Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide, with increasing prevalence in adults and children, and authorities view it as one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century. Sixty-two percent of the Hungarian adult population has overweight and 27% is morbidly obese and, therefore, it is a significant interest to treat this condition. The authors review the diagnosis and the associated diseases of morbid obesity. The initial enthusiasm with the gastric band has settled now, as the long-term outcome showed only very limited reduction in the excess bodyweight and the complication rate was as high as 50%. The sleeve gastrectomy may induce 60-70% of excess weight loss, however, the long term follow-up data is very limited. The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the gold-standard of the bariatric procedures, with proven 60-75% excess weight loss and 80% type 2 diabetes remission. The body image usually changes with weight loss, and frequently a body contouring procedure is required to improve it. Multi-disciplinary team of super-specialised doctors is required to perform these procedures. PMID:24936572
...usefulness in reducing or maintaining bodyweight. 105.66 Section 105.66...usefulness in reducing or maintaining bodyweight. (a) General requirements...usefulness in reducing or maintaining bodyweight shall bear: (1)...
...usefulness in reducing or maintaining bodyweight. 105.66 Section 105.66...usefulness in reducing or maintaining bodyweight. (a) General requirements...usefulness in reducing or maintaining bodyweight shall bear: (1)...
...usefulness in reducing or maintaining bodyweight. 105.66 Section 105.66...usefulness in reducing or maintaining bodyweight. (a) General requirements...usefulness in reducing or maintaining bodyweight shall bear: (1)...
...usefulness in reducing or maintaining bodyweight. 105.66 Section 105.66...usefulness in reducing or maintaining bodyweight. (a) General requirements...usefulness in reducing or maintaining bodyweight shall bear: (1)...
...usefulness in reducing or maintaining bodyweight. 105.66 Section 105.66...usefulness in reducing or maintaining bodyweight. (a) General requirements...usefulness in reducing or maintaining bodyweight shall bear: (1)...
Background: Boric acid is widely used in biology, but its bodyweightreducing effect is not researched. Methods: Twenty mice were divided into two equal groups. Control group mice drank standard tap water, but study group mice drank 0.28mg/250ml boric acid added tap water over five days. Total bodyweight changes, major organ histopathology, blood biochemistry, urine and feces analyses were compared. Results: Study group mice lost bodyweight mean 28.1% but in control group no weight loss and also weight gained mean 0.09% (p<0.001). Total drinking water and urine outputs were not statistically different. Cholesterol, LDL, AST, ALT, LDH, amylase and urobilinogen levels were statistically significantly high in the study group. Other variables were not statistically different. No histopathologic differences were detected in evaluations of all resected major organs. Conclusion: Low dose oral boric acid intake cause serious bodyweight reduction. Blood and urine analyses support high glucose, lipid and middle protein catabolisms, but the mechanism is unclear. PMID:22135611
Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir; Emre, Sinem Hocaoglu; Karaca, Cetin; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut
This article is a summary of the symposium "Modifying Eating Behavior: Novel Approaches for ReducingBodyWeight, Preventing Weight Regain, and Reducing Chronic Disease Risk" held 29 April 2014 at the ASN Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2014 in San Diego, CA. In this symposium, novel approaches to modifying eating behavior were highlighted, including 1) alteration of meal timing and macronutrient composition and 2) retraining and provision of feedback about eating behavior. Dr. Ciampolini discussed a method for teaching individuals to recognize a decrease in blood glucose concentration, and therefore the need for energy, by learning the associated physical sensations (signifying hunger). Dr. Madar and Sigal Sofer presented their work on reducing hunger during energy reduction by feeding carbohydrate only in the evening. Dr. Hamilton-Shield reviewed studies on the Mandometer (Mikrodidakt), a device for training individuals to slow eating rate. Finally, Dr. Sazonov presented information on a wearable device, the Automatic Ingestion Monitor, which senses jaw motion and/or hand-to-mouth gestures to detect and characterize food intake. His goal is to use the instrument to prevent overeating by providing feedback to the user to stop ingestion at a predetermined limit. PMID:25398742
Estrogen is an important protective factor against obesity in females. Therefore, postmenopausal women have a higher rate of obesity than premenopausal women, which is associated with age-related loss of ovary function. It has been reported that a diet containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reducedbodyweight and body fat mass in the animal model as well as in human trials. We hypothesized that ingestion of CLA would reducebodyweight gain in ovariectomized (OVX) female C57BL/6J mice which is a model for postmenopaual women. We further hypothesized that bodyweight reduction may improve obesity-related complication. To test this hypothesis, the OVX mice fed with a high fat diet containing CLA for 3 months. Mice had significantly reducedbodyweight gain compared to OVX mice fed with a high fat diet without CLA. While CLA was effective in slowing down of bodyweight gain of both Sham and OVX mice, analysis of adipocyte size and number suggested different mechanisms for loss of fat tissue in these two groups of mice. CLA treatment did not increase liver weight and accumulation of fat in the livers of OVX mice. Furthermore, CLA intake did not change insulin resistance. Our results indicate that CLA is functional as an anti-obesity supplement in the mouse model for postmenopausal women, and the anti-obesity effect of CLA is not estrogen-related. PMID:21056287
Weight-loss supplements typically fall into 1 of 4 categories depending on their hypothesized mechanism of action: products that block the absorption of fat or carbohydrate, stimulants that increase thermogenesis, products that change metabolism and improve body composition, and products that suppress appetite or give a sense of fullness. Each category is reviewed, and an overview of the current science related to their effectiveness is presented. While some weight-loss supplements produce modest effects (<2 kg weight loss), many have either no or few randomized clinical trials examining their effectiveness. A number of factors confound research results associated with the efficacy of weight-loss supplements, such as small sample sizes, short intervention periods, little or no follow-up, and whether the supplement is given in combination with an energy-restricted diet or increased exercise expenditure. There is no strong research evidence indicating that a specific supplement will produce significant weight loss (>2 kg), especially in the long term. Some foods or supplements such as green tea, fiber, and calcium supplements or dairy products may complement a healthy lifestyle to produce small weight losses or prevent weight gain over time. Weight-loss supplements containing metabolic stimulants (e.g., caffeine, ephedra, synephrine) are most likely to produce adverse side effects and should be avoided. PMID:22465867
Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased bodyweight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished bodyweight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse bodyweight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male bodyweights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice. PMID:24456165
Parlee, Sebastian D; Simon, Becky R; Scheller, Erica L; Alejandro, Emilyn U; Learman, Brian S; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; MacDougald, Ormond A
Objective. The effect of oral boric acid intake on reducingbodyweight has been previously demonstrated although the mechanism has been unclear. This research study reveals the mechanism. Subjects. Twelve mice were used, in groups of six each in the control and study groups. For five days, control group mice drank standard tap water while during the same time period the study group mice drank tap water which contains 0.28?mg/250?mL boric acid. After a 5-day period, gene expression levels for uncoupling proteins (UCPs) in the white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle tissue (SMT) and total bodyweight changes were analyzed. Results. Real time PCR analysis revealed no significant change in UCP3 expressions, but UCP2 in WAT (P: 0.0317), BAT (P: 0.014), and SMT (P: 0.0159) and UCP1 in BAT (P: 0.026) were overexpressed in the boric acid group. In addition, mice in the boric acid group lost bodyweight (mean 28.1%) while mice in the control group experienced no weight loss but a slight weight gain (mean 0.09%, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Oral boric acid intake causes overexpression of thermogenic proteins in the adipose and skeletal muscle tissues. Increasing thermogenesis through UCP protein pathway results in the accelerated lipolysis and bodyweight loss. PMID:23861682
Background Ethnic minority adolescents and Hispanics in particular, are disproportionately affected by extreme obesity and its associated co-morbidities. Bariatric surgery is one of the few effective treatments for morbid obesity, yet little information about weight outcomes after surgery in this demographic are available. We determined the effectiveness of bariatric surgery in reducingweight and body mass index (BMI) in adolescents, a majority of whom were non-Mexican American Hispanic and originated from Central and/or South America and the Caribbean Basin region. Methods Adolescents (16-to-19 years old) who had undergone gastric bypass or adjustable gastric band surgery between 2001 and 2010 and who had complete follow up data available (91%) were included in the analysis. Mean weight and BMI before and 1-year after surgery were compared. Results Among 71 adolescents (80% Hispanic, 77% female), Mean BMI and weight, and z-scores and percentile transformations were all significantly lower after surgery for the entire sample (P<0.001). Gastric bypass surgery showed significantly better weight loss outcomes for all anthropometric measures versus adjustable gastric band surgery (P<0.05). The weight loss was similar among Hispanics and non-Hispanics. No perioperative complications were reported. Three patients who stopped taking supplements as prescribed experienced iron-deficiency anemia within the year following surgery. Conclusions Our results show that bariatric surgery can markedly reduceweight among a predominantly Hispanic adolescent patient sample, and gastric bypass procedure in particular. These findings indicate that bariatric surgery has the potential to be safe and effective in substantially reducingweight in a group of adolescents who are at particularly high risk for obesity-related health consequences. PMID:22918552
De La Cruz-Munoz, Nestor; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Miller, Tracie L.; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Messiah, Sarah E.
... to medicines, thyroid problems, heart failure, and kidney disease. Good nutrition and exercise can help in losing weight. Eating extra calories within a well-balanced diet and treating any underlying medical problems can help to add ...
Among the manifold effects of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) delivered as an add-on treatment to patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, a moderate loss of bodyweight has been observed in some individuals. We have now investigated this effect in rats. Exposure of rats to VNS for 4 weeks reduced feed conversion efficiency as well as bodyweight gain (by ?25%) and the amount of mesenteric adipose tissue (by ?45%) in comparison with those in sham-operated control animals. A pair-fed experiment showed that both lower dietary intake and increase energy expenditure independently contributed to the reduction of bodyweight and mesenteric adipose tissue. Moreover, VNS increased the level of non-esterified fatty acids in plasma and mesenteric adipose tissue by ?50 and 80%, respectively, without affecting that in the liver. In addition, VNS reduced the amounts of endocannabinoids and increased N-palmitoylethanolamide, an endogenous ligand of the transcription factor PPAR? (peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor ?) in mesenteric adipose tissue but not in the hypothalamus. These effects were accompanied by increased expression of the gene for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hypothalamus and up-regulation of the abundance of PPAR? in the liver. Our results suggest that the reduction in body fat induced by VNS in rats may result from the action of both central and peripheral mediators. The reduced feed conversion efficiency associated with VNS may be mediated by hypothalamic BDNF, down-regulation of endocannabinoid tone in mesenteric adipose tissue and a PPAR?-dependent increase in fatty acid oxidation in the liver, which in concerted action may account for the anorexic effect and increased energy expenditure. PMID:23028630
Background: Worksites are potentially effective locations for obesity control because they provide opportunities for group intervention and social support. Studies are needed to identify effective interventions in these settings. Objective: We examined the effects of a multicomponent lifestyle intervention on weight loss and prevention of regain in 4 worksites (2 intervention and 2 control sites). Design: Overweight and obese employees (n = 133) enrolled in this pilot worksite-randomized controlled trial with a 0–6-mo weight-loss phase and a 6–12-mo structured weight-maintenance phase. The intervention combined recommendations to consume a reduced-energy, low–glycemic load, high-fiber diet with behavioral change education. Outcome measurements included changes in bodyweight and cardiometabolic risk factors. Results: The mean ± SEM weight loss was substantial in intervention participants, whereas control subjects gained weight (?8.0 ± 0.7 compared with +0.9 ± 0.5 kg, respectively; P < 0.001), and 89% of participants completed the weight-loss phase. Intervention effects were not significant at the 0.05 level but would have been at the 0.10 level (P = 0.08) in a mixed model in which the worksite nested within group was a random factor. There were also significant improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors in intervention compared with control subjects regarding fasting total cholesterol, glucose, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure (P ? 0.02 for each). No significant weight regain was observed in participants who enrolled in the structured weight-maintenance program (0.5 ± 0.7 kg; P = 0.65), and overweight and obese employees in intervention worksites who were not enrolled in the weight-loss program lost weight compared with subjects in control worksites (?1.3 ± 0.5 compared with +0.7 ± 0.2 kg, respectively; P = 0.02). Conclusion: Worksites can be effective for achieving clinically important reductions in bodyweight and improved cardiometabolic risk factors. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01470222. PMID:23426035
Salinardi, Taylor C; Batra, Payal; Roberts, Susan B; Urban, Lorien E; Robinson, Lisa M; Pittas, Anastassios G; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Deckersbach, Thilo; Saltzman, Edward
Beneficial effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) against obesity have been reported, however, the mechanism of this protection is not clear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify GTP-targeted genes in obesity using the high-fat-diet-induced obese rat model. A total of three groups (n?=?12/group) of Sprague Dawley (SD) female rats were tested, including the control group (rats fed with low-fat diet), the HF group (rats fed with high-fat diet), and the HF+GTP group (rats fed with high-fat diet and GTP in drinking water). The HF group increased bodyweight as compared to the control group. Supplementation of GTP in the drinking water in the HF+GTP group reducedbodyweight as compared to the HF group. RNA from liver samples was extracted for gene expression analysis. A total of eighty-four genes related to obesity were analyzed using PCR array. Compared to the rats in the control group, the rats in the HF group had the expression levels of 12 genes with significant changes, including 3 orexigenic genes (Agrp, Ghrl, and Nr3c1); 7 anorectic genes (Apoa4, Cntf, Ghr, IL-1?, Ins1, Lepr, and Sort); and 2 genes that relate to energy expenditure (Adcyap1r1 and Adrb1). Intriguingly, the HF+GTP group restored the expression levels of these genes in the high-fat-induced obese rats. The protein expression levels of IL-1? and IL-6 in the serum samples from the control, HF, and HF+GTP groups confirmed the results of gene expression. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) also showed GTP-regulated protective changes in this obese rat model. Collectively, this study revealed the beneficial effects of GTP on bodyweight via regulating obesity-related genes, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant capacity, and estrogen-related actions in high-fat-induced obese rats. PMID:22715380
HEALTH ISSUE: Bodyweight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight and obesity are indeed serious, there are also problems connected to being underweight. Weight prejudice and the dieting industry intensify body image concerns for Canadian women and can have
Enhancement of energy expenditure and reducing energy intake are crucial for weight control. Capsiate, a non-pungent capsaicin analog, is known to suppress body fat accumulation and reducebodyweight by enhancing of energy expenditure in both mice and humans. However, it is poorly understood whether suppressing body fat accumulation by capsiate administration is equal to exercise or not. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of repeated administration of capsiate and exercise and to investigate the weight rebound after repeated capsiate administration and/or exercise. In the present study, we report that 2 weeks treatment of capsiate and exercise increased energy metabolism and suppressed body fat accumulation during 4 more weeks of ad libitum feeding. The bodyweight in capsiate and exercise groups was significantly lower than that of control group. The oxygen consumption was significanlty increased in capsiate and exercise groups than in the vehicle administered mice. In addition, the abdominal adipose tissue weight in capsiate and exercise groups was significantly lower than that of control group. These results indicate that suppressing body fat accumulation by capsiate intake is beneficial for maintaining an ideal bodyweight as exercise. PMID:21878735
To determine whether the product of the recently cloned ob gene functions as an adipose-related satiety factor, recombinant murine ob protein was administered intraperitoneally to ob/ob mice. Monomeric ob protein given as single morning injections to groups of three animals at seven doses ranging from 5 to 100 micrograms reduced 24-h chow consumption in a dose-dependent manner from values of 81 +/- 6.8% of control (10-micrograms dose, P = 0.04) to 29 +/- 7.7% of control (100-micrograms dose, P < 0.0001). Daily injections of 80 micrograms of ob protein into six ob/ob mice for 2 wk led to an 11 +/- 1.6% decrease in bodyweight (P = 0.0009) and suppressed feeding to 26 +/- 4.9% of baseline (P < 0.0001), with significant reduction of serum insulin and glucose levels. The effect of recombinant ob protein on feeding was not augmented by cofactors secreted by adipose tissue, nor did exposure of adipose tissue to ob protein affect intracellular ob mRNA levels. Posttranslational modification of ob protein was not required for activity; however, addition of a hexahistidine tag to the amino terminus of the mature ob protein resulted in prolonged suppression of feeding after injection into ob/ob mice. These results demonstrate a direct effect of the ob protein to suppress feeding in the ob/ob mouse and suggest that this molecule plays a critical role in regulating total body fat content. Images PMID:7560100
Weigle, D S; Bukowski, T R; Foster, D C; Holderman, S; Kramer, J M; Lasser, G; Lofton-Day, C E; Prunkard, D E; Raymond, C; Kuijper, J L
A double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study has been carried out in order to evaluate the effect of orally self-administered Slim339, a proprietary fixed combination of Garcinia cambogia extract with calcium pantothenate (standardized for the content of hydroxycitric acid and pantothenic acid) and extracts of Matricaria chamomilla, Rosa damascena, Lavandula officinalis and Cananga odorata, on bodyweight in overweight and obese volunteers. During a 60-day treatment period, the average reduction in bodyweight for the group receiving Slim339 (n = 30) was 4.67% compared with 0.63% for the placebo group (n = 28) (p < 0.0001). Weight losses of >or=3 kg were recorded for 23 subjects in the treatment group and only one in the placebo group. It is concluded that Slim339 represents a potential therapy for obesity. PMID:17639559
Toromanyan, Edward; Aslanyan, Gayane; Amroyan, Elmira; Gabrielyan, Emil; Panossian, Alexander
Objective:To determine the efficacy of a long-acting oxyntomodulin (OXM) analogue, OXM6421, in inhibiting food intake and decreasing bodyweight in lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) rodents.Research design and methods:The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor binding affinity and efficacy, sensitivity to enzymatic degradation in vitro and persistence in the circulation after peripheral administration were investigated for OXM6421 and compared with native OXM.
Y-L Liu; H E Ford; M R Druce; J S Minnion; B C T Field; J C Shillito; J Baxter; K G Murphy; M A Ghatei; S R Bloom
tert-Butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) is a commonly used antioxidant additive that is approved for human use by both the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization (FAO/WHO). In this study, we examined the effect of tBHQ on bodyweight gain and found that food supplementation with 0.001 % (w/w) tBHQ inhibited 61.4 % (P < 0.01) of bodyweight gain in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced C57BL/6 mice, and the oral administration of tBHQ (1.5 mg/kg) reduced 47.5 % (P < 0.05) of bodyweight gain in normal diet fed db/db mice. The HFD increased lipid deposit in adipocytes, but these were reduced significantly by tBHQ treatment in C57BL/6 mice. tBHQ supplementation significantly lowered the plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol, with reduced size of accumulated fat mass. The rate limiting enzyme of beta-oxidation (ACOX1) was significantly over-expressed in the liver with tBHQ treatment. These results indicate that tBHQ suppresses bodyweight gain in mice, possibly at least related to the up-regulation of ACOX1 gene expression. PMID:23585332
Nam, Kung-Woo; Kim, Yong Hyun; Kwon, Hyun Jung; Rhee, Sang-Ki; Kim, Wan-Jong; Han, Man-Deuk
The aims of this study were to investigate the antiobesity properties of chitosan on its own, as well as in the presence of vitamin C, in vivo. Hartley guinea-pigs were divided into Control (normal diet), F-control (high fat diet), Chitosan (high fat diet with 5.0% chitosan) and Chito-vit C (high fat diet with 5.0% chitosan containing 0.5% vitamin C) groups, respectively. The effects of chitosan, both alone and in the presence of vitamin C, on bodyweight, total fecal weight, fecal composition and plasma lipid level were studied for 5 weeks. The results of this study indicated that the fat-binding and water-holding capacity of chitosan might decrease bodyweight by reducing the absorption of cholesterol and fat, subsequently increasing total fecal weight, fecal fat excretion and fecal water excretion. Vitamin C increased the fecal fat excretion by chitosan in guinea-pigs, thereby reducingbodyweight gain. PMID:20658572
Jun, S C; Jung, E Y; Kang, D H; Kim, J M; Chang, U J; Suh, H J
Cannabinoid-1 (CB(1)) receptor antagonists exhibit pharmacological properties favorable to treatment of obesity, caused by both centrally mediated effects on appetite and peripherally mediated effects on energy metabolism. However, the relative contribution of these effects to the weight loss produced by CB(1) receptor antagonists remains unclear. Here, we compare food intake-related and independent effects of the CB(1)-selective antagonist 1-(7-(2-chlorophenyl)-8-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-methylpyrazolo[1,5-a][1,3,5]triazin-4-yl)-3-(methylamino) azetidine-3-carboxamide (PF-95453) in obese cynomolgus monkeys. Monkeys were divided into three study groups (n = 10 each) and treated once daily for 8 weeks with either vehicle or PF-95453 as follows: 1, fed ad libitum and dosed orally with vehicle; 2, fed ad libitum and dosed orally with PF-95453 (0.5 mg/kg weeks 1-3, 1.0 mg/kg weeks 4-8); and 3, fed an amount equal to the amount consumed by the drug-treated group and dosed orally with vehicle (pair-fed). PF-95453 treatment significantly reduced food consumption by 23%, bodyweight by 10%, body fat by 39%, and leptin by 34% while increasing adiponectin by 78% relative to vehicle-treated controls. Pair-fed animals did not exhibit reductions in bodyweight or leptin but did show significantly reducedbody fat (11%) and increased adiponectin (15%) relative to vehicle-treated controls but markedly less than after PF-95453 treatment. Indeed, significant differences were noted between the drug-treated and pair-fed groups with respect to bodyweight reduction, body fat reduction, increased adiponectin, and leptin reduction. Similar to humans, monkeys treated with the CB(1) receptor antagonist exhibited decreased bodyweight and body fat, a substantial portion of which seemed to be independent of the effects on food intake. PMID:20605903
Wagner, Janice D; Zhang, Li; Kavanagh, Kylie; Ward, Gina M; Chin, Janice E; Hadcock, John R; Auerbach, Bruce J; Harwood, H James
Defatted soybean flour (DSF) can sorb and concentrate blueberry anthocyanins and other polyphenols, but not sugars. In this study blueberry polyphenol-enriched DSF (BB-DSF) or DSF were incorporated into very high fat diet (VHFD) formulations and provided ad libitum to obese and hyperglycemic C57BL/6 mice for 13 weeks to investigate anti-diabetic effects. Compared to the VHFD containing DSF, the diet supplemented with BB-DSF reducedweight gain by 5.6%, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered fasting blood glucose levels in mice within 7 weeks of intervention. Serum cholesterol of mice consuming the BB-DSF-supplemented diet was 13.2% lower than mice on the diet containing DSF. Compounds were eluted from DSF and BB-DSF for in vitro assays of glucose production and uptake. Compared to untreated control, doses of BB-DSF eluate containing 0.05 – 10 ?g/?L of blueberry anthocyanins significantly reduced glucose production by 24% - 74% in H4IIE rat hepatocytes, but did not increase glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. The results indicate that delivery of blueberry polyphenols stabilized in a high-protein food matrix may be useful for the dietary management of pre-diabetes and/or diabetes. PMID:23220243
Health Issue Bodyweight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight and obesity are indeed serious, there are also problems connected to being underweight. Weight prejudice and the dieting industry intensify body image concerns for Canadian women and can have a major negative impact on self-esteem. Key Findings Women have lower BMIs than men, a lower incidence of being overweight and a higher incidence of being underweight. However, women across all weight categories are more dissatisfied with their bodies. Sixty percent of women are inactive, and women with a BMI of 27 or higher are more likely to be inactive than women with lower BMIs. The data show that women are aware of the health benefits of exercise, but there is a gap between knowledge and practice. When asked about barriers to health improvement, 39.7% of women cited lack of time and 39.2% lack of willpower. Data Gaps and Recommendations Weight prejudice must be made unacceptable and positive body image should be encouraged and diversity valued. Health policies should encourage healthy eating and healthy activity. Health curricula for young students should include information about healthy eating, active lifestyle, and self-esteem. Physical activities that mothers can participate in with their families should be encouraged. Research should be funded to elucidate the most effective methods of getting women to become and remain physically active without focusing on appearance. PMID:15345068
This dissertation examines the experience of 30 women, 15 Canadians and 15 Americans, who have undergone bariatric (weight loss) surgery. Bariatric surgery is reserved for morbidly obese persons; that is, those who weigh more than twice their ideal weight. An integrated model of the insights from stigma and feminist theory is used as the conceptual framework of the study. ^
This dissertation examines the experience of 30 women, 15 Canadians and 15 Americans, who have undergone bariatric (weight loss) surgery. Bariatric surgery is reserved for morbidly obese persons; that is, those who weigh more than twice their ideal weight. An integrated model of the insights from stigma and feminist theory is used as the conceptual framework of the study. In
With the increase in obesity related diseases there is heightened interest in mechanisms regulating bodyweight. To assess the influence of increases in bodyweight on energy expenditure and intake in rats we employed variable levels of gravity. Our approach afforded the means to measure interactions of energy expenditure and intake in response to increases in bodyweight (body mass x gravity level). We found a dose relationship between rapid elevation of bodyweight and reduction of voluntary movement, such that the energy requirements for activity are unchanged, and total energy expenditure and intake maintained. Reduction of movement appears to be a response to increased bodyweight, rather than a contributing factor, suggesting a new regulatory pathway.
Wade, C. E.; Moran, M. M.; Stein, T. P.; Sin, Sidney (Technical Monitor)
Repeated administration of the long-acting glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist exendin-4 (EX-4) has been shown to reduce food intake and bodyweight and do so without a rebound increase in food intake after treatment termination. The current study examines the neural mechanisms underlying these actions. After 6 weeks of maintenance on a standard chow or a high-fat (HF) diet, male Sprague Dawley rats were treated with EX-4 (3.2 ?g/kg, i.p., twice a day) or vehicle for 9 consecutive days. Food intake and bodyweight (BW) were monitored daily. Expression of the genes for the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) peptides proopiomelanocortin (POMC), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and agouti gene-related protein was determined. Expression of the dopamine precursor tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene in the ventral tegmental area and genes for dopamine receptors 1 (D1R) and dopamine receptor 2 in the nucleus accumbens were also determined. Pair-fed groups were included to control for the effects of reduced food intake and BW. Treatment with EX-4 significantly decreased food intake and BW over the 9-day period in both the standard chow and HF groups. HF feeding decreased POMC without changing NPY/agouti gene-related protein gene expression in the ARC. Treatment with EX-4 increased POMC and decreased NPY expression independent of the reduction of food intake and BW. Mesolimbic TH and D1R gene expression were decreased significantly in chronic HF diet-fed rats, and these changes were reversed in both EX-4 and pair-fed conditions. These results suggest a role for increased POMC and decreased NPY expression in the ARC in the effects of EX-4 on food intake and BW. Our findings also suggest that EX-4 induced the recovery of mesolimbic TH and D1R expression in HF diet-fed rats may be secondary to HF intake reduction and/or weight loss. PMID:24949661
Yang, Yan; Moghadam, Alexander A; Cordner, Zachary A; Liang, Nu-Chu; Moran, Timothy H
In beef cows, reduced energy intake delays first ovulation postpartum and is associated with lesser insulin, IGF-I and leptin concentrations. However, the close relationship among these hormones mask their individual roles in the reinitiation of ovarian activity. A ?-adrenergic receptor agonist (?AR) was used to increase body condition score (BCS) and yet reducebody fat and leptin serum concentration to determine the specific role of leptin in the postpartum ovarian activity. Beef cows (n=77) with BCS 3.1 ± 1.4 received 2 kg/day of feed containing 0 or 0.15 mg/kg of zilpaterol (a synthethic ?AR), for 33 days. Estrus was induced with a progestin implant applied for 9 d and cows in estrus were bred by artificial insemination (AI). Zilpaterol administration increased (P<0.05) daily weight gain, muscle depth and BCS, with no changes in back fat depth, reducing fat to muscle ratio (P<0.05). At the time of AI, insulin (38%) and IGF-I (26%) concentrations were less in zilpaterol-treated cows (P<0.05), but leptin concentration was unaffected. Ovulation rate and animal with luteal activity after estrus induction were also reduced by 35% (P=0.05) and 56.5% (P=0.007), respectively, in zilpaterol-treated cows. Logistic regression estimates for BCS (P=0.016) and IGF-I concentration (P=0.03) were positively related with the occurrence of luteal activity. In addition, whilst back fat (P=0.009) had a positive effect on luteal activity, leptin concentration did not show a significant relationship. In conclusion, despite an increase in bodyweight and a positive change in BCS, the reduction in insulin and IGF-I concentrations, associated with ?AR treatment, reduced the response to induction of estrus. However only IGF-I, but not leptin or insulin, significantly influenced the odds for the occurrence of luteal activity after estrous induction in cattle with poor BCS. PMID:22277845
Guzmán, A; Gonzalez-Padilla, E; Garcés-Yépez, P; Rosete-Fernandez, J V; Calderón-Robles, R C; Murcia, C; Gutiérrez, C G
Studies spanning the gravity continuum from 0 to 2-g are revealing new insights into how mammalian reproduction and development may proceed in the microgravity of space. Rat pups reared from either conception or midgestation in hypergravity (hg) weigh 6-15% less than 1-g controls. In the present study we analyzed maternal and pup factors that may account for reducedbodyweight of hg reared pups. Beginning on Gestational day (G)11 of the rats' 22 day pregnancy, rat dams and their litters were continuously exposed to either 1.5-g, 1.75-g or 2.0-g. Prolaction (Prl) and oxytocin (OT) were measured in hg-exposed dams during either pregnancy (G20) or lactation (Postnatal day [P] 10). Gravity related differences in Prl were not observed whereas OT was depressed during lactation in hg dams relative to controls (p less than 0.05). Milk transfer measured during a discrete suckling episode was actually increased in hg-reared litters and comparable numbers of milk-letdowns were observed in the two conditions. Recent reports using dwarfing phenotypes in mouse mutants have provided evidence for postnatal dependence on growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). Plasma GH measured in P10 pups using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was significantly elevated in hg pups relative to 1-g controls (mean +/- sd., ng/ml: 2.0-g, 10.6 [3.0], 1.5-g 8.9 [4.0], 1.0-g, 7.95 [3.1]). Together, these findings suggest that neither milk production, milk transfer nor pup GH play significant roles in reducedbodyweights of hg-reared pups. Studies underway are focused on insulin-like growth factors.
Bear, L. A.; Chowdhury, J. H.; Grindeland, R. E.; Wade, C. E.; Ronca, A. E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)
Background: Body satisfaction interventions have typically been multifaceted and targeted at clinical populations. The aim of the present research was to isolate the effects of self-affirmation on body satisfaction in a community sample and to see whether self-affirmation works by basing one's self-esteem on domains other than bodyweight and…
Objective: Stress has been identified as a significant factor in health and in racial\\/ethnic health disparities. A potential mediator in these relationships is bodyweight. Design: Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between stress, race, and bodyweight were examined in an ethnically diverse sample of overweight and obese women with Type 2 diabetes (n = 217) enrolled in a behavioral weight
Karen Hye-cheon Kim; Zoran Bursac; Vicki DiLillo; Della Brown White; Delia Smith West
The prevalence of excess bodyweight in Americans is increasing despite national efforts to reverse this trend. Excess bodyweight is a more common problem in women, especially minority women, than in men. It increases the risk of developing a host of adverse health conditions, and it places significant social and economic strains on the health care system. Excess body
Longer-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids may have greater appetite-suppressing effects than shorter-chain, monosaturated, and saturated fatty acids. Because fish oils are predominantly composed of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid and may assist in the treatment of obesity comorbidities, their effect on bodyweight and body mass index is of interest. We hypothesized that daily supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich oil would reduce energy intake and bodyweight in overweight and obese women compared with supplementation with oleic acid (OA) rich oil. A double-blinded, randomized, parallel intervention was conducted. Body mass index (in kilograms per meter squared), bodyweight (in kilograms), body fat (in percent), and lean tissue (in kilograms) were measured at baseline and 12 weeks after intervention with DHA or OA. Diet diaries were also completed at these time points for estimation of energy and macronutrient intake. Subjects reported significantly lower energy (P = .020), carbohydrate (g) (P = .037), and fat (g) (P = .045) intake after DHA compared with OA. Body mass or composition was not affected by treatment, although a fall in bodyweight in the DHA group approached statistical significance (P = .089). Daily ingestion of DHA over a 12-week period may reduce energy intake in overweight and obese females, but longer-term and adequately powered studies using subjects of both sexes are needed. Other factors that should be considered include the following: the choice of control, the body mass index category of subjects, and ways of improving the compliancy and accuracy of dietary assessment. PMID:24418242
Harden, Charlotte J; Dible, Victoria A; Russell, Jean M; Garaiova, Iveta; Plummer, Sue F; Barker, Margo E; Corfe, Bernard M
Almost anyone who has ever lost weight can attest that it is harder to sustain weight loss than to lose weight. Maintenance of a 10% or greater reducedbodyweight is accompanied by decreases in energy expenditure to levels significantly below what is predicted solely on the basis of weight and body composition changes. This disproportionate decline in energy expenditure would not be sufficient to account for the over 80% recidivism rate to pre-weight loss levels of body fatness after otherwise successful weight reduction if there were a corresponding reduction in energy intake. In fact, reducedbodyweight maintenance is accompanied by increased energy intake above that required to maintain reducedweight. The failure to reduce energy intake in response to decreased energy output reflects decreased satiation and perception of how much food is eaten and multiple changes in neuronal signaling in response to food which conspire with the decline in energy output to keep body energy stores (fat) above a CNS- defined minimum (threshold). Much of this biological opposition to sustained weight loss is mediated by the adipocyte-derived hormone “leptin”. PMID:20595050
Rosenbaum, Michael; Kissileff, Harry R.; Mayer, Laurel E.S.; Hirsch, Joy; Leibel, Rudolph L.
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has been studied in well-established mouse models to generate latently infected animals for investigations into viral pathogenesis, latency mechanisms, and reactivation. Mice exhibit clinical signs of debilitating infection, during which time they may become severely ill before recovery or die spontaneously. Because the cohort of mice that does survive provides valuable data on latency, there is keen interest in developing methodologies for earlier detection and treatment of severe disease to ultimately increase survival rates. Here, BALB/c mice were inoculated ocularly with either a wildtype (LAT+) or mutant (LAT–) strain of HSV1. Mice were monitored daily through day 30 after infection; trigeminal ganglia were harvested at day 60 to assess viral DNA load. Cages were provided with nesting material, and fluid supplementation was administered to mice with body temperatures of 35 °C or lower, as measured by subcutaneous microchip thermometry. The results showed that infected mice with temperatures less than 34.5 °C did not recover to normothermia and were euthanized or spontaneously died, regardless of infective viral strain. By using a combination of criteria including body temperature (less than 34.5 °C) and weight loss (more than 0.05 g daily) for removal of animals from the study, approximately 98% of mice that died spontaneously could have been euthanized prior to death, without concern of potential recovery to the experimental endpoint (100% specificity). Frequent monitoring of alterations to general wellbeing, body temperature, and weight was crucial for establishing humane endpoints in this ocular HSV model. PMID:23849410
Hankenson, F Claire; Ruskoski, Nicholas; van Saun, Marjorie; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Oh, Jaewook; Fraser, Nigel W
The topic of holiday weight gain has been a frequent subject of the lay media; however, scientific interest has only been recent. Multiple studies in Western societies have reported average weight gains among adults during the period between mid-November and mid-January that were about 0.5 kg. The range in individual weight changes was large, however, and the already overweight and obese gain more weight than those who are healthy weight. When the average gain across the year was also measured, the holiday weight was the major contributor to annual excess weight gain. Efforts patterned to increase awareness to energy balance and bodyweight have been shown to be successful at reducing such gain. An exception to holiday weight gain being a major contributor to annual excess gain has been children, in whom summer weight gains have been observed to be the major contributor to average excess weight gain. PMID:24662697
A study was conducted to investigate associations between ethnicity and acculturation status and risk factors for eating disorders among young adult women. A community sample of 14,779 women aged 18–23 completed a comprehensive mail-out survey, which incorporated questions on country of birth, length of time spent in Australia, bodyweight, weight dissatisfaction, dieting, binge eating, and compensatory disordered eating behaviours.
The bodyweight contingency of self-worth (bodyweight CSW) is the tendency for people to base their self-esteem on bodyweight. In two studies, the bodyweight contingency was evaluated against a general appearance contingency of self-worth (appearance CSW) to investigate whether or not individuals may base self-esteem on bodyweight. Compared to the appearance CSW, the bodyweight CSW
ABSTRACT Five clinical studies of calcium intake, designed with a primary skeletal end point, were reevaluated to explore associations be- tween calcium intake and bodyweight. All subjects were women, clustered in three main age groups: 3rd, 5th, and 8th decades. Total sample,size was,780. Four of the studies,were,observational;,two were cross-sectional, in which body mass index was regressed against entry level
K. Michael Davies; Robert P. Heaney; Robert R. Recker; Joan M. Lappe; M. Janet Barger-lux; Karen Rafferty; Sharilyn Hinders
Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder caused by imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, and is one of the principal causative factors in the development of metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cancer. COH-SR4 (“SR4”) is a novel investigational compound that has anti-cancer and anti-adipogenic properties. In this study, the effects of SR4 on metabolic alterations in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese C57BL/J6 mice were investigated. Oral feeding of SR4 (5 mg/kg bodyweight.) in HFD mice for 6 weeks significantly reducedbodyweight, prevented hyperlipidemia and improved glycemic control without affecting food intake. These changes were associated with marked decreases in epididymal fat mass, adipocyte hypertrophy, increased plasma adiponectin and reduced leptin levels. SR4 treatment also decreased liver triglycerides, prevented hepatic steatosis, and normalized liver enzymes. Western blots demonstrated increased AMPK activation in liver and adipose tissues of SR4-treated HFD obese mice, while gene analyses by real time PCR showed COH-SR4 significantly suppressed the mRNA expression of lipogenic genes such as sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (Srebf1), acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase (Acaca), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg), fatty acid synthase (Fasn), stearoyl-Coenzyme A desaturase 1 (Scd1), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a) and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (Hmgcr), as well as gluconeogenic genes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (Pck1) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pc) in the liver of obese mice. In vitro, SR4 activates AMPK independent of upstream kinases liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase ? (CaMKK?). Together, these data suggest that SR4, a novel AMPK activator, may be a promising therapeutic compound for treatment of obesity, fatty liver disease, and related metabolic disorders. PMID:24376752
Figarola, James Lester; Singhal, Preeti; Rahbar, Samuel; Gugiu, Bogdan Gabriel; Awasthi, Sanjay; Singhal, Sharad S.
