Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide, with increasing prevalence in adults and children, and authorities view it as one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century. Sixty-two percent of the Hungarian adult population has overweight and 27% is morbidly obese and, therefore, it is a significant interest to treat this condition. The authors review the diagnosis and the associated diseases of morbid obesity. The initial enthusiasm with the gastric band has settled now, as the long-term outcome showed only very limited reduction in the excess body weight and the complication rate was as high as 50%. The sleeve gastrectomy may induce 60-70% of excess weight loss, however, the long term follow-up data is very limited. The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the gold-standard of the bariatric procedures, with proven 60-75% excess weight loss and 80% type 2 diabetes remission. The body image usually changes with weight loss, and frequently a body contouring procedure is required to improve it. Multi-disciplinary team of super-specialised doctors is required to perform these procedures. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(25), 971-977. PMID:24936572
Vasas, Péter; Pór, Ferenc
Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice. PMID:24456165
Parlee, Sebastian D; Simon, Becky R; Scheller, Erica L; Alejandro, Emilyn U; Learman, Brian S; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; MacDougald, Ormond A
Objective. The effect of oral boric acid intake on reducing body weight has been previously demonstrated although the mechanism has been unclear. This research study reveals the mechanism. Subjects. Twelve mice were used, in groups of six each in the control and study groups. For five days, control group mice drank standard tap water while during the same time period the study group mice drank tap water which contains 0.28?mg/250?mL boric acid. After a 5-day period, gene expression levels for uncoupling proteins (UCPs) in the white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle tissue (SMT) and total body weight changes were analyzed. Results. Real time PCR analysis revealed no significant change in UCP3 expressions, but UCP2 in WAT (P: 0.0317), BAT (P: 0.014), and SMT (P: 0.0159) and UCP1 in BAT (P: 0.026) were overexpressed in the boric acid group. In addition, mice in the boric acid group lost body weight (mean 28.1%) while mice in the control group experienced no weight loss but a slight weight gain (mean 0.09%, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Oral boric acid intake causes overexpression of thermogenic proteins in the adipose and skeletal muscle tissues. Increasing thermogenesis through UCP protein pathway results in the accelerated lipolysis and body weight loss.
Aysan, Erhan; Telci, Dilek; Erdem, Merve; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut; Yard?mc?, Erkan; Bektasoglu, Huseyin
Background & Aims Gastric injections of botulinum toxin A (BTA) have been reported to delay gastric emptying, increase satiation, and reduce body weight, but there are few data from randomized, placebo-controlled studies. Methods We enrolled 60 obese participants in a 24-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, concealed allocation trial to compare the effects of gastric antral injections of BTA (100 U, 300 U, or 500 U) and saline placebo. The study was conducted at an outpatient clinical research unit. Participants were given one set of injections of BTA or placebo into the gastric antral muscularis propria, using endoscopic ultrasound guidance. Gastric emptying of solids (GES) was measured by scintigraphy; we also measured body weight, satiation (maximum tolerated volume in a caloric liquid drink test), calorie intake (by food frequency questionnaire), gastrointestinal symptoms, and psychologic aspects of eating behavior (by rating scale). Results Compared with baseline values, 2 weeks after injections, the mean t1/2 for GES increased by 0.8, 14, 24, and 14 minutes among subjects given placebo, 100 U, 300 U, or 500 U of BTA, respectively (P=.24 overall, P=.04 for the group given 300 U vs placebo); 16 weeks after the injections, mean body weights were reduced by 2.2, 0.2, 2.3, and 3.0 kg in these groups, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in mean body weight change, satiation volume, caloric intake, gastrointestinal symptoms, or psychological aspects of eating behavior among groups. Conclusions Gastric antral injections of BTA may delay gastric emptying at a dose of 300 U, but do not cause early satiety, altered eating behaviors, or loss of body weight. Clinicaltrials. gov identifier: NCT00976443
Topazian, Mark; Camilleri, Michael; Enders, Felicity T.; Clain, Jonathan E.; Gleeson, Ferga C.; Levy, Michael J.; Rajan, Elizabeth; Nehra, Vandana; Dierkhising, Ross A.; Collazo-Clavell, Maria L.; Talley, Nicholas J.; Clark, Matthew M.
We showed previously that, at ambient room temperature (22°C), mice maintained at 20% below their initial body weight by calorie restriction expend energy at a rate below that which can be accounted for by the decrease of fat and fat-free mass. Food-restricted rodents may become torpid at subthermoneutral temperatures, a possible confounding factor when using mice as human models in obesity research. We examined the bioenergetic, hormonal, and behavioral responses to maintenance of a 20% body weight reduction in singly housed C57BL/6J +/+ and Lep(ob) mice housed at both 22°C and 30°C. Weight-reduced high-fat-fed diet mice (HFD-WR) showed similar quantitative reductions in energy expenditure-adjusted for body mass and composition-at both 22°C and 30°C: -1.4 kcal/24 h and -1.6 kcal/24 h below predicted, respectively, and neither group entered torpor. In contrast, weight-reduced Lep(ob) mice (OB-WR) housed at 22°C became torpid in the late lights-off period (0200-0500) but did not when housed at 30°C. These studies indicate that mice with an intact leptin axis display similar decreases in "absolute" energy expenditure in response to weight reduction at both 22°C and 30°C ambient temperature. More importantly, the "percent" decrease in total energy expenditure observed in the HFD-WR compared with AL mice is much greater at 30°C (-19%) than at 22°C (-10%). Basal energy expenditure demands are ?45% lower in mice housed at 30°C vs. 22°C, since the mice housed at thermoneutrality do not allocate extra energy for heat production. The higher total energy expenditure of mice housed at 22°C due to these increased thermogenic demands may mask physiologically relevant changes in energy expenditure showing that ambient temperature must be carefully considered when quantifying energy metabolism in both rodents and humans. PMID:22761182
Ravussin, Yann; LeDuc, Charles A; Watanabe, Kazuhisa; Leibel, Rudolph L
Objectives Previous studies demonstrated increased levels of cysteine proteases cathepsins in serum and adipose tissues from obese patients. We now provide evidence from a mouse model of obesity to suggest a direct participation of cathepsin K (CatK) in mouse body weight gain and glucose metabolism. Methods and Results Using real-time PCR, we detected 12-fold increase in CatK transcripts after adipogenesis of human preadipocytes. Using an immunohistology analysis, we consistently observed high levels of CatK expression in adipose tissues from obese humans and mice. Selective inhibition of CatK activity blocked the lipid accumulation in human and mouse preadipocytes. In mice, CatK deficiency reduced significantly diet-induced body weight gain and serum glucose and insulin levels. Similar results were obtained in diet-induced and genetically created (ob/ob) obese mice after animals were treated with a CatK-selective inhibitor. Mechanistic study demonstrated a role for CatK in degrading fibronectin, a matrix protein that controls adipogenesis. Deficiency or inhibition of CatK leads to fibronectin accumulation in muscle and adipose tissues. Conclusion This study demonstrates an essential role of CatK in adipogenesis and mouse body weight gain, possibly via degradation of fibronectin, thus suggesting a novel therapeutic strategy for the control of obesity by regulating CatK activity.
Yang, Min; Sun, Jiusong; Zhang, Tinghu; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Jie; Shi, Michael A.; Darakhshan, Froogh; Guerre-Millo, Michele; Clement, Karine; Gelb, Bruce D.; Dolgnov, Gregory; Shi, Guo-Ping
Combination therapy is being increasingly used as a treatment paradigm for metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. In the peptide therapeutics realm, recent work has highlighted the therapeutic potential of chimeric peptides that act on two distinct receptors, thereby harnessing parallel complementary mechanisms to induce additive or synergistic benefit compared to monotherapy. Here, we extend this hypothesis by linking a known anti-diabetic peptide with an anti-obesity peptide into a novel peptide hybrid, which we termed a phybrid. We report on the synthesis and biological activity of two such phybrids (AC164204 and AC164209), comprised of a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1-R) agonist, and exenatide analog, AC3082, covalently linked to a second generation amylin analog, davalintide. Both molecules acted as full agonists at their cognate receptors in vitro, albeit with reduced potency at the calcitonin receptor indicating slightly perturbed amylin agonism. In obese diabetic Lepob/Lepob mice sustained infusion of AC164204 and AC164209 reduced glucose and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) equivalently but induced greater weight loss relative to exenatide administration alone. Weight loss was similar to that induced by combined administration of exenatide and davalintide. In diet-induced obese rats, both phybrids dose-dependently reduced food intake and body weight to a greater extent than exenatide or davalintide alone, and equal to co-infusion of exenatide and davalintide. Phybrid-mediated and exenatide + davalintide-mediated weight loss was associated with reduced adiposity and preservation of lean mass. These data are the first to provide in vivo proof-of-concept for multi-pathway targeting in metabolic disease via a peptide hybrid, demonstrating that this approach is as effective as co-administration of individual peptides.
Trevaskis, James L.; Mack, Christine M.; Sun, Chengzao; Soares, Christopher J.; D'Souza, Lawrence J.; Levy, Odile E.; Lewis, Diane Y.; Jodka, Carolyn M.; Tatarkiewicz, Krystyna; Gedulin, Bronislava; Gupta, Swati; Wittmer, Carrie; Hanley, Michael; Forood, Bruce; Parkes, David G.; Ghosh, Soumitra S.
Scutellaria baicalensis has been extensively employed for the clinical treatment of hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, hypertension, dysentery, inflammatory diseases, and the common cold. The present study was performed to investigate the anti-obesity and anti-dyslipidemia effect of Scutellaria baicalensis extracts (SBE) in type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Male db/db mice were divided into three groups (n?=?5) and orally administrated vehicle (control), SBE 10, and 100?mg/kg body weight/day for 4?weeks everyday. Administration of SBE improves weight gain, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperinsulinemia in db/db mice. In obese db/db mice, SBE treatment also reduced plasma alanine aminotransferase levels. In the livers of db/db mice, SBE promoted 5' AMP-activated protein kinase activity and restored metabolic process and insulin signaling pathways. Our data demonstrate that SBE exerts potent anti-obesity and anti-hypertriglyceride effects suggesting its useful potential function as adjuvant therapeutic agent for the treatment of weight gain and hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:22532505
Song, Kwang Hoon; Lee, Sun Hwa; Kim, Bu-Yeo; Park, Ah Yeon; Kim, Jong Yeol
Objective:The incidence of obesity and overweight in the US has increased considerably during the past two decades and currently affects 65% of the adult population. Research has indicated that small, yet irreversible, gains during the holiday season contribute to increases in weight during adulthood. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a naturally occurring dietary fatty acid, has been found to reduce weight
A C Watras; A C Buchholz; R N Close; Z Zhang; D A Schoeller
Diabetes is a serious chronic metabolic disease and has a significant impact on patients' lives and the health care system. We previously observed that the organic solvent extract of American ginseng berry possessed significant antidiabetic effects in obese diabetic ob/ob mice after intraperitoneal injection. If American ginseng berry is useful as a dietary supplement, simple preparation and oral intake would be a convenient, safe, and practical means for consumers. In this study, the simply prepared berry juice was first analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography, and then administered orally in the ob/ob mice. The animals received daily berry juice 0.6 mL/kg or vehicle for 10 consecutive days. The results indicated that oral juice administration significantly lowered fasting blood glucose levels, and this effect continued for at least 10 d after cessation of the treatment. Data from intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test demonstrated that there was a notable improvement in glucose tolerance in the juice treated group. In addition, the berry juice significantly reduced body weight. Our data suggest that ginseng berry juice, as a dietary supplement, may have functional efficacy in consumers with diabetes. PMID:17995625
Xie, J T; Wang, C Z; Ni, M; Wu, J A; Mehendale, S R; Aung, H H; Foo, A; Yuan, C S
Objective:The objective of this study was to determine the effects of disodium ascorbyl phytostanyl phosphate (DAPP), a novel hydrophilic phytostanol analogue, on energy homeostasis, including body weight and intestinal energy absorption, and plasma triglyceride concentrations, in hamsters.Methods:Male Golden Syrian hamsters (n=50) were fed for 5 weeks with experimental diets varying in cholesterol and phytostanol content. Diets included (i) non-cholesterol (semipurified
N Ebine; I Demonty; X Jia; P J H Jones; PJH Jones
Recent research has shown that food deprivation increases drug self-administration in rats and rhesus monkeys. The purpose of the present study was to examine two variables related to this food-deprivation effect: maintenance of rats at reduced body weights and the absence of food. Etonitazene HCl was established as a reinforcer orally for 12 rats according to procedures previously used in
Marilyn E. Carroll; Richard A. Meisch
tert-Butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) is a commonly used antioxidant additive that is approved for human use by both the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization (FAO/WHO). In this study, we examined the effect of tBHQ on body weight gain and found that food supplementation with 0.001 % (w/w) tBHQ inhibited 61.4 % (P < 0.01) of body weight gain in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced C57BL/6 mice, and the oral administration of tBHQ (1.5 mg/kg) reduced 47.5 % (P < 0.05) of body weight gain in normal diet fed db/db mice. The HFD increased lipid deposit in adipocytes, but these were reduced significantly by tBHQ treatment in C57BL/6 mice. tBHQ supplementation significantly lowered the plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol, with reduced size of accumulated fat mass. The rate limiting enzyme of beta-oxidation (ACOX1) was significantly over-expressed in the liver with tBHQ treatment. These results indicate that tBHQ suppresses body weight gain in mice, possibly at least related to the up-regulation of ACOX1 gene expression. PMID:23585332
Nam, Kung-Woo; Kim, Yong Hyun; Kwon, Hyun Jung; Rhee, Sang-Ki; Kim, Wan-Jong; Han, Man-Deuk
Various forms of fermented soybean products are well documented for their health benefits. The efficacy of anti-obesogenic effect of Doenjang, one of the most commonly used seasonings in Korean cuisine, has been reported only in animal models; thus, an evaluation of Doenjang needs to be conducted in human studies. We aimed to test the hypothesis that Doenjang supplementation reduces body weight and changes body composition in overweight adults. A total of 51 overweight adults participated in this study. A group of males with BMI ? 23 kg/m2 and waist to hip ratio (WHR) ? 0.90, and a group of females with BMI ? 23 kg/m2 and WHR ? 0.85 were randomly assigned to either a Doenjang supplement (9.9 g dry/day) group or a placebo group for a 12-week randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study. Anthropometric parameters, abdominal fat distribution by computerized tomography (CT) and blood components were measured before and after the intervention period. After the 12-week study, the Doenjang supplementation group had significant reductions in body weight (kg), body fat mass (kg) and body fat (%) compared to the placebo group, the supplementation of Doenjang resulted in a significant reduction in visceral fat (cm2), although no changes were observed in total and subcutaneous fat are as (cm2), serum lipid profiles and dietary intakes. The present study demonstrated that daily supplementation of 9.9 g dry/day of Doenjang for 12 weeks reduces body weight and visceral fat in overweight adults.
Yang, Ji-Ae; Back, Hyang-Im; Kim, Soo-Ran; Kim, Min-Gul; Jung, Su-Jin; Song, Won O; Chae, Soo-Wan
Defatted soybean flour (DSF) can sorb and concentrate blueberry anthocyanins and other polyphenols, but not sugars. In this study blueberry polyphenol-enriched DSF (BB-DSF) or DSF were incorporated into very high fat diet (VHFD) formulations and provided ad libitum to obese and hyperglycemic C57BL/6 mice for 13 weeks to investigate anti-diabetic effects. Compared to the VHFD containing DSF, the diet supplemented with BB-DSF reduced weight gain by 5.6%, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered fasting blood glucose levels in mice within 7 weeks of intervention. Serum cholesterol of mice consuming the BB-DSF-supplemented diet was 13.2% lower than mice on the diet containing DSF. Compounds were eluted from DSF and BB-DSF for in vitro assays of glucose production and uptake. Compared to untreated control, doses of BB-DSF eluate containing 0.05 – 10 ?g/?L of blueberry anthocyanins significantly reduced glucose production by 24% - 74% in H4IIE rat hepatocytes, but did not increase glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. The results indicate that delivery of blueberry polyphenols stabilized in a high-protein food matrix may be useful for the dietary management of pre-diabetes and/or diabetes.
Roopchand, Diana E.; Kuhn, Peter; Rojo, Leonel E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya
It is well founded that ground contact time is the crucial part of sprinting because the available time window to apply force to the ground diminishes with growing running velocity. In view of this knowledge, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of body-weight support during full-effort sprints on ground contact time and selected stride parameters in 19 Austrian male elite sprinters. A kite with a lifting effect combined with a towing system to erase drag was used. The subjects performed flying 20-m sprints under 3 conditions: (a) free sprint; (b) body-weight supported sprint-normal speed (BWS-NS); and (c) body-weight supported sprint-overspeed (BWS-OS). Sprint cycle characteristics were recorded during the high-speed phase by an optical acquisition system. Additionally, running velocity was derived from the 20-m sprint time. Compared with the fastest free sprint, running velocity, step length, and step frequency remained unchanged during BWS-NS, whereas ground contact time decreased (-5.80%), and air time increased (+5.79%) (both p < 0.001). Throughout, BWS-OS ground contact time (-7.66%) was reduced, whereas running velocity (+2.72%), air time (+4.92%), step length (+1.98%) (all p < 0.001), and step frequency (+1.05%; p < 0.01) increased. Compared with BWS-NS, BWS-OS caused an increase in running velocity (+3.33%), step length (+1.92%) (both p < 0.001), and step frequency (+1.37%; p < 0.01), whereas ground contact time was diminished (-1.97%; p < 0.001). In summary, sprinting with a body-weight supporting kite appeared to be a highly specific method to simulate an advanced performance level, indicated by higher running velocities requiring reduced ground contact times. The additional application of an overspeed condition led to a further reduction of ground contact time. Therefore, we recommend body-weight supported sprinting as an additional tool in sprint training. PMID:22744303
Kratky, Sascha; Müller, Erich
With the increase in obesity related diseases there is heightened interest in mechanisms regulating body weight. To assess the influence of increases in body weight on energy expenditure and intake in rats we employed variable levels of gravity. Our approach afforded the means to measure interactions of energy expenditure and intake in response to increases in body weight (body mass x gravity level). We found a dose relationship between rapid elevation of body weight and reduction of voluntary movement, such that the energy requirements for activity are unchanged, and total energy expenditure and intake maintained. Reduction of movement appears to be a response to increased body weight, rather than a contributing factor, suggesting a new regulatory pathway.
Wade, C. E.; Moran, M. M.; Stein, T. P.; Sin, Sidney (Technical Monitor)
Lack of compensatory or even reduced food intake is frequently observed in weight-losing cancer patients and contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. Our previous work has shown increased transcription factor expression in the hypothalamus and ventral striatum of anorectic rats bearing small tumors. mRNA expression of molecules known to be involved in pathways regulating appetite in these structures was therefore assessed in this study. Given that pain, pro-inflammatory cytokines and metabolic hormones can modify food intake, spinal cord cellular activation patterns and plasma concentrations of cytokines and hormones were also studied. Morris hepatoma 7777 cells injected subcutaneously in Buffalo rats provoked a 10% lower body weight and 15% reduction in food intake compared to free-feeding tumor-free animals 4 weeks later when the tumor represented 1-2% of body mass. No differences in spinal cord activation patterns or plasma concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines were observed between groups. However, the changes in plasma ghrelin and leptin concentrations found in food-restricted weight-matched rats in comparison to ad libitum-fed animals did not occur in anorectic tumor-bearing animals. Real-time PCR showed that tumor-bearing rats did not display the increase in hypothalamic agouti-related peptide mRNA observed in food-restricted weight-matched animals. In addition, microarray analysis and real-time PCR revealed increased ventral striatal prostaglandin D synthase expression in food-restricted animals compared to anorectic tumor-bearing rats. These findings indicate that blunted hypothalamic AgRP mRNA expression, probably as a consequence of relatively high leptin and low ghrelin concentrations, and reduced ventral striatal prostaglandin D synthesis play a role in maintaining cancer-associated anorexia. PMID:21334429
Pourtau, Line; Leemburg, Susan; Roux, Pascale; Leste-Lasserre, Thierry; Costaglioli, Patricia; Garbay, Bertrand; Drutel, Guillaume; Konsman, Jan Pieter
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) are involved in the regulation of numerous physiological functions. Therefore, GPCR variants may have conferred important selective advantages during periods of human evolution. Indeed, several genomic loci with signatures of recent selection in humans contain GPCR genes among them the X-chromosomally located gene for GPR82. This gene encodes a so-called orphan GPCR with unknown function. To address the functional relevance of GPR82 gene-deficient mice were characterized. GPR82-deficient mice were viable, reproduced normally, and showed no gross anatomical abnormalities. However, GPR82-deficient mice have a reduced body weight and body fat content associated with a lower food intake. Moreover, GPR82-deficient mice showed decreased serum triacylglyceride levels, increased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, most pronounced under Western diet. Because there were no differences in respiratory and metabolic rates between wild-type and GPR82-deficient mice our data suggest that GPR82 function influences food intake and, therefore, energy and body weight balance. GPR82 may represent a thrifty gene most probably representing an advantage during human expansion into new environments.
Teupser, Daniel; Holdt, Lesca Miriam; Tonjes, Anke; Kern, Matthias; Dietrich, Kerstin; Kovacs, Peter; Krugel, Ute; Scheidt, Holger A.; Schiller, Jurgen; Huster, Daniel; Brockmann, Gudrun A.; Augustin, Martin; Thiery, Joachim; Bluher, Matthias; Stumvoll, Michael; Schoneberg, Torsten; Schulz, Angela
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) are involved in the regulation of numerous physiological functions. Therefore, GPCR variants may have conferred important selective advantages during periods of human evolution. Indeed, several genomic loci with signatures of recent selection in humans contain GPCR genes among them the X-chromosomally located gene for GPR82. This gene encodes a so-called orphan GPCR with unknown function. To address the functional relevance of GPR82 gene-deficient mice were characterized. GPR82-deficient mice were viable, reproduced normally, and showed no gross anatomical abnormalities. However, GPR82-deficient mice have a reduced body weight and body fat content associated with a lower food intake. Moreover, GPR82-deficient mice showed decreased serum triacylglyceride levels, increased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, most pronounced under Western diet. Because there were no differences in respiratory and metabolic rates between wild-type and GPR82-deficient mice our data suggest that GPR82 function influences food intake and, therefore, energy and body weight balance. GPR82 may represent a thrifty gene most probably representing an advantage during human expansion into new environments. PMID:22216272
Engel, Kathrin M Y; Schröck, Kristin; Teupser, Daniel; Holdt, Lesca Miriam; Tönjes, Anke; Kern, Matthias; Dietrich, Kerstin; Kovacs, Peter; Krügel, Ute; Scheidt, Holger A; Schiller, Jürgen; Huster, Daniel; Brockmann, Gudrun A; Augustin, Martin; Thiery, Joachim; Blüher, Matthias; Stumvoll, Michael; Schöneberg, Torsten; Schulz, Angela
A system and method for passive hypoxic training provides a person with a low oxygen (hypoxic) environment. Oxygen sensors automatically monitor and control oxygen levels to maintain the altitude desired. CO.sub.2 levels are monitored and CO.sub.2 is eliminated so that the air a person breathes is substantially clean and fresh. Exposure to a high altitude environment produces physiological changes in a person's body, which becomes more efficient at absorbing and transporting oxygen. Using the present method and system, athletes obtain the benefits of sleeping at a simulated altitude in the user's own home for six to twelve hours, rather than traditional altitude therapies in which athletes spend two to three weeks at high altitude before an athletic competition to obtain similar benefits. This system allows for "live high train low" altitude training that has been shown in controlled studies to provide superior benefits to "live high train high" training.
Background and Purpose Prokineticin 2 (PK2) has recently been shown to acutely reduce food intake in rodents. We aimed to determine the CNS sites and receptors that mediate the anorectic effects of peripherally administered PK2 and its chronic effects on glucose and energy homeostasis. Experimental Approach We investigated neuronal activation following i.p. administration of PK2 using c-Fos-like immunoreactivity (CFL-IR). The anorectic effect of PK2 was examined in mice with targeted deletion of either prokineticin receptor 1 (PKR1) or prokineticin receptor 2 (PKR2), and in wild-type mice following administration of the PKR1 antagonist, PC1. The effect of IP PK2 administration on glucose homeostasis was investigated. Finally, the effect of long-term administration of PK2 on glucose and energy homeostasis in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice was determined. Key Results I.p. PK2 administration significantly increased CFL-IR in the dorsal motor vagal nucleus of the brainstem. The anorectic effect of PK2 was maintained in mice lacking the PKR2 but abolished in mice lacking PKR1 and in wild-type mice pre-treated with PC1. DIO mice treated chronically with PK2 had no changes in glucose levels but significantly reduced food intake and body weight compared to controls. Conclusions and Implications Together, our data suggest that the anorectic effects of peripherally administered PK2 are mediated via the brainstem and this effect requires PKR1 but not PKR2 signalling. Chronic administration of PK2 reduces food intake and body weight in a mouse model of human obesity, suggesting that PKR1-selective agonists have potential to be novel therapeutics for the treatment of obesity.
Beale, KEL; Gardiner, JV; Bewick, GA; Hostomska, K; Patel, NA; Hussain, SS; Jayasena, CN; Ebling, FJP; Jethwa, PH; Prosser, HM; Lattanzi, R; Negri, L; Ghatei, MA; Bloom, SR; Dhillo, WS
In beef cows, reduced energy intake delays first ovulation postpartum and is associated with lesser insulin, IGF-I and leptin concentrations. However, the close relationship among these hormones mask their individual roles in the reinitiation of ovarian activity. A ?-adrenergic receptor agonist (?AR) was used to increase body condition score (BCS) and yet reduce body fat and leptin serum concentration to determine the specific role of leptin in the postpartum ovarian activity. Beef cows (n=77) with BCS 3.1 ± 1.4 received 2 kg/day of feed containing 0 or 0.15 mg/kg of zilpaterol (a synthethic ?AR), for 33 days. Estrus was induced with a progestin implant applied for 9 d and cows in estrus were bred by artificial insemination (AI). Zilpaterol administration increased (P<0.05) daily weight gain, muscle depth and BCS, with no changes in back fat depth, reducing fat to muscle ratio (P<0.05). At the time of AI, insulin (38%) and IGF-I (26%) concentrations were less in zilpaterol-treated cows (P<0.05), but leptin concentration was unaffected. Ovulation rate and animal with luteal activity after estrus induction were also reduced by 35% (P=0.05) and 56.5% (P=0.007), respectively, in zilpaterol-treated cows. Logistic regression estimates for BCS (P=0.016) and IGF-I concentration (P=0.03) were positively related with the occurrence of luteal activity. In addition, whilst back fat (P=0.009) had a positive effect on luteal activity, leptin concentration did not show a significant relationship. In conclusion, despite an increase in body weight and a positive change in BCS, the reduction in insulin and IGF-I concentrations, associated with ?AR treatment, reduced the response to induction of estrus. However only IGF-I, but not leptin or insulin, significantly influenced the odds for the occurrence of luteal activity after estrous induction in cattle with poor BCS. PMID:22277845
Guzmán, A; Gonzalez-Padilla, E; Garcés-Yépez, P; Rosete-Fernandez, J V; Calderón-Robles, R C; Murcia, C; Gutiérrez, C G
Studies spanning the gravity continuum from 0 to 2-g are revealing new insights into how mammalian reproduction and development may proceed in the microgravity of space. Rat pups reared from either conception or midgestation in hypergravity (hg) weigh 6-15% less than 1-g controls. In the present study we analyzed maternal and pup factors that may account for reduced body weight of hg reared pups. Beginning on Gestational day (G)11 of the rats' 22 day pregnancy, rat dams and their litters were continuously exposed to either 1.5-g, 1.75-g or 2.0-g. Prolaction (Prl) and oxytocin (OT) were measured in hg-exposed dams during either pregnancy (G20) or lactation (Postnatal day [P] 10). Gravity related differences in Prl were not observed whereas OT was depressed during lactation in hg dams relative to controls (p less than 0.05). Milk transfer measured during a discrete suckling episode was actually increased in hg-reared litters and comparable numbers of milk-letdowns were observed in the two conditions. Recent reports using dwarfing phenotypes in mouse mutants have provided evidence for postnatal dependence on growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). Plasma GH measured in P10 pups using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was significantly elevated in hg pups relative to 1-g controls (mean +/- sd., ng/ml: 2.0-g, 10.6 [3.0], 1.5-g 8.9 [4.0], 1.0-g, 7.95 [3.1]). Together, these findings suggest that neither milk production, milk transfer nor pup GH play significant roles in reduced body weights of hg-reared pups. Studies underway are focused on insulin-like growth factors.
Bear, L. A.; Chowdhury, J. H.; Grindeland, R. E.; Wade, C. E.; Ronca, A. E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)
Background. Weight-loss behaviours are highly prevalent among adolescents, and body weight perception motivates weight control practices. However, little is known about the association of body weight perception, and weight control practices among teenagers in Mauritius. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between actual body weight, body weight perception, and weight control practices among teenagers. Methods. A questionnaire-based survey was used to collect data on anthropometric measurements, weight perception and weight control practices from a sample of 180 male and female students (90 boys and 90 girls) aged between 13 and 18 years old. Results. Based on BMI, 11.7% of students were overweight. Overall, 43.3% of respondents reported trying to lose weight (61.1% girls and 25.6% boys). Weight-loss behaviours were more prevalent among girls. Among the weight-loss teens, 88.5% students perceived themselves as overweight even though only 19.2% were overweight. Reducing fat intake (84.6%), exercising (80.8%), and increasing intake of fruits and vegetables (73.1%) and decreasing intake of sugar (66.7%) were the most commonly reported methods to lose weight. Conclusion. Body weight perception was poorly associated with actual weight status. Gender difference was observed in body weight perception.
Weight loss and malnutrition are major problems in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In adults, low body mass index (BMI) is a predictor for mortality; however, weight loss and BMI have not been studied in pediatric chronic GVHD. A retrospective study on 18 children with extensive chronic GVHD was completed. Median age at SCT was 12.3 (range 0.6–23) years;
B Browning; K Thormann; R Seshadri; R Duerst; M Kletzel; D A Jacobsohn
Rats fed gestational diets high in multivitamin or folate produce offspring of altered phenotypes. We hypothesized that female rat offspring born to dams fed a gestational diet high in folic acid (HFol) have compromised bone health and that feeding the offspring the same HFol diet attenuates these effects. Pregnant rats were fed diets with either recommended folic acid (RFol) or 10-fold higher folic acid (HFol) amounts. Female offspring were weaned to either the RFol or HFol diet for 17 weeks. HFol maternal diet resulted in lower offspring body weights (6%, P = 0.03) and, after adjusting for body weight and femoral length, smaller femoral area (2%, P = 0.03), compared to control diet. After adjustments, HFol pup diet resulted in lower mineral content (7%, P = 0.01) and density (4%, P = 0.002) of lumbar vertebra 4 without differences in strength. An interaction between folate content of the dam and pup diets revealed that a mismatch resulted in lower femoral peak load strength (P = 0.01) and stiffness (P = 0.002). However, the match in folate content failed to prevent lower weight gain. In conclusion, HFol diets fed to rat dams and their offspring affect area and strength of femurs and mineral quantity but not strength of lumbar vertebrae in the offspring.
Huot, Pedro S. P.; Dodington, David W.; Mollard, Rebecca C.; Reza-Lopez, Sandra A.; Sanchez-Hernandez, Diana; Cho, Clara E.; Kuk, Justin; Ward, Wendy E.; Anderson, G. Harvey
Serotonin acts through receptors controlling several physiological functions, including energy homeostasis regulation and food intake. Recent experiments demonstrated that 5-HT1A receptor antagonists reduce food intake. We sought to examine the microstructure of feeding with 5-HT1A receptor antagonists using a food intake monitoring system. We also examined the relationship between food intake, inhibition of binding and pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of the antagonists. Ex vivo binding revealed that, at doses used in this study to reduce food intake, inhibition of binding of a 5-HT1A agonist by ~40% was reached in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice with a trend for higher binding in DIO vs. lean animals. Additionally, PK analysis detected levels from 2 to 24h post-compound administration. Male DIO mice were administered 5-HT1A receptor antagonists LY439934 (10 or 30 mg/kg, p.o.), WAY100635 (3 or 10mg/kg, s.c.), SRA-333 (10 or 30 mg/kg, p.o.), or NAD-299 (3 or 10mg/kg, s.c.) for 3 days and meal patterns were measured. Analyses revealed that for each antagonist, 24-h food intake was reduced through a specific decrease in the total number of meals. Compared to controls, meal number was decreased 14-35% in the high dose. Average meal size was not changed by any of the compounds. The reduction in food intake reduced body weight 1-4% compared to Vehicle controls. Subsequently, a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) assay was used to determine whether the feeding decrease might be an indicator of aversion, nausea, or visceral illness caused by the antagonists. Using a two bottle preference test, it was found that none of the compounds produced a CTA. The decrease in food intake does not appear to be a response to nausea or malaise. These results indicate that 5-HT1A receptor antagonist suppresses feeding, specifically by decreasing the number of meals, and induce weight loss without an aversive side effect. PMID:24064183
Dill, M Joelle; Shaw, Janice; Cramer, Jeff; Sindelar, Dana K
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has been studied in well-established mouse models to generate latently infected animals for investigations into viral pathogenesis, latency mechanisms, and reactivation. Mice exhibit clinical signs of debilitating infection, during which time they may become severely ill before recovery or die spontaneously. Because the cohort of mice that does survive provides valuable data on latency, there is keen interest in developing methodologies for earlier detection and treatment of severe disease to ultimately increase survival rates. Here, BALB/c mice were inoculated ocularly with either a wildtype (LAT(+)) or mutant (LAT(-)) strain of HSV1. Mice were monitored daily through day 30 after infection; trigeminal ganglia were harvested at day 60 to assess viral DNA load. Cages were provided with nesting material, and fluid supplementation was administered to mice with body temperatures of 35 °C or lower, as measured by subcutaneous microchip thermometry. The results showed that infected mice with temperatures less than 34.5 °C did not recover to normothermia and were euthanized or spontaneously died, regardless of infective viral strain. By using a combination of criteria including body temperature (less than 34.5 °C) and weight loss (more than 0.05 g daily) for removal of animals from the study, approximately 98% of mice that died spontaneously could have been euthanized prior to death, without concern of potential recovery to the experimental endpoint (100% specificity). Frequent monitoring of alterations to general wellbeing, body temperature, and weight was crucial for establishing humane endpoints in this ocular HSV model. PMID:23849410
Hankenson, F Claire; Ruskoski, Nicholas; van Saun, Marjorie; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Oh, Jaewook; Fraser, Nigel W
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has been studied in well-established mouse models to generate latently infected animals for investigations into viral pathogenesis, latency mechanisms, and reactivation. Mice exhibit clinical signs of debilitating infection, during which time they may become severely ill before recovery or die spontaneously. Because the cohort of mice that does survive provides valuable data on latency, there is keen interest in developing methodologies for earlier detection and treatment of severe disease to ultimately increase survival rates. Here, BALB/c mice were inoculated ocularly with either a wildtype (LAT+) or mutant (LAT–) strain of HSV1. Mice were monitored daily through day 30 after infection; trigeminal ganglia were harvested at day 60 to assess viral DNA load. Cages were provided with nesting material, and fluid supplementation was administered to mice with body temperatures of 35 °C or lower, as measured by subcutaneous microchip thermometry. The results showed that infected mice with temperatures less than 34.5 °C did not recover to normothermia and were euthanized or spontaneously died, regardless of infective viral strain. By using a combination of criteria including body temperature (less than 34.5 °C) and weight loss (more than 0.05 g daily) for removal of animals from the study, approximately 98% of mice that died spontaneously could have been euthanized prior to death, without concern of potential recovery to the experimental endpoint (100% specificity). Frequent monitoring of alterations to general wellbeing, body temperature, and weight was crucial for establishing humane endpoints in this ocular HSV model.
Hankenson, F Claire; Ruskoski, Nicholas; van Saun, Marjorie; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Oh, Jaewook; Fraser, Nigel W
Almost anyone who has ever lost weight can attest that it is harder to sustain weight loss than to lose weight. Maintenance of a 10% or greater reduced body weight is accompanied by decreases in energy expenditure to levels significantly below what is predicted solely on the basis of weight and body composition changes. This disproportionate decline in energy expenditure would not be sufficient to account for the over 80% recidivism rate to pre-weight loss levels of body fatness after otherwise successful weight reduction if there were a corresponding reduction in energy intake. In fact, reduced body weight maintenance is accompanied by increased energy intake above that required to maintain reduced weight. The failure to reduce energy intake in response to decreased energy output reflects decreased satiation and perception of how much food is eaten and multiple changes in neuronal signaling in response to food which conspire with the decline in energy output to keep body energy stores (fat) above a CNS- defined minimum (threshold). Much of this biological opposition to sustained weight loss is mediated by the adipocyte-derived hormone “leptin”.
Rosenbaum, Michael; Kissileff, Harry R.; Mayer, Laurel E.S.; Hirsch, Joy; Leibel, Rudolph L.
Parotid fluid samples (1,145) were collected from 403 healthy young adult males to ascertain the correlation between body weight and parotid flow rate. In four experiments samples were collected without exogenous stimulants and under the gustatory stimula...
I. L. Shannon V. A. Segreto
Daptomycin use at our institution changed to ideal body weight dosing based on a published analysis of pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic efficacy target attainment, bacterial ecology, and a desire to reduce drug toxicity. The current study compared outcomes between actual body weight and ideal body weight dosing of daptomycin before and after this intervention. In the evaluable group, 69 patients received doses based on actual body weight and 48 patients received doses based on ideal body weight. Patients were treated for documented Enterococcus species, Staphylococcus aureus, or coagulase-negative Staphylococcus infections, including bloodstream, intraabdominal, skin and soft tissue, urinary, and bone. There was no statistically significant difference in clinical success between the groups (88.9% for actual body weight compared to 89.1% for ideal body weight, P = 0.97). After we adjusted for gender, age, body mass index, concomitant 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, infection type, and organism type, clinical success rates remained similar between groups (adjusted odds ratio of 0.68 in favor of actual body weight, 95% confidence interval [CI] of 0.13 to 3.55). Microbiological outcomes, length of stay, mortality, and adverse effects were also similar between groups. Further studies are warranted to confirm that ideal body weight dosing provides similar outcomes to actual body weight dosing for all patients and types of infections and organisms. PMID:24145531
Ng, Jennifer K; Schulz, Lucas T; Rose, Warren E; Fox, Barry C; Andes, David R; Buhr, Kevin A; Fish, Jeffrey T
Daptomycin use at our institution changed to ideal body weight dosing based on a published analysis of pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic efficacy target attainment, bacterial ecology, and a desire to reduce drug toxicity. The current study compared outcomes between actual body weight and ideal body weight dosing of daptomycin before and after this intervention. In the evaluable group, 69 patients received doses based on actual body weight and 48 patients received doses based on ideal body weight. Patients were treated for documented Enterococcus species, Staphylococcus aureus, or coagulase-negative Staphylococcus infections, including bloodstream, intraabdominal, skin and soft tissue, urinary, and bone. There was no statistically significant difference in clinical success between the groups (88.9% for actual body weight compared to 89.1% for ideal body weight, P = 0.97). After we adjusted for gender, age, body mass index, concomitant 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl–coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, infection type, and organism type, clinical success rates remained similar between groups (adjusted odds ratio of 0.68 in favor of actual body weight, 95% confidence interval [CI] of 0.13 to 3.55). Microbiological outcomes, length of stay, mortality, and adverse effects were also similar between groups. Further studies are warranted to confirm that ideal body weight dosing provides similar outcomes to actual body weight dosing for all patients and types of infections and organisms.
Rose, Warren E.; Fox, Barry C.; Andes, David R.; Buhr, Kevin A.; Fish, Jeffrey T.
Rats infused with nicotine were initially hy- pophagic and lost weight. Although food intake recovered, body weight remained 8-12% below normal. Elevating (or reducing) body weight before treatment prolonged (or shortened) initial hypophagia; weight reliably stabilized at the reduced level. At this reduced weight, the treated rats' daily resting energy expen- ditune was comparable with that ofnormal-weight controls (262.3 vs
Steven R Schwid; Mati D Hirvonen; Richard E Keesey
Objective To investigate the relation between total fat intake and body weight in adults and children. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies. Data sources Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to June 2010. Inclusion criteria Randomised controlled trials and cohort studies of adults or children that compared lower versus usual total fat intake and assessed the effects on measures of body fatness (body weight, body mass index, or waist circumference) after at least six months (randomised controlled trials) or one year (in cohorts). Randomised controlled trials with any intention to reduce weight in participants or confounded by additional medical or lifestyle interventions were excluded. Data extraction Data were extracted and validity was assessed independently and in duplicate. Random effects meta-analyses, subgroups, sensitivity analyses, and metaregression were done. Results 33 randomised controlled trials (73?589 participants) and 10 cohort studies were included, all from developed countries. Meta-analysis of data from the trials suggested that diets lower in total fat were associated with lower relative body weight (by 1.6 kg, 95% confidence interval ?2.0 to ?1.2 kg, I2=75%, 57?735 participants). Lower weight gain in the low fat arm compared with the control arm was consistent across trials, but the size of the effect varied. Metaregression suggested that greater reduction in total fat intake and lower baseline fat intake were associated with greater relative weight loss, explaining most of the heterogeneity. The significant effect of a low fat diet on weight was not lost in sensitivity analyses (including removing trials that expended greater time and attention on low fat groups). Lower total fat intake also led to lower body mass index (?0.51 kg/m2, 95% confidence interval ?0.76 to ?0.26, nine trials, I2=77%) and waist circumference (by 0.3 cm, 95% confidence interval ?0.58 to ?0.02, 15?671 women, one trial). There was no suggestion of negative effects on other cardiovascular risk factors (lipid levels or blood pressure). GRADE assessment suggested high quality evidence for the relation between total fat intake and body weight in adults. Only one randomised controlled trial and three cohort studies were found in children and young people, but these confirmed a positive relation between total fat intake and weight gain. Conclusions There is high quality, consistent evidence that reduction of total fat intake has been achieved in large numbers of both healthy and at risk trial participants over many years. Lower total fat intake leads to small but statistically significant and clinically meaningful, sustained reductions in body weight in adults in studies with baseline fat intakes of 28-43% of energy intake and durations from six months to over eight years. Evidence supports a similar effect in children and young people.
Reduced-calorie diets are difficult to follow because they often require elimination of certain foods, leading to poor compliance and limited success. However, a low-calorie, nutrient-dense diet has the potential to accommodate a daily snack without exceeding energy requirements, even during weight loss. This pilot study evaluated the effects of a reduced-calorie diet including either a daily dark chocolate snack or a non-chocolate snack on anthropometric and body composition measurements. In a randomized clinical trial, 26 overweight and obese (body mass index ?25 to ?43) premenopausal women were assigned to a reduced-calorie diet that included either a daily dark chocolate snack or non-chocolate snack (n=13 per group) for 18 weeks. At baseline and end of study, body weight and waist and hip circumferences were measured along with fat mass, lean mass, and body fat percentage by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Energy and macronutrient intakes were estimated from 4-day food records. Within- and between-group changes from baseline were analyzed using paired t tests and independent t tests, respectively. Women in both snack groups reduced estimated daily energy intake (P<0.001). Women in both the dark chocolate snack and non-chocolate snack groups, respectively, experienced decreases (P<0.001) in body weight (-5.1 vs -5.1 kg), hip circumference (-5.8 vs -5.4 cm), waist circumference (-5.7 vs -3.5 cm), fat mass (-3.9 vs -3.6 kg), and body fat percentage (-3.4% vs -3.1%), with no change in lean mass. Improvements in anthropometric and body composition measurements among overweight and obese premenopausal women can be achieved with a reduced-calorie diet including either a daily dark chocolate snack or non-chocolate snack. PMID:21802567
Piehowski, Kathryn E; Preston, Amy G; Miller, Debra L; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M
\\u000a \\u000a Rationale. The 5-HT2C receptor subtype has been implicated extensively in the regulation of ingestive behaviour.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective. To assess whether chronic administration of the preferential 5-HT2C receptor agonist, mCPP, reduces rat body weight gain and to determine if this effect is wholly or partially attributable to the effect of the\\u000a drug on daily food intake.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods. Animals were orally dosed
S. P. Vickers; N. Easton; L. J. Webster; A. Wyatt; M. J. Bickerdike; C. T. Dourish; G. A. Kennett
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists reduce food intake and body weight, but clinical use in humans is limited by effects on the CNS. We have evaluated a novel cannabinoid antagonist (AM6545) designed to have limited CNS penetration, to see if it would inhibit food intake in rodents, without aversive effects. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Cannabinoid receptor binding studies, cAMP assays, brain penetration studies and gastrointestinal motility studies were carried out to assess the activity profile of AM6545. The potential for AM6545 to induce malaise in rats and the actions of AM6545 on food intake and body weight were also investigated. KEY RESULTS AM6545 binds to CB1 receptors with a Ki of 1.7 nM and CB2 receptors with a Ki of 523 nM. AM6545 is a neutral antagonist, having no effect on cAMP levels in transfected cells and was less centrally penetrant than AM4113, a comparable CB1 receptor antagonist. AM6545 reversed the effects of WIN55212-2 in an assay of colonic motility. In contrast to AM251, AM6545 did not produce conditioned gaping or conditioned taste avoidance in rats. In rats and mice, AM6545 dose-dependently reduced food intake and induced a sustained reduction in body weight. The effect on food intake was maintained in rats with a complete subdiaphragmatic vagotomy. AM6545 inhibited food intake in CB1 receptor gene-deficient mice, but not in CB1/CB2 receptor double knockout mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Peripherally active, cannabinoid receptor antagonists with limited brain penetration may be useful agents for the treatment of obesity and its complications.
