Our sample of 1,373 high school girls and boys was geographically, racially, and economically diverse. On the day of the survey, 63% of the girls and 16.2% of the boys reported being on weight reducing regimens; 9.1% of the girls and 28.4% of

James C. Rosen; Janet Gross

1987-01-01

110

Effects of leptin replacement alone and with exendin-4 on food intake and weight regain in weight-reduced diet-induced obese rats  

PubMed Central

Weight loss in obese humans produces a relative leptin deficiency, which is postulated to activate potent orexigenic and energy conservation mechanisms to restrict weight loss and promote weight regain. Here we determined whether leptin replacement alone or with GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 attenuates weight regain or promotes greater weight loss in weight-reduced diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Forty percent restriction in daily intake of a high-fat diet in DIO rats for 4 wk reduced body weight by 12%, body fat by 29%, and plasma leptin by 67% and normalized leptin sensitivity. When food restriction ended, body weight, body fat, and plasma leptin increased rapidly. Daily administration of leptin [3-h intraperitoneal (ip) infusions (4 nmol·kg?1·h?1)] at onset and end of dark period for 3 wk did not attenuate hyperphagia and weight regain, nor did it affect mean daily meal sizes or meal numbers. Exendin-4 (50 pmol·kg?1·h?1) infusions during the same intervals prevented postrestriction hyperphagia and weight regain by normalizing meal size. Coadministration of leptin and exendin-4 did not reduce body weight more than exendin-4 alone. Instead, leptin began to attenuate the inhibitory effects of exendin-4 on food intake, meal size, and weight regain by the end of the second week of administration. Plasma leptin in rats receiving leptin was sevenfold greater than in rats receiving vehicle and 17-fold greater than in rats receiving exendin-4. Together, these results do not support the hypothesis that leptin replacement alone or with exendin-4 attenuates weight regain or promotes greater weight loss in weight-reduced DIO rats. PMID:22510712

Haver, Alvin; Chelikani, Prasanth K.; Apenteng, Bettye; Perriotte-Olson, Curtis; Anders, Krista; Steenson, Sharalyn; Blevins, James E.

2012-01-01

111

Prenatal Centrifugation: A Mode1 for Fetal Programming of Body Weight?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

'Fetal programming' is a newly emerging field that is revealing astounding insights into the prenatal origins of adult disease, including metabolic, endocrine, and cardiovascular pathophysiology. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that rat pups conceived, gestated and born at 2-g have significantly reduced birth weights and increased adult body weights as compared to 1-g controls. Offspring were produced by mating young adult male and female rats that were adapted to 2-g centrifugation. Female rats underwent conception, pregnancy and birth at 2-g. Newborn pups in the 2-g condition were removed from the centrifuge and fostered to non-manipulated, newly parturient dams maintained at 1 -g. Comparisons were made with 1-g stationary controls, also crossfostered at birth. As compared to 1-g controls, birth weights of pups gestated and born at 2-g were significantly reduced. Pup body weights were significantly reduced until Postnatal day (P) 12. Beginning on P63, body weights of 2-g-gestated offspring exceeded those of 1-g controls by 7-10%. Thus, prenatal rearing at 2-g restricts neonatal growth and increases adult body weight. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that 2-g centrifugation alters the intrauterine milieu, thereby inducing persistent changes in adult phenotype.

Baer, Lisa A.; Rushing, Linda; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.

2005-01-01

112

Determining the impact of food price and income changes on body weight.  

PubMed

We develop a theoretical model to identify conditions under which price and income changes are most likely to change weight. Although it is intuitive that raising the price of high-calorie food will decrease consumption of such goods; it is not clear that such an outcome will actually reduce weight. Our empirical analysis demonstrates a case where a tax on food away from home, a food intake category blamed for much of the rise in obesity, could lead to an increase in body weight; a finding which emphasizes the need to employ economic modeling when developing public policy to reduce obesity. PMID:17521754

Schroeter, Christiane; Lusk, Jayson; Tyner, Wallace

2008-01-01

113

A unique case of reducing body myopathy.  

PubMed

The clinical, electromyographic, and histologic characteristics of a 17-year-old girl with reducing body myopathy are described. She is, to our knowledge, the oldest reported case and the only patient described with severe mitral valve prolapse and scoliosis. Electromyography demonstrated spontaneous positive sharp waves and fibrillation potentials with many low-amplitude, short, polyphasic motor unit potentials. The right deltoid muscle was characterized by focal areas with large fibers associated with increased endomysial connective tissue and "split" fibers. Purple-gray sarcoplasmic masses stained with trichrome were PAS-negative, appeared as "empty" spaces with both ATPase and NADH-TR, and stained darkly with menadione NBT. The features described expand the clinical presentation of this myopathy, and may lead to a better understanding of its etiology. PMID:1314327

Nomizu, S; Person, D A; Saito, C; Lockett, L J

1992-04-01

114

Prenatal immune challenge in rats: Altered responses to dopaminergic and glutamatergic agents, prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle, and reduced route-based learning as a function of maternal body weight gain after prenatal exposure to Poly IC  

PubMed Central

Prenatal maternal immune activation has been used to test the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. Most of the data are in mouse models; far less is available for rats. We previously showed that maternal weight change in response to the immune activator polyinosinic-polycytidylic (Poly IC) in rats differentially affects offspring. Therefore, we treated gravid Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats i.p. on embryonic day 14 with 8 mg/kg of Poly IC or Saline. The Poly IC group was divided into those that lost or gained the least weight, Poly IC (L), versus those that gained the most weight, Poly IC (H), following treatment. The study design controlled for litter size, litter sampling, sex distribution, and test experience. We found no effects of Poly IC on elevated zero-maze, open-field activity, object burying, light-dark test, straight channel swimming, Morris water maze spatial acquisition, reversal, or shift navigation or spatial working or reference memory, or conditioned contextual or cued fear or latent inhibition. The Poly IC (H) group showed a significant decrease in the rate of route-based learning when visible cues unavailable in the Cincinnati water maze and reduced prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle in females, but not males. The Poly IC (L) group exhibited altered responses to acute pharmacological challenges: exaggerated hyperactivity in response to (+)-amphetamine and an attenuated hyperactivity in response to MK-801. This model did not exhibit the cognitive, acoustic startle, or latent inhibition deficits reported in Poly IC-treated rats, but showed changes in response to drugs acting on neurotransmitter systems implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (dopaminergic hyperfunction and glutamatergic hypofunction). PMID:22473973

Vorhees, Charles V.; Graham, Devon L.; Braun, Amanda A.; Schaefer, Tori L.; Skelton, Matthew R.; Richtand, Neil M.; Williams, Michael T.

2012-01-01

115

Body weight perception among adolescents in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.  

PubMed

This study investigated the body image perceptions among adolescents in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE). A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 661 adolescents (324 males; 337 females) aged 12-17 years selected from government schools using a multistage stratified random sampling technique. A pretested validated questionnaire was employed to determine the perception of adolescents toward their weight status. A nine figure silhouette illustration was used to measure perceptions of their ideal body image and how it compares with their current body weight. The results revealed that overweight (18.5%) and obesity (27.2%) were higher among males than in females (13.1% and 20.5% respectively). A high proportion of overweight males and females considered themselves as average (45.0% and 52.3%, respectively). Similarly, 56.9% of obese male and 46.4% of females considered themselves as average weight. Of non-overweight/obese males and females, 27.6% and 39.3% respectively, were pressured by parents to gain weight (p > 0.000). In general overweight and obese adolescents were more likely to face pressure from their parents and teased by friends than non-overweight/obese adolescents. Compared to their current body image, overweight and obese adolescents chose a significantly lighter figure as their ideal (p < 0.000). It is suggested that the current health education curriculum should include information related to healthy body weight and appropriate diet and lifestyle so as to minimize risk of developing distorted body image concerns in adolescence and beyond. PMID:23588446

Musaiger, A O; bin Zaal, A A; D'Souza, R

2012-01-01

116

Comparative Effect of Massage Therapy versus Kangaroo Mother Care on Body Weight and Length of Hospital Stay in Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants  

PubMed Central

Background. Massage therapy (MT) and kangaroo mother care (KMC) are both effective in increasing the weight and reducing length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm infants but they have not been compared. Aim. Comparison of effectiveness of MT and KMC on body weight and length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm (LBWPT) infants. Method. 30 LBWPT infants using convenience sampling from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, V.S. hospital, were randomly divided into 2 equal groups. Group 1 received MT and Group 2 received KMC for 15 minutes, thrice daily for 5 days. Medically stable babies with gestational age < 37 weeks and birth weight < 2500?g were included. Those on ventilators and with congenital, orthopedic, or genetic abnormality were excluded. Outcome measures, body weight and length of hospital stay, were taken before intervention day 1 and after intervention day 5. Level of significance was 5%. Result. Data was analyzed using SPSS16. Both MT and KMC were found to be effective in improving body weight (P = 0.001, P = 0.001). Both were found to be equally effective for improving body weight (P = 0.328) and reducing length of hospital stay (P = 0.868). Conclusion. MT and KMC were found to be equally effective in improving body weight and reducing length of hospital stay. Limitation. Long term follow-up was not taken. PMID:24976830

Rangey, Priya Singh

2014-01-01

117

Unhealthy Body Weight, Illness Absence, Presenteeism, Medical Payments, and Disability Leave: A Longitudinal View.  

PubMed

Abstract The objective of this study is to examine how much of the relationships between unhealthy body weight, and health and productivity outcomes are attributable to health status, and how much can be ameliorated by weight loss or improvements in health. Cross-sectional and first-difference regressions were conducted of employees' body mass index (BMI) category, illness absences, presenteeism, medical spending, and disability leaves. Employees in the obese BMI category have significantly worse outcomes than employees in the healthy and overweight BMI categories. Controlling for physical and emotional health status mediates much of the observed relationships. Improved health, stress, and psychological distress are associated with reduced illness absence and presenteeism among overweight and obese employees. Obese employees who lost weight experienced reduced presenteeism. The findings suggest that overweight and obese employees can realize improved productivity without weight loss. (Population Health Management 2014;xx:xxx-xxx). PMID:25375972

Gifford, Brian

2014-11-01

118

Control of body weight: a physiologic and transgenic perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overview In mammals, body weight is normally regulated around a set point by coordinated changes in food intake and energy expenditure. These changes are integrated under the influence of specific neural pathways and circulating signals. Almost 50 years ago it was first proposed that circulating signals generated in

G. Frühbeck; J. Gómez-Ambrosi

2003-01-01

119

Religion and body weight in an underserved population  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Religions prominence in some underserved groups that bear a disproportionate burden of the obesity epidemic (e.g. rural, Southern, minority) may play an important role in body weight. Data (1662 African American and Caucasian adults aged 18+) from a representative U.S. sample of a predominately rura...

120

Body Mass Index and perceived weight status in young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported height and weight for 1,123 university students who returned a questionnaire mailed to a 10 percent random sample of the entire undergraduate population of a large midwestern university. Seventeen percent of the females and 20 percent of the males were determined to be in excess of normal BMI standards. However, significantly more

John P. Sciacca; Christopher L. Melby; Gerald C. Hyner; Amy C. Brown; Paul L. Femea

1991-01-01

121

The role of whole grains in body weight regulation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Whole grain (WG)-rich diets are purported to have a variety of health benefits including a favorable role in body weight regulation. Current dietary recommendations advocate substituting WG for refined grains (RG) as many of the beneficial bioactive components intrinsic to WG are lost during the re...

122

Asians Need Type 2 Diabetes Screening at Lower Body Weight  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Asians Need Type 2 Diabetes Screening at Lower Body Weight: Experts ADA says ... HealthDay News) -- Obesity is a big contributor to type 2 diabetes, but Asian-Americans may need to pile on ...

123

The gut sensor as regulator of body weight.  

PubMed

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract comprises a large endocrine organ that regulates not only nutrient sensing and metabolising but also satiety and energy homeostasis. More than 20 hormones secreted from the stomach, intestine, and pancreas as well as signaling mediators of the gut microbiome are involved in this process. A better understanding of how related pathways affect body weight and food intake will help us to find new strategies and drugs to treat obesity. For example, weight loss secondary to lifestyle intervention is often accompanied by unfavorable changes in multiple GI hormones, which may cause difficulties in maintaining a lower body weight status. Conversely, bariatric surgery favorably changes the hormone profile to support improved satiety and metabolic function. This partially explains stronger sustained body weight reduction resulting in better long-term results of improved metabolic functions. This review focuses on GI hormones and signaling mediators of the microbiome involved in satiety regulation and energy homeostasis and summarizes their changes following weight loss. Furthermore, the potential role of GI hormones as anti-obesity drugs is discussed. PMID:25548085

Reinehr, Thomas; Roth, Christian L

2015-05-01

124

Food shopping and weight concern. Balancing consumer and body normality.  

PubMed

The desire to achieve a normal, culturally acceptable body is often seen as the main driver of food-consumption practices adopted by individuals who are concerned about their body weight. In social research into weight management self-control is therefore often a central theme. Turning the focus towards practices and values related to food shopping, this study adds to our understanding of central features in perceptions of normality among people with weight concerns. In a qualitative study 25 people who participated in a dietary intervention trial in Denmark were interviewed and five people were observed. The study shows that the aim of achieving a normal body does not eclipse the importance of enacting values linked to ideas of the 'normal consumer'. Using empirical examples, the study illuminates how consumer freedom is attained in ways that are both complementary to, and in conflict with, practices and experiences of controlling food intake. The paper suggests that freedom and control are composite and complementary ideals of normality for people with weight concerns. On the basis of this insight, the authors discuss the contribution the paper makes to existing studies of weight management and food consumption. PMID:25086208

Nielsen, Annemette; Holm, Lotte

2014-11-01

125

The Pharmacodynamic Effects of Rocuronium When Dosed According to Real Body Weight or Ideal Body Weight in Morbidly Obese Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the pharmacodynamic effects of rocu- ronium on morbidly obese patients. Twelve morbidly obese female patients (body mass index 40 kg\\/m2) admitted for laparoscopic gastric banding were ran- domized into two groups. Group 1 (n 6) received 0.6 mg\\/kg of rocuronium based on real body weight, whereas Group 2 (n 6) received 0.6 mg\\/kg of rocuro- nium based on

Yigal Leykin; Tommaso Pellis; Mariella Lucca; Giacomina Lomangino; Bernardo Marzano; Antonino Gullo

2004-01-01

126

Negotiating the Early Developing Body: Pubertal Timing, Body Weight, and Adolescent Girls’ Substance Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite knowledge that early pubertal timing predicts adolescent girls’ substance use, it is still unclear whether this relationship\\u000a persists beyond early adolescence and whether it is conditional on girls’ body weight. This study examined the moderating\\u000a role of body weight in the association between early pubertal timing and adolescent girls’ substance use using three waves\\u000a of data from the National

Emily E. Tanner-Smith

2010-01-01

127

Dietary supplements for body-weight reduction: a systematic review 1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Compliance with conventional weight-management programs is notoriously poor, and a plethora of over-the-counter slimming aids are sold with claims of effectiveness. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the evidence from rigorous clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses on the effectiveness of dietary supplements in reducing body weight. Design: The study was a systematic review. Literature searches

Max H Pittler; Edzard Ernst

128

Effect of an herbal extract Number Ten (NT) on body weight in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Chinese herbal extract Number Ten (NT) is a dietary herbal formulation prepared from rhubarb, ginger, astragalus, red sage and tumeric. This study tested the effectiveness of NT in reducing body weight gain in rats. METHODS: Sixty female Wistar rats were fed a high fat diet and acclimated to gavage feeding. The rats were divided into five treatment groups: (1)

David A York; Sonyja Thomas; Frank L Greenway; Zhijun Liu; Jennifer C Rood

2007-01-01

129

A mixture of Salacia reticulata (Kotala himbutu) aqueous extract and cyclodextrin reduces body weight gain, visceral fat accumulation, and total cholesterol and insulin increases in male Wistar fatty rats.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of a mixture of an aqueous extract of Salacia reticulata (Kotala himbutu) and cyclodextrin (SRCD) on various metabolic parameters and cecal fermentation in obese fa/fa male Wistar fatty rats, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Wistar fatty rats were fed 0% (control group) or 0.2% SRCD-supplemented diets and weighed weekly. The plasma glucose, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, insulin, and adiponectin concentrations were measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 5. SRCD supplementation suppressed the time-dependent increase in the plasma total cholesterol and insulin concentrations. After 6 weeks of a 0.2% SRCD-supplemented diet, the body weight gain, food intake, visceral fat mass, liver mass, and liver triacylglycerol content of the rats were significantly lower, whereas the plasma adiponectin concentrations were significantly higher than those of the control group. SRCD supplementation had no significant effect on plasma glucose and triacylglycerol concentrations. SRCD supplementation significantly increased cecum mass, whereas it significantly decreased the cecal butyrate and short-chain fatty acid (sum of the acetate, butyrate, and propionate) concentrations. All of the rats were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test at the beginning of week 6. The area under the curve for insulin was significantly smaller with SRCD supplementation and showed no change in glucose tolerance compared to that of the control group. These results suggest that bioactive compounds in SRCD may suppress the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus by influencing glucose and lipid metabolism in male Wistar fatty rats and that SRCD may influence cecal fermentation. PMID:19185778

Kishino, Eriko; Ito, Tetsuya; Fujita, Koki; Kiuchi, Yoshihiro

2009-01-01

130

Body Weight Concerns and Antifat Attitude in Iranian Children  

PubMed Central

Background: There is increasing evidence that children are showing body image issues in recent years. Body image disturbances in childhood must be taken seriously. The thin ideal is becoming more prominent in Asian countries; however, there is little research examining how this issue affects Iranian children. This study explores body weight concerns and associated factors among children in Iranian elementary schools. Methods: This study was conducted in 500 elementary schools. An assessment of body image and antifat attitudes was undertaken using the figure rating scale. In addition, body mass index (BMI) and demographic variables were assessed. Results: Nearly, 27.4% of children were underweight, and 13.3% were obese. There was a significant difference between the mean score of body dissatisfaction (BD) between boys and girls (P < 0.05). There were no differences between BD and education of parents, age, and academic grades. In girls, antifat attitudes were significantly related to BMI. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate the paramount importance of undertaking further research in order to identify the predictive factors of body concerns and its consequences among Iranian children. In addition, researchers must plan prevention and educational program for these children. PMID:25709795

Garousi, Saideh

2014-01-01

131

Anthocyanins attenuate body weight gain via modulating neuropeptide Y and GABAB1 receptor in rats hypothalamus.  

PubMed

Anthocyanins in a variety of plant species have been identified and are known for its hypolipidemic and anti-obesity effects. The effect of anthocyanins extracted from black soybean on body weight and daily food intake in adult rats raised on normal diet were studied. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were daily intra-gastric administered water or anthocyanins 6 mg/kg and 24 mg/kg for 40 days. During this period daily food intake and body weight were measured prior to anthocyanins treatment. These findings showed that anthocyanins treatment resulted in significantly lowered body weight and food intake compared with water treated rats. In addition, anthocyanins dose dependently reduced the adipose tissue size compared with control group. Western blot analysis showed that high dose of anthocyanins treatment significantly reduced the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and increased ?-amino butyric acid receptor (GABAB1R) in hypothalamus. Furthermore, these events were followed by a decreased in expression of GABAB1R downstream signaling molecules protein kinase A-? (PKA) and phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (p-CREB) in hypothalamus. These data support the concept that anthocyanins even in normal circumstances have the capability to reduce body weight and food intake through its modulatory effect on NPY and GABAB1R in hypothalamus. These results suggest that anthocyanins from black soybean seed coat might have a novel role in preventing obesity in rats on normal diet. PMID:23830691

Badshah, Haroon; Ullah, Ikram; Kim, So Eun; Kim, Tae-hyun; Lee, Hae Young; Kim, Myeong Ok

2013-10-01

132

Hedonic and incentive signals for body weight control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we review the emerging neurobiological understanding of the role of the brain’s reward system in the regulation of body\\u000a weight in health and in disease. Common obesity is characterized by the over-consumption of palatable\\/rewarding foods, reflecting\\u000a an imbalance in the relative importance of hedonic versus homeostatic signals. The popular ‘incentive salience theory’ of\\u000a food reward recognises not only a

Emil Egecioglu; Karolina P. Skibicka; Caroline Hansson; Mayte Alvarez-Crespo; P. Anders Friberg; Elisabet Jerlhag; Jörgen A. Engel; Suzanne L. Dickson

2011-01-01

133

Predicting pediatric age-matched weight and body mass index.  

PubMed

The empirical scaling from adult to pediatric using allometric size adjustments based on body weight continued to be the mainstream method for pediatric dose selection. Due to the flexibility of a polynomial function to conform to the data trend, an empirical function for simulating age-matched weight and body mass index by gender in the pediatric population is developed by using a polynomial function and a constant coefficient to describe the interindividual variability in weight. A polynomial of up to fifth order sufficiently described the pediatric data from the Center for Disease Control (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The coefficients of variation to describe the variability were within 17%. The percentages of the CDC simulated weights for pediatrics between 0 and 5 years that fell outside the WHO 90% and 95% confidence boundaries were well within the expected percentage values, indicating that the CDC dataset can be used to substitute for the WHO dataset for the purpose of pediatric drug development. To illustrate the utility of this empirical function, the CDC-based age-matched weights were simulated and were used in the prediction of the concentration-time profiles of tenofovir in children based on a population pharmacokinetic model whose parameters were allometrically scaled. We have shown that the resulting 95% prediction interval of tenofovir in newborn to 5 years of age was almost identical whether the weights were simulated based on WHO or CDC dataset. The approach is simple and is broadly applicable in adjusting for pediatric dosages using allometry. PMID:25155824

Sy, Sherwin K B; Asin-Prieto, Eduardo; Derendorf, Hartmut; Samara, Emil

2014-11-01

134

Body image change and improved eating self-regulation in a weight management intervention in women  

PubMed Central

Background Successful weight management involves the regulation of eating behavior. However, the specific mechanisms underlying its successful regulation remain unclear. This study examined one potential mechanism by testing a model in which improved body image mediated the effects of obesity treatment on eating self-regulation. Further, this study explored the role of different body image components. Methods Participants were 239 overweight women (age: 37.6 ± 7.1 yr; BMI: 31.5 ± 4.1 kg/m2) engaged in a 12-month behavioral weight management program, which included a body image module. Self-reported measures were used to assess evaluative and investment body image, and eating behavior. Measurements occurred at baseline and at 12 months. Baseline-residualized scores were calculated to report change in the dependent variables. The model was tested using partial least squares analysis. Results The model explained 18-44% of the variance in the dependent variables. Treatment significantly improved both body image components, particularly by decreasing its investment component (f2 = .32 vs. f2 = .22). Eating behavior was positively predicted by investment body image change (p < .001) and to a lesser extent by evaluative body image (p < .05). Treatment had significant effects on 12-month eating behavior change, which were fully mediated by investment and partially mediated by evaluative body image (effect ratios: .68 and .22, respectively). Conclusions Results suggest that improving body image, particularly by reducing its salience in one's personal life, might play a role in enhancing eating self-regulation during weight control. Accordingly, future weight loss interventions could benefit from proactively addressing body image-related issues as part of their protocols. PMID:21767360

2011-01-01

135

The Weight of a Guilty Conscience: Subjective Body Weight as an Embodiment of Guilt  

PubMed Central

Guilt is an important social and moral emotion. In addition to feeling unpleasant, guilt is metaphorically described as a “weight on one's conscience.” Evidence from the field of embodied cognition suggests that abstract metaphors may be grounded in bodily experiences, but no prior research has examined the embodiment of guilt. Across four studies we examine whether i) unethical acts increase subjective experiences of weight, ii) feelings of guilt explain this effect, and iii) whether there are consequences of the weight of guilt. Studies 1–3 demonstrated that unethical acts led to more subjective body weight compared to control conditions. Studies 2 and 3 indicated that heightened feelings of guilt mediated the effect, whereas other negative emotions did not. Study 4 demonstrated a perceptual consequence. Specifically, an induction of guilt affected the perceived effort necessary to complete tasks that were physical in nature, compared to minimally physical tasks. PMID:23936041

Day, Martin V.; Bobocel, D. Ramona

2013-01-01

136

Perceptions and Beliefs About Body Size, Weight, and Weight Loss Among Obese African American Women: A Qualitative Inquiry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore perceptions and beliefs about body size, weight, and weight loss among obese African American women in order to form a design of weight loss intervention with this target population. Six focus groups were conducted at a community health clinic. Participants were predominantly middle-aged with a mean Body Mass Index of 40.3

Christie A. Befort; Janet L. Thomas; Christine M. Daley; Paula C. Rhode; Jasjit S. Ahluwalia

2008-01-01

137

The Relationship of Body Image Perception and Weight Status to Recent Change in Weight Status of the Adolescent Female.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated relationship of body image perception and weight status to recent change in weight status of adolescent females. Nonobese, overweight, and obese girls (N=90) aged 13 through 17 completed Body-Cathexis Scale and self-report recent change in weight status and demographic questionnaire. Results revealed significant positive correlation…

Fowler, Barbara Ann

1989-01-01

138

Body Mass Index Self-Perception and Weight Management Behaviors during Late Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study examined the relationship between actual body weight and self-perceived weight, and how perception of one's weight affects weight management behaviors among US adolescents. Methods: Adolescents ages 16-19 years with objectively-measured weight and height and self-reported perception of weight, weight-loss efforts, and…

Yang, Kyeongra; Turk, Melanie T.; Allison, Virginia L.; James, Khara A.; Chasens, Eileen

2014-01-01

139

Perception of body weight and body mass at twice earth-gravity acceleration levels.  

PubMed

On Earth, when standing on two feet, we experience particular patterns of force and pressure on the soles of our feet. As we lift one foot and balance on the other, little or no increase in force or pressure is perceived on the sole of the stance foot even though the contact forces of support on that foot have doubled. The failure to perceive this increase is actually an illusion resulting from the operation of spatial constancy mechanisms serving to preserve feelings of near constant force and pressure on the support surface(s) of the body. On Earth, body weight and body mass are perceived as remaining constant regardless as to whether we are standing on two feet or one and whether we are carrying large objects. In the high force phase(2 g acceleration) of parabolic flight, body weight is perceived as doubling, and a great increase in force is perceived on the soles of our feet if we are standing. When shifting balance from two feet to one, an increase in force of approximately 0.5 mg is felt on the sole of the stance foot. The actual increase in force is 1.0 mg but perceptual compensation is only being made for a 0.5 mg increase such as would be characteristic of shifting balance on Earth; accordingly an additional 0.5 mg (1.0-0.5 mg) residue is perceived. These findings indicate that body weight is dependent on the magnitude of the gravitoinertial forces acting on the body. Variations in the contact forces supporting the body due to passive or active locomotion of the body or to objects that are being carried are monitored and disregarded in computing apparent body weight. When stepping up and down from a low platform during the high force phases of parabolic flight, aberrant motion of the body and the aircraft is experienced. These illusory motions result because the doubling of body weight in a 2 g force background alters the normal relationship between patterns of alpha and gamma activation of antigravity muscles, muscle spindle activity, and the movements of the body. Accordingly, sensory-motor control and perceptual and postural stability on Earth are dependent on an active calibration to a 1 g background force level. PMID:6697150

Lackner, J R; Graybiel, A

1984-03-01

140

Estimation of body composition in channel catfish utilizing relative weight and total body electrical conductivity  

E-print Network

OF CONTENTS. Y1 1 1 LIST OF TABLES. . . . LIST OF FIGURES. CHAPTER X11 I INTRODUCTION: ASSESSMENT OF BODY COMPOSITION IN FISH, II DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A STANDARD WEIGHT (Ws) EQUATION FOR CHANNEL CATFISH, Ictalurus punctatus Introduction.... Methods. . Results and Discussion. 6 7 12 III APPLICATION OF ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE MEASUREMENT OF CHANNEL CAT- FISH, Ictalurus punctatus, BODY COMPOSITION, . . . . ?. . . . . . . . . . . 23 Introduction. . 23 CHAPTLR...

Jaramillo, Francisco

1993-01-01

141

Effect of drinking pattern on plasma lipoproteins and body weight.  

PubMed

The effect of drinking pattern on plasma lipoproteins and body weight was examined in three groups of squirrel monkeys: (1) controls fed isocaloric liquid diet; (2) regular drinkers given liquid diet containing ethanol (EtOH) substituted isocalorically for carbohydrate at 12% of calories daily; and (3) binge drinkers fed 6% EtOH calories daily for a four-day period followed by three days of 20% EtOH to mimic a weekend bout drinking cycle. The number of calories offered per day was the same for all groups, and the average weekly EtOH consumption (12% calories) was identical for the two alcohol treatments. The entire study lasted six months. There were no significant differences in plasma cholesterol, triglyceride or liver function tests. Regular drinkers had the highest high density lipoprotein2/high density lipoprotein3 (HDL2/HDL3) protein and apolipoprotein A-I/B ratios of any group and exhibited a significant elevation in the molar plasma lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) rate (nmol/min/ml). Binge drinking produced a selective increase in low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein B, and a depression in the fractional LCAT rate (% esterified/min). During the course of the study, controls ate 92% of their diet while the alcohol groups each consumed 95% of the liquid diet. Despite this difference, body weight and Quetelet index (weight/height2) decreased progressively in the order controls greater than regular drinkers greater than binge drinkers. Results from our study indicate that moderate, regular daily consumption of EtOH at 12% of calories causes a modest reduction in body weight and produces a coronary protective lipoprotein profile (increases HDL2/HDL3, increases apolipoprotein A-I/B, low LDL cholesterol). By contrast, when this same average weekly dose is concentrated in a binge cycle, unfavorable alterations in lipoprotein composition (increases LDL cholesterol, increases apolipoprotein B) and metabolism (decreases LCAT activity) occur along with weight loss and depletion of body fat. These studies point to the value of the squirrel monkey model in evaluating both favorable and pathophysiological effects of chronic EtOH intake. PMID:1878009

Hojnacki, J L; Deschenes, R N; Cluette-Brown, J E; Mulligan, J J; Osmolski, T V; Rencricca, N J; Barboriak, J J

1991-05-01

142

Complex association between body weight and fracture risk in postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is a common disease, characterized by low bone mass with micro-architectural disruption and skeletal fragility, resulting in an increased risk of fracture. A substantial number of studies has examined the possible relationship between body weight, bone mineral density and fracture risk in post-menopausal women, with the majority of them concluding that low body weight correlates with increased risk of fracture, especially hip fracture. Controversies about the potential protective effect of obesity on osteoporosis and consequent fracture risk still exist. Several recent studies question the concept that obesity exerts a protective effect against fractures, suggesting that it stands as a risk factor for fractures at specific skeletal sites, such as upper arm. The association between body weight and fracture risk is complex, differs across skeletal sites and body mass index, and is modified by the interaction between body weight and bone mineral density. Some potential explanations that link obesity with increased fracture risk may be the pattern of falls and impaired mobility in obese individuals, comorbidities, such as asthma, diabetes and early menopause, as well as, increased parathyroid hormone and reduced 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentrations. PMID:25586664

Mpalaris, V; Anagnostis, P; Goulis, D G; Iakovou, I

2015-03-01

143

The role of low-fat diets in body weight control: a meta-analysis of ad libitum dietary intervention studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: Low-fat high-carbohydrate diets are recommended to prevent weight gain in normal weight subjects and reduce body weight in overweight and obese. However, their efficacy is controversial. We evaluated the efficacy of ad libitum low-fat diets in reducing body weight in non-diabetic individuals from the results of intervention trials.DESIGN: Studies were identified from a computerized search of the Medline database

A. Astrup; GK Grunwald; EL Melanson; WHM Saris; JO Hill

2000-01-01

144

Body image satisfaction, dieting beliefs, and weight loss behaviors in adolescent girls and boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body image and weight loss beliefs and behaviors were assessed in 341 female and 221 male high school students. Estimates of body dissatisfaction varied depending on the measurement strategy used. Despite having similar weight distributions around the expected norm, girls were significantly more dissatisfied with their bodies than boys. Body Mass Index was positively related to body dissatisfaction in girls

Susan J. Paxton; Eleanor H. Wertheim; Kay Gibbons; George I. Szmukler; Lynne Hillier; Janice L. Petrovich

1991-01-01

145

Standardized Uptake Values of FDG: Body Surface Area Correction is Preferable to Body Weight Correction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standardized uptake values(SUVs) arewidelyusedto measure 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)uptake in venoustumors.ft has beenreported thatnormalization ofFDGuptake forpatient body weight(SUV@) overestimates FDGuptake inheavypatients, as theirfraclionof bodyfat (wfthlow FDGuptake)is oftenin creased. The objecth,eofthusstudywas to determineif“normal izalionof FDGuptake for the body surface area” (SUV@)is independentofthe patient'sbodysize and is morereliablethan SUVbW.Methods: FDG-PET images were acquired on 44 pa tients (body walght range: 45â€\\

Chun K. Kim; Naresh C. Gupta; B. Chandramouli; Abass Alavi

146

Maternal low protein diet causes body weight loss in male, neonate Sprague-Dawley rats involving UCP-1 mediated thermogenesis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in regulating body weight (BW) by modifying thermogenesis. Maternal low protein (LP) diets reduce offspring birth weight. Increased BAT thermogenesis in utero may be one mechanism for the lower BW. However, whether maternal LP nutrition alters BAT...

147

Effects of beak trimming at different ages on the body weight and feed conversion of guinea fowl (Numida meleagris).  