SUMMARY The number of Americans who are overweight or obese has reached epidemic proportions. Elevated weight is associated with health problems and increased medical expenditures. This paper analyzes Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to investigate the role of alcohol consumption in weight gain. Alcohol is not only an addictive substance but also a high-calorie beverage that can interfere with metabolic function and cognitive processes. Because men and women differ in the type and amount of alcohol they consume, in the biological effects they experience as a result of alcohol consumption, and in the consequences they face as a result of obesity, we expect our results to differ by gender. We use first-difference models of body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption (frequency and intensity) to control for time-invariant unobservable factors that may influence changes in both alcohol use and weight status. Increasing frequency and intensity of alcohol use is associated with statistically significant yet quantitatively small weight gain for men but not for women. Moreover, the first-difference results are much smaller in magnitude and sometimes different in sign compared to the benchmark pooled cross-sectional estimates. PMID:19548203
FRENCH, MICHAEL T.; NORTON, EDWARD C.; FANG, HAI; MACLEAN, JOHANNA CATHERINE
This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of bodyweight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to bodyweight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants' bodyweight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing bodyweight in adulthood. PMID:21864601
Original article Directional selection on bodyweight and hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila) strains were selected for increased and decreased bodyweight during 13 generations. A greater divergence of response to selection for bodyweight. In both types of crosses, hybrid dysgenesis induced modification
Fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF19) and its rodent ortholog, FGF15, are hormones produced in the distal small intestine and secreted into the circulation after a meal. In addition to controlling the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, FGF15/19 also regulates systemic lipid and glucose metabolism. In these experiments we investigated the hypothesis that, like other gut-derived postprandial hormones, FGF15/19 can act in the central nervous system to elicit its metabolic effects. We found that FGF-receptors 1 and 4 are present in rat hypothalamus, and that their expression was reduced by up to 60% in high-fat fed rats relative to lean controls. Consistent with a potential role for brain FGF15/19 signaling to regulate energy and glucose homeostasis, and with a previous report that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of FGF19 increases energy expenditure, we report that acute i.c.v. FGF19 reduces 24-h food intake and bodyweight, and acutely improves glucose tolerance. Conversely, i.c.v. administration of an FGF-receptor inhibitor increases food intake and impairs glucose tolerance, suggesting a physiological role for brain FGF receptor signaling. Together, these findings identify the central nervous system as a potentially important target for the beneficial effects of FGF19 in the treatment of obesity and diabetes. PMID:23183168
Ryan, Karen K; Kohli, Rohit; Gutierrez-Aguilar, Ruth; Gaitonde, Shrawan G; Woods, Stephen C; Seeley, Randy J
Rationale Progressive midlife weight gain is associated with multiple adverse health outcomes and may represent an early manifestation of insulin resistance in a distinct subset of women. Emerging data implicate hyperinsulinema as a proximate cause of weight gain and support strategies that attenuate insulin secretion. Objective To assess a previously reported novel hypocaloric carbohydrate modified diet alone (D), and in combination with metformin (M) and metformin plus low-dose rosiglitazone (MR), in diverse women with midlife weight gain (defined as >20lbs since the twenties), normal glucose tolerance, and hyperinsulinemia. Participants 46 women, mean age 46.6±1.0, BMI 30.5±0.04 kg/m2, 54.5% white, 22.7% black, 15.9% Hispanic, at 2 university medical centers. Methods A dietary intervention designed to reduce insulin excursions was implemented in 4 weekly nutritional group workshops prior to randomization. Main Outcome Measure Change in 6-month fasting insulin. Pre-specified secondary outcomes were changes in bodyweight, HOMA-IR, metabolic syndrome (MS) measures, leptin, and adiponectin. Results Six-month fasting insulin declined significantly in the M group: 12.5 to 8.0 µU/ml, p?=?.026. Mean 6-month weight decreased significantly and comparably in D, M, and MR groups: 4.7, 5.4, and 5.5% (p’s.049, .002, and.032). HOMA–IR decreased in M and MR groups (2.5 to 1.6 and 1.9 to 1.3, p’s?=?.054, .013). Additional improvement in MS measures included reduced waist circumference in D and MR groups and increased HDL in the D and M groups. Notably, mean fasting leptin did not decline in a subset of subjects with weight loss (26.15±2.01 ng/ml to 25.99±2.61 ng/ml, p?=?.907. Adiponectin increased significantly in the MR group (11.1±1.0 to 18.5±7.4, p<.001) Study medications were well tolerated. Conclusions These findings suggest that EMPOWIR’s easily implemented dietary interventions, alone and in combination with pharmacotherapies that target hyperinsulinemia, merit additional investigation in larger, long-term studies. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00618072 PMID:25259787
Body mass index (BMI) and body type of female and male adolescent ballet dancers (n = 90) and school students (n = 156) were determined. Participants were asked for the bodyweight she or he would prefer, and ballet students were administered the Eating Attitudes Test-40 (EAT-40). Results between age groups and with reference values were compared. Both in dancers and controls, girls wanted to lose more bodyweight than boys, with female ballet dancers more than female controls. The desire for reducingbodyweight was expressed by female ballet dancers of all BMI percentiles and body types, with the highest difference between real and desired bodyweight in 11-, 13-, and 16-year-olds. In the other groups, a quest for lower bodyweight was expressed only by adolescents of higher BMI and pyknomorphic and/or mesomorphic body type. Female ballet dancers of all age groups sought to reach bodyweights below the 5th percentile or below 82% of normal bodyweight. Desired bodyweight change was influenced by BMI and body type and correlated positively with EAT-40 score. PMID:9636944
Bettle, N; Bettle, O; Neumärker, U; Neumärker, K J
Obesity and its associated conditions such as type 2 diabetes mellitus are major causes of morbidity and mortality. The iminosugar N-(5-adamantane-1-yl-methoxy-pentyl)-deoxynojirimycin (AMP-DNM) improves insulin sensitivity in rodent models of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the current study, we characterized the impact of AMP-DNM on substrate oxidation patterns, food intake, and bodyweight gain in obese mice. Eight ob/ob mice treated with 100 mg/(kg d) AMP-DNM mixed in the food and 8 control ob/ob mice were placed in metabolic cages during the first, third, and fifth week of the experiment for measurement of substrate oxidation rates, energy expenditure, activity, and food intake. Mice were killed after 6 weeks of treatment. Initiation of treatment with AMP-DNM resulted in a rapid increase in fat oxidation by 129% (P = .05), a decrease in carbohydrate oxidation by 35% (P = .01), and a reduction in food intake by approximately 26% (P < .01) compared with control mice. Treatment with AMP-DNM decreased hepatic triglyceride content by 66% (P < .01) and, in line with the elevated fat oxidation rates, increased hepatic carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1a expression. Treatment with AMP-DNM increased plasma levels of the appetite-regulating peptide YY compared with control mice. Treatment with AMP-DNM rapidly reduces food intake and increases fat oxidation, resulting in improvement of the obese phenotype. These features of AMP-DNM, together with its insulin-sensitizing capacity, make it an attractive candidate drug for the treatment of obesity and its associated metabolic derangements. PMID:21816446
Langeveld, Mirjam; van den Berg, Sjoerd A A; Bijl, Nora; Bijland, Silvia; van Roomen, Cindy P; Houben-Weerts, Judith H; Ottenhoff, Roelof; Houten, Sander M; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Romijn, Johannes A; Groen, Albert K; Aerts, Johannes M; Voshol, Peter J
The load bearing bodyweight of wing-body and all-body hypersonic aircraft is estimated for a wide variety of structural materials and geometries. Variations of weight with key design and configuration parameters are presented and discussed. Both hot and cool structure approaches are considered in isotropic, organic composite, and metal matrix composite materials; structural shells are sandwich or skin-stringer. Conformal and pillow-tank designs are investigated for the all-body shape. The results identify the most promising hypersonic aircraft body structure design approaches and their weight trends. Geometric definition of vehicle shapes and structural analysis methods are presented in appendices.
Body dissatisfaction and body image disturbances are prevelant in college age females and can contribute to reduced health and wellness. Therefore, it is important to understand factors that may be associated these body image-related concerns. This study compared the body satisfaction of body-imaged-disturbed college women involved in weight training to those not involved. Body satisfaction of body-image-disturbed undergraduate females (Mage
Ninety Friesian and 153 Water Buffalo cows, 6 to 60 months and 100 to 500 kg bodyweight, were used in this study. Total body water was determined by 3H-radio- isotope dilution technique and dry bodyweight deduced by subtracting total body water from live bodyweight. In Friesians and Buffaloes there were significant posi- tive correlations (P < 0.01)
Young adult females' attitudes toward bodyweight regulation contain important emotional components. To study the effects of bodyweight cues on emotionality, 160 college students (75 females, 85 males) completed either a bodyweight related (Q1) or control (Q2) questionnaire prior to taking the California Test of Personality (CTP). An analysis of…
Rice koji is considered a readily accessible functional food that may have health-promoting effects. We investigated whether white, yellow, and red koji have the anti-obesity effect in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), which is a model for obesity. Mice were fed HFD containing 10% (w/w) of rice koji powder or steamed rice for 4 weeks. Weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue, and total adipose tissue weight were significantly lower in all rice koji groups than in the HFD-rice group after 4 weeks. Feed efficiency was significantly reduced in the yellow koji group. Blood glucose levels were significantly lower in the white and red koji groups with HOMA-R and leptin levels being reduced in the white koji group. White and red koji increased glucose uptake and GLUT4 protein expression in L6 myotube cells. These results showed that all rice koji have the anti-obesity or anti-diabetes effects although the mechanisms may differ depending on the type of rice koji consumed. PMID:25237599
Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as “the munchies”). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status—i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases bodyweight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and bodyweight. PMID:25337447
Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as "the munchies"). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status-i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases bodyweight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and bodyweight. PMID:25337447
As the results of bariatric surgery become increasingly successful, the demand for dy contouring following significant weight loss is rapidly growing. Persons who have lost weight are often unpleasantly surprised with the hanging folds of tissue and loose skin that may be present. The following article is a review of the surgical treatment currently available to provide a more pleasing body contour after successful weight loss. PMID:15550812
This article reports the findings of a statewide study evaluating the bodyweights of nearly all public school students in Arkansas. Researchers in Arkansas analyzed "body-mass index" data for more than 345,000 students at all grade levels in 93 percent of the state's public schools during the 2003-04 school year. Based on the data, the…
An imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure will lead to a change in bodyweight (mass) and body composition (fat and lean masses). A quantitative understanding of the processes involved, which currently remains lacking, will be useful in determining the etiology and treatment of obesity and other conditions resulting from prolonged energy imbalance. Here, we show that the long-term
Adult resting energy expenditure (REE) scales as height?1.5, whereas bodyweight (BW) scales as height?2. Mass-specific REE (i.e., REE/BW) is thus lower in tall subjects compared with their shorter counterparts, the mechanism of which is unknown. We evaluated the hypothesis that high-metabolic-rate brain mass scales to height with a power significantly less than that of BW, a theory that if valid would provide a potential mechanism for height-related REE effects. The hypothesis was tested by measuring brain mass on a large (n = 372) postmortem sample of Thai men. Since brain mass-body size relations may be influenced by age, the hypothesis was secondarily explored in Thai men age ?45 yr (n = 299) and with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in Korean men (n = 30) age ?20<30 yr. The scaling of large body compartments was examined in a third group of Asian men living in New York (NY, n = 28) with MRI and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Brain mass scaled to height with a power (mean ± SEE; 0.46 ± 0.13) significantly smaller (P < 0.001) than that of BW scaled to height (2.36 ± 0.19) in the whole group of Thai men; brain mass/BW scaled negatively to height (?1.94 ± 0.20, P < 0.001). Similar results were observed in younger Thai men, and results for brain mass/BW vs. height were directionally the same (P = 0.09) in Korean men. Skeletal muscle and bone scaled to height with powers similar to that of BW (i.e., ?2–3) in the NY Asian men. Models developed using REE estimates in Thai men suggest that brain accounts for most of the REE/BW height dependency. Tall and short men thus differ in relative brain mass, but the proportions of BW as large compartments appear independent of height, observations that provide a potential mechanistic basis for related differences in REE and that have implications for the study of adult energy requirements. PMID:19008483
Heymsfield, Steven B.; Chirachariyavej, Thamrong; Rhyu, Im Joo; Roongpisuthipong, Chulaporn; Heo, Moonseong; Pietrobelli, Angelo
Adult resting energy expenditure (REE) scales as height( approximately 1.5), whereas bodyweight (BW) scales as height( approximately 2). Mass-specific REE (i.e., REE/BW) is thus lower in tall subjects compared with their shorter counterparts, the mechanism of which is unknown. We evaluated the hypothesis that high-metabolic-rate brain mass scales to height with a power significantly less than that of BW, a theory that if valid would provide a potential mechanism for height-related REE effects. The hypothesis was tested by measuring brain mass on a large (n = 372) postmortem sample of Thai men. Since brain mass-body size relations may be influenced by age, the hypothesis was secondarily explored in Thai men age < or =45 yr (n = 299) and with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in Korean men (n = 30) age > or =20<30 yr. The scaling of large body compartments was examined in a third group of Asian men living in New York (NY, n = 28) with MRI and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Brain mass scaled to height with a power (mean +/- SEE; 0.46 +/- 0.13) significantly smaller (P < 0.001) than that of BW scaled to height (2.36 +/- 0.19) in the whole group of Thai men; brain mass/BW scaled negatively to height (-1.94 +/- 0.20, P < 0.001). Similar results were observed in younger Thai men, and results for brain mass/BW vs. height were directionally the same (P = 0.09) in Korean men. Skeletal muscle and bone scaled to height with powers similar to that of BW (i.e., approximately 2-3) in the NY Asian men. Models developed using REE estimates in Thai men suggest that brain accounts for most of the REE/BW height dependency. Tall and short men thus differ in relative brain mass, but the proportions of BW as large compartments appear independent of height, observations that provide a potential mechanistic basis for related differences in REE and that have implications for the study of adult energy requirements. PMID:19008483
Heymsfield, Steven B; Chirachariyavej, Thamrong; Rhyu, Im Joo; Roongpisuthipong, Chulaporn; Heo, Moonseong; Pietrobelli, Angelo
Reduced-calorie diets are difficult to follow because they often require elimination of certain foods, leading to poor compliance and limited success. However, a low-calorie, nutrient-dense diet has the potential to accommodate a daily snack without exceeding energy requirements, even during weight loss. This pilot study evaluated the effects of a reduced-calorie diet including either a daily dark chocolate snack or
Kathryn E. Piehowski; Amy G. Preston; Debra L. Miller; Sharon M. Nickols-Richardson
Seventeen active males (age 22.9 +/- 4.9 year) participated in a study to examine the effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation on total bodyweight (TBW), percent body fat, body water content, and caloric intake. The TBW was measured in kilograms, percent body fat by hydrostatic weighing, body water content via bioelectrical impedance, and caloric intake by daily food log. Subjects were paired and assigned to a creatine or placebo group with a double-blind research design. Supplementation was given for 4 weeks (30 g a day for the initial 2 weeks and 15 g a day for the final 2 weeks). Subjects reported 2 days a week for supervised strength training of the lower extremity. Significant increases before and after the study were found in TBW (90.42 +/- 14.74 to 92.12 +/- 15.19 kg) and body water content (53.77 +/- 1.75 to 57.15 +/- 2.01 L) for the creatine group (p = 0.05). No significant changes were found in percent body fat or daily caloric intake in the creatine group. No significant changes were noted for the placebo group. These findings support previous research that creatine supplementation increases TBW. Mean percent body fat and caloric intake was not affected by creatine supplementation. Therefore weight gain in lieu of creatine supplementation may in part be due to water retention. PMID:14636103
In this paper, preliminary qualitative and quantitative comparisons of the bodyweight of five hypersonic aircraft configurations are conducted. The five configurations are briefly described as follows: (1) a wing-and-body arrangement with a power-law, circular cross-section body and a delta wing; (2) an all-body vehicle with delta planform and elliptical cross-sections; (3) a wingless wave rider configuration; (4) a winged wave rider configuration; and (5) the spacewing concept, an oblique flying wing at low speed that yaws to 90 deg sweep and flies end-on at hypersonic speeds. The vehicles are defined by their external moldline geometries and by the interior arrangement of their fuel tanks and other components. Intersecting, circular-lobed tankage is used in vehicles with noncircular bodies. The nonusable volume of such concepts is calculated. The structural concept, structural materials, Thermal Protection System, and heat load are allowed to vary with vehicle longitudinal station. Relative strengths and weaknesses of the various hypersonic aircraft concepts in terms of bodyweight are summarized.
Ardema, Mark D.; Terjesen, Eric J.; Roberts, Cathy D.; Chambers, Mark C.
Weanling male rats received bilateral electrolytic lesions in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei (DMNL rats); sham-operated animals served as controls. At the end of a 39-day postoperative period DMNL rats were lighter and shorter than controls and also exhibited significant hyopophagia. Their efficiency of food utilization (weight gained for the amount of food eaten) was normal, however. Subsequent determination of plasma
Metalized films placed between layers of fibrous material maintain equivalent thermal conductivity while cutting blanket density in half. Tests indicate that insulation with 1 lb/cu ft density with goldized films has thermal conductivity equal to 2 lb/cu ft of conventional insulation. Concept reducesweight in commercial aircraft and increases cargo space.
Material substitution is an effective approach for automotive engineers trying to reduce part weight, consolidate parts, enhance efficiency, and cut costs. Conventional materials have been replaced with aluminum-matrix composites, thermoplastic composites, recycled resin, titanium, and ductile iron. This paper is a collection of 8 different short articles on material substitution.
With the advent of bariatric surgery, body contouring has grown to a new speciality in plastic surgery. Following massive weight loss, patients generally have skin redundancy on the trunk, buttocks, breast, upper arms, thighs and face, leading to a poor quality of life and social acceptance. This condition motivates many patients to consult a plastic surgeon to address these problems. Thus, plastic surgery has become an integral part of the surgical treatment of the morbidly obese. The aim of post-bariatric plastic surgery should be to restore a normal body image of the patient with as few surgeries as possible and with a tolerable risk. This article addresses different plastic surgery procedures that can be successfully applied in order to correct various body contouring deformities. Patient selection, technical details, pre- and postoperative care, possible complications and expected results are all discussed. PMID:19242884
This study examined the combined effect of objective and subjective bodyweight, as well as gender, on illness-related absenteeism.\\u000a A sample of 162 Hong Kong white-collar employees was surveyed. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we were able to confirm\\u000a our hypotheses, derived from the objectified body consciousness (OBC) theory, that the positive relationship between objective\\u000a bodyweight and illness-related absenteeism is
Biological rhythms are present in the lives of almost all organisms ranging from plants to more evolved creatures. These oscillations allow the anticipation of many physiological and behavioral mechanisms thus enabling coordination of rhythms in a timely manner, adaption to environmental changes and more efficient organization of the cellular processes responsible for survival of both the individual and the species. Many components of energy homeostasis exhibit circadian rhythms, which are regulated by central (suprachiasmatic nucleus) and peripheral (located in other tissues) circadian clocks. Adipocyte plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, the signaling of satiety and cellular differentiation and proliferation. Also, the adipocyte circadian clock is probably involved in the control of many of these functions. Thus, circadian clocks are implicated in the control of energy balance, feeding behavior and consequently in the regulation of bodyweight. In this regard, alterations in clock genes and rhythms can interfere with the complex mechanism of metabolic and hormonal anticipation, contributing to multifactorial diseases such as obesity and diabetes. The aim of this review was to define circadian clocks by describing their functioning and role in the whole body and in adipocyte metabolism, as well as their influence on bodyweight control and the development of obesity. PMID:20712885
The role of dietary energy density (ED) in the regulation of energy intake (EI) is controversial. Methodologically, there is also debate about whether beverages should be included in dietary ED calculations. To address these issues, studies examining the effects of ED on EI or bodyweight in nonelderly adults were reviewed. Different approaches to calculating dietary ED do not appear to alter the direction of reported relations between ED and bodyweight. Evidence that lowering dietary ED reduces EI in short-term studies is convincing, but there are currently insufficient data to determine long-term effectiveness for weight loss. The review also identified key barriers to progress in understanding the role of ED in energy regulation, in particular the absence of a standard definition of ED, and the lack of data from multiple long-term clinical trials examining the effectiveness of low-ED diet recommendations for preventing both primary weight gain and weight regain in nonobese individuals. Long-term clinical trials designed to examine the impact of dietary ED on energy regulation, and including multiple ED calculation methods within the same study, are still needed to determine the importance of ED in the regulation of EI and bodyweight. PMID:25398750
Background: Numerous natural products are marketed and sold claiming to decrease bodyweight and fat, but few undergo finished product-specific research demonstrating their safety and efficacy.
Objective: To determine ...
Lopez, Hector L.; Ziegenfuss, Tim N.; Hofheins, Jennifer E.; Habowski, Scott M.; Arent, Shawn M.; Weir, Joseph P.; Ferrando, Arny A.
Central nervous system control of food intake and bodyweight G. J. Morton1 , D. E. Cummings2 , D. In addition, normal-weight indi- viduals are protected against expansion of body fat stores induced of an elevated bodyweight, rather than the absence of regulation, and that deleterious interactions between
HERITABILITY OF THE DIFFERENCES IN BODYWEIGHT BETWEEN SEXES AT DIFFERENT AGES IN TWO STRAINS the genetic parameters of sexual dimorphism for bodyweight at 4, 6 and 8 weeks of age for two strains : Dokki 4 and White Plyn:outh Rock. The estimates of heritabilities of sex differences in bodyweight from
AGE, LENGTH, AND BODYWEIGHT OF SALMON CAUGHT BY JAPANESE HIGH SEAS FLEETS IN NORTH PACIFIC Marine Fish and Wildlife Service, Amie J. Suomela, Commissioner AGE, LENGTH, AND BODYWEIGHT OF SALMON CAUGHT and 1956, and the bodyweight data for 1955 were taken from the Interim Reports on Research by the Japanese
Soft drink consumption has been hypothesized as one of the major factors in the growing rates of obesity in the US. Nearly two-thirds of all states currently tax soft drinks using excise taxes, sales taxes, or special exemptions to food exemptions from sales taxes to reduce consumption of this product, raise revenue, and improve public health. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of changes in state soft drink taxes on body mass index (BMI), obesity, and overweight. Our results suggest that soft drink taxes influence BMI, but that the impact is small in magnitude. PMID:20657817
The present study examined the psychological and weight-related correlates of body checking and avoidance behaviors in individuals who have lost weight through obesity treatment. Among 185 individuals in behavioral weight-control treatment, the prevalence of body checking and avoidance behavior was assessed, as well as the relationship of checking and avoidance to attitudinal disturbances, weight loss, and perception of struggling in
Social stressors at work (such as conflict or animosities) imply disrespect or a lack of appreciation and thus a threat to self. Stress induced by this offence to self might result, over time, in a change in bodyweight. The current study investigated the impact of changing working conditions —specifically social stressors, demands, and control at work— on women’s change in weightedBody-Mass-Index over the course of a year. Fifty-seven women in their first year of occupational life participated at baseline and thirty-eight at follow-up. Working conditions were assessed by self-reports and observer-ratings. Body-Mass-Index at baseline and change in Body-Mass-Index one year later were regressed on self-reported social stressors as well as observed work stressors, observed job control, and their interaction. Seen individually, social stressors at work predicted Body-Mass-Index. Moreover, increase in social stressors and decrease of job control during the first year of occupational life predicted increase in Body-Mass-Index. Work redesign that reduces social stressors at work and increases job control could help to prevent obesity epidemic. PMID:24429516
Background Childhood obesity is a continuing problem in the UK and South Asian children represent a group that are particularly vulnerable to its health consequences. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and obesity is well documented in older children and adults, but is less clear in young children, particularly South Asians. A better understanding of this relationship in young South Asian children will inform the design and delivery of obesity intervention programmes. The aim of this study is to describe body image size perception and dissatisfaction, and their relationship to weight status in primary school aged UK South Asian children. Methods Objective measures of height and weight were undertaken on 574 predominantly South Asian children aged 5-7 (296 boys and 278 girls). BMI z-scores, and weight status (underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese) were calculated based on the UK 1990 BMI reference charts. Figure rating scales were used to assess perceived body image size (asking children to identify their perceived body size) and dissatisfaction (difference between perceived current and ideal body size). The relationship between these and weight status were examined using multivariate analyses. Results Perceived body image size was positively associated with weight status (partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 0.63 (95% CI 0.26-0.99) and for BMI z-score was 0.21 (95% CI 0.10-0.31), adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity). Body dissatisfaction was also associated with weight status, with overweight and obese children more likely to select thinner ideal body size than healthy weight children (adjusted partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 1.47 (95% CI 0.99-1.96) and for BMI z-score was 0.54 (95% CI 0.40-0.67)). Conclusions Awareness of body image size and increasing body dissatisfaction with higher weight status is established at a young age in this population. This needs to be considered when designing interventions to reduce obesity in young children, in terms of both benefits and harms. PMID:21214956
The purpose of this research was to validate a modified version of the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS-M) that is applicable to individuals across different bodyweight statuses. One hundred forty-eight men and women completed an online survey that included the WBIS-M and relevant measures of psychopathology. Results indicated that the WBIS-M had high internal consistency and strong construct validity. The WBIS-M also demonstrated significant correlations with body image, eating pathology, self-esteem, and symptoms of anxiety and depression, and was associated with these outcomes distinctly from antifat attitudes and body mass index. Implications for the use of this scale in diverse samples are discussed. PMID:24100004
... Plastic Surgery The Meeting 2014 Search Home Cosmetic 3D Animations Cosmetic Procedure Animations Body Lifts Arm Lift ... Lift Most Visited Arm Lift Breast Lift Surgery Print Page More Resources What is body contouring? Body ...
Objective: The authors assessed associations between bodyweight perception and weight loss strategies. Participants: They randomly selected male and female college students (N = 38,204). Methods: The authors conducted a secondary data analysis of the rates of weight loss strategies and bodyweight perception among students who completed the…
Wharton, Christopher M.; Adams, Troy; Hampl, Jeffrey S.
BACKGROUND: A recent in vitro study indicates that IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the traditional West African food plant Irvingia gabonensis, favorably impacts adipogenesis through a variety of critical metabolic pathways including PPAR gamma, leptin, adiponectin, and glycerol-3 phosphate dehydrogenase. This study was therefore aimed at evaluating the effects of IGOB131, an extract of Irvingia gabonensis, on bodyweight
Judith L Ngondi; Blanche C Etoundi; Christine B Nyangono; Carl MF Mbofung; Julius E Oben
We have identified an eating disorder in 13% of women hospitalized on a medical ward for various reasons. These as well as obese patients undergo wide fluctuations of weight sometimes exceeding 30% of their present weight. Surprisingly, even in the absence of eating disorders, the changes in weight during adulthood are marked (22% of present bodyweight). Weight history should be included systematically in the medical history, since it can underscore concern over weight or even an unrecognized eating disorder. PMID:1754869
Allaz, A F; Archinard, M; Reverdin, N; Waldvogel, F
\\u000a In normal weight women, a 10–15% reduction from ideal bodyweight (IBW) is associated with amenorrhea [1, 2]. There is considerable interindividual variation in the menstrual cycle manifestations that may occur in association with\\u000a low bodyweight. It is likely that the key element involved in eating disorders or low weight related amenorrhea is stress.\\u000a It appears that the adaptation
Background: Little is known about the composition and source of weight loss after bariatric surgery for morbid obesity. Purpose:\\u000a This study was undertaken to determine changes in weight, body mass index (BMI), lean bodyweight (LBW), fat weight (FW) and\\u000a left ventricular cardiac mass (LVM) following vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG). Methods: After VBG for morbid obesity, 26\\u000a women and four
Vivian Gahtan; Sarah E. Goode; Helen Z. Kurto; Douglas D. Schocken; Pauline Powers; Alexander S. Rosemurgy
the macronutrient flux balances and all previous models are special cases of this model. We show that the generic dynamical behavior of body composition for a clamped diet can be divided into two classes. In the first class, the body composition and mass are determined uniquely. In the second class, the body composition can exist at an infinite number of
Given the rising prevalence of overweight and sociocultural portrayal of increasingly thin female body ideals and muscular\\/lean\\u000a male body ideals, we examined trends in bodyweight evaluation using two cross-sectional surveys of US undergraduates in 1990\\u000a (n?=?794) and 2005 (n?=?794). Trends in bodyweight evaluation variables were examined and compared to respondents’ current body mass index. Results\\u000a suggest men are
Lori Neighbors; Jeffery Sobal; Claudia Liff; Dana Amiraian
The study examined associations among physical activity, cigarette smoking, body mass index, perceptions of bodyweight, weight-management goals, and weight-management behaviors of public high school adolescents. The CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey provided a cross-sectional sample (n = 3,089) of public high school students in South Carolina.…
Paxton, Raheem J.; Valois, Robert F.; Drane, J. Wanzer
Body, liver, heart and spleen weights were measured in 3 different breeds and 2 breed crosses over an age range of 0–8 weeks. Correlation coefficients, linear regression equations, standard deviations of observations around regression lines, and the standard errors of the slopes were calculated to study the effects of age, breed, and bodyweight on organ weight. The principal findings
Objective: To determine if inaccurate bodyweight perception predicts unhealthy weight management strategies and to determine the extent to which inaccurate bodyweight perception is associated with depressive symptoms among US college students. Participants: Randomly selected male and female college students in the United States (N = 97,357).…
Harring, Holly Anne; Montgomery, Kara; Hardin, James
Objective: To determine if inaccurate bodyweight perception predicts unhealthy weight management strategies and to determine the extent to which inaccurate bodyweight perception is associated with depressive symptoms among US college students. Participants: Randomly selected male and female college students in the United States (N = 97,357). Methods: Data were from the 2006 National College Health Assessment. Analyses were
By observing the art of different eras, as well as the more recent existence of the media, it is obvious that there have been dramatic changes in what is considered a beautiful body. The ideal of female beauty has shifted from a symbol of fertility to one of mathematically calculated proportions. It has taken the form of an image responding to men's sexual desires. Nowadays there seems to be a tendency towards the destruction of the feminine, as androgynous fashion and appearance dominate our culture. The metamorphosis of the ideal woman follows the shifting role of women in society from mother and mistress to a career-orientated individual. Her depiction by artists across the centuries reveals this change in role and appearance that should be interpreted within the social and historical context of each era with its own theories of what constituted the ideal female bodyweight. PMID:20492540
Objectives: The study explored associations between bodyweight, psychiatric disorders and body image in a nonclinical sample of female adolescents. It was also investigated whether complaints of negative body image could be an indicator of psychiatric morbidity. Methods: A sample of 136 Swiss female high school students, 15–20 years of age, initially had weight, height and body image (FBeK questionnaire)
Barbara Buddeberg-Fischer; Richard Klaghofer; Victoria Reed
Primates show a strong positive relationship between bodyweight and home range area. Dietary habits also influence home range area. Folivorous primates occupy smaller home range areas for their bodyweight than do frugivores and omnivores. Primates generally require smaller home range area per individual than solitary terrestrial mammals, but primates living in social groups have much larger total home
Restraint in a metal tube is a reproducible method of inducing gastric ulcers in rats. However, it may be impossible to compare results from animals of different bodyweight. To make this comparison possible, a theoretical relation was established between the size of the tube and the bodyweight of the animal. When using this relation a constant ulcer incidence
The global obesity epidemic has heightened the debate about dietary factors contributing to weight gain. Media stories have\\u000a promulgated the notion that obesity has increased despite reductions in dietary fat intake. Some have even speculated that\\u000a lower dietary fat levels may be driving the rapid rise in weight gain within the population. A close examination of the science\\u000a reveals a
The following were recorded for 17 Mongolian gerbils,Meriones unguiculatus, which varied in weight between weanling size and almost 100 grams: body lengths, bodyweights, organ weights of the thyroid,\\u000a kidney, adrenal, brain, pituitary, lung, testis, spleen, heart, eye, and liver. Results were analyzed graphically and statistically.\\u000a The thyroid, kidney, adrenal, brain, pituitary, lung, and eye weights vary with respect to
Abstract Objective: To examine body mass index (BMI) and cognitive decline in subjects diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: Neuropsychological testing was conducted of 286 MCI subjects. General estimating equations (GEE) assessed...
The majority of women gain more weight during pregnancy than what is recommended. Since gestational weight gain is related\\u000a to short and long-term maternal health outcomes, it is important to identify women at greater risk of not adhering to guidelines.\\u000a The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between body image and gestational weight gain. The Body Image
Ushma J. Mehta; Anna Maria Siega-Riz; Amy H. Herring
Background Numerous natural products are marketed and sold claiming to decrease bodyweight and fat, but few undergo finished product-specific research demonstrating their safety and efficacy. Objective To determine the safety and efficacy of a multi-ingredient supplement containing primarily raspberry ketone, caffeine, capsaicin, garlic, ginger and Citrus aurantium (Prograde Metabolism™ [METABO]) as an adjunct to an eight-week weight loss program. Methods Using a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind design, 70 obese but otherwise healthy subjects were randomly assigned to METABO or a placebo and underwent 8?weeks of daily supplementation, a calorie restricted diet, and exercise training. Subjects were tested for changes in body composition, serum adipocytokines (adiponectin, resistin, leptin, TNF-?, IL-6) and markers of health including heart rate and blood pressure. Results Of the 45 subjects who completed the study, significant differences were observed in: bodyweight (METABO -2.0% vs. placebo -0.5%, P?0.01), fat mass (METABO -7.8 vs. placebo -2.8%, P?0.001), lean mass (METABO +3.4% vs. placebo +0.8%, P?0.03), waist girth (METABO -2.0% vs. placebo -0.2%, P?0.0007), hip girth (METABO -1.7% vs. placebo -0.4%, P?0.003), and energy levels per anchored visual analogue scale (VAS) (METABO +29.3% vs. placebo +5.1%, P?0.04). During the first 4?weeks, effects/trends for maintaining elevated serum leptin (P?0.03) and decreased serum resistin (P?0.08) in the METABO group vs. placebo were also observed. No changes in systemic hemodynamics, clinical blood chemistries, adverse events, or dietary intake were noted between groups. Conclusions METABO administration is a safe and effective adjunct to an eight-week diet and exercise weight loss program by augmenting improvements in body composition, waist and hip girth. Adherence to the eight-week weight loss program also led to beneficial changes in body fat in placebo. Ongoing studies to confirm these results and clarify the mechanisms (i.e., biochemical and neuroendocrine mediators) by which METABO exerts the observed salutary effects are being conducted. PMID:23601452
Background: The relationship between obesity, impaired respiratory function and weight loss is established. Objective: Some aspects need further elucidation: the different impact of the pathological modifications of body compartments (total and regional fat mass and lean body mass) on respiratory function, the choice of a restricted diet, the relationship between the modifications of body compartments and the variations in respiratory
Antonino De Lorenzo; Patrizia Petrone-De Luca; Guido F. Sasso; Maria G. Carbonelli; Paolo Rossi; Aldo Brancati
Body mass index (BMI) and body type of female and male adolescent ballet dancers (n = 90) and school students (n = 156) were determined. Participants were asked for the bodyweight she or he would prefer, and ballet students were administered the Eating Attitudes Test-40 (EAT-40). Results between age groups and with reference values were compared. Both in dancers
Norman Bettle; Oliver Bettle; Ursula Neumärker; Klaus-Jürgen Neumärker
Background A recent in vitro study indicates that IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the traditional West African food plant Irvingia gabonensis, favorably impacts adipogenesis through a variety of critical metabolic pathways including PPAR gamma, leptin, adiponectin, and glycerol-3 phosphate dehydrogenase. This study was therefore aimed at evaluating the effects of IGOB131, an extract of Irvingia gabonensis, on bodyweight and associated metabolic parameters in overweight human volunteers. Methods The study participants comprised of 102 healthy, overweight and/or obese volunteers (defined as BMI > 25 kg/m2) randomly divided into two groups. The groups received on a daily basis, either 150 mg of IGOB131 or matching placebo in a double blinded fashion, 30–60 minutes before lunch and dinner. At baseline, 4, 8 and 10 weeks of the study, subjects were evaluated for changes in anthropometrics and metabolic parameters to include fasting lipids, blood glucose, C-reactive protein, adiponectin, and leptin. Results Significant improvements in bodyweight, body fat, and waist circumference as well as plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, blood glucose, C-reactive protein, adiponectin and leptin levels were observed in the IGOB131 group compared with the placebo group. Conclusion Irvingia gabonensis administered 150 mg twice daily before meals to overweight and/or obese human volunteers favorably impacts bodyweight and a variety of parameters characteristic of the metabolic syndrome. This is the first double blind randomized placebo controlled clinical trial regarding the anti-obesity and lipid profile modulating effects of an Irvingia gabonensis extract. The positive clinical results, together with our previously published mechanisms of gene expression modulation related to key metabolic pathways in lipid metabolism, provide impetus for much larger clinical studies. Irvingia gabonensis extract may prove to be a useful tool in dealing with the emerging global epidemics of obesity, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and their co-morbid conditions. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00645775 PMID:19254366
Ngondi, Judith L; Etoundi, Blanche C; Nyangono, Christine B; Mbofung, Carl MF; Oben, Julius E
LEARNING OUTCOME: To investigate relationships between body image score and 1) bodyweight; 2) % body fat; 3) body mass index (BMI); and 4) waist-to-hip (WHR) in older women.Relationships between bodyweight, percent body fat, BMI and WHR were described among 73 healthy, elderly women (69.54±0.82 years) who were sedentary (n=26) or engaged in moderate exercise (n=47). Data collection included
M. C. Mitchell; C. J. Alish; D. L. Habash; K. Ward
Background and Objectives: We investigated whether there was a statistically significant difference in patient need for postoperative analgesia based on adjusted bodyweight between heavier and lighter women who underwent laparoscopic tubal ligation with bupivacaine injection at the skin incision. Methods: We examined 49 records of women who underwent laparoscopic tubal ligation at Oklahoma State University Medical Center between 2000 and 2005 and received an injection of bupivacaine at the surgical site during the procedure. Postsurgical morphine was measured as doses per kilogram of bodyweight against total bodyweight and as total milligrams per kilogram of bodyweight against total bodyweight. A regression was performed for each measurement. Results: Heavier women required significantly fewer total milligrams of morphine per kilogram of bodyweight and fewer total doses of morphine per kilogram of bodyweight than lighter women (2-tailed P = .0035 and P = .0018, respectively). Conclusion: Our data may suggest that lipophilic bupivacaine injected at a surgical site is held in place better and works for a longer period when more fat is present.
