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Sample records for body weight reduced

  1. [Surgical options for reducing body weight].

    PubMed

    Vasas, Pter; Pr, Ferenc

    2014-06-22

    Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide, with increasing prevalence in adults and children, and authorities view it as one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century. Sixty-two percent of the Hungarian adult population has overweight and 27% is morbidly obese and, therefore, it is a significant interest to treat this condition. The authors review the diagnosis and the associated diseases of morbid obesity. The initial enthusiasm with the gastric band has settled now, as the long-term outcome showed only very limited reduction in the excess body weight and the complication rate was as high as 50%. The sleeve gastrectomy may induce 60-70% of excess weight loss, however, the long term follow-up data is very limited. The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the gold-standard of the bariatric procedures, with proven 60-75% excess weight loss and 80% type 2 diabetes remission. The body image usually changes with weight loss, and frequently a body contouring procedure is required to improve it. Multi-disciplinary team of super-specialised doctors is required to perform these procedures. PMID:24936572

  2. Complementary therapies for reducing body weight: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pittler, M H; Ernst, E

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate and a plethora of complementary therapies are on offer claiming effectiveness for reducing body weight. The aim of this systematic review is to critically assess the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews of complementary therapies for reducing body weight. Literature searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, Amed, and the Cochrane Library until January 2004. Hand-searches of relevant medical journals and bibliographies of identified articles were conducted. There were no restrictions regarding the language of publication. Trial selection, quality assessment and data abstraction were performed systematically and independently by two authors. Data from RCTs and systematic reviews, which based their findings on the results of RCTs, were included. Six systematic reviews and 25 additional RCTs met our inclusion criteria and were reviewed. The evidence related to acupuncture, acupressure, dietary supplements, homeopathy and hypnotherapy. Except for hypnotherapy, Ephedra sinica and other ephedrine-containing dietary supplements the weight of the evidence is not convincing enough to suggest effectiveness. For these interventions, small effects compared with placebo were identified. In conclusion, our findings suggest that for most complementary therapies, the weight of the evidence for reducing body is not convincing. Hypnotherapy, E. sinica and other ephedrine-containing dietary supplements may lead to small reductions in body weight. However, the intake of E. sinica and ephedrine is associated with an increased risk of adverse events. Interventions suggesting positive effects in single RCTs require independent replication. PMID:15925954

  3. Body Weight Reducing Effect of Oral Boric Acid Intake

    PubMed Central

    Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir; Emre, Sinem Hocaoglu; Karaca, Cetin; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2011-01-01

    Background: Boric acid is widely used in biology, but its body weight reducing effect is not researched. Methods: Twenty mice were divided into two equal groups. Control group mice drank standard tap water, but study group mice drank 0.28mg/250ml boric acid added tap water over five days. Total body weight changes, major organ histopathology, blood biochemistry, urine and feces analyses were compared. Results: Study group mice lost body weight mean 28.1% but in control group no weight loss and also weight gained mean 0.09% (p<0.001). Total drinking water and urine outputs were not statistically different. Cholesterol, LDL, AST, ALT, LDH, amylase and urobilinogen levels were statistically significantly high in the study group. Other variables were not statistically different. No histopathologic differences were detected in evaluations of all resected major organs. Conclusion: Low dose oral boric acid intake cause serious body weight reduction. Blood and urine analyses support high glucose, lipid and middle protein catabolisms, but the mechanism is unclear. PMID:22135611

  4. Maternal Genistein Intake Can Reduce Body Weight in Male Offspring.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun Bo; Yan, Jing Dong; Yang, Su Qing; Guo, Ji Peng; Zhang, Xiao; Sun, Xiao Xi; Na, Xiao Lin; Dai, Shao Chun

    2015-10-01

    The study objectives were to investigate the relationship between early exposure to genistein and obesity in young adulthood and to evaluate changes in reproductive health during puberty and adulthood following in utero exposure to genistein. Thirty-two female rats were randomized into four groups; low dose 400 mg genistein/kg diet group (LG), mid-dose 1200 mg genistein/kg diet group (MG), high dose 3600 mg genistein/kg diet group (HG), and control group without genistein diet (CON). Rats were fed genistein at the beginning of pregnancy along with a high-fat diet. Pups were sacrificed at week 4 and week 8 after birth. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) results showed a correlation between maternal genistein intake and genistein concentration in pups' plasma. Compared to CON, body weight reduced significantly in male HG group at week 8. No statistical differences were found in plasma estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), interleukin (IL)-6, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels with early genistein exposure. Furthermore, uterine histopathology showed notable changes in groups HG and MG compared with CON at week 4 and week 8. In conclusion, maternal genistein supplement could reduce body weight in male pups and alter uterine histopathology in female pups. PMID:26582099

  5. Modifying Eating Behavior: Novel Approaches for Reducing Body Weight, Preventing Weight Regain, and Reducing Chronic Disease Risk123

    PubMed Central

    Gletsu-Miller, Nana; McCrory, Megan A

    2014-01-01

    This article is a summary of the symposium “Modifying Eating Behavior: Novel Approaches for Reducing Body Weight, Preventing Weight Regain, and Reducing Chronic Disease Risk” held 29 April 2014 at the ASN Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2014 in San Diego, CA. In this symposium, novel approaches to modifying eating behavior were highlighted, including 1) alteration of meal timing and macronutrient composition and 2) retraining and provision of feedback about eating behavior. Dr. Ciampolini discussed a method for teaching individuals to recognize a decrease in blood glucose concentration, and therefore the need for energy, by learning the associated physical sensations (signifying hunger). Dr. Madar and Sigal Sofer presented their work on reducing hunger during energy reduction by feeding carbohydrate only in the evening. Dr. Hamilton-Shield reviewed studies on the Mandometer (Mikrodidakt), a device for training individuals to slow eating rate. Finally, Dr. Sazonov presented information on a wearable device, the Automatic Ingestion Monitor, which senses jaw motion and/or hand-to-mouth gestures to detect and characterize food intake. His goal is to use the instrument to prevent overeating by providing feedback to the user to stop ingestion at a predetermined limit. PMID:25398742

  6. Modifying eating behavior: novel approaches for reducing body weight, preventing weight regain, and reducing chronic disease risk.

    PubMed

    Gletsu-Miller, Nana; McCrory, Megan A

    2014-11-01

    This article is a summary of the symposium "Modifying Eating Behavior: Novel Approaches for Reducing Body Weight, Preventing Weight Regain, and Reducing Chronic Disease Risk" held 29 April 2014 at the ASN Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2014 in San Diego, CA. In this symposium, novel approaches to modifying eating behavior were highlighted, including 1) alteration of meal timing and macronutrient composition and 2) retraining and provision of feedback about eating behavior. Dr. Ciampolini discussed a method for teaching individuals to recognize a decrease in blood glucose concentration, and therefore the need for energy, by learning the associated physical sensations (signifying hunger). Dr. Madar and Sigal Sofer presented their work on reducing hunger during energy reduction by feeding carbohydrate only in the evening. Dr. Hamilton-Shield reviewed studies on the Mandometer (Mikrodidakt), a device for training individuals to slow eating rate. Finally, Dr. Sazonov presented information on a wearable device, the Automatic Ingestion Monitor, which senses jaw motion and/or hand-to-mouth gestures to detect and characterize food intake. His goal is to use the instrument to prevent overeating by providing feedback to the user to stop ingestion at a predetermined limit. PMID:25398742

  7. 21 CFR 105.66 - Label statements relating to usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... reducing or maintaining body weight. 105.66 Section 105.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.66 Label statements relating to usefulness in reducing or maintaining body...

  8. 21 CFR 105.66 - Label statements relating to usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... reducing or maintaining body weight. 105.66 Section 105.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.66 Label statements relating to usefulness in reducing or maintaining body...

  9. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body weight gain in ovariectomized female C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Kanaya, Noriko; Chen, Shiuan

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen is an important protective factor against obesity in females. Therefore, postmenopausal women have a higher rate of obesity than premenopausal women, which is associated with age-related loss of ovary function. It has been reported that a diet containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduced body weight and body fat mass in the animal model as well as in human trials. We hypothesized that ingestion of CLA would reduce body weight gain in ovariectomized (OVX) female C57BL/6J mice which is a model for postmenopaual women. We further hypothesized that body weight reduction may improve obesity-related complication. To test this hypothesis, the OVX mice fed with a high fat diet containing CLA for 3 months. Mice had significantly reduced body weight gain compared to OVX mice fed with a high fat diet without CLA. While CLA was effective in slowing down of body weight gain of both Sham and OVX mice, analysis of adipocyte size and number suggested different mechanisms for loss of fat tissue in these two groups of mice. CLA treatment did not increase liver weight and accumulation of fat in the livers of OVX mice. Furthermore, CLA intake did not change insulin resistance. Our results indicate that CLA is functional as an anti-obesity supplement in the mouse model for postmenopausal women, and the anti-obesity effect of CLA is not estrogen-related. PMID:21056287

  10. Dietary supplements for improving body composition and reducing body weight: where is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Manore, Melinda M

    2012-04-01

    Weight-loss supplements typically fall into 1 of 4 categories depending on their hypothesized mechanism of action: products that block the absorption of fat or carbohydrate, stimulants that increase thermogenesis, products that change metabolism and improve body composition, and products that suppress appetite or give a sense of fullness. Each category is reviewed, and an overview of the current science related to their effectiveness is presented. While some weight-loss supplements produce modest effects (<2 kg weight loss), many have either no or few randomized clinical trials examining their effectiveness. A number of factors confound research results associated with the efficacy of weight-loss supplements, such as small sample sizes, short intervention periods, little or no follow-up, and whether the supplement is given in combination with an energy-restricted diet or increased exercise expenditure. There is no strong research evidence indicating that a specific supplement will produce significant weight loss (>2 kg), especially in the long term. Some foods or supplements such as green tea, fiber, and calcium supplements or dairy products may complement a healthy lifestyle to produce small weight losses or prevent weight gain over time. Weight-loss supplements containing metabolic stimulants (e.g., caffeine, ephedra, synephrine) are most likely to produce adverse side effects and should be avoided. PMID:22465867

  11. Administration of saccharin to neonatal mice influences body composition of adult males and reduces body weight of females.

    PubMed

    Parlee, Sebastian D; Simon, Becky R; Scheller, Erica L; Alejandro, Emilyn U; Learman, Brian S; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; MacDougald, Ormond A

    2014-04-01

    Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice. PMID:24456165

  12. Administration of Saccharin to Neonatal Mice Influences Body Composition of Adult Males and Reduces Body Weight of Females

    PubMed Central

    Parlee, Sebastian D.; Simon, Becky R.; Scheller, Erica L.; Alejandro, Emilyn U.; Learman, Brian S.; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice. PMID:24456165

  13. 9 CFR 381.480 - Label statements relating to usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Label statements relating to usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight. 381.480 Section 381.480 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  14. 9 CFR 317.380 - Label statements relating to usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Label statements relating to usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight. 317.380 Section 317.380 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  15. Mechanism of Body Weight Reducing Effect of Oral Boric Acid Intake

    PubMed Central

    Aysan, Erhan; Telci, Dilek; Erdem, Merve; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut; Yard?mc?, Erkan; Bektasoglu, Huseyin

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The effect of oral boric acid intake on reducing body weight has been previously demonstrated although the mechanism has been unclear. This research study reveals the mechanism. Subjects. Twelve mice were used, in groups of six each in the control and study groups. For five days, control group mice drank standard tap water while during the same time period the study group mice drank tap water which contains 0.28?mg/250?mL boric acid. After a 5-day period, gene expression levels for uncoupling proteins (UCPs) in the white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle tissue (SMT) and total body weight changes were analyzed. Results. Real time PCR analysis revealed no significant change in UCP3 expressions, but UCP2 in WAT (P: 0.0317), BAT (P: 0.014), and SMT (P: 0.0159) and UCP1 in BAT (P: 0.026) were overexpressed in the boric acid group. In addition, mice in the boric acid group lost body weight (mean 28.1%) while mice in the control group experienced no weight loss but a slight weight gain (mean 0.09%, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Oral boric acid intake causes overexpression of thermogenic proteins in the adipose and skeletal muscle tissues. Increasing thermogenesis through UCP protein pathway results in the accelerated lipolysis and body weight loss. PMID:23861682

  16. Effectiveness of Bariatric Surgery in Reducing Weight and Body Mass Index Among Hispanic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    De La Cruz-Muñoz, Nestor; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Miller, Tracie L.; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Messiah, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethnic minority adolescents and Hispanics in particular, are disproportionately affected by extreme obesity and its associated co-morbidities. Bariatric surgery is one of the few effective treatments for morbid obesity, yet little information about weight outcomes after surgery in this demographic are available. We determined the effectiveness of bariatric surgery in reducing weight and body mass index (BMI) in adolescents, a majority of whom were non-Mexican American Hispanic and originated from Central and/or South America and the Caribbean Basin region. Methods Adolescents (16-to-19 years old) who had undergone gastric bypass or adjustable gastric band surgery between 2001 and 2010 and who had complete follow up data available (91%) were included in the analysis. Mean weight and BMI before and 1-year after surgery were compared. Results Among 71 adolescents (80% Hispanic, 77% female), Mean BMI and weight, and z-scores and percentile transformations were all significantly lower after surgery for the entire sample (P<0.001). Gastric bypass surgery showed significantly better weight loss outcomes for all anthropometric measures versus adjustable gastric band surgery (P<0.05). The weight loss was similar among Hispanics and non-Hispanics. No perioperative complications were reported. Three patients who stopped taking supplements as prescribed experienced iron-deficiency anemia within the year following surgery. Conclusions Our results show that bariatric surgery can markedly reduce weight among a predominantly Hispanic adolescent patient sample, and gastric bypass procedure in particular. These findings indicate that bariatric surgery has the potential to be safe and effective in substantially reducing weight in a group of adolescents who are at particularly high risk for obesity-related health consequences. PMID:22918552

  17. Vagus nerve stimulation reduces body weight and fat mass in rats.

    PubMed

    Banni, Sebastiano; Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Cordeddu, Lina; Giordano, Elena; Marrosu, Francesco; Puligheddu, Monica; Floris, Gabriele; Asuni, Gino Paolo; Cappai, Angela Letizia; Deriu, Silvia; Follesa, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Among the manifold effects of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) delivered as an add-on treatment to patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, a moderate loss of body weight has been observed in some individuals. We have now investigated this effect in rats. Exposure of rats to VNS for 4 weeks reduced feed conversion efficiency as well as body weight gain (by ?25%) and the amount of mesenteric adipose tissue (by ?45%) in comparison with those in sham-operated control animals. A pair-fed experiment showed that both lower dietary intake and increase energy expenditure independently contributed to the reduction of body weight and mesenteric adipose tissue. Moreover, VNS increased the level of non-esterified fatty acids in plasma and mesenteric adipose tissue by ?50 and 80%, respectively, without affecting that in the liver. In addition, VNS reduced the amounts of endocannabinoids and increased N-palmitoylethanolamide, an endogenous ligand of the transcription factor PPAR? (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?) in mesenteric adipose tissue but not in the hypothalamus. These effects were accompanied by increased expression of the gene for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hypothalamus and up-regulation of the abundance of PPAR? in the liver. Our results suggest that the reduction in body fat induced by VNS in rats may result from the action of both central and peripheral mediators. The reduced feed conversion efficiency associated with VNS may be mediated by hypothalamic BDNF, down-regulation of endocannabinoid tone in mesenteric adipose tissue and a PPAR?-dependent increase in fatty acid oxidation in the liver, which in concerted action may account for the anorexic effect and increased energy expenditure. PMID:23028630

  18. Lifestyle intervention reduces body weight and improves cardiometabolic risk factors in worksites123

    PubMed Central

    Salinardi, Taylor C; Batra, Payal; Roberts, Susan B; Urban, Lorien E; Robinson, Lisa M; Pittas, Anastassios G; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Deckersbach, Thilo; Saltzman, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Background: Worksites are potentially effective locations for obesity control because they provide opportunities for group intervention and social support. Studies are needed to identify effective interventions in these settings. Objective: We examined the effects of a multicomponent lifestyle intervention on weight loss and prevention of regain in 4 worksites (2 intervention and 2 control sites). Design: Overweight and obese employees (n = 133) enrolled in this pilot worksite-randomized controlled trial with a 06-mo weight-loss phase and a 612-mo structured weight-maintenance phase. The intervention combined recommendations to consume a reduced-energy, lowglycemic load, high-fiber diet with behavioral change education. Outcome measurements included changes in body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors. Results: The mean SEM weight loss was substantial in intervention participants, whereas control subjects gained weight (?8.0 0.7 compared with +0.9 0.5 kg, respectively; P < 0.001), and 89% of participants completed the weight-loss phase. Intervention effects were not significant at the 0.05 level but would have been at the 0.10 level (P = 0.08) in a mixed model in which the worksite nested within group was a random factor. There were also significant improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors in intervention compared with control subjects regarding fasting total cholesterol, glucose, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure (P ? 0.02 for each). No significant weight regain was observed in participants who enrolled in the structured weight-maintenance program (0.5 0.7 kg; P = 0.65), and overweight and obese employees in intervention worksites who were not enrolled in the weight-loss program lost weight compared with subjects in control worksites (?1.3 0.5 compared with +0.7 0.2 kg, respectively; P = 0.02). Conclusion: Worksites can be effective for achieving clinically important reductions in body weight and improved cardiometabolic risk factors. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01470222. PMID:23426035

  19. IQP-GC-101 Reduces Body Weight and Body Fat Mass: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Pee-Win; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Grube, Barbara; Riede, Linda

    2014-01-01

    IQP-GC-101 is a patented blend of the standardized extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, unroasted Coffea arabica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa. These individual ingredients of IQP-GC-101 have each shown promise in promoting weight loss; however, the efficacy of the blend has not been established. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study conducted over 14 weeks (including a 2-week run-in phase) aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IQP-GC-101 in reducing body weight and body fat mass in overweight Caucasian adults. Subjects took three IQP-GC-101 or placebo tablets, twice a day, 30 min before main meals. All subjects also adhered to a 500 kcal/day energy deficit diet with 30% of energy from fat. Ninety-one overweight and mildly obese subjects (46 in the IQP-GC-101 group, 45 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12-week intervention, IQP-GC-101 resulted in a mean (SD) weight loss of 2.26 2.37 kg compared with 0.56 2.34 kg for placebo (pU = 0.002). There was also significantly more reduction in body fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the IQP-GC-101 group. No serious adverse events were reported. The use of IQP-GC-101 has been shown to result in body weight and body fat reduction in the current study, with good tolerability. 2014 InQpharm Group Sdn Bhd. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24797657

  20. Hypothalamic leptin gene therapy reduces body weight without accelerating age-related bone loss.

    PubMed

    Turner, Russell T; Dube, Michael; Branscum, Adam J; Wong, Carmen P; Olson, Dawn A; Zhong, Xiaoying; Kweh, Mercedes F; Larkin, Iske V; Wronski, Thomas J; Rosen, Clifford J; Kalra, Satya P; Iwaniec, Urszula T

    2015-12-01

    Excessive weight gain in adults is associated with a variety of negative health outcomes. Unfortunately, dieting, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have had limited long-term success in weight control and can result in detrimental side effects, including accelerating age-related cancellous bone loss. We investigated the efficacy of using hypothalamic leptin gene therapy as an alternative method for reducing weight in skeletally-mature (9 months old) female rats and determined the impact of leptin-induced weight loss on bone mass, density, and microarchitecture, and serum biomarkers of bone turnover (CTx and osteocalcin). Rats were implanted with cannulae in the 3rd ventricle of the hypothalamus and injected with either recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding the gene for rat leptin (rAAV-Leptin, n=7) or a control vector encoding green fluorescent protein (rAAV-GFP, n=10) and sacrificed 18 weeks later. A baseline control group (n=7) was sacrificed at vector administration. rAAV-Leptin-treated rats lost weight (-42%) while rAAV-GFP-treated rats gained weight (142%) during the study. At study termination, rAAV-Leptin-treated rats weighed 17% less than rAAV-GFP-treated rats and had lower abdominal white adipose tissue weight (-80%), serum leptin (-77%), and serum IGF1 (-34%). Cancellous bone volume fraction in distal femur metaphysis and epiphysis, and in lumbar vertebra tended to be lower (P<0.1) in rAAV-GFP-treated rats (13.5 months old) compared to baseline control rats (9 months old). Significant differences in cancellous bone or biomarkers of bone turnover were not detected between rAAV-Leptin and rAAV-GFP rats. In summary, rAAV-Leptin-treated rats maintained a lower body weight compared to baseline and rAAV-GFP-treated rats with minimal effects on bone mass, density, microarchitecture, or biochemical markers of bone turnover. PMID:26487675

  1. Total and resting energy expenditure in obese women reduced to ideal body weight.

    PubMed Central

    Amatruda, J M; Statt, M C; Welle, S L

    1993-01-01

    Obesity could be due to excess energy intake or decreased energy expenditure (EE). To evaluate this, we studied 18 obese females (148 +/- 8% of ideal body weight [IBW], mean +/- SD) before and after achieving and stabilizing at IBW for at least 2 mo and a control group of 14 never obese females (< 110% of IBW or < 30% fat). In the obese, reduced obese, and never obese groups, the percent of body fat was 41 +/- 4%, 27 +/- 4%, and 25 +/- 3%; total energy expenditure (TEE) was 2704 +/- 449, 2473 +/- 495, and 2259 +/- 192 kcal/24 h; while resting metabolic rate was 1496 +/- 169, 1317 +/- 159, and 1341 +/- 103 kcal/24 h, respectively. 15 obese subjects who withdrew from the study had a mean initial body composition and EE similar to the subjects who were successful in achieving IBW. In 10 subjects followed for at least one year after stabilizing at IBW there was no significant relationship between the deviation from predicted TEE at IBW and weight regain. These studies indicate that, in a genetically heterogeneous female population, neither the propensity to become obese nor to maintain the obese state are due to an inherent metabolic abnormality characterized by a low EE. PMID:8376583

  2. Extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis reduced body weight and blood triglyceride in db/db Mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Kwang Hoon; Lee, Sun Hwa; Kim, Bu-Yeo; Park, Ah Yeon; Kim, Jong Yeol

    2013-02-01

    Scutellaria baicalensis has been extensively employed for the clinical treatment of hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, hypertension, dysentery, inflammatory diseases, and the common cold. The present study was performed to investigate the anti-obesity and anti-dyslipidemia effect of Scutellaria baicalensis extracts (SBE) in type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Male db/db mice were divided into three groups (n?=?5) and orally administrated vehicle (control), SBE 10, and 100?mg/kg body weight/day for 4?weeks everyday. Administration of SBE improves weight gain, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperinsulinemia in db/db mice. In obese db/db mice, SBE treatment also reduced plasma alanine aminotransferase levels. In the livers of db/db mice, SBE promoted 5' AMP-activated protein kinase activity and restored metabolic process and insulin signaling pathways. Our data demonstrate that SBE exerts potent anti-obesity and anti-hypertriglyceride effects suggesting its useful potential function as adjuvant therapeutic agent for the treatment of weight gain and hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:22532505

  3. Green Tea Polyphenols Reduce Body Weight in Rats by Modulating Obesity-Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chuanwen; Zhu, Wenbin; Shen, Chwan-Li; Gao, Weimin

    2012-01-01

    Beneficial effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) against obesity have been reported, however, the mechanism of this protection is not clear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify GTP-targeted genes in obesity using the high-fat-diet-induced obese rat model. A total of three groups (n?=?12/group) of Sprague Dawley (SD) female rats were tested, including the control group (rats fed with low-fat diet), the HF group (rats fed with high-fat diet), and the HF+GTP group (rats fed with high-fat diet and GTP in drinking water). The HF group increased body weight as compared to the control group. Supplementation of GTP in the drinking water in the HF+GTP group reduced body weight as compared to the HF group. RNA from liver samples was extracted for gene expression analysis. A total of eighty-four genes related to obesity were analyzed using PCR array. Compared to the rats in the control group, the rats in the HF group had the expression levels of 12 genes with significant changes, including 3 orexigenic genes (Agrp, Ghrl, and Nr3c1); 7 anorectic genes (Apoa4, Cntf, Ghr, IL-1?, Ins1, Lepr, and Sort); and 2 genes that relate to energy expenditure (Adcyap1r1 and Adrb1). Intriguingly, the HF+GTP group restored the expression levels of these genes in the high-fat-induced obese rats. The protein expression levels of IL-1? and IL-6 in the serum samples from the control, HF, and HF+GTP groups confirmed the results of gene expression. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) also showed GTP-regulated protective changes in this obese rat model. Collectively, this study revealed the beneficial effects of GTP on body weight via regulating obesity-related genes, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant capacity, and estrogen-related actions in high-fat-induced obese rats. PMID:22715380

  4. Recombinant ob protein reduces feeding and body weight in the ob/ob mouse.

    PubMed

    Weigle, D S; Bukowski, T R; Foster, D C; Holderman, S; Kramer, J M; Lasser, G; Lofton-Day, C E; Prunkard, D E; Raymond, C; Kuijper, J L

    1995-10-01

    To determine whether the product of the recently cloned ob gene functions as an adipose-related satiety factor, recombinant murine ob protein was administered intraperitoneally to ob/ob mice. Monomeric ob protein given as single morning injections to groups of three animals at seven doses ranging from 5 to 100 micrograms reduced 24-h chow consumption in a dose-dependent manner from values of 81 +/- 6.8% of control (10-micrograms dose, P = 0.04) to 29 +/- 7.7% of control (100-micrograms dose, P < 0.0001). Daily injections of 80 micrograms of ob protein into six ob/ob mice for 2 wk led to an 11 +/- 1.6% decrease in body weight (P = 0.0009) and suppressed feeding to 26 +/- 4.9% of baseline (P < 0.0001), with significant reduction of serum insulin and glucose levels. The effect of recombinant ob protein on feeding was not augmented by cofactors secreted by adipose tissue, nor did exposure of adipose tissue to ob protein affect intracellular ob mRNA levels. Posttranslational modification of ob protein was not required for activity; however, addition of a hexahistidine tag to the amino terminus of the mature ob protein resulted in prolonged suppression of feeding after injection into ob/ob mice. These results demonstrate a direct effect of the ob protein to suppress feeding in the ob/ob mouse and suggest that this molecule plays a critical role in regulating total body fat content. PMID:7560100

  5. Lorcaserin, A 5-HT2C Receptor Agonist, Reduces Body Weight by Decreasing Energy Intake without Influencing Energy Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Corby K.; Redman, Leanne M.; Zhang, Jinkun; Sanchez, Matilde; Anderson, Christen M.; Smith, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Lorcaserin, a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2C receptor agonist, reduces body weight. It is unclear whether weight loss is due to reduced energy intake (EI) or also to enhanced energy expenditure (EE). Objective: This study tested the effect of lorcaserin on EI and EE. Design, Participants, and Intervention: In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 57 (39 women) overweight and obese (body mass index, 2745 kg/m2) adults were randomized to placebo (n = 28) or 10 mg twice daily lorcaserin (n = 29) for 56 d. Weight maintenance was imposed during d 17. Beginning on d 8, participants followed a diet and exercise plan targeting a 600 kcal/d deficit. Outcomes: At baseline and after 7 and 56 d of treatment, we measured body weight, body composition (dual x-ray absorptiometry), blood pressure, heart rate, EI at lunch and dinner, subjective appetite ratings, and 24-h EE and 24-h-respiratory quotient (RQ), measured by indirect calorimetry in a respiratory chamber. Results: After 7 d of weight maintenance, EI was significantly (P < 0.01) reduced with lorcaserin but not placebo (mean sem for lorcaserin, ?286 86 kcal; placebo, ?147 89 kcal). After 56 d, lorcaserin resulted in significantly larger reductions in body weight (lorcaserin, ?3.8 0.4 kg; placebo, ?2.2 0.5 kg; P < 0.01), EI (lorcaserin, ?470 87 kcal; placebo, ?205 91 kcal; P < .05), and appetite ratings than in placebo. Changes in 24-h EE and 24-h RQ did not differ between groups, even after 24-h EE was adjusted for body weight and composition. Compared with placebo, lorcaserin had no effect on systolic or diastolic blood pressure or heart rate after 56 d. Conclusions: Lorcaserin reduces body weight through reduced EI, not altered EE or RQ. PMID:21190985

  6. Recombinant ob protein reduces feeding and body weight in the ob/ob mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Weigle, D S; Bukowski, T R; Foster, D C; Holderman, S; Kramer, J M; Lasser, G; Lofton-Day, C E; Prunkard, D E; Raymond, C; Kuijper, J L

    1995-01-01

    To determine whether the product of the recently cloned ob gene functions as an adipose-related satiety factor, recombinant murine ob protein was administered intraperitoneally to ob/ob mice. Monomeric ob protein given as single morning injections to groups of three animals at seven doses ranging from 5 to 100 micrograms reduced 24-h chow consumption in a dose-dependent manner from values of 81 +/- 6.8% of control (10-micrograms dose, P = 0.04) to 29 +/- 7.7% of control (100-micrograms dose, P < 0.0001). Daily injections of 80 micrograms of ob protein into six ob/ob mice for 2 wk led to an 11 +/- 1.6% decrease in body weight (P = 0.0009) and suppressed feeding to 26 +/- 4.9% of baseline (P < 0.0001), with significant reduction of serum insulin and glucose levels. The effect of recombinant ob protein on feeding was not augmented by cofactors secreted by adipose tissue, nor did exposure of adipose tissue to ob protein affect intracellular ob mRNA levels. Posttranslational modification of ob protein was not required for activity; however, addition of a hexahistidine tag to the amino terminus of the mature ob protein resulted in prolonged suppression of feeding after injection into ob/ob mice. These results demonstrate a direct effect of the ob protein to suppress feeding in the ob/ob mouse and suggest that this molecule plays a critical role in regulating total body fat content. Images PMID:7560100

  7. 9 CFR 317.380 - Label statements relating to usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... as “diet,” “dietetic,” “artificially sweetened,” or “sweetened with nonnutritive sweetener” only if... “diet” that clearly shows that the product is offered solely for a dietary use other than regulating body weight, e.g., “for low sodium diets.” (3) Paragraph (e)(1) of this section shall not apply to...

  8. 21 CFR 105.66 - Label statements relating to usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... in § 101.13(q)(2) of this chapter for soft drinks, a food may be labeled with terms such as “diet... “diet” that clearly shows that the food is offered solely for a dietary use other than regulating body weight, e.g., “for low-sodium diets.” (3) Paragraph (e)(1) of this section shall not apply to any use...

  9. 9 CFR 317.380 - Label statements relating to usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... as “diet,” “dietetic,” “artificially sweetened,” or “sweetened with nonnutritive sweetener” only if... “diet” that clearly shows that the product is offered solely for a dietary use other than regulating body weight, e.g., “for low sodium diets.” (3) Paragraph (e)(1) of this section shall not apply to...

  10. 9 CFR 317.380 - Label statements relating to usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... as “diet,” “dietetic,” “artificially sweetened,” or “sweetened with nonnutritive sweetener” only if... “diet” that clearly shows that the product is offered solely for a dietary use other than regulating body weight, e.g., “for low sodium diets.” (3) Paragraph (e)(1) of this section shall not apply to...

  11. 9 CFR 317.380 - Label statements relating to usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... as “diet,” “dietetic,” “artificially sweetened,” or “sweetened with nonnutritive sweetener” only if... “diet” that clearly shows that the product is offered solely for a dietary use other than regulating body weight, e.g., “for low sodium diets.” (3) Paragraph (e)(1) of this section shall not apply to...

  12. 21 CFR 105.66 - Label statements relating to usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... in § 101.13(q)(2) of this chapter for soft drinks, a food may be labeled with terms such as “diet... “diet” that clearly shows that the food is offered solely for a dietary use other than regulating body weight, e.g., “for low-sodium diets.” (3) Paragraph (e)(1) of this section shall not apply to any use...

  13. 21 CFR 105.66 - Label statements relating to usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... in § 101.13(q)(2) of this chapter for soft drinks, a food may be labeled with terms such as “diet... “diet” that clearly shows that the food is offered solely for a dietary use other than regulating body weight, e.g., “for low-sodium diets.” (3) Paragraph (e)(1) of this section shall not apply to any use...

  14. High ambient temperature reduces rate of body-weight loss produced by wheel running.

    PubMed

    Gutirrez, Emilio; Baysari, Melissa T; Carrera, Olaia; Whitford, Thomas J; Boakes, Robert A

    2006-07-01

    This study examined the effect of ambient temperature (AT) on the relationship between activity and weight loss. Compared with a neutral AT of 21 degrees C, high ATs of 27-29 degrees C produced a slower rate of weight loss in rats given 1.5-hr food access and 22.5-hr running-wheel access in a standard activity-based anorexia (ABA) procedure (Experiments 1 and 2). The high AT did not affect food intake or wheel running in Experiment 1, but did reduce running in Experiment 2. Switching from neutral to high AT had only a transient effect on weight loss when wheel access was maintained (Experiment 2) but resulted in less weight loss when wheel access was prevented (Experiment 3). Giving rats only 3 hr of wheel access each day at a neutral AT also produced substantial weight loss, but less if for the rest of each day they were maintained at a high AT (Experiment 4). PMID:16769620

  15. Blueberry polyphenol-enriched soybean flour reduces hyperglycemia, body weight gain and serum cholesterol in mice

    PubMed Central

    Roopchand, Diana E.; Kuhn, Peter; Rojo, Leonel E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    Defatted soybean flour (DSF) can sorb and concentrate blueberry anthocyanins and other polyphenols, but not sugars. In this study blueberry polyphenol-enriched DSF (BB-DSF) or DSF were incorporated into very high fat diet (VHFD) formulations and provided ad libitum to obese and hyperglycemic C57BL/6 mice for 13 weeks to investigate anti-diabetic effects. Compared to the VHFD containing DSF, the diet supplemented with BB-DSF reduced weight gain by 5.6%, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered fasting blood glucose levels in mice within 7 weeks of intervention. Serum cholesterol of mice consuming the BB-DSF-supplemented diet was 13.2% lower than mice on the diet containing DSF. Compounds were eluted from DSF and BB-DSF for in vitro assays of glucose production and uptake. Compared to untreated control, doses of BB-DSF eluate containing 0.05 – 10 μg/μL of blueberry anthocyanins significantly reduced glucose production by 24% - 74% in H4IIE rat hepatocytes, but did not increase glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. The results indicate that delivery of blueberry polyphenols stabilized in a high-protein food matrix may be useful for the dietary management of pre-diabetes and/or diabetes. PMID:23220243

  16. Visceral fat and body weight are reduced in overweight adults by the supplementation of Doenjang, a fermented soybean paste

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ji-Ae; Back, Hyang-Im; Kim, Soo-Ran; Kim, Min-Gul; Jung, Su-Jin; Song, Won O; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2012-01-01

    Various forms of fermented soybean products are well documented for their health benefits. The efficacy of anti-obesogenic effect of Doenjang, one of the most commonly used seasonings in Korean cuisine, has been reported only in animal models; thus, an evaluation of Doenjang needs to be conducted in human studies. We aimed to test the hypothesis that Doenjang supplementation reduces body weight and changes body composition in overweight adults. A total of 51 overweight adults participated in this study. A group of males with BMI ? 23 kg/m2 and waist to hip ratio (WHR) ? 0.90, and a group of females with BMI ? 23 kg/m2 and WHR ? 0.85 were randomly assigned to either a Doenjang supplement (9.9 g dry/day) group or a placebo group for a 12-week randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study. Anthropometric parameters, abdominal fat distribution by computerized tomography (CT) and blood components were measured before and after the intervention period. After the 12-week study, the Doenjang supplementation group had significant reductions in body weight (kg), body fat mass (kg) and body fat (%) compared to the placebo group, the supplementation of Doenjang resulted in a significant reduction in visceral fat (cm2), although no changes were observed in total and subcutaneous fat are as (cm2), serum lipid profiles and dietary intakes. The present study demonstrated that daily supplementation of 9.9 g dry/day of Doenjang for 12 weeks reduces body weight and visceral fat in overweight adults. PMID:23346302

  17. Marijuana and body weight.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2014-07-01

    Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as "the munchies"). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status-i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases body weight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and body weight. PMID:25337447

  18. A lifestyle intervention reduces body weight and improves cardiometabolic risk factors in worksites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worksites are potentially effective locations for obesity control because they provide opportunities for group intervention and social support. Studies are needed to identify effective interventions in these settings. We examined the effects of a multicomponent lifestyle intervention on weight loss ...

  19. Effects of a novel MC4R agonist on maintenance of reduced body weight in diet induced obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Skowronski, Alicja A.; Morabito, Michael V.; Mueller, Bridget R.; Lee, Samuel; Hjorth, Stephan; Lehmann, Anders; Watanabe, Kazuhisa; Zeltser, Lori M.; Ravussin, Yann; Rosenbaum, Michael; LeDuc, Charles A.; Leibel, Rudolph L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The physiology of the weight reduced (WR) state suggests that pharmacologic agents affecting energy homeostasis may have greater efficacy in WR individuals. Our aim was to establish a protocol that allows for evaluation of efficacy of weight maintenance agents and to assess the effectiveness of AZD2820, a novel melanocortin 4 receptor agonist in such a paradigm. Design and Methods MC4R agonist was administered in stratified doses to mice who were either fed high fat diet ad libitum (AL) throughout the study; or stabilized at a 20% reduced body weight (BW), administered the drug for four weeks, and thereafter released from caloric restriction while continuing to receive the drug (WR). Results After release of WR mice to AL feeding, the high-dose group (53.4nmol/day) regained 12.4% less BW than their vehicle-treated controls. In WR mice, 10.8nmol/day of the agonist was sufficient to maintain these animals at 95.1% of initial BW vs 53.4nmol/day required to maintain the BW of AL animals (94.5%). Conclusions In the WR state, the MC4R agonist was comparably efficacious to a 5-fold higher dose in the AL state. This protocol provides a model for evaluating the mechanisms and quantitative efficacy of weight-maintenance strategies and agents. PMID:24318934

  20. Increased Body Weight Reduces Voluntary Movement to Maintain Energy Expenditure of Rats Exposed to Increases in Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Moran, M. M.; Stein, T. P.; Sin, Sidney (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    With the increase in obesity related diseases there is heightened interest in mechanisms regulating body weight. To assess the influence of increases in body weight on energy expenditure and intake in rats we employed variable levels of gravity. Our approach afforded the means to measure interactions of energy expenditure and intake in response to increases in body weight (body mass x gravity level). We found a dose relationship between rapid elevation of body weight and reduction of voluntary movement, such that the energy requirements for activity are unchanged, and total energy expenditure and intake maintained. Reduction of movement appears to be a response to increased body weight, rather than a contributing factor, suggesting a new regulatory pathway.

  1. Overexpression of Jazf1 reduces body weight gain and regulates lipid metabolism in high fat diet

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Woo Young; Bae, Ki Beom; Kim, Sung Hyun; Yu, Dong Hun; Kim, Hei Jung; Ji, Young Rae; Park, Seo Jin; Park, Si Jun; Kang, Min-Cheol; Jeong, Ja In; Park, Sang-Joon; Lee, Sang Gyu; Lee, Inkyu; Kim, Myoung Ok; Yoon, Duhak; Ryoo, Zae Young

    2014-02-14

    Highlights: • The expression of Jazf1 in the liver suppressed lipid accumulation. • Jazf1 significantly increases transcription of fatty acid synthase. • Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and lipid homeostasis. • Jazf1 associates the development of metabolic disorder. • Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of metabolic disorder. - Abstract: Jazf1 is a 27 kDa nuclear protein containing three putative zinc finger motifs that is associated with diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer; however, little is known about the role that this gene plays in regulation of metabolism. Recent evidence indicates that Jazf1 transcription factors bind to the nuclear orphan receptor TR4. This receptor regulates PEPCK, the key enzyme involved in gluconeogenesis. To elucidate Jazf1’s role in metabolism, we fed a 60% fat diet for up to 15 weeks. In Jazf1 overexpression mice, weight gain was found to be significantly decreased. The expression of Jazf1 in the liver also suppressed lipid accumulation and decreased droplet size. These results suggest that Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. Finally, Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of obesity and diabetes.

  2. Long Term Exendin-4 Treatment Reduces Food Intake and Body Weight and Alters Expression of Brain Homeostatic and Reward Markers

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Alexander A.; Cordner, Zachary A.; Liang, Nu-Chu

    2014-01-01

    Repeated administration of the long-acting glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist exendin-4 (EX-4) has been shown to reduce food intake and body weight and do so without a rebound increase in food intake after treatment termination. The current study examines the neural mechanisms underlying these actions. After 6 weeks of maintenance on a standard chow or a high-fat (HF) diet, male Sprague Dawley rats were treated with EX-4 (3.2 μg/kg, ip, twice a day) or vehicle for 9 consecutive days. Food intake and body weight (BW) were monitored daily. Expression of the genes for the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) peptides proopiomelanocortin (POMC), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and agouti gene-related protein was determined. Expression of the dopamine precursor tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene in the ventral tegmental area and genes for dopamine receptors 1 (D1R) and dopamine receptor 2 in the nucleus accumbens were also determined. Pair-fed groups were included to control for the effects of reduced food intake and BW. Treatment with EX-4 significantly decreased food intake and BW over the 9-day period in both the standard chow and HF groups. HF feeding decreased POMC without changing NPY/agouti gene-related protein gene expression in the ARC. Treatment with EX-4 increased POMC and decreased NPY expression independent of the reduction of food intake and BW. Mesolimbic TH and D1R gene expression were decreased significantly in chronic HF diet-fed rats, and these changes were reversed in both EX-4 and pair-fed conditions. These results suggest a role for increased POMC and decreased NPY expression in the ARC in the effects of EX-4 on food intake and BW. Our findings also suggest that EX-4 induced the recovery of mesolimbic TH and D1R expression in HF diet-fed rats may be secondary to HF intake reduction and/or weight loss. PMID:24949661

  3. Neither Milk Production, Milk Transfer Nor Pup Growth Hormone Account for Reduced Body Weights of Rat Pups Reared In Hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bear, L. A.; Chowdhury, J. H.; Grindeland, R. E.; Wade, C. E.; Ronca, A. E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Studies spanning the gravity continuum from 0 to 2-g are revealing new insights into how mammalian reproduction and development may proceed in the microgravity of space. Rat pups reared from either conception or midgestation in hypergravity (hg) weigh 6-15% less than 1-g controls. In the present study we analyzed maternal and pup factors that may account for reduced body weight of hg reared pups. Beginning on Gestational day (G)11 of the rats' 22 day pregnancy, rat dams and their litters were continuously exposed to either 1.5-g, 1.75-g or 2.0-g. Prolaction (Prl) and oxytocin (OT) were measured in hg-exposed dams during either pregnancy (G20) or lactation (Postnatal day [P] 10). Gravity related differences in Prl were not observed whereas OT was depressed during lactation in hg dams relative to controls (p less than 0.05). Milk transfer measured during a discrete suckling episode was actually increased in hg-reared litters and comparable numbers of milk-letdowns were observed in the two conditions. Recent reports using dwarfing phenotypes in mouse mutants have provided evidence for postnatal dependence on growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). Plasma GH measured in P10 pups using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was significantly elevated in hg pups relative to 1-g controls (mean +/- sd., ng/ml: 2.0-g, 10.6 [3.0], 1.5-g 8.9 [4.0], 1.0-g, 7.95 [3.1]). Together, these findings suggest that neither milk production, milk transfer nor pup GH play significant roles in reduced body weights of hg-reared pups. Studies underway are focused on insulin-like growth factors.

  4. Pre-germinated brown rice reduced both blood glucose concentration and body weight in Vietnamese women with impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thi Nhung; Le, Thi Hop; Nguyen, Do Huy; Tran, Quang Binh; Nguyen, Thi Lam; Le, Danh Tuyen; Nguyen, Do Van Anh; Vu, Anh Linh; Aoto, Hiromichi; Okuhara, Yasuhide; Ito, Yukihiko; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Kise, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    We have reported that newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients in Vietnam have a low body mass index (BMI) of around 23 and that the major factor for this is high white rice (WR) intake. Brown rice (BR) is known to be beneficial in the control of blood glucose levels; however, it has the property of unpleasant palatability. Pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) is slightly germinated by soaking BR in water as this reduces the hardness of BR and makes it easier to eat. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of a 4-mo PGBR administration on various parameters in Vietnamese women aged 45-65 y with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Sixty subjects were divided into a WR or PGBR group. For the first 2 wk, WR was replaced by 50% PGBR, then for 2 wk by 75% PGBR and from the second month 100%. Before the beginning of the study and at the end of the study, 1) anthropometric measurements, 2) a nutrition survey for 3 nonconsecutive days by the 24 h recall method and 3) blood biochemical examinations were conducted. Fasting plasma concentrations of glucose and lipids and the obesity-related measurements and blood pressure were favorably improved only in the PGBR diet group. The present results suggest that replacing WR with PGBR for 4 mo may be useful in controlling body weight as well as blood glucose and lipid levels in Vietnamese women with IGT. PMID:25078374

  5. Evidence that Self-Affirmation Reduces Body Dissatisfaction by Basing Self-Esteem on Domains Other than Body Weight and Shape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armitage, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Body satisfaction interventions have typically been multifaceted and targeted at clinical populations. The aim of the present research was to isolate the effects of self-affirmation on body satisfaction in a community sample and to see whether self-affirmation works by basing one's self-esteem on domains other than body weight and

  6. Evidence that Self-Affirmation Reduces Body Dissatisfaction by Basing Self-Esteem on Domains Other than Body Weight and Shape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armitage, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Body satisfaction interventions have typically been multifaceted and targeted at clinical populations. The aim of the present research was to isolate the effects of self-affirmation on body satisfaction in a community sample and to see whether self-affirmation works by basing one's self-esteem on domains other than body weight and…

  7. Rice protein improves adiposity, body weight and reduces lipids level in rats through modification of triglyceride metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To elucidate whether rice protein can possess a vital function in improving lipids level and adiposity, the effects of rice proteins extracted by alkaline (RP-A) and ?-amylase (RP-E) on triglyceride metabolism were investigated in 7-week-old male Wistar rats fed cholesterol-enriched diets for 2 weeks, as compared with casein (CAS). Results Compared with CAS, plasma concentrations of glucose and lipids were significantly reduced by RP-feeding (P < 0.05), as well as hepatic accumulation of lipids (P < 0.05). RP-A and RP-E significantly depressed the hepatic activities of fatty acid synthase (FAS), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) (P < 0.05), whereas the activities of lipoprotein lipase (PL) and hepatic lipase (HL) were significantly stimulated (P < 0.05), as compared to CAS. Neither lipids level nor activities of enzymes were different between RP-A and RP-E (P > 0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between protein digestibility and deposit fat (r = 0.8567, P < 0.05), as well as the plasma TG concentration (r = 0.8627, P < 0.05). Conclusions The present study demonstrates that rice protein can modify triglyceride metabolism, leading to an improvement of body weight and adiposity. Results suggest that the triglyceride-lowering action as well as the potential of anti-adiposity induced by rice protein is attributed to upregulation of lipolysis and downregulation of lipogenesis, and the lower digestibility of rice protein may be the main modulator responsible for the lipid-lowering action. PMID:22330327

  8. Lorcaserin (APD356), a selective 5-HT(2C) agonist, reduces body weight in obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Smith, Steven R; Prosser, Warren A; Donahue, David J; Morgan, Michael E; Anderson, Christen M; Shanahan, William R

    2009-03-01

    Lorcaserin (APD356) is a potent, selective 5-HT(2C) agonist with ~15-fold and 100-fold selectivity vs. 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B) receptors, respectively. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of lorcaserin for weight reduction in obese patients during a 12-week period. The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study enrolled 469 men and women between ages 18 and 65 and with BMI 30-45 kg/m(2). Patients received placebo, lorcaserin 10 mg q.d., lorcaserin 15 mg q.d., or lorcaserin 10 mg b.i.d. for 12 weeks, and were counseled to maintain their usual diet and activity. The primary end point was change in weight from baseline to day 85 by completer analysis. Safety analyses included echocardiograms at Screening and day 85/study exit. Lorcaserin was associated with progressive weight loss of 1.8 kg, 2.6 kg, and 3.6 kg at 10 mg q.d., 15 mg q.d., and 10 mg b.i.d., respectively, compared to placebo weight loss of 0.3 kg (P < 0.001 for each group). Similar results were seen by intent-to-treat last observation-carried forward (ITT-LOCF) analysis. The proportions of completers achieving > or =5% of initial body weight were 12.8, 19.5, 31.2, and 2.3% in the 10 mg q.d., 15 mg q.d., 10 mg b.i.d., and placebo groups, respectively. The most frequent adverse events (AEs) were transient headache, nausea, and dizziness. Echocardiograms showed no apparent drug-related effects on heart valves or pulmonary artery pressure (PAP). Lorcaserin was well tolerated and efficacious for weight reduction in this 12-week study. Longer-term trials employing behavior modification will be needed to more fully assess its safety and efficacy. PMID:19057523

  9. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation had no effect on body weight but reduced energy intake in overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Harden, Charlotte J; Dible, Victoria A; Russell, Jean M; Garaiova, Iveta; Plummer, Sue F; Barker, Margo E; Corfe, Bernard M

    2014-01-01

    Longer-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids may have greater appetite-suppressing effects than shorter-chain, monosaturated, and saturated fatty acids. Because fish oils are predominantly composed of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid and may assist in the treatment of obesity comorbidities, their effect on body weight and body mass index is of interest. We hypothesized that daily supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich oil would reduce energy intake and body weight in overweight and obese women compared with supplementation with oleic acid (OA) rich oil. A double-blinded, randomized, parallel intervention was conducted. Body mass index (in kilograms per meter squared), body weight (in kilograms), body fat (in percent), and lean tissue (in kilograms) were measured at baseline and 12 weeks after intervention with DHA or OA. Diet diaries were also completed at these time points for estimation of energy and macronutrient intake. Subjects reported significantly lower energy (P = .020), carbohydrate (g) (P = .037), and fat (g) (P = .045) intake after DHA compared with OA. Body mass or composition was not affected by treatment, although a fall in body weight in the DHA group approached statistical significance (P = .089). Daily ingestion of DHA over a 12-week period may reduce energy intake in overweight and obese females, but longer-term and adequately powered studies using subjects of both sexes are needed. Other factors that should be considered include the following: the choice of control, the body mass index category of subjects, and ways of improving the compliancy and accuracy of dietary assessment. PMID:24418242

  10. Weight Loss and Reduced Body Temperature Determine Humane Endpoints in a Mouse Model of Ocular Herpesvirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hankenson, F Claire; Ruskoski, Nicholas; van Saun, Marjorie; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Oh, Jaewook; Fraser, Nigel W

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has been studied in well-established mouse models to generate latently infected animals for investigations into viral pathogenesis, latency mechanisms, and reactivation. Mice exhibit clinical signs of debilitating infection, during which time they may become severely ill before recovery or die spontaneously. Because the cohort of mice that does survive provides valuable data on latency, there is keen interest in developing methodologies for earlier detection and treatment of severe disease to ultimately increase survival rates. Here, BALB/c mice were inoculated ocularly with either a wildtype (LAT+) or mutant (LAT) strain of HSV1. Mice were monitored daily through day 30 after infection; trigeminal ganglia were harvested at day 60 to assess viral DNA load. Cages were provided with nesting material, and fluid supplementation was administered to mice with body temperatures of 35 C or lower, as measured by subcutaneous microchip thermometry. The results showed that infected mice with temperatures less than 34.5 C did not recover to normothermia and were euthanized or spontaneously died, regardless of infective viral strain. By using a combination of criteria including body temperature (less than 34.5 C) and weight loss (more than 0.05 g daily) for removal of animals from the study, approximately 98% of mice that died spontaneously could have been euthanized prior to death, without concern of potential recovery to the experimental endpoint (100% specificity). Frequent monitoring of alterations to general wellbeing, body temperature, and weight was crucial for establishing humane endpoints in this ocular HSV model. PMID:23849410

  11. Energy Intake in Weight-Reduced Humans

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Michael; Kissileff, Harry R.; Mayer, Laurel E.S.; Hirsch, Joy; Leibel, Rudolph L.

    2010-01-01

    Almost anyone who has ever lost weight can attest that it is harder to sustain weight loss than to lose weight. Maintenance of a 10% or greater reduced body weight is accompanied by decreases in energy expenditure to levels significantly below what is predicted solely on the basis of weight and body composition changes. This disproportionate decline in energy expenditure would not be sufficient to account for the over 80% recidivism rate to pre-weight loss levels of body fatness after otherwise successful weight reduction if there were a corresponding reduction in energy intake. In fact, reduced body weight maintenance is accompanied by increased energy intake above that required to maintain reduced weight. The failure to reduce energy intake in response to decreased energy output reflects decreased satiation and perception of how much food is eaten and multiple changes in neuronal signaling in response to food which conspire with the decline in energy output to keep body energy stores (fat) above a CNS- defined minimum (threshold). Much of this biological opposition to sustained weight loss is mediated by the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin. PMID:20595050

  12. Low body weight and weight loss in the aged.

    PubMed

    Fischer, J; Johnson, M A

    1990-12-01

    Low body weight and rapid unintentional weight loss are highly predictive of mortality and morbidity in the elderly population. Weight loss is frequently reported in elderly patients. Acute and chronic diseases are leading causes of involuntary weight loss. Whereas physical disease probably accounts for a majority of cases of involuntary weight loss, psychiatric disorders such as dementia and depression also may result in severe nutritional deficiencies. Additional physiological, psychological, and social factors may affect food intake and body weight. Changes in body composition include loss of height and lean body mass and lower basal metabolic rate. Energy requirements decrease because of the lower basal metabolic rate and reduced physical activity. These low energy requirements make it more difficult for the elderly to obtain adequate amounts of required nutrients. Food intake regulation, taste, and olfactory sensitivity may be altered. As 50% of Americans have lost all of their teeth by age 65, chewing problems are often present. Other factors that contribute to poor nutritional status include alterations in the gastrointestinal tract, functional disabilities, lowered socioeconomic status, and social isolation. Finally, because of the increase in both physical and psychiatric disease, the elderly are major users of prescription drugs. Drug/nutrient interactions can result in anorexia and weight loss. The findings indicate that factors causing unintentional weight loss are highly interrelated and difficult to separate. Health care professionals must monitor body weight in elderly persons and carefully evaluate any cases of rapid, unintentional weight loss to prevent further deterioration of health status. PMID:2131340

  13. Body weight loss, reduced urge for palatable food and increased release of GLP-1 through daily supplementation with green-plant membranes for three months in overweight women.

    PubMed

    Montelius, Caroline; Erlandsson, Daniel; Vitija, Egzona; Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Egecioglu, Emil; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2014-10-01

    The frequency of obesity has risen dramatically in recent years but only few effective and safe drugs are available. We investigated if green-plant membranes, previously shown to reduce subjective hunger and promote satiety signals, could affect body weight when given long-term. 38 women (40-65 years of age, body mass index 25-33 kg/m(2)) were randomized to dietary supplementation with either green-plant membranes (5 g) or placebo, consumed once daily before breakfast for 12 weeks. All individuals were instructed to follow a three-meal paradigm without any snacking between the meals and to increase their physical activity. Body weight change was analysed every third week as was blood glucose and various lipid parameters. On days 1 and 90, following intake of a standardized breakfast, glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in plasma were measured, as well as subjective ratings of hunger, satiety and urge for different palatable foods, using visual analogue scales. Subjects receiving green-plant membranes lost significantly more body weight than did those on placebo (p < 0.01). Mean weight loss with green-plant extract was 5.0 ± 2.3 kg compared to 3.5 ± 2.3 kg in the control group. Consumption of green-plant membranes also reduced total and LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05 respectively) compared to control. Single-meal tests performed on day 1 and day 90 demonstrated an increased postprandial release of GLP-1 and decreased urge for sweet and chocolate on both occasions in individuals supplemented with green-plant membranes compared to control. Waist circumference, body fat and leptin decreased in both groups over the course of the study, however there were no differences between the groups. In conclusion, addition of green-plant membranes as a dietary supplement once daily induces weight loss, improves obesity-related risk-factors, and reduces the urge for palatable food. The mechanism may reside in the observed increased release of GLP-1. PMID:24993695

  14. Effect of reducing total fat intake on body weight: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relation between total fat intake and body weight in adults and children. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies. Data sources Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to June 2010. Inclusion criteria Randomised controlled trials and cohort studies of adults or children that compared lower versus usual total fat intake and assessed the effects on measures of body fatness (body weight, body mass index, or waist circumference) after at least six months (randomised controlled trials) or one year (in cohorts). Randomised controlled trials with any intention to reduce weight in participants or confounded by additional medical or lifestyle interventions were excluded. Data extraction Data were extracted and validity was assessed independently and in duplicate. Random effects meta-analyses, subgroups, sensitivity analyses, and metaregression were done. Results 33 randomised controlled trials (73?589 participants) and 10 cohort studies were included, all from developed countries. Meta-analysis of data from the trials suggested that diets lower in total fat were associated with lower relative body weight (by 1.6 kg, 95% confidence interval ?2.0 to ?1.2 kg, I2=75%, 57?735 participants). Lower weight gain in the low fat arm compared with the control arm was consistent across trials, but the size of the effect varied. Metaregression suggested that greater reduction in total fat intake and lower baseline fat intake were associated with greater relative weight loss, explaining most of the heterogeneity. The significant effect of a low fat diet on weight was not lost in sensitivity analyses (including removing trials that expended greater time and attention on low fat groups). Lower total fat intake also led to lower body mass index (?0.51 kg/m2, 95% confidence interval ?0.76 to ?0.26, nine trials, I2=77%) and waist circumference (by 0.3 cm, 95% confidence interval ?0.58 to ?0.02, 15?671 women, one trial). There was no suggestion of negative effects on other cardiovascular risk factors (lipid levels or blood pressure). GRADE assessment suggested high quality evidence for the relation between total fat intake and body weight in adults. Only one randomised controlled trial and three cohort studies were found in children and young people, but these confirmed a positive relation between total fat intake and weight gain. Conclusions There is high quality, consistent evidence that reduction of total fat intake has been achieved in large numbers of both healthy and at risk trial participants over many years. Lower total fat intake leads to small but statistically significant and clinically meaningful, sustained reductions in body weight in adults in studies with baseline fat intakes of 28-43% of energy intake and durations from six months to over eight years. Evidence supports a similar effect in children and young people. PMID:23220130

  15. [Effect water intake on body weight].