PubMed

The effect of beak trimming at different ages on feed consumption and growth of meat-type guineas (Numida meleagris) up to 12 wk of age was investigated. In the first experiment, beaks of birds were trimmed at 7, 28, 49, and 70 days, respectively. In the second experiment, beak trimming was done at 42, 49, 56, and 63 days, respectively. Body weight, feed consumption, and mortality were measured first at 4 wk and weekly thereafter in both experiments. Beak trimming of keets at 7 days, significantly (P less than .05) reduced body weights at 4, 8, and 12 wk whereas beak trimming at 70 days significantly (P less than .05) reduced body weights at 12 wk. Beak trimming at other ages did not produce significant differences in body weights or feed conversions. Mortality was low (2 to 4%) throughout. PMID:3375169

Oguntona, T; Musa, R; Zubair, A K

1988-01-01

148

Effects of protein intake and gender on body composition changes: a randomized clinical weight loss trial  

PubMed Central

Abstract Limited data on sex differences in body composition changes in response to higher protein diets (PRO) compared to higher carbohydrate diets (CARB) suggest that a PRO diet helps preserve lean mass (LM) in women more so than in men. Objective To compare male and female body composition responses to weight loss diets differing in macronutrient content. Design Twelve month randomized clinical trial with 4mo of weight loss and 8mo weight maintenance. Subjects Overweight (N?=?130; 58 male (M), 72 female (F); BMI?=?32.5?±?0.5?kg/m2) middle-aged subjects were randomized to energy-restricted (deficit ~500?kcal/d) diets providing protein at 1.6?g.kg-1.d-1 (PRO) or 0.8?g.kg-1.d-1 (CARB). LM and fat mass (FM) were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Body composition outcomes were tested in a repeated measures ANOVA controlling for sex, diet, time and their two- and three-way interactions at 0, 4, 8 and 12mo. Results When expressed as percent change from baseline, males and females lost similar amounts of weight at 12mo (M:-11.2?±?7.1?%, F:-9.9?±?6.0?%), as did diet groups (PRO:-10.7?±?6.8?%, CARB:-10.1?±?6.2?%), with no interaction of gender and diet. A similar pattern emerged for fat mass and lean mass, however percent body fat was significantly influenced by both gender (M:-18.0?±?12.8?%, F:-7.3?±?8.1?%, p?body fat in the trunk (P?reduced trunk fat during weight loss more than women (M:-3.0?±?0.5?%, F:-1.8?±?0.3?%, p?body fat in the legs, but loss of total body fat in legs was similar in men and women. Conclusion PRO was more effective in reducing percent body fat vs. CARB over 12mo weight loss and maintenance. Men lost percent total body fat and trunk fat more effectively than women. No interactive effects of protein intake and gender are evident. PMID:22691622

2012-01-01

149

Measured body mass index, body weight perception, dissatisfaction and control practices in urban, low-income African American adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Current understanding of the associations between actual body weight status, weight perception, body dissatisfaction, and weight control practices among low-income urban African American adolescents is limited. The knowledge can help direct future intervention efforts. METHODS: Cross-sectional data including measured weight and height and self-reported weight status collected from 448 adolescents in four Chicago Public Schools were used. RESULTS: The

Youfa Wang; Huifang Liang; Xiaoli Chen

2009-01-01

150

Weight Misperceptions and Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Adolescent Female Body Mass Index  

PubMed Central

This paper investigated weight misperceptions as determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in body mass index (BMI) among adolescent females using data from the National Survey of Youth 1997. Compared to their white counterparts, higher proportions of black and Hispanic adolescent females underperceived their weight status; that is, they misperceived themselves to have lower weight status compared to their clinically defined weight status. Compared to their black counterparts, higher proportions of white and Hispanic adolescent females misperceived themselves to be heavier than their clinical weight status. Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis showed that accounting for weight misperceptions, in addition to individual and contextual factors, increased the total explained portion of the black-white female BMI gap from 44.7% to 54.3% but only slightly increased the total explained portion of the Hispanic-white gap from 62.8% to 63.1%. Weight misperceptions explained 13.0% of the black-white female BMI gap and 3.3% of the Hispanic-white female BMI gap. The regression estimates showed that weight underperceptions were important determinants of adolescent female BMI, particularly among black and Hispanic adolescents. Education regarding identification and interpretation of weight status may play an important role to help reduce the incidence and racial disparity of female adolescent obesity. PMID:22701166

Krauss, Ramona C.; Powell, Lisa M.; Wada, Roy

2012-01-01

151

The role of physical activity in maintaining a reduced weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current physical activity recommendations call for 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week, or\\u000a the equivalent of expending approximately 1000 kcal in activity per week. These recommendations were formulated based on reducing\\u000a the risk for chronic disease, but they do not appear adequate for weight loss and maintenance. Data from epidemiologic studies\\u000a and randomized trials indicate

Darcy L. Johannsen; Leanne M. Redman; Eric Ravussin

2007-01-01

152

Comparison of a reduced carbohydrate and reduced fat diet for LDL, HDL, and VLDL subclasses during 9-months of weight maintenance subsequent to weight loss  

E-print Network

Objectives: This study compared LDL, HDL, and VLDL subclasses in overweight or obese adults consuming either a reduced carbohydrate (RC) or reduced fat (RF) weight maintenance diet for 9 months following significant weight loss. Methods: Thirty...

LeCheminant, James D.; Smith, Bryan K.; Westman, Eric C.; Vernon, Mary C.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

2010-06-01

153

PET imaging predicts future body weight and cocaine preference  

SciTech Connect

Deficits in dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) binding availability using PET imaging have been reported in obese humans and rodents. Similar deficits have been reported in cocaine-addicts and cocaine-exposed primates. We found that D2R/D3R binding availability negatively correlated with measures of body weight at the time of scan (ventral striatum), at 1 (ventral striatum) and 2 months (dorsal and ventral striatum) post scan in rats. Cocaine preference was negatively correlated with D2R/D3R binding availability 2 months (ventral striatum) post scan. Our findings suggest that inherent deficits in striatal D2R/D3R signaling are related to obesity and drug addiction susceptibility and that ventral and dorsal striatum serve dissociable roles in maintaining weight gain and cocaine preference. Measuring D2R/D3R binding availability provides a way for assessing susceptibility to weight gain and cocaine abuse in rodents and given the translational nature of PET imaging, potentially primates and humans.

Michaelides M.; Wang G.; Michaelides M.; Thanos P.K. Kim R.; Cho J.; Ananth M.; Wang G.-J.; Volkow N.D.

2011-08-28

154

Influence of dietary aflatoxin, zinc, and copper on bone size, organ weight, and body weight in hamsters and rats  

SciTech Connect

Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus have been shown to produce aflatoxins in stored foodstuffs such as peanuts, cottonseed meal, rice, and grains. Aflatoxin-treated animals, especially those that have not matured, fail to gain body weight as rapidly as controls and protein synthesis is reduced. Zinc is a necessary trace element in the diet. Slight deficiencies produce growth retardation, an inhibition of the animal's general well-being, and a reduction in feed efficiency. Many changes observed in bone of zinc deficient animals were similar to those observed with decreased feed intake. High levels of zinc are relatively non-toxic. Copper is required in the diet for prevention of anemia. It has been suggested to have a protective effect against several carcinogens, and is an essential component of many oxidative enzyme systems. In an effort to determine the potential effects of the interaction of metals and aflatoxins, these studies were initiated. Reported herein are body weights, organ weights, bone sizes and radiographic evaluations.

Llewellyn, G.C.; Floyd, E.A.; Hoke, G.D.; Weekley, L.B.; Kimbrough, T.D.

1985-08-01

155

Effects of diet macronutrient composition on body composition and fat distribution during weight maintenance and weight loss  

PubMed Central

Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/d deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (?45 points per 1000 kcal; n=40) or high GL diet (>75 points per 1000 kcal, n=29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (P<0.05, adjusted for total fat mass and baseline IAAT). Participants lost an average of 5.8 kg during the hypocaloric phase, with no differences in the amount of weight loss with diet assignment (P=0.39). Following weight loss, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 4.4% less total fat mass than those who consumed the high GL diet (P<0.05, adjusted for lean mass and baseline fat mass). Consumption of a relatively low GL diet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss. PMID:23671029

Goss, Amy M.; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E.; Gower, Barbara A.

2012-01-01

156

Methods for determining healthy body weight in end stage renal disease.  

PubMed

Several formulas for calculating desirable body weight are used in chronic kidney failure patients. Ideal body weight (IBW) derived from Metropolitan Life Insurance tables has been available since the 1950s. The Hamwi formula was proposed in the 1960s as a simple tool for quickly estimating desirable body weight, especially in people with diabetes. Since the 1970s, National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Surveys I, II, and III have provided an in-depth evaluation of the average body weights of Americans. These standard body weights (SBW) are often interpreted to be normal and healthy weight goals. Body mass index (BMI) has also been studied for decades and is used internationally as the standard for determining healthy weight, especially in relationship to obesity. These 4 methods are discussed and compared along with a brief review of the history of using the adjusted body weight (ABW) formulas, followed by recommendations for clinical practice. PMID:16825033

Harvey, Kathy Schiro

2006-07-01

157

Social Stress at Work and Change in Women’s Body Weight  

PubMed Central

Social stressors at work (such as conflict or animosities) imply disrespect or a lack of appreciation and thus a threat to self. Stress induced by this offence to self might result, over time, in a change in body weight. The current study investigated the impact of changing working conditions —specifically social stressors, demands, and control at work— on women’s change in weighted Body-Mass-Index over the course of a year. Fifty-seven women in their first year of occupational life participated at baseline and thirty-eight at follow-up. Working conditions were assessed by self-reports and observer-ratings. Body-Mass-Index at baseline and change in Body-Mass-Index one year later were regressed on self-reported social stressors as well as observed work stressors, observed job control, and their interaction. Seen individually, social stressors at work predicted Body-Mass-Index. Moreover, increase in social stressors and decrease of job control during the first year of occupational life predicted increase in Body-Mass-Index. Work redesign that reduces social stressors at work and increases job control could help to prevent obesity epidemic. PMID:24429516

KOTTWITZ, Maria U.; GREBNER, Simone; SEMMER, Norbert K.; TSCHAN, Franziska; ELFERING, Achim

2014-01-01

158

WHOLE BODY NONRIGID CT-PET REGISTRATION USING WEIGHTED DEMONS  

PubMed Central

We present a new registration method for whole-body rat computed tomography (CT) image and positron emission tomography (PET) images using a weighted demons algorithm. The CT and PET images are acquired in separate scanners at different times and the inherent differences in the imaging protocols produced significant nonrigid changes between the two acquisitions in addition to heterogeneous image characteristics. In this situation, we utilized both the transmission-PET and the emission-PET images in the deformable registration process emphasizing particular regions of the moving transmission-PET image using the emission-PET image. We validated our results with nine rat image sets using M-Hausdorff distance similarity measure. We demonstrate improved performance compared to standard methods such as Demons and normalized mutual information-based non-rigid FFD registration. PMID:23377533

Suh, J.W.; Kwon, Oh -K.; Scheinost, D.; Sinusas, A.J.; Cline, Gary W.; Papademetris, X.

2011-01-01

159

Nutrigenomics of Body Weight Regulation: A Rationale for Careful Dissection of Individual Contributors  

PubMed Central

Body weight stability may imply active regulation towards a certain physiological condition, a body weight setpoint. This interpretation is ill at odds with the world-wide increase in overweight and obesity. Until now, a body weight setpoint has remained elusive and the setpoint theory did not provide practical clues for body weight reduction interventions. For this an alternative theoretical model is necessary, which is available as the settling point model. The settling point model postulates that there is little active regulation towards a predefined body weight, but that body weight settles based on the resultant of a number of contributors, represented by the individual’s genetic predisposition, in interaction with environmental and socioeconomic factors, such as diet and lifestyle. This review refines the settling point model and argues that by taking body weight regulation from a settling point perspective, the road will be opened to careful dissection of the various contributors to establishment of body weight and its regulation. This is both necessary and useful. Nutrigenomic technologies may help to delineate contributors to body weight settling. Understanding how and to which extent the different contributors influence body weight will allow the design of weight loss and weight maintenance interventions, which hopefully are more successful than those that are currently available. PMID:25338273

Keijer, Jaap; Hoevenaars, Femke P. M.; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie; van Schothorst, Evert M.

2014-01-01

160

Olfactory and gustatory functions and its relation to body weight.  

PubMed

In the present study we investigated the influence of body weight as defined by BMI on gustatory and olfactory perception. A total of 66 healthy adults (41 females; 25 males) participated in psychophysical measurements using the "Sniffin' Sticks" test and "Taste Strips" test. Odor thresholds as well as discrimination and identification performance were determined. Tests of gustatory function involved the identification and thresholds of sweet, sour, salty, or bitter taste. In this study, all subjects were healthy participants in a middle age range (between 20 and 56years of age). Persons with an extreme BMI value were excluded. Subjects were classified according to their BMI in four groups: (1) 15-19.9kg/m, (2) 20-24.9kg/m, (3) 25-29.9kg/m, and (4) >30kg/m. We did not observe an overall effect of BMI on general sensory sensitivity. There was a significant influence of BMI on olfactory thresholds (F(3,62)=2.79; p<0.047) which increased with increasing BMI. In a similar line, the gustatory thresholds for "salty" were significantly higher with higher BMI (F(3,62)=3.06; p<0.035). Olfactory discrimination and identification was not affected by BMI. Thresholds for odor and sweet or salty taste were also correlated. Our data show that body weight influences gustatory and olfactory perception in healthy adults. Increasing BMI is associated with a decrease in olfactory and taste sensitivity. These findings may have implications for the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms in patients. PMID:25619950

Skrandies, Wolfgang; Zschieschang, Romy

2015-04-01

161

Effects of dairy intake on body weight and fat: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials1234  

PubMed Central

Background: Some intervention studies have suggested that dairy products may influence body weight, but the results remain controversial. Objective: We identified and quantified the effects of dairy consumption on body weight and fat mass from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Design: We conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed and EMBASE databases (to April 2012) of English reports of RCTs regarding dairy consumption on body weight, body fat, or body weight and body fat in adults. The results across studies were pooled by using a random-effects meta-analysis. Results: Twenty-nine RCTs were included with a total of 2101 participants. Overall, consumption of dairy products did not result in a significant reduction in weight (?0.14 kg; 95% CI: ?0.66, 0.38 kg; I2 = 86.3%). In subgroup analysis, consumption of dairy products reduced body weight in the context of energy restriction or short-term intervention (<1 y) trials but had the opposite effect in ad libitum dietary interventions or long-term trials (?1 y). Twenty-two RCTs that reported results on body fat showed a modest reduction in the dairy group (?0.45 kg; 95% CI: ?0.79, ?0.11 kg; I2 = 70.9%), and further stratified analysis indicated significant beneficial effects of dairy intervention on body fat in energy-restricted or short-term trials but not in long-term or ad libitum studies. Conclusions: This meta-analysis does not support the beneficial effect of increasing dairy consumption on body weight and fat loss in long-term studies or studies without energy restriction. However, dairy products may have modest benefits in facilitating weight loss in short-term or energy-restricted RCTs. PMID:22932282

Chen, Mu; Pan, An; Malik, Vasanti S; Hu, Frank B

2012-01-01

162

Modeling the relationship between body weight and energy intake: A molecular diffusion-based approach  

PubMed Central

Background Body weight is at least partly controlled by the choices made by a human in response to external stimuli. Changes in body weight are mainly caused by energy intake. By analyzing the mechanisms involved in food intake, we considered that molecular diffusion plays an important role in body weight changes. We propose a model based on Fick's second law of diffusion to simulate the relationship between energy intake and body weight. Results This model was applied to food intake and body weight data recorded in humans; the model showed a good fit to the experimental data. This model was also effective in predicting future body weight. Conclusions In conclusion, this model based on molecular diffusion provides a new insight into the body weight mechanisms. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Dr. Cabral Balreira (nominated by Dr. Peter Olofsson), Prof. Yang Kuang and Dr. Chao Chen. PMID:22742862

2012-01-01

163

The impact of excess body weight at the hospital frontline  

PubMed Central

Quantification of disease burden by deaths or years lived with disability is a useful indicator as it informs prevention by accounting for health loss but it does not reflect the needs for health services. An alternative indicator is to quantify the impact of a risk factor on health care utilization. In an article published in BMC Medicine, Reeves and colleagues describe the relationship between body mass index in 1.2 million women (England) and hospital admission rates. The main finding was that around one in eight hospital admissions was attributable to overweight or obesity, translating to around 420,000 extra hospital admissions, and two million extra days spent in hospital, annually. These findings reinforce the evidence that excess body weight is associated with extensive healthcare utilization and emphasize the need to scale-up and speed-up research if global problems, such as obesity, are to be tackled with due alacrity. Please see related research: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/45. PMID:24742301

2014-01-01

164

The glucagon receptor is involved in mediating the body weight-lowering effects of oxyntomodulin.  

PubMed

Oxyntomodulin (OXM) is a peptide secreted postprandially from the L-cells of the gut that has a weak affinity for both the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1R) and the glucagon receptor (GCGR). Peripheral administration of OXM in humans and rodents causes weight loss reducing food intake and increasing energy expenditure. It has been suggested that OXM modulates energy intake solely through GLP1R agonism. Because glucagon decreases food intake in rodents and humans, we examined whether activation of the GCGR is involved in the body weight-lowering effects of OXM. We identified an equipotent GLP1R-selective peptide agonist that differs from OXM by only one residue (Q3?E, OXMQ3E), but has no significant GCGR agonist activity in vitro and ~100-fold reduced ability to stimulate liver glycogenolysis. Chronic treatment of obese mice with OXM and OXMQ3E demonstrated that OXM exhibits superior weight loss and lipid-lowering efficacy, and antihyperglycemic activity that is comparable to the corresponding GLP1R-selective agonist. Studies in Glp1r(-/-) mice and coadministration of OXM and a GCGR antagonist revealed that the antiobesity effect of OXM requires activation of both GLP1R and GCGR. Our data provide new insight into the mechanism of action of OXM and suggest that activation of GCGR is involved in the body weight-lowering action of OXM. PMID:22421924

Kosinski, Jennifer R; Hubert, James; Carrington, Paul E; Chicchi, Gary G; Mu, James; Miller, Corey; Cao, Jin; Bianchi, Elisabetta; Pessi, Antonello; Sinharoy, Ranabir; Marsh, Donald J; Pocai, Alessandro

2012-08-01

165

High weight or body mass index increase the risk of vertebral fractures in postmenopausal osteoporotic women  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the general population, low body weight and body mass index (BMI) are significant risk factors for any fracture, but the\\u000a specific association between body weight, BMI, and prevalence of vertebral fractures in osteoporotic women is not fully recognized.\\u000a Hence, the association between body weight, BMI, and prevalent vertebral fractures was investigated in 362 women with never-treated\\u000a postmenopausal osteoporosis. All

Matteo Pirro; Gianluigi Fabbriciani; Christian Leli; Laura Callarelli; Maria Rosaria Manfredelli; Claudio Fioroni; Massimo Raffaele Mannarino; Anna Maria Scarponi; Elmo Mannarino

2010-01-01

166

Relationship between body satisfaction with self esteemand unhealthy body weight management  

PubMed Central

Introduction: A favorable or unfavorable attitude about self was named self esteem. According to Maslow theory to achieve quality of life and happiness, one must reach the gradual fulfillment of human needs, including a high degree of own self-esteem. Body dissatisfaction is a negative distortion of one's body which is especially mentioned by the women. Many studies have shown links between self esteem, body dissatisfaction, health and behaviors. this study intends to determine relationship between body satisfaction, self esteem and unhealthy weight control behaviors between women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 408 women employees in Isfahan University and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences during 1390. They were chosen according to the stratified random sampling method. Inclusion criteria were 1) willing to participate in the study and 2) lack of serious physical defect 3) not being in pregnancy or breastfeeding course. Exclusion criteria was filling out questionnaires incompletely. Data collection tool was a multidimensional questionnaire which comprised of 4 sections as following: demographic (5items), A self-administrative questionnaire for body Satisfaction (7 items), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (10 items) and a standard Weight Control Behavior Scale (18 items). Cranach's alpha was 0.9 or higher for the different sections. Finally, collected data was analyzed with SPSS18 using the independent T-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient, regression, Spearman correlation. Results: Frequencies of participants by weight category were 14.1% for obese, 35.3% for overweight, 47.6% for normal weight. The mean body satisfaction score in the studied women was 63.26 ± 16.27 (from 100). Mean score of self esteem was 76.70 ± 10.45. 51.5% of women had medium self esteem, 47.5% had high self esteem. Pearson correlation showed that the variables of body Satisfaction (r = 0.3, P = 0.02), BMI (r = - 0.14, P < 0.003), education level (r = 0.22, P < 0.001), income (r = 0.14, P < 0.004), consumption of fruit (r = 0.13, P < 0.008) all correlated with self-esteem significantly. Women with higher self esteem used higher fruits had a good nutrition overall (r = 0.11, P = 0.02). 92.15%, 10.8% of women respectively participated in one of healthy and unhealthy weight control behavior. There was not any Relationship between self esteem and healthy weight control behavior while finding showed reverse relationship between self esteem and Unhealthy Dieting Behaviors. Conclusion: It seemed women identity in our society tied to social appreciations that formed and supported by body satisfaction. When they feel their current appearance is differ from ideal appearance, they feel down and have lower self esteem and used unhealthy dieting behavior and low fruits daily. Due to importance of precise self evaluation, self esteem can be used to design and conduct public health programs, especially for women. PMID:24083279

Daniali, Shahrbanoo; Azadbakht, Leila; Mostafavi, Firoozeh

2013-01-01

167

Restricted selection index in mice designed to change body fat without changing body weight: correlated responses.  

PubMed

Correlated responses were studied in lines of mice selected for eight generations based on the criterion of a restricted selection index. Two replicate lines were selected in each treatment as follows: HE, high epididymal fat pad weight (EF) with zero change in body weight (BW) at 12 weeks of age; LE; low EF with zero change in BW; and RS, randomly. Correlated responses showed considerable variation between replicates, suggesting that genetic drift was important. Further, correlated responses for most traits were relatively small, probably because of low selection intensity. The HE line responded as expected in component traits of the restricted index. Associated compositional traits in HE responded as predicted since traits correlated with adiposity increased and hind carcass weight did not change significantly. Feed intake increased and feed efficiency (weight gain/feed intake) decreased in HE, as predicted. In contrast, the LE line did not respond in component traits as predicted since EF did not decrease and BW increased. Consequently, LE exhibited little change in traits associated with adiposity, but hind carcass weight, feed intake and feed efficiency increased. Of the correlated responses scored for fitness traits (littering rate, number of days from pairing of mate to littering, litter size and preweaning pup survival rate), significant effects were found for decreased littering rate in LE and increased prenatal survival rate in HE. In summary, correlated responses to restricted index selection generally agreed with expectation when responses in component traits of the index were considered. PMID:24203189

Eisen, E J

1992-07-01

168

Does the charge of a body reduce its gravitational field?  

E-print Network

One can get the impression from the Reissner-Nordstrom solution of Einstein's equations that the charge of a body reduces its gravitational field. This looks surprising since the energy of the electrostatic field surrounding a charged body, must contribute positively, as an additional, "electromagnetic mass", to the gravitational field produced by the body. We resolve this puzzle by showing that the mass M in the Reissner-Nordstrom solution is not the "bare mass" of the body, but its "renormalized mass". I. e. M, in addition to the bare mass, includes the total electromagnetic mass of the body. But at finite distances from the body only a part of the electromagnetic mass contributes to the gravitational field. That is why the gravity of a charged body is determined by the quantity smaller than M.

V. Hushwater

2010-06-02

169

Measured body mass index, body weight perception, dissatisfaction and control practices in urban, low-income African American adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background Current understanding of the associations between actual body weight status, weight perception, body dissatisfaction, and weight control practices among low-income urban African American adolescents is limited. The knowledge can help direct future intervention efforts. Methods Cross-sectional data including measured weight and height and self-reported weight status collected from 448 adolescents in four Chicago Public Schools were used. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity (BMI ? 85th percentile) was 39.8%, but only 27.2% considered themselves as obese, although 43.4% reported trying to lose weight. Girls were more likely to express weight dissatisfaction than boys, especially those with BMI ? 95th percentile (62.9% vs. 25.9%). BMI ? 85th percentile girls were more likely to try to lose weight than boys (84.6% vs. 66.7%). Among all adolescents, 27.2% underestimated and 67.2% correctly judged their own weight status. Multinomial logistic models show that those with BMI ? 85th percentile, self-perceived as obese, or expressed body dissatisfaction were more likely to try to lose weight; adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 4.52 (2.53–8.08), 18.04 (7.19–45.30), 4.12 (1.64–10.37), respectively. No significant differences were found in diet and physical activity between those trying to lose weight and those not trying, but boys who reported trying to lose weight still spent more television time (P < 0.05). Conclusion Gender differences in weight perception, body dissatisfaction, and weight control practices exist among African American adolescents. One-third did not appropriately classify their weight status. Weight perception and body dissatisfaction are correlates of weight control practices. Adolescents attempting to lose weight need be empowered to make adequate desirable behavioral changes. PMID:19523206

Wang, Youfa; Liang, Huifang; Chen, Xiaoli

2009-01-01

170

Weaning weight inheritance in environments classified by maternal body weight change.  

PubMed

In good environments, cow intake is sufficient for their own growth and for milk production to support their calf. In poor environments, cows lose BW or may reduce milk supply to maintain themselves. Heritability for direct genetic and maternal components of weaning weight as well as the correlations between these components might be expected to vary according to these circumstances. The purpose of this study was to estimate heritability and genetic correlations for the direct genetic and maternal components of weaning weight classified in 2 environments according to maternal BW gain and to identify whether a single heritability estimate is appropriate for the differing environments experienced by cows from year to year. Data used in this analysis was obtained from the Red Angus Association of America and consisted of 96,064 cow BW observations and 27,534 calf weaning weight observations. A dam's change in BW from one year to the next was used to classify each calf's weaning weight into 1 of 2 environmental groups, those being good or poor. Best linear unbiased estimates of the change in cow BW with age were obtained from analysis of cow BW using a repeatability model. If the phenotypic change in cow BW exceeded this average BW change, the calf's weaning weight associated with the end of this time frame was classified as having been observed in a good environment. If not, the calf's corresponding weaning weight was classified as having occurred in a poorer than average environment. Heritability estimates of 0.24 +/- 0.03, 0.24 +/- 0.03, 0.13 +/- 0.02, and 0.14 +/- 0.02 were obtained for weaning weight good direct, poor direct, good maternal, and poor maternal, respectively. Correlations between direct genetic and maternal weaning weight components in the good and poor environments were -0.47 +/- 0.08 and -0.20 +/- 0.09, respectively. These variance components are not sufficiently distinct to warrant accounting for dam nutritional environment in national cattle evaluation. PMID:17085734

Speidel, S E; Enns, R M; Garrick, D J

2007-03-01

171

Linseed Dietary Fibers Reduce Apparent Digestibility of Energy and Fat and Weight Gain in Growing Rats  

PubMed Central

Dietary fibers (DF) may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group): low DF control (C), 5% DF from cellulose (5-CEL), CEL + 5% DF from whole (5-WL) or ground linseed (5-GL), CEL + 5% DF from linseed DF extract (5-LDF), and CEL + 10% DF from linseed DF extract (10-LDF). Diets were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Feed intake and faecal output were measured during days 17–21. Faecal fat excretion increased with increasing DF content and was highest in the 10-LDF group. Apparent fat digestibility was highest with the C diet (94.9% ± 0.8%) and lowest (74.3% ± 0.6%) with the 10-LDF diet, and decreased in a non-linear manner with increasing DF (p < 0.001). Apparent fat digestibility also decreased with increased accessibility of DF (5-WL vs. 5-GL) and when the proportion of viscous DF increased (5-GL vs. 5-LDF). The 10-LDF resulted in a lower final body weight (258 ± 6.2 g) compared to C (282 ± 5.9 g), 5-CEL (281 ± 5.9 g), and 5-WL (285 ± 5.9 g) (p < 0.05). The 10-LDF diet reduced body fat compared to 5-CEL (p < 0.01). In conclusion, DF extracted from linseed reduced apparent energy and fat digestibility and resulted in restriction of body weight gain in growing rats. PMID:23966109

Kristensen, Mette; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik; Jřrgensen, Henry; Oomah, David; Bügel, Susanne; Toubro, Sřren; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne

2013-01-01

172

Body Weight and Percent Body Fat Increase during the Transition from High School to University in Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical period for weight gain may occur during the transition from high school to university. This descriptive, noncontrolled cohort study of 116 healthy females examined the effect of this transition over three study visits in first year university. The main outcome measure was body weight; others were height, body composition, waist circumference, dietary intake, and participation in physical and

Melinda J. Edmonds; Kelly J. Ferreira; Erica A. Nikiforuk; Alida K. Finnie; Sarah H. Leavey; Alison M. Duncan; Janis A. Randall Simpson

2008-01-01

173

Overground walking speed changes when subjected to body weight support conditions for nonimpaired and post stroke individuals  

PubMed Central

Background Previous research has shown that body weight support (BWS) has the potential to improve gait speed for individuals post-stroke. However, body weight support also reduces the optimal walking speed at which energy use is minimized over the gait cycle indicating that BWS should reduce walking speed capability. Methods Nonimpaired subjects and subjects post-stroke walked at a self-selected speed over a 15 m walkway. Body weight support (BWS) was provided to subjects at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% of the subject's weight while they walked overground using a robotic body weight support system. Gait speed, cadence, and average step length were calculated for each subject using recorded data on their time to walk 10 m and the number of steps taken. Results When subjected to greater levels of BWS, self-selected walking speed decreased for the nonimpaired subjects. However, subjects post-stroke showed an average increase of 17% in self-selected walking speed when subjected to some level of BWS compared to the 0% BWS condition. Most subjects showed this increase at the 10% BWS level. Gait speed increases corresponded to an increase in step length, but not cadence. Conclusions The BWS training environment results in decreased self-selected walking speed in nonimpaired individuals, however self-selected overground walking speed is facilitated when provided with a small percentage of body weight support for people post-stroke. PMID:20149244

2010-01-01

174

Rapid Weight Loss and the Body Fluid Balance and Hemoglobin Mass of Elite Amateur Boxers  

PubMed Central

Context Dehydration is assumed to be a major adverse effect associated with rapid loss of body mass for competing in a lower weight class in combat sports. However, the effects of such weight cutting on body fluid balance in a real-life setting are unknown. Objective To examine the effects of 5% or greater loss of body mass within a few days before competition on body water, blood volume, and plasma volume in elite amateur boxers. Design Case-control study. Setting Sports medicine laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Seventeen male boxers (age = 19.2 ± 2.9 years, height = 175.1 ± 7.0 cm, mass = 65.6 ± 9.2 kg) were assigned to the weight-loss group (WLG; n = 10) or the control group (CON; n = 7). Intervention(s) The WLG reduced body mass by restricting fluid and food and inducing excessive sweat loss by adhering to individual methods. The CON participated in their usual precompetition training. Main Outcome Measure(s) During an ordinary training period (t-1), 2 days before competition (t-2), and 1 week after competition (t-3), we performed bioelectrical impedance measurements; calculated total body water, intracellular water, and extracellular water; and estimated total hemoglobin mass (tHbmass), blood volume, and plasma volume by the CO-rebreathing method. Results In the WLG, the loss of body mass (5.6% ± 1.7%) led to decreases in total body water (6.0% ± 0.9%), extracellular water (12.4% ± 7.6%), tHbmass (5.3% ± 3.8%), blood volume (7.6% ± 2.1%; P < .001), and plasma volume (8.6% ± 3.9%). The intracellular water did not change (P > .05). At t-3, total body water, extracellular water, and plasma volume had returned to near baseline values, but tHbmass and blood volume still were less than baseline values (P < .05). In CON, we found no changes (P > .05). Conclusions In a real-life setting, the loss of approximately 6% body mass within 5 days induced hypohydration, which became evident by the decreases in body water and plasma volume. The reduction in tHbmass was a surprising observation that needs further investigation. PMID:23672332

Reljic, Dejan; Hässler, Eike; Jost, Joachim; Friedmann-Bette, Birgit

2013-01-01

175

Body composition, not body weight, is related to cardiovascular disease risk factors and sex hormone levels in men.  

PubMed Central

To clarify the independent relationships of obesity and overweight to cardiovascular disease risk factors and sex steroid levels, three age-matched groups of men were studied: (i) 8 normal weight men, less than 15% body fat, by hydrostatic weighing; (ii) 16 overweight, obese men, greater than 25% body fat and 135-160% of ideal body weight (IBW); and (iii) 8 overweight, lean men, 135-160% IBW, but less than 15% fat. Diastolic blood pressure was significantly greater for the obese (mean +/- SEM, 82 +/- 2 mmHg) than the normal (71 +/- 2) and overweight lean (72 +/- 2) groups, as were low density lipoprotein levels (131 +/- 9 vs. 98 + 11 and 98 + 14 mg/dl), the ratio of high density lipoprotein to total cholesterol (0.207 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.308 +/- 0.03 and 0.302 +/- 0.03), fasting plasma insulin (22 +/- 3 vs. 12 +/- 1 and 13 +/- 2 microU/ml), and the estradiol/testosterone ratio (0.076 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.042 +/- 0.02 and 0.052 +/- 0.02); P less than 0.05. Estradiol was 25% greater for the overweight lean group (40 +/- 5 pg/ml) than the obese (30 +/- 3 pg/ml) and normal groups (29 +/- 2 pg/ml), P = 0.08, whereas total testosterone was significantly lower in the obese (499 +/- 33 ng/dl) compared with the normal and overweight, lean groups (759 +/- 98 and 797 +/- 82 ng/dl). Estradiol was uncorrelated with risk factors and the estradiol/testosterone ratio appeared to be a function of the reduced testosterone levels in obesity, not independently correlated with lipid levels after adjustment for body fat content. Furthermore, no risk factors were significantly different between the normal and overweight lean groups. We conclude that (a) body composition, rather than body weight per se, is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk factors; and (b) sex steroid alterations are related to body composition and are not an independent cardiovascular disease risk factor. PMID:3654969

Segal, K R; Dunaif, A; Gutin, B; Albu, J; Nyman, A; Pi-Sunyer, F X

1987-01-01

176

Effects of a Stimulant-Free Dietary Supplement on Body Weight and Fat Loss in Obese Adults: A Six-Week Exploratory Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Obesity is a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, osteoarthritis, and stroke. Stimulants, such as ephedrine and caffeine and their herbal counterparts, have proved effective in facilitating body weight loss, but their use is controversial due to their undesired effects. Other nutraceuticals have shown moderate success in reducing body weight, whereas several other compounds have demonstrated

Derek E Woodgate; Julie A Conquer

2003-01-01

177

Association of Smoking with Body Weight in US High School Students, 1999-2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To investigate the association of current smoking with body mass index (BMI) and perceived body weight among high school students in the United States. Methods: We analyzed data from the 1999-2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results: Perceived body weight and BMI were associated with adolescents' current smoking. Adjusted odds ratios…

Seo, Dong-Chul; Jiang, Nan; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

2009-01-01

178

Efficacy of Garcinia Cambogia on Body Weight, Inflammation and Glucose Tolerance in High Fat Fed Male Wistar Rats  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Obesity leads to derangements in lipid and glucose homeostasis resulting in various metabolic complications. Plants containing vital phytochemicals are known to posses anti obesity properties and have proved to exert beneficial effects in obesity. Objectives: The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Garcinia Cambogia on body weight, glucose tolerance and inflammation in high fat diet fed male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Five month old male wistar rats (n=40) were divided into four groups. Two groups were fed with standard rodent diet and the remaining two with 30% high fat diet. One group in each of the two sets received the crude ethanolic extract of Garcinia Cambogia at a dose of 400mg/kg body weight/day for ten weeks. Body weight, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, leptin, tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and renal function (urea, creatinine, uric acid) were studied. Results: High fat diet fed rats showed increased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, elevated levels of plasma leptin and TNF-?. Supplementation of Garcinia Cambogia extract (GE) along with high fat diet significantly decreased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, plasma leptin and TNF-? level. No significant changes were observed in the renal function parameters in any of the groups. Conclusion: Supplementation of the Garcinia Cambogia extract with high fat diet reduced body weight gain, inflammation and glucose intolerance.

Sripradha, Ramalingam

2015-01-01

179

Further characterization of diabetes mellitus and body weight loss in males of the congenic mouse strain DDD.Cg-Ay  

PubMed Central

The Ay allele at the agouti locus causes obesity and promotes linear growth in mice. However, body weight gain stops between 16 and 17 weeks after birth, and then, body weight decreases gradually in DDD.Cg-Ay male mice. Body weight loss is a consequence of diabetes mellitus, which is genetically controlled mainly by a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 4. This study aimed to further characterize diabetes mellitus and body weight loss in DDD.Cg-Ay males. The number of ?-cells was markedly reduced, and plasma insulin levels were very low in the DDD.Cg-Ay males. Using a backcross progeny of DDD × (B6 × DDD.Cg-Ay) F1-Ay, we identified one significant QTL for plasma insulin levels on distal chromosome 4, which was coincidental with QTL for hyperglycemia and lower body weight. The DDD allele was associated with decreased plasma insulin levels. When the DDD.Cg-Ay males were housed under three different housing conditions [group housing (4 or 5 DDD.Cg-Ay and DDD males), individual housing (single DDD.Cg-Ay male) and single male housing with females (single DDD.Cg-Ay male with DDD.Cg-Ay or DDD females)], diabetes mellitus and body weight loss were most severely expressed in individually housed mice. Thus, the severity of diabetes and body weight loss in the DDD.Cg-Ay males was strongly influenced by the housing conditions. These results demonstrate that both genetic and nongenetic environmental factors are involved in the development of diabetes mellitus and body weight loss in the DDD.Cg-Ay males. PMID:25373882

SUTO, Jun-ichi; SATOU, Kunio

2014-01-01

180

High-fructose corn syrup causes characteristics of obesity in rats: Increased body weight, body fat and triglyceride levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) accounts for as much as 40% of caloric sweeteners used in the United States. Some studies have shown that short-term access to HFCS can cause increased body weight, but the findings are mixed. The current study examined both short- and long-term effects of HFCS on body weight, body fat, and circulating triglycerides. In Experiment 1, male

Miriam E. Bocarsly; Elyse S. Powell; Nicole M. Avena; Bartley G. Hoebel

2010-01-01

181

Reducing olanzapine-induced weight gain side effect by using betahistine: a study in the rat model.  