Cluny, NL; Vemuri, VK; Chambers, AP; Limebeer, CL; Bedard, H; Wood, JT; Lutz, B; Zimmer, A; Parker, LA; Makriyannis, A; Sharkey, KA
Available evidence concerning the relationship between growth rate, mammary growth and milk yield in heifers leads to these conclusions: 1) Increased growth rate due to high feeding level before puberty onset can lead to reduced pubertal mammary growth and reduced milk yield potential. 2) Increased growth rate due to high feeding level after puberty and during pregnancy have no effect
K Sejrsen; S Purup; M Vestergaard; J Foldager
One child was recruited for a study assessing the effectiveness of a device aimed at reducing excessive television viewing and increasing exercising. The device was comprised of a control box which attaches to the electrical cord of a television set, and two sensors which attached to the wheel and corresponding wheel rim of a stationary bicycle. The child in this
Leonard A Jason; Ester Brackshaw
SUMMARY The number of Americans who are overweight or obese has reached epidemic proportions. Elevated weight is associated with health problems and increased medical expenditures. This paper analyzes Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to investigate the role of alcohol consumption in weight gain. Alcohol is not only an addictive substance but also a high-calorie beverage that can interfere with metabolic function and cognitive processes. Because men and women differ in the type and amount of alcohol they consume, in the biological effects they experience as a result of alcohol consumption, and in the consequences they face as a result of obesity, we expect our results to differ by gender. We use first-difference models of body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption (frequency and intensity) to control for time-invariant unobservable factors that may influence changes in both alcohol use and weight status. Increasing frequency and intensity of alcohol use is associated with statistically significant yet quantitatively small weight gain for men but not for women. Moreover, the first-difference results are much smaller in magnitude and sometimes different in sign compared to the benchmark pooled cross-sectional estimates.
FRENCH, MICHAEL T.; NORTON, EDWARD C.; FANG, HAI; MACLEAN, JOHANNA CATHERINE
This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants’ body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood.
Bove, Caron F.; Sobal, Jeffery
This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants' body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601
Bove, Caron F; Sobal, Jeffery
Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder caused by imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, and is one of the principal causative factors in the development of metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cancer. COH-SR4 ("SR4") is a novel investigational compound that has anti-cancer and anti-adipogenic properties. In this study, the effects of SR4 on metabolic alterations in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese C57BL/J6 mice were investigated. Oral feeding of SR4 (5 mg/kg body weight.) in HFD mice for 6 weeks significantly reduced body weight, prevented hyperlipidemia and improved glycemic control without affecting food intake. These changes were associated with marked decreases in epididymal fat mass, adipocyte hypertrophy, increased plasma adiponectin and reduced leptin levels. SR4 treatment also decreased liver triglycerides, prevented hepatic steatosis, and normalized liver enzymes. Western blots demonstrated increased AMPK activation in liver and adipose tissues of SR4-treated HFD obese mice, while gene analyses by real time PCR showed COH-SR4 significantly suppressed the mRNA expression of lipogenic genes such as sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (Srebf1), acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase (Acaca), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg), fatty acid synthase (Fasn), stearoyl-Coenzyme A desaturase 1 (Scd1), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a) and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (Hmgcr), as well as gluconeogenic genes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (Pck1) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pc) in the liver of obese mice. In vitro, SR4 activates AMPK independent of upstream kinases liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase ? (CaMKK?). Together, these data suggest that SR4, a novel AMPK activator, may be a promising therapeutic compound for treatment of obesity, fatty liver disease, and related metabolic disorders. PMID:24376752
Figarola, James Lester; Singhal, Preeti; Rahbar, Samuel; Gugiu, Bogdan Gabriel; Awasthi, Sanjay; Singhal, Sharad S
Fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF19) and its rodent ortholog, FGF15, are hormones produced in the distal small intestine and secreted into the circulation after a meal. In addition to controlling the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, FGF15/19 also regulates systemic lipid and glucose metabolism. In these experiments we investigated the hypothesis that, like other gut-derived postprandial hormones, FGF15/19 can act in the central nervous system to elicit its metabolic effects. We found that FGF-receptors 1 and 4 are present in rat hypothalamus, and that their expression was reduced by up to 60% in high-fat fed rats relative to lean controls. Consistent with a potential role for brain FGF15/19 signaling to regulate energy and glucose homeostasis, and with a previous report that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of FGF19 increases energy expenditure, we report that acute i.c.v. FGF19 reduces 24-h food intake and body weight, and acutely improves glucose tolerance. Conversely, i.c.v. administration of an FGF-receptor inhibitor increases food intake and impairs glucose tolerance, suggesting a physiological role for brain FGF receptor signaling. Together, these findings identify the central nervous system as a potentially important target for the beneficial effects of FGF19 in the treatment of obesity and diabetes. PMID:23183168
Ryan, Karen K; Kohli, Rohit; Gutierrez-Aguilar, Ruth; Gaitonde, Shrawan G; Woods, Stephen C; Seeley, Randy J
Obesity and related metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are associated with a low-grade inflammatory state possibly through changes in gut microbiota composition and the development of higher plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels, i.e. metabolic endotoxemia. Various phytochemical compounds have been investigated as potential tools to regulate these metabolic features. Humulus lupulus L. (hops) contains several classes of compounds with anti-inflammatory potential. Recent evidence suggests that hops-derived compounds positively impact adipocyte metabolism and glucose tolerance in obese and diabetic rodents via undefined mechanisms. In this study, we found that administration of tetrahydro iso-alpha acids (termed META060) to high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese and diabetic mice for 8 weeks reduced body weight gain, the development of fat mass, glucose intolerance, and fasted hyperinsulinemia, and normalized insulin sensitivity markers. This was associated with reduced portal plasma LPS levels, gut permeability, and higher intestinal tight junction proteins Zonula occludens-1 and occludin. Moreover, META060 treatment increased the plasma level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 and decreased the plasma level of the pro-inflammatory cytokine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. In conclusion, this research allows us to decipher a novel mechanism contributing to the positive effects of META060 treatment, and supports the need to investigate such compounds in obese and type 2 diabetic patients.
Van Roye, Marie; Delzenne, Nathalie M.; Cani, Patrice D.
Obesity and related metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are associated with a low-grade inflammatory state possibly through changes in gut microbiota composition and the development of higher plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels, i.e. metabolic endotoxemia. Various phytochemical compounds have been investigated as potential tools to regulate these metabolic features. Humulus lupulus L. (hops) contains several classes of compounds with anti-inflammatory potential. Recent evidence suggests that hops-derived compounds positively impact adipocyte metabolism and glucose tolerance in obese and diabetic rodents via undefined mechanisms. In this study, we found that administration of tetrahydro iso-alpha acids (termed META060) to high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese and diabetic mice for 8 weeks reduced body weight gain, the development of fat mass, glucose intolerance, and fasted hyperinsulinemia, and normalized insulin sensitivity markers. This was associated with reduced portal plasma LPS levels, gut permeability, and higher intestinal tight junction proteins Zonula occludens-1 and occludin. Moreover, META060 treatment increased the plasma level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 and decreased the plasma level of the pro-inflammatory cytokine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. In conclusion, this research allows us to decipher a novel mechanism contributing to the positive effects of META060 treatment, and supports the need to investigate such compounds in obese and type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:22470484
Everard, Amandine; Geurts, Lucie; Van Roye, Marie; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Cani, Patrice D
Context: High-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin contributes to insulin resistance (IR), which is closely associated with the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Abnormalities in adipocyte function have been identified in PCOS and potentially contribute to lower adiponectin concentrations. Objective: Our objective was to determine which variables in plasma and adipose tissue influence HMW adiponectin in a well characterized cohort of women with PCOS. Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Settings and Participants: A teaching hospital. Women with PCOS (n = 98) and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls (n = 103) (including 68 age-, BMI-, and IR-matched pairs). Interventions: A standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed for each participant. Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were taken by needle biopsy for a subset of PCOS women (n = 9) and controls (n = 8). Main Outcome Measures: Serum levels of HMW adiponectin and their relation to indices of insulin sensitivity, body composition, and circulating androgens as well as adipose tissue expression levels of ADIPOQ, TNFalpha, PPARgamma, and AR were assessed. Results: HMW adiponectin was significantly lower in women with PCOS compared with both BMI- and BMI- and IR-matched controls (P = 0.009 and P = 0.027, respectively). Although BMI and IR were the main predictors of HMW adiponectin, an interaction between waist to hip ratio and plasma testosterone contributed to its variance (P = 0.026). Adipose tissue gene expression analysis demonstrated that AR and TNFalpha (P = 0.008 and P = 0.035, respectively) but not ADIPOQ mRNA levels were increased in PCOS compared with controls. Conclusions: HMW adiponectin is selectively reduced in women with PCOS, independent of BMI and IR. Gene expression analysis suggests that posttranscriptional/translational modification contributes to reduced HMW adiponectin in PCOS. PMID:20080859
O'Connor, A; Phelan, N; Tun, T Kyaw; Boran, G; Gibney, J; Roche, H M
Recent results from prospective cohort studies have shown that moderate coffee consumption is associated with a reduced risk for diabetes mellitus type II or Alzheimer's disease. Since reactive oxygen species (ROS) are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases, antioxidants in coffee might contribute to this risk reduction. We aimed at elucidating whether a dark roast coffee beverage (CB) rich in N-methylpyridinium ions (NMP: 785??mol/L) and low in chlorogenic acids (CGA: 523??mol/L) has stronger antioxidant effects on human erythrocytes than a CB prepared from a light roast with opposite proportions (CGA: 4538??mol/L; NMP: 56??mol/L). Following a 2-wk wash out period, 500?mL of the respective CB was administered to 30 subjects daily for 4-wk. Blood and spot urine samples were collected at the beginning and at the end of each intervention. Intake of the dark roast CB most effectively improved the antioxidant status of erythrocytes: superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity decreased by 5.8 and 15%, respectively, whereas tocopherol and total glutathione concentrations increased by 41 and 14%, respectively. Furthermore, administration of the NMP-rich CB led to a significant body weight reduction in pre-obese subjects, whereas the CGA-rich CB did not. PMID:21809439
Kotyczka, Christine; Boettler, Ute; Lang, Roman; Stiebitz, Herbert; Bytof, Gerhard; Lantz, Ingo; Hofmann, Thomas; Marko, Doris; Somoza, Veronika
The supplementation of foods with biologically active compounds can be a powerful approach for improving diet and well being. In this study we separately included in pasta matrices a concentrate of ?-conglutin, a glucose-lowering protein from Lupinus albus seeds, an isolate of the other main lupin storage proteins and ovalbumin, at a ratio corresponding to 125 mg of pure protein in 100 g of pasta. With these products we fed rats made hyperglycaemic, for 3 weeks. Among the most relevant changes measured in body and blood parameters were: (i) a significant reduction in food intake of rats fed ?-conglutin concentrate supplemented pasta and a significant limitation in the body weight increase in rats fed ?, ? and ?-conglutin isolate supplemented pasta, while the food conversion indices were unchanged; (ii) a reduction in glycaemia upon glucose overload trial, especially in the ?-conglutin concentrate supplemented pasta fed animals, at a dose of 45 mg per kg body weight. The correlations among the measured parameters are discussed. Overall, the results evidence the potentiality of supplementing traditional foods with exogenous nutraceutical seed proteins to control body weight gain and glycaemia. PMID:24394732
Capraro, Jessica; Magni, Chiara; Scarafoni, Alessio; Caramanico, Rosita; Rossi, Filippo; Morlacchini, Mauro; Duranti, Marcello
The load bearing body weight of wing-body and all-body hypersonic aircraft is estimated for a wide variety of structural materials and geometries. Variations of weight with key design and configuration parameters are presented and discussed. Both hot and cool structure approaches are considered in isotropic, organic composite, and metal matrix composite materials; structural shells are sandwich or skin-stringer. Conformal and pillow-tank designs are investigated for the all-body shape. The results identify the most promising hypersonic aircraft body structure design approaches and their weight trends. Geometric definition of vehicle shapes and structural analysis methods are presented in appendices.
Ardema, Mark D.
Mean weight loss of most conservative therapeutic weight loss programmes is about five to six kilograms after one year. In our "obesogenic" environment it is difficult for persons to maintain the new weight. Also continuation of the programme cannot prevent a moderate weight increase in the follow-up year. The reasons for this are not clear: individual lifestyle, environmental and genetic factors may play a role, but also the complex regulatory system of the body "to defend its weight". Nevertheless, for weight maintenance a lifelong change of lifestyle is of critical importance. Concerning nutrition a fat-reduced diet with a decrease of energy density together with regular eating habits and adequate portion size promises the greatest benefit and is likely to allow sufficient satiety. PMID:21225556
Holzapfel, C; Hauner, H
The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.
A novel mechatronic body weight support (BWS) system has been developed to provide precise body weight unloading for patients with neurological or other impairments during treadmill training. The system is composed of a passive elastic spring element to take over the main unloading force and an active closed-loop controlled electric drive to generate the exact desired force. Both force generating
Martin Frey; Gery Colombo; Martino Vaglio; Rainer Bucher; Matthias Jörg; Robert Riener
The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of minimising contrast-medium (CM) doses using 80-peak kilovoltage (kVp)\\u000a 16-channel multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with CM dose tailored to body weight, when diagnosing pulmonary embolism\\u000a (PE) in azotaemic patients. Twenty-nine patients (68–93 years; 38–79 kg) with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 12–49 ml\\/min\\u000a underwent 80 kVp MDCT at a median dose of
Fredrik Holmquist; Ulf Nyman
Background: Diacylglycerol is a natural component of edible oils that has metabolic characteristics that are distinct from those of triacylglycerol. Objective: We assessed the efficacy of an oil containing mainly 1,3-diacylglycerol in reducing body weight and fat mass when incorporated into a reduced-energy diet. Design: The study was a randomized, double-blind, parallel inter- vention trial that was conducted at an
Kevin C Maki; Michael H Davidson; Rikio Tsushima; Noboru Matsuo; Ichiro Tokimitsu; Denise M Umporowicz; Mary R Dicklin; Gregory S Foster; Kate A Ingram; Barbara D Anderson; Scott D Frost; Marjorie Bell
Being able to exploit features of the human face to predict health and fitness can serve as an evolutionary advantage. Surface features such as facial symmetry, averageness, and skin colour are known to influence attractiveness. We sought to determine whether observers are able to extract more complex features, namely body weight. If possible, it could be used as a predictor for health and fitness. For instance, facial adiposity could be taken to indicate a cardiovascular challenge or proneness to infections. Observers seem to be able to glean body weight information from frontal views of a face. Is weight estimation robust across different viewing angles? We showed that participants strongly overestimated body weight for faces photographed from a lower vantage point while underestimating it for faces photographed from a higher vantage point. The perspective distortions of simple facial measures (e.g., width-to-height ratio) that accompany changes in vantage point do not suffice to predict body weight. Instead, more complex patterns must be involved in the height-weight illusion. PMID:22611670
Schneider, Tobias M; Hecht, Heiko; Carbon, Claus-Christian
The role of dietary carbohydrates in weight loss has received considerable attention in light of the current obesity epidemic. The authors investigated the association of body mass index (weight (kg)\\/height (m)(2)) with dietary intake of carbohydrates and with measures of the induced glycemic response, using data from an observational study of 572 healthy adults in central Massachusetts. Anthropometric measurements, 7-day
Yunsheng Ma; Barbara C. Olendzki; David E. Chiriboga; James R. Hebert; Youfu Li; Wenjun Li; MaryJane Campbell; Katherine Gendreau; Ira S. Ockene
The majority of laboratory animals were transported from commercial breeders to a research facility by ground transportation. During the transportation, many biological functions and systems can be affected by stress. In this experiment, the change of body weight during the transportation was measured and the recovery periods from the transportation stress established based on the body weight changes. Total 676 laboratory animals which were aged between 3 to 9 wk old were studied. The transportation time taken from container packing to unpacking the container was approximately 24 h. The temperature of animal container was constantly maintained by air-conditioning and heating equipment. Rats were found to be more sensitive than mice. The body weight of rats was significantly decreased 3.71% (p<0.05) compared to the body weight of mice which decreased 0.9% There was no significant difference between the strains in the same species. When the changes of body weights were compared between delivery days, C57BL/6 mice showed the most variable changes compared to other species and strains. Consequently, C57BL/6 was more sensitive to stress than the other strains and the transportation process needs to be standardized to reduce between day variability. To establish the recovery periods from transportation stress, the body weight changes were measured during the acclimation period. Although the body weight of animals decreased during transportation, animals recovered their weight loss after the next day.
Lee, Sunghak; Nam, Hyunsik; Kim, Jinsung; Cho, Hyejung; Jang, Yumi; Lee, Eunjung; Choi, Eunsung; Jin, Dong Il; Moon, Hongsik
An imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure will lead to a change in body weight (mass) and body composition (fat and lean masses). A quantitative understanding of the processes involved, which currently remains lacking, will be useful in determining the etiology and treatment of obesity and other conditions resulting from prolonged energy imbalance. Here, we show that the long-term
Carson C. Chow; Kevin D. Hall
Diet, physical exercise and cognitive behavioral training as a combined workplace based intervention to reduce body weight and increase physical capacity in health care workers - a randomized controlled trial
Background Health care workers comprise a high-risk workgroup with respect to deterioration and early retirement. There is high prevalence of obesity and many of the workers are overweight. Together, these factors play a significant role in the health-related problems within this sector. The present study evaluates the effects of the first 3-months of a cluster randomized controlled lifestyle intervention among health care workers. The intervention addresses body weight, general health variables, physical capacity and musculoskeletal pain. Methods 98 female, overweight health care workers were cluster-randomized to an intervention group or a reference group. The intervention consisted of an individually dietary plan with an energy deficit of 1200 kcal/day (15 min/hour), strengthening exercises (15 min/hour) and cognitive behavioral training (30 min/hour) during working hours 1 hour/week. Leisure time aerobic fitness was planned for 2 hour/week. The reference group was offered monthly oral presentations. Body weight, BMI, body fat percentage (bioimpedance), waist circumference, blood pressure, musculoskeletal pain, maximal oxygen uptake (maximal bicycle test), and isometric maximal muscle strength of 3 body regions were measured before and after the intervention period. Results In an intention-to-treat analysis from pre to post tests, the intervention group significantly reduced body weight with 3.6 kg (p < 0.001), BMI from 30.5 to 29.2 (p < 0.001), body fat percentage from 40.9 to 39.3 (p < 0.001), waist circumference from 99.7 to 95.5 cm (p < 0.001) and blood pressure from 134/85 to 127/80 mmHg (p < 0.001), with significant difference between the intervention and control group (p < 0.001) on all measures. No effect of intervention was found in musculoskeletal pain, maximal oxygen uptake and muscle strength, but on aerobic fitness. Conclusion The significantly reduced body weight, body fat, waist circumference and blood pressure as well as increased aerobic fitness in the intervention group show the great potential of workplace health promotion among this high-risk workgroup. Long-term effects of the intervention remain to be investigated. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01015716
An imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure will lead to a change in body weight (mass) and body composition (fat and lean masses). A quantitative understanding of the processes involved, which currently remains lacking, will be useful in determining the etiology and treatment of obesity and other conditions resulting from prolonged energy imbalance. Here, we show that a mathematical model of the macronutrient flux balances can capture the long-term dynamics of human weight change; all previous models are special cases of this model. We show that the generic dynamic behavior of body composition for a clamped diet can be divided into two classes. In the first class, the body composition and mass are determined uniquely. In the second class, the body composition can exist at an infinite number of possible states. Surprisingly, perturbations of dietary energy intake or energy expenditure can give identical responses in both model classes, and existing data are insufficient to distinguish between these two possibilities. Nevertheless, this distinction has important implications for the efficacy of clinical interventions that alter body composition and mass.
Chow, Carson C.; Hall, Kevin D.
Obesity is a multifactorial disease and often considered as an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. However, the gut microbiota could have an impact on the development of excess body weight. According to the type of diet, this black box of the bowel could contribute to modifications of both the caloric extraction and the energy expenditure. The gut microbiota is linked with intermediary metabolism and inflammation, and could be involved in physiopathogenesis of type 1 and 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity. Fiber enriched diet and Mediterranean type of diet could induce gut microbiota modifications with consecutive weight loss and improvement of both metabolic syndrome and diabetes. PMID:19462608
Pataky, Zoltan; Bobbioni-Harsch, Elisabetta; Hadengue, Antoine; Carpentier, Anne; Golay, Alain
In animal studies, n-3 PUFA have been shown to influence body composition and to reduce the accumulation of body fat, thereby affecting body weight homeostasis. In addition, it has been suggested that an additional supply of n-3 PUFA during pregnancy or lactation, or both, would have a beneficial effect on birth weight and infant growth and development. The purpose of the present study was to systematically review interventional clinical trials on the effects of dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation on body weight in adult subjects and in infants whose mothers were supplemented with these fatty acids during pregnancy and/or lactation. A systematic search, focused on n-3 PUFA and body weight, and limited to controlled clinical trials, was performed in different databases. The quality of all included studies was assessed against set criteria, and results of eligible trials were compared. There were few studies targeting this topic. In adults, all of the five studies included, except for one, show no change in body weight by dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA. Within those trials conducted in pregnant and/or lactating women in which a main outcome was birth weight or growth in infancy, two showed a modest increase in birth weight and the rest showed no effect. None of the trials showed an effect of maternal n-3 PUFA supplementation on infant's weight at the short term. However, it should be noted that a number of limitations, including a variety of experimental designs, type and doses of n-3 PUFA, and high attrition rates, among others, make impossible to draw robust conclusions from this review. PMID:22591885
Martínez-Victoria, Emilio; Yago, María Dolores
Background: The role of glycemic index (GI) in appetite and body- weight regulation is still not clear. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the long- term effects of a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet with either low glycemic index (LGI) or high glycemic index (HGI) on ad libitum energy intake, body weight, and composition, as well as on risk
Birgitte Sloth; Inger Krog-Mikkelsen; Anne Flint; Inge Tetens; Inger Björck; Sophie Vinoy; Helena Elmståhl; Arne Astrup; Vincent Lang; Anne Raben
Biological rhythms are present in the lives of almost all organisms ranging from plants to more evolved creatures. These oscillations allow the anticipation of many physiological and behavioral mechanisms thus enabling coordination of rhythms in a timely manner, adaption to environmental changes and more efficient organization of the cellular processes responsible for survival of both the individual and the species. Many components of energy homeostasis exhibit circadian rhythms, which are regulated by central (suprachiasmatic nucleus) and peripheral (located in other tissues) circadian clocks. Adipocyte plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, the signaling of satiety and cellular differentiation and proliferation. Also, the adipocyte circadian clock is probably involved in the control of many of these functions. Thus, circadian clocks are implicated in the control of energy balance, feeding behavior and consequently in the regulation of body weight. In this regard, alterations in clock genes and rhythms can interfere with the complex mechanism of metabolic and hormonal anticipation, contributing to multifactorial diseases such as obesity and diabetes. The aim of this review was to define circadian clocks by describing their functioning and role in the whole body and in adipocyte metabolism, as well as their influence on body weight control and the development of obesity.
Objective To compare reports of weight loss and actual measures of body composition to predict nutritional risk in patients with Parkinson's disease and matched control subjects.Design Patients and control subjects were asked to record prior changes in weight and activity. Body composition was then compared in both groups using percentage ideal body weight (IBW), body mass index (BMI), triceps skinfold
PETER L BEYER; MARY Y PALARINO; DEBRA MICHALEK; KAREN BUSENBARK; WILLIAM C KOLLER
Most adults marry at some point in life, and many invest substantial resources in a wedding ceremony. Previous research reports that brides often strive towards culturally-bound appearance norms and engage in weight management behaviors in preparation for their wedding. However, little is known about wedding weight ideals and behaviors among engaged men. A cross-sectional survey of 163 engaged men asked them to complete a questionnaire about their current height and weight, ideal wedding body weight, wedding weight importance, weight management behaviors, formality of their upcoming wedding ceremony, and demographics. Results indicated that the discrepancy between men's current weight and reported ideal wedding weight averaged 9.61 lb. Most men considered being at a certain weight at their wedding to be somewhat important. About 39% were attempting to lose weight for their wedding, and 37% were not trying to change their weight. Attempting weight loss was more frequent among men with higher BMI's, those planning more formal weddings, and those who considered being the right weight at their wedding as important. Overall, these findings suggest that weight-related appearance norms and weight loss behaviors are evident among engaged men. PMID:23063607
Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery
The increasing prevalence of obesity and its comorbidities represents a major threat to human health globally. Pharmacological treatments exist to achieve weight loss, but the subsequent weight maintenance is prone to fail in the long run. Accordingly, efficient new strategies to persistently control body weight need to be elaborated. Exercise and dietary interventions constitute classical approaches to reduce and maintain body weight, yet people suffering from metabolic diseases are often unwilling or unable to move adequately. The administration of drugs that partially mimic exercise adaptation might circumvent this problem by easing and supporting physical activity. The thermogenic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1? (PGC-1?) largely mediates the adaptive response of skeletal muscle to endurance exercise and is a potential target for such interventions. Here, we review the role of PGC-1? in mediating exercise adaptation, coordinating metabolic circuits and enhancing thermogenic capacity in skeletal muscle. We suggest a combination of elevated muscle PGC-1? and exercise as a modified approach for the efficient long-term control of body weight and the treatment of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:22290535
Summermatter, S; Handschin, C
that the critical weight was lower on low quality diets but did not change with temperature. There was significant genetic variation for body size, for plasticity of body size, and for crit- ical weight, but not for plasticity of critical weight. Variation in the critical weight accounted for 73% of between-family vari- ance in peak larval size, whereas plasticity of
Goggy Davidowitz; Louis J. D'Amico; H. Frederik Nijhout
Various animal models of hyperphagia and obesity have made possible the study of the effect on food intake of dexfenfluramine, an agent which both inhibits reuptake and stimulates release of 5 HT. These are chronic overfeeding models (hereditary model: Zucker rat, hormonal origin: insulin, ovariectomy, lesions of the VMH, and models including palatable and varied diet: cafétéria diet) and also acute overfeeding models (deprived rats, tail pinch, "dessert" test, metabolic or neuropharmacologic stimuli). Dexfenfluramine administered by osmotic minipump (3 mg/kg/day for up to 4 weeks) reduces food intake and produces weight loss in most of these models. PMID:2672937
Rowland, N E; Souquet, A M
PurposeAlpha-lipoic acid is an essential cofactor for mitochondrial respiratory enzymes that improves mitochondrial function. We previously reported that alpha-lipoic acid markedly reduced body weight gain in rodents. The purpose of this study was to determine whether alpha-lipoic acid reduces body weight in obese human subjects.
Eun Hee Koh; Woo Je Lee; Sang Ah Lee; Eun Hee Kim; Eun Hee Cho; Eunheui Jeong; Dong Woo Kim; Min-Seon Kim; Joong-Yeol Park; Keun-Gyu Park; Hyo-Jung Lee; In-Kyu Lee; Soo Lim; Hak Chul Jang; Ki Hoon Lee; Ki-Up Lee
Social stressors at work (such as conflict or animosities) imply disrespect or a lack of appreciation and thus a threat to self. Stress induced by this offence to self might result, over time, in a change in body weight. The current study investigated the impact of changing working conditions--specifically social stressors, demands, and control at work--on women's change in weighted Body-Mass-Index over the course of a year. Fifty-seven women in their first year of occupational life participated at baseline and thirty-eight at follow-up. Working conditions were assessed by self-reports and observer-ratings. Body-Mass-Index at baseline and change in Body-Mass-Index one year later were regressed on self-reported social stressors as well as observed work stressors, observed job control, and their interaction. Seen individually, social stressors at work predicted Body-Mass-Index. Moreover, increase in social stressors and decrease of job control during the first year of occupational life predicted increase in Body-Mass-Index. Work redesign that reduces social stressors at work and increases job control could help to prevent obesity epidemic. PMID:24429516
Kottwitz, Maria U; Grebner, Simone; Semmer, Norbert K; Tschan, Franziska; Elfering, Achim
Background Childhood obesity is a continuing problem in the UK and South Asian children represent a group that are particularly vulnerable to its health consequences. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and obesity is well documented in older children and adults, but is less clear in young children, particularly South Asians. A better understanding of this relationship in young South Asian children will inform the design and delivery of obesity intervention programmes. The aim of this study is to describe body image size perception and dissatisfaction, and their relationship to weight status in primary school aged UK South Asian children. Methods Objective measures of height and weight were undertaken on 574 predominantly South Asian children aged 5-7 (296 boys and 278 girls). BMI z-scores, and weight status (underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese) were calculated based on the UK 1990 BMI reference charts. Figure rating scales were used to assess perceived body image size (asking children to identify their perceived body size) and dissatisfaction (difference between perceived current and ideal body size). The relationship between these and weight status were examined using multivariate analyses. Results Perceived body image size was positively associated with weight status (partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 0.63 (95% CI 0.26-0.99) and for BMI z-score was 0.21 (95% CI 0.10-0.31), adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity). Body dissatisfaction was also associated with weight status, with overweight and obese children more likely to select thinner ideal body size than healthy weight children (adjusted partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 1.47 (95% CI 0.99-1.96) and for BMI z-score was 0.54 (95% CI 0.40-0.67)). Conclusions Awareness of body image size and increasing body dissatisfaction with higher weight status is established at a young age in this population. This needs to be considered when designing interventions to reduce obesity in young children, in terms of both benefits and harms.
Objective: The authors assessed associations between body weight perception and weight loss strategies. Participants: They randomly selected male and female college students (N = 38,204). Methods: The authors conducted a secondary data analysis of the rates of weight loss strategies and body weight perception among students who completed the…
Wharton, Christopher M.; Adams, Troy; Hampl, Jeffrey S.
Background/Objectives Physiological evidence indicates that high-protein diets reduce caloric intake and increase thermogenic response, which may prevent weight gain and regain after weight loss. Clinical trials have shown such effects, whereas observational cohort studies suggest an association between greater protein intake and weight gain. In both types of studies the results are based on average weight changes, and show considerable diversity in both directions. This study investigates whether the discrepancy in the evidence could be due to recruitment of overweight and obese individuals into clinical trials. Subjects/Methods Data were available from the European Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) post-weight-loss weight-maintenance trial and the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health (DCH) cohort. Participants of the DCH cohort were matched with participants from the DiOGenes trial on gender, diet, and body characteristics. Different subsets of the DCH-participants, comparable with the trial participants, were analyzed for weight maintenance according to the randomization status (high or low protein) of the matched trial participants. Results Trial participants were generally heavier, had larger waist circumference and larger fat mass than the participants in the entire DCH cohort. A better weight maintenance in the high-protein group compared to the low protein group was observed in the subgroups of the DCH cohort matching body characteristics of the trial participants. Conclusion This modified observational study, minimized the differences between the RCT and observational data with regard to dietary intake, participant characteristics and statistical analysis. Compared with low protein diet the high protein diet was associated with better weight maintenance when individuals with greater body mass index and waist circumference were analyzed. Selecting subsets of large-scale observational cohort studies with similar characteristics as participants in clinical trials may reconcile the otherwise conflicting results.
Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z.; Angquist, Lars; Stocks, Tanja; Jakobsen, Marianne U.; Overvad, Kim; Halkjaer, Jytte; Saris, Wim H. M.; Astrup, Arne; S?rensen, Thorkild I. A.
Scientists have long been able to shift the direction of a laser beam, steering it toward a target, but often the strength and focus of the light is altered. For precision applications, where the quality of the beam cannot be compromised, scientists have typically turned to mechanical steering methods, redirecting the source of the beam by swinging the entire laser apparatus toward the target. Just as the mechanical methods used for turning cars has evolved into simpler, lighter, power steering methods, so has the means by which researchers can direct lasers. Some of the typical contraptions used to redirect lasers are large and bulky, relying on steering gimbals pivoted, rotating supports to shift the device toward its intended target. These devices, some as large and awkward as a piece of heavy luggage, are subject to the same issues confronted by mechanical parts: Components rub, wear out, and get stuck. The poor reliability and bulk not to mention the power requirements to run one of the machines have made mechanical beam steering components less than ideal for use in applications where weight, bulk, and maneuverability are prime concerns, such as on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or a microscope. The solution to developing reliable, lighter weight, nonmechanical steering methods to replace the hefty steering boxes was to think outside the box, and a NASA research partner did just that by developing a new beam steering method that bends and redirects the beam, as opposed to shifting the entire apparatus. The benefits include lower power requirements, a smaller footprint, reduced weight, and better control and flexibility in steering capabilities. Such benefits are realized without sacrificing aperture size, efficiency, or scanning range, and can be applied to myriad uses: propulsion systems, structures, radiation protection systems, and landing systems.
Cross-sectional studies have reported significant temporal increases in prevalence of childhood obesity in both genders and various racial groups, but recently the rise has subsided. Childhood obesity prevention trials suggest that, on average, overweight\\/obese children lose body weight and nonoverweight children gain weight. This investigation tested the hypothesis that overweight children lose body weight\\/fat and nonoverweight children gain body weight\\/fat
Donald A. Williamson; Hongmei Han; William D. Johnson; Tiffany M. Stewart; David W. Harsha
the macronutrient flux balances and all previous models are special cases of this model. We show that the generic dynamical behavior of body composition for a clamped diet can be divided into two classes. In the first class, the body composition and mass are determined uniquely. In the second class, the body composition can exist at an infinite number of
Carson C. Chow; Kevin D. Hall
Typical body weight changes are known to occur in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand, an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopaminergic treatment. Comprehension of the different mechanisms contributing to body weight is a prerequisite for the management of body weight and nutritional state of an individual PD patient. This review summarizes the present knowledge and highlights the necessity of evaluation of body weight and related factors, as eating behavior, energy intake, and expenditure in PD.
Kistner, Andrea; Lhommee, Eugenie; Krack, Paul
The study examined associations among physical activity, cigarette smoking, body mass index, perceptions of body weight, weight-management goals, and weight-management behaviors of public high school adolescents. The CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey provided a cross-sectional sample (n = 3,089) of public high school students in South Carolina.…
Paxton, Raheem J.; Valois, Robert F.; Drane, J. Wanzer
Objective: To determine if inaccurate body weight perception predicts unhealthy weight management strategies and to determine the extent to which inaccurate body weight perception is associated with depressive symptoms among US college students. Participants: Randomly selected male and female college students in the United States (N = 97,357).…
Harring, Holly Anne; Montgomery, Kara; Hardin, James
BACKGROUND: Aging leads to increases in gait variability which may explain the large incidence of falls in the elderly. Body weight support training may be utilized to improve gait in the elderly and minimize falls. However, before initiating rehabilitation protocols, baseline studies are needed to identify the effect of body weight support on elderly gait variability. Our purpose was to
Anastasia Kyvelidou; Max J Kurz; Julie L Ehlers; Nicholas Stergiou
Direct and maternal genetic heritabilities and their correlations with body weight at 5 stages in the life span of purebred Berkshire pigs, from birth to harvest, were estimated to scrutinize body weight development with the records for 5,088 purebred Berkshire pigs in a Korean farm, using the REML based on an animal model. Body weights were measured at birth (Birth), at weaning (Weaning: mean 22.9 d), at the beginning of a performance test (On: mean 72.7 d), at the end of a performance test (Off: mean 152.4 d), and at harvest (Finish: mean 174.3 d). Ordinary polynomials and Legendre with order 1, 2, and 3 were adopted to adjust body weight with age in the multivariate animal models. Legendre with order 3 fitted best concerning prediction error deviation (PED) and yielded the lowest AIC for multivariate analysis of longitudinal body weights. Direct genetic correlations between body weight at Birth and body weight at Weaning, On, Off, and Finish were 0.48, 0.36, 0.10, and 0.10, respectively. The estimated maternal genetic correlations of body weight at Finish with body weight at Birth, Weaning, On, and Off were 0.39, 0.49, 0.65, and 0.90, respectively. Direct genetic heritabilities progressively increased from birth to harvest and were 0.09, 0.11, 0.20, 0.31, and 0.43 for body weight at Birth, Weaning, On, Off, and Finish, respectively. Maternal genetic heritabilities generally decreased and were 0.26, 0.34, 0.15, 0.10, and 0.10 for body weight at Birth, Weaning, On, Off, and Finish, respectively. As pigs age, maternal genetic effects on growth are reduced and pigs begin to rely more on the expression of their own genes. Although maternal genetic effects on body weight may not be large, they are sustained through life.
Lee, Dong-Hee; Do, Chang-Hee
The following were recorded for 17 Mongolian gerbils,Meriones unguiculatus, which varied in weight between weanling size and almost 100 grams: body lengths, body weights, organ weights of the thyroid,\\u000a kidney, adrenal, brain, pituitary, lung, testis, spleen, heart, eye, and liver. Results were analyzed graphically and statistically.\\u000a The thyroid, kidney, adrenal, brain, pituitary, lung, and eye weights vary with respect to
Charles G. Wilber; Richard D. Gilchrist
As body weights and body mass indices have increased over time, we questioned the validity of correlating heart weight with body weight and whether tables from previous decades remain relevant. We investigated this by collecting details of heart weight, body weight, height, gender and age from 384 autopsy cases with no obvious heart or lung disease. Heart weights, body weights
Kezia Gaitskell; Rafael Perera; Elizabeth J Soilleux
Background: The relationship between obesity, impaired respiratory function and weight loss is established. Objective: Some aspects need further elucidation: the different impact of the pathological modifications of body compartments (total and regional fat mass and lean body mass) on respiratory function, the choice of a restricted diet, the relationship between the modifications of body compartments and the variations in respiratory
Antonino De Lorenzo; Patrizia Petrone-De Luca; Guido F. Sasso; Maria G. Carbonelli; Paolo Rossi; Aldo Brancati
We have developed two different equations, for each sex of the elderly italian population to predict weight from selected measures of recumbent anthropometry, using data of 172 females (72.8 +/- 8 years old) and 113 males (73.4 +/- 8 years old). The independent variables for both sexes were knee stature. subscapular skinfold, arm and calf circumferences. Cross validation was conducted on a free-living sample of 54 females and 30 males. The recommended equations have a 95% probability of predicting the weight of an elderly man or woman to be within plus or minus 4.9 or 6.1 Kg respectively. PMID:10993573
Donini, L M; de Felice, M R; de Bernardini, L; Ferrari, G; Rosano, A; de Medici, M; Cannella, C
Background: This study examined the mediating function of body weight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal…
Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook
C57BL\\/6J-mice with a mutation in the obese (ob) gene are obese, diabetic, and exhibit reduced activity, metabolism, and body temperature. Daily intraperitoneal injection of these mice with recombinant OB protein lowered their body weight, percent body fat, food intake, and serum concentrations of glucose and insulin. In addition, metabolic rate, body temperature, and activity levels were increased by this treatment.
Mary Ann Pelleymounter; Mary Jane Cullen; Mary Beth Baker; Randy Hecht; Dwight Winters; Thomas Boone; Frank Collins
Circulating leptin concentrations correlate with fat mass and signal the status of somatic energy stores to the brain. Previous studies suggest that diet-induced elevations of body weight increase body weight "set-point". To assess whether chronic hyperleptinemia is responsible for this shift in defended body weight, we elevated circulating leptin concentrations in lean mice to those comparable to diet-induced obese mice for eighteen weeks. We hypothesized that following cessation of leptin infusion, a higher body weight would be defended. Compared to saline-infused controls, leptin-infused mice had elevated circulating leptin concentrations, gained less weight, yet had similar metabolic rates. Following cessation of leptin administration, leptin-infused mice gained some weight yet plateaued at 5-10% below controls. These results suggest that, unlike mice rendered hyperleptinemic by diet-induced weight gain, leptin-infused mice do not subsequently "defend" a higher body weight, suggesting that hyperleptinemia per se does not mimic the CNS consequences of chronic weight gain. PMID:24944902
Ravussin, Y; LeDuc, C A; Watanabe, K; Mueller, B R; Skowronski, A; Rosenbaum, M; Leibel, R L
Gravity is a force that influences all living systems, and is often disregarded in the study of environment on growth and development. To assess the effect of gravity exposure on growth, immature rats (130-200 g) were evaluated during chronic altered gravity exposure and during transition between gravity fields. The effects of 14 days of spaceflight on body weight gain were evaluated (n=12) and compared to controls. Spaceflight did not affect weight gain. In 6 rats, the transition from spaceflight to 1 G showed a significant (p less than 0.05) post flight weight loss over 48 hr of 13 g compared to controls. Over subsequent days this loss was compensated for with no difference noted after 5 days. Exposure to hypergravity, 2 G for 16 days, was evaluated in groups of n=6 (Control; On Center Control (OCC); Centrifuged). With centrifugation or OCC there was a reduction in body weight within 24 hr. The OCC regained control weights within 13 days. The weight difference, 26 +/- 1 g, persisted with 2 G with no subsequent difference in weight gain over days 3-16 compared to controls; 3.7 +/- 0.1 versus 3.9 +/- 0.1 g/day respectively. Transition from centrifugation to 1 G resulted in a weight increase within 48 hours. Over 16 days the rate of gain was increased 3.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for centrifuge compared to 2.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for controls between Day 3 to 16. However, differences from control were still noted on Day 16. Transition from one gravity field to another causes acute changes in body weight. Transition to microgravity or 1 G, following the acute changes, results in adjustments to attain a normal weight. In hypergravity the acute reduction in body weight persist, but weight gain is normal. Transitioning from hypergravity to 1G results in an increased weight gain to compensate for the persistent reduction during exposure.
Wade, Charles E.; Harper, J. S.; Daunton, N. G.; Corcoran, M. L.; Morey-Holton, E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)
A complete 4 x 4 diallel cross of CF#1 (C), C57BL/6NCrj (B) C3H/HeNCrj (H) and Yonakuni wild mice (Y, Mus musculus molossinus yonakuni) has been conducted to estimate the effects of sex, degree of heterosis, general combining ability (gca), specific combining ability (sca), maternal ability, and reciprocal cross on body weight at 1 (Wk1), 3 (Wk3), 6 (Wk6) and 10 (Wk10) weeks of age. A least squares analysis was performed on 828 mice and all sources of variation showed significant effects (P < 0.01) on body weight but not sex at Wk1 (P > 0.05). Males were heavier than females (P < 0.01) at Wk3, Wk6 and Wk10. C and Y were the heaviest and lightest in body weight, whereas H and B were intermediate. Differences in body weight were observed between linebred and linecross at all ages studied: 6.57%, 10.22%, 8.70% and 5.89% heterosis for the respective ages. The degree of gca and maternal effects can be ranked as C > H > B > Y. Crossing between C and H had greater sca than other combinations at all ages studied, whereas B x Y had the smallest. Mean body weight of the offspring from two-line reciprocal cross differed according to their dam. A relatively large proportion of additive genetic effects in contributing to the variation in offspring body weight was indicated. PMID:10591008
Kurnianto, E; Shinjo, A; Suga, D; Uema, N
We studied body weights and composition of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) during fall migration 1975-77 on stopover sites along the upper Mississippi River near La Crosse, Wisconsin (Navigational Pools 7 and 8) and Keokuk, Iowa (Navigational Pool 19). Body weights varied (P < 0.001) by age and sex without interaction. Weights varied by year (P < 0.001) on Pools 7 and 8. Mean weights increased (P < 0.01) within age and sex classes by date and averaged 3.6 and 2.7 g daily on Pools 7 and 8 and Pool 19, respectively. Percent fat was highly correlated (P < 0.001) with carcass weight for each age and sex. Live weight was a good predictor of total body fat. Mean estimated total body fat ranged from 200 to 300 g and comprised 15-20% of live weights among age and sex classes. Temporal weight patterns were less variable for adults than immatures, but generally increased during migration. Length of stopover varied inversely with fat reserves among color-marked adult males. Variation in fat condition of canvasbacks during fall may explain the mechanism regulating population ingress and egress on stopover sites. Fat reserves attained by canvasbacks during fall stopover may have adaptive significance in improving survival by conditioning for winter.
Serie, J. R.; Sharp, D. E.