    PubMed

    Wi?niewska, Klaudia; Kurowska, Ewa; Okr?glicka, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Water is essential for life. There wouldn't be the proper functioning of body processes without it. An inadequate water intake relative to recommendation contributes to the decline in physical capacity and adversely effects on cognitive function and mood. On the other hand, an adequate water intake helps maintain the balance between total energy intake and daily energy expenditure and determines the correct rate of fat oxidation. This might be useful and commonly used in weight reduction and thus might favorably affect on body composition in overweight and obese people by increasing the total body water and lean muscle mass and might contribute to a decrease in body fat. Research results indicate clearly that drinking water instead of caloric beverages might be an effective way to reduce daily total energy consumption and in this way might may contribute to the reduction of weight, body circumferences and body fat. PMID:25764787

  16. A reduced-calorie dietary pattern including a daily sweet snack promotes body weight reduction and body composition improvements in premenopausal women who are overweight and obese: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Piehowski, Kathryn E; Preston, Amy G; Miller, Debra L; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M

    2011-08-01

    Reduced-calorie diets are difficult to follow because they often require elimination of certain foods, leading to poor compliance and limited success. However, a low-calorie, nutrient-dense diet has the potential to accommodate a daily snack without exceeding energy requirements, even during weight loss. This pilot study evaluated the effects of a reduced-calorie diet including either a daily dark chocolate snack or a non-chocolate snack on anthropometric and body composition measurements. In a randomized clinical trial, 26 overweight and obese (body mass index ?25 to ?43) premenopausal women were assigned to a reduced-calorie diet that included either a daily dark chocolate snack or non-chocolate snack (n=13 per group) for 18 weeks. At baseline and end of study, body weight and waist and hip circumferences were measured along with fat mass, lean mass, and body fat percentage by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Energy and macronutrient intakes were estimated from 4-day food records. Within- and between-group changes from baseline were analyzed using paired t tests and independent t tests, respectively. Women in both snack groups reduced estimated daily energy intake (P<0.001). Women in both the dark chocolate snack and non-chocolate snack groups, respectively, experienced decreases (P<0.001) in body weight (-5.1 vs -5.1 kg), hip circumference (-5.8 vs -5.4 cm), waist circumference (-5.7 vs -3.5 cm), fat mass (-3.9 vs -3.6 kg), and body fat percentage (-3.4% vs -3.1%), with no change in lean mass. Improvements in anthropometric and body composition measurements among overweight and obese premenopausal women can be achieved with a reduced-calorie diet including either a daily dark chocolate snack or non-chocolate snack. PMID:21802567

  17. A novel peripherally restricted cannabinoid receptor antagonist, AM6545, reduces food intake and body weight, but does not cause malaise, in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Cluny, NL; Vemuri, VK; Chambers, AP; Limebeer, CL; Bedard, H; Wood, JT; Lutz, B; Zimmer, A; Parker, LA; Makriyannis, A; Sharkey, KA

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists reduce food intake and body weight, but clinical use in humans is limited by effects on the CNS. We have evaluated a novel cannabinoid antagonist (AM6545) designed to have limited CNS penetration, to see if it would inhibit food intake in rodents, without aversive effects. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Cannabinoid receptor binding studies, cAMP assays, brain penetration studies and gastrointestinal motility studies were carried out to assess the activity profile of AM6545. The potential for AM6545 to induce malaise in rats and the actions of AM6545 on food intake and body weight were also investigated. KEY RESULTS AM6545 binds to CB1 receptors with a Ki of 1.7 nM and CB2 receptors with a Ki of 523 nM. AM6545 is a neutral antagonist, having no effect on cAMP levels in transfected cells and was less centrally penetrant than AM4113, a comparable CB1 receptor antagonist. AM6545 reversed the effects of WIN55212-2 in an assay of colonic motility. In contrast to AM251, AM6545 did not produce conditioned gaping or conditioned taste avoidance in rats. In rats and mice, AM6545 dose-dependently reduced food intake and induced a sustained reduction in body weight. The effect on food intake was maintained in rats with a complete subdiaphragmatic vagotomy. AM6545 inhibited food intake in CB1 receptor gene-deficient mice, but not in CB1/CB2 receptor double knockout mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Peripherally active, cannabinoid receptor antagonists with limited brain penetration may be useful agents for the treatment of obesity and its complications. PMID:20880401

  18. Body Weight Independently Affects Articular Cartilage Catabolism

    PubMed Central

    Denning, W. Matt; Winward, Jason G.; Pardo, Michael Becker; Hopkins, J. Ty; Seeley, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    Although obesity is associated with osteoarthritis, it is unclear whether body weight (BW) independently affects articular cartilage catabolism (i.e., independent from physiological factors that also accompany obesity). The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the independent effect of BW on articular cartilage catabolism associated with walking. A secondary purpose was to determine how decreased BW influenced cardiovascular response due to walking. Twelve able-bodied subjects walked for 30 minutes on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill during three sessions: control (unadjusted BW), +40%BW, and -40%BW. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) was measured immediately before (baseline) and after, and 15 and 30 minutes after the walk. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured every three minutes during the walk. Relative to baseline, average serum COMP concentration was 13% and 5% greater immediately after and 15 minutes after the walk. Immediately after the walk, serum COMP concentration was 14% greater for the +40%BW session than for the -40%BW session. HR and RPE were greater for the +40%BW session than for the other two sessions, but did not differ between the control and -40%BW sessions. BW independently influences acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response due to walking: as BW increases, so does acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response. These results indicate that lower-body positive pressure walking may benefit certain individuals by reducing acute articular cartilage catabolism, due to walking, while maintaining cardiovascular response. Key points Walking for 30 minutes with adjustments in body weight (normal body weight, +40% and -40% body weight) significantly influences articular cartilage catabolism, measured via serum COMP concentration. Compared to baseline levels, walking with +40% body weight and normal body weight both elicited significant increases in articular cartilage catabolism, while walking with -40% body weight did not. Cardiovascular response (HR and RPE) was not significantly different during walking with normal body weight and when compared to walking with -40% body weight. PMID:25983577

  19. Arecoline Alters Taste Bud Cell Morphology, Reduces Body Weight, and Induces Behavioral Preference Changes in Gustatory Discrimination in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei-Hau; Chau, Yat-Pang; Lu, Kuo-Shyan; Kung, Hsiu-Ni

    2016-01-01

    Arecoline, a major alkaloid in areca nuts, is involved in the pathogenesis of oral diseases. Mammalian taste buds are the structural unit for detecting taste stimuli in the oral cavity. The effects of arecoline on taste bud morphology are poorly understood. Arecoline was injected intraperitoneally (IP) into C57BL/6 mice twice daily for 1-4 weeks. After arecoline treatment, the vallate papillae were processed for electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry analysis of taste receptor proteins (T1R2, T1R3, T1R1, and T2R) and taste associated proteins (?-gustducin, PLC?2, and SNAP25). Body weight, food intake and water consumption were recorded. A 2-bottle preference test was also performed. The results demonstrated that 1) arecoline treatment didn't change the number and size of the taste buds or taste bud cells, 2) electron microscopy revealed the change of organelles and the accumulation of autophagosomes in type II cells, 3) immunohistochemistry demonstrated a decrease of taste receptor T1R2- and T1R3-expressing cells, 4) the body weight and food intake were markedly reduced, and 5) the sweet preference behavior was reduced. We concluded that the long-term injection of arecoline alters the morphology of type II taste bud cells, retards the growth of mice, and affects discrimination competencies for sweet tastants. PMID:26453050

  20. Effect of clothing weight on body weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight with weather, season, and gender. Methods: Fifty adults (35 wom...

  1. ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AND BODY WEIGHT

    PubMed Central

    FRENCH, MICHAEL T.; NORTON, EDWARD C.; FANG, HAI; MACLEAN, JOHANNA CATHERINE

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The number of Americans who are overweight or obese has reached epidemic proportions. Elevated weight is associated with health problems and increased medical expenditures. This paper analyzes Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to investigate the role of alcohol consumption in weight gain. Alcohol is not only an addictive substance but also a high-calorie beverage that can interfere with metabolic function and cognitive processes. Because men and women differ in the type and amount of alcohol they consume, in the biological effects they experience as a result of alcohol consumption, and in the consequences they face as a result of obesity, we expect our results to differ by gender. We use first-difference models of body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption (frequency and intensity) to control for time-invariant unobservable factors that may influence changes in both alcohol use and weight status. Increasing frequency and intensity of alcohol use is associated with statistically significant yet quantitatively small weight gain for men but not for women. Moreover, the first-difference results are much smaller in magnitude and sometimes different in sign compared to the benchmark pooled cross-sectional estimates. PMID:19548203

  2. Body Weight Relationships in Early Marriage: Weight Relevance, Weight Comparisons, and Weight Talk

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Caron F.; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants’ body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601

  3. Anethum graveolens seeds aqueous extract stimulates whole brain 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism and reduces feeding behavior and body weight in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Bano, Farhat; Ahmed, Afrinah; Ahmed, Maryam; Parveen, Tahira

    2015-01-01

    The percentage of overweight and obese person has increased markedly since several decays. Obesity is associated with increased risked factor for many diseases such as, diabetes, heart complications, arthritis and certain types of cancer. Feeding behavior is in controlled by a major interaction between central nervous system and many organs of the body. The role of serotonin (5-HT) in feeding behavior is well recognized. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of Anethum graveolens seeds aqueous extract (AGAE) on food intake, body weight and serotonin metabolism in over weight rats. Five weeks oral administration of AGAE shows significant decrease in body weight, food intake and significant increase in whole brain 5-HT, 5-HIAA and tryptophan level in brain and plasma of experimental animals. Increased level of 5-HT induced satiety and suppressed food intake and result is the reduction in body weight. PMID:25553698

  4. COH-SR4 Reduces Body Weight, Improves Glycemic Control and Prevents Hepatic Steatosis in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Figarola, James Lester; Singhal, Preeti; Rahbar, Samuel; Gugiu, Bogdan Gabriel; Awasthi, Sanjay; Singhal, Sharad S.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder caused by imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, and is one of the principal causative factors in the development of metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cancer. COH-SR4 (SR4) is a novel investigational compound that has anti-cancer and anti-adipogenic properties. In this study, the effects of SR4 on metabolic alterations in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese C57BL/J6 mice were investigated. Oral feeding of SR4 (5 mg/kg body weight.) in HFD mice for 6 weeks significantly reduced body weight, prevented hyperlipidemia and improved glycemic control without affecting food intake. These changes were associated with marked decreases in epididymal fat mass, adipocyte hypertrophy, increased plasma adiponectin and reduced leptin levels. SR4 treatment also decreased liver triglycerides, prevented hepatic steatosis, and normalized liver enzymes. Western blots demonstrated increased AMPK activation in liver and adipose tissues of SR4-treated HFD obese mice, while gene analyses by real time PCR showed COH-SR4 significantly suppressed the mRNA expression of lipogenic genes such as sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (Srebf1), acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase (Acaca), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg), fatty acid synthase (Fasn), stearoyl-Coenzyme A desaturase 1 (Scd1), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a) and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (Hmgcr), as well as gluconeogenic genes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (Pck1) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pc) in the liver of obese mice. In vitro, SR4 activates AMPK independent of upstream kinases liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase ? (CaMKK?). Together, these data suggest that SR4, a novel AMPK activator, may be a promising therapeutic compound for treatment of obesity, fatty liver disease, and related metabolic disorders. PMID:24376752

  5. Ingestion of eicosapentaenoic acid in the early stage of social isolation reduces a fibroblast growth factor 21 resistant state independently of body weight in KKA(y) mice.

    PubMed

    Nonogaki, Katsunori; Yamazaki, Tomoe; Murakami, Mari; Kaji, Takao

    2015-08-21

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 is a mediator of glucose and lipid metabolism. Although exogenous administration of FGF21 exerts beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism, circulating FGF21 levels are elevated in ob/ob and db/db mice, diet-induced obese mice and obese human. Here we show that ingestion of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) for 6 days after individually-housing significantly suppressed the hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia associated with decreases in plasma insulin and FGF21 levels in KKA(y) mice while having no effects on food intake, body weight or plasma active GLP-1 levels. The ingestion of EPA had no significant effects on the expression of FGF21 in the liver, epididymal white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Moreover, the ingestion of EPA significantly decreased the expression of hepatic peroxisome sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP1c), carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP), stearoyl-CoA deaturase and periostin, which are involved in hepatic lipogenesis and hepatosteaotosis, in KKA(y) mice. On the other hand, the ingestion of EPA had no significant effects on expression of hepatic gp78, Notch, forkhead box protein O1 or glucose-6-phosphatase. These findings suggest that EPA ingestion in the early stage of social isolation suppresses hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia associated with reduced FGF21 and insulin resistance without altering food intake and body weight, and that the EPA ingestion suppresses hepatic lipogenesis by suppressing Notch- and gp78-independent SEREBP1c and ChREBP pathways in KKA(y) mice. PMID:26187667

  6. Tetrahydro iso-Alpha Acids from Hops Improve Glucose Homeostasis and Reduce Body Weight Gain and Metabolic Endotoxemia in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Van Roye, Marie; Delzenne, Nathalie M.; Cani, Patrice D.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and related metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are associated with a low-grade inflammatory state possibly through changes in gut microbiota composition and the development of higher plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels, i.e. metabolic endotoxemia. Various phytochemical compounds have been investigated as potential tools to regulate these metabolic features. Humulus lupulus L. (hops) contains several classes of compounds with anti-inflammatory potential. Recent evidence suggests that hops-derived compounds positively impact adipocyte metabolism and glucose tolerance in obese and diabetic rodents via undefined mechanisms. In this study, we found that administration of tetrahydro iso-alpha acids (termed META060) to high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese and diabetic mice for 8 weeks reduced body weight gain, the development of fat mass, glucose intolerance, and fasted hyperinsulinemia, and normalized insulin sensitivity markers. This was associated with reduced portal plasma LPS levels, gut permeability, and higher intestinal tight junction proteins Zonula occludens-1 and occludin. Moreover, META060 treatment increased the plasma level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 and decreased the plasma level of the pro-inflammatory cytokine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. In conclusion, this research allows us to decipher a novel mechanism contributing to the positive effects of META060 treatment, and supports the need to investigate such compounds in obese and type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:22470484

  7. Tetrahydro iso-alpha acids from hops improve glucose homeostasis and reduce body weight gain and metabolic endotoxemia in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Everard, Amandine; Geurts, Lucie; Van Roye, Marie; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Cani, Patrice D

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and related metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are associated with a low-grade inflammatory state possibly through changes in gut microbiota composition and the development of higher plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels, i.e. metabolic endotoxemia. Various phytochemical compounds have been investigated as potential tools to regulate these metabolic features. Humulus lupulus L. (hops) contains several classes of compounds with anti-inflammatory potential. Recent evidence suggests that hops-derived compounds positively impact adipocyte metabolism and glucose tolerance in obese and diabetic rodents via undefined mechanisms. In this study, we found that administration of tetrahydro iso-alpha acids (termed META060) to high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese and diabetic mice for 8 weeks reduced body weight gain, the development of fat mass, glucose intolerance, and fasted hyperinsulinemia, and normalized insulin sensitivity markers. This was associated with reduced portal plasma LPS levels, gut permeability, and higher intestinal tight junction proteins Zonula occludens-1 and occludin. Moreover, META060 treatment increased the plasma level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 and decreased the plasma level of the pro-inflammatory cytokine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. In conclusion, this research allows us to decipher a novel mechanism contributing to the positive effects of META060 treatment, and supports the need to investigate such compounds in obese and type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:22470484

  8. Chronic benzylamine administration in the drinking water improves glucose tolerance, reduces body weight gain and circulating cholesterol in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Iffi-Soltsz, Zsuzsa; Wanecq, Estelle; Lomba, Almudena; Portillo, Maria P; Pellati, Federica; Szko, Eva; Bour, Sandy; Woodley, John; Milagro, Fermin I; Alfredo Martinez, J; Valet, Philippe; Carpn, Christian

    2010-04-01

    Benzylamine is found in Moringa oleifera, a plant used to treat diabetes in traditional medicine. In mammals, benzylamine is metabolized by semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) to benzaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide. This latter product has insulin-mimicking action, and is involved in the effects of benzylamine on human adipocytes: stimulation of glucose transport and inhibition of lipolysis. This study examined whether chronic, oral administration of benzylamine could improve glucose tolerance and the circulating lipid profile without increasing oxidative stress in overweight and pre-diabetic mice. The benzylamine diffusion across the intestine was verified using everted gut sacs. Then, glucose handling and metabolic markers were measured in mice rendered insulin-resistant when fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and receiving or not benzylamine in their drinking water (3600micromol/(kgday)) for 17 weeks. HFD-benzylamine mice showed lower body weight gain, fasting blood glucose, total plasma cholesterol and hyperglycaemic response to glucose load when compared to HFD control. In adipocytes, insulin-induced activation of glucose transport and inhibition of lipolysis remained unchanged. In aorta, benzylamine treatment partially restored the nitrite levels that were reduced by HFD. In liver, lipid peroxidation markers were reduced. Resistin and uric acid, surrogate plasma markers of metabolic syndrome, were decreased. In spite of the putative deleterious nature of the hydrogen peroxide generated during amine oxidation, and in agreement with its in vitro insulin-like actions found on adipocytes, the SSAO-substrate benzylamine could be considered as a potential oral agent to treat metabolic syndrome. PMID:20045461

  9. A multicenter randomized controlled trial of a plant-based nutrition program to reduce body weight and cardiovascular risk in the corporate setting: the GEICO study

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, S; Xu, J; Agarwal, U; Gonzales, J; Levin, S; Barnard, N D

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives: To determine the effects of a low-fat plant-based diet program on anthropometric and biochemical measures in a multicenter corporate setting. Subjects/methods: Employees from 10 sites of a major US company with body mass index ?25?kg/m2 and/or previous diagnosis of type 2 diabetes were randomized to either follow a low-fat vegan diet, with weekly group support and work cafeteria options available, or make no diet changes for 18 weeks. Dietary intake, body weight, plasma lipid concentrations, blood pressure and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) were determined at baseline and 18 weeks. Results: Mean body weight fell 2.9?kg and 0.06?kg in the intervention and control groups, respectively (P<0.001). Total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol fell 8.0 and 8.1?mg/dl in the intervention group and 0.01 and 0.9?mg/dl in the control group (P<0.01). HbA1C fell 0.6 percentage point and 0.08 percentage point in the intervention and control group, respectively (P<0.01). Among study completers, mean changes in body weight were ?4.3?kg and ?0.08?kg in the intervention and control groups, respectively (P<0.001). Total and LDL cholesterol fell 13.7 and 13.0?mg/dl in the intervention group and 1.3 and 1.7?mg/dl in the control group (P<0.001). HbA1C levels decreased 0.7 percentage point and 0.1 percentage point in the intervention and control group, respectively (P<0.01). Conclusions: An 18-week dietary intervention using a low-fat plant-based diet in a corporate setting improves body weight, plasma lipids, and, in individuals with diabetes, glycemic control. PMID:23695207

  10. Body weight of hypersonic aircraft, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    The load bearing body weight of wing-body and all-body hypersonic aircraft is estimated for a wide variety of structural materials and geometries. Variations of weight with key design and configuration parameters are presented and discussed. Both hot and cool structure approaches are considered in isotropic, organic composite, and metal matrix composite materials; structural shells are sandwich or skin-stringer. Conformal and pillow-tank designs are investigated for the all-body shape. The results identify the most promising hypersonic aircraft body structure design approaches and their weight trends. Geometric definition of vehicle shapes and structural analysis methods are presented in appendices.

  11. The lysyl oxidase inhibitor β-aminopropionitrile reduces body weight gain and improves the metabolic profile in diet-induced obesity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Miana, María; Galán, María; Martínez-Martínez, Ernesto; Varona, Saray; Jurado-López, Raquel; Bausa-Miranda, Belén; Antequera, Alfonso; Luaces, María; Martínez-González, José; Rodríguez, Cristina; Cachofeiro, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling of the adipose tissue plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of obesity. The lysyl oxidase (LOX) family of amine oxidases, including LOX and LOX-like (LOXL) isoenzymes, controls ECM maturation, and upregulation of LOX activity is essential in fibrosis; however, its involvement in adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity is unclear. In this study, we observed that LOX is the main isoenzyme expressed in human adipose tissue and that its expression is strongly upregulated in samples from obese individuals that had been referred to bariatric surgery. LOX expression was also induced in the adipose tissue from male Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Interestingly, treatment with β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), a specific and irreversible inhibitor of LOX activity, attenuated the increase in body weight and fat mass that was observed in obese animals and shifted adipocyte size toward smaller adipocytes. BAPN also ameliorated the increase in collagen content that was observed in adipose tissue from obese animals and improved several metabolic parameters – it ameliorated glucose and insulin levels, decreased homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index and reduced plasma triglyceride levels. Furthermore, in white adipose tissue from obese animals, BAPN prevented the downregulation of adiponectin and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), as well as the increase in suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) levels, triggered by the HFD. Likewise, in the TNFα-induced insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocyte model, BAPN prevented the downregulation of adiponectin and GLUT4 and the increase in SOCS3 levels, and consequently normalised insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Therefore, our data provide evidence that LOX plays a pathologically relevant role in the metabolic dysfunction induced by obesity and emphasise the interest of novel pharmacological interventions that target adipose tissue fibrosis and LOX activity for the clinical management of this disease. PMID:26035864

  12. Green tea extract with polyethylene glycol-3350 reduces body weight and improves glucose tolerance in db/db and high-fat diet mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Hyung; Choi, Yoon Jung; Kim, Yong Woon; Kim, Sang Pyo; Cho, Ho-Chan; Ahn, Shinbyoung; Bae, Ki-Cheor; Im, Seung-Soon; Bae, Jae-Hoon; Song, Dae-Kyu

    2013-08-01

    Green tea extract (GTE) is regarded to be effective against obesity and type 2 diabetes, but definitive evidences have not been proven. Based on the assumption that the gallated catechins (GCs) in GTE attenuate intestinal glucose and lipid absorption, while enhancing insulin resistance when GCs are present in the circulation through inhibiting cellular glucose uptake in various tissues, this study attempted to block the intestinal absorption of GCs and prolong their residence time in the lumen. We then observed whether GTE containing the nonabsorbable GCs could ameliorate body weight (BW) gain and glucose intolerance in db/db and high-fat diet mice. Inhibition of the intestinal absorption of GCs was accomplished by co-administering the nontoxic polymer polyethylene glycol-3350 (PEG). C57BLKS/J db/db and high-fat diet C57BL/6 mice were treated for 4 weeks with drugs as follows: GTE, PEG, GTE+PEG, voglibose, or pioglitazone. GTE mixed with meals did not have any ameliorating effects on BW gain and glucose intolerance. However, the administration of GTE plus PEG significantly reduced BW gain, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance, without affecting food intake and appetite. The effect was comparable to the effects of an ?-glucosidase inhibitor and a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?/? agonist. These results indicate that prolonging the action of GCs of GTE in the intestinal lumen and blocking their entry into the circulation may allow GTE to be used as a prevention and treatment for both obesity and obesity-induced type 2 diabetes. PMID:23620335

  13. The lysyl oxidase inhibitor β-aminopropionitrile reduces body weight gain and improves the metabolic profile in diet-induced obesity in rats.

    PubMed

    Miana, María; Galán, María; Martínez-Martínez, Ernesto; Varona, Saray; Jurado-López, Raquel; Bausa-Miranda, Belén; Antequera, Alfonso; Luaces, María; Martínez-González, José; Rodríguez, Cristina; Cachofeiro, Victoria

    2015-06-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling of the adipose tissue plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of obesity. The lysyl oxidase (LOX) family of amine oxidases, including LOX and LOX-like (LOXL) isoenzymes, controls ECM maturation, and upregulation of LOX activity is essential in fibrosis; however, its involvement in adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity is unclear. In this study, we observed that LOX is the main isoenzyme expressed in human adipose tissue and that its expression is strongly upregulated in samples from obese individuals that had been referred to bariatric surgery. LOX expression was also induced in the adipose tissue from male Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Interestingly, treatment with β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), a specific and irreversible inhibitor of LOX activity, attenuated the increase in body weight and fat mass that was observed in obese animals and shifted adipocyte size toward smaller adipocytes. BAPN also ameliorated the increase in collagen content that was observed in adipose tissue from obese animals and improved several metabolic parameters - it ameliorated glucose and insulin levels, decreased homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index and reduced plasma triglyceride levels. Furthermore, in white adipose tissue from obese animals, BAPN prevented the downregulation of adiponectin and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), as well as the increase in suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) levels, triggered by the HFD. Likewise, in the TNFα-induced insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocyte model, BAPN prevented the downregulation of adiponectin and GLUT4 and the increase in SOCS3 levels, and consequently normalised insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Therefore, our data provide evidence that LOX plays a pathologically relevant role in the metabolic dysfunction induced by obesity and emphasise the interest of novel pharmacological interventions that target adipose tissue fibrosis and LOX activity for the clinical management of this disease. PMID:26035864

  14. Maintaining ideal body weight counseling sessions

    SciTech Connect

    Brammer, S.H.

    1980-10-09

    The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.

  15. Nature helps: food addition of micronized coconut and onion reduced worm load in horses and sheep and increased body weight in sheep.

    PubMed

    Jatzlau, Antje; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Gliem, Gnter; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Intense laboratory tests on experimentally infected mice and rats had shown that a mixture of micronized onions and coconut pulp decreases substantially (until disappearance) the worm load (trematodes, cestodes and nematodes) after oral uptake. As a consequence, feeding experiments of naturally infected sheep had been done in Egypt, in Saudi Arabia, and in Germany, which showed that treated animals grow up much better than untreated ones. The mean gain of body weight per animal was up to 6 kg within 4 weeks compared to untreated ones. These experiments were repeated again in the present study with naturally infected sheep and horses in Germany. Two types of professionally produced forage had been used: (1) mixture of 40% micronized onions, 40% coconut flakes, and 20% glucose besides sugar beet treacle; (2) mixture of 25% coconut flakes, 25% micronized onions, and 50% of the so-called muesli forage of Fa. Hveler, Dormagen, Germany consisting of some oils plus 20 different plant extracts and several vitamins. All experiments showed that feeding for 10 days led either to the full disappearance of the previously existing worm load or at least to an enormous reduction. When comparing the body weights of infected sheep before the start of the feeding and 4 weeks later, it was found that there was an increase of 5-8 kg (mean 7.5 kg) body weight in each treated animal, while nontreated ones had only weight increases between 0 and 5 kg (mean 2.37 kg). In the case of the horse treatment, the worm load decreased so enormously that mostly only single eggs or larvae were found in those horses that had accepted the onion-coconut food addition. PMID:24271156

  16. Body Contouring After Major Weight Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Your Surgeon Surgical body contouring following major weight loss removes excess sagging fat and skin while improving the shape of the underlying support tissue. The result is a more normal appearance with smoother ... weight loss has many benefits. But after weight reduction surgery, ...

  17. Body Weight Image and Gender Influence Emotional Response Patterns to Body Weight Related Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DelRosario, Marlene W.; And Others

    Young adult females' attitudes toward body weight regulation contain important emotional components. To study the effects of body weight cues on emotionality, 160 college students (75 females, 85 males) completed either a body weight related (Q1) or control (Q2) questionnaire prior to taking the California Test of Personality (CTP). An analysis of…

  18. Body Weight Image and Gender Influence Emotional Response Patterns to Body Weight Related Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DelRosario, Marlene W.; And Others

    Young adult females' attitudes toward body weight regulation contain important emotional components. To study the effects of body weight cues on emotionality, 160 college students (75 females, 85 males) completed either a body weight related (Q1) or control (Q2) questionnaire prior to taking the California Test of Personality (CTP). An analysis of

  19. Do Psychological Factors Help to Reduce Body Mass in Obesity or is it Vice Versa? Selected Psychological Aspects and Effectiveness of the Weight-Loss Program in the Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bąk-Sosnowska, Monika; Pawlak, Adam; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the strength and direction of the correlation between cognitive appraisal, emotional state, social functioning and the effectiveness of a weight-loss program undertaken by obese subjects. The out-patient weight-loss program encompassed 150 obese women. Assessments were carried out at four time points: at the start of the weight-loss program and then after a 5%, 10% and a 15% reduction of the initial body mass. The research tools used were: a survey, the Situation Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ), the Emotional State Questionnaire (ESQ), and the Q-Sort Social Functioning Questionnaire. The cognitive appraisal, emotional state and social functioning of the study group changed significantly (P<0.001). Significantly more individuals with a 15% body mass reduction, as compared with individuals with no body mass reduction, had an early obesity onset, i.e. at the age of <10 years old (P<0.001). Significantly more individuals with no body mass reduction, compared with individuals with a 15% reduction, had a later obesity onset, i.e. between the ages of 20 and 30 (P<0.001) and between 50 and 60 (P<0.001). Significantly more individuals with a 15% body mass reduction, compared with individuals with no mass reduction, had previously experienced the jojo effect (P<0.001) and had successfully lost weight (P<0.001). Significantly more individuals with no body mass reduction, compared with individuals with a15% reduction, had a history of unsuccessful attempts at reducing body mass (P<0.001). We conclude that the attitude of obese patients towards a weight-loss program is not a deciding factor for its effectiveness. As body mass reduces, the attitude improves.

  20. Arkansas Pupils' Body Weights Add Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Marianne D.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a statewide study evaluating the body weights of nearly all public school students in Arkansas. Researchers in Arkansas analyzed "body-mass index" data for more than 345,000 students at all grade levels in 93 percent of the state's public schools during the 2003-04 school year. Based on the data, the…

  1. Rice koji reduced body weight gain, fat accumulation, and blood glucose level in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Kawasaki, Chihiro; Cheng, Kai-Chun; Ushikai, Miharu; Amitani, Haruka; Asakawa, Akihiro; Okutsu, Kayu; Sameshima, Yoshihiro; Takamine, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    Rice koji is considered a readily accessible functional food that may have health-promoting effects. We investigated whether white, yellow, and red koji have the anti-obesity effect in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), which is a model for obesity. Mice were fed HFD containing 10% (w/w) of rice koji powder or steamed rice for 4 weeks. Weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue, and total adipose tissue weight were significantly lower in all rice koji groups than in the HFD-rice group after 4 weeks. Feed efficiency was significantly reduced in the yellow koji group. Blood glucose levels were significantly lower in the white and red koji groups with HOMA-R and leptin levels being reduced in the white koji group. White and red koji increased glucose uptake and GLUT4 protein expression in L6 myotube cells. These results showed that all rice koji have the anti-obesity or anti-diabetes effects although the mechanisms may differ depending on the type of rice koji consumed. PMID:25237599

  2. Effects of independently altering body weight and body mass on the metabolic cost of running.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, Lennart P J; Grabowski, Alena; Kram, Rodger

    2007-12-01

    The metabolic cost of running is substantial, despite the savings from elastic energy storage and return. Previous studies suggest that generating vertical force to support body weight and horizontal forces to brake and propel body mass are the major determinants of the metabolic cost of running. In the present study, we investigated how independently altering body weight and body mass affects the metabolic cost of running. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that reducing body weight would decrease metabolic rate proportionally, and adding mass and weight would increase metabolic rate proportionally. Further, because previous studies show that adding mass alone does not affect the forces generated on the ground, we hypothesized that adding mass alone would have no substantial effect on metabolic rate. We manipulated the body weight and body mass of 10 recreational human runners and measured their metabolic rates while they ran at 3 m s(-1). We reduced weight using a harness system, increased mass and weight using lead worn about the waist, and increased mass alone using a combination of weight support and added load. We found that net metabolic rate decreased in less than direct proportion to reduced body weight, increased in slightly more than direct proportion to added load (added mass and weight), and was not substantially different from normal running with added mass alone. Adding mass alone was not an effective method for determining the metabolic cost attributable to braking/propelling body mass. Runners loaded with mass alone did not generate greater vertical or horizontal impulses and their metabolic costs did not substantially differ from those of normal running. Our results show that generating force to support body weight is the primary determinant of the metabolic cost of running. Extrapolating our reduced weight data to zero weight suggests that supporting body weight comprises at most 74% of the net cost of running. However, 74% is probably an overestimate of the metabolic demand of body weight to support itself because in reduced gravity conditions decrements in horizontal impulse accompanied decrements in vertical impulse. PMID:18055630

  3. Excessive Body Weight in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N; Bales, Connie W

    2015-08-01

    The health challenges prompted by obesity in the older adult population are poorly recognized and understudied. A defined treatment of geriatric obesity is difficult to establish, as it must take into account biological heterogeneity, age-related comorbidities, and functional limitations (sarcopenia/dynapenia). This retrospective article highlights the current understanding of the optimal body mass index (BMI) in later life, addressing appropriate recommendations based on BMI category, age, and health history. The findings of randomized control trials of weight loss/maintenance interventions help one to move closer to evidence-based and appropriately individualized recommendations for body weight management in older adults. PMID:26195092

  4. Association between Dietary Carbohydrates and Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yunsheng; Olendzki, Barbara; Chiriboga, David; Hebert, James R.; Li, Youfu; Li, Wenjun; Campbell, MaryJane; Gendreau, Katherine; Ockene, Ira S.

    2005-01-01

    The role of dietary carbohydrates in weight loss has received considerable attention in light of the current obesity epidemic. The authors investigated the association of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2) with dietary intake of carbohydrates and with measures of the induced glycemic response, using data from an observational study of 572 healthy adults in central Massachusetts. Anthropometric measurements, 7-day dietary recalls, and physical activity recalls were collected quarterly from each subject throughout a 1-year study period. Data were collected between 1994 and 1998. Longitudinal analyses were conducted, and results were adjusted for other factors related to body habitus. Average body mass index was 27.4 kg/m2 (standard deviation, 5.5), while the average percentage of calories from carbohydrates was 44.9 (standard deviation, 9.6). Mean daily dietary glycemic index was 81.7 (standard deviation, 5.5), and glycemic load was 197.8 (standard deviation, 105.2). Body mass index was found to be positively associated with glycemic index, a measure of the glycemic response associated with ingesting different types of carbohydrates, but not with daily carbohydrate intake, percentage of calories from carbohydrates, or glycemic load. Results suggest that the type of carbohydrate may be related to body weight. However, further research is required to elucidate this association and its implications for weight management. PMID:15692080

  5. Improved body weight and performance status and reduced serum PGE2 levels after nutritional intervention with a specific medical food in newly diagnosed patients with esophageal cancer or adenocarcinoma of the gastro-esophageal junction

    PubMed Central

    Faber, Joyce; Uitdehaag, Madeleen J; Spaander, Manon; van Steenbergen-Langeveld, Sabine; Vos, Paul; Berkhout, Marloes; Lamers, Cor; Rümke, Hans; Tilanus, Hugo; Siersema, Peter; van Helvoort, Ardy; van der Gaast, Ate

    2015-01-01

    Background The majority of cancer patients loses weight and becomes malnourished during the course of their disease. Metabolic alterations and reduced immune competence lead to wasting and an increased risk of infectious complications. In the present study, the effect of a nutritionally complete medical food, which is high in protein and leucine and enriched with fish oil and specific oligosaccharides, was investigated on immune function, nutritional status, and inflammation in patients with esophageal cancer and compared with routine care. Methods In this exploratory double-blind study, 64 newly diagnosed esophageal cancer patients were randomized. All patients received dietary counselling and dietary advice. In the Active group, all patients received the specific medical food for 4 weeks before the start of anticancer therapy. In the routine care control arm, patients with <5% weight loss received a non-caloric placebo product, and patients with weight loss ≥5% received an iso-caloric control product to secure blinding of the study. The required study parameters of body weight and performance status were recorded at baseline and after 4 weeks of nutritional intervention, and patients were asked to complete quality of life questionnaires. In addition, blood samples were taken for the measurement of several immune, nutritional, and safety-parameters. Results No effect of the specific nutritional intervention could be detected on ex vivo stimulations of blood mononuclear cells. By contrast, body weight was significantly increased (P < 0.05) and ECOG performance status was improved after intervention with the specific medical food (P < 0.05). In addition, serum Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels were significantly decreased in the specific medical food group and increased in the control group (P = 0.002). Conclusions Nutritional intervention with the specific medical food significantly increased body weight and improved performance status compared with routine care in newly diagnosed esophageal cancer patients. This effect was accompanied by significantly reduced serum PGE2 levels. PMID:26136410

  6. Marital status and body weight, weight perception, and weight management among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Married individuals often have higher body weights than unmarried individuals, but it is unclear how marital roles affect body weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. This study analyzed cross-sectional data for 4,089 adult men and 3,989 adult women using multinomial logistic regression to examine associations between marital status, perceived body weight, desired body weight, and weight management approach. Controlling for demographics and current weight, married or cohabiting women and divorced or separated women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired to weigh less than women who had never married. Marital status was unrelated to men's weight perception and desired weight change. Marital status was also generally unrelated to weight management approach, except that divorced or separated women were more likely to have intentionally lost weight within the past year compared to never married women. Additionally, never married men were more likely to be attempting to prevent weight gain than married or cohabiting men and widowed men. Overall, married and formerly married women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired a lower weight. Men's marital status was generally unassociated with weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. Women's but not men's marital roles appear to influence their perceived and desired weight, suggesting that weight management interventions should be sensitive to both marital status and gender differences. PMID:24183145

  7. Impact of Body Weight and Body Composition on Ovarian Cancer Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Sarah A; Elliott, Sarah A; Kroenke, Candyce H; Sawyer, Michael B; Prado, Carla M

    2016-02-01

    Measures of body weight and anthropometrics such as body mass index (BMI) are commonly used to assess nutritional status in clinical conditions including cancer. Extensive research has evaluated associations between body weight and prognosis in ovarian cancer patients, yet little is known about the potential impact of body composition (fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM)) in these patients. Thus, the purpose of this publication was to review the literature (using PubMed and EMBASE) evaluating the impact of body weight and particularly body composition on surgical complications, morbidity, chemotherapy dosing and toxicity (as predictors of prognosis), and survival in ovarian cancer patients. Body weight is rarely associated with intra-operative complications, but obesity predicts higher rates of venous thromboembolism and wound complications post-operatively in ovarian cancer patients. Low levels of FM and FFM are superior predictors of length of hospital stay compared to measures of body weight alone, but the role of body composition on other surgical morbidities is unknown. Obesity complicates chemotherapy dosing due to altered pharmacokinetics, imprecise dosing strategies, and wide variability in FM and FFM. Measurement of body composition has the potential to reduce toxicity if the results are incorporated into chemotherapy dosing calculations. Some findings suggest that excess body weight adversely affects survival, while others find no such association. Limited studies indicate that FM is a better predictor of survival than body weight in ovarian cancer patients, but the direction of this relationship has not been determined. In conclusion, body composition as an indicator of nutritional status is a better prognostic tool than body weight or BMI alone in ovarian cancer patients. PMID:26769113

  8. The role of sleep in the regulation of body weight.

    PubMed

    Leger, Damien; Bayon, Virginie; de Sanctis, Alice

    2015-12-15

    Sleep participates in the regulation of body weight. The amount of sleep and synchronization of the biological clock are both necessary to achieve the energy balance and the secretion of hormones that contribute to weight regulation. In this review, we first reconsider what normal physiological sleep is and what the normative values of sleep are in the general population. Second, we explain how the biological clock regulates the hormones that may be involved in weight control. Third, we provide some recent data on how sleep may be disturbed by sleep disorders or reduced by sleep debt with consequences on weight. Finally, we explore the relationships between sleep debt and obesity. PMID:26123586

  9. Alexithymia and body weight in obese patients.

    PubMed

    Adami, G F; Campostano, A; Ravera, G; Leggieri, M; Scopinaro, N

    2001-01-01

    The authors evaluated severely obese patients to determine whether being far different in body shape from the accepted standard may cause obese people to develop alexithymic personality traits. They evaluated the food- and weight-related attitudes in obesity surgery patients and in long-term follow-up of those who had previously had biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) for obesity. One quarter of the obese patients had alexithymic characteristics without any modification following stable weight loss, a rate of alexithymia similar to that observed in the nonclinical population. Furthermore, the frequency of alexithymia and the patients' scores on the Toronto Alexithymia Scale were similar in obese and post-BPD individuals. The authors concluded that being obese by itself does not influence the presence of alexithymic personality traits. However, they suggest that the improvement in food-related and weight-related attitudes following stable weight loss may be different in alexithymic and in nonalexithymic obese patients. PMID:11985185

  10. Thermogenic ingredients and body weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Hursel, R; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2010-04-01

    The global prevalence of obesity has increased considerably in the last decade. Tools for obesity management, including consumption of caffeine, capsaicin and different teas such as green, white and oolong tea, have been proposed as strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance, as they may increase energy expenditure (4-5%), fat oxidation (10-16%) and have been proposed to counteract the decrease in metabolic rate that is present during weight loss. Daily increases in thermogenesis of approximately 300-400 kJ can eventually lead to substantial weight loss. However, it becomes clearer that certain conditions have to be met before thermogenic ingredients yield an effect, as intra-variability with respect to body weight regulation has been shown between subjects. Furthermore, the sympathetic nervous system is involved in the regulation of lipolysis, and the sympathetic innervation of white adipose tissue may have an important role in the regulation of total body fat in general. Taken together, these functional ingredients have the potential to produce significant effects on metabolic targets such as satiety, thermogenesis and fat oxidation. A significant clinical outcome may sometimes appear straightforward and may also depend very strongly on full compliance of subjects. Nevertheless, thermogenic ingredients may be considered as functional agents that could help in preventing a positive energy balance and obesity. PMID:20142827

  11. Weight Self-Regulation Process in Adolescence: The Relationship between Control Weight Attitudes, Behaviors, and Body Weight Status.

    PubMed

    Pich, Jordi; Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents' self-control weight behaviors were assessed (N?=?1961; 12-17?years old; 2007-2008) in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image, and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT), we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed) would be motivated either by a "promotion focus" (to show an attractive body), or a "prevention focus" (to avoid social rejection of fatness), or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13 and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were "Not at all" concerned about weight gain, and girls' percentages decreased to 13 and 11%, respectively. By contrast, 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to become slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious, emotional (self-defense), and cognitive (dissonance) mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty), and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics. PMID:26284248

  12. Weight Self-Regulation Process in Adolescence: The Relationship between Control Weight Attitudes, Behaviors, and Body Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Pich, Jordi; Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents’ self-control weight behaviors were assessed (N = 1961; 12–17 years old; 2007–2008) in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image, and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT), we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed) would be motivated either by a “promotion focus” (to show an attractive body), or a “prevention focus” (to avoid social rejection of fatness), or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13 and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were “Not at all” concerned about weight gain, and girls’ percentages decreased to 13 and 11%, respectively. By contrast, 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to become slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious, emotional (self-defense), and cognitive (dissonance) mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty), and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics. PMID:26284248

  13. Natural products and body weight control

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jay; Li, Yanmei; Li, Chunhua; Li, Duo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the review was to summarise the effect of some commonly available natural products used for body weight management. We collected data from PubMed and scientific journals. There are numerous publications on this topic, however we have summarized the most commonly available and potent natural products from recent 53 publications. The natural products analyzed in this paper include catechins, capsaicin, conjugated linoleic acid, fucoxanthin, soy isoflavone, glabridin, astaxanthin and cyaniding-3-glucoside. These natural products are effective and safe for body weight management. Further studies need to be conducted to investigate the mechanism of action, metabolism, long term safety and side effects of these natural products, as well as interactions between these natural products with dietary components. PMID:22540057

  14. Does intentional weight loss reduce cancer risk?

    PubMed

    Byers, T; Sedjo, R L

    2011-12-01

    Epidemiologic evidence points to obesity as a major risk factor for many cancers, including cancers of the breast, endometrium, colorectum, kidney, oesophagus and pancreas. Whether intentional weight loss might reduce this excess risk is not yet proven. We searched the medical literature for studies reporting changes in cancer risk following intentional weight loss, and for studies reporting changes in cancer-relevant risk factors of oestrogens, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), IGF binding proteins and selected inflammatory markers [C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)]. Observational cohort studies and randomized controlled trials of both dietary interventions and bariatric surgery all indicate fairly immediate reductions in cancer incidence following intentional weight loss. Oestrogen levels drop and SHBG levels increase coincident with intentional weight loss, with about a one-third reduction in free oestradiol to be expected from a 10% weight loss. CRP levels also drop substantially after weight loss at about this same 3 : 1 ratio. Reductions in TNF-? and IL-6 are consistently seen, but of a smaller magnitude, and IGF-I and IGFBP changes after weight loss are small and inconsistent. Because both cancer incidence and levels of circulating cancer biomarkers drop fairly rapidly following weight loss, intentional weight loss may well lead to meaningful reductions in cancer risk with a short latency time. PMID:21733057

  15. The importance of body weight and weight management for military personnel.

    PubMed

    Naghii, Mohammad Reza

    2006-06-01

    Weight or fat reduction and maintenance among military personnel and attainment of desired body composition and physical appearance are considered important. A high level of body fat has been shown to have an adverse effect on performance in a number of military activities. The effect of rapid weight loss on performance appears to depend on the method of weight loss, the magnitude of weight loss, and the type of exercise or activity performance test used. Personnel who undertake imprudent weight-loss strategies, that is, personnel who try to change their usual body size by chronically restricting their food and fluid intake, may suffer a number of problems. Overweight personnel and their military coaches are just as susceptible to false ideas about weight loss and dieting as the rest of the community. Inappropriate weight loss causes a loss of lean tissue and can reduce, rather than enhance, performance. The understanding and promotion of safe, effective, appropriate weight-loss and weight-maintenance strategies represent important functions of the military system and officials. The greatest likelihood of success requires an integrated program, both during and after the weight-loss phase, in which assessment, increased energy expenditure through exercise and other daily activities, energy intake reduction, nutrition education, lifestyle changes, environmental changes, and psychological support are all components. PMID:16808140

  16. HAS INCREASED BODY WEIGHT MADE DRIVING SAFER?

    PubMed Central

    DUNN, RICHARD A.; TEFFT, NATHAN W.

    2014-01-01

    We develop a model of alcohol consumption that incorporates the negative biological relationship between body mass and inebriation conditional on total alcohol consumption. Our model predicts that the elasticity of inebriation with respect to weight is equal to the own-price elasticity of alcohol, consistent with body mass increasing the effective price of inebriation. Given that alcohol is generally considered price inelastic, this result implies that as individuals gain weight, they consume more alcohol but become less inebriated. We test this prediction and find that driver blood alcohol content (BAC) is negatively associated with driver weight. In fatal accidents with driver BAC above 0.10, the driver was 7.8 percentage points less likely to be obese than drivers in fatal accidents that did not involve alcohol. This relationship is not explained by driver attributes (age and sex), driver behaviors (speed and seatbelt use), vehicle attributes (weight class, model year, and number of occupants), or accident context (county of accident, time of day, and day of week). PMID:24038409

  17. Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and body weight.

    PubMed

    Martnez-Victoria, Emilio; Yago, Mara Dolores

    2012-06-01

    In animal studies, n-3 PUFA have been shown to influence body composition and to reduce the accumulation of body fat, thereby affecting body weight homeostasis. In addition, it has been suggested that an additional supply of n-3 PUFA during pregnancy or lactation, or both, would have a beneficial effect on birth weight and infant growth and development. The purpose of the present study was to systematically review interventional clinical trials on the effects of dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation on body weight in adult subjects and in infants whose mothers were supplemented with these fatty acids during pregnancy and/or lactation. A systematic search, focused on n-3 PUFA and body weight, and limited to controlled clinical trials, was performed in different databases. The quality of all included studies was assessed against set criteria, and results of eligible trials were compared. There were few studies targeting this topic. In adults, all of the five studies included, except for one, show no change in body weight by dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA. Within those trials conducted in pregnant and/or lactating women in which a main outcome was birth weight or growth in infancy, two showed a modest increase in birth weight and the rest showed no effect. None of the trials showed an effect of maternal n-3 PUFA supplementation on infant's weight at the short term. However, it should be noted that a number of limitations, including a variety of experimental designs, type and doses of n-3 PUFA, and high attrition rates, among others, make impossible to draw robust conclusions from this review. PMID:22591885

  18. Effects of sugar intake on body weight: a review.

    PubMed

    Vermunt, S H F; Pasman, W J; Schaafsma, G; Kardinaal, A F M

    2003-05-01

    Weight reduction programmes are mainly focused on reducing intake of fat and sugar. In this review we have evaluated whether the replacement of dietary (added) sugar by low-energy sweeteners or complex carbohydrates contributes to weight reduction. In two experimental studies, no short-term differences in weight loss were observed after use of aspartame as compared to sugar in obese subjects following a controlled energy-restricted diet. However, consumption of aspartame was associated with improved weight maintenance after a year. In two short-term studies in which energy intake was not restricted, substitution of sucrose by artificial sweeteners, investigated mostly in beverages, resulted in lower energy intake and lower body weight. Similarly, two short-term studies, comparing the effect of sucrose and starch on weight loss in obese subjects did not find differences when the total energy intake was equal and reduced. An ad libitum diet with complex carbohydrates resulted in lower energy intake compared to high-sugar diets. In two out of three studies, this was reflected in lower body weight in subjects consuming the complex carbohydrate diet. In conclusion, a limited number of relatively short-term studies suggest that replacing (added) sugar by low-energy sweeteners or by complex carbohydrates in an ad libitum diet might result in lower energy intake and reduced body weight. In the long term, this might be beneficial for weight maintenance. However, the number of studies is small and overall conclusions, in particular for the long term, cannot be drawn. PMID:12760444

  19. Gut microbiota composition is associated with body weight, weight gain and biochemical parameters in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Santacruz, A; Collado, M C; Garca-Valds, L; Segura, M T; Martn-Lagos, J A; Anjos, T; Mart-Romero, M; Lopez, R M; Florido, J; Campoy, C; Sanz, Y

    2010-07-01

    Obesity is associated with complications during pregnancy and increased health risks in the newborn. The objective of the present study was to establish possible relationships between gut microbiota, body weight, weight gain and biochemical parameters in pregnant women. Fifty pregnant women were classified according to their BMI in normal-weight (n 34) and overweight (n 16) groups. Gut microbiota composition was analysed by quantitative real-time PCR in faeces and biochemical parameters in plasma at 24 weeks of pregnancy. Reduced numbers of Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides and increased numbers of Staphylococcus, Enterobacteriaceae and Escherichia coli were detected in overweight compared with normal-weight pregnant women. E. coli numbers were higher in women with excessive weight gain than in women with normal weight gain during pregnancy, while Bifidobacterium and Akkermansia muciniphila showed an opposite trend. In the whole population, increased total bacteria and Staphylococcus numbers were related to increased plasma cholesterol levels. Increased Bacteroides numbers were related to increased HDL-cholesterol and folic acid levels, and reduced TAG levels. Increased Bifidobacterium numbers were related to increased folic acid levels. Increased Enterobacteriaceae and E. coli numbers were related to increased ferritin and reduced transferrin, while Bifidobacterium levels showed the opposite trend. Therefore, gut microbiota composition is related to body weight, weight gain and metabolic biomarkers during pregnancy, which might be of relevance to the management of the health of women and infants. PMID:20205964

  20. Weight and weddings. Engaged men's body weight ideals and wedding weight management behaviors.

    PubMed

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-01-01

    Most adults marry at some point in life, and many invest substantial resources in a wedding ceremony. Previous research reports that brides often strive towards culturally-bound appearance norms and engage in weight management behaviors in preparation for their wedding. However, little is known about wedding weight ideals and behaviors among engaged men. A cross-sectional survey of 163 engaged men asked them to complete a questionnaire about their current height and weight, ideal wedding body weight, wedding weight importance, weight management behaviors, formality of their upcoming wedding ceremony, and demographics. Results indicated that the discrepancy between men's current weight and reported ideal wedding weight averaged 9.61 lb. Most men considered being at a certain weight at their wedding to be somewhat important. About 39% were attempting to lose weight for their wedding, and 37% were not trying to change their weight. Attempting weight loss was more frequent among men with higher BMI's, those planning more formal weddings, and those who considered being the right weight at their wedding as important. Overall, these findings suggest that weight-related appearance norms and weight loss behaviors are evident among engaged men. PMID:23063607

  1. Interventions to reduce weight gain in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Faulkner, Guy; Cohn, Tony; Remington, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Background Weight gain is common for people with schizophrenia and this has serious implications for health and well being. Objectives To determine the effects of both pharmacological (excluding medication switching) and non pharmacological strategies for reducing or preventing weight gain in people with schizophrenia. Search methods We searched key databases and the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group’s trials register (April 2006), reference sections within relevant papers, hand searched key journals, and contacted the first author of each relevant study and other experts to collect further information. Selection criteria We included all clinical randomised controlled trials comparing any pharmacological or non pharmacological intervention for weight gain (diet and exercise counselling) with standard care or other treatments for people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses. Data collection and analysis We reliably selected, quality assessed and extracted data from studies. As weight is a continuous outcome measurement, weighted mean differences (WMD) of the change from baseline were calculated. The primary outcome measure was weight loss. Main results Twenty-three randomised controlled trials met the inclusion criteria for this review. Five trials assessed a cognitive/behavioural intervention and eighteen assessed a pharmacological adjunct. In terms of prevention, two cognitive/behavioural trials showed significant treatment effect (mean weight change) at end of treatment (n=104, 2 RCTs, WMD −3.38 kg CI −4.2 to −2.0). Pharmacological adjunct treatments were significant with a modest prevention of weight gain (n=274, 6 RCTs, WMD − 1.16 kg CI −1.9 to −0.4). In terms of treatments for weight loss, we found significantly greater weight reduction in the cognitive behavioural intervention group (n=129, 3 RCTs, WMD −1.69 kg CI −2.8 to −0.6) compared with standard care. Authors’ conclusions Modest weight loss can be achieved with selective pharmacological and non pharmacological interventions. However, interpretation is limited by the small number of studies, small sample size, short study duration and by variability of the interventions themselves, their intensity and duration. Future studies adequately powered, with longer treatment duration and rigorous methodology will be needed in further evaluating the efficacy and safety of weight loss interventions for moderating weight gain. At this stage, there is insufficient evidence to support the general use of pharmacological interventions for weight management in people with schizophrenia. PMID:17253540

  2. Hypobaric hypoxia causes body weight reduction in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Lippl, Florian J; Neubauer, Sonja; Schipfer, Susanne; Lichter, Nicole; Tufman, Amanda; Otto, Brbel; Fischer, Rainald

    2010-04-01

    The reason for weight loss at high altitudes is largely unknown. To date, studies have been unable to differentiate between weight loss due to hypobaric hypoxia and that related to increased physical exercise. The aim of our study was to examine the effect of hypobaric hypoxia on body weight at high altitude in obese subjects. We investigated 20 male obese subjects (age 55.7 +/- 4.1 years, BMI 33.7 +/- 1.0 kg/m(2)). Body weight, waist circumference, basal metabolic rate (BMR), nutrition protocols, and objective activity parameters as well as metabolic and cardiovascular parameters, blood gas analysis, leptin, and ghrelin were determined at low altitude (LA) (Munich 530 m, D1), at the beginning and at the end of a 1-week stay at high altitude (2,650 m, D7 and D14) and 4 weeks after returning to LA (D42). Although daily pace counting remained stable at high altitude, at D14 and D42, participants weighed significantly less and had higher BMRs than at D1. Food intake was decreased at D7. Basal leptin levels increased significantly at high altitude despite the reduction in body weight. Diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower at D7, D14, and D42 compared to D1. This study shows that obese subjects lose weight at high altitudes. This may be due to a higher metabolic rate and reduced food intake. Interestingly, leptin levels rise in high altitude despite reduced body weight. Hypobaric hypoxia seems to play a major role, although the physiological mechanisms remain unclear. Weight loss at high altitudes was associated with clinically relevant improvements in diastolic blood pressure. PMID:20134417

  3. Reflecting layers reduce weight of insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, J. D.; Schlessinger, E. D.; Rockoff, H. J.

    1981-01-01

    Metalized films placed between layers of fibrous material maintain equivalent thermal conductivity while cutting blanket density in half. Tests indicate that insulation with 1 lb/cu ft density with goldized films has thermal conductivity equal to 2 lb/cu ft of conventional insulation. Concept reduces weight in commercial aircraft and increases cargo space.