PubMed

Olanzapine is effective at treating multiple domains of schizophrenia symptoms. However, it induces serious metabolic side effects. Antipsychotic drug's antagonistic affinity to histamine H? receptors has been identified as a main contributor for weight gain/obesity side effects. This study therefore investigated whether a combined treatment of betahistine (a H? receptor agonist and H? receptor antagonist) could reduce the body weight/obesity induced by olanzapine. Female Sprague Dawley rats were treated orally with olanzapine (1 mg/kg, t.i.d.) and/or betahistine (2.67 mg/kg, t.i.d.), or vehicle for two weeks. Rats treated with olanzapine exhibited significant body weight gain and increased food intake. Co-treatment of olanzapine with betahistine significantly prevented (-45%) weight gain and reduced feeding efficiency compared to sole olanzapine treatment. Betahistine treatment alone had no effect on weight gain and food intake. Olanzapine reduced locomotor activity, but not betahistine. These findings demonstrate that olanzapine-induced body weight gain can partially be reduced by co-treatment with betahistine. Betahistine has H? receptor antagonistic effects to increase histamine release, which may augment its direct agonistic effects on H? receptors. These findings have important implications for clinical trials using betahistine to control antipsychotic-induced obesity side effects. PMID:22695490

Deng, Chao; Lian, Jiamei; Pai, Nagesh; Huang, Xu-Feng

2012-09-01

182

Seasonally Inappropriate Body Weight Induced by Food Restriction: Effect on Hypothalamic Gene Expression in Male Siberian Hamsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male Siberian hamsters undergo physiological weight change in changing photoperiod. Weight loss was induced by food restriction in long days to mimic short-day weight loss, or by food restriction superimposed on short-day weight loss, to test the hypothesis that the hypothalamus differentiates between weight change induced by imposed negative energy balance (inappropriate body weight) and seasonal, appropriate, body weight change,

JULIAN G. MERCER; KIM M. MOAR; TRACY J. LOGIE; PATRICIA A. FINDLAY; CLARE L. ADAM; PETER J. MORGAN

2010-01-01

183

Shuttle-food consumption, body composition and body weight in women  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment is conducted to determine whether the NASA Space Shuttle food system can provide the food and fluid required to mitigate weight loss and physical decomposition in 12 female subjects for 28 days. Subjects receive only foods from the Space Shuttle system for four weeks within an 11-wk monitoring period. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is employed throughout the trial period to study lean body mass, percent body fat, and energy-intake levels with attention given to differences the experimental diet and the subjects' typical diet. Percent body fat is found to change significantly with losses of less than 0.05 percent, whereas energy intake based on autonomous diet choices by the participants does not vary significantly. Lean body mass remains unchanged throughout the study in which the subjects receive a relatively low-fat and low-protein menu. The 100 items on the space shuttle list of approved food items are shown to provide a palatable dietary framework for maintaining the health of female astronauts.

Lane, Helen W.; Frye, Sherrie; Kloeris, Vickie; Rice, Barbara; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Spector, Elisabeth; Gretebeck, Randall J.

1992-01-01

184

Gender differences in body mass index and weight loss strategies among African Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals of this study were to examine gender differences in body satisfaction, obesity status, and weight loss strategies among African Americans. A self-administered survey was completed by a convenient sample of 789 African Americans, but 763 provided weight and height information. Significantly more men than women were satisfied or very satisfied with their weight. Based on self-reported weights, the

Delores C. S. James

2003-01-01

185

Prospect theory and body mass: characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion  

PubMed Central

We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices. PMID:25852628

Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S.

2015-01-01

186

Body checking and avoidance in low weight and weight restored individuals with anorexia nervosa and non-clinical females.  

PubMed

Body dissatisfaction (BD) is central to the development, maintenance and relapse of anorexia nervosa (AN). BD has been conceptualized as a multi-dimensional construct incorporating behaviours, cognitions and affect, yet little is known about the impact of weight and disordered eating on these aspects. 56 'below DSM-IV weight criteria for AN' (weight criteria for AN' (>BMI 17.5 kg/m(2)) individuals currently receiving treatment for an eating disorder, and 60 non-eating disordered females completed the Body Checking Scale, Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire and the Body Image Anxiety Questionnaire. As expected, females diagnosed with AN showed significantly more behavioural and affective body dissatisfaction than the control group. Patients at lower weights showed significantly more avoidance behaviours and less body image anxiety than those with anorexia at higher weights. No difference was seen in checking behaviours between these groups. Weight based differences in avoidance behaviours continued to exist even when the effects of anxiety were controlled for. Affective and behavioural aspects of BD should be considered in clinical practice at all stages of treatment. PMID:24411741

Bamford, Bryony H; Attoe, Chris; Mountford, Victoria A; Morgan, John F; Sly, Richard

2014-01-01

187

Daily Self-Monitoring of Body Weight, Step Count, Fruit/Vegetable Intake and Water Consumption: A Feasible and Effective Long-Term Weight Loss Maintenance Approach  

PubMed Central

Maintenance of weight loss remains a challenge for most individuals, thus practical and effective weight loss maintenance (WTLM) strategies are needed. A two-group (WEV versus WEV+) 12-month WTLM intervention trial was conducted (June 2007–February 2010) to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of weight loss maintenance intervention for older adults using daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable intake and water consumption. Forty weight-reduced (mean weight lost = 6.7 ± 0.6 kg; BMI 29.2 ± 1.1 kg/m2) individuals aged 63 ± 1 yrs, who had previously participated in a 12-week randomized controlled weight loss intervention trial, were instructed to record daily body weight (Weight), step count (Exercise), and fruit/vegetable intake (Vegetable). Experimental group (WEV+) participants were also instructed to consume 16 floz of water before each main meal (i.e., three times daily), and to record daily water intake. Outcome measures included weight change, diet/physical activity behaviors, theoretical constructs related to health behaviors, and other clinical measures. Statistical analyses included growth curve analyses and repeated measures ANOVA. Over 12 months, there was a linear decline in weight (? = ?0.32, P < 0.001) and a quadratic trend (? = 0.02, P < 0.01) over time, but no group difference (? = ?0.23, P = 0.08). Analysis of the 365 days of self-reported body weight for each participant determined that weight loss was greater over the study period in WEV+ than WEV, corresponding to weight changes of ?0.67 kg and 1.00 kg respectively, and an 87% greater weight loss (? = ?0.01, P < 0.01). Overall compliance to daily tracking was 76 ± 5%. Daily self-monitoring of weight, physical activity, and fruit/vegetable consumption is a feasible and effective approach for maintaining weight loss for 12 months, and daily self-monitoring of increased water consumption may provide additional WTLM benefits. PMID:22709772

Akers, Jeremy D.; Cornett, Rachel A.; Savla, Jyoti S.; Davy, Kevin P.; Davy, Brenda M.

2012-01-01

188

Height and Weight at Menarche and a Hypothesis of Critical Body Weights and Adolescent Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Height and weight at menarche were found for each subject in three longitudinal growth studies. Early and late maturing girls have menarche at the same mean weight, but late maturers are taller at menarche. Two other major events of adolescence, initiation of the weight growth spurt and maximum rate of weight gain, also occur at an invariant mean weight. The

Rose E. Frisch; Roger Revelle

1970-01-01

189

Body composition and power performance improved after weight reduction in male athletes without hampering hormonal balance.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 4-week weight reduction period with high protein and reduced carbohydrate intake on body composition, explosive power, speed, serum hormones, and acid-base balance in male track and field jumpers and sprinters. Eight participants were assigned to a high weight reduction group (HWR; energy restriction 750 kcal·d) and 7 to a low weight reduction group (LWR; energy restriction 300 kcal·d). Energy and carbohydrate intake decreased significantly (p ? 0.05) only in HWR by 740 ± 330 kcal·d and 130 ± 29 g·d, respectively. Furthermore, total body mass and fat mass decreased (p ? 0.05) only in HWR by 2.2 ± 1.0 kg and 1.7 ± 1.6 kg, respectively. Fat-free mass (FFM), serum testosterone, cortisol, and sex hormone-binding globulin did not change significantly. Ca ion and pH decreased (p ? 0.05) only in HWR (3.1 ± 2.8% and 0.8 ± 0.8%, respectively), whereas (Equation is included in full-text article.)declined (p ? 0.05) in both groups by 19.3 ± 6.2% in HWR and by 13.1 ± 8.5% in LWR. The countermovement jump and 20-m sprint time improved consistently (p ? 0.05) only in HWR, by 2.6 ± 2.5 cm and 0.04 ± 0.04 seconds, respectively. Finally, athletes with a fat percentage of 10% or more at the baseline were able to preserve FFM. In conclusion, altered acid-base balance but improved weight-bearing power performance was observed without negative consequences on serum hormones and FFM after a 4-week weight reduction of 0.5 kg·wk achieved by reduced carbohydrate but maintained high protein intake. PMID:25028999

Huovinen, Heikki T; Hulmi, Juha J; Isolehto, Juha; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Puurtinen, Risto; Karila, Tuomo; Mackala, Krzysztof; Mero, Antti A

2015-01-01

190

A 20Year Longitudinal Study of Body Weight, Dieting, and Eating Disorder Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article describes a 20-year longitudinal study of body weight, dieting, and disordered eating in women and men. Body weight increased significantly over time in both women and men. However, women’s weight perception and dieting frequency decreased over time, whereas men’s weight perception and dieting frequency increased, and disordered eating declined more in women than in men from late adolescence

Pamela K. Keel; Mark G. Baxter; Todd F. Heatherton; Thomas E. Joiner

2007-01-01

191

Baseline Anandamide Levels and Body Weight Impact the Weight Loss Effect of CB1 Receptor Antagonism in Male Rats  

PubMed Central

The individual weight loss response to obesity treatment is diverse. Here we test the hypothesis that the weight loss response to the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant is influenced by endogenous levels of receptor agonists. We show that baseline anandamide levels and body weight independently contribute to predict the treatment response to rimonabant in rodents, demonstrating that addition of biomarkers related to mode of action is relevant for a personalized health care approach to obesity treatment. PMID:25549047

Karlsson, Cecilia; Hjorth, Stephan; Karpefors, Martin; Hansson, Göran I.

2015-01-01

192

Effects of dietary calcium intake on body weight and prevalence of osteoporosis in early postmenopausal women1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:High calcium intakes seem to be ineffective at reduc- ingbonelossinearlypostmenopausalwomen.However,theinverse relation between calcium intake and body weight can attenuate the negative effect of a low dietary calcium intake. Objective: The objective was to assess the role of dietary calcium and body mass index (BMI) on osteoporosis, defined according to World Health Organization criteria as a lumbar bone density 2.5 SD

Massimo Varenna; Lucia Binelli; Silvia Casari; Francesca Zucchi; Luigi Sinigaglia

193

Is there evidence for a set point that regulates human body weight?  

PubMed Central

There is evidence for the idea that there is biological (active) control of body weight at a given set point. Body weight is the product of genetic effects (DNA), epigenetic effects (heritable traits that do not involve changes in DNA), and the environment. Regulation of body weight is asymmetric, being more effective in response to weight loss than to weight gain. However, regulation may be lost or camouflaged by Western diets, suggesting that the failure of biological control is due mainly to external factors. In this situation, the body’s ‘set point’ (i.e., a constant ‘body-inherent’ weight regulated by a proportional feedback control system) is replaced by various ‘settling points’ that are influenced by energy and macronutrient intake in order for the body to achieve a zero energy balance. In a world of abundance, a prudent lifestyle and thus cognitive control are preconditions of effective biological control and a stable body weight. This idea also impacts future genetic research on body weight regulation. Searching for the genetic background of excess weight gain in a world of abundance is misleading since the possible biological control is widely overshadowed by the effect of the environment. In regard to clinical practice, dietary approaches to both weight loss and weight gain have to be reconsidered. In underweight patients (e.g., patients with anorexia nervosa), weight gain is supported by biological mechanisms that may or may not be suppressed by hyperalimentation. To overcome weight loss-induced counter-regulation in the overweight, biological signals have to be taken into account. Computational modeling of weight changes based on metabolic flux and its regulation will provide future strategies for clinical nutrition. PMID:21173874

Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Heymsfield, Steven B

2010-01-01

194

Endurance interval training in obese mice reduces muscle inflammation and macrophage content independently of weight loss  

PubMed Central

Abstract Obesity is associated with chronic low?grade inflammation that involves infiltration of macrophages into metabolic organs such as skeletal muscle. Exercise enhances skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity independently of weight loss; but its role in regulating muscle inflammation is not fully understood. We hypothesized that exercise training would inhibit skeletal muscle inflammation and alter macrophage infiltration into muscle independently of weight loss. Wild type C57BL/6 male mice were fed a chow diet or a high?fat diet (HFD, 45% calories fat) for 6 weeks. Then, mice maintained on the HFD either remained sedentary (HFD Sed) or exercised (HFD Ex) on a treadmill for another 6 weeks. The exercise training protocol involved conducting intervals of 2 min in duration followed by 2 min of rest for 60 min thrice weekly. Chow?fed control mice remained sedentary for the entire 12 weeks. Muscle cytokine and macrophage gene expression analysis were conducted using qRT?PCR, and muscle macrophage content was also measured using immunohistochemistry. Muscle cytokine protein content was quantified using a cytokine array. The HFD increased adiposity and weight gain compared to chow?fed controls. HFD Sed and HFD Ex mice had similar body mass as well as total and visceral adiposity. However, despite similar adiposity, exercise reduced inflammation and muscle macrophage infiltration. We conclude that Endurance exercise training modulates the immune?metabolic crosstalk in obesity independently of weight loss, and may have potential benefits in reducing obesity?related muscle inflammation. PMID:24843075

Samaan, M. Constantine; Marcinko, Katarina; Sikkema, Sarah; Fullerton, Morgan D.; Ziafazeli, Tahereh; Khan, Mohammad I.; Steinberg, Gregory R.

2014-01-01

195

Prevalence and magnitude of body weight and shape dissatisfaction among university students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing, prevailing sociocultural influences lead females to desire a thin body and males a muscular body, often resulting in body dissatisfaction (BD) because many cannot achieve the cultural ideal. This study examined the magnitude of BD in university undergraduates (n=310). Body weight dissatisfaction (BWD) was measured as the difference between current and idealized

Lori A. Neighbors; Jeffery Sobal

2007-01-01

196

Diet-Beverage Consumption and Caloric Intake Among US Adults, Overall and by Body Weight  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined national patterns in adult diet-beverage consumption and caloric intake by body-weight status. Methods. We analyzed 24-hour dietary recall with National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2010 data (adults aged ??20 years; n?=?23?965). Results. Overall, 11% of healthy-weight, 19% of overweight, and 22% of obese adults drink diet beverages. Total caloric intake was higher among adults consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) compared with diet beverages (2351 kcal/day vs 2203 kcal/day; P?=?.005). However, the difference was only significant for healthy-weight adults (2302 kcal/day vs 2095 kcal/day; P?weight adults and consume significantly more solid-food calories and a comparable total calories than overweight and obese adults who drink SSBs. Heavier US adults who drink diet beverages will need to reduce solid-food calorie consumption to lose weight. PMID:24432876

Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.; Vine, Seanna; Wang, Y. Claire

2014-01-01

197

Does this book make me look fat? The effect of protagonist body weight and body esteem on female readers' body esteem.  

PubMed

Effects of visual representations of the thin ideal in the media have been widely explored, but textual representations of the thin ideal in novels have received scant attention. The chick literature genre has been criticized for depicting characters who worry about their body weight and who have poor body esteem. Excerpts from two chick lit novels were used to examine the effect of a protagonist's body weight and body esteem on college women's (N=159) perceptions of their sexual attractiveness and weight concern. Two narratives were used to minimize the possibility that idiosyncratic characteristics of one excerpt might influence the study's results. Underweight (vs. healthy weight) protagonists predicted readers' lower perceived sexual attractiveness. Protagonists with low body esteem (vs. control) predicted readers' increased weight concern. Scholars and health officials should be concerned about the effect chick lit novels might have on women's body image. PMID:23219006

Kaminski, Melissa J; Magee, Robert G

2013-03-01

198

Sociocultural influences and body change strategies in Spanish adolescent boys of different weight status.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to examine the association between sociocultural influences to attain an ideal body and body change strategies (BCS) in Spanish adolescent boys of different weight status. A total of 594 Spanish boys (M=13.94 years, SD=0.20) participated. Measures included in the study were weight status according to body mass index (BMI), sociocultural influences (perceived pressures to attain an ideal body, general internalization of an ideal body, internalization of an athletic-ideal body), BCS to lose/control weight (dieting, healthy and unhealthy weight-control behaviors), and BCS to gain weight and muscles. Underweight boys engaged more frequently in weight-gain behaviors. Overweight boys reported higher levels of perceived sociocultural pressures and general internalization compared to normal-weight boys, and were more likely to be engaged in BCS to lose/control weight compared with the other weight-status groups. There were no differences between groups in terms of internalization of an athletic-ideal body and BCS to increase muscles. Future research and prevention programs should consider male-specific behaviors and weight-status differences. PMID:25261810

Almenara, Carlos A; Fauquet, Jordi; López-Guimerŕ, Gemma; Pŕmias-Massana, Montserrat; Sánchez-Carracedo, David

2014-12-01

199

Associations among eating regulation and body mass index, weight, and body fat in college students: the moderating role of gender.  

PubMed

This study investigated associations between eating regulation behaviors and body mass index (BMI), weight, and percent body fat in male and female students over the first two years of college. Subjects included 328 college students (215 females and 113 males). Height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and eating regulation behaviors (using the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale) were conducted two to three times during both the freshman and sophomore years. Significant associations between eating regulation and BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were shown mostly in females. In females, higher BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat at the end of the second year of college were found in those with low levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and high levels of amotivation, while lower BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were associated with high levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and low levels of amotivation. The findings that specific eating behaviors in females during the first two years of college influence BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat may be useful for inclusion in university programs focused on college student health to help decrease the risk of obesity and disordered eating/eating disorders in female college students. PMID:24854827

Gropper, Sareen S; Arsiwalla, Dilbur D; Lord, Denali C; Huggins, Kevin W; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V

2014-04-01

200

Elite athletes in aesthetic and Olympic weight-class sports and the challenge of body weight and body compositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of dieting, rapid weight loss, and frequent weight fluctuation among athletes competing in weight-class and leanness sports have been considered a problem for years, but the extent of the problem and the health and performance consequences have yet to be fully examined. Most studies examining these issues have had weak methodology. However, results from this review indicate that

Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen; Ina Garthe

2011-01-01

201

Elite athletes in aesthetic and Olympic weight-class sports and the challenge of body weight and body composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of dieting, rapid weight loss, and frequent weight fluctuation among athletes competing in weight-class and leanness sports have been considered a problem for years, but the extent of the problem and the health and performance consequences have yet to be fully examined. Most studies examining these issues have had weak methodology. However, results from this review indicate that

Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen; Ina Garthe

2011-01-01

202

Phenobarbital effects on weight gain and circadian cycling of food intake and body temperature  

SciTech Connect

Rats fed a diet supplemented with phenobarbital at a concentration of 0.25% gained less weight than rats fed the unsupplemented diet. The reduced weight gain in the phenobarbital-treated rats accompanied the induction of marked hepatomegaly. Circadian cycling of food consumption in control rats followed a biphasic pattern, with the first feeding episode occurring during the middle of the 12-h dark phase and the second occurring as the dark phase ended. In rats on phenobarbital, eating activity was confined to the first feeding episode, with the level of intake during this interval increasing to compensate for the absence of significant subsequent feeding, so that the daily levels of food consumption were similar in both groups. Measurements of circadian cycling of deep body temperature showed that ingestion of 0.25% dietary phenobarbital approximately doubled the amplitude of the temperature cycle and advanced the time at which peak temperature was attained by aproximately 2 h. It is suggested that the lower weight gain in rats chronically exposed to 0.25% dietary phenobarbital results primarily from alterations in hepatic metabolism, but phenobarbital-mediated changes in the circadian cycling of food intake and deep-body temperature may also contribute to the growth reduction.

Peraino, C.; Ehret, C.F.; Groh, K.R.; Meinert, J.C.; D'arcy-Gomez, G.

1980-12-01

203

Sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive K+ channels control energy expenditure determining body weight  

PubMed Central

Summary Metabolic processes that regulate muscle energy use are major determinants of bodily energy balance. Here we find that sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels, which couple membrane excitability with cellular metabolic pathways, set muscle energy expenditure under physiological stimuli. Disruption of KATP channel function provoked, in conditions of unaltered locomotor activity and blood substrate availability, an extra energy cost of cardiac and skeletal muscle performance. Inefficient fuel metabolism in KATP channel-deficient striated muscles reduced glycogen and fat body depots promoting a lean phenotype. The propensity to lesser body weight imposed by KATP channel deficit persisted under a high-fat diet, yet obesity restriction was achieved at the cost of compromised physical endurance. Thus, sarcolemmal KATP channels govern muscle energy economy, and their down-regulation in a tissue-specific manner could present an anti-obesity strategy by rendering muscle increasingly thermogenic at rest and less fuel efficient during exercise. PMID:20074528

Alekseev, Alexey E.; Reyes, Santiago; Yamada, Satsuki; Hodgson-Zingman, Denice M.; Sattiraju, Srinivasan; Zhu, Zhiyong; Sierra, Ana; Gerbin, Marina; Coetzee, William A.; Goldhamer, David J.; Terzic, Andre; Zingman, Leonid V.

2009-01-01

204

Relationship among serum taurine, serum adipokines, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program.  

PubMed

Human adipose tissue is not only a storage organ but also an active endocrine organ to release adipokines. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among serum taurine and adipokine levels, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program in obese female college students. The program consisted of diet therapy, exercise, and behavior modification. After the program, body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly decreased. Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased. Also serum adiponectin level was significantly increased and serum leptin level was significantly decreased. There were no differences in serum taurine and homocysteine levels. The change of serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with change of body fat mass and percent body fat. These results may suggest that body fat loss by human body weight control program is associated with an increase in serum adiponectin in obese female college students. Therefore, further study such as taurine intervention study is needed to know more exact correlation between dietary taurine intake and serum adipokines or body composition. PMID:23392876

You, Jeong Soon; Park, Ji Yeon; Zhao, Xu; Jeong, Jin Seok; Choi, Mi Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja

2013-01-01

205

Sepsis-induced morbidity in mice: effects on body temperature, body weight, cage activity, social behavior and cytokines in brain  

PubMed Central

Infection negatively impacts mental health, as evidenced by the lethargy, malaise, and cognitive deficits experienced during illness. These changes in central nervous system processes, collectively termed sickness behavior, have been shown in animal models to be mediated primarily by the actions of cytokines in brain. Most studies of sickness behavior to date have used bolus injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or selective administration of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1? (IL-1?) or IL-6 as the immune challenge. Such models, although useful for determining mechanisms responsible for acute changes in physiology and behavior, do not adequately represent the more complex effects on central nervous system (CNS) processes of a true infection with replicating pathogens. In the present study, we used the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model to quantify sepsis-induced alterations in several facets of physiology and behavior of mice. We determined the impact of sepsis on cage activity, body temperature, food and water consumption and body weights of mice. Because cytokines are critical mediators of changes in behavior and temperature regulation during immune challenge, we also quantified sepsis-induced alterations in cytokine mRNA and protein in brain during the acute period of sepsis onset. We now report that cage activity and temperature regulation in mice that survive are altered for up to 23 days after sepsis induction. Food and water consumption are transiently reduced, and body weight is lost during sepsis. Furthermore, sepsis decreases social interactions for 24 – 48 hours. Finally, mRNA and protein for IL-1?, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) are upregulated in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and brain stem during sepsis onset, from 6–72 hour post sepsis induction. Collectively, these data indicate that sepsis not only acutely alters physiology, behavior and cytokine profiles in brain, but that some brain functions are impaired for long periods in animals that survive. PMID:23146654

Granger, Jill I.; Ratti, Pietro-Luca; Datta, Subhash C.; Raymond, Richard M.; Opp, Mark R.

2012-01-01

206

Sepsis-induced morbidity in mice: effects on body temperature, body weight, cage activity, social behavior and cytokines in brain.  

PubMed

Infection negatively impacts mental health, as evidenced by the lethargy, malaise, and cognitive deficits experienced during illness. These changes in central nervous system processes, collectively termed sickness behavior, have been shown in animal models to be mediated primarily by the actions of cytokines in brain. Most studies of sickness behavior to date have used bolus injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or selective administration of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1? (IL-1?) or IL-6 as the immune challenge. Such models, although useful for determining mechanisms responsible for acute changes in physiology and behavior, do not adequately represent the more complex effects on central nervous system (CNS) processes of a true infection with replicating pathogens. In the present study, we used the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model to quantify sepsis-induced alterations in several facets of physiology and behavior of mice. We determined the impact of sepsis on cage activity, body temperature, food and water consumption and body weights of mice. Because cytokines are critical mediators of changes in behavior and temperature regulation during immune challenge, we also quantified sepsis-induced alterations in cytokine mRNA and protein in brain during the acute period of sepsis onset. We now report that cage activity and temperature regulation in mice that survive are altered for up to 23 days after sepsis induction. Food and water consumption are transiently reduced, and body weight is lost during sepsis. Furthermore, sepsis decreases social interactions for 24-48 h. Finally, mRNA and protein for IL-1?, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) are upregulated in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and brain stem during sepsis onset, from 6h to 72 h post sepsis induction. Collectively, these data indicate that sepsis not only acutely alters physiology, behavior and cytokine profiles in brain, but that some brain functions are impaired for long periods in animals that survive. PMID:23146654

Granger, Jill I; Ratti, Pietro-Luca; Datta, Subhash C; Raymond, Richard M; Opp, Mark R

2013-07-01

207

LOTUS 1-2-3-BASED SYSTEM FOR RECORDING AND MAINTAINING BODY WEIGHT OF LABORATORY ANIMALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Body weight maintenance is required in a variety of behavioral and physiological studies. C-based animal weighing system is described which features automated data collection and allows for accurate control of body weight in test animals via manipulation of food intake. ajor syst...

208

Cholesterol Metabolism and Body Composition in Women: The Effects of Moderate Weight Loss  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective was to determine how moderate weight loss protocol through diet and exercise may affect changes in body composition, to determine the effects of weight loss on cholesterol metabolism, and to examine the relationship between cholesterol metabolism and changes in body composition. Thirt...

209

A system for the automated recording of feeding behavior and body weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method that uses passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags for the continuous recording of feeding behavior and body weight from multiple individual animals is described. We have used this method in the field and in semi-natural captive conditions with black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) to determine daily and seasonal patterns in body weight and to estimate the proportions of food cached

Michael J. Boisvert; David F. Sherry

2000-01-01

210

Recent changes in body weight and wing length among some British passerine birds  

E-print Network

in residual body weight in blackbirds. Residual wing lengths increased linearly, as predicted, in six of seven species at Wicken Fen. Whereas there were non-linear long-term increases in wrens, dunnocks and blackbirds the unusual increase in blackbird body weight, possibly as a result of improving food (earthworm) availability

Yom-Tov, Yoram

211

Influence of Retirement on Body Satisfaction and Weight Control Behaviors: Perceptions of Elite Rhythmic Gymnasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored rhythmic gymnasts’ perceptions of the influence of their retirement transition on body satisfaction and weight control behaviors. Eight retired elite female rhythmic gymnasts participated in semi-structured interviews. Findings were interpreted to suggest that these retired gymnasts experienced an increase in body dissatisfaction upon retirement and that they felt guilty about their weight gain, loss of muscle mass

Ashley E. Stirling; Lisanne C. Cruz; Gretchen A. Kerr

2012-01-01

212

Development of hormonal control over food intake and body weight in female rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Found ovariectomy on the day of birth or at weaning to have no effect on body weight until after puberty when spayed females weighed significantly more than intact controls. Treatment with estradiol benzoate (EB) did not decrease food intake or body weight until Ss were approximately 40 days old. Onset of responsiveness to estrogens was independent of puberty. Hypophysectomy greatly

George N. Wade; Irving Zucker

1970-01-01

213

Maternal low-dose estradiol-17? exposure during pregnancy impairs postnatal progeny weight development and body composition  

SciTech Connect

Endocrine disrupting chemicals with estrogenic activity play an important role as obesogens. However, studies investigating the most potent natural estrogen, estradiol-17? (E2), at low dose are lacking. We examined endocrine and physiological parameters in gilts receiving distinct concentrations of E2 during pregnancy. We then investigated whether adverse effects prevail in progeny due to a potential endocrine disruption. E2 was orally applied to gilts during the entire period of pregnancy. The concentrations represented a daily consumption at the recommended ADI level (0.05 ?g/kg body weight/day), at the NOEL (10 ?g/kg body weight/day) and at a high dosage (1000 ?g/kg body weight/day). Plasma hormone concentrations were determined using enzyme immuno assays. Offspring body fat was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. In treated gilts receiving 1000 ?g E2/kg body weight/day we found significantly elevated plasma E2 levels during pregnancy, paralleled by an increased weight gain. While offspring showed similar weight at birth, piglets exhibited a significant reduction in weight at weaning even though their mothers had only received 0.05 ?g E2/kg body weight/day. At 8 weeks of age, specifically males showed a significant increase in overall body fat percentage. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to low doses of E2 affected pig offspring development in terms of body weight and composition. In line with findings from other obesogens, our data suggest a programming effect during pregnancy for E2 causative for the depicted phenotypes. Therefore, E2 exposure may imply a possible contribution to childhood obesity. -- Highlights: ? We investigate the potential role of estradiol-17? (E2) as an obesogen. ? We orally apply E2 at the ADI, NOEL and a high dose to gilts during pregnancy. ? Offspring weight is similar at birth but reduced at weaning even after ADI treatment. ? Male offspring only exhibit an increase in overall body fat percentage prepubertally. ? E2 appears as an endocrine disruptor that might contribute to childhood obesity.

Werner Fürst, Rainer [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany) [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); ZIEL PhD Graduate school ‘Epigenetics, Imprinting and Nutrition’, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Pistek, Veronika Leopoldine; Kliem, Heike [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)] [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Skurk, Thomas; Hauner, Hans [ZIEL Dep. Nutritional Medicine, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany) [ZIEL Dep. Nutritional Medicine, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, 81675 München (Germany); Meyer, Heinrich Herman Dietrich [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)] [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Ulbrich, Susanne Ernestine, E-mail: ulbrich@wzw.tum.de [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)

2012-09-15

214

Body ideals in women after viewing images of typical and healthy weight models.  

PubMed

Viewing thin models, pervasive in popular culture, is correlated with body dissatisfaction and anxiety in women. Whether or not the same is true when viewing healthy weight models is unknown. In this study we tested whether viewing healthy weight models increases the ideal female body size. Body image, anxiety, happiness and depression were measured in 44 female participants following viewing of images of thin or healthy weight models (within-subject separated by two weeks). We found that after viewing images of healthy weight models, women's body ideals (as measured by a participant-adjusted virtual model) were significantly larger than when the same women viewed images of very thin models. This effect was greatest in those women with the highest levels of baseline anxiety (as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). These results suggest that viewing healthy weight models results in more healthy body ideals than those typically promoted through media. PMID:23722050

Owen, Rebecca; Spencer, Rebecca M C

2013-09-01

215

Anthropometry and body composition status during Ramadan among higher institution learning centre staffs with different body weight status.  

PubMed

This study was done to observe the anthropometry and body composition changes before, during, and after the holy month of Ramadan. This study was carried out on 46 staff from one of the local universities, which comprised of 14 males and 32 females ranging in age from 25 to 40 years old. There were four sessions done to complete this study, namely, a week before Ramadan (T1), 1st week of Ramadan (T2), 3rd week of Ramadan (T3), and a month after Ramadan (T4). All subjects were assessed according to weight, body circumference, and body composition status. It was found that subjects with different weight status showed a significant reduction in weight (P < 0.01) but no significant reduction in body fat percentage (P < 0.05). The findings suggest that weight reduction does not promise a reduction in body fat. Changes in neck circumference were only found in normal subjects. Hence, it can be said that overweight and obese subjects showed no changes in anthropometry status during Ramadan. No changes in body composition were reported in all three weight groups except for trunk body fat. In conclusion, normal subjects showed significant changes in various anthropometry parameters, but overweight and obese subjects showed no obvious difference. PMID:24311975

Rohin, Mohd Adzim Khalili; Rozano, Nurismalina; Abd Hadi, Norhayati; Mat Nor, Mohd Nasir; Abdullah, Shaharudin; Dandinasivara Venkateshaiah, Muralidhara

2013-01-01

216

ZResponse to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between body weight and body size in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To quantify the response to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between weight and size of Litopenaeus vannamei, the body weight (BW), total length (TL), body length (BL), first abdominal segment depth (FASD), third abdominal segment depth (TASD), first abdominal segment width (FASW), and partial carapace length (PCL) of 5-month-old parents and of offspnng were measured by calculating seven body measunngs of offspnng produced by a nested mating design. Seventeen half-sib families and 42 full-sib families of L. vannamei were produced using artificial fertilization from 2-4 dams by each sire, and measured at around five months post-metamorphosis. The results show that hentabilities among vanous traits were high: 0.515±0.030 for body weight and 0.394±0.030 for total length. After one generation of selection. the selection response was 10.70% for offspring growth. In the 5th month, the realized heritability for weight was 0.296 for the offspnng generation. Genetic correlations between body weight and body size were highly variable. The results indicate that external morphological parameters can be applied dunng breeder selection for enhancing the growth without sacrificing animals for determining the body size and breed ability; and selective breeding can be improved significantly, simultaneously with increased production.

Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao; Xiang, Jianhai

2012-03-01

217

Changes in body weight, composition, and shape: a 4-year study of college students.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to examine changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), body composition, and shape in a group of male and female students over the 4-year college period. Anthropometric assessments including height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and body shape (via 3-dimensional body scanning) were conducted at the beginning of the freshman year and end of the senior year in 131 college students. Four-year changes included significant (p < 0.0001) gains in weight (3.0 kg), BMI (1.0 kg·m(-2)), body fat (3.6%), and absolute fat mass (3.2 kg). Males gained significantly (p < 0.0001) greater amounts of weight, BMI, percent and absolute fat mass, and fat-free mass than females. Weight change ranged from (-)8.7 to (+)16.8 kg. About 70% of the participants gained weight, which averaged 5.3 kg; significant (p < 0.0001) gains in BMI, fat-free mass, absolute fat mass, and percent body fat and significant (p < 0.0005) increases in neck, chest-bust, waist, hips, seat, and biceps circumferences were also observed in this weight gain group. The percentage of participants classified as overweight-obese increased from 18% to 31%. The number of females and males with ?30% and 20% body fat, respectively, increased from n = 14 to n = 26 (with n = 4 exhibiting normal weight obesity) over the 4-year period. The waist circumference changes were significantly (p < 0.0001) correlated with both weight and percent body fat changes. In conclusion, the increasing prevalence of obesity and normal weight obesity among this college population suggests the need for additional health promotion strategies on college campuses. PMID:22978391

Gropper, Sareen S; Simmons, Karla P; Connell, Lenda Jo; Ulrich, Pamela V

2012-12-01

218

Letter to Editor Height, weight, body mass index and offspring sex at birth in  

E-print Network

Letter to Editor Height, weight, body mass index and offspring sex at birth in contemporary Finnish deliver more sons. I examined how height and weight affected the birth sex ratio of offspring­177), mean weight was 71.1 kg (713.2 SD, range 46­135). Mean offspring sex ratio at birth was 0.53 (70.39 SD

Helle, Samuli

219

Sex differences in the regulation of body weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity and its associated health disorders and costs are increasing. Males and females differ in terms of how and where body fat is stored, the hormones they secrete in proportion to their fat, and the way their brains respond to signals that regulate body fat. Fat accumulation in the intra-abdominal adipose depot is associated with the risk for developing cardiovascular

H. Shi; D. J. Clegg

2009-01-01

220

Human Growth and Body Weight Dynamics: An Integrative Systems Model  

E-print Network

Quantifying human weight and height dynamics due to growth, aging, and energy balance can inform clinical practice and policy analysis. This paper presents the first mechanism-based model spanning full individual life and ...