Background: Adolescence may be a crucial period for developing obesity and associated mental health problems. This study examined the relationship of weight status on body image, eating behavior, and depressive symptoms in youth. Methods: A survey was conducted on 1490 youth attending grades 7-12. Participants completed questionnaires on body…
Goldfield, Gary S.; Moore, Ceri; Henderson, Katherine; Buchholz, Annick; Obeid, Nicole; Flament, Martine F.
weight, race\\/ethnicity, parity, and lactation. Body weight at conception may be particularly important among race\\/ethnic groups in which the prevalence of obesity is high (8). Both mean gestational weight gain and prevalence of overweight women in the US popu- lation have increased over the past two decades (8, 11-13). It has not been established whether increased gestational weight gain is
Erica P. Gunderson
Manipulation of body weight set point may be an effective weight loss and maintenance strategy as the homeostatic mechanism governing energy balance remains intact even in obese conditions and counters the effort to lose weight. However, how the set point is determined is not well understood. We show that a single injection of rapamycin (RAP), an mTOR inhibitor, is sufficient to shift the set point in rats. Intraperitoneal RAP decreased food intake and daily weight gain for several days, but surprisingly, there was also a long-term reduction in body weight which lasted at least 10 weeks without additional RAP injection. These effects were not due to malaise or glucose intolerance. Two RAP administrations with a two-week interval had additive effects on body weight without desensitization and significantly reduced the white adipose tissue weight. When challenged with food deprivation, vehicle and RAP-treated rats responded with rebound hyperphagia, suggesting that RAP was not inhibiting compensatory responses to weight loss. Instead, RAP animals defended a lower body weight achieved after RAP treatment. Decreased food intake and body weight were also seen with intracerebroventricular injection of RAP, indicating that the RAP effect is at least partially mediated by the brain. In summary, we found a novel effect of RAP that maintains lower body weight by shifting the set point long-term. Thus, RAP and related compounds may be unique tools to investigate the mechanisms by which the defended level of body weight is determined; such compounds may also be used to complement weight loss strategy.
Hebert, Mark; Licursi, Maria; Jensen, Brittany; Baker, Ashley; Milway, Steve; Malsbury, Charles; Grant, Virginia L.; Adamec, Robert; Hirasawa, Michiru; Blundell, Jacqueline
This study assessed the relation between weight and weight-related factors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, body esteem, teasing frequency, and the effects of teasing) in a community sample of prepubescent African American girls. African American girls (N = 97) in Grades 3 to 5 completed the McKnight Risk Factor Survey-Third Edition and had their…
Tyler, Chermaine; Johnston, Craig A.; Dalton, William T., III; Foreyt, John P.
Soft drink consumption has been hypothesized as one of the major factors in the growing rates of obesity in the United States. Nearly two-thirds of all states currently tax soft drinks using excise taxes, sales taxes, or special exceptions to food exemptions from sales taxes to reduce consumption of this product, raise revenue, and improve public health. In this paper,
JASON M. FLETCHER; DAVID FRISVOLD; NATHAN TEFFT
This study examined whether charting daily weight patterns can predict weight regain in obese patients. The subjects were 98 moderately obese Japanese women aged 23 to 66 years who were obliged to precisely record their daily weights during the initial 4-month education period, but not thereafter. The patients were followed up at 8, 12, and 16 months. Abdominal fat areas and blood samples were assessed in the outpatient clinic at 0, 4, and 16 months. The standard deviations (SDs) of the differences in body weight between "after waking up" and "after breakfast" (SDa), "after dinner" (SDb), and "before going to bed" (SDc) were calculated, which were parameters reflecting the fluctuations in the daily weight patterns during the first 4 months. SDc, but not SDa or SDb, was correlated positively with weight regain at 8, 12, and 16 months (P = 0.049, P = 0.002, and P = 0.001, respectively). There were significant differences in temporal change in body weight and abdominal visceral fat between the small SDc group (SDc =25th percentile) and the large SDc group (SDc >75th percentile), but not for subcutaneous abdominal fat or the serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, or lipids. The results indicate that fluctuation of body weight immediately before going to bed is useful for predicting the rebound in body weight. PMID:15388890
Tanaka, Misuzu; Itoh, Kazue; Abe, Shimako; Imai, Katsumi; Masuda, Takashi; Koga, Ririko; Itoh, Hitomi; Konomi, Yumiko; Kinukawa, Naoko; Sakata, Toshiie
Physiologic studies suggest that sleep restriction has metabolic effects that predispose to weight gain. The authors investigated the association between self-reported usual sleep duration and subsequent weight gain in the Nurses' Health Study. The 68,183 women who reported habitual sleep duration in 1986 were followed for 16 years. In analyses adjusted for age and body mass index, women sleeping 5
Sanjay R. Patel; Atul Malhotra; David P. White; Daniel J. Gottlieb; Frank B. Hu
The body dimensions and weights of over 100 ostriches were analysed to investigate which body measurements provided the best estimators of bodyweight. The data were divided between growing and adult birds (below and above two years old) for regression analyses. The residual standard deviation of weight was 0.117 for growing birds, using tibiotarsal length and abdominal girth as predictors. The analogous figure for adults was 0.078 using back length and abdominal girth. An assessment of body condition was made by calculating the average weight-for-size of a bird from skeletal measurements which are unaffected by gross changes in weight, and then comparing it with its estimated or actual weight. These estimates of the weight of a typical ostrich should be useful in veterinary practice, particularly when the weight of a bird is required for the administration of medication. PMID:8883337
Deeming, D C; Sibly, R M; Magole, I L
As for many human diseases, the incidence of obesity and its associated health risks are sexually dimorphic: worldwide the rate of obesity is higher in women. Sex differences in metabolism, appetite, body composition, and fat deposition are contributing biological factors. Gonadal hormones regulate the development of many sexually dimorphic traits in humans and animals, and, in addition, studies in mice indicate a role for direct genetic effects of sex chromosome dosage on body weight, deposition of fat, and circadian timing of feeding behavior. Specifically, mice of either sex with 2 X chromosomes, typical of normal females, have heavier body weights, gain more weight, and eat more food during the light portion of the day than mice of either sex with a single X chromosome. Here we test the effects of X chromosome dosage on body weight and report that gonadal females with 2 X chromosomes express higher levels of GH gene (Gh) mRNA in the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus than females with 1 X chromosome and males. Furthermore, Gh expression in the POA of the hypothalamus of mice with 2 X chromosomes correlated with body weight; GH is known to have orexigenic properties. Acute infusion of GH into the POA increased immediate food intake in normal (XY) males. We propose that X inactivation-escaping genes modulate Gh expression and food intake, and this is part of the mechanism by which individuals with 2 X chromosomes are heavier than individuals with a single X chromosome. PMID:23861378
Bonthuis, Paul J; Rissman, Emilie F
The relation between body weight and responding established with unsignaled delayed reinforcement was investigated. In three experiments, naive rats were deprived to either 70%, 80%, or 90% of ad libitum weight and were then exposed to tandem variable-interval 15-s differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior 30-s schedules. The tandem schedule defined a resetting unsignaled delay-of-reinforcement procedure. In the first experiment, speed of magazine training, acquisition of lever pressing, and final rate of lever pressing were related to body weight. In the next experiment, lever pressing was established and maintained in rats that were magazine trained at 70% of ad libitum weight but that were then exposed to the delay procedure at 90% of ad libitum weight. Responding did not change consistently either across or within subjects in subsequent conditions in which body weight was manipulated. In the final experiment, lever pressing was established and maintained with delayed reinforcement in the absence of magazine training for each of 2 rats at 70% and for 1 of 2 rats at 90% of ad libitum weight. The results further illuminate the conditions under which responding can be established in the absence of training and when such responses are reinforced only following an unsignaled delay period.
Lattal, K A; Williams, A M
The body weight gain and growth of tail and tibia were investigated in ovariectomized female rats to ascertain whether the increased skeletal growth after ovariectomy takes place at the same time as the increased body weight gain. Female rats were ovariectomized on the 30th day of age; half of them was killed on the 60th day of age and the other half was killed on the 130th day of age. The body weight and tail length were significantly higher in the ovariectomized females than in intact females from the 60th day of age (Figs. 1, 2). The ovariectomized animals had higher body weight gain and tail length increment, in comparison with intact animals, mainly between the 40th and 60th day of age (Tabs. I, II). After the 90th day of age the body weight gain and tail length increment were no longer significantly higher in ovariectomized animals than in intact animals, although the ovariectomized females maintained the significantly higher body weight and tail length till the end of the experiment (130th day of age). The length of tibia was larger in ovariectomized animals if compared with controls, on the 60th as well as on the 130th day of age. However, the rate of longitudinal growth of tibia, measured (by tetracycline method) between the 57th and 59th day and between the 127th and 129th day of age, was significantly higher in ovariectomized animals only in the first period of measurement (Tab. III).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8122344
Cíkos, S; Kuchár, S; Koppel, J
The effects of acculturation, body perception, and health behaviors on weight status among Vietnamese American students in\\u000a Houston, Texas were examined for our research. A survey was mailed to 600 randomly selected Vietnamese American students at\\u000a one university, and 261 complete surveys (response rate, 43.5%) were used for final analyses. Respondents were classified\\u000a as overweight or normal weight based on
Jin Young Choi; Jessica Hwang; Jenny Yi
Overview In mammals, body weight is normally regulated around a set point by coordinated changes in food intake and energy expenditure. These changes are integrated under the influence of specific neural pathways and circulating signals. Almost 50 years ago it was first proposed that circulating signals generated in
G. Frühbeck; J. Gómez-Ambrosi
Previous estimates of the association between body weight and wages in the literature have been conditional on education and occupation. In addition to the effect of current body weight status (body mass index (BMI) or obesity) on wages, this paper examines the indirect effect of body weight status in the late-teenage years on wages operating through education and occupation choice. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 data, for women, we find that a one-unit increase in BMI is directly associated with 1.83% lower hourly wages whereas the indirect BMI wage penalty is not statistically significant. Neither a direct nor an indirect BMI wage penalty is found for men. However, results based on clinical weight classification reveal that the indirect wage penalty occurs to a larger extent at the upper tail of the BMI distribution for both men and women via the pathways of education and occupation outcomes. Late-teen obesity is indirectly associated with 3.5% lower hourly wages for both women and men. These results are important because they imply that the total effect of obesity on wages is significantly larger than has been estimated in previous cross-sectional studies. PMID:21820369
Han, Euna; Norton, Edward C; Powell, Lisa M
Several studies have evaluated whether the high and rising obesity rates over the past three decades may be due to the declining smoking rates. There is mixed evidence across studies – some find negative smoking effects and positive cigarette cost effects on body weight, while others find opposite effects. This study applies a unique approach to identify the smoking effects
George L. Wehby; Jeffrey C. Murray; Allen Wilcox; Rolv T. Lie
The guidelines for body contouring reconstructive surgery present an evidence-based guide for management of redundant tissue after massive weight loss. A standardised referral pathway to ensure safe and equitable patient care on the National Health Service (NHS) throughout England is recommended. A database of all patients for research purposes is suggested. PMID:24909630
Soldin, M; Mughal, M; Al-Hadithy, N
The physical preconditions are considered for the temperature of a body to influence the force of gravity experienced by it. The results are given of experiments on weighing metal rods heated by ultrasound which confirm a dependence of the weight of the rods on their temperature.
A. L. Dmitriev; E. M. Nikushchenko; V. S. Snegov
'Fetal programming' is a newly emerging field that is revealing astounding insights into the prenatal origins of adult disease, including metabolic, endocrine, and cardiovascular pathophysiology. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that rat pups conceived, gestated and born at 2-g have significantly reduced birth weights and increased adult body weights as compared to 1-g controls. Offspring were produced by mating young adult male and female rats that were adapted to 2-g centrifugation. Female rats underwent conception, pregnancy and birth at 2-g. Newborn pups in the 2-g condition were removed from the centrifuge and fostered to non-manipulated, newly parturient dams maintained at 1 -g. Comparisons were made with 1-g stationary controls, also crossfostered at birth. As compared to 1-g controls, birth weights of pups gestated and born at 2-g were significantly reduced. Pup body weights were significantly reduced until Postnatal day (P) 12. Beginning on P63, body weights of 2-g-gestated offspring exceeded those of 1-g controls by 7-10%. Thus, prenatal rearing at 2-g restricts neonatal growth and increases adult body weight. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that 2-g centrifugation alters the intrauterine milieu, thereby inducing persistent changes in adult phenotype.
Baer, Lisa A.; Rushing, Linda; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.
Objective: Because post-bariatric surgery patients undergo massive weight loss, the resulting skin excess can lead to both functional problems and profound dissatisfaction with appearance. Correcting skin excess could improve all these corollaries, including body image. Presently, few data are available documenting body image and weight-related quality of life in this population.Research Methods and Procedures: Eighteen patients who underwent both bariatric
Angela Y. Song; J. Peter Rubin; Veena Thomas; Jason R. Dudas; Kacey G. Marra; Madelyn H. Fernstrom
Objective Sleep-restriction in humans increases risk for obesity, but previous rodent studies show weight loss following sleep deprivation, possibly due to stressful-methods used to prevent sleep. Obesity-resistant (OR) rats exhibit consolidated-sleep and resistance to weight-gain. We hypothesized that sleep disruption by a less-stressful method would increase body weight, and examined effect of partial sleep deprivation (PSD) on body weight in OR and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Design and Methods OR and SD rats (n=12/group) were implanted with transmitters to record sleep/wake. After baseline recording, six SD and six OR rats underwent 8 h PSD during light-phase for 9 d. Sleep was reduced using recordings of random noise. Sleep/wake states were scored as wakefulness (W), slow-wave-sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye-movement-sleep (REMS). Total number of transitions between stages, SWS-delta-power, food intake and body weight were documented. Results Exposure to noise decreased SWS and REMS time, while increasing W time. Sleep-deprivation increased number of transitions between stages and SWS-delta-power. Further, PSD during the rest phase increased recovery-sleep during active phase. The PSD SD and OR rats had greater food intake and body weight compared to controls Conclusions PSD by less-stressful means increases body weight in rats. Also, PSD during rest phase increases active period sleep.
Mavanji, Vijayakumar; Teske, Jennifer A.; Billington, Charles J.; Kotz, Catherine M.
Several studies have evaluated whether the high and rising obesity rates over the past three decades may be due to the declining smoking rates. There is mixed evidence across studies – some find negative smoking effects and positive cigarette cost effects on body weight, while others find opposite effects. This study applies a unique approach to identify the smoking effects on body weight and to evaluate the heterogeneity in these effects across the body mass index (BMI) distribution by utilizing genetic instruments for smoking. Using a data sample of 1,057 mothers from Norway, the study finds heterogeneous effects of cigarette smoking on BMI – smoking increases BMI at low/moderate BMI levels and decreases BMI at high BMI levels. The study highlights the potential advantages and challenges of employing genetic instrumental variables to identify behavior effects including the importance of qualifying the instruments and the need for large samples.
Wehby, George; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Wilcox, Allen; Lie, Rolv T.
Low birth weight predisposes to renal disease in Aboriginal adults. This could be due to reduced nephronnumbers, which might be reflected in lower kidney volumes, at least early in life. In this study we evaluated the association of birth weight with renal volume in 174 children and in adolescents 5 to 18 years old in an Aboriginal community with high
Janine Spencer; Zhiqiang Wang; Wendy Hoy
Maintenance of a reduced body weight is accompanied by decreased energy expenditure that is due largely to increased skeletal muscle work efficiency. In addition, decreased sympathetic nervous system tone and circulating concentrations of leptin, thyroxine, and triiodothyronine act coordinately to favor weight regain. These “weight-reduced” phenotypes are similar to those of leptin-deficient humans and rodents. We examined metabolic, autonomic, and neuroendocrine phenotypes in 10 inpatient subjects (5 males, 5 females [3 never-obese, 7 obese]) under 3 sets of experimental conditions: (a) maintaining usual weight by ingesting a liquid formula diet; (b) maintaining a 10% reduced weight by ingesting a liquid formula diet; and (c) receiving twice-daily subcutaneous doses of leptin sufficient to restore 8 am circulating leptin concentrations to pre–weight-loss levels and remaining on the same liquid formula diet required to maintain a 10% reduced weight. During leptin administration, energy expenditure, skeletal muscle work efficiency, sympathetic nervous system tone, and circulating concentrations of thyroxine and triiodothyronine returned to pre–weight-loss levels. These responses suggest that the weight-reduced state may be regarded as a condition of relative leptin insufficiency. Prevention of weight regain might be achievable by strategies relevant to reversing this leptin-insufficient state.
Rosenbaum, Michael; Goldsmith, Rochelle; Bloomfield, Daniel; Magnano, Anthony; Weimer, Louis; Heymsfield, Steven; Gallagher, Dympna; Mayer, Laurel; Murphy, Ellen; Leibel, Rudolph L.
Elaborated Intrusion (EI) Theory proposes that cravings occur when involuntary thoughts about food are elaborated; a key part of elaboration is affectively-charged imagery. Craving can be weakened by working memory tasks that block imagery. EI Theory predicts that cravings should also be reduced by preventing involuntary thoughts being elaborated in the first place. Research has found that imagery techniques such as body scanning and guided imagery can reduce the occurrence of food thoughts. This study tested the prediction that these techniques also reduce craving. We asked participants to abstain from food overnight, and then to carry out 10 min of body scanning, guided imagery, or a control mind wandering task. They rated their craving at 10 points during the task on a single item measure, and before and after the task using the Craving Experience Questionnaire. While craving rose during the task for the mind wandering group, neither the guided imagery nor body scanning group showed an increase. These effects were not detected by the CEQ, suggesting that they are only present during the competing task. As they require no devices or materials and are unobtrusive, brief guided imagery strategies might form useful components of weight loss programmes that attempt to address cravings. PMID:23962401
Hamilton, Jonathan; Fawson, Sophie; May, Jon; Andrade, Jackie; Kavanagh, David J
This research evaluated a dual pathway model for body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys. The study provides empirical support for the importance of distinguishing between weight and muscularity concerns in understanding male body image. A total of 128 boys from grades 8 and 11 completed a self-report questionnaire. Results indicated that…
Jones, Diane Carlson; Crawford, Joy K.
Variation in sexual dimorphism (SD) is particularly marked in meat-type chickens. This paper investigates the genetic basis of SD in an important economic trait, i.e. body weight (BW) at 35 days of age, in broilers by applying quantitative genetic analysis. A large dataset comprising 203,323 BW records of a commercial line of broiler chicken was used. First, a bivariate approach was employed treating BW as a sex-specific trait. During this approach, seven bivariate models were applied and variances due to direct additive genetic, maternal genetic and maternal environmental effects were estimated via the restricted maximum likelihood method. The best-fitting model included direct additive genetic, maternal genetic and maternal environmental effects with a direct-maternal genetic covariance. Differences between male and female direct heritabilities were non-significant (0.28 vs. 0.29 for males and females, respectively), implying no need for sex-specific selection strategies. The direct-maternal genetic correlation was more strongly negative in males than in females (-0.72 vs. -0.56), implying a more profound antagonism between direct additive and maternal genetic effects in this particular gender. The direct genetic correlation of BW between the two sexes was as high as 0.91, i.e. only slightly lower than unity. Second, variance components and genetic parameters of two measures of SD, i.e. the weight difference (?) and the weight ratio (R), between the genders were estimated. Direct heritabilities for both measures were significantly different to 0 but of low magnitude (0.04). Apart from the additive-maternal covariance, no other random effects were found to be of importance for ? and R. The results of the present study suggest that only minimal selection responses due to the selection of ? and/or R and a small capacity for amplifying or reducing the BW differences between the sexes are to be expected in this specific population. Furthermore, selection pressure on BW is expected to amplify SD. PMID:23001961
Maniatis, G; Demiris, N; Kranis, A; Banos, G; Kominakis, A
Background. Massage therapy (MT) and kangaroo mother care (KMC) are both effective in increasing the weight and reducing length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm infants but they have not been compared. Aim. Comparison of effectiveness of MT and KMC on body weight and length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm (LBWPT) infants. Method. 30 LBWPT infants using convenience sampling from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, V.S. hospital, were randomly divided into 2 equal groups. Group 1 received MT and Group 2 received KMC for 15 minutes, thrice daily for 5 days. Medically stable babies with gestational age < 37 weeks and birth weight < 2500?g were included. Those on ventilators and with congenital, orthopedic, or genetic abnormality were excluded. Outcome measures, body weight and length of hospital stay, were taken before intervention day 1 and after intervention day 5. Level of significance was 5%. Result. Data was analyzed using SPSS16. Both MT and KMC were found to be effective in improving body weight (P = 0.001, P = 0.001). Both were found to be equally effective for improving body weight (P = 0.328) and reducing length of hospital stay (P = 0.868). Conclusion. MT and KMC were found to be equally effective in improving body weight and reducing length of hospital stay. Limitation. Long term follow-up was not taken. PMID:24976830
Rangey, Priya Singh; Sheth, Megha
Background. Massage therapy (MT) and kangaroo mother care (KMC) are both effective in increasing the weight and reducing length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm infants but they have not been compared. Aim. Comparison of effectiveness of MT and KMC on body weight and length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm (LBWPT) infants. Method. 30 LBWPT infants using convenience sampling from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, V.S. hospital, were randomly divided into 2 equal groups. Group 1 received MT and Group 2 received KMC for 15 minutes, thrice daily for 5 days. Medically stable babies with gestational age < 37 weeks and birth weight < 2500?g were included. Those on ventilators and with congenital, orthopedic, or genetic abnormality were excluded. Outcome measures, body weight and length of hospital stay, were taken before intervention day 1 and after intervention day 5. Level of significance was 5%. Result. Data was analyzed using SPSS16. Both MT and KMC were found to be effective in improving body weight (P = 0.001, P = 0.001). Both were found to be equally effective for improving body weight (P = 0.328) and reducing length of hospital stay (P = 0.868). Conclusion. MT and KMC were found to be equally effective in improving body weight and reducing length of hospital stay. Limitation. Long term follow-up was not taken.
Rangey, Priya Singh
Introduction: One of the problems of today and probably this century is obesity, which is classified by the WHO as a disease. Material and methods: We performed a prospective cross-sectional study of the body weight impact on certain biochemical indicators in menopausal women living in the municipalities Cazin and Velika Kladusa. Results and discussion: The study included 334 women aged 40-60 years, who had regular medical examinations. For each patient at the beginning of the study we measured: body mass index, total cholesterol values, LDL, HDL and triglycerides fractions. Our findings indicate an increase in total cholesterol, LDL fraction and triglycerides in patients with increased body mass index, without statistical significance. Values of HDL fraction were significantly decreased with increasing body mass index.
Rosic, Muhamed; Rosic, Semso; Samardzic, Remzo; Kendic, Sulejman
In vitro, pancreatic triglyceride lipase requires co-lipase to restore activity in the presence of inhibitors, like bile acids. Presumably, colipase performs the same function in vivo, but little data supports that notion. Other studies suggest that colipase or its proform, procolipase, may have additional functions in appetite regulation or in fat digestion during the newborn period when pancreatic triglyceride lipase is not expressed. To identify the physiological role of procolipase, we created a mouse model of procolipase deficiency. The Clps?/? mice appeared normal at birth, but unexpectedly 60% died within the first 2 weeks of life. The survivors had fat malabsorption as newborns and as adults, but only when fed a high fat diet. On a low fat diet, the Clps?/? mice did not have steatorrhea. The Clps?/? pups had impaired weight gain and weighed 30% less than Clps+/+or Clps+/? littermates. After weaning, the Clps?/? mice had normal rate of weight gain, but they maintained a reduced body weight compared with normal littermates even on a low fat diet. Despite the reduced body weight, the Clps?/? mice had a normal body temperature. To maintain their weight gain in the presence of steatorrhea, the Clps?/? mice had hyperphagia on a high fat diet. Clps?/? mice had normal intake on a low fat diet. We conclude that, in addition to its critical role in fat digestion, procolipase has essential functions in postnatal development and in regulating body weight set point.
D'Agostino, Dymphna; Cordle, Richard A.; Kullman, John; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte; Muglia, Louis J.; Lowe, Mark E.
Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to document any changes that might occur in body weight, body composition, RMR, and dietary intake in newly enrolled college freshmen. Methods: Body weight, RMR by ventilated O2 consumption, body composition by bioelectrical impedance and dietary intakes were recorded in 27 first-year college freshmen during their initial 16-week semester. Results: Mean body
Laleh Hajhosseini; Tawni Holmes; Vida Goudarzi; Lucy McProud; Clarie B. Hollenbeck
Prior investigations have suggested the use of a dosing weight correction factor of ideal body weight (IBW) plus 40% excess body weight (EBW, where EBW 5total body weight (TBW) 2IBW) to determine the weight to use for aminoglycoside dosing in morbidly obese (TBW\\/IBW ratio, >2) patients. Little data are available to provide dosing information for underweight or moderately obese patients.
ANNE M. TRAYNOR; ANNE N. NAFZIGER; S. BERTINO
Performed lateral hypothalamic (LH) lesions in 23 male Holtzman albino rats, resulting in a decline to 90% body weight (BW) compared to 14 controls. Thereafter, throughout a 9-wk observation period, BW was maintained at this chronically reduced level. Quinine adulteration of the diet resulted in an additional 12.8% decline in the level of maintained BW. Intact Ss fed the same
Richard E. Keesey; Peter C. Boyle
A review is given on methods that can be used for the assessment of dry body weight in peritoneal dialysis patients. Besides clinical examination, the use of natriuretic hormone concentrations in plasma, and the value of multifrequency bio-impedance analysis is discussed. Ultrafiltration targets as formulated in various guidelines are reviewed. Finally, it is concluded that the ultrafiltration target is the amount required to keep patients euvolemic with an exposure to glucose that is as low as possible. PMID:19494600
Krediet, Raymond T; Smit, Watske; Coester, Annemieke M; Struijk, Dirk G
Abstract The current evidence regarding the usefulness of whole-body diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in lymphoma is reviewed. DWI is capable of combining anatomical and functional information and is becoming a valuable tool in oncology, in particular for staging purposes. DWI may prove to be a useful biomarker in clinical decision making for patients with lymphoma. Large-scaled prospective studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results.
Itti, E.; Luciani, A.; Haioun, C.; Meignan, M.
The purpose of this study was to identify new indexes of body composition that characterize the normal weight obese (NWO) women. We measured body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) by indirect calorimetry in a cohort of seventy-five healthy Italian women, subdivided into three groups (nonobese/controls, NWO, preobese-obese women). Despite a normal body mass index (BMI), the NWO women have a higher body fat mass percentage (FAT %) (38.99 +/- 6.03) associated to a significant (p = 0.02) lower amount of lean mass of legs (12.24 +/- 1.31) and lean mass of left leg (6.07 +/- 0.64) with respect to the control group. The NWO group showed a significant (p = 0.043) lower RMR (1201.25 +/- 349.02) in comparison with nonobese and preobese-obese women. To classify NWO individuals among general population, we identified three significant body composition indexes: abdominal index, leg index and trunk index. The NWO women showed significant increased value in the three indexes (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that, despite a normal BMI, the NWO women displayed a cluster of anthropometric characteristics (body fat mass percentage, leg indexes) not different to obese women ones. An appropriate diet-therapy and physical activity may be protecting NWO individuals from diabetes and cardiovascular diseases associated to preobese-obese women. PMID:16910350
Di Renzo, L; Del Gobbo, V; Bigioni, M; Premrov, M G; Cianci, R; De Lorenzo, A
The purpose of this study was to document changes in height (cm), body weight (kg), and body composition (%fat) of American football players from 1942 to 2011. Published articles were identified from databases and cross-referencing of bibliographies. Studies selected met the requirements of (1) having 2 of 3 dependent (height, body weight, and body composition) variables reported in the results; (2) containing a skill level of college or professional; (3) providing measured not self-reported data; and (4) published studies in English language journals. The data were categorized into groups based on skill level (college and professional). The player positions were grouped into 3 categories: mixed linemen (offensive and defensive linemen, tight ends, and linebackers), mixed offensive backs (quarterback and running backs), and mixed skilled positions (defensive backs and wide receivers). Linear regression was used to provide slope estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Unpaired t-tests were used to determine whether an individual regression slope was significantly different from zero. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.017. College level players in all position groups have significantly increased body weight over time (95% CI: mixed lineman 0.338-0.900 kg·y(-1); mixed offensive backs 0.089-0.298 kg·y(-1); mixed skilled 0.078-0.334 kg·y(-1)). The college level mixed linemen showed a significant increase over time for height (95% CI: 0.034-0.188 cm·y(-1)) and body composition (0.046-0.275% fat per year). Significant increases in body weight over time were found for professional level mixed lineman (95% CI: 0.098-0.756 kg·y(-1)) and mixed offensive backs (95% CI: 0.1800-0.545 kg·y(-1)). There were no other significant changes at the professional level. These data demonstrate that body weight of all college players and professional mixed lineman have significantly increased from 1942 to 2011. PMID:23222088
Anzell, Anthony R; Potteiger, Jeffrey A; Kraemer, William J; Otieno, Sango
Introduction Obesity is a complex condition with multifactorial origin. Assuming that such a state is genetically controlled, the aim of our study was to evaluate the degree of genetic homozygosity among overweight and obese individuals by the homozygously recessive characteristics (HRC) test. Material and methods We analysed the presence, distribution and individual combination of 15 selected genetically controlled recessive phenotype traits in a sample of 140 individuals with increased body mass index (overweight individuals n = 100 and obese individuals n = 40) and a control group of normal weight individuals (n = 300). Results Obese individuals have significantly higher mean values for genetic homozygosity than those with normal weight (normal weight: 3.61 ±1.48; obese: 4.13 ±1.47, p < 0.05) and difference in the presence of certain individual combinations of evaluated phenotype traits (??2 = 76.9; p < 0.01). There was no difference in average homozygosity of such genetic markers between groups of normal weight and overweight individuals (normal weight: 3.61 ±1.48; overweight: 3.93 ±1.51, p > 0.05) and between groups of overweight and obese individuals (overweight: 3.93 ±1.51; obese: 4.13 ±1.47, p > 0.05). There is no difference in the presence of certain individual combinations of evaluated phenotype traits between overweight and obese individuals (??2 = 20.6; p > 0.05). Conclusions There is a populational genetic difference in the degree of genetic homozygosity and variability between the group of normal weight and group of obese individuals, indicating a possible genetic component. Overweight and obese individuals have a genetic predisposition, but different expression of genetic loads could be one of the possible explanations for different susceptibility to increase of fat mass and body mass index.
Cvjeticanin, Suzana; Petronic, Ivana; Milincic, Zeljka; Brdar, Radivoj; Karan, Radmila; Konstantinovic, Ljubica; Dragin, Aleksandra; Cutovic, Milisav
Background and objectives: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common problem in women at fertile age. A prospective study was conducted to clarify the pathophysiological responses during an application of insulin sensitizer, metformin and weight reduction therapy at the Gynecology Center in Ohud hospital, in AL-Madinah AL-Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methodology: Twenty healthy women served as controls and 180 PCOS women divided into three groups participated in the study. First group was treated with Clomid citrate 100mg/day from the 2nd day of menses to the 6th day plus gonadotrophin from day three to the 13th. Group II was treated as group I plus 850mg metformin twice a day and group III was treated as group I plus weight reduction. Clinical symptoms, menstrual pattern, hirsutism, blood glucose, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, insulin, hormonal, and lipid profiles were assessed pre- and post treatment. Insulin resistance was calculated. Results: PCOS women had significantly higher values than the healthy women in most of the measurements. Metformin and weight reduction therapy resulted in a significant decrease in the fasting insulin, glucose/insulin ratio and HOMA-IR. Metformin and weight reduction therapy resulted in a significant decrease in the lipid parameters, testosterone, LH/FSH ratio, SHBG, and prolactin levels. HOMA-IR was significantly higher in women with PCOS. HOMA-IR was positively correlated with testosterone, estradiol, TG, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol parameters, and negatively correlated with HDL-cholesterol and FSH levels. Conclusion: Metformin therapy and weight reduction had favorable influences on the basic metabolic and hormonal profiles in women with PCOS and that metformin and lifestyle modification (weight reduction via diet restriction or exercise) resulted in a significantly greater weight loss than hormonal therapy alone. Metformin and weight reduction therapy decreased also hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance. PMID:23608322
Al-Nozha, Omar; Habib, Fawziah; Mojaddidi, Moaz; El-Bab, Mohamed Fath
Both national and international bodies recommend an increased intake of fruits and vegetables in order to decrease the risk of overweight and obesity. However, there is a rationale to investigate the separate role of fruits. The aim of this paper was to systematically review and analyse published human intervention, prospective observational and cross-sectional studies on fruit intake and body weight in adults. We identified three intervention, eight prospective observational and five cross-sectional studies that explored this relationship. Two of the intervention studies showed that fruit intake reduced body weight, five of the prospective observational studies showed that fruit consumption reduced the risk of developing overweight and obesity, and four of the cross-sectional studies found an inverse association between fruit intake and body weight. Important methodological differences and limitations in the studies make it difficult to compare results. However, the majority of the evidence points towards a possible inverse association between fruit intake and overweight. Future intervention and prospective observational studies examining the direct and independent role of fruit in body-weight management in free-living individuals are needed. Moreover, important determinants such as energy density, energy content, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical form of fruit and preparation methods need to be included in future studies. PMID:19413705
Alinia, S; Hels, O; Tetens, I
Low-fat diets produce spontaneous weight loss in the research setting, but as a public health strategy, they have been disappointing. Insulin resistance and impairments in insulin secretory function leading to postprandial hyperglycaemia are now common, making the current context greatly different to that of 25 years ago. There is increasing evidence that reducing the proportion of energy derived from carbohydrate
J McMillan-Price; J Brand-Miller
Guilt is an important social and moral emotion. In addition to feeling unpleasant, guilt is metaphorically described as a "weight on one's conscience." Evidence from the field of embodied cognition suggests that abstract metaphors may be grounded in bodily experiences, but no prior research has examined the embodiment of guilt. Across four studies we examine whether i) unethical acts increase subjective experiences of weight, ii) feelings of guilt explain this effect, and iii) whether there are consequences of the weight of guilt. Studies 1-3 demonstrated that unethical acts led to more subjective body weight compared to control conditions. Studies 2 and 3 indicated that heightened feelings of guilt mediated the effect, whereas other negative emotions did not. Study 4 demonstrated a perceptual consequence. Specifically, an induction of guilt affected the perceived effort necessary to complete tasks that were physical in nature, compared to minimally physical tasks. PMID:23936041
Day, Martin V; Bobocel, D Ramona
Guilt is an important social and moral emotion. In addition to feeling unpleasant, guilt is metaphorically described as a “weight on one's conscience.” Evidence from the field of embodied cognition suggests that abstract metaphors may be grounded in bodily experiences, but no prior research has examined the embodiment of guilt. Across four studies we examine whether i) unethical acts increase subjective experiences of weight, ii) feelings of guilt explain this effect, and iii) whether there are consequences of the weight of guilt. Studies 1–3 demonstrated that unethical acts led to more subjective body weight compared to control conditions. Studies 2 and 3 indicated that heightened feelings of guilt mediated the effect, whereas other negative emotions did not. Study 4 demonstrated a perceptual consequence. Specifically, an induction of guilt affected the perceived effort necessary to complete tasks that were physical in nature, compared to minimally physical tasks.
Day, Martin V.; Bobocel, D. Ramona
Anthocyanins in a variety of plant species have been identified and are known for its hypolipidemic and anti-obesity effects. The effect of anthocyanins extracted from black soybean on body weight and daily food intake in adult rats raised on normal diet were studied. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were daily intra-gastric administered water or anthocyanins 6 mg/kg and 24 mg/kg for 40 days. During this period daily food intake and body weight were measured prior to anthocyanins treatment. These findings showed that anthocyanins treatment resulted in significantly lowered body weight and food intake compared with water treated rats. In addition, anthocyanins dose dependently reduced the adipose tissue size compared with control group. Western blot analysis showed that high dose of anthocyanins treatment significantly reduced the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and increased ?-amino butyric acid receptor (GABAB1R) in hypothalamus. Furthermore, these events were followed by a decreased in expression of GABAB1R downstream signaling molecules protein kinase A-? (PKA) and phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (p-CREB) in hypothalamus. These data support the concept that anthocyanins even in normal circumstances have the capability to reduce body weight and food intake through its modulatory effect on NPY and GABAB1R in hypothalamus. These results suggest that anthocyanins from black soybean seed coat might have a novel role in preventing obesity in rats on normal diet. PMID:23830691
Badshah, Haroon; Ullah, Ikram; Kim, So Eun; Kim, Tae-hyun; Lee, Hae Young; Kim, Myeong Ok
Background Successful weight management involves the regulation of eating behavior. However, the specific mechanisms underlying its successful regulation remain unclear. This study examined one potential mechanism by testing a model in which improved body image mediated the effects of obesity treatment on eating self-regulation. Further, this study explored the role of different body image components. Methods Participants were 239 overweight women (age: 37.6 ± 7.1 yr; BMI: 31.5 ± 4.1 kg/m2) engaged in a 12-month behavioral weight management program, which included a body image module. Self-reported measures were used to assess evaluative and investment body image, and eating behavior. Measurements occurred at baseline and at 12 months. Baseline-residualized scores were calculated to report change in the dependent variables. The model was tested using partial least squares analysis. Results The model explained 18-44% of the variance in the dependent variables. Treatment significantly improved both body image components, particularly by decreasing its investment component (f2 = .32 vs. f2 = .22). Eating behavior was positively predicted by investment body image change (p < .001) and to a lesser extent by evaluative body image (p < .05). Treatment had significant effects on 12-month eating behavior change, which were fully mediated by investment and partially mediated by evaluative body image (effect ratios: .68 and .22, respectively). Conclusions Results suggest that improving body image, particularly by reducing its salience in one's personal life, might play a role in enhancing eating self-regulation during weight control. Accordingly, future weight loss interventions could benefit from proactively addressing body image-related issues as part of their protocols.
Body weight was measured, and body fat distribution was deter- mined by dual energy x-ray in early postmenopausal women given either oral calcium (500 mg\\/day; control group; n 5 12) or hormonal replacement therapy (HRT), a combination of estradiol valerate (2 mg\\/day for 21 days) with cyproterone acetate (1 mg\\/day in the last 10 days of the treatment cycle; n
M. Gambacciani; M. CIAPONI; B. CAPPAGLI; L. PIAGGESI; L. DE SIMONE; R. ORLANDI; A. R. GENAZZANI
Eating outside of the home environment on a frequent basis has been associated with weight gain. Food choices when eating out are usually high in energy content, which contributes to excessive energy intake; however, the available data on out-of-home eating and obesity are far from conclusive. This systematic review assesses the association between out-of-home eating and body weight in adults over 18 years of age. The literature databases searched included Medline, Embase, Lilacs, The Cochrane Library, and the ISI Web of Knowledge. The review includes a comprehensive quality assessment of all included observational studies, 20 cross-sectional studies, and 8 prospective cohort studies. All but one of the prospective cohort studies and about half of the cross-sectional analyses found a positive association between out-of-home eating and body weight. However, many methodological differences among the studies were found, such as the definition of out-of-home eating and its assessment, which limits comparisons. The results of the present analysis suggest that in future studies fast-food restaurants and other out-of-home dining venues should be analyzed separately, assessments based on a single 24-h recall should be avoided, and controls for at-home choices (which were not included in any of the studies reviewed) are necessary to evaluate this association. PMID:22300594
Bezerra, Ilana N; Curioni, Cintia; Sichieri, Rosely
Since obesity has grown to epidemic proportions, its effective management is a very important clinical issue. Despite the great amount of scientific effort that has been put into understanding the mechanisms that lead to overconsumption and overweight, at the moment very few approaches to weight management are effective in the long term. On the other hand, modern society is also affected by the growing incidence of eating disorders on the other side of the spectrum such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa which are equally difficult to treat. This review will try to summarise the main findings available in the literature regarding the effect of plants or plant extracts (phytochemicals) on human appetite and body weight. The majority of plant extracts are not single compounds but rather a mixture of different molecules, therefore their mechanism of action usually targets several systems. In addition, since some cellular receptors tend to be widely distributed, sometimes a single molecule can have a widespread effect. This review will attempt to describe the main phytochemicals that have been suggested to affect the homeostatic mechanisms that influence intake and body weight. Clinical data will be summarised and scientific evidence will be reviewed.
Tucci, Sonia A.
Background. The obese patients have differences in body composition, drug distribution, and metabolism. Sugammadex at T 2 recovery in a dose of 2?mg?kg(-1) of real body weight (RBW) can completely reverse the NMB block; in our study we investigated the safety and efficacy of Sugammadex dose based on their ideal body weight (IBW). Methods. 40 patients of both sexes undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery were enrolled divided into 2 groups according to the dose of Sugammadex: the first received a dose of 2?mg?kg(-1) of IBW and the second received a dose of 2?mg?kg(-1) of RBW. Both were anesthetized with doses calculated according to the IBW: fentanyl 2? ? g?kg(-1), propofol 3?mg?kg(-1), rocuronium 0,6?mg?kg(-1), oxygen, air, and desflurane (6-8%). Maintenance doses of rocuronium were 1/4 of the intubation dose. Sugammadex was administrated at T 2 recovery. Results. The durations of intubation and maintenance doses of rocuronium were similar in both groups. In IBW group, the T 4/T 1 value of 0.9 was reached in 151?±?44 seconds and in 121?±?55 seconds in RBW group (P = 0.07). Discussion. Recovery times to T 4/T 1 of 0.9 are surprisingly similar in both groups without observing any postoperative residual curarization. Conclusion. Sugammadex doses calculated according to the IBW are certainly safe for a rapid recovery and absence of PORC. PMID:23840203
Sanfilippo, Maria; Alessandri, Francesco; Wefki Abdelgawwad Shousha, Ahmed Abdelgawwad; Sabba, Antonio; Cutolo, Alessandra
Background. The obese patients have differences in body composition, drug distribution, and metabolism. Sugammadex at T2 recovery in a dose of 2?mg?kg?1 of real body weight (RBW) can completely reverse the NMB block; in our study we investigated the safety and efficacy of Sugammadex dose based on their ideal body weight (IBW). Methods. 40 patients of both sexes undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery were enrolled divided into 2 groups according to the dose of Sugammadex: the first received a dose of 2?mg?kg?1 of IBW and the second received a dose of 2?mg?kg?1 of RBW. Both were anesthetized with doses calculated according to the IBW: fentanyl 2??g?kg?1, propofol 3?mg?kg?1, rocuronium 0,6?mg?kg?1, oxygen, air, and desflurane (6–8%). Maintenance doses of rocuronium were 1/4 of the intubation dose. Sugammadex was administrated at T2 recovery. Results. The durations of intubation and maintenance doses of rocuronium were similar in both groups. In IBW group, the T4/T1 value of 0.9 was reached in 151?±?44 seconds and in 121?±?55 seconds in RBW group (P = 0.07). Discussion. Recovery times to T4/T1 of 0.9 are surprisingly similar in both groups without observing any postoperative residual curarization. Conclusion. Sugammadex doses calculated according to the IBW are certainly safe for a rapid recovery and absence of PORC.
Alessandri, Francesco; Wefki Abdelgawwad Shousha, Ahmed Abdelgawwad; Sabba, Antonio; Cutolo, Alessandra
The effects of short-term (3 weeks) integrated body weight reduction (BWR) program (including energy-restricted diet, aerobic and strength exercise (5 days/week), nutritional education and psychological counseling) on plasma leptin levels and body composition were investigated in 54 morbidly obese patients (38 females/16 males; mean BMI +/- SE: 41.8 +/- 0.1 kg/m2, range 35-58 kg/m2; mean age: 29.8 +/- 1.0 yr, age range: 18-46 yr). The BWR program induced a significant (p < 0.001) weight loss (BMI reduction: -4.8%) and a significant modification in body composition, consisting in a fat mass (FM) decrease (-7.0 +/- 0.4%, p < 0.001) with a concomitant fat-free (FFM) mass increase (1.8 +/- 0.3%, p < 0.001). On average, plasma leptin levels decreased significantly both in males (from 19.4 +/- 2.6 ng/ml to 11.6 +/- 1.3 ng/ml, p < 0.001) and in females (from 41.1 +/- 3.6 ng/ml to 29.9 +/- 3.0 ng/ml, p < 0.001). Both before and after weight loss, leptin levels were positively correlated (p < 0.001) with BMI and percent fat mass (FM) values. Weight changes after the BWR program were negatively correlated with baseline leptin concentrations both in absolute terms and expressed per unit FM. In conclusion, a short-term diet plus aerobic/strength training effectively induces body composition changes and reduces plasma leptin levels. Body FM reduction appears to be not the unique determinant of leptin levels regulation and the degree of leptin over-expression may negatively affect weight loss in morbidly obese patients. PMID:12809176
Sartorio, A; Agosti, F; Resnik, M; Lafortuna, C L
Opioids have been suggested to affect feeding behaviour. To clarify the role of mu-opioid receptors in feeding, we measured several parameters relating to food intake in mu-opioid receptor knockout mice. Here, we show that the knockout mice had increased body weight in adulthood, although the intake amount of standard food was similar between the wild-type and knockout littermates. Serum markers for energy homeostasis were not significantly altered in the knockout mice. Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y mRNA, however, was higher in knockouts than in wild-type mice. Our results suggest that the up-regulated expression of neuropeptide Y mRNA might contribute to the increased weights of adult mu-opioid receptor knockout mice. PMID:16738492
Han, Wenhua; Hata, Harumi; Imbe, Hiroki; Liu, Qing-Rong; Takamatsu, Yukio; Koizumi, Miwako; Murphy, Niall P; Senba, Emiko; Uhl, George R; Sora, Ichiro; Ikeda, Kazutaka
Background Aging leads to increases in gait variability which may explain the large incidence of falls in the elderly. Body weight support training may be utilized to improve gait in the elderly and minimize falls. However, before initiating rehabilitation protocols, baseline studies are needed to identify the effect of body weight support on elderly gait variability. Our purpose was to determine the kinematic variability of the lower extremities in young and elderly healthy females at changing levels of body weight support during walking. Methods Ten young and ten elderly females walked on a treadmill for two minutes with a body weight support (BWS) system under four different conditions: 1 g, 0.9 g, 0.8 g, and 0.7 g. Three-dimensional kinematics was captured at 60 Hz with a Peak Performance high speed video system. Magnitude and structure of variability of the sagittal plane angular kinematics of the right lower extremity was analyzed using both linear (magnitude; standard deviations and coefficient of variations) and nonlinear (structure; Lyapunov exponents) measures. A two way mixed ANOVA was used to evaluate the effect of age and BWS on variability. Results Linear analysis showed that the elderly presented significantly more variability at the hip and knee joint than the young females. Moreover, higher levels of BWS presented increased variability at all joints as found in both the linear and nonlinear measures utilized. Conclusion Increased levels of BWS increased lower extremity kinematic variability. If the intent of BWS training is to decrease variability in gait patterns, this did not occur based on our results. However, we did not perform a training study. Thus, it is possible that after several weeks of training and increased habituation, these initial increased variability values will decrease. This assumption needs to be addressed in future investigation with both "healthy" elderly and elderly fallers. In addition, it is possible that BWS training can have a positive transfer effect by bringing overground kinematic variability to healthy normative levels, which also needs to be explored in future studies.