  4. Body Mass Index Is Associated with Impaired Semen Characteristics and Reduced Levels of Anti-Mllerian Hormone across a Wide Weight Range

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Jorunn M.; Herning, Hilde; Aschim, Elin L.; Hjelmesth, Jran; Mala, Tom; Hanevik, Hans Ivar; Bungum, Mona; Haugen, Trine B; Witczak, Oliwia

    2015-01-01

    There is still controversy as to how body mass index (BMI) affects male reproduction. We investigated how BMI is associated with semen quality and reproductive hormones in 166 men, including 38 severely obese men. Standard semen analysis and sperm DNA integrity analysis were performed, and blood samples were analysed for reproductive hormones. Adjusted for age and time of abstinence, BMI was negatively associated with sperm concentration (B = -0.088, P = 0.009), total sperm count (B = -0.223, P = 0.001), progressive sperm motility (B = -0.675, P = 0.007), normal sperm morphology (B = -0.078, P = 0.001), and percentage of vital spermatozoa (B = -0.006, P = 0.027). A negative relationship was observed between BMI and total testosterone (B = -0.378, P < 0.001), sex hormone binding globulin (B = -0.572, P < 0.001), inhibin B (B = -3.120, P < 0.001) and anti-Mllerian hormone (AMH) (B = -0.009, P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that high BMI is negatively associated with semen characteristics and serum levels of AMH. PMID:26067627

  5. Body Mass Index Is Associated with Impaired Semen Characteristics and Reduced Levels of Anti-Müllerian Hormone across a Wide Weight Range.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Jorunn M; Herning, Hilde; Aschim, Elin L; Hjelmesæth, Jøran; Mala, Tom; Hanevik, Hans Ivar; Bungum, Mona; Haugen, Trine B; Witczak, Oliwia

    2015-01-01

    There is still controversy as to how body mass index (BMI) affects male reproduction. We investigated how BMI is associated with semen quality and reproductive hormones in 166 men, including 38 severely obese men. Standard semen analysis and sperm DNA integrity analysis were performed, and blood samples were analysed for reproductive hormones. Adjusted for age and time of abstinence, BMI was negatively associated with sperm concentration (B = -0.088, P = 0.009), total sperm count (B = -0.223, P = 0.001), progressive sperm motility (B = -0.675, P = 0.007), normal sperm morphology (B = -0.078, P = 0.001), and percentage of vital spermatozoa (B = -0.006, P = 0.027). A negative relationship was observed between BMI and total testosterone (B = -0.378, P < 0.001), sex hormone binding globulin (B = -0.572, P < 0.001), inhibin B (B = -3.120, P < 0.001) and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) (B = -0.009, P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that high BMI is negatively associated with semen characteristics and serum levels of AMH. PMID:26067627

  6. The Relationship Between Body Weight, Frailty, and the Disablement Process

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To prospectively examine the relationship between body weight, frailty, and the disablement process. Method. Longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (19982006) were used to examine the relationship between being underweight, overweight, or obese (compared with normal weight) and the onset and progression of functional limitations and disabilities in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and activities of daily living (ADL) among a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling older adults (aged 50 and older) with characteristics of frailty (n = 11,491). Nonlinear multilevel models additionally adjusted for demographic characteristics and intra-individual changes in body weight, socioeconomic status, health behaviors, and health conditions over the course of 8 years. Results. Compared with their nonfrail normal weight counterparts, prefrail obese respondents have a 16% (p ? 0.001) reduction in the expected functional limitations rate and frail overweight and obese respondents have a 10% (p ? 0.01) and 36% (p ? 0.001) reduction in the expected functional limitations rate, respectively. In addition, frail obese respondents have a 27% (p ? 0.05) reduction in the expected ADL disability rate. Discussion. This studys findings suggest that underweight, overweight, and obese status differentially affect the risk for functional limitations and disabilities in IADL and ADL. Among prefrail and frail adults, some excess body weight in later life may be beneficial, reducing the rate of functional limitations and disability. PMID:22967933

  7. Social stress at work and change in women's body weight.

    PubMed

    Kottwitz, Maria U; Grebner, Simone; Semmer, Norbert K; Tschan, Franziska; Elfering, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Social stressors at work (such as conflict or animosities) imply disrespect or a lack of appreciation and thus a threat to self. Stress induced by this offence to self might result, over time, in a change in body weight. The current study investigated the impact of changing working conditions--specifically social stressors, demands, and control at work--on women's change in weighted Body-Mass-Index over the course of a year. Fifty-seven women in their first year of occupational life participated at baseline and thirty-eight at follow-up. Working conditions were assessed by self-reports and observer-ratings. Body-Mass-Index at baseline and change in Body-Mass-Index one year later were regressed on self-reported social stressors as well as observed work stressors, observed job control, and their interaction. Seen individually, social stressors at work predicted Body-Mass-Index. Moreover, increase in social stressors and decrease of job control during the first year of occupational life predicted increase in Body-Mass-Index. Work redesign that reduces social stressors at work and increases job control could help to prevent obesity epidemic. PMID:24429516

  8. Body image, body dissatisfaction and weight status in south asian children: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a continuing problem in the UK and South Asian children represent a group that are particularly vulnerable to its health consequences. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and obesity is well documented in older children and adults, but is less clear in young children, particularly South Asians. A better understanding of this relationship in young South Asian children will inform the design and delivery of obesity intervention programmes. The aim of this study is to describe body image size perception and dissatisfaction, and their relationship to weight status in primary school aged UK South Asian children. Methods Objective measures of height and weight were undertaken on 574 predominantly South Asian children aged 5-7 (296 boys and 278 girls). BMI z-scores, and weight status (underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese) were calculated based on the UK 1990 BMI reference charts. Figure rating scales were used to assess perceived body image size (asking children to identify their perceived body size) and dissatisfaction (difference between perceived current and ideal body size). The relationship between these and weight status were examined using multivariate analyses. Results Perceived body image size was positively associated with weight status (partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 0.63 (95% CI 0.26-0.99) and for BMI z-score was 0.21 (95% CI 0.10-0.31), adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity). Body dissatisfaction was also associated with weight status, with overweight and obese children more likely to select thinner ideal body size than healthy weight children (adjusted partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 1.47 (95% CI 0.99-1.96) and for BMI z-score was 0.54 (95% CI 0.40-0.67)). Conclusions Awareness of body image size and increasing body dissatisfaction with higher weight status is established at a young age in this population. This needs to be considered when designing interventions to reduce obesity in young children, in terms of both benefits and harms. PMID:21214956

  9. The Role of Whole Grains in Body Weight Regulation12

    PubMed Central

    Karl, J. Philip; Saltzman, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Whole grain (WG)-rich diets are purported to have a variety of health benefits, including a favorable role in body weight regulation. Current dietary recommendations advocate substituting WG for refined grains (RG), because many of the beneficial bioactive components intrinsic to WG are lost during the refining process. Epidemiological studies consistently demonstrate that higher intakes of WG, but not RG, are associated with lower BMI and/or reduced risk of obesity. However, recent clinical trials have failed to support a role for WG in promoting weight loss or maintenance. Though the biochemical and structural characteristics of WG have been shown to modulate appetite, nutrient availability, and energy utilization, the capacity of WG foods to elicit these effects varies with the type and amount of grain consumed as well as the nature of its consumption. As such, WG foods differentially affect physiologic factors influencing body weight with the common practice of processing and reconstituting WG ingredients during food production likely mitigating the capacity for WG to benefit body weight regulation. PMID:22983848

  10. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. PMID:26347007

  11. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. PMID:26347007

  12. Weight Loss Practices and Body Weight Perceptions among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharton, Christopher M.; Adams, Troy; Hampl, Jeffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed associations between body weight perception and weight loss strategies. Participants: They randomly selected male and female college students (N = 38,204). Methods: The authors conducted a secondary data analysis of the rates of weight loss strategies and body weight perception among students who completed the…

  13. Weight Loss Practices and Body Weight Perceptions among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharton, Christopher M.; Adams, Troy; Hampl, Jeffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed associations between body weight perception and weight loss strategies. Participants: They randomly selected male and female college students (N = 38,204). Methods: The authors conducted a secondary data analysis of the rates of weight loss strategies and body weight perception among students who completed the

  14. Beam Steering Devices Reduce Payload Weight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Scientists have long been able to shift the direction of a laser beam, steering it toward a target, but often the strength and focus of the light is altered. For precision applications, where the quality of the beam cannot be compromised, scientists have typically turned to mechanical steering methods, redirecting the source of the beam by swinging the entire laser apparatus toward the target. Just as the mechanical methods used for turning cars has evolved into simpler, lighter, power steering methods, so has the means by which researchers can direct lasers. Some of the typical contraptions used to redirect lasers are large and bulky, relying on steering gimbals pivoted, rotating supports to shift the device toward its intended target. These devices, some as large and awkward as a piece of heavy luggage, are subject to the same issues confronted by mechanical parts: Components rub, wear out, and get stuck. The poor reliability and bulk not to mention the power requirements to run one of the machines have made mechanical beam steering components less than ideal for use in applications where weight, bulk, and maneuverability are prime concerns, such as on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or a microscope. The solution to developing reliable, lighter weight, nonmechanical steering methods to replace the hefty steering boxes was to think outside the box, and a NASA research partner did just that by developing a new beam steering method that bends and redirects the beam, as opposed to shifting the entire apparatus. The benefits include lower power requirements, a smaller footprint, reduced weight, and better control and flexibility in steering capabilities. Such benefits are realized without sacrificing aperture size, efficiency, or scanning range, and can be applied to myriad uses: propulsion systems, structures, radiation protection systems, and landing systems.

  15. Effects of Auricular Acupressure on Body Weight Parameters in Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Han-Yi; Wu, Shang-Liang; Chen, Wen-Chi; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2012-01-01

    Auricular acupressure is widely used in complementary and alternative medicine to reduce body weight, but little is known about the effects of auricular acupressure on body weight parameters in patients with chronic schizophrenia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of auricular acupressure on body weight parameters in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Eighty-six inpatients with schizophrenia were recruited from chronic wards in a psychiatric center. The participants were randomly divided into experimental (acupressure at 4 acupuncture sites: hunger, stomach, shenmen and endocrine) and control groups, and body weight parameters were determined weekly for 8 weeks. There was no significant difference between the experimental and control groups in mean body weight, waist circumference, or body fat percentage at the pretest or during the entire 8-week study period. Therefore, auricular acupressure did not cause body weight reduction in patients with chronic schizophrenia. PMID:22997527

  16. A novel 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type1 inhibitor CNX-010-49 improves hyperglycemia, lipid profile and reduces body weight in diet induced obese C57B6/J mice with a potential to provide cardio protective benefits

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background 11ß–hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type1 (11β-HSD1) converts inactive glucocorticoids to active glucocorticoids which, in excess, leads to development of the various risk factors of the metabolic syndrome. Recent studies clearly suggest that both increased expression and activity of 11β-HSD1 in metabolically active tissues such as liver, muscle and adipose are implicated in tissue specific dysregulation which collectively contribute to the whole body pathology seen in metabolic syndrome. In the present study we have evaluated CNX-010-49, a highly potent, selective and ‘pan tissue’ acting 11β-HSD1 inhibitor, for its potential to modulate multiple risk factors of the metabolic syndrome. Methods Male C57B6/J mice on high fat diet (DIO mice) were orally dosed with CNX-010-49 (30 mg/kg twice daily; n = 8) or vehicle for 10 weeks. Fasting glucose, triglycerides, glycerol, free fatty acids, body weight and feed intake were measured at selected time points. At the end of the treatment an OGTT and subsequently organ histology was performed. In vitro, CNX-010-49 was evaluated in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to assess impact on adipocytes differentiation, hypertrophy and lipolysis whereas in fully differentiated C2C12 cells and in primary mouse hepatocytes to assess the impact on glucose metabolism and hepatic glucose output respectively. Results CNX-010-49 a highly potent and selective pan tissue acting 11β-HSD1 inhibitor (EC50 = 6 nM) significantly inhibits glucocorticoids and isoproterenol mediated lipolysis in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes, improves muscle glucose oxidation, reduces proteolysis and enhances mitochondrial biogenesis. Also a significant inhibition of gluconeogenesis in primary mouse hepatocytes was observed. The treatment with CNX-010-49 resulted in a significant decrease in fasting glucose, improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. Treatment also resulted in a significant decrease in serum triglycerides levels and a complete inhibition of body weight gain without affecting feed consumption. A significant reduction in the serum biomarkers like Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and Fetuin-A with CNX-010-49 treatment was observed indicating a potential to modulate processes implicated in cardiovascular benefits. Conclusions These results indicate that inhibition of 11β-HSD1 with CNX-010-49 can give a potential benefit in the management of metabolic dysregulations that are seen in type 2 diabetes. PMID:25098735

  17. Role of oxytocin signaling in the regulation of body weight

    PubMed Central

    Blevins, James E.; Ho, Jacqueline M.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and its associated metabolic disorders are growing health concerns in the US and worldwide. In the US alone, more than two-thirds of the adult population is classified as either overweight or obese [1], highlighting the need to develop new, effective treatments for these conditions. Whereas the hormone oxytocin is well known for its peripheral effects on uterine contraction during parturition and milk ejection during lactation, release of oxytocin from somatodendrites and axonal terminals within the central nervous system (CNS) is implicated in both the formation of prosocial behaviors and in the control of energy balance. Recent findings demonstrate that chronic administration of oxytocin reduces food intake and body weight in diet-induced obese (DIO) and genetically obese rodents with impaired or defective leptin signaling. Importantly, chronic systemic administration of oxytocin out to 6 weeks recapitulates the effects of central administration on body weight loss in DIO rodents at doses that do not result in the development of tolerance. Furthermore, these effects are coupled with induction of Fos (a marker of neuronal activation) in hindbrain areas (e.g. dorsal vagal complex (DVC)) linked to the control of meal size and forebrain areas (e.g. hypothalamus, amygdala) linked to the regulation of food intake and body weight. This review assesses the potential central and peripheral targets by which oxytocin may inhibit body weight gain, its regulation by anorexigenic and orexigenic signals, and its potential use as a therapy that can circumvent leptin resistance and reverse the behavioral and metabolic abnormalities associated with DIO and genetically obese models. PMID:24065622

  18. Role of oxytocin signaling in the regulation of body weight.

    PubMed

    Blevins, James E; Ho, Jacqueline M

    2013-12-01

    Obesity and its associated metabolic disorders are growing health concerns in the US and worldwide. In the US alone, more than two-thirds of the adult population is classified as either overweight or obese [1], highlighting the need to develop new, effective treatments for these conditions. Whereas the hormone oxytocin is well known for its peripheral effects on uterine contraction during parturition and milk ejection during lactation, release of oxytocin from somatodendrites and axonal terminals within the central nervous system (CNS) is implicated in both the formation of prosocial behaviors and in the control of energy balance. Recent findings demonstrate that chronic administration of oxytocin reduces food intake and body weight in diet-induced obese (DIO) and genetically obese rodents with impaired or defective leptin signaling. Importantly, chronic systemic administration of oxytocin out to 6weeks recapitulates the effects of central administration on body weight loss in DIO rodents at doses that do not result in the development of tolerance. Furthermore, these effects are coupled with induction of Fos (a marker of neuronal activation) in hindbrain areas (e.g. dorsal vagal complex (DVC)) linked to the control of meal size and forebrain areas (e.g. hypothalamus, amygdala) linked to the regulation of food intake and body weight. This review assesses the potential central and peripheral targets by which oxytocin may inhibit body weight gain, its regulation by anorexigenic and orexigenic signals, and its potential use as a therapy that can circumvent leptin resistance and reverse the behavioral and metabolic abnormalities associated with DIO and genetically obese models. PMID:24065622

  19. Weight Loss Reduces Dyspnea on Exertion in Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Vipa; Babb, Tony G.

    2014-01-01

    During submaximal exercise, some otherwise healthy obese women experience breathlessness, or dyspnea on exertion (+DOE), while others have mild or no DOE (−DOE). We investigated whether weight loss could reduce DOE. 29 obese women were grouped based on their Ratings of Perceived Breathlessness (RPB) during constant load 60W cycling: +DOE (n=14, RPB≥4, 34±8yr, 36±3kg/m2) and −DOE (n=15, RPB≤2, 32±8yr, 36±4kg/m2) and then completed a 12-week weight loss program. Both groups lost a moderate amount of weight (+DOE: 6.6±2.4kg, −DOE: 8.4±3.5kg, p<0.001). RPB decreased significantly in the +DOE group (from 4.7±1.1 to 3.1±1.6) and remained low in the −DOE (from 1.5±0.7 to 1.6±1.1) (interaction p<0.002). Most physiological variables measured (i.e. body composition, fat distribution, pulmonary function, oxygen cost of breathing, cardiorespiratory measures) improved with weight loss; however, the decrease in RPB was not correlated with any of these variables (p>0.05). In conclusion, moderate weight loss was effective in reducing breathlessness on exertion in obese women who experienced DOE at baseline. PMID:25220695

  20. Exercise-training, macronutrient balance and body weight control.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, A; Buemann, B

    1995-02-01

    It is well established that exercise-training can induce body weight and fat losses provided that mean daily energy expenditure exceeds mean energy intake. Recent experimental data show that under free living conditions, the composition of macronutrient intake tends to differ from the composition of macronutrient utilization when the body is in energy imbalance, even over a short period of time. Since protein and carbohydrate balances are precisely regulated under unrestricted food intake conditions, a body energy deficit is necessarily equivalent to a lipid deficit. In the context of an aerobic training program, a body lipid deficit should be spontaneously reached by performing prolonged vigorous exercise on a regular basis and by preventing a diet with a high fat content. However, as body fat decreases with exercise there is an associated decrease in the lipid content of the fuel mix oxidized and this acts to progressively decrease the lipid deficit. Ultimately, a new lipid balance will be reached at a reduced level of body fatness when the proportion of lipid in the substrate mix will become similar to the proportion of lipid in the diet. Recent research observations show that such a program has the potential to induce a substantial fat loss, particularly in the abdominal area, and a significant improvement of the metabolic profile of obese individuals. These beneficial effects cannot be maintained on a long-term basis if the new exercise and food habits are not incorporated in the lifestyle of these individuals. PMID:7735344

  1. Usefulness of artificial sweeteners for body weight control.

    PubMed

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2003-06-01

    Artificial sweeteners provide lower calorie food products but have been thought to increase appetite and perhaps lead to increased body weight compared with high-sucrose foods. A recent trial demonstrated that subjects supplementing their diets with artificially sweetened foods lost weight, whereas those consuming high-sucrose foods gained weight. This review sheds some light on the controversy regarding the effects of artificial sweeteners in body weight control. PMID:12903832

  2. The effect of body weight on adolescent sexual activity.

    PubMed

    Sabia, Joseph J; Rees, Daniel I

    2011-11-01

    Recent research suggests that overweight females suffer penalties in the labor and marriage markets, while overweight males do not. This study explores whether similar gender differences in the effect of body weight exist in what Cawley et al. (2006) labeled 'the adolescent sex market'. Drawing on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we use fixed effects and instrumental variables identification strategies to estimate the relationship between body weight and sexual activity. We find evidence that increased body weight lowers the probability that female adolescents become sexually active. In contrast, there is little evidence of a causal relationship between body weight and sexual activity for male adolescents. PMID:20960418

  3. Women's work. Maintaining a healthy body weight.

    PubMed

    Welch, Nicky; Hunter, Wendy; Butera, Karina; Willis, Karen; Cleland, Verity; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2009-08-01

    This study describes women's perceptions of the supports and barriers to maintaining a healthy weight among currently healthy weight women from urban and rural socio-economically disadvantaged areas. Using focus groups and interviews, we asked women about their experiences of maintaining a healthy weight. Overwhelmingly, women described their healthy weight practices in terms of concepts related to work and management. The theme of 'managing health' comprised issues of managing multiple responsibilities, time, and emotions associated with healthy practices. Rural women faced particular difficulties in accessing supports at a practical level (for example, lack of childcare) and due to the gendered roles they enacted in caring for others. Family background (in particular, mothers' attitudes to food and weight) also appeared to influence perceptions about healthy weight maintenance. In the context of global increases in the prevalence of obesity, the value of initiatives aimed at supporting healthy weight women to maintain their weight should not be under-estimated. Such initiatives need to work within the social and personal constraints that women face in maintaining good health. PMID:19446587

  4. Body Weight, Body Image, and Perception of Fad Diets in Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storz, Nancy S.; Greene, Walter H.

    1983-01-01

    Examined relationships among adolescent girls' (N=203) satisfaction with body weight, body image, and perception/use of fad diets. Subjects wanting to lose weight were placed into two groups based on amount of weight-loss desired and compared in terms of body image scores, ratings of fad diets, and frequency of using the diets. (JN)

  5. Correlates of Body Mass Index, Weight Goals, and Weight-Management Practices among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Raheem J.; Valois, Robert F.; Drane, J. Wanzer

    2004-01-01

    The study examined associations among physical activity, cigarette smoking, body mass index, perceptions of body weight, weight-management goals, and weight-management behaviors of public high school adolescents. The CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey provided a cross-sectional sample (n = 3,089) of public high school students in South Carolina.…

  6. Correlates of Body Mass Index, Weight Goals, and Weight-Management Practices among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Raheem J.; Valois, Robert F.; Drane, J. Wanzer

    2004-01-01

    The study examined associations among physical activity, cigarette smoking, body mass index, perceptions of body weight, weight-management goals, and weight-management behaviors of public high school adolescents. The CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey provided a cross-sectional sample (n = 3,089) of public high school students in South Carolina.

  7. Perceptions of Body Weight, Weight Management Strategies, and Depressive Symptoms among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harring, Holly Anne; Montgomery, Kara; Hardin, James

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine if inaccurate body weight perception predicts unhealthy weight management strategies and to determine the extent to which inaccurate body weight perception is associated with depressive symptoms among US college students. Participants: Randomly selected male and female college students in the United States (N = 97,357).…

  8. Perceptions of Body Weight, Weight Management Strategies, and Depressive Symptoms among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harring, Holly Anne; Montgomery, Kara; Hardin, James

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine if inaccurate body weight perception predicts unhealthy weight management strategies and to determine the extent to which inaccurate body weight perception is associated with depressive symptoms among US college students. Participants: Randomly selected male and female college students in the United States (N = 97,357).

  9. Mechanisms of Body Weight Fluctuations in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kistner, Andrea; Lhommée, Eugénie; Krack, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Typical body weight changes are known to occur in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand, an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopaminergic treatment. Comprehension of the different mechanisms contributing to body weight is a prerequisite for the management of body weight and nutritional state of an individual PD patient. This review summarizes the present knowledge and highlights the necessity of evaluation of body weight and related factors, as eating behavior, energy intake, and expenditure in PD. PMID:24917848

  10. Control of Body Weight by Eating Behavior in Children

    PubMed Central

    Zandian, Modjtaba; Bergh, Cecilia; Ioakimidis, Ioannis; Esfandiari, Maryam; Shield, Julian; Lightman, Stafford; Leon, Michael; Södersten, Per

    2015-01-01

    Diet, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have limited effects in counteracting the worldwide increase in pediatric body weight. Moreover, the promise that individualized drug design will work to induce weight loss appears to be exaggerated. We suggest that the reason for this limited success is that the cause of obesity has been misunderstood. Body weight is mainly under external control; our brain permits us to eat under most circumstances, and unless the financial or physical cost of food is high, eating and body weight increase by default. When energy-rich, inexpensive foods are continually available, people need external support to maintain a healthy body weight. Weight loss can thereby be achieved by continuous feedback on how much and how fast to eat on a computer screen. PMID:26539422

  11. Control of Body Weight by Eating Behavior in Children.

    PubMed

    Zandian, Modjtaba; Bergh, Cecilia; Ioakimidis, Ioannis; Esfandiari, Maryam; Shield, Julian; Lightman, Stafford; Leon, Michael; Sdersten, Per

    2015-01-01

    Diet, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have limited effects in counteracting the worldwide increase in pediatric body weight. Moreover, the promise that individualized drug design will work to induce weight loss appears to be exaggerated. We suggest that the reason for this limited success is that the cause of obesity has been misunderstood. Body weight is mainly under external control; our brain permits us to eat under most circumstances, and unless the financial or physical cost of food is high, eating and body weight increase by default. When energy-rich, inexpensive foods are continually available, people need external support to maintain a healthy body weight. Weight loss can thereby be achieved by continuous feedback on how much and how fast to eat on a computer screen. PMID:26539422

  12. Weight and Body Composition Changes During Oral Contraceptive Use in Obese and Normal Weight Women

    PubMed Central

    Torgal, Anupama H.; Westhoff, Carolyn L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Oral contraceptive (OC) use seems to have little effect on weight change in normal weight women. Most previous studies have excluded obese women, so the effect of OC use on weight change in obese women is unknown. Methods: This analysis evaluates weight and body composition change with OC use among obese (body mass index [BMI] 30.039.9) and normal weight (BMI 19.024.9) women who were randomly assigned to two OC doses: 20??g ethinyl estradiol (EE) and 100??g levonorgestrel (LNG) OCs or 30??g EE and 150??g LNG OCs. Follow-up occurred after three to four OC cycles. Weight and body composition were measured at baseline and at follow-up using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. Results: Among 150 women (54 obese and 96 normal weight) who used OCs for 3 to 4 months, there were no clinically or statistically significant weight or body composition changes in the overall group or by BMI or OC formulation group. Conclusions: These findings add to evidence that EE/LNG OCs are not associated with short term weight or body composition change for normal weight women and suggest that OCs are also are not associated with short term weight or body composition change in obese women. PMID:24156617

  13. Eight weeks of supplementation with a multi-ingredient weight loss product enhances body composition, reduces hip and waist girth, and increases energy levels in overweight men and women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Numerous natural products are marketed and sold claiming to decrease body weight and fat, but few undergo finished product-specific research demonstrating their safety and efficacy. Objective To determine the safety and efficacy of a multi-ingredient supplement containing primarily raspberry ketone, caffeine, capsaicin, garlic, ginger and Citrus aurantium (Prograde Metabolism™ [METABO]) as an adjunct to an eight-week weight loss program. Methods Using a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind design, 70 obese but otherwise healthy subjects were randomly assigned to METABO or a placebo and underwent 8 weeks of daily supplementation, a calorie restricted diet, and exercise training. Subjects were tested for changes in body composition, serum adipocytokines (adiponectin, resistin, leptin, TNF-α, IL-6) and markers of health including heart rate and blood pressure. Results Of the 45 subjects who completed the study, significant differences were observed in: body weight (METABO -2.0% vs. placebo -0.5%, P < 0.01), fat mass (METABO -7.8 vs. placebo -2.8%, P < 0.001), lean mass (METABO +3.4% vs. placebo +0.8%, P < 0.03), waist girth (METABO -2.0% vs. placebo -0.2%, P < 0.0007), hip girth (METABO -1.7% vs. placebo -0.4%, P < 0.003), and energy levels per anchored visual analogue scale (VAS) (METABO +29.3% vs. placebo +5.1%, P < 0.04). During the first 4 weeks, effects/trends for maintaining elevated serum leptin (P < 0.03) and decreased serum resistin (P < 0.08) in the METABO group vs. placebo were also observed. No changes in systemic hemodynamics, clinical blood chemistries, adverse events, or dietary intake were noted between groups. Conclusions METABO administration is a safe and effective adjunct to an eight-week diet and exercise weight loss program by augmenting improvements in body composition, waist and hip girth. Adherence to the eight-week weight loss program also led to beneficial changes in body fat in placebo. Ongoing studies to confirm these results and clarify the mechanisms (i.e., biochemical and neuroendocrine mediators) by which METABO exerts the observed salutary effects are being conducted. PMID:23601452

  14. Body Weight Perception, Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors, and Suicidal Ideation among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examined the mediating function of body weight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal…

  15. Body Weight Perception, Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors, and Suicidal Ideation among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examined the mediating function of body weight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal

  16. Ablation of TRPM5 in Mice Results in Reduced Body Weight Gain and Improved Glucose Tolerance and Protects from Excessive Consumption of Sweet Palatable Food when Fed High Caloric Diets

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Marie H.; Håkansson, Pernilla; Jansen, Frank P.; Magnell, Kerstin; Brodin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The calcium activated cation channel transient receptor potential channel type M5 (TRPM5) is part of the downstream machinery of the taste receptors and have been shown to play a central role in taste signalling. In addition it is also found in other types of chemosensory cells in various parts of the body as well as in pancreatic β-cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TRPM5 gene ablation on body weight, insulin sensitivity and other metabolic parameters in long-term high caloric diet induced obesity. Trpm5-/- mice gained significantly less body weight and fat mass on both palatable carbohydrate and fat rich cafeteria diet and 60% high fat diet (HFD) and developed less insulin resistance compared to wild type mice. A main finding was the clearly improved glucose tolerance in Trpm5-/- mice compared to wild type mice on cafeteria diet, which was independent of body weight. In addition, it was shown that Trpm5-/- mice consumed the same amount of calories when fed a HFD only or a HFD in combination with a palatable chocolate ball, which is in contrast to wild type mice that increased their caloric intake when fed the combination, mainly due to excessive consumption of the chocolate ball. Thus the palatable sugar containing diet induced overeating was prevented in Trpm5-/- mice. This indicates that sweet taste induced overeating may be a cause for the increased energy intake and glucose intolerance development seen for wild type mice on a sugar and high fat rich cafeteria diet compared to when on a high fat diet. This study point to an important role for the taste signalling system and TRPM5 in diet induced glucose intolerance. PMID:26397098

  17. Ablation of TRPM5 in Mice Results in Reduced Body Weight Gain and Improved Glucose Tolerance and Protects from Excessive Consumption of Sweet Palatable Food when Fed High Caloric Diets.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Marie H; Hkansson, Pernilla; Jansen, Frank P; Magnell, Kerstin; Brodin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The calcium activated cation channel transient receptor potential channel type M5 (TRPM5) is part of the downstream machinery of the taste receptors and have been shown to play a central role in taste signalling. In addition it is also found in other types of chemosensory cells in various parts of the body as well as in pancreatic ?-cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TRPM5 gene ablation on body weight, insulin sensitivity and other metabolic parameters in long-term high caloric diet induced obesity. Trpm5-/- mice gained significantly less body weight and fat mass on both palatable carbohydrate and fat rich cafeteria diet and 60% high fat diet (HFD) and developed less insulin resistance compared to wild type mice. A main finding was the clearly improved glucose tolerance in Trpm5-/- mice compared to wild type mice on cafeteria diet, which was independent of body weight. In addition, it was shown that Trpm5-/- mice consumed the same amount of calories when fed a HFD only or a HFD in combination with a palatable chocolate ball, which is in contrast to wild type mice that increased their caloric intake when fed the combination, mainly due to excessive consumption of the chocolate ball. Thus the palatable sugar containing diet induced overeating was prevented in Trpm5-/- mice. This indicates that sweet taste induced overeating may be a cause for the increased energy intake and glucose intolerance development seen for wild type mice on a sugar and high fat rich cafeteria diet compared to when on a high fat diet. This study point to an important role for the taste signalling system and TRPM5 in diet induced glucose intolerance. PMID:26397098

  18. Longitudinal Study of Body Weight Changes in Children: Who is Gaining and Who is Losing Weight

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, D. A.; Han, H.; Johnson, W.D.; Stewart, T.M.; Harsha, D.

    2010-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have reported significant temporal increases in prevalence of childhood obesity in both genders and various racial groups, but recently the rise has subsided. Childhood obesity prevention trials suggest that, on average, overweight/obese children lose body weight and non-overweight children gain weight. This investigation tested the hypothesis that overweight children lose body weight/fat and non-overweight children gain body weight/fat using a longitudinal research design that did not include an obesity prevention program. The participants were 451 children in 4th to 6th grades at baseline. Height, weight, and body fat were measured at Month 0 and Month 28. Each child’s body mass index (BMI) percentile score was calculated specific for their age, gender and height. Higher BMI percentile scores and percent body fat at baseline were associated with larger decreases in BMI and percent body fat after 28 months. The BMI percentile mean for African-American girls increased whereas BMI percentile means for white boys and girls and African-American boys were stable over the 28 month study period. Estimates of obesity and overweight prevalence were stable because incidence and remission were similar. These findings support the hypothesis that overweight children tend to lose body weight and non-overweight children tend to gain body weight. PMID:20885393

  19. Energy metabolism, fuel selection and body weight regulation

    PubMed Central

    Galgani, J; Ravussin, E

    2010-01-01

    Energy homeostasis is critical for the survival of species. Therefore, multiple and complex mechanisms have evolved to regulate energy intake and expenditure to maintain body weight. For weight maintenance, not only does energy intake have to match energy expenditure, but also macronutrient intake must balance macronutrient oxidation. However, this equilibrium seems to be particularly difficult to achieve in individuals with low fat oxidation, low energy expenditure, low sympathetic activity or low levels of spontaneous physical activity, as in addition to excess energy intake, all of these factors explain the tendency of some people to gain weight. Additionally, large variability in weight change is observed when energy surplus is imposed experimentally or spontaneously. Clearly, the data suggest a strong genetic influence on body weight regulation implying a normal physiology in an ‘obesogenic’ environment. In this study, we also review evidence that carbohydrate balance may represent the potential signal that regulates energy homeostasis by impacting energy intake and body weight. Because of the small storage capacity for carbohydrate and its importance for metabolism in many tissues and organs, carbohydrate balance must be maintained at a given level. This drive for balance may in turn cause increased energy intake when consuming a diet high in fat and low in carbohydrate. If sustained over time, such an increase in energy intake cannot be detected by available methods, but may cause meaningful increases in body weight. The concept of metabolic flexibility and its impact on body weight regulation is also presented. PMID:19136979

  20. Echocardiographic measurements of cardiac dimensions correlate better with body length than with body weight or body surface area.

    PubMed

    Motz, R; Schumacher, M; Nrnberg, J; Viemann, M; Grafmller, S; Fiedler, K; Claus, M; Kronberg, K

    2014-12-01

    Looking after children means caring for very small infants up to adult-sized adolescents, with weights ranging from 500 g to more than 100 kg and heights ranging from 25 to more than 200 cm. The available echocardiographic reference data were drawn from a small sample, which did not include preterm infants. Most authors have used body weight or body surface area to predict left ventricular dimensions. The current authors had the impression that body length would be a better surrogate parameter than body weight or body surface area. They analyzed their echocardiographic database retrospectively. The analysis included all available echocardiographic data from 6 June 2001 to 15 December 2011 from their echocardiographic database. The authors included 12,086 of 26,325 subjects documented as patients with normal hearts in their analysis by the examining the pediatric cardiologist. For their analysis, they selected body weight, length, age, and aortic and pulmonary valve diameter in two-dimensional echocardiography and left ventricular dimension in M-mode. They found good correlation between echocardiographic dimensions and body surface area, body weight, and body length. The analysis showed a complex relationship between echocardiographic measurements and body weight and body surface area, whereas body length showed a linear relationship. This makes prediction of echo parameters more reliable. According to this retrospective analysis, body length is a better parameter for evaluating echocardiographic measurements than body weight or body surface area and should therefore be used in daily practice. PMID:24894894

  1. Body Weight Gain during Altered Gravity: Spaceflight, Centrifugation and Transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Charles E.; Harper, J. S.; Daunton, N. G.; Corcoran, M. L.; Morey-Holton, E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Gravity is a force that influences all living systems, and is often disregarded in the study of environment on growth and development. To assess the effect of gravity exposure on growth, immature rats (130-200 g) were evaluated during chronic altered gravity exposure and during transition between gravity fields. The effects of 14 days of spaceflight on body weight gain were evaluated (n=12) and compared to controls. Spaceflight did not affect weight gain. In 6 rats, the transition from spaceflight to 1 G showed a significant (p less than 0.05) post flight weight loss over 48 hr of 13 g compared to controls. Over subsequent days this loss was compensated for with no difference noted after 5 days. Exposure to hypergravity, 2 G for 16 days, was evaluated in groups of n=6 (Control; On Center Control (OCC); Centrifuged). With centrifugation or OCC there was a reduction in body weight within 24 hr. The OCC regained control weights within 13 days. The weight difference, 26 +/- 1 g, persisted with 2 G with no subsequent difference in weight gain over days 3-16 compared to controls; 3.7 +/- 0.1 versus 3.9 +/- 0.1 g/day respectively. Transition from centrifugation to 1 G resulted in a weight increase within 48 hours. Over 16 days the rate of gain was increased 3.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for centrifuge compared to 2.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for controls between Day 3 to 16. However, differences from control were still noted on Day 16. Transition from one gravity field to another causes acute changes in body weight. Transition to microgravity or 1 G, following the acute changes, results in adjustments to attain a normal weight. In hypergravity the acute reduction in body weight persist, but weight gain is normal. Transitioning from hypergravity to 1G results in an increased weight gain to compensate for the persistent reduction during exposure.

  2. Body weight and composition dynamics of fall migrating canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serie, J.R.; Sharp, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    We studied body weights and composition of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) during fall migration 1975-77 on stopover sites along the upper Mississippi River near La Crosse, Wisconsin (Navigational Pools 7 and 8) and Keokuk, Iowa (Navigational Pool 19). Body weights varied (P < 0.001) by age and sex without interaction. Weights varied by year (P < 0.001) on Pools 7 and 8. Mean weights increased (P < 0.01) within age and sex classes by date and averaged 3.6 and 2.7 g daily on Pools 7 and 8 and Pool 19, respectively. Percent fat was highly correlated (P < 0.001) with carcass weight for each age and sex. Live weight was a good predictor of total body fat. Mean estimated total body fat ranged from 200 to 300 g and comprised 15-20% of live weights among age and sex classes. Temporal weight patterns were less variable for adults than immatures, but generally increased during migration. Length of stopover varied inversely with fat reserves among color-marked adult males. Variation in fat condition of canvasbacks during fall may explain the mechanism regulating population ingress and egress on stopover sites. Fat reserves attained by canvasbacks during fall stopover may have adaptive significance in improving survival by conditioning for winter.

  3. Body Dissatisfaction, Dietary Restraint, Depression, and Weight Status in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfield, Gary S.; Moore, Ceri; Henderson, Katherine; Buchholz, Annick; Obeid, Nicole; Flament, Martine F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adolescence may be a crucial period for developing obesity and associated mental health problems. This study examined the relationship of weight status on body image, eating behavior, and depressive symptoms in youth. Methods: A survey was conducted on 1490 youth attending grades 7-12. Participants completed questionnaires on body

  4. Effects of sex, age, habitat, and body weight on kidney weight in white-tailed deer

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, P.E.; Smith, M.H.; Chesser, R.K.

    1980-03-01

    Kidney (Y) and body (X) weights in kilograms are highly correlated (r = 0.88) in white-tailed deer. As in other mammals, the relationship between the two variables is curvilinear with Y = 2.493 X/sup 0/ /sup 746/. Habitat did not affect the parameters of the relationship although certain sex-age and sex month categories did. However, use of kidney weight in standardizing body condition indices in deer of different sizes still seems warranted for white-tailed deer in the Southeastern United States during the hunting season because of the relatively high predictability of the overall kidney-body weight relationship.

  5. Contributions of Weight Perceptions to Weight Loss Attempts: Differences by Body Mass Index and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Lemon, Stephenie C.; Rosal, Milagros C.; Zapka, Jane; Borg, Amy; Andersen, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have consistently observed that women are more likely to perceive themselves as overweight compared to men. Similarly, women are more likely than men to report trying to lose weight. Less is known about the impact that self-perceived weight has on weight loss behaviors of adults and whether this association differs by gender. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among an employee sample to determine the association of self-perceived weight on evidence-based weight loss behaviors across genders, accounting for body mass index (BMI) and demographic characteristics. Women were more likely than men to consider themselves to be overweight across each BMI category, and were more likely to report attempting to lose weight. However, perceiving oneself to be overweight was a strong correlate for weight loss attempts across both genders. The effect of targeting accuracy of self-perceived weight status in weight loss interventions deserves research attention. PMID:19188102

  6. Relationships between Weight and Body Dissatisfaction, Body Esteem, and Teasing in African American Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Chermaine; Johnston, Craig A.; Dalton, William T., III; Foreyt, John P.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the relation between weight and weight-related factors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, body esteem, teasing frequency, and the effects of teasing) in a community sample of prepubescent African American girls. African American girls (N = 97) in Grades 3 to 5 completed the McKnight Risk Factor Survey-Third Edition and had their

  7. Relationships between Weight and Body Dissatisfaction, Body Esteem, and Teasing in African American Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Chermaine; Johnston, Craig A.; Dalton, William T., III; Foreyt, John P.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the relation between weight and weight-related factors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, body esteem, teasing frequency, and the effects of teasing) in a community sample of prepubescent African American girls. African American girls (N = 97) in Grades 3 to 5 completed the McKnight Risk Factor Survey-Third Edition and had their…

  8. Weight status and the perception of body image in men

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Rick M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than are women. Cultural influences have been found to be important, with body size underestimations occurring in cultures where a larger body is found to be desirable. Methodological issues are reviewed with recommendations for future studies. PMID:25114606

  9. Leptin prevents posthibernation weight gain but does not reduce energy expenditure in arctic ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Boyer, B B; Ormseth, O A; Buck, L; Nicolson, M; Pelleymounter, M A; Barnes, B M

    1997-11-01

    In mammals, leptin reduces energy intake and may increase energy expenditure as a means to maintain body weight and/or adiposity at an appropriate level. Hibernating mammals seasonally alter body mass, food intake, and body composition and, therefore, represent an attractive model for investigating the physiological regulation of changing body mass and adiposity. Previous experiments in our laboratory demonstrated that administration of mouse recombinant leptin reduces food intake and body weight in arctic ground squirrels during prehibernation fattening. In addition, leptin appeared to reduce metabolic efficiency (weight gain per unit of energy intake). This result suggests that reduced food intake alone may not account for the observed weight loss. Here, we describe the effect of a 3-week constant infusion of leptin given to posthibernation arctic ground squirrels on food consumption and energy expenditure. Mouse recombinant leptin (1 mg/ml) was administered through subcutaneously implanted mini-osmotic pumps (10 microliters/hr flow rate). Resting metabolic rate was monitored before and during the 3-week leptin administration period by indirect calorimetry. Body temperature and locomotory activity were monitored continuously by abdominal radiotransmitters. At the end of the leptin administration period, thermogenic capacity was evaluated by measuring brown fat uncoupling protein-1 mRNA and protein levels. Leptin administration resulted in reduced food intake and prevented posthibernation weight gain, but it did not alter any of the measured parameters of energy expenditure. PMID:9467893

  10. Yeast hydrolysate reduces body fat of dietary obese rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, K M; Chang, U J; Kang, D H; Kim, J M; Choi, Y M; Suh, H J

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the antiobesity effect of the yeast hydrolysate (DNF) on the body weight, body fat and plasma lipids levels of high-fat fed rats. The weight gain of the HF (high fat diet) (162.58 +/- 6.68 g) was significantly (p < 0.05) greater than that of DNF-1, DNF-2, (high fat diet with DNF of 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg body weight, respectively) and control groups (143.19 +/- 7.33 g, 139.20 +/- 8.36 g, 130.23 +/- 8.02 g, respectively). The wet weight of the epididymal fat and the perirenal fat pads of the DNF-1, DNF-2 and control groups were reduced significantly (p < 0.05). A significant (p < 0.05) increase of HDL-cholesterol level of the DNF-2 and control groups was observed. However, there was no significant difference between DNF-1 and DNF-2. It was also found that the triacylglycerol (TG) levels decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the DNF-2 group from that of the HF, but there was no significant (p < 0.05) difference between DNF-1 and DNF-2. PMID:15597316

  11. Lower-limb amputation and body weight changes in men.

    PubMed

    Littman, Alyson J; Thompson, Mary Lou; Arterburn, David E; Bouldin, Erin; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Sangeorzan, Bruce J; Boyko, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between lower-limb amputation (LLA) and subsequent changes in body weight. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using clinical and administrative databases to identify and follow weight changes in 759 males with amputation (partial foot amputation [PFA], n = 396; transtibial amputation [TTA], n = 267; and transfemoral amputation [TFA], n = 96) and 3,790 nondisabled persons frequency-matched (5:1) on age, body mass index, diabetes, and calendar year from eight Department of Veterans Affairs medical care facilities in the Pacific Northwest. We estimated and compared longitudinal percent weight change from baseline during up to 39 mo of follow-up in participants with and without amputation. Weight gain in the 2 yr after amputation was significantly more in men with an amputation than without, and in men with a TTA or TFA (8%-9% increase) than in men with a PFA (3%-6% increase). Generally, percent weight gain peaked at 2 yr and was followed by some weight loss in the third year. These findings indicate that LLA is often followed by clinically important weight gain. Future studies are needed to better understand the reasons for weight gain and to identify intervention strategies to prevent excess weight gain and the deleterious consequences that may ensue. PMID:26244755

  12. Neural growth hormone implicated in body weight sex differences.

    PubMed

    Bonthuis, Paul J; Rissman, Emilie F

    2013-10-01

    As for many human diseases, the incidence of obesity and its associated health risks are sexually dimorphic: worldwide the rate of obesity is higher in women. Sex differences in metabolism, appetite, body composition, and fat deposition are contributing biological factors. Gonadal hormones regulate the development of many sexually dimorphic traits in humans and animals, and, in addition, studies in mice indicate a role for direct genetic effects of sex chromosome dosage on body weight, deposition of fat, and circadian timing of feeding behavior. Specifically, mice of either sex with 2 X chromosomes, typical of normal females, have heavier body weights, gain more weight, and eat more food during the light portion of the day than mice of either sex with a single X chromosome. Here we test the effects of X chromosome dosage on body weight and report that gonadal females with 2 X chromosomes express higher levels of GH gene (Gh) mRNA in the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus than females with 1 X chromosome and males. Furthermore, Gh expression in the POA of the hypothalamus of mice with 2 X chromosomes correlated with body weight; GH is known to have orexigenic properties. Acute infusion of GH into the POA increased immediate food intake in normal (XY) males. We propose that X inactivation-escaping genes modulate Gh expression and food intake, and this is part of the mechanism by which individuals with 2 X chromosomes are heavier than individuals with a single X chromosome. PMID:23861378

  13. Mechanisms contributing to angiotensin II regulation of body weight.

    PubMed

    Cassis, L A; Marshall, D E; Fettinger, M J; Rosenbluth, B; Lodder, R A

    1998-05-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have implicated adipose tissue as a potential site for local angiotensin II (ANG II) synthesis. However, functions of ANG II in adipose tissue and the impact of ANG II on body weight regulation are not well defined. To study the effect of ANG II on body weight, a chronic ANG II infusion model was used. In study 1, a low dose of ANG II (175 ng.kg-1.min-1) was infused into rats for 14 days. Plasma ANG II levels were not elevated after 14 days of infusion. ANG II-infused rats did not gain weight over the 14-day protocol and exhibited a lower body weight than controls on day 8. Food intake was not altered, but water intake was increased in ANG II-infused rats. Blood pressure gradually increased to significantly elevated levels by day 14. Thermal infrared imaging demonstrated an increase in abdominal surface temperature. Measurement of organ mass demonstrated site-specific reductions in white adipose tissue mass after ANG II infusion. In study 2, the dose-response relationship for ANG II infusion (200, 350, and 500 ng.kg-1.min-1) was determined. Body weight (decrease), blood pressure (increase), white adipose mass (decrease), plasma ANG II levels (increase), and plasma leptin levels (decrease) were altered in a dose-related manner after ANG II infusion. In study 3, the effect of ANG II infusion (350 ng.kg-1.min-1) was examined in rats treated with the vasodilator hydralazine. Hydralazine treatment normalized blood pressure in ANG II-infused rats. The effect of ANG II to decrease body weight was augmented in hydralazine-treated rats. These results demonstrate that low levels of ANG II infusion regulate body weight through mechanisms related to increased peripheral metabolism and independent of elevations in blood pressure. PMID:9612245

  14. Effects of seasonal changes in dietary energy on body weight of captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Aoki, Kouhei; Mitsutsuka, Syuuhei; Yamazaki, Ato; Nagai, Kazumi; Tezuka, Atsuko; Tsuji, Yamato

    2015-01-01

    Food availability varies seasonally for wild animals, and body weight fluctuates accordingly in the wild. In contrast, controlling availability of diet under captive condition is difficult from keepers' standpoint, and monotonous diet often causes health problems in captive animals. We evaluated the effects of a seasonally controlled diet on body weight of captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in an outside enclosure at Ueno Zoo, Tokyo, Japan. We fed a high-energy diet in spring and fall, and a more restricted diet in summer and winter for 3 years (2011-2013). Seasonal changes in body weight were similar to those that occur in wild macaques: for both sexes, body weight was higher in spring and fall and lower in winter. A decrease in body weight between fall and winter occurred only in adults, which implied that reducing dietary intake in winter had a more severe effect on adults than on juveniles. Different from wild populations, the body weight of captive macaques did not decrease between spring and summer, which we attributed to a lack of movement within the enclosure and to excess energy intake in summer. In addition to controlling dietary composition, providing large enclosure with complex structure and making efforts of giving unpredictability in feeding are necessary to motivate the captive animals to be more active, which would cause the macaques to show seasonal change in body weight, which is found in wild. PMID:25823966

  15. Soy germ protein concentrate diet decreased body fat weight and increased hindlimb muscle weight in rats.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Hisashi; Saito, Sanshiro; Itoh, Atsushi; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of soy germ protein intake on body composition. Wistar rats were fed experimental diets for 16 weeks. These consisted of soy germ protein, soy protein, or casein. Abdominal adipose tissue weights significantly lower and hindlimb muscle weights were significantly higher in the soy germ protein group than in the casein group. PMID:22785474

  16. Long-Lasting Improvements in Liver Fat and Metabolism Despite Body Weight Regain After Dietary Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Haufe, Sven; Haas, Verena; Utz, Wolfgang; Birkenfeld, Andreas L.; Jeran, Stephanie; Böhnke, Jana; Mähler, Anja; Luft, Friedrich C.; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Boschmann, Michael; Jordan, Jens; Engeli, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Weight loss reduces abdominal and intrahepatic fat, thereby improving metabolic and cardiovascular risk. Yet, many patients regain weight after successful diet-induced weight loss. Long-term changes in abdominal and liver fat, along with liver test results and insulin resistance, are not known. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed 50 overweight to obese subjects (46 ± 9 years of age; BMI, 32.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2; women, 77%) who had participated in a 6-month hypocaloric diet and were randomized to either reduced carbohydrates or reduced fat content. Before, directly after diet, and at an average of 24 (range, 17–36) months follow-up, we assessed body fat distribution by magnetic resonance imaging and markers of liver function and insulin resistance. RESULTS Body weight decreased with diet but had increased again at follow-up. Subjects also partially regained abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. In contrast, intrahepatic fat decreased with diet and remained reduced at follow-up (7.8 ± 9.8% [baseline], 4.5 ± 5.9% [6 months], and 4.7 ± 5.9% [follow-up]). Similar patterns were observed for markers of liver function, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and hepatic insulin resistance. Changes in intrahepatic fat und intrahepatic function were independent of macronutrient composition during intervention and were most effective in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease at baseline. CONCLUSIONS A 6-month hypocaloric diet induced improvements in hepatic fat, liver test results, and insulin resistance despite regaining of weight up to 2 years after the active intervention. Body weight and adiposity measurements may underestimate beneficial long-term effects of dietary interventions. PMID:23963894

  17. Electroacupuncture Reduces Weight Gain Induced by Rosiglitazone through PPARγ and Leptin Receptor in CNS

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Xinyue; Ou, Chen; Chen, Hui; Wang, Tianlin; Xu, Bin; Lu, Shengfeng; Zhu, Bing-Mei

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on protecting the weight gain side effect of rosiglitazone (RSG) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats and its possible mechanism in central nervous system (CNS). Our study showed that RSG (5 mg/kg) significantly increased the body weight and food intake of the T2DM rats. After six-week treatment with RSG combined with EA, body weight, food intake, and the ratio of IWAT to body weight decreased significantly, whereas the ratio of BAT to body weight increased markedly. HE staining indicated that the T2DM-RSG rats had increased size of adipocytes in their IWAT, but EA treatment reduced the size of adipocytes. EA effectively reduced the lipid contents without affecting the antidiabetic effect of RSG. Furthermore, we noticed that the expression of PPARγ gene in hypothalamus was reduced by EA, while the expressions of leptin receptor and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) were increased. Our results suggest that EA is an effective approach for inhibiting weight gain in T2DM rats treated by RSG. The possible mechanism might be through increased levels of leptin receptor and STAT3 and decreased PPARγ expression, by which food intake of the rats was reduced and RSG-induced weight gain was inhibited. PMID:26904147

  18. Electroacupuncture Reduces Weight Gain Induced by Rosiglitazone through PPAR? and Leptin Receptor in CNS.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xinyue; Ou, Chen; Chen, Hui; Wang, Tianlin; Xu, Bin; Lu, Shengfeng; Zhu, Bing-Mei

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on protecting the weight gain side effect of rosiglitazone (RSG) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats and its possible mechanism in central nervous system (CNS). Our study showed that RSG (5?mg/kg) significantly increased the body weight and food intake of the T2DM rats. After six-week treatment with RSG combined with EA, body weight, food intake, and the ratio of IWAT to body weight decreased significantly, whereas the ratio of BAT to body weight increased markedly. HE staining indicated that the T2DM-RSG rats had increased size of adipocytes in their IWAT, but EA treatment reduced the size of adipocytes. EA effectively reduced the lipid contents without affecting the antidiabetic effect of RSG. Furthermore, we noticed that the expression of PPAR? gene in hypothalamus was reduced by EA, while the expressions of leptin receptor and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) were increased. Our results suggest that EA is an effective approach for inhibiting weight gain in T2DM rats treated by RSG. The possible mechanism might be through increased levels of leptin receptor and STAT3 and decreased PPAR? expression, by which food intake of the rats was reduced and RSG-induced weight gain was inhibited. PMID:26904147

  19. Whole grain intake in relation to body weight: from epidemiological evidence to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Giacco, R; Della Pepa, G; Luongo, D; Riccardi, G

    2011-12-01

    This viewpoint aims to 1) review the available scientific literature on the relationship between whole grain consumption and body weight regulation; 2) evaluate the potential mechanisms whereby whole grain intake may help reduce overweight and 3) try to understand why epidemiological studies and clinical trials provide diverging results on this topic. All the prospective epidemiological studies demonstrate that a higher intake of whole grains is associated with lower BMI and body weight gain. However, these results do not clarify whether whole grain consumption is simply a marker of a healthier lifestyle or a factor favoring "per se" lower body weight. Habitual whole grain consumption seems to cause lower body weight by multiple mechanisms such as lower energy density of whole grain based products, lower glycemic index, fermentation of non digestible carbohydrates (satiety signals) and finally by modulating intestinal microflora. In contrast with epidemiological evidence, the results of few clinical trials do not confirm that a whole grain low-calorie diet is more effective in reducing body weight than a refined cereal diet, but their results may have been affected by small sample size or short duration of the intervention. Therefore, further intervention studies with adequate methodology are needed to clarify this question. For the time being, whole grain consumption can be recommended as one of the features of the diet that may help control body weight but also because is associated with a lower risk to develop type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. PMID:22036468

  20. Body Weight, Marital Status, and Changes in Marital Status

    PubMed Central

    Teachman, Jay

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I use 20 years of data taken from the 1979 National Longitudinal Study of Youth to examine the relationship between body weight and both marital status and changes in marital status. I use a latent growth curve model that allows both fixed and random effects. The results show that living without a partner, either being divorced or never married, is associated with lower body weight. Cohabitors and married respondents tend to weigh more. Marital transitions also matter but only for divorce. Gender does not appear to moderate these results. PMID:26778872

  1. Adaptations to a diet-based weight-reducing programme in obese women resistant to weight loss.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, A; Lepage, C; Panahi, S; Couture, C; Drapeau, V

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess energy intake, resting metabolic rate (RMR), appetite sensations, eating behaviours and sleep duration and quality in obese women resistant to body weight loss when subjected to a diet-based weight-reducing programme. A pooled cohort of obese women (n = 75; aged 39 8 years; body mass index: 33 4 kg m(-2)) participated in a 12-16-week diet-based weight loss programme targeting a daily energy deficit of 500-700 kcal d(-1). Women were classified in tertiles a posteriori based on the response of their body weight to dietary supervision (high, moderate and low responders). Post-intervention, mean weight loss was 3.3 2.8 kg and explained by the 2.9 2.6 kg reduction in fat mass. Mean weight loss was 6.2 1.6, 3.4 0.6 and 0.2 1.4 kg in participants classified in the high, middle and low tertiles, respectively. Women in the low tertile reduced their daily energy intake and susceptibility to hunger during the programme to a lesser extent than those in the high tertile and had higher fasting hunger in response to the dietary intervention. Women in the high tertile maintained their RMR, which was in contrast to the significant decrease predicted by their weight loss. They also reported a significant improvement in sleep quality and an increase in sleep duration compared with other tertiles. The differences in the response of body weight to dietary supervision may be explained, in part, by variations in energy intake, eating behaviours, appetite sensations and sleep duration and quality. PMID:25872975

  2. The effects of body mass on cremation weight.

    PubMed

    May, Shannon E

    2011-01-01

    Cremains have become increasingly frequent in forensic contexts, while higher body mass in the general population has simultaneously made cremation a more cost-effective mortuary practice. This study analyzed the relationship between body mass and bone mass, as reflected through cremation weight. Antemortem data were recorded for samples used in the multi-regional data set. Each was rendered through commercial crematoriums and reweighed postincineration. Pearson's correlation demonstrates clear association between body mass and cremation weight (r=0.56; p<0.0001). However, multiple linear regression revealed sex and age variables also have a significant relationship (t=7.198; t=-2.5, respectively). Regressed in conjunction, body mass, sex, and age contribute approximately 67% of all variation observed in cremation weight (r=0.668). Analysis of covariance indicates significant regional variation in body and cremation weight. Explanations include bone modification resulting from increased loading stress, as well as glucose intolerance and altered metabolic pathways related to obesity. PMID:20735701

  3. Relationships between Neonatal Weight, Limb Lengths, Skinfold Thicknesses, Body Breadths and Circumferences in an Australian Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pomeroy, Emma; Stock, Jay T.; Cole, Tim J.; O'Callaghan, Michael; Wells, Jonathan C. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Low birth weight has been consistently associated with adult chronic disease risk. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis assumes that reduced fetal growth impacts some organs more than others. However, it remains unclear how birth weight relates to different body components, such as circumferences, adiposity, body segment lengths and limb proportions. We hypothesized that these components vary in their relationship to birth weight. Methods We analysed the relationship between birth weight and detailed anthropometry in 1270 singleton live-born neonates (668 male) from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (Brisbane, Australia). We tested adjusted anthropometry for correlations with birth weight. We then performed stepwise multiple regression on birth weight of: body lengths, breadths and circumferences; relative limb to neck-rump proportions; or skinfold thicknesses. All analyses were adjusted for sex and gestational age, and used logged data. Results Circumferences, especially chest, were most strongly related to birth weight, while segment lengths (neck-rump, thigh, upper arm, and especially lower arm and lower leg) were relatively weakly related to birth weight, and limb lengths relative to neck-rump length showed no relationship. Skinfolds accounted for 36% of birth weight variance, but adjusting for size (neck-rump, thigh and upper arm lengths, and head circumference), this decreased to 10%. There was no evidence that heavier babies had proportionally thicker skinfolds. Conclusions Neonatal body measurements vary in their association with birth weight: head and chest circumferences showed the strongest associations while limb segment lengths did not relate strongly to birth weight. After adjusting for body size, subcutaneous fatness accounted for a smaller proportion of birth weight variance than previously reported. While heavier babies had absolutely thicker skinfolds, this was proportional to their size. Relative limb to trunk length was unrelated to birth weight, suggesting that limb proportions at birth do not index factors relevant to prenatal life. PMID:25162658

  4. Body weight, anorexia, and undernutrition in older people.

    PubMed

    Soenen, Stijn; Chapman, Ian M

    2013-09-01

    Ideal body weight for maximum life expectancy increases with advancing age. Older people, however, tend to weigh less than younger adults, and old age is also associated with a tendency to lose weight. Weight loss in older people is associated with adverse outcomes, particularly if unintentional, and initial body weight is low. When older people lose weight, more of the tissue lost is lean tissue (mainly skeletal muscle) than in younger people. When excessive, the loss of lean muscle tissue results in sarcopenia, which is associated with poor health outcomes. Unintentional weight loss in older people may be a result of protein-energy malnutrition, cachexia, the physiological anorexia of aging, or a combination of these. The physiological anorexia of aging is a decrease in appetite and energy intake that occurs even in healthy people and is possibly caused by changes in the digestive tract, gastrointestinal hormone concentrations and activity, neurotransmitters, and cytokines. A greater understanding of this decrease in appetite and energy intake during aging, and the responsible mechanisms, may aid the search for ways to treat undernutrition and weight loss in older people. PMID:23522494

  5. Prenatal immune challenge in rats: Altered responses to dopaminergic and glutamatergic agents, prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle, and reduced route-based learning as a function of maternal body weight gain after prenatal exposure to Poly IC

    PubMed Central

    Vorhees, Charles V.; Graham, Devon L.; Braun, Amanda A.; Schaefer, Tori L.; Skelton, Matthew R.; Richtand, Neil M.; Williams, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal maternal immune activation has been used to test the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. Most of the data are in mouse models; far less is available for rats. We previously showed that maternal weight change in response to the immune activator polyinosinic-polycytidylic (Poly IC) in rats differentially affects offspring. Therefore, we treated gravid Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats i.p. on embryonic day 14 with 8 mg/kg of Poly IC or Saline. The Poly IC group was divided into those that lost or gained the least weight, Poly IC (L), versus those that gained the most weight, Poly IC (H), following treatment. The study design controlled for litter size, litter sampling, sex distribution, and test experience. We found no effects of Poly IC on elevated zero-maze, open-field activity, object burying, light-dark test, straight channel swimming, Morris water maze spatial acquisition, reversal, or shift navigation or spatial working or reference memory, or conditioned contextual or cued fear or latent inhibition. The Poly IC (H) group showed a significant decrease in the rate of route-based learning when visible cues unavailable in the Cincinnati water maze and reduced prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle in females, but not males. The Poly IC (L) group exhibited altered responses to acute pharmacological challenges: exaggerated hyperactivity in response to (+)-amphetamine and an attenuated hyperactivity in response to MK-801. This model did not exhibit the cognitive, acoustic startle, or latent inhibition deficits reported in Poly IC-treated rats, but showed changes in response to drugs acting on neurotransmitter systems implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (dopaminergic hyperfunction and glutamatergic hypofunction). PMID:22473973

  6. Body Percept Change in Obese Females after Weight Reduction Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, John K.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Measured video-image representations of body size for 68 females undergoing weight reduction counseling. All judged themselves significantly more obese than they actually were. After therapy, more realistic estimates of their physiques ensued. Dropouts saw themselves as significantly more obese than those who graduated from the program. (JAC)

  7. Body Dissatisfaction, Dietary Restraint, Depression, and Weight Status in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfield, Gary S.; Moore, Ceri; Henderson, Katherine; Buchholz, Annick; Obeid, Nicole; Flament, Martine F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adolescence may be a crucial period for developing obesity and associated mental health problems. This study examined the relationship of weight status on body image, eating behavior, and depressive symptoms in youth. Methods: A survey was conducted on 1490 youth attending grades 7-12. Participants completed questionnaires on body…

  8. Religion and body weight in an underserved population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Religions prominence in some underserved groups that bear a disproportionate burden of the obesity epidemic (e.g. rural, Southern, minority) may play an important role in body weight. Data (1662 African American and Caucasian adults aged 18+) from a representative U.S. sample of a predominately rura...