Rahmandad, Hazhir

221

Leptin receptor neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus are key regulators of energy expenditure and body weight, but not food intake  

PubMed Central

Objective Leptin responsive neurons play an important role in energy homeostasis, controlling specific autonomic, behavioral, and neuroendocrine functions. We have previously identified a population of leptin receptor (LepRb) expressing neurons within the dorsomedial hypothalamus/dorsal hypothalamic area (DMH/DHA) which are related to neuronal circuits that control brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. Intra-DMH leptin injections also activate sympathetic outflow to BAT, but whether such effects are mediated directly via DMH/DHA LepRb neurons and whether this is physiologically relevant for whole body energy expenditure and body weight regulation has yet to be determined. Methods We used pharmacosynthetic receptors (DREADDs) to selectively activate DMH/DHA LepRb neurons. We further deleted LepRb with virally driven cre-recombinase from DMH/DHA neurons and determined the physiological importance of DMH/DHA LepRb neurons in whole body energy homeostasis. Results Neuronal activation of DMH/DHA LepRb neurons with DREADDs promoted BAT thermogenesis and locomotor activity, which robustly induced energy expenditure (p < 0.001) and decreases body weight (p < 0.001). Similarly, intra-DMH/DHA leptin injections normalized hypothermia and attenuated body weight gain in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Conversely, ablation of LepRb from DMH/DHA neurons remarkably drives weight gain (p < 0.001) by reducing energy expenditure (p < 0.001) and locomotor activity (p < 0.001). The observed changes in body weight were largely independent of food intake. Conclusion Taken together, our data highlight that DMH/DHA LepRb neurons are sufficient and necessary to regulate energy expenditure and body weight. PMID:25352997

Rezai-Zadeh, Kavon; Yu, Sanghou; Jiang, Yanyan; Laque, Amanda; Schwartzenburg, Candice; Morrison, Christopher D.; Derbenev, Andrei V.; Zsombok, Andrea; Münzberg, Heike

2014-01-01

222

Effects of peanut processing on body weight and fasting plasma lipids.  

PubMed

Peanuts and peanut butter are commonly consumed as a snack, meal component and ingredient in various commercial products. Their consumption is associated with reduced CVD risk and they pose little threat to positive energy balance. However, questions have arisen as to whether product form (e.g. whole nut v. butter) and processing properties (e.g. roasting and adding flavours) may compromise their positive health effects. The present study investigated the effects of peanut form and processing on two CVD risk factors: fasting plasma lipids and body weight. One hundred and eighteen adults (forty-seven males and seventy-one females; age 29.2 (sd 8.4) years; BMI 30.0 (sd 4.5) kg/m2) from Brazil, Ghana and the United States were randomised to consume 56 g of raw unsalted (n 23), roasted unsalted (n 24), roasted salted (n 23) or honey roasted (n 24) peanuts, or peanut butter (n 24) daily for 4 weeks. Peanut form and processing did not differentially affect body weight or fasting plasma lipid responses in the total sample. However, HDL-cholesterol increased significantly at the group level, and total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and TAG concentrations decreased significantly in individuals classified as having elevated fasting plasma lipids compared with those with normal fasting plasma lipids. These observations suggest that the processing attributes assessed in this trial do not compromise the lipid-lowering effects of peanuts, and do not negatively impact body weight. Further studies are warranted to determine the effects of form and processing on other health risk factors. PMID:20456815

McKiernan, Fiona; Lokko, Phoebe; Kuevi, Anna; Sales, Regiane L; Costa, Neuza M B; Bressan, Josefina; Alfenas, Rita C G; Mattes, Richard D

2010-08-01

223

A Longitudinal Study of Body Image and Strategies to Lose Weight and Increase Muscles among Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A longitudinal study was used to examine age differences in the role of body mass index (BMI) and sociocultural pressures in predicting changes in body image and strategies to both lose weight and increase muscles among 443 children aged between 8 and 12 years (207 boys, 236 girls) over a 16-month period. The strongest predictors of body image and…

McCabe, M. P.; Ricciardelli, L. A.

2005-01-01

224

Reducing unhealthy weight gain in Fijian adolescents: results of the Healthy Youth Healthy Communities study.  

PubMed

Obesity is a significant problem among adolescents in Pacific populations. This paper reports on the outcomes of a 3-year obesity prevention study, Healthy Youth Healthy Communities, which was part of the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project, undertaken with Fijian adolescents. The intervention was developed with schools and comprised social marketing, nutrition and physical activity initiatives and capacity building designed to reduce unhealthy weight, and the individual exposure period was just over 2-year duration. The evaluation incorporated a quasi-experimental, longitudinal design in seven intervention secondary schools near Suva (n=874) and a matched sample of 11 comparison secondary schools from western Viti Levu (n=2,062). There were significant differences between groups at baseline; the intervention group was shorter, weighed less, had a higher proportion of underweight and lower proportion of overweight, and better quality of life (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory only). At follow-up, the intervention group had lower percentage body fat (-1.17) but also a lower increase in quality of life (Assessment of Quality of Life instrument: -0.02; Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory: -1.94) than the comparison group. There were no other differences in anthropometry, and behaviours' changes showed a mixed pattern. In conclusion, this school-based health promotion programme lowered percentage body fat but did not reduce unhealthy weight gain or influence most obesity-promoting behaviours among Fijian adolescents. Despite growing evidence supporting the efficacy of community-based approaches to reduce obesity among children of European descent, findings from this study failed to demonstrate the efficacy of a community capacity-building approach among an adolescent sample drawn from a different sociocultural, economic and geographical context. Additional 'top-down' or other innovative approaches may be needed to reduce adolescent obesity in the Pacific. PMID:22008557

Kremer, P; Waqa, G; Vanualailai, N; Schultz, J T; Roberts, G; Moodie, M; Mavoa, H; Malakellis, M; McCabe, M P; Swinburn, B A

2011-11-01

225

Weight-related teasing and body dissatisfaction in adolescents: Moderated-mediation by self-perceived size and weight status  

E-print Network

dissatisfaction, defined as the negative self-evaluation of one’s shape and weight (Cash & Pruzinsky, 1990), is predictive of a number of poor mental health outcomes, including eating pathology, poor self-esteem, and depressive symptoms (e.g., Wertheim, Paxton..., & Blaney, 2004a). Body dissatisfaction is positively associated with attempts to alter body size (McCabe & Ricciardelli, 2001) and is recognized as the strongest predictor of future eating pathology (e.g., Phelps, Johnston, & Augustyniak, 1999; Polivy...

Elledge, Allison Renee

2014-08-24

226

Linking cellular zinc status to body weight and fat mass: mapping quantitative trait loci in Znt7 knockout mice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Zinc transporter 7 (Znt7, Slc30a7) knockout (KO) mice display abnormalities in body weight gain and body adiposity. Regulation of body weight and fatness is complex, involving multiple genetic and environmental factors. To understand how zinc homeostasis influences body weight gain and fat deposit a...

227

Factors Affecting Body Weight of Aardi Goat Kids in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Al-Shaikh, M.A. and Mogawer, H.H. 2001. Factors affecting body weight of Aardi goat kids in Saudi Arabia. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 20: 233–238.To study the effects of dam weight, litter size and kid sex on birth weight and weight gain from birth to weaning, 31 male and 3G female Aardi goat, kids, from 40 dams were reared under identical conditions.

M. A. Al-Shaikh; H. H. Mogawer

2001-01-01

228

Relationship between maternal nutritional status and infant’s weight and body proportions at birth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To examine maternal nutritional status and its relationship to infant weight and body proportions.Design: Retrospective study of births from January–December 1990.Setting: University Hospital of the West Indies, Jamaica.Subjects: Records for 2394 live, singleton births, between 200–305 d gestation.Main outcome measures: Birth weight, crown heel length, head circumference, ponderal index, head circumference:length ratio, placental weight, placental:birth weight ratio.Results: Mothers who

M Thame; RJ Wilks; N McFarlane-Anderson; FI Bennett; TE Forrester

1997-01-01

229

Cocaine's appetite for fat and the consequences on body weight.  

PubMed

Abstract For many individuals in treatment for cocaine dependence, weight gain is a substantial problem during recovery. This weight gain causes significant distress and seems to increase the risk of relapse. The mechanisms underlying cocaine's effects on weight remain elusive. It is widely assumed that this weight gain reflects a metabolic or behavioural compensatory response to the cessation of cocaine use. Here we challenge this assumption and outline potential mechanisms by which chronic cocaine use produces disturbances in the regulation of fat intake and storage, through its effects on the central and peripheral nervous systems, specifically the sympathetic nervous system. We hypothesize that the cocaine-induced alteration in fat regulation results in cocaine users developing a pronounced appetite for fatty food but keeps their fat mass low. This altered fat appetite subsequently leads to excessive weight gain when individuals enter treatment and stop using cocaine. Our aim is to shed light on the neurobiological mechanisms that may underlie the alterations in eating and fat regulation in cocaine-dependent individuals, to open up potential new avenues to support these individuals in recovery. PMID:25321424

Billing, Lawrence; Ersche, Karen D

2015-03-01

230

Self-perception of body weight among high school students in Taipei, Taiwan.  

PubMed

Self-perception of body weight and other weight-related factors were assessed among 2665 Taipei, Taiwan high school students. A high percent of the girls (70.7%) and boys (42.2%) reported that they were too fat and these percentages were much higher than those reported by U.S. students in a recent Youth Risk Behavior Survey. In addition, only 13.2% of girls and 22.0% of boys reported being completely satisfied with their weight and the level of dissatisfaction with weight appeared to be greater than among U.S. students. Yet, in comparison to U.S. students, the Taiwanese students were considerably less likely than their U.S. counterparts to engage in weight management practices (e.g., dieting, eating less food, using diet pills). Taiwanese students with a self-perception of being too fat were more likely than those with perceptions of being just right or too thin to engage in weight management practices, to be dissatisfied with their weight, feel that they were unattractive, estimate that their same-sex peers were trying to lose weight, and have a higher body mass index. The findings from this study showed a relationship between self-perception of body size and engaging in weight control behaviors was consistent with other research. It suggested that self-perception of body weight, more so than objective weight status, was predictive of weight loss behavior and also negative psychological outcomes associated with poor body weight image. As a result, self-perception of weight may be an important point of focus for the design and implementation of clinical and public health initiatives targeted at this adolescent population as well as others. PMID:15971733

Page, Randy M; Lee, Ching-Mei; Miao, Nae-Fang

2005-01-01

231

Assessment of residual body weight gain and residual intake and body weight gain as feed efficiency traits in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo)  

PubMed Central

Background Since feed represents 70% of the total cost in poultry production systems, an animal’s ability to convert feed is an important trait. In this study, residual feed intake (RFI) and residual body weight gain (RG), and their linear combination into residual feed intake and body weight gain (RIG) were studied to estimate their genetic parameters and analyze the potential differences in feed intake between the top ranked birds based on the criteria for each trait. Methods Phenotypic and genetic analyses were completed on 8340 growing tom turkeys that were measured for feed intake and body weight gain over a four-week period from 16 to 20 weeks of age. Results The heritabilities of RG and RIG were 0.19?±?0.03 and 0.23?±?0.03, respectively. Residual body weight gain had moderate genetic correlations with feed intake (?0.41) and body weight gain (0.43). All three linear combinations to form the RIG traits had genetic correlations ranging from ?0.62 to ?0.52 with feed intake, and slightly weaker, 0.22 to 0.34, with body weight gain. Sorted into three equal groups (low, medium, high) based on RG, the most efficient group (high) gained 0.62 and 1.70 kg more (P?body weight than that of the medium and low groups, yet the feed intake for the high group was less (P?body weight gain (7.41 vs. 7.03 and 6.43 kg) relative to the medium and low groups, respectively. Conclusions The difference in feed intake between the top ranked birds based on different residual feed efficiency traits may be small when looking at the average individual, however, when extrapolated to the production level, the lower feed intake values could lead to significant savings in feed costs over time. PMID:23865507

2013-01-01

232

The skinny on cocaine: Insights into eating behavior and body weight in cocaine-dependent men????  

PubMed Central

There is a general assumption that weight loss associated with cocaine use reflects its appetite suppressing properties. We sought to determine whether this was justified by characterizing, in detail, alterations in dietary food intake and body composition in actively using cocaine-dependent individuals. We conducted a cross-sectional case-control comparison of 65 male volunteers from the local community, half of whom satisfied the DSM-IV-TR criteria for cocaine dependence (n = 35) while the other half had no personal or family history of a psychiatric disorder, including substance abuse (n = 30). Assessments were made of eating behavior and dietary food intake, estimation of body composition, and measurement of plasma leptin. Although cocaine users reported significantly higher levels of dietary fat and carbohydrates as well as patterns of uncontrolled eating, their fat mass was significantly reduced compared with their non-drug using peers. Levels of leptin were associated with fat mass, and with the duration of stimulant use. Tobacco smoking status or concomitant use of medication did not affect the significance of the results. Weight changes in cocaine users reflect fundamental perturbations in fat regulation. These are likely to be overlooked in clinical practice but may produce significant health problems when cocaine use is discontinued during recovery. PMID:23920064

Ersche, Karen D.; Stochl, Jan; Woodward, Jeremy M.; Fletcher, Paul C.

2013-01-01

233

Stability of Pigeon Body Weight under Free-Feeding Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increases in regulatory oversight of animal research require verification of effects of standard practices. There are no formal guidelines for establishing free-feeding weights in adult pigeons. In the present study, pigeons were obtained from a commercial supplier, weighed upon arrival, and then held in quarantine for 7 days with free access to…

Kangas, Brian D.; Branch, Marc N.

2006-01-01

234

Smoking, body weight, and CHD mortality in diverse populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. It is well documented that smokers tend to be leaner than nonsmokers. It is also clearly established that smoking is detrimental to health. The question that immediately comes to mind, therefore, is whether the possible weight-controlling aspects of the smoking habit offset the harm induced by smoking.Methods. In this report, we present an analysis of 21 observational studies that

2004-01-01

235

Longitudinal Trajectories of Perceived Body Weight: Adolescence to Early Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine longitudinal trajectories of perceived weight from adolescence to early adulthood by gender. Methods: We analyzed 9 waves (1997-2005) of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 8302) using Mplus. Results: Perceived overweight increased over time among girls and did not level off until 23 years of age. Blacks…

Seo, Dong-Chul; Li, Kaigang

2012-01-01

236

Body Weight and the Quality of Interpersonal Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigate whether underweight, normal-weight, overweight, and obese Americans differ in their evaluations of positive and negative aspects of their interpersonal relationships. Analyses are based on data from the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study, a survey of more than 3,000 adults ages 25 to 74 in 1995. We find no…

Carr, Deborah; Friedman, Michael A.

2006-01-01

237

Body Weight and Matching with a Physically Attractive Romantic Partner  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Matching and attribute trade are two perspectives used to explain mate selection. We investigated patterns of matching and trade, focusing on obesity, using Add Health Romantic Pair data (N = 1,405 couples). Obese individuals, relative to healthy weight individuals, were less likely to have physically attractive partners, with this disadvantage…

Carmalt, Julie H.; Cawley, John; Joyner, Kara; Sobal, Jeffery

2008-01-01

238

Physical activity: an important adaptative mechanism for body-weight control.  

PubMed

We review the current concepts about energy expenditure and evaluate the physical activity (PhA) in the context of this knowledge and the available literature. Regular PhA is correlated with low body weight and low body fat mass. The negative fat balance is probably secondary to this negative energy balance. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) and physical activity, that is crucial for weight control, may be important in the physiology of weight change. An intriguing doubt that remains unresolved is whether changes in nutrient intake or body composition secondarily affect the spontaneous physical activity. PMID:24533208

Finelli, Carmine; Gioia, Saverio; La Sala, Nicolina

2012-01-01

239

Physical Activity: An Important Adaptative Mechanism for Body-Weight Control  

PubMed Central

We review the current concepts about energy expenditure and evaluate the physical activity (PhA) in the context of this knowledge and the available literature. Regular PhA is correlated with low body weight and low body fat mass. The negative fat balance is probably secondary to this negative energy balance. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) and physical activity, that is crucial for weight control, may be important in the physiology of weight change. An intriguing doubt that remains unresolved is whether changes in nutrient intake or body composition secondarily affect the spontaneous physical activity. PMID:24533208

Finelli, Carmine; Gioia, Saverio; La Sala, Nicolina

2012-01-01

240

Smaller weight changes in standarized body mass index in response to treatment as weight classification increases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our objective was to compare the differential efficacy of a weight loss program for Mexican-American children who are overweight, obese, and severely obese. Study participants were enrolled in an intensive weight loss intervention aimed at improving eating and physical activity behaviors with behavi...

241

Caffeine ingestion after rapid weight loss in judo athletes reduces perceived effort and increases plasma lactate concentration without improving performance.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this "loading period", subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg-1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (-3.9% ± 1.6% and -4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05). At three hours after weigh-in, body weight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (-3.0% ± 1.3% and -2.7% ± 2.2%). There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05). In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate. PMID:25054553

Lopes-Silva, Joao P; Felippe, Leandro J C; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E

2014-07-01

242

Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg?1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (?3.9% ± 1.6% and ?4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05). At three hours after weigh-in, body weight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (?3.0% ± 1.3% and ?2.7% ± 2.2%). There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05). In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate. PMID:25054553

Lopes-Silva, Joao P.; Felippe, Leandro J. C.; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D.; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E.

2014-01-01

243

Relationships of cow age and initial cow body weight with calf and cow grazing season weight changes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The primary objective in a study implemented during 1975-2001 on northern mixed-grass prairie at the High Plains Grassland Research Station (HPGRS) near Cheyenne, Wyoming, was to evaluate long-term calf and cow grazing season body weight gain responses under 14 different management practices (e.g. t...

244

The Skinny on Body Weight Regulation: The Role of Retinoid Signaling in Photoperiod-Mediated Weight Loss  

E-print Network

is becoming a growing public concern. Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus sungorus) represent an excellent, or following extended exposure to short-day lengths or mela- tonin, Siberian hamsters exhibit a pronounced winter conditions (7). In Siberian hamsters, the decrease in body weight precedes a decrease in food

Silver, Rae

245

Weight-reducing diets: Are there any differences?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper compares the efficacy of two widely used weight-loss diets differing in macronutrient composition - a low-carbohydrate diet versus a low-fat diet. Although "a calorie is a calorie" under the controlled conditions of a metabolic unit (i.e., only the level of calorie intake matters and not ...

246

Muscle-specific interleukin-6 deletion influences body weight and body fat in a sex-dependent manner.  

PubMed

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a major cytokine controlling not only the immune system but also basic physiological variables such as body weight and metabolism. While central IL-6 is clearly implicated in the latter, the putative role of peripheral IL-6 controlling body weight remains unclear. We herewith report results obtained in muscle-specific IL-6 KO (mIL-6 KO) mice. mIL-6 KO male mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 58.4% kcal from fat) or a control diet (18%) gained less weight and body fat than littermate floxed male mice, while the opposite pattern was observed in female mice. Food intake was not affected by muscle IL-6 deficiency, but male and female mIL-6 KO mice were more and less active, respectively, in the hole-board test. Moreover, female mIL-6 KO mice did not control adequately their body temperature upon exposure to 4°C, suggesting a role of muscle IL-6 in energy expenditure. At least part of this regulatory role of muscle IL-6 may be mediated by the hypothalamus, as IL-6 deficiency regulated the expression of critical hypothalamic neuropeptides (NPY, AgRP, POMC, CRH and preproOX). Leptin and insulin changes cannot explain the phenotype of these mice. In summary, the present results demonstrate that muscle IL-6 controls body weight and body fat in a sex-specific fashion, influencing the expression of the main neuropeptides involved in energy homeostasis. PMID:24632224

Ferrer, Beatriz; Navia, Belén; Giralt, Mercedes; Comes, Gemma; Carrasco, Javier; Molinero, Amalia; Quintana, Albert; Seńarís, Rosa M; Hidalgo, Juan

2014-08-01

247

Pre-ESRD Changes in Body Weight and Survival in Nursing Home Residents Starting Dialysis  

PubMed Central

Summary Background and objectives Among patients receiving maintenance dialysis, weight loss at any body mass index is associated with mortality. However, it is not known whether weight changes before dialysis initiation are associated with mortality and if so, what risks are associated with weight gain or loss. Design, setting, participants, and measurements Linking data from the US Renal Data System to a national registry of nursing home residents, this study identified 11,090 patients who started dialysis between January of 2000 and December of 2006. Patients were categorized according to weight measured between 3 and 6 months before dialysis initiation and the percentage change in body weight before dialysis initiation (divided into quintiles). The outcome was mortality within 1 year of starting dialysis. Results There were 361 patients (3.3%) who were underweight (Quételet’s [body mass] index<18.5 kg/m2) and 4046 patients (36.5%) who were obese (body mass index?30 kg/m2) before dialysis initiation. The median percentage change in body weight before dialysis initiation was ?6% (interquartile range=?13% to 1%). There were 6063 deaths (54.7%) over 1 year of follow-up. Compared with patients with minimal weight changes (?3% to 3%, quintile 4), patients with weight loss ?15% (quintile 1) had 35% higher risk for mortality (95% confidence interval, 1.25 to 1.47), whereas those patients with weight gain?4% (quintile 5) had a 24% higher risk for mortality (95% confidence interval, 1.14 to 1.35) adjusted for baseline body mass index and other confounders. Conclusions Among nursing home residents, changes in body weight in advance of dialysis initiation are associated with significantly higher 1-year mortality. PMID:24009221

Stack, Shobha; Chertow, Glenn M.; Johansen, Kirsten L.; Si, Yan

2013-01-01

248

Pharmacological actions of the peptide hormone amylin in the long-term regulation of food intake, food preference, and body weight.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ability of amylin to reduce acute food intake in rodents is well established. Longer-term administration in rats (up to 24 days) shows a concomitant reduction in body weight, suggesting energy intake plays a significant role in mediating amylin-induced weight loss. The current set of experiments...

249

The Electrode structure to reduce channel loss for Human Body Communication Using Human Body as Transmission Medium  

E-print Network

The Electrode structure to reduce channel loss for Human Body Communication Using Human Body, Korea city814@ael.snu.ac.kr Introduction Recently the human body communication which uses a human body as a transmission medium has been proposed [1]. In the human body communication, a data from one device

Nam, Sangwook

250

Effects of acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria on body weight in children in an endemic area.  

PubMed

The impacts of acute falciparum malaria on body weight and the host and parasite factors predictive of change in body weight were characterized in 465 prospectively studied children in an endemic area of southwest Nigeria. Pre-treatment weights were significantly lower than the 14 to 28-day post-treatment weights (P = 0.0001). In 187 children, fractional fall in body weight (FFBW) exceeded 4.9%. FFBW correlated negatively with age and body weight (P = 0.014 and 0.0001, respectively), but not with enrollment parasitaemia. In a multiple regression model, an age < or =5 years (AOR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.2-3.2, P = 0.003), a hematocrit < or =29% (AOR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.3, P = 0.037), and a body weight < or =9.6 kg (AOR = 5.4, 95% CI 1.7-20, P = 0.003) were independent predictors of FFBW > or =5% at presentation. Children who, after initial clearance, had recurrence of their parasitaemia within 28 days had a significantly higher propensity not to gain weight than children who were aparasitaemic after treatment (log-rank statistic 6.76, df = 1, P = 0.009). These results indicate that acute malaria contribute to sub-optimal growth in young children and may have implications for malaria control efforts in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:17323138

Sowunmi, Akintunde; Gbotosho, Grace O; Adedeji, Ahmed A; Fateye, Babasola A; Sabitu, Morenikeji F; Happi, Christian T; Fehintola, Fatai A

2007-07-01

251

Changes in body segment inertial parameters of obese individuals with weight loss  

PubMed Central

Forward dynamic simulation of human movement has the potential to investigate the biomechanical effects of weight loss in obese individuals. However, guidelines for altering body segment inertial parameters (BSIPs) of a biomechanical model to approximate changes that occur with weight loss are currently unavailable. Therefore, the goal of this study was to quantify three-dimensional changes in BSIPs with weight loss. Nineteen Caucasian men of age 43.6 ± 7.5 years (mean ± standard deviation) were evaluated. Body mass and body mass index prior to weight loss were 102.7 ± 3.6 kg and 32.6 ± 3.2 kg/m2, respectively. Both before and after weight loss, magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired along the length of the body to discriminate muscle, bone, organ, and adipose tissues. Segment masses, center of mass (COM) positions, and radii of gyration were determined from these scans using published tissue densities and established methods. A number of significant changes in BSIPs occurred with the 13.8 ± 2.4 % average weight loss. Mass decreased in all segments. COM position moved distally for the thigh and upper arm, superiorly for the trunk, and inferiorly for the whole body. Radius of gyration, in general, decreased in all segments. The changes in BSIPs with weight loss reported here could be used in forward dynamic simulations investigating the biomechanical implications of weight loss. PMID:18930231

Matrangola, Sara L.; Madigan, Michael L.; Nussbaum, Maury A.; Ross, Robert; Davy, Kevin P.

2008-01-01

252

Varying protein source and quantity does not significantly improve weight loss, fat loss, or satiety in reduced energy diets among midlife adults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This pilot study tested whether varying protein source and quantity in a reduced energy diet would result in significant differences in weight, body composition, and renin angiotensin aldosterone system activity in midlife adults. Eighteen subjects enrolled in a 5 month weight reduction study, invol...

253

Reduced Inverse Distance Weighting Interpolation for Painterly Rendering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interpolation problem of irregularly distributed data in a multidimensional domain is considered. A modification of the\\u000a inverse distance weighting interpolation formula is proposed, making computation time independent of the number of data points.\\u000a Only the first K neighbors of a given point are considered, instead of the entire dataset. Additional factors are introduced, preventing discontinuities\\u000a on points where the

Giuseppe Papari; Nicolai Petkov

2009-01-01

254

Increased energy intake entirely accounts for increase in body weight in women but not in men in the UK between 1986 and 2000.  

PubMed

There is debate over the casual factors for the rise in body weight in the UK. The present study investigates whether increases between 1986 and 2000 for men and women were a result of increases in mean total energy intake, decreases in mean physical activity levels or both. Estimates of mean total energy intake in 1986 and 2000 were derived from food availability data adjusted for wastage. Estimates of mean body weight for adults aged 19-64 years were derived from nationally representative dietary surveys conducted in 1986-7 and 2000-1. Predicted body weight in 1986 and 2000 was calculated using an equation relating body weight to total energy intake and sex. Differences in predicted mean body weight and actual mean body weight between the two time points were compared. Monte Carlo simulation methods were used to assess the stability of the estimates. The predicted increase in mean body weight due to changes in total energy intake between 1986 and 2000 was 4·7 (95 % credible interval 4·2, 5·3) kg for men and 6·4 (95 % credible interval 5·9, 7·1) kg for women. Actual mean body weight increased by 7·7 kg for men and 5·4 kg for women between the two time points. We conclude that increases in mean total energy intake are sufficient to explain the increase in mean body weight for women between 1986 and 2000, but for men, the increase in mean body weight is likely to be due to a combination of increased total energy intake and reduced physical activity levels. PMID:21205425

Scarborough, Peter; Burg, Melanie R; Foster, Charlie; Swinburn, Boyd; Sacks, Gary; Rayner, Mike; Webster, Premila; Allender, Steven

2011-05-01

255

Effect of laser acupoint treatment on blood pressure and body weight—a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis study reports on the effects of laser acupuncture on blood pressure, body weight, and heart rate variability by stimulating acupuncture points and meridians on college students and faculty members.

John Zhang; Nelson Marquina; George Oxinos; Amy Sau; Derek Ng

2008-01-01

256

The effect of perceived body weight on suicidal ideation among a representative sample of US adolescents.  

PubMed

There is no published report on the sex differences in the prospective influence of perceived body weight on suicidal ideation in adolescents. To examine sex differences in the longitudinal relationship between perceived body weight and suicidal ideation among a representative sample of US middle and high school students. Two waves of longitudinal data from 7th-12th grade US adolescents (N = 4,717) in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed using hierarchical multivariable logistic regression for suicidal ideation 1 year after perceived body weight was measured. Overweight perception significantly increased the risk for suicidal ideation in girls (adjusted odds ratio in the full model = 1.41, p < .05) but not in boys after controlling for previously well-documented risk factors of suicidal ideation. Overweight perception appears to increase the risk for suicidal ideation in girls. It is important to address perceived body weight among girls in suicide prevention interventions. PMID:22760452

Seo, Dong-Chul; Lee, Chung Gun

2013-10-01

257

Body weight-for-height relationships predict mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body weight-for-height relationships predict mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients.BackgroundProtein-energy malnutrition is a strong predictor of mortality in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. This association has generally been described for serum chemistry measures of protein-energy malnutrition. We hypothesized that body weight-for-height relationships also predict survival in MHD patients.MethodsDuring the last three months of 1993, data were obtained on 12,965 men and women

Joel D. Kopple; Xiaofei Zhu; Nancy L. Lew; Edmund G. Lowrie

1999-01-01

258

Oral Administration of Lycopene Reverses Cadmium-suppressed Body Weight Loss and Lipid Peroxidation in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium (Cd) exposure has been recognized to result in a wide variety of cellular responses, including oxidative stress and\\u000a body weight loss. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of lycopene supplementation on the antioxidant defense\\u000a system, lipid peroxidation (LPO) level, nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) production, and body weight\\u000a in Cd-exposed rats.

Nadir Rencuzogullari; Suat Erdogan

2007-01-01

259

A system for the automated recording of feeding behavior and body weight.  

PubMed

A method that uses passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags for the continuous recording of feeding behavior and body weight from multiple individual animals is described. We have used this method in the field and in semi-natural captive conditions with black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) to determine daily and seasonal patterns in body weight and to estimate the proportions of food cached and consumed. PMID:11134696

Boisvert, M J; Sherry, D F

260

Some effects of ovarian hormones on food intake and body weight in female rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conducted 3 experiments with a total of 63 ovariectomized and 41 ovariectomized-adrenalectomized Sprague-Dawley rats in which ovarian steroids affected food intake and body weight. These effects were probably mediated by estradiol and progesterone, since these 2 hormones were more effective than their principal metabolites (estrone 5a-pregnane-3,20-dione, 5ai0regnane-3,20-dione, respectively) in altering the food intake and body weight of ovariectomized Ss. Estradiol

George N. Wade

1975-01-01

261

Inherited Taste Sensitivity to 6-n-Propylthiouracil in Diet and Body Weight in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Negative associations between the inherited ability to taste the bitter compound 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and preference for fat and body weight have been observed in adults. This study tested the relationships among the ability to taste PROP, reported food intake, and body weight in young children.Research Methods and Procedures: Fifty-three 4- to 5-year-old children were classified as tasters (N =

Kathleen L. Keller; Beverly J. Tepper

2004-01-01

262

Genetics of body weight in the LXS recombinant inbred mouse strains  

SciTech Connect

This is the first phenotypic analysis of 75 new recombinant inbred (RI) strains derived from ILS and ISS progenitors. We analyzed body weight in two independent cohorts of female mice at various ages and in males at 60 days. Body weight is a complex trait which has been mapped in numerous crosses in rodents. The LXS RI strains displayed a large range of weights, transgressing those of the inbred progenitors, supporting the utility of this large panel for mapping traits not selected in the progenitors. Numerous QTLs for body weight mapped in singleand multilocus scans. We assessed replication between these and previously reported QTLs based on overlapping confidence intervals of published QTLs for body weight at 60 days and used meta-analyses to determine combined p values for three QTL regions located on Chromosomes 4, 5, and 11. Strain distribution patterns of microsatellite marker genotypes, weight, and other phenotypes are available on Web- QTL (http://www.webqtl.org/search.html) and allow genetic mapping of any heritable quantitative phenotype measured in these strains. We report one such analysis, correlating brain and body weights. Large reference panels of RI strains, such as the LXS, are invaluable for identifying genetic correlations, GXE (Gene X Environment) interactions, and replicating previously identified QTLs.

Bennett, Beth [University of Colorado, Boulder; Carosone-Line, Phyllis [University of Colorado, Boulder; Lu, Lu [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Johnson, Thomas [University of Colorado, Boulder

2005-01-01

263

Evaluation of body weight of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus by computer vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A postichopus japonicus (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata) is an ecological and economic species in East Asia. Conventional biometric monitoring method includes diving for samples and weighing above water, with highly variable in weight measurement due to variation in the quantity of water in the respiratory tree and intestinal content of this species. Recently, video survey method has been applied widely in biometric detection on underwater benthos. However, because of the high flexibility of A. japonicus body, video survey method of monitoring is less used in sea cucumber. In this study, we designed a model to evaluate the wet weight of A. japonicus, using machine vision technology combined with a support vector machine (SVM) that can be used in field surveys on the A. japonicus population. Continuous dorsal images of free-moving A. japonicus individuals in seawater were captured, which also allows for the development of images of the core body edge as well as thorn segmentation. Parameters that include body length, body breadth, perimeter and area, were extracted from the core body edge images and used in SVM regression, to predict the weight of A. japonicus and for comparison with a power model. Results indicate that the use of SVM for predicting the weight of 33 A. japonicus individuals is accurate ( R 2=0.99) and compatible with the power model ( R 2 =0.96). The image-based analysis and size-weight regression models in this study may be useful in body weight evaluation of A. japonicus in lab and field study.

Liu, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Liu, Shilin; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng

2015-01-01

264

Evaluating patterns of weight and body composition change among college women.  

PubMed

The prevalence of obesity increases as women move from adolescence to young adulthood, and college women have been identified as a population at risk for unhealthy weight gain. Studies of weight gain in college populations have revealed that significant, variable weight change occurs in as few as eight weeks, but few have included participants beyond their freshman year of college or assessed body composition. The aims of the study were to use a repeated measures design to identify patterns of weight change among college women at all grade levels and to evaluate factors that may predict weight change over a one-year period. Undergraduate college women (N=131) completed measures of physical activity, dietary restraint, living conditions, and body dissatisfaction at baseline, 6-months, and 12-months. Height, weight, and body composition were collected at all assessment periods. Forty-four percent of participants gained at least 3lb, 23% lost at least 3lb, and 33% maintained weight over one year. Weight change was associated with changes in body fat and was not related to baseline BMI or age. There were no significant differences between grade levels, suggesting that future studies should include women at all grade levels. Baseline physical activity, dietary restraint, living conditions, and body dissatisfaction did not predict weight change at one year, nor did they differentiate between individuals in the three weight change categories. Further research is needed to identify the factors associated with weight gain in young adult women, and such studies should not be limited to college freshmen. PMID:25796066

Kelly, Mackenzie C; Latner, Janet D

2015-04-01

265

Appetite and body weight regulation after bariatric surgery.  