Kyvelidou, Anastasia; Kurz, Max J; Ehlers, Julie L; Stergiou, Nicholas
Stress experienced during pregnancy increases the risk for altered birth weights. Recent studies have revealed a link between abnormal birth weights and a future predisposition toward developing overweight or obesity. To determine the gestational time window when stress exposure produces the greatest impact on offspring body weight regulation, we have examined the birth weights and long-term body weight changes in
Bridget R. Mueller; Tracy L. Bale
Body image and weight loss beliefs and behaviors were assessed in 341 female and 221 male high school students. Estimates of body dissatisfaction varied depending on the measurement strategy used. Despite having similar weight distributions around the expected norm, girls were significantly more dissatisfied with their bodies than boys. Body Mass Index was positively related to body dissatisfaction in girls
Susan J. Paxton; Eleanor H. Wertheim; Kay Gibbons; George I. Szmukler; Lynne Hillier; Janice L. Petrovich
157 undergraduate students (M age 18.6 yr.) taking introductory psychology courses participated in this study to assess if men's self-perceived weight status is associated with a disposition to engage in or to avoid activities that would expose the body to scrutiny of male and female observers. A second objective of this study was to examine whether willingness to expose the upper torso would be associated with self-reports of anxiety about physique and fear of negative evaluation. Analysis indicated that both self-perceived overweight and underweight men reported less intent than self-perceived normal weight men to volunteer for activities that would expose the body to scrutiny. Surprisingly, participants volunteered for more activities if the viewers of their bodies were women than if they were men. Finally, endorsed unwillingness to expose the upper torso to others was significantly associated with increased social physique anxiety and higher fear of negative evaluation. PMID:15648480
We describe the distribution of body weight, height and body mass index (BMI) by age, sex and ethnicity in Malaysian adults. A national sample of 28,737 individuals aged 20 or older had usable data. They were selected by stratified 2-stage cluster sampling. Percentile tables and curves by age, sex and ethnicity are presented. The body weight and BMI distributions were right skewed, while that of height was symmetrical. BMI distribution showed the expected increase with age, while that of height decrease with age. Differences in BMI between the 2 sexes and among the 4 ethnic groups were observed. Indian had the highest BMI, followed by Malay, Chinese and other indigenous ethnic group. PMID:11072496
Lim, T O; Ding, L M; Zaki, M; Suleiman, A B; Fatimah, S; Siti, S; Tahir, A; Maimunah, A H
Fish consumption is the major dietary source of EPA and DHA, which according to rodent experiments may reduce body fat mass and prevent obesity. Only a few human studies have investigated the association between fish consumption and body-weight gain. We investigated the association between fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight. Women and men (n 344,757) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition were followed for a median of 5.0 years. Linear and logistic regression were used to investigate the associations between fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight. Among women, the annual weight change was 5.70 (95 % CI 4.35, 7.06), 2.23 (95 % CI 0.16, 4.31) and 11.12 (95 % CI 8.17, 14.08) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty fish consumption per d, respectively. The OR of becoming overweight in 5 years among women who were normal weight at enrolment was 1.02 (95 % CI 1.01, 1.02), 1.01 (95 % CI 1.00, 1.02) and 1.02 (95 % CI 1.01, 1.04) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty consumption per d, respectively. Among men, fish consumption was not statistically significantly associated with weight change. Adjustment for potential over- or underestimation of fish consumption did not systematically change the observed associations, but the 95 % CI became wider. The results in subgroups from analyses stratified by age or BMI at enrolment were not systematically different. In conclusion, the present study suggests that fish consumption has no appreciable association with body-weight gain. PMID:22716915
Jakobsen, Marianne U; Dethlefsen, Claus; Due, Karen M; May, Anne M; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Norat, Teresa; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Halkjær, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Teucher, Birgit; Kühn, Tilman; Bergmann, Manuela M; Boeing, Heiner; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Santucci De Magistris, Maria; Sieri, Sabina; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; van der A, Daphne L; Engeset, Dagrun; Hjartåker, Anette; Rodríguez, Laudina; Agudo, Antonio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Huerta, José M; Barricarte, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Manjer, Jonas; Wirfält, Elisabet; Hallmans, Göran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Key, Timothy J; Chajès, Veronique; Slimani, Nadia; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H M; Overvad, Kim
We developed a new model of hypodynamic loading to support mice in chronic conditions of partial weight bearing, enabling simulations of reduced gravity environments and related clinical conditions. The novel hardware allows for reduced loading between 10 and 80% of normal body weight on all four limbs and enables characteristic quadrupedal locomotion. Ten-week-old female BALB/cByJ mice were supported for 21 days under Mars-analog suspension (38% weight bearing) and compared with age-matched and jacketed (100% weight bearing) controls. After an initial adaptation, weight gain did not differ between groups, suggesting low levels of animal stress. Relative to age-matched controls, mice exposed to Mars-analog loading had significantly lower muscle mass (?23% gastrocnemius wet mass, P < 0.0001); trabecular and cortical bone morphology (i.e., trabecular bone volume: ?24% at the distal femur, and cortical thickness: ?11% at the femoral midshaft, both P < 0.001); and biomechanical properties of the femoral midshaft (i.e., ?27% ultimate moment, P < 0.001). Bone formation indexes were decreased compared with age-matched full-weight-bearing mice, whereas resorption parameters were largely unchanged. Singly housed, full-weight-bearing controls with forelimb jackets were largely similar to age-matched, group-housed controls, although a few variables differed and warrant further investigation. Altogether, these data provide strong rationale for use of our new model of partial weight bearing to further explore the musculoskeletal response to reduced loading environments.
Granzella, Nicholas P.; Saito, Hiroaki; Newman, Dava J.; Young, Laurence R.; Bouxsein, Mary L.
BACKGROUND: Current understanding of the associations between actual body weight status, weight perception, body dissatisfaction, and weight control practices among low-income urban African American adolescents is limited. The knowledge can help direct future intervention efforts. METHODS: Cross-sectional data including measured weight and height and self-reported weight status collected from 448 adolescents in four Chicago Public Schools were used. RESULTS: The
Youfa Wang; Huifang Liang; Xiaoli Chen
The discovery of cannabinoid receptors, together with the development of selective cannabinoid receptor antagonists, has encouraged a resurgence of cannabinoid pharmacology. With the identification of endogenous agonists, such as anandamide, scientists have sought to uncover the biological role of endocannabinoid systems; initially guided by the long-established actions of cannabis and exogenous cannabinoids such as delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). In particular, considerable research has examined endocannabinoid involvement in appetite, eating behaviour and body weight regulation. It is now confirmed that endocannabinoids, acting at brain CB1 cannabinoid receptors, stimulate appetite and ingestive behaviours, partly through interactions with more established orexigenic and anorexigenic signals. Key structures such as the nucleus accumbens and hypothalamic nuclei are sensitive sites for the hyperphagic actions of these substances, and endocannabinoid activity in these regions varies in relation to nutritional status and feeding expression. Behavioural studies indicate that endocannabinoids increase eating motivation by enhancing the incentive salience and hedonic evaluation of ingesta. Moreover, there is strong evidence of an endocannabinoid role in energy metabolism and fuel storage. Recent developments point to potential clinical benefits of cannabinoid receptor antagonists in the management of obesity, and of agonists in the treatment of other disorders of eating and body weight regulation. PMID:16148436
Kirkham, T C
Deficits in dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) binding availability using PET imaging have been reported in obese humans and rodents. Similar deficits have been reported in cocaine-addicts and cocaine-exposed primates. We found that D2R/D3R binding availability negatively correlated with measures of body weight at the time of scan (ventral striatum), at 1 (ventral striatum) and 2 months (dorsal and ventral striatum) post scan in rats. Cocaine preference was negatively correlated with D2R/D3R binding availability 2 months (ventral striatum) post scan. Our findings suggest that inherent deficits in striatal D2R/D3R signaling are related to obesity and drug addiction susceptibility and that ventral and dorsal striatum serve dissociable roles in maintaining weight gain and cocaine preference. Measuring D2R/D3R binding availability provides a way for assessing susceptibility to weight gain and cocaine abuse in rodents and given the translational nature of PET imaging, potentially primates and humans.
Michaelides M.; Wang G.; Michaelides M.; Thanos P.K. Kim R.; Cho J.; Ananth M.; Wang G.-J.; Volkow N.D.
The relationship between obesity and the intake of macronutrients and specific foods is uncertain. Thus, there is growing interest in some eating behaviours because they may reflect the joint effect of several foods and nutrients and, thus, increase the likelihood of finding a link to obesity. This study examined the association between selected eating behaviours and excess weight in the general population throughout a systematic review of publications written in English, Spanish or Portuguese identified in a PubMed search up to 31 December 2010. We included 153 articles, 73 of which have been published since 2008. Only 30 studies had a prospective design; of these, 15 adjusted for sociodemographic variables, physical activity and energy or food intake. Moreover, definitions of eating behaviours varied substantially across studies. We found only small or inconsistent evidence of a relationship between excess weight and skipping breakfast, daily eating frequency, snacking, irregular meals, eating away from home, consumption of fast food, takeaway food intake, consumption of large food portions, eating until full and eating quickly. In conclusion, this review highlights the difficulty in measuring human behaviour, and suggests that a more systematic approach is needed for capturing the effects of eating behaviours on body weight. PMID:21955734
Mesas, A E; Muñoz-Pareja, M; López-García, E; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F
This review discusses dietary strategies that may improve the metabolic profile and body weight regulation in obesity. Recent evidence demonstrated that long-term health effects seem to be more beneficial for low-glycemic index (GI) diets compared to high-protein diets. Still, these results need to be confirmed by other prospective cohort studies and long-term clinical trials, and the discrepancy between these study designs needs to be explored in more detail. Furthermore, the current literature is mixed with regard to the efficacy of increased meal frequency (or snacking) regimens in causing metabolic alterations, particularly in relation to body weight control. In conclusion, a growing body of evidence suggests that dietary strategies with the aim to reduce postprandial insulin response and increase fat oxidation, and that tend to restore metabolic flexibility, have a place in the prevention and treatment of obesity and associated metabolic disorders. PMID:24580072
Munsters, M J M; Saris, W H M
This paper investigated weight misperceptions as determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in body mass index (BMI) among adolescent females using data from the National Survey of Youth 1997. Compared to their white counterparts, higher proportions of black and Hispanic adolescent females underperceived their weight status; that is, they misperceived themselves to have lower weight status compared to their clinically defined weight status. Compared to their black counterparts, higher proportions of white and Hispanic adolescent females misperceived themselves to be heavier than their clinical weight status. Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis showed that accounting for weight misperceptions, in addition to individual and contextual factors, increased the total explained portion of the black-white female BMI gap from 44.7% to 54.3% but only slightly increased the total explained portion of the Hispanic-white gap from 62.8% to 63.1%. Weight misperceptions explained 13.0% of the black-white female BMI gap and 3.3% of the Hispanic-white female BMI gap. The regression estimates showed that weight underperceptions were important determinants of adolescent female BMI, particularly among black and Hispanic adolescents. Education regarding identification and interpretation of weight status may play an important role to help reduce the incidence and racial disparity of female adolescent obesity.
Krauss, Ramona C.; Powell, Lisa M.; Wada, Roy
OBJECTIVES: Low-fat high-carbohydrate diets are recommended to prevent weight gain in normal weight subjects and reduce body weight in overweight and obese. However, their efficacy is controversial. We evaluated the efficacy of ad libitum low-fat diets in reducing body weight in non-diabetic individuals from the results of intervention trials.DESIGN: Studies were identified from a computerized search of the Medline database
A. Astrup; GK Grunwald; EL Melanson; WHM Saris; JO Hill
Overweight and obesity are major public health concerns with approximately 32% and 17% of U.S. children aged 2 – 19 being classified as overweight or obese, respectively. While the cause of overweight and obesity is multi-factorial, changes in eating habits and physical activity patterns have been proposed as contributing factors to the obesity epidemic. For example, the displacement of nutrient rich foods and beverages with non-nutrient dense items may be influencing childhood obesity. Many children do not consume the recommended servings of the Food Groups to Encourage, i.e. low-fat and fat-free dairy foods, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains identified by the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans which results in low intakes of calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E. While attention has focused primarily on reducing energy intake and/or increasing energy expenditure for weight maintenance, a promising beneficial role for dairy products in weight management has emerged. Most research has focused on adults, but there is evidence in children and adolescents indicating either a beneficial or neutral effect of dairy food consumption on body weight or body composition. The current review provides and assessment of the scientific evidence on the effects of dairy food consumption on body weight and body composition in children and adolescents.
Spence, Lisa A; Cifelli, Christopher J; Miller, Gregory D
Current physical activity recommendations call for 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week, or\\u000a the equivalent of expending approximately 1000 kcal in activity per week. These recommendations were formulated based on reducing\\u000a the risk for chronic disease, but they do not appear adequate for weight loss and maintenance. Data from epidemiologic studies\\u000a and randomized trials indicate
Darcy L. Johannsen; Leanne M. Redman; Eric Ravussin
Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/d deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (?45 points per 1000 kcal; n=40) or high GL diet (>75 points per 1000 kcal, n=29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (P<0.05, adjusted for total fat mass and baseline IAAT). Participants lost an average of 5.8 kg during the hypocaloric phase, with no differences in the amount of weight loss with diet assignment (P=0.39). Following weight loss, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 4.4% less total fat mass than those who consumed the high GL diet (P<0.05, adjusted for lean mass and baseline fat mass). Consumption of a relatively low GL diet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss.
Goss, Amy M.; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E.; Gower, Barbara A.
Vaccination against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) in sheep receives growing attention worldwide, particularly in countries with national Map control strategies. A field study was conducted, investigating the effect of GUDAIR on body condition, weight and Map-shedding in a professionally managed but largely Map-affected suffolk flock prior and after vaccination. For this, 80 ewes out of 1000 animals were randomly sampled. In the univariate analysis body condition scores of ewes twelve months after vaccination improved significantly compared to those sampled prior to vaccination. At the same time the rate of ewes shedding Map was reduced by 37%. PMID:23227760
Hüttner, Klim; Krämer, Ulla; Kleist, Petra
Quantification of disease burden by deaths or years lived with disability is a useful indicator as it informs prevention by accounting for health loss but it does not reflect the needs for health services. An alternative indicator is to quantify the impact of a risk factor on health care utilization. In an article published in BMC Medicine, Reeves and colleagues describe the relationship between body mass index in 1.2 million women (England) and hospital admission rates. The main finding was that around one in eight hospital admissions was attributable to overweight or obesity, translating to around 420,000 extra hospital admissions, and two million extra days spent in hospital, annually. These findings reinforce the evidence that excess body weight is associated with extensive healthcare utilization and emphasize the need to scale-up and speed-up research if global problems, such as obesity, are to be tackled with due alacrity.Please see related research: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/45. PMID:24742301
Renehan, Andrew G; Buchan, Iain E
Quantification of disease burden by deaths or years lived with disability is a useful indicator as it informs prevention by accounting for health loss but it does not reflect the needs for health services. An alternative indicator is to quantify the impact of a risk factor on health care utilization. In an article published in BMC Medicine, Reeves and colleagues describe the relationship between body mass index in 1.2 million women (England) and hospital admission rates. The main finding was that around one in eight hospital admissions was attributable to overweight or obesity, translating to around 420,000 extra hospital admissions, and two million extra days spent in hospital, annually. These findings reinforce the evidence that excess body weight is associated with extensive healthcare utilization and emphasize the need to scale-up and speed-up research if global problems, such as obesity, are to be tackled with due alacrity. Please see related research: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/45.
This study examined whether guar gum (Guar) and\\/or conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) modifies the long-term effect of hydroxycitrate (HCA) on food intake and body weight regain as well as on different blood and liver variables after substantial body weight loss. A total of 63 rats were fed restrictively for 10 days, then divided into seven groups and switched to ad
Monika Leonhardt; Sabine Münch; Margriet Westerterp-Plantenga; Wolfgang Langhans
ObjectiveConjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has several benefits, including body fat reduction, as proven in animals. However, results regarding CLA-induced body composition alterations in humans are inconsistent, and no related data are available for Chinese. This study aimed to determine whether CLA affects body weight (BW) loss and body composition of overweight and obese Chinese subjects.
Shu-Chiun Chen; Yu-Hsien Lin; Hui-Ping Huang; Wan-Ling Hsu; Jer-Yiing Houng; Chih-Kun Huang
It is well established that leptin regulates energy balance largely through isoform B leptin receptor-expressing neurons (LepR neurons) in the brain and that leptin activates one subset of LepR neurons (leptin-excited neurons) while inhibiting the other (leptin-inhibited neurons). However, the neurotransmitters released from LepR neurons that mediate leptin action in the brain are not well understood. Previous results demonstrate that leptin mainly acts on ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons to reduce body weight, and that leptin activates proopiomelanocortin neuron activity by reducing GABA release onto these neurons, suggesting a body weight-promoting role for GABA released from leptin-inhibited neurons. To directly examine the role of GABA release from LepR neurons in body weight regulation, mice with disruption of GABA release specifically from LepR neurons were generated by deletion of vesicular GABA transporter in LepR neurons. Interestingly, these mice developed mild obesity on chow diet and were sensitive to diet-induced obesity, which were associated with higher food intake and lower energy expenditure. Moreover, these mice showed blunted responses in both food intake and body weight to acute leptin administration. These results demonstrate that GABA plays an important role in mediating leptin action. In combination with the previous studies that leptin reduces GABA release onto proopiomelanocortin neurons through leptin-inhibited neurons and that disruption of GABA release from agouti gene-related protein neurons, one subset of LepR-inhibited neurons, leads to a lean phenotype, our results suggest that, under our experimental conditions, GABA release from leptin-excited neuron dominates over leptin-inhibited ones.
Xu, Yuanzhong; O'Brien, William G.; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Myers, Martin G.
Introduction: A favorable or unfavorable attitude about self was named self esteem. According to Maslow theory to achieve quality of life and happiness, one must reach the gradual fulfillment of human needs, including a high degree of own self-esteem. Body dissatisfaction is a negative distortion of one's body which is especially mentioned by the women. Many studies have shown links between self esteem, body dissatisfaction, health and behaviors. this study intends to determine relationship between body satisfaction, self esteem and unhealthy weight control behaviors between women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 408 women employees in Isfahan University and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences during 1390. They were chosen according to the stratified random sampling method. Inclusion criteria were 1) willing to participate in the study and 2) lack of serious physical defect 3) not being in pregnancy or breastfeeding course. Exclusion criteria was filling out questionnaires incompletely. Data collection tool was a multidimensional questionnaire which comprised of 4 sections as following: demographic (5items), A self-administrative questionnaire for body Satisfaction (7 items), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (10 items) and a standard Weight Control Behavior Scale (18 items). Cranach's alpha was 0.9 or higher for the different sections. Finally, collected data was analyzed with SPSS18 using the independent T-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient, regression, Spearman correlation. Results: Frequencies of participants by weight category were 14.1% for obese, 35.3% for overweight, 47.6% for normal weight. The mean body satisfaction score in the studied women was 63.26 ± 16.27 (from 100). Mean score of self esteem was 76.70 ± 10.45. 51.5% of women had medium self esteem, 47.5% had high self esteem. Pearson correlation showed that the variables of body Satisfaction (r = 0.3, P = 0.02), BMI (r = - 0.14, P < 0.003), education level (r = 0.22, P < 0.001), income (r = 0.14, P < 0.004), consumption of fruit (r = 0.13, P < 0.008) all correlated with self-esteem significantly. Women with higher self esteem used higher fruits had a good nutrition overall (r = 0.11, P = 0.02). 92.15%, 10.8% of women respectively participated in one of healthy and unhealthy weight control behavior. There was not any Relationship between self esteem and healthy weight control behavior while finding showed reverse relationship between self esteem and Unhealthy Dieting Behaviors. Conclusion: It seemed women identity in our society tied to social appreciations that formed and supported by body satisfaction. When they feel their current appearance is differ from ideal appearance, they feel down and have lower self esteem and used unhealthy dieting behavior and low fruits daily. Due to importance of precise self evaluation, self esteem can be used to design and conduct public health programs, especially for women.
Daniali, Shahrbanoo; Azadbakht, Leila; Mostafavi, Firoozeh
Measurements of body weight (BW), body condi- tion score, wither height, calf birth weight, and calf sex were recorded by parity from 728 Holstein cows and heifers at the Purina Research Center during the 8-wk prepartum period. Data were compiled over 5 yr. Mean daily BW gain was 0.93 kg. Loss of BW at parturition was 11.1%. Mean body condition
A. F. Kertz; L. F. Reutzel; B. A. Barton; R. L. Ely
BACKGROUND Locomotor training, including the use of body-weight support in treadmill stepping, is a physical therapy intervention used to improve recovery of the ability to walk after stroke. The effectiveness and appropriate timing of this intervention have not been established. METHODS We stratified 408 participants who had had a stroke 2 months earlier according to the extent of walking impairment — moderate (able to walk 0.4 to <0.8 m per second) or severe (able to walk <0.4 m per second) — and randomly assigned them to one of three training groups. One group received training on a treadmill with the use of body-weight support 2 months after the stroke had occurred (early locomotor training), the second group received this training 6 months after the stroke had occurred (late locomotor training), and the third group participated in an exercise program at home managed by a physical therapist 2 months after the stroke (home-exercise program). Each intervention included 36 sessions of 90 minutes each for 12 to 16 weeks. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants in each group who had an improvement in functional walking ability 1 year after the stroke. RESULTS At 1 year, 52.0% of all participants had increased functional walking ability. No significant differences in improvement were found between early locomotor training and home exercise (adjusted odds ratio for the primary outcome, 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50 to 1.39) or between late locomotor training and home exercise (adjusted odds ratio, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.99). All groups had similar improvements in walking speed, motor recovery, balance, functional status, and quality of life. Neither the delay in initiating the late locomotor training nor the severity of the initial impairment affected the outcome at 1 year. Ten related serious adverse events were reported (occurring in 2.2% of participants undergoing early locomotor training, 3.5% of those undergoing late locomotor training, and 1.6% of those engaging in home exercise). As compared with the home-exercise group, each of the groups receiving locomotor training had a higher frequency of dizziness or faintness during treatment (P=0.008). Among patients with severe walking impairment, multiple falls were more common in the group receiving early locomotor training than in the other two groups (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS Locomotor training, including the use of body-weight support in stepping on a treadmill, was not shown to be superior to progressive exercise at home managed by a physical therapist. (Funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research; LEAPS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00243919.)
Duncan, Pamela W.; Sullivan, Katherine J.; Behrman, Andrea L.; Azen, Stanley P.; Wu, Samuel S.; Nadeau, Stephen E.; Dobkin, Bruce H.; Rose, Dorian K.; Tilson, Julie K.; Cen, Steven; Hayden, Sarah K.
In vitro studies have demonstrated that ZNT7 is involved in transporting the cytoplasmic zinc into the Golgi apparatus of the cell for zinc storage or to be incorporated into newly synthesized zinc-requiring enzymes/proteins. To evaluate the physiological role of ZNT7, we created a mouse model of Znt7 deficiency by a gene-trap approach. Znt7-deficient mice were zinc-deficient based on their low zinc content in serum, liver, bone, kidney, and small intestine. In embryonic fibroblasts isolated from Znt7-deficient mice, cellular zinc was approximately 50% that of wild-type controls. Znt7-deficient mice also displayed some classic manifestations of dietary zinc deficiency, such as reduced food intake and poor body weight gain. However, the mutant mice did not show any sign of hair abnormality and dermatitis that are commonly associated with dietary zinc deficiency. A radioactive feeding study suggested that Znt7-deficient mice had reduced zinc absorption in the gut resulting in decreased zinc accumulations in other organs in the body. The poor growth found in Znt7-deficient mice could not be corrected by feeding the mutant mice with a diet containing 6-fold higher zinc (180 mg/kg) than the suggested adequate intake amount (30 mg/kg). Furthermore, the reduced body weight gain of the mutant mice was largely due to the decrease in body fat accumulation. We conclude that ZNT7 has essential functions in dietary zinc absorption and in regulation of body adiposity. PMID:17954933
Huang, Liping; Yu, Yan Yiu; Kirschke, Catherine P; Gertz, Erik R; Lloyd, Kent K C
Background: Epidemiologic data have shown that obesity independently increases colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Obesity is an inflammatory state, and chronic colonic inflammation induces CRC. Objective: We conducted this proof-of-principle study to seek evidence of obesity-associated colorectal inflammation and to evaluate effects of diet-induced weight loss. Design: We measured inflammatory cytokines, gene arrays, and macrophage infiltration in rectosigmoid mucosal biopsies of 10 obese premenopausal women [mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m2): 35 ± 3.5] before and after weight loss induced by a very-low-calorie diet. Results: Subjects lost a mean (±SD) of 10.1 ± 1% of their initial weight. Weight loss significantly reduced fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interleukin (IL)-8 concentrations (P < 0.05). After weight loss, rectosigmoid biopsies showed a 25–57% reduction in TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-8, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 concentrations (P < 0.05). T cell and macrophage counts decreased by 28% and 42%, respectively (P < 0.05). Gene arrays showed dramatic down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine pathways, prostaglandin metabolism, and the transcription factors STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) and nuclear transcription factor ?B. Weight loss reduced expression of FOS and JUN genes and down-regulated oxidative stress pathways and the transcription factors ATF (activating transcription factor) and CREB (cyclic AMP response element-binding). Conclusions: Our data show that diet-induced weight loss in obese individuals reduces colorectal inflammation and greatly modulates inflammatory and cancer-related gene pathways. These data imply that obesity is accompanied by inflammation in the colorectal mucosa and that diet-induced weight loss reduces this inflammatory state and may thereby lower CRC risk.
Pendyala, Swaroop; Neff, Lisa M; Suarez-Farinas, Mayte; Holt, Peter R
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of long-term continuation of low-intensity exercise training on weight maintenance, substrate metabolism, and [beta ][ndash ]adrenergic-mediated fat oxidation in weight-reduced obese men. Preceding this part of the study, subjects lost 15 [plusmn] 6 kg of body weight by energy restriction with or without low-intensity exercise training. Twenty-nine subjects (diet
Dorien P. van Aggel-Leijssen; Wim H. Saris; Gabby B. Hul; Marleen A. van Baak
Reference ranges for clinical biochemical parameters commonly investigated in pigs were determined in one- (day 1), 21- and 35-day old piglets. The mean and standard deviation were also estimated for body weight, and haematological and clinical biochemical parameters at these ages. The piglets were divided into 2 investigation groups according to whether they had a haemoglobin concentration < or = 80 g/l ("anaemic group") or > 80 g/l ("normal group") on days 14, 21 and 28. The "anaemic group" was compared to the "normal group" on days 21 and 35. Many of the clinical biochemical parameters varied according to age. Some of the enzymes had high average values and wide reference ranges in piglets, especially on day 1, compared to the reference ranges for sows given in the literature. The reference ranges for some of the metabolic parameters were broader on day 1 than later in the preweaning period. The reference ranges for albumin, total iron-binding capacity and serum iron were, however, lower and more narrow on day 1. On days 21 and 35, relatively high values for phosphorus must be considered "normal" compared to the figures given in the literature for adult pigs. The other minerals seemed to be quite unaffected of age, but some were affected by anaemia. The anaemic piglets had lower average serum iron but higher total iron-binding capacity than the "normal" piglets on days 21 and 35. However, variation between piglets gave wide reference ranges, indicating that these parameters will only have limited usefulness in detecting iron deficiency anaemia in piglets. The electrolytes seemed also to be affected by the existence of anaemia. The body weight and leukocyte counts were significantly lower in the "anaemic group" than the "normal group" on day 35, while the greatest differences in clinical biochemical parameters between the groups were found on day 21, when the piglets in the "anaemic group" were most severely anaemic. Although these piglets suffered from severe iron-deficiency anaemia, only a few clinical biochemical parameters were affected, and the differences between groups were mostly small. PMID:9787501
Egeli, A K; Framstad, T; Morberg, H
Gonadal steroids regulate appetite and thus body weight. In addition, continuous exposure to stressors negatively influences appetite through circuits likely distinct from those of gonadal steroids. The occurrence of adverse metabolic consequences due to chronic exposure to psychosocial stressors is twice as frequent in women as men, implicating a role for ovarian hormones, estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), in modulating stress-induced changes in appetite. Using social subordination in female macaques as a model of social stress, the current study tested the hypothesis that subordinate females would lose more weight during E2 treatment and gain less weight during P4 administration than dominant females. Because polymorphisms in the gene encoding the serotonin transporter (5HTT; SCL6A4) are known to alter responsivity to stress, we hypothesized that weight loss during E2 administration would be greatest in females with the short variant (s-variant) allele of 5HTT. Dominant females were significantly heavier than subordinate animals throughout the study, a result consistent with previous accounts of food intake when animals are fed a low-fat, high-fiber diet. Females with the s-variant 5HTT genotype weighed significantly less than l/l animals. Dominant animals lost significantly more weight than subordinate animals during E2 treatment. Administration of P4 blocked the weight-reducing effects of E2 in all females, regardless of social status. These data provide evidence that social subordination modulates the influence of ovarian steroid hormones on body weight in female rhesus monkeys independent of 5HTT genotype. Given the prosocial effects of these steroids, future studies are necessary to determine whether status differences in E2-induced weight loss are due to diminished food intake and or increases in energy expenditure and how the change in energy availability during E2 treatments relates to a female’s motivation to interact with conspecifics.
Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Wilson, Mark E.
Placental growth is a strong predictor of fetal growth, but little is known about maternal predictors of placental growth in malnourished populations. Our objective was to investigate in a prospective study the associations of maternal weight and body composition [total body water (TBW) estimated by bioelectrical impedance and fat and fat-free mass derived from upper arm fat and muscle areas (UAFA, UAMA)] and changes in these with placental and birth weights. Within a cluster-randomized trial of maternal micronutrient supplementation, a subsample of 350 women was measured 3 times across gestation. Longitudinal analysis was used to examine independent associations of ?10-wk measurements and ?10–20 wk and ?20–32 wk changes with birth outcomes. Weight, TBW, and UAMA, but not UAFA, at ?10 wk were each positively and independently associated with placental weight and birth weight (P < 0.05). Of the maternal ?10–20 wk changes in measurements, only TBW change and placental weight, and maternal weight and birth weight were positively associated (P < 0.05). Gains in weight, TBW, and UAMA from 20 to 32 wk were positively and UAFA gain was negatively associated with placental weight (P ? 0.01). Gains in weight and UAMA from 20 to 32 wk were positively associated with birth weight (P ? 0.01). Overall, higher maternal weight and measures of fat-free mass at ?10 wk gestation and gains from 20 to 32 wk are independently associated with higher placental and birth weight.
Gernand, Alison D.; Christian, Parul; Paul, Rina Rani; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Labrique, Alain B.; Schulze, Kerry J.; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; West, Keith P.
Chronic treatment with nicotine results in reduced body weight gain without a change in food intake. To evaluate the role of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis in this effect of nicotine, male Sprague-Dawley rats were chronically treated (3X daily, IP) over a 14 day period with either saline, 0.8 mg/kg nicotine, 10 mg/kg caffeine or a combination of 0.8 mg/kg nicotine and 10 mg/kg caffeine and were pretreated (once daily) with either saline or 20 mg/kg nadolol, a long-acting beta-adrenergic receptor blocker. Nicotine significantly reduced body weight gain but not food intake and nadolol did not reverse the effect of nicotine on body weight gain. To evaluate whether nicotine induces BAT thermogenesis, rats were injected IP with either saline or 0.8, 1.2 or 1.6 mg/kg nicotine hydrogen tartrate, with 5 mg/kg dl-phenylpropanolamine (dl-PPA) or with a combination of 0.8 mg/kg nicotine and 10 mg/kg caffeine with interscapular BAT (IBAT) temperatures recorded for 30 minutes after injection. No dose of nicotine produced a change in IBAT temperature whereas a combination of caffeine and nicotine produced a temperature increase in IBAT (0.95 degree C) 63% of that induced by 5 mg/kg dl-PPA. These data suggest that changes in body weight gain induced by nicotine treatment are not the result of an action of nicotine on BAT thermogenesis. PMID:3737629
Wellman, P J; Marmon, M M; Reich, S; Ruddle, J
A critical period for weight gain may occur during the transition from high school to university. This descriptive, noncontrolled cohort study of 116 healthy females examined the effect of this transition over three study visits in first year university. The main outcome measure was body weight; others were height, body composition, waist circumference, dietary intake, and participation in physical and
Melinda J. Edmonds; Kelly J. Ferreira; Erica A. Nikiforuk; Alida K. Finnie; Sarah H. Leavey; Alison M. Duncan; Janis A. Randall Simpson
Context Dehydration is assumed to be a major adverse effect associated with rapid loss of body mass for competing in a lower weight class in combat sports. However, the effects of such weight cutting on body fluid balance in a real-life setting are unknown. Objective To examine the effects of 5% or greater loss of body mass within a few days before competition on body water, blood volume, and plasma volume in elite amateur boxers. Design Case-control study. Setting Sports medicine laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Seventeen male boxers (age = 19.2 ± 2.9 years, height = 175.1 ± 7.0 cm, mass = 65.6 ± 9.2 kg) were assigned to the weight-loss group (WLG; n = 10) or the control group (CON; n = 7). Intervention(s) The WLG reduced body mass by restricting fluid and food and inducing excessive sweat loss by adhering to individual methods. The CON participated in their usual precompetition training. Main Outcome Measure(s) During an ordinary training period (t-1), 2 days before competition (t-2), and 1 week after competition (t-3), we performed bioelectrical impedance measurements; calculated total body water, intracellular water, and extracellular water; and estimated total hemoglobin mass (tHbmass), blood volume, and plasma volume by the CO-rebreathing method. Results In the WLG, the loss of body mass (5.6% ± 1.7%) led to decreases in total body water (6.0% ± 0.9%), extracellular water (12.4% ± 7.6%), tHbmass (5.3% ± 3.8%), blood volume (7.6% ± 2.1%; P < .001), and plasma volume (8.6% ± 3.9%). The intracellular water did not change (P > .05). At t-3, total body water, extracellular water, and plasma volume had returned to near baseline values, but tHbmass and blood volume still were less than baseline values (P < .05). In CON, we found no changes (P > .05). Conclusions In a real-life setting, the loss of approximately 6% body mass within 5 days induced hypohydration, which became evident by the decreases in body water and plasma volume. The reduction in tHbmass was a surprising observation that needs further investigation.
Reljic, Dejan; Hassler, Eike; Jost, Joachim; Friedmann-Bette, Birgit
An experiment is conducted to determine whether the NASA Space Shuttle food system can provide the food and fluid required to mitigate weight loss and physical decomposition in 12 female subjects for 28 days. Subjects receive only foods from the Space Shuttle system for four weeks within an 11-wk monitoring period. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is employed throughout the trial period to study lean body mass, percent body fat, and energy-intake levels with attention given to differences the experimental diet and the subjects' typical diet. Percent body fat is found to change significantly with losses of less than 0.05 percent, whereas energy intake based on autonomous diet choices by the participants does not vary significantly. Lean body mass remains unchanged throughout the study in which the subjects receive a relatively low-fat and low-protein menu. The 100 items on the space shuttle list of approved food items are shown to provide a palatable dietary framework for maintaining the health of female astronauts.
Lane, Helen W.; Frye, Sherrie; Kloeris, Vickie; Rice, Barbara; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Spector, Elisabeth; Gretebeck, Randall J.
Circulating leptin concentrations correlate with fat mass and signal the status of somatic energy stores to the brain. Previous studies suggest that diet-induced elevations of body weight increase body weight “set-point”. To assess whether chronic hyperleptinemia is responsible for this shift in defended body weight, we elevated circulating leptin concentrations in lean mice to those comparable to diet-induced obese mice for eighteen weeks. We hypothesized that following cessation of leptin infusion, a higher body weight would be defended. Compared to saline-infused controls, leptin-infused mice had elevated circulating leptin concentrations, gained less weight, yet had similar metabolic rates. Following cessation of leptin administration, leptin-infused mice gained some weight yet plateaued at 5–10% below controls. These results suggest that, unlike mice rendered hyperleptinemic by diet-induced weight gain, leptin-infused mice do not subsequently “defend” a higher body weight, suggesting that hyperleptinemia per se does not mimic the CNS consequences of chronic weight gain.
Ravussin, Y.; LeDuc, C.A.; Watanabe, K.; Mueller, B.R.; Skowronski, A.; Rosenbaum, M.; Leibel, R.L.
This study evaluated the effects of garment size and fabric weight on range-of-motion (ROM). Ten male subjects performed a series of twelve gross body movements while wearing each of nine similarly styled coveralls. The coveralls were undersized, appropriately sized, and oversized, and were constructed from three different weights of poly/cotton fabric. A balanced 3 x 3 repeated measures experimental design was used, along with a seminude control condition. ROM was measured with a two-arm manual goniometer. Garment size significantly affected (p < .05) ROM for all movements except shoulder extension and trunk lateral flexion. Compared to seminude ROM, undersized garments reduced the mean ROM by as much as 24% in the case of hip flexion. Fabric weights on ROM were significant for shoulder extension and elbow, hip, knee, and shoulder horizontal flexion. Fabric weight affected ROM less than garment size. Interaction effects between fabric weight and size generally were not significant. These results demonstrate that undersized garments can measurably reduce the wearer's movement capability. Providers of protective clothing should ensure that garments are not undersized and should consider the benefits of oversizing against possible safety and wearer acceptance problems. PMID:7726098
Adams, P S; Keyserling, W M
Background Previous research has shown that body weight support (BWS) has the potential to improve gait speed for individuals post-stroke. However, body weight support also reduces the optimal walking speed at which energy use is minimized over the gait cycle indicating that BWS should reduce walking speed capability. Methods Nonimpaired subjects and subjects post-stroke walked at a self-selected speed over a 15 m walkway. Body weight support (BWS) was provided to subjects at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% of the subject's weight while they walked overground using a robotic body weight support system. Gait speed, cadence, and average step length were calculated for each subject using recorded data on their time to walk 10 m and the number of steps taken. Results When subjected to greater levels of BWS, self-selected walking speed decreased for the nonimpaired subjects. However, subjects post-stroke showed an average increase of 17% in self-selected walking speed when subjected to some level of BWS compared to the 0% BWS condition. Most subjects showed this increase at the 10% BWS level. Gait speed increases corresponded to an increase in step length, but not cadence. Conclusions The BWS training environment results in decreased self-selected walking speed in nonimpaired individuals, however self-selected overground walking speed is facilitated when provided with a small percentage of body weight support for people post-stroke.
Background:Obesity is associated with reduced levels of circulating high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) and its major protein, apolipoprotein (apo) A-I. As a result of the role of HDL and apoA-I in cellular lipid transport, low HDL and apoA-I may contribute directly to establishing or maintaining the obese condition.Methods:To test this, male C57BL/6 wild-type (WT), apoA-I deficient (apoA-I(-/-)) and apoA-I transgenic (apoA-I(tg/tg)) mice were fed obesogenic diets (ODs) and monitored for several clinical parameters. We also performed cell culture studies.Results:ApoA-I(-/-) mice gained significantly more body weight and body fat than WT mice over 20 weeks despite their reduced food intake. During a caloric restriction regime imposed on OD-fed mice, apoA-I deficiency significantly inhibited the loss of body fat as compared with WT mice. Reduced body fat loss with caloric restriction in apoA-I(-/-) mice was associated with blunted stimulated adipose tissue lipolysis as verified by decreased levels of phosphorylated hormone-sensitive lipase (p-HSL) and lipolytic enzyme mRNA. In contrast to apoA-I(-/-) mice, apoA-I(tg/tg) mice gained relatively less weight than WT mice, consistent with other reports. ApoA-I(tg/tg) mice showed increased adipose tissue lipolysis, verified by increased levels of p-HSL and lipolytic enzyme mRNA. In cell culture studies, HDL and apoA-I specifically increased catecholamine-induced lipolysis possibly through modulating the adipocyte plasma membrane cholesterol content.Conclusions:Thus, apoA-I and HDL contribute to modulating body fat content by controlling the extent of lipolysis. ApoA-I and HDL are key components of lipid metabolism in adipose tissue and constitute new therapeutic targets in obesity. PMID:24567123
Wei, H; Averill, M M; McMillen, T S; Dastvan, F; Mitra, P; Subramanian, S; Tang, C; Chait, A; Leboeuf, R C
The relationship between energy status and fertility in dairy cattle was retrospectively analyzed by comparing fertility with body condition score (BCS) near artificial insemination (AI; experiment 1), early postpartum changes in BCS (experiment 2), and postpartum changes in body weight (BW; experiment 3). To reduce the effect of cyclicity status, all cows were synchronized with Double-Ovsynch protocol before timed AI. In experiment 1, BCS of lactating dairy cows (n=1,103) was evaluated near AI. Most cows (93%) were cycling at initiation of the breeding Ovsynch protocol (first GnRH injection). A lower percentage pregnant to AI (P/AI) was found in cows with lower (?2.50) versus higher (?2.75) BCS (40.4 vs. 49.2%). In experiment 2, lactating dairy cows on 2 commercial dairies (n=1,887) were divided by BCS change from calving until the third week postpartum. Overall, P/AI at 70-d pregnancy diagnosis differed dramatically by BCS change and was least for cows that lost BCS, intermediate for cows that maintained BCS, and greatest for cows that gained BCS [22.8% (180/789), 36.0% (243/675), and 78.3% (331/423), respectively]. Surprisingly, a difference existed between farms with BCS change dramatically affecting P/AI on one farm and no effect on the other farm. In experiment 3, lactating dairy cows (n=71) had BW measured weekly from the first to ninth week postpartum and then had superovulation induced using a modified Double-Ovsynch protocol. Cows were divided into quartiles (Q) by percentage of BW change (Q1 = least change; Q4 = most change) from calving until the third week postpartum. No effect was detected of quartile on number of ovulations, total embryos collected, or percentage of oocytes that were fertilized; however, the percentage of fertilized oocytes that were transferable embryos was greater for cows in Q1, Q2, and Q3 than Q4 (83.8, 75.2, 82.6, and 53.2%, respectively). In addition, percentage of degenerated embryos was least for cows in Q1, Q2, and Q3 and greatest for Q4 (9.6, 14.5, 12.6, and 35.2% respectively). In conclusion, for cows synchronized with a Double-Ovsynch protocol, an effect of low BCS (?2.50) near AI on fertility was detected, but change in BCS during the first 3wk postpartum had a more profound effect on P/AI to first timed AI. This effect could be partially explained by the reduction in embryo quality and increase in degenerate embryos byd 7 after AI in cows that lost more BW from the first to third week postpartum. PMID:24731646
Carvalho, P D; Souza, A H; Amundson, M C; Hackbart, K S; Fuenzalida, M J; Herlihy, M M; Ayres, H; Dresch, A R; Vieira, L M; Guenther, J N; Grummer, R R; Fricke, P M; Shaver, R D; Wiltbank, M C
Height and weight at menarche were found for each subject in three longitudinal growth studies. Early and late maturing girls have menarche at the same mean weight, but late maturers are taller at menarche. Two other major events of adolescence, initiation of the weight growth spurt and maximum rate of weight gain, also occur at an invariant mean weight. The
Rose E. Frisch; Roger Revelle
Here we review the emerging neurobiological understanding of the role of the brain's reward system in the regulation of body weight in health and in disease. Common obesity is characterized by the over-consumption of palatable/rewarding foods, reflecting an imbalance in the relative importance of hedonic versus homeostatic signals. The popular 'incentive salience theory' of food reward recognises not only a hedonic/pleasure component ('liking') but also an incentive motivation component ('wanting' or 'reward-seeking'). Central to the neurobiology of the reward mechanism is the mesoaccumbal dopamine system that confers incentive motivation not only for natural rewards such as food but also by artificial rewards (eg. addictive drugs). Indeed, this mesoaccumbal dopamine system receives and integrates information about the incentive (rewarding) value of foods with information about metabolic status. Problematic over-eating likely reflects a changing balance in the control exerted by hypothalamic versus reward circuits and/or it could reflect an allostatic shift in the hedonic set point for food reward. Certainly, for obesity to prevail, metabolic satiety signals such as leptin and insulin fail to regain control of appetitive brain networks, including those involved in food reward. On the other hand, metabolic control could reflect increased signalling by the stomach-derived orexigenic hormone, ghrelin. We have shown that ghrelin activates the mesoaccumbal dopamine system and that central ghrelin signalling is required for reward from both chemical drugs (eg alcohol) and also from palatable food. Future therapies for problematic over-eating and obesity may include drugs that interfere with incentive motivation, such as ghrelin antagonists. PMID:21340584
Egecioglu, Emil; Skibicka, Karolina P; Hansson, Caroline; Alvarez-Crespo, Mayte; Friberg, P Anders; Jerlhag, Elisabet; Engel, Jörgen A; Dickson, Suzanne L
This research investigated the influence of weight-related cues on food intake. The first study used a screensaver showing three of the famous skinny human-like sculptures by Alberto Giacometti and found that participants in this condition consumed less chocolate than when they were exposed to a more neutral work of art. In the second study, participants had to indicate their body weight either before or after the tasting. Reporting their weight before the tasting resulted in reduced food intake. A gender effect was found for the second but not the first study. We suggest that the cues in the two studies might have been processed with different levels of awareness, which might explain the gender effect found in the second study. PMID:22425649
Brunner, Thomas A; Siegrist, Michael
The report presents findings on weight, height and selected body dimensions of adults, United States 1960-1962. Measurements include age and sex distributions for weight, height, erect sitting height, normal sitting height, knee height, popliteal height, ...