Roehl, Bryan C.; Payton, Mark E.; Witter, LouAnn C.
Dissatisfaction with body image is thought to be a key factor in the etiology of eating disorders among women. In contrast, men are reported to be generally satisfied with their bodyweight and body shape. The present survey study examined the relative desire for thinness or weight gain among 226 male and female freshman students. Most 18-year-old women (85%) wished
D tIRING THE I'AST DECADE, a number of investigators have addressed themselves to the task of developing a simplified and widely applicable method for accurately assessing percentage body fat and lean bodyweight in human subjects. Bodly fat and! lean bodyweight can be estimated precisely throtlgh such complex laboratory methods as radliography, helium (!ilution, total bodly water, total bodly
Background: This study examined the mediating function of bodyweight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal…
Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook
C57BL\\/6J-mice with a mutation in the obese (ob) gene are obese, diabetic, and exhibit reduced activity, metabolism, and body temperature. Daily intraperitoneal injection of these mice with recombinant OB protein lowered their bodyweight, percent body fat, food intake, and serum concentrations of glucose and insulin. In addition, metabolic rate, body temperature, and activity levels were increased by this treatment.
Mary Ann Pelleymounter; Mary Jane Cullen; Mary Beth Baker; Randy Hecht; Dwight Winters; Thomas Boone; Frank Collins
This study investigated whether endurance training is effective for successful long-term weight maintenace after weight reduction. Fifteen male obese subjects (age, 37.3 ± 5.2 years; bodyweight [BW], 96.2 ± 13.6 kg; body mass index [BMI], 30.9 ± 2.8 kg · m?2) participated in a 16-month exercise-intervention study. During the first 4 months, all subjects trained three to four times
Wilrike J. Pasman; Wim H. M. Saris; Erik Muls; Greet Vansant; Margriet S. Westerterp-Plantenga
Energy homeostasis is critical for the survival of species. Therefore, multiple and complex mechanisms have evolved to regulate energy intake and expenditure to maintain bodyweight. For weight maintenance, not only does energy intake have to match energy expenditure, but also macronutrient intake must balance macronutrient oxidation. However, this equilibrium seems to be particularly difficult to achieve in individuals with low fat oxidation, low energy expenditure, low sympathetic activity or low levels of spontaneous physical activity, as in addition to excess energy intake, all of these factors explain the tendency of some people to gain weight. Additionally, large variability in weight change is observed when energy surplus is imposed experimentally or spontaneously. Clearly, the data suggest a strong genetic influence on bodyweight regulation implying a normal physiology in an ‘obesogenic’ environment. In this study, we also review evidence that carbohydrate balance may represent the potential signal that regulates energy homeostasis by impacting energy intake and bodyweight. Because of the small storage capacity for carbohydrate and its importance for metabolism in many tissues and organs, carbohydrate balance must be maintained at a given level. This drive for balance may in turn cause increased energy intake when consuming a diet high in fat and low in carbohydrate. If sustained over time, such an increase in energy intake cannot be detected by available methods, but may cause meaningful increases in bodyweight. The concept of metabolic flexibility and its impact on bodyweight regulation is also presented. PMID:19136979
Cross-sectional studies have reported significant temporal increases in prevalence of childhood obesity in both genders and various racial groups, but recently the rise has subsided. Childhood obesity prevention trials suggest that, on average, overweight/obese children lose bodyweight and nonoverweight children gain weight. This investigation tested the hypothesis that overweight children lose bodyweight/fat and nonoverweight children gain bodyweight/fat using a longitudinal research design that did not include an obesity prevention program. The participants were 451 children in 4th to 6th grades at baseline. Height, weight, and body fat were measured at month 0 and month 28. Each child's BMI percentile score was calculated specific for their age, gender and height. Higher BMI percentile scores and percent body fat at baseline were associated with larger decreases in BMI and percent body fat after 28 months. The BMI percentile mean for African-American girls increased whereas BMI percentile means for white boys and girls and African-American boys were stable over the 28-month study period. Estimates of obesity and overweight prevalence were stable because incidence and remission were similar. These findings support the hypothesis that overweight children tend to lose bodyweight and nonoverweight children tend to gain bodyweight. PMID:20885393
Williamson, Donald A; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D; Stewart, Tiffany M; Harsha, David W
Average annual winter (December-February) bodyweights of Ohio ruffed grouse (Bonasa um- bellus) from both the glaciated northeast and the more southern unglaciated hill country ranges showed only small deviations from the 4-year (1974-1977) mean. Hill country grouse were heavier (P < 0.05) than northeastern birds in winter, but not in fall (October-November). Year-around (1969-1982) bodyweights were obtained only
Gravity is a force that influences all living systems, and is often disregarded in the study of environment on growth and development. To assess the effect of gravity exposure on growth, immature rats (130-200 g) were evaluated during chronic altered gravity exposure and during transition between gravity fields. The effects of 14 days of spaceflight on bodyweight gain were evaluated (n=12) and compared to controls. Spaceflight did not affect weight gain. In 6 rats, the transition from spaceflight to 1 G showed a significant (p less than 0.05) post flight weight loss over 48 hr of 13 g compared to controls. Over subsequent days this loss was compensated for with no difference noted after 5 days. Exposure to hypergravity, 2 G for 16 days, was evaluated in groups of n=6 (Control; On Center Control (OCC); Centrifuged). With centrifugation or OCC there was a reduction in bodyweight within 24 hr. The OCC regained control weights within 13 days. The weight difference, 26 +/- 1 g, persisted with 2 G with no subsequent difference in weight gain over days 3-16 compared to controls; 3.7 +/- 0.1 versus 3.9 +/- 0.1 g/day respectively. Transition from centrifugation to 1 G resulted in a weight increase within 48 hours. Over 16 days the rate of gain was increased 3.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for centrifuge compared to 2.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for controls between Day 3 to 16. However, differences from control were still noted on Day 16. Transition from one gravity field to another causes acute changes in bodyweight. Transition to microgravity or 1 G, following the acute changes, results in adjustments to attain a normal weight. In hypergravity the acute reduction in bodyweight persist, but weight gain is normal. Transitioning from hypergravity to 1G results in an increased weight gain to compensate for the persistent reduction during exposure.
Wade, Charles E.; Harper, J. S.; Daunton, N. G.; Corcoran, M. L.; Morey-Holton, E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)
The study aimed to analyze the lifestyles, weight control behavior, dietary habits, and depression of female university students. The subjects were 532 students from 8 universities located in 4 provinces in Korea. According to percent ideal bodyweight, 33 (6.4%), 181 (34.0%), 283 (53.2%), 22 (4.1%) and 13 (2.5%) were severely underweight, underweight, normal, overweight and obese, respectively, based on self-reported height and weight. As much as 64.1% and only 2.4%, respectively, overestimated and underestimated their bodyweight status. Six overweight subjects were excluded from overestimation group for the purpose of this study, resulting in overestimation group consisting of only underweight and normal weight subjects. Compared to those from the normal perception group, significantly more subjects from the overestimation group were currently smoking (P = 0.017) and drank more often than once a week (P = 0.015), without any significant differences in dietary habits. Despite similar BMIs, subjects who overestimated their own weight statuses had significantly higher weight dissatisfaction (P = 0.000), obesity stress (P = 0.000), obsession to lose weight (P = 0.007) and depression (P = 0.018). Also, more of them wanted to lose weight (P = 0.000), checked their bodyweights more often than once a week (P = 0.025) and had dieting experiences using 'reducing meal size' (P = 0.012), 'reducing snacks' (P = 0.042) and 'taking prescribed pills' (P = 0.032), and presented 'for a wider range of clothes selection' as the reason for weight loss (P = 0.039), although none was actually overweight or obese. Unlike the case with overestimating one's own weight, being overweight was associated with less drinking (P = 0.035) and exercising more often (P = 0.001) and for longer (P = 0.001) and healthier reasons for weight control (P = 0.002), despite no differences in frequency of weighing and depression. The results showed that weight overestimation, independent of weight status, is associated with risky lifestyles, weight control behaviors, and mental conditions. Preventive interventions should focus not only on obesity, but also on bodyweight overestimation. PMID:21286408
Serotonin (5-HT) has been implicated in the control of eating behavior and bodyweight. Stimulants of this monoamine reduce food intake and weight gain and increase energy expenditure, both in animals and in humans. This article reviews evidence that supports a role for hypothalamic serotonergic receptor mechanisms in the mediation of these effects. A variety of studies in rodents indicate
Previous research has addressed the issues of behavior change and eating disorder prevention among adolescents and young women. The current study was designed to evaluate: (a) whether an 8-week psychoeducational intervention can reduce maladaptive weight-management practices in women (University females, N=24) with sub-clinical levels of eating pathology; and (b) whether its implementation reduces the risk of developing more severe eating pathology across time. Participants were randomly assigned to an experimental (EX) group or a self-monitoring control (SMC) group. Statistically significant changes on measures of eating pathology, including the Eating Attitudes Test-26 [Garner, D. M., Olmsted, M. P., Bohr, Y., & Garfinkel, P. (1982). The Eating Attitudes Test: psychometric features and clinical correlates. Psychological Medicine, 12, 871-878]; Forbidden Food Survey [Ruggerio, L., Williamson, D. A., Davis, C. J., Schlundt, D. G., & Carey, M. P. (1988). Forbidden Food Survey: Measure of bulimic's anticipated emotional reactions to specific foods. Addictive Behaviors, 13, 267-274]; and Bulimia Test-Revised [Thelen, M. H., Farmer, J., Wonderlich, S., & Smith, M. (1991). A revision of the bulimia test: The BULIT-R. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 3(1), 119-124] were observed, as were changes in body image, as measured by the Body Shape Questionnaire [Cooper, P. J., Taylor, M. J., Cooper, Z., & Fairburn, C. G. (1987). The development and validation of the body shape questionnaire. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 6(4), 485-494]. Additional significant between-group differences in eating behavior, as measured by daily meal records, were also seen. Participants in the EX group evidenced improvements in scores which were significantly different from those observed in the SMC group. Unfortunately, attrition limited the utility of follow up data. PMID:17336790
weight, race\\/ethnicity, parity, and lactation. Bodyweight at conception may be particularly important among race\\/ethnic groups in which the prevalence of obesity is high (8). Both mean gestational weight gain and prevalence of overweight women in the US popu- lation have increased over the past two decades (8, 11-13). It has not been established whether increased gestational weight gain is
A sharp increase in bariatric surgery has resulted in spike in the population of patients seeking body-contouring procedures. Skin and soft tissue redundancy of the trunk, buttocks, breasts, upper arms, and thighs following massive weight loss is unsightly and results in medical problems such as musculoskeletal strain from increased tissue weight, intertrigo or functional limitation with walking, maintaining adequate hygiene,
We studied bodyweights and composition of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) during fall migration 1975-77 on stopover sites along the upper Mississippi River near La Crosse, Wisconsin (Navigational Pools 7 and 8) and Keokuk, Iowa (Navigational Pool 19). Bodyweights varied (P < 0.001) by age and sex without interaction. Weights varied by year (P < 0.001) on Pools 7 and 8. Mean weights increased (P < 0.01) within age and sex classes by date and averaged 3.6 and 2.7 g daily on Pools 7 and 8 and Pool 19, respectively. Percent fat was highly correlated (P < 0.001) with carcass weight for each age and sex. Live weight was a good predictor of total body fat. Mean estimated total body fat ranged from 200 to 300 g and comprised 15-20% of live weights among age and sex classes. Temporal weight patterns were less variable for adults than immatures, but generally increased during migration. Length of stopover varied inversely with fat reserves among color-marked adult males. Variation in fat condition of canvasbacks during fall may explain the mechanism regulating population ingress and egress on stopover sites. Fat reserves attained by canvasbacks during fall stopover may have adaptive significance in improving survival by conditioning for winter.
Background: Adolescence may be a crucial period for developing obesity and associated mental health problems. This study examined the relationship of weight status on body image, eating behavior, and depressive symptoms in youth. Methods: A survey was conducted on 1490 youth attending grades 7-12. Participants completed questionnaires on body…
Goldfield, Gary S.; Moore, Ceri; Henderson, Katherine; Buchholz, Annick; Obeid, Nicole; Flament, Martine F.
Manipulation of bodyweight set point may be an effective weight loss and maintenance strategy as the homeostatic mechanism governing energy balance remains intact even in obese conditions and counters the effort to lose weight. However, how the set point is determined is not well understood. We show that a single injection of rapamycin (RAP), an mTOR inhibitor, is sufficient to shift the set point in rats. Intraperitoneal RAP decreased food intake and daily weight gain for several days, but surprisingly, there was also a long-term reduction in bodyweight which lasted at least 10 weeks without additional RAP injection. These effects were not due to malaise or glucose intolerance. Two RAP administrations with a two-week interval had additive effects on bodyweight without desensitization and significantly reduced the white adipose tissue weight. When challenged with food deprivation, vehicle and RAP-treated rats responded with rebound hyperphagia, suggesting that RAP was not inhibiting compensatory responses to weight loss. Instead, RAP animals defended a lower bodyweight achieved after RAP treatment. Decreased food intake and bodyweight were also seen with intracerebroventricular injection of RAP, indicating that the RAP effect is at least partially mediated by the brain. In summary, we found a novel effect of RAP that maintains lower bodyweight by shifting the set point long-term. Thus, RAP and related compounds may be unique tools to investigate the mechanisms by which the defended level of bodyweight is determined; such compounds may also be used to complement weight loss strategy. PMID:24787262
This study assessed the relation between weight and weight-related factors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, body esteem, teasing frequency, and the effects of teasing) in a community sample of prepubescent African American girls. African American girls (N = 97) in Grades 3 to 5 completed the McKnight Risk Factor Survey-Third Edition and had their…
Tyler, Chermaine; Johnston, Craig A.; Dalton, William T., III; Foreyt, John P.
Despite knowledge that early pubertal timing predicts adolescent girls' substance use, it is still unclear whether this relationship persists beyond early adolescence and whether it is conditional on girls' bodyweight. This study examined the moderating role of bodyweight in the association between early pubertal timing and adolescent girls'…
Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than are women. Cultural influences have been found to be important, with body size underestimations occurring in cultures where a larger body is found to be desirable. Methodological issues are reviewed with recommendations for future studies. PMID:25114606
Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address bodyweight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on bodyweight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups' ability to identify bodyweight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a) community related public health nurses; (b) school public health nurses; (c) GPs and practice nurses (primary care); and (d) occupational health nurses (workplace) from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing bodyweight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based) - to determine the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing bodyweight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals' ability to identify the bodyweight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on bodyweight status, and their ability to identify bodyweight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may inform policy guidelines. PMID:21453525
As for many human diseases, the incidence of obesity and its associated health risks are sexually dimorphic: worldwide the rate of obesity is higher in women. Sex differences in metabolism, appetite, body composition, and fat deposition are contributing biological factors. Gonadal hormones regulate the development of many sexually dimorphic traits in humans and animals, and, in addition, studies in mice indicate a role for direct genetic effects of sex chromosome dosage on bodyweight, deposition of fat, and circadian timing of feeding behavior. Specifically, mice of either sex with 2 X chromosomes, typical of normal females, have heavier bodyweights, gain more weight, and eat more food during the light portion of the day than mice of either sex with a single X chromosome. Here we test the effects of X chromosome dosage on bodyweight and report that gonadal females with 2 X chromosomes express higher levels of GH gene (Gh) mRNA in the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus than females with 1 X chromosome and males. Furthermore, Gh expression in the POA of the hypothalamus of mice with 2 X chromosomes correlated with bodyweight; GH is known to have orexigenic properties. Acute infusion of GH into the POA increased immediate food intake in normal (XY) males. We propose that X inactivation–escaping genes modulate Gh expression and food intake, and this is part of the mechanism by which individuals with 2 X chromosomes are heavier than individuals with a single X chromosome. PMID:23861378
This research evaluated a dual pathway model for body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys. The study provides empirical\\u000a support for the importance of distinguishing between weight and muscularity concerns in understanding male body image. A total\\u000a of 128 boys from grades 8 and 11 completed a self-report questionnaire. Results indicated that weight and muscularity concerns\\u000a each made unique contributions to body
The relation between bodyweight and responding established with unsignaled delayed reinforcement was investigated. In three experiments, naive rats were deprived to either 70%, 80%, or 90% of ad libitum weight and were then exposed to tandem variable-interval 15-s differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior 30-s schedules. The tandem schedule defined a resetting unsignaled delay-of-reinforcement procedure. In the first experiment, speed of magazine training, acquisition of lever pressing, and final rate of lever pressing were related to bodyweight. In the next experiment, lever pressing was established and maintained in rats that were magazine trained at 70% of ad libitum weight but that were then exposed to the delay procedure at 90% of ad libitum weight. Responding did not change consistently either across or within subjects in subsequent conditions in which bodyweight was manipulated. In the final experiment, lever pressing was established and maintained with delayed reinforcement in the absence of magazine training for each of 2 rats at 70% and for 1 of 2 rats at 90% of ad libitum weight. The results further illuminate the conditions under which responding can be established in the absence of training and when such responses are reinforced only following an unsignaled delay period. PMID:9037784
The Skinny on BodyWeight Regulation: The Role of Retinoid Signaling in Photoperiod-Mediated Weight model for investigating the mechanisms regu- lating bodyweight and metabolic rate. Before winter decrease ( 30%) in bodyweight (2Â6). This decrease allows animals to survive challenging winter conditions
SCALING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODYWEIGHT AND FERMENTATION GUT CAPACITY IN AXIS DEER DAWN M 78666, USA The scaling relationship between bodyweight and fermentation gut capacity presumably impacts dietary patterns of ruminants. Interspecific scaling relationships between bodyweight and fermentation
Aspbury, Andrea S. - Department of Biology, Texas State University
Maintenance of a reducedbodyweight is accompanied by decreased energy expenditure that is due largely to increased skeletal muscle work efficiency. In addition, decreased sympathetic nervous system tone and circulating concentrations of leptin, thyroxine, and triiodothyronine act coordinately to favor weight regain. These “weight-reduced” phenotypes are similar to those of leptin-deficient humans and rodents. We examined metabolic, autonomic, and neuroendocrine phenotypes in 10 inpatient subjects (5 males, 5 females [3 never-obese, 7 obese]) under 3 sets of experimental conditions: (a) maintaining usual weight by ingesting a liquid formula diet; (b) maintaining a 10% reducedweight by ingesting a liquid formula diet; and (c) receiving twice-daily subcutaneous doses of leptin sufficient to restore 8 am circulating leptin concentrations to pre–weight-loss levels and remaining on the same liquid formula diet required to maintain a 10% reducedweight. During leptin administration, energy expenditure, skeletal muscle work efficiency, sympathetic nervous system tone, and circulating concentrations of thyroxine and triiodothyronine returned to pre–weight-loss levels. These responses suggest that the weight-reduced state may be regarded as a condition of relative leptin insufficiency. Prevention of weight regain might be achievable by strategies relevant to reversing this leptin-insufficient state. PMID:16322796
Prenatal maternal immune activation has been used to test the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. Most of the data are in mouse models; far less is available for rats. We previously showed that maternal weight change in response to the immune activator polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly IC) in rats differentially affects offspring. Therefore, we treated gravid Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats i.p. on embryonic day 14 with 8 mg/kg of Poly IC or Saline. The Poly IC group was divided into those that lost or gained the least weight, Poly IC (L), versus those that gained the most weight, Poly IC (H), following treatment. The study design controlled for litter size, litter sampling, sex distribution, and test experience. We found no effects of Poly IC on elevated zero maze, open-field activity, object burying, light-dark test, straight channel swimming, Morris water maze spatial acquisition, reversal, or shift navigation or spatial working or reference memory, or conditioned contextual or cued fear or latent inhibition. The Poly IC (H) group showed a significant decrease in the rate of route-based learning when visible cues were unavailable in the Cincinnati water maze and reduced prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle in females, but not males. The Poly IC (L) group exhibited altered responses to acute pharmacological challenges: exaggerated hyperactivity in response to (+)-amphetamine and an attenuated hyperactivity in response to MK-801. This model did not exhibit the cognitive, or latent inhibition deficits reported in Poly IC-treated rats but showed changes in response to drugs acting on neurotransmitter systems implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (dopaminergic hyperfunction and glutamatergic hypofunction). PMID:22473973
Vorhees, Charles V; Graham, Devon L; Braun, Amanda A; Schaefer, Tori L; Skelton, Matthew R; Richtand, Neil M; Williams, Michael T
This study investigated the body image perceptions among adolescents in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE). A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 661 adolescents (324 males; 337 females) aged 12-17 years selected from government schools using a multistage stratified random sampling technique. A pretested validated questionnaire was employed to determine the perception of adolescents toward their weight status. A nine figure silhouette illustration was used to measure perceptions of their ideal body image and how it compares with their current bodyweight. The results revealed that overweight (18.5%) and obesity (27.2%) were higher among males than in females (13.1% and 20.5% respectively). A high proportion of overweight males and females considered themselves as average (45.0% and 52.3%, respectively). Similarly, 56.9% of obese male and 46.4% of females considered themselves as average weight. Of non-overweight/obese males and females, 27.6% and 39.3% respectively, were pressured by parents to gain weight (p > 0.000). In general overweight and obese adolescents were more likely to face pressure from their parents and teased by friends than non-overweight/obese adolescents. Compared to their current body image, overweight and obese adolescents chose a significantly lighter figure as their ideal (p < 0.000). It is suggested that the current health education curriculum should include information related to healthy bodyweight and appropriate diet and lifestyle so as to minimize risk of developing distorted body image concerns in adolescence and beyond. PMID:23588446
'Fetal programming' is a newly emerging field that is revealing astounding insights into the prenatal origins of adult disease, including metabolic, endocrine, and cardiovascular pathophysiology. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that rat pups conceived, gestated and born at 2-g have significantly reduced birth weights and increased adult bodyweights as compared to 1-g controls. Offspring were produced by mating young adult male and female rats that were adapted to 2-g centrifugation. Female rats underwent conception, pregnancy and birth at 2-g. Newborn pups in the 2-g condition were removed from the centrifuge and fostered to non-manipulated, newly parturient dams maintained at 1 -g. Comparisons were made with 1-g stationary controls, also crossfostered at birth. As compared to 1-g controls, birth weights of pups gestated and born at 2-g were significantly reduced. Pup bodyweights were significantly reduced until Postnatal day (P) 12. Beginning on P63, bodyweights of 2-g-gestated offspring exceeded those of 1-g controls by 7-10%. Thus, prenatal rearing at 2-g restricts neonatal growth and increases adult bodyweight. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that 2-g centrifugation alters the intrauterine milieu, thereby inducing persistent changes in adult phenotype.
Baer, Lisa A.; Rushing, Linda; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.
Over the past decade or so, CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptides have emerged as major neurotransmitters and hormones. CART peptides are widely distributed in the CNS and are involved in regulating many processes, including food intake and the maintenance of bodyweight, reward and endocrine functions. Recent studies have produced a wealth of information about the location, regulation, processing
G. Rogge; D. Jones; G. W. Hubert; Y. Lin; M. J. Kuhar
The proposed Weight and Body Conditioning Program for High School Athletes focuses on Exercises that can be performed without the use of expensive gym equipment. Often public schools do not have the financial resources that private school have to create state-of-the art exercise and training rooms for athletes. In addition, public schools are frequently the victims of budget cuts such
The guidelines for body contouring reconstructive surgery present an evidence-based guide for management of redundant tissue after massive weight loss. A standardised referral pathway to ensure safe and equitable patient care on the National Health Service (NHS) throughout England is recommended. A database of all patients for research purposes is suggested. PMID:24909630
The impact of energy economy on bodyweight loss was inves- tigated in 20 obese women, submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Resting energy expenditure (REE), substrate oxidation rates, plasma glucose, free fatty acid, and insulin and leptin levels were measured before and 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Predicted REE was obtained from linear regression analysis of REE and
E. BOBBIONI-HARSCH; P. MOREL; O. HUBER; F. ASSIMACOPOULOS-JEANNET; G. CHASSOT; T. LEHMANN; M. VOLERY; A. GOLAY
The desire to achieve a normal, culturally acceptable body is often seen as the main driver of food-consumption practices adopted by individuals who are concerned about their bodyweight. In social research into weight management self-control is therefore often a central theme. Turning the focus towards practices and values related to food shopping, this study adds to our understanding of central features in perceptions of normality among people with weight concerns. In a qualitative study 25 people who participated in a dietary intervention trial in Denmark were interviewed and five people were observed. The study shows that the aim of achieving a normal body does not eclipse the importance of enacting values linked to ideas of the 'normal consumer'. Using empirical examples, the study illuminates how consumer freedom is attained in ways that are both complementary to, and in conflict with, practices and experiences of controlling food intake. The paper suggests that freedom and control are composite and complementary ideals of normality for people with weight concerns. On the basis of this insight, the authors discuss the contribution the paper makes to existing studies of weight management and food consumption. PMID:25086208
Objective: Because post-bariatric surgery patients undergo massive weight loss, the resulting skin excess can lead to both functional problems and profound dissatisfaction with appearance. Correcting skin excess could improve all these corollaries, including body image. Presently, few data are available documenting body image and weight-related quality of life in this population.Research Methods and Procedures: Eighteen patients who underwent both bariatric
Angela Y. Song; J. Peter Rubin; Veena Thomas; Jason R. Dudas; Kacey G. Marra; Madelyn H. Fernstrom
Report discusses integration of sources of microwave power for microwave-arcjet propulsive systems and such microwave instruments as synthetic-aperture radar and radiometers in spacecraft. Integration essential feature of Combined Microwave Science and Propulsion (COMAPP) concept, which incorporates new approach to design of spacecraft for exploration of planets. One of principal objectives in COMAPP to reduce overall weight of spacecraft and to maximize portion of weight devoted to scientific instrumentation.
of bodyweight (BW) may not determine proportional variations on body condition (BC), specially during parturition up to the sixth month of lactation. The treatments consisted of 3 different levels of intake : (T1) = ad libitum, (T2) = food enough to meet the maintenance requirements plus a milk production of 15 kg
The role of possessing an abnormal bodyweight in the body image alterations of obese patients was evaluated in bariatric surgery subjects prior to and at long term after operation, when bodyweight and shape had become steadily normalized. Body image was assessed by the body dissatisfaction scale of the Eating Disorders Inventory, the Body Shape Questionnaire, and the Body
Gian Franco Adami; Anna Meneghelli; Annalisa Bressani; Nicola Scopinaro
Introduction: One of the problems of today and probably this century is obesity, which is classified by the WHO as a disease. Material and methods: We performed a prospective cross-sectional study of the bodyweight impact on certain biochemical indicators in menopausal women living in the municipalities Cazin and Velika Kladusa. Results and discussion: The study included 334 women aged 40-60 years, who had regular medical examinations. For each patient at the beginning of the study we measured: body mass index, total cholesterol values, LDL, HDL and triglycerides fractions. Our findings indicate an increase in total cholesterol, LDL fraction and triglycerides in patients with increased body mass index, without statistical significance. Values of HDL fraction were significantly decreased with increasing body mass index. PMID:24944530
1. The present study was conducted to compare bodyweight, daily weight gain, relative growth rate, food intake, food conversion efficiency, abdominal fat weight, thyroid weight, plasma T4 concentration, body temperature, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production and heat production among three Japanese?quail lines selected for bodyweight: a random bred line (RR) and lines for large (LL) or small (SS)
Laboratory animals are crucial in the study of energy homeostasis. In particular, rats are used to study alterations in food intake and bodyweight. To accurately record food intake or energy expenditure it is necessary to house rats individually, which can be stressful for social animals. Environmental enrichment may reduce stress and improve welfare in laboratory rodents. However, the effect
Kylie E. L. Beale; Kevin G. Murphy; Eleanor K. Harrison; Angela J. Kerton; Mohammad A. Ghatei; Stephen R. Bloom; Kirsty L. Smith
Previous research has addressed the issues of behavior change and eating disorder prevention among adolescents and young women. The current study was designed to evaluate: (a) whether an 8-week psychoeducational intervention can reduce maladaptive weight-management practices in women (University females, N=24) with sub-clinical levels of eating pathology; and (b) whether its implementation reduces the risk of developing more severe eating
Here we review the emerging neurobiological understanding of the role of the brain’s reward system in the regulation of body\\u000a weight in health and in disease. Common obesity is characterized by the over-consumption of palatable\\/rewarding foods, reflecting\\u000a an imbalance in the relative importance of hedonic versus homeostatic signals. The popular ‘incentive salience theory’ of\\u000a food reward recognises not only a
Emil Egecioglu; Karolina P. Skibicka; Caroline Hansson; Mayte Alvarez-Crespo; P. Anders Friberg; Elisabet Jerlhag; Jörgen A. Engel; Suzanne L. Dickson
The empirical scaling from adult to pediatric using allometric size adjustments based on bodyweight continued to be the mainstream method for pediatric dose selection. Due to the flexibility of a polynomial function to conform to the data trend, an empirical function for simulating age-matched weight and body mass index by gender in the pediatric population is developed by using a polynomial function and a constant coefficient to describe the interindividual variability in weight. A polynomial of up to fifth order sufficiently described the pediatric data from the Center for Disease Control (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The coefficients of variation to describe the variability were within 17%. The percentages of the CDC simulated weights for pediatrics between 0 and 5 years that fell outside the WHO 90% and 95% confidence boundaries were well within the expected percentage values, indicating that the CDC dataset can be used to substitute for the WHO dataset for the purpose of pediatric drug development. To illustrate the utility of this empirical function, the CDC-based age-matched weights were simulated and were used in the prediction of the concentration-time profiles of tenofovir in children based on a population pharmacokinetic model whose parameters were allometrically scaled. We have shown that the resulting 95% prediction interval of tenofovir in newborn to 5 years of age was almost identical whether the weights were simulated based on WHO or CDC dataset. The approach is simple and is broadly applicable in adjusting for pediatric dosages using allometry. PMID:25155824
Sy, Sherwin K B; Asin-Prieto, Eduardo; Derendorf, Hartmut; Samara, Emil
The purpose of this study was to identify new indexes of body composition that characterize the normal weight obese (NWO) women. We measured body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) by indirect calorimetry in a cohort of seventy-five healthy Italian women, subdivided into three groups (nonobese/controls, NWO, preobese-obese women). Despite a normal body mass index (BMI), the NWO women have a higher body fat mass percentage (FAT %) (38.99 +/- 6.03) associated to a significant (p = 0.02) lower amount of lean mass of legs (12.24 +/- 1.31) and lean mass of left leg (6.07 +/- 0.64) with respect to the control group. The NWO group showed a significant (p = 0.043) lower RMR (1201.25 +/- 349.02) in comparison with nonobese and preobese-obese women. To classify NWO individuals among general population, we identified three significant body composition indexes: abdominal index, leg index and trunk index. The NWO women showed significant increased value in the three indexes (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that, despite a normal BMI, the NWO women displayed a cluster of anthropometric characteristics (body fat mass percentage, leg indexes) not different to obese women ones. An appropriate diet-therapy and physical activity may be protecting NWO individuals from diabetes and cardiovascular diseases associated to preobese-obese women. PMID:16910350
Di Renzo, L; Del Gobbo, V; Bigioni, M; Premrov, M G; Cianci, R; De Lorenzo, A
Purpose Smoking during pregnancy is strongly associated with increased risk of small for gestational age (SGA) and low birth weight, while elevated prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) is associated with a decreased risk of SGA and higher birth weight. We investigated the combined effect of prenatal smoking and prepregnancy BMI on risk of SGA and on birth weight. Methods A total of 34,928 singleton, term pregnancies in residents of New York City between 1995 and 2003 were evaluated in multivariable regression models of birth weight and risk of SGA. Results Increasing prepregnancy BMI reduced the risk of SGA and increased birth weight. The effect of prenatal smoking on birth weight and SGA diminished in women as their prepregnancy BMI increased, such that prenatal smoking did not significantly impact the risk of SGA among women who were overweight or obese prior to pregnancy. Prenatal smoking decreased mean birth weight by 187 grams (95% confidence interval (CI): -337, -37) among underweight women, by 129 grams (95% CI: -170, -87) among normal weight women, by 46 grams (95% CI: -113, +20) among overweight women, and by 75 grams (95% CI: -162, +11) among obese women. Conclusions This study suggests that the effect of smoking during pregnancy on SGA and birth weight is present in underweight and normal weight women but markedly reduced among obese and overweight women. PMID:21421328
La Merrill, Michele A.; Stein, Cheryl R.; Landrigan, Philip; Engel, Stephanie M.; Savitz, David A.
Previous studies have reported that regular nut consumption reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and does not promote weight gain despite the fact that nuts are energy-dense. However, no studies have investigated the body composition of those regularly consuming nuts compared to similar intakes of other snacks of equal energy density. This parallel study (n = 118) examined the effects of providing daily portions (~1100?kJ/d) of hazelnuts, chocolate, or potato crisps compared to a control group receiving no snacks for twelve weeks. Effects on bodyweight and composition, blood lipids and lipoproteins, resting metabolic rate (RMR), appetite indices, and dietary quality were compared. At week 12, there was no significant difference in any of the outcome measurements between the groups except for dietary quality, which improved significantly in the nut group. Nuts can be incorporated into the diet without adversely affecting bodyweight and can improve diet quality. PMID:21845219
Increased wheeze and asthma diagnosis in obesity may be due to reduced lung volume with subsequent airway narrowing. Asthma (wheeze and airway hyperresponsiveness), functional residual capacity (FRC) and airway conductance (Gaw) were measured in 276 randomly selected subjects aged 28-30 yrs. Data were initially adjusted for smoking and asthma before examining relationships between weight and FRC (after adjustment for height),
G. G. King; N. J. Brown; C. Diba; C. W. Thorpe; P. Munoz; G. B. Marks; B. Toelle; K. Ng; N. Berend; C. M. Salome
Background Successful weight management involves the regulation of eating behavior. However, the specific mechanisms underlying its successful regulation remain unclear. This study examined one potential mechanism by testing a model in which improved body image mediated the effects of obesity treatment on eating self-regulation. Further, this study explored the role of different body image components. Methods Participants were 239 overweight women (age: 37.6 ± 7.1 yr; BMI: 31.5 ± 4.1 kg/m2) engaged in a 12-month behavioral weight management program, which included a body image module. Self-reported measures were used to assess evaluative and investment body image, and eating behavior. Measurements occurred at baseline and at 12 months. Baseline-residualized scores were calculated to report change in the dependent variables. The model was tested using partial least squares analysis. Results The model explained 18-44% of the variance in the dependent variables. Treatment significantly improved both body image components, particularly by decreasing its investment component (f2 = .32 vs. f2 = .22). Eating behavior was positively predicted by investment body image change (p < .001) and to a lesser extent by evaluative body image (p < .05). Treatment had significant effects on 12-month eating behavior change, which were fully mediated by investment and partially mediated by evaluative body image (effect ratios: .68 and .22, respectively). Conclusions Results suggest that improving body image, particularly by reducing its salience in one's personal life, might play a role in enhancing eating self-regulation during weight control. Accordingly, future weight loss interventions could benefit from proactively addressing body image-related issues as part of their protocols. PMID:21767360
OF CONTENTS. Y1 1 1 LIST OF TABLES. . . . LIST OF FIGURES. CHAPTER X11 I INTRODUCTION: ASSESSMENT OF BODY COMPOSITION IN FISH, II DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A STANDARD WEIGHT (Ws) EQUATION FOR CHANNEL CATFISH, Ictalurus punctatus Introduction.... Methods. . Results and Discussion. 6 7 12 III APPLICATION OF ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE MEASUREMENT OF CHANNEL CAT- FISH, Ictalurus punctatus, BODY COMPOSITION, . . . . ?. . . . . . . . . . . 23 Introduction. . 23 CHAPTLR...