PubMed

Bariatric surgery continues to be remarkably efficient in treating obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus and a debate has started whether it should remain the last resort only or also be used for the prevention of metabolic diseases. Intense research efforts in humans and rodent models are underway to identify the critical mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects with a view towards non-surgical treatment options. This non-systematic review summarizes and interprets some of this literature, with an emphasis on changes in the controls of appetite. Contrary to earlier views, surgery-induced reduction of energy intake and subsequent weight loss appear to be the main drivers for rapid improvements of glycaemic control. The mechanisms responsible for suppression of appetite, particularly in the face of the large weight loss, are not well understood. Although a number of changes in food choice, taste functions, hedonic evaluation, motivation and self-control have been documented in both humans and rodents after surgery, their importance and relative contribution to diminished appetite has not yet been demonstrated. Furthermore, none of the major candidate mechanisms postulated in mediating surgery-induced changes from the gut and other organs to the brain, such as gut hormones and sensory neuronal pathways, have been confirmed yet. Future research efforts should focus on interventional rather than descriptive approaches in both humans and rodent models. PMID:25614206

Münzberg, H; Laque, A; Yu, S; Rezai-Zadeh, K; Berthoud, H-R

2015-02-01

266

A 20-year longitudinal study of body weight, dieting, and eating disorder symptoms.  

PubMed

The article describes a 20-year longitudinal study of body weight, dieting, and disordered eating in women and men. Body weight increased significantly over time in both women and men. However, women's weight perception and dieting frequency decreased over time, whereas men's weight perception and dieting frequency increased, and disordered eating declined more in women than in men from late adolescence to midlife. In both women and men, changes in weight perception and dieting frequency were associated with changes in disordered eating. In addition, adult roles such as marriage and parenthood were associated with significant decreases in disordered eating from late adolescence to midlife in women, whereas few associations were observed in men. Despite different developmental trajectories, women demonstrated more weight dissatisfaction, dieting, and disordered eating compared with men across the period of observation. PMID:17516772

Keel, Pamela K; Baxter, Mark G; Heatherton, Todd F; Joiner, Thomas E

2007-05-01

267

Predicting metabolic adaptation, body weight change, and energy intake in humans  

PubMed Central

Complex interactions between carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism underlie the body's remarkable ability to adapt to a variety of diets. But any imbalances between the intake and utilization rates of these macronutrients will result in changes in body weight and composition. Here, I present the first computational model that simulates how diet perturbations result in adaptations of fuel selection and energy expenditure that predict body weight and composition changes in both obese and nonobese men and women. No model parameters were adjusted to fit these data other than the initial conditions for each subject group (e.g., initial body weight and body fat mass). The model provides the first realistic simulations of how diet perturbations result in adaptations of whole body energy expenditure, fuel selection, and various metabolic fluxes that ultimately give rise to body weight change. The validated model was used to estimate free-living energy intake during a long-term weight loss intervention, a variable that has never previously been measured accurately. PMID:19934407

2010-01-01

268

[Rehabilitation features in the prevention of asthma exacerbations in patients with different body weight].  

PubMed

Bronchial asthma patients with excessive body weight compared to persons with normal weight had more severe course of the disease, associating with more pronounced inflammation (increased level of the proinflammatory interleukin-6, interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor alpha). After the rehabilitation treatment including speleotherapy we observed the improvement of clinical manifestation and reduction of the studied immune parameters. PMID:25796818

2014-01-01

269

Meal Patterns and Frequencies: Do They Affect Body Weight in Children and Adolescents?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some previous studies reported a higher meal frequency associated with a lower body weight both in obese and in normal weight adults. We review recent studies addressing the relation between meal frequency and obesity risk in children and adolescents. In a Medline search, we identified 5 observational studies published between 2004 and 2009 that reviewed data on a total of

Berthold Koletzko; André Michael Toschke

2010-01-01

270

The effect of the holiday season on body weight and composition in college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: With the rapid increase in obesity rates, determining critical periods for weight gain and the effects of changes in fat mass is imperative. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in body weight and composition over the holiday season (Thanksgiving through New Year's) in male and female college students. METHODS: Subjects completed three visits: the first occurred

Holly R Hull; Casey N Hester; David A Fields

2006-01-01

271

Low-Fat Dairy Intake and Body Weight and Composition Changes in College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dairy calcium may help prevent excess weight gain and obesity when consumed in adequate amounts (three or more servings per day) and combined with energy balance. This prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate dairy intake and examine the association between low-fat dairy intake and body weight and composition changes in college students. Seventy-six college students (65 women and 11

Kavita H. Poddar; Kathy W. Hosig; Sharon M. Nickols-Richardson; Eileen S. Anderson; William G. Herbert; Susan E. Duncan

2009-01-01

272

Developmental Coordination Disorder, Gender, and Body Weight: Examining the Impact of Participation in Active Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: To examine whether differences in participation in active play (PAP) can account for gender differences in the relationship between Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and body weight/fat (BMI and percentage fat) in youth. Methods: A cross-sectional investigation of students in grades four through eight (n = 590). Height, weight

Cairney, John; Kwan, Matthew Y. W.; Hay, John A.; Faught, Brent E.

2012-01-01

273

Adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction: systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Herbal weight-loss supplements are marketed with claims of effectiveness. Our earlier systematic review identified data from double-blind, randomized controlled trials for a number of herbal supplements. The aim of this systematic review was to assess all clinical evidence of adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction for which effectiveness data from rigorous clinical trials exist. We

M. H. Pittler; K. Schmidt; E. Ernst

2005-01-01

274

Body Salience, Weight-Role Knowledge-Flexibility and Peer Affiliations between the Ages of Three and Eight Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies were made of (1) young children's use of body-weight type for processing information about peers, and (2) the development of children's stereotypical knowledge about characteristics associated with body-weight type. For the first study, a measure was developed to assess "body salience," or the degree to which children use weight type as a…

White, Donna

275

Alterations in bone forming cells due to reduced weight bearing.  

PubMed

A reduction in new bone formation occurred as a result of space flight (Cosmos 1129) and in the suspended animal model of Morey-Holton. Our results indicate that alkaline phosphatase activity of the bone forming cells is also reduced under these conditions, and the cells in the diaphysis are more affected than those in the metaphyseal region. In addition, these cells show (1) reduced proline incorporation into bone matrix, and (2) increased intracellular lysosomal activity. A change in the cytoskeleton could be the common factor in explaining these results. This suggestion is further supported by our previous observations that colchicine injections result in decreased osteoblastic function. PMID:11539017

Doty, S B; Morey-Holton, E

1984-01-01

276

Orlistat in polycystic ovarian syndrome reduces weight with improvement in lipid profile and pregnancy rates  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The effects of exercise, metformin, and orlistat on anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, endocrine parameters, and ovulation in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) women were compared. AIM: The aim was to study the efficacy of orlistat compared with metformin and exercise in PCOS. DESIGN: Randomized control trial. METHODS: A total of 90 eligible PCOS women were randomly assigned to receive either of the two drugs (orlistat or metformin) in combination with lifestyle interventions or as controls where they received lifestyle interventions alone. Anthropometric parameters were assessed at baseline and 4 weekly intervals for 3 months. Androgen levels, insulin resistance, ovulation and conception rates and lipid profile were also assessed at the end of study. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS version 17.0. RESULTS: The levels of fasting blood sugar, fasting insulin and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance were comparable in three treatment groups. Mean total testosterone, serum hormone binding globulin, free androgen index, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in all arms were comparable and statistically nonsignificant. However, orlistat and metformin were more effective in reducing weight, body mass index, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio. However, side-effects were less with orlistat. Ovulation rate was 33.3%, 23.35% with orlistat and metformin group respectively, but were not statistically significant. In orlistat group, significant improvement was observed in lipid profile at the end of 3 months. Conception rates were 40% and 16.7% and 3.3% in orlistat, metformin group and control group respectively (P - 0.003). Weight loss was found to be the best predictor of ovulation with sensitivity with good sensitivity. CONCLUSION: Orlistat is as effective as metformin in reducing weight and achieves similar ovulation rates in obese PCOS patients. However, orlistat has minimal side-effects and is better tolerated compared with metformin. PMID:25624661

Kumar, Pratap; Arora, Shweta

2014-01-01

277

PASSCLAIM 1 —Body weight regulation, insulin sensitivity and diabetes risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Background: Insulin sensitivity is a key function in human metabolism because it has a crucial role in the development of disease that are increasingly common in modern society. Impaired insulin sensitivity is an important determinant of type 2 diabetes; moreover, it has been proposed as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Thus, reduced insulin sensitivity is strongly associated

Gabriele Riccardi; Peter Aggett; Furio Brighenti; Nathalie Delzenne; Keith Frayn; Arie Nieuwenhuizen; Daphne Pannemans; Stephan Theis; Sandra Tuijtelaars; Bengt Vessby

2004-01-01

278

Pathology Case Study: Increased Thirst, Lethargy and Body Weight Gain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which describes a 47 year old white postmenopausal female who presented with "progressive headaches and visual blurring, as well as increased thirst, fatigue, lethargy and a fifty pound weight gain." Visitors are provided with patient history along with laboratory work-up and histology, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical chemistry.

Graur, Octavia

279

A Longitudinal Analysis of Adolescent Smoking: Using Smoking Status to Differentiate the Influence of Body Weight Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Previous research has reported mixed results on the association between body weight measures (ie, perception of weight and weight loss goal) and cigarette smoking prevalence--and how these associations vary by sex and race. This longitudinal study assessed the relationship between these 2 body weight measures and smoking prevalence by…

Hong, Traci; Johnson, Carolyn

2013-01-01

280

Evaluation of new leptin fragments on food intake and body weight of normal rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptin, a protein hormone originating from adipose tissue, circulates in the plasma and affects the energy balance by interacting with the hypothalamus. Leptin plays an important role in the regulation of a variety of physiological functions, including food intake, body temperature and body weight maintenance. Tertiary structure of the leptin molecule reveals the existence of a four-helix bundle that is

M. N. C. Martins; M. M. Telles; J. C. S. Zemdegs; I. S. Andrade; E. B. Ribeiro; A. Miranda

2009-01-01

281

Adjustment for non-genetic effects on body weight and size in Angora goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on 864 Angora goats, collected from 1988 to 2000, were used to study non-genetic effects on body weight and daily gain from birth to 24 months of age and body size at different ages. Non-genetic factors included birth year, birth month, sex, age of kids, age of dam, type of birth and rearing. Birth year, sex and type of

Wenzhong Liu; Yuan Zhang; Zhongxiao Zhou

2005-01-01

282

MOTHERS' BODY IMAGE PREFERENCES FOR CHILDREN VARY ACCORDING TO THEIR OWN CHILDREN'S WEIGHT STATUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objectives of this study were to describe mothers’ body image preferences for children and to determine if mothers’ body image evaluations differed with respect to their own children’s weight status. The sample included 281 primarily African American mothers of children enrolled in Head Start. ...

283

Effect of body composition on oxygen uptake during treadmill exercise: body builders versus weight-matched men.  

PubMed

Oxygen uptake (VO2) during treadmill exercise is directly related to the speed and grade, as well as the participant's body weight. To determine whether body composition also affects VO2 (ml.kg-1.min-1) during exercise, we studied 14 male body builders (M weight = 99 kg, SD = 7; M height = 180 cm, SD = 8; M body fat = 8%, SD = 3; M fat free mass = 91 kg, SD = 7) and 14 weight-matched men (M weight = 99 kg, SD = 9; M height = 179 cm, SD = 5; M body fat = 24%, SD = 5; M fat free mass = 73 kg, SD = 9). Percentage of body fat, t(13) = 8.185, p < .0001, and fat free mass, t(13) = 5.723, p < .0001, were significantly different between groups. VO2 was measured by respiratory gas analysis at rest and during three different submaximal workrates while walking on the treadmill without using the handrails for support. VO2 was significantly greater for the lean, highly muscular men at rest: 5.6 +/- 1 vs. 4.0 +/- 1 ml.kg-1.min-1, F(1, 26) = 21.185, p < .001; Stage 1: 1.7 mph/10%, 18.5 +/- 2 vs. 16.1 +/- 2 ml.kg-1.min-1, F(1, 26) = 6.002, p < .05; Stage 2: 2.5 mph/12%, 26.6 +/- 3 vs. 23.1 +/- 2 ml.kg-1.min-1, F(1, 26) = 7.991, p < .01; and Stage 3:3.4 mph/14%, 39.3 +/- 5 vs. 33.5 +/- 5 ml.kg-1.min-1, F(1, 26) = 7.682, p < .01, body builders versus weight-matched men, respectively. However, net VO2 (i.e., exercise VO2 - rest VO2) was not significantly different between the two groups at any of the matched exercise stages. The findings from this study indicate that VO2 during weight-bearing exercise performed at the same submaximal workrate is higher for male body builders compared to that measured in weight-matched men and that which is predicted by standard equations. These observed differences in exercise VO2 appear to be due to the higher resting VO2 in highly muscular participants. PMID:10380246

McInnis, K J; Balady, G J

1999-06-01

284

Body image perception, dietary practices and physical activity of overweight and normal weight Malaysian female adolescents.  

PubMed

Body image plays an important role in the management of body weight, especially among female adolescents. This study examined the differences in body image perception, weight management knowledge, eating behaviour and physical activity between overweight and normal weight Malaysian female adolescents. Body mass index screening was done on 588 secondary school students to identify overweight (OW) and normal weight (NW) subjects. A BMI-for-age of => 85th percentile and between => 5th and <85th percentile were used as cut-offs for identifying suitable subjects of overweight and normal weight, respectively. Fifty girls identified as being OW were matched for age and ethnicity with 50 NW students. Subjects completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographics, eating behaviour and physical activity, a weight management knowledge inventory (WMKI) and the Body Silhouette Chart. The study sample comprised Malays (40%), Chinese (30%) and Indians (30%) with a mean age of 14.76 ± 1.15 years. The majority of them were from families with a monthly household income of less than RM1,000. Significantly more NW subjects (?2=6.112, p=0.013) than OW subjects had incorrect perception of their current body weight status. The WMKI revealed that more OW subjects (64%) than NW subjects (52%) had a low level of weight management knowledge. Eating behaviour patterns were not significantly different between OW and NW subjects, but more OW subjects skipped one or more daily meals as compared to their NW counterparts (?2=0.174, p=0.010). Physical activity patterns were similar in both groups. Healthy eating and physical activity promotion programmes in schools should include sound weight management practices. PMID:22691735

Pon, Lai Wan; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib

2004-09-01

285

Socio-Demographic and Dietary Factors Associated with Excess Body Weight and Abdominal Obesity among Resettled Bhutanese Refugee Women in Northeast Ohio, United States  

PubMed Central

Studies of obesity and related health conditions among the Bhutanese, one of the largest refugee groups resettled in the United States in the past five years, are limited. This study examined the factors associated with excess body weight (body mass index ? 23 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 80 cm) in a community-based sample of 18–65 year old Bhutanese refugee women in Northeast Ohio. A Nepali-language questionnaire was used to measure socio-demographic and dietary factors. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured to define excess body weight and abdominal obesity. The mean (±standard deviation) age of the 108 participants was 36.5 (±12.2) years and length of time in the U.S. was 19.4 (±11.9) months. Overall, 64.8% and 69.4% of the women had excess body weight and abdominal obesity, respectively. Age was significantly associated with both excess body weight (odds ratio: 1.10; 95% confidence interval: 1.05–1.16) and abdominal obesity (1.09; 1.04–1.14). Consuming meat (4.01; 1.14–14.60) was significantly associated with excess body weight but not abdominal obesity. These findings suggest the need for lifestyle and dietary change education programs among this new and vulnerable group to reduce the prevalence of excess body weight and abdominal obesity and their health consequences. PMID:24968209

Bhatta, Madhav P.; Assad, Lori; Shakya, Sunita

2014-01-01

286

Critical periods for the effects of alcohol exposure on brain weight, body weight, activity and investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an animal model of fetal alcohol syndrome — which equates peak blood alcohol concentrations across different developmental periods — critical periods for the effect of alcohol on brain weight, activity and investigative behavior were examined. The periods of alcohol exposure were from gestational day (GD) 1 through 10, GD 11 through 22, postnatal day (PD) 2 through 10, or

Tuan D. Tran; Kim Cronise; Melissa D. Marino; William J. Jenkins; Sandra J. Kelly

2000-01-01

287

A genetic investigation of body weight, market grade, breast width, fertility, and hatchability in broiler crosses  

E-print Network

SPring on dam??? r ~ ? ~ Estimates of the genetio and environmental oorrelatioLLS between nine-week body woi, ght, market gradeL fertility, and hatehability, Tho phonotypio association of nine week erose progeny body weight of the males with Various... traits in tho F4 e ~ ? ~ ~ ??? ~ ~ The phonotypio assooiation of xdne weak erose progeny body ?eight of the femaloa. ?ith various traits in tho dam ~ ~ ~ ? ~ ? ~ ~ ~ The phenotypic association of nine week cross progeny market grade of the males...

Williams, John Donald

1957-01-01

288

Lifestyle Interventions Targeting Body Weight Changes during the Menopause Transition: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine the effectiveness of exercise and/or nutrition interventions and to address body weight changes during the menopause transition. Methods. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using electronic databases, grey literature, and hand searching. Two independent researchers screened for studies using experimental designs to evaluate the impact of exercise and/or nutrition interventions on body weight and/or central weight gain performed during the menopausal transition. Studies were quality appraised using Cochrane risk of bias. Included studies were analyzed descriptively. Results. Of 3,564 unique citations screened, 3 studies were eligible (2 randomized controlled trials, and 1 pre/post study). Study quality ranged from low to high risk of bias. One randomized controlled trial with lower risk of bias concluded that participation in an exercise program combined with dietary interventions might mitigate body adiposity increases, which is normally observed during the menopause transition. The other two studies with higher risk of bias suggested that exercise might attenuate weight loss or weight gain and change abdominal adiposity patterns. Conclusions. High quality studies evaluating the effectiveness of interventions targeting body weight changes in women during their menopause transition are needed. Evidence from one higher quality study indicates an effective multifaceted intervention for women to minimize changes in body adiposity. PMID:24971172

Jull, Janet; Stacey, Dawn; Beach, Sarah; Dumas, Alex; Strychar, Irene; Ufholz, Lee-Anne; Prince, Stephanie; Abdulnour, Joseph; Prud'homme, Denis

2014-01-01

289

Body weight and some biometrical traits of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) at different ages.  

PubMed

Although the growth of pheasants is an important issue, there are few publications providing information on body weight and morphometrics of pheasants at different ages. The aim of this study was to investigate body weight, tarsus length, wing length and wingspan in farmed pheasants aged 3-16 weeks. The study was carried out on 50 pheasants (31 females and 19 males). All one-day old birds were marked and kept until the 16th week of life. In the 3rd 8 h 12th and 16th weeks of life all pheasants were weighted and tarsus length, wing length and wingspan were measured. Male chicks appeared to be significantly heavier than females (P< or = 0.01) already in the third week of life. Also their wings were longer and their wingspan attained higher values (P < or = 0.05). Absolute gains of the majority of traits also differed between sexes (being larger in males) in all studied periods. Values of body weight, tarsus length and wingspan noted in the third week of life were significantly correlated with all later measurements. Thus body weight and some biometrical traits of pheasant chicks measured already at the 3rd week of life could be applied as predictors of future body weight and size. PMID:22428312

Górecki, Marcin T; Nowaczewski, Sebastian; Kontecka, Helena

2012-01-01

290

Short and long-term energy intake patterns and their implications for human body weight regulation.  

PubMed

Adults consume millions of kilocalories over the course of a few years, but the typical weight gain amounts to only a few thousand kilocalories of stored energy. Furthermore, food intake is highly variable from day to day and yet body weight is remarkably stable. These facts have been used as evidence to support the hypothesis that human body weight is regulated by active control of food intake operating on both short and long time scales. Here, we demonstrate that active control of human food intake on short time scales is not required for body weight stability and that the current evidence for long term control of food intake is equivocal. To provide more data on this issue, we emphasize the urgent need for developing new methods for accurately measuring energy intake changes over long time scales. We propose that repeated body weight measurements can be used along with mathematical modeling to calculate long-term changes in energy intake and thereby quantify adherence to a diet intervention and provide dynamic feedback to individuals that seek to control their body weight. PMID:24582679

Chow, Carson C; Hall, Kevin D

2014-07-01

291

Quinine controls body weight gain without affecting food intake in male C57BL6 mice  

PubMed Central

Background Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased body weight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on body weight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Results Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89?±?0.30?g vs 5.39?±?0.50?g) and less fat mass (2.22?±?0.26?g vs 4.33?±?0.43?g) after 13?weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for body weight and body weight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusion Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent body weight control is suggested. PMID:23394313

2013-01-01

292

Targeted leptin receptor blockade: Role of VTA and NTS leptin receptors in body weight homeostasis  

PubMed Central

The present investigation examined whether leptin stimulation of ventral tegmental area (VTA) or nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) has a role in body weight homeostasis independent of the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH). To this end, recombinant adeno-associated viral techniques were employed to target leptin overexpression or overexpression of a dominant negative leptin mutant (Leptin Antagonist). Leptin Antagonist overexpression in MBH or VTA increased food intake and body weight to similar extents over 14 days in rats. Simultaneous overexpression of leptin in VTA with antagonist in MBH resulted in food intake and body weight gain that were less than with control treatment but greater than with leptin alone in VTA. Notably, leptin overexpression in VTA increased P-STAT3 in MBH along with VTA, and Leptin Antagonist overexpression in the VTA partially attenuated P-STAT3 levels in MBH. Interestingly, leptin antagonist overexpression elevated body weight gain, but leptin overexpression in the NTS failed to modulate either food intake or body weight despite increased P-STAT3. These data suggest that leptin function in the VTA participates in the chronic regulation of food consumption and body weight in response to stimulation or blockade of VTA leptin receptors. Moreover, one component of VTA-leptin action appears to be independent of the MBH, and another component appears to be related to leptin receptor-mediated P-STAT3 activation in the MBH. Finally, leptin receptors in the NTS are necessary for normal energy homeostasis, but appear to have mostly a permissive role. Direct leptin activation of NTS slightly increases UCP1, but has little effect on food consumption or body weight. PMID:24920667

Matheny, M.; Strehler, K.Y.E.; King, M.; Tümer, N.; Scarpace, P. J.

2014-01-01

293

Body size perception and weight control in youth: 9-year international trends from 24 countries  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine nine-year trends and relationships regarding misperceptions of body size and dieting for weight loss among adolescents from 24 countries, and explore the influence of country-level overweight prevalence. Methods Socio-demographic characteristics, body size perception, and dieting for weight loss were assessed in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey conducted in 24 countries cross-sectionally at three time points (2001/02, 2005/06, 2009/10). Logistic regression models examined change over time in overestimation of body size in non-overweight adolescents, underestimation of body size in overweight adolescents, dieting for weight loss in non-overweight and overweight adolescents, and relationships between body size perception and dieting. Analyses were stratified by weight status and sex. Covariates included country-level overweight prevalence, family affluence, and country level of development. Body mass index was only included in models examining dieting for weight loss. Results Country-level overweight prevalence increased over time (11.6% to 14.7%). Compared to Time 1, overweight adolescents had greater odds of body size underestimation at Time 3 (OR=1.68 for girls, OR=1.10 for boys), while non-overweight adolescents had lower odds of body size overestimation at Time 3 (OR=0.87 for girls, OR=0.89 for boys). Controlling for country-level overweight prevalence attenuated these relationships. Compared to Time 1, overweight and non-overweight boys were 10% more likely to diet at Time 3, while overweight and non-overweight girls were 19% and 16%, respectively, less likely to diet at Time 3. Controlling for country-level overweight prevalence did not impact trends in dieting for weight loss. Additionally, the association of self-perceived overweight with increased odds of dieting diminished over time. Conclusions Body size perceptions among adolescents may have changed over time concurrent with shifts in country-level body weight. However, controlling for country-level overweight prevalence did not impact trends in dieting for weight loss, suggesting a potentially stronger impact of social comparison on weight-related perceptions than on behavior. PMID:24722544

Quick, Virginia; Nansel, Tonja R.; Liu, Danping; Lipsky, Leah M.; Due, Pernille; Iannotti, Ronald J.

2014-01-01

294

Eating and body image concerns among obese and average-weight children.  

PubMed

Research compared obese and average-weight children with regard to concerns about being or becoming overweight, history of dieting, concerns about the effects of eating food, and perceived discrepancy between real and ideal body image. Participants included 526 obese and average-weight elementary-age school children to whom questionnaires were administered. Gender (male/female), obesity status (obese/average-weight), and grade level (lower elementary/upper elementary) were considered. Obese children were significantly more likely to engage in dieting behaviors, to express concern about their weight, to restrain their eating, and to exhibit more dissatisfaction with their body image than average-weight children. Girls were more likely to exhibit these behaviors than were boys. These findings suggest the importance of studying the emergence of disordered eating habits in childhood. PMID:11023018

Vander Wal, J S; Thelen, M H

2000-01-01

295

Body image and weight preoccupation: a comparison between exercising and non-exercising women.  

PubMed

Relationships were examined among certain personality characteristics and variables which assess weight, diet, and appearance concerns for two groups of women--those who were avid exercisers (n = 86) and those who exercised only occasionally or not at all (n = 72). Multiple regression analyses indicated that emotional reactivity (measured by the N scale of the Eysenck Personality Inventory) was strongly related to weight preoccupation (measured by three subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory) in both groups. Body Mass Index (BMI), but not a measure of subjective body shape, also predicted weight preoccupation for the non-exercisers while the opposite relationship was found for exercisers. In this group, subjective body shape and not BMI influenced weight preoccupation. It was also found that greater body dissatisfaction was related to poorer emotional well-being in the exercise group, and these women reported, to a significantly greater degree than non-exercisers, that their physical appearance was important to their self-esteem. It is possible that an excessive preoccupation with diet and body shape leads some women to take up a vigorous exercise program. However, the absence of differences in weight preoccupation between the groups argues against this. A possibility that has seldom been considered in the literature is that dedication to regular exercise fosters a heightened degree of body narcissism and a distorted impression of one's body size. A focus of attention in an exercise program on the relationship between body size and maximal performance may, in susceptible individuals, increase the likelihood of developing an obsessive attitude toward weight control. PMID:2241138

Davis, C

1990-08-01

296

The association of gut microbiota with body weight and body mass index in preschool children of Estonia  

PubMed Central

Background The gut microbiota has been shown to affect both fat storage and energy harvesting, suggesting that it plays a direct role in the development of obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intestinal colonization by particular species/groups of the intestinal microbiota is related to body weight values in Estonian preschool children born in different years during the entire 1990s. Methods Body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and quantitative composition of cultivable gut microbiota (staphylococci, enterococci, streptococci, enterobacteria, lactobacilli, anaerobic gram-positive cocci, bifidobacteria, eubacteria, bacteroides, clostridia, and candida) were studied in 51 healthy 5-year-old children (40 were born between 1993 and 94 and 11 were born between 1996 and 97). Results At the age of 5 years, median weight was 19.5 kg and median BMI was 15.3 kg/m2. Significantly higher BMI (p=0.006) was found in 5-year-old children born in late versus early 1990s during the development of socioeconomic situation of Estonia (2% rise in gross domestic product). The counts of the different gut bacteria did not show any association with weight and BMI in the 5-year-old children. However, the BMI values were in positive correlation with a relative share of anaerobic gram-positive bacteria, for example, bifidobacteria when adjusted for sex and year of birth (adj R2=0.459, p=0.026) and eubacteria (adj R2=0.484, p=0.014) in the community of cultured intestinal microbiota. The relative share of bacteroides showed a negative correlation with the childrens’ weight (adj R2=? 0.481, p=0.015). Conclusion The body weight indices of preschool children of the general population are associated with the proportion of anaerobic intestinal microbiota and can be predicted by sex and particular socioeconomic situation from birth to 5 years of age. PMID:24009544

Sepp, Epp; Lőivukene, Krista; Julge, Kaja; Voor, Tiia; Mikelsaar, Marika

2013-01-01

297

Sexual Dimorphic Regulation of Body Weight Dynamics and Adipose Tissue Lipolysis  

PubMed Central

Background Successful reduction of body weight (BW) is often followed by recidivism to obesity. BW-changes including BW-loss and -regain is associated with marked alterations in energy expenditure (EE) and adipose tissue (AT) metabolism. Since these processes are sex-specifically controlled, we investigated sexual dimorphisms in metabolic processes during BW-dynamics (gain-loss-regain). Research Design Obesity was induced in C57BL/6J male (m) and female (f) mice by 15 weeks high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Subsequently BW was reduced (-20%) by caloric restriction (CR) followed by adaptive feeding, and a regain-phase. Measurement of EE, body composition, blood/organ sampling were performed after each feeding period. Lipolysis was analyzed ex-vivo in gonadal AT. Results Male mice exhibited accelerated BW-gain compared to females (relative BW-gain m:140.5±3.2%; f:103.7±6.5%; p<0.001). In consonance, lean mass-specific EE was significantly higher in females compared to males during BW-gain. Under CR female mice reached their target-BW significantly faster than male mice (m:12.2 days; f:7.6 days; p<0.001) accompanied by a sustained sex-difference in EE. In addition, female mice predominantly downsized gonadal AT whereas the relation between gonadal and total body fat was not altered in males. Accordingly, only females exhibited an increased rate of forskolin-stimulated lipolysis in AT associated with significantly higher glycerol concentrations, lower RER-values, and increased AT expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone sensitive lipase (HSL). Analysis of AT lipolysis in estrogen receptor alpha (ER?)–deficient mice revealed a reduced lipolytic rate in the absence of ER? exclusively in females. Finally, re-feeding caused BW-regain faster in males than in females. Conclusion The present study shows sex-specific dynamics during BW-gain-loss-regain. Female mice responded to CR with an increase in lipolytic activity, and augmented lipid-oxidation leading to more efficient weight loss. These processes likely involve ER?-dependent signaling in AT and sexual dimorphic regulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism. PMID:22662224

Benz, Verena; Bloch, Mandy; Wardat, Sami; Böhm, Christian; Maurer, Lukas; Mahmoodzadeh, Shokoufeh; Wiedmer, Petra; Spranger, Joachim; Foryst-Ludwig, Anna; Kintscher, Ulrich

2012-01-01

298

Coactivation of lower leg muscles during body weight-supported treadmill walking decreases with age in adolescents.  

PubMed

The kinematics of children's walking are nearly adult-like by about age 3-4 years, but metabolic efficiency of walking does not reach adult values until late in adolescence or early adulthood, perhaps due to higher coactivation of agonist/antagonist muscle pairs in adolescents. Additionally, it is unknown how use of a body weight-supported treadmill device affects coactivation, but because unloading will alter the activity of anti-gravity muscles, it was hypothesized that muscle coactivation will be altered as well. Muscle coactivation during treadmill walking was evaluated for adolescents (ages 10 to 17 years, M = 13.2, SD = 2.2) and adults (ages 22 to 35 years, M = 25.2, SD = 4.3), for thigh muscles (vastus lateralis/biceps femoris) and lower leg muscles (tibialis anterior/gastrocnemius). Conditions included body weight unloadings from nearly 0% to 80% of body weight, while walking at a preferred speed (self-selected, overground speed) or a reduced speed. Unloading was accomplished using a lower body positive pressure support system. Coactivation was found to be higher in adolescents than in adults, but only for the lower leg muscles. PMID:23033760

Deffeyes, Joan E; Karst, Gregory M; Stuberg, Wayne A; Kurz, Max J

2012-08-01

299

Prevalence, awareness and control of diabetes in the Seychelles and relationship with excess body weight  

PubMed Central

Background The evidence for a "diabesity" epidemic is accumulating worldwide but population-based data are still scarce in the African region. We assessed the prevalence, awareness and control of diabetes (DM) in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing country in the African region. We also examined the relationship between body mass index, fasting serum insulin and DM. Methods Examination survey in a sample representative of the entire population aged 25–64 of the Seychelles, attended by 1255 persons (participation rate of 80.2%). An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed in individuals with fasting blood glucose between 5.6 and 6.9 mmol/l. Diabetes mellitus (DM), impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) were defined along criteria of the ADA. Prevalence estimates were standardized for age. Results The prevalence of DM was 11.5% and 54% of persons with DM were aware of having DM. Less than a quarter of all diabetic persons under treatment were well controlled for glycemia (HbA1c), blood pressure or LDL-cholesterol. The prevalence of IGT and IFG were respectively 10.4% and 24.2%. The prevalence of excess weight (BMI ? 25 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI ? 30 kg/m2) was respectively 60.1% and 25.0%. Half of all DM cases in the population could be attributed to excess weight. Conclusion We found a high prevalence of DM and pre-diabetes in a rapidly developing country in the African region. The strong association between overweight and DM emphasizes the importance of weight control measures to reduce the incidence of DM in the population. High rates of diabetic persons not aware of having DM in the population and insufficient cardiometabolic control among persons treated for DM stress the need for intensifying health care for diabetes. PMID:17640380

Faeh, David; William, Julita; Tappy, Luc; Ravussin, Eric; Bovet, Pascal

2007-01-01

300

Online communication about genetics and body weight: implications for health behavior and internet-based education.  

PubMed

Social media, specifically online weight loss message board communities, may become an important conduit for information about genetics and body weight. This information has the capacity to influence individuals as it is naturally encountered online, or it could be strategically disseminated for public health purposes. However, little is known about how the public engages with information that they encounter related to genetic underpinnings of body weight, or how their interpretation of this information shapes health beliefs. The present study examined discussions about genetics and weight in message board communities devoted to discussion of weight loss. Fifty-four online discussions, comprising 505 individual posts from 3 weight-loss themed message boards, were coded using a closed-ended procedure. Individuals who discussed genetics and weight in online message board communities initiated these discussions mainly for personal reasons and primarily cited mass media-sourced information. Genetic causes of weight tended to be endorsed alongside behavioral causes. There was no association between cause endorsements and expressed frustration. These findings help elucidate the effects of naturally encountered information about genetics of weight. They may also have implications for the creation of online evidence-based tools to aid communication about genetic advances in ways that encourage positive dietary and physical activity behavior. PMID:23194059

Persky, Susan; Sanderson, Saskia C; Koehly, Laura M

2013-01-01

301

Association between maternal body mass index and the birth weight of neonates.  