H. Stoudt A. Damon R. McFarland J. Roberts
A model including fixed and random linear regressions is described for analyzing body weights at different ages. In this study, (co)variance components, heritabilities for quail weekly weights and genetic correlations among these weights were estimated using a random regression model by DFREML under DXMRR option. Data of 1046 pedigreed quail were used. Individual live weights were obtained weekly from hatching
Y. Akba?; E. Yaylak
This study was conducted to compare body shape satisfaction, body image perception, weight control status, and dietary habits of Korean and Chinese female high school students in order to provide information for proper body image perception of adolescents. 221 students in Yongin, a city in Korea, and 227 students in Weihai, a city in China, were surveyed using questionnaires. Body shape satisfaction was significantly higher in Chinese students (P < 0.001) compared to Korean students. 76.2% of Korean students and 72.7% of Chinese students wanted a thinner body shape than their present body shapes. Experiences of weight control, laxative or diuretics uses, eating during weight control, and vomiting after eating were significantly higher in Korean students (P < 0.05-P < 0.001) compared to Chinese students. The score for dietary habits was significantly higher in Chinese students (P < 0.001) compared to Korean students, suggesting a more desirable dietary habit among Chinese students. Students of both countries showed a significantly positive correlation between body shape satisfaction and dietary habits, suggesting that as body shape satisfaction increases, dietary habits become more desirable. In conclusion, Korean female students showed a more distorted body image perception and had more poor dietary habits than Chinese students. Nutritional education for the establishment of normal body weight, proper body image perception, and healthy dietary habits are needed.
Background: Obesity is a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, osteoarthritis, and stroke. Stimulants, such as ephedrine and caffeine and their herbal counterparts, have proved effective in facilitating body weight loss, but their use is controversial due to their undesired effects. Other nutraceuticals have shown moderate success in reducing body weight, whereas several other compounds have demonstrated
Derek E Woodgate; Julie A Conquer
Male Siberian hamsters undergo physiological weight change in changing photoperiod. Weight loss was induced by food restriction in long days to mimic short-day weight loss, or by food restriction superimposed on short-day weight loss, to test the hypothesis that the hypothalamus differentiates between weight change induced by imposed negative energy balance (inappropriate body weight) and seasonal, appropriate, body weight change,
JULIAN G. MERCER; KIM M. MOAR; TRACY J. LOGIE; PATRICIA A. FINDLAY; CLARE L. ADAM; PETER J. MORGAN
Background:Obesity treatment with single drugs produces weight losses of about 8–10% of initial body weight. Few studies of combinations of drugs for treating obesity have been published. The combination of phentermine, an adrenergic agent, and fenfluramine, a serotonergic agent, (phen–fen) produced weight losses of about 15% of initial body weight. Fenfluramine is no longer available because it was associated with
L D Whigham; N V Dhurandhar; P S Rahko; R L Atkinson
Background Successful weight maintenance following weight loss is challenging for many people. Identifying predictors of longer-term success will help target clinical resources more effectively. To date, focus has been predominantly on the identification of predictors of weight loss. The goal of the current study was to determine if changes in anthropometric and clinical parameters during acute weight loss are associated with subsequent weight regain. Methodology The study consisted of an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD) followed by a 6-month weight maintenance phase. Anthropometric and clinical parameters were analyzed before and after the LCD in the 285 participants (112 men, 173 women) who regained weight during the weight maintenance phase. Mixed model ANOVA, Spearman correlation, and linear regression were used to study the relationships between clinical measurements and weight regain. Principal Findings Gender differences were observed for body weight and several clinical parameters at both baseline and during the LCD-induced weight loss phase. LCD-induced changes in BMI (Spearman’s ??=?0.22, p?=?0.0002) were inversely associated with weight regain in both men and women. LCD-induced changes in fasting insulin (??=?0.18, p?=?0.0043) and HOMA-IR (??=?0.19, p?=?0.0023) were also associated independently with weight regain in both genders. The aforementioned associations remained statistically significant in regression models taking account of variables known to independently influence body weight. Conclusions/Significance LCD-induced changes in BMI, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR are inversely associated with weight regain in the 6-month period following weight loss.
Wong, Monica H. T.; Holst, Claus; Astrup, Arne; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Jebb, Susan A.; Kafatos, Anthony; Kunesova, Marie; Larsen, Thomas M.; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Pfeiffer, Andreas F. H.; van Baak, Marleen A.; Saris, Wim H. M.; McNicholas, Paul D.; Mutch, David M.; DiOGenes, on behalf of
Set-point of body weight was assessed by the behavioral method of the weight threshold to hoard food. Intra-peritoneal injection of nicotine (0.02-0.05 mg/kg) significantly lowered the rats' body weight set-point by 8.5+/-2.7 and 19.2+/-2.6 g (p< or =0.05). These results suggest that the administration of low-dose nicotine lowers the body-weight set-point and may be important in predicting the anticipated gain in weight frequently reported upon withdrawal. PMID:12880615
Frankham, Patrick; Cabanac, Michel
Examined parents' awareness of their daughters' attitudes, beliefs, and feelings about their bodies. Sixty-six adolescent daughters completed an eating disorder scale, a body figure rating scale, and made ratings of their shape and weight. Greater discrepancies between parents' estimates of daughters' body esteem and daughters' self-reported body…
Geller, Josie; Srikameswaran, Suja; Zaitsoff, Shannon L.; Cockell, Sarah J.; Poole, Gary D.
Excessive BW has become a major health issue in the equine (Equus caballus) industry. The objectives were to determine if the addition of neck circumference and height improved existing BW estimation equations, to develop an equation for estimation of ideal BW, and to develop a method for assessing the likelihood of being overweight in adult equids. Six hundred and twenty-nine adult horses and ponies who met the following criteria were measured and weighed at 2 horse shows in September 2011 in Minnesota: age ? 3 yr, height ? 112 cm, and nonpregnant. Personnel assessed BCS on a scale of 1 to 9 and measured wither height at the third thoracic vertebra, body length from the point of shoulder to the point of the buttock, neck and girth circumference, and weight using a portable livestock scale. Individuals were grouped into breed types on the basis of existing knowledge and were confirmed with multivariate ANOVA analysis of morphometric measurements. Equations for estimated and ideal BW were developed using linear regression modeling. For estimated BW, the model was fit using all individuals and all morphometric measurements. For ideal BW, the model was fit using individuals with a BCS of 5; breed type, height, and body length were considered as these measurements are not affected by adiposity. A BW score to assess the likelihood of being overweight was developed by fitting a proportional odds logistic regression model on BCS using the difference between ideal and estimated BW, the neck to height ratio, and the girth to height ratio as predictors; this score was then standardized using the data from individuals with a BCS of 5. Breed types included Arabian, stock, and pony. Mean (± SD) BCS was 5.6 ± 0.9. BW (kg) was estimated by taking [girth (cm)(1.48)6 × length (cm)(0.554) × height (cm)(0.599) × neck (cm)(0.173)]/3,596, 3,606, and 3,441 for Arabians, ponies, and stock horses, respectively (R(2) = 0.92; mean-squared error (MSE) = 22 kg). Ideal BW (kg) was estimated by taking [length (cm) × 2.8] + [height (cm) × 4.2] - 611, 606, and 577 for Arabians, ponies, and stock horses, respectively (R(2) = 0.86; MSE = 24). Equids with a BCS of ? 7 had a greater likelihood of being overweight, and the model suggested cutoffs at the 48th and 83rd percentiles for underweight and overweight individuals, respectively. Morphometric measurements were successfully used to develop equid BW-related equations. PMID:24663191
Martinson, K L; Coleman, R C; Rendahl, A K; Fang, Z; McCue, M E
There is evidence for the idea that there is biological (active) control of body weight at a given set point. Body weight is the product of genetic effects (DNA), epigenetic effects (heritable traits that do not involve changes in DNA), and the environment. Regulation of body weight is asymmetric, being more effective in response to weight loss than to weight gain. However, regulation may be lost or camouflaged by Western diets, suggesting that the failure of biological control is due mainly to external factors. In this situation, the body’s ‘set point’ (i.e., a constant ‘body-inherent’ weight regulated by a proportional feedback control system) is replaced by various ‘settling points’ that are influenced by energy and macronutrient intake in order for the body to achieve a zero energy balance. In a world of abundance, a prudent lifestyle and thus cognitive control are preconditions of effective biological control and a stable body weight. This idea also impacts future genetic research on body weight regulation. Searching for the genetic background of excess weight gain in a world of abundance is misleading since the possible biological control is widely overshadowed by the effect of the environment. In regard to clinical practice, dietary approaches to both weight loss and weight gain have to be reconsidered. In underweight patients (e.g., patients with anorexia nervosa), weight gain is supported by biological mechanisms that may or may not be suppressed by hyperalimentation. To overcome weight loss-induced counter-regulation in the overweight, biological signals have to be taken into account. Computational modeling of weight changes based on metabolic flux and its regulation will provide future strategies for clinical nutrition.
Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Heymsfield, Steven B
High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) accounts for as much as 40% of caloric sweeteners used in the United States. Some studies have shown that short-term access to HFCS can cause increased body weight, but the findings are mixed. The current study examined both short- and long-term effects of HFCS on body weight, body fat, and circulating triglycerides. In Experiment 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for short term (8 wks) on (1) 12-h/day of 8% HFCS, (2) 12-h/day 10% sucrose, (3) 24-h/day HFCS, all with ad libitum rodent chow, or (4) ad libitum chow alone. Rats with 12-h access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than animals given equal access to 10% sucrose, even though they consumed the same number of total calories but fewer calories from HFCS than sucrose. In Experiment 2, the long-term effects of HFCS on body weight and obesogenic parameters, as well as gender differences, were explored. Over the course of 6 or 7 months, both male and female rats with access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than control groups. This increase in body weight with HFCS was accompanied by an increase in adipose fat, notably in the abdominal region, and elevated circulating triglyceride levels. Translated to humans, these results suggest that excessive consumption of HFCS may contribute to the incidence of obesity.
Bocarsly, Miriam E.; Powell, Elyse S.; Avena, Nicole M.; Hoebel, Bartley G.
This study investigated associations between eating regulation behaviors and body mass index (BMI), weight, and percent body fat in male and female students over the first two years of college. Subjects included 328 college students (215 females and 113 males). Height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and eating regulation behaviors (using the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale) were conducted two to three times during both the freshman and sophomore years. Significant associations between eating regulation and BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were shown mostly in females. In females, higher BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat at the end of the second year of college were found in those with low levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and high levels of amotivation, while lower BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were associated with high levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and low levels of amotivation. The findings that specific eating behaviors in females during the first two years of college influence BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat may be useful for inclusion in university programs focused on college student health to help decrease the risk of obesity and disordered eating/eating disorders in female college students. PMID:24854827
Gropper, Sareen S; Arsiwalla, Dilbur D; Lord, Denali C; Huggins, Kevin W; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V
Olanzapine is effective at treating multiple domains of schizophrenia symptoms. However, it induces serious metabolic side effects. Antipsychotic drug's antagonistic affinity to histamine H? receptors has been identified as a main contributor for weight gain/obesity side effects. This study therefore investigated whether a combined treatment of betahistine (a H? receptor agonist and H? receptor antagonist) could reduce the body weight/obesity induced by olanzapine. Female Sprague Dawley rats were treated orally with olanzapine (1 mg/kg, t.i.d.) and/or betahistine (2.67 mg/kg, t.i.d.), or vehicle for two weeks. Rats treated with olanzapine exhibited significant body weight gain and increased food intake. Co-treatment of olanzapine with betahistine significantly prevented (-45%) weight gain and reduced feeding efficiency compared to sole olanzapine treatment. Betahistine treatment alone had no effect on weight gain and food intake. Olanzapine reduced locomotor activity, but not betahistine. These findings demonstrate that olanzapine-induced body weight gain can partially be reduced by co-treatment with betahistine. Betahistine has H? receptor antagonistic effects to increase histamine release, which may augment its direct agonistic effects on H? receptors. These findings have important implications for clinical trials using betahistine to control antipsychotic-induced obesity side effects. PMID:22695490
Deng, Chao; Lian, Jiamei; Pai, Nagesh; Huang, Xu-Feng
More than half of the U.S. population has a body mass index of 25 kg\\/m2 or more, which classifies them as overweight or obese. Obesity is often associated with comorbidities such as diabetes, cardiovascular\\u000a diseases, and cancer. CLA and chromium have emerged as major dietary supplements that reduce body weight and fat mass, and\\u000a increase basal metabolic rate in animal
Arunabh Bhattacharya; M. Mizanur Rahman; Roger McCarter; Marianne O'Shea; Gabriel Fernandes
BackgroundArthritis is the leading cause of disability in the United States. Obesity is a risk factor for arthritis, but the relationship between arthritis and weight has not been well characterized at the population level in the United States. Previous research shows that physicians often fail to advise their obese patients to lose weight.
Chetna Mehrotra; Timothy S Naimi; Mary Serdula; Julie Bolen; Karl Pearson
Background An epidemiological study conducted in Italy indicated that coffee has the greatest antioxidant capacity among the commonly consumed beverages. Green coffee bean is rich in chlorogenic acid and its related compounds. The effect of green coffee bean extract (GCBE) on fat accumulation and body weight in mice was assessed with the objective of investigating the effect of GCBE on mild obesity. Methods Male ddy mice were fed a standard diet containing GCBE and its principal constituents, namely, caffeine and chlorogenic acid, for 14 days. Further, hepatic triglyceride (TG) level was also investigated after consecutive administration (13 days) of GCBE and its constituents. To examine the effect of GCBE and its constituents on fat absorption, serum TG changes were evaluated in olive oil-loaded mice. In addition, to investigate the effect on hepatic TG metabolism, carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) activity in mice was evaluated after consecutive ingestion (6 days) of GCBE and its constituents (caffeine, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and feruloylquinic acid mixture). Results It was found that 0.5% and 1% GCBE reduced visceral fat content and body weight. Caffeine and chlorogenic acid showed a tendency to reduce visceral fat and body weight. Oral administration of GCBE (100 and 200 mg/kg· day) for 13 days showed a tendency to reduce hepatic TG in mice. In the same model, chlorogenic acid (60 mg/kg· day) reduced hepatic TG level. In mice loaded with olive oil (5 mL/kg), GCBE (200 and 400 mg/kg) and caffeine (20 and 40 mg/kg) reduced serum TG level. GCBE (1%), neochlorogenic acid (0.028% and 0.055%) and feruloylquinic acid mixture (0.081%) significantly enhanced hepatic CPT activity in mice. However, neither caffeine nor chlorogenic acid alone was found to enhance CPT activity. Conclusion These results suggest that GCBE is possibly effective against weight gain and fat accumulation by inhibition of fat absorption and activation of fat metabolism in the liver. Caffeine was found to be a suppressor of fat absorption, while chlorogenic acid was found to be partially involved in the suppressive effect of GCBE that resulted in the reduction of hepatic TG level. Phenolic compounds such as neochlorogenic acid and feruloylquinic acid mixture, except chlorogenic acid, can enhance hepatic CPT activity.
Shimoda, Hiroshi; Seki, Emi; Aitani, Michio
The Siberian hamster survives winter by decreasing food intake and catabolizing abdominal fat reserves, resulting in a sustained, profound loss of body weight. VGF gene expression is photoperiodically regulated in the hypothalamus with significantly higher expression in lean Siberian hamsters. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of VGF in regulating these seasonal cycles by determining the effects of a VGF-derived peptide (TLQP-21) on food intake and body weight. Acute intracerebroventricular administration of TLQP-21 decreased food intake, and chronic treatment caused a sustained reduction in food intake and body weight and decreased abdominal fat depots. Behavioral analysis revealed that TLQP-21 reduced meal size but not the frequency of feeding bouts, suggesting a primary action on satiety. Hamsters treated with TLQP-21 lost a similar amount of weight as a pair-fed group in which food intake was matched to that of the TLQP-21-treated group. Central or peripheral treatment with TLQP-21 did not produce a significant effect on resting metabolic rate. We conclude that the primary action of TLQP-21 is to decrease food intake rather than increase energy expenditure. TLQP-21 treatment caused a decrease in UCP-1 mRNA in brown adipose tissue, but hypothalamic expression of orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptide genes remained unchanged after TLQP-21 treatment, although compensatory increases in NPY and AgRP mRNA were observed in the pair-fed hamsters. The effects of TLQP-21 administration are similar to those in hamsters in short days, suggesting that increased VGF activity may contribute to the hypophagia that underlies the seasonal catabolic state. PMID:17463057
Jethwa, Preeti H; Warner, Amy; Nilaweera, Kanishka N; Brameld, John M; Keyte, John W; Carter, Wayne G; Bolton, Neil; Bruggraber, Michael; Morgan, Peter J; Barrett, Perry; Ebling, Francis J P
This study explored rhythmic gymnasts’ perceptions of the influence of their retirement transition on body satisfaction and weight control behaviors. Eight retired elite female rhythmic gymnasts participated in semi-structured interviews. Findings were interpreted to suggest that these retired gymnasts experienced an increase in body dissatisfaction upon retirement and that they felt guilty about their weight gain, loss of muscle mass
Ashley E. Stirling; Lisanne C. Cruz; Gretchen A. Kerr
Objective: To examine diet, physical activity, and body-weight changes associated with relocation from home to university. Methods: Diet, fitness/physical activity, body-weight parameters and self-efficacy were assessed among 54 freshman women upon college entry and 5 months later. Results: Although caloric intake significantly decreased, a…
Butler, Scott M.; Black, David R.; Blue, Carolyn L.; Gretebeck, Randall J.
Body weight maintenance is required in a variety of behavioral and physiological studies. C-based animal weighing system is described which features automated data collection and allows for accurate control of body weight in test animals via manipulation of food intake. ajor syst...
Nicotine administration and cessation have greater effects on body weight and eating behavior in female than in male rats. These generalizations are based on studies of body weight and eating behavior for 2–3 week periods before, during, and after nicotine administration. Therefore, the sex differences may reflect differences in sensitivity to nicotine or simply differences in the time course of
N. E. Grunberg; S. E. Winders; K. A. Popp
2 Abstract: An experiment was conducted to detect the relationship between some serum enzyme activities, i.e. lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) enzymes and liver functions, as well as evaluating the difference in some physiological parameters in relation to body weight in six body weight lines of Golden Montazah (GM) chickens. A total of 288 GM chickens 4-wk old
S. F. Hassaan; S. A. Abdel-Fattah; A. E. Elsalmoney; M. S. H. Hassan
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major non-psychotropic constituent of Cannabis sativa, with well recognized therapeutic potential. Considering the importance of the endogenous cannabinoid system to the regulation of food intake and energy balance we studied the effects of repeated CBD administration on body weight gains in rats. Male Wistar rats (260 ± 20 g at start of study) received intraperitoneal injections of CBD at doses of 2.5 and 5mg/kg/day for 14 consecutive days and body weight gains were monitored. Both doses of CBD produced significant decrease in body weight gain, with the effect produced by 5mg/kg being more pronounced. The CB2 receptor selective antagonist, AM630, blocked the decrease in body weight gain. AM630 alone did not affect body weight gain. The results suggest that CBD has the ability to alter body weight gain, possibly via the CB2 receptor. CB2 receptors may play a role in the regulation of body weight and the effects of CB2 specific ligands should be further investigated in studies of body weight regulation. PMID:21172406
Ignatowska-Jankowska, Bogna; Jankowski, Maciej M; Swiergiel, Artur H
Comparison of self-reported and measured weights in a working population of 2046 men and 2393 women revealed systematic underreporting of 1.3% in men and l.7% in women. Underreporting was significantly related to weight, height, and current participation in a weight reduction program in both men and women. In men only, it was also related to age, education, history of weight-control
Robert W. Jeffery
Background and purpose: We have previously shown that treatment with zinc plus cyclo-(His-Pro) (CHP) significantly stimulated synthesis of the insulin degrading enzyme and lowered plasma insulin and blood glucose levels, alongside improving oral glucose tolerance in genetically type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (G-K) rats and in aged obese Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats. Thus, we postulated that zinc plus CHP (ZC) treatment might also improve body weight control in these rats. We therefore determined the effects of ZC treatment on body weights in both genetically diabetic, mature G-K rats and non-diabetic, obese S-D rats. Experimental approach: G-K rats aged 1.5–10 months and non-diabetic overweight or obese S-D rats aged 6–18 months were treated with 0–6 mg CHP plus 0–10 mg zinc·L?1 drinking water for 2–4 weeks, and changes in weight, serum leptin and adiponectin levels, food and water intakes were measured. Key results: The optimal dose of CHP (in combination with zinc) to reduce weight and plasma leptin levels and to increase plasma adiponectin levels was close to 0.1 mg·kg?1·day?1, in either mature G-K rats and aged overweight or obese S-D rats. Food and water intake significantly decreased in ZC treated rats in both aged S-D rats and mature G-K rats, but not in young S-D and G-K rats. Conclusions and implications: ZC treatment improved weight control and may be a possible treatment for overweight and obesity.
Song, MK; Rosenthal, MJ; Song, AM; Uyemura, K; Yang, H; Ament, ME; Yamaguchi, DT; Cornford, EM
Few fiber supplements have been studied for physiological effectiveness. The effects of native banana starch (NBS) and soy milk (control) on body weight and insulin sensitivity in obese type 2 diabetics were compared using a blind within-subject crossover design. Subjects undertook two phases of 4-week supplementation either with NBS or soy milk. Patients on NBS lost more body weight than when they were on control treatment. Plasma insulin and HOMA-I were reduced after NBS consumption, compared with baseline levels, but not significantly when compared to the control treatment. Results support the use of NBS as part of dietary fiber supplementation.
Ble-Castillo, Jorge L.; Aparicio-Trapala, Maria A.; Francisco-Luria, Mateo U.; Cordova-Uscanga, Ruben; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Arturo; Mendez, Jose D.; Diaz-Zagoya, Juan C.
While sedentary leisure-time activities such as reading, going to movies, attending cultural events, attending sporting events, watching TV, listening to music, and socializing with friends would seem to contribute to excess weight, a perspective focusing on SES differences in cultural tastes suggests the opposite, that some sedentary activities are associated with lower rather than higher body weight. This study aims to test theories of cultural distinction by examining relationships between leisure-time activities and body weight. Using 2007 data on 17 nations from the International Social Survey Program, the analysis estimates relationships between the body mass index and varied leisure-time activities while controlling for SES, physical activities, and sociodemographic variables. Net of controls for SES and physical activities, participation time in cultural activities is associated with lower rather than higher body weight, particularly in high-income nations. The results suggest that both cultural activities and body weight reflect forms of distinction that separate SES-based lifestyles.
Pampel, Fred C.
The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is a well-established mediator of body weight homeostasis. However, the neurotransmitter(s) that mediate MC4R function remain largely unknown; as a result, little is known about the second-order neurons of the MC4R neural pathway. Single-minded 1 (Sim1)-expressing brain regions, which include the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVH), represent key brain sites that mediate melanocortin action. We conditionally restored MC4R expression in Sim1 neurons in the background of Mc4r-null mice. The restoration dramatically reduced obesity in Mc4r-null mice. The anti-obesity effect was completely reversed by selective disruption of glutamate release from those same Sim1 neurons. The reversal was caused by lower energy expenditure and hyperphagia. Corroboratively, selective disruption of glutamate release from adult PVH neurons led to rapid obesity development via reduced energy expenditure and hyperphagia. Thus, this study establishes glutamate as the primary neurotransmitter that mediates MC4Rs on Sim1 neurons in body weight regulation. PMID:24315371
Xu, Yuanzhong; Wu, Zhaofei; Sun, Hao; Zhu, Yaming; Kim, Eun Ran; Lowell, Bradford B; Arenkiel, Benjamin R; Xu, Yong; Tong, Qingchun
Lexus LFA's CFRP body structure has been developed from the ground level within Toyota. The development team has spent countless hours on technical discussions, especially as most of the member were not experienced at all in CFRP material and manufacturin...
Purpose: To examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI), body weight perception (BWP), and indicators of internalizing and externalizing distress and social, attention and thought problems in a large representative sample of Dutch youth. Methods: A total of 1826 pupils in the eighth grade of primary education and 5730 students in the first four years of secondary education gave
Bogt ter T. F. M; K. Monshouwer; J. E. E. Verdurmen; R. C. M. E. Engels; W. A. M. Vollebergh
BackgroundAn upper limit of 130% predicted ideal body weight (PIBW) has been promulgated for assessing lung transplant (LTx) candidacy, but no data in the lung transplant population support this value. A prior study used body mass index (BMI) to suggest greater mortality risk in obese allograft recipients, but the number of studied patients was small.
Daniel A. Culver; Peter J. Mazzone; Farah Khandwala; Holli C. Blazey; Malcolm M. DeCamp; Jeffrey T. Chapman
Background: An upper limit of 130% predicted ideal body weight (PIBW) has been promulgated for assessing lung transplant (LTx) candidacy, but no data in the lung transplant population support this value. A prior study used body mass index (BMI) to suggest greater mortality risk in obese allograft recipients, but the number of studied patients was small. Methods: Pre-operative PIBW percentage
Daniel A. Culver; Peter J. Mazzone; Holli C. Blazey; Malcolm M. DeCamp; Jeffrey T. Chapman
Body weight has important health implications across the lifespan. Most recent attention has focused on the obesity epidemic\\u000a that is occurring in many parts of the world. However, underweight is also a concern, particularly in less developed countries.\\u000a For most health outcomes there is a curvilinear association with body weight, with underweight and overweight (compared to\\u000a normal weight) being associated
Kristi Rahrig Jenkins; Nan E. Johnson; Mary Beth Ofstedal
Endocrine disrupting chemicals with estrogenic activity play an important role as obesogens. However, studies investigating the most potent natural estrogen, estradiol-17? (E2), at low dose are lacking. We examined endocrine and physiological parameters in gilts receiving distinct concentrations of E2 during pregnancy. We then investigated whether adverse effects prevail in progeny due to a potential endocrine disruption. E2 was orally applied to gilts during the entire period of pregnancy. The concentrations represented a daily consumption at the recommended ADI level (0.05 ?g/kg body weight/day), at the NOEL (10 ?g/kg body weight/day) and at a high dosage (1000 ?g/kg body weight/day). Plasma hormone concentrations were determined using enzyme immuno assays. Offspring body fat was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. In treated gilts receiving 1000 ?g E2/kg body weight/day we found significantly elevated plasma E2 levels during pregnancy, paralleled by an increased weight gain. While offspring showed similar weight at birth, piglets exhibited a significant reduction in weight at weaning even though their mothers had only received 0.05 ?g E2/kg body weight/day. At 8 weeks of age, specifically males showed a significant increase in overall body fat percentage. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to low doses of E2 affected pig offspring development in terms of body weight and composition. In line with findings from other obesogens, our data suggest a programming effect during pregnancy for E2 causative for the depicted phenotypes. Therefore, E2 exposure may imply a possible contribution to childhood obesity. -- Highlights: ? We investigate the potential role of estradiol-17? (E2) as an obesogen. ? We orally apply E2 at the ADI, NOEL and a high dose to gilts during pregnancy. ? Offspring weight is similar at birth but reduced at weaning even after ADI treatment. ? Male offspring only exhibit an increase in overall body fat percentage prepubertally. ? E2 appears as an endocrine disruptor that might contribute to childhood obesity.
Werner Fürst, Rainer [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany) [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); ZIEL PhD Graduate school ‘Epigenetics, Imprinting and Nutrition’, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Pistek, Veronika Leopoldine; Kliem, Heike [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)] [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Skurk, Thomas; Hauner, Hans [ZIEL Dep. Nutritional Medicine, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany) [ZIEL Dep. Nutritional Medicine, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, 81675 München (Germany); Meyer, Heinrich Herman Dietrich [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)] [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Ulbrich, Susanne Ernestine, E-mail: email@example.com [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)
Objective:To investigate weight perception, dieting and emotional well being across the range of body mass index (BMI) in a population-based multiethnic sample of early adolescents.Design:Cross-sectional population-based survey.Subjects:In total, 2789 adolescents 11–14 years of age from three highly deprived regional authorities in East London, in 2001.Measurements:Data were collected by student-completed questionnaire on weight perception, dieting history, mental and physical health, health
R M Viner; M M Haines; S J C Taylor; J Head; R Booy; S Stansfeld
esteem. Results: Relative to the other two groups, competitive bodybuilders had greater body mass due to fat-free body mass. Although groups did not differ in their situational body image discomfort, competitive bodybuilders and weight trainers had a more positive global appearance evaluation and were more psychologically invested in their physical appearance. Compared with active controls, men in both weightlifting groups
T C Pickett; R J Lewis; T F Cash
A critical period for weight gain may occur during the transition from high school to university. This descriptive, noncontrolled cohort study of 116 healthy females examined the effect of this transition over three study visits in first year university. The main outcome measure was body weight; others were height, body composition, waist circumference, dietary intake, and participation in physical and sedentary activities. Difference among study visits was determined by repeated measures analysis of variance; multiple regression examined changes in energy intake and physical and sedentary activities as predictors of final weight. Weight increased (P<0.001) by 2.4 kg (61.4 to 63.8 kg) during the entire course of the study. Other increases (P<0.001) included: body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)), 22.3 to 23.1; percent body fat, 23.8% to 25.6%; and waist circumference, 76.9 to 79.4 cm. Dietary energy intake did not increase; vigorous physical, but not strength building, activities increased; television use decreased; and computer use increased (P<0.03 for all): however, these changes were not predictive of final weight. A change (decrease) in moderate physical activity was, however, an important predictor of final weight. Females making the transition to university gained 2.4 kg; weight gain during this formative period may be modified by lifestyle activities. PMID:18502240
Edmonds, Melinda J; Ferreira, Kelly J; Nikiforuk, Erica A; Finnie, Alida K; Leavey, Sarah H; Duncan, Alison M; Randall Simpson, Janis A
BACKGROUND: A relatively high percentage of energy intake as protein has been shown to increase satiety and decrease energy efficiency during overfeeding.AIM: To investigate whether addition of protein may improve weight maintenance by preventing or limiting weight regain after weight loss of 5–10% in moderately obese subjects.DESIGN OF THE STUDY: In a randomized parallel design, 148 male and female subjects
M S Westerterp-Plantenga; M P G M Lejeune; I Nijs; M van Ooijen; E M R Kovacs; Westerterp-Plantenga
The somatotype was determined of 247 healthy students of medicine, male Bulgarians, average age 22, according to the method of Heath and Carter. More than half of the examined subjects (55,9%) was established to belong to the group of mesomorphy with a predomination of the subgroup of endomorphic mesomorphy. The other morphological structures are presented in comparatively identical shares. The fatty body mass, being 16,29 per cent of the total body mass of the subjects studied was determined to the same subjects according to the method of Möhr and Milev. It was established that the fatty body mass was within the physiological limits among the students from the group of ectomorphy and from the group with balanced mesomorphy, non-manifested obesity had the subjects with ectomorphic endomorphy, endomorphic mesomorphy and with central somatotype and with manifested obesity--the students with balanced and mesomorphic endomorphy. PMID:4036089
Radev, A; Khandzhiev, S; Kostadinov, D
Peanuts and peanut butter are commonly consumed as a snack, meal component and ingredient in various commercial products. Their consumption is associated with reduced CVD risk and they pose little threat to positive energy balance. However, questions have arisen as to whether product form (e.g. whole nut v. butter) and processing properties (e.g. roasting and adding flavours) may compromise their positive health effects. The present study investigated the effects of peanut form and processing on two CVD risk factors: fasting plasma lipids and body weight. One hundred and eighteen adults (forty-seven males and seventy-one females; age 29.2 (sd 8.4) years; BMI 30.0 (sd 4.5) kg/m2) from Brazil, Ghana and the United States were randomised to consume 56 g of raw unsalted (n 23), roasted unsalted (n 24), roasted salted (n 23) or honey roasted (n 24) peanuts, or peanut butter (n 24) daily for 4 weeks. Peanut form and processing did not differentially affect body weight or fasting plasma lipid responses in the total sample. However, HDL-cholesterol increased significantly at the group level, and total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and TAG concentrations decreased significantly in individuals classified as having elevated fasting plasma lipids compared with those with normal fasting plasma lipids. These observations suggest that the processing attributes assessed in this trial do not compromise the lipid-lowering effects of peanuts, and do not negatively impact body weight. Further studies are warranted to determine the effects of form and processing on other health risk factors. PMID:20456815
McKiernan, Fiona; Lokko, Phoebe; Kuevi, Anna; Sales, Regiane L; Costa, Neuza M B; Bressan, Josefina; Alfenas, Rita C G; Mattes, Richard D
Increases in regulatory oversight of animal research require verification of effects of standard practices. There are no formal guidelines for establishing free-feeding weights in adult pigeons. In the present study, pigeons were obtained from a commercial supplier, weighed upon arrival, and then held in quarantine for 7 days with free access to…
Kangas, Brian D.; Branch, Marc N.
Objective: To examine longitudinal trajectories of perceived weight from adolescence to early adulthood by gender. Methods: We analyzed 9 waves (1997-2005) of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 8302) using Mplus. Results: Perceived overweight increased over time among girls and did not level off until 23 years of age. Blacks…
Seo, Dong-Chul; Li, Kaigang
Using data from the 1994-1998 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged Mother and Young Adult file, this article examines the relationship between depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI) in adolescence. The authors also examine whether this relationship varies by race and gender. Their findings indicate that over a 4-year…
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Christie-Mizell, C. Andre
General Aspects There are various endocrine diseases including defined genetic syndromes which are the underlying cause for obesity in children and adolescents. These cases are rare. However, there are very common alterations in endocrine functions in obese children and adolescents which are a characteristic of the increased body fat mass (fig. 1). These alterations include disturbances of insulin secretion and
Martin Wabitsch; Thomas Reinehr; Pamela Fischer-Posovszky
Background Chinese herbal extract Number Ten (NT) is a dietary herbal formulation prepared from rhubarb, ginger, astragalus, red sage and tumeric. This study tested the effectiveness of NT in reducing body weight gain in rats. Methods Sixty female Wistar rats were fed a high fat diet and acclimated to gavage feeding. The rats were divided into five treatment groups: (1) Control (n = 15); (2) NT-H (n = 15), 1.5 g/day; (3) NT-L (n = 10), 0.75 g/day; (4) Pr-fed (n = 10), pair fed to NT-H; (5) d-FF (n = 10), d-fenfluramine 2 mg/kg. Ten rats per group were sacrificed on day 56. Weight, food intake, clinical chemistry and body composition were evaluated. Five animals in the control and 1.5 g/day NT groups were left untreated during a two week recovery period. Results The 0.75 g/day NT, 1.5 g/day NT, d-fenfluramine and pair fed groups gained 24.6%, 33.3%, 12.3% and 33.3% less than the control respectively (P < 0.0006). Leptin decreased 27.5% to 46.2% in the treatment groups vs. control (P < 0.009). Parametrial fat decreased 14.1% to 55.5% in the NT and pair fed groups vs. control (P < 0.006). The NT groups had soft stools, loss of hair around the mouth and coloration to the urine and stool without evidence of blood or bilirubin (attributed to chromogens in NT). There were no differences between groups in the clinical chemistry. Conclusion This study demonstrated the efficacy of NT in reducing weight gain in rodents.
York, David A; Thomas, Sonyja; Greenway, Frank L; Liu, Zhijun; Rood, Jennifer C
Background Since feed represents 70% of the total cost in poultry production systems, an animal’s ability to convert feed is an important trait. In this study, residual feed intake (RFI) and residual body weight gain (RG), and their linear combination into residual feed intake and body weight gain (RIG) were studied to estimate their genetic parameters and analyze the potential differences in feed intake between the top ranked birds based on the criteria for each trait. Methods Phenotypic and genetic analyses were completed on 8340 growing tom turkeys that were measured for feed intake and body weight gain over a four-week period from 16 to 20 weeks of age. Results The heritabilities of RG and RIG were 0.19?±?0.03 and 0.23?±?0.03, respectively. Residual body weight gain had moderate genetic correlations with feed intake (?0.41) and body weight gain (0.43). All three linear combinations to form the RIG traits had genetic correlations ranging from ?0.62 to ?0.52 with feed intake, and slightly weaker, 0.22 to 0.34, with body weight gain. Sorted into three equal groups (low, medium, high) based on RG, the most efficient group (high) gained 0.62 and 1.70 kg more (P?0.001) body weight than that of the medium and low groups, yet the feed intake for the high group was less (P?0.05) than that of the medium group (19.52 vs. 19.75 kg). When separated into similar partitions, the high RIG group (most efficient) had both the lowest (P?0.001) feed intake (18.86 vs. 19.57 and 20.41 kg) and the highest (P?0.001) body weight gain (7.41 vs. 7.03 and 6.43 kg) relative to the medium and low groups, respectively. Conclusions The difference in feed intake between the top ranked birds based on different residual feed efficiency traits may be small when looking at the average individual, however, when extrapolated to the production level, the lower feed intake values could lead to significant savings in feed costs over time.
Objective:Young women in the United States and Western Europe are notoriously concerned about weight but less is known about attitudes to weight in other regions of the world. This study explores the associations between body mass index (BMI), weight perceptions, and attempts to lose weight in male and female university students from 22 countries.Methods:Data were collected from 18 512 university
J Wardle; A M Haase; A Steptoe
Self-perception of body weight and other weight-related factors were assessed among 2665 Taipei, Taiwan high school students. A high percent of the girls (70.7%) and boys (42.2%) reported that they were too fat and these percentages were much higher than those reported by U.S. students in a recent Youth Risk Behavior Survey. In addition, only 13.2% of girls and 22.0% of boys reported being completely satisfied with their weight and the level of dissatisfaction with weight appeared to be greater than among U.S. students. Yet, in comparison to U.S. students, the Taiwanese students were considerably less likely than their U.S. counterparts to engage in weight management practices (e.g., dieting, eating less food, using diet pills). Taiwanese students with a self-perception of being too fat were more likely than those with perceptions of being just right or too thin to engage in weight management practices, to be dissatisfied with their weight, feel that they were unattractive, estimate that their same-sex peers were trying to lose weight, and have a higher body mass index. The findings from this study showed a relationship between self-perception of body size and engaging in weight control behaviors was consistent with other research. It suggested that self-perception of body weight, more so than objective weight status, was predictive of weight loss behavior and also negative psychological outcomes associated with poor body weight image. As a result, self-perception of weight may be an important point of focus for the design and implementation of clinical and public health initiatives targeted at this adolescent population as well as others. PMID:15971733
Page, Randy M; Lee, Ching-Mei; Miao, Nae-Fang
Background/Objectives Monitoring changes in total fat mass and abdominal adiposity are important in understanding the impact of different types of weight loss interventions on health risks. Our objective was to assess the usefulness of anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in predicting fat mass changes during moderate weight loss. Subjects/Methods Fat mass changes were assessed in 34 overweight adults (24 females, 10 males) after a 12-week supervised weight loss induced by caloric restriction (?30% of requirement) using BIA and DXA. Agreement between BIA and DXA measurements were assessed by Bland-Altman plots. Linear regression modeling was used to predict body and truncal fat mass from anthropometric measures. Results Diet intervention resulted in a significant decrease in body weight (? 7.86 ± 2.87 kg), body mass index (BMI ? 2.69 ± 0.98 kg/m2), total body fat (? 5.22 ± 2.32 kg), truncal fat (? 2.80 ± 1.94 kg) and waist circumference (? 5.52 ± 3.57 cm). BMI and body weight were highly correlated with body fat (0.83 and 0.92 in females and 0.94 and 0.92 in males respectively) and truncal fat (0.75 and 0.87 in females; 0.90 and 0.84 in males respectively) during weight loss. Waist circumference was more correlated with truncal fat in males than females (0.94 vs. 0.85 in females). Compared to DXA, BIA underestimated total body fat changes in males (? 8.8 kg, p<0.001) and overestimated total body fat changes in females (+ 2.1 kg, p< 0.001). Conclusions Body mass index, body weight, and waist circumference provide simple and more accurate than BIA estimates of relative changes in total and truncal fat during moderate weight loss in adults.
Aslam, Muhammad; Eckhauser, Aaron W.; Dorminy, Cindy A.; Dossett, Cynthia M.; Choi, Leena; Buchowski, Maciej S.
Background Advanced studies on adipose tissue have established that subcutaneous adipose tissue acts as an endocrine organ to help maintain\\u000a homeostasis. Based on this information, many plastic surgeons have evaluated the metabolic effects of liposuction because\\u000a liposuction is the most common surgical procedure in plastic surgery. Liposuction removes a substantial amount of subcutaneous\\u000a fat from a specific area of the body.
Murat SariciM; M. Erol Demirseren; Mustafa Durgun; Candemir Ceran; M. Oguz Yenidunya
In a 12-year prospective study, the authors examined the relation between body mass index (BMI) and mortality among the 20,346 middle-aged (25-54 years) and older (55-84 years) non-Hispanic white cohort members of the Adventist Health Study (California, 1976-1988) who had never smoked cigarettes and had no history of coronary heart disease, cancer, or stroke. In analyses that accounted for putative
Pramil N. Singh; Kristian D. Lindsted; Gary E. Fraser
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a major cytokine controlling not only the immune system but also basic physiological variables such as body weight and metabolism. While central IL-6 is clearly implicated in the latter, the putative role of peripheral IL-6 controlling body weight remains unclear. We herewith report results obtained in muscle-specific IL-6 KO (mIL-6 KO) mice. mIL-6 KO male mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 58.4% kcal from fat) or a control diet (18%) gained less weight and body fat than littermate floxed male mice, while the opposite pattern was observed in female mice. Food intake was not affected by muscle IL-6 deficiency, but male and female mIL-6 KO mice were more and less active, respectively, in the hole-board test. Moreover, female mIL-6 KO mice did not control adequately their body temperature upon exposure to 4°C, suggesting a role of muscle IL-6 in energy expenditure. At least part of this regulatory role of muscle IL-6 may be mediated by the hypothalamus, as IL-6 deficiency regulated the expression of critical hypothalamic neuropeptides (NPY, AgRP, POMC, CRH and preproOX). Leptin and insulin changes cannot explain the phenotype of these mice. In summary, the present results demonstrate that muscle IL-6 controls body weight and body fat in a sex-specific fashion, influencing the expression of the main neuropeptides involved in energy homeostasis. PMID:24632224
Ferrer, Beatriz; Navia, Belén; Giralt, Mercedes; Comes, Gemma; Carrasco, Javier; Molinero, Amalia; Quintana, Albert; Señarís, Rosa M; Hidalgo, Juan
Seasonal cycles of body weight provide a natural model system to understand the central control of energy balance. Studies of such cycles in Siberian hamsters suggest that a change in the hypothalamic availability of thyroid hormone is the key determinant of annual weight regulation. Uptake of thyroid hormone into the hypothalamus from the peripheral circulation occurs largely through a specific monocarboxylate transporter expressed by tanycyte cells lining the third ventricle. Tanycytes are the principal brain cell type expressing type II and type III deiodinases, so they control the local concentrations of T4, T3, and inactive metabolites. Type III deiodinase mRNA in tanycytes is photoperiodically upregulated in short photoperiod. This would be expected to reduce the availability of T3 in the hypothalamus by promoting the production of inactive metabolites such as rT3. Experimental microimplantation of T3 directly into the hypothalamus during short-days promotes a long-day phenotype by increasing food intake and body weight without affecting the peripheral thyroid axis. Thus, thyroid hormone exerts anabolic actions within the brain that play a key role in the seasonal regulation of body weight. Understanding the precise actions of thyroid hormone in the brain may identify novel targets for long-term pharmacological manipulation of body weight.