  9. The role of whole grains in body weight regulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole grain (WG)-rich diets are purported to have a variety of health benefits including a favorable role in body weight regulation. Current dietary recommendations advocate substituting WG for refined grains (RG) as many of the beneficial bioactive components intrinsic to WG are lost during the re...

  10. Dietary effects on body weight of predatory mites (Acari, Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Goleva, Irina; Rubio Cadena, Esteban C; Ranabhat, Nar B; Beckereit, Caroline; Zebitz, Claus P W

    2015-08-01

    Pollen is offered as alternative or supplementary food for predacious mites; however, it may vary in its nutritional value. Body weight appears a representative parameter to describe food quality. Thus, we assessed the body weight for adults of the generalist mites Amblyseius swirskii, Amblydromalus limonicus, and Neoseiulus cucumeris reared on 22, 12, and 6 pollen species, respectively. In addition, A. swirskii and A. limonicus was reared on codling moth eggs. In all mite species, female body weight was higher than that of males, ranging between 4.33 and 8.18 µg for A. swirskii, 2.56-6.53 µg for A. limonicus, and 4.66-5.92 µg for N. cucumeris. Male body weight ranged between 1.78 and 3.28 µg, 1.37-3.06 µg, and 2.73-3.03 µg, respectively. Nutritional quality of pollen was neither consistent among the mite species nor among sex, revealing superior quality of Quercus macranthera pollen for females of A. swirskii and Tulipa gesneriana pollen for males, Alnus incana pollen for females of A. limonicus and Aesculus hippocastanum pollen for males, and Ae. hippocastanum pollen for both sexes of N. cucumeris. The results are discussed against the background of known or putative pollen chemistry and mite's nutritional physiology. PMID:26014648

  11. Food shopping and weight concern. Balancing consumer and body normality.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Annemette; Holm, Lotte

    2014-11-01

    The desire to achieve a normal, culturally acceptable body is often seen as the main driver of food-consumption practices adopted by individuals who are concerned about their body weight. In social research into weight management self-control is therefore often a central theme. Turning the focus towards practices and values related to food shopping, this study adds to our understanding of central features in perceptions of normality among people with weight concerns. In a qualitative study 25 people who participated in a dietary intervention trial in Denmark were interviewed and five people were observed. The study shows that the aim of achieving a normal body does not eclipse the importance of enacting values linked to ideas of the 'normal consumer'. Using empirical examples, the study illuminates how consumer freedom is attained in ways that are both complementary to, and in conflict with, practices and experiences of controlling food intake. The paper suggests that freedom and control are composite and complementary ideals of normality for people with weight concerns. On the basis of this insight, the authors discuss the contribution the paper makes to existing studies of weight management and food consumption. PMID:25086208

  12. How an Elastic Body Reduces its Drag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alben, Silas; Shelley, Michael; Zhang, Jun

    2002-11-01

    Recent studies from bio-fluid dynamics have quantified dramatic decreases in fluid drag on flexible organic structures (including tree leaves and underwater plants) as they deform in high-Reynolds-number flows. Our simple experiment considers the role of elastic bending in the steady case. Using a thin glass fiber wetted into a planar soap-film flow, we identify a transition in flow speed beyond which the fluid forces dominate the elastic response, and yield large deformations that greatly reduce drag. We construct a free-streamline model coupling fluid and elastic forces and solve it numerically. Self-similarity emerges on a shrinking length scale, resulting in a transition from the U^2 growth of rigid bodies to a U^4/3 law as the fiber exhibits large deformation. The theory gives a good rationalization of the experimental data in terms of a single non-dimensional parameter.

  13. Prenatal Centrifugation: A Mode1 for Fetal Programming of Body Weight?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, Lisa A.; Rushing, Linda; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.

    2005-01-01

    'Fetal programming' is a newly emerging field that is revealing astounding insights into the prenatal origins of adult disease, including metabolic, endocrine, and cardiovascular pathophysiology. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that rat pups conceived, gestated and born at 2-g have significantly reduced birth weights and increased adult body weights as compared to 1-g controls. Offspring were produced by mating young adult male and female rats that were adapted to 2-g centrifugation. Female rats underwent conception, pregnancy and birth at 2-g. Newborn pups in the 2-g condition were removed from the centrifuge and fostered to non-manipulated, newly parturient dams maintained at 1 -g. Comparisons were made with 1-g stationary controls, also crossfostered at birth. As compared to 1-g controls, birth weights of pups gestated and born at 2-g were significantly reduced. Pup body weights were significantly reduced until Postnatal day (P) 12. Beginning on P63, body weights of 2-g-gestated offspring exceeded those of 1-g controls by 7-10%. Thus, prenatal rearing at 2-g restricts neonatal growth and increases adult body weight. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that 2-g centrifugation alters the intrauterine milieu, thereby inducing persistent changes in adult phenotype.

  14. Elite athletes in aesthetic and Olympic weight-class sports and the challenge of body weight and body compositions.

    PubMed

    Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Garthe, Ina

    2011-01-01

    The use of dieting, rapid weight loss, and frequent weight fluctuation among athletes competing in weight-class and leanness sports have been considered a problem for years, but the extent of the problem and the health and performance consequences have yet to be fully examined. Most studies examining these issues have had weak methodology. However, results from this review indicate that a high proportion of athletes are using extreme weight-control methods and that the rules of some sports might be associated with the risk of continuous dieting, energy deficit, and/or use of extreme weight-loss methods that can be detrimental to health and performance. Thus, preventive strategies are justified for medical as well as performance reasons. The most urgent needs are: (1) to develop sport-specific educational programmes for athletic trainers, coaches, and athletes; (2) modifications to regulations; and (3) research related to minimum percentage body fat and judging patterns. PMID:21500080

  15. Establishing correlation of footprints with body weight--forensic aspects.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Kewal

    2008-07-18

    Analysis of footprints can reveal very important clues which can be used as forensic evidence in crime scene investigation. Apart from giving idea about the bare foot morphology and individualistic characteristics, the footprints are also indicative of the body size of the person. The present study is an attempt to establish the correlation between footprints and body weight of individuals. The sample for the present study consists of 50 male subjects ranging in age from 18 to 30 years. The subjects belonging to Gujjar caste were randomly taken from a village near Chandigarh city in North India. Three kinds of bilateral footprints were taken from each subject. First, the footprints with the subject's normal weight were taken, the footprints were taken when the subject holds 5 kg weight in his hands, then the footprints were taken when the subject holds 20 kg weight in his hands. In this way, the present study analyses 300 bilateral footprints obtained from 50 individuals. Nine measurements were taken on each footprint using precise and defined landmarks. The measurements of these three kinds of footprints were compared with each other and t-test was employed to see the significant variation. Some of the measurements of the footprints were altered significantly when the subject was subjected to 20 kg weight. However, there is no significant change when the subject holds 5 kg weight in his hands. Body weight was also estimated using regression method from the measurements of these three kinds of footprints. The utility of the study in offences like sexual assault, homicide, theft, burglary, mugging, stealing, shoplifting, dacoity, etc. has been discussed. PMID:18515026

  16. Pregnancy Weight Gain and Childhood Body Weight: A Within-Family Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, David S.; Rouse, Heather L.; Currie, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Background Excessive pregnancy weight gain is associated with obesity in the offspring, but this relationship may be confounded by genetic and other shared influences. We aimed to examine the association of pregnancy weight gain with body mass index (BMI) in the offspring, using a within-family design to minimize confounding. Methods and Findings In this population-based cohort study, we matched records of all live births in Arkansas with state-mandated data on childhood BMI collected in public schools (from August 18, 2003 to June 2, 2011). The cohort included 42,133 women who had more than one singleton pregnancy and their 91,045 offspring. We examined how differences in weight gain that occurred during two or more pregnancies for each woman predicted her children's BMI and odds ratio (OR) of being overweight or obese (BMI?85th percentile) at a mean age of 11.9 years, using a within-family design. For every additional kg of pregnancy weight gain, childhood BMI increased by 0.0220 (95% CI 0.01340.0306, p<0.0001) and the OR of overweight/obesity increased by 1.007 (CI 1.0031.012, p?=?0.0008). Variations in pregnancy weight gain accounted for a 0.43 kg/m2 difference in childhood BMI. After adjustment for birth weight, the association of pregnancy weight gain with childhood BMI was attenuated but remained statistically significant (0.0143 kg/m2 per kg of pregnancy weight gain, CI 0.00570.0229, p?=?0.0007). Conclusions High pregnancy weight gain is associated with increased body weight of the offspring in childhood, and this effect is only partially mediated through higher birth weight. Translation of these findings to public health obesity prevention requires additional study. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24130460

  17. Adolescent Boys and Body Image: Weight and Muscularity Concerns as Dual Pathways to Body Dissatisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Diane Carlson; Crawford, Joy K.

    2005-01-01

    This research evaluated a dual pathway model for body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys. The study provides empirical support for the importance of distinguishing between weight and muscularity concerns in understanding male body image. A total of 128 boys from grades 8 and 11 completed a self-report questionnaire. Results indicated that…

  18. The effect of smoking habit changes on body weight: Evidence from the UK.

    PubMed

    Pieroni, Luca; Salmasi, Luca

    2016-03-01

    This paper evaluates the causal relationship between smoking and body weight through two waves (2004-2006) of the British Household Panel Survey. We model the effect of changes in smoking habits, such as quitting or reducing, and account for the heterogeneous responses of individuals located at different points of the body mass distribution by quantile regression. We test our results by means of a large set of control groups and investigate their robustness by using the changes-in-changes estimator and accounting for different thresholds to define smoking reductions. Our results reveal the positive effect of quitting smoking on weight changes, which is also found to increase in the highest quantiles, whereas the decision to reduce smoking does not affect body weight. PMID:26650917

  19. Green tea catechins, caffeine and body-weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2010-04-26

    The global prevalence of obesity has increased considerably in the last decade. Tools for obesity management including caffeine, and green tea have been proposed as strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance. These ingredients may increase energy expenditure and have been proposed to counteract the decrease in metabolic rate that is present during weight loss. Positive effects on body-weight management have been shown using green tea mixtures. Green tea, by containing both tea catechins and caffeine, may act through inhibition of catechol O-methyl-transferase, and inhibition of phosphodiesterase. Here the mechanisms may also operate synergistically. A green tea-caffeine mixture improves weight maintenance, through thermogenesis, fat oxidation, and sparing fat free mass. The sympathetic nervous system is involved in the regulation of lipolysis, and the sympathetic innervation of white adipose tissue may play an important role in the regulation of total body fat in general. Taken together, these functional ingredients have the potential to produce significant effects on metabolic targets such as thermogenesis, and fat oxidation. An ethnic or genetic effect, and habitual caffeine or green tea catechin intake may act as confounders; this remains to be revealed. PMID:20156466

  20. Use of factor scores for predicting body weight from linear body measurements in three South African indigenous chicken breeds.

    PubMed

    Malomane, Dorcus Kholofelo; Norris, David; Banga, Cuthbert B; Ngambi, Jones W

    2014-02-01

    Body weight and weight of body parts are of economic importance. It is difficult to directly predict body weight from highly correlated morphological traits through multiple regression. Factor analysis was carried out to examine the relationship between body weight and five linear body measurements (body length, body girth, wing length, shank thickness, and shank length) in South African Venda (VN), Naked neck (NN), and Potchefstroom koekoek (PK) indigenous chicken breeds, with a view to identify those factors that define body conformation. Multiple regression was subsequently performed to predict body weight, using orthogonal traits derived from the factor analysis. Measurements were obtained from 210 chickens, 22 weeks of age, 70 chickens per breed. High correlations were obtained between body weight and all body measurements except for wing length in PK. Two factors extracted after varimax rotation explained 91, 95, and 83% of total variation in VN, NN, and PK, respectively. Factor 1 explained 73, 90, and 64% in VN, NN, and PK, respectively, and was loaded on all body measurements except for wing length in VN and PK. In a multiple regression, these two factors accounted for 72% variation in body weight in VN, while only factor 1 accounted for 83 and 74% variation in body weight in NN and PK, respectively. The two factors could be used to define body size and conformation of these breeds. Factor 1 could predict body weight in all three breeds. Body measurements can be better selected jointly to improve body weight in these breeds. PMID:24136156

  1. A mixture of Salacia reticulata (Kotala himbutu) aqueous extract and cyclodextrin reduces body weight gain, visceral fat accumulation, and total cholesterol and insulin increases in male Wistar fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Kishino, Eriko; Ito, Tetsuya; Fujita, Koki; Kiuchi, Yoshihiro

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a mixture of an aqueous extract of Salacia reticulata (Kotala himbutu) and cyclodextrin (SRCD) on various metabolic parameters and cecal fermentation in obese fa/fa male Wistar fatty rats, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Wistar fatty rats were fed 0% (control group) or 0.2% SRCD-supplemented diets and weighed weekly. The plasma glucose, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, insulin, and adiponectin concentrations were measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 5. SRCD supplementation suppressed the time-dependent increase in the plasma total cholesterol and insulin concentrations. After 6 weeks of a 0.2% SRCD-supplemented diet, the body weight gain, food intake, visceral fat mass, liver mass, and liver triacylglycerol content of the rats were significantly lower, whereas the plasma adiponectin concentrations were significantly higher than those of the control group. SRCD supplementation had no significant effect on plasma glucose and triacylglycerol concentrations. SRCD supplementation significantly increased cecum mass, whereas it significantly decreased the cecal butyrate and short-chain fatty acid (sum of the acetate, butyrate, and propionate) concentrations. All of the rats were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test at the beginning of week 6. The area under the curve for insulin was significantly smaller with SRCD supplementation and showed no change in glucose tolerance compared to that of the control group. These results suggest that bioactive compounds in SRCD may suppress the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus by influencing glucose and lipid metabolism in male Wistar fatty rats and that SRCD may influence cecal fermentation. PMID:19185778

  2. Body Weight Concerns and Antifat Attitude in Iranian Children

    PubMed Central

    Garousi, Saideh

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is increasing evidence that children are showing body image issues in recent years. Body image disturbances in childhood must be taken seriously. The thin ideal is becoming more prominent in Asian countries; however, there is little research examining how this issue affects Iranian children. This study explores body weight concerns and associated factors among children in Iranian elementary schools. Methods: This study was conducted in 500 elementary schools. An assessment of body image and antifat attitudes was undertaken using the figure rating scale. In addition, body mass index (BMI) and demographic variables were assessed. Results: Nearly, 27.4% of children were underweight, and 13.3% were obese. There was a significant difference between the mean score of body dissatisfaction (BD) between boys and girls (P < 0.05). There were no differences between BD and education of parents, age, and academic grades. In girls, antifat attitudes were significantly related to BMI. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate the paramount importance of undertaking further research in order to identify the predictive factors of body concerns and its consequences among Iranian children. In addition, researchers must plan prevention and educational program for these children. PMID:25709795

  3. Weight discrepancy and body appreciation among women in Poland and Britain.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Donna; Szpakowska, Ilona; Swami, Viren

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the process of transmigration has detrimental effects on the body image of migrants relative to women in the country of origin. In the present work, we examined the body image of Polish migrants in Britain (n=153), Polish women in Poland (n=153), and a comparison group of British White women (n=110). Participants completed a measure of actual-ideal weight discrepancy and the Body Appreciation Scale (BAS). Contrary to hypotheses, our results showed that Polish women in Poland had significantly higher weight discrepancy than their counterparts in Britain. Further analyses showed that the BAS reduced to two dimensions among Polish participants, with Polish participants in Poland having significantly lower body appreciation than Polish migrants. We suggest that the sociocultural changes that have taken place in Eastern Europe may place women in that region at relatively high risk for developing negative body image. PMID:23972729

  4. The effect of friends on adolescent body weight.

    PubMed

    Renna, Francesco; Grafova, Irina B; Thakur, Nidhi

    2008-12-01

    Using the first wave of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) survey, this paper examines the influence of peers on adolescent weight. A peer group is defined as a close circle of friends that are identified by a respondent adolescent. After controlling for school fixed effects and for a number of individual, demographic and family characteristics, we find that a higher Body Mass Index (BMI) of close friends is correlated to a higher BMI of the respondent adolescent. However, after instrumental variable analysis is performed, the effect remains significant only among women. We also found that adolescents are more responsive to the body weight of their same gender friends. PMID:18672412

  5. Excessive Body Weight in Older Adults: Concerns and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; Bales, Connie W.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Despite its growing pervasiveness, the health challenges prompted by obesity in the older adult population are poorly recognized and under-studied. A defined treatment for geriatric obesity is difficult to establish, as it must take into account biological heterogeneity, age-related co-morbidities, and functional limitations (sarcopenia/dynapenia). This restrospective article highlights our current understanding of the optimal body mass index (BMI) in later life, addressing appropriate recommendations based on BMI category, age, and health history. As the findings of randomized control trials of weight loss/maintenance interventions continue to accumulate, we are moving closer to evidence-based and appropriately individualized recommendations for body weight management in older adults. PMID:26195092

  6. Dietary fiber and body-weight regulation. Observations and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M A; Ludwig, D S

    2001-08-01

    Dietary fiber may be related to body-weight regulation through plausible physiologic mechanisms that have considerable support in the scientific literature. Many short-term studies suggest that high-fiber foods induce greater satiation and satiety. Epidemiologic studies generally [figure: see text] support a role for fiber in body-weight regulation among free-living individuals consuming self-selected diets, although conclusive intervention studies addressing this point are lacking. Thus, there is considerable reason to conclude that fiber-rich diets, containing non-starchy vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes, and nuts, may be effective in the prevention and treatment of obesity in children. Such diets may have additional benefits, independent of changes in adiposity, in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. PMID:11494646

  7. Whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging in lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Itti, E.; Luciani, A.; Haioun, C.; Meignan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The current evidence regarding the usefulness of whole-body diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in lymphoma is reviewed. DWI is capable of combining anatomical and functional information and is becoming a valuable tool in oncology, in particular for staging purposes. DWI may prove to be a useful biomarker in clinical decision making for patients with lymphoma. Large-scaled prospective studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results. PMID:20880782

  8. Childhood Body Weight in Relation to Cause-Specific Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Batty, George David; Calvin, Catherine M.; Brett, Caroline E.; Čukić, Iva; Deary, Ian J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The association between childhood body weight and adult health has been little-examined, and findings are inconsistent. In a representative sample of the Scottish nation (the Scottish Mental Survey of 1947), we examined the association between body mass index measured at 11 years of age and future cause-specific mortality by age 77 years. In this cohort study, a maximum of 67 years of follow-up of 3839 study members gave rise to 1568 deaths (758 from cardiovascular disease, 610 from any malignancy). After adjustment for covariates, there was some evidence of a relation between elevated childhood body mass index and rates of mortality ascribed to all-causes (hazard ratio per 1 SD increase in body mass index; 95% confidence interval: 1.09; 1.03, 1.14), cardiovascular disease (1.09; 1.01, 1.17), all cancers combined (1.12; 1.03, 1.21), smoking-related cancers (1.13; 1.03, 1.25), and breast cancer in women (1.27; 1.04, 1.56). In conclusion, we provide further observational evidence for the need for weight control measures in youth. PMID:26871765

  9. Changes in height, body weight, and body composition in American football players from 1942 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Anzell, Anthony R; Potteiger, Jeffrey A; Kraemer, William J; Otieno, Sango

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to document changes in height (cm), body weight (kg), and body composition (%fat) of American football players from 1942 to 2011. Published articles were identified from databases and cross-referencing of bibliographies. Studies selected met the requirements of (1) having 2 of 3 dependent (height, body weight, and body composition) variables reported in the results; (2) containing a skill level of college or professional; (3) providing measured not self-reported data; and (4) published studies in English language journals. The data were categorized into groups based on skill level (college and professional). The player positions were grouped into 3 categories: mixed linemen (offensive and defensive linemen, tight ends, and linebackers), mixed offensive backs (quarterback and running backs), and mixed skilled positions (defensive backs and wide receivers). Linear regression was used to provide slope estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Unpaired t-tests were used to determine whether an individual regression slope was significantly different from zero. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.017. College level players in all position groups have significantly increased body weight over time (95% CI: mixed lineman 0.338-0.900 kgy(-1); mixed offensive backs 0.089-0.298 kgy(-1); mixed skilled 0.078-0.334 kgy(-1)). The college level mixed linemen showed a significant increase over time for height (95% CI: 0.034-0.188 cmy(-1)) and body composition (0.046-0.275% fat per year). Significant increases in body weight over time were found for professional level mixed lineman (95% CI: 0.098-0.756 kgy(-1)) and mixed offensive backs (95% CI: 0.1800-0.545 kgy(-1)). There were no other significant changes at the professional level. These data demonstrate that body weight of all college players and professional mixed lineman have significantly increased from 1942 to 2011. PMID:23222088

  10. The weight of a guilty conscience: subjective body weight as an embodiment of guilt.

    PubMed

    Day, Martin V; Bobocel, D Ramona

    2013-01-01

    Guilt is an important social and moral emotion. In addition to feeling unpleasant, guilt is metaphorically described as a "weight on one's conscience." Evidence from the field of embodied cognition suggests that abstract metaphors may be grounded in bodily experiences, but no prior research has examined the embodiment of guilt. Across four studies we examine whether i) unethical acts increase subjective experiences of weight, ii) feelings of guilt explain this effect, and iii) whether there are consequences of the weight of guilt. Studies 1-3 demonstrated that unethical acts led to more subjective body weight compared to control conditions. Studies 2 and 3 indicated that heightened feelings of guilt mediated the effect, whereas other negative emotions did not. Study 4 demonstrated a perceptual consequence. Specifically, an induction of guilt affected the perceived effort necessary to complete tasks that were physical in nature, compared to minimally physical tasks. PMID:23936041

  11. Development and Validation of the Body Size Scale for Assessing Body Weight Perception in African Populations

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Emmanuel; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Ponty, Amandine; Ndao, Amadou; Amougou, Norbert; Saïd-Mohamed, Rihlat; Pasquet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background The social valorisation of overweight in African populations could promote high-risk eating behaviours and therefore become a risk factor of obesity. However, existing scales to assess body image are usually not accurate enough to allow comparative studies of body weight perception in different African populations. This study aimed to develop and validate the Body Size Scale (BSS) to estimate African body weight perception. Methods Anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 Senegalese were used to evaluate three criteria of adiposity: body mass index (BMI), overall percentage of fat, and endomorphy (fat component of the somatotype). To develop the BSS, the participants were photographed in full face and profile positions. Models were selected for their representativeness of the wide variability in adiposity with a progressive increase along the scale. Then, for the validation protocol, participants self-administered the BSS to assess self-perceived current body size (CBS), desired body size (DBS) and provide a “body self-satisfaction index.” This protocol included construct validity, test-retest reliability and convergent validity and was carried out with three independent samples of respectively 201, 103 and 1115 Cameroonians. Results The BSS comprises two sex-specific scales of photos of 9 models each, and ordered by increasing adiposity. Most participants were able to correctly order the BSS by increasing adiposity, using three different words to define body size. Test-retest reliability was consistent in estimating CBS, DBS and the “body self-satisfaction index.” The CBS was highly correlated to the objective BMI, and two different indexes assessed with the BSS were consistent with declarations obtained in interviews. Conclusion The BSS is the first scale with photos of real African models taken in both full face and profile and representing a wide and representative variability in adiposity. The validation protocol proved its reliability for estimating body weight perception in Africans. PMID:26536030

  12. Regulation of food intake and body weight by recombinant proghrelin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weizhen; Majumder, Arundhati; Wu, Xiaobin; Mulholland, Michael W

    2009-12-01

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid hormone derived from the endoproteolytic processing of its prehormone proghrelin. Although ghrelin has been reported to regulate food intake and body weight, it is still unknown whether proghrelin exercises any biological function. Here we show that recombinant proghrelin alters food intake and energy metabolism in mice. After intraperitoneal administration of recombinant proghrelin (100 nmol/kg body wt), cumulative food intake was significantly increased at days 1, 2, and 3 (6 +/- 0.3, 13 +/- 0.5, and 20 +/- 0.8 g vs. 5 +/- 0.2, 10 +/- 0.2, and 16 +/- 0.3 g of the control mice receiving normal saline, respectively, n = 6, P < 0.05). Twelve-hour cumulative food intake in the light photo period in mice treated with proghrelin increased significantly relative to the control (2.1 +/- 0.04 vs. 1.3 +/- 0.2 g, n = 6, P < 0.05). No change in 12-h cumulative food intake in the dark photo period was observed between mice treated with proghrelin and vehicle (4.2 +/- 0.6 vs. 4.3 +/- 0.6 g, n = 6, P > 0.05). This is associated with a decrease in body weight (0.42 +/- 0.04 g) for mice treated with proghrelin, whereas control animals gained body weight (0.31 +/- 0.04 g). Mice treated with proghrelin demonstrate a significant decrease in respiratory quotient, indicating an increase in fat consumption. Recombinant proghrelin is functionally active with effects on food intake and energy metabolism. PMID:19789292

  13. Nuts Improve Diet Quality Compared to Other Energy-Dense Snacks While Maintaining Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Tey, Siew Ling; Brown, Rachel; Gray, Andrew; Chisholm, Alexandra; Delahunty, Conor

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that regular nut consumption reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and does not promote weight gain despite the fact that nuts are energy-dense. However, no studies have investigated the body composition of those regularly consuming nuts compared to similar intakes of other snacks of equal energy density. This parallel study (n = 118) examined the effects of providing daily portions (~1100?kJ/d) of hazelnuts, chocolate, or potato crisps compared to a control group receiving no snacks for twelve weeks. Effects on body weight and composition, blood lipids and lipoproteins, resting metabolic rate (RMR), appetite indices, and dietary quality were compared. At week 12, there was no significant difference in any of the outcome measurements between the groups except for dietary quality, which improved significantly in the nut group. Nuts can be incorporated into the diet without adversely affecting body weight and can improve diet quality. PMID:21845219

  14. Anthocyanins attenuate body weight gain via modulating neuropeptide Y and GABAB1 receptor in rats hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Badshah, Haroon; Ullah, Ikram; Kim, So Eun; Kim, Tae-hyun; Lee, Hae Young; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2013-10-01

    Anthocyanins in a variety of plant species have been identified and are known for its hypolipidemic and anti-obesity effects. The effect of anthocyanins extracted from black soybean on body weight and daily food intake in adult rats raised on normal diet were studied. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were daily intra-gastric administered water or anthocyanins 6 mg/kg and 24 mg/kg for 40 days. During this period daily food intake and body weight were measured prior to anthocyanins treatment. These findings showed that anthocyanins treatment resulted in significantly lowered body weight and food intake compared with water treated rats. In addition, anthocyanins dose dependently reduced the adipose tissue size compared with control group. Western blot analysis showed that high dose of anthocyanins treatment significantly reduced the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and increased γ-amino butyric acid receptor (GABAB1R) in hypothalamus. Furthermore, these events were followed by a decreased in expression of GABAB1R downstream signaling molecules protein kinase A-α (PKA) and phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (p-CREB) in hypothalamus. These data support the concept that anthocyanins even in normal circumstances have the capability to reduce body weight and food intake through its modulatory effect on NPY and GABAB1R in hypothalamus. These results suggest that anthocyanins from black soybean seed coat might have a novel role in preventing obesity in rats on normal diet. PMID:23830691

  15. Physical Activity Plays an Important Role in Body Weight Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Klingenberg, Lars; Rosenkilde, Mads; Gilbert, Jo-Anne; Tremblay, Angelo; Sjdin, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Emerging literature highlights the need to incorporate physical activity into every strategy intended to prevent weight gain as well as to maintain weight loss over time. Furthermore, physical activity should be part of any plan to lose weight. The stimulus of exercise provides valuable metabolic adaptations that improve energy and macronutrient balance regulation. A tight coupling between energy intake and energy expenditure has been documented at high levels of physical exercise, suggesting that exercise may improve appetite control. The regular practice of physical activity has also been reported to reduce the risk of stress-induced weight gain. A more personalized approach is recommended when planning exercise programs in a clinical weight loss setting in order to limit the compensatory changes associated to exercise-induced weight loss. With modern environment promoting overeating and sedentary behavior, there is an urgent need for a concerted action including legislative measures to promote healthy active living in order to curb the current epidemic of chronic diseases. PMID:20847894

  16. Phytochemicals in the Control of Human Appetite and Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Tucci, Sonia A.

    2010-01-01

    Since obesity has grown to epidemic proportions, its effective management is a very important clinical issue. Despite the great amount of scientific effort that has been put into understanding the mechanisms that lead to overconsumption and overweight, at the moment very few approaches to weight management are effective in the long term. On the other hand, modern society is also affected by the growing incidence of eating disorders on the other side of the spectrum such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa which are equally difficult to treat. This review will try to summarise the main findings available in the literature regarding the effect of plants or plant extracts (phytochemicals) on human appetite and body weight. The majority of plant extracts are not single compounds but rather a mixture of different molecules, therefore their mechanism of action usually targets several systems. In addition, since some cellular receptors tend to be widely distributed, sometimes a single molecule can have a widespread effect. This review will attempt to describe the main phytochemicals that have been suggested to affect the homeostatic mechanisms that influence intake and body weight. Clinical data will be summarised and scientific evidence will be reviewed.

  17. Body image change and improved eating self-regulation in a weight management intervention in women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Successful weight management involves the regulation of eating behavior. However, the specific mechanisms underlying its successful regulation remain unclear. This study examined one potential mechanism by testing a model in which improved body image mediated the effects of obesity treatment on eating self-regulation. Further, this study explored the role of different body image components. Methods Participants were 239 overweight women (age: 37.6 7.1 yr; BMI: 31.5 4.1 kg/m2) engaged in a 12-month behavioral weight management program, which included a body image module. Self-reported measures were used to assess evaluative and investment body image, and eating behavior. Measurements occurred at baseline and at 12 months. Baseline-residualized scores were calculated to report change in the dependent variables. The model was tested using partial least squares analysis. Results The model explained 18-44% of the variance in the dependent variables. Treatment significantly improved both body image components, particularly by decreasing its investment component (f2 = .32 vs. f2 = .22). Eating behavior was positively predicted by investment body image change (p < .001) and to a lesser extent by evaluative body image (p < .05). Treatment had significant effects on 12-month eating behavior change, which were fully mediated by investment and partially mediated by evaluative body image (effect ratios: .68 and .22, respectively). Conclusions Results suggest that improving body image, particularly by reducing its salience in one's personal life, might play a role in enhancing eating self-regulation during weight control. Accordingly, future weight loss interventions could benefit from proactively addressing body image-related issues as part of their protocols. PMID:21767360

  18. Adolescent-parent interactions and communication preferences regarding body weight and weight management: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study aimed to canvass the nature of adolescent-parent interactions about weight, particularly overweight, and to explore ideas of how to foster supportive discussions regarding weight, both in the home and with family doctors. Methods A market research company was contracted to recruit and conduct a series of separate focus groups with adolescents and unrelated parents of adolescents from low-middle socio-economic areas in Sydney and a regional centre, Australia. Group discussions were audio recorded, transcribed, and then a qualitative content analysis of the data was performed. Results Nine focus groups were conducted; two were held with girls (n = 13), three with boys (n = 18), and four with parents (20 mothers, 12 fathers). Adolescent and parent descriptions of weight-related interactions could be classified into three distinct approaches: indirect/cautious (i.e. focus on eating or physical activity behaviors without discussing weight specifically); direct/open (i.e. body weight was discussed); and never/rarely discussing the subject. Indirect approaches were described most frequently by both adolescents and parents and were generally preferred over direct approaches. Parents and adolescents were circumspect but generally supportive of the potential role for family doctors to monitor and discuss adolescent weight status. Conclusions These findings have implications for developing acceptable messages for adolescent and family overweight prevention and treatment interventions. PMID:20205918

  19. Body Size Perceptions and Weight Status of Adults in a Nigerian Rural Community

    PubMed Central

    Akinpelu, AO; Oyewole, OO; Adekanla, BA

    2015-01-01

    Background: Overweight and obesity are now recognized worldwide as increasing public health problems throughout the life course and wrong perception of one's body size may reduce the motivation for an overweight person to lose weight. Aim: This study was conducted to investigate how Nigerian rural dwellers perceive their body size and how their perception agrees with their body mass index (BMI). Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional sample of 183 adults living in a rural community, South-West Nigeria was randomly recruited into the study. Their verbal and visual body size perceptions were assessed through structured questions and body images. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: Thirty-five percent (64/183) of participants were classified as either overweight or obese by BMI. More than half of the participants perceived themselves as normal weight. More women perceived themselves to be obese than men in both verbal and visual perceptions. Based on BMI classification, 43% (79/183) and 54% (98/183) of participants misperceived themselves in verbal and visual perception, respectively. Underestimation of body size was higher in men (38.3%, 36/94) while overestimation was higher in women (9.0%, 8/89). Men had consistently higher values of kappa coefficient which indicate greater agreement than women in both types of perception. Conclusion: We found considerable gender differences in body weight perception of adults in the Nigerian rural community. A large proportion of these rural dwellers could not appropriately classify their weight status; and over 30% (64/183) and nearly 50% (92/183) of them underestimated their own body weight in verbal and visual perceptions respectively. PMID:26500794

  20. Body Mass Index Self-Perception and Weight Management Behaviors during Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Kyeongra; Turk, Melanie T.; Allison, Virginia L.; James, Khara A.; Chasens, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examined the relationship between actual body weight and self-perceived weight, and how perception of one's weight affects weight management behaviors among US adolescents. Methods: Adolescents ages 16-19 years with objectively-measured weight and height and self-reported perception of weight, weight-loss efforts, and

  1. Body Mass Index Self-Perception and Weight Management Behaviors during Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Kyeongra; Turk, Melanie T.; Allison, Virginia L.; James, Khara A.; Chasens, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examined the relationship between actual body weight and self-perceived weight, and how perception of one's weight affects weight management behaviors among US adolescents. Methods: Adolescents ages 16-19 years with objectively-measured weight and height and self-reported perception of weight, weight-loss efforts, and…

  2. Brain pathways controlling food intake and body weight.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, M W

    2001-12-01

    Evidence has existed for more than 50 years in support of the hypothesis that body energy stored in the form of fat is homeostatically regulated. Implicit in this concept is the existence of a biological system that operates dynamically over time to match cumulative energy intake to energy expenditure. For example, to compensate for weight loss induced by energy restriction, animals must enter a period of positive energy balance (i.e., energy intake greater than energy expenditure) that is sustained for as long as it takes to correct the deficit in body fat stores. Having reached this point, the animal must return to a state of neutral energy balance if stable fat mass is to be maintained. The identification of neuronal circuits in the hypothalamus that, when activated, exert potent, unidirectional effects on energy balance provides a cornerstone of support for this model. The additional finding that these central effector pathways are regulated by humoral signals generated in proportion to body fat stores, including the hormones insulin and leptin, helps to round out the picture of how energy homeostasis is achieved. The goal of this overview is to highlight the evidence that specific subsets of hypothalamic neurons containing specific signaling molecules participate in this dynamic regulatory process, and to put these observations in the larger context of a biological system that controls body adiposity. PMID:11743132

  3. Weight-reducing diets: are there any differences?

    PubMed

    Foreyt, John P; Salas-Salvado, Jordi; Caballero, Benjamin; Bulló, Monica; Gifford, K Dun; Bautista, Inmaculada; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2009-05-01

    This paper compares the efficacy of two widely used weight-loss diets differing in macronutrient composition - a low-carbohydrate diet versus a low-fat diet. Although "a calorie is a calorie" under the controlled conditions of a metabolic unit (i.e., only the level of calorie intake matters and not the source of calories), we conclude that these interrelationships are far more complex in the free-living situation. The different diet-related factors that condition energy balance, including total energy intake, satiety and hunger sensory triggers, and palatability, must be considered when assessing the efficacy of weight-reducing diets of different macronutrient composition. PMID:19453689

  4. Partial weight suspension: a novel murine model for investigating adaptation to reduced musculoskeletal loading

    PubMed Central

    Granzella, Nicholas P.; Saito, Hiroaki; Newman, Dava J.; Young, Laurence R.; Bouxsein, Mary L.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a new model of hypodynamic loading to support mice in chronic conditions of partial weight bearing, enabling simulations of reduced gravity environments and related clinical conditions. The novel hardware allows for reduced loading between 10 and 80% of normal body weight on all four limbs and enables characteristic quadrupedal locomotion. Ten-week-old female BALB/cByJ mice were supported for 21 days under Mars-analog suspension (38% weight bearing) and compared with age-matched and jacketed (100% weight bearing) controls. After an initial adaptation, weight gain did not differ between groups, suggesting low levels of animal stress. Relative to age-matched controls, mice exposed to Mars-analog loading had significantly lower muscle mass (?23% gastrocnemius wet mass, P < 0.0001); trabecular and cortical bone morphology (i.e., trabecular bone volume: ?24% at the distal femur, and cortical thickness: ?11% at the femoral midshaft, both P < 0.001); and biomechanical properties of the femoral midshaft (i.e., ?27% ultimate moment, P < 0.001). Bone formation indexes were decreased compared with age-matched full-weight-bearing mice, whereas resorption parameters were largely unchanged. Singly housed, full-weight-bearing controls with forelimb jackets were largely similar to age-matched, group-housed controls, although a few variables differed and warrant further investigation. Altogether, these data provide strong rationale for use of our new model of partial weight bearing to further explore the musculoskeletal response to reduced loading environments. PMID:20522735

  5. Energy Density, Energy Intake, and Body Weight Regulation in Adults12345

    PubMed Central

    Karl, J. Philip; Roberts, Susan B.

    2014-01-01

    The role of dietary energy density (ED) in the regulation of energy intake (EI) is controversial. Methodologically, there is also debate about whether beverages should be included in dietary ED calculations. To address these issues, studies examining the effects of ED on EI or body weight in nonelderly adults were reviewed. Different approaches to calculating dietary ED do not appear to alter the direction of reported relations between ED and body weight. Evidence that lowering dietary ED reduces EI in short-term studies is convincing, but there are currently insufficient data to determine long-term effectiveness for weight loss. The review also identified key barriers to progress in understanding the role of ED in energy regulation, in particular the absence of a standard definition of ED, and the lack of data from multiple long-term clinical trials examining the effectiveness of low-ED diet recommendations for preventing both primary weight gain and weight regain in nonobese individuals. Long-term clinical trials designed to examine the impact of dietary ED on energy regulation, and including multiple ED calculation methods within the same study, are still needed to determine the importance of ED in the regulation of EI and body weight. PMID:25398750

  6. The regulation of body weight: lessons from the seasonal animal.

    PubMed

    Morgan, P J; Mercer, J G

    2001-02-01

    The hypothalamus is a major regulatory centre involved in the control of many important physiological axes. One of these axes is the regulation of ingestive behaviour. Recent work using a combination of genetic-mutant mouse models together with targeted gene deletions has contributed much to our understanding of how neural pathways of the hypothalamus are involved in the regulation of energy balance in animals. These pathways are also relevant to human energy homeostasis. as mutations in key genes are correlated with obesity. Many of the genes identified mediate the effects of leptin, and are therefore primarily involved in sensing and responding to peripheral signals. In seasonal animals, such as the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus), there is evidence for a higher level of regulation. The systems involved regulate body weight around an apparent 'set-point' through the action of photoperiod via the neurohormone, melatonin. The ability to manipulate energy balance through photoperiod (and melatonin) in the seasonal-animal model offers novel opportunities to identify further fundamental aspects of the control mechanisms involved in the central control of energy homeostasis and body weight. PMID:11310417

  7. PET imaging predicts future body weight and cocaine preference

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelides M.; Wang G.; Michaelides M.; Thanos P.K. Kim R.; Cho J.; Ananth M.; Wang G.-J.; Volkow N.D.

    2011-08-28

    Deficits in dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) binding availability using PET imaging have been reported in obese humans and rodents. Similar deficits have been reported in cocaine-addicts and cocaine-exposed primates. We found that D2R/D3R binding availability negatively correlated with measures of body weight at the time of scan (ventral striatum), at 1 (ventral striatum) and 2 months (dorsal and ventral striatum) post scan in rats. Cocaine preference was negatively correlated with D2R/D3R binding availability 2 months (ventral striatum) post scan. Our findings suggest that inherent deficits in striatal D2R/D3R signaling are related to obesity and drug addiction susceptibility and that ventral and dorsal striatum serve dissociable roles in maintaining weight gain and cocaine preference. Measuring D2R/D3R binding availability provides a way for assessing susceptibility to weight gain and cocaine abuse in rodents and given the translational nature of PET imaging, potentially primates and humans.

  8. Weight-related self-efficacy in relation to maternal body weight from early pregnancy to 2 years post-partum

    PubMed Central

    Lipsky, Leah M.; Strawderman, Myla S.; Olson, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain may lead to long-term increases in maternal body weight and associated health risks. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal body weight and weight-related self-efficacy from early pregnancy to 2 years post-partum. Women with live, singleton term infants from a population-based cohort study were included (n = 595). Healthy eating self-efficacy and weight control self-efficacy were assessed prenatally and at 1 year and 2 years post-partum. Body weight was measured at early pregnancy, before delivery, and 6 weeks, 1 year and 2 years post-partum. Behavioural (smoking, breastfeeding) and sociodemographic (age, education, marital status, income) covariates were assessed by medical record review and baseline questionnaires. Multi-level linear regression models were used to examine the longitudinal associations of self-efficacy measures with body weight. Approximately half of the sample (57%) returned to early pregnancy weight at some point by 2 years post-partum, and 9% became overweight or obese at 2 years post-partum. Body weight over time was inversely related to healthy eating (β = −0.57, P = 0.02) and weight control (β = −0.99, P < 0.001) self-efficacy in the model controlling for both self-efficacy measures as well as time and behavioural and sociodemographic covariates. Weight-related self-efficacy may be an important target for interventions to reduce excessive gestational weight gain and post-partum weight gain. PMID:25244078

  9. Holding fat stereotypes is associated with lower body dissatisfaction in normal weight Caucasian women who engage in body surveillance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jean; Jarry, Jose L

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of body surveillance on the relationship between fat stereotype endorsement and body dissatisfaction in normal weight women. Participants (N=225) completed online measures of fat stereotyping, body surveillance, body dissatisfaction, and internalized thin ideals. After accounting for thin ideals, body surveillance moderated the relationship between fat stereotypes and body dissatisfaction. Contrary to hypotheses, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted lower body dissatisfaction in women with higher body surveillance. Conversely, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted greater body dissatisfaction in women with lower body surveillance. Thus, endorsing fat stereotypes appears protective against body dissatisfaction in normal weight women who extensively engage in body surveillance. For women who hold fat stereotypes and report high body surveillance, we propose that downward appearance comparison may create a contrast between themselves and the people with overweight whom they denigrate, thus improving body dissatisfaction. PMID:24976569

  10. Proposed bursa of Fabricius weight to body weight ratio standard in commercial broilers.

    PubMed

    Cazaban, Christophe; Majo Masferrer, Natalia; Dolz Pascual, Roser; Nofrarias Espadamala, Miquel; Costa, Taiana; Gardin, Yannick

    2015-09-01

    Several causes may induce change and atrophy in the bursa of Fabricius (BF). Databases on BF standards are available from published studies, however, updated references are needed to adjust the BF standards to present changes in highly specialized broiler genetic lines. The aim of this study was to evaluate BF-related measurements (weight and dimensions) under controlled conditions that would mimic field situations. Chickens were kept in isolation, thus avoiding exposure to disease agents by vaccination or field infections. This study was conducted using male Cobb 500 commercial broilers from the same hatch and source. Absence of disease was confirmed throughout the study. Despite the presence of individual variations, a minimum bursa-to-body weight ratio standard of 0.11 is proposed in broilers from 7 to 42 days of age. PMID:26217020

  11. Maternal low protein diet causes body weight loss in male, neonate Sprague-Dawley rats involving UCP-1 mediated thermogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in regulating body weight (BW) by modifying thermogenesis. Maternal low protein (LP) diets reduce offspring birth weight. Increased BAT thermogenesis in utero may be one mechanism for the lower BW. However, whether maternal LP nutrition alters BAT...

  12. Birth weight, early life course BMI, and body size change: Chains of risk to adult inflammation?

    PubMed

    Goosby, Bridget J; Cheadle, Jacob E; McDade, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how body size changes over the early life course to predict high sensitivity C-reactive protein in a U.S. based sample. Using three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we test the chronic disease epidemiological models of fetal origins, sensitive periods, and chains of risk from birth into adulthood. Few studies link birth weight and changes in obesity status over adolescence and early adulthood to adult obesity and inflammation. Consistent with fetal origins and sensitive periods hypotheses, body size and obesity status at each developmental period, along with increasing body size between periods, are highly correlated with adult CRP. However, the predictive power of earlier life course periods is mediated by body size and body size change at later periods in a pattern consistent with the chains of risk model. Adult increases in obesity had effect sizes of nearly 0.3 sd, and effect sizes from overweight to the largest obesity categories were between 0.3 and 1 sd. There was also evidence that risk can be offset by weight loss, which suggests that interventions can reduce inflammation and cardiovascular risk, that females are more sensitive to body size changes, and that body size trajectories over the early life course account for African American- and Hispanic-white disparities in adult inflammation. PMID:26685708

  13. Efficacy of orlistat 60 mg on weight loss and body fat mass in US Army soldiers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tracey J; Crombie, Aaron; Sanders, Leslee Funderburk; Sigrist, Lori D; Bathalon, Gaston P; McGraw, Susan; Young, Andrew J

    2012-04-01

    A higher body mass index is associated with exercise-related injuries and increased risk for musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders, which are relevant to military personnel. Studies show the efficacy of orlistat 60 mg for promoting weight and body fat loss in civilians; however, its efficacy among predominantly young, male soldiers is unknown. This study's objective was to examine the effect of a 6-month, standard education-based weight-management program with and without orlistat 60 mg on changes in weight and body fat in overweight soldiers. Data were collected for this randomized, controlled trial from March 2008 to November 2010 at Fort Bragg, NC. Participants were enrolled in an education-based weight management program (n=435; 75% men) and were randomized to placebo or orlistat 60 mg, three capsules daily with meals. All participants were recommended to maintain a reduced-energy, low-fat diet. Among study completers (14% retention rate; placebo n=22, orlistat n=35) members of both groups lost significant weight from baseline (placebo -3.05.2 kg; orlistat -3.24.7 kg; P<0.01), but only the orlistat group lost fat mass (-2.53.9 kg; P<0.001), whereas the placebo group lost lean mass (-1.42.7 kg; P <0.01). An intent-to-treat analysis (?1 follow-up body weight measure) demonstrated that the orlistat group lost more fat mass vs the placebo group (-1.32.9 kg vs ?0.61.8 kg, respectively; P<0.05), but less lean mass (-0.22.0 kg vs -0.81.8 kg, respectively; P<0.01). Orlistat 60 mg may be an effective adjunct to an education-based weight management program in a mostly young, male soldier population. PMID:22717217

  14. The Role of Dairy Products in Healthy Weight and Body Composition in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Spence, Lisa A; Cifelli, Christopher J; Miller, Gregory D

    2011-02-01

    Overweight and obesity are major public health concerns with approximately 32% and 17% of U.S. children aged 2 - 19 being classified as overweight or obese, respectively. While the cause of overweight and obesity is multi-factorial, changes in eating habits and physical activity patterns have been proposed as contributing factors to the obesity epidemic. For example, the displacement of nutrient rich foods and beverages with non-nutrient dense items may be influencing childhood obesity. Many children do not consume the recommended servings of the Food Groups to Encourage, i.e. low-fat and fat-free dairy foods, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains identified by the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans which results in low intakes of calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E. While attention has focused primarily on reducing energy intake and/or increasing energy expenditure for weight maintenance, a promising beneficial role for dairy products in weight management has emerged. Most research has focused on adults, but there is evidence in children and adolescents indicating either a beneficial or neutral effect of dairy food consumption on body weight or body composition. The current review provides and assessment of the scientific evidence on the effects of dairy food consumption on body weight and body composition in children and adolescents. PMID:22299005

  15. The Role of Dairy Products in Healthy Weight and Body Composition in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Lisa A; Cifelli, Christopher J; Miller, Gregory D

    2011-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are major public health concerns with approximately 32% and 17% of U.S. children aged 2 19 being classified as overweight or obese, respectively. While the cause of overweight and obesity is multi-factorial, changes in eating habits and physical activity patterns have been proposed as contributing factors to the obesity epidemic. For example, the displacement of nutrient rich foods and beverages with non-nutrient dense items may be influencing childhood obesity. Many children do not consume the recommended servings of the Food Groups to Encourage, i.e. low-fat and fat-free dairy foods, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains identified by the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans which results in low intakes of calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E. While attention has focused primarily on reducing energy intake and/or increasing energy expenditure for weight maintenance, a promising beneficial role for dairy products in weight management has emerged. Most research has focused on adults, but there is evidence in children and adolescents indicating either a beneficial or neutral effect of dairy food consumption on body weight or body composition. The current review provides and assessment of the scientific evidence on the effects of dairy food consumption on body weight and body composition in children and adolescents. PMID:22299005

  16. Influence of dietary aflatoxin, zinc, and copper on bone size, organ weight, and body weight in hamsters and rats

    SciTech Connect

    Llewellyn, G.C.; Floyd, E.A.; Hoke, G.D.; Weekley, L.B.; Kimbrough, T.D.

    1985-08-01

    Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus have been shown to produce aflatoxins in stored foodstuffs such as peanuts, cottonseed meal, rice, and grains. Aflatoxin-treated animals, especially those that have not matured, fail to gain body weight as rapidly as controls and protein synthesis is reduced. Zinc is a necessary trace element in the diet. Slight deficiencies produce growth retardation, an inhibition of the animal's general well-being, and a reduction in feed efficiency. Many changes observed in bone of zinc deficient animals were similar to those observed with decreased feed intake. High levels of zinc are relatively non-toxic. Copper is required in the diet for prevention of anemia. It has been suggested to have a protective effect against several carcinogens, and is an essential component of many oxidative enzyme systems. In an effort to determine the potential effects of the interaction of metals and aflatoxins, these studies were initiated. Reported herein are body weights, organ weights, bone sizes and radiographic evaluations.

  17. [New findings on the influence of body weight on mortality].

    PubMed

    Wandl, U; Jaggy, Ch

    2005-12-01

    The link between obesity/adipositas and excess mortality has been a prominent topic in medical literature for some time. The epidemic increase in obesity in the western world is going to confront the medical profession with a new problem, particularly with regard to life expectancy trends and appropriate prophylactic measures. Swiss Reinsurance Company (Swiss Re), which has a large portfolio of life reinsurance business, has conducted a follow-up study over an observation period of 25 years (1976 - 2001) to investigate the correlation between body weight and mortality. The findings indicate that the lifestyle-related risks of obesity and adipositas, especially in combination with other risk factors such as high blood pressure and smoking, contribute to a significantly elevated mortality risk. PMID:16392376

  18. Do body-related shame and guilt mediate the association between weight status and self-esteem?

    PubMed

    Pila, Eva; Sabiston, Catherine M; Brunet, Jennifer; Castonguay, Andree L; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    Individuals who are overweight or obese report body image concerns and lower self-esteem. However, little is known about the mechanisms underpinning these associations. The objective of this study was to test body-related shame and guilt as mediators in the association between weight status and self-esteem. Young adult participants (n = 790) completed assessments of self-esteem and body-related guilt and shame, and weight status indicators were measured by trained technicians. Findings from multiple mediation analyses suggest that body-related shame mediates the relationship between weight status and self-esteem. If replicated in longitudinal studies, these findings suggest that reducing body-related emotions may have important implications for improving self-esteem in clinical weight management. PMID:25903252

  19. The impact of excess body weight at the hospital frontline

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Quantification of disease burden by deaths or years lived with disability is a useful indicator as it informs prevention by accounting for health loss but it does not reflect the needs for health services. An alternative indicator is to quantify the impact of a risk factor on health care utilization. In an article published in BMC Medicine, Reeves and colleagues describe the relationship between body mass index in 1.2 million women (England) and hospital admission rates. The main finding was that around one in eight hospital admissions was attributable to overweight or obesity, translating to around 420,000 extra hospital admissions, and two million extra days spent in hospital, annually. These findings reinforce the evidence that excess body weight is associated with extensive healthcare utilization and emphasize the need to scale-up and speed-up research if global problems, such as obesity, are to be tackled with due alacrity. Please see related research: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/45. PMID:24742301

  20. The relationship between masticatory and swallowing behaviors and body weight.

    PubMed

    Isabel, Carlos Alberto Camargo; Moyss, Marcos Ribeiro; van der Bilt, Andries; Gameiro, Gustavo Hauber; Ribeiro, Jos Carlos Rabelo; Pereira, Luciano Jos

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed to compare the main objective parameters of mastication among individuals with different body mass indexes. One hundred and sixty participants matched for gender and age were divided in the following groups according to their body mass index (BMI): Obese group (30 ? BMI < 35), Overweight group (25 ? BMI < 30), normal range group (18.5 ? BMI < 25) and underweight group (17 ? BMI < 18.5). Each group was composed by forty subjects. The maximum bite force, the masticatory performance, chewing rate and three variables related to swallowing (number of chewing cycles, chewing time, and median particle size) were assessed in all groups. The oral conditions, including the number of teeth, number of occlusal units and salivary flow (unstimulated and stimulated) were also evaluated. Regardless of the BMI, males had a larger bite force and better masticatory and swallowing performances than females. They also chewed faster than females. Individuals of the obese group had the largest median particles sizes (both after 20 chewing cycles and at the moment of swallowing), which indicates a less good masticatory performance. The median particle sizes were negatively correlated with the number of teeth and number of occlusal units in the obese group. We did not observe large differences in masticatory performance and swallowing variables among the four weight groups, although there was a tendency that individuals of the obese group swallowed larger particles. The results of this study do not support the existence of an "obese chewing style". PMID:26253216

  1. Feed intake, body weight, body condition score, musculation, and immunocompetence in aged mares given equine somatotropin.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, K; Christensen, R A; Konopka, A; Scanes, C G; Hafs, H D

    1997-03-01

    Sixteen 20- to 26-yr-old mares were given 0, 6.25, or 12.5 mg/d equine somatotropin (eST) to determine whether aged mares respond to ST with changes in feed intake, body weight, body condition score (based mostly on fat cover), or immunocompetence. Neither dry matter intake, body weight, nor body condition scores were altered during the 6 wk of eST injection. However, based on photographs taken to evaluate musculation before and after treatment (scores 0 to 4), mares given eST developed greater (P < .07) muscle definition (1.8 +/- .6 and 2.5 +/- .6 for 6.25 and 12.5 mg eST/d, respectively) than control mares (.7 +/- .4). Total circulating leukocytes increased (P < .05) in both of the eST-treated groups during the 6-wk injection period, caused by an increase (P < .05) in granulocytes. Lymphocyte numbers were not altered. Granulocyte oxidative burst activity was not altered by eST treatment. Although lymphocyte proliferative responses to phytohemagglutinin, pokeweed mitogen, or lipopolysaccharide were not altered during the treatment period, lymphocyte proliferation in response to phytohemagglutinin and pokeweed mitogen increased twofold in eST-treated horses at 2 wk after eST treatment. In overview, the increased musculation and the increase in granulocyte numbers in mares given eST suggest that eST supplementation may improve the health and well-being of aged mares. PMID:9078493

  2. Social Stress at Work and Change in Womens Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    KOTTWITZ, Maria U.; GREBNER, Simone; SEMMER, Norbert K.; TSCHAN, Franziska; ELFERING, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Social stressors at work (such as conflict or animosities) imply disrespect or a lack of appreciation and thus a threat to self. Stress induced by this offence to self might result, over time, in a change in body weight. The current study investigated the impact of changing working conditions specifically social stressors, demands, and control at work on womens change in weighted Body-Mass-Index over the course of a year. Fifty-seven women in their first year of occupational life participated at baseline and thirty-eight at follow-up. Working conditions were assessed by self-reports and observer-ratings. Body-Mass-Index at baseline and change in Body-Mass-Index one year later were regressed on self-reported social stressors as well as observed work stressors, observed job control, and their interaction. Seen individually, social stressors at work predicted Body-Mass-Index. Moreover, increase in social stressors and decrease of job control during the first year of occupational life predicted increase in Body-Mass-Index. Work redesign that reduces social stressors at work and increases job control could help to prevent obesity epidemic. PMID:24429516

  3. Role of GABA Release From Leptin Receptor-Expressing Neurons in Body Weight Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yuanzhong; O'Brien, William G.; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Myers, Martin G.