Understanding of the benefits of self-weighing are currently mixed, particularly with respect to women’s psychological health.\\u000a Applying Objectification theory (Fredrickson and Roberts 1997), we explored the role of body surveillance as a mechanism in the link between self-weighing, a common weight management\\u000a technique, and body dissatisfaction. The study was cross-sectional and the sample included primarily Caucasian, US college\\u000a students from
The aim of the study was to analyze correlations between endogenous intoxication (EI) and lipid peroxidation (LP) indices in patients with cardiovascular and endocrine diseases and healthy individuals, taking into account the presence of excessive bodyweight (EBW), as well as to compare EI and LP indices in practically healthy people with and without excessive bodyweight (EBW). The subjects were 165 people, including 36 healthy individuals and 129 patients with cardiovascular and endocrine disease. The healthy ones were divided into two groups: 20 with and 16 without EBW. To evaluate the degree of EI, the concentration of middle-molecular-weight peptides (MMWP) was measured by the method offered by N. I. Gabrielyan et al. in 1984. To evaluate LP processes, serum levels of the secondary LP product, malonic dialdehyde, and two antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, were measured. The results show that treatment aimed at LP suppression is not appropriate; it should be aimed at the cause of LP activation instead, which is the increase of MMWP level due to EBW. LP activation significantly correlates with increase of MMWP blood level (p < 0.05). EBW worsens EI and activates LP in healthy people, thus being a stress factor to the organism. Increased MMWP level and LP activation in healthy individuals with EBW may be a premorbid diagnostic marker. PMID:16404941
Abyla?uly, Zh; Oshakbaev, K P; Kozhabekova, B N; Erdesova, G E; Imantaeva, G M; Uberbaeva, G K
Abstract # 6851 Assessing the Role of Potatoes and Glycemic Index in BodyWeight Management for weight loss than glycemic index, we expect no difference in bodyweight (BW) changes between low glycemic)]. Preliminary data indicates no significant treatment effect on bodyweight or composition, glucose tolerance
Background: This study examined the relationship between actual bodyweight and self-perceived weight, and how perception of one's weight affects weight management behaviors among US adolescents. Methods: Adolescents ages 16-19 years with objectively-measured weight and height and self-reported perception of weight, weight-loss efforts, and…
Research has shown that exercise for weight control is associated with disordered eating indices in older adolescent or adult\\u000a exercisers in fitness centers. This study examined whether these relationships could be replicated in a more general sample\\u000a of 140 Dutch adolescent girls between 13 and 18 years old. Questions about sport participation, items from the Multidimensional\\u000a Body Image Questionnaire and BULIT-R,
Liesbeth Woertman; Frank C. Bakker; Raôul R. D. Oudejans
Standardized uptake values(SUVs) arewidelyusedto measure 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)uptake in venoustumors.ft has beenreported thatnormalization ofFDGuptake forpatient bodyweight(SUV@) overestimates FDGuptake inheavypatients, as theirfraclionof bodyfat (wfthlow FDGuptake)is oftenin creased. The objecth,eofthusstudywas to determineifâ€śnormal izalionof FDGuptake for the body surface areaâ€ť (SUV@)is independentofthe patient'sbodysize and is morereliablethan SUVbW.Methods: FDG-PET images were acquired on 44 pa tients (body walght range: 45â€\\
Chun K. Kim; Naresh C. Gupta; B. Chandramouli; Abass Alavi
The major objective of this research was to develop equations to estimate BW and body composition using measurements taken with inexpensive instruments. We used five groups of chickens that were created with different genetic stocks and feeding programs. Four of the five groups were from broiler genetic stock, and one was from sex-linked heavy layers. The goal was to sample six males from each group when the group weight was 1.20, 1.75, and 2.30 kg. Each male was weighed and measured for back length, pelvis width, circumference, breast width, keel length, and abdominal skinfold thickness. A cloth tape measure, calipers, and skinfold calipers were used for measurement. Chickens were scanned for total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) before being euthanized and frozen. Six females were selected at weights similar to those for males and were measured in the same way. Each whole chicken was ground, and a portion of ground material of each was used to measure water, fat, ash, and energy content. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate BW from body measurements. The best single measurement was pelvis width, with an R2 = 0.67. Inclusion of three body measurements in an equation resulted in R2 = 0.78 and the following equation: BW (g) = -930.0 + 68.5 (breast, cm) + 48.5 (circumference, cm) + 62.8 (pelvis, cm). The best single measurement to estimate body fat was abdominal skinfold thickness, expressed as a natural logarithm. Inclusion of weight and skinfold thickness resulted in R2 = 0.63 for body fat according to the following equation: fat (%) = 24.83 + 6.75 (skinfold, ln cm) - 3.87 (wt, kg). Inclusion of the result of TOBEC and the effect of sex improved the R2 to 0.78 for body fat. Regression analysis was used to develop additional equations, based on fat, to estimate water and energy contents of the body. The body water content (%) = 72.1 - 0.60 (body fat, %), and body energy (kcal/g) = 1.097 + 0.080 (body fat, %). The results of the present study indicated that the composition of a chicken's body could be estimated from the models that were developed. PMID:11469647
Body image and weight loss beliefs and behaviors were assessed in 341 female and 221 male high school students. Estimates of body dissatisfaction varied depending on the measurement strategy used. Despite having similar weight distributions around the expected norm, girls were significantly more dissatisfied with their bodies than boys. Body Mass Index was positively related to body dissatisfaction in girls
Susan J. Paxton; Eleanor H. Wertheim; Kay Gibbons; George I. Szmukler; Lynne Hillier; Janice L. Petrovich
II. Statistical comparison of White Leghorn, Degalb 101 inbred hybrids, and Hyline 934 inbred hybrids, for bodyweight, egg weight, egg production, and feed efficiency . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . 12 III . Correlation coefficients between... total feed con- sumption and various hereditary oharaoteristioa in which the three breeding groups differ RIQURXS 1. Average bodyweights by 4 week periods 2. Average egg weights by 4-week periods 3. Average egg produotioa by 4-week periods Pounds...
Objective This systematic review was conducted to determine user satisfaction and effectiveness of smartphone applications and text messaging interventions to promote weight reduction and physical activity. Methods Studies of smartphone applications and text messaging interventions related to the cardiovascular risk factors of physical inactivity and overweight/obesity published between January 2005 and August 2010 were eligible. Studies related to disease management were excluded. Study characteristics and results were gathered and synthesized. Results A total of 36 citations from CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsyclNFO, and PubMed were identified; 7 articles were eligible for inclusion. The most frequent outcome measured in the studies was change in the weight of participants (57%). More than half of the studies (71%) reported statistically significant results in at least 1 outcome of weight loss, physical activity, dietary intake, decreased body mass index, decreased waist circumference, sugar-sweetened beverage intake, screen time, and satisfaction or acceptability outcomes. Conclusions All of the technology interventions that were supported by education or an additional intervention demonstrated a beneficial impact of text messaging or smartphone application for reduction of physical inactivity and/or overweight/obesity. More rigorous trials that determine what parts of the technology or intervention are effective as well as establishment of cost-effectiveness are necessary for further evaluation of smartphone and text messaging interventions. PMID:22635061
Abstract Limited data on sex differences in body composition changes in response to higher protein diets (PRO) compared to higher carbohydrate diets (CARB) suggest that a PRO diet helps preserve lean mass (LM) in women more so than in men. Objective To compare male and female body composition responses to weight loss diets differing in macronutrient content. Design Twelve month randomized clinical trial with 4mo of weight loss and 8mo weight maintenance. Subjects Overweight (N?=?130; 58 male (M), 72 female (F); BMI?=?32.5?±?0.5?kg/m2) middle-aged subjects were randomized to energy-restricted (deficit ~500?kcal/d) diets providing protein at 1.6?g.kg-1.d-1 (PRO) or 0.8?g.kg-1.d-1 (CARB). LM and fat mass (FM) were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Body composition outcomes were tested in a repeated measures ANOVA controlling for sex, diet, time and their two- and three-way interactions at 0, 4, 8 and 12mo. Results When expressed as percent change from baseline, males and females lost similar amounts of weight at 12mo (M:-11.2?±?7.1?%, F:-9.9?±?6.0?%), as did diet groups (PRO:-10.7?±?6.8?%, CARB:-10.1?±?6.2?%), with no interaction of gender and diet. A similar pattern emerged for fat mass and lean mass, however percent body fat was significantly influenced by both gender (M:-18.0?±?12.8?%, F:-7.3?±?8.1?%, p?0.05) and diet (PRO:-14.3?±?11.8?%, CARB:-9.3?±?11.1?%, p?0.05), with no gender-diet interaction. Compared to women, men carried an extra 7.0?±?0.9?% of their total body fat in the trunk (P?0.01) at baseline, and reduced trunk fat during weight loss more than women (M:-3.0?±?0.5?%, F:-1.8?±?0.3?%, p?0.05). Conversely, women carried 7.2?±?0.9?% more total body fat in the legs, but loss of total body fat in legs was similar in men and women. Conclusion PRO was more effective in reducing percent body fat vs. CARB over 12mo weight loss and maintenance. Men lost percent total body fat and trunk fat more effectively than women. No interactive effects of protein intake and gender are evident. PMID:22691622
Deficits in dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) binding availability using PET imaging have been reported in obese humans and rodents. Similar deficits have been reported in cocaine-addicts and cocaine-exposed primates. We found that D2R/D3R binding availability negatively correlated with measures of bodyweight at the time of scan (ventral striatum), at 1 (ventral striatum) and 2 months (dorsal and ventral striatum) post scan in rats. Cocaine preference was negatively correlated with D2R/D3R binding availability 2 months (ventral striatum) post scan. Our findings suggest that inherent deficits in striatal D2R/D3R signaling are related to obesity and drug addiction susceptibility and that ventral and dorsal striatum serve dissociable roles in maintaining weight gain and cocaine preference. Measuring D2R/D3R binding availability provides a way for assessing susceptibility to weight gain and cocaine abuse in rodents and given the translational nature of PET imaging, potentially primates and humans.
Michaelides M.; Wang G.; Michaelides M.; Thanos P.K. Kim R.; Cho J.; Ananth M.; Wang G.-J.; Volkow N.D.
OBJECTIVES: Low-fat high-carbohydrate diets are recommended to prevent weight gain in normal weight subjects and reducebodyweight in overweight and obese. However, their efficacy is controversial. We evaluated the efficacy of ad libitum low-fat diets in reducingbodyweight in non-diabetic individuals from the results of intervention trials.DESIGN: Studies were identified from a computerized search of the Medline database
A. Astrup; GK Grunwald; EL Melanson; WHM Saris; JO Hill
This study examined the interaction of 2 diets (high protein, reduced carbohydrates vs. low protein, high carbohydrates) with exercise on body composition and blood lipids in women (n 48, 46 y old, BMI 33 kg\\/m2) during weight loss. The study was a 4-mo weight loss trial using a 2 2 block design (Diet Exercise). Diets were equal in total energy
Donald K. Layman; Ellen Evans; Jamie I. Baum; Jennifer Seyler; Donna J. Erickson; Richard A. Boileau
AND DISCUSSION ~ ~ ~ A. Feed Efficiency B. Egg Production C. BodyWeights D. Egg Weights. E. Pause in Production. F. Effect of Position Page 1 7 9 . 11 . 12 . 14 . 15 . 16 G. Cage Performance Versus Floor Performanoe. . . 18 H ~ Age to 50 Percent... ~ Statistical comparison of White Inbred Hybrid No. 1, and Inbred for initial bodyweight, change average body ~eight, and age to production Leghorns, Hybrid No. 2, in bodyweighted 50 percent 29 VII ' Statistical comparison of White Leghorns, Inbred...
to elucidate the mechanism controlling voluntary food intake in ruminants was to determine and compareEffects of long-term ad libitum feeding on the voluntary food intake, bodyweight, body composition in bodyweight and food intake could be divided into three phases. In the first phase, a high food intake
Overweight and obesity are major public health concerns with approximately 32% and 17% of U.S. children aged 2 – 19 being classified as overweight or obese, respectively. While the cause of overweight and obesity is multi-factorial, changes in eating habits and physical activity patterns have been proposed as contributing factors to the obesity epidemic. For example, the displacement of nutrient rich foods and beverages with non-nutrient dense items may be influencing childhood obesity. Many children do not consume the recommended servings of the Food Groups to Encourage, i.e. low-fat and fat-free dairy foods, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains identified by the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans which results in low intakes of calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E. While attention has focused primarily on reducing energy intake and/or increasing energy expenditure for weight maintenance, a promising beneficial role for dairy products in weight management has emerged. Most research has focused on adults, but there is evidence in children and adolescents indicating either a beneficial or neutral effect of dairy food consumption on bodyweight or body composition. The current review provides and assessment of the scientific evidence on the effects of dairy food consumption on bodyweight and body composition in children and adolescents. PMID:22299005
Spence, Lisa A; Cifelli, Christopher J; Miller, Gregory D
Overweight and obesity are major public health concerns with approximately 32% and 17% of U.S. children aged 2 - 19 being classified as overweight or obese, respectively. While the cause of overweight and obesity is multi-factorial, changes in eating habits and physical activity patterns have been proposed as contributing factors to the obesity epidemic. For example, the displacement of nutrient rich foods and beverages with non-nutrient dense items may be influencing childhood obesity. Many children do not consume the recommended servings of the Food Groups to Encourage, i.e. low-fat and fat-free dairy foods, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains identified by the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans which results in low intakes of calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E. While attention has focused primarily on reducing energy intake and/or increasing energy expenditure for weight maintenance, a promising beneficial role for dairy products in weight management has emerged. Most research has focused on adults, but there is evidence in children and adolescents indicating either a beneficial or neutral effect of dairy food consumption on bodyweight or body composition. The current review provides and assessment of the scientific evidence on the effects of dairy food consumption on bodyweight and body composition in children and adolescents. PMID:22299005
Spence, Lisa A; Cifelli, Christopher J; Miller, Gregory D
Background/Objectives: Bodyweight is negatively associated with adolescent Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). Despite this well-established relationship, some adolescents with obesity do not display the expected HRQoL decreases. This study hypothesised weight perception as a moderator of the association between weight status and adolescent HRQoL. Subjects/Methods: Subjects were secondary school students from an obesity prevention project in the Barwon South-West region of Victoria, Australia, entitled It's Your Move (N=3040). Measures included standardised body mass index (BMI-z; World Health Organization growth standards), weight perception and HRQoL, measured by the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Linear regression and average marginal effect analyses were conducted on cross-sectional baseline data to determine the significance of any interaction between weight perception and measured weight status in shaping adolescent HRQoL. Results: The BMI-z/perceived weight status interaction was significantly associated with adolescent HRQoL outcomes. Adolescents with BMI z-scores in the overweight/obesity range who perceived themselves as overweight had lower HRQoL than those who perceived themselves as ‘about right.' Conversely, adolescents with BMI scores in the lower end of the normal range or in the thinness range who perceived themselves as underweight had lower HRQoL than those with ‘about right' perceptions. Conclusions: This was the first study to report third-variable impacts of a body-perception variable on the relationship between adolescent weight status and HRQoL. Adolescents' weight perceptions significantly moderated the relationship between overweight/obesity and reduced HRQoL. Adolescents who were outside the normal weight range and misperceived their objectively measured weight status enjoyed a higher HRQoL than adolescents whose weight perception was concordant with their actual weight status. These findings suggest that practitioners may need to exercise caution when educating adolescents about their weight status, as such ‘reality checks' may negatively impact on adolescent HRQoL. It is suggested that more research be conducted to examine this potential effect. PMID:24824556
The present experiment examined effects of nicotine on bodyweight of male and female rats when Oreo cookies, potato chips, laboratory chow, and water were available. Bodyweight and eating behavior were measured for 17-day periods before, during, and after nicotine or saline administration. There was an inverse relationship between nicotine and bodyweight. These effects were paralleled by changes
Neil E. Grunberg; Kathryn A. Popp; Suzan E. Winders
BACKGROUND: A sedentary lifestyle is often assumed to lead to increases in bodyweight and potentially obesity and related diseases but in fact little is known about the genetic association between physical activity and bodyweight. We tested for such an association between bodyweight and the distance, duration, and speed voluntarily run by 310 mice from the F2 generation
199 Influence of latent `asymptomatic' toxoplasmosis on bodyweight of pregnant women Jaroslav bodyweight in the 16th week of gravidity (p = 0.02) than Toxoplasma-negative women. Moreover is extremely high. Therefore, even its mild symptoms such as the decreased bodyweight in Toxoplasma
Correlates of population density and bodyweight of raptors in the family Accipitridae was signiÂ®cant using independent contrasts. Contrasts in bodyweight were positively correlated with mean with population density. Key words: Accipitridae, bodyweight, comparative method, independent contrasts
BodyWeight Status, Inflammation, and Prognostic Markers in Early-Stage Prostate Cancer Brown Bag Explore the effect of post-treatment changes in bodyweight status on 2-year risk of PSA failure Specific cancer-specific mortality Other Â· Bodyweight since age 25 & 40 years Other Â· D'Amico 5-yr PSA
Genetic correlation between length of wattles and female bodyweight at sexual maturity in the foul in order to estimate phenotypic and genetic correlations between female bodyweight and their length in other strains and genetic correlation between female bodyweight and this trait. Material and methods
Direct and correlated responses to selection for large and small 6-week bodyweight in mice Yolanda.01 for divergence. Correlated responses for 3-week bodyweight did not show asymmetry, the corresponding values and the total number of young born in the first 3 births (TNY-3). Key words : Mice, bodyweight, selection
Recent changes in bodyweight and wing length among some British passerine birds Yoram Yom, J., Thorne, C. J. R. and du Feu, R. 2006. Recent changes in bodyweight and wing length among some recent decreases in bodyweight (Bergmann's rule) and increases in wing length (Allen's rule) in 14
Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/d deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (?45 points per 1000 kcal; n=40) or high GL diet (>75 points per 1000 kcal, n=29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (P<0.05, adjusted for total fat mass and baseline IAAT). Participants lost an average of 5.8 kg during the hypocaloric phase, with no differences in the amount of weight loss with diet assignment (P=0.39). Following weight loss, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 4.4% less total fat mass than those who consumed the high GL diet (P<0.05, adjusted for lean mass and baseline fat mass). Consumption of a relatively low GL diet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss. PMID:23671029
Goss, Amy M.; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E.; Gower, Barbara A.
\\u000a In applying diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) technique, DW-MR images\\u000a are acquired during free breathing, which results in images with high signal-to-noise ratio using relatively thin image sections\\u000a (4–5 mm). Image acquisition during free breathing is possible because bulk tissue motion, including respiratory motion, may\\u000a be considered as types of coherent motion, which do not result
Background: Epidemiologic data have shown that obesity independently increases colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Obesity is an inflammatory state, and chronic colonic inflammation induces CRC. Objective: We conducted this proof-of-principle study to seek evidence of obesity-associated colorectal inflammation and to evaluate effects of diet-induced weight loss. Design: We measured inflammatory cytokines, gene arrays, and macrophage infiltration in rectosigmoid mucosal biopsies of 10 obese premenopausal women [mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m2): 35 ± 3.5] before and after weight loss induced by a very-low-calorie diet. Results: Subjects lost a mean (±SD) of 10.1 ± 1% of their initial weight. Weight loss significantly reduced fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interleukin (IL)-8 concentrations (P < 0.05). After weight loss, rectosigmoid biopsies showed a 25–57% reduction in TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-8, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 concentrations (P < 0.05). T cell and macrophage counts decreased by 28% and 42%, respectively (P < 0.05). Gene arrays showed dramatic down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine pathways, prostaglandin metabolism, and the transcription factors STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) and nuclear transcription factor ?B. Weight loss reduced expression of FOS and JUN genes and down-regulated oxidative stress pathways and the transcription factors ATF (activating transcription factor) and CREB (cyclic AMP response element-binding). Conclusions: Our data show that diet-induced weight loss in obese individuals reduces colorectal inflammation and greatly modulates inflammatory and cancer-related gene pathways. These data imply that obesity is accompanied by inflammation in the colorectal mucosa and that diet-induced weight loss reduces this inflammatory state and may thereby lower CRC risk. PMID:21147860
Pendyala, Swaroop; Neff, Lisa M; Suarez-Farinas, Mayte; Holt, Peter R
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) provides functional information and can be used for the detection and\\u000a characterization of pathologic processes, including malignant tumors. The recently introduced concept of “diffusion-weighted\\u000a whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression” (DWIBS) now allows acquisition of volumetric diffusion-weighted\\u000a images of the entire body. This new concept has unique features different from conventional DWI and may
Thomas C. Kwee; Taro Takahara; Reiji Ochiai; Rutger A. J. Nievelstein; Peter R. Luijten
The role of possessing an abnormal bodyweight in the body image alterations of obese patients was evaluated in bariatric surgery subjects prior to and at long term after operation, when bodyweight and shape had become steadily normalized. Body image was assessed by the body dissatisfaction scale of the Eating Disorders Inventory, the Body Shape Questionnaire, and the Body Attitude Questionnaire. When the individuals were obese, a sharply impaired body image was observed; following operation, weight loss corresponded to normalization of body dissatisfaction, feeling of fatness, and physical attractiveness, whereas body disparagement and salience of shape, although improved in comparison to preoperative data, remained significantly different from that of controls. In the obese patients, some aspects of body image alterations are substantially accounted for by overweight status; other aspects reflect inner feelings, which are partially independent of the actual bodyweight and shape. PMID:10193918
Adami, G F; Meneghelli, A; Bressani, A; Scopinaro, N
, AND BODYWEIGHT J. M. JONES, W. H. DAMERON, S. P. DAVIS, B. L. IVARWICK, AND R. E. PATTERSON Division of Range Ani .*,*Z$* q@* . - *F 6 m: . *L 2 I". . -. = *'.. . . . *\\** **..:..* -1GRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS GIRH GILCHRIST... type in Rambouillet ewes on fleece weight, length staple, fineness of fiber and bodyweight. Heaviest scoured fleeces .e produced during the third age year, however when considered on rer an unscoured or scoured basis the differences in production...
Patterson, R.E.; Warwick, B.L.; Davis, S. P; Dameron, W. H.; Jones, J. M. (John McKinley)
Diet plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of major chronic diseases common in populations of US veterans. The role of nutrition-focused wellness coaching in improving dietary behavior and/or reducingweight in overweight and obese US veterans is not known. At the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, US veterans aged 25 to 80 years were randomized to receive nutrition coaching on eating behaviors at baseline only (control group, n=22) or an additional eight times over the course of 6 months (intervention group, n=28) in 2010-2011. Multiple coaching contacts decreased intake of energy, fat, and carbohydrate by 31% (P?0.001) as evaluated by the 2005 Block food frequency questionnaire, which is composed of 111 food items. A weight loss of 5% from baseline (92.8 to 88.2 kg; P<0.01) was observed in the intervention group with mean body mass index decreasing from 30.4 to 28.9 (P<0.05). The control group showed a decrease in fat intake by 20% (P=0.01), but no statistically significant changes in intake of other nutrients or bodyweight (88.7 to 87.4 kg). Those in the intervention group reported diets at follow-up that were lower in cholesterol, saturated fat, sodium, sugar (P?0.01), calcium (P< 0.05), and vitamin D (P<0.01), although when adjusted for energy (ie, nutrient density) calcium intake increased and vitamin D remained unchanged. Veterans' readiness to change eating behavior for weight loss improved with nutrition coaching. This study demonstrates that intermittent nutrition coaching can be an effective strategy to promote reductions in energy intake, bodyweight, and body mass index in overweight US veterans. Further research is needed to determine whether nutrition coaching improves other clinical outcomes and sustains weight loss. PMID:23706353
Bodyweight stability may imply active regulation towards a certain physiological condition, a bodyweight setpoint. This interpretation is ill at odds with the world-wide increase in overweight and obesity. Until now, a bodyweight setpoint has remained elusive and the setpoint theory did not provide practical clues for bodyweight reduction interventions. For this an alternative theoretical model is necessary, which is available as the settling point model. The settling point model postulates that there is little active regulation towards a predefined bodyweight, but that bodyweight settles based on the resultant of a number of contributors, represented by the individual’s genetic predisposition, in interaction with environmental and socioeconomic factors, such as diet and lifestyle. This review refines the settling point model and argues that by taking bodyweight regulation from a settling point perspective, the road will be opened to careful dissection of the various contributors to establishment of bodyweight and its regulation. This is both necessary and useful. Nutrigenomic technologies may help to delineate contributors to bodyweight settling. Understanding how and to which extent the different contributors influence bodyweight will allow the design of weight loss and weight maintenance interventions, which hopefully are more successful than those that are currently available. PMID:25338273
Keijer, Jaap; Hoevenaars, Femke P. M.; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie; van Schothorst, Evert M.
Body Size Shapes Caste Expression, and Cleptoparasitism ReducesBody Size in the Facultatively is associated with social caste. Behavioral observations showed that non-reproductive foragers were an association of body size with caste expression in a facultatively social species with relatively weak seasonal
Background: Obese subjects are at risk of multiple comorbidities including stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD), which is partly due to disturbances in the hemostatic system. Aims: The aims of the present study were to determine the effects of a weight-loss program on fibrinogen and fibrinolytic markers. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight obese subjects were involved in a weight-loss program consisted of exercise and nutritional education for 12-weeks duration. Physical parameters were documented and blood specimen was tested at pre and post-intervention for fibrinogen, tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI). Paired t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results: There was a significant decline in the levels of t-PA, PAI-I, TAFI and fibrinogen following the weight-loss program (P < 0.01 for each). A significant positive correlation between tPA levels and bodyweight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and fat-free mass were found. There was also a significant correlation betwen BMI and other blood parameters. Conclusion: Reduced fibrinogen, fibrinolytic, and physical parameters were demonstrated in obese subjects following the weight reduction program. These findings suggest the possible beneficial effects of this program on the hemostatic burden particularly on the fibrinolytic biomarkers. PMID:25210670
Aziz, Che Badariah Abdul; Omar, Norsuhana; Abdullah, Wan Zaidah; Jalil, Rohana Abdul; Nik, Wan Suriati Wan; Zakaria, Rahimah
Gonadal steroids regulate appetite and thus bodyweight. In addition, continuous exposure to stressors negatively influences appetite through circuits likely distinct from those of gonadal steroids. The occurrence of adverse metabolic consequences due to chronic exposure to psychosocial stressors is twice as frequent in women as men, implicating a role for ovarian hormones, estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), in modulating stress-induced changes in appetite. Using social subordination in female macaques as a model of social stress, the current study tested the hypothesis that subordinate females would lose more weight during E2 treatment and gain less weight during P4 administration than dominant females. Because polymorphisms in the gene encoding the serotonin transporter (5HTT; SCL6A4) are known to alter responsivity to stress, we hypothesized that weight loss during E2 administration would be greatest in females with the short variant (s-variant) allele of 5HTT. Dominant females were significantly heavier than subordinate animals throughout the study, a result consistent with previous accounts of food intake when animals are fed a low-fat, high-fiber diet. Females with the s-variant 5HTT genotype weighed significantly less than l/l animals. Dominant animals lost significantly more weight than subordinate animals during E2 treatment. Administration of P4 blocked the weight-reducing effects of E2 in all females, regardless of social status. These data provide evidence that social subordination modulates the influence of ovarian steroid hormones on bodyweight in female rhesus monkeys independent of 5HTT genotype. Given the prosocial effects of these steroids, future studies are necessary to determine whether status differences in E2-induced weight loss are due to diminished food intake and or increases in energy expenditure and how the change in energy availability during E2 treatments relates to a female’s motivation to interact with conspecifics. PMID:21130792
This research investigated the influence of weight-related cues on food intake. The first study used a screensaver showing three of the famous skinny human-like sculptures by Alberto Giacometti and found that participants in this condition consumed less chocolate than when they were exposed to a more neutral work of art. In the second study, participants had to indicate their bodyweight either before or after the tasting. Reporting their weight before the tasting resulted in reduced food intake. A gender effect was found for the second but not the first study. We suggest that the cues in the two studies might have been processed with different levels of awareness, which might explain the gender effect found in the second study. PMID:22425649
Objective: To assess changes in body composition with weight loss in obese subjects randomized to a laparoscopic adjustable gastric band surgical program or a medical program using a very-low-energy diet and orlistat.Research Methods and Procedures: Using body composition measurements by DXA, neutron activation for total body nitrogen, and whole body ? counting for total body potassium, we studied changes in
John B. Dixon; Boyd J. G. Strauss; Cheryl Laurie; Paul E. O'Brien
Data collected on three South African Merino flocks were used to estimate genetic and phenotypic correlations of total weight of lamb weaned over three parities (TWW) with two-tooth bodyweight at 14 to 17 months of age (BW), clean fleece weight (CFW) and mean fibre diameter (MFD). The flocks included were maintained under widely divergent environmental conditions, and included the
Anterior pituitary weights and gonado?trophin concentration, bodyweight changes and ovarian weights were followed every two weeks in three lighting treatment periods in spring hatched turkeys. In the growing period (12 to 20 weeks of age), all of the characters changed with the increasing age of the birds while no changes were associated with the lighting treatments (either 14 hr
The accuracy of weight loss in estimating successful changes in body composition (BC), namely fat mass (FM) loss, is not known and was addressed in our study. To assess the correlation between change in bodyweight and change in FM, fat% and fat-free mass (FFM), 465 participants (41% male; 41 ± 13 years), who met the criteria for weight change
Paulina Cruz; Bruce D. Johnson; Susan C. Karpinski; Katherine A. Limoges; Beth A. Warren; Kerry D. Olsen; Virend K. Somers; Michael D. Jensen; Matthew M. Clark; Francisco Lopez-Jimenez
CORRELATIONS OF WEIGHT, LENGTH, AND OTHER BODY MEASUREMENTS IN THE WEAKFISH, CYNOSCION RECALl for pagination #12;CORRELATIONS OF WEIGHT, LENGTH, AND OTHER BODY MEASUREMENTS IN THE WEAKFISH, CYNOSCION REGALIS we are sure that none of the weights recorded are influenced by the ripening of the gonads
Background: A diet with a high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) may promote overconsumption of energy and increase the risk of weight gain. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the relation between GI and GL of habitual diets and subsequent 6-y changes in bodyweight, body fat distribution, and body composition in a ran- dom
. In this study, using independent manipulations of bodyweight and body mass, we examined the relative this hypothesis by measuring muscle activity while experimentally manipulating bodyweight and mass by 1) decreasing bodyweight using a weight support system, 2) increasing body mass alone using a combination
Objectives: To investigate the association of current smoking with body mass index (BMI) and perceived bodyweight among high school students in the United States. Methods: We analyzed data from the 1999-2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results: Perceived bodyweight and BMI were associated with adolescents' current smoking. Adjusted odds ratios…
AIMSTo evaluate the effect of the administration of growth hormone on stature, bodyweight, and body composition in children aged between 4 and 10 years with Prader-Willi syndrome.METHODSHeight, weight, and skinfold thickness were recorded in 25 children using standard anthropometric techniques at recruitment, and six months later, shortly before the start of daily subcutaneous injections of growth hormone. Body composition
P S W Davies; S Evans; S Broomhead; H Clough; J M E Day; A Laidlaw; N D Barnes
BACKGROUND: Years spent in college represents a critical time for obesity development though little information is known regarding how bodyweight and composition changes beyond the first year of college. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in bodyweight and composition and the factors influencing those changes among sophomore females. METHODS: Body composition by dual energy X-ray
Holly R Hull; Michelle L Morrow; Mary K Dinger; Jennifer L Han; David A Fields
An experiment is conducted to determine whether the NASA Space Shuttle food system can provide the food and fluid required to mitigate weight loss and physical decomposition in 12 female subjects for 28 days. Subjects receive only foods from the Space Shuttle system for four weeks within an 11-wk monitoring period. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is employed throughout the trial period to study lean body mass, percent body fat, and energy-intake levels with attention given to differences the experimental diet and the subjects' typical diet. Percent body fat is found to change significantly with losses of less than 0.05 percent, whereas energy intake based on autonomous diet choices by the participants does not vary significantly. Lean body mass remains unchanged throughout the study in which the subjects receive a relatively low-fat and low-protein menu. The 100 items on the space shuttle list of approved food items are shown to provide a palatable dietary framework for maintaining the health of female astronauts.
Lane, Helen W.; Frye, Sherrie; Kloeris, Vickie; Rice, Barbara; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Spector, Elisabeth; Gretebeck, Randall J.
Background Previous research has shown that bodyweight support (BWS) has the potential to improve gait speed for individuals post-stroke. However, bodyweight support also reduces the optimal walking speed at which energy use is minimized over the gait cycle indicating that BWS should reduce walking speed capability. Methods Nonimpaired subjects and subjects post-stroke walked at a self-selected speed over a 15 m walkway. Bodyweight support (BWS) was provided to subjects at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% of the subject's weight while they walked overground using a robotic bodyweight support system. Gait speed, cadence, and average step length were calculated for each subject using recorded data on their time to walk 10 m and the number of steps taken. Results When subjected to greater levels of BWS, self-selected walking speed decreased for the nonimpaired subjects. However, subjects post-stroke showed an average increase of 17% in self-selected walking speed when subjected to some level of BWS compared to the 0% BWS condition. Most subjects showed this increase at the 10% BWS level. Gait speed increases corresponded to an increase in step length, but not cadence. Conclusions The BWS training environment results in decreased self-selected walking speed in nonimpaired individuals, however self-selected overground walking speed is facilitated when provided with a small percentage of bodyweight support for people post-stroke. PMID:20149244
Dietary fibres are believed to reduce subjective appetite, energy intake and bodyweight. However, different types of dietary fibre may affect these outcomes differently. The aim of this review was to systematically investigate the available literature on the relationship between dietary fibre types, appetite, acute and long-term energy intake, and bodyweight. Fibres were grouped according to chemical structure and physicochemical properties (viscosity, solubility and fermentability). Effect rates were calculated as the proportion of all fibre-control comparisons that reduced appetite (n = 58 comparisons), acute energy intake (n = 26), long-term energy intake (n = 38) or bodyweight (n = 66). For appetite, acute energy intake, long-term energy intake and bodyweight, there were clear differences in effect rates depending on chemical structure. Interestingly, fibres characterized as being more viscous (e.g. pectins, ?-glucans and guar gum) reduced appetite more often than those less viscous fibres (59% vs. 14%), which also applied to acute energy intake (69% vs. 30%). Overall, effects on energy intake and bodyweight were relatively small, and distinct dose-response relationships were not observed. Short- and long-term effects of dietary fibres appear to differ and multiple mechanisms relating to their different physicochemical properties seem to interplay. This warrants further exploration. PMID:21676152
Wanders, A J; van den Borne, J J G C; de Graaf, C; Hulshof, T; Jonathan, M C; Kristensen, M; Mars, M; Schols, H A; Feskens, E J M
High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) accounts for as much as 40% of caloric sweeteners used in the United States. Some studies have shown that short-term access to HFCS can cause increased bodyweight, but the findings are mixed. The current study examined both short- and long-term effects of HFCS on bodyweight, body fat, and circulating triglycerides. In Experiment 1, male
Miriam E. Bocarsly; Elyse S. Powell; Nicole M. Avena; Bartley G. Hoebel
Height and weight at menarche were found for each subject in three longitudinal growth studies. Early and late maturing girls have menarche at the same mean weight, but late maturers are taller at menarche. Two other major events of adolescence, initiation of the weight growth spurt and maximum rate of weight gain, also occur at an invariant mean weight. The
OBJECTIVE: When animals are allowed free access to food following an extended period of food restriction, bodyweight is steadily restored to the pre-food restriction level, ie to a specific bodyweight ‘set-point’. We tested the proposition that leptin is used as a signal by the brain to regulate bodyweight ‘set-point’. To this end, we determined whether long-term leptin
The goals of this study were to examine gender differences in body satisfaction, obesity status, and weight loss strategies among African Americans. A self-administered survey was completed by a convenient sample of 789 African Americans, but 763 provided weight and height information. Significantly more men than women were satisfied or very satisfied with their weight. Based on self-reported weights, the
Prenatal risk ratios for Down syndrome adjust for maternal weight because maternal serum biomarker levels decrease with increasing maternal weight. This is accomplished by converting serum biomarker values into a multiple of the expected median (MoM) for women of the same gestational age. Weight is frequently not recorded, and the impact of using MoMs not adjusted for weight for calculating risk ratios is unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of missing weight on first trimester Down syndrome risk ratios by comparing risk ratios calculated using weight-unadjusted-and-adjusted MoMs. Findings at the population level indicate that the impact of not adjusting for maternal weight on first trimester screening results for chromosomal anomalies would lead to under-identification of 84 per 10 000 pregnancies. PMID:25287568
The article describes a 20-year longitudinal study of bodyweight, dieting, and disordered eating in women and men. Bodyweight increased significantly over time in both women and men. However, women’s weight perception and dieting frequency decreased over time, whereas men’s weight perception and dieting frequency increased, and disordered eating declined more in women than in men from late adolescence
Pamela K. Keel; Mark G. Baxter; Todd F. Heatherton; Thomas E. Joiner
Abstract Obesity is associated with chronic low?grade inflammation that involves infiltration of macrophages into metabolic organs such as skeletal muscle. Exercise enhances skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity independently of weight loss; but its role in regulating muscle inflammation is not fully understood. We hypothesized that exercise training would inhibit skeletal muscle inflammation and alter macrophage infiltration into muscle independently of weight loss. Wild type C57BL/6 male mice were fed a chow diet or a high?fat diet (HFD, 45% calories fat) for 6 weeks. Then, mice maintained on the HFD either remained sedentary (HFD Sed) or exercised (HFD Ex) on a treadmill for another 6 weeks. The exercise training protocol involved conducting intervals of 2 min in duration followed by 2 min of rest for 60 min thrice weekly. Chow?fed control mice remained sedentary for the entire 12 weeks. Muscle cytokine and macrophage gene expression analysis were conducted using qRT?PCR, and muscle macrophage content was also measured using immunohistochemistry. Muscle cytokine protein content was quantified using a cytokine array. The HFD increased adiposity and weight gain compared to chow?fed controls. HFD Sed and HFD Ex mice had similar body mass as well as total and visceral adiposity. However, despite similar adiposity, exercise reduced inflammation and muscle macrophage infiltration. We conclude that Endurance exercise training modulates the immune?metabolic crosstalk in obesity independently of weight loss, and may have potential benefits in reducing obesity?related muscle inflammation. PMID:24843075
Samaan, M. Constantine; Marcinko, Katarina; Sikkema, Sarah; Fullerton, Morgan D.; Ziafazeli, Tahereh; Khan, Mohammad I.; Steinberg, Gregory R.