Murphy, Michelle; Ebling, Francis J. P.
The impacts of acute falciparum malaria on body weight and the host and parasite factors predictive of change in body weight were characterized in 465 prospectively studied children in an endemic area of southwest Nigeria. Pre-treatment weights were significantly lower than the 14 to 28-day post-treatment weights (P = 0.0001). In 187 children, fractional fall in body weight (FFBW) exceeded 4.9%. FFBW correlated negatively with age and body weight (P = 0.014 and 0.0001, respectively), but not with enrollment parasitaemia. In a multiple regression model, an age < or =5 years (AOR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.2-3.2, P = 0.003), a hematocrit < or =29% (AOR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.3, P = 0.037), and a body weight < or =9.6 kg (AOR = 5.4, 95% CI 1.7-20, P = 0.003) were independent predictors of FFBW > or =5% at presentation. Children who, after initial clearance, had recurrence of their parasitaemia within 28 days had a significantly higher propensity not to gain weight than children who were aparasitaemic after treatment (log-rank statistic 6.76, df = 1, P = 0.009). These results indicate that acute malaria contribute to sub-optimal growth in young children and may have implications for malaria control efforts in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:17323138
Sowunmi, Akintunde; Gbotosho, Grace O; Adedeji, Ahmed A; Fateye, Babasola A; Sabitu, Morenikeji F; Happi, Christian T; Fehintola, Fatai A
BACKGROUND Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may cause excessive weight gain. We aimed to assess the effect on weight gain of an intervention that included the provision of noncaloric beverages at home for overweight and obese adolescents. METHODS We randomly assigned 224 overweight and obese adolescents who regularly consumed sugar-sweetened beverages to experimental and control groups. The experimental group received a 1-year intervention designed to decrease consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, with follow-up for an additional year without intervention. We hypothesized that the experimental group would gain weight at a slower rate than the control group. RESULTS Retention rates were 97% at 1 year and 93% at 2 years. Reported consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was similar at baseline in the experimental and control groups (1.7 servings per day), declined to nearly 0 in the experimental group at 1 year, and remained lower in the experimental group than in the control group at 2 years. The primary outcome, the change in mean body-mass index (BMI, the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) at 2 years, did not differ significantly between the two groups (change in experimental group minus change in control group, ?0.3; P = 0.46). At 1 year, however, there were significant between-group differences for changes in BMI (?0.57, P = 0.045) and weight (?1.9 kg, P = 0.04). We found evidence of effect modification according to ethnic group at 1 year (P = 0.04) and 2 years (P = 0.01). In a prespecified analysis according to ethnic group, among Hispanic participants (27 in the experimental group and 19 in the control group), there was a significant between-group difference in the change in BMI at 1 year (?1.79, P = 0.007) and 2 years (?2.35, P = 0.01), but not among non-Hispanic participants (P>0.35 at years 1 and 2). The change in body fat as a percentage of total weight did not differ significantly between groups at 2 years (?0.5%, P = 0.40). There were no adverse events related to study participation. CONCLUSIONS Among overweight and obese adolescents, the increase in BMI was smaller in the experimental group than in the control group after a 1-year intervention designed to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, but not at the 2-year follow-up (the prespecified primary outcome). (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00381160.)
Ebbeling, Cara B.; Feldman, Henry A.; Chomitz, Virginia R.; Antonelli, Tracy A.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Osganian, Stavroula K.; Ludwig, David S.
Objective:Tofogliflozin, a highly selective inhibitor of sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2), induces urinary glucose excretion (UGE), improves hyperglycemia and reduces body weight in patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). The mechanisms of tofogliflozin on body weight reduction were investigated in detail with obese and diabetic animal models.Methods:Diet-induced obese (DIO) rats and KKAy mice (a mouse model of diabetes with obesity) were fed diets containing tofogliflozin. Body weight, body composition, biochemical parameters and metabolic parameters were evaluated.Results:In DIO rats tofogliflozin was administered for 9 weeks, UGE was induced and body weight gain was attenuated. Body fat mass decreased without significant change in bone mass or lean body mass. Food consumption (FC) increased without change in energy expenditure, and deduced total calorie balance (deduced total calorie balance=FC-UGE-energy expenditure) decreased. Respiratory quotient (RQ) and plasma triglyceride (TG) level decreased, and plasma total ketone body (TKB) level increased. Moreover, plasma leptin level, adipocyte cell size and proportion of CD68-positive cells in mesenteric adipose tissue decreased. In KKAy mice, tofogliflozin was administered for 3 or 5 weeks, plasma glucose level and body weight gain decreased together with a reduction in liver weight and TG content without a reduction in body water content. Combination therapy with tofogliflozin and pioglitazone suppressed pioglitazone-induced body weight gain and reduced glycated hemoglobin level more effectively than monotherapy with either pioglitazone or tofogliflozin alone.Conclusion:Body weight reduction with tofogliflozin is mainly due to calorie loss with increased UGE. In addition, tofogliflozin also induces a metabolic shift from carbohydrate oxidation to fatty acid oxidation, which may lead to prevention of fat accumulation and inflammation in adipose tissue and liver. Tofogliflozin may have the potential to prevent obesity, hepatic steatosis and improve insulin resistance as well as hyperglycemia. PMID:25000147
Suzuki, M; Takeda, M; Kito, A; Fukazawa, M; Yata, T; Yamamoto, M; Nagata, T; Fukuzawa, T; Yamane, M; Honda, K; Suzuki, Y; Kawabe, Y
A new type of antenna design is described that could be applied to radar antennas for surveillance or navigational purposes. Compared with antennas in current use large reductions, typically 50-70% in cross sectional size and overall weight, should be obt...
A. C. Large
Weight cycling may cause a redistribution of body fat to the upper body fat compartments. We investigated the distribution of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in 30 overweight women with a history of weight-cycling and age-matched controls (167 normal weight and 97 overweight subjects). Measurements of SAT were performed using an optical device, the Lipometer. The SAT topography describes the thicknesses of SAT layers at 15 anatomically well-defined body sites from neck to calf. The overweight women with a history of weight cycling had significantly thicker SAT layers on the upper body compared to the overweight controls, but even thinner SAT layers on their legs than the normal weight women. An android fat pattern was attributed to overweight females and, even more pronounced, to the weight cyclers. The majority of normal weight women showed a gynoid fat pattern. Using stepwise discriminant analysis, 89.0% of all weight cyclers and overweight controls could be classified correctly into the two groups. These findings show the importance of normal weight maintenance as a health-promoting factor. PMID:15263924
Wallner, S J; Luschnigg, N; Schnedl, W J; Lahousen, T; Sudi, K; Crailsheim, K; Möller, R; Tafeit, E; Horejsi, R
Excessive exposure of tissues to fatty acids is likely to be the chief cause of the various dysfunctions that lead to sustained hyperglycemia in type II diabetes. These dysfunctions are likely to be substantially reversible if body fat and dietary fat can be greatly reduced. Disinhibition of hepatic fatty acid oxidation with hydroxycitrate (HCA) and carnitine has considerable potential as a new weight-loss strategy, but in diabetics runs the risk of further enhancing excessive hepatic gluconeogenesis. Since the clinical utility of metformin in diabetes is probably traceable to inhibition of gluconeogenesis, its use as an adjunct to HCA/carnitine treatment of obesity in diabetics deserves evaluation, particularly as metformin therapy itself tends to reduce body weight. A consideration of relevant evidence suggests that metformin therapy will not impede the activation of fatty acid oxidation by HCA/carnitine, and is likely to potentiate the appetite-suppressant and thermogenic benefits of this strategy. Indeed, since metformin has been reported to lower body weight and improve cardiovascular risk factors in obese non-diabetics, a broader application of a metformin/HCA/carnitine therapy for obesity can be contemplated. PMID:9848468
McCarty, M F
Background The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of 10 weeks resistance training in combination with either a regular diet (Ex) or a low carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (Lc+Ex) in overweight women on body weight and body composition. Methods 18 untrained women between 20 and 40 years with BMI ? 25 kg*m-2 were randomly assigned into the Ex or Lc+Ex group. Both groups performed 60-100 min of varied resistance exercise twice weekly. Dietary estimates were based on two 4-day weighed records. Body composition was estimated using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for total-, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and glucose. Results 16 subjects were included in the analyses. Percentage of energy (En%) from carbohydrates, fat and protein was 6, 66, and 22 respectively in the (Lc+Ex) group and 41, 34, 17 in the Ex group. Mean weight change (pre-post) was -5.6 ± 2.6 kg in Lc+Ex; (p < 0.001) and 0.8 ± 1.5 kg in Ex; (p = 0.175). The Lc+Ex group lost 5.6 ± 2.9 kg of fat mass (p = 0.001) with no significant change in lean body mass (LBM), while the Ex group gained 1.6 ± 1.8 kg of LBM (p = 0.045) with no significant change in fat mass (p = 0.059). Fasting blood lipids and blood glucose were not significantly affected by the interventions. Conclusion Resistance exercise in combination with a ketogenic diet may reduce body fat without significantly changing LBM, while resistance exercise on a regular diet may increase LBM in without significantly affecting fat mass. Fasting blood lipids do not seem to be negatively influenced by the combination of resistance exercise and a low carbohydrate diet.
Marital terminations are life transitions that may lead to changes in diet, activity, and body weight. This investigation\\u000a examined how marital status was associated with relative body weight, underweight, overweight, and obesity among men and women\\u000a in the United States using cross-sectional nationally representative data from the 1992 HRS cohort age 51–61 and the 1993\\u000a AHEAD cohort age 70 and
Jeffery Sobal; Barbara S. Rauschenbach
Miyai I, Fujimoto Y, Ueda Y, Yamamoto H, Nozaki S, Saito T, Kang J. Treadmill training with body weight support: its effect on Parkinson's disease. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000;81:849-52. Objective: To test whether body weight—supported treadmill training (BWSTT) is effective in improving functional outcome of patients with Parkinson's disease. Design: Prospective crossover trial. Patients were randomized to receive either
Ichiro Miyai; Yasuyuki Fujimoto; Yoshishige Ueda; Hiroshi Yamamoto; Sonoko Nozaki; Toshio Saito; Jin Kang
Studies on the relationship between unemployment and body weight show a positive relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and unemployment at the individual level, while aggregate unemployment is negatively related to a population's average BMI. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between job loss and changes in body weight following the Icelandic economic collapse of 2008. The analysis relies on a health and lifestyle survey "Heilsa og líðan", carried out by The Public Health Institute of Iceland in the years 2007 and 2009. The sample is a stratified random sample of 9,807 Icelanders between the ages of 18 and 79, with a net response rate of 42.1 % for individuals responding in both waves. A linear regression model was used when estimating the relationship between job loss following the economic collapse and changes in body weight. Family income and mental health were explored as mediators. Point estimates indicated that both men and women gain less weight in the event of a job loss relative to those who retained their employment. The coefficients of job loss were only statistically significant for females, but not in the male population. The results from all three models were inconsistent with results from other studies where job loss has been found to increase body weight. However, body weight has been shown to be procyclical, and the fact that the data used were gathered during a severe economic downturn might separate these results from earlier findings. PMID:23757095
Jónsdóttir, Sif; Asgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey
In order to study weight concerns and eating disorders in women tennis players, 107 women tennis players and 26 women's tennis coaches from colleges across the U.S. responded to questionnaires relating to weight concern, body image, and abnormal eating. When evaluating drawings of female figures, players and coaches both considered the ideal body shape to be smaller than the healthiest one. Most players had normal weight, eating habits, and self-esteem; however, they also exhibited noticeable concern about their weight and appearance. Coaches revealed only moderate knowledge of weight related issues, believed such knowledge to be important, recognized that most of their players were of normal weight, and revealed somewhat negative feelings about overweight people. Players and coaches shared a healthy attitude toward tennis. The results of this study do not imply that college women tennis players are at greater risk of eating disorders than other young women, nor that college coaches are encouraging abnormal eating behaviors PMID:10722777
Harris, M B
Chemical composition of the noncarcass organs, combined noncarcass organs, and fleece-free empty body (FFEB) was measured during live weight gain (LWG) and live weight loss (LWL) to determine the effect of different periods of normal and retarded growth on chemical composition of noncarcass organs and FFEB. Thirty-five Merino wethers had ad libitum access to the experimental diet (17.23% CP and 12.09 MJ/kg of DE) to grow from 23.0 to 33.0 kg live weight and then were fed to lose a total of 10 kg in three periods of 25 d each at the rate of 133 g/d. Groups of five wethers were slaughtered at live weights of 23.0, 26.3, 29.6, and 33.0 kg during LWG and 29.6 (first period), 26.3 (second period), and 23.0 kg (third period) during LWL. The lower combined noncarcass weight in LWL wethers than in LWG wethers at 23.0 and 26.3 kg of live weights was due to the significantly lower protein weight at 23.0 and 26.3 kg (P < .01) and water weight at all common slaughter weights (P < .01). Chemical fat in the combined noncarcass organs was significantly greater in LWL wethers than in LWG wethers at 23.0, 26.3 (P < .01), and 29.6 kg (P < .05). The general increase of chemical fat in the combined noncarcass organs of the LWL wethers was mainly due to the significant increase in the chemical fat in the head and feet at 23.0 (P < .01), 26.3, and 29.6 kg (P < .05), liver at 23.0 kg (P < .01), and total alimentary tract fat at 23.0 (P < .01) and 29.6 kg (P < .05). Although fleece-free empty body weight (FFEBW) was similar in LWG and LWL wethers at all common slaughter weights, FFEB water weight was lower significantly in LWL wethers at 23.0, 26.3 (P < .01), and 29.6 kg (P < .05) and that of chemical fat was greater significantly in LWL wethers at 23.0 (P < .01), 26.3, and 29.6 kg (P < .05) than in LWG wethers. Wethers after weight loss had more chemical fat and less water in their FFEB than normal growing wethers at the same FFEBW. PMID:7759358
Aziz, N N; Murray, D M; Ball, R O
BACKGROUND: Associations between body weight, physical activity and dietary intake among a population of metropolitan transit workers are described. METHODS: Data were collected during October through December, 2005, as part of the baseline measures for a worksite weight gain prevention intervention in four metro transit bus garages. All garage employees were invited to complete behavioral surveys that assessed food choices
Simone A French; Lisa J Harnack; Traci L Toomey; Peter J Hannan
Background: To examine whether differences in participation in active play (PAP) can account for gender differences in the relationship between Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and body weight/fat (BMI and percentage fat) in youth. Methods: A cross-sectional investigation of students in grades four through eight (n = 590). Height, weight…
Cairney, John; Kwan, Matthew Y. W.; Hay, John A.; Faught, Brent E.
This study has three primary goals that make an important contribution to the literature on body weight and childbearing experiences among United States’ women. It sheds light on the physiological and social nature of this relationship by examining whether the consequences of early adult weight for lifetime childbearing are shaped by historical social context, women’s social characteristics, and their ability
Michelle L. Frisco; Margaret M. Weden; Adam M. Lippert; Kristin D. Burnett
The heritabilities of and genetic correlations between part record production, body weight, egg weight, shell colour, specific gravity and albumen quality have been estimated in one strain each of Light Sussex and Rhode Island Red and in three strains of White Leghorns using variance and covariance components in a hierarchical classification.The heritability values are in general agreement with published figures.
W. P. Jaffé
During recovery from social stress in a visible burrow system (VBS), during which a dominance hierarchy is formed among the males, rats display hyperphagia and gain weight preferentially as visceral adipose tissue. By proportionally increasing visceral adiposity, social stress may contribute to the establishment of metabolic disorder. Amylin was administered to rats fed ad libitum during recovery from VBS stress in an attempt to prevent hyperphagia and the resultant gain in body weight and fat mass. Amylin treatment reduced food intake, weight gain, and accumulation of fat mass in male burrow rats, but not in male controls that spent time housed with a single female rather than in the VBS. Amylin did not alter neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), or proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA expression in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus as measured at the end of the recovery period, nor did it affect plasma corticosterone or leptin. Amylin exerted most of its effect on food intake during the first few days of recovery, possibly through antagonism of NPY and/or increasing leptin sensitivity. The potential for chronic social stress to contribute to metabolic disorder is diminished by amylin treatment, though the neuroendocrine mechanisms behind this effect remain elusive. PMID:22832535
Smeltzer, Michael; Scott, Karen; Melhorn, Susan; Krause, Eric; Sakai, Randall
Obesity is a major health concern. Strategies to reduce obesity including weight loss by energy restriction have disease risk reduction benefits, however, energy restriction alone often leads to the loss of muscle mass. Muscle is a very important tissues in the body particularly from a metabolic standpoint, thus, efforts to maintain it by promoting weight loss with the greatest ratio
Andrea R Josse
Examines weight-related criticism from romantic partners and the importance of the romantic relationship in relation to the body image and self esteem for college freshmen women. Results reveal that self esteem and body image were positively related. Partner importance also predicted self esteem, whereas criticism did not. (Contains 55 references…
Befort, Christie; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson; Hull-Blanks, Elva; Nicpon, Megan Foley; Huser, Laura; Sollenberger, Sonja
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg?1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (?3.9% ± 1.6% and ?4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05). At three hours after weigh-in, body weight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (?3.0% ± 1.3% and ?2.7% ± 2.2%). There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05). In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate.
Lopes-Silva, Joao P.; Felippe, Leandro J. C.; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D.; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E.
Background Stress has been shown to be a determinant of weight change and risk for obesity. To date, there is scarce evidence that stressful life events and their severity contribute to changes in body weight. We studied the association between the occurrence, impact of and adaptation to adverse life events and weight change and the role of initial weight status. Methods Analyses were based on data from a population-based cohort of 2789 adults. Adverse life events, their impact and adaptation were measured retrospectively after baseline and follow-up weight and height measurements. Results Over six years, participants gained an average of 2.8 kg. There were no differences in weight change between those who had experienced an adverse life event versus those who had not. However, the impact of life events had a significant interaction with initial weight status. Adults with a healthy weight showed an average weight reduction of 0.2 kg (95% CIs: -0.7 - 0.2), and overweight adults showed an average weight gain of 0.4 kg (95% CIs: -0.3 - 1.1) for each point increase in impact after experiencing an adverse life event. Further, a slower adaptation to events was significantly associated with greater weight loss among those who lost weight. Conclusions We found no proof for an association between life events and weight change in the entire study sample, but we found that adults at a healthy weight responded differently to adverse life events than those who were overweight.
Measurements of body weight (BW), body condition score, wither height, calf birth weight, and calf sex were recorded by parity from 728 Holstein cows and heifers at the Purina Research Center during the 8-wk prepartum period. Data were compiled over 5 yr. Mean daily BW gain was 0.93 kg. Loss of BW at parturition was 11.1%. Mean body condition score was 3.35 (five-point scale where 1 = thin to 5 = obese) and did not change during the 8-wk period. However, body condition score was lower for second parity cows than for heifers or cows in third or greater parity. Wither height averaged 138 cm at first parity and increased 3 cm from first to second parity. During fifth and sixth parities, wither height peaked at an additional 2 to 3 cm. Birth weights for all calves averaged 41.4 kg. Male calves were 8.5% heavier than female calves. Calves born to cows in second or greater parity had increased BW by 7 to 8%. Mean BW of twin calves was 15% less than that of single calves. PMID:9098803
Kertz, A F; Reutzel, L F; Barton, B A; Ely, R L
Weight loss is frequently observed after acute exposure to high altitude. However, the magnitude and rate of weight loss during acute exposure to high altitude has not been clarified in a controlled prospective study. The present study was performed to evaluate weight loss at high altitude. A group of 120 male subjects [aged (32±6) years] who worked on the construction of the Golmud-Lhasa Railway at Kunlun Mountain (altitude of 4 678 m) served as volunteer subjects for this study. Eighty-five workers normally resided at sea level (sea level group) and 35 normally resided at an altitude of 2 200 m (moderate altitude group). Body weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference were measured in all subjects after a 7-day stay at Golmud (altitude of 2 800 m, baseline measurements). Measurements were repeated after 33-day working on Kunlun Mountain. In order to examine the daily rate of weight loss at high altitude, body weight was measured in 20 subjects from the sea level group (sea level subset group) each morning before breakfast for 33 d at Kunlun Mountain. According to guidelines established by the Lake Louise acute mountain sickness (AMS) consensus report, each subject completed an AMS self-report questionnaire two days after arriving at Kunlun Mountain. After 33-day stay at an altitude of 4 678 m, the average weight loss for the sea level group was 10.4% (range 6.5% to 29%), while the average for the moderate altitude group was 2.2% (-2% to 9.1%). The degree of weight loss (? weight loss) after a 33-day stay at an altitude of 4 678 m was significantly correlated with baseline body weight in the sea level group (r=0.677, P<0.01), while the correlation was absent in the moderate altitude group (r=0.296, P>0.05). In the sea level subset group, a significant weight loss was observed within 20 d, but the weight remained stable thereafter. AMS-score at high altitude was significantly higher in the sea level group (4.69±2.48) than that in the moderate altitude group (2.97±1.38), and was significantly correlated with baseline body weight. These results indicate that (1) the person with higher body weight during stay at high altitude loses more weight, and this is more pronounced in sea level natives when compared with that in moderate altitude natives; (2) heavier individuals are more likely to develop AMS than leaner individuals during exposure to high-altitude hypoxia. PMID:21170501
Ge, Ri-Li; Wood, Helen; Yang, Hui-Huang; Liu, Yi-Ning; Wang, Xiu-Juan; Babb, Tony
Objective Body Mass Index (BMI) and obesity (BMI?30) are often derived from self-reported weight and height; psychological dispositions may bias how participants report these physical characteristics. The present research uses a large national sample of U.S. adults to examine the correspondence between reported and measured body weight and height and to test whether optimists and pessimists misreport their weight/height in ways that are consistent with their worldviews. Methods Participants in the Health and Retirement Study (N=11,207) reported their weight and height and completed a measure of dispositional optimism and pessimism; trained interviewers measured participants’ weight and height. Results There was a high correlation between measured and reported weight (r=.98) and height (r=.92). Consistent with their positive and negative worldviews, respectively, optimists underreported and pessimists over-reported their weight. There was not a consistent association with misreported height. Optimism and pessimism were also associated with actual BMI and risk of obesity, but the protective/risk effects were amplified when using reported weight to derive BMI. Conclusions These findings suggest that reported body weight tends to be accurate, but that biases associated with psychological dispositions may inflate the relation between the disposition and obesity. Such biases may extend to associations with other self-reported factors thought to be related to optimism and pessimism.
Sutin, Angelina R.
Amino acid uptake in the intestine and kidney is mediated by a variety of amino acid transporters. To understand the role of epithelial neutral amino acid uptake in whole body homeostasis, we analyzed mice lacking the apical broad-spectrum neutral (0) amino acid transporter B0AT1 (Slc6a19). A general neutral aminoaciduria was observed similar to human Hartnup disorder which is caused by mutations in SLC6A19. Na+-dependent uptake of neutral amino acids into the intestine and renal brush-border membrane vesicles was abolished. No compensatory increase of peptide transport or other neutral amino acid transporters was detected. Mice lacking B0AT1 showed a reduced body weight. When adapted to a standard 20% protein diet, B0AT1-deficient mice lost body weight rapidly on diets containing 6 or 40% protein. Secretion of insulin in response to food ingestion after fasting was blunted. In the intestine, amino acid signaling to the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway was reduced, whereas the GCN2/ATF4 stress response pathway was activated, indicating amino acid deprivation in epithelial cells. The results demonstrate that epithelial amino acid uptake is essential for optimal growth and body weight regulation.
Broer, Angelika; Juelich, Torsten; Vanslambrouck, Jessica M.; Tietze, Nadine; Solomon, Peter S.; Holst, Jeff; Bailey, Charles G.; Rasko, John E. J.; Broer, Stefan
Grape products such as black grape juice (BGJ) are rich in phenolic compounds and are effective in modifying the effects of radiation either as a radioprotector or damage mitigator. In this study, the effect of BGJ on lipid peroxidation has been analyzed by testing a possible radiomodifiying activity of BGJ against radiation- induced damage in rat, focused on body weight
Edson R Andrade; Jacqueline CE Piccoli; Ivana BM Cruz; Joao BT Rocha; Veronica VR Andrade; Paquita González; Liliane F Bauermann; Juan P Barrio
A reduction in new bone formation occurred as a result of space flight (Cosmos 1129) and in the suspended animal model of Morey-Holton (1979, 1980). The results indicate that alkaline phosphatase activity of the bone-forming cells is also reduced under these conditions, and the cells in the diaphysis are more affected than those in the metaphyseal region. In addition, these cells show (1) reduced proline incorporation into bone matrix, and (2) increased intracellular lysosomal activity. A change in the cytoskeleton could be the common factor in explaining these results. This suggestion is futher supported by the previous observations that colchicine injections result in decreased osteoblastic function.
Doty, S. B.; Morey-Holton, E.
A reduction in new bone formation occurred as a result of space flight (Cosmos 1129) and in the suspended animal model of Morey-Holton. Our results indicate that alkaline phosphatase activity of the bone forming cells is also reduced under these conditions, and the cells in the diaphysis are more affected than those in the metaphyseal region. In addition, these cells show (1) reduced proline incorporation into bone matrix, and (2) increased intracellular lysosomal activity. A change in the cytoskeleton could be the common factor in explaining these results. This suggestion is further supported by our previous observations that colchicine injections result in decreased osteoblastic function. PMID:11539017
Doty, S B; Morey-Holton, E
Objective. To determine the effectiveness of exercise and/or nutrition interventions and to address body weight changes during the menopause transition. Methods. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using electronic databases, grey literature, and hand searching. Two independent researchers screened for studies using experimental designs to evaluate the impact of exercise and/or nutrition interventions on body weight and/or central weight gain performed during the menopausal transition. Studies were quality appraised using Cochrane risk of bias. Included studies were analyzed descriptively. Results. Of 3,564 unique citations screened, 3 studies were eligible (2 randomized controlled trials, and 1 pre/post study). Study quality ranged from low to high risk of bias. One randomized controlled trial with lower risk of bias concluded that participation in an exercise program combined with dietary interventions might mitigate body adiposity increases, which is normally observed during the menopause transition. The other two studies with higher risk of bias suggested that exercise might attenuate weight loss or weight gain and change abdominal adiposity patterns. Conclusions. High quality studies evaluating the effectiveness of interventions targeting body weight changes in women during their menopause transition are needed. Evidence from one higher quality study indicates an effective multifaceted intervention for women to minimize changes in body adiposity.
Jull, Janet; Stacey, Dawn; Beach, Sarah; Dumas, Alex; Strychar, Irene; Ufholz, Lee-Anne; Prince, Stephanie; Abdulnour, Joseph; Prud'homme, Denis
The goals of this study were to examine gender differences in body satisfaction, obesity status, and weight loss strategies among African Americans. A self-administered survey was completed by a convenient sample of 789 African Americans, but 763 provided weight and height information. Significantly more men than women were satisfied or very satisfied with their weight. Based on self-reported weights, the mean body mass index for both men (26.61+/-4.23) and women (26.44+/-5.80) was greater than 25, thus classifying them as being overweight. Sixty-two percent of respondents had tried to lose weight in the last 12 months, with significantly more women trying to lose weight than men (P<.0001). Of those who tried to lose weight, most tried to lose weight by decreasing fried foods, decreasing sweets, and increasing exercise levels. Women were significantly more likely than men to use liquid meals, to use diet pills, to join a weight loss program, and to increase exercise levels to lose weight (P<.05). PMID:14520259
James, Delores C s
Our objective was to investigate the psychobiological impact associated with resistance to further weight loss in obese men. Anthropometric and body composition measurements, resting metabolic rate (RMR) measurement, appetite sensation markers, and three questionnaires [Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)] were assessed at baseline and after 1 month of body weight loss plateau induced by a supervised diet and exercise clinical intervention in 11 obese men. The weight loss plateau corresponded to 11.2% of initial body weight (93.9% from fat stores). However, this amount of weight loss induced a significant decrease in RMR (P <.05) and a significant increase in hunger (P <.05) and desire to eat (P <.05). Using the SF-36 Health Survey, physical and mental health were shown to be unchanged at plateau as compared to baseline. The TFEQ showed that cognitive dietary restraint increased (P <.001) compared to baseline. Finally, depression risk as measured by the BDI significantly increased at plateau (P <.01) compared to baseline. Weight loss until resistance to further weight loss may be detrimental for some psychobiological variables including depression, which emphasizes the relevance of caution and reasonable objectives when prescribing a weight reduction program for obese individuals. PMID:17131351
Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Drapeau, Vicky; Hetherington, Marion; Lemieux, Simone; Provencher, Véronique; Tremblay, Angelo
The objective of this study was to determine the live weight, body condition scores (BCS) and fleece weight of sheep in four smallholder farming communities of Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Among the four communities studied, two (Roxeni and Tyabane) were in sweetveld and other two (Luzi I and Luzi II) were in a sourveld. Roxeni and Luzi communities were also engaged in the ram exchange project with the National Wool Growers Association (NWGA). Sixty crossbred ewes and 20 non-descript ewes aged 2 to 3 years were randomly selected from the four communities studied and were measured during their annual shearing in October. They were assessed for average greasy fleece weight per head, body condition score and live weight after shearing. Roxeni sheep were heavier (39.9?±?1.10 kg) than Tyabane sheep (29.8?±?1.10 kg). Sheep from Tyabane had the lightest (P <0.05) fleece weight (1.0?±?1.10 kg) than Roxeni sheep (3.1?±?1.10 kg). The 2-year-old ewes had similar (P???0.05) live weight to that of the 3-year-old ewes. However, the 3-year-old ewes had higher (3.3?±?0.11) (P?0.05) body condition scores than the 2-year-old ewes (2.8?±?0.10). Two-year-old ewes also had lower (1.9?±?0.11 kg) (P?0.05) fleece weight than the 3-year-old ewes (2.3?±?0.10 kg). It was concluded that sheep that were raised in the sweetveld had higher live and fleece weights than the ones that were raised on the sourveld. The communities that were engaged on ram exchange project had sheep with higher live weights, body condition score and fleece weight. PMID:24715207
Mvinjelwa, Sivuyile Alex; Mapekula, Monde; Maphosa, Viola; Muchenje, Voster
Studies of obesity and related health conditions among the Bhutanese, one of the largest refugee groups resettled in the United States in the past five years, are limited. This study examined the factors associated with excess body weight (body mass index ? 23 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 80 cm) in a community-based sample of 18–65 year old Bhutanese refugee women in Northeast Ohio. A Nepali-language questionnaire was used to measure socio-demographic and dietary factors. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured to define excess body weight and abdominal obesity. The mean (±standard deviation) age of the 108 participants was 36.5 (±12.2) years and length of time in the U.S. was 19.4 (±11.9) months. Overall, 64.8% and 69.4% of the women had excess body weight and abdominal obesity, respectively. Age was significantly associated with both excess body weight (odds ratio: 1.10; 95% confidence interval: 1.05–1.16) and abdominal obesity (1.09; 1.04–1.14). Consuming meat (4.01; 1.14–14.60) was significantly associated with excess body weight but not abdominal obesity. These findings suggest the need for lifestyle and dietary change education programs among this new and vulnerable group to reduce the prevalence of excess body weight and abdominal obesity and their health consequences.
Bhatta, Madhav P.; Assad, Lori; Shakya, Sunita
Studies of obesity and related health conditions among the Bhutanese, one of the largest refugee groups resettled in the United States in the past five years, are limited. This study examined the factors associated with excess body weight (body mass index ? 23 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 80 cm) in a community-based sample of 18-65 year old Bhutanese refugee women in Northeast Ohio. A Nepali-language questionnaire was used to measure socio-demographic and dietary factors. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured to define excess body weight and abdominal obesity. The mean (±standard deviation) age of the 108 participants was 36.5 (±12.2) years and length of time in the U.S. was 19.4 (±11.9) months. Overall, 64.8% and 69.4% of the women had excess body weight and abdominal obesity, respectively. Age was significantly associated with both excess body weight (odds ratio: 1.10; 95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.16) and abdominal obesity (1.09; 1.04-1.14). Consuming meat (4.01; 1.14-14.60) was significantly associated with excess body weight but not abdominal obesity. These findings suggest the need for lifestyle and dietary change education programs among this new and vulnerable group to reduce the prevalence of excess body weight and abdominal obesity and their health consequences. PMID:24968209
Bhatta, Madhav P; Assad, Lori; Shakya, Sunita
Organisms are constantly subjected to stressful stimuli that affect numerous physiological processes and activate the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, increasing the release of glucocorticoids. Exposure to chronic stress is known to alter basic mechanisms of the stress response. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of two different stress paradigms (chronic restraint or variable stress) on behavioral and corticosterone release to a subsequent exposure to stressors. Considering that the HPA axis might respond differently when it is challenged with a novel or a familiar stressor we investigated the changes in the corticosterone levels following the exposure to two stressors: restraint (familiar stress) or forced novelty (novel stress). The changes in the behavioral response were evaluated by measuring the locomotor response to a novel environment. In addition, we examined changes in body, adrenals, and thymus weights in response to the chronic paradigms. Our results showed that exposure to chronic variable stress increased basal plasma corticosterone levels and that both, chronic restraint and variable stresses, promote higher corticosterone levels in response to a novel environment, but not to a challenge restraint stress, as compared to the control (non-stressed) group. Exposure to chronic restraint leads to increased novelty-induced locomotor activity. Furthermore, only the exposure to variable stress reduced body weights. In conclusion, the present results provide additional evidence on how chronic stress affects the organism physiology and point to the importance of the chronic paradigm and challenge stress on the behavioral and hormonal adaptations induced by chronic stress. PMID:17023009
Marin, Marcelo T; Cruz, Fabio C; Planeta, Cleopatra S
Insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins play key roles in signal transduction in insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling to control postnatal growth. The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) protein also play an essential role in postnatal growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the IRS1 and FTO genes and the regulation of growth traits in rabbits. A total of nine synonymous SNPs were detected in the IRS1 coding sequence using direct sequencing, and the c.189G>T and c.2574G>A SNPs from two linkage disequilibrium blocks were further genotyped for association analysis in 216 New Zealand rabbits. The association results revealed that the TT genotype of c.189G>T and the AA genotype of c.2574G>A were significantly associated with higher body weight at 70 (BW70) and 84 (BW84) days of age and with higher average daily gain (P<0.05). Linear-regression analysis revealed that the two-gene combination model of FTO c.499G>A and IRS1 c.2574G>A was associated with BW70 and BW84. The combination model of the GA genotype of FTO c.499G>A with the AA genotype of IRS1 c.2574G>A was associated with preferred values for BW70 and BW84. The performance values for the FTO c.499G>A genotypes after stratification with regard to the IRS1 c.189G>T genotypes revealed that the TT genotype of IRS1 c.189G>T reduced the FTO c.499G>A significance associated with BW70 and BW84. Together, our data indicated that the IRS1 gene was associated with growth traits in rabbits. The IRS1 and FTO combination model may be exploited to assist breeders in selecting rabbits with preferred body weight. PMID:25014140
Zhang, Gong-Wei; Jia, Wei; Chen, Shi-Yi; Jia, Xian-Bo; Wang, Jie; Lai, Song-Jia
The arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus plays a key role in sensing metabolic feedback and regulating energy homeostasis. Recent studies revealed activation of microglia in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity (DIO), suggesting a potential pathophysiological role for inflammatory processes within the hypothalamus. To further investigate the metabolic causes and molecular underpinnings of such glial activation, we analyzed the microglial activity in wild-type (WT), monogenic obese ob/ob (leptin deficient), db/db (leptin-receptor mutation), and Type-4 melanocortin receptor knockout (MC4R KO) mice on either a HFD or on standardized chow (SC) diet. Following HFD exposure, we observed a significant increase in the total number of ARC microglia, immunoreactivity of ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (iba1-ir), cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68-ir), and ramification of microglial processes. The ob/ob mice had significantly less iba1-ir and ramifications. Leptin replacement rescued these phenomena. The db/db mice had similar iba1-ir comparable with WT mice but had significantly lower CD68-ir and more ramifications than WT mice. After 2 weeks of HFD, ob/ob mice showed an increase of iba1-ir, and db/db mice showed increase of CD68-ir. Obese MC4R KO mice fed a SC diet had comparable iba1-ir and CD68-ir with WT mice but had significantly more ramifications than WT mice. Intriguingly, treatment of DIO mice with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists reduced microglial activation independent of body weight. Our results show that diet type, adipokines, and gut signals, but not body weight, affect the presence and activity levels of hypothalamic microglia in obesity. PMID:24166765
Gao, Yuanqing; Ottaway, Nickki; Schriever, Sonja C; Legutko, Beata; García-Cáceres, Cristina; de la Fuente, Esther; Mergen, Clarita; Bour, Susanne; Thaler, Joshua P; Seeley, Randy J; Filosa, Jessica; Stern, Javier E; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Schwartz, Michael W; Tschöp, Matthias H; Yi, Chun-Xia
The purpose of this study was to examine changes in aerobic fitness, muscular strength, bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition during inpatient treatment of underweight and normal weight patients with longstanding eating disorders (ED). Twenty-nine underweight (BMI < 18.5, n = 7) and normal weight (BMI ? 18.5, n = 22) inpatients (mean (SD) age: 31.0 (9.0) years, ED duration: 14.9 (8.8) years, duration of treatment: 16.6 (5.5) weeks) completed this prospective naturalistic study. The treatment consisted of nutritional counseling, and 2 × 60 min weekly moderate intensive physical activity in addition to psychotherapy and milieu therapy. Underweight patients aimed to increase body weight with 0.5 kg/week until the weight gain goal was reached. Aerobic fitness, muscular strength, BMD and body composition were measured at admission and discharge. Results showed an increase in mean muscular strength, total body mass, fat mass, and body fat percentage, but not aerobic capacity, among both underweight and normal weight patients. Lumbar spine BMD increased among the underweight patients, no changes were observed in BMD among the normal weight patients. Three out of seven underweight patients were still underweight at discharge, and only three out of nine patients with excessive body fat (i.e., >33%) managed to reduce body fat to normal values during treatment. These results calls for a more individualized treatment approach to achieve a more optimal body composition among both underweight and normal to overweight patients with longstanding ED.
Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Martinsen, Egil W.; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn
The relationships between the shelf level at which mice were housed and body weight and food consumption/wastage were examined by analyzing data obtained from the first 9 months of a carcinogenic dose-response study carried out in 24,192 female BALB/c mice using 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) as the carcinogen. Each cage, containing four mice, was maintained on a rack at a given shelf level throughout the course of the experiment to allow analysis of data by shelf level. The amount of food removed from each feeder and the body weight of each mouse was measured weekly. Average body weight gain during the first 12 weeks was lowest on the top shelf, highest on the next two shelves, and progressively lower as the shelf approached the lowest level on the rack. Body weights attained by week 36 of the experiment generally reflected this same pattern. Weekly food consumption/wastage, as measured by disappearance of food from the feeder, generally showed the converse shelf-level pattern as that shown by body weight gain. Removal of food from feeders was greatest on the top shelf, lowest on the next shelf, and progressively increased with each succeedingly lower shelf. Although it is not clear whether the food removal pattern was related more to food consumption or food wastage, the observation was reproducible. PMID:6664066
Greenman, D L; Bryant, P; Kodell, R L; Sheldon, W
Microenvironmental sensitivity of a genotype refers to the ability to buffer against non-specific environmental factors, and it can be quantified by the amount of residual variation in a trait expressed by the genotype’s offspring within a (macro)environment. Due to the high degree of polymorphism in behavioral, growth and life-history traits, both farmed and wild salmonids are highly susceptible to microenvironmental variation, yet the heritable basis of this characteristic remains unknown. We estimated the genetic (co)variance of body weight and its residual variation in 2-year-old rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using a multigenerational data of 45,900 individuals from the Finnish national breeding programme. We also tested whether or not microenvironmental sensitivity has been changed as a correlated genetic response when genetic improvement for growth has been practiced over five generations. The animal model analysis revealed the presence of genetic heterogeneity both in body weight and its residual variation. Heritability of residual variation was remarkably lower (0.02) than that for body weight (0.35). However, genetic coefficient of variation was notable in both body weight (14%) and its residual variation (37%), suggesting a substantial potential for selection responses in both traits. Furthermore, a significant negative genetic correlation (?0.16) was found between body weight and its residual variation, i.e., rapidly growing genotypes are also more tolerant to perturbations in microenvironment. The genetic trends showed that fish growth was successfully increased by selective breeding (an average of 6% per generation), whereas no genetic change occurred in residual variation during the same period. The results imply that genetic improvement for body weight does not cause a concomitant increase in microenvironmental sensitivity. For commercial production, however, there may be high potential to simultaneously improve weight gain and increase its uniformity if both criteria are included in a selection index.
Janhunen, Matti; Kause, Antti; Vehvilainen, Harri; Jarvisalo, Otso
Objectives. I sought to examine gender's role as a moderator in the association of relative body weight to smoking and mental health. Methods. Data came from the 2004–2005 Minnesota Survey on Adult Substance Use, a statewide telephone survey (N = 16 289). Current smoking and mental health problems were examined in relation to relative body weight across genders, with control for covariates. Results. Relative to their healthy-weight counterparts, overweight or obese men were less likely to smoke, whereas overweight women were more likely to smoke. Mental health problems were not related to relative body weight among men. However, overweight or obese women were more likely than were their healthy-weight counterparts to have a negative self-assessment of mental health, and obese women were more likely to have a mental health problem. In addition, underweight women had increased odds of being a smoker and having mental health problems. Conclusions. The results indicate that gender has a moderating role in the association between body weight and both smoking and mental health. Gender-specific analysis rather than adjustment for the impact of gender in analyses is a promising avenue for future research.
Energy density is a relatively new concept that has been identified as an important factor in body weight control in adults and in children and adolescents. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 encourages consumption of an eating pattern low in energy density to manage body weight. This article describes the systematic evidence-based review conducted by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC), with support from the US Department of Agriculture's Nutrition Evidence Library, which resulted in this recommendation. An update to the committee's review was prepared for this article. PubMed was searched for English-language publications from January 1980 to May 2011. The literature review included 17 studies (seven randomized controlled trials, one nonrandomized controlled trial, and nine cohort studies) in adults and six cohort studies in children and adolescents. Based on this evidence, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee concluded that strong and consistent evidence in adults indicates that dietary patterns relatively low in energy density improve weight loss and weight maintenance. In addition, the committee concluded that there was moderately strong evidence from methodologically rigorous longitudinal cohort studies in children and adolescents to suggest that there is a positive association between dietary energy density and increased adiposity. This review supports a relationship between energy density and body weight in adults and in children and adolescents such that consuming diets lower in energy density may be an effective strategy for managing body weight. PMID:22480489
Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Obbagy, Julie E; Altman, Jean M; Essery, Eve V; McGrane, Mary M; Wong, Yat Ping; Spahn, Joanne M; Williams, Christine L
Objectives: To investigate body image and psychosocial adjustment among competitive bodybuilders, non-competitive weight trainers, and athletically active men. Methods: Participants were 40 men in each of the three groups who were assessed on body composition and multiple facets of body image evaluation, investment and anxiety, eating attitudes, and social self esteem. Results: Relative to the other two groups, competitive bodybuilders had greater body mass due to fat-free body mass. Although groups did not differ in their situational body image discomfort, competitive bodybuilders and weight trainers had a more positive global appearance evaluation and were more psychologically invested in their physical appearance. Compared with active controls, men in both weightlifting groups were more satisfied with their upper torso and muscle tone. Competitive bodybuilders reported more mid torso satisfaction than the other two groups. Competitive bodybuilders also wished to be significantly heavier than controls did and reported higher social self esteem but greater eating disturbance. Conclusions: The findings suggest that competitive bodybuilders as a group are not more "muscle dysmorphic" than either non-competitive weight trainers or physically active men who do not train with weights.
Pickett, T; Lewis, R; Cash, T; Pope, H
Background: Considering the importance and prevalence of obesity and the desire to lose weight, especially among women, this study intended to investigate the relationship between Body Mass Index, body satisfaction, and weight control behavior among women employees in Isfahan. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among 408 women who were selected by stratified random sampling method among employees at Isfahan University and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences during 2012. The data collection tool was a multidimensional questionnaire which comprised two sections: Demographic Tool and Body Satisfaction Tool (7 items), Weight Control Behavior Scale (18 items). Results: Age, marital status, educational level, and multiparity were significantly correlated with body size satisfaction. Seventy-five participants were dissatisfied with their weight and 60.5% reported a desire to lose weight; 92.15% of women studied had participated in a healthy dieting behavior and 10.8% of them had participated in an unhealthy one during the past six months. There was an inverse correlation between body satisfaction and Body Mass Index (BMI) (r = –0.64, P = 0.001). Ninety percent of participants had at least one of the dieting behaviors. There was an inverse significant relationship between body satisfaction and dieting behaviors (r = –0.19, P = 0.001). Conclusions: Due to the importance of the prevention of obesity and the necessity of having a normal BMI in order to prevent subsequent complications, precise self-evaluation of body size can be used to focus on designing and conducting public health programs, especially for women.