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that leptin regulates energy balance largely through isoform B leptin receptor-expressing neurons (LepR neurons) in the brain and that leptin activates one subset of LepR neurons (leptin-excited neurons) while inhibiting the other (leptin-inhibited neurons). However, the neurotransmitters released from LepR neurons that mediate leptin action in the brain are not well understood. Previous results demonstrate that leptin mainly acts on ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons to reduce body weight, and that leptin activates proopiomelanocortin neuron activity by reducing GABA release onto these neurons, suggesting a body weight-promoting role for GABA released from leptin-inhibited neurons. To directly examine the role of GABA release from LepR neurons in body weight regulation, mice with disruption of GABA release specifically from LepR neurons were generated by deletion of vesicular GABA transporter in LepR neurons. Interestingly, these mice developed mild obesity on chow diet and were sensitive to diet-induced obesity, which were associated with higher food intake and lower energy expenditure. Moreover, these mice showed blunted responses in both food intake and body weight to acute leptin administration. These results demonstrate that GABA plays an important role in mediating leptin action. In combination with the previous studies that leptin reduces GABA release onto proopiomelanocortin neurons through leptin-inhibited neurons and that disruption of GABA release from agouti gene-related protein neurons, one subset of LepR-inhibited neurons, leads to a lean phenotype, our results suggest that, under our experimental conditions, GABA release from leptin-excited neuron dominates over leptin-inhibited ones. PMID:22334723

  4. Relationship between body satisfaction with self esteemand unhealthy body weight management

    PubMed Central

    Daniali, Shahrbanoo; Azadbakht, Leila; Mostafavi, Firoozeh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: A favorable or unfavorable attitude about self was named self esteem. According to Maslow theory to achieve quality of life and happiness, one must reach the gradual fulfillment of human needs, including a high degree of own self-esteem. Body dissatisfaction is a negative distortion of one's body which is especially mentioned by the women. Many studies have shown links between self esteem, body dissatisfaction, health and behaviors. this study intends to determine relationship between body satisfaction, self esteem and unhealthy weight control behaviors between women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 408 women employees in Isfahan University and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences during 1390. They were chosen according to the stratified random sampling method. Inclusion criteria were 1) willing to participate in the study and 2) lack of serious physical defect 3) not being in pregnancy or breastfeeding course. Exclusion criteria was filling out questionnaires incompletely. Data collection tool was a multidimensional questionnaire which comprised of 4 sections as following: demographic (5items), A self-administrative questionnaire for body Satisfaction (7 items), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (10 items) and a standard Weight Control Behavior Scale (18 items). Cranach's alpha was 0.9 or higher for the different sections. Finally, collected data was analyzed with SPSS18 using the independent T-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient, regression, Spearman correlation. Results: Frequencies of participants by weight category were 14.1% for obese, 35.3% for overweight, 47.6% for normal weight. The mean body satisfaction score in the studied women was 63.26 16.27 (from 100). Mean score of self esteem was 76.70 10.45. 51.5% of women had medium self esteem, 47.5% had high self esteem. Pearson correlation showed that the variables of body Satisfaction (r = 0.3, P = 0.02), BMI (r = - 0.14, P < 0.003), education level (r = 0.22, P < 0.001), income (r = 0.14, P < 0.004), consumption of fruit (r = 0.13, P < 0.008) all correlated with self-esteem significantly. Women with higher self esteem used higher fruits had a good nutrition overall (r = 0.11, P = 0.02). 92.15%, 10.8% of women respectively participated in one of healthy and unhealthy weight control behavior. There was not any Relationship between self esteem and healthy weight control behavior while finding showed reverse relationship between self esteem and Unhealthy Dieting Behaviors. Conclusion: It seemed women identity in our society tied to social appreciations that formed and supported by body satisfaction. When they feel their current appearance is differ from ideal appearance, they feel down and have lower self esteem and used unhealthy dieting behavior and low fruits daily. Due to importance of precise self evaluation, self esteem can be used to design and conduct public health programs, especially for women. PMID:24083279

  5. Restricted selection index in mice designed to change body fat without changing body weight: correlated responses.

    PubMed

    Eisen, E J

    1992-07-01

    Correlated responses were studied in lines of mice selected for eight generations based on the criterion of a restricted selection index. Two replicate lines were selected in each treatment as follows: HE, high epididymal fat pad weight (EF) with zero change in body weight (BW) at 12 weeks of age; LE; low EF with zero change in BW; and RS, randomly. Correlated responses showed considerable variation between replicates, suggesting that genetic drift was important. Further, correlated responses for most traits were relatively small, probably because of low selection intensity. The HE line responded as expected in component traits of the restricted index. Associated compositional traits in HE responded as predicted since traits correlated with adiposity increased and hind carcass weight did not change significantly. Feed intake increased and feed efficiency (weight gain/feed intake) decreased in HE, as predicted. In contrast, the LE line did not respond in component traits as predicted since EF did not decrease and BW increased. Consequently, LE exhibited little change in traits associated with adiposity, but hind carcass weight, feed intake and feed efficiency increased. Of the correlated responses scored for fitness traits (littering rate, number of days from pairing of mate to littering, litter size and preweaning pup survival rate), significant effects were found for decreased littering rate in LE and increased prenatal survival rate in HE. In summary, correlated responses to restricted index selection generally agreed with expectation when responses in component traits of the index were considered. PMID:24203189

  6. Nutrigenomics of Body Weight Regulation: A Rationale for Careful Dissection of Individual Contributors

    PubMed Central

    Keijer, Jaap; Hoevenaars, Femke P. M.; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie; van Schothorst, Evert M.

    2014-01-01

    Body weight stability may imply active regulation towards a certain physiological condition, a body weight setpoint. This interpretation is ill at odds with the world-wide increase in overweight and obesity. Until now, a body weight setpoint has remained elusive and the setpoint theory did not provide practical clues for body weight reduction interventions. For this an alternative theoretical model is necessary, which is available as the settling point model. The settling point model postulates that there is little active regulation towards a predefined body weight, but that body weight settles based on the resultant of a number of contributors, represented by the individual’s genetic predisposition, in interaction with environmental and socioeconomic factors, such as diet and lifestyle. This review refines the settling point model and argues that by taking body weight regulation from a settling point perspective, the road will be opened to careful dissection of the various contributors to establishment of body weight and its regulation. This is both necessary and useful. Nutrigenomic technologies may help to delineate contributors to body weight settling. Understanding how and to which extent the different contributors influence body weight will allow the design of weight loss and weight maintenance interventions, which hopefully are more successful than those that are currently available. PMID:25338273

  7. Estrogen receptor–α in medial amygdala neurons regulates body weight

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pingwen; Cao, Xuehong; He, Yanlin; Zhu, Liangru; Yang, Yongjie; Saito, Kenji; Wang, Chunmei; Yan, Xiaofeng; Hinton, Antentor Othrell; Zou, Fang; Ding, Hongfang; Xia, Yan; Yan, Chunling; Shu, Gang; Wu, San-Pin; Yang, Bin; Feng, Yuxin; Clegg, Deborah J.; DeMarchi, Richard; Khan, Sohaib A.; Tsai, Sophia Y.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Wu, Qi; Tong, Qingchun; Xu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen receptor–α (ERα) activity in the brain prevents obesity in both males and females. However, the ERα-expressing neural populations that regulate body weight remain to be fully elucidated. Here we showed that single-minded–1 (SIM1) neurons in the medial amygdala (MeA) express abundant levels of ERα. Specific deletion of the gene encoding ERα (Esr1) from SIM1 neurons, which are mostly within the MeA, caused hypoactivity and obesity in both male and female mice fed with regular chow, increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity (DIO) in males but not in females, and blunted the body weight–lowering effects of a glucagon-like peptide-1–estrogen (GLP-1–estrogen) conjugate. Furthermore, selective adeno-associated virus-mediated deletion of Esr1 in the MeA of adult male mice produced a rapid body weight gain that was associated with remarkable reductions in physical activity but did not alter food intake. Conversely, overexpression of ERα in the MeA markedly reduced the severity of DIO in male mice. Finally, an ERα agonist depolarized MeA SIM1 neurons and increased their firing rate, and designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drug–mediated (DREADD-mediated) activation of these neurons increased physical activity in mice. Collectively, our results support a model where ERα signals activate MeA neurons to stimulate physical activity, which in turn prevents body weight gain. PMID:26098212

  8. [The effect of anabolic androgenic steroids on muscle strength, body weight and lean body mass in body-building men].

    PubMed

    Se, M; Jensen, K L; Gluud, C

    1989-03-01

    A review of the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) on muscle strength, body weight and lean body mass in body-building men is presented. In about half of the placebo-controlled studies, a significant effect on the above mentioned response variables is found. In all cases where an effect was achieved, the drug used was methandrostenolone or stanozolol. Whether this is connected with a special quality of these AAS or whether the negative results achieved with the other AAS are caused by type 2 error is not yet known. The use of AAS as ergogenic drugs must be deprecated because of their marginal effects, the risks of side effects and the unsporting, unethical aspects. PMID:2922825

  9. Strategies to increase vegetable or reduce energy and fat intake induce weight loss in adults.

    PubMed

    Tanumihardjo, Sherry A; Valentine, Ashley R; Zhang, Zhumin; Whigham, Leah D; Lai, HuiChuan J; Atkinson, Richard L

    2009-05-01

    For obese individuals seeking to optimize health and well-being, healthy dietary strategies are important. Vegetables and fruits contribute to a healthy diet, and increased consumption may cause weight reduction by displacing foods high in energy and fat. The objective of this study was to determine if advising high vegetable (8 servings) and moderate fruit (2-3 servings) consumption would result in weight reduction in obese individuals. We compared this to advising a more traditional strategy of reducing daily energy intake by 500 kcal (2.1 MJ)/d and limiting energy from fat to Weight and body composition were measured at baseline and after 3, 12, and 18 mo. Fasting serum lipid panel, insulin, glucose, hematocrit, and C-reactive protein were measured at baseline, 3, and 12 mo. Both groups lost weight after 3 mo (P=0.0087 for high vegetable diet and P<0.0001 for energy reduction diet), and the energy and fat reduction diet resulted in lower weight over time (P<0.0001, treatment effect). Total cholesterol and cholesterol:HDL decreased after 3 mo in both groups (Pweight loss at 3 mo, but only the group following the caloric and fat reduction advice maintained weight loss at the 12- and 18-mo follow-up assessments. Nonetheless, the group following the high vegetable advice did not regain weight above baseline. In conclusion, traditional messages to reduce calories and fat are important, and increasing vegetable intake can assist individuals to maintain weight. PMID:19234056

  10. A Cognitive Approach to Reducing Stereotypic Body Rocking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estevis, Anne Hailey; Koenig, Alan J.

    1994-01-01

    A cognitive behavior management approach was used with an eight-year-old boy with congenital blindness who exhibited body rocking. Results suggest that body rocking could be significantly reduced by having the subject develop and use a self-monitoring script in conjunction with an alternate behavior to rocking. (JDD)

  11. Shuttle-food consumption, body composition and body weight in women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Frye, Sherrie; Kloeris, Vickie; Rice, Barbara; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Spector, Elisabeth; Gretebeck, Randall J.

    1992-01-01

    An experiment is conducted to determine whether the NASA Space Shuttle food system can provide the food and fluid required to mitigate weight loss and physical decomposition in 12 female subjects for 28 days. Subjects receive only foods from the Space Shuttle system for four weeks within an 11-wk monitoring period. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is employed throughout the trial period to study lean body mass, percent body fat, and energy-intake levels with attention given to differences the experimental diet and the subjects' typical diet. Percent body fat is found to change significantly with losses of less than 0.05 percent, whereas energy intake based on autonomous diet choices by the participants does not vary significantly. Lean body mass remains unchanged throughout the study in which the subjects receive a relatively low-fat and low-protein menu. The 100 items on the space shuttle list of approved food items are shown to provide a palatable dietary framework for maintaining the health of female astronauts.

  12. Association of Smoking with Body Weight in US High School Students, 1999-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Jiang, Nan; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the association of current smoking with body mass index (BMI) and perceived body weight among high school students in the United States. Methods: We analyzed data from the 1999-2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results: Perceived body weight and BMI were associated with adolescents' current smoking. Adjusted odds ratios…

  13. Association of Smoking with Body Weight in US High School Students, 1999-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Jiang, Nan; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the association of current smoking with body mass index (BMI) and perceived body weight among high school students in the United States. Methods: We analyzed data from the 1999-2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results: Perceived body weight and BMI were associated with adolescents' current smoking. Adjusted odds ratios

  14. [Effect of a low-energy diet on body weight and body composition after one year treatment].

    PubMed

    Grzybek, Agnieszka; Pachocka, Lucyna; Targosz, Urszula; Kłosiewicz-Latoszek, Longina

    2006-01-01

    Implementation of a lowenergy diet is recommended for overweight and obesity treatment. However, some patients gain weight after successful body weight reduction achieved at the beginning. This study was aimed to evaluate body weight and body composition changes in subjects with BMI > or = 25 after 1 year of a low-energy diet. The study group consisted of 70 women, aged 47.3, BMI 37.5 kg/m2 and 25 men, aged 42.4, BMI 37.1 kg/m2. 1000 kcal diet was recommended for women and 1500 kcal diet for men. Body weight measurement and body composition assessment by BIA were performed at entry and every 2 months of the study. Subjects were divided in 2 groups: I--patients with body weight reduction achieved after 6 and 12 months of treatment (38 women, 16 men), II--subjects who lost weight in first 6 months and gained weight in the next 6 months (32 women, 9 men). After 1 year treatment averaged body weight reduction in women was 11.9% +/- 8.6, in men 13.9% +/- 8.3. In women from group I body weight decrement was 16.4 +/- 11.2 kg (15 +/- 9%), and in women from group II 7.5 +/- 7.7 kg, (8.1 +/- 6.7%), respectively. Men in group I lost 22 +/- 14.3 kg (16.7 +/- 8.7%), men in group II 8.8 +/- 5.3 kg (9 +/- 5.3%). 10% body weight reduction after 1 year was achieved in 29 women (41.4%) and in 16 men (64%). In group I changes of body weight in 6-12 months were related to body weight decrement in the first 6 months, in group II this correlation was not stated. Effect of treatment achieved in 6-12 months was not related to age. Implementation of a low energy diet resulted in body weight reduction, the goal of treatment--10% body weight decrement, was achieved in 41.4% women and in 64% men. PMID:17479857

  15. Rapid Changes of Body Weight after a Headstand: A Metrological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Acua-Espinoza, Alejandro; Aragn-Vargas, Luis Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent rules from amateur wrestling sport-governing bodies intended to discourage extreme weight loss measures, wrestling culture still includes varied methods to make weight, including holding a headstand position immediately before stepping on the scale. The procedure, according to the notion, will reduce reported mass anywhere between 250 and 500g (weight between 2.45 and 4.89 N). The aim of this study was to compare any possible differences between the headstand procedure (HS) and a normal (CON) weight measure, using a metrological approach defined by the European Association of National Metrology Institutes. Seventeen adult men were weighed on a force plate before and after doing a headstand or standing normally for 30s. The order of treatment application was assigned randomly. Post-test weight was significantly larger than pre-test (means.d.) (640.762.8 N and 640.362.7 N, respectively, p<0.0001) under both treatments. No treatment vs. time of test interaction was found. No significant difference was found between CON and HS weight (640.662.8 N and 640.962.9 N, respectively, p=0.3815). The metrological tests suggest that the statistical differences found are related to the force plate measuring errors in every pre-established time interval. The 45g (0.44 N) difference found between pretest and post-test lies within the uncertainty range identified for the equipment (110 g or 1.08 N). In conclusion, a 30-second headstand has no significant effect on registered body weight. The small variations obtained were due to equipment-associated measuring errors. This experiment offers systematic empirical evidence to aid in the elimination of this unjustified practice among the wrestling community. PMID:25993631

  16. Self-perception of body weight, weight management practices and goals, and other weight-related factors in central and eastern European adolescents.

    PubMed

    Page, Randy M; Ihsz, Ferenc; Uvacsek, Martina; Kalabiska, Irn; Johnson, Erin; Hantiu, Iacob; Klarova, Renata; Simonek, Jaromir

    Self-perception of body weight, management practices and goals, and other weight-related factors were assessed among a sample of 2,566 adolescents from 30 high schools in Hungary, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Romania, Ukraine, and Poland. Students who perceived themselves as much too fat were more likely than those with other weight perceptions to engage in weight management practices to lose weight, have higher body mass index, rate themselves lower on physical attractiveness, and estimate higher percentages of their same-sex friends as trying to lose weight. Similar to other research, boys and girls differed on self-perception of weight and other weight-related factors. Cross-cultural comparisons between central and eastern European adolescents and U.S. adolescents, as well as east and southeast Asian youth are made. Implications for health education practice are discussed. PMID:18039628

  17. Body weight and health-related quality of life in Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Oliva-Moreno, Juan; Gil-Lacruz, Ana

    2013-02-01

    Obesity poses important burdens not only on the individuals whose quality of life is reduced but on national welfare systems that have to face growing premature mortality rates, increase healthcare expenditures to treat obesity-related diseases, and earmark vast amounts of healthcare resources for prevention. The main goal of this paper is to analyze the relationship between excess body weight and different dimensions of health-related quality of life for people 16 years and older and to identify the health dimensions most affected by excess weight. We have drawn data from the Catalonia Health Survey (2006). Our results reveal a relationship between excess weight and health-related quality of life. Even after controlling for socio-economic status and objective health variables, excess weight is shown to have a significant negative effect on health-related quality of life. Subjects responses revealed that the negative effect of excess weight was felt the strongest in the health-related quality of life dimensions of mobility and pain/discomfort. Our results indicate there are important differences among gender and age groups. Women and older people are more likely to suffer from the negative consequences of excess weight. PMID:21853339

  18. Linseed Dietary Fibers Reduce Apparent Digestibility of Energy and Fat and Weight Gain in Growing Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Mette; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik; Jrgensen, Henry; Oomah, David; Bgel, Susanne; Toubro, Sren; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fibers (DF) may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group): low DF control (C), 5% DF from cellulose (5-CEL), CEL + 5% DF from whole (5-WL) or ground linseed (5-GL), CEL + 5% DF from linseed DF extract (5-LDF), and CEL + 10% DF from linseed DF extract (10-LDF). Diets were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Feed intake and faecal output were measured during days 1721. Faecal fat excretion increased with increasing DF content and was highest in the 10-LDF group. Apparent fat digestibility was highest with the C diet (94.9% 0.8%) and lowest (74.3% 0.6%) with the 10-LDF diet, and decreased in a non-linear manner with increasing DF (p < 0.001). Apparent fat digestibility also decreased with increased accessibility of DF (5-WL vs. 5-GL) and when the proportion of viscous DF increased (5-GL vs. 5-LDF). The 10-LDF resulted in a lower final body weight (258 6.2 g) compared to C (282 5.9 g), 5-CEL (281 5.9 g), and 5-WL (285 5.9 g) (p < 0.05). The 10-LDF diet reduced body fat compared to 5-CEL (p < 0.01). In conclusion, DF extracted from linseed reduced apparent energy and fat digestibility and resulted in restriction of body weight gain in growing rats. PMID:23966109

  19. Prospect theory and body mass: characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices. PMID:25852628

  20. Prospect theory and body mass: characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices. PMID:25852628

  1. Daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable intake, and water consumption: a feasible and effective long-term weight loss maintenance approach.

    PubMed

    Akers, Jeremy D; Cornett, Rachel A; Savla, Jyoti S; Davy, Kevin P; Davy, Brenda M

    2012-05-01

    Maintenance of weight loss remains a challenge for most individuals. Thus, practical and effective weight-loss maintenance (WTLM) strategies are needed. A two-group 12-month WTLM intervention trial was conducted from June 2007 to February 2010 to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of a WTLM intervention for older adults using daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable (F/V) intake, and water consumption. Forty weight-reduced individuals (mean weight lost=6.70.6 kg; body mass index [calculated as kg/m] 29.21.1), age 631 years, who had previously participated in a 12-week randomized controlled weight-loss intervention trial, were instructed to record daily body weight, step count, and F/V intake (WEV [defined as weight, exercise, and F/V]). Experimental group (WEV+) participants were also instructed to consume 16 fl oz of water before each main meal (ie, three times daily), and to record daily water intake. Outcome measures included weight change, diet/physical activity behaviors, theoretical constructs related to health behaviors, and other clinical measures. Statistical analyses included growth curve analyses and repeated measures analysis of variance. Over 12 months, there was a linear decrease in weight (?=-0.32, P<0.001) and a quadratic trend (?=0.02, P<0.01) over time, but no group difference (?=-0.23, P=0.08). Analysis of the 365 days of self-reported body weight for each participant determined that weight loss was greater over the study period in the WEV+ group than in the WEV group, corresponding to weight changes of -0.67 kg and 1.00 kg, respectively, and an 87% greater weight loss (?=-0.01, P<0.01). Overall compliance to daily tracking was 76%5%. Daily self-monitoring of weight, physical activity, and F/V consumption is a feasible and effective approach for maintaining weight loss for 12 months, and daily self-monitoring of increased water consumption may provide additional WTLM benefits. PMID:22709772

  2. Baseline Anandamide Levels and Body Weight Impact the Weight Loss Effect of CB1 Receptor Antagonism in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Cecilia; Hjorth, Stephan; Karpefors, Martin; Hansson, Gran I.

    2015-01-01

    The individual weight loss response to obesity treatment is diverse. Here we test the hypothesis that the weight loss response to the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant is influenced by endogenous levels of receptor agonists. We show that baseline anandamide levels and body weight independently contribute to predict the treatment response to rimonabant in rodents, demonstrating that addition of biomarkers related to mode of action is relevant for a personalized health care approach to obesity treatment. PMID:25549047

  3. Accuracy of estimation of total body weight by legs and head weight measuring and comparison method in the anesthetized patients

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, Ebrahim; Nasiri, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Context: Accurate patient weight is an important factor in the emergency and operating room departments. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the accuracy of estimation of total body weight by legs and head weight measuring and comparison method in the anesthetized patients. Settings and Design: Education of hospitals, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, prospective, observational study. Subjects and Methods: This is prospective observational study. Nursing staff were asked to estimated weight that knows about a similar person weight on the operating room and matched together, then told his/her guests. They were measured total body weight before anesthesia and then patient head and legs weight after anesthesia. The main outcome was mean weight of these methods and percent accuracy in weight estimation for each group recorded. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistically used. Results: Overall, 57.3% (243/425) of operating personnel estimations were equal with actual weight. 35.4% (150/425) of the estimations were less 10 kg than the actual weight and only 7.3 (31/425) of the estimations were above 5 kg of actual weight. The accuracy of overall estimations by operating personnel and its comparison to the accuracy of legs weight, head, and sum weight by a similar method is demonstrated. Conclusions: Despite having no formula in the critical intensive care and anesthesia region for estimation anesthetized, for comatose patient weight. We can use this formula, but where possible, should be based on measured weight for drug dose calculation and this is not possible, combination of these formulas is suitable. PMID:25885980

  4. GPRC6a is not Required for the Effects of a High-Protein Diet on Body Weight in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kinsey-Jones, James S; Alamshah, Amin; McGavigan, Anne K; Spreckley, Eleanor; Banks, Katherine; Cereceda Monteoliva, Nicholas; Norton, Mariana; Bewick, Gavin A; Murphy, Kevin G

    2015-01-01

    Objective The G-protein coupled receptor family C group 6 member A (GPRC6A) is activated by proteinogenic amino acids and may sense amino acids in the gastrointestinal tract and the brain. The study investigated whether GPRC6A was necessary for the effects of low- and high-protein diets on body weight and food intake in mice. Methods The role of GPRC6A in mediating the effects of a low-protein diet on body weight was investigated in GPRC6a knockout (GPRC6a-KO) and wild-type (WT) mice fed a control diet (18% protein) or a low-protein diet (6% protein) for 9 days. The role of GPRC6A in mediating the effects of a high-protein diet on body weight was investigated in GPRC6a-KO and WT mice fed a control diet (18% protein) or a high-protein diet (50% protein) for 5 weeks. Results A high-protein diet reduced body weight gain and food intake compared with a control diet in both WT and GPRC6a-KO mice. A low-protein diet decreased body weight gain in GPRC6a-KO mice. Conclusions GPRC6A was not necessary for the effects of a low- or high-protein diet on body weight and likely does not play a role in protein-induced satiety. PMID:25958858

  5. Efficacy of Garcinia Cambogia on Body Weight, Inflammation and Glucose Tolerance in High Fat Fed Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sripradha, Ramalingam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity leads to derangements in lipid and glucose homeostasis resulting in various metabolic complications. Plants containing vital phytochemicals are known to posses anti obesity properties and have proved to exert beneficial effects in obesity. Objectives: The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Garcinia Cambogia on body weight, glucose tolerance and inflammation in high fat diet fed male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Five month old male wistar rats (n=40) were divided into four groups. Two groups were fed with standard rodent diet and the remaining two with 30% high fat diet. One group in each of the two sets received the crude ethanolic extract of Garcinia Cambogia at a dose of 400mg/kg body weight/day for ten weeks. Body weight, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, leptin, tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and renal function (urea, creatinine, uric acid) were studied. Results: High fat diet fed rats showed increased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, elevated levels of plasma leptin and TNF-?. Supplementation of Garcinia Cambogia extract (GE) along with high fat diet significantly decreased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, plasma leptin and TNF-? level. No significant changes were observed in the renal function parameters in any of the groups. Conclusion: Supplementation of the Garcinia Cambogia extract with high fat diet reduced body weight gain, inflammation and glucose intolerance. PMID:25859449

  6. Further characterization of diabetes mellitus and body weight loss in males of the congenic mouse strain DDD.Cg-Ay

    PubMed Central

    SUTO, Jun-ichi; SATOU, Kunio

    2014-01-01

    The Ay allele at the agouti locus causes obesity and promotes linear growth in mice. However, body weight gain stops between 16 and 17 weeks after birth, and then, body weight decreases gradually in DDD.Cg-Ay male mice. Body weight loss is a consequence of diabetes mellitus, which is genetically controlled mainly by a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 4. This study aimed to further characterize diabetes mellitus and body weight loss in DDD.Cg-Ay males. The number of β-cells was markedly reduced, and plasma insulin levels were very low in the DDD.Cg-Ay males. Using a backcross progeny of DDD × (B6 × DDD.Cg-Ay) F1-Ay, we identified one significant QTL for plasma insulin levels on distal chromosome 4, which was coincidental with QTL for hyperglycemia and lower body weight. The DDD allele was associated with decreased plasma insulin levels. When the DDD.Cg-Ay males were housed under three different housing conditions [group housing (4 or 5 DDD.Cg-Ay and DDD males), individual housing (single DDD.Cg-Ay male) and single male housing with females (single DDD.Cg-Ay male with DDD.Cg-Ay or DDD females)], diabetes mellitus and body weight loss were most severely expressed in individually housed mice. Thus, the severity of diabetes and body weight loss in the DDD.Cg-Ay males was strongly influenced by the housing conditions. These results demonstrate that both genetic and nongenetic environmental factors are involved in the development of diabetes mellitus and body weight loss in the DDD.Cg-Ay males. PMID:25373882

  7. Can weight management programs in worksites reduce the obesity epidemic?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worksites can potentially be important locations for weight management programs that contribute to curbing the national obesity epidemic. In published studies, weight loss programs targeting overweight and obese employees have been relatively more effective for weight loss than programs for preventi...

  8. Different response of body weight change according to ketonuria after fasting in the healthy obese.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Joo, Nam-Seok; Kim, Kwang-Min; Lee, Duck-Joo; Kim, Sang-Man

    2012-03-01

    The relationship between obesity and ketonuria is not well-established. We conducted a retrospective observational study to evaluate whether their body weight reduction response differed by the presence of ketonuria after fasting in the healthy obese. We used the data of 42 subjects, who had medical records of initial urinalysis at routine health check-up and follow-up urinalysis in the out-patient clinic, one week later. All subjects in the initial urinalysis showed no ketonuria. However, according to the follow-up urinalysis after three subsequent meals fasts, the patients were divided into a non-ketonuria group and ketonuria group. We compared the data of conventional low-calorie diet programs for 3 months for both groups. Significantly greater reduction of body weight (-8.6 ± 3.6 kg vs -1.1 ± 2.2 kg, P < 0.001), body mass index (-3.16 ± 1.25 kg/m(2) vs -0.43 ± 0.86 kg/m(2), P < 0.001) and waist circumference (-6.92 ± 1.22 vs -2.32 ± 1.01, P < 0.001) was observed in the ketonuria group compared to the non-ketonuria group. Fat mass and lean body mass were also more reduced in the ketonuria group. In addition, serum free fatty acid concentration after intervention in the ketonuria group showed significant more increment than in the non-ketonuria group. The presence of ketonuria after fasting may be a predicting factor of further body weight reduction. PMID:22379334

  9. Body composition and power performance improved after weight reduction in male athletes without hampering hormonal balance.

    PubMed

    Huovinen, Heikki T; Hulmi, Juha J; Isolehto, Juha; Kyrlinen, Heikki; Puurtinen, Risto; Karila, Tuomo; Mackala, Krzysztof; Mero, Antti A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 4-week weight reduction period with high protein and reduced carbohydrate intake on body composition, explosive power, speed, serum hormones, and acid-base balance in male track and field jumpers and sprinters. Eight participants were assigned to a high weight reduction group (HWR; energy restriction 750 kcald) and 7 to a low weight reduction group (LWR; energy restriction 300 kcald). Energy and carbohydrate intake decreased significantly (p ? 0.05) only in HWR by 740 330 kcald and 130 29 gd, respectively. Furthermore, total body mass and fat mass decreased (p ? 0.05) only in HWR by 2.2 1.0 kg and 1.7 1.6 kg, respectively. Fat-free mass (FFM), serum testosterone, cortisol, and sex hormone-binding globulin did not change significantly. Ca ion and pH decreased (p ? 0.05) only in HWR (3.1 2.8% and 0.8 0.8%, respectively), whereas (Equation is included in full-text article.)declined (p ? 0.05) in both groups by 19.3 6.2% in HWR and by 13.1 8.5% in LWR. The countermovement jump and 20-m sprint time improved consistently (p ? 0.05) only in HWR, by 2.6 2.5 cm and 0.04 0.04 seconds, respectively. Finally, athletes with a fat percentage of 10% or more at the baseline were able to preserve FFM. In conclusion, altered acid-base balance but improved weight-bearing power performance was observed without negative consequences on serum hormones and FFM after a 4-week weight reduction of 0.5 kgwk achieved by reduced carbohydrate but maintained high protein intake. PMID:25028999

  10. Comparative study on body shape satisfaction and body weight control between Korean and Chinese female high school students

    PubMed Central

    Ro, Yoona

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare body shape satisfaction, body image perception, weight control status, and dietary habits of Korean and Chinese female high school students in order to provide information for proper body image perception of adolescents. 221 students in Yongin, a city in Korea, and 227 students in Weihai, a city in China, were surveyed using questionnaires. Body shape satisfaction was significantly higher in Chinese students (P < 0.001) compared to Korean students. 76.2% of Korean students and 72.7% of Chinese students wanted a thinner body shape than their present body shapes. Experiences of weight control, laxative or diuretics uses, eating during weight control, and vomiting after eating were significantly higher in Korean students (P < 0.05-P < 0.001) compared to Chinese students. The score for dietary habits was significantly higher in Chinese students (P < 0.001) compared to Korean students, suggesting a more desirable dietary habit among Chinese students. Students of both countries showed a significantly positive correlation between body shape satisfaction and dietary habits, suggesting that as body shape satisfaction increases, dietary habits become more desirable. In conclusion, Korean female students showed a more distorted body image perception and had more poor dietary habits than Chinese students. Nutritional education for the establishment of normal body weight, proper body image perception, and healthy dietary habits are needed. PMID:22977688

  11. Estimation of body weight and development of a body weight score for adult equids using morphometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Martinson, K L; Coleman, R C; Rendahl, A K; Fang, Z; McCue, M E

    2014-05-01

    Excessive BW has become a major health issue in the equine (Equus caballus) industry. The objectives were to determine if the addition of neck circumference and height improved existing BW estimation equations, to develop an equation for estimation of ideal BW, and to develop a method for assessing the likelihood of being overweight in adult equids. Six hundred and twenty-nine adult horses and ponies who met the following criteria were measured and weighed at 2 horse shows in September 2011 in Minnesota: age ? 3 yr, height ? 112 cm, and nonpregnant. Personnel assessed BCS on a scale of 1 to 9 and measured wither height at the third thoracic vertebra, body length from the point of shoulder to the point of the buttock, neck and girth circumference, and weight using a portable livestock scale. Individuals were grouped into breed types on the basis of existing knowledge and were confirmed with multivariate ANOVA analysis of morphometric measurements. Equations for estimated and ideal BW were developed using linear regression modeling. For estimated BW, the model was fit using all individuals and all morphometric measurements. For ideal BW, the model was fit using individuals with a BCS of 5; breed type, height, and body length were considered as these measurements are not affected by adiposity. A BW score to assess the likelihood of being overweight was developed by fitting a proportional odds logistic regression model on BCS using the difference between ideal and estimated BW, the neck to height ratio, and the girth to height ratio as predictors; this score was then standardized using the data from individuals with a BCS of 5. Breed types included Arabian, stock, and pony. Mean ( SD) BCS was 5.6 0.9. BW (kg) was estimated by taking [girth (cm)(1.48)6 length (cm)(0.554) height (cm)(0.599) neck (cm)(0.173)]/3,596, 3,606, and 3,441 for Arabians, ponies, and stock horses, respectively (R(2) = 0.92; mean-squared error (MSE) = 22 kg). Ideal BW (kg) was estimated by taking [length (cm) 2.8] + [height (cm) 4.2] - 611, 606, and 577 for Arabians, ponies, and stock horses, respectively (R(2) = 0.86; MSE = 24). Equids with a BCS of ? 7 had a greater likelihood of being overweight, and the model suggested cutoffs at the 48th and 83rd percentiles for underweight and overweight individuals, respectively. Morphometric measurements were successfully used to develop equid BW-related equations. PMID:24663191

  12. Postpartum weight and body condition loss and performance of fall-calving cows.

    PubMed

    Rakestraw, J; Lusby, K S; Wettemann, R P; Wagner, J J

    1986-10-01

    A total of 166 mature fall-calving Hereford cows were used to study the effects of weight and body condition losses on the reproduction of cows and on the performance of their calves. This study was conducted before and during the breeding season over a 3-yr period. The cows calved in a good body condition and were assigned to one of the following treatment groups: the MM group to maintain weight from calving (September - October) through breeding (December - January), the LM group to lose up to 10% of the postpartum weight from calving to the beginning of breeding and to maintain the weight during breeding, and the ML group to maintain weitht from calving to the beginning of breeding and to lose 10 - 15% of the postpartum weight during breeding. Weight losses were adjusted by altering daily amounts of protein supplement and forage. Cows in the LM treatment group lost 3, 17 and 6% of their postpartum weight before breeding in yr 1, 2, and 3, respectively, and they had a 10-d longer (P <0.05) interval from calving to first estrus than MM or ML group cows. The percentage of cows with ovarian activity at the beginning of breeding was reduced (37 vs 64%, P <0.01) for LM compared with MM cows. Treatment-by-year interactions were significant for pregnancy rate and ovarian activity at the end of breeding. In Year1, ML cows lost 14% of postpartum weight during breeding and had reduced (P <0.01) pregnancy rates compared with MM or LM cows (50 vs 79 and 88%). Only 41% of ML cows in Year 1 had luteal activity after estrus compared to 93% for MM and 79% for LM cows. During Year 2, LM cows lost 17% of postpartum weight before breeding, while ML cows lost 6% of their postpartum weight before breeding and 11% during breeding. Pregnancy rates tended to be reduced for both LM and ML cows compared to MM cows (53 and 65 vs 87%, P >0.10). The percentage of cows with ovarian activity at the end of breeding was reduced (P <0.05 for the LM treatment group and tended (P >0.10) to be lower for ML than for MM cows. In Year 3, pregnancy rates were greater (89, 84 and 85% for MM, LM and MM, respectively) for all groups. However, the percentage of cows with luteal activity after estrus was greater (P <0.05 for MM (94%) than for LM and ML (64 and 67%). Calf weaning weights (205 d in April) were not significantly influenced by treatment. We conclude that even if cows have adequate energy reserves at calving (good body condition), optimal reproductive efficiency of fall-calving range cows cannot be ensured. PMID:16726212

  13. Measurements and profiles of body weight misperceptions among Taiwanese teenagers: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ya-Wen; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Liou, Yiing Mei; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Chien, Li-Yin

    2016-03-01

    Children and adolescents tend to lose weight, which may be associated with misperceptions of weight. Previous studies have emphasized establishing correlations between eating disorders and an overestimated perception of body weight, but few studies have focused on an underestimated perception of body weight. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between misperceptions of body weight and weight-related risk factors, such as eating disorders, inactivity, and unhealthy behaviors, among overweight children who underestimated their body weight. We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive study between December 1, 2006 and February 15, 2007. A total of 29,313 children and adolescents studying in grades 4-12 were enrolled in this nationwide, crosssectional survey, and they were asked to complete questionnaires. A multivariate logistic regression using maximum likelihood estimates was used. The prevalence of body weight misperception was 43.2% (26.4% overestimation and 16.8% underestimation). Factors associated with the underestimated perception of weight among overweight children were parental obesity, dietary control for weight loss, breakfast consumption, self-induced vomiting as a weight control strategy, fried food consumption, engaging in vigorous physical activities, and sleeping for >8 hours per day (odds ratios=0.86, 0.42, 0.88, 1.37, 1.13, 1.11, and 1.17, respectively). In conclusion, the early establishment of an accurate perception of body weight may mitigate unhealthy behaviors. PMID:26965769

  14. Effects of protein intake and gender on body composition changes: a randomized clinical weight loss trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Limited data on sex differences in body composition changes in response to higher protein diets (PRO) compared to higher carbohydrate diets (CARB) suggest that a PRO diet helps preserve lean mass (LM) in women more so than in men. Objective To compare male and female body composition responses to weight loss diets differing in macronutrient content. Design Twelve month randomized clinical trial with 4mo of weight loss and 8mo weight maintenance. Subjects Overweight (N = 130; 58 male (M), 72 female (F); BMI = 32.5 ± 0.5 kg/m2) middle-aged subjects were randomized to energy-restricted (deficit ~500 kcal/d) diets providing protein at 1.6 g.kg-1.d-1 (PRO) or 0.8 g.kg-1.d-1 (CARB). LM and fat mass (FM) were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Body composition outcomes were tested in a repeated measures ANOVA controlling for sex, diet, time and their two- and three-way interactions at 0, 4, 8 and 12mo. Results When expressed as percent change from baseline, males and females lost similar amounts of weight at 12mo (M:-11.2 ± 7.1 %, F:-9.9 ± 6.0 %), as did diet groups (PRO:-10.7 ± 6.8 %, CARB:-10.1 ± 6.2 %), with no interaction of gender and diet. A similar pattern emerged for fat mass and lean mass, however percent body fat was significantly influenced by both gender (M:-18.0 ± 12.8 %, F:-7.3 ± 8.1 %, p < 0.05) and diet (PRO:-14.3 ± 11.8 %, CARB:-9.3 ± 11.1 %, p < 0.05), with no gender-diet interaction. Compared to women, men carried an extra 7.0 ± 0.9 % of their total body fat in the trunk (P < 0.01) at baseline, and reduced trunk fat during weight loss more than women (M:-3.0 ± 0.5 %, F:-1.8 ± 0.3 %, p < 0.05). Conversely, women carried 7.2 ± 0.9 % more total body fat in the legs, but loss of total body fat in legs was similar in men and women. Conclusion PRO was more effective in reducing percent body fat vs. CARB over 12mo weight loss and maintenance. Men lost percent total body fat and trunk fat more effectively than women. No interactive effects of protein intake and gender are evident. PMID:22691622

  15. Consuming fire ants reduces northern bobwhite survival and weight gain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, P.E.; Allen, Craig R.; Birge, Hannah E.

    2014-01-01

    Northern bobwhite quail, Colinus virginianus (L.) (Galliformes: Odontophoridae), population declines are well documented, but pinpointing the reasons for these decreases has proven elusive. Bobwhite population declines are attributed primarily to loss of habitat and land use changes. This, however, does not entirely explain population declines in areas intensively managed for bobwhites. Although previous research demonstrates the negative impact of red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on northern bobwhites, the mechanisms underlying this effect are largely unknown. To meet the protein demands of early growth and development, bobwhite chicks predominantly consume small insects, of which ants are a substantial proportion. Fire ants alter ant community dynamics by often reducing native ant diversity and abundance while concurrently increasing the abundance of individuals. Fire ants have negative effects on chicks, but they are also a large potential protein source, making it difficult to disentangle their net effect on bobwhite chicks. To help investigate these effects, we conducted a laboratory experiment to understand (1) whether or not bobwhites consume fire ants, and (2) how the benefits of this consumption compare to the deleterious impacts of bobwhite chick exposure to fire ants. Sixty bobwhite chicks were separated into two groups of 30; one group was provided with starter feed only and the second group was provided with feed and fire ants. Bobwhite chicks were observed feeding on fire ants. Chicks that fed on fire ants had reduced survival and weight gain. Our results show that, while fire ants increase potential food sources for northern bobwhite, their net effect on bobwhite chicks is deleterious. This information will help inform land managers and commercial bobwhite rearing operations.

  16. Does this book make me look fat? The effect of protagonist body weight and body esteem on female readers' body esteem.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Melissa J; Magee, Robert G

    2013-03-01

    Effects of visual representations of the thin ideal in the media have been widely explored, but textual representations of the thin ideal in novels have received scant attention. The chick literature genre has been criticized for depicting characters who worry about their body weight and who have poor body esteem. Excerpts from two chick lit novels were used to examine the effect of a protagonist's body weight and body esteem on college women's (N=159) perceptions of their sexual attractiveness and weight concern. Two narratives were used to minimize the possibility that idiosyncratic characteristics of one excerpt might influence the study's results. Underweight (vs. healthy weight) protagonists predicted readers' lower perceived sexual attractiveness. Protagonists with low body esteem (vs. control) predicted readers' increased weight concern. Scholars and health officials should be concerned about the effect chick lit novels might have on women's body image. PMID:23219006

  17. Exploring body weight, voluntary activity, and intrinsic value in rats.

    PubMed

    Brinegar, Jennifer L; Wood, Kaylen P; Sims, William D

    2011-10-01

    Modeling activity-based anorexia, food-deprived rats consistently show that activity increases as weight decreases. This effect was explored in 8 food-deprived, Sprague-Dawley rats as potentially mediated by intrinsic value of activity. Running-wheel activity rates were recorded for free-fed weight, reduction to 90% of free-fed weight, and to 80% of free-fed weight. As expected, activity increased as weight decreased. Further, significant differences appeared in the trends of individual run rates when compared across all trials. These individual trends were expressed as varied rates of running, with extreme high and low run rates prevalent. The rewarding nature of exercise itself might serve to predict these trends in individual rats and reveal potential indicators for the development of activity-based anorexia. PMID:22185056

  18. Selected auxological aspects of anorexia nervosa--relations of body weight to body height and menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Krásnicanová, Hana; Veselá, Marie; Vejvalka, Jan; Koutek, Jirí

    2007-08-01

    Specific aspects of therapy of eating disorders in pubescent and adolescent girls are related to unfinished biological development in time of severe malnutrition. Namely the issues of 1) exact determination of recommended body weight (target weight, weight for discharge etc.) on the basis of the exact analysis of the weight history, 2) relation between body weight and menstrual cycle (menarche, amenorrhoea and remenorrhoea) and 3) risk of non-realization of the genetic growth potential (status of linear growth and skeletal maturity) are discussed in this article. The article brings the results of the data analysis of 90 inpatients with anorexia nervosa and the tables of the recommended target weight for adolescents with finished linear growth. The authors emphasize the importance of an exact analysis of growth and weight history and of reflection of biological age in girls with eating disorders for successful and reasonable realimentation therapy. PMID:17693968

  19. Diet-Beverage Consumption and Caloric Intake Among US Adults, Overall and by Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.; Vine, Seanna; Wang, Y. Claire

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined national patterns in adult diet-beverage consumption and caloric intake by body-weight status. Methods. We analyzed 24-hour dietary recall with National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2010 data (adults aged ≥ 20 years; n = 23 965). Results. Overall, 11% of healthy-weight, 19% of overweight, and 22% of obese adults drink diet beverages. Total caloric intake was higher among adults consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) compared with diet beverages (2351 kcal/day vs 2203 kcal/day; P = .005). However, the difference was only significant for healthy-weight adults (2302 kcal/day vs 2095 kcal/day; P < .001). Among overweight and obese adults, calories from solid-food consumption were higher among adults consuming diet beverages compared with SSBs (overweight: 1965 kcal/day vs 1874 kcal/day; P = .03; obese: 2058 kcal/day vs 1897 kcal/day; P < .001). The net increase in daily solid-food consumption associated with diet-beverage consumption was 88 kilocalories for overweight and 194 kilocalories for obese adults. Conclusions. Overweight and obese adults drink more diet beverages than healthy-weight adults and consume significantly more solid-food calories and a comparable total calories than overweight and obese adults who drink SSBs. Heavier US adults who drink diet beverages will need to reduce solid-food calorie consumption to lose weight. PMID:24432876

  20. Perceptions and beliefs about body size, weight, and weight loss among obese African American women: a qualitative inquiry.

    PubMed

    Befort, Christie A; Thomas, Janet L; Daley, Christine M; Rhode, Paula C; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore perceptions and beliefs about body size, weight, and weight loss among obese African American women in order to form a design of weight loss intervention with this target population. Six focus groups were conducted at a community health clinic. Participants were predominantly middle-aged with a mean Body Mass Index of 40.3 +/- 9.2 kg/m(2). Findings suggest that participants (a) believe that people can be attractive and healthy at larger sizes; (b) still feel dissatisfied with their weight and self-conscious about their bodies; (c) emphasize eating behavior as the primary cause for weight gain; (d) view pregnancy, motherhood, and caregiving as major precursors to weight gain; (e) view health as the most important reason to lose weight; (f) have mixed experiences and expectations for social support for weight loss; and (g) prefer treatments that incorporate long-term lifestyle modification rather than fad diets or medication. PMID:17142244

  1. Sociocultural influences and body change strategies in Spanish adolescent boys of different weight status.

    PubMed

    Almenara, Carlos A; Fauquet, Jordi; Lpez-Guimer, Gemma; Pmias-Massana, Montserrat; Snchez-Carracedo, David

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association between sociocultural influences to attain an ideal body and body change strategies (BCS) in Spanish adolescent boys of different weight status. A total of 594 Spanish boys (M=13.94 years, SD=0.20) participated. Measures included in the study were weight status according to body mass index (BMI), sociocultural influences (perceived pressures to attain an ideal body, general internalization of an ideal body, internalization of an athletic-ideal body), BCS to lose/control weight (dieting, healthy and unhealthy weight-control behaviors), and BCS to gain weight and muscles. Underweight boys engaged more frequently in weight-gain behaviors. Overweight boys reported higher levels of perceived sociocultural pressures and general internalization compared to normal-weight boys, and were more likely to be engaged in BCS to lose/control weight compared with the other weight-status groups. There were no differences between groups in terms of internalization of an athletic-ideal body and BCS to increase muscles. Future research and prevention programs should consider male-specific behaviors and weight-status differences. PMID:25261810

  2. [Body weight changes and psychotropic drug treatment: neuroleptics].

    PubMed

    Recasens, C

    2001-01-01

    Weight gain associated with neuroleptics or antipsychotic treatment is well known by psychiatrists, but is too rarely considered as justifying a specific treatment program. Overweight is a risk factor for somatic disorders and can have a negative influence on self-esteem and self-confidence. This can lead to poor observance, and relapse of psychotic symptoms. Some studies try to describe the weight fluctuations according to the different neuroleptics and taking into account other variables like treatment duration, age or sex. Mechanisms of weight gain are less studied, in spite of evidence that neuroleptics interact with receptors of dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, histamine and acetylcholin, all implicated in a way or another, in weight regulation. Antipsychotics, like clozapine and olanzapine, are more concerned with neuroendocrine and neurovegetative interactions, and are responsible for the most severe weight increases. Loxapine and molindone induce weight decreases, and these exceptions are difficult to explain. The paper discusses the clinical and the epidemiological data, and indicates the methodological problems for such studies. Some hypotheses about the pathophysiological aspects of this side effect are made, in regard to growing knowledge about the biological mechanisms of weight regulation. Some solutions for a better consideration and caretaking of patients with such problems or "at risk" treatment are proposed. PMID:11488257

  3. Body Image and Self-Esteem in Normal Weight Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleghorn, Alice A.; Penner, Louis A.

    Research suggests that, in clinical samples, body image disturbances are related to severe eating disorders and problems with self-concept and self-esteem. There have been relatively few studies, however, which have empirically investigated the relation between body image and personality characteristics among normal women. This study investigated…

  4. Gender, smoking and weight concerns: relationship to self-reported body mass index (BMI).

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Isensee, Barbara; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    Concerns about weight have been identified as one motive for cigarette smoking among adolescents, especially females. In this paper we describe a study that links smoking related weight concerns with actual weight, testing if smoking adolescents' weight concerns are reflected in actual weight differences. We surveyed 1738 students (age 11-20) from 12 public schools in Kiel, Germany, assessing smoking status, weight concerns, body satisfaction as well as height and weight. Height and weight measures were transformed into age and sex adjusted body mass index (BMI percentiles). We confirmed a positive association between smoking and weight concerns as well as a profound gender difference in the absolute frequency of weight concerns, with female students having weight concerns almost 4-times as often as male students. However, we found no gender-specific association between smoking and weight concerns. In addition, smoking was completely unrelated to actual weight. If female students had no weight concerns, they were strongly biased towards reporting BMIs far below their respective age group. Unlike weight concerns of males, female weight concerns did not vary with actual deviations from the BMI norm. Together, this study indicates that females are less realistic than males regarding their weight appraisals. One supplementary strategy of preventing females from starting to smoke should be an adjustment of these weight appraisals. PMID:21355495

  5. Phenobarbital effects on weight gain and circadian cycling of food intake and body temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Peraino, C.; Ehret, C.F.; Groh, K.R.; Meinert, J.C.; D'arcy-Gomez, G.

    1980-12-01

    Rats fed a diet supplemented with phenobarbital at a concentration of 0.25% gained less weight than rats fed the unsupplemented diet. The reduced weight gain in the phenobarbital-treated rats accompanied the induction of marked hepatomegaly. Circadian cycling of food consumption in control rats followed a biphasic pattern, with the first feeding episode occurring during the middle of the 12-h dark phase and the second occurring as the dark phase ended. In rats on phenobarbital, eating activity was confined to the first feeding episode, with the level of intake during this interval increasing to compensate for the absence of significant subsequent feeding, so that the daily levels of food consumption were similar in both groups. Measurements of circadian cycling of deep body temperature showed that ingestion of 0.25% dietary phenobarbital approximately doubled the amplitude of the temperature cycle and advanced the time at which peak temperature was attained by aproximately 2 h. It is suggested that the lower weight gain in rats chronically exposed to 0.25% dietary phenobarbital results primarily from alterations in hepatic metabolism, but phenobarbital-mediated changes in the circadian cycling of food intake and deep-body temperature may also contribute to the growth reduction.

  6. Sepsis-induced morbidity in mice: effects on body temperature, body weight, cage activity, social behavior and cytokines in brain

    PubMed Central

    Granger, Jill I.; Ratti, Pietro-Luca; Datta, Subhash C.; Raymond, Richard M.; Opp, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Infection negatively impacts mental health, as evidenced by the lethargy, malaise, and cognitive deficits experienced during illness. These changes in central nervous system processes, collectively termed sickness behavior, have been shown in animal models to be mediated primarily by the actions of cytokines in brain. Most studies of sickness behavior to date have used bolus injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or selective administration of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or IL-6 as the immune challenge. Such models, although useful for determining mechanisms responsible for acute changes in physiology and behavior, do not adequately represent the more complex effects on central nervous system (CNS) processes of a true infection with replicating pathogens. In the present study, we used the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model to quantify sepsis-induced alterations in several facets of physiology and behavior of mice. We determined the impact of sepsis on cage activity, body temperature, food and water consumption and body weights of mice. Because cytokines are critical mediators of changes in behavior and temperature regulation during immune challenge, we also quantified sepsis-induced alterations in cytokine mRNA and protein in brain during the acute period of sepsis onset. We now report that cage activity and temperature regulation in mice that survive are altered for up to 23 days after sepsis induction. Food and water consumption are transiently reduced, and body weight is lost during sepsis. Furthermore, sepsis decreases social interactions for 24 – 48 hours. Finally, mRNA and protein for IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) are upregulated in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and brain stem during sepsis onset, from 6–72 hour post sepsis induction. Collectively, these data indicate that sepsis not only acutely alters physiology, behavior and cytokine profiles in brain, but that some brain functions are impaired for long periods in animals that survive. PMID:23146654

  7. Sepsis-induced morbidity in mice: effects on body temperature, body weight, cage activity, social behavior and cytokines in brain.

    PubMed

    Granger, Jill I; Ratti, Pietro-Luca; Datta, Subhash C; Raymond, Richard M; Opp, Mark R

    2013-07-01

    Infection negatively impacts mental health, as evidenced by the lethargy, malaise, and cognitive deficits experienced during illness. These changes in central nervous system processes, collectively termed sickness behavior, have been shown in animal models to be mediated primarily by the actions of cytokines in brain. Most studies of sickness behavior to date have used bolus injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or selective administration of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1? (IL-1?) or IL-6 as the immune challenge. Such models, although useful for determining mechanisms responsible for acute changes in physiology and behavior, do not adequately represent the more complex effects on central nervous system (CNS) processes of a true infection with replicating pathogens. In the present study, we used the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model to quantify sepsis-induced alterations in several facets of physiology and behavior of mice. We determined the impact of sepsis on cage activity, body temperature, food and water consumption and body weights of mice. Because cytokines are critical mediators of changes in behavior and temperature regulation during immune challenge, we also quantified sepsis-induced alterations in cytokine mRNA and protein in brain during the acute period of sepsis onset. We now report that cage activity and temperature regulation in mice that survive are altered for up to 23 days after sepsis induction. Food and water consumption are transiently reduced, and body weight is lost during sepsis. Furthermore, sepsis decreases social interactions for 24-48 h. Finally, mRNA and protein for IL-1?, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) are upregulated in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and brain stem during sepsis onset, from 6h to 72 h post sepsis induction. Collectively, these data indicate that sepsis not only acutely alters physiology, behavior and cytokine profiles in brain, but that some brain functions are impaired for long periods in animals that survive. PMID:23146654

  8. Cholesterol Metabolism and Body Composition in Women: The Effects of Moderate Weight Loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to determine how moderate weight loss protocol through diet and exercise may affect changes in body composition, to determine the effects of weight loss on cholesterol metabolism, and to examine the relationship between cholesterol metabolism and changes in body composition. Thirt...

  9. Change in Diet, Physical Activity, and Body Weight in Female College Freshman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Scott M.; Black, David R.; Blue, Carolyn L.; Gretebeck, Randall J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine diet, physical activity, and body-weight changes associated with relocation from home to university. Methods: Diet, fitness/physical activity, body-weight parameters and self-efficacy were assessed among 54 freshman women upon college entry and 5 months later. Results: Although caloric intake significantly decreased, a…

  10. Comparison of Methods for Assessing Body Composition Changes during Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyers, Anna M.; Mazzetti, Scott A.; Love, Dawn M.; Gomez, Ana L.; Kraemer, William J.; Volek, Jeff S.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) would detect similar changes in body composition after moderate weight loss. Twenty adults had their body composition measured using DXA and ADP before and after an 8-week weight loss program. Overall, both DXA and ADP detected similar changes in

  11. Change in Diet, Physical Activity, and Body Weight in Female College Freshman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Scott M.; Black, David R.; Blue, Carolyn L.; Gretebeck, Randall J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine diet, physical activity, and body-weight changes associated with relocation from home to university. Methods: Diet, fitness/physical activity, body-weight parameters and self-efficacy were assessed among 54 freshman women upon college entry and 5 months later. Results: Although caloric intake significantly decreased, a

  12. LOTUS 1-2-3-BASED SYSTEM FOR RECORDING AND MAINTAINING BODY WEIGHT OF LABORATORY ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Body weight maintenance is required in a variety of behavioral and physiological studies. C-based animal weighing system is described which features automated data collection and allows for accurate control of body weight in test animals via manipulation of food intake. ajor syst...

  13. Comparison of Methods for Assessing Body Composition Changes during Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyers, Anna M.; Mazzetti, Scott A.; Love, Dawn M.; Gomez, Ana L.; Kraemer, William J.; Volek, Jeff S.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) would detect similar changes in body composition after moderate weight loss. Twenty adults had their body composition measured using DXA and ADP before and after an 8-week weight loss program. Overall, both DXA and ADP detected similar changes in…

  14. Is there evidence for a set point that regulates human body weight?

    PubMed Central

    Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence for the idea that there is biological (active) control of body weight at a given set point. Body weight is the product of genetic effects (DNA), epigenetic effects (heritable traits that do not involve changes in DNA), and the environment. Regulation of body weight is asymmetric, being more effective in response to weight loss than to weight gain. However, regulation may be lost or camouflaged by Western diets, suggesting that the failure of biological control is due mainly to external factors. In this situation, the body’s ‘set point’ (i.e., a constant ‘body-inherent’ weight regulated by a proportional feedback control system) is replaced by various ‘settling points’ that are influenced by energy and macronutrient intake in order for the body to achieve a zero energy balance. In a world of abundance, a prudent lifestyle and thus cognitive control are preconditions of effective biological control and a stable body weight. This idea also impacts future genetic research on body weight regulation. Searching for the genetic background of excess weight gain in a world of abundance is misleading since the possible biological control is widely overshadowed by the effect of the environment. In regard to clinical practice, dietary approaches to both weight loss and weight gain have to be reconsidered. In underweight patients (e.g., patients with anorexia nervosa), weight gain is supported by biological mechanisms that may or may not be suppressed by hyperalimentation. To overcome weight loss-induced counter-regulation in the overweight, biological signals have to be taken into account. Computational modeling of weight changes based on metabolic flux and its regulation will provide future strategies for clinical nutrition. PMID:21173874

  15. Realistic weight perception and body size assessment in a racially diverse community sample of dieters.

    PubMed

    Cachelin, F M; Striegel-Moore, R H; Elder, K A

    1998-01-01

    Recently, a shift in obesity treatment away from emphasizing ideal weight loss goals to establishing realistic weight loss goals has been proposed; yet, what constitutes "realistic" weight loss for different populations is not clear. This study examined notions of realistic shape and weight as well as body size assessment in a large community-based sample of African-American, Asian, Hispanic, and white men and women. Participants were 1893 survey respondents who were all dieters and primarily overweight. Groups were compared on various variables of body image assessment using silhouette ratings. No significant race differences were found in silhouette ratings, nor in perceptions of realistic shape or reasonable weight loss. Realistic shape and weight ratings by both women and men were smaller than current shape and weight but larger than ideal shape and weight ratings. Compared with male dieters, female dieters considered greater weight loss to be realistic. Implications of the findings for the treatment of obesity are discussed. PMID:9526972

  16. ZResponse to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between body weight and body size in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2012-03-01

    To quantify the response to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between weight and size of Litopenaeus vannamei, the body weight (BW), total length (TL), body length (BL), first abdominal segment depth (FASD), third abdominal segment depth (TASD), first abdominal segment width (FASW), and partial carapace length (PCL) of 5-month-old parents and of offspnng were measured by calculating seven body measunngs of offspnng produced by a nested mating design. Seventeen half-sib families and 42 full-sib families of L. vannamei were produced using artificial fertilization from 2-4 dams by each sire, and measured at around five months post-metamorphosis. The results show that hentabilities among vanous traits were high: 0.515±0.030 for body weight and 0.394±0.030 for total length. After one generation of selection. the selection response was 10.70% for offspring growth. In the 5th month, the realized heritability for weight was 0.296 for the offspnng generation. Genetic correlations between body weight and body size were highly variable. The results indicate that external morphological parameters can be applied dunng breeder selection for enhancing the growth without sacrificing animals for determining the body size and breed ability; and selective breeding can be improved significantly, simultaneously with increased production.