The endocannabinoid system elicits multiple physiologic functions that are not fully understood. Antagonism of cannabinoid type 1 (CB(1)) receptors has been the only successful new pharmacologic treatment approach in Phase III studies in obesity in the last 8 years. Whereas antagonism of (CB(1)) receptors acutely reduces food intake, the long-term effects on weight reduction and metabolic regulation appear to be mediated by stimulation of energy expenditure and by peripheral effects related to liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and pancreas physiology. For example, in the liver, lipogenic enzymes and fatty acid synthesis are upregulated by endocannabinoids, and in adipose tissue, antagonism of (CB(1)) receptors increases secretion of adiponectin. Some studies suggest that endocannabinoid formation is increased in obesity, perhaps because endocannabinoid degradation is decreased. Although many questions remain unanswered at present, the emerging concept of endocannabinoids as metabolic regulators helps to explain the success of rimonabant (SR141716), an antagonist of (CB(1)) receptors, currently in Phase III studies. PMID:17208664
Examined parents' awareness of their daughters' attitudes, beliefs, and feelings about their bodies. Sixty-six adolescent daughters completed an eating disorder scale, a body figure rating scale, and made ratings of their shape and weight. Greater discrepancies between parents' estimates of daughters' body esteem and daughters' self-reported body…
Geller, Josie; Srikameswaran, Suja; Zaitsoff, Shannon L.; Cockell, Sarah J.; Poole, Gary D.
Television programs portray characters with idealized body types that for most viewers are unattainable. These body types have become a common source of comparison for many young viewers who evaluate their own self-worth and bodies based on the models they see on television. This study examines bodyweight, both in terms of frequency and portrayals, focusing on how preadolescent and
Excessive BW has become a major health issue in the equine (Equus caballus) industry. The objectives were to determine if the addition of neck circumference and height improved existing BW estimation equations, to develop an equation for estimation of ideal BW, and to develop a method for assessing the likelihood of being overweight in adult equids. Six hundred and twenty-nine adult horses and ponies who met the following criteria were measured and weighed at 2 horse shows in September 2011 in Minnesota: age ? 3 yr, height ? 112 cm, and nonpregnant. Personnel assessed BCS on a scale of 1 to 9 and measured wither height at the third thoracic vertebra, body length from the point of shoulder to the point of the buttock, neck and girth circumference, and weight using a portable livestock scale. Individuals were grouped into breed types on the basis of existing knowledge and were confirmed with multivariate ANOVA analysis of morphometric measurements. Equations for estimated and ideal BW were developed using linear regression modeling. For estimated BW, the model was fit using all individuals and all morphometric measurements. For ideal BW, the model was fit using individuals with a BCS of 5; breed type, height, and body length were considered as these measurements are not affected by adiposity. A BW score to assess the likelihood of being overweight was developed by fitting a proportional odds logistic regression model on BCS using the difference between ideal and estimated BW, the neck to height ratio, and the girth to height ratio as predictors; this score was then standardized using the data from individuals with a BCS of 5. Breed types included Arabian, stock, and pony. Mean (± SD) BCS was 5.6 ± 0.9. BW (kg) was estimated by taking [girth (cm)(1.48)6 × length (cm)(0.554) × height (cm)(0.599) × neck (cm)(0.173)]/3,596, 3,606, and 3,441 for Arabians, ponies, and stock horses, respectively (R(2) = 0.92; mean-squared error (MSE) = 22 kg). Ideal BW (kg) was estimated by taking [length (cm) × 2.8] + [height (cm) × 4.2] - 611, 606, and 577 for Arabians, ponies, and stock horses, respectively (R(2) = 0.86; MSE = 24). Equids with a BCS of ? 7 had a greater likelihood of being overweight, and the model suggested cutoffs at the 48th and 83rd percentiles for underweight and overweight individuals, respectively. Morphometric measurements were successfully used to develop equid BW-related equations. PMID:24663191
Martinson, K L; Coleman, R C; Rendahl, A K; Fang, Z; McCue, M E
Given the increased prevalence of obesity in the United States, despite reduced fat intake, there has been increasing interest\\u000a in the effect of dietary fat on bodyweight, lipoproteins, and glycemic status. Despite predictions from epidemiologic and\\u000a physiologic studies, recent prospective trials have demonstrated equivalent weight loss on high-fat versus low-fat diets.\\u000a Nevertheless, the type of dietary fat consumed has
The use of dieting, rapid weight loss, and frequent weight fluctuation among athletes competing in weight-class and leanness sports have been considered a problem for years, but the extent of the problem and the health and performance consequences have yet to be fully examined. Most studies examining these issues have had weak methodology. However, results from this review indicate that
The use of dieting, rapid weight loss, and frequent weight fluctuation among athletes competing in weight-class and leanness sports have been considered a problem for years, but the extent of the problem and the health and performance consequences have yet to be fully examined. Most studies examining these issues have had weak methodology. However, results from this review indicate that
Effects of visual representations of the thin ideal in the media have been widely explored, but textual representations of the thin ideal in novels have received scant attention. The chick literature genre has been criticized for depicting characters who worry about their bodyweight and who have poor body esteem. Excerpts from two chick lit novels were used to examine the effect of a protagonist's bodyweight and body esteem on college women's (N=159) perceptions of their sexual attractiveness and weight concern. Two narratives were used to minimize the possibility that idiosyncratic characteristics of one excerpt might influence the study's results. Underweight (vs. healthy weight) protagonists predicted readers' lower perceived sexual attractiveness. Protagonists with low body esteem (vs. control) predicted readers' increased weight concern. Scholars and health officials should be concerned about the effect chick lit novels might have on women's body image. PMID:23219006
This study investigated associations between eating regulation behaviors and body mass index (BMI), weight, and percent body fat in male and female students over the first two years of college. Subjects included 328 college students (215 females and 113 males). Height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and eating regulation behaviors (using the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale) were conducted two to three times during both the freshman and sophomore years. Significant associations between eating regulation and BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were shown mostly in females. In females, higher BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat at the end of the second year of college were found in those with low levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and high levels of amotivation, while lower BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were associated with high levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and low levels of amotivation. The findings that specific eating behaviors in females during the first two years of college influence BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat may be useful for inclusion in university programs focused on college student health to help decrease the risk of obesity and disordered eating/eating disorders in female college students. PMID:24854827
Gropper, Sareen S; Arsiwalla, Dilbur D; Lord, Denali C; Huggins, Kevin W; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V
Lameness is a costly and widespread health and wel- fare problem in intensive dairy production, and reliable automated methods to detect lameness are needed. Lameness may be detected through the measurement of how cattle distribute their weight among their 4 legs, but this requires an understanding of how cattle redis- tribute their weight in response to pain in one or
S. Neveux; D. M. Weary; J. Rushen; M. A. G. von Keyserlingk; A. M. de Passillé
Previous studies indicate that acupuncture or electroacupuncture (EA) treatment reducesbodyweight and food intake in rats by increasing the level of anoretic peptides and decreasing that of orexigenic peptides in the hypothalamus. Considering a well-established role of leptin as a major regulator for feeding behavior in the hypothalamus, we hypothesized that EA might exert its effect via increasing serum
Sun Kwang Kim; Giseog Lee; Marie Shin; Jae-Bok Han; Hak Jin Moon; Jung Hyuk Park; Kye Jin Kim; Joohun Ha; Dong Suk Park; Byung-Il Min
LeCheminant et al. Lipids in Health and Disease 2010, 9:54 http://www.lipidworld.com/content/9/1/54Open AccessSHORT PAPER Short paperComparison of a reduced carbohydrate and reduced fat diet for LDL, HDL, and VLDL subclasses during 9-months... either a reduced carbohydrate (RC) or reduced fat (RF) weight maintenance diet for 9 months following significant weight loss. Methods: Thirty-five (21 RC; 14 RF) overweight or obese middle-aged adults completed a 1-year weight management clinic...
LeCheminant, James D.; Smith, Bryan K.; Westman, Eric C.; Vernon, Mary C.; Donnelly, Joseph E.
Human adipose tissue is not only a storage organ but also an active endocrine organ to release adipokines. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among serum taurine and adipokine levels, and body composition during 8-week human bodyweight control program in obese female college students. The program consisted of diet therapy, exercise, and behavior modification. After the program, bodyweight, body fat mass, percent body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly decreased. Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased. Also serum adiponectin level was significantly increased and serum leptin level was significantly decreased. There were no differences in serum taurine and homocysteine levels. The change of serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with change of body fat mass and percent body fat. These results may suggest that body fat loss by human bodyweight control program is associated with an increase in serum adiponectin in obese female college students. Therefore, further study such as taurine intervention study is needed to know more exact correlation between dietary taurine intake and serum adipokines or body composition. PMID:23392876
You, Jeong Soon; Park, Ji Yeon; Zhao, Xu; Jeong, Jin Seok; Choi, Mi Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja
The Relationship between BodyWeight and Homosexual Mounting in Palmacorixa nana Walley-5. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODYWEIGHT AND HOMOSEXUAL MOUNTING IN PALMACORIXA NANA WALLEY (HETEROPTERA: CORIXIDAE) R L5L 1C6 ABSTRACT Homosexual mounting is common in insects. Half the mounting attempts of Palmacorixa
Examined whether body mass index (BMI) and perception of a bodyweight problem predict level of self esteem and depression in Korean female adolescents. Results showed that perception of a weight problem, but not BMI, contributed significantly to the prediction of level of self esteem and depression. (BF)
Bodyweight maintenance is required in a variety of behavioral and physiological studies. C-based animal weighing system is described which features automated data collection and allows for accurate control of bodyweight in test animals via manipulation of food intake. ajor syst...
This study explored rhythmic gymnasts’ perceptions of the influence of their retirement transition on body satisfaction and weight control behaviors. Eight retired elite female rhythmic gymnasts participated in semi-structured interviews. Findings were interpreted to suggest that these retired gymnasts experienced an increase in body dissatisfaction upon retirement and that they felt guilty about their weight gain, loss of muscle mass
Ashley E. Stirling; Lisanne C. Cruz; Gretchen A. Kerr
Despite the popular belief that the thinstandard of female attractiveness currently presented inthe media is a primary contributor to the high level ofconcern with bodyweight among women, experimental studies have not shown that exposure to mediaimages increases women's weight concern. Threeexperiments are reported demonstrating that exposure tomedia images does often result in increased weightconcern among women, but that body
Heidi D. Posavac; Steven S. Posavac; Emil J. Posavac
The aim of the study was to evaluate heterotic and combining ability effects for growth in nine chicken genotypes. A 3 × 3 complete diallel mating system involving two indigenous breeds named Venda (V) and Naked Neck (N) and one commercial broiler breed named Ross 308 (R) were used. The nine genetic groups of crosses were reared up from hatch to 13 weeks of age in deep litter open house. Bodyweights of 180 chicks (20 chicks per genetic group), recorded at 0, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13 weeks of age, were used to estimate heterosis, general combining ability (GCA), and specific combining ability (SCA). Results showed that the Ross 308 had the heaviest bodyweight at all weeks of measurement except for hatch. With respect to crosses, the V × R and its reciprocal cross, R × V had the heaviest bodyweights at 13 weeks. Heterosis estimates for bodyweight were higher in the Venda male × Ross 308 female and Venda male and Naked Neck female crosses. GCA was significant (P ? 0.01) for bodyweight from hatch to 13 weeks of age while SCA and reciprocal effects were both significant (P ? 0.05) for bodyweight at all ages of measurement except for hatch. The Ross 308 gave the highest positive effect of GCA for bodyweight except for hatch. V × N gave the highest and positive effects of SCA for bodyweight. PMID:23151822
A method that uses passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags for the continuous recording of feeding behavior and bodyweight from multiple individual animals is described. We have used this method in the field and in semi-natural captive conditions with black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) to determine daily and seasonal patterns in bodyweight and to estimate the proportions of food cached
Objective: To examine diet, physical activity, and body-weight changes associated with relocation from home to university. Methods: Diet, fitness/physical activity, body-weight parameters and self-efficacy were assessed among 54 freshman women upon college entry and 5 months later. Results: Although caloric intake significantly decreased, a…
Butler, Scott M.; Black, David R.; Blue, Carolyn L.; Gretebeck, Randall J.
ObjectivesOxidative stress increases postmenopausally, an effect attributed to aging. Increase in bodyweight generally accompanies menopause. Obesity per se also seems to increase oxidative stress. The question is whether postmenopausal increase in oxidative stress is related to bodyweight, or is only a function of age.
The present study was aimed at investigating the efficacy and mechanism(s) of action of a Chinese herbal formulation, Liuwei Dihuang (LWDH), as a prospective natural weight-lowering product. Following a 2-week acclimation period, 48 obesity-prone (OP-CD) rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 12 each). One group served as a positive control for obesity (OP), while the other 3 were challenged twice daily by oral gavage with total daily dosages of 500, 1500, or 3500?mg/kg BW LWDH, respectively, for 10 weeks. One group (n = 12) of obesity-resistant (OR-CD) rats served as the normal control group. All rats were fed the same AIN-93G diet modified to contain 60% energy from fat. The highest LWDH dose significantly reducedbodyweight during the last 4 weeks of treatment. Food intake was reduced beginning in week 2. The high LWDH dose lowered serum triglyceride (TG) and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels and body fat. Both the high and medium doses also lowered serum leptin and insulin levels. Liver function testing revealed no adverse side effects under the current experimental conditions. The results of the present study suggest that LWDH has potential as a preventive or therapeutic natural product against overweight and obesity. PMID:21904565
Recently, a shift in obesity treatment away from emphasizing ideal weight loss goals to establishing realistic weight loss goals has been proposed; yet, what constitutes "realistic" weight loss for different populations is not clear. This study examined notions of realistic shape and weight as well as body size assessment in a large community-based sample of African-American, Asian, Hispanic, and white men and women. Participants were 1893 survey respondents who were all dieters and primarily overweight. Groups were compared on various variables of body image assessment using silhouette ratings. No significant race differences were found in silhouette ratings, nor in perceptions of realistic shape or reasonable weight loss. Realistic shape and weight ratings by both women and men were smaller than current shape and weight but larger than ideal shape and weight ratings. Compared with male dieters, female dieters considered greater weight loss to be realistic. Implications of the findings for the treatment of obesity are discussed. PMID:9526972
Purpose: To examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI), bodyweight perception (BWP), and indicators of internalizing and externalizing distress and social, attention and thought problems in a large representative sample of Dutch youth. Methods: A total of 1826 pupils in the eighth grade of primary education and 5730 students in the first four years of secondary education gave
Bogt ter T. F. M; K. Monshouwer; J. E. E. Verdurmen; R. C. M. E. Engels; W. A. M. Vollebergh
Objective: To evaluate the effects of gestational weight gain on maternal and neonatal outcomes in different body mass index (BMI) classes. Methods: We compared maternal and neonatal outcomes based on gestational weight gain in underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese (BMI 40.00) women. The study group was a population-based cohort of women with singleton gestations who delivered between
Joan M. G. Crane; Joanne White; Phil Murphy; Lorraine Burrage; Donna Hutchens
Endocrine disrupting chemicals with estrogenic activity play an important role as obesogens. However, studies investigating the most potent natural estrogen, estradiol-17? (E2), at low dose are lacking. We examined endocrine and physiological parameters in gilts receiving distinct concentrations of E2 during pregnancy. We then investigated whether adverse effects prevail in progeny due to a potential endocrine disruption. E2 was orally applied to gilts during the entire period of pregnancy. The concentrations represented a daily consumption at the recommended ADI level (0.05 ?g/kg bodyweight/day), at the NOEL (10 ?g/kg bodyweight/day) and at a high dosage (1000 ?g/kg bodyweight/day). Plasma hormone concentrations were determined using enzyme immuno assays. Offspring body fat was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. In treated gilts receiving 1000 ?g E2/kg bodyweight/day we found significantly elevated plasma E2 levels during pregnancy, paralleled by an increased weight gain. While offspring showed similar weight at birth, piglets exhibited a significant reduction in weight at weaning even though their mothers had only received 0.05 ?g E2/kg bodyweight/day. At 8 weeks of age, specifically males showed a significant increase in overall body fat percentage. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to low doses of E2 affected pig offspring development in terms of bodyweight and composition. In line with findings from other obesogens, our data suggest a programming effect during pregnancy for E2 causative for the depicted phenotypes. Therefore, E2 exposure may imply a possible contribution to childhood obesity. -- Highlights: ? We investigate the potential role of estradiol-17? (E2) as an obesogen. ? We orally apply E2 at the ADI, NOEL and a high dose to gilts during pregnancy. ? Offspring weight is similar at birth but reduced at weaning even after ADI treatment. ? Male offspring only exhibit an increase in overall body fat percentage prepubertally. ? E2 appears as an endocrine disruptor that might contribute to childhood obesity.
Werner Fürst, Rainer [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany) [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); ZIEL PhD Graduate school ‘Epigenetics, Imprinting and Nutrition’, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Pistek, Veronika Leopoldine; Kliem, Heike [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)] [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Skurk, Thomas; Hauner, Hans [ZIEL Dep. Nutritional Medicine, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany) [ZIEL Dep. Nutritional Medicine, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, 81675 München (Germany); Meyer, Heinrich Herman Dietrich [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)] [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Ulbrich, Susanne Ernestine, E-mail: email@example.com [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)
Obesity is a significant problem among adolescents in Pacific populations. This paper reports on the outcomes of a 3-year obesity prevention study, Healthy Youth Healthy Communities, which was part of the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project, undertaken with Fijian adolescents. The intervention was developed with schools and comprised social marketing, nutrition and physical activity initiatives and capacity building designed to reduce unhealthy weight, and the individual exposure period was just over 2-year duration. The evaluation incorporated a quasi-experimental, longitudinal design in seven intervention secondary schools near Suva (n=874) and a matched sample of 11 comparison secondary schools from western Viti Levu (n=2,062). There were significant differences between groups at baseline; the intervention group was shorter, weighed less, had a higher proportion of underweight and lower proportion of overweight, and better quality of life (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory only). At follow-up, the intervention group had lower percentage body fat (-1.17) but also a lower increase in quality of life (Assessment of Quality of Life instrument: -0.02; Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory: -1.94) than the comparison group. There were no other differences in anthropometry, and behaviours' changes showed a mixed pattern. In conclusion, this school-based health promotion programme lowered percentage body fat but did not reduce unhealthy weight gain or influence most obesity-promoting behaviours among Fijian adolescents. Despite growing evidence supporting the efficacy of community-based approaches to reduce obesity among children of European descent, findings from this study failed to demonstrate the efficacy of a community capacity-building approach among an adolescent sample drawn from a different sociocultural, economic and geographical context. Additional 'top-down' or other innovative approaches may be needed to reduce adolescent obesity in the Pacific. PMID:22008557
Kremer, P; Waqa, G; Vanualailai, N; Schultz, J T; Roberts, G; Moodie, M; Mavoa, H; Malakellis, M; McCabe, M P; Swinburn, B A
Objective:To investigate weight perception, dieting and emotional well being across the range of body mass index (BMI) in a population-based multiethnic sample of early adolescents.Design:Cross-sectional population-based survey.Subjects:In total, 2789 adolescents 11–14 years of age from three highly deprived regional authorities in East London, in 2001.Measurements:Data were collected by student-completed questionnaire on weight perception, dieting history, mental and physical health, health
R M Viner; M M Haines; S J C Taylor; J Head; R Booy; S Stansfeld
OBJECTIVESThe association between birth weight and exposure to benzene, work stress, and other occupational and environmental hazards was investigated.METHODSIn a large petrochemical industry, 792 pregnant workers were enrolled and followed up through delivery between May 1996 and December 1998. Exposure to benzene and other solvents was assessed by an industrial hygienist based on each woman's job title and workplace information.
Dafang Chen; Sung-Il Cho; Changzhong Chen; Xiaobin Wang; Andrew I Damokosh; Louise Ryan; Thomas J Smith; David C Christiani; Xiping Xu
To investigate associations of trimester-specific GWG with fetal birth size and BMI at age 5 years. We examined 3,015 singleton\\u000a births to women without pregnancy complications from the Child Health and Development Studies prospective cohort with measured\\u000a weights during pregnancy. We used multivariable regression to examine the associations between total and trimester gestational\\u000a weight gain (GWG) and birth weight for gestational
Claire E. Margerison-Zilko; Bina P. Shrimali; Brenda Eskenazi; Maureen Lahiff; Allison R. Lindquist; Barbara F. Abrams
A longitudinal study was used to examine age differences in the role of body mass index (BMI) and sociocultural pressures in predicting changes in body image and strategies to both lose weight and increase muscles among 443 children aged between 8 and 12 years (207 boys, 236 girls) over a 16-month period. The strongest predictors of body image and…
Letter to Editor Height, weight, body mass index and offspring sex at birth in contemporary Finnish in humans body size is heritable, taller and heavier parents should produce an excess of sons, because large body size is much more closely related to high fitness in men compared to women (Kanazawa, 2005
esteem. Results: Relative to the other two groups, competitive bodybuilders had greater body mass due to fat-free body mass. Although groups did not differ in their situational body image discomfort, competitive bodybuilders and weight trainers had a more positive global appearance evaluation and were more psychologically invested in their physical appearance. Compared with active controls, men in both weightlifting groups
Reducing energy density (ED) of the diet is an important strategy for controlling obesity. This 1-year, randomized clinical trial examined the effect of substituting mushrooms for red meat ('mushroom diet'), compared to a standard diet ('meat diet'), on weight loss and maintenance among 73 obese adults (64 women, 9 men). The subjects completed anthropometric measurements and 7-day food records four times during a standardized weight loss and maintenance regimen. At the end of the 1-year trial, compared to participants on the standard diet, participants on the mushroom diet (n=36) reported lower intakes of energy (mean ± [SE]=-123 ± 113 kcals) and fat (-4.25 ± 6.88 g), lost more pounds and percentage bodyweight (-7.03 ± 3.34 lbs, 3.6%), achieved lower body mass index (-1.53 ± 0.36), waist circumference (-2.6 ± 3.5 in.) and percent total body fat (-0.85 ± 0.53), and had lower systolic and diastolic pressure (-7.9 and -2.5 mmHg); their lipid profile and inflammatory markers also improved. After initial weight loss, subjects following the mushroom diet maintained that loss well. Those who completed the full 12-month trial still weighed a mean of 7 lbs less than baseline. Thus, encouraging adults to substitute mushrooms for red meat was a useful strategy for enhancing weight loss, weight maintenance, and health parameters. PMID:24056209
Poddar, Kavita H; Ames, Meghan; Hsin-Jen, Chen; Feeney, Mary Jo; Wang, Youfa; Cheskin, Lawrence J
Background The family environment offers several opportunities through which to improve adolescents' weight and weight-related behaviors. This study aims to examine the cross-sectional relationships between multiple factors in the family environment and physical activity (PA), television use (TV), soft drink intake, fruit and vegetable (FV) intake, body mass index (BMI), and body composition among a sample of sociodemographically-diverse adolescent girls. Methods Subjects included girls (mean age = 15.7), 71% of whom identified as a racial/ethnic minority, and one of their parents (dyad n = 253). Parents completed surveys assessing factors in the family environment including familial support for adolescents' PA, healthful dietary intake, and limiting TV use; parental modeling of behavior; and resources in the home such as availability of healthful food. Girls' PA and TV use were measured by 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) and dietary intake by survey measures. BMI was measured by study staff, and body fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Hierarchical linear regression models tested individual and mutually-adjusted relationships between family environment factors and girls' outcomes. Results In the individual models, positive associations were observed between family support for PA and girls' total PA (p = .011) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (p=.016), home food availability and girls' soft drink (p < .001) and FV (p < .001) intake, and family meal frequency and girls' FV intake (p = .023). Across the individual and mutually-adjusted models, parental modeling of PA, TV, and soft drink and FV intake was consistently associated with girls' behavior. Conclusions Helping parents improve their physical activity and dietary intake, as well as reduce time watching television, may be an effective way to promote healthful behaviors and weight among adolescent girls. PMID:21453516
Numerous physiological and molecular changes accompany dietary restriction (DR), which has been a major impediment to elucidating the causal basis underlying DR's many health benefits. Two major metabolic responses to DR that potentially underlie many of these changes are the body temperature (T(b)) and bodyweight (BW) responses. These responses also represent an especially difficult challenge to uncouple during DR. We demonstrate in this study, using two recombinant inbred (RI) panels of mice (the LXS and LSXSS) that naturally occurring genetic variation serves as a powerful tool for modulating T(b) and BW independently during DR. The correlation coefficient between the two responses was essentially zero, with R = -0.04 in the LXS and -0.03 in the LSXSS, the latter averaged across replicate cohorts. This study is also the first to report that there is highly significant (P = 10(-10)) strain variation in the T(b) response to DR in the LXS (51 strains tested), with strain means ranging from 2 to 4 degrees C below normal. The results suggest that the strain variation in the T(b) response to DR is largely due to differences in the rate of heat loss rather than heat production (i.e., metabolic rate). This variation can thus be used to assess the long-term effects of lower T(b) independent of BW or metabolic rate, as well as independent of food intake and motor activity as previously shown. These results also suggest that murine genetic variation may be useful for uncoupling many more responses to DR. PMID:17686887
Background: In 2009, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) released revised pregnancy weight gain guidelines. There are limited data regarding the effect of maternal weight gain on newborn adiposity. Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate neonatal fat mass, lean body mass, and percentage body fat according to current Institute of Medicine (IOM) pregnancy weight gain guidelines. Design: This is a secondary analysis of a prospective observational cohort study of neonates delivered at least 36 wk gestation and evaluated for fat mass, lean body mass, and percentage body fat. Women with abnormal glucose tolerance testing and other known medical disorders or pregnancies with known fetal anomalies were excluded. Pregravid body mass index (BMI) was categorized as normal weight (<25 kg/m2), overweight (25–30 kg/m2), or obese (>30 kg/m2). Maternal weight gain was quantified as less than, equal to, or greater than current IOM guidelines. Newborn body composition measurements were compared according to weight gain and BMI categories. Results: A total of 439 maternal-newborn pairs were evaluated; 19.8% (n = 87) of women gained less than IOM guidelines; 31.9% (n = 140), equal to IOM guidelines; and 48.3% (n = 212), greater than IOM guidelines. Significant differences for each component of body composition were found when evaluated by IOM weight gain categories (all ANOVA, P < 0.001). When controlling for pregravid BMI, only weight gain for women who were of normal weight before pregnancy remained significant. Conclusion: Maternal weight gain during pregnancy is a significant contributor to newborn body composition, particularly for women who are of normal weight before pregnancy. PMID:22821895
Objective Leptin responsive neurons play an important role in energy homeostasis, controlling specific autonomic, behavioral, and neuroendocrine functions. We have previously identified a population of leptin receptor (LepRb) expressing neurons within the dorsomedial hypothalamus/dorsal hypothalamic area (DMH/DHA) which are related to neuronal circuits that control brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. Intra-DMH leptin injections also activate sympathetic outflow to BAT, but whether such effects are mediated directly via DMH/DHA LepRb neurons and whether this is physiologically relevant for whole body energy expenditure and bodyweight regulation has yet to be determined. Methods We used pharmacosynthetic receptors (DREADDs) to selectively activate DMH/DHA LepRb neurons. We further deleted LepRb with virally driven cre-recombinase from DMH/DHA neurons and determined the physiological importance of DMH/DHA LepRb neurons in whole body energy homeostasis. Results Neuronal activation of DMH/DHA LepRb neurons with DREADDs promoted BAT thermogenesis and locomotor activity, which robustly induced energy expenditure (p < 0.001) and decreases bodyweight (p < 0.001). Similarly, intra-DMH/DHA leptin injections normalized hypothermia and attenuated bodyweight gain in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Conversely, ablation of LepRb from DMH/DHA neurons remarkably drives weight gain (p < 0.001) by reducing energy expenditure (p < 0.001) and locomotor activity (p < 0.001). The observed changes in bodyweight were largely independent of food intake. Conclusion Taken together, our data highlight that DMH/DHA LepRb neurons are sufficient and necessary to regulate energy expenditure and bodyweight. PMID:25352997
Rezai-Zadeh, Kavon; Yu, Sanghou; Jiang, Yanyan; Laque, Amanda; Schwartzenburg, Candice; Morrison, Christopher D.; Derbenev, Andrei V.; Zsombok, Andrea; Munzberg, Heike
Three hundred and seventy two horses of varying breeds, height and fatness were weighed and measured for height at the withers. They were assessed for condition score by adaptation of a previously published method. The heart girth and length of 281 of the horses were also measured. Weight of horses was highly correlated (P less than 0.001) with height (r2 = 0.62), condition score (r2 = 0.22) and girth2 x length (r2 = 0.90). Nomograms were constructed to predict weight from height and condition score, and girth and length measurements. Weight can also be accurately estimated from the formula: (formula, see text) The average value of 'Y' in this experiment was 11900 and this estimated weight with more accuracy than some previously published values of 'Y'. Racing Thoroughbred horses were found to be significantly lighter than non-racing Thoroughbreds of the same height and condition score. The method of assessment of condition score was shown to be repeatable between different operators with varying degrees of experience. PMID:3366105
We investigate whether underweight, normal-weight, overweight, and obese Americans differ in their evaluations of positive and negative aspects of their interpersonal relationships. Analyses are based on data from the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study, a survey of more than 3,000 adults ages 25 to 74 in 1995. We find no…
Increases in regulatory oversight of animal research require verification of effects of standard practices. There are no formal guidelines for establishing free-feeding weights in adult pigeons. In the present study, pigeons were obtained from a commercial supplier, weighed upon arrival, and then held in quarantine for 7 days with free access to…
Matching and attribute trade are two perspectives used to explain mate selection. We investigated patterns of matching and trade, focusing on obesity, using Add Health Romantic Pair data (N = 1,405 couples). Obese individuals, relative to healthy weight individuals, were less likely to have physically attractive partners, with this disadvantage…
Small changes of diet may reduce CVD risk. One example is the inclusion of nuts. They are rich in fibre, unsaturated fatty acids and phytonutrients. However, their fat content and energy density raise concerns that chronic consumption will promote weight gain. Randomised intervention studies are required to evaluate whether this concern is well founded. This study's aim was to determine if the inclusion of a 1440 kJ serving of almonds in the daily diet results in positive energy balance, and body composition change. During a 23-week cross-over design study, participants were required to consume almonds for 10 weeks and were provided no advice on how to include them in their diet. For another 10 weeks (order counter-balanced), participants followed their customary diet and there was a 3-week washout between. The study group consisted of twenty women. Potential mechanisms of energy dissipation were measured. Ten weeks of daily almond consumption did not cause a change in bodyweight. This was predominantly due to compensation for the energy contained in the almonds through reduced food intake from other sources. Moreover, inefficiency in the absorption of energy from almonds was documented (P < 0.05). No changes in resting metabolic rate, thermic effect of food or total energy expenditure were noted. A daily 1440 kJ serving of almonds, sufficient to provide beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, may be included in the diet with limited risk of weight gain. Whether this can be generalised to other high-fat energy dense foods warrants evaluation. PMID:17445351
Home Range and BodyWeight--A Reevaluation Author(s): A. S. Harestad and F. L. Bunnel Source, 60(2), 1979, pp. 389-402 ? 1979 by the Ecological Society of America HOME RANGE AND BODYWEIGHT of utilizable energy per unit area of habitat with increasing bodyweight. While trophic status and weight
The observations recorded were : i. Live bodyweight at 4, roand mweeks of age ; 2. Hot carcass weight at 11weeks of age ; 3. Shrinkage of carcass during 24 h storage at + 4Â°C ; 4. pH of biceps femoris), and on the other between live weight at 10, m weeks and hot carcass weight (table 3). A STUDY OF MUSCULAR GROWTH
Objective:Young women in the United States and Western Europe are notoriously concerned about weight but less is known about attitudes to weight in other regions of the world. This study explores the associations between body mass index (BMI), weight perceptions, and attempts to lose weight in male and female university students from 22 countries.Methods:Data were collected from 18 512 university
The capacity to adjust food intake in response to changing energy requirements is essential for survival. Recent progress has provided an insight into the molecular, cellular and behavioural mechanisms that link changes of body fat stores to adaptive adjustments of feeding behaviour. The physiological importance of this homeostatic control system is highlighted by the severe obesity that results from dysfunction
G. J. Morton; D. E. Cummings; D. G. Baskin; G. S. Barsh; M. W. Schwartz
Due to chronic dissatisfaction with bodyweight in youth, efforts to lose weight often lead to pathological dietary behaviours. Regular and heavy sports activity may contribute to the optimization of bodyweight, not only by elevating the energy utilization but also by increasing the health consciousness and the tendency to self-monitor. Research generally finds a beneficial role of extracurricular sports activity in bodyweight control. Therefore, we aim to analyze how regular, heavy sports activity (more precisely, competitive sports) may contribute to bodyweight control among two groups of youth: athletes and non-athletes. Our study was carried out using 347 adolescents; among them there were 91 athletes and 259 controls. The subjects completed self-administered questionnaires concerning their bodyweight control and dietary habits. We found that girls were less satisfied with their bodyweight and reported dieting more frequently with a greater emphasis on healthy dieting than boys. Sport influenced these strong gender differences only regarding healthy dieting, young male athletes laid a larger emphasis on healthy diets than their non-athlete counterparts, therefore their attitude became similar to that of female athletes and non-athletes. We conclude that despite the normal weight in high school students, episodes of dieting that might contribute to eating disorders were quite frequent. This was not influenced by the students' extracurricular sports activity. A greater monitoring of male athletes' and their friend's diet draw attention to the need for developing health education programs specific to boys. PMID:22816201
Self-perception of bodyweight and other weight-related factors were assessed among 2665 Taipei, Taiwan high school students. A high percent of the girls (70.7%) and boys (42.2%) reported that they were too fat and these percentages were much higher than those reported by U.S. students in a recent Youth Risk Behavior Survey. In addition, only 13.2% of girls and 22.0% of boys reported being completely satisfied with their weight and the level of dissatisfaction with weight appeared to be greater than among U.S. students. Yet, in comparison to U.S. students, the Taiwanese students were considerably less likely than their U.S. counterparts to engage in weight management practices (e.g., dieting, eating less food, using diet pills). Taiwanese students with a self-perception of being too fat were more likely than those with perceptions of being just right or too thin to engage in weight management practices, to be dissatisfied with their weight, feel that they were unattractive, estimate that their same-sex peers were trying to lose weight, and have a higher body mass index. The findings from this study showed a relationship between self-perception of body size and engaging in weight control behaviors was consistent with other research. It suggested that self-perception of bodyweight, more so than objective weight status, was predictive of weight loss behavior and also negative psychological outcomes associated with poor bodyweight image. As a result, self-perception of weight may be an important point of focus for the design and implementation of clinical and public health initiatives targeted at this adolescent population as well as others. PMID:15971733
Summary Bilateral ovariectomies or sham surgeries were performed in female Sprague Dawley rats that were 78 days of age and weighed\\u000a an average of 210 g. Food was available ad libitum to the control rats and to a group of ovariectomized rats (obese OVX).\\u000a The food consumption of a second group of ovariectomized rats (weight-matched OVX) was restricted to match their
T. J. Wronski; P. A. Schenck; M. Cintrón; C. C. Walsh
This study examined whether the association between adolescent weight status and body image varies by social engagement. A nationally representative sample of 6,909 students in grades 6 to 10 completed the 2006 HBSC survey. Separate linear regressions for boys and girls, controlling for age, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, were conducted with an interaction term (weight status x social engagement). Adolescents’ overweight/obese status was related to body dissatisfaction. Social engagement moderated the relationship between weight status and body image for girls but not for boys. Overweight/obese boys had more body dissatisfaction compared to their normal/underweight peers, regardless of their social engagement. However, overweight/obese girls with more social engagement were more likely to have body satisfaction compared to overweight/obese girls with less social engagement. Encouraging adolescent girls to develop healthy relationships with peers may prevent them from developing body dissatisfaction. PMID:22325852
Caccavale, Laura J.; Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J.