Mostafavi-Darani, Firoozeh; Daniali, Seyede-Shahrbanoo; Azadbakht, Leila
Reducing the incidence of low birth weight not only lowers infant mortality rates but also has multiple benefits over the life cycle. This study estimates the economic benefits of reducing the incidence of low birth weight in low-income countries, both through lower mortality rates and medical costs and through increased learning and productivity. The estimated economic benefits, under plausible assumptions,
Harold Alderman; Jere R. Behrman
Objective Body weight and overt thyroid dysfunction are associated. Cross-sectional population-based studies have repeatedly found that thyroid hormone levels, even within the normal reference range, might be associated with body weight. However, for longitudinal data, the association is less clear. Thus, we tested the association between serum thyrotropin (TSH) and body weight in a community-based sample of adult persons followed for 11 years. Methods A random sample of 4,649 persons aged 18–65 years from a general population participated in the DanThyr study in 1997–8. We included 2,102 individuals who participated at 11-year follow-up, without current or former treatment for thyroid disease and with measurements of TSH and weight at both examinations. Multiple linear regression models were used, stratified by sex and adjusted for age, smoking status, and leisure time physical activity. Results Baseline TSH concentration was not associated with change in weight (women, P?=?0.17; men, P?=?0.72), and baseline body mass index (BMI) was not associated with change in TSH (women, P?=?0.21; men, P?=?0.85). Change in serum TSH and change in weight were significantly associated in both sexes. Weight increased by 0.3 kg (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.1, 0.4, P?=?0.005) in women and 0.8 kg (95% CI 0.1, 1.4, P?=?0.02) in men for every one unit TSH (mU/L) increase. Conclusions TSH levels were not a determinant of future weight changes, and BMI was not a determinant for TSH changes, but an association between weight change and TSH change was present.
Bjergved, Lena; J?rgensen, Torben; Perrild, Hans; Laurberg, Peter; Krejbjerg, Anne; Ovesen, Lars; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Knudsen, Nils
Background In the same period as the increasing obesity epidemic, there has been an increased consumption of highly processed foods with a high salt content, and a few studies have suggested that a diet with a high salt content may be associated with obesity. Objective To investigate the association between 24 h urinary sodium excretion and subsequent change in body weight (BW), waist circumference (WC), body fat (BF) and fat free mass (FFM) among adults. Design A longitudinal population study based on the Danish part of the MONICA project, with examinations in 1987–1988 and 1993–1994. Complete information on 24 h urinary sodium excretion along with repeated measures of obesity, as well as on potential confounders, was obtained from 215 subjects. Linear regression was used to examine the association between sodium excretion, as a measure of salt consumption, and subsequent changes in BW, WC, BF and FFM, and further evaluated by restricted cubic splines. Stepwise adjustments were made for selected covariates. Results Neither the crude nor the adjusted models showed any statistically significant associations between sodium excretion and change in BW or WC. Likewise, we found no significant association between sodium excretion and change in BF and FFM in the unadjusted models. However, after adjusting for potential baseline confounders and the concurrent BW change, we found a significant increase in BF of 0.24 kg (P?=?0.015, CI: 0.05 to 0.43) per 100 mmol increase in 24 h urinary sodium excretion (equivalent to 6 g of salt), during the 6-year study period. Moreover, during the same period, we found a significant association with FFM of ?0.21 kg (P?=?0.041, CI: ?0.40 to ?0.01). Conclusions These results suggest that a diet with a high salt content may have a negative influence on development in body composition by expanding BF and reducing FFM.
Larsen, Sofus C.; Angquist, Lars; S?rensen, Thorkild I. A.; Heitmann, Berit L.
Bench press throws are commonly used in the assessment of upper-body power and are often performed on a Smith machine that uses a counterbalance weight to reduce the net load on the barbell. The use of a counterbalanced Smith machine was recently shown to reduce performance measures, but the mechanisms for this reduction have not been established. The purpose of this study was to determine the underlying physiological and biomechanical causes of the reduced performance measures found when using a counterbalanced Smith machine. Twenty-four men (mean ± SE: age, 23 ± 1 years; weight, 91.0 ± 3.5 kg; height, 178.9 ± 1.2 cm) performed Smith machine bench press throws at 30% of 1-repetition maximum under 4 conditions: (a) rebound movement and counterbalance, (b) rebound movement and no counterbalance, (c) concentric-only movement and counterbalance, and (d) concentric-only movement and no counterbalance. Peak power, peak force, and peak concentric and eccentric velocities were measured using a linear accelerometer, and peak ground reaction force was measured using a force plate. The counterbalance condition produced significantly (p < 0.05) lower peak accelerometer-based force (-21.2 and -17.0% for rebound and concentric-only bench press throws, respectively) but increased peak ground reaction force (5.3 and 3.2%). The discrepancy between changes in peak accelerometer-based force and peak ground reaction force suggests that an increase in net external load occurred during the movement. For performance testing of explosive movements, the use of a counterbalance system results in an underestimation of performance capability, likely because of an increase in the net external load during the concentric phase. Therefore, a counterbalance system should not be used for explosive movement performance testing. PMID:22190164
Buddhadev, Harsh H; Vingren, Jakob L; Duplanty, Anthony A; Hill, David W
The effects of topiramate on food intake and body composition were investigated in rats fed a high-fat diet and compared with rats that were pair fed or treated with d-fenfluramine. Topiramate (40 mg · kg · d for 80 d) reduced body-weight gain in a manner similar to that of pair-fed rats and d-fenfluramine–treated rats. The reduction in body fat
David A York; Lori Singer; Sonyja Thomas; George A Bray
Epidemiological and experimental evidence increasingly suggests coffee consumption to be correlated to prevention or delay of degenerative diseases connected with oxidative cellular stress. In an intervention study comprising 33 healthy volunteers, we examined DNA-protective and antioxidative effects exerted in vivo by daily ingestion of 750 mL of freshly brewed coffee rich in both green coffee bean constituents as well as roast products. The study design encompassed an initial 4 wk of wash-out, followed by 4 wk of coffee intake and 4 wk of second wash-out. At the start and after each study phase blood samples were taken to monitor biomarkers of oxidative stress response. In addition, body weight/composition and intake of energy/nutrients were recorded. In the coffee ingestion period, the primary endpoint, oxidative DNA damage as measured by the Comet assay (± FPG), was markedly reduced (p<0.001). Glutathione level (p<0.05) and GSR-activity (p<0.01) were elevated. Body weight (p<0.01)/body fat (p<0.05) and energy (p<0.001)/nutrient (p<0.001-0.05) intake were reduced. Our results allow to conclude that daily consumption of 3-4 cups of brew from a special Arabica coffee exerts health beneficial effects, as evidenced by reduced oxidative damage, body fat mass and energy/nutrient uptake. PMID:21462335
Bakuradze, Tamara; Boehm, Nadine; Janzowski, Christine; Lang, Roman; Hofmann, Thomas; Stockis, Jean-Pierre; Albert, Franz W; Stiebitz, Herbert; Bytof, Gerhard; Lantz, Ingo; Baum, Matthias; Eisenbrand, Gerhard
Summary The protein nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2) or NEFA (DNA binding/EF-hand/acidic amino acid rich region) was identified over a decade ago and implicated in intracellular processes. New developments came with the report that post-translational processing of hypothalamic NUCB2 may result in nesfatin-1, nesfatin-2 and nesfatin-3 and convergent studies showing that nesfatin-1 and full length NUCB2 injected in the brain potently inhibit the dark phase food intake in rodents including leptin receptor deficient Zucker rats. Nesfatin-1 also reduces body weight gain, suggesting a role as a new anorexigenic factor and modulator of energy balance. In light of the obesity epidemic and its associated diseases, underlying new mechanisms regulating food intake may be promising targets in the drug treatment of obese patients particularly as the vast majority of them display reduced leptin sensitivity or leptin resistance while nesfatin-1’s mechanism of action is leptin independent. Although much progress on the localization of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the brain and periphery as well as on the understanding of nesfatin-1’s anorexic effect have been achieved during the past three years, several important mechanisms have yet to be unraveled such as the identification of the nesfatin-1 receptor and the regulation of NUCB2 processing and nesfatin-1 release.
Stengel, A; Goebel, M.; Tache, Y.
Buffalo are an economically important source for meat and milk production, especially in Brazil. However, important aspects of their biology remain unknown thus far. Herein, we describe the reproductive characteristics of male Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) raised under extensive management conditions by applying biometrics associated with testicular weight. We analyzed seven males, divided into two groups: G1, which consisted of four 18-month-old animals, and G2, which consisted of three 24-month-old animals. Testicular development occurs slowly in Murrah buffalo, suggesting a delay of sexual maturity. The biometric testicular parameters analyzed were scrotal circumference, testicular weight, testicular length, testicular width, testicular thickness and testicular circumference. Our data indicate strong correlations between SC, age and body weight, and additional significant relationships were identified between body weight, age and other testicular parameters. Thus, these parameters are suitable indicators when selecting bulls for breeding purposes. PMID:22986925
da Luz, Patrícia Aparecida Cardoso; Santos, Paulo Ramos da Silva; Andrighetto, Cristiana; Jorge, André Mendes; de Assis Neto, Antônio Chaves
Five commercial botanical products (Shilianhua [SLH] tablets, Shiu Huo pills, Fenulyn, Bitter Melon, and Glucose Metabolic Support), available in the US market, with reported claims for regulation of metabolism were screened for their effect on body weight gain in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Pilot results suggested that SLH tablets attenuated body weight gain, whereas Shiu Huo pills and Fenulyn tended to promote weight gain in the mice on the high-fat diet. To investigate the bioactive components in the SLH tablet, the wild SLH plant (Sinocrassula indica Berge) was collected from China and used to make a variety of extracts including aqueous extract, ethanol extract (SLH-E), and subfraction F100. In the study of metabolic activities, the extracts were administrated through food intake by incorporating them into the diet. A rigorous evaluation of the extracts on body weight was conducted in 2 animal models. The aqueous extract and SLH-E were tested in dietary obese mice, while F100 together with SLH-E was tested in KK-Ay mice, a genetic diabetic model. In the 12- to 16-week study, body weight was not significantly altered by the SLH extracts in the 2 animal models. The results suggest that neither the total extract nor the purified components from the SLH plant have a clear effect in the regulation of body weight. The weight reduction observed with the over-the-counter SLH tablet in the pilot studies may be secondary to other components in the tablet, but not from the SLH extract. PMID:18555854
Yin, Jun; Zuberi, Aamir; Gao, Zhanguo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Zhijun; Cefalu, William T; Ye, Jianping
While nicotine treatment to rodents causes a transient anorexia and persistent weight loss, withdrawal produces hyperphagia and weight gain. Herein, we test the hypothesis that endogenous anorectic peptide cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) may be involved in these nicotine triggered physiological disturbances. In acute study, an anorectic effect of intraperitoneal nicotine was significantly potentiated by intracerebroventricular pre-treatment with CART at 2 and 4 h post-injection time-points. In chronic study, following an initial reduction, food intake, but not body weight, was progressively restored to normal. On the other hand, termination of chronic nicotine treatment resulted in significant hyperphagia and weight gain. These effects of nicotine were abolished if the rats were concomitantly treated with CART. An immunohistochemical profile of hypothalamic CART was studied following different nicotine treatment conditions. Acute nicotine treatment caused a significant increase above control in the CART-immunoreactive cells and fibers in the hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN) and fibers in the arcuate (ARC) nuclei. However, chronic nicotine administration had no effect on the CART-immunoreactivity in the PVN and ARC. While nicotine withdrawal reduced the population of CART-immunoreactive cells and fibers in the PVN, the immunoreactivity in the ARC fibers was increased. The results suggest that hypothalamic CART may process the acute, chronic and withdrawal effects of nicotine on feeding and body weight. PMID:21147173
Dandekar, Manoj P; Nakhate, Kartik T; Kokare, Dadasaheb M; Subhedar, Nishikant K
Intake of palatable solutions can enhance the anorectic potency of opioid antagonists. This experiment examined the relative contributions of orosensory experience and body weight gain to the enhanced anorectic potency of naloxone (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg i.p.). Four groups of male hooded Lister rats (Charles River) were maintained on separate feeding regimes for 3 months. S-ADLIB rats were nondeprived with free access to lab chow and 20% (w/v) sucrose solution. S-RESTRICT rats received limited sucrose (50 ml/day) and chow (15 g/day) access, yoking their body weights to ADLIB rats receiving free access to lab chow only. RESTRICT rats received approx. 15 g of chow/day to maintain their body weights at 90% of the ADLIB rats. Fifteen-minute sucrose intake tests revealed marked differences between naloxone sensitivity of chronic sucrose drinkers and sucrose-naive groups. Intakes of S-ADLIB and S-RESTRICT were suppressed at all doses (max suppression >60%). In comparison to animals given sucrose, ADLIB and RESTRICT animals were significantly less sensitive (maximum suppression = 35%). Naloxone potency was independent of body weight differences. The data demonstrate that overconsumption of palatable ingesta, and not diet-induced weight gain, is sufficient to enhance antagonist potency. The study confirms that orosensory stimulation can induce plasticity in opioid systems, supporting an important role for opioids in intake regulation and general reward processes. PMID:10208364
Shabir, S; Kirkham, T C
Excess body weight (EBW) is an independent risk factor for many human malignancies, including cancers throughout the gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary tract from the esophagus to the colorectum. The relative risk of gastrointestinal cancer in obese individuals is approximately 1.5–2.0 times that for normal weight individuals, with organ-specific and gender-specific differences for specific cancers. The association between EBW and risk of
Prashant Kant; Mark A. Hull
IntroductionPrevious studies suggested potential priming effects of gestational weight gain (GWG) on offspring’s body composition in later life. However, consistency of these effects in normal weight, overweight and obese mothers is less clear.MethodsWe combined the individual data of three German cohorts and assessed associations of total and excessive GWG (as defined by criteria of the Institute of Medicine) with offspring’s
Andreas Beyerlein; Ina Nehring; Peter Rzehak; Joachim Heinrich; Manfred J. Müller; Sandra Plachta-Danielzik; Martin Wabitsch; Melanie Weck; Hermann Brenner; Dietrich Rothenbacher; Rüdiger von Kries
This study compared the effect of Picolax when administered for large bowel preparation in combination with preoperative fasting on body weight, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, and cardiovascular variables with matched subjects who were fasted before surgery. Picolax resulted in significantly greater weight loss, increases in haemoglobin concentration combined with cardiovascular changes suggesting hypovolaemia in the Picolax group. Intravenous fluid replacement is recommended in patients receiving Picolax.
Barker, P.; Trotter, T.; Hanning, C.
Background\\/Aim: Skinfold-based equations are widely used to evaluate body fat (BF), but over-\\/underestimation is often reported. We evaluate the capacity of improved skinfold-based equations to estimate BF changes during weight reduction and compare them against well-established equations. Methods: Overweight adults (n = 44) participated in a 4-month weight reduction intervention. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and anthropometric measurements were taken at
Ada L. García; Karen Wagner; Christiana Einig; Ulrike Trippo; Corinna Koebnick; Hans-Joachim F. Zunft
Objective To compare self-reported to measured heights and weights of adults examined in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), and to determine to what extent body mass index (BMI) calculated from self-reported heights and weights affects estimates of overweight prevalence compared with BMI calculated from measured values.Design A complex sample design was used in NHANES III
MARIE FANELLI KUCZMARSKI; ROBERT J KUCZMARSKI; MATTHEW NAJJAR
To examine the associations between birth weight and BMI, and total body composition, in overweight Latino adolescents. Two hundred and forty-two overweight Latino children (baseline age = 11.1 ± 1.7 years; BMI ? 85th percentile) were measured annually for up to 6 years (2.6 ± 1.4 observations\\/child, total 848 visits). Birth weight and history of gestational diabetes were obtained by
Louise A. Kelly; Geoff D. C. Ball; Marc J. Weigensberg; Lisa G. Vargas; Courtney E. Byrd-Williams; Emily E. Ventura; Michael I. Goran
Average body weight differences between urban and rural areas have been reported in many countries, but it is unknown whether these are due to effects of social selection or social causation. We examined whether adolescent body mass index (BMI) predicted selective urban\\/rural migration over a 21-year period and whether urban\\/rural living over the same period predicted differences in BMI increase
Markus Jokela; Mika Kivimäki; Marko Elovainio; Jorma Viikari; Olli T. Raitakari; Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen
Objective:Cross-breeding experiments with different mouse strains have successfully been used by many groups to identify genetic loci that predispose for obesity. In order to provide a statistical assessment of these quantitative trait loci (QTL) as a basis for a systematic investigation of candidate genes, we have performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide linkage scans for body weight and body fat.Data:From a
S Wuschke; S Dahm; C Schmidt; H-G Joost; H Al-Hasani
CT is currently the mainstay in staging malignant lymphoma in children, but the risk of second neoplasms due to ionizing radiation\\u000a associated with CT is not negligible. Whole-body MRI techniques and whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in particular,\\u000a may be a good radiation-free alternative to CT. DWI is characterized by high sensitivity for the detection of lesions and\\u000a allows quantitative assessment
Thomas C. Kwee; Taro Takahara; Malou A. Vermoolen; Marc B. Bierings; Willem P. Mali; Rutger A. J. Nievelstein
Researchers and policymakers from diverse fields are engaged in efforts to understand the biological and social causes of obesity in order to develop policies, interventions, and recommendations to stop or reverse increases in obesity. One potentially promising approach is to harness influence from social contacts. An important foundation for this approach involves critically analyzing available data regarding whether and how body weight can be affected by close social contacts, especially friends. This systematic review examines evidence from published studies addressing the influences of friends on body weight. The majority of the sixteen studies conclude that there is evidence of influence: six reported that friends influence body weight and ten reported evidence of influence in some circumstances or specifications. However, this literature sheds little light on mechanisms of influence. There is limited evidence that friends’ communication about weight is associated with weight status and no compelling evidence that friends’ behaviors affect one’s weight. Many of the studies best designed to examine influence were the ones that did not explore mechanisms of influence. A priority for future research is to understand how, when, and how much friends affect the risk of obesity.
Cunningham, Solveig A.; Vaquera, Elizabeth; Maturo, Claire C.; Narayan, K.M. Venkat
Obesity presents a public health challenge and is a serious chronic medical condition that is associated with multiple co-morbidities and reduced survivability/longevity. African American adolescents who retain weight after pregnancy are at the highest risk of becoming obese adults. Obesity is associated with 300,000 deaths per year and expected to cost the US. health care system over 237 million dollars within the next decade. The prevalence of obesity is cause for concern because of its economic costs and its toll in human suffering due to related morbidity and mortality. This study seeks to understand the meaning or essence of the lived experience of obesity among postpartum African American adolescents based on a literature review indicating the need for such a qualitative research. Understanding the influence of their developmental stage, sociocultural perceptions, and perceptions of postpartum weight retention could help develop population-specific interventions that could reduce the health risk of obesity. PMID:24660316
Introduction Infants with low body weight (LBW) following cardiac surgery are a major challenge for the post cardiac surgery care unit. It has been observed that post surgery outcome for LBW infants is worse compared to the outcome of normal body weight infants. A study was conducted to compare post operative course and outcome of infants with body weight of 2.2 kg or less against infants with normal body weight who underwent similar cardiac surgeries. Methods A retrospective review was performed for all infants below 2.2 kg who underwent cardiac operations at King Abdulaziz Cardiac Center from January 2001 to October 2011. Cases with LBW (Group A) were compared with matching group (Group B) of normal body weight infants who had similar cardiac surgeries and matching surgical risk category. The demographic, ICU parameters, complications, and short-term outcome of both groups were analyzed. Results Two groups were formed, with 37 patients in Group A, and 39 patients in Group B. Except for weight (2.13 ± 0.08 kg in Group A vs 3.17 ± 0.2 kg in Group B), there was no statistical difference in demographic data between both groups. Cardiac procedures included coarctation repair, arterial switch, ventricular septal defect (VSD) repair, tetralogy of Fallot repair, systemic to pulmonary shunt and Norwood procedures. Patients in Group A had statistically significant difference from Group B in terms of bypass time (p = 0.01), duration of inotropes (p = 0.01), duration of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.004), number of re-intubations (p = 0.015), PCICU length of stay (p = 0.007), and hospital mortality: 13.5% in Group A vs 0% in Group B (p value 0.02). Conclusion Patients with LBW (<2.2 kg) underwent cardiac surgery with overall satisfactory results, but with increased risk of ICU morbidity and mortality.
Mehmood, Akhter; Ismail, Sameh R.; Kabbani, Mohamed S.; Abu-Sulaiman, Riyadh M.; Najm, Hani K.
Background Studies addressing the influence of early sexual maturation on the excess of body weight and height of children and adolescents are scarce. The aim of the study was to analyze the association of sexual maturation with excess body weight and height in children and adolescents. Methods This was a cross-sectional study performed in Florianópolis city, Brazil, in 2007, with 2339 school children, aged 8–14 years (1107 males). Selection was based on a probabilistic, cluster-stratified sampling technique. School children were classified according to the presence of excess body weight, using sex- and age-specific body mass index (BMI) cutoff points. Z-scores were calculated from height and BMI data. Sexual maturation was self-assessed according to Tanner stages of development. Subjects were ranked based on tertiles of sexual maturation (early, normal and late) for each stage of development. Poisson and linear regression models were used. Results Compared to the reference group (normal sexual maturation), early maturing females had higher prevalence of excess weight (adjusted prevalence ratio: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.24 to 2.33) and increased height-for-age (adjusted ?: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.59), while late maturing females had lower prevalence of excess weight (adjusted prevalence ratio: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.37 to 0.87) and decreased height-for-age (adjusted ?: ?0.38; 95% CI: ?0.56 to ?0.20). In males, early and late sexual maturation were associated with increased (adjusted ?: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.59) and decreased (adjusted ?: ?0.38; 95% CI: ?0.56 to ?0.20) height-for-age, respectively. Conclusion Early sexual maturation is associated with excess body weight in females and with greater height-for-age in both sexes.
Obesity and adiponectin depletion have been associated with the occurrence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The goal of this study was to identify the relationship between weight gain, adiponectin signaling, and development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in an obese, diabetic mouse model. Leptin-receptor deficient (Lepr(db/db) ) and C57BL/6 mice were administered a diet high in unsaturated fat (HF) (61%) or normal chow for 5 or 10 weeks. Liver histology was evaluated using steatosis, inflammation, and ballooning scores. Serum, adipose tissue, and liver were analyzed for changes in metabolic parameters, messenger RNA (mRNA), and protein levels. Lepr(db/db) HF mice developed marked obesity, hepatic steatosis, and more than 50% progressed to NASH at each timepoint. Serum adiponectin level demonstrated a strong inverse relationship with body mass (r?=?-0.82; P?0.0001) and adiponectin level was an independent predictor of NASH (13.6 ?g/mL; P?0.05; area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC)?=?0.84). White adipose tissue of NASH mice was characterized by increased expression of genes linked to oxidative stress, macrophage infiltration, reduced adiponectin, and impaired lipid metabolism. HF lepr (db/db) NASH mice exhibited diminished hepatic adiponectin signaling evidenced by reduced levels of adiponectin receptor-2, inactivation of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK), and decreased expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and ?-oxidation (Cox4, Nrf1, Pgc1?, Pgc1? and Tfam). In contrast, recombinant adiponectin administration up-regulated the expression of mitochondrial genes in AML-12 hepatocytes, with or without lipid-loading. Conclusion: Lepr(db/db) mice fed a diet high in unsaturated fat develop weight gain and NASH through adiponectin depletion, which is associated with adipose tissue inflammation and hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction. We propose that this murine model of NASH may provide novel insights into the mechanism for development of human NASH. (Hepatology 2014;60:133-145). PMID:24464605
Handa, Priya; Maliken, Bryan D; Nelson, James E; Morgan-Stevenson, Vicki; Messner, Donald J; Dhillon, Barjinderjit K; Klintworth, Heather M; Beauchamp, Mary; Yeh, Matthew M; Elfers, Clinton T; Roth, Christian L; Kowdley, Kris V
I used captive young and adult American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) during October-February 1984-1985 to test whether body weight and age affected time of pair-bond formation. Eighty ducks were marked individually, and 10 ducks (6 males and 4 females, half of each age class) were assigned to each of 8 experimental pens. Ducks in 4 pens received an ad libitum diet of commercial duck food, and ducks in the other 4 pens received a restricted ration of the same food. During early winter ducks in both groups gained weight, but ducks on the restricted diet gained less than birds on the ad libitum diet; peak winter weight of ducks on the ad libitum diet averaged 22% greater than initial body weight compared with 6.5% for ducks on the restricted diet. In late winter ducks on the restricted diet lost 28.7% of peak winter weight, and ducks on the ad libitum diet lost 19.3%. Weight loss of ducks on the ad libitum diet began before weather conditions became severe and coincided with a reduction in food consumption. This result supports the idea that weight loss of waterfowl in late winter is controlled endogenously. Individuals on the ad libitum diet paired earlier than those on the restricted diet, and pair bonds were stronger. Adults of both sexes paired earlier than young ducks, but differences for females were not significant statistically. Age and energy constraints are factors that can affect intraspecific variation in pairing chronology.
Preparing young students to resist the sociocultural pressures that contribute to body image and eating problems in American culture poses a monumental challenge. This project determined if the 11-lesson "Healthy Body Image: Teaching Kids to Eat and Love Their Bodies Too!" curriculum would have a positive effect when presented to upper elementary school children. A controlled study with 415 students measured changes from pretest to posttest related to: 1) body image; 2) knowledge about the biology of size, shape, and restricted hunger or dieting; 3) body size prejudice; 4) media awareness; 5) self-image; and 6) lifestyle behavior. Boys and girls who completed the curriculum showed significant or notable improvement compared to a control group not exposed to the curriculum. Results suggest it is possible to provide children with a knowledge base to use as they face increasing pressures about appearance, weight, and eating in the critical middle school years. PMID:12109175
Kater, Kathy J; Rohwer, John; Londre, Karen
Background Overweight and obese women are known to be at increased risk of caesarean birth. This study estimates the contribution of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) to caesarean births in Canada. Methods We analyzed data from women in the Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey who had a singleton term live birth in 2005-2006. Adjusted odds ratios for caesarean birth across BMI and GWG groups were derived, separately for nulliparous women and parous women with and without a prior caesarean. Population attributable fractions of caesarean births associated with above normal BMI and excess GWG were calculated. Results The overall caesarean birth rate was 25.7%. Among nulliparous and parous women without a previous caesarean birth, rates in obese women were 45.1% and 9.7% respectively, and rates in women who gained above their recommended GWG were 33.5% and 8.0% respectively. Caesarean birth was more strongly associated with BMI than with GWG. However, due to the high prevalence of excess GWG (48.8%), the proportion of caesareans associated with above normal BMI and excess GWG was similar [10.1% (95% CI: 9.9-10.2) and 10.9% (95% CI: 10.7-11.1) respectively]. Overall, one in five (20.2%, 95% CI: 20.0-20.4) caesarean births was associated with above normal BMI or excess GWG. Conclusions Overweight and obese BMI and above recommended GWG are significantly associated with caesarean birth in singleton term pregnancies in Canada. Strategies to reduce caesarean births must include measures to prevent overweight and obese BMI prior to conception and promote recommended weight gain throughout pregnancy.
TEIXEIRA, P. J., S. B. GOING, L. B. HOUTKOOPER, E. C. CUSSLER, L. L. METCALFE, R. M. BLEW, L. B. SARDINHA, and T. G. LOHMAN. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 179-188, 2006. Purpose: This study investigated changes in psychosocial variables related to exercise, eating, and body image during a weight reduction program and evaluated their association
PEDRO J. TEIXEIRA; SCOTT B. GOING; LINDA B. HOUTKOOPER; ELLEN C. CUSSLER; LAUVE L. METCALFE; ROB M. BLEW; LUIS B. SARDINHA; TIMOTHY G. LOHMAN
Breakfast has been labeled the most important meal of the day, but are there data to support this claim? We summarized the results of 47 studies examining the association of breakfast consumption with nutritional adequacy (nine studies), body weight (16 studies), and academic performance (22 studies) in children and adolescents. Breakfast skipping is highly prevalent in the United States and
Gail C. Rampersaud; Mark A. Pereira; Beverly L. Girard; Judi Adams; Jordan D. Metzl
The effects of selective ibotenate lesions of the complete hippocampus (CHip), the hippocampal ventral pole (VP), or the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in male rats were assessed on several measures related to energy regulation (i.e., body weight gain, food intake, body adiposity, metabolic activity general behavioral activity, conditioned appetitive responding). The testing conditions were designed to minimize the nonspecific debilitating effects of these surgeries on intake and body weight. Rats with CHip and VP lesions exhibited significantly greater weight gain and food intake compared to controls. Furthermore, CHip-lesioned rats, but not rats with VP lesions, showed elevated metabolic activity, general activity in the dark phase of the light-dark cycle, and greater conditioned appetitive behavior, compared to control rats without these brain lesions. In contrast, rats with mPFC lesions were not different from controls on any of these measures. These results indicate that hippocampal damage interferes with energy and body weight regulation, perhaps by disrupting higher-order learning and memory processes that contribute to the control of appetitive and consummatory behavior.
Davidson, T. L.; Chan, Kinho; Jarrard, Leonard E.; Kanoski, Scott E.; Clegg, Deborah J.; Benoit, Stephen C.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether body mass index (BMI) is related to energy intake during pregnancy, and whether BMI, energy intake and other factors are related to net weight gain. DESIGN: Longitudinal, duration of pregnancy. SUBJECTS: 156 healthy pregnant women residing in Quedlinburg county, Germany. METHODS: Weighed 7 d food records and standardized anthropometric measures in the first, second and third
MM Bergmann; EW Flagg; HL Miracle-McMahill; H Boeing
2 Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of body weight on stress and nutrition in women. Data were gathered from 889 women living in Turkey. The participants were selected randomly. Women were informed that the purpose of the study was to gather information on stress and nutrition and each participant attended a face-to-face interview .Subjects
N. Sanlier; N. Unusan
Objective: Association between nutritional status of adolescents and food consumption pattern. Design: Data on number of meals and snacks consumed daily were collected using structured questionnaires. Nutritional status was assessed as weight-for-age body mass index score less than fifth percentile of the National Center for Health…
Olumakaiye, M. F.; Atinmo, Tola; Olubayo-Fatiregun, M. A.
Previous estimates on the association between body weight and wages in the literature have been contingent on education and occupation. This paper examines the direct effect of BMI on wages and the indirect effects operating through education and occupation choice, particularly for late-teen BMI and adult wages. Using the National Longitudinal…
Han, Euna; Norton, Edward C.; Powell, Lisa M.
Objective: To evaluate the results after total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) in small children, our clinical experience was retrospectively reviewed. Methods: Of 164 patients undergoing TCPC, the body weight at operation was less than 10 kg (8.8±1.1 kg) in 54, including 21 with visceral heterotaxy. The superior caval vein (SVC) was anastomosed to the pulmonary arteries in a bidirectional fashion. To
Hideki Uemura; Toshikatsu Yagihara; Youichi Kawahira; Yoshiro Yoshikawa; Soichiro Kitamura
Body weight and caloric intake were measured in a group of heavy and casual marihuana users prior to, during and following 21 days of marihuana smoking under research ward conditions. A group of control subjects were studied under identical conditions, but they did not smoke marihuana. Both heavy and casual marihuana users had a significant increase in caloric intake and
Isaac Greenberg; John Kuehnle; Jack H. Mendelson; Jerrold G. Bernstein
Ideal body weight (IBW), which can be calculated using the variables of true height and sex, is important for drug dosing and ventilator settings. True height often cannot be measured in the emergency department (ED). Determine the most accurate method to...
A. Swenson C. R. Stehman F. L. Dos Santos R. G. Buckley R. H. Riffenburgh
The aims of this study was to investigate the impact of aluminum nitrate administered in drinking water during 90 days (sub-chronic toxicity), on body weight gain, motor activity, brain aluminum accumulation and especially in recognition memory of wistar rats. Two groups of young female wistar rats were used. Treated rats received (80 mg L(-1)) of aluminum nitrate diluted in drinking water, while control rats received a drinking water only, for 3 months. An evolution of body weight, a motor activity, object recognition memory (NOR) and brain aluminum concentration has been evaluated. The body weight was taken weekly, whereas the memory abilities and the motor activity are measured once every fortnight alternatively, by submitting rats to the open field test and to the novel object recognizing memory test. The results have showed a significant decrease in rats' body weight (p < 0.05). Though, no significance was registered for motor activity. Nevertheless, a high significance is showed for recognition memory compared to control rats (p < 0.01), especially at the end of testing period, even the difference between control and aluminium treated rats in brain aluminum levels was not significant. PMID:18817225
Azzaoui, F Z; Ahami, A O T; Khadmaoui, A
One of the main issues for balance control is the ability to generate enough forces to execute motions and uphold stability. This study aimed to investigate whether induced fatigue of the triceps surae muscles and decreased muscle force due to temporary additional body weight affected the ability to withstand balance perturbations. Another aim was to examine whether postural control adaptation
Torbjörn Ledin; P. A. Fransson; M. Magnusson
IMPACT OF BODY WEIGHT CHANGE ON THE EDSTAC TIER I MALE AND FEMALE PUBERTAL PROTOCOLS. R.L. Cooper, T.E. Stoker, K. McElroy, J. Ferrell, K. Leffler, K. Bremser and S.C. Laws. Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, RTP, NC. Sponsor: R.J. Kavl...
Cyclosporine A (CsA) is a commonly prescribed and effective therapy for canine atopic dermatitis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential relationship between patient body weight and CsA dosing. Seventy-seven cases of canine atopic dermatitis managed between 2000 and 2011 were evaluated retrospectively. Duration of CsA therapy was at least 16 wk. Groups analyzed included the study population as a whole, those treated with only CsA, and those treated with both CsA and metoclopramide. The division between small and large dogs was set at 15 kg. Descriptive analysis, two-way analysis of variance, Pearson correlations, and a Student t test were used to analyze data. There were no significant differences between CsA dose and body weight regardless of method of analysis. Concurrent corticosteroid use, other medication use, and pruritus score were also analyzed over the study period. There was a significant decrease in CsA dose, corticosteroid dose, medication score, and pruritus score between the time points for all patients, but no significant relationship between those changes and body weight. These study findings suggest that differential CsA dosing is not warranted based on body weight. PMID:24659725
Cohen, Loren; Zabel, Sonja; Rosychuk, Rod A W
BACKGROUND: An epidemiological study conducted in Italy indicated that coffee has the greatest antioxidant capacity among the commonly consumed beverages. Green coffee bean is rich in chlorogenic acid and its related compounds. The effect of green coffee bean extract (GCBE) on fat accumulation and body weight in mice was assessed with the objective of investigating the effect of GCBE on
Hiroshi Shimoda; Emi Seki; Michio Aitani
Recent evidence suggests that the central melanocortin (MC) system is a prominent contributor to food intake and body weight control. MC receptor (MC-R) populations in the arcuate and paraventricular nuclei are considered probable sites of action mediating the orexigenic effects of systemically or intrac- erebroventricularly administered ligands. Yet, the highest MC4-R density in the brain is found in the dorsal
Harvey J. Grill; Abigail B. Ginsberg; Randy J. Seeley; Joel M. Kaplan
BACKGROUND: Television (TV) watching is the most common leisure activity in the United States. Few studies of adults have described the relationship between TV and health behaviors such as physical activity, diet, and body weight status. METHODS: Extant data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study were analyzed to assess the association of TV with physical activity, diet, and
Anne-Marie Meyer; Kelly R Evenson; David J Couper; June Stevens; Mark A Pereria; Gerardo Heiss
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between pregnancy outcomes and prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain among pregnant women who regularly attended health centers of Kazerun, Fars, Iran. Methods: In this descriptive study records from 5172 pregnant women were considered in this study, based on the methodology criteria. Women were distributed across 4 prepregnancy categories according to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) (1990) classification of body mass index, and to 4 end-of-pregnancy categories according to median weekly gestational weight gain. Results: The risks for gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, and preterm premature rupture of membranes were higher for those who were overweight or obese before becoming pregnant (P < 0.05). Moreover, a gestational weight gain of 0.50 kg per week or greater was associated with a higher risk for gestational hypertension, preterm premature rupture of membranes, and fetal macrosomia (P < 0.05). Women in the highest quartile for weight gain (? 0.59 kg per week) were at higher risk for pre-eclampsia (P < 0.05). Discussion: The results seems to indicate that excessive gestational weight gain and high prepregnancy body mass index were associated with increased risks for adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Weight gain is a common problem reported by users of estroprogestins (EPs) and is a frequent reason for EP discontinuation, even if this problem is not confirmed in several clinical studies. We studied the impact of a EP containing ethinyl estradiol (EE) 20 microg plus levonorgestrel (LNG) 100 microg on body weight (BW) and body composition in 47 treated women and 31 women as controls. Also, we studied the effect of this association on metabolic parameters (glycemia, lipid profile). EE20/LNG100 had no significant impact on body weight, body composition (fat mass, fat-free mass, total body water, intracellular water, extracellular water) or metabolic profile in comparison with no treatment. Thus, the use of EE20/LNG100 showed no impact on metabolic parameters, body weight and body composition. This could be important not only for the safety profile of this combination, but also in increasing patient compliance. PMID:17891597
Lello, Stefano; Vittori, Giorgio; Paoletti, Anna Maria; Sorge, Roberto; Guardianelli, Francesca; Melis, Gian Benedetto
Common variants at only two loci, FTO and MC4R, have been reproducibly associated with body mass index (BMI) in humans. To identify additional loci, we conducted meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide association studies for BMI (n > 32,000) and followed up top signals in 14 additional cohorts (n > 59,000). We strongly confirm FTO and MC4R and identify six additional loci (P < 5 × 10?8): TMEM18, KCTD15, GNPDA2, SH2B1, MTCH2 and NEGR1 (where a 45-kb deletion polymorphism is a candidate causal variant). Several of the likely causal genes are highly expressed or known to act in the central nervous system (CNS), emphasizing, as in rare monogenic forms of obesity, the role of the CNS in predisposition to obesity.
Willer, Cristen J; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Loos, Ruth J F; Li, Shengxu; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Heid, Iris M; Berndt, Sonja I; Elliott, Amanda L; Jackson, Anne U; Lamina, Claudia; Lettre, Guillaume; Lim, Noha; Lyon, Helen N; McCarroll, Steven A; Papadakis, Konstantinos; Qi, Lu; Randall, Joshua C; Roccasecca, Rosa Maria; Sanna, Serena; Scheet, Paul; Weedon, Michael N; Wheeler, Eleanor; Zhao, Jing Hua; Jacobs, Leonie C; Prokopenko, Inga; Soranzo, Nicole; Tanaka, Toshiko; Timpson, Nicholas J; Almgren, Peter; Bennett, Amanda; Bergman, Richard N; Bingham, Sheila A; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brown, Morris; Burtt, Noel P; Chines, Peter; Coin, Lachlan; Collins, Francis S; Connell, John M; Cooper, Cyrus; Smith, George Davey; Dennison, Elaine M; Deodhar, Parimal; Elliott, Paul; Erdos, Michael R; Estrada, Karol; Evans, David M; Gianniny, Lauren; Gieger, Christian; Gillson, Christopher J; Guiducci, Candace; Hackett, Rachel; Hadley, David; Hall, Alistair S; Havulinna, Aki S; Hebebrand, Johannes; Hofman, Albert; Isomaa, Bo; Jacobs, Kevin B; Johnson, Toby; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jovanovic, Zorica; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kraft, Peter; Kuokkanen, Mikko; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laitinen, Jaana; Lakatta, Edward G; Luan, Jian'an; Luben, Robert N; Mangino, Massimo; McArdle, Wendy L; Meitinger, Thomas; Mulas, Antonella; Munroe, Patricia B; Narisu, Narisu; Ness, Andrew R; Northstone, Kate; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Purmann, Carolin; Rees, Matthew G; Ridderstrale, Martin; Ring, Susan M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Ruokonen, Aimo; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Saramies, Jouko; Scott, Laura J; Scuteri, Angelo; Silander, Kaisa; Sims, Matthew A; Song, Kijoung; Stephens, Jonathan; Stevens, Suzanne; Stringham, Heather M; Tung, Y C Loraine; Valle, Timo T; Van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Wallace, Chris; Watanabe, Richard M; Waterworth, Dawn M; Watkins, Nicholas; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zhai, Guangju; Zillikens, M Carola; Altshuler, David; Caulfield, Mark J; Chanock, Stephen J; Farooqi, I Sadaf; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack M; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hu, Frank B; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Laakso, Markku; Mooser, Vincent; Ong, Ken K; Ouwehand, Willem H; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Spector, Timothy D; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uda, Manuela; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Frayling, Timothy M; Groop, Leif C; Hayes, Richard B; Hunter, David J; Mohlke, Karen L; Peltonen, Leena; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Wichmann, H-Erich; McCarthy, Mark I; Boehnke, Michael; Barroso, Ines; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Hirschhorn, Joel N
The effect of the body-weight gain after retirement from an exercise-training program on the retained increase in insulin sensitivity elicited by the training was investigated in exercise-trained (ET) rats. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by oral glucose tolerance and insulin suppression tests immediately after training and during retirement. Results show that, compared with sedentary controls, exercise training enhanced insulin-induced glucose uptake, but the enhanced sensitivity was gradually lost with the end of running activity until after seven days of retirement, when it became equal to that of controls. This loss of enhanced sensitivity to insulin was associated with an accelerated gain in body weight beginning one day after the start of retirement. However, those animals that gained weight only at rates similar to those of control rats, retained their enhanced sensitivity to insulin.
Dolkas, Constantine B.; Rodnick, Kenneth J.; Mondon, Carl E.
Chronic heart failure (HF) is associated with a high burden of morbidity and mortality and with reduced quality of life. New techniques such as telemonitoring (TM) have recently been introduced in the care of patients with HF in order to improve outcomes. TM is defined as sending data from the patients’ home to healthcare professionals. Most studies have focussed on endpoints such as morbidity and mortality, and relatively little attention has been paid to patients’ perceptions of TM. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore and describe patients’ perceptions of transmission of body weight (BW) and TM, regularly accomplished from patients’ homes to an HF clinic. An explorative design with a phenomenographic approach was used, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with a maximum variation sampling of 20 participants. The findings are described in five metaphoric categories that were assigned and used as a description: the habitual patient, the concerned patient, the technical patient, the secure patient, and the self-caring patient. The conclusions were that the transmission of BW made the patients active in their own care and increased self-care activities. In clinical care, concerns for deterioration in HF as well as the reliability of the TM system should be considered. Future research may focus on healthcare professionals and their perceptions of transmission of BW and TM in the care of patients with HF.
Lynga, Patrik; Fridlund, Bengt; Langius-Eklof, Ann; Bohm, Katarina
Heat stress is commonly relieved by forced evaporation from body surfaces. The mode of heat stress relief by heat extraction from the periphery is not clear, although it reduces rectal temperature. Radiant surface temperature (Ts) of the right half of the body surface was examined by thermovision in 4 lactating Holstein cows (30 kg of milk/d) during 7 repeated cycles of forced evaporation created by 30s of wetting followed by 4.5 min of forced airflow. Wetting was performed by an array of sprinklers (0.76 m(3)/h), and forced airflow (>3m/s velocity) over the right side of the body surface was produced by fans mounted at a height of 3m above the ground. Sprinkling wetted the hind legs, rump, and chest, but not the lower abdomen side, front legs, or neck. The animals were maintained in shade at an air temperature of 28 degrees C and relative humidity of 47%. Coat thickness was 1 to 2mm, so Ts closely represented skin temperature. Mean Ts of 5 x 20cm areas on the upper and lower hind and front legs, rump, chest, abdomen side, and neck were obtained by converting to temperature their respective gray intensity in single frames obtained at 10-s intervals. Little change occurred in Ts during the first wetting (0.1+/-0.6 degrees C), but it decreased rapidly thereafter (1.6+/-0.6 degrees C in the fifth wetting). The Ts also decreased, to a smaller extent, in areas that remained dry (0.7+/-1.0 degrees C). In all body sites, a plateau in Ts was reached by 2 min after wetting. The difference between dry and wet areas in the first cooling cycle was approximately 1.2 degrees C. The Ts of different body areas decreased during consecutive cooling cycles and reached a plateau by 3 cooling cycles in dry sites (front leg, neck, abdomen side), by 5 cooling cycles in the hind leg, and 7 cooling cycles in the rump and chest. The reduction in mean Ts produced by 7 cycles was 4.0 to 6.0 degrees C in wetted areas and 1.6 to 3.7 degrees C in sites that were not wetted. Initial rectal temperature was 38.9+/-0.1 degrees C; it remained unchanged during first 5 cooling cycles, decreased by 0.1 degrees C after 7 cooling cycles, and decreased to 38.4+/-0.06 degrees C after 8 to 10 cooling cycles, with no additional subsequent decrease. The concomitant reduction in Ts in dry and wet areas suggests an immediate vasoconstrictor response associated with heat extraction and later development of a cooler body shell. The reduction in rectal temperature represents a response involving transfer of heat from the body core to the body shell. This response mode requires consideration in settings of heat stress relief. PMID:20059922
We have previously demonstrated that running-wheel access normalizes the food intake and body weight of Otsuka Long-Evens Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Following 6 wk of running-wheel access beginning at 8 wk of age, the body weight of OLETF rats remains reduced, demonstrating a lasting effect on their phenotype. In contrast, access to a high-fat diet exacerbates the hyperphagia and obesity of OLETF rats. To determine whether diet modulates the long-term effects of exercise, we examined the effects of high-fat diet on food intake and body weight in OLETF rats that had prior access to running wheels for 4 wk. We found that 4 wk of running exercise significantly decreased food intake and body weight of OLETF rats. Consistent with prior results, 4 wk of exercise also produced long-lasting effects on food intake and body weight in OLETF rats fed a regular chow. When running wheels were relocked, OLETF rats stabilized at lower levels of body weight than sedentary OLETF rats. However, access to a high-fat diet offset these effects. When OLETF rats were switched to a high-fat diet following wheel relocking, they significantly increased food intake and body weight, so that they reached levels similar to those of sedentary OLETF rats fed a high-fat diet. Gene expression determination of hypothalamic neuropeptides revealed changes that appeared to be appropriate responses to the effects of diet and running exercise. Together, these results demonstrate that high-fat diet modulates the long-lasting effects of exercise on food intake and body weight in OLETF rats.