PubMed

Birth weight (BW) is an important determinant of infant's well being. Several factors such as mothers' genetic characteristics, socio-cultural, demographic, behavioral factors, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain (GWG) etc contribute to birth weight. This study assesses the anthropometric measurement of ethnic Nepalese women belonging to Sherpa/Tamang community and Brahmin/Chhetri community and the neonatal outcome in this population. A retrospective study was done in singleton pregnant women of Sherpa/Tamang and Brahmin/Chhetri community who delivered baby in Nepal Medical College and Teaching Hospital from April 2007 to March 2008 to examine the association between the maternal Body Mass Index (BMI) and the gestational weight gain among the two ethnic communities and the birth weight of newborns. Among 206 Sherpa women who met the eligibility criteria, the mean BMI of Sherpa/Tamang community was 23.53 +/- 2.28 which was statistically higher than the Brahmin/Chhetri community (21.6 +/- 2.32). Among Sherpa/Tamang community, the mean gestational weight gain was 12.8 +/- 3.4 kg and the mean birth weight was 3460 +/- 410 grams. Similarly among Brahmin/Chhetri community, mean gestation weight gain was 10.3 +/- 3.1 kg and the mean birth weight was 2960 +/- 340 gm. Maternal BMI, gestational weight gain and birth weight of the newborn was significantly higher in Sherpa/Tamang community and the Increasing BMI and the gestational weight gain was found to have strong association with the birth weight of the newborns among this ethnic community. PMID:21991701

Upadhyay; Upadhyay, S; Biccha, R P; Sherpa, M T; Shrestha, R; Shrestha, S; Panta, P P

2011-03-01

302

Successful maintenance of body weight reduction after individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects based on narrative interview technique on the maintenance of body weight reduction, changes in dietary behaviors, including type of cooking and physical activity. One-hundred subjects out of four-hundred patients met the inclusion criteria. Individually, 45-minute educational program with motivation counseling was performed in 0, 6 and 12 weeks of the study. Patients were advised to follow individually well-balanced diet for 12 weeks. The individuals were asked about the changes in their dietary habits (Food Frequency Questionnaire). The mean percentage of body weight changes from the baseline were as follows: in 6th week- 5.9%, in 12th week - 10.9% and in 52th week - 9.7% (P < 0.0001), however there were no statistically significant changes while comparing body weight in 12th and 52th week. The maintenance of body weight reduction was connected with the dietary habits changes, mainly the type of cooking and increased consumption of vegetable oils. In conclusion, individualized dietary counseling, based on narrative interview technique is an effective intervention for obesity treatment that may help maintain body weight reduction and adapt the pro-healthy changes in type of cooking and sources of dietary fat. PMID:25311271

Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Mardas, Marcin; Warcho?, Wojciech; Jamka, Ma?gorzata; Walkowiak, Jaros?aw

2014-01-01

303

Successful maintenance of body weight reduction after individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects based on narrative interview technique on the maintenance of body weight reduction, changes in dietary behaviors, including type of cooking and physical activity. One-hundred subjects out of four-hundred patients met the inclusion criteria. Individually, 45-minute educational program with motivation counseling was performed in 0, 6 and 12 weeks of the study. Patients were advised to follow individually well-balanced diet for 12 weeks. The individuals were asked about the changes in their dietary habits (Food Frequency Questionnaire). The mean percentage of body weight changes from the baseline were as follows: in 6th week- 5.9%, in 12th week - 10.9% and in 52th week - 9.7% (P < 0.0001), however there were no statistically significant changes while comparing body weight in 12th and 52th week. The maintenance of body weight reduction was connected with the dietary habits changes, mainly the type of cooking and increased consumption of vegetable oils. In conclusion, individualized dietary counseling, based on narrative interview technique is an effective intervention for obesity treatment that may help maintain body weight reduction and adapt the pro-healthy changes in type of cooking and sources of dietary fat. PMID:25311271

Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Mardas, Marcin; Warcho?, Wojciech; Jamka, Ma?gorzata; Walkowiak, Jaros?aw

2014-01-01

304

Role of obesity and media in body weight concern among female university students in Kuwait.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to find out the association of media and obesity status with body weight concern among female university students in Kuwait. 228 female students, aged 19-25 years, were selected at convenience from the Women's College in Kuwait. A previously validated questionnaire was used to collect information on the role of media in body concern and how parents, peers and the girls themselves perceived girls' body shapes. Weight and height were gathered by self-reporting. Use of internet and reading women's magazines had a significant impact on dieting by the girls to lose weight (P<0.0007 and P<0.0114, respectively). The mass media had two to three times more influence on obese girls than non-obese girls. Only watching television had a significant impact on girls' body shape concern (P<0.053). About 30% of non-obese and 81% of obese girls were dissatisfied with their current weight. There were significant differences between obese and non-obese girls regarding the girls' views and the views of their peers and parents about the body weight of the girls (P<0.000 for all). The pressure from peers and parents, in addition to the mass media, may lead to disturbed attitudes towards eating among Kuwaiti girls. PMID:23557827

Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Mannai, Mariam

2013-04-01

305

Does reading keep you thin? Leisure activities, cultural tastes, and body weight in comparative perspective  

PubMed Central

While sedentary leisure-time activities such as reading, going to movies, attending cultural events, attending sporting events, watching TV, listening to music, and socializing with friends would seem to contribute to excess weight, a perspective focusing on SES differences in cultural tastes suggests the opposite, that some sedentary activities are associated with lower rather than higher body weight. This study aims to test theories of cultural distinction by examining relationships between leisure-time activities and body weight. Using 2007 data on 17 nations from the International Social Survey Program, the analysis estimates relationships between the body mass index and varied leisure-time activities while controlling for SES, physical activities, and sociodemographic variables. Net of controls for SES and physical activities, participation time in cultural activities is associated with lower rather than higher body weight, particularly in high-income nations. The results suggest that both cultural activities and body weight reflect forms of distinction that separate SES-based lifestyles. PMID:21707664

Pampel, Fred C.

2011-01-01

306

Metabolism of polychaete Neanthes japonica Izuka: relations to temperature, salinity and body weight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polychaete Neanthes japonica is a species geographically specific in China and Japan with important scientific implication and commercial value. In this study, the relations of body weight, salinity and temperature to oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of N. japonica were determined. Three different groups in body weight (large: 2.34±0.36 g, middle: 1.50±0.21 g and small: 0.62±0.12 g) were set for all experiments. Results show that the body weight is negatively related to the rates of oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion; and the relationship is significant. The oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion at 24°C decreased at salinity from 5 to 30 and increased above 30, indicating that both lower and higher salinity are adverse and certain degree of salinity stress is necessary for enhancing the energy demand. At salinity 30, rising temperature from 18°C to 30°C, the oxygen consumption increased before 27°C and then decreased. However, the relation of ammonia excretion and temperature seems more complex. Two-way ANOVA shows that salinity, temperature and body weight all have a significant effect on the oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of the worm. Moreover, interaction between salinity/temperature and body weight is also significant. O:N (oxygen/nitrogen) ratio varies greatly in this case from 5.97 to 463.22, indicating that N. japonica can regulate the type of metabolic substrate against environment changes.

Liu, Yong; Xian, Weiwei; Sun, Shichun

2009-05-01

307

Blood lead level association with lower body weight in NHANES 1999–2006  

SciTech Connect

Background: Lead exposure is associated with low birth-weight. The objective of this study is to determine whether lead exposure is associated with lower body weight in children, adolescents and adults. Methods: We analyzed data from NHANES 1999–2006 for participants aged ? 3 using multiple logistic and multivariate linear regression. Using age- and sex-standardized BMI Z-scores, overweight and obese children (ages 3–19) were classified by BMI ? 85th and ? 95th percentiles, respectively. The adult population (age ? 20) was classified as overweight and obese with BMI measures of 25–29.9 and ? 30, respectively. Blood lead level (BLL) was categorized by weighted quartiles. Results: Multivariate linear regressions revealed a lower BMI Z-score in children and adolescents when the highest lead quartile was compared to the lowest lead quartile (? (SE) = ? 0.33 (0.07), p < 0.001), and a decreased BMI in adults (? (SE) = ? 2.58 (0.25), p < 0.001). Multiple logistic analyses in children and adolescents found a negative association between BLL and the percentage of obese and overweight with BLL in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartile (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.30–0.59; and OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.88, respectively). Adults in the highest lead quartile were less likely to be obese (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.35–0.50) compared to those in the lowest lead quartile. Further analyses with blood lead as restricted cubic splines, confirmed the dose-relationship between blood lead and body weight outcomes. Conclusions: BLLs are associated with lower body mass index and obesity in children, adolescents and adults. - Highlights: • NHANES analysis of BLL and body weight outcomes • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in children and adolescent • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in adults.

Scinicariello, Franco, E-mail: fes6@cdc.gov [Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Buser, Melanie C. [Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Mevissen, Meike [Division of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Portier, Christopher J. [National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH)/ATSDR, CDC, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)

2013-12-15

308

Genetics of Microenvironmental Sensitivity of Body Weight in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Selected for Improved Growth  

PubMed Central

Microenvironmental sensitivity of a genotype refers to the ability to buffer against non-specific environmental factors, and it can be quantified by the amount of residual variation in a trait expressed by the genotype’s offspring within a (macro)environment. Due to the high degree of polymorphism in behavioral, growth and life-history traits, both farmed and wild salmonids are highly susceptible to microenvironmental variation, yet the heritable basis of this characteristic remains unknown. We estimated the genetic (co)variance of body weight and its residual variation in 2-year-old rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using a multigenerational data of 45,900 individuals from the Finnish national breeding programme. We also tested whether or not microenvironmental sensitivity has been changed as a correlated genetic response when genetic improvement for growth has been practiced over five generations. The animal model analysis revealed the presence of genetic heterogeneity both in body weight and its residual variation. Heritability of residual variation was remarkably lower (0.02) than that for body weight (0.35). However, genetic coefficient of variation was notable in both body weight (14%) and its residual variation (37%), suggesting a substantial potential for selection responses in both traits. Furthermore, a significant negative genetic correlation (?0.16) was found between body weight and its residual variation, i.e., rapidly growing genotypes are also more tolerant to perturbations in microenvironment. The genetic trends showed that fish growth was successfully increased by selective breeding (an average of 6% per generation), whereas no genetic change occurred in residual variation during the same period. The results imply that genetic improvement for body weight does not cause a concomitant increase in microenvironmental sensitivity. For commercial production, however, there may be high potential to simultaneously improve weight gain and increase its uniformity if both criteria are included in a selection index. PMID:22701708

Janhunen, Matti; Kause, Antti; Vehviläinen, Harri; Järvisalo, Otso

2012-01-01

309

Trypsin inhibitor from tamarindus indica L. seeds reduces weight gain and food consumption and increases plasmatic cholecystokinin levels  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Seeds are excellent sources of proteinase inhibitors, some of which may have satietogenic and slimming actions. We evaluated the effect of a trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus indica L. seeds on weight gain, food consumption and cholecystokinin levels in Wistar rats. METHODS: A trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus was isolated using ammonium sulfate (30–60%) following precipitation with acetone and was further isolated with Trypsin-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Analyses were conducted to assess the in vivo digestibility, food intake, body weight evolution and cholecystokinin levels in Wistar rats. Histological analyses of organs and biochemical analyses of sera were performed. RESULTS: The trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus reduced food consumption, thereby reducing weight gain. The in vivo true digestibility was not significantly different between the control and Tamarindus trypsin inhibitor-treated groups. The trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus did not cause alterations in biochemical parameters or liver, stomach, intestine or pancreas histology. Rats treated with the trypsin inhibitor showed significantly elevated cholecystokinin levels compared with animals receiving casein or water. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the isolated trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus reduces weight gain by reducing food consumption, an effect that may be mediated by increased cholecystokinin. Thus, the potential use of this trypsin inhibitor in obesity prevention and/or treatment should be evaluated. PMID:25789523

do Nascimento Campos Ribeiro, Joycellane Alline; Serquiz, Alexandre Coellho; dos Santos Silva, Priscila Fabíola; Barbosa, Patrícia Batista Barra Medeiros; Sampaio, Tarcísio Bruno Montenegro; de Araújo, Raimundo Fernandes; de Oliveira, Adeliana Silva; Machado, Richele Janaina Araújo; Maciel, Bruna Leal Lima; Uchôa, Adriana Ferreira; dos Santos, Elizeu Antunes; de Araújo Morais, Ana Heloneida

2015-01-01

310

24h Urinary Sodium Excretion and Subsequent Change in Weight, Waist Circumference and Body Composition  

PubMed Central

Background In the same period as the increasing obesity epidemic, there has been an increased consumption of highly processed foods with a high salt content, and a few studies have suggested that a diet with a high salt content may be associated with obesity. Objective To investigate the association between 24 h urinary sodium excretion and subsequent change in body weight (BW), waist circumference (WC), body fat (BF) and fat free mass (FFM) among adults. Design A longitudinal population study based on the Danish part of the MONICA project, with examinations in 1987–1988 and 1993–1994. Complete information on 24 h urinary sodium excretion along with repeated measures of obesity, as well as on potential confounders, was obtained from 215 subjects. Linear regression was used to examine the association between sodium excretion, as a measure of salt consumption, and subsequent changes in BW, WC, BF and FFM, and further evaluated by restricted cubic splines. Stepwise adjustments were made for selected covariates. Results Neither the crude nor the adjusted models showed any statistically significant associations between sodium excretion and change in BW or WC. Likewise, we found no significant association between sodium excretion and change in BF and FFM in the unadjusted models. However, after adjusting for potential baseline confounders and the concurrent BW change, we found a significant increase in BF of 0.24 kg (P?=?0.015, CI: 0.05 to 0.43) per 100 mmol increase in 24 h urinary sodium excretion (equivalent to 6 g of salt), during the 6-year study period. Moreover, during the same period, we found a significant association with FFM of ?0.21 kg (P?=?0.041, CI: ?0.40 to ?0.01). Conclusions These results suggest that a diet with a high salt content may have a negative influence on development in body composition by expanding BF and reducing FFM. PMID:23936079

Larsen, Sofus C.; Ängquist, Lars; Sřrensen, Thorkild I. A.; Heitmann, Berit L.

2013-01-01

311

The attractive female body weight and female body dissatisfaction in 26 countries across 10 world regions: results of the international body project I.  

PubMed

This study reports results from the first International Body Project (IBP-I), which surveyed 7,434 individuals in 10 major world regions about body weight ideals and body dissatisfaction. Participants completed the female Contour Drawing Figure Rating Scale (CDFRS) and self-reported their exposure to Western and local media. Results indicated there were significant cross-regional differences in the ideal female figure and body dissatisfaction, but effect sizes were small across high-socioeconomic-status (SES) sites. Within cultures, heavier bodies were preferred in low-SES sites compared to high-SES sites in Malaysia and South Africa (ds = 1.94-2.49) but not in Austria. Participant age, body mass index (BMI), and Western media exposure predicted body weight ideals. BMI and Western media exposure predicted body dissatisfaction among women. Our results show that body dissatisfaction and desire for thinness is commonplace in high-SES settings across world regions, highlighting the need for international attention to this problem. PMID:20179313

Swami, Viren; Frederick, David A; Aavik, Toivo; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri; Anderson, Donna; Andrianto, Sonny; Arora, Arvind; Brännström, Ake; Cunningham, John; Danel, Dariusz; Doroszewicz, Krystyna; Forbes, Gordon B; Furnham, Adrian; Greven, Corina U; Halberstadt, Jamin; Hao, Shuang; Haubner, Tanja; Hwang, Choon Sup; Inman, Mary; Jaafar, Jas Laile; Johansson, Jacob; Jung, Jaehee; Keser, Askin; Kretzschmar, Uta; Lachenicht, Lance; Li, Norman P; Locke, Kenneth; Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Lopez, Christy; Loutzenhiser, Lynn; Maisel, Natalya C; McCabe, Marita P; McCreary, Donald R; McKibbin, William F; Mussap, Alex; Neto, Félix; Nowell, Carly; Alampay, Liane Peńa; Pillai, Subash K; Pokrajac-Bulian, Alessandra; Proyer, René T; Quintelier, Katinka; Ricciardelli, Lina A; Rozmus-Wrzesinska, Malgorzata; Ruch, Willibald; Russo, Timothy; Schütz, Astrid; Shackelford, Todd K; Shashidharan, Sheeba; Simonetti, Franco; Sinniah, Dhachayani; Swami, Mira; Vandermassen, Griet; van Duynslaeger, Marijke; Verkasalo, Markku; Voracek, Martin; Yee, Curtis K; Zhang, Echo Xian; Zhang, Xiaoying; Zivcic-Becirevic, Ivanka

2010-03-01

312

The Value of Body Weight Measurement to Assess Dehydration in Children  

PubMed Central

Dehydration secondary to gastroenteritis is one of the most common reasons for office visits and hospital admissions. The indicator most commonly used to estimate dehydration status is acute weight loss. Post-illness weight gain is considered as the gold-standard to determine the true level of dehydration and is widely used to estimate weight loss in research. To determine the value of post-illness weight gain as a gold standard for acute dehydration, we conducted a prospective cohort study in which 293 children, aged 1 month to 2 years, with acute diarrhea were followed for 7 days during a 3-year period. The main outcome measures were an accurate pre-illness weight (if available within 8 days before the diarrhea), post-illness weight, and theoretical weight (predicted from the child’s individual growth chart). Post-illness weight was measured for 231 (79%) and both theoretical and post-illness weights were obtained for 111 (39%). Only 62 (21%) had an accurate pre-illness weight. The correlation between post-illness and theoretical weight was excellent (0.978), but bootstrapped linear regression analysis showed that post-illness weight underestimated theoretical weight by 0.48 kg (95% CI: 0.06–0.79, p<0.02). The mean difference in the fluid deficit calculated was 4.0% of body weight (95% CI: 3.2–4.7, p<0.0001). Theoretical weight overestimated accurate pre-illness weight by 0.21 kg (95% CI: 0.08–0.34, p?=?0.002). Post-illness weight underestimated pre-illness weight by 0.19 kg (95% CI: 0.03–0.36, p?=?0.02). The prevalence of 5% dehydration according to post-illness weight (21%) was significantly lower than the prevalence estimated by either theoretical weight (60%) or clinical assessment (66%, p<0.0001).These data suggest that post-illness weight is of little value as a gold standard to determine the true level of dehydration. The performance of dehydration signs or scales determined by using post-illness weight as a gold standard has to be reconsidered. PMID:23383058

Pruvost, Isabelle; Dubos, François; Chazard, Emmanuel; Hue, Valérie; Duhamel, Alain; Martinot, Alain

2013-01-01

313

General and persistent effects of high-intensity sweeteners on body weight gain and caloric compensation in rats  

PubMed Central

In four experiments, we assessed the generality of previous findings (Swithers & Davidson, 2008) that increased caloric intake, body weight gain, and reduced caloric compensation are exhibited by rats that consume a diet containing a nonnutritive, high intensity sweetener. In this earlier work, rats consumed a diet in which saccharin was mixed in low-fat yogurt, and animals were provided with a fixed amount of the yogurt. The present experiments showed that the effects of saccharin on energy intake and body weight gain are also obtained when rats were given Acesulfame Potassium (AceK), a nonnutritive high intensity sweetener that is chemically distinct from saccharin. Increased energy intake and body weight gain and impaired caloric compensation were also obtained with a saccharin-sweetened base diet (refried beans) that was calorically similar, but nutritionally distinct from low-fat yogurt. The present studies also extended earlier findings by showing that body weight differences persist after saccharin-sweetened diets are discontinued and following a shift to a diet sweetened with glucose. In addition, rats first exposed to a diet sweetened with glucose still gain additional weight when subsequently exposed to a saccharin sweetened diet. The effect of saccharin on caloric compensation was more complex in that it appeared to depend on the type of diet (yogurt or beans) in which saccharin was consumed prior to testing. The results of these experiments add support to the hypothesis that exposure to weak or non-predictive relationships between sweet tastes and caloric consequences may lead to positive energy balance. PMID:19634935

Swithers, Susan E.; Baker, Chelsea R.; Davidson, T.L.

2009-01-01

314

Low-calorie sweeteners and body weight and composition: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies123  

PubMed Central

Background: Replacement of caloric sweeteners with lower- or no-calorie alternatives may facilitate weight loss or weight maintenance by helping to reduce energy intake; however, past research examining low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) and body weight has produced mixed results. Objective: The objective was to systematically review and quantitatively evaluate randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective cohort studies, separately, that examined the relation between LCSs and body weight and composition. Design: A systematic literature search identified 15 RCTs and 9 prospective cohort studies that examined LCSs from foods or beverages or LCSs consumed as tabletop sweeteners. Meta-analyses generated weighted mean differences in body weight and composition values between the LCS and control groups among RCTs and weighted mean correlations for LCS intake and these parameters among prospective cohort studies. Results: In RCTs, LCSs modestly but significantly reduced all outcomes examined, including body weight (?0.80 kg; 95% CI: ?1.17, ?0.43), body mass index [BMI (in kg/m2): ?0.24; 95% CI: ?0.41, ?0.07], fat mass (?1.10 kg; 95% CI: ?1.77, ?0.44), and waist circumference (?0.83 cm; 95% CI: ?1.29, ?0.37). Among prospective cohort studies, LCS intake was not associated with body weight or fat mass, but was significantly associated with slightly higher BMI (0.03; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.06). Conclusions: The current meta-analysis provides a rigorous evaluation of the scientific evidence on LCSs and body weight and composition. Findings from observational studies showed no association between LCS intake and body weight or fat mass and a small positive association with BMI; however, data from RCTs, which provide the highest quality of evidence for examining the potentially causal effects of LCS intake, indicate that substituting LCS options for their regular-calorie versions results in a modest weight loss and may be a useful dietary tool to improve compliance with weight loss or weight maintenance plans. PMID:24944060

Miller, Paige E; Perez, Vanessa

2014-01-01

315

Concurrent visuo-spatial processing reduces food cravings in prescribed weight-loss dieters.  

PubMed

The study investigated the relative effectiveness of thought suppression and the working memory-based method of dynamic visual noise as techniques for reducing food cravings. Twenty dieting women on the weight-loss programme prescribed by weight watchers and 20 non-dieting controls formed images of their most craved food and then suppressed thoughts of the food or watched a flickering pattern of black and white dots (dynamic visual noise). Both thought suppression and dynamic visual noise reduced cravings for weight watchers and non-dieters. However, their relative effectiveness varied according to participant dieting status. Specifically, while both techniques reduced cravings equally well for non-dieters, dynamic visual noise was clearly the more effective technique for weight watchers. Thus, dynamic visual noise may provide a useful tool for controlling problematic cravings in clinically overweight or obese individuals who are actively trying to lose weight. PMID:17470360

Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika; Christianson, Rebecca

2008-06-01

316

Effect of Shilianhua extract and its fractions on body weight of obese mice.  

PubMed

Five commercial botanical products (Shilianhua [SLH] tablets, Shiu Huo pills, Fenulyn, Bitter Melon, and Glucose Metabolic Support), available in the US market, with reported claims for regulation of metabolism were screened for their effect on body weight gain in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Pilot results suggested that SLH tablets attenuated body weight gain, whereas Shiu Huo pills and Fenulyn tended to promote weight gain in the mice on the high-fat diet. To investigate the bioactive components in the SLH tablet, the wild SLH plant (Sinocrassula indica Berge) was collected from China and used to make a variety of extracts including aqueous extract, ethanol extract (SLH-E), and subfraction F100. In the study of metabolic activities, the extracts were administrated through food intake by incorporating them into the diet. A rigorous evaluation of the extracts on body weight was conducted in 2 animal models. The aqueous extract and SLH-E were tested in dietary obese mice, while F100 together with SLH-E was tested in KK-Ay mice, a genetic diabetic model. In the 12- to 16-week study, body weight was not significantly altered by the SLH extracts in the 2 animal models. The results suggest that neither the total extract nor the purified components from the SLH plant have a clear effect in the regulation of body weight. The weight reduction observed with the over-the-counter SLH tablet in the pilot studies may be secondary to other components in the tablet, but not from the SLH extract. PMID:18555854

Yin, Jun; Zuberi, Aamir; Gao, Zhanguo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Zhijun; Cefalu, William T; Ye, Jianping

2008-07-01

317

Efficacy of ?-lactalbumin and milk protein on weight loss and body composition during energy restriction.  

PubMed

Our objective was to examine whether elevated ?-lactalbumin (?lac) protein intake compared to elevated supra sustained milk protein (SSP) and sustained milk protein (SP) intake results into a difference in body weight and body composition over a 6-month energy-restriction intervention. Body weight, body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), satiety and blood- and urine-parameters of 87 subjects (BMI 31 ± 5 kg/m(2) and fat percentage 40 ± 8%) were assessed before and after daily energy intakes of 100, 33, and 67% for 1, 1, and 2 months respectively (periods 1, 2, and 3), with protein intake from meal replacements and 2 months of 67% with ad libitum protein intake additional to the meal replacements (period 4). The diets resulted in 0.8 ± 0.3 g/kg body mass (BM) for SP and significant higher protein intake (24-h nitrogen) of 1.2 ± 0.3 and 1.0 ± 0.3 g/kgBM for SSP and ?lac (P < 0.05). Body weight and fat percentage was decreased in all groups after 6 months (SP -7 ± 5 kg and -5 ± 3%; SSP -6 ± 3 kg and -5 ± 3%; ?lac -6 ± 4 kg and -4 ± 4%, P < 0.001; there was no significant group by time difference). Furthermore, sparing of fat-free mass (FFM) and preservation of REE in function of FFM during weight loss was not significantly different between the ?lac-group and the SSP- and SP-groups. In conclusion, the efficacy of ?lac in reduction of body weight and fat mass (FM), and preservation of FFM does not differ from the efficacy of similar daily intakes of milk protein during 6 months of energy restriction. PMID:20577225

Soenen, Stijn; Hochstenbach-Waelen, Ananda; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

2011-02-01

318

Comparison of Methods to Assess Body Composition Changes during a Period of Weight Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the accuracy of body composition measurements by air displacement plethysmography and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) compared with DXA during weight loss.Research Methods and Procedures: Fifty-six healthy but overweight participants, 34 women and 22 men (age, 52 ± 8.6 years; weight, 92.2 ± 11.6 kg; BMI, 33.3 ± 2.9 kg\\/m2) were studied in an outpatient setting before and

Madlyn I. Frisard; Frank L. Greenway; James P. DeLany

2005-01-01

319

Excess body weight and obesity—the link with gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excess body weight (EBW) is an independent risk factor for many human malignancies, including cancers throughout the gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary tract from the esophagus to the colorectum. The relative risk of gastrointestinal cancer in obese individuals is approximately 1.5–2.0 times that for normal weight individuals, with organ-specific and gender-specific differences for specific cancers. The association between EBW and risk of

Prashant Kant; Mark A. Hull

2011-01-01

320

Influence of temperature and body weight on mosquito predation by the dragonfly nymph Mesogomphus lineatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different weight classes (25, 50, 100 and 160 mg) of the dragonfly nymph Mesogomphus lineatus were allowed to predate on constant density (15 larvae\\/aquarium of 500 ml capacity) of healthy fourth instar larvae of Culex fatigans at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 ±0.5°C to study the interactions of body weight and temperature on satiation time, maximum food

T. J. Pandian; S. Mathavan; C. P. Jeyagopal

1979-01-01

321

Nutrient intake and body composition in relation to making weight in young male Taekwondo players  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of the current study was to investigate the nutritional intake and body composition of Taekwondo (TKD) athletes during a two-week period of weight management as they prepare to make weight classification for an international competition. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Seven male, 17-28 years old, international TKD athletes were recruited from a known World Taekwondo Federation TKD Club in

Sarah Fleming; Vassiliki Costarelli

2007-01-01

322

Excess body weight in children may increase the length of hospital stay  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of excess body weight in the pediatric ward of University Hospital and to test both the association between initial nutritional diagnosis and the length of stay and the in-hospital variation in nutritional status. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study based on information entered in clinical records from University Hospital. The data were collected from a convenience sample of 91 cases among children aged one to 10 years admitted to the hospital in 2009. The data that characterize the sample are presented in a descriptive manner. Additionally, we performed a multivariate linear regression analysis adjusted for age and gender. RESULTS: Nutritional classification at baseline showed that 87.8% of the children had a normal weight and that 8.9% had excess weight. The linear regression models showed that the average weight loss z-score of the children with excess weight compared with the group with normal weight was ?0.48 (p?=?0.018) and that their length of stay was 2.37 days longer on average compared with that of the normal-weight group (p?=?0.047). CONCLUSIONS: The length of stay and loss of weight at the hospital may be greater among children with excess weight than among children with normal weight. PMID:25789515

Fernandes, Maria Teresa Bechere; Danti, Gabriel Vecchi; Garcia, Denise Maximo Lellis; Ferraro, Alexandre A

2015-01-01

323

Associated among endocrine, inflammatory, and bone markers, body composition and weight loss induced bone loss  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Weight loss reduces co-¬morbidities of obesity but decreases bone mass. Our aims were to determine whether adequate dairy intake could prevent weight loss related bone loss and to evaluate the contribution of energy-related hormones and inflammatory markers to bone metabolism. Overweight and obese w...

324

[The effect of cage type and population density on the body weight development of laboratory mice].  

PubMed

The effect of different keeping conditions on body weight gain was studied in 200 male Fzt:DU mice between days 21 and 70 of life. The animals were divided in four different housing groups: DU-B (housing in stress cages), DU-B+HI (housing in stress cages and afterwards in standard cages type HI), DU-HI (housing in standard cages type HI) and DU-S+AP (housing in standard group cages). Housing in stress cages resulted in lower body weight gain at every age; subsequent housing in standard cages type HI for one week failed to compensate this effects. Likewise, keeping of four mice in standard cages type I (DU-HI) between days 42 and 70 of life also resulted in delayed body weight gain. It is possible that the chosen population density was not an optimum for normal weight gain during the adult life. Animals kept in standard stocking cages (DU-S+AP) had the highest body weight gain. PMID:2626880

Renne, U

1989-01-01

325

Literature review: perceptions and management of body size among normal weight and moderately overweight people.  

PubMed

Improved understanding of how normal weight and moderately overweight people manage their body weight and shape could be used to inform initiatives to prevent and treat obesity. This literature review offers a thorough appraisal of existing research into perceptions and management of own body size among normal weight and moderately overweight people. The studies reported in the 47 publications reviewed here address various themes based on different conceptualizations. The studies point out that normal weight and moderately overweight people are much concerned about their body size, but huge discrepancies are found between their own perceptions and study categorizations. The studies also indicate that normal weight and moderately overweight people are actively engaged in managing their body size through numerous managing strategies, and dieting is widespread. Together the studies do not form a unified and coherent research field, and there is a bias towards North American study populations. Methodological problems were identified in some publications, raising questions about generalizability of the findings. Moreover, only few studies give deeper insight into the specific perceptions and actions. Repeated studies are needed in broader and more differentiated geographical, social and cultural contexts, and longitudinal studies and more in-depth explorations are especially needed. PMID:25487846

Nissen, N K; Holm, L

2015-02-01

326

The Relationship of Diabetes Mellitus and Body Weight to Osteoporosis in Elderly Females  

PubMed Central

Assessment of roentgenographic measurements of cortical bone of the radius in 196 elderly females, including 63 diabetics, revealed that: (1) in the non-diabetic group there was a significant loss of cortical bone relative to the number of years after the menopause and to body weight; (2) although there was a significant loss of cortical bone relative to years postmenopausal in a group of diabetic patients the cortex in the diabetic group was better preserved than in those non-diabetic controls in whom no vertebral compressions were diagnosed in the roentgenograms; no correlation between bone loss and body weight was found among the diabetics; (3) the thinnest cortical bone and the lowest average body weight was found in the 34 non-diabetics with vertebral compression deformities. It thus appears that involutional osteoporosis will be less prevalent among old women suffering from diabetes mellitus than in comparable non-diabetic subjects, and more prevalent among non-diabetics of low body weight than in old women who are obese or of normal weight. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:6017698

Meema, H. Erik; Meema, Silvia

1967-01-01

327

Familial correlates of adolescent girls' physical activity, television use, dietary intake, weight, and body composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The family environment offers several opportunities through which to improve adolescents' weight and weight-related behaviors.\\u000a This study aims to examine the cross-sectional relationships between multiple factors in the family environment and physical\\u000a activity (PA), television use (TV), soft drink intake, fruit and vegetable (FV) intake, body mass index (BMI), and body composition\\u000a among a sample of sociodemographically-diverse adolescent girls.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Subjects

Katherine W Bauer; Dianne Neumark-Sztainer; Jayne A Fulkerson; Peter J Hannan; Mary Story

2011-01-01

328

Body and organ weights and hematology of young rats born at moderate altitude  

E-print Network

BODY AND ORGAN WEIGHTS AND HEMATOLOGY OF YOUNG RATS BORN AT MODERATE ALT1TUDE A Thesis By RALPH FRED ZIEGLER Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OP SCIENCE August 1963 Ma)or Sublect: Laboratory Animal Medicine BODY AND ORGAN WEIGHTS AND HEMATOLOGY OF YOUNG RATS BORN AT MODERATE ALTITUDE A Thesis RALPH FRED ZIEGLER App to tyl 1 one nt by: pQ~. , Q &4 Cha man of C it ( er...

Ziegler, Ralph Fred

1963-01-01

329

5HT2C receptor activation decreases appetite and body weight in obese subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effect of 2 weeks administration of the 5-HT2C receptor agonist, m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), on appetite and body weight in 18 moderately obese subjects in a double-blind, placebo-controlled\\u000a trial. mCPP caused a small but significant (0.75?kg) reduction in body weight and in subjective ratings of hunger. Plasma\\u000a prolactin was significantly elevated by the final dose of mCPP. Our data

P. A. Sargent; A. L. Sharpley; C. Williams; E. M. Goodall; P. J. Cowen

1997-01-01

330

The DPP-IV inhibitor linagliptin and GLP-1 induce synergistic effects on body weight loss and appetite suppression in the diet-induced obese rat.  

PubMed

Linagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-IV inhibitor approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. DPP-IV inhibitors are considered weight neutral, suggesting that elevation of endogenous incretin levels is not sufficient to promote weight loss per se. Here we evaluated the effect of linagliptin in combination with subcutaneous treatment of GLP-1(7-36) on body weight regulation in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Linagliptin administered perorally (1.5mg/kg, b.i.d.), but not subcutaneously (0.5mg/kg, b.i.d.), evoked a very modest body weight loss (2.2%) after 28 days of treatment. GLP-1 (0.5mg/kg, s.c.) treatment alone induced a body weight loss of 4.1%. In contrast, combined linagliptin (1.5mg/kg, p.o., or 0.5mg/kg, s.c.) and GLP-1 (0.5mg/kg) treatment evoked a marked anorectic response with both routes of linagliptin administration being equally effective on final body weight loss (7.5-8.0%). In comparison, liraglutide monotherapy (0.2mg/kg, s.c., b.i.d.) reduced body weight by 10.1%. Interestingly, the weight lowering effect of combined linagliptin and GLP-1 treatment was associated with a marked increase in chow preference, being more pronounced as compared to liraglutide treatment. In addition, linagliptin and GLP-1 co-treatment, but not liraglutide, specifically increased prepro-dynorphin mRNA levels in the caudate-putamen, an effect not obtained with administration of the compounds individually. In conclusion, co-treatment with linagliptin and GLP-1 synergistically reduces body weight in obese rats. The anti-obesity effect was caused by appetite suppression with a concomitant change in diet preference, which may potentially be associated with increased dynorphin activity in forebrain regions involved in reward anticipation and habit learning. PMID:25160746

Hansen, Henrik H; Hansen, Gitte; Paulsen, Sarah; Vrang, Niels; Mark, Michael; Jelsing, Jacob; Klein, Thomas

2014-10-15

331

Plasma BDNF Levels Vary in Relation to Body Weight in Females  

PubMed Central

Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression as well as neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Recent studies show a role of BDNF in energy metabolism and body weight regulation. We examined BDNF levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from age matched elderly depressed and control subjects. Also, the association of BDNF levels with age, gender, body weight, body mass index (BMI), and cognitive performance was evaluated. We did not find any significant differences in plasma and CSF BDNF levels between depressed and control subjects. Plasma BDNF levels were negatively correlated with age (but not with BMI and body weight), when analyses were performed including both depressed and control subjects. A significant reduction in plasma BDNF levels was observed in females as compared to male subjects, and the change in BDNF levels were significantly and positively related to body weight in females. Furthermore, significant increases in Total Recall and Delayed Recall values were found in females as compared to males. In conclusion, the lower BDNF levels observed in females suggest that changes in peripheral BDNF levels are likely secondary to an altered energy balance. However, further studies using larger sample size are warranted. PMID:22768299

Pillai, Anilkumar; Bruno, Davide; Sarreal, Antero S.; Hernando, Raymundo T.; Saint-Louis, Leslie A.; Nierenberg, Jay; Ginsberg, Stephen D.; Pomara, Nunzio; Mehta, Pankaj D.; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Buckley, Peter F.