Few studies have investigated a cultural group's corporeal experiences in both its country of origin and a host, Western country using the same methodology. To overcome this dearth in the literature, the present study examined body image among 140 women in Harare, Zimbabwe, and an age-matched sample of 138 Zimbabwean migrants in Britain. Participants completed measures of actual-ideal weight discrepancy, body appreciation, and lifetime exposure to Western and Zimbabwean media. Preliminary analyses showed that there were no significant differences in body mass index between the two groups. Further analyses showed that Zimbabwean women in Britain had significantly greater weight discrepancy and lower body appreciation than their counterparts in Zimbabwe. In addition, weight discrepancy and body appreciation among both samples were significantly associated with exposure to Western media, but not Zimbabwean media. These findings support the contention that transcultural migration may place individuals at risk for symptoms of negative body image. PMID:22717762
.11-4.40]) or no cues (% = 3.72, 95% CI [3.05-4.40]). Males had reported higher current body image when they received specific weight cues &M = 4.46, 95% CI [3.84-5.08]), when compared to those who received general weight cues (M = 4.07, 95% CI [3.48¬ 4... of body dissatisfaction in groups that received weight-cues, as opposed to those who did not receive any cues. There are conclusions regarding today's media that suggests women may be geared towards more dynamic self- perceptions of body image...
In a 12-year prospective study, the authors examined the relation between body mass index (BMI) and mortality among the 20,346 middle-aged (25-54 years) and older (55-84 years) non-Hispanic white cohort members of the Adventist Health Study (California, 1976-1988) who had never smoked cigarettes and had no history of coronary heart disease, cancer, or stroke. In analyses that accounted for putative
Pramil N. Singh; Kristian D. Lindsted; Gary E. Fraser
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their bodyweight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg?1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Bodyweight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (?3.9% ± 1.6% and ?4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05). At three hours after weigh-in, bodyweight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (?3.0% ± 1.3% and ?2.7% ± 2.2%). There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05). In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate. PMID:25054553
Lopes-Silva, Joao P.; Felippe, Leandro J. C.; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D.; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E.
A reduction in new bone formation occurred as a result of space flight (Cosmos 1129) and in the suspended animal model of Morey-Holton (1979, 1980). The results indicate that alkaline phosphatase activity of the bone-forming cells is also reduced under these conditions, and the cells in the diaphysis are more affected than those in the metaphyseal region. In addition, these cells show (1) reduced proline incorporation into bone matrix, and (2) increased intracellular lysosomal activity. A change in the cytoskeleton could be the common factor in explaining these results. This suggestion is futher supported by the previous observations that colchicine injections result in decreased osteoblastic function.
Summary Background and objectives Among patients receiving maintenance dialysis, weight loss at any body mass index is associated with mortality. However, it is not known whether weight changes before dialysis initiation are associated with mortality and if so, what risks are associated with weight gain or loss. Design, setting, participants, and measurements Linking data from the US Renal Data System to a national registry of nursing home residents, this study identified 11,090 patients who started dialysis between January of 2000 and December of 2006. Patients were categorized according to weight measured between 3 and 6 months before dialysis initiation and the percentage change in bodyweight before dialysis initiation (divided into quintiles). The outcome was mortality within 1 year of starting dialysis. Results There were 361 patients (3.3%) who were underweight (Quételet’s [body mass] index<18.5 kg/m2) and 4046 patients (36.5%) who were obese (body mass index?30 kg/m2) before dialysis initiation. The median percentage change in bodyweight before dialysis initiation was ?6% (interquartile range=?13% to 1%). There were 6063 deaths (54.7%) over 1 year of follow-up. Compared with patients with minimal weight changes (?3% to 3%, quintile 4), patients with weight loss ?15% (quintile 1) had 35% higher risk for mortality (95% confidence interval, 1.25 to 1.47), whereas those patients with weight gain?4% (quintile 5) had a 24% higher risk for mortality (95% confidence interval, 1.14 to 1.35) adjusted for baseline body mass index and other confounders. Conclusions Among nursing home residents, changes in bodyweight in advance of dialysis initiation are associated with significantly higher 1-year mortality. PMID:24009221
Stack, Shobha; Chertow, Glenn M.; Johansen, Kirsten L.; Si, Yan
To understand the tail-suspension model to simulate weightlessness better, this study was to investigate the relationship of the amount of bodyweight supported by forelimbs between the tilt angles of rat in the model. Normal rat had at least two basic postures. One was standing or walking, in which the forelimbs bear 44.6% of the bodyweight; the other one was resting, in which 23.9% of bodyweight was placed on the forelimbs. As for tail-suspended rat, body-weight distribution on forelimbs was linearly related to tilt angle. The linear relationship was y = -0.7423x + 70.849, R2 = 0.9269. The tilt angle should be approximately 35 degrees if normal standing load of 44.6% bodyweight was placed on the forelimbs. On the other hand, it should be approximately 63 degrees if normal resting load of 23.9% of bodyweight was placed on forelimbs. Furthermore, the body load on forelimbs in tail-suspension model became much larger if the period of different postures was considered. Therefore, it should be careful if forelimbs are used to be as convenient internal control in tail-suspended rats. PMID:20803996
Many obese adolescents show intense body shape and weight concerns that render them vulnerable to cognitive biases, psychological distress and eating disorders. Current treatments, however, generally do not address negative body image in obese adolescents. The present pilot study tested if body exposure and describing one's body in a neutral way is an effective approach for increasing body satisfaction in
Anita Jansen; Dafne Bollen; Brunna Tuschen-Caffier; Anne Roefs; Ann Tanghe; Caroline Braet
Many obese adolescents show intense body shape and weight concerns that render them vulnerable to cognitive biases, psychological distress and eating disorders. Current treatments, however, generally do not address negative body image in obese adolescents. The present pilot study tested if body exposure and describing one's body in a neutral way is an effective approach for increasing body satisfaction in
Anita Jansen; Dafne Bollen; Brunna Tuschen-Caffier; Anne Roefs; Ann Tanghe; Caroline Braet
Background: Obesity has become epidemic worldwide and 31.0% of Korean adults are obese. Obesity is the main cause of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiac disease, and cancer. The purpose of the study was to examine obesity, body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour among Korean female university students and investigate the differences in body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour with respect to obesity. Methods: This study examined obesity, body image, depression, and weight control in 700 female university students from 4 universities in South Korea. To evaluate obesity, both objective obesity (body mass index [BMI]) and subjective obesity (subjectively perceived) were measured. Results: There was a significant difference between objective and subjective obesity (?2 = 231.280, P < 0.001). In addition, the objective obesity group had the lowest body image score (F = 19.867, P < 0.001) and difference in weight-control behaviour (F = 3.145, P = 0.045). Further, the subjective obesity group had the lowest body image score (F = 58.281, P < 0.001). The results revealed a statistically significant difference in body image and weight-control behaviour with respect to objective obesity. Conclusion: Objective and subjective obesity was negatively associated with body image, and no relationships between objective or subjective obesity and depression. PMID:25337594
A robust body of literature spanning several countries indicates a positive association between maternal employment and child body mass index (BMI). Fewer studies have examined the role of paternal employment. More importantly, little empirical work examines the mechanisms that might explain the relationships between parental employment and children’s BMI. Our paper tests the relationship between the cumulative experience of maternal and spouse employment over a child’s lifetime and that child’s BMI, overweight, and obesity at age 13 or 14. We further examine several mechanisms that may explain these associations. We use data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) merged mother-child file on cohorts of children who were born during a period of dramatic increase in both childhood obesity and maternal employment. We find that the number of hours that highly-educated mothers work over her child’s lifetime is positively and statistically significantly associated with her child’s BMI and risk of overweight at ages 13 or 14. The work hours of mothers’ spouses and partners, on the other hand, are not significantly associated with these outcomes. Results suggest that, for children of highly-educated mothers, the association between maternal work hours and child BMI is partially mediated by television viewing time. PMID:23031605
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.; Dunifon, Rachel E.; Kalil, Ariel
A robust body of literature spanning several countries indicates a positive association between maternal employment and child body mass index (BMI). Fewer studies have examined the role of paternal employment. More importantly, little empirical work examines the mechanisms that might explain the relationships between parental employment and children's BMI. Our paper tests the relationship between the cumulative experience of maternal and spouse employment over a child's lifetime and that child's BMI, overweight, and obesity at age 13 or 14. We further examine several mechanisms that may explain these associations. We use data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) merged mother-child file on cohorts of children who were born during a period of dramatic increase in both childhood obesity and maternal employment. We find that the number of hours that highly-educated mothers work over her child's lifetime is positively and statistically significantly associated with her child's BMI and risk of overweight at ages 13 or 14. The work hours of mothers' spouses and partners, on the other hand, are not significantly associated with these outcomes. Results suggest that, for children of highly-educated mothers, the association between maternal work hours and child BMI is partially mediated by television viewing time. PMID:23031605
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M; Dunifon, Rachel E; Kalil, Ariel
A study was conducted to investigate associations between ethnicity and acculturation status and risk factors for eating disorders among young adult women. A community sample of 14,779 women aged 18-23 completed a comprehensive mail-out survey, which incorporated questions on country of birth, length of time spent in Australia, bodyweight, weight dissatisfaction, dieting, binge eating, and compensatory disordered eating behaviours. Results showed that risk factors for eating disorders were present across a range of ethnic groups. Further, a strong acculturation effect was observed, such that the longer the time spent in Australia, the more women reported weight-related values and behaviours similar to those of Australian-born women. Results challenge claims that risk factors for disordered eating are restricted to Caucasian females in Western societies. Implications for understanding ethnic and sociocultural influences on bodyweight, dieting, and disordered eating are considered. PMID:15000999
criticism, peer victimization) can lead to lower levels of physical activity. In this study a community sample of 376 5th and 6th grade students completed measures of physical activity, weight criticism during physical activity, and body dissatisfaction...
Residual renal function has been reported to be a major determinant of peritoneal dialysis (PD) technique survival for patients with end-stage kidney disease. Anuria leads to increases in PD prescriptions designed to maintain small solute clearances and ultrafiltration volumes, resulting in greater exposure to hypertonic glucose dialysates. We reviewed the effect of developing anuria in a cohort of 136 PD patients followed for a median of 12 months, to determine whether increasing exposure to higher glucose dialysates affected body composition by increasing body fat and reducing muscle mass. Despite increasing prescription of 22.7 and 38.6?g/l glucose dialysates there was no increase in body fat (31.1±15.4 vs 30.9±16.3?kg) or loss of fat-free weight (36.4±12.1 vs 35.8±12.3?kg). Changing PD prescriptions to maintain small solute clearances and ultrafiltration volumes did not lead to detrimental changes in body composition in the short term. PMID:24986821
) is taken as the endpoint and recorded. Premature testing of an animal without full neuromuscular to be tested include bodily appearance, both eyes open and bright, head up and moving, steady on feet, un test paradigm that allowed for maximal survival of cyanide- treated animals with greatly reduced
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which describes a 47 year old white postmenopausal female who presented with "progressive headaches and visual blurring, as well as increased thirst, fatigue, lethargy and a fifty pound weight gain." Visitors are provided with patient history along with laboratory work-up and histology, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical chemistry.
PYY (3-36) is postulated to act as a satiety factor in the gut–hypothalamic pathway to inhibit food intake and bodyweight gain in humans and rodent models. We determined the effect of 14-day continuous intravenous infusion of PYY (3-36) (175 ?g\\/kg\\/day) on food intake and bodyweight gain in colectomized male Wistar rats. Colectomy caused an increase in plasma PYY
M. Babu; A. K. Purhonen; T. Bansiewicz; K. Mäkelä; J. Walkowiak; P. Miettinen; K. H. Herzig
Body-weight management requires a multifactorial approach. Recent findings suggest that an elevated protein intake seems to play a key role herein, through (i) increased satiety related to increased diet-induced thermogenesis; (ii) its effect on thermogenesis; (iii) body composition; and (iv) decreased energy-efficiency, all of which are related to protein metabolism. Supported by these mechanisms, relatively larger weight loss and subsequent
M S Westerterp-Plantenga; N Luscombe-Marsh; M P G M Lejeune; K Diepvens; A Nieuwenhuizen; M P K J Engelen; N E P Deutz; D Azzout-Marniche; D Tome; K R Westerterp; Westerterp-Plantenga
Marital terminations are life transitions that may lead to changes in diet, activity, and bodyweight. This investigation\\u000a examined how marital status was associated with relative bodyweight, underweight, overweight, and obesity among men and women\\u000a in the United States using cross-sectional nationally representative data from the 1992 HRS cohort age 51–61 and the 1993\\u000a AHEAD cohort age 70 and
Dietary, activity, and bodyweight differences in high- and low-restrained eaters and the independent impact of dietary restraint on bodyweight change were evaluated in 287 adults (141 men, 146 women) followed over a 1-year period. Analyses of measures of energy intake, physical activity, and dietary restraint indicated that high-restrained eaters did not differ in physical activity compared to low-restrained
Robert C. Klesges; Terry R. Isbell; Lisa M. Klesges
Cheng P-T, Wu S-H, Liaw M-Y, Wong AMK, Tang F-T. Symmetrical body-weight distribution training in stroke patients and its effect on fall prevention. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:1650-4. Objective: To determine the role of symmetrical body-weight distribution training in preventing falls among patients with hemiplegic stroke. Design: A prospective study using a standing biofeedback trainer. Setting: Hospital-based rehabilitation units. Patients:
Pao-Tsai Cheng; Shu-Hsia Wu; Mei-Yun Liaw; Alice M. K. Wong; Fuk-Tan Tang
reared during the summer months, with which a reduction in laying house performance is usually associated. This study was designed to determine the effects of antibiotics during the growing period upon bodyweight at sexual maturity and on subsequent... performance. Whether the bodyweight at maturity might be affected by the use of antibiotics in the diet during the growing period has not been determined spe- cifically for spring-hatched birds. This study was designed to determine the effects...
A method that uses passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags for the continuous recording of feeding behavior and bodyweight from multiple individual animals is described. We have used this method in the field and in semi-natural captive conditions with black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) to determine daily and seasonal patterns in bodyweight and to estimate the proportions of food cached and consumed. PMID:11134696
Measurements of the bodyweight of monkeys in the Japanese monkey troop on Koshima islet in southern Japan have been made\\u000a since 1970. Population changes in the troop have been recorded since 1952. The population changes were further analyzed on\\u000a the basis of the bodyweight changes of the troop members. The recent history of the Koshima troop can be
Bodyweight-for-height relationships predict mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients.BackgroundProtein-energy malnutrition is a strong predictor of mortality in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. This association has generally been described for serum chemistry measures of protein-energy malnutrition. We hypothesized that bodyweight-for-height relationships also predict survival in MHD patients.MethodsDuring the last three months of 1993, data were obtained on 12,965 men and women
Joel D. Kopple; Xiaofei Zhu; Nancy L. Lew; Edmund G. Lowrie
Excess bodyweight and genetics play important roles in cancer susceptibility. Although several studies have reported on obesity and genetic variants as separate risk factors for cancer, very few studies have investigated the interaction between excess bodyweight and genetic variants in cancer susceptibility. In this review, we focus on the interplay between these 2 risk factors, which are a major determinant of the individual risk of cancer onset. PMID:25291134
A new technique for establishing dry weight in hemodialysis patients via whole body bioimpedance.BackgroundQuantitative techniques are necessary to achieve dry weight (DW) in patients with kidney failure. Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) is a non-invasive method that determines the volume of body fluid compartments. The current work evaluates the use of BIS data in hemodialysis patients for the prediction of DW.MethodsA new
Paul W. Chamney; Matthias Krämer; Christiane Rode; Wolfgang Kleinekofort; Volker Wizemann
Background Obesity is correlated with a sedentary lifestyle, and the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with obesity. The present study tests the hypothesis that the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with weight change when children reduce their sedentary behavior. Methods The motivation to be active or sedentary, changes in weight, and accelerometer assessed physical activity were collected for 55 families with overweight/obese children who participated in a nine-week field study to examine behavior and weight change as a function of reducing sedentary behavior. Children were studied in three 3-week phases, baseline, reduce targeted sedentary behaviors by 25% and reduce targeted sedentary behaviors by 50%. The targeted sedentary behaviors included television, video game playing, video watching, and computer use. Results The reinforcing value of sedentary behavior but not physical activity, was correlated with weight change, as losing weight was associated with lower reinforcing value of sedentary behaviors. Reducing sedentary behavior was not associated with a significant change in objectively measured physical activity, suggesting the main way in which reducing sedentary behavior influenced weight change is by complementary changes in energy intake. Estimated energy intake supported the hypothesis that reducing sedentary behaviors influences weight by reducing energy intake. Conclusions These data show that the motivation to be sedentary limits the effects of reducing sedentary behavior on weight change in obese children. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00962247 PMID:21342518
A postichopus japonicus (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata) is an ecological and economic species in East Asia. Conventional biometric monitoring method includes diving for samples and weighing above water, with highly variable in weight measurement due to variation in the quantity of water in the respiratory tree and intestinal content of this species. Recently, video survey method has been applied widely in biometric detection on underwater benthos. However, because of the high flexibility of A. japonicus body, video survey method of monitoring is less used in sea cucumber. In this study, we designed a model to evaluate the wet weight of A. japonicus, using machine vision technology combined with a support vector machine (SVM) that can be used in field surveys on the A. japonicus population. Continuous dorsal images of free-moving A. japonicus individuals in seawater were captured, which also allows for the development of images of the core body edge as well as thorn segmentation. Parameters that include body length, body breadth, perimeter and area, were extracted from the core body edge images and used in SVM regression, to predict the weight of A. japonicus and for comparison with a power model. Results indicate that the use of SVM for predicting the weight of 33 A. japonicus individuals is accurate (R 2=0.99) and compatible with the power model (R 2=0.96). The image-based analysis and size-weight regression models in this study may be useful in bodyweight evaluation of A. japonicus in lab and field study.
This is the first phenotypic analysis of 75 new recombinant inbred (RI) strains derived from ILS and ISS progenitors. We analyzed bodyweight in two independent cohorts of female mice at various ages and in males at 60 days. Bodyweight is a complex trait which has been mapped in numerous crosses in rodents. The LXS RI strains displayed a large range of weights, transgressing those of the inbred progenitors, supporting the utility of this large panel for mapping traits not selected in the progenitors. Numerous QTLs for bodyweight mapped in singleand multilocus scans. We assessed replication between these and previously reported QTLs based on overlapping confidence intervals of published QTLs for bodyweight at 60 days and used meta-analyses to determine combined p values for three QTL regions located on Chromosomes 4, 5, and 11. Strain distribution patterns of microsatellite marker genotypes, weight, and other phenotypes are available on Web- QTL (http://www.webqtl.org/search.html) and allow genetic mapping of any heritable quantitative phenotype measured in these strains. We report one such analysis, correlating brain and bodyweights. Large reference panels of RI strains, such as the LXS, are invaluable for identifying genetic correlations, GXE (Gene X Environment) interactions, and replicating previously identified QTLs.
Bennett, Beth [University of Colorado, Boulder; Carosone-Line, Phyllis [University of Colorado, Boulder; Lu, Lu [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Johnson, Thomas [University of Colorado, Boulder
This study examined the relationship between desire for thinness and psychological distress and life satisfaction in male and female adolescents across racial groups and weight categories (i.e., underweight, normal weight, or overweight individuals). The study targeted adolescents since it is during this time of development that body dissatisfaction levels are at their highest, and as a result, these individuals are
BACKGROUND: With the rapid increase in obesity rates, determining critical periods for weight gain and the effects of changes in fat mass is imperative. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in bodyweight and composition over the holiday season (Thanksgiving through New Year's) in male and female college students. METHODS: Subjects completed three visits: the first occurred
The TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 circulates in all humans and when overproduced in cancer leads to anorexia/cachexia, by direct action on brain feeding centres. In these studies we have examined the role of physiologically relevant levels of MIC-1/GDF15 in the regulation of appetite, bodyweight and basal metabolic rate. MIC-1/GDF15 gene knockout mice (MIC-1?/?) weighed more and had increased adiposity, which was associated with increased spontaneous food intake. Female MIC-1?/? mice exhibited some additional alterations in reduced basal energy expenditure and physical activity, possibly owing to the associated decrease in total lean mass. Further, infusion of human recombinant MIC-1/GDF15 sufficient to raise serum levels in MIC-1?/? mice to within the normal human range reducedbodyweight and food intake. Taken together, our findings suggest that MIC-1/GDF15 is involved in the physiological regulation of appetite and energy storage. PMID:23468844
Tsai, Vicky Wang-Wei; Macia, Laurence; Johnen, Heiko; Kuffner, Tamara; Manadhar, Rakesh; J?rgensen, Sebastian Beck; Lee-Ng, Ka Ki Michelle; Zhang, Hong Ping; Wu, Liyun; Marquis, Christopher Peter; Jiang, Lele; Husaini, Yasmin; Lin, Shu; Herzog, Herbert
Background Body shape dissatisfaction has been thought to have an indispensable impact on weight control behaviors. We investigated the prevalence of body shape dissatisfaction (BSD) and explored its association with weight status, education level and other determinants among young adults in Hong Kong. Methods Information on anthropometry, BSD, and socio-demographics was collected from a random sample of 1205 young adults (611 men and 594 women) aged 18-27 in a community-based household survey. BSD was defined as a discrepancy between current and ideal body shape based on a figure rating scale. Cross-tabulations, homogeneity tests and logistic regression models were applied. Results The percentages of underweight men and women were 16.5% and 34.9% respectively, and the corresponding percentages of being overweight or obese were 26.7% and 13.2% for men and women respectively. Three-quarters of young adults had BSD. Among women, 30.9% of those underweight and 75.5% of those with normal weight desired a slimmer body shape. Overweight men and underweight women with lower education level were more likely to have a mismatch between weight status and BSD than those with higher education level. After controlling for other determinants, underweight women were found to have a higher likelihood to maintain their current body shapes than other women. Men were found to be less likely to have a mismatch between weight status and BSD than women. Conclusions Overweight and obesity in men and underweight in women were prevalent among Hong Kong young adults. Inappropriate body shape desire might predispose individuals to unhealthy weight loss or gain behaviors. Careful consideration of actual weight status in body shape desire is needed in health promotion and education, especially for underweight and normal weight women and those with a low education level. PMID:22039977
Research compared obese and average-weight children with regard to concerns about being or becoming overweight, history of dieting, concerns about the effects of eating food, and perceived discrepancy between real and ideal body image. Participants included 526 obese and average-weight elementary-age school children to whom questionnaires were administered. Gender (male\\/female), obesity status (obese\\/average-weight), and grade level (lower elementary\\/upper elementary) were
We evaluated whether intake of an ethanolic extract of Taheebo (TBE) from Tabebuia avellanedae protects against bodyweight increase and fat accumulation in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Four-week old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a HFD (25% fat, w/w) for 11 weeks. The diet of control (HFD) mice was supplemented with vehicle (0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by gavage); the diet of experimental (TBE) mice was supplemented with TBE (150 mg/kg bodyweight/day by gavage). Mice administered TBE had significantly reducedbodyweight gain, fat accumulation in the liver, and fat pad weight, compared to HFD mice. Reduced hypertrophy of fat cells was also observed in TBE mice. Mice administered TBE also showed significantly lower serum levels of triglycerides, insulin, and leptin. Lipid profiles and levels of mRNAs and proteins related to lipid metabolism were determined in liver and white adipose tissue of the mice. Expression of mRNA and proteins related to lipogenesis were decreased in TBE-administered mice compared to mice fed HFD alone. These results suggest that TBE inhibits obesity and fat accumulation by regulation of gene expression related to lipid metabolism in HFD-induced obesity in mice. PMID:25299819
Choi, Won Hee; Um, Min Young; Ahn, Jiyun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Park, Myung Kyu; Ha, Tae Youl
While a positive wage effect of Body Mass Index (BMI) is widely observed in low-income developing countries, a negative wage effect of BMI is often observed in high-income developed countries. To fill the gap between these previous findings, we investigate the relationship between bodyweight and wages in transition economies. We focus on China, whose rapid economic growth of the
Seasonal changes in an animal's morphology, physiology, and behavior are considered to be an adaptive strategy for survival and reproductive success. In the present study, we examined bodyweight and several behavioral, physiological, hormonal, and biochemical markers in seasonally acclimatized Brandt's voles (Microtus brandti) to test our hypothesis that Brandt's voles can decrease energy intake associated with decrease in body
Examines weight-related criticism from romantic partners and the importance of the romantic relationship in relation to the body image and self esteem for college freshmen women. Results reveal that self esteem and body image were positively related. Partner importance also predicted self esteem, whereas criticism did not. (Contains 55 references…
Fat distribution alterations and lipodystrophy occur as part of a broad spectrum of body alterations in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)\\/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Recent advances in HIV therapies, including highly active antiretroviral therapy, contribute to these fat distribution alterations. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the relationships of weight change, body image, length of time with HIV\\/AIDS
Inge B. Corless; Patrice K. Nicholas; Chris A. McGibbon; Christine Wilson
A decade ago the World Health Organization declared obesity to be a ‘global epidemic’. Rapidly climbing rates of excess bodyweight resulted in Health Canada declaring obesity as one of three major health concerns facing children today. Accordingly, there is a growing body of research examining how 'obesogenic environments' contribute to increasing prevalence. To date, multiple studies have found rates
Community and gender differences in body image were examined in a randomly selected sample of 284 young adolescent boys and girls from 2 middle-class communities. Data gathered from interviews and questionnaires supported hypothesized Community × Sex interactions and sex differences. Specifically, girls' body image and weight satisfaction were higher in 1 community and lower in the other. Demonstrating no community
Maryse H. Richards; Andrew M. Boxer; Anne C. Petersen; Rachel Albrecht
Thylakoids are membranes isolated from plant chloroplasts which have previously been shown to inhibit pancreatic lipase/colipase catalysed hydrolysis of fat in vitro and induce short-term satiety in vivo. The purpose of the present study was to examine if dietary supplementation of thylakoids could affect food intake and bodyweight during long-term feeding in mice. Female apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were fed a high-fat diet containing 41% of fat by energy with and without thylakoids for 100 days. Mice fed the thylakoid-enriched diet had suppressed food intake, bodyweight gain and body fat compared with the high-fat fed control mice. Reduced serum glucose, serum triglyceride and serum free fatty acid levels were found in the thylakoid-treated animals. The satiety hormone cholecystokinin was elevated, suggesting this hormone mediates satiety. Leptin levels were reduced, reflecting a decreased fat mass. There was no sign of desensitization in the animals treated with thylakoids. The results suggest that thylakoids are useful to suppress appetite and bodyweight gain when supplemented to a high-fat food during long-term feeding. PMID:19548286
Köhnke, Rickard; Lindqvist, Andreas; Göransson, Nathanael; Emek, Sinan C; Albertsson, Per-Ake; Rehfeld, Jens F; Hultgĺrdh-Nilsson, Anna; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte
Obesity prevalence has increased dramatically in parallel with rapid economic development and rising standards of living around the world. There is growing recognition that this 'epidemic' of overweight is being driven by environmental factors that affect our eating and physical activity behaviours. In effect, the environment overwhelms our biological capacity to maintain a healthy weight. There is little scientific evidence to quantify the relative contributions of various environmental factors to risk of overweight and obesity. However, it is easy to characterize the environment as one in which food is readily available, convenient, inexpensive and great tasting. Likewise, the modern environment discourages physical activity at work, at home and in the community, and attractive sedentary pursuits compete with activity for leisure time. In fact, the causes of obesity in our society are so manifold as to be inseparable from the way we live. Many of the forces that drive individuals to eat too much and move too little are coupled to a desire for self-efficacy and increased productivity. It can be argued therefore that obesity is an unintended consequence of the emphasis we collectively place on productivity and a desire to achieve 'the good life'. In this sense, obesity is not really a biological problem, but a social problem that requires a multifactorial social solution. In order to create demand for environmental change to promote healthy lifestyle behaviours, we will need to create a greater sense of crisis among average citizens. We will need to explore solutions that make economic sense for everyone. We will need to create a new social norm for healthy eating and active living. The magnitude of the challenge is daunting, but we can begin by engaging broad scale public private partnerships. After all, we are all part of the global community that is affected by this emerging crisis. PMID:12534696
Despite considerable efforts to tackle childhood obesity, it is recognized as one of the biggest health problems globally. Childhood obesity is a leading cause of many comorbid conditions such as metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance as well as type 2 diabetes. A strong body of evidence suggests that regular exercise without calorie restriction or weight loss is associated with reduced insulin resistance as well as improved insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese adults. However, despite the well-known benefits associated with regular exercise alone, the independent role of exercise training without calorie restriction on insulin resistance is still uncertain in youth. Some studies observed that both the aerobic and resistance type of exercise training without calorie restriction resulted in meaningful changes in insulin sensitivity, suggesting that exercise alone is an effective therapeutic strategy for reducing insulin resistance in overweight and obese youth. However, only few studies are available on the optimal dose of exercise training without calorie restriction or preferred exercise modality for reducing insulin resistance, which warrants further investigations in the pediatric population. PMID:24454364
Inheritance of bodyweight and breast length at 8 weeks of age in meat type strains of chickens H in a cross breeding programme. Heterotic effect on bodyweight was present and confirmed the theory of homogenetic heterosis. Performances and heritabilities of bodyweight at 8 weeks of age and breast length
THE UTILIZATION OF ENERGY IN DIFFERENT LINES OF MICE SELECTED FOR BODYWEIGHT J. C. Mc CARTHY H bodyweight at five and ten weeks of age. Differences in gross efficiency occurred at young ages because the rate of food consumption differed in proportion to bodyweight, while differences
Effects of underfeeding Awassi ewes in late pregnancy and early lactation on bodyweight changes that farmers tend to employ : (F1) feeding for maternal bodyweight loss in the last 3 weeks of pregnancy ; (F2 lactation (F2) was equivalent to feeding 330 g less barley daily. It resulted in a smaller bodyweight loss
Reduction of bodyweight during growing and holding periods and subsequent semen production an effect on bodyweight. In this instance, however, there was no diffe- rence in fertility between. 100 reduction in bodyweight at 30 weeks of age. Restricted males maintained on 15 hrs of light
BACKGROUND: Parents have significant influence on behaviors and perceptions surrounding eating, body image and weight in adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of bodyweight dissatisfaction, difficulty in communication with the parents and the relationship between communication with parents and adolescents' dissatisfaction with their bodyweight (dieting or perceived need to diet). METHODS: Survey data
Haleama Al Sabbah; Carine A Vereecken; Frank J Elgar; Tonja Nansel; Katrin Aasvee; Ziad Abdeen; Kristiina Ojala; Namanjeet Ahluwalia; Lea Maes
1. The present study was conducted on quails to evaluate the effects of line and sex on bodyweight, carcase characteristics and organ weights and also to evaluate the effect of line on sex organs, and on carcase and liver lipid content of male quails.2. Chicks of both sexes were weighed weekly until 6 weeks when they were slaughtered. Carcase
Background: Previous research has reported mixed results on the association between bodyweight measures (ie, perception of weight and weight loss goal) and cigarette smoking prevalence--and how these associations vary by sex and race. This longitudinal study assessed the relationship between these 2 bodyweight measures and smoking prevalence by…
Although the growth of pheasants is an important issue, there are few publications providing information on bodyweight and morphometrics of pheasants at different ages. The aim of this study was to investigate bodyweight, tarsus length, wing length and wingspan in farmed pheasants aged 3-16 weeks. The study was carried out on 50 pheasants (31 females and 19 males). All one-day old birds were marked and kept until the 16th week of life. In the 3rd 8 h 12th and 16th weeks of life all pheasants were weighted and tarsus length, wing length and wingspan were measured. Male chicks appeared to be significantly heavier than females (P< or = 0.01) already in the third week of life. Also their wings were longer and their wingspan attained higher values (P < or = 0.05). Absolute gains of the majority of traits also differed between sexes (being larger in males) in all studied periods. Values of bodyweight, tarsus length and wingspan noted in the third week of life were significantly correlated with all later measurements. Thus bodyweight and some biometrical traits of pheasant chicks measured already at the 3rd week of life could be applied as predictors of future bodyweight and size. PMID:22428312
Górecki, Marcin T; Nowaczewski, Sebastian; Kontecka, Helena
Epidemiological and experimental evidence increasingly suggests coffee consumption to be correlated to prevention or delay of degenerative diseases connected with oxidative cellular stress. In an intervention study comprising 33 healthy volunteers, we examined DNA-protective and antioxidative effects exerted in vivo by daily ingestion of 750 mL of freshly brewed coffee rich in both green coffee bean constituents as well as roast products. The study design encompassed an initial 4 wk of wash-out, followed by 4 wk of coffee intake and 4 wk of second wash-out. At the start and after each study phase blood samples were taken to monitor biomarkers of oxidative stress response. In addition, bodyweight/composition and intake of energy/nutrients were recorded. In the coffee ingestion period, the primary endpoint, oxidative DNA damage as measured by the Comet assay (± FPG), was markedly reduced (p<0.001). Glutathione level (p<0.05) and GSR-activity (p<0.01) were elevated. Bodyweight (p<0.01)/body fat (p<0.05) and energy (p<0.001)/nutrient (p<0.001-0.05) intake were reduced. Our results allow to conclude that daily consumption of 3-4 cups of brew from a special Arabica coffee exerts health beneficial effects, as evidenced by reduced oxidative damage, body fat mass and energy/nutrient uptake. PMID:21462335
Nalmefene is an orally available opioid receptor antagonist that has been shown to suppress appetite in humans, but its effects on chronic food intake and bodyweight remain unclear. Here, we report that chronic (21-day) oral administration of nalmefene at 2 or 10 mg/kg/day in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice led to significant increases (9-11%) in cumulative food intake. Mice in the nalmefene-treated groups also gained bodyweight at a rate faster than the control. Body composition analysis showed that the extra bodyweight gains in the treated animals were mostly due to increased fat accumulation. Since acute nalmefene treatment showed a trend toward a decrease rather than an increase in food intake, it is possible that the orexigenic effect of chronic oral administration of nalmefene was caused by pharmacologically active metabolites rather than the drug itself. Our results argue against the potential use of nalmefene for treating human obesity. PMID:15219821
Chen, Richard Z; Huang, Ruey-Ruey C; Shen, Chun-Pyn; MacNeil, Douglas J; Fong, Tung M
The goals of this study were to examine gender differences in body satisfaction, obesity status, and weight loss strategies among African Americans. A self-administered survey was completed by a convenient sample of 789 African Americans, but 763 provided weight and height information. Significantly more men than women were satisfied or very satisfied with their weight. Based on self-reported weights, the mean body mass index for both men (26.61+/-4.23) and women (26.44+/-5.80) was greater than 25, thus classifying them as being overweight. Sixty-two percent of respondents had tried to lose weight in the last 12 months, with significantly more women trying to lose weight than men (P<.0001). Of those who tried to lose weight, most tried to lose weight by decreasing fried foods, decreasing sweets, and increasing exercise levels. Women were significantly more likely than men to use liquid meals, to use diet pills, to join a weight loss program, and to increase exercise levels to lose weight (P<.05). PMID:14520259
Background Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased bodyweight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on bodyweight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Results Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89?±?0.30?g vs 5.39?±?0.50?g) and less fat mass (2.22?±?0.26?g vs 4.33?±?0.43?g) after 13?weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for bodyweight and bodyweight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusion Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent bodyweight control is suggested. PMID:23394313
Body dissatisfaction has been extensively studied but, recently, the importance of body satisfaction and its attributing factors has received significant recognition. Also, there is an increasing awareness of the need for research examining body dissatisfaction and satisfaction in youth other than North American females. Thus, the current research examined the prevalence of, and the individual, social, and familial factors associated with, body-weight satisfaction among New Zealand male and female adolescents (n=9107). Data were analysed from Youth '07, a nationally representative survey of New Zealand secondary school students. Overall, half of students were happy with their weight, with significantly more males than females reporting body-weight satisfaction. Students happiest with their weight were most likely to report healthy and supportive social and family environments, as well as higher levels of well-being. These findings are consistent with a growing body of research that suggests creating positive peer and family environments may lead to better developmental outcomes, such as body satisfaction, and also higher levels of well-being. PMID:22909926
The effects of 14 daily injections of tripelennamine on several dependent measures were determined in groups of rats that received 0.0 (vehicle only), 2.0, 4.0, 8,0, or 16.0 mg/kg of the drug.l Tripelennamine did not affect bodyweights, organ weights (heart, liver, adrenals, kidneys), or blood glucose levels. Daily water intake was, however, directly and significantly related to tripelennamine dose. The drug failed to influence performance in a grasping response assay, or locomotion as measured in running wheels when rats received footshocks immediately before assessment of locomotion. Tripelennamine did significantly reduce locomotion when rats were not shocked before testing. Nociception, as measured via a hot-plate assay, also was altered by the drug. Here, rats exposed to 16 mg/kg evinced paw-lick latencies far greater than those that received lower doses. These results indicate that tripelennamine produced observable behavioral effects at doses which are not obviously toxic. PMID:6647516
Nanry, K P; Sewell, R G; Gallus, J A; Vanecek, S A; Poling, A
Toxoplasmosis, a disease caused by the parasitic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, can cause a number of clinical signs in mice, including weight loss. This weight loss likely is related to the host immune response and is important to monitor in Toxoplasma studies. Several studies have demonstrated that nesting material can affect bodyweights of mice. We therefore sought to assess the effects of nesting material on bodyweights of mice infected with Toxoplasma. We housed mice with or without nesting material and weighed and clinically assessed them twice weekly for 30 days prior to and 5 wk after Toxoplasma inoculation. Nesting material did not significantly alter the weights of mice after Toxoplasma inoculation but did decrease rates of growth prior to inoculation. Nesting material did not affect the clinical outcome of Toxoplasma infections, supporting the provision of nesting material in mouse Toxoplasma experiments. PMID:24041206
The arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus plays a key role in sensing metabolic feedback and regulating energy homeostasis. Recent studies revealed activation of microglia in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity (DIO), suggesting a potential pathophysiological role for inflammatory processes within the hypothalamus. To further investigate the metabolic causes and molecular underpinnings of such glial activation, we analyzed the microglial activity in wild-type (WT), monogenic obese ob/ob (leptin deficient), db/db (leptin-receptor mutation), and Type-4 melanocortin receptor knockout (MC4R KO) mice on either a HFD or on standardized chow (SC) diet. Following HFD exposure, we observed a significant increase in the total number of ARC microglia, immunoreactivity of ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (iba1-ir), cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68-ir), and ramification of microglial processes. The ob/ob mice had significantly less iba1-ir and ramifications. Leptin replacement rescued these phenomena. The db/db mice had similar iba1-ir comparable with WT mice but had significantly lower CD68-ir and more ramifications than WT mice. After 2 weeks of HFD, ob/ob mice showed an increase of iba1-ir, and db/db mice showed increase of CD68-ir. Obese MC4R KO mice fed a SC diet had comparable iba1-ir and CD68-ir with WT mice but had significantly more ramifications than WT mice. Intriguingly, treatment of DIO mice with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists reduced microglial activation independent of bodyweight. Our results show that diet type, adipokines, and gut signals, but not bodyweight, affect the presence and activity levels of hypothalamic microglia in obesity. PMID:24166765
Gao, Yuanqing; Ottaway, Nickki; Schriever, Sonja C.; Legutko, Beata; Garcia-Caceres, Cristina; de la Fuente, Esther; Mergen, Clarita; Bour, Susanne; Thaler, Joshua P.; Seeley, Randy J.; Filosa, Jessica; Stern, Javier E.; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Schwartz, Michael W.; Tschop, Matthias H.; Yi, Chun-Xia
While sedentary leisure-time activities such as reading, going to movies, attending cultural events, attending sporting events, watching TV, listening to music, and socializing with friends would seem to contribute to excess weight, a perspective focusing on SES differences in cultural tastes suggests the opposite, that some sedentary activities are associated with lower rather than higher bodyweight. This study aims to test theories of cultural distinction by examining relationships between leisure-time activities and bodyweight. Using 2007 data on 17 nations from the International Social Survey Program, the analysis estimates relationships between the body mass index and varied leisure-time activities while controlling for SES, physical activities, and sociodemographic variables. Net of controls for SES and physical activities, participation time in cultural activities is associated with lower rather than higher bodyweight, particularly in high-income nations. The results suggest that both cultural activities and bodyweight reflect forms of distinction that separate SES-based lifestyles. PMID:21707664
The aim of this study was to find out the association of media and obesity status with bodyweight concern among female university students in Kuwait. 228 female students, aged 19-25 years, were selected at convenience from the Women's College in Kuwait. A previously validated questionnaire was used to collect information on the role of media in body concern and how parents, peers and the girls themselves perceived girls' body shapes. Weight and height were gathered by self-reporting. Use of internet and reading women's magazines had a significant impact on dieting by the girls to lose weight (P<0.0007 and P<0.0114, respectively). The mass media had two to three times more influence on obese girls than non-obese girls. Only watching television had a significant impact on girls' body shape concern (P<0.053). About 30% of non-obese and 81% of obese girls were dissatisfied with their current weight. There were significant differences between obese and non-obese girls regarding the girls' views and the views of their peers and parents about the bodyweight of the girls (P<0.000 for all). The pressure from peers and parents, in addition to the mass media, may lead to disturbed attitudes towards eating among Kuwaiti girls. PMID:23557827
The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects based on narrative interview technique on the maintenance of bodyweight reduction, changes in dietary behaviors, including type of cooking and physical activity. One-hundred subjects out of four-hundred patients met the inclusion criteria. Individually, 45-minute educational program with motivation counseling was performed in 0, 6 and 12 weeks of the study. Patients were advised to follow individually well-balanced diet for 12 weeks. The individuals were asked about the changes in their dietary habits (Food Frequency Questionnaire). The mean percentage of bodyweight changes from the baseline were as follows: in 6th week- 5.9%, in 12th week - 10.9% and in 52th week - 9.7% (P < 0.0001), however there were no statistically significant changes while comparing bodyweight in 12th and 52th week. The maintenance of bodyweight reduction was connected with the dietary habits changes, mainly the type of cooking and increased consumption of vegetable oils. In conclusion, individualized dietary counseling, based on narrative interview technique is an effective intervention for obesity treatment that may help maintain bodyweight reduction and adapt the pro-healthy changes in type of cooking and sources of dietary fat. PMID:25311271
Among obesity-prone individuals, metabolic state may interact with diet in determining body composition. We tested the hypotheses that, among 103 weight-reduced women over 1 year, (i) insulin sensitivity would be positively associated with change in %fat; (ii) this association would be modulated by dietary glycemic load (GL); and (iii) changes in fat distribution would be related to indexes of glucose metabolism. Insulin sensitivity, glucose effectiveness, fasting and postchallenge insulin and glucose, and glucose tolerance were assessed during intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). Changes in %fat and fat distribution were examined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography. Dietary GL was assessed on 67 women using food records. On average, women showed a +5.3 ± 3.0% change in %fat over 1 year, with the magnitude of this change being greater in relatively insulin sensitive women (+6.0 ± 0.4%, mean ± s.e.m.) than in relatively insulin resistant women (+4.4 ± 0.4 kg; P < 0.05). Women who were relatively insulin sensitive and who consumed a higher GL diet showed a +6.8 ± 0.7% change in %fat, which was greater than those who were less insulin sensitive, regardless of diet (P < 0.05), but did not differ from women who were relatively insulin sensitive and who consumed a lower GL diet (P = 0.105). Changes in intra-abdominal and deep subcutaneous abdominal fat were inversely associated with the postchallenge decline in serum glucose. In conclusion, greater insulin sensitivity may predispose to adiposity among weightreduced women, an effect that may be ameliorated by a lower GL diet. The potential association between indexes of glucose disposal and changes in fat distribution warrants further study. PMID:20035282
Gower, Barbara A.; Hunter, Gary R.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Alvarez, Jessica A.; Bush, Nikki C.