  17. Anthropometry and Body Composition Status during Ramadan among Higher Institution Learning Centre Staffs with Different Body Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Rozano, Nurismalina; Abd Hadi, Norhayati; Mat Nor, Mohd Nasir; Dandinasivara Venkateshaiah, Muralidhara

    2013-01-01

    This study was done to observe the anthropometry and body composition changes before, during, and after the holy month of Ramadan. This study was carried out on 46 staff from one of the local universities, which comprised of 14 males and 32 females ranging in age from 25 to 40 years old. There were four sessions done to complete this study, namely, a week before Ramadan (T1), 1st week of Ramadan (T2), 3rd week of Ramadan (T3), and a month after Ramadan (T4). All subjects were assessed according to weight, body circumference, and body composition status. It was found that subjects with different weight status showed a significant reduction in weight (P < 0.01) but no significant reduction in body fat percentage (P < 0.05). The findings suggest that weight reduction does not promise a reduction in body fat. Changes in neck circumference were only found in normal subjects. Hence, it can be said that overweight and obese subjects showed no changes in anthropometry status during Ramadan. No changes in body composition were reported in all three weight groups except for trunk body fat. In conclusion, normal subjects showed significant changes in various anthropometry parameters, but overweight and obese subjects showed no obvious difference. PMID:24311975

  18. Body Dissatisfaction and Weight-Related Teasing: A Model of Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression Among Women

    PubMed Central

    Benas, Jessica S.; Uhrlass, Dorothy J.; Gibb, Brandon E.

    2015-01-01

    Although a number of studies have linked body dissatisfaction to depressive symptoms, few have done so within the framework of a vulnerability-stress model. We hypothesized that womens levels of body dissatisfaction would interact with recent experiences of vulnerability-congruent negative life events (i.e., weight-related teasing) to predict prospective changes in depressive symptoms. Consistent with these hypotheses, experiences of weight-related teasing were more strongly related to depressive symptom increases among women with high, compared to low, levels of body dissatisfaction. These results support the hypothesis that body dissatisfaction moderates the impact of weight-related teasing on depressive symptom changes. PMID:20382374

  19. Mechanisms of body weight reduction and metabolic syndrome alleviation by tea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chung S; Zhang, Jinsong; Zhang, Le; Huang, Jinbao; Wang, Yijun

    2016-01-01

    Tea, a popular beverage made from leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis, has been shown to reduce body weight, alleviate metabolic syndrome, and prevent diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in animal models and humans. Such beneficial effects have generally been observed in most human studies when the level of tea consumption was three to four cups (600-900 mg tea catechins) or more per day. Green tea is more effective than black tea. In spite of numerous studies, the fundamental mechanisms for these actions still remain unclear. From a review of the literature, we propose that the two major mechanisms are: (i) decreasing absorption of lipids and proteins by tea constituents in the intestine, thus reducing calorie intake; and (ii) activating AMP-activated protein kinase by tea polyphenols that are bioavailable in the liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissues. The relative importance of these two mechanisms depends on the types of tea and diet consumed by individuals. The activated AMP-activated protein kinase would decrease gluconeogenesis and fatty acid synthesis and increase catabolism, leading to body weight reduction and metabolic syndrome alleviation. Other mechanisms and the health relevance of these beneficial effects of tea consumption remain to be further investigated. PMID:26577614

  20. Effects of Native Banana Starch Supplementation on Body Weight and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Type 2 Diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Ble-Castillo, Jorge L.; Aparicio-Trápala, María A.; Francisco-Luria, Mateo U.; Córdova-Uscanga, Rubén; Rodríguez-Hernández, Arturo; Méndez, José D.; Díaz-Zagoya, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    Few fiber supplements have been studied for physiological effectiveness. The effects of native banana starch (NBS) and soy milk (control) on body weight and insulin sensitivity in obese type 2 diabetics were compared using a blind within-subject crossover design. Subjects undertook two phases of 4-week supplementation either with NBS or soy milk. Patients on NBS lost more body weight than when they were on control treatment. Plasma insulin and HOMA-I were reduced after NBS consumption, compared with baseline levels, but not significantly when compared to the control treatment. Results support the use of NBS as part of dietary fiber supplementation. PMID:20623003

  1. Variance Component Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis for Body Weight Traits in Purebred Korean Native Chicken.

    PubMed

    Cahyadi, Muhammad; Park, Hee-Bok; Seo, Dong-Won; Jin, Shil; Choi, Nuri; Heo, Kang-Nyeong; Kang, Bo-Seok; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Jun-Heon

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) is a particular region of the genome containing one or more genes associated with economically important quantitative traits. This study was conducted to identify QTL regions for body weight and growth traits in purebred Korean native chicken (KNC). F1 samples (n = 595) were genotyped using 127 microsatellite markers and 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms that covered 2,616.1 centi Morgan (cM) of map length for 26 autosomal linkage groups. Body weight traits were measured every 2 weeks from hatch to 20 weeks of age. Weight of half carcass was also collected together with growth rate. A multipoint variance component linkage approach was used to identify QTLs for the body weight traits. Two significant QTLs for growth were identified on chicken chromosome 3 (GGA3) for growth 16 to18 weeks (logarithm of the odds [LOD] = 3.24, Nominal p value = 0.0001) and GGA4 for growth 6 to 8 weeks (LOD = 2.88, Nominal p value = 0.0003). Additionally, one significant QTL and three suggestive QTLs were detected for body weight traits in KNC; significant QTL for body weight at 4 weeks (LOD = 2.52, nominal p value = 0.0007) and suggestive QTL for 8 weeks (LOD = 1.96, Nominal p value = 0.0027) were detected on GGA4; QTLs were also detected for two different body weight traits: body weight at 16 weeks on GGA3 and body weight at 18 weeks on GGA19. Additionally, two suggestive QTLs for carcass weight were detected at 0 and 70 cM on GGA19. In conclusion, the current study identified several significant and suggestive QTLs that affect growth related traits in a unique resource pedigree in purebred KNC. This information will contribute to improving the body weight traits in native chicken breeds, especially for the Asian native chicken breeds. PMID:26732327

  2. Variance Component Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis for Body Weight Traits in Purebred Korean Native Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Cahyadi, Muhammad; Park, Hee-Bok; Seo, Dong-Won; Jin, Shil; Choi, Nuri; Heo, Kang-Nyeong; Kang, Bo-Seok; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Jun-Heon

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) is a particular region of the genome containing one or more genes associated with economically important quantitative traits. This study was conducted to identify QTL regions for body weight and growth traits in purebred Korean native chicken (KNC). F1 samples (n = 595) were genotyped using 127 microsatellite markers and 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms that covered 2,616.1 centi Morgan (cM) of map length for 26 autosomal linkage groups. Body weight traits were measured every 2 weeks from hatch to 20 weeks of age. Weight of half carcass was also collected together with growth rate. A multipoint variance component linkage approach was used to identify QTLs for the body weight traits. Two significant QTLs for growth were identified on chicken chromosome 3 (GGA3) for growth 16 to18 weeks (logarithm of the odds [LOD] = 3.24, Nominal p value = 0.0001) and GGA4 for growth 6 to 8 weeks (LOD = 2.88, Nominal p value = 0.0003). Additionally, one significant QTL and three suggestive QTLs were detected for body weight traits in KNC; significant QTL for body weight at 4 weeks (LOD = 2.52, nominal p value = 0.0007) and suggestive QTL for 8 weeks (LOD = 1.96, Nominal p value = 0.0027) were detected on GGA4; QTLs were also detected for two different body weight traits: body weight at 16 weeks on GGA3 and body weight at 18 weeks on GGA19. Additionally, two suggestive QTLs for carcass weight were detected at 0 and 70 cM on GGA19. In conclusion, the current study identified several significant and suggestive QTLs that affect growth related traits in a unique resource pedigree in purebred KNC. This information will contribute to improving the body weight traits in native chicken breeds, especially for the Asian native chicken breeds. PMID:26732327

  3. Influence of ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms on body weight and body composition changes after a controlled weight-loss intervention.

    PubMed

    Szendrei, Barbara; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Amigo, Teresa; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Benito, Pedro J; Gomez-Candela, Carmen; Calderón, Francisco J; Cupeiro, Rocío

    2016-03-01

    The β-2 and β-3 adrenergic receptors (ADRB2 and ADRB3) are thought to play a role in energy expenditure and lipolysis. However, the effects of the ADRB2 glutamine (Gln) 27 glutamic acid (glutamate) (Glu) and ADRB3 tryptophan (Trp) 64 arginine (Arg) polymorphisms on weight loss remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these polymorphisms on changes in weight and body composition during a controlled weight-loss program. One hundred seventy-three healthy overweight and obese participants (91 women, 82 men) aged 18-50 years participated in a 22-week-long intervention based on a hypocaloric diet and exercise. They were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: strength, endurance, strength and endurance combined, and physical activity recommendations only. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), and body composition variables were assessed before and after the intervention. Genetic analysis was carried out according to standard protocols. No effect of the ADRB2 gene was shown on final weight, BMI, or body composition, although in the supervised male group, Glu27 carriers tended to have greater weight (p = 0.019, 2.5 kg) and BMI (p = 0.019, 0.88 kg/m(2)) reductions than did noncarriers. There seems to be an individual effect of the ADRB3 polymorphism on fat mass (p = 0.004) and fat percentage (p = 0.036), in addition to an interaction with exercise for fat mass (p = 0.038). After the intervention, carriers of the Arg64 allele had a greater fat mass and fat percentage than did noncarriers (p = 0.004, 2.8 kg). In conclusion, the ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms may influence weight loss and body composition, although the current evidence is weak; however, further studies are necessary to clarify their roles. PMID:26888112

  4. LOCATION OF BODY FAT AMONG WOMEN WHO ACCURATELY OR INACCURATELY PERCEIVE THEIR WEIGHT STATUS.

    PubMed

    Rote, Aubrianne E; Klos, Lori A; Swartz, Ann M

    2015-10-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated location of body fat, with specific focus on abdominal fat, among normal weight and overweight women who accurately or inaccurately perceived their weight status. Young, adult women (N = 120; M age = 19.5 yr., SD = 1.2) were asked to classify their weight status using the Self-Classified Weight subscale from the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire. Actual weight status was operationalized via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Overweight women who thought they were normal weight had an average of 19 pounds more fat than normal weight women with 1.5 pounds of excess abdominal fat. Interventions to raise awareness among overweight women unaware of their fat level are warranted. However, these interventions should balance consideration of potential detriments to body image among these women. PMID:26474442

  5. A systematic review and meta-analysis of changes in body weight in clinical trials of vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Neal D; Levin, Susan M; Yokoyama, Yoko

    2015-06-01

    In observational studies, vegetarians generally have lower body weights compared with omnivores. However, weight changes that occur when vegetarian diets are prescribed have not been well quantified. We estimated the effect on body weight when vegetarian diets are prescribed. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for articles through December 31, 2013. Additional articles were identified from reference lists. We included intervention trials in which participants were adults, interventions included vegetarian diets of ≥4 weeks' duration without energy intake limitations, and effects on body weight were reported. Two investigators independently extracted data using predetermined fields. Estimates of body weight change, comparing intervention groups to untreated control groups, were derived using a random effects model to estimate the weighted mean difference. To quantify effects on body weight of baseline weight, sex, age, study duration, study goals, type of diet, and study authorship, additional analyses examined within-group changes for all studies reporting variance data. We identified 15 trials (17 intervention groups), of which 4 included untreated controls. Prescription of vegetarian diets was associated with a mean weight change of -3.4 kg (95% CI -4.4 to -2.4; P<0.001) in an intention-to-treat analysis and -4.6 kg (95% CI -5.4 to -3.8; P<0.001) in a completer analysis (omitting missing post-intervention values). Greater weight loss was reported in studies with higher baseline weights, smaller proportions of female participants, older participants, or longer durations, and in studies in which weight loss was a goal. Using baseline data for missing values, I(2) equaled 52.3 (P=0.10), indicating moderate heterogeneity. When missing data were omitted, I(2) equaled 0 (P=0.65), indicating low heterogeneity. Studies are relatively few, with variable quality. The prescription of vegetarian diets reduces mean body weight, suggesting potential value for prevention and management of weight-related conditions. PMID:25620754

  6. Osteocalcin carboxylation is not associated with body weight or percent fat changes during weight loss in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Centi, Amanda J; Booth, Sarah L; Gundberg, Caren M; Saltzman, Edward; Nicklas, Barbara; Shea, M Kyla

    2015-12-01

    Osteocalcin (OC) is a vitamin K-dependent bone protein used as a marker of bone formation. Mouse models have demonstrated a role for the uncarboxylated form of OC (ucOC) in energy metabolism, including energy expenditure and adiposity, but human data are equivocal. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between changes in measures of OC and changes in body weight and percent body fat in obese, but otherwise healthy post-menopausal women undergoing a 20-week weight loss program. All participants received supplemental vitamins K and D and calcium. Body weight and body fat percentage (%BF) were assessed before and after the intervention. Serum OC [(total (tOC), ucOC, percent uncarboxylated (%ucOC)], and procollagen type 1N-terminal propeptide (P1NP; a measure of bone formation) were measured. Women lost an average of 10.93.9 kg and 4%BF. Serum concentrations of tOC, ucOC, %ucOC, and P1NP did not significantly change over the twenty-week intervention, nor were these measures associated with changes in weight (all p>0.27) or %BF (all p>0.54). Our data do not support an association between any serum measure of OC and weight or %BF loss in post-menopausal women supplemented with nutrients implicated in bone health. PMID:25963022

  7. Effect of previous diet on feed intake and body weight gain of broiler and Leghorn chicks.

    PubMed

    Newcombe, M; Summers, J D

    1984-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of previous diet on feed intake and weight gain, in the subsequent period, for broiler and Leghorn cockerels. Three dietary treatments, consisting of 20% protein and either 2400, 2800, or 3200 kcal Me/kg, were fed in combinations consisting of three, 2-week periods, with nine combinations in all. The experimental design was balanced for residual effects, and period weight gains and feed intake were determined. Analysis of the data by period indicated that treatments by residual interactions were confined to the final period. Therefore, it was concluded that diets fed in the previous two periods may be acting in combination to effect weight gain and feed intake in the final period. Examination of the pooled period data indicated that for optimum performance, broilers required a dietary regimen consisting of increased calorie-to-protein ratios with time while Leghorns required lower calorie-to-protein ratios. Type differences were also observed in the ability to adapt to high protein, low intakes: Leghorns grew optimally but body weight gain for broilers was reduced with such a feeding program. PMID:6739413

  8. The Effect of Mannan Oligosaccharide Supplementation on Body Weight Gain and Fat Accrual in C57Bl/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Daniel L.; Nagy, Tim R.; Wilson, Landon S.; Dong, Shengli; Barnes, Stephen; Allison, David B.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in industrialized societies has become markedly elevated. In contrast, model organism research shows that reducing caloric intake below ad libitum levels provides many health and longevity benefits. Despite these benefits, few people are willing and able to reduce caloric intake over prolonged periods. Prior research suggests that mannooligosaccharide (MOS or Mannan) supplementation can increase lifespan of some livestock and in rodents can reduce visceral fat without reducing caloric intake. Hence, we tested the effect of MOS supplementation as a possible calorie restriction mimetic in mice. C57Bl/6J male mice were fed a high-fat western type diet with or without 1% MOS (by weight) supplementation (n=24/group) from 8 to 20 weeks of age. Animals were housed individually and provided 95% of ad libitum food intake throughout the study. Body weight was measured weekly and body composition (lean and fat mass) measured non-invasively every 3 weeks. Individual fat depot weights were acquired by dissection at study completion. Supplementation of a high-fat diet with 1% MOS tended to reduce total food intake (means.d.; CON: 293.6910.53g, MOS: 288.1011.82g; p=0.09) during the study. Moreover, MOS supplementation had no significant effect on final body weight (CON: 25.212.31g, MOS: 25.281.49g; p=0.91), total fat (CON: 4.720.90g, MOS: 4.820.83g; p=0.69) or visceral fat (CON: 1.0480.276g, MOS: 1.0040.247g; p=0.57). Contrary to previous research, MOS supplementation had no discernable effect on body weight gain or composition during this 12-week study, challenging the potential use of MOS as a calorie restriction mimetic or body composition enhancer. PMID:19798073

  9. The effect of mannan oligosaccharide supplementation on body weight gain and fat accrual in C57Bl/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Daniel L; Nagy, Tim R; Wilson, Landon S; Dong, Shengli; Barnes, Stephen; Allison, David B

    2010-05-01

    The prevalence of obesity in industrialized societies has become markedly elevated. In contrast, model organism research shows that reducing caloric intake below ad libitum levels provides many health and longevity benefits. Despite these benefits, few people are willing and able to reduce caloric intake over prolonged periods. Prior research suggests that mannooligosaccharide (MOS or mannan) supplementation can increase lifespan of some livestock and in rodents can reduce visceral fat without reducing caloric intake. Hence, we tested the effect of MOS supplementation as a possible calorie restriction (CR) mimetic (CRM) in mice. C57Bl/6J male mice were fed a high-fat "western" type diet with or without 1% MOS (by weight) supplementation (n = 24/group) from 8 to 20 weeks of age. Animals were housed individually and provided 95% of ad libitum food intake throughout the study. Body weight was measured weekly and body composition (lean and fat mass) measured noninvasively every 3 weeks. Individual fat depot weights were acquired by dissection at study completion. Supplementation of a high-fat diet with 1% MOS tended to reduce total food intake (mean +/- s.d.; control (CON): 293.69 +/- 10.53 g, MOS: 288.10 +/- 11.82 g; P = 0.09) during the study. Moreover, MOS supplementation had no significant effect on final body weight (CON: 25.21 +/- 2.31 g, MOS: 25.28 +/- 1.49 g; P = 0.91), total fat (CON: 4.72 +/- 0.90 g, MOS: 4.82 +/- 0.83 g; P = 0.69), or visceral fat (CON: 1.048 +/- 0.276 g, MOS: 1.004 +/- 0.247 g; P = 0.57). Contrary to previous research, MOS supplementation had no discernable effect on body weight gain or composition during this 12-week study, challenging the potential use of MOS as a CRM or body composition enhancer. PMID:19798073

  10. Social aspects of body image: perception of normalcy of weight and affect of college undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Gray, S H

    1977-12-01

    Two aspects of body image, perception of normalcy of weight and affect, were studied by means of a paper-and-pencil test with 62 male and 117 female undergraduates. The relationship of the social characteristics of sex, age, race, and actual body weight (underweight, normal weight, overweight) to body-image distortion was investigated. Individuals who were underweight or overweight were more likely to perceptually distort their weight-related appearance than were normal weight respondents. Among those who misperceived their weight-related appearance, both underweight and overweight persons tended to normalize their appearance. Among those who misperceived their weight-related appearance, sex was also related to the type of perceptual distortion experienced. Females tended to perceive themselves as appearing heavier, whereas males tended to perveive themselves as appearing lighter, than they actually were. There was no relationship between perceptual distortion of body weight and body affect. Age, race, and actual body weight were related to affect. Affect was more negative among young respondents than older respondents. White individuals had poorer affect scores than non-whites. Overweight respondents also had more negative affect scores than other respondents. PMID:604876

  11. Body Weight and Matching with a Physically Attractive Romantic Partner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmalt, Julie H.; Cawley, John; Joyner, Kara; Sobal, Jeffery

    2008-01-01

    Matching and attribute trade are two perspectives used to explain mate selection. We investigated patterns of matching and trade, focusing on obesity, using Add Health Romantic Pair data (N = 1,405 couples). Obese individuals, relative to healthy weight individuals, were less likely to have physically attractive partners, with this disadvantage

  12. Body Weight and the Quality of Interpersonal Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Deborah; Friedman, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate whether underweight, normal-weight, overweight, and obese Americans differ in their evaluations of positive and negative aspects of their interpersonal relationships. Analyses are based on data from the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study, a survey of more than 3,000 adults ages 25 to 74 in 1995. We find no

  13. Stability of Pigeon Body Weight under Free-Feeding Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Brian D.; Branch, Marc N.

    2006-01-01

    Increases in regulatory oversight of animal research require verification of effects of standard practices. There are no formal guidelines for establishing free-feeding weights in adult pigeons. In the present study, pigeons were obtained from a commercial supplier, weighed upon arrival, and then held in quarantine for 7 days with free access to

  14. Stability of Pigeon Body Weight under Free-Feeding Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Brian D.; Branch, Marc N.

    2006-01-01

    Increases in regulatory oversight of animal research require verification of effects of standard practices. There are no formal guidelines for establishing free-feeding weights in adult pigeons. In the present study, pigeons were obtained from a commercial supplier, weighed upon arrival, and then held in quarantine for 7 days with free access to…

  15. Longitudinal Trajectories of Perceived Body Weight: Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Li, Kaigang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine longitudinal trajectories of perceived weight from adolescence to early adulthood by gender. Methods: We analyzed 9 waves (1997-2005) of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 8302) using Mplus. Results: Perceived overweight increased over time among girls and did not level off until 23 years of age. Blacks…

  16. Longitudinal Trajectories of Perceived Body Weight: Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Li, Kaigang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine longitudinal trajectories of perceived weight from adolescence to early adulthood by gender. Methods: We analyzed 9 waves (1997-2005) of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 8302) using Mplus. Results: Perceived overweight increased over time among girls and did not level off until 23 years of age. Blacks

  17. Maternal low-dose estradiol-17β exposure during pregnancy impairs postnatal progeny weight development and body composition

    SciTech Connect

    Werner Fürst, Rainer; ZIEL PhD Graduate school ‘Epigenetics, Imprinting and Nutrition’, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan ; Pistek, Veronika Leopoldine; Kliem, Heike; Skurk, Thomas; Hauner, Hans; Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, 81675 München ; Meyer, Heinrich Herman Dietrich; Ulbrich, Susanne Ernestine

    2012-09-15

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals with estrogenic activity play an important role as obesogens. However, studies investigating the most potent natural estrogen, estradiol-17β (E2), at low dose are lacking. We examined endocrine and physiological parameters in gilts receiving distinct concentrations of E2 during pregnancy. We then investigated whether adverse effects prevail in progeny due to a potential endocrine disruption. E2 was orally applied to gilts during the entire period of pregnancy. The concentrations represented a daily consumption at the recommended ADI level (0.05 μg/kg body weight/day), at the NOEL (10 μg/kg body weight/day) and at a high dosage (1000 μg/kg body weight/day). Plasma hormone concentrations were determined using enzyme immuno assays. Offspring body fat was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. In treated gilts receiving 1000 μg E2/kg body weight/day we found significantly elevated plasma E2 levels during pregnancy, paralleled by an increased weight gain. While offspring showed similar weight at birth, piglets exhibited a significant reduction in weight at weaning even though their mothers had only received 0.05 μg E2/kg body weight/day. At 8 weeks of age, specifically males showed a significant increase in overall body fat percentage. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to low doses of E2 affected pig offspring development in terms of body weight and composition. In line with findings from other obesogens, our data suggest a programming effect during pregnancy for E2 causative for the depicted phenotypes. Therefore, E2 exposure may imply a possible contribution to childhood obesity. -- Highlights: ► We investigate the potential role of estradiol-17β (E2) as an obesogen. ► We orally apply E2 at the ADI, NOEL and a high dose to gilts during pregnancy. ► Offspring weight is similar at birth but reduced at weaning even after ADI treatment. ► Male offspring only exhibit an increase in overall body fat percentage prepubertally. ► E2 appears as an endocrine disruptor that might contribute to childhood obesity.

  18. Smaller weight changes in standarized body mass index in response to treatment as weight classification increases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to compare the differential efficacy of a weight loss program for Mexican-American children who are overweight, obese, and severely obese. Study participants were enrolled in an intensive weight loss intervention aimed at improving eating and physical activity behaviors with behavi...

  19. Longitudinal body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The longitudinal trajectories of body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers have not been evaluated using precise body composition methods. This study investigated the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring body composition traj...

  20. A Longitudinal Study of Body Image and Strategies to Lose Weight and Increase Muscles among Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, M. P.; Ricciardelli, L. A.

    2005-01-01

    A longitudinal study was used to examine age differences in the role of body mass index (BMI) and sociocultural pressures in predicting changes in body image and strategies to both lose weight and increase muscles among 443 children aged between 8 and 12 years (207 boys, 236 girls) over a 16-month period. The strongest predictors of body image and

  1. A Longitudinal Study of Body Image and Strategies to Lose Weight and Increase Muscles among Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, M. P.; Ricciardelli, L. A.

    2005-01-01

    A longitudinal study was used to examine age differences in the role of body mass index (BMI) and sociocultural pressures in predicting changes in body image and strategies to both lose weight and increase muscles among 443 children aged between 8 and 12 years (207 boys, 236 girls) over a 16-month period. The strongest predictors of body image and…

  2. Mothers' and Fathers' Perceptions of Their Adolescent Daughters' Shape, Weight, and Body Esteem: Are They Accurate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Josie; Srikameswaran, Suja; Zaitsoff, Shannon L.; Cockell, Sarah J.; Poole, Gary D.

    2003-01-01

    Examined parents' awareness of their daughters' attitudes, beliefs, and feelings about their bodies. Sixty-six adolescent daughters completed an eating disorder scale, a body figure rating scale, and made ratings of their shape and weight. Greater discrepancies between parents' estimates of daughters' body esteem and daughters' self-reported body…

  3. Depressed Mood and Body Weight: Exploring Race Differences in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Christie-Mizell, C. Andre

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 1994-1998 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged Mother and Young Adult file, this article examines the relationship between depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI) in adolescence. The authors also examine whether this relationship varies by race and gender. Their findings indicate that over a 4-year

  4. Familial correlates of adolescent girls' physical activity, television use, dietary intake, weight, and body composition

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The family environment offers several opportunities through which to improve adolescents' weight and weight-related behaviors. This study aims to examine the cross-sectional relationships between multiple factors in the family environment and physical activity (PA), television use (TV), soft drink intake, fruit and vegetable (FV) intake, body mass index (BMI), and body composition among a sample of sociodemographically-diverse adolescent girls. Methods Subjects included girls (mean age = 15.7), 71% of whom identified as a racial/ethnic minority, and one of their parents (dyad n = 253). Parents completed surveys assessing factors in the family environment including familial support for adolescents' PA, healthful dietary intake, and limiting TV use; parental modeling of behavior; and resources in the home such as availability of healthful food. Girls' PA and TV use were measured by 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) and dietary intake by survey measures. BMI was measured by study staff, and body fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Hierarchical linear regression models tested individual and mutually-adjusted relationships between family environment factors and girls' outcomes. Results In the individual models, positive associations were observed between family support for PA and girls' total PA (p = .011) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (p=.016), home food availability and girls' soft drink (p < .001) and FV (p < .001) intake, and family meal frequency and girls' FV intake (p = .023). Across the individual and mutually-adjusted models, parental modeling of PA, TV, and soft drink and FV intake was consistently associated with girls' behavior. Conclusions Helping parents improve their physical activity and dietary intake, as well as reduce time watching television, may be an effective way to promote healthful behaviors and weight among adolescent girls. PMID:21453516

  5. Hepatocyte β-Klotho regulates lipid homeostasis but not body weight in mice.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kanako; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Okada, Sadanori; Morimoto, Yuki; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Manio, Mark Christian C; Inoue, Kazuo; Kimura, Kumi; Yagi, Takashi; Saito, Yoshihiko; Fushiki, Tohru; Inoue, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Michihiro; Nabeshima, Yo-Ichi

    2016-02-01

    β-Klotho (β-Kl), a transmembrane protein expressed in the liver, pancreas, adipose tissues, and brain, is essential for feedback suppression of hepatic bile acid synthesis. Because bile acid is a key regulator of lipid and energy metabolism, we hypothesized potential and tissue-specific roles of β-Kl in regulating plasma lipid levels and body weight. By crossing β-kl(-/-) mice with newly developed hepatocyte-specific β-kl transgenic (Tg) mice, we generated mice expressing β-kl solely in hepatocytes (β-kl(-/-)/Tg). Gene expression, metabolomic, and in vivo flux analyses consistently revealed that plasma level of cholesterol, which is over-excreted into feces as bile acids in β-kl(-/-), is maintained in β-kl(-/-) mice by enhanced de novo cholesterogenesis. No compensatory increase in lipogenesis was observed, despite markedly decreased plasma triglyceride. Along with enhanced bile acid synthesis, these lipid dysregulations in β-kl(-/-) were completely reversed in β-kl(-/-)/Tg mice. In contrast, reduced body weight and resistance to diet-induced obesity in β-kl(-/-) mice were not reversed by hepatocyte-specific restoration of β-Kl expression. We conclude that β-Kl in hepatocytes is necessary and sufficient for lipid homeostasis, whereas nonhepatic β-Kl regulates energy metabolism. We further demonstrate that in a condition with excessive cholesterol disposal, a robust compensatory mechanism maintains cholesterol levels but not triglyceride levels in mice.-Kobayashi, K., Tanaka, T., Okada, S. Morimoto, Y., Matsumura, S., Manio, M. C. C., Inoue, K., Kimura, K., Yagi, T., Saito, Y., Fushiki, T., Inoue, H., Matsumoto, M., Nabeshima, Y. Hepatocyte β-Klotho regulates lipid homeostasis but not body weight in mice. PMID:26514166

  6. Relationships among body mass index, parental perceptions, birthweight and parental weight after referral to a weight clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Mark G.; Clark, Kathryn M.; Foster, Carol M.; Welch, Kathleen B.; Kasa-Vubu, Josephine Z.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether, in a specialty referral clinic, parental perceptions of their child's obesity were commensurate with the child's body mass index z score. Secondarily, we examined the impact of birth weight and parental body mass index on their child's body mass index z score and review results of an intake questionnaire. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study SETTING: University of Michigan from March 21, 2003 through June 30, 2004 PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-two children ages 1-20.2 years of age INTERVENTION: Body mass index z score for all participants was calculated. An intake questionnaire was completed by caregivers in which they were asked to describe their child as little overweight, overweight, very overweight or obese. OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean body mass index z score was compared to each parental descriptor. Regression analysis related body mass index z score to birthweight and parental body mass index. RESULTS: Body mass index z score was not related to parental descriptors. Maternal body mass index and child birthweight were predictors of the child's body mass index z score (r2=0.15, p<0.05; and r2=0.11, p<0.05, respectively). Both together produced a better model than either alone (r2=0.23, p<0.05). There was no relationship between paternal and child body mass index z score (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There is a divergence between the parental perception of childhood obesity and the clinical definition that persists even in the context of an explicit referral. Given the significant impact of maternal weight on childhood overweight, education for prevention of overweight youth should encompass prenatal, early childhood and adolescent health maintenance. PMID:17722669

  7. High school students' body weight control: differences between athletes and non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Mikulan, Rita; Piko, Bettina E

    2012-03-01

    Due to chronic dissatisfaction with body weight in youth, efforts to lose weight often lead to pathological dietary behaviours. Regular and heavy sports activity may contribute to the optimization of body weight, not only by elevating the energy utilization but also by increasing the health consciousness and the tendency to self-monitor. Research generally finds a beneficial role of extracurricular sports activity in body weight control. Therefore, we aim to analyze how regular, heavy sports activity (more precisely, competitive sports) may contribute to body weight control among two groups of youth: athletes and non-athletes. Our study was carried out using 347 adolescents; among them there were 91 athletes and 259 controls. The subjects completed self-administered questionnaires concerning their body weight control and dietary habits. We found that girls were less satisfied with their body weight and reported dieting more frequently with a greater emphasis on healthy dieting than boys. Sport influenced these strong gender differences only regarding healthy dieting, young male athletes laid a larger emphasis on healthy diets than their non-athlete counterparts, therefore their attitude became similar to that of female athletes and non-athletes. We conclude that despite the normal weight in high school students, episodes of dieting that might contribute to eating disorders were quite frequent. This was not influenced by the students' extracurricular sports activity. A greater monitoring of male athletes' and their friend's diet draw attention to the need for developing health education programs specific to boys. PMID:22816201

  8. Associations between body weight and depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jia-In; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the associations between body weight and mental health indicators including depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents in Grades 7-12. The body mass index (BMI) of 5254 adolescents was calculated based on self-reported weight and height measurements. Body weight status was determined by the age- and gender-specific International Obesity Task Force reference tables. By using participants of average weight as the reference group, the association between body weight status (underweight, overweight, and obesity) and mental health indicators (depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem) were examined by using multiple regression analysis. The possible moderating effects of sociodemographic characteristics on the association were also examined. After controlling for the effects of sociodemographic characteristics, both overweight (p < 0.05) and obese adolescents (p < 0.001) had a lower level of self-esteem than did those of average weight; however, no significant differences in depression, social phobia, or insomnia were found between those who were overweight/obese and those of average weight. No significant differences in the four mental health indicators were found between those who were underweight and those of average weight. Sociodemographic characteristics had no moderating effect on the association between body weight and mental health indicators. In conclusion, mental health and school professionals must take the association between overweight/obesity and self-esteem into consideration when approaching the issue of mental health among adolescents. PMID:25476101

  9. Probability of an Obese Person Attaining Normal Body Weight: Cohort Study Using Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Fildes, Alison; Charlton, Judith; Rudisill, Caroline; Littlejohns, Peter; Prevost, A. Toby

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the probability of an obese person attaining normal body weight. Methods. We drew a sample of individuals aged 20 years and older from the United Kingdoms Clinical Practice Research Datalink from 2004 to 2014. We analyzed data for 76?704 obese men and 99?791 obese women. We excluded participants who received bariatric surgery. We estimated the probability of attaining normal weight or 5% reduction in body weight. Results. During a maximum of 9 years follow-up, 1283 men and 2245 women attained normal body weight. In simple obesity (body mass index?=?30.034.9 kg/m2), the annual probability of attaining normal weight was 1 in 210 for men and 1 in 124 for women, increasing to 1 in 1290 for men and 1 in 677 for women with morbid obesity (body mass index?=?40.044.9 kg/m2). The annual probability of achieving a 5% weight reduction was 1 in 8 for men and 1 in 7 for women with morbid obesity. Conclusions. The probability of attaining normal weight or maintaining weight loss is low. Obesity treatment frameworks grounded in community-based weight management programs may be ineffective. PMID:26180980

  10. Relationships of cow age and initial cow body weight with calf and cow grazing season weight changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary objective in a study implemented during 1975-2001 on northern mixed-grass prairie at the High Plains Grassland Research Station (HPGRS) near Cheyenne, Wyoming, was to evaluate long-term calf and cow grazing season body weight gain responses under 14 different management practices (e.g. t...

  11. Weight-reducing diets: Are there any differences?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper compares the efficacy of two widely used weight-loss diets differing in macronutrient composition - a low-carbohydrate diet versus a low-fat diet. Although "a calorie is a calorie" under the controlled conditions of a metabolic unit (i.e., only the level of calorie intake matters and not ...

  12. Improving glucose tolerance by reducing weight gain in a polygenic obese mouse model: use of a high protein diet.

    PubMed

    Blair, A R; Strube, M L; Proietto, J; Andrikopoulos, S

    2015-03-01

    Diets to decrease body weight have limited success in achieving and importantly maintaining this weight loss long-term. It has recently been suggested that energy intake can be regulated by the amount of protein ingested, termed the protein leverage hypothesis. In this study, we determined whether a high protein diet would be effective in achieving and maintaining weight loss in a genetically obese model, the New Zealand Obese (NZO) mouse. NZO and C57BL/6J (C57) control mice were fed a high protein or chow diet for 5 weeks from weaning (3 weeks of age). Body weight and food intake were determined. Mice on the same diet were bred to produce offspring that were fed either a chow or high protein diet. Body weight, food intake, and glucose tolerance were determined. Feeding NZO and C57 mice a high protein diet for 5 weeks resulted in reduced food intake and consequently energy intake and body weight gain compared with mice on a chow diet. NZO mice fed a high protein diet showed a significant improvement in glucose tolerance compared with their chow-fed counterparts, while no difference was seen in C57 mice fed chow or protein diet. The offspring of NZO mice that were fed a high protein diet during gestation and weaning were also lighter and displayed improved glucose tolerance compared with chow fed animals. We conclude that a high protein diet is a reasonable strategy to reduce body weight gain and improve glucose tolerance in the NZO mouse, a polygenic model of obesity. PMID:25295419

  13. Linking cellular zinc status to body weight and fat mass: mapping quantitative trait loci in Znt7 knockout mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc transporter 7 (Znt7, Slc30a7) knockout (KO) mice display abnormalities in body weight gain and body adiposity. Regulation of body weight and fatness is complex, involving multiple genetic and environmental factors. To understand how zinc homeostasis influences body weight gain and fat deposit a...

  14. Assessing Body Fat Changes during Moderate Weight Loss with Anthropometry and Bioelectrical Impedance

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad; Eckhauser, Aaron W.; Dorminy, Cindy A.; Dossett, Cynthia M.; Choi, Leena; Buchowski, Maciej S.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Objectives Monitoring changes in total fat mass and abdominal adiposity are important in understanding the impact of different types of weight loss interventions on health risks. Our objective was to assess the usefulness of anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in predicting fat mass changes during moderate weight loss. Subjects/Methods Fat mass changes were assessed in 34 overweight adults (24 females, 10 males) after a 12-week supervised weight loss induced by caloric restriction (?30% of requirement) using BIA and DXA. Agreement between BIA and DXA measurements were assessed by Bland-Altman plots. Linear regression modeling was used to predict body and truncal fat mass from anthropometric measures. Results Diet intervention resulted in a significant decrease in body weight (? 7.86 2.87 kg), body mass index (BMI ? 2.69 0.98 kg/m2), total body fat (? 5.22 2.32 kg), truncal fat (? 2.80 1.94 kg) and waist circumference (? 5.52 3.57 cm). BMI and body weight were highly correlated with body fat (0.83 and 0.92 in females and 0.94 and 0.92 in males respectively) and truncal fat (0.75 and 0.87 in females; 0.90 and 0.84 in males respectively) during weight loss. Waist circumference was more correlated with truncal fat in males than females (0.94 vs. 0.85 in females). Compared to DXA, BIA underestimated total body fat changes in males (? 8.8 kg, p<0.001) and overestimated total body fat changes in females (+ 2.1 kg, p< 0.001). Conclusions Body mass index, body weight, and waist circumference provide simple and more accurate than BIA estimates of relative changes in total and truncal fat during moderate weight loss in adults. PMID:20161645

  15. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars I; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Sejrsen, Kristen; Jeamet, Aymeric; Rune, Ida; Ellekilde, Merete; Nielsen, Dennis S; Hansen, Axel Kornerup

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of PCR-derived 16S rRNA gene (V3-region) amplicons. At the end of the study, plasma samples were collected and assayed for glucose, insulin and lipids. Whey significantly reduced body weight gain during the first four weeks of the study compared with casein (P<0.001-0.05). Hereafter weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.01.0 g vs. 40.21.3 g, P<0.001). Food intake was unaffected by protein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P<0.01) and glucose clearance was improved after an oral glucose challenge (P<0.05). Plasma cholesterol was lowered by whey compared to casein (P<0.001). The composition of the fecal microbiota differed between high- and low-fat groups at 13 weeks (P<0.05) whereas no difference was seen between whey and casein. In conclusion, whey initially reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota composition. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms behind the metabolic effects of whey. PMID:23940754

  16. Physical Activity: An Important Adaptative Mechanism for Body-Weight Control

    PubMed Central

    Finelli, Carmine; Gioia, Saverio; La Sala, Nicolina

    2012-01-01

    We review the current concepts about energy expenditure and evaluate the physical activity (PhA) in the context of this knowledge and the available literature. Regular PhA is correlated with low body weight and low body fat mass. The negative fat balance is probably secondary to this negative energy balance. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) and physical activity, that is crucial for weight control, may be important in the physiology of weight change. An intriguing doubt that remains unresolved is whether changes in nutrient intake or body composition secondarily affect the spontaneous physical activity. PMID:24533208

  17. Weight discrepancy and body appreciation of Zimbabwean women in Zimbabwe and Britain.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Mada, Rujeko; Tovée, Martin J

    2012-09-01

    Few studies have investigated a cultural group's corporeal experiences in both its country of origin and a host, Western country using the same methodology. To overcome this dearth in the literature, the present study examined body image among 140 women in Harare, Zimbabwe, and an age-matched sample of 138 Zimbabwean migrants in Britain. Participants completed measures of actual-ideal weight discrepancy, body appreciation, and lifetime exposure to Western and Zimbabwean media. Preliminary analyses showed that there were no significant differences in body mass index between the two groups. Further analyses showed that Zimbabwean women in Britain had significantly greater weight discrepancy and lower body appreciation than their counterparts in Zimbabwe. In addition, weight discrepancy and body appreciation among both samples were significantly associated with exposure to Western media, but not Zimbabwean media. These findings support the contention that transcultural migration may place individuals at risk for symptoms of negative body image. PMID:22717762

  18. The skinny on cocaine: Insights into eating behavior and body weight in cocaine-dependent men????

    PubMed Central

    Ersche, Karen D.; Stochl, Jan; Woodward, Jeremy M.; Fletcher, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    There is a general assumption that weight loss associated with cocaine use reflects its appetite suppressing properties. We sought to determine whether this was justified by characterizing, in detail, alterations in dietary food intake and body composition in actively using cocaine-dependent individuals. We conducted a cross-sectional case-control comparison of 65 male volunteers from the local community, half of whom satisfied the DSM-IV-TR criteria for cocaine dependence (n=35) while the other half had no personal or family history of a psychiatric disorder, including substance abuse (n=30). Assessments were made of eating behavior and dietary food intake, estimation of body composition, and measurement of plasma leptin. Although cocaine users reported significantly higher levels of dietary fat and carbohydrates as well as patterns of uncontrolled eating, their fat mass was significantly reduced compared with their non-drug using peers. Levels of leptin were associated with fat mass, and with the duration of stimulant use. Tobacco smoking status or concomitant use of medication did not affect the significance of the results. Weight changes in cocaine users reflect fundamental perturbations in fat regulation. These are likely to be overlooked in clinical practice but may produce significant health problems when cocaine use is discontinued during recovery. PMID:23920064

  19. Connecting theory to fat talk: body dissatisfaction mediates the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance, and fat talk.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Analisa

    2014-06-01

    The fat talk literature is meager in terms of offering theoretical explanations for women's self-disparaging communication. The research presented here sought to establish a relationship between three prominent body image theories - self-discrepancy theory, social comparison theory, and objectification theory - and fat talk by proposing body dissatisfaction as a potential mediating mechanism. Young adult women (N=201) completed an online questionnaire. As predicted, results revealed that body dissatisfaction significantly mediated the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance and fat talk. Effect size estimates indicated that the size of each indirect effect was medium in magnitude. PMID:24958666

  20. [Ideal body weight of a young woman--sociocultural and health aspects].

    PubMed

    Kärkkäinen, Ulla; Dadi, Yasmina; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna

    2015-01-01

    A common question made by a young person attending a practice concerns her/his ideal body weight. Culture and health may result in a conflicting definition of good weight. Discontent with one's own body can motivate for successful weight control, but may also lead to unnecessary dieting or disturbed eating. Too strict dieting and accentuating of weight control increase the risk of eating disorders, but on the other hand, adolescent overweight is a risk factor of obesity in adulthood as well. PMID:26245056

  1. Appetite and body weight regulation after bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Münzberg, Heike; Laque, Amanda; Yu, Sangho; Rezai-Zadeh, Kavon; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric surgery continues to be remarkably efficient in treating obesity and T2DM and a debate has started whether it should remain the last resort only or also be used for the prevention of metabolic diseases. Intense research efforts in humans and rodent models are underway to identify the critical mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects with a view towards non-surgical treatment options. This non-systematic review summarizes and interprets some of this literature, with an emphasis on changes in the controls of appetite. Contrary to earlier views, surgery-induced reduction of energy intake and subsequent weight loss appear to be the main drivers for rapid improvements of glycemic control. The mechanisms responsible for suppression of appetite, particularly in the face of the large weight loss, are not well understood. Although a number of changes in food choice, taste functions, hedonic evaluation, motivation, and self-control have been documented in both humans and rodents after surgery, their importance and relative contribution to diminished appetite has not yet been demonstrated. Furthermore, none of the major candidate mechanisms postulated in mediating surgery induced changes from the gut and other organs to the brain, such as gut hormones and sensory neuronal pathways, have been confirmed yet. Future research efforts should focus on interventional rather than descriptive approaches in both humans and rodent models. PMID:25614206

  2. Maternal Body Weight and Gestational Diabetes Differentially Influence Placental and Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Martino, J.; Sebert, S.; Segura, M. T.; García-Valdés, L.; Florido, J.; Padilla, M. C.; Marcos, A.; Rueda, R.; McArdle, H. J.; Budge, H.; Campoy, C.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) can both contribute to adverse neonatal outcomes. The extent to which this may be mediated by differences in placental metabolism and nutrient transport remains to be determined. Objective: Our objective was to examine whether raised maternal body mass index (BMI) and/or GDM contributed to a resetting of the expression of genes within the placenta that are involved in energy sensing, oxidative stress, inflammation, and metabolic pathways. Methods: Pregnant women from Spain were recruited as part of the “Study of Maternal Nutrition and Genetics on the Foetal Adiposity Programming” survey at the first antenatal visit (12–20 weeks of gestation) and stratified according to prepregnancy BMI and the incidence of GDM. At delivery, placenta and cord blood were sampled and newborn anthropometry measured. Results: Obese women with GDM had higher estimated fetal weight at 34 gestational weeks and a greater risk of preterm deliveries and cesarean section. Birth weight was unaffected by BMI or GDM; however, women who were obese with normal glucose tolerance had increased placental weight and higher plasma glucose and leptin at term. Gene expression for markers of placental energy sensing and oxidative stress, were primarily affected by maternal obesity as mTOR was reduced, whereas SIRT-1 and UCP2 were both upregulated. In placenta from obese women with GDM, gene expression for AMPK was also reduced, whereas the downstream regulator of mTOR, p70S6KB1 was raised. Conclusions: Placental gene expression is sensitive to both maternal obesity and GDM which both impact on energy sensing and could modulate the effect of either raised maternal BMI or GDM on birth weight. PMID:26513002

  3. Ipragliflozin Improves Hepatic Steatosis in Obese Mice and Liver Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Irrespective of Body Weight Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Komiya, Chikara; Tsuchiya, Kyoichiro; Shiba, Kumiko; Miyachi, Yasutaka; Furuke, Shunsaku; Shimazu, Noriko; Yamaguchi, Shinobu; Kanno, Kazuo; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with a high incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) related to obesity and insulin resistance. Currently, medical interventions for NAFLD have focused on diet control and exercise to reduce body weight, and there is a requirement for effective pharmacological therapies. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are oral antidiabetic drugs that promote the urinary excretion of glucose by blocking its reabsorption in renal proximal tubules. SGLT2 inhibitors lower blood glucose independent of insulin action and are expected to reduce body weight because of urinary calorie loss. Here we show that an SGLT2 inhibitor ipragliflozin improves hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-induced and leptin-deficient (ob/ob) obese mice irrespective of body weight reduction. In the obese mice, ipragliflozin-induced hyperphagia occurred to increase energy intake, attenuating body weight reduction with increased epididymal fat mass. There is an inverse correlation between weights of liver and epididymal fat in ipragliflozin-treated obese mice, suggesting that ipragliflozin treatment promotes normotopic fat accumulation in the epididymal fat and prevents ectopic fat accumulation in the liver. Despite increased adiposity, ipragliflozin ameliorates obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance in epididymal fat. Clinically, ipragliflozin improves liver dysfunction in patients with T2DM irrespective of body weight reduction. These findings provide new insight into the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on energy homeostasis and fat accumulation and indicate their potential therapeutic efficacy in T2DM-associated hepatic steatosis. PMID:26977813

  4. Ipragliflozin Improves Hepatic Steatosis in Obese Mice and Liver Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Irrespective of Body Weight Reduction.

    PubMed

    Komiya, Chikara; Tsuchiya, Kyoichiro; Shiba, Kumiko; Miyachi, Yasutaka; Furuke, Shunsaku; Shimazu, Noriko; Yamaguchi, Shinobu; Kanno, Kazuo; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with a high incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) related to obesity and insulin resistance. Currently, medical interventions for NAFLD have focused on diet control and exercise to reduce body weight, and there is a requirement for effective pharmacological therapies. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are oral antidiabetic drugs that promote the urinary excretion of glucose by blocking its reabsorption in renal proximal tubules. SGLT2 inhibitors lower blood glucose independent of insulin action and are expected to reduce body weight because of urinary calorie loss. Here we show that an SGLT2 inhibitor ipragliflozin improves hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-induced and leptin-deficient (ob/ob) obese mice irrespective of body weight reduction. In the obese mice, ipragliflozin-induced hyperphagia occurred to increase energy intake, attenuating body weight reduction with increased epididymal fat mass. There is an inverse correlation between weights of liver and epididymal fat in ipragliflozin-treated obese mice, suggesting that ipragliflozin treatment promotes normotopic fat accumulation in the epididymal fat and prevents ectopic fat accumulation in the liver. Despite increased adiposity, ipragliflozin ameliorates obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance in epididymal fat. Clinically, ipragliflozin improves liver dysfunction in patients with T2DM irrespective of body weight reduction. These findings provide new insight into the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on energy homeostasis and fat accumulation and indicate their potential therapeutic efficacy in T2DM-associated hepatic steatosis. PMID:26977813

  5. Obesity, Body Image, Depression, and Weight-control Behaviour Among Female University Students in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Eun Mi; Choi, Seung Bae

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become epidemic worldwide and 31.0% of Korean adults are obese. Obesity is the main cause of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiac disease, and cancer. The purpose of the study was to examine obesity, body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour among Korean female university students and investigate the differences in body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour with respect to obesity. Methods: This study examined obesity, body image, depression, and weight control in 700 female university students from 4 universities in South Korea. To evaluate obesity, both objective obesity (body mass index [BMI]) and subjective obesity (subjectively perceived) were measured. Results: There was a significant difference between objective and subjective obesity (?2 = 231.280, P < 0.001). In addition, the objective obesity group had the lowest body image score (F = 19.867, P < 0.001) and difference in weight-control behaviour (F = 3.145, P = 0.045). Further, the subjective obesity group had the lowest body image score (F = 58.281, P < 0.001). The results revealed a statistically significant difference in body image and weight-control behaviour with respect to objective obesity. Conclusion: Objective and subjective obesity was negatively associated with body image, and no relationships between objective or subjective obesity and depression. PMID:25337594

  6. Explaining rigid dieting in normal-weight women: the key role of body image inflexibility.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Cláudia; Trindade, Inês A; Martinho, Ana

    2016-03-01

    Restrictive dieting is an increasing behavior presented by women in modern societies, independently of their weight. There are several known factors that motivate diet, namely a sense of dissatisfaction with one's body and unfavorable social comparisons based on physical appearance. However, dieting seems to have a paradoxical effect and has been considered a risk factor for weight gain and obesity in women and for maladaptive eating. Nevertheless, the study of the emotional regulation processes that explain the adoption of inflexible and rigid eating behaviors still remains little explored. In this line, the present study aims to explore why normal-weight women engage in highly rigid and inflexible diets. We hypothesize that body and weight dissatisfaction and unfavorable social comparisons based on physical appearance explain the adoption of inflexible eating rules, through the mechanisms of body image inflexibility. The current study comprised 508 normal-weight female college students. Path analyses were conducted to explore the study's hypotheses. Results revealed that the model explained 43 % of inflexible eating and revealed excellent fit indices. Furthermore, the unwillingness to experience unwanted events related to body image (body image inflexibility) mediated the impact of body dissatisfaction and unfavorable social comparisons on the adoption of inflexible eating rules. This study highlights the relevance of body image inflexibility to explain rigid eating attitudes, and it seems to be an important avenue for the development of interventions focusing on the promotion of adaptive attitudes towards body image and eating in young women. PMID:25753131

  7. Role of ??-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms on body weight and body composition response to energy restriction in obese women: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Jonatan R; Larrarte, Eider; Margareto, Javier; Ares, Raquel; Labayen, Idoia

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the role of common ?2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) rs1042714 (Gln27Glu) and rs1042713 (Arg16Gly) polymorphisms on body weight and body composition response to 12-week energy-restricted diet in women. The study comprised 78 Spanish obese (BMI: 34.0 2.8 kg/m) women (age: 36.7 7 years). We measured (before and after the dietary intervention) weight and height, and BMI calculated. Moreover, body fat mass and lean mass (LM) were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. We observed an interaction effect between the Gln27Glu polymorphism and diet-induced changes on body weight (P = 0.006), BMI (P = 0.004), and LM (P = 0.001). Women carrying the Glu allele had a greater reduction in body weight than non-Glu allele carriers (9.5 2.9 vs. 7.0 3.5%, respectively, P = 0.002). Moreover, women with the Glu allele lost more LM than the Gln27Gln group (5.9 2.7 vs. 4.0 2.7%, respectively, P = 0.001). We did not find any significant interaction effect between the Arg16Gly polymorphism and diet-induced changes on the outcome variables (all P > 0.1). The results suggest that the ADRB2 Gln27Glu polymorphism has a modulating effect on diet-induced changes on body weight and body composition, and should be considered in future obesity treatments. These findings should be taken as preliminary and be replicated in further energy restriction studies with larger sample sizes. PMID:20523301

  8. Degree and Direction of Change of Body Weight in Cardiac Rehabilitation and Impact on Exercise Capacity and Cardiac Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Gomadam, Pallavi S; Douglas, Christopher J; Sacrinty, Matthew T; Brady, Molly M; Paladenech, Connie C; Robinson, Killian C

    2016-02-15

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) improves functional capacity and reduces mortality in patients with cardiovascular disease. It also improves cardiovascular risk factors and aids in weight reduction. Because of the increase in morbidly obese patients with cardiovascular disease, the prevalence of obesity and patterns of weight change in those undergoing CR merit fresh study. We studied 1,320 participants in a 12-week CR program at our academic medical center. We compared 5 categories: 69 class III obese (body mass index [BMI] ?40) patients, 128 class II obese patients (BMI 35.0 to 39.9), 318 class I obese patients (BMI 30.0 to 34.9), 487 overweight patients (BMI 25.0 to 29.9), and 318 normal weight patients (BMI 18.5 to 24.9). Exercise capacity in METs, weight, blood pressure, and fasting lipid profile were measured before and after CR. Overall, 131 patients gained weight, 827 had no significant weight change, and 363 lost weight (176 lost 3% to 5% of their baseline weight, 161 lost 5% to 10%, and 26 lost >10%). Exercise capacity, blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol improved in all patients. Class III obese patients had the smallest improvement in peak METs (p <0.001), but the greatest weight loss. Patients who lost >10% of their baseline weight had the greatest improvements in exercise capacity, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides. In conclusion, after CR, a minority of patients lost weight. Most patients had no significant weight change and some even gained weight. The greatest loss was seen in class III obese patients. All patient groups showed improvements in exercise capacity and risk factors, regardless of the direction or degree of weight change. PMID:26768674

  9. Deficiency of Fc?R1 Increases Body Weight Gain but Improves Glucose Tolerance in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Jung; Liu, Conglin; Liao, Mengyang; Sukhova, Galina K; Shirakawa, Jun; Abdennour, Meriem; Iamarene, Karine; Andre, Sebastien; Inouye, Karen; Clement, Karine; Kulkarni, Rohit N; Banks, Alexander S; Libby, Peter; Shi, Guo-Ping

    2015-11-01

    Prior studies demonstrated increased plasma IgE in diabetic patients, but the direct participation of IgE in diabetes or obesity remains unknown. This study found that plasma IgE levels correlated inversely with body weight, body mass index, and body fat mass among a population of randomly selected obese women. IgE receptor Fc?R1-deficient (Fcer1a(-/-)) mice and diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice demonstrated that Fc?R1 deficiency in DIO mice increased food intake, reduced energy expenditure, and increased body weight gain but improved glucose tolerance and glucose-induced insulin secretion. White adipose tissue from Fcer1a(-/-) mice showed an increased expression of phospho-AKT, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-?, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?, glucose transporter-4 (Glut4), and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) but reduced uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) expression, tissue macrophage accumulation, and apoptosis, suggesting that IgE reduces adipogenesis and glucose uptake but induces energy expenditure, adipocyte apoptosis, and white adipose tissue inflammation. In 3T3-L1 cells, IgE inhibited the expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-? and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?, and preadipocyte adipogenesis and induced adipocyte apoptosis. IgE reduced the 3T3-L1 cell expression of Glut4, phospho-AKT, and glucose uptake, which concurred with improved glucose tolerance in Fcer1a(-/-) mice. This study established two novel pathways of IgE in reducing body weight gain in DIO mice by suppressing adipogenesis and inducing adipocyte apoptosis while worsening glucose tolerance by reducing Glut4 expression, glucose uptake, and insulin secretion. PMID:26295369

  10. Evaluation of body weight of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus by computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Liu, Shilin; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    A postichopus japonicus (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata) is an ecological and economic species in East Asia. Conventional biometric monitoring method includes diving for samples and weighing above water, with highly variable in weight measurement due to variation in the quantity of water in the respiratory tree and intestinal content of this species. Recently, video survey method has been applied widely in biometric detection on underwater benthos. However, because of the high flexibility of A. japonicus body, video survey method of monitoring is less used in sea cucumber. In this study, we designed a model to evaluate the wet weight of A. japonicus, using machine vision technology combined with a support vector machine (SVM) that can be used in field surveys on the A. japonicus population. Continuous dorsal images of free-moving A. japonicus individuals in seawater were captured, which also allows for the development of images of the core body edge as well as thorn segmentation. Parameters that include body length, body breadth, perimeter and area, were extracted from the core body edge images and used in SVM regression, to predict the weight of A. japonicus and for comparison with a power model. Results indicate that the use of SVM for predicting the weight of 33 A. japonicus individuals is accurate ( R 2=0.99) and compatible with the power model ( R 2 =0.96). The image-based analysis and size-weight regression models in this study may be useful in body weight evaluation of A. japonicus in lab and field study.