Chao, Pei-Ting; Terrillion, Chantelle E.; Moran, Timothy H.
Background: In adults, body weight tends to be underestimated when based on self-reported data. Whether this discrepancy between measured and reported data exists in healthy young children is unclear. We studied whether parental reported body weight and height of 4-year-old children corresponded with measured body weight and height. In addition, we studied the determinants and the consequences of differences between
Salome Scholtens; Bert Brunekreef; Tommy LS Visscher; Henriette A Smit; Kerkhof van de M; Jongste de J. C; Jorrit Gerritsen; Alet H Wijga
Introduction Previous studies suggested potential priming effects of gestational weight gain (GWG) on offspring’s body composition in later life. However, consistency of these effects in normal weight, overweight and obese mothers is less clear. Methods We combined the individual data of three German cohorts and assessed associations of total and excessive GWG (as defined by criteria of the Institute of Medicine) with offspring’s mean body mass index (BMI) standard deviation scores (SDS) and overweight at the age of 5–6 years (total: n?=?6,254). Quantile regression was used to examine potentially different effects on different parts of the BMI SDS distribution. All models were adjusted for birth weight, maternal age and maternal smoking during pregnancy and stratified by maternal pre-pregnancy weight status. Results In adjusted models, positive associations of total and excessive GWG with mean BMI SDS and overweight were observed only in children of non- overweight mothers. For example, excessive GWG was associated with a mean increase of 0.08 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.15) units of BMI SDS (0.13 (0.02, 0.24) kg/m2 of ‘real’ BMI) in children of normal-weight mothers. The effects of total and excessive GWG on BMI SDS increased for higher- BMI children of normal-weight mothers. Discussion Increased GWG is likely to be associated with overweight in offspring of non-overweight mothers.
Beyerlein, Andreas; Nehring, Ina; Rzehak, Peter; Heinrich, Joachim; Muller, Manfred J.; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra; Wabitsch, Martin; Weck, Melanie; Brenner, Hermann; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; von Kries, Rudiger
We investigated cross-sectional associations of body composition and weight change with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine pesticides/pesticide metabolites measured in blood collected at the baseline of the Physical Activity for Total Health study of postmenopausal, overweight women living in the Seattle, Washington metropolitan area. Indicators of greater adiposity were associated with lower plasma concentrations of most PCBs with six or more chlorine atoms. This pattern was observed for current weight, body mass index, fat mass percent, subcutaneous abdominal fat, intra-abdominal fat, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and maximum adult weight. Conversely, PCB 105, PCB 118, and p,p'-DDE were generally increased or showed no association with these variables. Weight gain since age 35 was associated with lower concentrations of almost every organochlorine we studied, and past weight loss episodes of at least 20 pounds (?9.1?kg) were associated with higher concentrations. Our results have implications for epidemiologic studies of organochlorines in terms of covariates that may be important to consider in statistical analyses, particularly as such considerations may differ importantly by specific analyte. Our finding of increased organochlorine concentrations with past weight loss episodes may have public health significance; however, this association requires confirmation in longitudinal studies. PMID:22588213
De Roos, Anneclaire J; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Sjodin, Andreas; McTiernan, Anne
We investigated the relationship between being bullied and measured body weight and perceived body weight among adolescents of a middle-income sub Saharan African country. Our data originated from the Global School-based Health Survey, which targets adolescents aged 13–15 years. Student weights and heights were measured before administrating the questionnaire which included questions about personal data, health behaviors and being bullied. Standard criteria were used to assess thinness, overweight and obesity. Among 1,006 participants who had complete data, 16.5% (95%CI 13.3–20.2) reported being bullied ?3 days during the past 30 days; 13.4% were thin, 16.8% were overweight and 7.6% were obese. Categories of actual weight and of perceived weight correlated only moderately (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.37 for boys and 0.57 for girls; p < 0.001). In univariate analysis, both actual obesity (OR 1.76; p = 0.051) and perception of high weight (OR 1.63 for “slightly overweight”; OR 2.74 for “very overweight”, both p < 0.05) were associated with being bullied. In multivariate analysis, ORs for categories of perceived overweight were virtually unchanged while ORs for actual overweight and obesity were substantially attenuated, suggesting a substantial role of perceived weight in the association with being bullied. Actual underweight and perceived thinness also tended to be associated with being bullied, although not significantly. Our findings suggest that more research attention be given to disentangling the significant association between body image, overweight and bullying among adolescents. Further studies in diverse populations are warranted.
Wilson, Michael L.; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Rousson, Valentin; Bovet, Pascal
Background: The frequency and short-term natural history of weight loss in community-dwelling older adults have not been de- scribed. Unintentional weight loss may be more likely to continue than intentional weight loss. Objectives:Thepresentsubstudydescribedthefrequencyofa5% lossorgaininbodyweightincommunity-dwellingolderadultsatan annual examination of the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study and 6 mo later. The weight-management prac- tices used by the participants were also
Jung Sun Lee; Stephen B Kritchevsky; Tamara B Harris; Frances Tylavsky; Susan M Rubin; Anne B Newman
Background: The Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (CFF) recommends using the percentage of ideal body weight (%IBWCFF) and body mass index percentiles (BMIp) to assess weight-for-height status and to screen for malnutrition. Objective: The objective was to examine the agreement and dis- crepancy between the use of %IBWCFF and BMIp for screening malnutrition. Design: Data from 13 021 children reported to the
Zhumin Zhang; HuiChuan J Lai
Background Limited information is available regarding the impact of candy consumption on health. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between typical frequency of candy consumption and body weight status and select cardiovascular risk factors among adults in the United States. Methods Using data collected in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), adults were categorized as infrequent (? 3 eating occasions [EO]/month), moderate (> 3 EO/month and ? 3.5 EO/week), or frequent (> 3.5 EO/week) candy consumers based on the combined frequency of chocolate and other candy consumption over the previous 12 months. Weight and adiposity status were analyzed using logistic regression models, and blood pressure, lipids, and insulin sensitivity were analyzed using linear regression models. Models were adjusted for age, sex and race/ethnicity, and also for additional covariates with potential associations with the outcomes. Appropriate statistical weights were used to yield results generalizable to the US population. Results Frequency of candy consumption was not associated with the risk of obesity, overweight/obesity, elevated waist circumference, elevated skinfold thickness, blood pressure, low density lipoprotein (LDL) or high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, or insulin resistance. Increased frequency of candy consumption was associated with higher energy intakes and higher energy adjusted intakes of carbohydrates, total sugars and added sugars, total fat, saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids (p?0.05), and lower adjusted intakes of protein and cholesterol (p?0.001). Conclusions Increased frequency of candy consumption among adults in the United States was not associated with objective measures of adiposity or select cardiovascular risk factors, despite associated dietary differences. Given the cross-sectional study design, however, it cannot be concluded that candy consumption does not cause obesity or untoward levels of cardiovascular risk markers. The lack of an association between frequency of candy consumption and cardiovascular risk factors could be due to reduced intake of candy among the overweight due to dieting or a health professional’s recommendations. Additionally, it is important to note that the analysis was based on frequency of candy consumption and not amount of candy consumed. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the lack of associations between frequency of candy consumption and cardiovascular risk factors.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Aloe vera gel administration in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). SD rats at 7 wk of age were fed either a standard diet (10 kcal% fat) (StdD) or high-fat (60 kcal% fat) diet (HFD) during the experimental period. Four weeks after of HFD-feeding, DIO rats (11 wk of age) were orally administered with two doses of Aloe vera gel powder (20 and 200 mg/kg/d) for 90 d. Body weights (g) and body fat (%) of HFD fed rats were significantly higher than those of StdD-fed rats. Although a modest decrease of body weight (g) was observed with the administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder, both subcutaneous and visceral fat weight (g) and body fat (%) were reduced significantly in Aloe vera gel-treated rats. Serum lipid parameters elevated by HFD were also improved by the Aloe vera gel treatment. The oxygen consumption (VO(2)), an index of energy expenditure, was decreased in HFD-fed rats compared with that in StdD-fed rats. Administration of Aloe vera gel reversed the change in VO(2) in the HFD-fed rats. These results suggest that intake of Aloe vera gel reduced body fat accumulation, in part, by stimulation of energy expenditure. Aloe vera gel might be beneficial for the prevention and improvement of diet-induced obesity. PMID:22878390
Misawa, Eriko; Tanaka, Miyuki; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Nomaguchi, Kouji; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji
Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is released from the pancreas in response to a meal. In humans, low-circulating PP levels have been observed in obesity, and administration of pharmacological doses of PP has been shown to decrease food intake. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether low circulating PP is associated with weight gain in Pima Indians. Plasma PP concentrations were measured after an overnight fast and 30 min after a standardized mixed meal in 33 nondiabetic male subjects who had a follow-up visit 4.9 +/- 2.5 years later. Cross-sectionally, fasting and postprandial PP levels were negatively associated with body size and adiposity. Prospectively, the change in PP response to the meal was negatively associated with the change in body weight (r = -0.53, P = 0.002). In contrast, a high fasting PP level was positively associated with change in body weight (r = 0.45, P = 0.009). In conclusion, our results provide evidence that, even within the physiological range, PP contributes to the regulation of energy balance in humans. However this contribution appears to be more complex than anticipated because of the opposite effect of fasting and postprandial PP on the risk of future weight gain. PMID:15561938
Koska, Juraj; DelParigi, Angelo; de Courten, Barbora; Weyer, Christian; Tataranni, P Antonio
Fisheries managers often assess body condition using relative weight (Wr) because it provides a comparative measure of fish plumpness among individuals and populations. However, it is not known whether the morphological information that Wr summarizes reflects physiological measures, such as relative lipid reserves, in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The purpose of this study was to determine whether swimming activity affects either the Wr or proximate body composition of juvenile (total length, 170-260 mm) rainbow trout. When rainbow trout from a hatchery were fed ad libitum for 147 d, inactive (no current) and active (15 cm/s current velocity) fish did not differ in Wr However, inactive rainbow trout maintained relatively constant lipid levels, whereas active fish declined in lipid content. Relative weight may provide a comparable measure of body form, but it is not an accurate index of lipid content between active and inactive rainbow trout fed an excess ration. For assessing the physiological condition of rainbow trout, measurement of proximate body composition appears to be more accurate than indices based on length and weight.
Simpkins, D. G.; Hubert, W. A.; Del, Rio, C. M.; Rule, D. C.
Due to the high prevalence of overweight and obesity, developing strategies to improve weight loss and weight loss maintenance is imperative. One dietary environmental variable that has received little attention in being targeted in an intervention to assist with obesity treatment is dietary variety. Experimental research has consistently shown that greater dietary variety increases consumption, with the effect of variety on consumption hypothesized to be a consequence of the differential experience of the more varied sensory properties of food under those conditions with greater dietary variety. As reduced energy intake is required for weight loss, limiting variety, particularly in food groups that are high in energy-density and low in nutrient-density, may assist with reducing energy intake and improving weight loss. A series of investigations, both observational and experimental, were conducted to examine if limiting variety in an energydense, non-nutrient-dense food group, snack foods (i.e., cookies, chips), assisted with reducing energy intake of the food group and improving weight loss. Results of the investigations suggest that a prescription for limiting variety in a food group can be implemented during obesity treatment, limiting variety is associated with the occurrence of monotony, and that reducing food group variety is related to decreased consumption of that food group. Future research is needed to ascertain the long-term effect of prescriptions targeting dietary variety on weight loss and weight loss maintenance.
Raynor, Hollie A.
Early body condition may be important for adult behavior and fitness, and is impacted by a number of environmental conditions and biotic interactions. Reduced fecundity of adult females exposed to larval competition may be caused by reduced body condition or shifts in relative body composition, yet these mechanisms have not been well researched. Here, body mass, body size, scaled body mass index, and two body components (water content and lean dry mass) of adult Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) females exposed to larval competition or reared alone were examined. Experimental females emerged at significantly smaller body mass and body size than control females. Additionally, scaled body mass index and water content, but not lean dry mass, were significantly reduced in experimental females. To our knowledge, these are the first results that demonstrate a potential mechanism for previously documented direct effects of competition on fecundity in female bruchine beetles.
Schade, Daynika J.; Vamosi, Steven M.
Objective To evaluate obesity and rate of weight change during the 5 years before pregnancy and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a nested case-control study. Study Design GDM cases (n=251) and controls (n=204) were selected from a multiethnic cohort of 14,235 women who delivered a live birth between 1996 and 1998. Women who gained or lost weight were compared with those with a stable weight (± 1.0 kg/year). Results Women who gained weight at a rate of 1.1 to 2.2 kg/year had a small nonsignificant increased risk of GDM (odds ratio(OR): 1.63 [95% CI: 0.95-2.81]) and women who gained weight at a rate of 2.3 to 10.0 kg/year had 2.5 fold increased risk of GDM (OR: 2.61 [95% CI: 1.50-4.57]), compared to women with stable weight (after adjusting for age, race-ethnicity, parity and “baseline” body mass index). Conclusion: These results suggest that weight gain within five years before pregnancy may increase the risk of GDM.
Hedderson, Monique M.; Williams, Michelle A.; Holt, Victoria L.; Weiss, Noel S.; Ferrara, Assiamira
This study has three primary goals that make an important contribution to the literature on body weight and childbearing experiences among United States’ women. It sheds light on the physiological and social nature of this relationship by examining whether the consequences of early adult weight for lifetime childbearing are shaped by historical social context, women’s social characteristics, and their ability to marry. We analyze data from two female cohorts who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY79). Cohort 1 entered early adulthood before the U.S. obesity prevalence increased. Cohort 2 entered early adulthood after the obesity prevalence increased. We find that early adult weight is negatively related to the childbearing trajectories and marital status of Cohort 1 but not Cohort 2. Failing to account for race/ethnicity and women’s educational background as confounders masks some of these associations, which are evident for both White and Black women. Our results suggest that the health consequences of body weight do not fully drive its impact on childbearing. Rather, the lifetime fertility consequences of early adult weight are malleable, involve social processes, and are dependent on social context.
Frisco, Michelle L.; Weden, Margaret M.; Lippert, Adam M.
This study has three primary goals that make an important contribution to the literature on body weight and childbearing experiences among United States' women. It sheds light on the physiological and social nature of this relationship by examining whether the consequences of early adult weight for lifetime childbearing are shaped by historical social context, women's social characteristics, and their ability to marry. We analyze data from two female cohorts who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY79). Cohort 1 entered early adulthood before the U.S. obesity prevalence increased. Cohort 2 entered early adulthood after the obesity prevalence increased. We find that early adult weight is negatively related to the childbearing trajectories and marital status of Cohort 1 but not Cohort 2. Failing to account for race/ethnicity and women's educational background as confounders masks some of these associations, which are evident for both White and Black women. Our results suggest that the health consequences of body weight do not fully drive its impact on childbearing. Rather, the lifetime fertility consequences of early adult weight are malleable, involve social processes, and are dependent on social context. PMID:21944717
Frisco, Michelle L; Weden, Margaret M; Lippert, Adam M; Burnett, Kristin D
Background Doppler ultrasonography is an important tool for evaluating hepatic portal hemodynamics. However, no study in dogs of different body weights, in the range encountered in routine clinical veterinary practice, has been reported. It can be difficult to obtain an ideal insonation angle when evaluating the main portal vein, so evaluation of the right portal vein branch has been described in humans as an alternative. The aim of this study was to analyze, through Doppler ultrasonography, the hemodynamics in the right portal vein branch in dogs of different body weights. Methods Thirty normal dogs were divided in three groups by weight, in order to establish normal values for mean velocity, flow volume and portal congestion index of the right portal vein branch by means of Doppler ultrasonography. Results In all dogs ideal insonation angles were obtained for the right portal vein branch. The average velocity was similar in the three groups, but the portal congestion index and the flow volume differed, showing that the weight of the dog can influence these values. Conclusion Doppler ultrasonography for the evaluation of flow in the right branch of the portal vein could be a viable alternative, or complement, to examining the main vessel segment. This is especially so in those animals in which an ideal insonation angle for examination of the main portal vein is hard to obtain. In addition, the weight of the dog must be considered for the correct evaluation of the portal system hemodynamics, particularly for portal blood flow and the congestion index.
Obesity is associated with absolute and relative expansion of the extracellular water compartment (ECW). The effects of substantial and prolonged weight reduction on body water distribution are unknown, however. The authors studied total body water (TBW) by tritiated water dilution, ECW by 35SO4 dilution, exchangeable sodium (Na(e)) by 24Na, and total body potassium (TBK) by 40K whole-body counting in 25 severely obese women (body mass index [BMI] = 48 +/- 7 kg.m-2, mean +/- standard deviation) aged 36 +/- 8 years before and at intervals after gastric restrictive (GR; n = 12) and malabsorptive (MA; n = 13) operations for obesity. Results are compared with a control group of 26 healthy normal-weight women (BMI = 21 +/- 2). Before operation, the obese patients had absolute elevations of all water compartments compared with controls, with significantly higher ratios of Na(e) to TBK (1.17 +/- 0.13 versus 0.91 +/- 0.10; p less than 0.05) and ECW to intracellular water (ICW) (E/I = 0.82 +/- 0.17 versus 0.63 +/- 0.06; p less than 0.05). After weight loss of 52 +/- 20 kg in MA and 47 +/- 19 kg in GR patients (nonsignificant between groups) to a stable level 22 +/- 8 months after operation, there were statistically significant reductions in TBW, ICW, TBK, and Na(e) in both groups, but a significant reduction in ECW only after GR. Adjusting for preoperative weight, duration of follow-up, and rate of weight loss, E/I was greater after MA than GR (1.09 +/- 0.25 versus 0.82 +/- 0.14; p less than 0.05). The elevated preoperative E/I ratio did not normalize with weight loss after surgery, and the response was related to the type of operation. The finding remains to be explained although the increased E/I after MA may reflect mild protein-calorie malnutrition not detectable in the blood. The persistence of elevated E/I with significant weight loss after GR might imply an intrinsic or irreversible imbalance of fluid distribution in obese patients.
Mazariegos, M; Kral, J G; Wang, J; Waki, M; Heymsfield, S B; Pierson, R N; Thornton, J C; Yasumura, S
Body weight loss during the course of cancer disease has been associated with poor prognosis. Beside cancer-associated cachexia, weight loss can also result from chemotherapy. This work explored whether a model of mammary tumors in female Sprague Dawley rats could be appropriate to study the effect of doxorubicin on body weight, described weight change in this model, and assessed the effect of DHA on weight during chemotherapy. After tumor induction, rats were randomly assigned to a control or a DHA-enriched diet, and treated with doxorubicin or placebo twice a week for 2.5 wk (n = 6 in each group). Body weight, food intake, and tumor growth were monitored. Neither the induction of tumors nor their initial development impaired body weight gain. No reduction in food intake was observed. Tumor growth was similar between groups from day 1 to day 11. Although doxorubicin induced body weight loss from day 4 compared to placebo (P< 0.01) in rats fed the control diet, it did not induce body weight loss in rats fed the DHA-enriched diet (P = 0.02), indicating that DHA had a protective effect. These results indicate that doxorubicin can induce body weight loss in this model and that a DHA-enriched diet can prevent this effect. PMID:23035949
Hajjaji, Nawale; Couet, Charles; Besson, Pierre; Bougnoux, Philippe
The social and societal pressures to be thin that many women experience are widely believed to negatively affect their body image. The fact that this view is not reflected in traditional body image measures prompted the development of this multidimensional self-report instrument of body weight and shape concerns that is contextually grounded in young women's life experiences. Semistructured interviews with high school and university women (N = 16) were used to develop the questionnaire items. Students were asked about their experiences with controlling the size and shape of their bodies, and the expectations and evaluations of others (e.g., parents, friends, intimate partners) regarding their body shape. The initial 101-item pool was derived from a content analysis of the interview transcripts and was administered to 287 female university students. Exploratory factor analysis with oblique rotation revealed five underlying dimensions, specifically, (a) Weight dissatisfaction, (b) Slimness as quality of life, (c) Interpersonal messages regarding slimness, (d) Societal value of thinness, and (e) Valuing exercise. PMID:9306683
Delaney, M E; O'Keefe, L D; Skene, K M
Aim and Objectives: To study the effect of the ratio of donor kidney weight (dkw) to recipient body weight (rbw) on short and long term graft function in live donor kidney transplant patients. Materials and Methods: It was a prospective study of 79 live donor kidney transplant recipients. Patients were divided into three groups depending on the ratio of dkw in grams to rbw in kilograms. Serum creatinine in milligrams percent on the day of surgery, 7th day, 1 month, 6 months, 1 year, and 3 years after the surgery was recorded and their means compared. Results: The comparison showed that the decrease in mean creatinine level was more in group three patients as compared with group 2 and one patients at 7 days (1.04,1.44 and 1.59 in group 3,2 and 1 respectively) and 30 days (1.12,1.36 and 1.45 in group 3,2 and 1 respectively), showing that higher dkw/rbw ratio is beneficial with respect to the early graft function. However this decrease was not statistically significant (P value –0.256 and 0.358 respectively on 7th and 30th day). Furthermore long-term function was not different among these three groups. Conclusion: The ratio of dkw to rbw does not have a significant effect on long-term graft function inspite of an early improvement in the function with increased dkw to rbw ratio.
Dar, Tanveer Iqbal; Tyagi, Vipin; Pahwa, Mrinal; Chada, Sudhir; Jauhari, Harsh; Sharma, Nikhil
Introduction Many recent epidemiological studies have shown the influence of treatment with anti-TNF-? on body mass of patients with psoriasis but there are no reports in the literature on the influence of ustekinumab on that parameter. Aim To review the effect of ustekinumab therapy on body weight in patients with psoriasis. Material and methods The examined group consisted of 11 patients with psoriasis treated at the Department and Clinic of Dermatology in Olsztyn. Patients’ body mass and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated prior to the first administration of the ustekinumab dose and at week 28 of treatment (the day of the fourth dose). Results Body mass increase was determined in 7 patients (64%), on average by 2.27 kg (p < 0.05), and the BMI increased by 3.35% (p < 0.1). Conclusions Observing a correlation between ustekinumab application and body mass increase, similar to the treatment with anti-TNF-? preparations, an attempt was undertaken at explaining that correlation by analysing the role of IL-12 and IL-23 in psoriasis pathogenesis. IL-12 and IL-23, by influencing the naïve lymphocytes T and stimulating their diversification towards Th1 and Th17, also, indirectly, cause an increase in TNF-? and other cytokines production (IL-2, IFN-?, IL-17, IL-10, IL-22). Ustekinumab will then have a significant influence on decreasing the production of cytokines, which are important for metabolism and body mass.
Placek, Waldemar; Rybak-d'Obyrn, Joanna; Wygonowska, Ewa
Background Successful weight management involves the regulation of eating behavior. However, the specific mechanisms underlying its successful\\u000a regulation remain unclear. This study examined one potential mechanism by testing a model in which improved body image mediated\\u000a the effects of obesity treatment on eating self-regulation. Further, this study explored the role of different body image\\u000a components.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Participants were 239 overweight women (age:
Eliana V Carraça; Marlene N Silva; David Markland; Paulo N Vieira; Cláudia S Minderico; Luís B Sardinha; Pedro J Teixeira
The relationship between body size and rumen-reticulum capacity among conspecific individuals is predicted to be isometric. We examined whether the relationship between body weight and rumen-reticulum capacity was isometric in adult male and female rule elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes) and in adult female mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). We detected no effect of sex on this relationship in elk, and the slope of the regression was 1.0 for one measure of rumen-reticulum capacity and <1.0 for another. Among deer, the slope of the relationship was <1.0 in one measure of rumen-reticulum capacity, and we detected no relationship with the other.
Weckerly, F. W.; Bleich, V. C.; Chetkiewicz, C. -L. B.; Ricca, M. A.
Reduced liver weight was used to evaluate the potential toxicity in mice of four naturally occurring steroidal glycoalkaloids: alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine, alpha-tomatine and solasonine. Increased liver weights was used to evaluate the three corresponding steroidal aglycones: solanidine, tomatidine, and solasodine and the non-alkaloid adrenal steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Adult female Swiss-Webster mice were fed diets containing test compound concentrations of 0 (control), 1.2, 2.4 or 4.8 mmol/kg diet for 7, 14 or 28 d. Absolute liver weights (LW) and relative liver weights (liver weight/body weight x 100, %LW/BW) were determined at autopsy. The %LW/BW was lower than that of controls in mice fed the potato glycoalkaloid alpha-chaconine (-10%, P < or = 0.05) for 7 d with the 2.4 mmol/kg diet dose. Under these same conditions, %LW/BW was greater than that of controls in mice fed two aglycones: solanidine (27%, P < or = 0.001) and solasodine (8%, P < or = 0.01). Relative liver weight increases induced by the aglycones were determined under time and dose conditions in which differences in body weight and food consumption were not significant (2.4 mmol/kg diet for 28 d). Under these conditions, the observed %LW/BW increases relative to the controls were as follows: solanidine (32%, P < or = 0.001), solasodine (22%, P < or = 0.001) and DHEA (16%, P < or = 0.001). Solanidine, solasodine and DHEA were equally potent and were more potent than tomatidine. We also observed that the greater %LW/BW in mice fed 2.4 mmol/kg diet solasodine or solanidine for 14 d declined to near control values if they were fed control diets for another 14 d. The increase in relative liver weight induced by solanidine and solasodine is a reversible adaptive response. These findings and the apparent effects of structure on biological activity should serve as a guide for the removal of the most toxic ++compounds from plant foods. The implications of the results for food safety and health are discussed. PMID:8613903
Friedman, M; Henika, P R; Mackey, B E
Aim To assess the association between weight gain at different time periods during childhood and measures of adiposity in late adolescence. Methods A population-based birth cohort carried out in Pelotas, a 320 000-inhabitant city in a relatively developed area in Southern Brazil. All newborns in the city's hospitals were enrolled in 1982. Weight gain from 0–1, 1–2, 2–4 and 4–15 years were expressed as changes in weight-for-age Z-scores relative to the NCHS/WHO reference. In 2000, 79% (2250) of all males were located when enrolling at the national Army. Weight and height were assessed. Body composition indicators (fat mass/height2, lean mass/height2, fat mass/lean mass2.3) were estimated through bioimpedance. Analyses were adjusted for maternal and social factors, as well as for gestational age. Results In the adjusted analyses, birthweight and weight gain in the first year of life were positively associated with attained height at age 18 years. Except for the fat mass/lean mass2.3 ratio, all weight-related outcomes were positively associated with weight gain in different periods of life. Children who gained weight rapidly in more than one time period became fatter at age 18 years, independently of when fast growth took place. Conclusions Height was primarily determined by fetal and infant growth. Weight-related indices, including the fat/lean mass ratio, were more strongly influenced by later growth. No clear critical windows of growth during which absolute tissue masses are programmed could be identified.
Victora, Cesar G; Sibbritt, David; Horta, Bernardo L; Lima, Rosangela C; ScD, Tim Cole; Wells, Jonathan
The aim was to assess the developmental and biochemical effects resulting from separate and combined exposures to radiation and noise in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. For 21 days, animals were exposed daily (1) to whole-body 121 kVp X-ray exposure (cumulative dose=5 Gy), (2) to random intermittent noise band-limited between 0.4 and 20 kHz; 2 h day(-1) 86 decibels (dB) and (3) to combined exposures. Control animals were housed under ambient noise conditions 55 dB A-weighted (dBA) and sham-exposed to X-rays. Body weight gain was significantly reduced in animals exposed to either X-rays or noise, and the loss was more pronounced in animals exposed to both conditions. Neither plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) nor corticosterone was altered by the treatment conditions. This study corroborated previous reports that ionizing radiation exposure increased plasma levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHDG), but no effect was observed in animals co-exposed to chronic noise. Plasma big-endothelin-1 (Big ET-1) was significantly reduced in animals exposed to a combination of noise and X-rays. The results indicated that (1) adaptation to chronic noise appeared to occur at the level of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) response, in spite of a compromise in overall body weight gain; and (2) ionizing radiation exposure might alter systems activated by stressor exposure and/or act independently to influence health outcomes. PMID:16019939
Michaud, Ds; Miller, Sm; Ferrarotto, C; Keith, Se; Bowers, Wj; Kumarathsan, P; Marro, L; Trivedi, A
The relationship between microsatellite polymorphism and body weight of captive bred Chinese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was investigated in two local populations in Dalian. Among ten loci discovered, nine show changes except for AJ07 loci. Seven loci were found highly polymorphic in both populations. For each locus in two populations, the average number of alleles is 6.428 6 and 6.285 7, the average observed heterozygosity at 0.225 7 and 0.245 9, the expected heterozygosity at 0.776 8 and 0.748 8, the polymorphism information content (PIC) at 0.709 2 and 0.674 6, respectively. Further analysis show significant correlation between A. japonicus body weight and occurrence markers AJ02 and AJ04. The findings of the relation may be helpful for molecular breeding, as well as the marker-assisted selection of sea cucumbers.
Wang, Xiuli; Shan, Xue; Qiu, Xuemei; Meng, Xiangying; Chang, Yaqing
What is the association between food insufficiency and body weight? Although common sense would suggest a negative association, research often finds the opposite. We contrast commodity theories of material privation with stress theories, proposing that the seemingly counterintuitive association results from the confounding influence of economic hardship. Because it is a chronic stressor, economic hardship may contribute to overweight. Data from the WCF project of 2,402 disadvantaged women in Chicago, Boston, and San Antonio show that people who experience economic hardship weigh more; and that the true negative association between body weight and food insufficiency—especially going hungry because one cannot afford food—is revealed only after adjustment for economic hardship.
Ross, Catherine E.; Hill, Terrence D.
Intake of palatable solutions can enhance the anorectic potency of opioid antagonists. This experiment examined the relative contributions of orosensory experience and body weight gain to the enhanced anorectic potency of naloxone (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg\\/kg IP). Four groups of male hooded Lister rats (Charles River) were maintained on separate feeding regimes for 3 months. S-ADLIB rats were
Saima Shabir; Tim C Kirkham
BackgroundSuccessful reduction of body weight (BW) is often followed by recidivism to obesity. BW-changes including BW-loss and -regain is associated with marked alterations in energy expenditure (EE) and adipose tissue (AT) metabolism. Since these processes are sex-specifically controlled, we investigated sexual dimorphisms in metabolic processes during BW-dynamics (gain-loss-regain).Research DesignObesity was induced in C57BL\\/6J male (m) and female (f) mice by
Verena Benz; Mandy Bloch; Sami Wardat; Christian Böhm; Lukas Maurer; Shokoufeh Mahmoodzadeh; Petra Wiedmer; Joachim Spranger; Anna Foryst-Ludwig; Ulrich Kintscher
Neuropeptide Y is implicated in energy homeostasis, and contributes to obesity when hypothalamic levels remain chronically elevated. To investigate the specific role of hypothalamic Y2 receptors in this process, we used a conditional Y2 knockout model, using the Cre-lox system and adenoviral delivery of Cre-recombinase. Hypothalamus-specific Y2-deleted mice showed a significant decrease in body weight and a significant increase in
Amanda Sainsbury; Christoph Schwarzer; Michelle Couzens; Serguei Fetissov; Sabine Furtinger; Arthur Jenkins; Helen M. Cox; Günther Sperk; Tomas Hökfelt; Herbert Herzog
Adult PET\\/CT acquisition protocols need to be modified for pediatric imaging to minimize the radiation dose while main- taining diagnostic utility. We developed pediatric PET\\/CT ac- quisition protocols customized to patient weight and estimated the dosimetry and cancer risk of these low-dose protocols to communicate basic imaging risks.Methods:Pro- tocols were developed for whole-body 18 F-FDG imaging ofpa- tients in PET
Adam M. Alessio; Paul E. Kinahan; Vivek Manchanda; Victor Ghioni; Lisa Aldape; Marguerite T. Parisi
NPY has been reported to co-exist within catecholaminergic neurons of the central and peripheral nervous systems. The functional significance in noradrenergic neurons has been related to the vasomotor effects of NPY which complement and interact with NE which is known to have central and peripheral effects on resting metabolic rate (RMR), food intake and body weight of rats. We have studied the effect of chronic peripheral administration of NPY on the metabolic action of NE in lean and obese adult male rats. A group of 20 adult male obese (Jaffa) Zucker rats were acclimated to environmental temperature of either 28 degrees C or 17 degrees C. Each group was divided into 5 subgroups: (I) untreated controls; (II) Carrier-treated Controls; (III) NPY treated; (IV) NE treated and (V) NPY+NE treated. In subgroups II-V , AlzetTm (2002) osmotic minipumps were implanted under the skin in the interscapular region. Pumps were filled with carrier alone (subgroups II) plus NPY (subgroups III), or NE (subgroups IV), or both (subgroups V). Delivery rates were calculated to be 03 microg/h NPY ; 20 microg/h NE, extending over a period of 14 days. Starting from day 2, cumulative food intake and cumulative changes in total body weight were measured every two days.. In warm environmental the combined treatment with NE and NPY was the only treatment that caused significant reduction of total body weight by inhibiting food intake. In the cold environment the NE and NPY together showed similar but less enhancing effect on body weight, this was mainly due to the significant depression of food. PMID:20467124
Al-Arabi, Ateegh; Andrews, J F
Objectives: The effect of national exercise recommendations on adiposity is unknown and may differ by sex. We examined long-term effects of aerobic exercise on adiposity in women and men.Research Methods and Procedures: This was a 12-month randomized, controlled clinical trial testing exercise effect on weight and body composition in men (N = 102) and women (N = 100). Sedentary\\/unfit persons,
Anne McTiernan; Bess Sorensen; Melinda L. Irwin; Angela Morgan; Yutaka Yasui; Rebecca E. Rudolph; Christina Surawicz; Johanna W. Lampe; Paul D. Lampe; Kamran Ayub; John D. Potter
In this paper, a weighted-random-value based resource allocation protocol, WRAP, for multiuser wireless body area network (WBAN) is proposed. WRAP will simultaneously allocate intra and inter WBAN resources by considering both the quality of service (QoS) control in a single WBAN and priority differences among WBANs. Simulation results show that WRAP algorithm can effectively allocate data slots to meet WBAN
ChingYao Huang; MeiLing Liu; ShihHeng Cheng
Objective:The aim of this paper is to analyse the relationships between eating behaviours (picky eating, irregular eating and overeating), and dietary adequacy in accordance with nutrition recommendations and body weight during the preschool years.Design and setting:Our analyses were performed using data from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec (1998–2002), a population-based birth cohort.Subjects:The study followed a representative sample
L Dubois; A P Farmer; M Girard; K Peterson
BACKGROUND: Beverages are contributing an increased proportion of energy to the diet. Because they elicit a weak compensatory dietary response, they may increase risk of positive energy balance.OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to document the differential effects of matched liquid and solid carbohydrate loads on diet and body weight.DESIGN: In a cross-over design, seven males and eight females consumed dietary carbohydrate
Between January 1980 and December 1994, seventeen premature infants weighing less than 2500 g underwent surgical management\\u000a for the isolated patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Indometacine therapy for closure of PDA was not effective for all these patients.\\u000a In terms of the body weight at birth, they were divided into two groups; Group I (G-I) consisted of ten patients with birth
Shunji Uchita; Yasuharu Imai; Yoshinori Takanashi; Shuichi Hoshino; Kazuhiro Seo; Masatsugu Terada; Mitsuru Aoki; Mitsugi Nagashima
Oleylethanolamide (OEA) is a naturally occurring lipid that regulates satiety and body weight. Although structurally related to the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide, OEA does not bind to cannabinoid receptors and its molecular targets have not been defined. Here we show that OEA binds with high affinity to the peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha), a nuclear receptor that regulates several aspects of lipid metabolism.
Jin Fu; Silvana Gaetani; Fariba Oveisi; Jesse Lo Verme; Antonia Serrano; Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca; Anja Rosengarth; Hartmut Luecke; Barbara Di Giacomo; Giorgio Tarzia; Daniele Piomelli
Background Despite the increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity and its association to eating patterns in adolescents and adults, little is known about the relationship between problematic eating behaviours and body weight in the preschool years within the context of various social factors. This research aims to analyze the relationship between social factors, mothers' perceptions of their child's eating behaviour (picky eating and overeating), and body weight in preschool years, in a population-based cohort of preschoolers from Québec (Canada). Methods Analyses were performed on 1498 children from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec, a representative sample of children born in 1998 in the Canadian province of Québec. Eating behaviours (picky eating and overeating) were derived from questionnaires at 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 years of age. BMI was calculated from children's measured height and weight at 4.5 years. Children's sex and birth weight, mothers' age, immigrant status, smoking status during pregnancy, and education level, family type, annual household income and income sufficiency, the number of overweight/obese parents, children's day-care attendance, and food insufficiency were part of the analysis. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine odds ratios for different body weight profiles (underweight, normal weight, at risk of overweight, overweight), and one-way analysis-of-variances (ANOVA) allowed for group comparisons of means. Results The proportion of children reported for each eating behaviour category remained quite stable across the years studied. Picky eating and overeating related to body weight among 4.5-year-old children, even when social and parental factors were accounted for in multivariate analysis. Picky eaters were twice as likely to be underweight at 4.5 years as children who were never picky eaters. Adjusted odds ratios revealed overeaters were 6 times more likely to be overweight at 4.5 years than were children who were never overeaters. Conclusion Given the association between eating behaviours and bodyweight among 4.5-year-old children, particularly among those from less educated, lower income families and younger mothers, health professionals should target parents of children at risk of overweight/obesity and underweight with focussed messages and strategies for the management of emerging problematic eating behaviours.
Dubois, Lise; Farmer, Anna; Girard, Manon; Peterson, Kelly; Tatone-Tokuda, Fabiola
Functional loss of melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) activity leads to hyperphagia and an obese, glucose intolerant phenotype. We have previously established that inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) reduces food intake, body weight and glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obesity. The current study assessed the effect of ACE inhibitor treatment in MC4R-deficient female rats on body weight, adiposity and glucose tolerance. Rats homozygous (HOM) for a loss of function Mc4r mutation had an obese phenotype relative to their wildtype (WT) littermates. Inhibition of ACE for 8weeks produced reductions in body weight gain in both HOM and WT rats; however, food intake was only reduced in HOM rats. Weight loss following ACE inhibitor treatment was specific to fat mass while lean mass was unaffected. HOM rats were severely glucose intolerant and insensitive to exogenous insulin injection, and treatment with an ACE inhibitor improved both glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in HOM rats although not fully to that of the level of WT rats. The current study indicates that HOM rats are sensitive to the anorectic effects of ACE inhibition, unlike their WT littermates. This resulted in a more rapid reduction in body weight gain and a more substantial loss of adipose mass in HOM animals, relative to WT animals, treated with an ACE inhibitor. Overall, these data demonstrate that MC4R signaling is not required for weight loss following treatment with an ACE inhibitor. PMID:23416175
Mul, Joram D; Seeley, Randy J; Woods, Stephen C; Begg, Denovan P
Examines the effects and interactions of gender, pubertal status, and body weight on the self-concept of young adolescent Australian students. The mean self-concept score was significantly related to students' standard body weight, and there was an interaction between gender and puberty, with postpubertal males having the highest and…
O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Abraham, Suzanne
Postnatal weight gain may predispose to the development of obesity during childhood. The aims of this study were to study the impact of weight gain during specific periods of the first year of life and of feeding patterns on the body mass index (BMI) of adolescents. Growth records during the first 24 months of life of 88 obese and 214 non-obese 12 year-old Arab children were evaluated. Birth weight and length were similar for obese and non-obese adolescents, while the rate of breastfeeding was significantly lower in the obese group (p < 0.01). Obese adolescents demonstrated a small yet significant accelerated weight gain at 4 (p = 0.002) and 12 (p = 0.01) months of age. Weight gain during the first 2 months of life and feeding pattern were independent predictors of BMI at the age of 12 years. Thus, early postnatal weight gain is associated with obesity in adolescence, while breastfeeding seems to have a protective effect. PMID:18404968
Shehadeh, Naim; Weitzer-Kish, Hila; Shamir, Raanan; Shihab, Shihab; Weiss, Ram
Hemodialysis patients have high rates of mortality that may be related to aspects of the dialytic procedure. In prior studies, shorter length dialysis sessions have been associated with decreased survival, but these studies may have been confounded by body size differences. Here we tested whether in-center thrice-weekly hemodialysis patients with adequate urea clearances but shorter dialysis session length is associated with mortality independent of body size. Data were taken from a large national cohort of patients from a large dialysis organization undergoing thrice-weekly, in-center hemodialysis. In the primary analysis, patients with prescribed dialysis sessions greater and less than 240 minutes were pair-matched on post-dialysis weight as well as on age, gender, and vascular access type. Compared to prescribed longer dialysis sessions, session lengths less than 240 minutes were significantly associated with increased all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.26). The association was consistent across strata of age, gender, and dialysis post-weight. Secondary analyses found a dose-response between prescribed session length and survival. Thus, among patients with adequate urea clearance, shorter dialysis session lengths are associated with increased mortality independent of body weight.
Flythe, Jennifer E.; Curhan, Gary C.; Brunelli, Steven M.
Regulator of G protein signaling 9–2 (RGS9–2) is a protein that is highly enriched in the striatum, a brain region that mediates motivation, movement and reward responses. We identified a naturally occurring 5 nucleotide deletion polymorphism in the human RGS9 gene and found that the mean body mass index (BMI) of individuals with the deletion was significantly higher than those without. A splicing reporter minigene assay demonstrated that the deletion had the potential to significantly decrease the levels of correctly spliced RGS9 gene product. We measured the weights of rats after virally transduced overexpression of RGS9–2 or the structurally related RGS proteins, RGS7, or RGS11, in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and observed a reduction in body weight after overexpression of RGS9–2 but not RGS7 or 11. Conversely, we found that the RGS9 knockout mice were heavier than their wild-type littermates and had significantly higher percentages of abdominal fat. The constituent adipocytes were found to have a mean cross-sectional area that was more than double that of corresponding cells from wild-type mice. However, food intake and locomotion were not significantly different between the two strains. These studies with humans, rats and mice implicate RGS9–2 as a factor in regulating body weight.
Sharma, Meenakshi; Dufresne, Robert L.; Terzi, Dimitra; Risch, S. Craig; Fairbrother, William G.; Neve, Rachael L.; Kane, John P.; Malloy, Mary J.; Pullinger, Clive R.; Gu, Harvest F.; Tsatsanis, Christos; Hamilton, Steven P.; Gold, Stephen J.; Zachariou, Venetia; Kovoor, Abraham
Objective To investigate the role of smoking cessation in body weight. Data Sources 2004–2005 and 2009–2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Surveys (BRFSS) (N = 349,000), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Tax Burden on Tobacco (Orzechowski and Walker 2010). Study Design The Gaussian treatment effect model is estimated for three age categories by gender. Treatment effects of quitting smoking on body mass index (BMI) by quit length are calculated. Principal Findings Quitting is found to be endogenous. Differentiated effects of quitting smoking on BMI are found among quitters by gender, between age groups, and by length of time since quitting smoking, and positive association between smoking cessation and body weight confirmed. Declining smoking rates have only a modest effect in the overweight population. The effects of quitting on BMI are considerably lower among younger men and women. Conclusion The price that must be paid, in terms of weight gain, to enjoy the health benefits of smoking cessation is trivial even for the obese population.
Kasteridis, Panagiotis; Yen, Steven T