Energy density is a relatively new concept that has been identified as an important factor in bodyweight control in adults and in children and adolescents. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 encourages consumption of an eating pattern low in energy density to manage bodyweight. This article describes the systematic evidence-based review conducted by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC), with support from the US Department of Agriculture's Nutrition Evidence Library, which resulted in this recommendation. An update to the committee's review was prepared for this article. PubMed was searched for English-language publications from January 1980 to May 2011. The literature review included 17 studies (seven randomized controlled trials, one nonrandomized controlled trial, and nine cohort studies) in adults and six cohort studies in children and adolescents. Based on this evidence, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee concluded that strong and consistent evidence in adults indicates that dietary patterns relatively low in energy density improve weight loss and weight maintenance. In addition, the committee concluded that there was moderately strong evidence from methodologically rigorous longitudinal cohort studies in children and adolescents to suggest that there is a positive association between dietary energy density and increased adiposity. This review supports a relationship between energy density and bodyweight in adults and in children and adolescents such that consuming diets lower in energy density may be an effective strategy for managing bodyweight. PMID:22480489
Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Obbagy, Julie E; Altman, Jean M; Essery, Eve V; McGrane, Mary M; Wong, Yat Ping; Spahn, Joanne M; Williams, Christine L
Background The evidence for a "diabesity" epidemic is accumulating worldwide but population-based data are still scarce in the African region. We assessed the prevalence, awareness and control of diabetes (DM) in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing country in the African region. We also examined the relationship between body mass index, fasting serum insulin and DM. Methods Examination survey in a sample representative of the entire population aged 25–64 of the Seychelles, attended by 1255 persons (participation rate of 80.2%). An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed in individuals with fasting blood glucose between 5.6 and 6.9 mmol/l. Diabetes mellitus (DM), impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) were defined along criteria of the ADA. Prevalence estimates were standardized for age. Results The prevalence of DM was 11.5% and 54% of persons with DM were aware of having DM. Less than a quarter of all diabetic persons under treatment were well controlled for glycemia (HbA1c), blood pressure or LDL-cholesterol. The prevalence of IGT and IFG were respectively 10.4% and 24.2%. The prevalence of excess weight (BMI ? 25 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI ? 30 kg/m2) was respectively 60.1% and 25.0%. Half of all DM cases in the population could be attributed to excess weight. Conclusion We found a high prevalence of DM and pre-diabetes in a rapidly developing country in the African region. The strong association between overweight and DM emphasizes the importance of weight control measures to reduce the incidence of DM in the population. High rates of diabetic persons not aware of having DM in the population and insufficient cardiometabolic control among persons treated for DM stress the need for intensifying health care for diabetes. PMID:17640380
Among adolescent girls, the health effects of frequent self-weighing are unclear. This study examines cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between frequency of self-weighing and body mass index (BMI), body satisfaction, weight control behaviors, and binge eating among a diverse population of adolescent girls. The study was conducted in the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area from 2007–2009. The study population included 356 adolescent girls (mean age =15.7 years); 46.2% of the girls were overweight or obese and over 75% were from a racial/ethnic minority group. Anthropometric and survey data were collected at baseline and at follow-up, nine months later. Hierarchical linear regression models were developed to test associations. Cross-sectionally, frequent self-weighing was associated with lower body satisfaction (p = 0.034) and higher rates of healthy (p = 0.002), unhealthy (p = 0.016), and extreme (p = 0.038) weight control behaviors. A quadratic association was found between frequency of self-weighing and binge eating, with girls who weighed themselves least and most frequently reporting the highest prevalences of binge eating (p = 0.014). No association was observed between frequency of self-weighing and girls’ BMI (p = 0.111). Short-term longitudinal associations between baseline frequency of self-weighing and changes in body satisfaction, weight control behaviors, binge eating, or BMI were not observed. Findings suggest that among adolescent girls, frequent self-weighing is cross-sectionally associated with both healthy and potentially harmful unhealthy weight control behaviors, and does not contribute to weight loss over time. Adolescents should not be encouraged to engage in frequent self-weighing. PMID:22717180
Among adolescent girls, the health effects of frequent self-weighing are unclear. This study examines cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between frequency of self-weighing and body mass index (BMI), body satisfaction, weight control behaviors, and binge eating among a diverse population of adolescent girls. The study was conducted in the Minneapolis/St Paul, MN, metropolitan area between 2007 and 2009. The study population included 356 adolescent girls (mean age 15.7 years); 46.2% of the girls were overweight or obese and >75% were from a racial/ethnic minority group. Anthropometric and survey data were collected at baseline and at follow-up 9 months later. Hierarchical linear regression models were developed to test associations. Cross-sectionally, frequent self-weighing was associated with lower body satisfaction (P=0.034) and higher rates of healthy (P=0.002), unhealthy (P=0.016), and extreme (P=0.038) weight control behaviors. A quadratic association was found between frequency of self-weighing and binge eating, with girls who weighed themselves least and most frequently reporting the highest prevalences of binge eating (P=0.014). No association was observed between frequency of self-weighing and girls' BMI (P=0.111). Short-term longitudinal associations between baseline frequency of self-weighing and changes in body satisfaction, weight control behaviors, binge eating, or BMI were not observed. Findings suggest that among adolescent girls, frequent self-weighing is cross-sectionally associated with both healthy and potentially harmful unhealthy weight control behaviors, and does not contribute to weight loss over time. Adolescents should not be encouraged to engage in frequent self-weighing. PMID:22717180
Background: Considering the importance and prevalence of obesity and the desire to lose weight, especially among women, this study intended to investigate the relationship between Body Mass Index, body satisfaction, and weight control behavior among women employees in Isfahan. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among 408 women who were selected by stratified random sampling method among employees at Isfahan University and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences during 2012. The data collection tool was a multidimensional questionnaire which comprised two sections: Demographic Tool and Body Satisfaction Tool (7 items), Weight Control Behavior Scale (18 items). Results: Age, marital status, educational level, and multiparity were significantly correlated with body size satisfaction. Seventy-five participants were dissatisfied with their weight and 60.5% reported a desire to lose weight; 92.15% of women studied had participated in a healthy dieting behavior and 10.8% of them had participated in an unhealthy one during the past six months. There was an inverse correlation between body satisfaction and Body Mass Index (BMI) (r = –0.64, P = 0.001). Ninety percent of participants had at least one of the dieting behaviors. There was an inverse significant relationship between body satisfaction and dieting behaviors (r = –0.19, P = 0.001). Conclusions: Due to the importance of the prevention of obesity and the necessity of having a normal BMI in order to prevent subsequent complications, precise self-evaluation of body size can be used to focus on designing and conducting public health programs, especially for women. PMID:23671780
This study reports results from the first International Body Project (IBP-I), which surveyed 7,434 individuals in 10 major world regions about bodyweight ideals and body dissatisfaction. Participants completed the female Contour Drawing Figure Rating Scale (CDFRS) and self-reported their exposure to Western and local media. Results indicated there were significant cross-regional differences in the ideal female figure and body dissatisfaction, but effect sizes were small across high-socioeconomic-status (SES) sites. Within cultures, heavier bodies were preferred in low-SES sites compared to high-SES sites in Malaysia and South Africa (ds = 1.94-2.49) but not in Austria. Participant age, body mass index (BMI), and Western media exposure predicted bodyweight ideals. BMI and Western media exposure predicted body dissatisfaction among women. Our results show that body dissatisfaction and desire for thinness is commonplace in high-SES settings across world regions, highlighting the need for international attention to this problem. PMID:20179313
HIV has classically been a wasting disease. However, in the United States, obesity is increasingly common among HIV-infected individuals receiving effective antiviral treatment. The risks of obesity are unclear in HIV, although the increased prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the presence or absence of obesity causes growing concern. This study aimed to assess the effects of weight loss (through energy restriction combined with aerobic and resistance exercise) on body composition, body fat distribution, resting energy expenditure, quality of life (QOL), strength and fitness, and metabolic risk factors in obese, HIV-infected women. Eighteen HIV-infected women with a body mass index of 30 or more completed a 12-week weight loss program. Before and after the intervention, body composition and fat distribution by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging, resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry, QOL, strength, and fitness were measured. Insulin sensitivity by intravenous glucose tolerance test and circulating cardiovascular risk factors (including lipids, tissue plasminogen activator, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1) were measured in a subset (n = 9). Daily food intake and total bodyweight decreased (mean +/- SD) by 3195 +/- 477 kJ and 6.7 +/- 4.2 kg, respectively. Weight lost was 95.5% fat by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry or 6.2 L of subcutaneous adipose tissue, 0.7 L visceral adipose tissue, and 0.8 L skeletal muscle by magnetic resonance imaging. Resting energy expenditure fell approximately 419 kJ, strength and fitness increased by 28.9% +/- 18.5% and 36.8% +/- 41.6%, respectively, and QOL improved in 11 of 13 dimensions. There was significant insulin resistance in the subset with metabolic measurements at baseline, and at follow-up there was no improvement in fasting glucose, insulin, or insulin sensitivity, nor was there any change in fasting lipids, tissue plasminogen activator, or plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. There was no significant change in CD4 count or HIV viral load. In conclusion, moderate weight loss achieved by a short-term program of diet and exercise in obese HIV-positive women appears safe and induces loss of adiposity in both the subcutaneous adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue regions. Despite reduced food intake, weight and fat loss, as well as improvements in strength, fitness, and QOL, the lack of improvement in metabolic parameters suggests that additional interventions may be necessary to reduce the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this population. PMID:16979403
Engelson, Ellen S; Agin, Denise; Kenya, Sonjia; Werber-Zion, Galila; Luty, Besa; Albu, Jeanine B; Kotler, Donald P
Objective: We used a rodent model of dietary obesity to evaluate effects of caloric restriction-induced weight loss on mortality rate.Research Measures and Procedures: In a randomized parallel-groups design, 312 outbred Sprague-Dawley rats (one-half males) were assigned at age 10 weeks to one of three diets: low fat (LF; 18.7% calories as fat) with caloric intake adjusted to maintain bodyweight
Joseph R. Vasselli; Richard Weindruch; Steven B. Heymsfield; F. Xavier Pi-Sunyer; Carol N. Boozer; Nengjun Yi; Chenxi Wang; Angelo Pietrobelli; David B. Allison
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potent regulator of neuronal development and synaptic plasticity that is fundamental to neural circuit formation and cognition. It is also involved in the control of appetite and bodyweight, with mutations in the genes for BDNF and its receptor, TrkB, resulting in remarkable hyperphagia and severe obesity in humans and mice. Recent studies have made significant progress in elucidating the source, action sites, and regulatory pathways of BDNF with regard to its role in the control of energy homeostasis, and have shed light on the relationships between BDNF and other molecules involved in the control of bodyweight. Here we provide a comprehensive review of evidence from pharmacological, genetic, and mechanistic studies, linking BDNF to the control of bodyweight. This review also aims to organize the main findings on this subject into a more refined framework and to discuss the future research directions necessary to advance the field. PMID:23519010
Abstract Buffalo are an economically important source for meat and milk production, especially in Brazil. However, important aspects of their biology remain unknown thus far. Herein, we describe the reproductive characteristics of male Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) raised under extensive management conditions by applying biometrics associated with testicular weight. We analyzed seven males, divided into two groups: G1, which consisted of four 18-month-old animals, and G2, which consisted of three 24-month-old animals. Testicular development occurs slowly in Murrah buffalo, suggesting a delay of sexual maturity. The biometric testicular parameters analyzed were scrotal circumference, testicular weight, testicular length, testicular width, testicular thickness and testicular circumference. Our data indicate strong correlations between SC, age and bodyweight, and additional significant relationships were identified between bodyweight, age and other testicular parameters. Thus, these parameters are suitable indicators when selecting bulls for breeding purposes. PMID:22986925
da LUZ, Patricia Aparecida Cardoso; SANTOS, Paulo Ramos da Silva; ANDRIGHETTO, Cristiana; JORGE, Andre Mendes; de ASSIS NETO, Antonio Chaves
We analyze the influence of bodyweight in early adulthood, and changes in weight over time, on self rated health (SRH) as people age into mid-adulthood. While prior research focused on cross-sectional samples of older adults, we use longitudinal data from the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study (NHEFS) and double-trajectory latent growth models to study the association between body mass index (BMI) and SRH trajectories over twenty years. Results indicate that high BMI in early adulthood and gaining more weight over time are both associated with a faster decline in health ratings. Among white women only, those with a higher BMI at the baseline also report lower initial SRH. A small part of the weight-health associations is due to sociodemographic factors, but not baseline health behaviors or medical conditions. The findings provide new support for the cumulative disadvantage perspective, documenting the increasing health inequalities in a cohort of young adults. PMID:20420297
Five commercial botanical products (Shilianhua [SLH] tablets, Shiu Huo pills, Fenulyn, Bitter Melon, and Glucose Metabolic Support), available in the US market, with reported claims for regulation of metabolism were screened for their effect on bodyweight gain in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Pilot results suggested that SLH tablets attenuated bodyweight gain, whereas Shiu Huo pills and Fenulyn tended to promote weight gain in the mice on the high-fat diet. To investigate the bioactive components in the SLH tablet, the wild SLH plant (Sinocrassula indica Berge) was collected from China and used to make a variety of extracts including aqueous extract, ethanol extract (SLH-E), and subfraction F100. In the study of metabolic activities, the extracts were administrated through food intake by incorporating them into the diet. A rigorous evaluation of the extracts on bodyweight was conducted in 2 animal models. The aqueous extract and SLH-E were tested in dietary obese mice, while F100 together with SLH-E was tested in KK-Ay mice, a genetic diabetic model. In the 12- to 16-week study, bodyweight was not significantly altered by the SLH extracts in the 2 animal models. The results suggest that neither the total extract nor the purified components from the SLH plant have a clear effect in the regulation of bodyweight. The weight reduction observed with the over-the-counter SLH tablet in the pilot studies may be secondary to other components in the tablet, but not from the SLH extract. PMID:18555854
Yin, Jun; Zuberi, Aamir; Gao, Zhanguo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Zhijun; Cefalu, William T; Ye, Jianping
Purpose: To determine whether overweight female adolescents differ from normal and underweight female adolescents with respect to a set of psychosocial factors, while controlling for body image.Methods: Female participants of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 3197) were selected for analysis. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was used to test whether overweight subjects differed from normal and
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a continuing problem in the UK and South Asian children represent a group that are particularly vulnerable to its health consequences. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and obesity is well documented in older children and adults, but is less clear in young children, particularly South Asians. A better understanding of this relationship in young South Asian
Miranda J Pallan; Lucinda C Hiam; Joan L Duda; Peymane Adab
The impact of weight change in adulthood on cardiovascular disease is controversial. This study examined the association of change in bodyweight, from young adulthood to middle age, with average carotid artery intimal-medial wall thickness by B-mode ultrasound measured in middle age. Participants were 13,282 men and women aged 45-64 years from the baseline examination of the Atherosclerosis Risk in
June Stevens; H. A. Tyroler; Jianwen Cai; Catherine C. Paton; Aaron R. Folsom; Grethe S. Tell; Pamela J. Schreiner; LJoyd E. Chambless
Different weight classes (25, 50, 100 and 160 mg) of the dragonfly nymph Mesogomphus lineatus were allowed to predate on constant density (15 larvae\\/aquarium of 500 ml capacity) of healthy fourth instar larvae of Culex fatigans at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 ±0.5°C to study the interactions of bodyweight and temperature on satiation time, maximum food
Excess bodyweight (EBW) is an independent risk factor for many human malignancies, including cancers throughout the gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary tract from the esophagus to the colorectum. The relative risk of gastrointestinal cancer in obese individuals is approximately 1.5–2.0 times that for normal weight individuals, with organ-specific and gender-specific differences for specific cancers. The association between EBW and risk of
Objective: Many transitional societies currently face both extremes of nutritional status, undernutrition and overnutrition. Women of reproductive age are at high risk of these conditions. The purpose of this review is to consider evidence for relationships between reproduction and nutritional status in women from societies of varying economic development, using bodyweight or weight-for-height as indicators of maternal nutritional status.Design:
Objective: Discrimination can have a negative impact on psychological well-being, attitudes and behaviour. This research evaluates the impact of experiences of weight-based discrimination upon emotional eating and body dissatisfaction, and also explores whether people's beliefs about an ingroup's social consensus concerning how favourably overweight people are regarded can moderate the relationship between experiences of discrimination and negative eating and weight-related
Background:Exercise is widely promoted as a method of weight management, while the other health benefits are often ignored. The purpose of this study was to examine whether exercise-induced improvements in health are influenced by changes in bodyweight.Methods:Fifty-eight sedentary overweight\\/obese men and women (BMI 31.8 (SD 4.5) kg\\/m2) participated in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise intervention (70% heart rate max,
N A King; M Hopkins; P Caudwell; R J Stubbs; J E Blundell
Aims: Peak oxygen uptake adjusted to bodyweight (peak VO2) and ventilatory efficiency (VE\\/VCO2-slope) are important prognostic parameters in chronic heart failure. Our study prospectively examined changes in these parameters over 24 months following heart transplantation (HTx) and evaluated the potentially confounding effects of weight gain. Methods and results: One hundred patients with chronic heart failure (16 female, mean age
Dirk Habedank; Ralf Ewert; Manfred Hummel; Roland Wensel; Roland Hetzer; Stefan D. Anker
Objective To compare self-reported to measured heights and weights of adults examined in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), and to determine to what extent body mass index (BMI) calculated from self-reported heights and weights affects estimates of overweight prevalence compared with BMI calculated from measured values.Design A complex sample design was used in NHANES III
MARIE FANELLI KUCZMARSKI; ROBERT J KUCZMARSKI; MATTHEW NAJJAR
Objective: To characterize a model of atypical antipsychotic drug-induced obesity and evaluate its mechanism.Research Methods and Procedures: Chronically, olanzapine or clozapine was self-administered via cookie dough to rodents (Sprague-Dawley or Wistar rats; C57Bl\\/6J or A\\/J mice). Chronic studies measured food intake, bodyweight, adiponectin, active ghrelin, leptin, insulin, tissue wet weights, glucose, clinical chemistry endpoints, and brain dopaminergic D2 receptor
Vance L. Albaugh; Cathy R. Henry; Nicholas T. Bello; Andras Hajnal; Susan L. Lynch; Beth Halle; Christopher J. Lynch
The purpose of this study was to assess how body image may be affected by HIV-related weight loss. Qualitative methodology was used: eight gay men with weight loss of at least 10% self-completed a brief, tailor-made questionnaire and then participated singly in semi-structured audiotaped interviews. Questionnaire analysis showed all but one had avoided social activities in the last two months
Background The family environment offers several opportunities through which to improve adolescents' weight and weight-related behaviors.\\u000a This study aims to examine the cross-sectional relationships between multiple factors in the family environment and physical\\u000a activity (PA), television use (TV), soft drink intake, fruit and vegetable (FV) intake, body mass index (BMI), and body composition\\u000a among a sample of sociodemographically-diverse adolescent girls.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Subjects
Katherine W Bauer; Dianne Neumark-Sztainer; Jayne A Fulkerson; Peter J Hannan; Mary Story
Satiety is a complex psycho-physiological mechanism that allows the adjustment of energy intake to expenditures. As such, it plays an important role among the numerous interacting mechanisms contributing to bodyweight control. Booth and Nouwen rightfully stress that satiety claims can be misleading and even dangerous when they are misrepresented or misinterpreted as slimming claims. Indeed, a substance that might enhance satiety, especially by affecting sensations on the short term, will not necessarily help to decrease energy intake on the longer term or facilitate weight loss. While denouncing abusive claims, the article by Booth and Nouwen also refers to numerous contributions of satiety mechanisms that could potentially affect intake and weight control over the long term. We propose that multi-step proofs of concepts could be useful in this field. Satiety effects are one early step in a complex demonstration of how a substance could affect short-term intake, hormonal mechanisms, and medium or long term changes in bodyweight. An example of such a step-wise process is described (beneficial effects of calcium and dairy products on appetite and weight change). Booth and Nouwen insist that satiety effects should be evaluated in the context of the local socio-cultural meal pattern and lifestyle. This wise advice supports the use of multi-step proofs of concept, perhaps including the use of biomarkers as well as behavioural measures, before any satiety enhancement claim can be considered to have any actual impact on bodyweight control. PMID:21192996
An experiment was carried out to study the effects of hematinics (CuSO4, FeSO4, CoSO4) on general body condition and certain hematological parameters in sheep and goats. The results revealed that the bodyweight gain, total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were increased significantly (p<0.01 and p<0.05) in
R. ISLAM; S. M. H. RASHID; M. K. HOSSAIN; M. RAHMAN
The associations between bodyweight, raised blood pressure, and mortality remain controversial. The authors examined these relations by considering all degrees of obesity in the Düsseldorf Obesity Mortality Study (1961- 1994). Among 6,193 obese German patients aged 18-75 years and having a body mass index (BMI) of ?25 kg\\/m2, 1,059 deaths were observed after a median follow-up of 14.8 years.
Ralf Bender; Karl-Heinz Jöckel; Bernd Richter; Maximilian Spraul; Michael Berger
Objectives:The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of diet and exercise vs acupuncture, diet and exercise on the bodyweight and related parameters of adult women.Methods:Twenty-seven obese women with a body fat percentage of more than 30% were randomized into three groups. The first experimental group had diet and exercise, whereas the second experimental group had diet,
M Nourshahi; S Ahmadizad; H Nikbakht; M A Heidarnia; E Ernst
Summary Background and Objectives A high body mass index (BMI) is associated with lower mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Short-term weight gains and losses are also related to lower and higher mortality risk, respectively. The implications of weight gain or loss may, however, differ between obese individuals and their nonobese counterparts. Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements The Current Management of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism: A Multicenter Observational Study (COSMOS) is an observational study including 6797 European hemodialysis patients recruited between February 2005 and July 2007, with prospective data collection every 6 months for 3 years. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazard regressions assessed the effect of BMI and weight changes on mortality. Analyses were performed after patient stratification according to their starting BMI. Results Among 6296 patients with complete data, 1643 died. At study entry, 42% of patients had a normal weight (BMI, 20–25 kg/m2), 11% were underweight, 31% were overweight, and 16% were obese (BMI ?30 kg/m2). Weight loss or gain (<1% or >1% of bodyweight) was strongly associated with higher rates of mortality or survival, respectively. After stratification by BMI categories, this was true in nonobese categories and especially in underweight patients. In obese patients, however, the association between weight loss and mortality was attenuated (hazard ratio, 1.28 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.74 to 2.14]), and no survival benefit of gaining weight was seen (hazard ratio, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.59 to 1.62]). Conclusions Assuming that these weight changes were unintentional, our study brings attention to rapid weight variations as a clinical sign of health monitoring in hemodialysis patients. In addition, a patient’s BMI modifies the strength of the association between weight changes with mortality. PMID:24009217
Cabezas-Rodriguez, Ivan; Carrero, Juan Jesus; Zoccali, Carmine; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Ketteler, Markus; Floege, Jurgen; London, Gerard; Locatelli, Francesco; Gorriz, Jose Luis; Rutkowski, Boleslaw; Memmos, Dimitrios; Ferreira, Anibal; Covic, Adrian; Teplan, Vladimir; Bos, Willem-Jan; Kramar, Reinhard; Pavlovic, Drasko; Goldsmith, David; Nagy, Judit; Benedik, Miha; Verbeelen, Dierik; Tielemans, Christian; Wuthrich, Rudolf P.; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Martinez-Salgado, Carlos; Fernandez-Martin, Jose Luis; Cannata-Andia, Jorge B.
Background: Following a bariatric surgery and massive weight-loss, the outcome is usually sullied by consequences on the body's contour and redundant skin. Aims: We aimed to record the frequency of contour irregularities and quantify patients’ satisfaction with appearance and anticipations from body contouring surgery. Materials and Methods: The ethical committee at King Abdulaziz University Hospital approved the study, and patients were consented. A cross-sectional study targeting the post-bariatric patients from May 2011 to April 2012 was conducted at our hospital. We used post-massive weight loss Satisfaction Questionnaire. Results: The total numbers of patients were 64 (51 women and 13 men), of which 57 patients (89.2%) developed sagging skin. Most patients were dissatisfied with their appearance after weight loss. The most common zones were the upper arms (50%) and abdomen (45%). Considerably more women (36.2%) than men (24%) were dissatisfied with certain body areas. The most noticeable expectation of patients from body contouring surgery was improved cosmetic appearance (65.6%) and self-confidence (64.1%). More women (70.58%) than men (46.15%) expected a better cosmetic appearance after body contouring (P = 0.003). Conclusion: After bariatric surgery, sagging excess skin is an unsatisfactory problem. Therefore, body contouring surgery must be included in morbid obesity management. PMID:23724406
Aldaqal, Saleh M; Makhdoum, Ahmad M; Turki, Ali M; Awan, Basim A; Samargandi, Osama A; Jamjom, Hytham
Summary Objectives: Despite evidence of poor health outcomes associated with excessive weight gain or loss, longitudinal patterns of bodyweight over the adult life course have not been fully described. This article seeks to address this by examining bodyweight patterns for middle-aged and older adults. Methods: Panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) original cohort and the
Kristi R. Jenkins; Nancy H. Fultz; Stephanie J. Fonda; Linda A. Wray
The present study determined the effect of chronic PPA infusion and withdrawal on weight regulation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received PPA (0, 90 or 180 mg\\/kg) via miniosmotic pumps for 2 weeks. Bodyweight and food and water consumption were measured daily before, during, and for 2 weeks after PPA infusion. Additionally, bodyweight was measured once 6 weeks after the
Suzan E. Winders; John C. Amos; Mary R. Wilson; Paul A. Rushing; Thane Dykstra; Mace C. Coday
Common variants at only two loci, FTO and MC4R, have been reproducibly associated with body mass index (BMI) in humans. To identify additional loci, we conducted meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide association studies for BMI (n > 32,000) and followed up top signals in 14 additional cohorts (n > 59,000). We strongly confirm FTO and MC4R and identify six additional loci
Cristen J Willer; Elizabeth K Speliotes; Ruth J F Loos; Shengxu Li; Cecilia M Lindgren; Iris M Heid; Sonja I Berndt; Amanda L Elliott; Anne U Jackson; Claudia Lamina; Guillaume Lettre; Noha Lim; Helen N Lyon; Steven A McCarroll; Konstantinos Papadakis; Lu Qi; Rosa Maria Roccasecca; Serena Sanna; Paul Scheet; Michael N Weedon; Eleanor Wheeler; Jing Hua Zhao; Leonie C Jacobs; Inga Prokopenko; Nicole Soranzo; Toshiko Tanaka; Nicholas J Timpson; Peter Almgren; Amanda Bennett; Richard N Bergman; Sheila A Bingham; Lori L Bonnycastle; Morris Brown; Noël P Burtt; Peter Chines; Lachlan Coin; Francis S Collins; John M Connell; Cyrus Cooper; Elaine M Dennison; Parimal Deodhar; Paul Elliott; Michael R Erdos; Karol Estrada; David M Evans; Lauren Gianniny; Christian Gieger; Christopher J Gillson; Candace Guiducci; Rachel Hackett; David Hadley; Alistair S Hall; Aki S Havulinna; Johannes Hebebrand; Albert Hofman; Bo Isomaa; Kevin B Jacobs; Toby Johnson; Pekka Jousilahti; Zorica Jovanovic; Kay-Tee Khaw; Peter Kraft; Mikko Kuokkanen; Johanna Kuusisto; Jaana Laitinen; Edward G Lakatta; Jian'an Luan; Robert N Luben; Massimo Mangino; Wendy L McArdle; Thomas Meitinger; Antonella Mulas; Patricia B Munroe; Narisu Narisu; Andrew R Ness; Kate Northstone; Stephen O'Rahilly; Carolin Purmann; Matthew G Rees; Martin Ridderstrĺle; Susan M Ring; Fernando Rivadeneira; Aimo Ruokonen; Manjinder S Sandhu; Jouko Saramies; Laura J Scott; Angelo Scuteri; Kaisa Silander; Matthew A Sims; Kijoung Song; Jonathan Stephens; Suzanne Stevens; Heather M Stringham; Y C Loraine Tung; Timo T Valle; Cornelia M Van Duijn; Karani S Vimaleswaran; Peter Vollenweider; Gerard Waeber; Chris Wallace; Richard M Watanabe; Dawn M Waterworth; Nicholas Watkins; Jacqueline C M Witteman; Eleftheria Zeggini; Guangju Zhai; M Carola Zillikens; David Altshuler; Mark J Caulfield; Stephen J Chanock; I Sadaf Farooqi; Luigi Ferrucci; Jack M Guralnik; Andrew T Hattersley; Frank B Hu; Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin; Markku Laakso; Vincent Mooser; Ken K Ong; Willem H Ouwehand; Veikko Salomaa; Nilesh J Samani; Timothy D Spector; Tiinamaija Tuomi; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Manuela Uda; André G Uitterlinden; Nicholas J Wareham; Panagiotis Deloukas; Timothy M Frayling; Leif C Groop; Richard B Hayes; David J Hunter; Karen L Mohlke; Leena Peltonen; David Schlessinger; David P Strachan; H-Erich Wichmann; Mark I McCarthy; Michael Boehnke; Inęs Barroso; Gonçalo R Abecasis; Joel N Hirschhorn
Background Studies addressing the influence of early sexual maturation on the excess of bodyweight and height of children and adolescents are scarce. The aim of the study was to analyze the association of sexual maturation with excess bodyweight and height in children and adolescents. Methods This was a cross-sectional study performed in Florianópolis city, Brazil, in 2007, with 2339 school children, aged 8–14 years (1107 males). Selection was based on a probabilistic, cluster-stratified sampling technique. School children were classified according to the presence of excess bodyweight, using sex- and age-specific body mass index (BMI) cutoff points. Z-scores were calculated from height and BMI data. Sexual maturation was self-assessed according to Tanner stages of development. Subjects were ranked based on tertiles of sexual maturation (early, normal and late) for each stage of development. Poisson and linear regression models were used. Results Compared to the reference group (normal sexual maturation), early maturing females had higher prevalence of excess weight (adjusted prevalence ratio: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.24 to 2.33) and increased height-for-age (adjusted ?: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.59), while late maturing females had lower prevalence of excess weight (adjusted prevalence ratio: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.37 to 0.87) and decreased height-for-age (adjusted ?: ?0.38; 95% CI: ?0.56 to ?0.20). In males, early and late sexual maturation were associated with increased (adjusted ?: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.59) and decreased (adjusted ?: ?0.38; 95% CI: ?0.56 to ?0.20) height-for-age, respectively. Conclusion Early sexual maturation is associated with excess bodyweight in females and with greater height-for-age in both sexes. PMID:24625111
Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions worldwide, and is associated with chronic illnesses such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and dyslipidemias (metabolic syndrome). Commonly held causes of obesity are overeating coupled with a sedentary lifestyle. However, it has also been postulated that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be related to the significant increase in the prevalence of obesity and associated diseases. In the present study, developmental and reproductive effects of lifelong exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of two natural mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were investigated using classical and molecular methods in a controlled zebrafish model. The mixtures used were extracted from burbot (Lota lota) liver originating from freshwater systems in Norway (Lake Mjřsa and Lake Losna). The concentration of POPs in the zebrafish ranged from levels detected in wild fish (Lake Mjřsa and Lake Losna), to concentrations reported in human and wildlife populations. Phenotypic effects observed in both exposure groups included (1) earlier onset of puberty, (2) elevated male/female sex ratio, and (3) increased bodyweight at 5 months of age. Interestingly, genome-wide transcription profiling identified functional networks of genes, in which key regulators of weight homeostasis (PPARs, glucocoricoids, CEBPs, estradiol), steroid hormone functions (glucocoricoids, estradiol, NCOA3) and insulin signaling (HNF4A, CEBPs, PPARG) occupied central positions. The increased weight and the regulation of genes associated with weight homeostasis and insulin signaling observed in the present study suggest that environmental pollution may affect the endocrine regulation of the metabolism, possibly leading to increased weight gain and obesity. PMID:21356182
Lyche, Jan L; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; Karlsson, Camilla; Stavik, Benedicte; Berg, Vidar; Skĺre, Janneche Utne; Alestrřm, Peter; Ropstad, Erik
The peptide hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) enhances glucose-induced insulin secretion and inhibits both gastric emptying and glucagon secretion. GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists control glycemia via glucose-dependent mechanisms of action and promote weight loss in obese and diabetic individuals. Nevertheless, the mechanisms and cellular targets transducing the weight loss effects remain unclear. Two recent studies in the JCI provide insight into the neurons responsible for this effect. Sisley et al. reveal that GLP-1R agonist-induced weight loss requires GLP-1Rs in the CNS, while Secher et al. reveal that a small peptide GLP-1R agonist penetrates the brain and activates a subset of GLP-1R-expressing neurons in the arcuate nucleus to produce weight loss. Together, these two studies elucidate pathways that inform strategies coupling GLP-1R signaling to control of bodyweight in patients with diabetes or obesity. PMID:25202976
The aim of the study was to examine the effect of socioeconomic status (SES), age, weight and gender on the body image and weight control practices of children and adolescents, and to investigate whether health education about weight issues should target low socioeconomic groups. The study participants were a randomly selected group of school children who completed a questionnaire, and
Background: Low-carbohydrate diets have been used to manage obesity and its metabolic consequences. Objective: The objective was to study the effects of moderate car- bohydrate restriction on atherogenic dyslipidemia before and after weight loss and in conjunction with a low or high dietary saturated fat intake. Design:After 1 wk of consuming a basal diet, 178 men with a mean body
Ronald M Krauss; Patricia J Blanche; Robin S Rawlings; Harriett S Fernstrom; Paul T Williams
Context The role of diet composition in response to overeating and energy dissipation in humans is unclear. Objective To evaluate the effects of overconsumption of low, normal, and high protein diets on weight gain, energy expenditure, and body composition. Design, Setting, and Participants A single-blind, randomized controlled trial of 25 US healthy, weight-stable male and female volunteers, aged 18 to 35 years with a body mass index between 19 and 30. The first participant was admitted to the inpatient metabolic unit in June 2005 and the last in October 2007. Intervention After consuming a weight-stabilizing diet for 13 to 25 days, participants were randomized to diets containing 5% of energy from protein (low protein), 15% (normal protein), or 25% (high protein), which they were overfed during the last 8 weeks of their 10- to 12-week stay in the inpatient metabolic unit. Compared with energy intake during the weight stabilization period, the protein diets provided approximately 40% more energy intake, which corresponds to 954 kcal/d (95% CI, 884–1022 kcal/d). Main Outcome Measures Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry biweekly, resting energy expenditure was measured weekly by ventilated hood, and total energy expenditure by doubly labeled water prior to the overeating and weight stabilization periods and at weeks 7 to 8. Results Overeating produced significantly less weight gain in the low protein diet group (3.16 kg; 95% CI, 1.88–4.44 kg) compared with the normal protein diet group (6.05 kg; 95% CI, 4.84–7.26 kg) or the high protein diet group (6.51 kg; 95% CI, 5.23–7.79 kg) (P=.002). Body fat increased similarly in all 3 protein diet groups and represented 50% to more than 90% of the excess stored calories. Resting energy expenditure, total energy expenditure, and body protein did not increase during overfeeding with the low protein diet. In contrast, resting energy expenditure (normal protein diet: 160 kcal/d [95% CI, 102–218 kcal/d]; high protein diet: 227 kcal/d [95% CI, 165–289 kcal/d]) and body protein (lean body mass) (normal protein diet: 2.87 kg [95% CI, 2.11–3.62 kg]; high protein diet: 3.18 kg [95% CI, 2.37–3.98 kg]) increased significantly with the normal and high protein diets. Conclusions Among persons living in a controlled setting, calories alone account for the increase in fat; protein affected energy expenditure and storage of lean body mass, but not body fat storage. PMID:22215165
Bray, George A.; Smith, Steven R.; de Jonge, Lilian; Xie, Hui; Rood, Jennifer; Martin, Corby K.; Most, Marlene; Brock, Courtney; Mancuso, Susan; Redman, Leanne M.