  11. The effect of job loss on body weight during an economic collapse.

    PubMed

    Jnsdttir, Sif; sgeirsdttir, Tinna Laufey

    2014-07-01

    Studies on the relationship between unemployment and body weight show a positive relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and unemployment at the individual level, while aggregate unemployment is negatively related to a population's average BMI. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between job loss and changes in body weight following the Icelandic economic collapse of 2008. The analysis relies on a health and lifestyle survey "Heilsa og lan", carried out by The Public Health Institute of Iceland in the years 2007 and 2009. The sample is a stratified random sample of 9,807 Icelanders between the ages of 18 and 79, with a net response rate of 42.1% for individuals responding in both waves. A linear regression model was used when estimating the relationship between job loss following the economic collapse and changes in body weight. Family income and mental health were explored as mediators. Point estimates indicated that both men and women gain less weight in the event of a job loss relative to those who retained their employment. The coefficients of job loss were only statistically significant for females, but not in the male population. The results from all three models were inconsistent with results from other studies where job loss has been found to increase body weight. However, body weight has been shown to be procyclical, and the fact that the data used were gathered during a severe economic downturn might separate these results from earlier findings. PMID:23757095

  12. Genetics of body weight in the LXS recombinant inbred mouse strains

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Beth; Carosone-Line, Phyllis; Lu, Lu; Chesler, Elissa J; Johnson, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This is the first phenotypic analysis of 75 new recombinant inbred (RI) strains derived from ILS and ISS progenitors. We analyzed body weight in two independent cohorts of female mice at various ages and in males at 60 days. Body weight is a complex trait which has been mapped in numerous crosses in rodents. The LXS RI strains displayed a large range of weights, transgressing those of the inbred progenitors, supporting the utility of this large panel for mapping traits not selected in the progenitors. Numerous QTLs for body weight mapped in singleand multilocus scans. We assessed replication between these and previously reported QTLs based on overlapping confidence intervals of published QTLs for body weight at 60 days and used meta-analyses to determine combined p values for three QTL regions located on Chromosomes 4, 5, and 11. Strain distribution patterns of microsatellite marker genotypes, weight, and other phenotypes are available on Web- QTL (http://www.webqtl.org/search.html) and allow genetic mapping of any heritable quantitative phenotype measured in these strains. We report one such analysis, correlating brain and body weights. Large reference panels of RI strains, such as the LXS, are invaluable for identifying genetic correlations, GXE (Gene X Environment) interactions, and replicating previously identified QTLs.

  13. The impact of migration on body weight: a review.

    PubMed

    Goulo, Beatriz; Santos, Osvaldo; Carmo, Isabel do

    2015-02-01

    Immigrants may be more vulnerable to obesity as a result of the immigration process. The aim of this article is to summarize current knowledge about the impact of immigration on body mass index (BMI). A systematic review was performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines through a database search of scientific articles (last updated in August 2014). Thirty-nine articles were included and assessed. Results varied according to ethnic background, country of origin and host country. A consistent positive association between BMI and time since immigration was found among Hispanic, European and African immigrants. Less than half of the studies observed a positive association among Asian immigrants. The quality of the majority of the studies assessed was poor, reflecting a need to improve methodology and concept definition. Immigration appears to have a deteriorative effect on BMI. Underlying causes may include changes in nutrition and physical activity, psychological and social factors, and genetic susceptibility and these aspects should be included as moderator variables in future studies. PMID:25760158

  14. Neuroanatomy of body weight control: lessons learned from leptin.

    PubMed

    Williams, Diana L; Schwartz, Michael W

    2011-06-01

    Rather than arising from the passive accumulation of excess calories, obesity is a state in which the biologically defended level of body fat stores increases due to defects in the homeostatic process that matches food intake and energy expenditure over time. By deleting leptin receptors from distinct brain regions and neuronal subsets, researchers are beginning to identify the neuroanatomical substrates responsible for this regulation. In this issue of the JCI, Scott et al. demonstrate that loss of leptin receptors in a subset of hindbrain neurons increases food intake in mice, but, unlike what is observed when leptin receptors are deleted from hypothalamic neurons, these mice compensate by increasing energy expenditure and hence do not become obese. Although many brain areas can regulate energy intake and/or energy expenditure, it is likely that only a small subset of neurons actively matches the two over time. It is vital to clarify how this works if we are to improve our understanding of obesity pathogenesis and options available for its treatment. PMID:21606602

  15. Toward a quantitative theory of food consumption choices and body weight.

    PubMed

    Buttet, Sebastien; Dolar, Veronika

    2015-04-01

    We propose a calibrated dynamic model of food consumption choices and body weight to study changes in daily caloric intake, weight, and the away-from-home share of calories consumed by adult men and women in the U.S. during the period between 1971 and 2006. Calibration reveals substantial preference heterogeneity between men and women. For example, utility losses stemming from weight gains are ten times greater for women compared to men. Counterfactual experiments show that changes in food prices and household income account for half of the increase in weight of adult men, but only a small fraction of women's weight. We argue that quantitative models of food consumption choices and body weight have a unique role to play in future research in the economics of obesity. PMID:25453360

  16. Weight concern, body image, and abnormal eating in college women tennis players and their coaches.

    PubMed

    Harris, M B

    2000-03-01

    In order to study weight concerns and eating disorders in women tennis players, 107 women tennis players and 26 women's tennis coaches from colleges across the U.S. responded to questionnaires relating to weight concern, body image, and abnormal eating. When evaluating drawings of female figures, players and coaches both considered the ideal body shape to be smaller than the healthiest one. Most players had normal weight, eating habits, and self-esteem; however, they also exhibited noticeable concern about their weight and appearance. Coaches revealed only moderate knowledge of weight related issues, believed such knowledge to be important, recognized that most of their players were of normal weight, and revealed somewhat negative feelings about overweight people. Players and coaches shared a healthy attitude toward tennis. The results of this study do not imply that college women tennis players are at greater risk of eating disorders than other young women, nor that college coaches are encouraging abnormal eating behaviors PMID:10722777

  17. Alterations in bone forming cells due to reduced weight bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, S. B.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1984-01-01

    A reduction in new bone formation occurred as a result of space flight (Cosmos 1129) and in the suspended animal model of Morey-Holton (1979, 1980). The results indicate that alkaline phosphatase activity of the bone-forming cells is also reduced under these conditions, and the cells in the diaphysis are more affected than those in the metaphyseal region. In addition, these cells show (1) reduced proline incorporation into bone matrix, and (2) increased intracellular lysosomal activity. A change in the cytoskeleton could be the common factor in explaining these results. This suggestion is futher supported by the previous observations that colchicine injections result in decreased osteoblastic function.

  18. Predicting metabolic adaptation, body weight change, and energy intake in humans

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Complex interactions between carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism underlie the body's remarkable ability to adapt to a variety of diets. But any imbalances between the intake and utilization rates of these macronutrients will result in changes in body weight and composition. Here, I present the first computational model that simulates how diet perturbations result in adaptations of fuel selection and energy expenditure that predict body weight and composition changes in both obese and nonobese men and women. No model parameters were adjusted to fit these data other than the initial conditions for each subject group (e.g., initial body weight and body fat mass). The model provides the first realistic simulations of how diet perturbations result in adaptations of whole body energy expenditure, fuel selection, and various metabolic fluxes that ultimately give rise to body weight change. The validated model was used to estimate free-living energy intake during a long-term weight loss intervention, a variable that has never previously been measured accurately. PMID:19934407

  19. Reduced Inverse Distance Weighting Interpolation for Painterly Rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papari, Giuseppe; Petkov, Nicolai

    The interpolation problem of irregularly distributed data in a multidimensional domain is considered. A modification of the inverse distance weighting interpolation formula is proposed, making computation time independent of the number of data points. Only the first K neighbors of a given point are considered, instead of the entire dataset. Additional factors are introduced, preventing discontinuities on points where the set of local neighbors changes. Theoretical analysis provides conditions which guarantee continuity. The proposed approach is efficient and free from magic numbers. Unlike many existing algorithms based on the k-nearest neighbors, the number of neighbors is derived from theoretical principles. The method has been applied to the problem of vector field generation in the context of artistic imaging. Experimental results show its ability to produce brush strokes oriented along object contours and to effectively render meaningful texture details.

  20. Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance

    PubMed Central

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P.; Felippe, Leandro J. C.; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D.; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this loading period, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mgkg?1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (?3.9% 1.6% and ?4.0% 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05). At three hours after weigh-in, body weight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (?3.0% 1.3% and ?2.7% 2.2%). There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05). In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate. PMID:25054553

  1. Caffeine ingestion after rapid weight loss in judo athletes reduces perceived effort and increases plasma lactate concentration without improving performance.

    PubMed

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P; Felippe, Leandro J C; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this "loading period", subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg-1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (-3.9% ± 1.6% and -4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05). At three hours after weigh-in, body weight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (-3.0% ± 1.3% and -2.7% ± 2.2%). There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05). In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate. PMID:25054553

  2. Developmental Coordination Disorder, Gender, and Body Weight: Examining the Impact of Participation in Active Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairney, John; Kwan, Matthew Y. W.; Hay, John A.; Faught, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To examine whether differences in participation in active play (PAP) can account for gender differences in the relationship between Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and body weight/fat (BMI and percentage fat) in youth. Methods: A cross-sectional investigation of students in grades four through eight (n = 590). Height, weight

  3. Who wants a slimmer body? The relationship between body weight status, education level and body shape dissatisfaction among young adults in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Body shape dissatisfaction has been thought to have an indispensable impact on weight control behaviors. We investigated the prevalence of body shape dissatisfaction (BSD) and explored its association with weight status, education level and other determinants among young adults in Hong Kong. Methods Information on anthropometry, BSD, and socio-demographics was collected from a random sample of 1205 young adults (611 men and 594 women) aged 18-27 in a community-based household survey. BSD was defined as a discrepancy between current and ideal body shape based on a figure rating scale. Cross-tabulations, homogeneity tests and logistic regression models were applied. Results The percentages of underweight men and women were 16.5% and 34.9% respectively, and the corresponding percentages of being overweight or obese were 26.7% and 13.2% for men and women respectively. Three-quarters of young adults had BSD. Among women, 30.9% of those underweight and 75.5% of those with normal weight desired a slimmer body shape. Overweight men and underweight women with lower education level were more likely to have a mismatch between weight status and BSD than those with higher education level. After controlling for other determinants, underweight women were found to have a higher likelihood to maintain their current body shapes than other women. Men were found to be less likely to have a mismatch between weight status and BSD than women. Conclusions Overweight and obesity in men and underweight in women were prevalent among Hong Kong young adults. Inappropriate body shape desire might predispose individuals to unhealthy weight loss or gain behaviors. Careful consideration of actual weight status in body shape desire is needed in health promotion and education, especially for underweight and normal weight women and those with a low education level. PMID:22039977

  4. Robotic orthoses for body weight-supported treadmill training.

    PubMed

    Winchester, Patricia; Querry, Ross

    2006-02-01

    BWSTT has become an accepted standard of care in gait rehabilitation methods. This type of locomotor training has many functional benefits, but the physical labor costs are considerable. To reduce therapist effort and improve the repeatability of locomotor training, three groups have developed commercially available robotic devices for assisted stepping. The purpose of these robotic devices is to augment locomotor rehabilitation by decreasing therapist manual assistance, increasing the amount of stepping practice, while decreasing therapist effort. Current clinical studies have yielded positive and promising results in locomotor rehabilitation inpatients with neurologic impairments of stroke or SCI. The potential benefits from robotic technology are significant for clinical use and research. As further research is conducted, rehabilitation therapists and patient outcomes will be able to contribute to the development of current and future technologies. PMID:16517349

  5. MOTHERS' BODY IMAGE PREFERENCES FOR CHILDREN VARY ACCORDING TO THEIR OWN CHILDREN'S WEIGHT STATUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to describe mothers’ body image preferences for children and to determine if mothers’ body image evaluations differed with respect to their own children’s weight status. The sample included 281 primarily African American mothers of children enrolled in Head Start. ...

  6. Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Weight-Related Criticism from Romantic Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Befort, Christie; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson; Hull-Blanks, Elva; Nicpon, Megan Foley; Huser, Laura; Sollenberger, Sonja

    2001-01-01

    Examines weight-related criticism from romantic partners and the importance of the romantic relationship in relation to the body image and self esteem for college freshmen women. Results reveal that self esteem and body image were positively related. Partner importance also predicted self esteem, whereas criticism did not. (Contains 55 references…

  7. Association of vitamin K status with adiponectin and body composition in healthy subjects: uncarboxylated osteocalcin is not associated with fat mass and body weight.

    PubMed

    Knapen, Marjo H J; Schurgers, Leon J; Shearer, Martin J; Newman, Paul; Theuwissen, Elke; Vermeer, Cees

    2012-09-28

    Osteocalcin (OC) is a vitamin K-dependent protein found in bone and in circulation. High serum ?-carboxylated OC reflects a high, and high uncarboxylated OC (ucOC) reflects a low vitamin K status. A revolutionary hypothesis is that ucOC acts as a hormone improving glucose handling and reducing fat mass. The objective was to test the logical extrapolation of the ucOC hormone hypothesis to humans that elevated ucOC is associated with higher body weight, BMI and fat mass. In a cross-sectional analysis, the associations of vitamin K status with circulating adiponectin and body composition were investigated in 244 postmenopausal women (study I). The effects of vitamin K treatment on adiponectin, body weight and BMI were investigated in archived samples from forty-two young men and women who received varying doses of menaquinone-7 during 12 weeks (study II) and from a cohort of 164 postmenopausal women who participated in a 3-year placebo-controlled trial on 45 mg menaquinone-4 (MK-4) (study III). No association was found between vitamin K status and circulating adiponectin before or after vitamin K supplementation. A higher carboxylation of OC was significantly correlated with lower body weight, BMI and fat mass of the trunk. Women taking MK-4 maintained their baseline body weight and BMI, whereas women taking placebo showed significant increases in both indices. These findings demonstrate that a high vitamin K status of bone has no effect on circulating adiponectin in healthy people and long-term vitamin K supplementation does not increase weight in healthy postmenopausal women. PMID:22136751

  8. Reduced striatal tyrosine hydroxylase in incidental Lewy body disease

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Charles H.; Sue, Lucia I.; Peirce, Jeffrey B.; Bachalakuri, Jyothi; Dalsing-Hernandez, Jessica E.; Lue, Lih Fen; Caviness, John N.; Connor, Donald J.; Sabbagh, Marwan N.; Walker, Douglas G.

    2009-01-01

    Incidental Lewy body disease (ILBD) is the term used when Lewy bodies are found in the nervous system of subjects without clinically documented parkinsonism or dementia. The prevalence of ILBD in the elderly population has been estimated at between 3.8 and 30%, depending on subject age and anatomical site of sampling. It has been speculated that ILBD represents the preclinical stage of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and/or dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Studies of ILBD could potentially identify early diagnostic signs of these disorders. At present, however, it is impossible to know whether ILBD is a precursor to PD or DLB or is just a benign finding of normal aging. We hypothesized that, if ILBD represents an early stage of PD or DLB, it should be associated with depletion of striatal dopaminergic markers. Eleven subjects with ILBD and 27 control subjects were studied. The ILBD subjects ranged in age from 74 to 96 years (mean 86.5) while the control subjects’ age ranged from 75 to 102 years (mean 86.7). Controls and subjects did not differ in terms of age, postmortem interval, gender distribution, medical history conditions, brain weight, neuritic plaque density or Braak neurofibrillary stage. Quantitative ELISA measurement of striatal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the principal enzyme for dopamine synthesis, showed a 49.8% (P = 0.01) reduction in ILBD cases, as compared with control cases. The finding suggests that ILBD is not a benign condition but is likely a precursor to PD and/or DLB. PMID:17985144

  9. Pharmacological actions of the peptide hormone amylin in the long-term regulation of food intake, food preference, and body weight.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of amylin to reduce acute food intake in rodents is well established. Longer-term administration in rats (up to 24 days) shows a concomitant reduction in body weight, suggesting energy intake plays a significant role in mediating amylin-induced weight loss. The current set of experiments...

  10. Body weight gain during adulthood and uterine myomas: Pr-Sade Study

    PubMed Central

    Boclin, Karine de Lima Srio; Torres, Fernanda Pelegrini; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study intended to investigate whether body weight gain during adulthood is associated with uterine myomas. 1,560 subjects were evaluated in a Pr-Sade Study. Weight gain was evaluated in a continuous fashion and also in quintiles. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated through logistic regression models that were adjusted for education levels, color/race, body mass indices at age 20, age of menarche, parity, use of oral contraceptive methods, smoking, health insurance, and the Papanicolaou tests. No relevant differences were observed regarding the presence of uterine myomas among weight gain quintiles in that studied population. PMID:26558353

  11. Large diameter propellers of reduced weight. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hadler, J.B.; Neilson, R.; Rowen, A.; Sedat, R.; Zubaly, R.

    1982-04-01

    A study of the design and economic analysis of large diameter, slow-turning marine propellers to improve the fuel economy of merchant ships. Detailed designs of several lightweight propellers were made. It was determined that the best combination for weight reduction is a cast hollow blade with 1 1/4 inch wall thickness and a hollow hub. Other investigations made were: fabrication techniques, resonant frequency effects, hydrodynamic characteristics, cascading effects and tip emersion effects. Costs and benefits as applied to a 120,000 DWT Tanker are discussed allowing for both strict adherence to IMCO Rules of tip submersion and with a relaxing of IMCO Rules. Strict adherence shows a maximum propeller diameter of about 30.2 feet with a resulting annual fuel savings of 1/4 million dollars over the 27.5' propeller. Relaxing these rules allows for a 42.5 diameter propeller turning at 30.8 RPM which would result in an annual fuel savings of one million dollars per year over the 27.5 propeller.

  12. Impaired nutrient signaling and body weight control in a Na+ neutral amino acid cotransporter (Slc6a19)-deficient mouse.

    PubMed

    Brer, Angelika; Juelich, Torsten; Vanslambrouck, Jessica M; Tietze, Nadine; Solomon, Peter S; Holst, Jeff; Bailey, Charles G; Rasko, John E J; Brer, Stefan

    2011-07-29

    Amino acid uptake in the intestine and kidney is mediated by a variety of amino acid transporters. To understand the role of epithelial neutral amino acid uptake in whole body homeostasis, we analyzed mice lacking the apical broad-spectrum neutral (0) amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 (Slc6a19). A general neutral aminoaciduria was observed similar to human Hartnup disorder which is caused by mutations in SLC6A19. Na(+)-dependent uptake of neutral amino acids into the intestine and renal brush-border membrane vesicles was abolished. No compensatory increase of peptide transport or other neutral amino acid transporters was detected. Mice lacking B(0)AT1 showed a reduced body weight. When adapted to a standard 20% protein diet, B(0)AT1-deficient mice lost body weight rapidly on diets containing 6 or 40% protein. Secretion of insulin in response to food ingestion after fasting was blunted. In the intestine, amino acid signaling to the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway was reduced, whereas the GCN2/ATF4 stress response pathway was activated, indicating amino acid deprivation in epithelial cells. The results demonstrate that epithelial amino acid uptake is essential for optimal growth and body weight regulation. PMID:21636576

  13. Targeting TRPV1 for Body Weight Control using TRPV1(-/-) Mice and Electroacupuncture.

    PubMed

    Choowanthanapakorn, Monchanok; Lu, Kung-Wen; Yang, Jun; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Lin, Yi-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a global social medical problem resulting in morbidity as high as 20-30%. Here we investigated whether the manipulation of TRPV1 can control mice body weight through electroacupuncture (EA). The results demonstrated that body weight increased with time in the control group (108.19??1.31%, n?=?7). The increase of mice body weight was significantly less in the EA group (104.41??0.76%, p?body weight in TRPV1 knock mice (107.94??0.41% and 107.79??1.04% for TRPV1(-/-) and TRPV1(-/-) with EA, respectively, p?>?0.05). The visceral white adipose tissue (WAT) weight was lower in the EA group at 4 weeks after manipulation. Moreover, the protein levels of TRPV1, pPKA, pPKC, and pERK were increased in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord (SC) after EA treatment but not in the sham EA and TRPV1(-/-) mice. This study suggests that targeting TRPV1 is beneficial in controlling body weight and TRPV1-associated mechanisms in mice. PMID:26621679

  14. Short and long-term energy intake patterns and their implications for human body weight regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Carson C.; Hall, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Adults consume millions of kilocalories over the course of a few years, but the typical weight gain amounts to only a few thousand kilocalories of stored energy. Furthermore, food intake is highly variable from day to day and yet body weight is remarkably stable. These facts have been used as evidence to support the hypothesis that human body weight is regulated by active control of food intake operating on both short and long time scales. Here, we demonstrate that active control of human food intake on short time scales is not required for body weight stability and that the current evidence for long term control of food intake is equivocal. To provide more data on this issue, we emphasize the urgent need for developing new methods for accurately measuring energy intake changes over long time scales. We propose that repeated body weight measurements can be used along with mathematical modeling to calculate long-term changes in energy intake and thereby quantify adherence to a diet intervention and provide dynamic feedback to individuals that seek to control their body weight. PMID:24582679

  15. Lifestyle Interventions Targeting Body Weight Changes during the Menopause Transition: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jull, Janet; Stacey, Dawn; Beach, Sarah; Dumas, Alex; Strychar, Irene; Ufholz, Lee-Anne; Prince, Stephanie; Abdulnour, Joseph; Prud'homme, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effectiveness of exercise and/or nutrition interventions and to address body weight changes during the menopause transition. Methods. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using electronic databases, grey literature, and hand searching. Two independent researchers screened for studies using experimental designs to evaluate the impact of exercise and/or nutrition interventions on body weight and/or central weight gain performed during the menopausal transition. Studies were quality appraised using Cochrane risk of bias. Included studies were analyzed descriptively. Results. Of 3,564 unique citations screened, 3 studies were eligible (2 randomized controlled trials, and 1 pre/post study). Study quality ranged from low to high risk of bias. One randomized controlled trial with lower risk of bias concluded that participation in an exercise program combined with dietary interventions might mitigate body adiposity increases, which is normally observed during the menopause transition. The other two studies with higher risk of bias suggested that exercise might attenuate weight loss or weight gain and change abdominal adiposity patterns. Conclusions. High quality studies evaluating the effectiveness of interventions targeting body weight changes in women during their menopause transition are needed. Evidence from one higher quality study indicates an effective multifaceted intervention for women to minimize changes in body adiposity. PMID:24971172

  16. Body composition and energy and protein nutritional requirements for weight gain in Santa Ines crossbred sheep.

    PubMed

    Cutrim, Darley Oliveira; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; da Conceição Dos Santos, Rozilda; da Mata, Vanessa Jaqueline Veloso; Oliveira, Luis Rennan Sampaio; Gomes, Daiany Íris; Mezzomo, Rafael

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the body composition and net energy and protein requirements for weight gain in Santa Ines crossbred sheep. Thirty woolless, 4-month-old, castrated male sheep with an initial body weight (BW) of 19.77 ± 1.99 kg were used. Six animals (reference group) were slaughtered after the adaptation period to estimate empty body weight (EBW) and initial body composition. The remaining 24 animals were randomly distributed among four treatments (experimental diets) and slaughtered when they reached 30.24 ± 0.78 kg BW. The body composition ranged from 162.88 to 160.4 g protein/kg EBW, from 59.49 to 164.23 g fat/kg EBW and from 1.54 to 2.46 Mcal energy/kg EBW for animals ranging between 20 and 30 kg BW. The net energy requirement for Santa Ines crossbred sheep linearly increased when BW increased from 20 to 30 kg. Within that same weight range, the net protein requirement for weight gain in sheep was constant, ranging from 12.61 to 12.42 g/day to 100 g daily weight gain. PMID:26873156

  17. Parental Misperception of Their Child's Body Weight Status Impedes the Assessment of the Child's Lifestyle Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Drapeau, Vicky; Tremblay, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. To examine if distinct characteristics are associated with parental misclassification of underweight (UW), normal weight (NW), and overweight or obese (OWOB) children and the implications of misclassification on the parental evaluation of the child's lifestyle habits. Methods. Cross-sectional analysis (2004 sample) of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (19982010) (n = 1,125). Results. 16%, 55%, and 77% of NW, UW and OWOB children were perceived inaccurately, respectively. Misperception was significantly higher in nonimmigrant parents of UW children, in highly educated parents of NW children and in NW and OWOB children with lower BMI percentiles. Erroneous body weight status identification impedes the evaluation of eating habits of all children as well as physical activity and fitness levels of UW and OWOB children. Conclusion. Parental misclassification of the child's body weight status and lifestyle habits constitutes an unfavorable context for healthy body weight management. PMID:20862382

  18. Watching reality weight loss TV. The effects on body satisfaction, mood, and snack food consumption.

    PubMed

    Bourn, Rebecca; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated the influence of a weight loss reality TV show on body satisfaction, mood and food consumption. Young Australian women (N = 99) first completed baseline measures of state body satisfaction and mood. They were then randomly allocated to either a weight loss or a home renovation programme and were provided with snack foods during viewing. Post-measures included state body satisfaction, state mood and trait dietary restraint and snack food consumption. BMI moderated the relationship between condition and body satisfaction and mood. Larger women experienced less body satisfaction and less positive mood in response to the weight loss programme. Dietary restraint moderated the relationship between condition and food consumption. A greater percentage of women with lower dietary restraint ate in the control condition; whilst a greater percentage of women with higher dietary restraint ate food whilst watching the weight loss programme. These findings highlight the potential negative impact of weight-focused reality TV on mood, body satisfaction and snack food consumption among some women. PMID:25936290

  19. Cria alpaca body weight and perinatal survival in relation to age of the dam.

    PubMed

    Bravo, P W; Garnica, J; Puma, G

    2009-04-01

    The present study with alpacas determined effect of dam's age on body weight and survival of cria during the first week of life. Pregnant dams (n=424) and their crias were used in the study. Cria body weight (kg) was determined at time of placenta expulsion. Placenta weight and larger width were measured immediately after expulsion. Crias were monitored for the first week and a necropsy was performed if death occurred. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance. The body weight of crias at birth, the weight, and the largest width of placenta increased with age of the dam (P<0.05), reaching a peak at 9 years and then declined progressively. Placental efficiency also increased with the dam's age, and showed a bimodal shape, peaking at 6- and 11-year-old dams (P<0.05). Altogether, 398 crias survived and 26 died; of those 6 died of starvation, 5 of hypothermia, 4 were stillborn and the rest from other miscellaneous causes. More crias died from 2-year-old dams than from dams of any other age (P<0.05). In addition, dead crias had lesser body weights (6.4kg) than those of crias that survived (7.8kg, P<0.05). The weight and width of the placenta was similar for live and dead crias. PMID:18423912

  20. Ground reaction forces during level ground walking with body weight unloading

    PubMed Central

    Barela, Ana M. F.; de Freitas, Paulo B.; Celestino, Melissa L.; Camargo, Marcela R.; Barela, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Partial body weight support (BWS) systems have been broadly used with treadmills as a strategy for gait training of individuals with gait impairments. Considering that we usually walk on level ground and that BWS is achieved by altering the load on the plantar surface of the foot, it would be important to investigate some ground reaction force (GRF) parameters in healthy individuals walking on level ground with BWS to better implement rehabilitation protocols for individuals with gait impairments. Objective: To describe the effects of body weight unloading on GRF parameters as healthy young adults walked with BWS on level ground. Method: Eighteen healthy young adults (27±4 years old) walked on a walkway, with two force plates embedded in the middle of it, wearing a harness connected to a BWS system, with 0%, 15%, and 30% BWS. Vertical and horizontal peaks and vertical valley of GRF, weight acceptance and push-off rates, and impulse were calculated and compared across the three experimental conditions. Results: Overall, participants walked more slowly with the BWS system on level ground compared to their normal walking speed. As body weight unloading increased, the magnitude of the GRF forces decreased. Conversely, weight acceptance rate was similar among conditions. Conclusions: Different amounts of body weight unloading promote different outputs of GRF parameters, even with the same mean walk speed. The only parameter that was similar among the three experimental conditions was the weight acceptance rate. PMID:25590450

  1. A Longitudinal Analysis of Adolescent Smoking: Using Smoking Status to Differentiate the Influence of Body Weight Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Traci; Johnson, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research has reported mixed results on the association between body weight measures (ie, perception of weight and weight loss goal) and cigarette smoking prevalence--and how these associations vary by sex and race. This longitudinal study assessed the relationship between these 2 body weight measures and smoking prevalence by…

  2. A Longitudinal Analysis of Adolescent Smoking: Using Smoking Status to Differentiate the Influence of Body Weight Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Traci; Johnson, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research has reported mixed results on the association between body weight measures (ie, perception of weight and weight loss goal) and cigarette smoking prevalence--and how these associations vary by sex and race. This longitudinal study assessed the relationship between these 2 body weight measures and smoking prevalence by

  3. The association of gut microbiota with body weight and body mass index in preschool children of Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Sepp, Epp; Livukene, Krista; Julge, Kaja; Voor, Tiia; Mikelsaar, Marika

    2013-01-01

    Background The gut microbiota has been shown to affect both fat storage and energy harvesting, suggesting that it plays a direct role in the development of obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intestinal colonization by particular species/groups of the intestinal microbiota is related to body weight values in Estonian preschool children born in different years during the entire 1990s. Methods Body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and quantitative composition of cultivable gut microbiota (staphylococci, enterococci, streptococci, enterobacteria, lactobacilli, anaerobic gram-positive cocci, bifidobacteria, eubacteria, bacteroides, clostridia, and candida) were studied in 51 healthy 5-year-old children (40 were born between 1993 and 94 and 11 were born between 1996 and 97). Results At the age of 5 years, median weight was 19.5 kg and median BMI was 15.3 kg/m2. Significantly higher BMI (p=0.006) was found in 5-year-old children born in late versus early 1990s during the development of socioeconomic situation of Estonia (2% rise in gross domestic product). The counts of the different gut bacteria did not show any association with weight and BMI in the 5-year-old children. However, the BMI values were in positive correlation with a relative share of anaerobic gram-positive bacteria, for example, bifidobacteria when adjusted for sex and year of birth (adj R2=0.459, p=0.026) and eubacteria (adj R2=0.484, p=0.014) in the community of cultured intestinal microbiota. The relative share of bacteroides showed a negative correlation with the childrens weight (adj R2=? 0.481, p=0.015). Conclusion The body weight indices of preschool children of the general population are associated with the proportion of anaerobic intestinal microbiota and can be predicted by sex and particular socioeconomic situation from birth to 5 years of age. PMID:24009544

  4. Varying protein source and quantity does not significantly improve weight loss, fat loss, or satiety in reduced energy diets among midlife adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This pilot study tested whether varying protein source and quantity in a reduced energy diet would result in significant differences in weight, body composition, and renin angiotensin aldosterone system activity in midlife adults. Eighteen subjects enrolled in a 5 month weight reduction study, invol...

  5. Maternal low protein diet reduces birth weight and increases brown adipose tissue UCP-1 and FNDC5 gene expression in male neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in regulating body weight (BW) by modifying thermogenesis. Maternal low protein (LP) diets reduce offspring birth weight. Increased BAT thermogenesis in utero may be one mechanism for the lower BW. However, whether maternal LP nutrition alters BAT...

  6. Birth weight modifies the association between central nervous system gene variation and adult body mass index.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A; Haddad, Stephen A; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R

    2016-03-01

    Genome wide association studies have identified ~100 loci associated with body mass index (BMI). Persons with low birth weight have an increased risk of metabolic disorders. We postulate that normal mechanisms of body weight regulation are disrupted in subjects with low birth weight. The present analyses included 2215 African American women from the Black Women's Health Study, and were based on genotype data on 20 BMI-associated loci and self-reported data on birth weight, weight at age 18 and adult weight. We used general linear models to assess the association of individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with BMI at age 18 and later in adulthood within strata of birth weight (above and below the median, 3200 g). Three SNPs (rs1320330 near TMEM18, rs261967 near PCSK1 and rs17817964 in FTO), and a genetic score combining these three variants, showed significant interactions with birth weight in relation to BMI. Among women with birth weight <3200 g, there was an inverse association between genetic score and BMI; beta-coefficient=-0.045 (95% confidence intervals (CI) -0.104, 0.013) for BMI at age 18, and -0.055 (95% CI -0.112, 0.002) for adult BMI. Among women with birth weight ⩾3200 g, genetic score was positively associated with BMI: beta-coefficient=0.110 (95% CI 0.051, 0.169) for BMI at age 18 (P for interaction=0.0002), and 0.112 (95% CI 0.054, 0.170) for adult BMI (P for interaction<0.0001). Because TMEM18, PCSK1 and FTO are highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), our results suggest that low-birth weight may disrupt mechanisms of CNS body weight regulation. PMID:26582267

  7. Body image and weight preoccupation: a comparison between exercising and non-exercising women.

    PubMed

    Davis, C

    1990-08-01

    Relationships were examined among certain personality characteristics and variables which assess weight, diet, and appearance concerns for two groups of women--those who were avid exercisers (n = 86) and those who exercised only occasionally or not at all (n = 72). Multiple regression analyses indicated that emotional reactivity (measured by the N scale of the Eysenck Personality Inventory) was strongly related to weight preoccupation (measured by three subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory) in both groups. Body Mass Index (BMI), but not a measure of subjective body shape, also predicted weight preoccupation for the non-exercisers while the opposite relationship was found for exercisers. In this group, subjective body shape and not BMI influenced weight preoccupation. It was also found that greater body dissatisfaction was related to poorer emotional well-being in the exercise group, and these women reported, to a significantly greater degree than non-exercisers, that their physical appearance was important to their self-esteem. It is possible that an excessive preoccupation with diet and body shape leads some women to take up a vigorous exercise program. However, the absence of differences in weight preoccupation between the groups argues against this. A possibility that has seldom been considered in the literature is that dedication to regular exercise fosters a heightened degree of body narcissism and a distorted impression of one's body size. A focus of attention in an exercise program on the relationship between body size and maximal performance may, in susceptible individuals, increase the likelihood of developing an obsessive attitude toward weight control. PMID:2241138

  8. Over, under, or about right: misperceptions of body weight among food stamp participants.

    PubMed

    Ver Ploeg, Michele L; Chang, Hung-Hao; Lin, Biing-Hwan

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the associations between misperception of body weight and sociodemographic factors such as food stamp participation status, income, education, and race/ethnicity. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 1999-2004 and multivariate logistic regression are used to estimate how sociodemographic factors are associated with (i) the probability that overweight adults misperceive themselves as healthy weight; (ii) the probability that healthy-weight adults misperceive themselves as underweight; and (iii) the probability that healthy-weight adults misperceive themselves as overweight. NHANES data are representative of the US civilian noninstitutionalized population. The analysis included 4,362 men and 4,057 women. BMI derived from measured weight and height was used to classify individuals as healthy weight or overweight. These classifications were compared with self-reported categorical weight status. We find that differences across sociodemographic characteristics in the propensity to underestimate or overestimate weight status were more pronounced for women than for men. Overweight female food stamp participants were more likely to underestimate weight status than income-eligible nonparticipants. Among healthy-weight and overweight women, non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American women, and women with less education were more likely to underestimate actual weight status. We found few differences across sociodemographic characteristics for men. Misperceptions of weight are common among both overweight and healthy-weight individuals and vary across socioeconomic and demographic groups. The nutrition education component of the Food Stamp Program could increase awareness of healthy body weight among participants. PMID:18551119

  9. The Influence of Plaintiff’s Body Weight on Judgments of Responsibility: The Role of Weight Bias

    PubMed Central

    White, Darrell E.; Wott, Carissa B.; Carels, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Problem The current study investigated the influence of a plaintiff’s weight and the location of an accident on a simulated jury’s perceptions of plaintiff’s personal responsibility for an accident. Methods Participants were 185 lean and overweight male and female adults (mean self-reported body mass index: 24.87 ± 5.45) who read one of three vignettes describing an accident that occurred while leaving one of three different establishments (fast food burger restaurant; fitness gym; department store) while viewing one of two silhouettes of the alleged plaintiff (a lean female; an obese female). Results Participants were significantly more likely to report the plaintiff’s weight entered into their perceptions of personal responsibility when they viewed the overweight plaintiff compared to the thin plaintiff. As respondent’s self-reported weight bias increased, participants were more likely to hold the plaintiff responsible and more likely to blame plaintiff characteristics for the accident. Conclusion The weight of a plaintiff may affect juror perceptions of personal responsibility particularly if the juror possesses self-reported weight bias. PMID:25434916

  10. Chronic restraint or variable stresses differently affect the behavior, corticosterone secretion and body weight in rats.

    PubMed

    Marin, Marcelo T; Cruz, Fabio C; Planeta, Cleopatra S

    2007-01-30

    Organisms are constantly subjected to stressful stimuli that affect numerous physiological processes and activate the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, increasing the release of glucocorticoids. Exposure to chronic stress is known to alter basic mechanisms of the stress response. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of two different stress paradigms (chronic restraint or variable stress) on behavioral and corticosterone release to a subsequent exposure to stressors. Considering that the HPA axis might respond differently when it is challenged with a novel or a familiar stressor we investigated the changes in the corticosterone levels following the exposure to two stressors: restraint (familiar stress) or forced novelty (novel stress). The changes in the behavioral response were evaluated by measuring the locomotor response to a novel environment. In addition, we examined changes in body, adrenals, and thymus weights in response to the chronic paradigms. Our results showed that exposure to chronic variable stress increased basal plasma corticosterone levels and that both, chronic restraint and variable stresses, promote higher corticosterone levels in response to a novel environment, but not to a challenge restraint stress, as compared to the control (non-stressed) group. Exposure to chronic restraint leads to increased novelty-induced locomotor activity. Furthermore, only the exposure to variable stress reduced body weights. In conclusion, the present results provide additional evidence on how chronic stress affects the organism physiology and point to the importance of the chronic paradigm and challenge stress on the behavioral and hormonal adaptations induced by chronic stress. PMID:17023009

  11. Association between the IRS1 and FTO genes regulates body weight in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gong-Wei; Jia, Wei; Chen, Shi-Yi; Jia, Xian-Bo; Wang, Jie; Lai, Song-Jia

    2014-09-10

    Insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins play key roles in signal transduction in insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling to control postnatal growth. The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) protein also play an essential role in postnatal growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the IRS1 and FTO genes and the regulation of growth traits in rabbits. A total of nine synonymous SNPs were detected in the IRS1 coding sequence using direct sequencing, and the c.189G>T and c.2574G>A SNPs from two linkage disequilibrium blocks were further genotyped for association analysis in 216 New Zealand rabbits. The association results revealed that the TT genotype of c.189G>T and the AA genotype of c.2574G>A were significantly associated with higher body weight at 70 (BW70) and 84 (BW84) days of age and with higher average daily gain (P<0.05). Linear-regression analysis revealed that the two-gene combination model of FTO c.499G>A and IRS1 c.2574G>A was associated with BW70 and BW84. The combination model of the GA genotype of FTO c.499G>A with the AA genotype of IRS1 c.2574G>A was associated with preferred values for BW70 and BW84. The performance values for the FTO c.499G>A genotypes after stratification with regard to the IRS1 c.189G>T genotypes revealed that the TT genotype of IRS1 c.189G>T reduced the FTO c.499G>A significance associated with BW70 and BW84. Together, our data indicated that the IRS1 gene was associated with growth traits in rabbits. The IRS1 and FTO combination model may be exploited to assist breeders in selecting rabbits with preferred body weight. PMID:25014140

  12. On-farm estimation of energy balance in dairy cows using only frequent body weight measurements and body condition score.

    PubMed

    Thorup, V M; Edwards, D; Friggens, N C

    2012-04-01

    Precise energy balance estimates for individual cows are of great importance to monitor health, reproduction, and feed management. Energy balance is usually calculated as energy input minus output (EB(inout)), requiring measurements of feed intake and energy output sources (milk, maintenance, activity, growth, and pregnancy). Except for milk yield, direct measurements of the other sources are difficult to obtain in practice, and estimates contain considerable error sources, limiting on-farm use. Alternatively, energy balance can be estimated from body reserve changes (EB(body)) using body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS). Automated weighing systems exist and new technology performing semi-automated body condition scoring has emerged, so frequent automated BW and BCS measurements are feasible. We present a method to derive individual EB(body) estimates from frequently measured BW and BCS and evaluate the performance of the estimated EB(body) against the traditional EB(inout) method. From 76 Danish Holstein and Jersey cows, parity 1 or 2+, on a glycerol-rich or a whole grain-rich total mixed ration, BW was measured automatically at each milking. The BW was corrected for the weight of milk produced and for gutfill. Changes in BW and BCS were used to calculate changes in body protein, body lipid, and EB(body) during the first 150 d in milk. The EB(body) was compared with the traditional EB(inout) by isolating the term within EB(inout) associated with most uncertainty; that is, feed energy content (FEC); FEC=(EB(body)+EMilk+EMaintenance+Eactivity)/dry matter intake, where the energy requirements are for milk produced (EMilk), maintenance (EMaintenance), and activity (EActivity). Estimated FEC agreed well with FEC values derived from tables (the mean estimate was 0.21 MJ of effective energy/kg of dry matter or 2.2% higher than the mean table value). Further, the FEC profile did not suggest systematic bias in EB(body) with stage of lactation. The EB(body) estimated from daily BW, adjusted for milk and meal-related gutfill and combined with frequent BCS, can provide a successful tool. This offers a pragmatic solution to on-farm calculation of energy balance with the perspective of improved precision under commercial conditions. PMID:22459827

  13. Self-esteem, body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and social anxiety in a college sample: the moderating role of weight.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor

    2016-03-01

    To examine the relationships between self-esteem, body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and social anxiety, as well as to examine the moderating role of weight between exogenous variables and social anxiety, 520 university students completed the self-report measures. Structural equation modeling revealed that individuals with low self-esteem, body-esteem, and emotional intelligence were more likely to report social anxiety. The findings indicated that obese and overweight individuals with low body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and self-esteem had higher social anxiety than others. Our results highlight the roles of body-esteem, self-esteem, and emotional intelligence as influencing factors for reducing social anxiety. PMID:25726711

  14. Does reading keep you thin? Leisure activities, cultural tastes, and body weight in comparative perspective

    PubMed Central

    Pampel, Fred C.

    2011-01-01

    While sedentary leisure-time activities such as reading, going to movies, attending cultural events, attending sporting events, watching TV, listening to music, and socializing with friends would seem to contribute to excess weight, a perspective focusing on SES differences in cultural tastes suggests the opposite, that some sedentary activities are associated with lower rather than higher body weight. This study aims to test theories of cultural distinction by examining relationships between leisure-time activities and body weight. Using 2007 data on 17 nations from the International Social Survey Program, the analysis estimates relationships between the body mass index and varied leisure-time activities while controlling for SES, physical activities, and sociodemographic variables. Net of controls for SES and physical activities, participation time in cultural activities is associated with lower rather than higher body weight, particularly in high-income nations. The results suggest that both cultural activities and body weight reflect forms of distinction that separate SES-based lifestyles. PMID:21707664

  15. Identification of genetic factors that modify motor performance and body weight using Collaborative Cross mice

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Jian-Hua; Langley, Sasha A.; Huang, Yurong; Hang, Michael; Bouchard, Kyle E.; Celniker, Susan E.; Brown, James B.; Jansson, Janet K.; Karpen, Gary H.; Snijders, Antoine M.

    2015-11-09

    Evidence has emerged that suggests a link between motor deficits, obesity and many neurological disorders. However, the contributing genetic risk factors are poorly understood. Here we used the Collaborative Cross (CC), a large panel of newly inbred mice that captures 90% of the known variation among laboratory mice, to identify the genetic loci controlling rotarod performance and its relationship with body weight in a cohort of 365 mice across 16 CC strains. Body weight and rotarod performance varied widely across CC strains and were significantly negatively correlated. Genetic linkage analysis identified 14 loci that were associated with body weight. However, 45 loci affected rotarod performance, seven of which were also associated with body weight, suggesting a strong link at the genetic level. Lastly, we show that genes identified in this study overlap significantly with those related to neurological disorders and obesity found in human GWA studies. In conclusion, our results provide a genetic framework for studies of the connection between body weight, the central nervous system and behavior.

  16. Metabolism of polychaete Neanthes japonica Izuka: relations to temperature, salinity and body weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Xian, Weiwei; Sun, Shichun

    2009-05-01

    Polychaete Neanthes japonica is a species geographically specific in China and Japan with important scientific implication and commercial value. In this study, the relations of body weight, salinity and temperature to oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of N. japonica were determined. Three different groups in body weight (large: 2.340.36 g, middle: 1.500.21 g and small: 0.620.12 g) were set for all experiments. Results show that the body weight is negatively related to the rates of oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion; and the relationship is significant. The oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion at 24C decreased at salinity from 5 to 30 and increased above 30, indicating that both lower and higher salinity are adverse and certain degree of salinity stress is necessary for enhancing the energy demand. At salinity 30, rising temperature from 18C to 30C, the oxygen consumption increased before 27C and then decreased. However, the relation of ammonia excretion and temperature seems more complex. Two-way ANOVA shows that salinity, temperature and body weight all have a significant effect on the oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of the worm. Moreover, interaction between salinity/temperature and body weight is also significant. O:N (oxygen/nitrogen) ratio varies greatly in this case from 5.97 to 463.22, indicating that N. japonica can regulate the type of metabolic substrate against environment changes.

  17. Successful maintenance of body weight reduction after individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects

    PubMed Central

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Mardas, Marcin; Warchoł, Wojciech; Jamka, Małgorzata; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects based on narrative interview technique on the maintenance of body weight reduction, changes in dietary behaviors, including type of cooking and physical activity. One-hundred subjects out of four-hundred patients met the inclusion criteria. Individually, 45-minute educational program with motivation counseling was performed in 0, 6 and 12 weeks of the study. Patients were advised to follow individually well-balanced diet for 12 weeks. The individuals were asked about the changes in their dietary habits (Food Frequency Questionnaire). The mean percentage of body weight changes from the baseline were as follows: in 6th week- 5.9%, in 12th week - 10.9% and in 52th week - 9.7% (P < 0.0001), however there were no statistically significant changes while comparing body weight in 12th and 52th week. The maintenance of body weight reduction was connected with the dietary habits changes, mainly the type of cooking and increased consumption of vegetable oils. In conclusion, individualized dietary counseling, based on narrative interview technique is an effective intervention for obesity treatment that may help maintain body weight reduction and adapt the pro-healthy changes in type of cooking and sources of dietary fat. PMID:25311271

  18. Identification of genetic factors that modify motor performance and body weight using Collaborative Cross mice.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jian-Hua; Langley, Sasha A; Huang, Yurong; Hang, Michael; Bouchard, Kristofer E; Celniker, Susan E; Brown, James B; Jansson, Janet K; Karpen, Gary H; Snijders, Antoine M

    2015-01-01

    Evidence has emerged that suggests a link between motor deficits, obesity and many neurological disorders. However, the contributing genetic risk factors are poorly understood. Here we used the Collaborative Cross (CC), a large panel of newly inbred mice that captures 90% of the known variation among laboratory mice, to identify the genetic loci controlling rotarod performance and its relationship with body weight in a cohort of 365 mice across 16 CC strains. Body weight and rotarod performance varied widely across CC strains and were significantly negatively correlated. Genetic linkage analysis identified 14 loci that were associated with body weight. However, 45 loci affected rotarod performance, seven of which were also associated with body weight, suggesting a strong link at the genetic level. Lastly, we show that genes identified in this study overlap significantly with those related to neurological disorders and obesity found in human GWA studies. In conclusion, our results provide a genetic framework for studies of the connection between body weight, the central nervous system and behavior. PMID:26548763

  19. Role of obesity and media in body weight concern among female university students in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Mannai, Mariam

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the association of media and obesity status with body weight concern among female university students in Kuwait. 228 female students, aged 19-25 years, were selected at convenience from the Women's College in Kuwait. A previously validated questionnaire was used to collect information on the role of media in body concern and how parents, peers and the girls themselves perceived girls' body shapes. Weight and height were gathered by self-reporting. Use of internet and reading women's magazines had a significant impact on dieting by the girls to lose weight (P<0.0007 and P<0.0114, respectively). The mass media had two to three times more influence on obese girls than non-obese girls. Only watching television had a significant impact on girls' body shape concern (P<0.053). About 30% of non-obese and 81% of obese girls were dissatisfied with their current weight. There were significant differences between obese and non-obese girls regarding the girls' views and the views of their peers and parents about the body weight of the girls (P<0.000 for all). The pressure from peers and parents, in addition to the mass media, may lead to disturbed attitudes towards eating among Kuwaiti girls. PMID:23557827

  20. Identification of genetic factors that modify motor performance and body weight using Collaborative Cross mice

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Jian-Hua; Langley, Sasha A.; Huang, Yurong; Hang, Michael; Bouchard, Kristofer E.; Celniker, Susan E.; Brown, James B.; Jansson, Janet K.; Karpen, Gary H.; Snijders, Antoine M.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence has emerged that suggests a link between motor deficits, obesity and many neurological disorders. However, the contributing genetic risk factors are poorly understood. Here we used the Collaborative Cross (CC), a large panel of newly inbred mice that captures 90% of the known variation among laboratory mice, to identify the genetic loci controlling rotarod performance and its relationship with body weight in a cohort of 365 mice across 16 CC strains. Body weight and rotarod performance varied widely across CC strains and were significantly negatively correlated. Genetic linkage analysis identified 14 loci that were associated with body weight. However, 45 loci affected rotarod performance, seven of which were also associated with body weight, suggesting a strong link at the genetic level. Lastly, we show that genes identified in this study overlap significantly with those related to neurological disorders and obesity found in human GWA studies. In conclusion, our results provide a genetic framework for studies of the connection between body weight, the central nervous system and behavior. PMID:26548763

  1. Socio-demographic and dietary factors associated with excess body weight and abdominal obesity among resettled Bhutanese refugee women in Northeast Ohio, United States.