2012-01-01

332

The impact of weight, sex, and race\\/ethnicity on body dissatisfaction among urban children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the current study was to examine the relative contributions of weight status, race\\/ethnicity, sex, and age on body dissatisfaction in a large group of diverse children. Participants were 4th–6th graders (N=1212) in ten inner-city schools who participated in an obesity prevention study previously published. Children completed the body dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), and

Melissa S. Xanthopoulos; Kelley E. Borradaile; Sharon Hayes; Sandy Sherman; Stephanie Vander Veur; Karen M. Grundy; Joan Nachmani; Gary D. Foster

2011-01-01

333

Nutritively Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Body Weight: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Experiments  

PubMed Central

Nutritively sweetened beverages (NSBs) may play a role in the obesity epidemic. We abstracted data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and evidence-based reviews through January 2009 concerning effects of consumption of NSBs on changes in body weight and adiposity. Studies included were those 1) conducted in humans; 2) lasting at least 3 weeks; 3) incorporating random assignment of subjects to conditions that differed only in the consumption of NSBs; and 4) including an adiposity indicator as an outcome. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of 6 studies that added NSBs to persons’ diets showed dose-dependent increases in weight. Contrarily, meta-analysis of studies that attempted to reduce NSB consumption consistently showed no effect on BMI when all subjects were considered. Meta-analysis of studies providing access to results separately for subjects overweight at baseline showed a significant effect of a roughly 0.35 standard deviations lesser BMI change (i.e., more weight loss or less weight gain) relative to controls. The current evidence does not demonstrate conclusively that NSB consumption has uniquely contributed to obesity or that reducing NSB consumption will reduce BMI levels in general. We recommend an adequately powered RCT among overweight persons, among whom there is suggestive evidence of an effect. PMID:20524996

Mattes, Richard D; Shikany, James M; Kaiser, Kathryn A; Allison, David B

2010-01-01

334

Psychosocial differences associated with body weight among female adolescents: the importance of body image  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To determine whether overweight female adolescents differ from normal and underweight female adolescents with respect to a set of psychosocial factors, while controlling for body image.Methods: Female participants of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 3197) were selected for analysis. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was used to test whether overweight subjects differed from normal and

Jacqueline A Pesa; Thomas R Syre; Elizabeth Jones

2000-01-01

335

Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation  

E-print Network

,78,79, Gonc¸alo R Abecasis18,78,79 & Joel N Hirschhorn3,11,75,78,79 for the GIANT Consortium80 Common variants at only two loci, FTO and MC4R, have been reproducibly associated with body mass index (BMI) in humans

Abecasis, Goncalo

336

Body and organ weights of rats exposed to carbon monoxide at high altitude  

SciTech Connect

Male, laboratory rats were exposed for 6 wk in steel barometric chambers to (1) 100 ppm CO, (2) 15,000 ft simulated high altitude (SHA), and (3) CO at SHA. Altitude was simulated by a system of gate valves and a vacuum pump, and measured by an altimeter. CO, from high-pressure cylinders, was introduced into the air supplying each chamber through a mass flow controller and measured by a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer. Although SHA had no affect on left ventricle plus septum (LV + S), adrenal, spleen, or kidney weights, SHA decreased body weights, and increased hematocrit ratios, as well as right ventricle (RV), total heart (HT), and pituitary weights. CO had no affect on body weights, RV, HT, adrenal, spleen, or kidney weights, but CO increased hematocrit ratios and LV + S weights. There was no significant interaction between SHA and CO on any parameter except kidney weight. These results indicate that, in general, the effects produced by 15,000 ft SHA are not intensified by exposure to 100 ppm CO.

McGrath, J.J.

1988-01-01

337

Effects of body weight and age on the time and pairing of American black ducks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

I used captive young and adult American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) during October-February 1984-1985 to test whether body weight and age affected time of pair-bond formation. Eighty ducks were marked individually, and 10 ducks (6 males and 4 females, half of each age class) were assigned to each of 8 experimental pens. Ducks in 4 pens received an ad libitum diet of commercial duck food, and ducks in the other 4 pens received a restricted ration of the same food. During early winter ducks in both groups gained weight, but ducks on the restricted diet gained less than birds on the ad libitum diet; peak winter weight of ducks on the ad libitum diet averaged 22% greater than initial body weight compared with 6.5% for ducks on the restricted diet. In late winter ducks on the restricted diet lost 28.7% of peak winter weight, and ducks on the ad libitum diet lost 19.3%. Weight loss of ducks on the ad libitum diet began before weather conditions became severe and coincided with a reduction in food consumption. This result supports the idea that weight loss of waterfowl in late winter is controlled endogenously. Individuals on the ad libitum diet paired earlier than those on the restricted diet, and pair bonds were stronger. Adults of both sexes paired earlier than young ducks, but differences for females were not significant statistically. Age and energy constraints are factors that can affect intraspecific variation in pairing chronology.

Hepp, G.R.

1986-01-01

338

Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors in the brain: controlling food intake and body weight.  

PubMed

The peptide hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) enhances glucose-induced insulin secretion and inhibits both gastric emptying and glucagon secretion. GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists control glycemia via glucose-dependent mechanisms of action and promote weight loss in obese and diabetic individuals. Nevertheless, the mechanisms and cellular targets transducing the weight loss effects remain unclear. Two recent studies in the JCI provide insight into the neurons responsible for this effect. Sisley et al. reveal that GLP-1R agonist-induced weight loss requires GLP-1Rs in the CNS, while Secher et al. reveal that a small peptide GLP-1R agonist penetrates the brain and activates a subset of GLP-1R-expressing neurons in the arcuate nucleus to produce weight loss. Together, these two studies elucidate pathways that inform strategies coupling GLP-1R signaling to control of body weight in patients with diabetes or obesity. PMID:25202976

Baggio, Laurie L; Drucker, Daniel J

2014-10-01

339

Association of sexual maturation with excess body weight and height in children and adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background Studies addressing the influence of early sexual maturation on the excess of body weight and height of children and adolescents are scarce. The aim of the study was to analyze the association of sexual maturation with excess body weight and height in children and adolescents. Methods This was a cross-sectional study performed in Florianópolis city, Brazil, in 2007, with 2339 school children, aged 8–14 years (1107 males). Selection was based on a probabilistic, cluster-stratified sampling technique. School children were classified according to the presence of excess body weight, using sex- and age-specific body mass index (BMI) cutoff points. Z-scores were calculated from height and BMI data. Sexual maturation was self-assessed according to Tanner stages of development. Subjects were ranked based on tertiles of sexual maturation (early, normal and late) for each stage of development. Poisson and linear regression models were used. Results Compared to the reference group (normal sexual maturation), early maturing females had higher prevalence of excess weight (adjusted prevalence ratio: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.24 to 2.33) and increased height-for-age (adjusted ?: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.59), while late maturing females had lower prevalence of excess weight (adjusted prevalence ratio: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.37 to 0.87) and decreased height-for-age (adjusted ?: ?0.38; 95% CI: ?0.56 to ?0.20). In males, early and late sexual maturation were associated with increased (adjusted ?: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.59) and decreased (adjusted ?: ?0.38; 95% CI: ?0.56 to ?0.20) height-for-age, respectively. Conclusion Early sexual maturation is associated with excess body weight in females and with greater height-for-age in both sexes. PMID:24625111

2014-01-01

340

Dynamic changes of orexin A and leptin in obese children during body weight reduction.  

PubMed

In this study, we describe changes of plasma levels of the hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin A in obese children during the reduction of body weight and its relationship to other biochemical and anthropometrical parameters. We measured orexin A fasting plasma levels by the RIA method in 58 obese children--33 girls and 25 boys; mean age 13.1+/-0.38 years (range 7-18.5) before and after 5 weeks of weight-reduction therapy. Leptin, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3 levels were measured in all the subjects and were compared to orexin A levels and anthropometrical data. Average weight in subjects before weight-reduction was 74.2+/-2.79 kg and after weight-loss 67.4+/-2.60 kg (p<0.0001). Orexin A levels before the therapy were 33.3+/-1.97 pg/ml and after the therapy 51.7+/-3.07 pg/ml (p<0.0001). Levels of orexin A were not significantly different between girls and boys (p=0.7842). We found negative correlation between orexin A and age (r = -0.5395; p<0.0001), body height (r = -0.4751; p=0.0002), body weight (r = -0.4030; p=0.0017) and BMI (r = -0.2607; p=0.0481). No correlation was found between orexin A and IGF-1, IGFBP-3 or leptin. Orexin A plasma levels increased during body weight loss, whereas the reverse was true for leptin levels. These findings support the hypothesis that orexin A may be involved in regulation of nutritional status in children. PMID:16497092

Bronský, J; Nedvídková, J; Zamrazilová, H; Pechová, M; Chada, M; Kotaska, K; Nevoral, J; Pr?sa, R

2007-01-01

341

Effect of Dietary Protein Content on Weight Gain, Energy Expenditure, and Body Composition During Overeating  

PubMed Central

Context The role of diet composition in response to overeating and energy dissipation in humans is unclear. Objective To evaluate the effects of overconsumption of low, normal, and high protein diets on weight gain, energy expenditure, and body composition. Design, Setting, and Participants A single-blind, randomized controlled trial of 25 US healthy, weight-stable male and female volunteers, aged 18 to 35 years with a body mass index between 19 and 30. The first participant was admitted to the inpatient metabolic unit in June 2005 and the last in October 2007. Intervention After consuming a weight-stabilizing diet for 13 to 25 days, participants were randomized to diets containing 5% of energy from protein (low protein), 15% (normal protein), or 25% (high protein), which they were overfed during the last 8 weeks of their 10- to 12-week stay in the inpatient metabolic unit. Compared with energy intake during the weight stabilization period, the protein diets provided approximately 40% more energy intake, which corresponds to 954 kcal/d (95% CI, 884–1022 kcal/d). Main Outcome Measures Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry biweekly, resting energy expenditure was measured weekly by ventilated hood, and total energy expenditure by doubly labeled water prior to the overeating and weight stabilization periods and at weeks 7 to 8. Results Overeating produced significantly less weight gain in the low protein diet group (3.16 kg; 95% CI, 1.88–4.44 kg) compared with the normal protein diet group (6.05 kg; 95% CI, 4.84–7.26 kg) or the high protein diet group (6.51 kg; 95% CI, 5.23–7.79 kg) (P=.002). Body fat increased similarly in all 3 protein diet groups and represented 50% to more than 90% of the excess stored calories. Resting energy expenditure, total energy expenditure, and body protein did not increase during overfeeding with the low protein diet. In contrast, resting energy expenditure (normal protein diet: 160 kcal/d [95% CI, 102–218 kcal/d]; high protein diet: 227 kcal/d [95% CI, 165–289 kcal/d]) and body protein (lean body mass) (normal protein diet: 2.87 kg [95% CI, 2.11–3.62 kg]; high protein diet: 3.18 kg [95% CI, 2.37–3.98 kg]) increased significantly with the normal and high protein diets. Conclusions Among persons living in a controlled setting, calories alone account for the increase in fat; protein affected energy expenditure and storage of lean body mass, but not body fat storage. PMID:22215165

Bray, George A.; Smith, Steven R.; de Jonge, Lilian; Xie, Hui; Rood, Jennifer; Martin, Corby K.; Most, Marlene; Brock, Courtney; Mancuso, Susan; Redman, Leanne M.

2013-01-01

342

Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common variants at only two loci, FTO and MC4R, have been reproducibly associated with body mass index (BMI) in humans. To identify additional loci, we conducted meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide association studies for BMI (n > 32,000) and followed up top signals in 14 additional cohorts (n > 59,000). We strongly confirm FTO and MC4R and identify six additional loci

Cristen J Willer; Elizabeth K Speliotes; Ruth J F Loos; Shengxu Li; Cecilia M Lindgren; Iris M Heid; Sonja I Berndt; Amanda L Elliott; Anne U Jackson; Claudia Lamina; Guillaume Lettre; Noha Lim; Helen N Lyon; Steven A McCarroll; Konstantinos Papadakis; Lu Qi; Rosa Maria Roccasecca; Serena Sanna; Paul Scheet; Michael N Weedon; Eleanor Wheeler; Jing Hua Zhao; Leonie C Jacobs; Inga Prokopenko; Nicole Soranzo; Toshiko Tanaka; Nicholas J Timpson; Peter Almgren; Amanda Bennett; Richard N Bergman; Sheila A Bingham; Lori L Bonnycastle; Morris Brown; Noël P Burtt; Peter Chines; Lachlan Coin; Francis S Collins; John M Connell; Cyrus Cooper; Elaine M Dennison; Parimal Deodhar; Paul Elliott; Michael R Erdos; Karol Estrada; David M Evans; Lauren Gianniny; Christian Gieger; Christopher J Gillson; Candace Guiducci; Rachel Hackett; David Hadley; Alistair S Hall; Aki S Havulinna; Johannes Hebebrand; Albert Hofman; Bo Isomaa; Kevin B Jacobs; Toby Johnson; Pekka Jousilahti; Zorica Jovanovic; Kay-Tee Khaw; Peter Kraft; Mikko Kuokkanen; Johanna Kuusisto; Jaana Laitinen; Edward G Lakatta; Jian'an Luan; Robert N Luben; Massimo Mangino; Wendy L McArdle; Thomas Meitinger; Antonella Mulas; Patricia B Munroe; Narisu Narisu; Andrew R Ness; Kate Northstone; Stephen O'Rahilly; Carolin Purmann; Matthew G Rees; Martin Ridderstrĺle; Susan M Ring; Fernando Rivadeneira; Aimo Ruokonen; Manjinder S Sandhu; Jouko Saramies; Laura J Scott; Angelo Scuteri; Kaisa Silander; Matthew A Sims; Kijoung Song; Jonathan Stephens; Suzanne Stevens; Heather M Stringham; Y C Loraine Tung; Timo T Valle; Cornelia M Van Duijn; Karani S Vimaleswaran; Peter Vollenweider; Gerard Waeber; Chris Wallace; Richard M Watanabe; Dawn M Waterworth; Nicholas Watkins; Jacqueline C M Witteman; Eleftheria Zeggini; Guangju Zhai; M Carola Zillikens; David Altshuler; Mark J Caulfield; Stephen J Chanock; I Sadaf Farooqi; Luigi Ferrucci; Jack M Guralnik; Andrew T Hattersley; Frank B Hu; Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin; Markku Laakso; Vincent Mooser; Ken K Ong; Willem H Ouwehand; Veikko Salomaa; Nilesh J Samani; Timothy D Spector; Tiinamaija Tuomi; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Manuela Uda; André G Uitterlinden; Nicholas J Wareham; Panagiotis Deloukas; Timothy M Frayling; Leif C Groop; Richard B Hayes; David J Hunter; Karen L Mohlke; Leena Peltonen; David Schlessinger; David P Strachan; H-Erich Wichmann; Mark I McCarthy; Michael Boehnke; Inęs Barroso; Gonçalo R Abecasis; Joel N Hirschhorn

2009-01-01

343

Effects of Body Weight and Nutrition on Histological Mammary Development in Holstein Heifers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our objective was to determine effects of rate of gain and body weight (BW) on mammary parenchymal tissue development. Mammary tissue samples were available from heifers (n = 54) reared on one of two dietary treatments, restricted (R) 650 g/d or elevated (E) 950 g/d of daily gain), and slaughtered ...

344

Novel method to predict body weight in children based on age and morphological facial features.  

PubMed

A new and novel approach of predicting the body weight of children based on age and morphological facial features using a three-layer feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) model is reported. The model takes in four parameters, including age-based CDC-inferred median body weight and three facial feature distances measured from digital facial images. In this study, thirty-nine volunteer subjects with age ranging from 6-18 years old and BW ranging from 18.6-96.4 kg were used for model development and validation. The final model has a mean prediction error of 0.48, a mean squared error of 18.43, and a coefficient of correlation of 0.94. The model shows significant improvement in prediction accuracy over several age-based body weight prediction methods. Combining with a facial recognition algorithm that can detect, extract and measure the facial features used in this study, mobile applications that incorporate this body weight prediction method may be developed for clinical investigations where access to scales is limited. PMID:25370186

Huang, Ziyin; Barrett, Jeffrey S; Barrett, Kyle; Barrett, Ryan; Ng, Chee M

2015-04-01

345

Harvard study finds body weight, diet may be risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma:  

Cancer.gov

Body weight in young adulthood and diet appeared to be associated with the risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, according to results presented at the 10th AACR International Conference on Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research, held Oct. 22-25, 2011.

346

IMPACT OF BODY WEIGHT CHANGE ON THE EDSTAC TIER 1 MALE AND FEMALE PUBERTAL PROTOCOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

IMPACT OF BODY WEIGHT CHANGE ON THE EDSTAC TIER I MALE AND FEMALE PUBERTAL PROTOCOLS. R.L. Cooper, T.E. Stoker, K. McElroy, J. Ferrell, K. Leffler, K. Bremser and S.C. Laws. Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, RTP, NC. Sponsor: R.J. Kavl...

347

Effect of dietary fructose on lipid metabolism, body weight and glucose tolerance in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide. Increasing body weight together with decreasing physical activity is expected to increase the incidence of several diseases related to lifestyle, such as adult type diabetes and vascular atherosclerotic diseases. It has been postulated that increasing consumption of fructose may be a contributory factor in the development of obesity and the accompanying metabolic abnormalities.

Tommi J Vasankari; Tuula M Vasankari

2006-01-01

348

High Blood Pressure in Adults with Disabilities: Influence of Gender, Body Weight and Health Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aims of this study were to explore the mean and distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and to examine the influence of gender, body weight and health behaviors on hypertension in adults with disabilities. We analyzed the 2010 annual community health examination chart of adults with disabilities in east Taiwan. The study samples…

Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Chien-Ting; Liou, Shih-Wen; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Jin-Ding

2012-01-01

349

NO EFFECT OF CHROMIUM PICOLINATE SUPPLEMENTATION ON BODY WEIGHT/COMPOSITION OF WOMEN FED CONTROLLED DIETS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Supplementation of chromium (+3) as chromium picolinate (CrPic) in amounts of 200 µg Cr/d is purported to promote weight loss and propitiously affect body composition. Different study designs and lack of control of energy intake prompt questions about the validity of these claims. PURPOSE: To test ...

350

Food Consumption Patterns of Nigerian Adolescents and Effect on Body Weight  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Association between nutritional status of adolescents and food consumption pattern. Design: Data on number of meals and snacks consumed daily were collected using structured questionnaires. Nutritional status was assessed as weight-for-age body mass index score less than fifth percentile of the National Center for Health…

Olumakaiye, M. F.; Atinmo, Tola; Olubayo-Fatiregun, M. A.

2010-01-01

351

The Role of Low-Fat Diets and Fat Substitutes in Body Weight Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diets for the prevention and treatment of obesity was based on the causal link established between dietary fat and body fatness. Observational and mechanistic studies show that because fat possesses a lower satiating power than carbohydrate and protein, a diet rich in fat can increase energy intake. The propensity to gain weight is enhanced

ARNE ASTRUP; SřREN TOUBRO; ANNE RABEN; ANNEBETH R. SKOV

1997-01-01

352

Body Weight Status, Inflammation, and Prognostic Markers in Early-Stage Prostate Cancer  

E-print Network

Body Weight Status, Inflammation, and Prognostic Markers in Early-Stage Prostate Cancer Brown Bag (UICCC) IHRP Fellow #12;Outline Relative risk of cancer mortality in obese men Pathophysiologic basis for excess risk The case for inflammation/immunity in prostate cancer Preliminary results from

Illinois at Chicago, University of

353

Television, physical activity, diet, and body weight status: the ARIC cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Television (TV) watching is the most common leisure activity in the United States. Few studies of adults have described the relationship between TV and health behaviors such as physical activity, diet, and body weight status. METHODS: Extant data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study were analyzed to assess the association of TV with physical activity, diet, and

Anne-Marie Meyer; Kelly R Evenson; David J Couper; June Stevens; Mark A Pereria; Gerardo Heiss

2008-01-01

354

CHROMIUM PICOLINATE SUPPLEMENTATION IN WOMEN: EFFECTS ON BODY WEIGHT, COMPOSITION AND IRON STATUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objective: Supplementation of chromium as chromium picolinate (CrPic), 200 µg Cr/d, is claimed to promote weight loss and propitiously affect body composition; it may adversely affect iron status. This study tested the hypothesis that supplementation of CrPic, compared to an equivalent amount of pi...

355

Associations between inhibitory control and body weight in German primary school children.  

PubMed

Deficits in inhibitory control are supposed to be a risk factor for overweight but literature concerning childhood and beyond the clinical setting is scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of inhibitory control in regards to body weight in a large non-clinical sample of primary school children. Baseline data of 498 children (1st and 2nd grade; 7.0 ± 0.6 years; 49.8% boys) participating in a school-based intervention study in Germany were used. Children performed a Go-Nogo-task to assess inhibitory control. Height and weight were collected and converted to BMI percentiles based on national standards. Relevant influencing factors (sociodemographic data, health characteristics of parents, children's health behaviour) were assessed via parental questionnaire. Inhibitory control was significantly associated with body weight and contributed to the statistical prediction of body weight above and beyond parent education, migration background, parent weight, TV consumption and breakfast habits. Moreover, obese children displayed significantly lower inhibitory control compared to non-overweight and overweight children. The findings suggest that deficits in inhibitory control constitute a risk factor for paediatric obesity. PMID:24411742

Wirt, Tamara; Hundsdörfer, Verena; Schreiber, Anja; Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jürgen M

2014-01-01

356

Genetic parameters for feed efficiency and body weight traits in Japanese quail.  

PubMed

1. The objectives of the present study were to estimate heritability and genetic correlations for feed efficiency and body weight (BW) in Japanese quail. 2. Recorded traits during different weeks of the growing period were BW from hatch to 35 d, feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and residual feed intake (RFI) from hatch to 28 d of age. 3. Genetic parameters were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood method using ASREML software. The results showed that heritability estimates for BW ranged from 0.11 to 0.22, and maternal permanent environmental effect was the highest at hatch (0.45). FCR, RFI and FI showed moderate heritabilities ranging from 0.13 to 0.40. 4.Genetic correlations of BW28 with FI0-28 (0.88) and RFI0-28 (0.1) and genetic correlation of FI0-28 with FCR0-28 (0.13) and RFI0-28 (0.52) were positive. A negative genetic correlation was found between BW28 and FCR0-28 (-0.49). There was a high positive genetic correlation (0.67) between RFI0-28 and FCR0-28. 5. In conclusion, selection for increased BW and reduced FI in a selection index could be recommended to improve feed efficiency traits including FCR and RFI in Japanese quail. PMID:24851993

Nasiri Foomani, N; Zerehdaran, S; Ahani Azari, M; Lotfi, E

2014-01-01

357

Perceptions of transmission of body weight and telemonitoring in patients with heart failure?  

PubMed Central

Chronic heart failure (HF) is associated with a high burden of morbidity and mortality and with reduced quality of life. New techniques such as telemonitoring (TM) have recently been introduced in the care of patients with HF in order to improve outcomes. TM is defined as sending data from the patients’ home to healthcare professionals. Most studies have focussed on endpoints such as morbidity and mortality, and relatively little attention has been paid to patients’ perceptions of TM. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore and describe patients’ perceptions of transmission of body weight (BW) and TM, regularly accomplished from patients’ homes to an HF clinic. An explorative design with a phenomenographic approach was used, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with a maximum variation sampling of 20 participants. The findings are described in five metaphoric categories that were assigned and used as a description: the habitual patient, the concerned patient, the technical patient, the secure patient, and the self-caring patient. The conclusions were that the transmission of BW made the patients active in their own care and increased self-care activities. In clinical care, concerns for deterioration in HF as well as the reliability of the TM system should be considered. Future research may focus on healthcare professionals and their perceptions of transmission of BW and TM in the care of patients with HF. PMID:24345687

Lyngĺ, Patrik; Fridlund, Bengt; Langius-Eklöf, Ann; Bohm, Katarina

2013-01-01

358

A residential summer camp can reduce body fat and improve health-related quality of life in obese children  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In an earlier report, we showed that a 2-week, residential summer camp (Kamp K'aana) led to improved body weight, body mass index, body mass index z score, and self-esteem among obese children. To assess whether improvements in body weight and self-esteem translate into improvement in body fat and w...

359

Effect of body weight gain on insulin sensitivity after retirement from exercise training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of the body-weight gain after retirement from an exercise-training program on the retained increase in insulin sensitivity elicited by the training was investigated in exercise-trained (ET) rats. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by oral glucose tolerance and insulin suppression tests immediately after training and during retirement. Results show that, compared with sedentary controls, exercise training enhanced insulin-induced glucose uptake, but the enhanced sensitivity was gradually lost with the end of running activity until after seven days of retirement, when it became equal to that of controls. This loss of enhanced sensitivity to insulin was associated with an accelerated gain in body weight beginning one day after the start of retirement. However, those animals that gained weight only at rates similar to those of control rats, retained their enhanced sensitivity to insulin.

Dolkas, Constantine B.; Rodnick, Kenneth J.; Mondon, Carl E.

1990-01-01

360

Effect of Nutritional Supplements on Immune Function and Body Weight in Malnourished Adults  

PubMed Central

In the United States, approximately 5% of the population is malnourished or has low body weight, which can adversely affect immune function. Malnutrition is more prevalent in older adults and is often a result of energy imbalance from various causes. Dietary supplementation to promote positive energy balance can reverse malnutrition, but has not been assessed for its effect on immune parameters. This 8-week clinical feeding trial evaluated the effect of a commercially available, high-protein, high-energy formula on body weight and immune parameters in 30 adult volunteers with body-mass indices (BMI) <21 kg/m2. After the intervention, participants gained a mean of 3.74 lbs and increased BMI by 0.58 kg/m2. The intervention improved lean body mass and limited body fat accumulation. However, no clinically significant improvements in immune measures were observed. These results support the use of high-protein, high-energy supplements in the treatment of underweight/malnutrition. Further investigation utilizing feeding studies of longer duration, and/or studying severely malnourished individuals may be needed to detect an effect on immune parameters of weight gain promoted by nutritional supplements. PMID:23966789

Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Margolick, Joseph; Kahan, Scott; Mitola, Andrea H.; Poddar, Kavita H.; Nilles, Tricia; Kolge, Sanjivani; Menendez, Frederick; Ridoré, Michelande; Wang, Shing-Jung; Chou, Jacob; Carlson, Eve

2010-01-01

361

Influence of Weight Gain Rate on Early Life Nutritional Status and Body Composition of Children  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate the influence of the weight gain rate at 4–6 months on nutritional status and body composition in children between 4 and 7 years of age. Methods. Retrospective cohort study, sample of 257 children. Data collection was performed in two stages, with the first relating to retrospective data of weight gain from birth to the first 4–6 months of life in the patient records. Measurements of weight, height, waist circumference, and body composition in children between ages 4 and 7 years were obtained. Nutritional status was assessed by the BMI/age. Control variables, such as pregnancy, breastfeeding, lifestyle, and sociodemographics, were studied. Descriptive analysis and multiple linear regression were performed. Results. In the nutritional status assessment, the prevalence of overweight observed was 24.9%. After adjusting for control variables, it was found that the increase of the WGR at 4–6 months of age explained the occurrence of higher BMI/age, percentage of total body fat, body fat percentage in the android region, and waist circumference in children between 4 and 7 years of age. Conclusion. The increase of the WGR in the first months of life can lead to the occurrence of higher values of parameters of nutritional status and body composition in later life. PMID:25538953

Magalhăes, Taís Cristina Araújo; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha

2014-01-01

362

Antiobesity Effects of the  Cell Hormone Amylin in Diet-Induced Obese Rats: Effects on Food Intake, Body Weight, Composition, Energy Expenditure, and Gene Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of amylin and pair feeding (PF) on body weight and metabolic parameters were characterized in diet-induced obesity-prone rats. Peripherally administered rat amylin (300 g\\/kgd, 22d) reduced food intake and slowed weight gain: approximately 10% (P<0.05), similar to PF. Fat loss was 3-fold greater in amylin-treated rats vs. PF (P < 0.05). Whereas PF decreased lean tissue (P < 0.05

Jonathan D. Roth; Heather Hughes; Eric Kendall; Alain D. Baron; Christen M. Anderson

2006-01-01

363

A 10-year longitudinal study of body weight, dieting, and eating disorder symptoms.  

PubMed

This article describes a 10-year longitudinal study of eating attitudes and behaviors. A sample of 509 women and 206 men completed a detailed survey in 1982 while they were in college. The authors contacted participants 10 years later and administered a 2nd questionnaire to assess stability and change in eating behaviors that occurred during the transition to early adulthood. Women in the study had substantial declines in disordered eating behavior as well as increased body satisfaction. However, body dissatisfaction and desires to lose weight remained at relatively high levels. Men, who rarely dieted or had eating problems in college, were prone to weight gain following college, and many of them reported increased dieting or disordered eating. The authors conclude that disordered eating generally tends to decline during the transition to early adulthood. However, body dissatisfaction remains a problem for a substantial segment of the adult population. PMID:9103723

Heatherton, T F; Mahamedi, F; Striepe, M; Field, A E; Keel, P

1997-02-01

364

The Scintigraphic Findings of Gastroesophageal Reflux in Children is Related to Body Weight?  

PubMed Central

Background Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most common cause of children admissions to pediatric gastroenterology unit and affects about 30% of pediatric population. Body weight and height percentiles of children with GERD and their relationship between presence and the severity of reflux on scintigraphic images were studied. Methods Patients who underwent reflux scintigraphy between 2005 - 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Among 200 patients, 49 patients were involved that their ages were ranging from 0 to 18 years old and body weight and height percentiles were recorded. Accurately 37 MBq (1 mCi) 99mTc-MAA in 100 - 150 mL of milk was ingested by the patient. Presence, number, duration and level of reflux were evaluated on the dynamic images. Presences of reflux within last ten minute were also recorded. Region-of-interests were drawn on esophagus and stomach and reflux ratio (RR) was calculated. Results The ratio of the presence of reflux which occurred within the last ten minutes was significantly higher in children with low body weight percentile. High-level reflux frequency was higher in these children than in normal’s. Presence of reflux which occurred within the last ten minutes was related with low body weight percentile. Conclusions If reflux is shown within the last ten minutes and there is high level of reflux, the clinician should be warned about possible low body weight percentile in the future and scintigraphic study should be a guide or a reference for the assessment of more effective treatment methods. PMID:24400026

Erkan, Melih Engin; Ozkan, Aybars; Yilmaz, Ayse; Asik, Muhammet; Gunes, Cemalettin; Yilmaztekin, Mehmet Zeki; Dogan, Ahmet Semih

2014-01-01

365

Forced heat loss from body surface reduces heat flow to body surface.  

PubMed

Heat stress is commonly relieved by forced evaporation from body surfaces. The mode of heat stress relief by heat extraction from the periphery is not clear, although it reduces rectal temperature. Radiant surface temperature (Ts) of the right half of the body surface was examined by thermovision in 4 lactating Holstein cows (30 kg of milk/d) during 7 repeated cycles of forced evaporation created by 30s of wetting followed by 4.5 min of forced airflow. Wetting was performed by an array of sprinklers (0.76 m(3)/h), and forced airflow (>3m/s velocity) over the right side of the body surface was produced by fans mounted at a height of 3m above the ground. Sprinkling wetted the hind legs, rump, and chest, but not the lower abdomen side, front legs, or neck. The animals were maintained in shade at an air temperature of 28 degrees C and relative humidity of 47%. Coat thickness was 1 to 2mm, so Ts closely represented skin temperature. Mean Ts of 5 x 20cm areas on the upper and lower hind and front legs, rump, chest, abdomen side, and neck were obtained by converting to temperature their respective gray intensity in single frames obtained at 10-s intervals. Little change occurred in Ts during the first wetting (0.1+/-0.6 degrees C), but it decreased rapidly thereafter (1.6+/-0.6 degrees C in the fifth wetting). The Ts also decreased, to a smaller extent, in areas that remained dry (0.7+/-1.0 degrees C). In all body sites, a plateau in Ts was reached by 2 min after wetting. The difference between dry and wet areas in the first cooling cycle was approximately 1.2 degrees C. The Ts of different body areas decreased during consecutive cooling cycles and reached a plateau by 3 cooling cycles in dry sites (front leg, neck, abdomen side), by 5 cooling cycles in the hind leg, and 7 cooling cycles in the rump and chest. The reduction in mean Ts produced by 7 cycles was 4.0 to 6.0 degrees C in wetted areas and 1.6 to 3.7 degrees C in sites that were not wetted. Initial rectal temperature was 38.9+/-0.1 degrees C; it remained unchanged during first 5 cooling cycles, decreased by 0.1 degrees C after 7 cooling cycles, and decreased to 38.4+/-0.06 degrees C after 8 to 10 cooling cycles, with no additional subsequent decrease. The concomitant reduction in Ts in dry and wet areas suggests an immediate vasoconstrictor response associated with heat extraction and later development of a cooler body shell. The reduction in rectal temperature represents a response involving transfer of heat from the body core to the body shell. This response mode requires consideration in settings of heat stress relief. PMID:20059922

Berman, A

2010-01-01

366

Gestational Weight Gain and Body Mass Index in Children: Results from Three German Cohort Studies  

PubMed Central

Introduction Previous studies suggested potential priming effects of gestational weight gain (GWG) on offspring’s body composition in later life. However, consistency of these effects in normal weight, overweight and obese mothers is less clear. Methods We combined the individual data of three German cohorts and assessed associations of total and excessive GWG (as defined by criteria of the Institute of Medicine) with offspring’s mean body mass index (BMI) standard deviation scores (SDS) and overweight at the age of 5–6 years (total: n?=?6,254). Quantile regression was used to examine potentially different effects on different parts of the BMI SDS distribution. All models were adjusted for birth weight, maternal age and maternal smoking during pregnancy and stratified by maternal pre-pregnancy weight status. Results In adjusted models, positive associations of total and excessive GWG with mean BMI SDS and overweight were observed only in children of non- overweight mothers. For example, excessive GWG was associated with a mean increase of 0.08 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.15) units of BMI SDS (0.13 (0.02, 0.24) kg/m2 of ‘real’ BMI) in children of normal-weight mothers. The effects of total and excessive GWG on BMI SDS increased for higher- BMI children of normal-weight mothers. Discussion Increased GWG is likely to be associated with overweight in offspring of non-overweight mothers. PMID:22457745

Beyerlein, Andreas; Nehring, Ina; Rzehak, Peter; Heinrich, Joachim; Müller, Manfred J.; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra; Wabitsch, Martin; Weck, Melanie; Brenner, Hermann; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; von Kries, Rüdiger

2012-01-01

367

Evidence for efficacy and effectiveness of changes in eating frequency for body weight management.  

PubMed

In self-reported diets of free living individuals, frequent eating is associated with higher energy intake, yet beliefs about the possible beneficial effect of higher eating frequency for managing body weight persist. Prospective cohort studies and controlled trials of manipulation of eating frequency published by 31 December 2012 were reviewed to assess whether variation in eating frequency may be an adjunct to weight management. Four prospective cohort studies were identified; 2 of these included adults followed for 10 y and 2 followed pre-adolescent/adolescent girls for 6 or 10 y. Within each age category, the findings of the 2 studies were contradictory. Six controlled trials with adult subjects serving as their own controls found no significant changes in body weight due to manipulation of eating frequency interventions lasting 6-8 wk. In 6 additional intervention trials of 8-52 wk duration, free-living adults were counseled to change the eating frequency of self-selected food intake with no significant differences in weight loss attributable to eating frequency. Overall, the consistency of the null findings from controlled trials of manipulation of eating frequency for promoting weight loss suggests that beliefs about the role of higher eating frequency in adult weight management are not supported by evidence. Interpretation of the evidence from published observational studies is complicated by differences in definition of eating frequency and limited knowledge of systematic and random errors in measurement of eating frequency. PMID:25398748

Kant, Ashima K

2014-11-01

368

Body weight misperception in adolescence and incident obesity in young adulthood.  