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of self-reported weight and height among women with eating disorders. The study sample consisted of 271 women aged 18-50 yrs: 73 anorexic patients (AN) with a body mass index (BMI) of <18.50 kg/m2, 54 normal weight bulimic or rehabilitated patients (BU/RE: 18.5 or =25 kg/m2) and 106 normal weight women without an eating disorder (NW: 18.5body weight (BW) and height were recorded during an interview, and measured using standard procedures, and their self-reported and measured BMI was calculated (kg/m2). In comparison with the measured data, the AN patients tended to overestimate their bodyweight by 0.48+/-2.05 kg (p<0.05), whereas the OW/OB and BU/RE patients underestimated it (OW/OB: -1.52+/-3.21 kg, p=0.006; BU/RE: -1.12+/-2.60 kg, p=0.003). All of the groups overestimated height by at least 1 cm, and the OW/OB group overestimated it by 2.31+/-2.94 (p=0.00000). These differences were reflected in the significant underestimate of BMI by all groups except the AN patients. Pearson's correlation coefficients between the self-reported and measured variables ranged from 0.95 to 0.98. The results of a Bland & Altman analysis showed that the underestimates of weight and BMI were related to the magnitude of the values (BW: r=-0.24, p<0.000078; BMI: r=-0.37, p<0.00000), the differences being greater with increasing values of weight and BMI; sensitivity as greater for the AN patients. The self-reported data led to a significant misclassification of body mass categories, especially among the BU/RE and OW/OB subjects. Our results show that the over-reporting of height and under-reporting of bodyweight led to significant underestimates of BMI. The AN subjects seemed to know their weight quite well, whereas the BU/RE and OW/OB women significantly underestimated it. On the basis of these findings, measured weight and height should always be preferred to self-reported values. PMID:20571324
Ciarapica, D; Mauro, B; Zaccaria, M; Cannella, C; Polito, A
Nutritively sweetened beverages (NSBs) may play a role in the obesity epidemic. We abstracted data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and evidence-based reviews through January 2009 concerning effects of consumption of NSBs on changes in bodyweight and adiposity. Studies included were those 1) conducted in humans; 2) lasting at least 3 weeks; 3) incorporating random assignment of subjects to conditions that differed only in the consumption of NSBs; and 4) including an adiposity indicator as an outcome. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of 6 studies that added NSBs to persons’ diets showed dose-dependent increases in weight. Contrarily, meta-analysis of studies that attempted to reduce NSB consumption consistently showed no effect on BMI when all subjects were considered. Meta-analysis of studies providing access to results separately for subjects overweight at baseline showed a significant effect of a roughly 0.35 standard deviations lesser BMI change (i.e., more weight loss or less weight gain) relative to controls. The current evidence does not demonstrate conclusively that NSB consumption has uniquely contributed to obesity or that reducing NSB consumption will reduce BMI levels in general. We recommend an adequately powered RCT among overweight persons, among whom there is suggestive evidence of an effect. PMID:20524996
Mattes, Richard D; Shikany, James M; Kaiser, Kathryn A; Allison, David B
Obesity later in adulthood is associated with increased risks of many cancers. However, the effect of body fatness in early adulthood, and change in weight from early to later adulthood on cancer risk later in life is less clear. We used data from 13,901 people aged 45-64 in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort who at baseline (1987-1989) self-reported their weight at the age of 25 and had weight and height measured. Incident cancers were identified through 2006 and cancer deaths were ascertained through 2009. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to relate body mass index (BMI) at age 25 and percent weight change from age 25 to baseline to cancer incidence and mortality. After adjusting for weight change from age 25 until baseline, a 5 kg/m(2) increment in BMI at age 25 was associated with a greater risk of incidence of all cancers in women [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.10 (1.02-1.20)], but not in men. Associations with incident endometrial cancer were strong [1.83 (1.47-2.26)]. After adjusting for BMI at age 25, a 5% increment in weight from age 25 to baseline was associated with a greater risk of incident postmenopausal breast cancer [1.05 (1.02-1.07)] and endometrial cancer [1.09 (1.04-1.14)] in women and incident colorectal cancer [1.05 (1.00-1.10)] in men. Excess weight during young adulthood and weight gain from young to older adulthood may be independently associated with subsequent cancer risk. Excess weight and weight gain in early adulthood should be avoided. PMID:24771654
Han, Xuesong; Stevens, June; Truesdale, Kimberly P; Bradshaw, Patrick T; Kucharska-Newton, Anna; Prizment, Anna E; Platz, Elizabeth A; Joshu, Corinne E
Linagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-IV inhibitor approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. DPP-IV inhibitors are considered weight neutral, suggesting that elevation of endogenous incretin levels is not sufficient to promote weight loss per se. Here we evaluated the effect of linagliptin in combination with subcutaneous treatment of GLP-1(7-36) on bodyweight regulation in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Linagliptin administered perorally (1.5mg/kg, b.i.d.), but not subcutaneously (0.5mg/kg, b.i.d.), evoked a very modest bodyweight loss (2.2%) after 28 days of treatment. GLP-1 (0.5mg/kg, s.c.) treatment alone induced a bodyweight loss of 4.1%. In contrast, combined linagliptin (1.5mg/kg, p.o., or 0.5mg/kg, s.c.) and GLP-1 (0.5mg/kg) treatment evoked a marked anorectic response with both routes of linagliptin administration being equally effective on final bodyweight loss (7.5-8.0%). In comparison, liraglutide monotherapy (0.2mg/kg, s.c., b.i.d.) reducedbodyweight by 10.1%. Interestingly, the weight lowering effect of combined linagliptin and GLP-1 treatment was associated with a marked increase in chow preference, being more pronounced as compared to liraglutide treatment. In addition, linagliptin and GLP-1 co-treatment, but not liraglutide, specifically increased prepro-dynorphin mRNA levels in the caudate-putamen, an effect not obtained with administration of the compounds individually. In conclusion, co-treatment with linagliptin and GLP-1 synergistically reducesbodyweight in obese rats. The anti-obesity effect was caused by appetite suppression with a concomitant change in diet preference, which may potentially be associated with increased dynorphin activity in forebrain regions involved in reward anticipation and habit learning. PMID:25160746
Hansen, Henrik H; Hansen, Gitte; Paulsen, Sarah; Vrang, Niels; Mark, Michael; Jelsing, Jacob; Klein, Thomas
Background Overweight and obese women are known to be at increased risk of caesarean birth. This study estimates the contribution of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) to caesarean births in Canada. Methods We analyzed data from women in the Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey who had a singleton term live birth in 2005-2006. Adjusted odds ratios for caesarean birth across BMI and GWG groups were derived, separately for nulliparous women and parous women with and without a prior caesarean. Population attributable fractions of caesarean births associated with above normal BMI and excess GWG were calculated. Results The overall caesarean birth rate was 25.7%. Among nulliparous and parous women without a previous caesarean birth, rates in obese women were 45.1% and 9.7% respectively, and rates in women who gained above their recommended GWG were 33.5% and 8.0% respectively. Caesarean birth was more strongly associated with BMI than with GWG. However, due to the high prevalence of excess GWG (48.8%), the proportion of caesareans associated with above normal BMI and excess GWG was similar [10.1% (95% CI: 9.9-10.2) and 10.9% (95% CI: 10.7-11.1) respectively]. Overall, one in five (20.2%, 95% CI: 20.0-20.4) caesarean births was associated with above normal BMI or excess GWG. Conclusions Overweight and obese BMI and above recommended GWG are significantly associated with caesarean birth in singleton term pregnancies in Canada. Strategies to reduce caesarean births must include measures to prevent overweight and obese BMI prior to conception and promote recommended weight gain throughout pregnancy. PMID:24641703
Background: Individuals who are weight-reduced or leptin deficient have a lower energy expenditure coupled with higher hunger and disinhibition and/or delayed satiation compared with never-weight-reduced control subjects. Because exogenous leptin inhibits feeding in congenitally leptin-deficient humans, reduced leptin signaling may reduce the expression of feeding inhibition in humans. Objective: The objective was to test the hypothesis that reduced leptin signaling may reduce the expression of feeding inhibition (ie, blunt satiation) in humans by examining the effects of leptin repletion on feeding behavior after weight loss. Design: Ten obese humans (4 men, 6 women) were studied as inpatients while they received a weight-maintaining liquid-formula diet. Satiation was studied by measuring intake and ratings of appetite-related dispositions 3 h after ingestion of 300 kcal of the liquid-formula diet. The subjects were studied at each of 3 time periods: 1) while they maintained their usual weight (Wtinitial) and then after weight reduction and stabilization at 10% below initial weight and while they received 5 wk of either 2) twice-daily injections of placebo (Wt-10%placebo) or 3) “replacement doses” of leptin (Wt-10%leptin) in a single-blind crossover design with a 2-wk washout period between treatments. Energy expenditure was also measured at each study period. Results: Both energy expenditure and visual analog scale ratings that reflect satiation were significantly lower at Wt-10%placebo than at Wtinitial and Wt-10%leptin. Conclusion: The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the absence of leptin signaling after weight loss may blunt the expression of feeding inhibition in humans. PMID:22237063
Kissileff, Harry R; Thornton, John C; Torres, Migdalia I; Pavlovich, Katherine; Mayer, Laurel S; Kalari, Vamsi; Leibel, Rudolph L
The aims of this study were to explore the mean and distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and to examine the influence of gender, bodyweight and health behaviors on hypertension in adults with disabilities. We analyzed the 2010 annual community health examination chart of adults with disabilities in east Taiwan. The study samples…
Prior research shows that food insecurity is associated with being overweight in women, with few and ambiguous results in men. Little is known about the characteristics and roles of individuals who are most likely to be both food insecure and overweight or obese. This study analyzed associations between food insecurity and bodyweight, and whether gender and marital status are
Karla L. Hanson; Jeffery Sobal; Edward A. Frongillo
BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing prevalence of overweight\\/obesity and its association to eating patterns in adolescents and adults, little is known about the relationship between problematic eating behaviours and bodyweight in the preschool years within the context of various social factors. This research aims to analyze the relationship between social factors, mothers' perceptions of their child's eating behaviour (picky eating
Lise Dubois; Anna Farmer; Manon Girard; Kelly Peterson; Fabiola Tatone-Tokuda
The use of bodyweight support (BWS) systems during locomotor retraining has become routine in clinical settings. BWS alters load receptor feedback, however, and may alter the biomechanical role of the ankle plantarflexors, influencing gait. The purpose of this study was to characterize the biomechanical adaptations that occur as a result of a change in limb load (controlled indirectly through
This investigation explored the role of critical comments about weight and body shape and disordered eating symptoms of female athletes (N = 157) and sport participants (N = 63). Results revealed that both athletes and sport participants who recalled critical comments, compared with those who did not, and those who recalled more severe critical comments, reported greater disordered eating (controlling
Fisheries managers often assess body condition using relative weight (Wr) because it provides a comparative measure of fish plumpness among individuals and populations. However, it is not known whether the morphological information that Wr summarizes reflects physiological measures, such as relative lipid reserves, in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The purpose of this study was to determine whether swimming activity affects
Darin G. Simpkins; Wayne A. Hubert; Carlos Martinez del Rio; Daniel C. Rule
Objective: Association between nutritional status of adolescents and food consumption pattern. Design: Data on number of meals and snacks consumed daily were collected using structured questionnaires. Nutritional status was assessed as weight-for-age body mass index score less than fifth percentile of the National Center for Health…
Olumakaiye, M. F.; Atinmo, Tola; Olubayo-Fatiregun, M. A.
The study objective was to assess the number and type of the consumed meals during the day and to make a comparison between their energetic and nutritional value in the diets of women with normal and excessive bodyweight. A questionnaire study was conducted in a group of 346 women aged 18-79 years (mean 41.1 +/- 13.1 years). Normal bodyweight was noted in 145 women (42%), whereas overweight or obesity in 201 women (58%). The study questionnaire contained questions concerning eating habits, e.g., the number of routinely consumed meals and snacks between them. A 24 h dietary recall was taken of the day preceding the examination in order to perform a quantitative evaluation of daily food rations. Taking into consideration the division into meals, the evaluation referred to the energetic value and the content of basic dietary nutrients (proteins, fats and carbohydrates) as well as cholesterol and cellulose, using the computer program Diet 2.0 designed in the Institute of Food and Feeding in Warsaw In the two compared groups, a three-meal model predominated and the afternoon snack was most frequently missed. As many as 56% of women with normal bodyweight and 71% of women with excessive bodyweight admitted irregular eating between meals. The proportion in energy delivery from the respective meals was disturbed and nutritional abnormalities were found, especially in overweight and obese women. PMID:20839470
Stefa?ska, Ewa; Ostrowska, Lucyna; Czapska, Danuta; Karczewski, Jan
The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide. Increasing bodyweight together with decreasing physical activity is expected to increase the incidence of several diseases related to lifestyle, such as adult type diabetes and vascular atherosclerotic diseases. It has been postulated that increasing consumption of fructose may be a contributory factor in the development of obesity and the accompanying metabolic abnormalities.
The prevalence of obese, overweight, and healthy weight adults with intellectual disability in the community was estimated using data from the National Health Interview Survey from 1985 to 2000. Using the Body Mass Index (BMI) as a measure, the percentage of adults with intellectual disability in the obese category was higher than that for the general population and increased over
Neuropeptides are essential for the regulation of appetite and bodyweight within the hypothalamus. The understanding of the neuropeptide regulation of energy homeostasis has been greatly advanced by the recent discovery of leptin, the protein product of the obese gene (ob). Significant new insights into the relationship between peripheral adiposity signals and their impact on the hypothalamic neuropeptide signaling circuitry
Previous estimates on the association between bodyweight and wages in the literature have been contingent on education and occupation. This paper examines the direct effect of BMI on wages and the indirect effects operating through education and occupation choice, particularly for late-teen BMI and adult wages. Using the National Longitudinal…
OKAim: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the literature on the effects of partial body-weight support treadmill training (PBWSTT) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) on functional outcomes and attainment of ambulation. Method: We searched the relevant literature from 1950 to July 2007. We found eight studies on the use of PWSBTT on…
Four groups comprising 16 broiler birds each were given benzalkonium chloride (BC) at 100, 300, 500 and 700 ppm in drinking water for 40 days and one group of 16 birds (control) was kept on plain water. Clinical signs in higher dose groups were respiratory distress, drooling of saliva, difficulty in deglutition, inappetence, apathy, lethargy and loss of bodyweight. Better bodyweight gain was recorded in 100 ppm dose rate. At 300 ppm, no significant bodyweight variation was recorded, whereas, at 500 and 700 ppm dose rates, significantly poor bodyweight gain was recorded. Major pathological changes were seen in 500 and 700 ppm groups, which exhibited formation of yellow diphtheritic plaques in the buccal cavity, swollen and pale commissures of beak and shortening of tongue. Minute necrotic and ulcerative foci were seen in oesophagus and crop. Hyperplastic and hypertrophic alterations were seen in mucosa of the upper digestive tract. Crop of 300 ppm group revealed formation of well developed epithelial nest with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia at the margin of the lesion. Serum alanine transaminase, urea and uric acid in 500 and 700 ppm groups were elevated whereas no significant variations were observed in the 100 and 300 ppm groups. BC could enhance performance of broiler birds at 100 ppm dose rate. It should not be used beyond 300 ppm. PMID:15587118
Bodyweight in young adulthood and diet appeared to be associated with the risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, according to results presented at the 10th AACR International Conference on Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research, held Oct. 22-25, 2011.
The Siberian hamster survives winter by decreasing food in- take and catabolizing abdominal fat reserves, resulting in a sustained, profound loss of bodyweight. VGF gene expression is photoperiodically regulated in the hypothalamus with sig- nificantly higher expression in lean Siberian hamsters. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of VGF in regu- lating these seasonal cycles
Preeti H. Jethwa; Amy Warner; Kanishka N. Nilaweera; John M. Brameld; John W. Keyte; Wayne G. Carter; Neil Bolton; Michael Bruggraber; Peter J. Morgan; Perry Barrett; Francis J. P. Ebling
One hallmark of chronic stress is a decrease in bodyweight that rebounds once chronic stress is alleviated. We applied chronic psychological stress by exposing European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to a previously validated chronic stress protocol (CSP) consisting of 4 different randomly applied stressors per day. Experimental design consisted of a 21day CSP (CSP1), a 60day recovery (R1), a second
CT is currently the mainstay in staging malignant lymphoma in children, but the risk of second neoplasms due to ionizing radiation associated with CT is not negligible. Whole-body MRI techniques and whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in particular, may be a good radiation-free alternative to CT. DWI is characterized by high sensitivity for the detection of lesions and allows quantitative assessment of diffusion that may aid in the evaluation of malignant lymphomas. This article will review whole-body MRI techniques for staging malignant lymphoma with emphasis on whole-body DWI. Furthermore, future considerations and challenges in whole-body DWI will be discussed. PMID:20676622
Takahara, Taro; Vermoolen, Malou A.; Bierings, Marc B.; Mali, Willem P.; Nievelstein, Rutger A. J.
Low-birth-weight (LBW) infants have a significantly greater mortality than other babies, not only within the neonatal period but also in infancy and early childhood. Babies are LBW either because they are preterm or they have experienced intrauterine growth retardation. Reducing the prevalence of LBW babies is important in reducing child and infant mortality. Risk factors for prematurity and intrauterine growth
Despite widespread efforts at weight loss, the prevalence of obesity continues to rise. Restrained eating is a pattern of attempted weight control characterized by cognitive restriction of food intake that has paradoxically been linked with overeating and\\/or weight gain. It is not known whether restrained eating is associated with abnormalities in appetite-regulating hormones, independent of its effects on bodyweight.
Ellen A. Schur; David E. Cummings; Holly S. Callahan; Karen E. Foster-Schubert
Chronic heart failure (HF) is associated with a high burden of morbidity and mortality and with reduced quality of life. New techniques such as telemonitoring (TM) have recently been introduced in the care of patients with HF in order to improve outcomes. TM is defined as sending data from the patients’ home to healthcare professionals. Most studies have focussed on endpoints such as morbidity and mortality, and relatively little attention has been paid to patients’ perceptions of TM. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore and describe patients’ perceptions of transmission of bodyweight (BW) and TM, regularly accomplished from patients’ homes to an HF clinic. An explorative design with a phenomenographic approach was used, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with a maximum variation sampling of 20 participants. The findings are described in five metaphoric categories that were assigned and used as a description: the habitual patient, the concerned patient, the technical patient, the secure patient, and the self-caring patient. The conclusions were that the transmission of BW made the patients active in their own care and increased self-care activities. In clinical care, concerns for deterioration in HF as well as the reliability of the TM system should be considered. Future research may focus on healthcare professionals and their perceptions of transmission of BW and TM in the care of patients with HF. PMID:24345687
Lynga, Patrik; Fridlund, Bengt; Langius-Eklof, Ann; Bohm, Katarina
1. Heritabilities and genetic correlations in the base population of a closed strain of Muscovy duck, moderately selected for bodyweight at 10 weeks of age, have been estimated from the data of 9 successive generations for the following traits: male and female bodyweight at 10 and 18 weeks of age (BW10m, BW18m, BW10f, BW18f) and length of the 8th primary feather at 10 weeks of age (F110m, F110f). 2. Multivariate REML with an animal model was used, pooling data from the 9 generations (3283 and 3289 male and female offspring respectively). The same trait expressed in male and female was considered as 2 different traits. 3. The 8th primary feather was longer in females than in males by 6% to 22% at 10 weeks of age. Bodyweight was heavier in males than in females by 42% to 58% at 10 weeks of age and by 57% to 75% at 18 weeks of age. 3. The heritability estimates for bodyweight traits showed moderate values, being a little higher for females than for males at the same age, increasing with age from h2=0.24 at BW10m to h2=0.43 at BW18f. 4. The heritability estimates for feather length showed that a greater response would be obtained in selection for male feather length (h2=0.37) than for female length (h2=0.14). Both have high genetic correlations with bodyweight so they could be indirectly improved. 5. Heritabilities of the difference in bodyweights between males and females at 10 weeks (h2=0.07) and 18 weeks of age (h2=0.10) were small, as well as for feather length (h2=0.10). It would probably be difficult to modify sexual dimorphism in bodyweight through selection. 6. Genetic correlations between BW10m, BW18m and BW10f, BW18f were respectively r(g)=0.77 and r(g)=0.80. They were larger for bodyweight at the same ages between males and females, r(g)=0.90 (r(g)=0.88 between F110m and F110f). Bodyweight in males and females at the same age should be better considered as 2 different traits in a selection programme. 7. The cumulated predicted genetic gains expressed per unity of the genetic standard deviation (sigma(g)) over the 8 generations of selection were 1.3 sigma(g) and 1.4 sigma(g) respectively for the BW10m and BW10f. The predicted correlated responses were 1.2 sigma(g) for bodyweights at 18 weeks of age, 0.9 sigma(g) and 0.7 sigma(g) for F110f and F110m respectively. PMID:10670671
Hu, Y H; Poivey, J P; Rouvier, R; Wang, C T; Tai, C
In the United States, approximately 5% of the population is malnourished or has low bodyweight, which can adversely affect immune function. Malnutrition is more prevalent in older adults and is often a result of energy imbalance from various causes. Dietary supplementation to promote positive energy balance can reverse malnutrition, but has not been assessed for its effect on immune parameters. This 8-week clinical feeding trial evaluated the effect of a commercially available, high-protein, high-energy formula on bodyweight and immune parameters in 30 adult volunteers with body-mass indices (BMI) <21 kg/m2. After the intervention, participants gained a mean of 3.74 lbs and increased BMI by 0.58 kg/m2. The intervention improved lean body mass and limited body fat accumulation. However, no clinically significant improvements in immune measures were observed. These results support the use of high-protein, high-energy supplements in the treatment of underweight/malnutrition. Further investigation utilizing feeding studies of longer duration, and/or studying severely malnourished individuals may be needed to detect an effect on immune parameters of weight gain promoted by nutritional supplements. PMID:23966789
Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Margolick, Joseph; Kahan, Scott; Mitola, Andrea H.; Poddar, Kavita H.; Nilles, Tricia; Kolge, Sanjivani; Menendez, Frederick; Ridore, Michelande; Wang, Shing-Jung; Chou, Jacob; Carlson, Eve
In the United States, approximately 5% of the population is malnourished or has low bodyweight, which can adversely affect immune function. Malnutrition is more prevalent in older adults and is often a result of energy imbalance from various causes. Dietary supplementation to promote positive energy balance can reverse malnutrition, but has not been assessed for its effect on immune parameters. This 8-week clinical feeding trial evaluated the effect of a commercially available, high-protein, high-energy formula on bodyweight and immune parameters in 30 adult volunteers with body-mass indices (BMI) <21 kg/m(2). After the intervention, participants gained a mean of 3.74 lbs and increased BMI by 0.58 kg/m(2). The intervention improved lean body mass and limited body fat accumulation. However, no clinically significant improvements in immune measures were observed. These results support the use of high-protein, high-energy supplements in the treatment of underweight/malnutrition. Further investigation utilizing feeding studies of longer duration, and/or studying severely malnourished individuals may be needed to detect an effect on immune parameters of weight gain promoted by nutritional supplements. PMID:23966789
Cheskin, Lawrence J; Margolick, Joseph; Kahan, Scott; Mitola, Andrea H; Poddar, Kavita H; Nilles, Tricia; Kolge, Sanjivani; Menendez, Frederick; Ridoré, Michelande; Wang, Shing-Jung; Chou, Jacob; Carlson, Eve
The effect of the body-weight gain after retirement from an exercise-training program on the retained increase in insulin sensitivity elicited by the training was investigated in exercise-trained (ET) rats. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by oral glucose tolerance and insulin suppression tests immediately after training and during retirement. Results show that, compared with sedentary controls, exercise training enhanced insulin-induced glucose uptake, but the enhanced sensitivity was gradually lost with the end of running activity until after seven days of retirement, when it became equal to that of controls. This loss of enhanced sensitivity to insulin was associated with an accelerated gain in bodyweight beginning one day after the start of retirement. However, those animals that gained weight only at rates similar to those of control rats, retained their enhanced sensitivity to insulin.
Dolkas, Constantine B.; Rodnick, Kenneth J.; Mondon, Carl E.
Although it is well known that caloric restriction reduces the risk of chronic diseases including cancer, the role of weight gain in the development of ultraviolet light-induced tumors has not, to our knowledge, been investigated. In view of the increase in obesity worldwide, we asked the question whether there is any relationship between bodyweight gain and skin tumor development. We subjected three groups, each comprising 30 SKH-1 hairless female mice, to UV radiation (30 mJ/cm2 twice weekly for 17 weeks) and observed tumor formation over the ensuing 8–13 weeks: Group 1 received pelleted diet; Group 2 received pellets during the irradiation period and was then switched to powder; and, Group 3 received powder exclusively. At the end of the experiment, the mean bodyweight of Group 1 was 32.1 ± 0.5 g, whereas that of Groups 2 and 3 was 39.0 ± 1.5 g and 39.5 ± 1.4 g, respectively. Tumor incidence reached 90% at 8 weeks after completion of irradiation for the animals in Group 3 and at 13 weeks for the animals in Group 2. Similarly, at 8 weeks after irradiation when all animals of Group 3 were euthanized, tumor multiplicity was 0.8, 1.2, and 3.2 for Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Thus, in comparison with the mice consuming pellets, the powder-fed mice gained weight more rapidly, and developed tumors much faster. Considering the escalating numbers of individuals worldwide who are overweight or obese, our findings provide further impetus for advocating healthier diets and maintenance of constant bodyweight in adults. PMID:19083457
Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.; Fahey, Jed W.; Jenkins, Stephanie N.; Wehage, Scott L.; Talalay, Paul
for 2 human bodyweight regulation 3 Carson C.Q1 Chow, Kevin D. Hall 4Q2 Laboratory of Biological H I G H L I G H T S 7 8 Â· Bodyweight is relatively stable despite large daily variations in food Â· Mathematical models show that bodyweight regulation may not require precise control of day-to-day food intake
Objective Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a complex and heterogeneous childhood disorder that often coexists with other psychiatric and somatic disorders. Recently, a link between ADHD and bodyweight dysregulation has been reported and often interpreted as impaired self-regulation that is shared between the two conditions. The objective of this study is to investigate the relation between bodyweight/BMI and cognitive, emotional and motor characteristics in children with ADHD. Methods 284 ADHD children were stratified by weight status/BMI according to WHO classification and compared with regard to their neurocognitive characteristics, motivational style, and motor profile as assessed by a comprehensive battery of tests. All comparisons were adjusted for demographic characteristics of relevance including, socioeconomic status (SES). Results Both Obese and overweight ADHD children exhibited significantly lower SES compared to normal weight ADHD children. No significant differences were observed between the three groups with regards to their neurocognitive, emotional and motor profile. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence that differences in weight/BMI are not accounted for by cognitive, motivational and motor profiles. Socio-economic characteristics are strongly associated with overweight and obesity in ADHD children and may inform strategies aimed at promoting healthier weight. PMID:23383165
Choudhry, Zia; Sengupta, Sarojini M.; Harvey, William J.; Fortier, Marie-Eve; Schmitz, Norbert
Background: The frequency and short-term natural history of weight loss in community-dwelling older adults have not been de- scribed. Unintentional weight loss may be more likely to continue than intentional weight loss. Objectives:Thepresentsubstudydescribedthefrequencyofa5% lossorgaininbodyweightincommunity-dwellingolderadultsatan annual examination of the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study and 6 mo later. The weight-management prac- tices used by the participants were also
Jung Sun Lee; Stephen B Kritchevsky; Tamara B Harris; Frances Tylavsky; Susan M Rubin; Anne B Newman
We investigated the relationship between being bullied and measured bodyweight and perceived bodyweight among adolescents of a middle-income sub Saharan African country. Our data originated from the Global School-based Health Survey, which targets adolescents aged 13–15 years. Student weights and heights were measured before administrating the questionnaire which included questions about personal data, health behaviors and being bullied. Standard criteria were used to assess thinness, overweight and obesity. Among 1,006 participants who had complete data, 16.5% (95%CI 13.3–20.2) reported being bullied ?3 days during the past 30 days; 13.4% were thin, 16.8% were overweight and 7.6% were obese. Categories of actual weight and of perceived weight correlated only moderately (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.37 for boys and 0.57 for girls; p < 0.001). In univariate analysis, both actual obesity (OR 1.76; p = 0.051) and perception of high weight (OR 1.63 for “slightly overweight”; OR 2.74 for “very overweight”, both p < 0.05) were associated with being bullied. In multivariate analysis, ORs for categories of perceived overweight were virtually unchanged while ORs for actual overweight and obesity were substantially attenuated, suggesting a substantial role of perceived weight in the association with being bullied. Actual underweight and perceived thinness also tended to be associated with being bullied, although not significantly. Our findings suggest that more research attention be given to disentangling the significant association between body image, overweight and bullying among adolescents. Further studies in diverse populations are warranted. PMID:23644826
Wilson, Michael L.; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Rousson, Valentin; Bovet, Pascal
SUMMARY Do animals know at a physiological level how much they weigh, and, if so, do they make homeostatic adjustments in response to changes in bodyweight? Skeletal muscle is a likely tissue for such plasticity, as weight-bearing muscles receive mechanical feedback regarding bodyweight and consume ATP in order to generate forces sufficient to counteract gravity. Using rats, we examined how variation in bodyweight affected alternative splicing of fast skeletal muscle troponin T (Tnnt3), a component of the thin filament that regulates the actin–myosin interaction during contraction and modulates force output. In response to normal growth and experimental bodyweight increases, alternative splicing of Tnnt3 in rat gastrocnemius muscle was adjusted in a quantitative fashion. The response depended on weight per se, as externally attached loads had the same effect as an equal change in actual bodyweight. Examining the association between Tnnt3 alternative splicing and ATP consumption rate, we found that the Tnnt3 splice form profile had a significant association with nocturnal energy expenditure, independently of effects of weight. For a subset of the Tnnt3 splice forms, obese Zucker rats failed to make the same adjustments; that is, they did not show the same relationship between bodyweight and the relative abundance of five Tnnt3 ? splice forms (i.e. Tnnt3 ?2–?5 and ?8), four of which showed significant effects on nocturnal energy expenditure in Sprague–Dawley rats. Heavier obese Zucker rats displayed certain splice form relative abundances (e.g. Tnnt3 ?3) characteristic of much lighter, lean animals, resulting in a mismatch between bodyweight and muscle molecular composition. Consequently, we suggest that bodyweight-inappropriate skeletal muscle Tnnt3 expression in obesity is a candidate mechanism for muscle weakness and reduced mobility. Weight-dependent quantitative variation in Tnnt3 alternative splicing appears to be an evolutionarily conserved feature of skeletal muscle and provides a quantitative molecular marker to track how an animal perceives and responds to bodyweight. PMID:21490260
Schilder, Rudolf J.; Kimball, Scot R.; Marden, James H.; Jefferson, Leonard S.
. The Mind Body Program for Cancer is designed to supplement your medical treatment by giving you toolsMind Body Programs at Massachusetts General Reducing Stress and Increasing Resiliency Mind Body, optimism, energy, and well-being Ann Webster, PhD Director, Mind Body Program for Cancer Staff
The mechanistic relationship between increased food consumption, increased bodyweights, and increased incidence of tumors has been well established in 2-year rodent models. Bodyweight parameters such as initial bodyweights, terminal bodyweights, food consumption, and the bodyweight gains in grams and percentages were analyzed to determine whether such relationship exists between these parameters with the incidence of common spontaneous tumors in Tg.rasH2 mice. None of these bodyweight parameters had any statistically significant relationship with the incidence of common spontaneous tumors in Tg.rasH2 males, namely lung tumors, splenic hemangiosarcomas, nonsplenic hemangiosarcomas, combined incidence of all hemangiosarcomas, and Harderian gland tumors. These parameters also did not have any statistically significant relationship with the incidence of lung and Harderian gland tumors in females. However, in females, increased initial bodyweights did have a statistically significant relationship with the nonsplenic hemangiosarcomas, and increased terminal bodyweights did have a statistically significant relationship with the incidence of splenic hemangiosarcomas, nonsplenic hemangiosarcomas, and the combined incidence of all hemangiosarcomas. In addition, increased bodyweight gains in grams and percentages had a statistically significant relationship with the combined incidence of all hemangiosarcomas in females, but not separately with splenic and nonsplenic hemangiosarcomas. PMID:24292389
Paranjpe, Madhav G; Denton, Melissa D; Vidmar, Tom J; Elbekai, Reem H
Summary 2-Mercaptopropionylglycine administered during fetal growth period, protected significantly young mice against loss of bodyweight during postnatal development induced by 50 R gamma irradiation.
P. K. Dev; S. M. Gupta; P. K. Goyal; G. Mehta; B. P. Pareek
The purpose of this article is to examine how a consumer's weight control beliefs (WCB), a female advertising model's body size (slim or large) and product type influence consumer evaluations and consumer body perceptions. The study uses an experiment of 371 consumers. The design of the experiment was a 2 (weight control belief: internal, external) X 2 (model size: larger
The study investigated the relative effectiveness of thought suppression and the working memory-based method of dynamic visual noise as techniques for reducing food cravings. Twenty dieting women on the weight-loss programme prescribed by weight watchers and 20 non-dieting controls formed images of their most craved food and then suppressed thoughts of the food or watched a flickering pattern of black