PubMed

Misperceptions of one's weight are common in adolescence. Adolescents of normal weight who misperceive themselves as being overweight tend to engage in unhealthy dieting practices and behaviors that are conducive to obesity. To examine whether this misperception is associated with a risk of obesity during early adulthood, we analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 6,523; mean age at baseline = 16 years; 58% female). Adolescents who misperceived themselves as being overweight had greater odds of becoming obese over the 12-year follow-up period than adolescents who perceived their weight accurately (odds ratio = 1.41, 95% confidence interval = [1.22, 1.64]). Although the increase in the odds associated with misperception of weight was apparent for both sexes, it was significantly stronger among boys (1.89 greater odds) than among girls (1.29 greater odds). The present research indicates that weight-based self-stigmatization, much like weight-based social stigmatization, is a powerful risk factor for incident obesity. This finding underscores the importance of addressing inaccurate body weight perceptions, even among adolescents of normal weight. PMID:25749701

Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

2015-04-01

369

How do consumers react to physically larger models? Effects of model body size, weight control beliefs and product type on evaluations and body perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to examine how a consumer's weight control beliefs (WCB), a female advertising model's body size (slim or large) and product type influence consumer evaluations and consumer body perceptions. The study uses an experiment of 371 consumers. The design of the experiment was a 2 (weight control belief: internal, external) X 2 (model size: larger

Brett A. S. Martin; Robina Xavier

2010-01-01

370

Body weight status and cardiovascular risk factors in adults by frequency of candy consumption  

PubMed Central

Background Limited information is available regarding the impact of candy consumption on health. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between typical frequency of candy consumption and body weight status and select cardiovascular risk factors among adults in the United States. Methods Using data collected in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), adults were categorized as infrequent (? 3 eating occasions [EO]/month), moderate (> 3 EO/month and ? 3.5 EO/week), or frequent (> 3.5 EO/week) candy consumers based on the combined frequency of chocolate and other candy consumption over the previous 12 months. Weight and adiposity status were analyzed using logistic regression models, and blood pressure, lipids, and insulin sensitivity were analyzed using linear regression models. Models were adjusted for age, sex and race/ethnicity, and also for additional covariates with potential associations with the outcomes. Appropriate statistical weights were used to yield results generalizable to the US population. Results Frequency of candy consumption was not associated with the risk of obesity, overweight/obesity, elevated waist circumference, elevated skinfold thickness, blood pressure, low density lipoprotein (LDL) or high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, or insulin resistance. Increased frequency of candy consumption was associated with higher energy intakes and higher energy adjusted intakes of carbohydrates, total sugars and added sugars, total fat, saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids (p?reduced intake of candy among the overweight due to dieting or a health professional’s recommendations. Additionally, it is important to note that the analysis was based on frequency of candy consumption and not amount of candy consumed. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the lack of associations between frequency of candy consumption and cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:23631725

2013-01-01

371

Larval Competition Reduces Body Condition in the Female Seed Beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus  

PubMed Central

Early body condition may be important for adult behavior and fitness, and is impacted by a number of environmental conditions and biotic interactions. Reduced fecundity of adult females exposed to larval competition may be caused by reduced body condition or shifts in relative body composition, yet these mechanisms have not been well researched. Here, body mass, body size, scaled body mass index, and two body components (water content and lean dry mass) of adult Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) females exposed to larval competition or reared alone were examined. Experimental females emerged at significantly smaller body mass and body size than control females. Additionally, scaled body mass index and water content, but not lean dry mass, were significantly reduced in experimental females. To our knowledge, these are the first results that demonstrate a potential mechanism for previously documented direct effects of competition on fecundity in female bruchine beetles. PMID:22954282

Schade, Daynika J.; Vamosi, Steven M.

2012-01-01

372

Role of Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain in Breastfeeding Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective This study determined whether high maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and/or excess gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with reduced breastfeeding duration and earlier formula supplementation. Study Design A prospective longitudinal cohort of postpartum women (n=718), who were a subset of a larger randomized trial, was followed for 6 months postdelivery. We evaluated the relationship between BMI or BMI/GWG groups and timing of breastfeeding cessation and introduction of formula using Kaplan–Meier curves and log-rank tests. Then, we used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to evaluate the relationship between BMI and BMI/GWG on these breastfeeding outcomes after controlling for potential confounding variables. Results The expected relationships between high BMI and high BMI/GWG and poor breastfeeding outcomes were observed in Kaplan–Meier curves. However, after adjusting for relevant maternal and infant covariates in the Cox models, the differences became nonsignificant. Prepregnancy BMI category was not statistically associated with breastfeeding duration (p=0.06) or timing of formula introduction (p=0.15). Similarly, BMI and GWG in combination were not associated with duration (p=0.33) or timing of formula introduction (p=0.18). Mothers' intended breastfeeding duration and rating of the importance of breastfeeding remained the only significant modifiable predictors of breastfeeding outcomes in the final models. Conclusions Maternal BMI and GWG were not significantly associated with breastfeeding outcomes after adjusting for confounding variables. Mothers' plans for breastfeeding duration and the importance mothers assign to breastfeeding remain the optimal intervention points for lengthening breastfeeding duration and reducing formula supplementation. PMID:23215909

Schaefer, Eric W.; Beiler, Jessica S.; Paul, Ian M.

2012-01-01

373

The relationships among body weight, body composition, and intramuscular fat content in steers.  

PubMed

Angus steers of known age (265 +/- 17 d) and parentage were used in a 2-yr study (yr 1, n = 40; yr 2, n = 45) to evaluate the relationship between percentage of i.m. fat content of the longissimus dorsi at the 12th rib and carcass characteristics during growth of nonimplanted steers. Steers were sorted by age and EPD of paternal grandsire for marbling into high- and low-marbling groups so that steers with varying degrees of genetic potential for marbling were evenly distributed across slaughter groups. All steers were fed a 90% concentrate corn-based diet. Steers were allotted to five slaughter groups targeted to achieve hot carcass weights (HCW) of 204, 250, 295, 340, and 386 kg over the course of the feeding period. Data were analyzed as a completely random design with a factorial arrangement of treatments (year, marbling group, and slaughter group). Marbling group did not affect backfat, LM area, yield grade (YG), or marbling score. Regression equations were developed to quantify the change in carcass characteristics and composition over slaughter groups. Hot carcass weight increased in a linear fashion and differed (P < 0.01) among the slaughter groups as anticipated by design. Yield grade followed a quadratic upward pattern (P < 0.01) as HCW increased. Slaughter group affected the degree of marbling linearly (P < 0.01). There were no slaughter group x marbling group interactions, indicating that no differences occurred in the pattern of marbling attributable to paternal grandsire EPD. Carcasses expressed small degrees of marbling at 266 kg of HCW and obtained a YG of 3.0 at 291 kg of HCW. Fractional growth rates decelerated with increasing HCW. Greater advances in marbling relative to total carcass fatness occurred at HCW less than 300 kg. Management practices early in growth may influence final quality grade if compensatory i.m. fat content development does not occur. PMID:15144070

Bruns, K W; Pritchard, R H; Boggs, D L

2004-05-01

374

Short-term melatonin consumption protects the heart of obese rats independent of body weight change and visceral adiposity.  

PubMed

Chronic melatonin treatment has been shown to prevent the harmful effects of diet-induced obesity and reduce myocardial susceptibility to ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). However, the exact mechanism whereby it exerts its beneficial actions on the heart in obesity/insulin resistance remains unknown. Herein, we investigated the effects of relatively short-term melatonin treatment on the heart in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. Control and diet-induced obese Wistar rats (fed a high calorie diet for 20 wk) were each subdivided into three groups receiving drinking water with or without melatonin (4 mg/kg/day) for the last 6 or 3 wk of experimentation. A number of isolated hearts were perfused in the working mode, subjected to regional or global ischaemia-reperfusion; others were nonperfused. Metabolic parameters, myocardial infarct sizes (IFS), baseline and postischaemic activation of PKB/Akt, ERK42/44, GSK-3? and STAT-3 were determined. Diet-induced obesity caused increases in body weight gain, visceral adiposity, fasting blood glucose, serum insulin and triglyceride (TG) levels with a concomitant cardiac hypertrophy, large postischaemic myocardial IFSs and a reduced cardiac output. Melatonin treatment (3 and 6 wk) decreased serum insulin levels and the HOMA index (P < 0.05) with no effect on weight gain (after 3 wk), visceral adiposity, serum TG and glucose levels. It increased serum adiponectin levels, reduced myocardial IFSs in both groups and activated baseline myocardial STAT-3 and PKB/Akt, ERK42/44 and GSK-3? during reperfusion. Overall, short-term melatonin administration to obese/insulin resistant rats reduced insulin resistance and protected the heart against ex vivo myocardial IRI independently of body weight change and visceral adiposity. PMID:25187154

Nduhirabandi, Frederic; Huisamen, Barbara; Strijdom, Hans; Blackhurst, Dee; Lochner, Amanda

2014-10-01

375

Standardization and validation of the body weight adjustment regression equations in Olympic weightlifting.  

PubMed

The problems in comparing the performances of Olympic weightlifters arise from the fact that the relationship between body weight and weightlifting results is not linear. In the present study, this relationship was examined by using a nonparametric curve fitting technique of robust locally weighted regression (LOWESS) on relatively large data sets of the weightlifting results made in top international competitions. Power function formulas were derived from the fitted LOWESS values to represent the relationship between the 2 variables in a way that directly compares the snatch, clean-and-jerk, and total weightlifting results of a given athlete with those of the world-class weightlifters (golden standards). A residual analysis of several other parametric models derived from the initial results showed that they all experience inconsistencies, yielding either underestimation or overestimation of certain body weights. In addition, the existing handicapping formulas commonly used in normalizing the performances of Olympic weightlifters did not yield satisfactory results when applied to the present data. It was concluded that the devised formulas may provide objective means for the evaluation of the performances of male weightlifters, regardless of their body weights, ages, or performance levels. PMID:11834108

Kauhanen, Heikki; Komi, Paavo V; Häkkinen, Keijo

2002-02-01

376

Eating Behavior Dimensions: Associations With Energy Intake And Body Weight: A Review  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this review is to spark integrative thinking in the area of eating behaviors by critically examining research on exemplary constructs in this area. The eating behaviors food responsiveness, enjoyment of eating, satiety responsiveness, eating in the absence of hunger, reinforcing value of food, eating disinhibition and impulsivity/self-control are reviewed in relation to energy intake, body mass index and weight gain over time. Each of these constructs has been developed independently, and little research has explored the extent to which they overlap or whether they differentially predict food choices, energy intake and weight gain in the naturalistic environment. Most available data show positive cross-sectional associations with body mass index, but fewer studies report associations with energy intake or food choices. Little prospective data are available to link measures of eating behaviors with weight gain. Disinhibition has the largest and most consistent body of empirical data that link it prospectively with weight gain. An overarching conceptual model to integrate the conceptual and empirical research base for the role of eating behavior dimensions in the field of obesity research would highlight potential patterns of interaction between individual differences in eating behaviors, specific aspects of the individual’s food environment and individual variation in state levels of hunger and satiety. PMID:22796186

French, Simone A.; Epstein, Leonard H; Jeffery, Robert W.; Blundell, John E.; Wardle, Jane

2012-01-01

377

Effect of swimming activity on relative weight and body composition of juvenile rainbow trout  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fisheries managers often assess body condition using relative weight (Wr) because it provides a comparative measure of fish plumpness among individuals and populations. However, it is not known whether the morphological information that Wr summarizes reflects physiological measures, such as relative lipid reserves, in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The purpose of this study was to determine whether swimming activity affects either the Wr or proximate body composition of juvenile (total length, 170-260 mm) rainbow trout. When rainbow trout from a hatchery were fed ad libitum for 147 d, inactive (no current) and active (15 cm/s current velocity) fish did not differ in Wr However, inactive rainbow trout maintained relatively constant lipid levels, whereas active fish declined in lipid content. Relative weight may provide a comparable measure of body form, but it is not an accurate index of lipid content between active and inactive rainbow trout fed an excess ration. For assessing the physiological condition of rainbow trout, measurement of proximate body composition appears to be more accurate than indices based on length and weight.

Simpkins, D.G.; Hubert, W.A.; Del Rio, C.M.; Rule, D.C.

2003-01-01

378

Secular trend in body height and weight of Australian children and adolescents.  

PubMed

Secular changes in growth and maturation have been well documented in various world populations, with secular increase especially noticeable in the developed countries. To assess the trend in both adult size and tempo of growth we compared the data on stature and body weight obtained in 1992-1993 from 1,804 Melbourne school students aged 5 to 17 with historical data collected from white Australians during the last 100 years. We illustrate the age-dependent trend in stature and body weight by means of regression surfaces. These were constructed by fitting local regression models to historical data and by simple plots showing the overall, and per decade, secular increase in both these measures at peripubertal and adult ages. Because of limited information on sample sizes and variability provided by the historical data, statistical comparisons have been performed only between the present 1992-1993 survey and two earlier independent surveys conducted in 1985 and 1970. The results have shown secular increase in adult stature over the last century, with the rate of increase varying between 0.4 and 2.1 cm/decade in males and 0.01 and 1.6 cm/decade in females. While secular increase in stature has significantly slowed down during the last two decades, the increase in body weight is still continuing at a high rate, and this increase is more pronounced in females. The period of strong secular increase, especially in the tempo of growth, coincided both with the shift toward earlier menarche and the improvement of socioeconomic conditions of the Australian population. The need for further studies to identify factors determining the continuing increase in body weight is emphasized, and caution in using the existing national growth standards for stature and weight is recommended. PMID:10727972

Loesch, D Z; Stokes, K; Huggins, R M

2000-04-01

379

Five-Factor Model Personality Traits and the Objective and Subjective Experience of Body Weight.  

PubMed

Research on personality and adiposity has focused primarily on middle-aged and older adults. The present research sought to (a) replicate these associations in a young adult sample, (b) examine whether sex, race, or ethnicity moderate these associations, and (c) test whether personality is associated with the subjective experience of body weight and discrepancies between perceived and actual weight. Participants (N?=?15,669; Mage ?=?29; 53% female; ?40% ethnic/racial minority) from Wave 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health completed a Five-Factor Model personality measure and reported their weight, height, and perception of weight category (e.g., overweight); trained staff measured participants' height, weight, and waist circumference. Conscientiousness was associated with healthier weight, with a nearly 5?kg difference between the top and bottom quartiles. Neuroticism among women and Extraversion among men were associated with higher adiposity. Neuroticism was also associated with misperceived heavier weight, whereas Extraversion was associated with misperceived taller and leaner. The associations were similar across race/ethnic groups. Personality is associated with objective and subjective adiposity in young adulthood. Although modest, the effects are consistent with life span theories of personality, and the misperceptions are consistent with the conceptual worldviews associated with the traits. PMID:25329238

Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

2014-10-20

380

Diffusion Weighted Whole Body Imaging with Background Body Signal Suppression (DWIBS): Technical Improvement Using Free Breathing, STIR and High Resolution 3D Display  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To examine a new way of body diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) using the short TI inversion recovery-echo planar imaging (STIR-EPI) sequence and free breathing scanning (diffusion weighted whole body imaging with background body signal suppression; DWIBS) to obtain three-dimensional displays. Materials and Methods: 1) Apparent contrast-to-noise ratios (AppCNR) between lymph nodes and surrounding fat tissue were compared in three

Taro Takahara; Yutaka Imai; Tomohiro Yamashita; Seiei Yasuda; Seiji Nasu; Marc Van Cauteren

381

Concurrent visuo-spatial processing reduces food cravings in prescribed weight-loss dieters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigated the relative effectiveness of thought suppression and the working memory-based method of dynamic visual noise as techniques for reducing food cravings. Twenty dieting women on the weight-loss programme prescribed by weight watchers and 20 non-dieting controls formed images of their most craved food and then suppressed thoughts of the food or watched a flickering pattern of black

Eva Kemps; Marika Tiggemann; Rebecca Christianson

2008-01-01

382

The Association between Marital Transitions, Body Mass Index, and Weight: A Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Objective. To examine the association between different marital transitions and changes in body mass index (BMI) and body weight. Methods. A systematic literature search was conducted for peer-reviewed articles published between January 1990 and December 2011. Longitudinal studies were included if they compared dependent variables, such as BMI or weight, before and after a change in marital status. Results. Twenty articles were included: 4 articles described only transitions into marriage and/or cohabitation, 2 articles described only transitions out of marriage and/or cohabitation, and 14 articles described both. Overall, transitions into marriage were associated with weight gain, whereas transitions out of marriage were associated with weight loss. No major differences were observed between genders or across specific marital transition states. Conclusions. Additional research is warranted to better understand this phenomenon and the impact of marital transitions on obesity and obesity-related behaviors. This paper highlights potential opportunities to incorporate programs, practices, and policies that aim to promote and support healthy weights and lifestyles upon entering or leaving a marriage or cohabiting relationship. PMID:23050125

Dinour, Lauren; Leung, May May; Tripicchio, Gina; Khan, Sahar; Yeh, Ming-Chin

2012-01-01

383

Factors affecting egg production, body weight, and feed efficiency, of selected strains of cage layers  

E-print Network

throughout the experiment as shown in Tables I, and VII, and illustrated in Figure 3 ~ Ths 1 hits i. egl:orna had the lowest average sgg weight of the three production stocks involved, and the Inbred Hybrid No. 2's produced eggs of intermediate weight...FACTOHS AFF:'CTING HGG I H( DUCTION BODY HHIGHT, R(D F~D L'FFI C IHNCY, OF S"-LHCTHD S". 'H el HS OF C AGH LAYHHS By KAHSHALL MIDDLETON 1AILLsH A Thesi, s Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and hieohanlca1 College of Texas...

Miller, Marshall Middleton

1956-01-01

384

Effects of Weight Cue Reactivity on Self-Report Measures of Body Dissatisfaction  

E-print Network

: Thompson Brookes/Cole. Hilbert, A., Tuschen-Caffier, B., A Vogele, C. (2002). Effects of prolonged and repeated body image exposure in binge-eating disorder. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 52(3), 137-144. Jansen, A. (1998). A learning model... of binge eating: Cue reactivity and cue exposure. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36(3), 257-272. Larsen, J. K., Ouwens, M., Engels, R. C., Eisinga, R., Strien, T. (2008). Validity of self-reported weight and height and predictors of weight bias...

Beauchamp, Marshall

2012-04-01

385

Height, weight and body mass index values of mid-19th century New York legislative officers.  

PubMed

Previous studies of mid-19th century American heights and body mass index values have used potentially unrepresentative groups-students in military academies, prisoners, and African Americans. This paper uses an alternative source with heights and weights of ordinary people employed in a wide variety of occupations. The results reveal the operation of the antebellum paradox in that average heights declined between men born circa 1820 and those born circa 1840. Average weights also declined for adult males, suggesting a decline in mid-19th century nutritional status. PMID:20061195

Bodenhorn, Howard

2010-07-01

386

Changes in physical fitness, bone mineral density and body composition during inpatient treatment of underweight and normal weight females with longstanding eating disorders.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine changes in aerobic fitness, muscular strength, bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition during inpatient treatment of underweight and normal weight patients with longstanding eating disorders (ED). Twenty-nine underweight (BMI < 18.5, n = 7) and normal weight (BMI ? 18.5, n = 22) inpatients (mean (SD) age: 31.0 (9.0) years, ED duration: 14.9 (8.8) years, duration of treatment: 16.6 (5.5) weeks) completed this prospective naturalistic study. The treatment consisted of nutritional counseling, and 2 × 60 min weekly moderate intensive physical activity in addition to psychotherapy and milieu therapy. Underweight patients aimed to increase body weight with 0.5 kg/week until the weight gain goal was reached. Aerobic fitness, muscular strength, BMD and body composition were measured at admission and discharge. Results showed an increase in mean muscular strength, total body mass, fat mass, and body fat percentage, but not aerobic capacity, among both underweight and normal weight patients. Lumbar spine BMD increased among the underweight patients, no changes were observed in BMD among the normal weight patients. Three out of seven underweight patients were still underweight at discharge, and only three out of nine patients with excessive body fat (i.e., >33%) managed to reduce body fat to normal values during treatment. These results calls for a more individualized treatment approach to achieve a more optimal body composition among both underweight and normal to overweight patients with longstanding ED. PMID:22470294

Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Martinsen, Egil W; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

2012-01-01

387

Cocaine’s Appetite for Fat and the Consequences on Body Weight  

E-print Network

Cocaine’s Appetite for Fat and the Consequences on Body Weight Billing L.1 and Ersche K.D.1,2? 1 University of Cambridge, Departments of Psychology and Psychiatry, Cambridge, U.K. 2 Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University... (0)1223 336581, e-mail: ke220@cam.ac.uk Word count: 1,909 main body and legend (excluding references), 178 abstract Reference count: 21 Number of Figures: 1 2 Abstract For many individuals in treatment for cocaine dependence...

Billing, L.; Ersche, K. D.

2014-01-01

388

Body weight and rumen-reticulum capacity in tule elk and mule deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The relationship between body size and rumen-reticulum capacity among conspecific individuals is predicted to be isometric. We examined whether the relationship between body weight and rumen-reticulum capacity was isometric in adult male and female rule elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes) and in adult female mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). We detected no effect of sex on this relationship in elk, and the slope of the regression was 1.0 for one measure of rumen-reticulum capacity and <1.0 for another. Among deer, the slope of the relationship was <1.0 in one measure of rumen-reticulum capacity, and we detected no relationship with the other.

Weckerly, F.W.; Bleich, V.C.; Chetkiewicz, C.-L.B.; Ricca, M.A.

2003-01-01

389

Weight and weddings: expectations about wedding-specific body weight and shape ideals and dieting and exercise behavior among university students.  

PubMed

Weddings are significant life events when brides and grooms often seek a culturally-defined ideal appearance. A cross-sectional survey of 275 unmarried university students assessed current weight and shape, general ideal weight and shape, desired wedding weight and shape, and expectations to diet and/or exercise when contemplating their future wedding. Results indicated that men and women conceptualize the size and scope of their wedding similarly, but wedding appearance (including weight) was more important among women than men. Few men and women idealized a wedding-specific weight and shape that differed from their general ideal weight and shape. When contemplating their future wedding day, expectations about engaging in weight control behaviors were more common among women, and exercise was preferred over dieting among both genders. These findings suggest that although weddings focus attention on body weight and shape, young adults do not have overly unrealistic body weight and shape expectations when contemplating their future wedding and generally do not construct a specific body weight and shape for their future wedding. These relationships may change as marriage becomes more salient. PMID:18928906

Neighbors, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

2008-12-01

390

Crossbreeding Dairy Cattle. II. Weights and Body Measurements of Purebred Holstein and Guernsey Females and Their Reciprocal Crossbreds1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body weights and five linear body mea- surements of reciprocal crossbred and pure- bred Holstein and Guernsey females were analyzed and compared. Weights and measurements were taken at 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, and 48 months of age. Means of the crossbreds were larger than those of the purebreds at all ages for all variables. Effects of crossbreeding

R. W. Touchberry; Ben Bereskin

1966-01-01

391

The influence of pasture distribution, and temperature on adult body weight of feral pigs in a semi-arid environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of high temperature and the distribution and abundance of pasture on variation in adult body weight of feral pigs was examined at Nocoleche Nature Reserve, semi-arid New South Wales, over the course of a drought. The influence of the pig's sex, and the mean maximum environmental temperature and pasture biomass on the adult pig's body weight, were examined.

Nick Dexter

2003-01-01

392

Matern Child Health J . Author manuscript Pre-pregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy  

E-print Network

Matern Child Health J . Author manuscript Page /1 9 Pre-pregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy: relations with gestational diabetes and hypertension, and birth outcomes Barbara Heude pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during pregnancy with pregnancy and birth outcomes

393

Parity and Body Weight in the United States: Differences by Race and Size of Place of Residence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: In women, parity has been studied in relation to body weights. This study examined whether and how relationships between parity and body weight differ by race and size of place of residence, adjusting for sociodemographic factors (age, income, education, working status, and marital status) and health behaviors (alcohol consumption, birth control pills, diet, physical activity, and smoking).Research Methods and

Soo-Kyung Lee; Jeffery Sobal; Edward A. Frongillo; Christine M. Olson; Wendy S. Wolfe

2005-01-01

394

Bingeing, Self-restriction, and Increased Body Weight in Rats With Limited Access to a Sweet-fat Diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Prior research has shown that fasting alternated with a diet of standard rodent chow and a 10% sucrose solution produces bingeing on the sucrose, but animals remain at normal body weight. The present study investigated whether restricted access to a highly palatable combination of sugar and fat, without food deprivation, would instigate binge eating and also increase body weight.Methods and

Laura A. Berner; Nicole M. Avena; Bartley G. Hoebel; Bart G. Hoebel

2008-01-01

395

Effects of maternal leptin treatment during lactation on the body weight and leptin resistance of adult offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate whether leptin treatment to lactating rats affects food intake, body weight and leptin serum concentration and its anorectic effect on their adult offspring. Lactating rats were divided into 2 groups: Lep-single injected with recombinant rat leptin (8 ?g\\/100 g of body weight, daily for the last 3 consecutive days of lactation) and control group (C) that received the

Márcia Clements Lins; Egberto Gaspar de Moura; Patrícia Cristina Lisboa; Isabela Teixeira Bonomo; Magna Cottini Fonseca Passos

2005-01-01

396

No compelling evidence that sibutramine prolongs life in rodents despite providing a dose-dependent reduction in body weight  

PubMed Central

Objective The health and longevity effects of body weight reduction resulting from exercise and caloric restriction in rodents are well known, but less is known about whether similar effects occur with weight reduction from the use of a pharmaceutical agent such as sibutramine, a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. Results & Conclusion Using data from a two-year toxicology study of sibutramine in CD rats and CD-1 mice, despite a dose-dependent reduction in food intake and body weight in rats compared to controls, and a body weight reduction in mice at the highest dose, there was no compelling evidence for reductions in mortality rate. PMID:21079617

Smith, Daniel L.; Robertson, Henry; Desmond, Renee; Nagy, Tim R.; Allison, David B.

2010-01-01

397

Perceptions of sexual assault victims/survivors: the influence of sexual history and body weight.  

PubMed

The intersection between a woman's body weight and sexual history and the victim blaming attitudes of future health care providers was investigated. University undergraduate students (N = 91) enrolled in programs associated with the provision of health care read 1 of 4 patient files of a woman reporting a rape as well as 2 distracter files. Results showed that, for overweight rape victims/survivors, study participants' antifat attitudes were correlated with victim blaming attitudes. Male participants held the attacker significantly less responsible than did female participants if the victim/survivor had several previous sexual partners. Findings suggest that body weight should be considered as a contributing factor in attitudes toward rape victims/survivors, and the gender of the health care provider can be a factor in the post-assault treatment of overweight rape victims/survivors. PMID:25774415

Gotovac, Sandra; Towson, Shelagh

2015-01-01

398

Reconceptualizing the Association between Food Insufficiency and Body Weight: Distinguishing Hunger from Economic Hardship.  

PubMed

What is the association between food insufficiency and body weight? Although common sense would suggest a negative association, research often finds the opposite. We contrast commodity theories of material privation with stress theories, proposing that the seemingly counterintuitive association results from the confounding influence of economic hardship. Because it is a chronic stressor, economic hardship may contribute to overweight. Data from the WCF project of 2,402 disadvantaged women in Chicago, Boston, and San Antonio show that people who experience economic hardship weigh more; and that the true negative association between body weight and food insufficiency-especially going hungry because one cannot afford food-is revealed only after adjustment for economic hardship. PMID:24244066

Ross, Catherine E; Hill, Terrence D

2013-01-01

399

Reconceptualizing the Association between Food Insufficiency and Body Weight: Distinguishing Hunger from Economic Hardship  

PubMed Central

What is the association between food insufficiency and body weight? Although common sense would suggest a negative association, research often finds the opposite. We contrast commodity theories of material privation with stress theories, proposing that the seemingly counterintuitive association results from the confounding influence of economic hardship. Because it is a chronic stressor, economic hardship may contribute to overweight. Data from the WCF project of 2,402 disadvantaged women in Chicago, Boston, and San Antonio show that people who experience economic hardship weigh more; and that the true negative association between body weight and food insufficiency—especially going hungry because one cannot afford food—is revealed only after adjustment for economic hardship. PMID:24244066

Ross, Catherine E.; Hill, Terrence D.

2013-01-01

400

Alcohol consumption patterns, diet and body weight in 10 European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/objectives:Europe has the highest level of alcohol consumption in the world. As drinking patterns are important determinants of the beneficial and harmful effects of alcohol consumption, we investigated alcohol consumption in relation to nutrient intake, place of consumption, education and body weight in a sample of adults from 10 European countries.Methods:A 24-h dietary recall interview was conducted on 13 025

S Sieri; V Krogh; C Saieva; D E Grobbee; M Bergmann; S Rohrmann; A Tjřnneland; P Ferrari; Y Chloptsios; V Dilis; M Jenab; J Linseisen; P Wallström; I Johansson; M D Chirlaque; M J Sanchez; M Niravong; F Clavel-Chapelon; A A Welch; N E Allen; H B Bueno-de-Mesquita; Y T van der Schouw; C Sacerdote; S Panico; C L Parr; T Braaten; A Olsen; M K Jensen; S Bingham; E Riboli; N Slimani

2009-01-01

401

Effects of Silage Based Diets on Feed Intake, Milk Production, and Body Weight of Dairy Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dairy cattle were assigned uniformly to three forage treatments by lactation number (mean -- 2.2) to compare intake, production, and body weight changes over three lactations. Forage treatments were corn silage ad libitum, corn silage restricted plus hay-crop silage, or hay ad libitum. Concentrate treatments, two pre- partum and two peak-lactation, were eval- uated also. Intakes for the three forage

R. L. Belyea; C. E. Coppock; W. G. Merrill; S. T. Slack

1975-01-01

402

Body weight supported treadmill training in acute spinal cord injury: impact on muscle and bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design:Longitudinal prospective case series.Objective:To evaluate the impact of early introduction postspinal cord injury (SCI) of twice-weekly body-weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) on muscle and bone.Setting:Centre for Health Promotion and Rehabilitation, McMaster University, Canada.Methods:Five individuals who had sustained traumatic SCI within 2–6 months participated in the study. Bone mineral densities (BMD) of proximal femur, distal femur, proximal tibia and lumbar spine

L M Giangregorio; A L Hicks; C E Webber; S M Phillips; B C Craven; J M Bugaresti; N McCartney

2005-01-01

403

Body weight and obesity in adults and self-reported abuse in childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Little is known about childhood factors and adult obesity. A previous study found a strong association between childhood neglect and obesity in young adults.OBJECTIVE: To estimate associations between self-reported abuse in childhood (sexual, verbal, fear of physical abuse and physical) adult body weight, and risk of obesity.DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study with surveys during 1995–1997.PATIENTS: A total of 13 177

DF Williamson; TJ Thompson; RF Anda; WH Dietz; V Felitti

2002-01-01

404

Nonadditive genetic effects and inbreeding depression for body weight in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

For four sub-populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Norway, additive, dominance and additive by additive genetic variances and inbreeding depression were estimated for body weight at slaughter after two years in sea-water. The data used were from a hierarchical mating design, in which each sire was mated with two to seven dams. In each generation, 104 to 206 full-sib

M. Rye; I. L. Mao

1998-01-01

405

Dynamic modeling of methylprednisolone effects on body weight and glucose regulation in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influences of methylprednisolone (MPL) and food consumption on body weight (BW), and the effects of MPL on glycemic control\\u000a including food consumption and the dynamic interactions among glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids (FFA) were evaluated\\u000a in normal male Wistar rats. Six groups of animals received either saline or MPL via subcutaneous infusions at the rate of\\u000a 0.03, 0.1, 0.2,

Jing Fang; Debra C. DuBois; Yang He; Richard R. Almon; William J. Jusko

2011-01-01

406

Liquid versus solid carbohydrate: effects on food intake and body weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Beverages are contributing an increased proportion of energy to the diet. Because they elicit a weak compensatory dietary response, they may increase risk of positive energy balance.OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to document the differential effects of matched liquid and solid carbohydrate loads on diet and body weight.DESIGN: In a cross-over design, seven males and eight females consumed dietary carbohydrate

DP DiMeglio

2000-01-01

407

Body weight is modulated by levels of full-length Huntingtin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huntington disease is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine tract within the Huntingtin (htt) protein. Wild-type htt has been shown to be involved in tran- scription, transport and cell survival. Here, we demonstrate that increased expression of full-length wild-type htt in mice is associated with a dose-dependent increase in body weight which results

Jeremy M. Van Raamsdonk; William T. Gibson; Jacqueline Pearson; Zoe Murphy; Ge Lu; Blair R. Leavitt; Michael R. Hayden

2006-01-01

408

Body weights and fat deposition of Palaearctic passerine migrants in the central Sahara  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Data on body weight, fat score and length of stopover of Palaearctic passerine migrants trapped at two sites in the central Algerian Sahara in autumn 1983 are presented.2.Birds found grounded in oases were in good condition. They were not critically short of fat reserves.3.Some of the migrant species found there have probably terminated their migration whereas other species do only

Franz Bairlein

1985-01-01

409

A Physiological Role of Breast Milk Leptin in Body Weight Control in Developing Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Leptin, a hormone that regulates food intake and energy metabolism, is present in breast milk. The aim of this study was to determine whether milk leptin concentration is correlated with maternal circulating leptin and BMI and with body weight gain of infants.Research Methods and Procedures: A group of 28 non-obese women (BMI between 16.3 and 27.3 kg\\/m2) who breast-fed

Olga Miralles; Juana Sánchez; Andreu Palou; Catalina Picó

2006-01-01

410

Comparison of Moringa oleifera Leaves Extract with Atenolol on Serum triglyceride, Serum Cholesterol, Blood glucose, heart weight, body weight in Adrenaline Induced Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research work was investigated to compare the effects of Moringa oleifera with atenolol on serum cholesterol level, serum triglyceride level, blood glucose level, heart weight and body weight of adrenaline induced rats (AIR) in a crossover design. The pharmacologically active components responsible for above-mentioned activities were isolated from plant using bioassay guided purification approach and the structures of the

Naznin Ara; Mamunur Rashid

411

Optimizing body contour in massive weight loss patients: the modified vertical abdominoplasty.  

PubMed

In morbid obesity, contour deformities of the abdomen are common after bariatric surgery and radical weight loss. Traditional abdominoplasty techniques often fail to maximally improve body contour in these cases because adjacent sites such as the hip rolls and flanks are not treated, leaving the patient with large lateral tissue redundancies and dog-ears. In an attempt to solve these challenging problems, the authors present the modified vertical abdominoplasty technique, a single-stage procedure that involves a combined vertical and transverse approach in which an "en bloc" resection of the redundant tissues is performed without undermining, drainage, or reinforcement of the abdominal wall. The latter is only carried out when diastasis and/or hernias are present, and Marlex mesh may be utilized when indicated. In patients with simultaneous large umbilical hernias and/or excessively long stalks, neoumbilicoplasty is recommended. A significant improvement of abdominal contour was obtained in the vast majority of patients because the resection design offers simultaneous treatment of both vertical and transverse tissue redundancies in the abdomen and neighboring regions, with more harmonic results when compared with purely vertical or transverse approaches. The modified vertical abdominoplasty technique is an easy, fast, and reliable alternative for treating these patients, with less intraoperative bleeding, reduced overall cost, and low morbidity rates. In selected cases, the technique is capable of offering excellent results in terms of contouring and maximizes the overall outcome of treatment protocols for these patients, who can then be integrated into normal life with heightened self-esteem, happiness, and productivity. PMID:15577368

Costa, Luiz Fernando da; Landecker, Alan; Manta, Anísio Marinho

2004-12-01