    PubMed

    Bhatta, Madhav P; Assad, Lori; Shakya, Sunita

    2014-07-01

    Studies of obesity and related health conditions among the Bhutanese, one of the largest refugee groups resettled in the United States in the past five years, are limited. This study examined the factors associated with excess body weight (body mass index ? 23 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 80 cm) in a community-based sample of 18-65 year old Bhutanese refugee women in Northeast Ohio. A Nepali-language questionnaire was used to measure socio-demographic and dietary factors. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured to define excess body weight and abdominal obesity. The mean (standard deviation) age of the 108 participants was 36.5 (12.2) years and length of time in the U.S. was 19.4 (11.9) months. Overall, 64.8% and 69.4% of the women had excess body weight and abdominal obesity, respectively. Age was significantly associated with both excess body weight (odds ratio: 1.10; 95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.16) and abdominal obesity (1.09; 1.04-1.14). Consuming meat (4.01; 1.14-14.60) was significantly associated with excess body weight but not abdominal obesity. These findings suggest the need for lifestyle and dietary change education programs among this new and vulnerable group to reduce the prevalence of excess body weight and abdominal obesity and their health consequences. PMID:24968209

  2. Novel Regulator of Acylated Ghrelin, CF801, Reduces Weight Gain, Rebound Feeding after a Fast, and Adiposity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wellman, Martin K.; Patterson, Zachary R.; MacKay, Harry; Darling, Joseph E.; Mani, Bharath K.; Zigman, Jeffrey M.; Hougland, James L.; Abizaid, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin is a 28 amino acid hormonal peptide that is intimately related to the regulation of food intake and body weight. Once secreted, ghrelin binds to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor-1a, the only known receptor for ghrelin and is capable of activating a number of signaling cascades, ultimately resulting in an increase in food intake and adiposity. Because ghrelin has been linked to overeating and the development of obesity, a number of pharmacological interventions have been generated in order to interfere with either the activation of ghrelin or interrupting ghrelin signaling as a means to reducing appetite and decrease weight gain. Here, we present a novel peptide, CF801, capable of reducing circulating acylated ghrelin levels and subsequent body weight gain and adiposity. To this end, we show that IP administration of CF801 is sufficient to reduce circulating plasma acylated ghrelin levels. Acutely, intraperitoneal injections of CF801 resulted in decreased rebound feeding after an overnight fast. When delivered chronically, they decreased weight gain and adiposity without affecting caloric intake. CF801, however, did cause a change in diet preference, decreasing preference for a high-fat diet and increasing preference for regular chow diet. Given the complexity of ghrelin receptor function, we propose that CF801, along with other compounds that regulate ghrelin secretion, may prove to be a beneficial tool in the study of the ghrelin system, and potential targets for ghrelin-based obesity treatments without altering the function of ghrelin receptors. PMID:26441834

  3. Leptin-derived peptides that stimulate food intake and increase body weight following peripheral administration.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Graham L; Naim, Tim; Trieu, Jennifer

    2011-10-10

    We previously showed that peptides containing leptin sequences 1-33 or 61-90 are taken up by the rat brain. We now report the effects of these peptides on food intake and body weight in mature rats. Peptides were infused intravenously for 4weeks, using Alzet minipumps. Dosages were 20μg/kg/day in experiment I, and 60μg/kg/day in experiment 2. In experiment 1, female rats receiving peptides 1-33 and 61-90 each underwent an approximate doubling of the weight gain of control rats. These peptides also increased food intake in female rats. Peptide 15-32, which has a lesser degree of brain uptake, gave a smaller weight gain. Peptide 83-108, which is not taken up by the brain, had no effect on weight gain or food intake. Similar results were obtained in experiment 2. In male rats, however, none of the peptides caused significant changes in food intake or body weight. This was at least partly due to the fact that all male rats underwent vigorous weight increases. We conclude that peptides 1-33 and 61-90 acted as leptin antagonists, stimulating food intake and body weight increases, at least in female rats. These peptides may lead to clinical applications in conditions such as anorexia and cachexia. PMID:21609735

  4. The attractive female body weight and female body dissatisfaction in 26 countries across 10 world regions: results of the international body project I.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Frederick, David A; Aavik, Toivo; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jri; Anderson, Donna; Andrianto, Sonny; Arora, Arvind; Brnnstrm, Ake; Cunningham, John; Danel, Dariusz; Doroszewicz, Krystyna; Forbes, Gordon B; Furnham, Adrian; Greven, Corina U; Halberstadt, Jamin; Hao, Shuang; Haubner, Tanja; Hwang, Choon Sup; Inman, Mary; Jaafar, Jas Laile; Johansson, Jacob; Jung, Jaehee; Keser, Askin; Kretzschmar, Uta; Lachenicht, Lance; Li, Norman P; Locke, Kenneth; Lnnqvist, Jan-Erik; Lopez, Christy; Loutzenhiser, Lynn; Maisel, Natalya C; McCabe, Marita P; McCreary, Donald R; McKibbin, William F; Mussap, Alex; Neto, Flix; Nowell, Carly; Alampay, Liane Pea; Pillai, Subash K; Pokrajac-Bulian, Alessandra; Proyer, Ren T; Quintelier, Katinka; Ricciardelli, Lina A; Rozmus-Wrzesinska, Malgorzata; Ruch, Willibald; Russo, Timothy; Schtz, Astrid; Shackelford, Todd K; Shashidharan, Sheeba; Simonetti, Franco; Sinniah, Dhachayani; Swami, Mira; Vandermassen, Griet; van Duynslaeger, Marijke; Verkasalo, Markku; Voracek, Martin; Yee, Curtis K; Zhang, Echo Xian; Zhang, Xiaoying; Zivcic-Becirevic, Ivanka

    2010-03-01

    This study reports results from the first International Body Project (IBP-I), which surveyed 7,434 individuals in 10 major world regions about body weight ideals and body dissatisfaction. Participants completed the female Contour Drawing Figure Rating Scale (CDFRS) and self-reported their exposure to Western and local media. Results indicated there were significant cross-regional differences in the ideal female figure and body dissatisfaction, but effect sizes were small across high-socioeconomic-status (SES) sites. Within cultures, heavier bodies were preferred in low-SES sites compared to high-SES sites in Malaysia and South Africa (ds = 1.94-2.49) but not in Austria. Participant age, body mass index (BMI), and Western media exposure predicted body weight ideals. BMI and Western media exposure predicted body dissatisfaction among women. Our results show that body dissatisfaction and desire for thinness is commonplace in high-SES settings across world regions, highlighting the need for international attention to this problem. PMID:20179313

  5. Molecular and neural bases underlying roles of BDNF in the control of body weight

    PubMed Central

    Vanevski, Filip; Xu, Baoji

    2013-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potent regulator of neuronal development and synaptic plasticity that is fundamental to neural circuit formation and cognition. It is also involved in the control of appetite and body weight, with mutations in the genes for BDNF and its receptor, TrkB, resulting in remarkable hyperphagia and severe obesity in humans and mice. Recent studies have made significant progress in elucidating the source, action sites, and regulatory pathways of BDNF with regard to its role in the control of energy homeostasis, and have shed light on the relationships between BDNF and other molecules involved in the control of body weight. Here we provide a comprehensive review of evidence from pharmacological, genetic, and mechanistic studies, linking BDNF to the control of body weight. This review also aims to organize the main findings on this subject into a more refined framework and to discuss the future research directions necessary to advance the field. PMID:23519010

  6. Body-image attitudes among obese enrollees in a commercial weight-loss program.

    PubMed

    Cash, T F

    1993-12-01

    Substantial research shows less favorable body-image experiences among overweight and obese persons relative to persons of average weight. The purpose of this investigation of body image was to compare 102 enrollees in a commercial, very-low-calorie diet program to 258 age- and weight-matched control subjects. Whereas enrollees were more strongly invested in their physical appearance, they held a more disparaging view of their looks. Relative to the control group, enrollees also felt less healthy, yet their evaluation of and investment in their physical fitness were more positive. Obese persons constitute a heterogeneous population, and those who seek rapid and extensive weight loss in commercial programs may have special body-image concerns and needs. PMID:8170754

  7. Nesfatin-1: a novel inhibitory regulator of food intake and body weight

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, A; Goebel, M.; Taché, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The protein nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2) or NEFA (DNA binding/EF-hand/acidic amino acid rich region) was identified over a decade ago and implicated in intracellular processes. New developments came with the report that post-translational processing of hypothalamic NUCB2 may result in nesfatin-1, nesfatin-2 and nesfatin-3 and convergent studies showing that nesfatin-1 and full length NUCB2 injected in the brain potently inhibit the dark phase food intake in rodents including leptin receptor deficient Zucker rats. Nesfatin-1 also reduces body weight gain, suggesting a role as a new anorexigenic factor and modulator of energy balance. In light of the obesity epidemic and its associated diseases, underlying new mechanisms regulating food intake may be promising targets in the drug treatment of obese patients particularly as the vast majority of them display reduced leptin sensitivity or leptin resistance while nesfatin-1’s mechanism of action is leptin independent. Although much progress on the localization of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the brain and periphery as well as on the understanding of nesfatin-1’s anorexic effect have been achieved during the past three years, several important mechanisms have yet to be unraveled such as the identification of the nesfatin-1 receptor and the regulation of NUCB2 processing and nesfatin-1 release. PMID:20546141

  8. Coactivation of lower leg muscles during body weight-supported treadmill walking decreases with age in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Deffeyes, Joan E; Karst, Gregory M; Stuberg, Wayne A; Kurz, Max J

    2012-08-01

    The kinematics of children's walking are nearly adult-like by about age 3-4 years, but metabolic efficiency of walking does not reach adult values until late in adolescence or early adulthood, perhaps due to higher coactivation of agonist/antagonist muscle pairs in adolescents. Additionally, it is unknown how use of a body weight-supported treadmill device affects coactivation, but because unloading will alter the activity of anti-gravity muscles, it was hypothesized that muscle coactivation will be altered as well. Muscle coactivation during treadmill walking was evaluated for adolescents (ages 10 to 17 years, M = 13.2, SD = 2.2) and adults (ages 22 to 35 years, M = 25.2, SD = 4.3), for thigh muscles (vastus lateralis/biceps femoris) and lower leg muscles (tibialis anterior/gastrocnemius). Conditions included body weight unloadings from nearly 0% to 80% of body weight, while walking at a preferred speed (self-selected, overground speed) or a reduced speed. Unloading was accomplished using a lower body positive pressure support system. Coactivation was found to be higher in adolescents than in adults, but only for the lower leg muscles. PMID:23033760

  9. Body Weight Gain and Hyperphagia After Administration of SGLT-2 Inhibitor: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hamamoto, Hiromi; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND A detailed description is given of a case we encountered in which unexpectedly marked weight gain occurred following a treatment switch from a GLP-1 receptor agonist to an SGLT-2 inhibitor CASE REPORT The patient, a 44-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus, had gained about 10 kg in weight in the previous year. Therefore, metformin was replaced with liraglutide to obtain reduction of body weight. Although the patient lost about 8 kg (7%), during the 18-month period on the medication, the weight loss stabilized; therefore, the treatment was again switched to tofogliflozin to obtain further reduction of body weight. However, the patient reported increasing hunger and an exaggerated appetite from week 3 onward after the start of tofogliflozin, and gained about 9 kg in weight within 2 weeks, associated with a tendency towards increased HbA1c; therefore, tofogliflozin was discontinued. Immediate reinstitution of liraglutide resulted in reduction of the increased appetite, weight, and HbA1c level. CONCLUSIONS Caution should be exercised against hyperphagia and weight gain due to hunger that may occur following discontinuation of a GLP-1 receptor agonist and/or initiation of an SGLT-2 inhibitor. PMID:26638727

  10. Body Weight Gain and Hyperphagia After Administration of SGLT-2 Inhibitor: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hamamoto, Hiromi; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 44 Final Diagnosis: Type 2 diabetes Symptoms: Hunger • increased appetite Medication: GLP-1 receptor agonist • SGLT-2 inhibitor Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Internal Medicine/Diabetology Objective: Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment Background: A detailed description is given of a case we encountered in which unexpectedly marked weight gain occurred following a treatment switch from a GLP-1 receptor agonist to an SGLT-2 inhibitor. Case Report: The patient, a 44-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus, had gained about 10 kg in weight in the previous year. Therefore, metformin was replaced with liraglutide to obtain reduction of body weight. Although the patient lost about 8 kg (7%), during the 18-month period on the medication, the weight loss stabilized; therefore, the treatment was again switched to tofogliflozin to obtain further reduction of body weight. However, the patient reported increasing hunger and an exaggerated appetite from week 3 onward after the start of tofogliflozin, and gained about 9 kg in weight within 2 weeks, associated with a tendency towards increased HbA1c; therefore, tofogliflozin was discontinued. Immediate reinstitution of liraglutide resulted in reduction of the increased appetite, weight, and HbA1c level. Conclusions: Caution should be exercised against hyperphagia and weight gain due to hunger that may occur following discontinuation of a GLP-1 receptor agonist and/or initiation of an SGLT-2 inhibitor. PMID:26638727

  11. The Correlation between Age, Body Weight and Testicular Parameters in Murrah Buffalo Bulls Raised in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da LUZ, Patrcia Aparecida Cardoso; SANTOS, Paulo Ramos da Silva; ANDRIGHETTO, Cristiana; JORGE, Andr Mendes; de ASSIS NETO, Antnio Chaves

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Buffalo are an economically important source for meat and milk production, especially in Brazil. However, important aspects of their biology remain unknown thus far. Herein, we describe the reproductive characteristics of male Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) raised under extensive management conditions by applying biometrics associated with testicular weight. We analyzed seven males, divided into two groups: G1, which consisted of four 18-month-old animals, and G2, which consisted of three 24-month-old animals. Testicular development occurs slowly in Murrah buffalo, suggesting a delay of sexual maturity. The biometric testicular parameters analyzed were scrotal circumference, testicular weight, testicular length, testicular width, testicular thickness and testicular circumference. Our data indicate strong correlations between SC, age and body weight, and additional significant relationships were identified between body weight, age and other testicular parameters. Thus, these parameters are suitable indicators when selecting bulls for breeding purposes. PMID:22986925

  12. Helichrysum and Grapefruit Extracts Boost Weight Loss in Overweight Rats Reducing Inflammation.

    PubMed

    de la Garza, Ana Laura; Etxeberria, Usune; Haslberger, Alexander; Aumueller, Eva; Martnez, J Alfredo; Milagro, Fermn I

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is characterized by an increased production of inflammatory markers. High levels of circulating free fatty acids and chronic inflammation lead to increased oxidative stress, contributing to the development of insulin resistance (IR). Recent studies have focused on the potential use of flavonoids for obesity management due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of helichrysum and grapefruit extracts in overweight insulin-resistant rats. Thirty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly distributed in two groups: control group (n=8) and high-fat sucrose (HFS) group (n=30). After 22 days of ad libitum water and food access, the rats fed HFS diet changed to standard diet and were reassigned into three groups (n=10 each group): nonsupplemented, helichrysum extract (2?g/kg bw), and grapefruit extract (1?g/kg bw) administered for 5 weeks. Rats supplemented with both extracts gained less body weight during the 5-week period of treatment, showed lower serum insulin levels and liver TBARS levels. Leptin/adiponectin ratio, as an indicator of IR, was lower in both extract-administered groups. These results were accompanied by a reduction in TNF? gene expression in epididymal adipose tissue and intestinal mucosa, and TLR2 expression in intestinal mucosa. Helichrysum and grapefruit extracts might be used as complement hypocaloric diets in weight loss treatment. Both extracts helped to reduce weight gain, hyperinsulinemia, and IR, improved inflammation markers, and decreased the HFS diet-induced oxidative stress in insulin-resistant rats. PMID:25599391

  13. Growth related traits in body weight selected lines and their crosses reared under different nutritional regimens.

    PubMed

    Liu, G; Dunnington, E A; Siegel, P B

    1995-05-01

    1. Four populations--two that had undergone 37 generations of selection for high (HH) and low (LL) body weight, and reciprocal crosses between them (HL and LH) were fed two diets differing in protein and energy. Diet A, under which selection had been made, contained 200 g protein and 11.23 MJ/kg. Diet E contained 240 g protein and 13.16 MJ/kg. 2. Body weight and feed efficiency were measured weekly from hatch to 56 d of age at which time oesophagus, abdominal fat pad, heart, liver and lungs were removed and weighed. At 35 d of age chicks were inoculated with sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) and antibody titre was measured 6 d later. 3. Chicks fed diet E were heavier than those fed diet A. HH chicks were heavier than LL chicks with HL and LH chicks intermediate to the parental lines. LH chicks were heavier than HL ones reflecting large maternal effects. 4. Food efficiencies among stocks and diets were consistent with those for body weight, with HH > LH > HL > LL and E > A. Relative differences between diets were similar across ages and heterosis for food efficiency was about 15%. 5. Relative to body weight, oesophagus and liver weights were heavier in chickens fed diet A than fed diet E. The pattern reversed for abdominal fat pad. 6. Antibody to SRBC antigen was greater in the crosses than in line HH and in cross HL than line LL, with heterosis of 70%. PMID:7655897

  14. Literature review: perceptions and management of body size among normal weight and moderately overweight people.

    PubMed

    Nissen, N K; Holm, L

    2015-02-01

    Improved understanding of how normal weight and moderately overweight people manage their body weight and shape could be used to inform initiatives to prevent and treat obesity. This literature review offers a thorough appraisal of existing research into perceptions and management of own body size among normal weight and moderately overweight people. The studies reported in the 47 publications reviewed here address various themes based on different conceptualizations. The studies point out that normal weight and moderately overweight people are much concerned about their body size, but huge discrepancies are found between their own perceptions and study categorizations. The studies also indicate that normal weight and moderately overweight people are actively engaged in managing their body size through numerous managing strategies, and dieting is widespread. Together the studies do not form a unified and coherent research field, and there is a bias towards North American study populations. Methodological problems were identified in some publications, raising questions about generalizability of the findings. Moreover, only few studies give deeper insight into the specific perceptions and actions. Repeated studies are needed in broader and more differentiated geographical, social and cultural contexts, and longitudinal studies and more in-depth explorations are especially needed. PMID:25487846

  15. Influence of Body Mass Index on the Association of Weight Changes with Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cabezas-Rodriguez, Ivn; Carrero, Juan Jess; Zoccali, Carmine; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Ketteler, Markus; Floege, Jrgen; London, Grard; Locatelli, Francesco; Gorriz, Jos Luis; Rutkowski, Boleslaw; Memmos, Dimitrios; Ferreira, Anibal; Covic, Adrian; Teplan, Vladimir; Bos, Willem-Jan; Kramar, Reinhard; Pavlovic, Drasko; Goldsmith, David; Nagy, Judit; Benedik, Miha; Verbeelen, Dierik; Tielemans, Christian; Wthrich, Rudolf P.; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Martnez-Salgado, Carlos; Fernndez-Martn, Jos Luis; Cannata-Andia, Jorge B.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and Objectives A high body mass index (BMI) is associated with lower mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Short-term weight gains and losses are also related to lower and higher mortality risk, respectively. The implications of weight gain or loss may, however, differ between obese individuals and their nonobese counterparts. Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements The Current Management of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism: A Multicenter Observational Study (COSMOS) is an observational study including 6797 European hemodialysis patients recruited between February 2005 and July 2007, with prospective data collection every 6 months for 3 years. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazard regressions assessed the effect of BMI and weight changes on mortality. Analyses were performed after patient stratification according to their starting BMI. Results Among 6296 patients with complete data, 1643 died. At study entry, 42% of patients had a normal weight (BMI, 2025 kg/m2), 11% were underweight, 31% were overweight, and 16% were obese (BMI ?30 kg/m2). Weight loss or gain (<1% or >1% of body weight) was strongly associated with higher rates of mortality or survival, respectively. After stratification by BMI categories, this was true in nonobese categories and especially in underweight patients. In obese patients, however, the association between weight loss and mortality was attenuated (hazard ratio, 1.28 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.74 to 2.14]), and no survival benefit of gaining weight was seen (hazard ratio, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.59 to 1.62]). Conclusions Assuming that these weight changes were unintentional, our study brings attention to rapid weight variations as a clinical sign of health monitoring in hemodialysis patients. In addition, a patients BMI modifies the strength of the association between weight changes with mortality. PMID:24009217

  16. Associated among endocrine, inflammatory, and bone markers, body composition and weight loss induced bone loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weight loss reduces co-morbidities of obesity but decreases bone mass. Our aims were to determine whether adequate dairy intake could prevent weight loss related bone loss and to evaluate the contribution of energy-related hormones and inflammatory markers to bone metabolism. Overweight and obese w...

  17. Glucose Metabolism and Diet Predict Changes in Adiposity and Fat Distribution in Weight-reduced Women

    PubMed Central

    Gower, Barbara A.; Hunter, Gary R.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Alvarez, Jessica A.; Bush, Nikki C.

    2011-01-01

    Among obesity-prone individuals, metabolic state may interact with diet in determining body composition. We tested the hypotheses that, among 103 weight-reduced women over 1 year, (i) insulin sensitivity would be positively associated with change in %fat; (ii) this association would be modulated by dietary glycemic load (GL); and (iii) changes in fat distribution would be related to indexes of glucose metabolism. Insulin sensitivity, glucose effectiveness, fasting and postchallenge insulin and glucose, and glucose tolerance were assessed during intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). Changes in %fat and fat distribution were examined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography. Dietary GL was assessed on 67 women using food records. On average, women showed a +5.3 ± 3.0% change in %fat over 1 year, with the magnitude of this change being greater in relatively insulin sensitive women (+6.0 ± 0.4%, mean ± s.e.m.) than in relatively insulin resistant women (+4.4 ± 0.4 kg; P < 0.05). Women who were relatively insulin sensitive and who consumed a higher GL diet showed a +6.8 ± 0.7% change in %fat, which was greater than those who were less insulin sensitive, regardless of diet (P < 0.05), but did not differ from women who were relatively insulin sensitive and who consumed a lower GL diet (P = 0.105). Changes in intra-abdominal and deep subcutaneous abdominal fat were inversely associated with the postchallenge decline in serum glucose. In conclusion, greater insulin sensitivity may predispose to adiposity among weight reduced women, an effect that may be ameliorated by a lower GL diet. The potential association between indexes of glucose disposal and changes in fat distribution warrants further study. PMID:20035282

  18. Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Pregnancy is Associated With Earlier Delivery and Reduced Birth Weight.

    PubMed

    Ion, Rachel C; Wills, Andrew K; Bernal, Andrs Lpez

    2015-12-01

    The association between maternal smoking and preterm birth (PTB) has been known for more than 50 years but the effect of passive smoking is controversial. This retrospective cohort study in Bristol, United Kingdom, examines the effect of environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETSE) on gestational age at delivery, birth weight, PTB, and being small-for-gestational age (SGA). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure was defined by either self-report or exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) levels, and exposed women were compared with unexposed controls. Two models were used: The first included all women with adjustment for maternal smoking, and the second considered nonsmokers alone. Both models were further adjusted for maternal age, body mass index, parity, ethnicity, employment status, socioeconomic position, asthma, preeclampsia, and offspring sex. Logistic regression and likelihood ratio tests were used to test for any association between exposure and the binary outcomes (PTB and SGA), while linear regression and F tests were used to test for associations between exposure and the continuous outcomes. There were 13 359 deliveries in 2012 to 2014, with complete data for 5066 and 4793 women in the self-reported and eCO-measured exposure groups, respectively. Self-reported exposure was associated with earlier delivery (-0.19 weeks; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.32 to -0.05) and reduced birth weight (-56 g, 95% CI: -97 to -16 g) but no increase in the risk of PTB or SGA. There was no evidence for an association between eCO-measured exposure and any of the outcome measures. This information is important when advising women and their families and adds further support to continued public health efforts to reduce exposure to tobacco smoke. PMID:26507870

  19. Body and organ weights of rats exposed to carbon monoxide at high altitude.

    PubMed

    McGrath, J J

    1988-01-01

    Although chronic exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) or high altitude produces pronounced cardiovascular changes in humans as well as animals, there is little information on the effects elicited by these stressors combined. Theoretical considerations, as well as data from acute studies, suggest that CO inhaled at high altitude may be more detrimental than CO inhaled at low altitude. The purpose of these studies was to construct a system in which CO and altitude could be controlled precisely, and to investigate the effects of continuous exposure to CO and high altitude on body weights and hematocrit ratios, as well as heart, spleen, adrenals, kidneys, and pituitary weights. Male, laboratory rats were exposed for 6 wk in steel barometric chambers to (1) 100 ppm CO, (2) 15,000 ft simulated high altitude (SHA), and (3) CO at SHA. Altitude was simulated by a system of gate valves and a vacuum pump, and measured by an altimeter. CO, from high-pressure cylinders, was introduced into the air supplying each chamber through a mass flow controller and measured by a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer. Although SHA had no affect on left ventricle plus septum (LV + S), adrenal, spleen, or kidney weights, SHA decreased body weights, and increased hematocrit ratios, as well as right ventricle (RV), total heart (HT), and pituitary weights. CO had no affect on body weights, RV, HT, adrenal, spleen, or kidney weights, but CO increased hematocrit ratios and LV + S weights. There was no significant interaction between SHA and CO on any parameter except kidney weight. These results indicate that, in general, the effects produced by 15,000 ft SHA are not intensified by exposure to 100 ppm CO. PMID:3351978

  20. Optimal body weight for the prevention of coronary heart disease in normal-weight physically active men.

    PubMed

    Williams, Paul T; Hoffman, Kathryn M

    2009-07-01

    Although 36% of US men are normal weight (BMI <25 kg/m(2)), the health benefits of greater leanness in normal-weight individuals are seldom acknowledged. To assess the optimal body weight with respect to minimizing coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, we applied Cox proportional hazard analyses of 20,525 nonsmoking, nondiabetic, normal-weight men followed prospectively for 7.7 years, including 20,301 who provided follow-up questionnaires. Two-hundred and forty two men reported coronary artery bypass graph (CABG) or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and 82 reported physician-diagnosed incident myocardial infarction (267 total). The National Death Index identified 40 additional ischemic heart disease deaths. In these normal-weight men, each kg/m(2) decrement in baseline BMI was associated with 11.2% lower risk for total CHD (P = 0.005), 13.2% lower risk for nonfatal CHD (P = 0.002), 19.0% lower risk for nonfatal myocardial infarction (P = 0.01), and 12.2% lower risk for PTCA or CABG (P = 0.007). Compared to men with BMI between 22.5 and 25 kg/m(2), those <22.5 kg/m(2) had 24.1% lower total CHD risk (P = 0.01), 27.9% lower nonfatal CHD risk (P = 0.01), 37.8% lower nonfatal myocardial infarction risk (P = 0.05), and 27.8% lower PTCA or CABG risk (P = 0.02). In nonabdominally obese men (waist circumference <102 cm), CHD risk declined linearly with declining waist circumference. CHD risk was unrelated to change in waist circumference between 18 years old and baseline except as it contributed to baseline circumference. These results suggest that the optimal BMI for minimizing CHD risk lies somewhere <22.5 kg/m(2), as suggested from our previous analyses of incident diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia in these men. PMID:19553927

  1. Effects of body weight and age on the time and pairing of American black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hepp, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    I used captive young and adult American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) during October-February 1984-1985 to test whether body weight and age affected time of pair-bond formation. Eighty ducks were marked individually, and 10 ducks (6 males and 4 females, half of each age class) were assigned to each of 8 experimental pens. Ducks in 4 pens received an ad libitum diet of commercial duck food, and ducks in the other 4 pens received a restricted ration of the same food. During early winter ducks in both groups gained weight, but ducks on the restricted diet gained less than birds on the ad libitum diet; peak winter weight of ducks on the ad libitum diet averaged 22% greater than initial body weight compared with 6.5% for ducks on the restricted diet. In late winter ducks on the restricted diet lost 28.7% of peak winter weight, and ducks on the ad libitum diet lost 19.3%. Weight loss of ducks on the ad libitum diet began before weather conditions became severe and coincided with a reduction in food consumption. This result supports the idea that weight loss of waterfowl in late winter is controlled endogenously. Individuals on the ad libitum diet paired earlier than those on the restricted diet, and pair bonds were stronger. Adults of both sexes paired earlier than young ducks, but differences for females were not significant statistically. Age and energy constraints are factors that can affect intraspecific variation in pairing chronology.

  2. Body and organ weights of rats exposed to carbon monoxide at high altitude

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    Male, laboratory rats were exposed for 6 wk in steel barometric chambers to (1) 100 ppm CO, (2) 15,000 ft simulated high altitude (SHA), and (3) CO at SHA. Altitude was simulated by a system of gate valves and a vacuum pump, and measured by an altimeter. CO, from high-pressure cylinders, was introduced into the air supplying each chamber through a mass flow controller and measured by a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer. Although SHA had no affect on left ventricle plus septum (LV + S), adrenal, spleen, or kidney weights, SHA decreased body weights, and increased hematocrit ratios, as well as right ventricle (RV), total heart (HT), and pituitary weights. CO had no affect on body weights, RV, HT, adrenal, spleen, or kidney weights, but CO increased hematocrit ratios and LV + S weights. There was no significant interaction between SHA and CO on any parameter except kidney weight. These results indicate that, in general, the effects produced by 15,000 ft SHA are not intensified by exposure to 100 ppm CO.

  3. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors in the brain: controlling food intake and body weight

    PubMed Central

    Baggio, Laurie L.; Drucker, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    The peptide hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) enhances glucose-induced insulin secretion and inhibits both gastric emptying and glucagon secretion. GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists control glycemia via glucose-dependent mechanisms of action and promote weight loss in obese and diabetic individuals. Nevertheless, the mechanisms and cellular targets transducing the weight loss effects remain unclear. Two recent studies in the JCI provide insight into the neurons responsible for this effect. Sisley et al. reveal that GLP-1R agonist–induced weight loss requires GLP-1Rs in the CNS, while Secher et al. reveal that a small peptide GLP-1R agonist penetrates the brain and activates a subset of GLP-1R–expressing neurons in the arcuate nucleus to produce weight loss. Together, these two studies elucidate pathways that inform strategies coupling GLP-1R signaling to control of body weight in patients with diabetes or obesity. PMID:25202976

  4. Association of sexual maturation with excess body weight and height in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies addressing the influence of early sexual maturation on the excess of body weight and height of children and adolescents are scarce. The aim of the study was to analyze the association of sexual maturation with excess body weight and height in children and adolescents. Methods This was a cross-sectional study performed in Florianpolis city, Brazil, in 2007, with 2339 school children, aged 814 years (1107 males). Selection was based on a probabilistic, cluster-stratified sampling technique. School children were classified according to the presence of excess body weight, using sex- and age-specific body mass index (BMI) cutoff points. Z-scores were calculated from height and BMI data. Sexual maturation was self-assessed according to Tanner stages of development. Subjects were ranked based on tertiles of sexual maturation (early, normal and late) for each stage of development. Poisson and linear regression models were used. Results Compared to the reference group (normal sexual maturation), early maturing females had higher prevalence of excess weight (adjusted prevalence ratio: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.24 to 2.33) and increased height-for-age (adjusted ?: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.59), while late maturing females had lower prevalence of excess weight (adjusted prevalence ratio: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.37 to 0.87) and decreased height-for-age (adjusted ?: ?0.38; 95% CI: ?0.56 to ?0.20). In males, early and late sexual maturation were associated with increased (adjusted ?: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.59) and decreased (adjusted ?: ?0.38; 95% CI: ?0.56 to ?0.20) height-for-age, respectively. Conclusion Early sexual maturation is associated with excess body weight in females and with greater height-for-age in both sexes. PMID:24625111

  5. Dynamic modeling of methylprednisolone effects on body weight and glucose regulation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jing; DuBois, Debra C.; He, Yang; Almon, Richard R.

    2012-01-01

    Influences of methylprednisolone (MPL) and food consumption on body weight (BW), and the effects of MPL on glycemic control including food consumption and the dynamic interactions among glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids (FFA) were evaluated in normal male Wistar rats. Six groups of animals received either saline or MPL via subcutaneous infusions at the rate of 0.03, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 mg/kg/h for different treatment periods. BW and food consumption were measured twice a week. Plasma concentrations of MPL and corticosterone (CST) were determined at animal sacrifice. Plasma glucose, insulin, and FFA were measured at various times after infusion. Plasma MPL concentrations were simulated by a two-compartment model and used as the driving force in the pharmacodynamic (PD) analysis. All data were modeled using ADAPT 5. The MPL treatments caused reduction of food consumption and body weights in all dosing groups. The steroid also caused changes in plasma glucose, insulin, and FFA concentrations. Hyper-insulinemia was achieved rapidly at the first sampling time of 6 h; significant elevations of FFA were observed in all drug treatment groups; whereas only modest increases in plasma glucose were observed in the low dosing groups (0.03 and 0.1 mg/kg/h). Body weight changes were modeled by dual actions of MPL: inhibition of food consumption and stimulation of weight loss, with food consumption accounting for the input of energy for body weight. Dynamic models of glucose and insulin feedback interactions were extended to capture the major metabolic effects of FFA: stimulation of insulin secretion and inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose utilization. These models of body weight and glucose regulation adequately captured the experimental data and reflect significant physiological interactions among glucose, insulin, and FFA. These mechanism-based PD models provide further insights into the multi-factor control of this essential metabolic system. PMID:21394487

  6. Targeting TRPV1 for Body Weight Control using TRPV1−/− Mice and Electroacupuncture

    PubMed Central

    Choowanthanapakorn, Monchanok; Lu, Kung-Wen; Yang, Jun; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Lin, Yi-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a global social medical problem resulting in morbidity as high as 20–30%. Here we investigated whether the manipulation of TRPV1 can control mice body weight through electroacupuncture (EA). The results demonstrated that body weight increased with time in the control group (108.19 ± 1.31%, n = 7). The increase of mice body weight was significantly less in the EA group (104.41 ± 0.76%, p < 0.05, compared with the control group, n = 7) but not in the sham EA group (109.1 ± 0.63%, p < 0.05, compared with EA group, n = 7). EA did not decrease the gain of body weight in TRPV1 knock mice (107.94 ± 0.41% and 107.79 ± 1.04% for TRPV1−/− and TRPV1−/− with EA, respectively, p > 0.05). The visceral white adipose tissue (WAT) weight was lower in the EA group at 4 weeks after manipulation. Moreover, the protein levels of TRPV1, pPKA, pPKC, and pERK were increased in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord (SC) after EA treatment but not in the sham EA and TRPV1−/− mice. This study suggests that targeting TRPV1 is beneficial in controlling body weight and TRPV1-associated mechanisms in mice. PMID:26621679

  7. Risk of Thromboembolism Following Body-Contouring Surgery After Massive Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, M.; Akhavani, M. A.; Muirhead, N.; Fleming, A. N. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Postbariatric patients are at significant risk for increased postoperative complications. This study aimed to define the risk of venous thromboembolism following body-contouring surgery after massive weight loss. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on all patients who had undergone all forms of body-contouring procedures after massive weight loss between January 2005 and August 2012 at St George's Hospital, South West London, United Kingdom. Data were collected on patient demographics, comorbidities, risks factors for thromboembolism, preoperative and postoperative body mass index, and type of surgery. Results: A total of 135 operations were performed on 53 patients (43 females, 10 male), with an average age of 44.8 years (range, 2656 years). Most had staged procedures including 55 abdominoplasties, 23 brachioplasties, 31 thigh lifts, 14 lower-body lifts, and 12 mastopexies. All patients received venous thromboembolism prophylaxis postoperatively including low-molecular-weight heparin (dalteparin) within an average of 22.5 hours after surgery and the application of intraoperative graduated compression stockings. Patients received dalteparin for an average of 4 days (range, 214 days), which correlated to their length of stay. One patient had a deep venous thrombosis 14 days postoperatively and then 2 days later developed a nonfatal pulmonary embolus, giving a venous thromboembolism prevalence of 0.74% (1/135). Conclusions: The clinically apparent venous thromboembolism prevalence was low among patients undergoing body-contouring procedures after massive weight loss in this study. We provide evidence of a successful algorithm to prevent venous thromboembolism for patients undergoing body-contouring procedures after massive weight loss. PMID:26171089

  8. Trypsin inhibitor from tamarindus indica L. seeds reduces weight gain and food consumption and increases plasmatic cholecystokinin levels

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento Campos Ribeiro, Joycellane Alline; Serquiz, Alexandre Coellho; dos Santos Silva, Priscila Fabíola; Barbosa, Patrícia Batista Barra Medeiros; Sampaio, Tarcísio Bruno Montenegro; de Araújo, Raimundo Fernandes; de Oliveira, Adeliana Silva; Machado, Richele Janaina Araújo; Maciel, Bruna Leal Lima; Uchôa, Adriana Ferreira; dos Santos, Elizeu Antunes; de Araújo Morais, Ana Heloneida

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Seeds are excellent sources of proteinase inhibitors, some of which may have satietogenic and slimming actions. We evaluated the effect of a trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus indica L. seeds on weight gain, food consumption and cholecystokinin levels in Wistar rats. METHODS: A trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus was isolated using ammonium sulfate (30–60%) following precipitation with acetone and was further isolated with Trypsin-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Analyses were conducted to assess the in vivo digestibility, food intake, body weight evolution and cholecystokinin levels in Wistar rats. Histological analyses of organs and biochemical analyses of sera were performed. RESULTS: The trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus reduced food consumption, thereby reducing weight gain. The in vivo true digestibility was not significantly different between the control and Tamarindus trypsin inhibitor-treated groups. The trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus did not cause alterations in biochemical parameters or liver, stomach, intestine or pancreas histology. Rats treated with the trypsin inhibitor showed significantly elevated cholecystokinin levels compared with animals receiving casein or water. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the isolated trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus reduces weight gain by reducing food consumption, an effect that may be mediated by increased cholecystokinin. Thus, the potential use of this trypsin inhibitor in obesity prevention and/or treatment should be evaluated. PMID:25789523

  9. Fluid and diet patterns associated with weight cycling and changes in body composition assessed by continuous monitoring throughout a college wrestling season.

    PubMed

    Lingor, Ryan J; Olson, Amy

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the methods used to meet certification weight for wrestling and to measure the changes in body composition during 1 season for Division III college wrestlers. Nine college wrestlers completed this study. Body composition was analyzed by underwater weighing (UWW) and multifrequency bioelectrical impedance before and throughout the competitive season. Hydration status was measured by urine osmolality (Uosm) and urine specific gravity (Usg). Nutritional intake was measured for 2 1-week periods, once at the beginning and again near the end of the season. Subjects' fat-free mass (FFM) increased an average of 1.8 kg, whereas fat mass (FM) decreased 2.2 kg as indicated by UWW from the beginning to the end of the season. Wrestlers on average cycled their weight 3.4 kg (4.7% of body weight) per week. The majority of wrestlers cut weight by reducing calories and restricting fluids starting 2 days before the competition. Uosm and body weights on Friday suggested that for wrestlers to achieve the necessary weight loss by dehydration to "make weight" for a Saturday meet, wrestlers would approach a 5% level of dehydration. No loss of FFM because of weight cycling (WC) was evident to achieve competitive weight. Most wrestlers significantly restricted fluids and caloric intake in the 48 hours before weigh-in. PMID:20555285

  10. Effect of Dietary Protein Content on Weight Gain, Energy Expenditure, and Body Composition During Overeating

    PubMed Central

    Bray, George A.; Smith, Steven R.; de Jonge, Lilian; Xie, Hui; Rood, Jennifer; Martin, Corby K.; Most, Marlene; Brock, Courtney; Mancuso, Susan; Redman, Leanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Context The role of diet composition in response to overeating and energy dissipation in humans is unclear. Objective To evaluate the effects of overconsumption of low, normal, and high protein diets on weight gain, energy expenditure, and body composition. Design, Setting, and Participants A single-blind, randomized controlled trial of 25 US healthy, weight-stable male and female volunteers, aged 18 to 35 years with a body mass index between 19 and 30. The first participant was admitted to the inpatient metabolic unit in June 2005 and the last in October 2007. Intervention After consuming a weight-stabilizing diet for 13 to 25 days, participants were randomized to diets containing 5% of energy from protein (low protein), 15% (normal protein), or 25% (high protein), which they were overfed during the last 8 weeks of their 10- to 12-week stay in the inpatient metabolic unit. Compared with energy intake during the weight stabilization period, the protein diets provided approximately 40% more energy intake, which corresponds to 954 kcal/d (95% CI, 8841022 kcal/d). Main Outcome Measures Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry biweekly, resting energy expenditure was measured weekly by ventilated hood, and total energy expenditure by doubly labeled water prior to the overeating and weight stabilization periods and at weeks 7 to 8. Results Overeating produced significantly less weight gain in the low protein diet group (3.16 kg; 95% CI, 1.884.44 kg) compared with the normal protein diet group (6.05 kg; 95% CI, 4.847.26 kg) or the high protein diet group (6.51 kg; 95% CI, 5.237.79 kg) (P=.002). Body fat increased similarly in all 3 protein diet groups and represented 50% to more than 90% of the excess stored calories. Resting energy expenditure, total energy expenditure, and body protein did not increase during overfeeding with the low protein diet. In contrast, resting energy expenditure (normal protein diet: 160 kcal/d [95% CI, 102218 kcal/d]; high protein diet: 227 kcal/d [95% CI, 165289 kcal/d]) and body protein (lean body mass) (normal protein diet: 2.87 kg [95% CI, 2.113.62 kg]; high protein diet: 3.18 kg [95% CI, 2.373.98 kg]) increased significantly with the normal and high protein diets. Conclusions Among persons living in a controlled setting, calories alone account for the increase in fat; protein affected energy expenditure and storage of lean body mass, but not body fat storage. PMID:22215165

  11. A high-protein diet for reducing body fat: mechanisms and possible caveats.

    PubMed

    Pesta, Dominik H; Samuel, Varman T

    2014-01-01

    High protein diets are increasingly popularized in lay media as a promising strategy for weight loss by providing the twin benefits of improving satiety and decreasing fat mass. Some of the potential mechanisms that account for weight loss associated with high-protein diets involve increased secretion of satiety hormones (GIP, GLP-1), reduced orexigenic hormone secretion (ghrelin), the increased thermic effect of food and protein-induced alterations in gluconeogenesis to improve glucose homeostasis. There are, however, also possible caveats that have to be considered when choosing to consume a high-protein diet. A high intake of branched-chain amino acids in combination with a western diet might exacerbate the development of metabolic disease. A diet high in protein can also pose a significant acid load to the kidneys. Finally, when energy demand is low, excess protein can be converted to glucose (via gluconeogenesis) or ketone bodies and contribute to a positive energy balance, which is undesirable if weight loss is the goal. In this review, we will therefore explore the mechanisms whereby a high-protein diet may exert beneficial effects on whole body metabolism while we also want to present possible caveats associated with the consumption of a high-protein diet. PMID:25489333

  12. Positive body image and young women's health: Implications for sun protection, cancer screening, weight loss and alcohol consumption behaviours.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the link between positive body image and a range of health behaviours. Participants were 256 women who completed an online questionnaire measuring body appreciation, body dissatisfaction, sun protection, cancer screening, seeking medical attention, weight-loss behaviour and alcohol and tobacco consumption. Results indicated that body appreciation was positively related to sun protection, skin screening and seeking medical attention and negatively related to weight-loss behaviour. Body appreciation explained unique variance, over and above body dissatisfaction, in sun protection, skin screening and weight-loss behaviour. These results have implications for interventions to improve adherence to health behaviours. PMID:24532796

  13. Low-calorie sweeteners and body weight and composition: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies123

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Paige E; Perez, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Replacement of caloric sweeteners with lower- or no-calorie alternatives may facilitate weight loss or weight maintenance by helping to reduce energy intake; however, past research examining low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) and body weight has produced mixed results. Objective: The objective was to systematically review and quantitatively evaluate randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective cohort studies, separately, that examined the relation between LCSs and body weight and composition. Design: A systematic literature search identified 15 RCTs and 9 prospective cohort studies that examined LCSs from foods or beverages or LCSs consumed as tabletop sweeteners. Meta-analyses generated weighted mean differences in body weight and composition values between the LCS and control groups among RCTs and weighted mean correlations for LCS intake and these parameters among prospective cohort studies. Results: In RCTs, LCSs modestly but significantly reduced all outcomes examined, including body weight (−0.80 kg; 95% CI: −1.17, −0.43), body mass index [BMI (in kg/m2): −0.24; 95% CI: −0.41, −0.07], fat mass (−1.10 kg; 95% CI: −1.77, −0.44), and waist circumference (−0.83 cm; 95% CI: −1.29, −0.37). Among prospective cohort studies, LCS intake was not associated with body weight or fat mass, but was significantly associated with slightly higher BMI (0.03; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.06). Conclusions: The current meta-analysis provides a rigorous evaluation of the scientific evidence on LCSs and body weight and composition. Findings from observational studies showed no association between LCS intake and body weight or fat mass and a small positive association with BMI; however, data from RCTs, which provide the highest quality of evidence for examining the potentially causal effects of LCS intake, indicate that substituting LCS options for their regular-calorie versions results in a modest weight loss and may be a useful dietary tool to improve compliance with weight loss or weight maintenance plans. PMID:24944060

  14. Glutamate mediates the function of melanocortin receptor 4 on sim1 neurons in body weight regulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is a well-established mediator of body weight homeostasis. However, the neurotransmitter(s) that mediate MC4R function remain largely unknown; as a result, little is known about the second-order neurons of the MC4R neural pathway. Single-minded 1 (Sim1)-expressing ...

  15. GENETIC MECHANISMS REGULATING FEED INTAKE, ENERGY BALANCE AND BODY WEIGHT IN POULTRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to maintain a constant body weight, feed intake and energy expenditure must be coordinated and tightly regulated. This may not hold true for some poultry species intensively selected for such economically important traits as growth and meat production. For example, the modern commercial b...

  16. Effect of Lactose as a Prebiotic on Turkey Body Weight Under Commercial Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of a commercially available lactic acid bacteria (LAB) probiotic alone and supplemented with lactose as prebiotic, was evaluated for effects on turkey body weight during the brooding and grow out phases under commercial conditions in two experiments. Turkey poults were given the probioti...

  17. High Blood Pressure in Adults with Disabilities: Influence of Gender, Body Weight and Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Chien-Ting; Liou, Shih-Wen; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the mean and distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and to examine the influence of gender, body weight and health behaviors on hypertension in adults with disabilities. We analyzed the 2010 annual community health examination chart of adults with disabilities in east Taiwan. The study samples…

  18. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY WEIGHT AND BEAK CHARACTERISTICS IN 1 D OLD LAYER CHICKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this work was to determine if any relationship exists between body weight and beak characteristics in day old chicks for developing an automated system to standardize infrared beak treatment. At the hatchery, 1-day-old W-36 chicks (n=344) were weighed and digital pictures were taken of th...

  19. CHROMIUM PICOLINATE SUPPLEMENTATION IN WOMEN: EFFECTS ON BODY WEIGHT, COMPOSITION AND IRON STATUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Supplementation of chromium as chromium picolinate (CrPic), 200 g Cr/d, is claimed to promote weight loss and propitiously affect body composition; it may adversely affect iron status. This study tested the hypothesis that supplementation of CrPic, compared to an equivalent amount of pi...

  20. Variation in body weight and total length among families of fingerling white bass after communal rearing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variation in body weight and total length among 15 families of Phase I white bass Morone chrysops was evaluated in a communal pond. Family pedigrees were determined a posteriori using microsatellite molecular markers and trait heritabilities (h2) were estimated. Fingerlings averaged 36.7 (+ or - 2...

  1. Contributions of the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex to energy and body weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Terry L; Chan, Kinho; Jarrard, Leonard E; Kanoski, Scott E; Clegg, Deborah J; Benoit, Stephen C

    2009-03-01

    The effects of selective ibotenate lesions of the complete hippocampus (CHip), the hippocampal ventral pole (VP), or the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in male rats were assessed on several measures related to energy regulation (i.e., body weight gain, food intake, body adiposity, metabolic activity, general behavioral activity, conditioned appetitive responding). The testing conditions were designed to minimize the nonspecific debilitating effects of these surgeries on intake and body weight. Rats with CHip and VP lesions exhibited significantly greater weight gain and food intake compared with controls. Furthermore, CHip-lesioned rats, but not rats with VP lesions, showed elevated metabolic activity, general activity in the dark phase of the light-dark cycle, and greater conditioned appetitive behavior, compared with control rats without these brain lesions. In contrast, rats with mPFC lesions were not different from controls on any of these measures. These results indicate that hippocampal damage interferes with energy and body weight regulation, perhaps by disrupting higher-order learning and memory processes that contribute to the control of appetitive and consummatory behavior. PMID:18831000

  2. Effects of Body Weight and Nutrition on Histological Mammary Development in Holstein Heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine effects of rate of gain and body weight (BW) on mammary parenchymal tissue development. Mammary tissue samples were available from heifers (n = 54) reared on one of two dietary treatments, restricted (R) 650 g/d or elevated (E) 950 g/d of daily gain), and slaughtered ...

  3. Body weight manipulation, reinforcement value and choice between sucrose and wheel running: a behavioral economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David

    2009-02-01

    Twelve female Long-Evans rats were exposed to concurrent variable (VR) ratio schedules of sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement (Sucrose VR 10 Wheel VR 10; Sucrose VR 5 Wheel VR 20; Sucrose VR 20 Wheel VR 5) with predetermined budgets (number of responses). The allocation of lever pressing to the sucrose and wheel-running alternatives was assessed at high and low body weights. Results showed that wheel-running rate and lever-pressing rates for sucrose and wheel running increased, but the choice of wheel running decreased at the low body weight. A regression analysis of relative consumption as a function of relative price showed that consumption shifted toward sucrose and interacted with price differences in a manner consistent with increased substitutability. Demand curves showed that demand for sucrose became less elastic while demand for wheel running became more elastic at the low body weight. These findings reflect an increase in the difference in relative value of sucrose and wheel running as body weight decreased. Discussion focuses on the limitations of response rates as measures of reinforcement value. In addition, we address the commonalities between matching and demand curve equations for the analysis of changes in relative reinforcement value. PMID:19063951

  4. Facilitation of sympathetic neurotransmission contributes to angiotensin regulation of body weight.

    PubMed

    English, V; Cassis, L

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that angiotensin II (AnglI) decreases body weight. The purpose of this study was to determine if AngII-reductions in body weight result from stimulation of sympathetic neurotransmission to interscapular brown adipose tissue (ISBAT). Following 7 days of chronic AngII infusion (350ng/kg/min), body weight decreased compared to controls. Using superfused ISBAT tissue slices preloaded with [3H]norepinephrine (NE), evoked [3H]overflow was greater in ISBAT slices from AngII-infused rats compared to controls. When AngII was included in the buffer, evoked [3H]overflow increased in a concentration-dependent manner in ISBAT slices from AngII-infused and control rats. The EC50 for the presynaptic effect of AngII was shifted to the left in ISBAT slices from AnglI-infused rats compared to controls; however, the maximal response to AngII was decreased. These results demonstrate that chronic AngII infusion enhances evoked release of NE from ISBAT sympathetic nerve terminals. Moreover, responsiveness to the presynaptic effect of AngII was altered following chronic AngII infusion. Increased sympathetic neurotransmission to ISBAT may contribute to AnglI-regulation of body weight. PMID:10907723

  5. Food Consumption Patterns of Nigerian Adolescents and Effect on Body Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olumakaiye, M. F.; Atinmo, Tola; Olubayo-Fatiregun, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Association between nutritional status of adolescents and food consumption pattern. Design: Data on number of meals and snacks consumed daily were collected using structured questionnaires. Nutritional status was assessed as weight-for-age body mass index score less than fifth percentile of the National Center for Health

  6. IMPACT OF BODY WEIGHT CHANGE ON THE EDSTAC TIER 1 MALE AND FEMALE PUBERTAL PROTOCOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    IMPACT OF BODY WEIGHT CHANGE ON THE EDSTAC TIER I MALE AND FEMALE PUBERTAL PROTOCOLS. R.L. Cooper, T.E. Stoker, K. McElroy, J. Ferrell, K. Leffler, K. Bremser and S.C. Laws. Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, RTP, NC. Sponsor: R.J. Kavl...

  7. MECHANISMS REGULATING FOOD INTAKE, ENERGY BALANCE AND BODY WEIGHT IN POULTRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to maintain a constant body weight, food intake and energy expenditure must be coordinated and tightly regulated. This may not hold true for some poultry species intensively selected for such economically important traits as growth and meat production. For example, the modern commercial b...

  8. Treadmill Training with Partial Body-Weight Support in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutlu, Akmer; Krosschell, Kristin; Spira, Deborah Gaebler

    2009-01-01

    OKAim: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the literature on the effects of partial body-weight support treadmill training (PBWSTT) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) on functional outcomes and attainment of ambulation. Method: We searched the relevant literature from 1950 to July 2007. We found eight studies on the use of PWSBTT on…

  9. Treadmill Training with Partial Body-Weight Support in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutlu, Akmer; Krosschell, Kristin; Spira, Deborah Gaebler

    2009-01-01

    OKAim: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the literature on the effects of partial body-weight support treadmill training (PBWSTT) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) on functional outcomes and attainment of ambulation. Method: We searched the relevant literature from 1950 to July 2007. We found eight studies on the use of PWSBTT on

  10. Estrogen receptor-a in medial amygdala neurons regulates body weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estrogen receptor–a (ERa) activity in the brain prevents obesity in both males and females. However, the ERa-expressing neural populations that regulate body weight remain to be fully elucidated. Here we showed that single-minded–1 (SIM1) neurons in the medial amygdala (MeA) express abundant levels ...

  11. High Blood Pressure in Adults with Disabilities: Influence of Gender, Body Weight and Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Chien-Ting; Liou, Shih-Wen; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the mean and distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and to examine the influence of gender, body weight and health behaviors on hypertension in adults with disabilities. We analyzed the 2010 annual community health examination chart of adults with disabilities in east Taiwan. The study samples

  12. Direct and Indirect Effects of Teenage Body Weight on Adult Wages. NBER Working Paper No. 15027

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Euna; Norton, Edward C.; Powell, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous estimates on the association between body weight and wages in the literature have been contingent on education and occupation. This paper examines the direct effect of BMI on wages and the indirect effects operating through education and occupation choice, particularly for late-teen BMI and adult wages. Using the National Longitudinal

  13. Effects of transportation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge on body weight and feed intake of crossbred heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of transportation and LPS challenge on feed intake (FI) and body weight (BW) of calves. Brahman x British heifers (n=44) from Raymond, MS, were weaned and acclimated to a high roughage diet fed in GrowSafe® bunks for 25 d. Heifers were blocked by BW...

  14. Genetic variations of body weight and GCRV resistance in a random mating population of grass carp.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong; Sun, Jiaxian; Luo, Qing; He, Libo; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; Guo, Fuhua; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

    2015-11-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is an important species in freshwater aquaculture both in China and on a global scale. Variety degeneration and frequent diseases have limited the further development of grass carp aquaculture. Thus, new and improved varieties are required. Here, we identified and assessed the body weight and disease resistance in a random mating population of 19 ?? 22 ?? grass carp, which were derived from different water systems. In both the growth experimental group of 10,245 fish and grass carp reovirus (GCRV)-infected group with 10,000 fish, 78 full-sib families were statistically analyzed for body weight and GCRV resistance. The findings showed that body weight traits had low heritability (0.11 0.04, 0.10 0.03 and 0.12 0.05), GCRV resistance traits had high heritability (0.63 0.11); body weight was higher in 3 families, whereas GCRV resistance was significantly greater in 11 families. Our results confirmed that the natural germplasm resources of wild grass carp were genetically diverse. Breeding of GCRV resistant varieties of grass carp have better genetic basis. This study provides the basis for constructing basal populations for grass carp selective breeding, quantitative trait loci (QTL) and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) analysis. PMID:26439690

  15. Associations between inhibitory control and body weight in German primary school children.

    PubMed

    Wirt, Tamara; Hundsdrfer, Verena; Schreiber, Anja; Kesztys, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jrgen M

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in inhibitory control are supposed to be a risk factor for overweight but literature concerning childhood and beyond the clinical setting is scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of inhibitory control in regards to body weight in a large non-clinical sample of primary school children. Baseline data of 498 children (1st and 2nd grade; 7.0 0.6 years; 49.8% boys) participating in a school-based intervention study in Germany were used. Children performed a Go-Nogo-task to assess inhibitory control. Height and weight were collected and converted to BMI percentiles based on national standards. Relevant influencing factors (sociodemographic data, health characteristics of parents, children's health behaviour) were assessed via parental questionnaire. Inhibitory control was significantly associated with body weight and contributed to the statistical prediction of body weight above and beyond parent education, migration background, parent weight, TV consumption and breakfast habits. Moreover, obese children displayed significantly lower inhibitory control compared to non-overweight and overweight children. The findings suggest that deficits in inhibitory control constitute a risk factor for paediatric obesity. PMID:24411742

  16. Energy expenditure, urea kinetics, and body weight gain within a segregating resource family population.

    PubMed

    Lahann, P; Voigt, J; Khn, C; Pfuhl, R; Metges, C C; Junghans, P; Schnhusen, U; Hammon, H M

    2010-11-01

    Beef and dairy cattle represent divergent metabolic types that disseminate nutrients into either meat or milk and differ in nutrient accretion. To investigate nutrient flow and turnover in an animal model combining beef and dairy cattle, a crossbred experiment has been started. An F(2) resource population was generated from Charolais (beef breed) sires and German Holstein (dairy breed) cows as P(0) founders by consistent use of embryo transfer to establish the F(1) and F(2) generations, which accordingly comprised half- and full-sib offspring. In 64 bulls of 5F(2) families, dry matter intake and growth performance were measured monthly, and carcass composition was determined after slaughtering at 18 mo of age. Energy expenditure and urea kinetics were investigated via stable isotope tracer techniques using an intravenous single bolus dose of sodium [(13)C]bicarbonate [2.5 ?mol/kg of body weight (BW), 99 atom% (13)C] at 8 and 18 mo of age and of [(15)N]urea (0.28 mg/kg of BW, 99 atom% (15)N) at 8 mo of age, respectively. Insulin responses were measured via glucose tolerances tests at the age of 8 mo. The results revealed significant differences between families for growth performance, energy expenditure, and urea kinetics. In summary, low energy expenditure was associated with high average body mass gain and high insulin response. A greater urea loss was associated with reduced muscle protein in carcass. In addition, corresponding half-sib and full-sib sisters from bulls with highest growth rate indicated highest milk production. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that differences in energy expenditure and urea kinetics result in differences in average daily gain and carcass traits and vice versa in F(2) crossbred bulls with common beef and dairy genetic backgrounds. PMID:20965327

  17. Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation

    PubMed Central

    Willer, Cristen J; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Loos, Ruth J F; Li, Shengxu; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Heid, Iris M; Berndt, Sonja I; Elliott, Amanda L; Jackson, Anne U; Lamina, Claudia; Lettre, Guillaume; Lim, Noha; Lyon, Helen N; McCarroll, Steven A; Papadakis, Konstantinos; Qi, Lu; Randall, Joshua C; Roccasecca, Rosa Maria; Sanna, Serena; Scheet, Paul; Weedon, Michael N; Wheeler, Eleanor; Zhao, Jing Hua; Jacobs, Leonie C; Prokopenko, Inga; Soranzo, Nicole; Tanaka, Toshiko; Timpson, Nicholas J; Almgren, Peter; Bennett, Amanda; Bergman, Richard N; Bingham, Sheila A; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brown, Morris; Burtt, Nol P; Chines, Peter; Coin, Lachlan; Collins, Francis S; Connell, John M; Cooper, Cyrus; Smith, George Davey; Dennison, Elaine M; Deodhar, Parimal; Elliott, Paul; Erdos, Michael R; Estrada, Karol; Evans, David M; Gianniny, Lauren; Gieger, Christian; Gillson, Christopher J; Guiducci, Candace; Hackett, Rachel; Hadley, David; Hall, Alistair S; Havulinna, Aki S; Hebebrand, Johannes; Hofman, Albert; Isomaa, Bo; Jacobs, Kevin B; Johnson, Toby; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jovanovic, Zorica; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kraft, Peter; Kuokkanen, Mikko; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laitinen, Jaana; Lakatta, Edward G; Luan, Jian'an; Luben, Robert N; Mangino, Massimo; McArdle, Wendy L; Meitinger, Thomas; Mulas, Antonella; Munroe, Patricia B; Narisu, Narisu; Ness, Andrew R; Northstone, Kate; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Purmann, Carolin; Rees, Matthew G; Ridderstrle, Martin; Ring, Susan M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Ruokonen, Aimo; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Saramies, Jouko; Scott, Laura J; Scuteri, Angelo; Silander, Kaisa; Sims, Matthew A; Song, Kijoung; Stephens, Jonathan; Stevens, Suzanne; Stringham, Heather M; Tung, Y C Loraine; Valle, Timo T; Van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Wallace, Chris; Watanabe, Richard M; Waterworth, Dawn M; Watkins, Nicholas; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zhai, Guangju; Zillikens, M Carola; Altshuler, David; Caulfield, Mark J; Chanock, Stephen J; Farooqi, I Sadaf; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack M; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hu, Frank B; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Laakso, Markku; Mooser, Vincent; Ong, Ken K; Ouwehand, Willem H; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Spector, Timothy D; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uda, Manuela; Uitterlinden, Andr G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Frayling, Timothy M; Groop, Leif C; Hayes, Richard B; Hunter, David J; Mohlke, Karen L; Peltonen, Leena; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Wichmann, H-Erich; McCarthy, Mark I; Boehnke, Michael; Barroso, Ins; Abecasis, Gonalo R; Hirschhorn, Joel N

    2009-01-01

    Common variants at only two loci, FTO and MC4R, have been reproducibly associated with body mass index (BMI) in humans. To identify additional loci, we conducted meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide association studies for BMI (n > 32,000) and followed up top signals in 14 additional cohorts (n > 59,000). We strongly confirm FTO and MC4R and identify six additional loci (P < 5 10?8): TMEM18, KCTD15, GNPDA2, SH2B1, MTCH2 and NEGR1 (where a 45-kb deletion polymorphism is a candidate causal variant). Several of the likely causal genes are highly expressed or known to act in the central nervous system (CNS), emphasizing, as in rare monogenic forms of obesity, the role of the CNS in predisposition to obesity. PMID:19079261

  18. Effect of body weight gain on insulin sensitivity after retirement from exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolkas, Constantine B.; Rodnick, Kenneth J.; Mondon, Carl E.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the body-weight gain after retirement from an exercise-training program on the retained increase in insulin sensitivity elicited by the training was investigated in exercise-trained (ET) rats. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by oral glucose tolerance and insulin suppression tests immediately after training and during retirement. Results show that, compared with sedentary controls, exercise training enhanced insulin-induced glucose uptake, but the enhanced sensitivity was gradually lost with the end of running activity until after seven days of retirement, when it became equal to that of controls. This loss of enhanced sensitivity to insulin was associated with an accelerated gain in body weight beginning one day after the start of retirement. However, those animals that gained weight only at rates similar to those of control rats, retained their enhanced sensitivity to insulin.

  19. Influence of Weight Gain Rate on Early Life Nutritional Status and Body Composition of Children

    PubMed Central

    Magalhes, Tas Cristina Arajo; Ribeiro, Andria Queiroz; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the influence of the weight gain rate at 46 months on nutritional status and body composition in children between 4 and 7 years of age. Methods. Retrospective cohort study, sample of 257 children. Data collection was performed in two stages, with the first relating to retrospective data of weight gain from birth to the first 46 months of life in the patient records. Measurements of weight, height, waist circumference, and body composition in children between ages 4 and 7 years were obtained. Nutritional status was assessed by the BMI/age. Control variables, such as pregnancy, breastfeeding, lifestyle, and sociodemographics, were studied. Descriptive analysis and multiple linear regression were performed. Results. In the nutritional status assessment, the prevalence of overweight observed was 24.9%. After adjusting for control variables, it was found that the increase of the WGR at 46 months of age explained the occurrence of higher BMI/age, percentage of total body fat, body fat percentage in the android region, and waist circumference in children between 4 and 7 years of age. Conclusion. The increase of the WGR in the first months of life can lead to the occurrence of higher values of parameters of nutritional status and body composition in later life. PMID:25538953

  20. A Longitudinal Examination of Patterns in Girls Weight Concerns and Body Dissatisfaction from Ages 5 to 9 Years

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Markey, Charlotte N.; Birch, Leann L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the development of girls weight concerns and body dissatisfaction from ages 5 to 9 years and how change and continuity in these constructs from age 5 to 7 years is associated with girls eating attitudes, dietary restraint, and dieting status at age 9. Methods Weight concerns, body dissatisfaction, and weight status were assessed for 182 girls when they were 5, 7, and 9 years old, and their eating attitudes, dietary restraint, and dieting status were assessed when they were 9. Results Girls tended to maintain their rank in weight concerns and body dissatisfaction across ages 5 to 9 years, and associations among girls weight concerns, body dissatisfaction, and weight status increased with age. In addition, positive associations were found between changes in girls weight concerns, body dissatisfaction, and weight status across ages 7 to 9. Finally, girls who reported high weight concerns or high body dissatisfaction across ages 5 to 7 reported higher dietary restraint, more maladaptive eating attitudes, and a greater likelihood of dieting at age 9, independent of their weight status. Conclusion Girls reported weight concerns and body dissatisfaction across middle childhood showed consistency over time, were systematically related to their weight status, and predicted their dietary restraint, eating attitudes, and the likelihood of dieting at age 9. These results reflect patterns identified among adolescent girls and women. PMID:12655629

  1. Outcomes for newly diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukemia dosed on actual or adjusted body weight

    PubMed Central

    Bivona, Cory; Rockey, Michelle; Henry, Dave; Grauer, Dennis; Abhyankar, Sunil; Aljitawi, Omar; Ganguly, Siddhartha; McGuirk, Joseph; Singh, Anurag; Lin, Tara L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Data from solid tumor malignancies suggest that actual body weight (ABW) dosing improves overall outcomes. There is the potential to compromise efficacy when chemotherapy dosages are reduced, but the impact of dose adjustment on clinical response and toxicity in hematologic malignancies is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of utilizing a percent of ABW for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) induction chemotherapy dosing. Methods This retrospective, single-center study included 146 patients who received 7 + 3 induction (cytarabine and anthracycline) for treatment of AML. Study design evaluated the relationship between percentage of ABW dosing and complete response (CR) rates in patients newly diagnosed with AML. Results Percentage of ABW dosing did not influence CR rates in patients undergoing induction chemotherapy for AML (p = 0.83); nor did it influence rate of death at 30 days or relapse at 6 months (p = 0.94). When comparing patients dosed at 90100 % of ABW compared to <90 % ABW, CR rates were not significantly different in patients classified as poor risk (p = 0.907). All favorable risk category patients obtained CR. Conclusions Preemptive dose reductions for obesity did not influence CR rates for patients with AML undergoing induction chemotherapy and did not influence the composite endpoint of death at 30 days or disease relapse at 6 months. PMID:26231954

  2. Leptin effects on food and water intake in lines of chickens selected for high or low body weight.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Alice Y; Cline, Mark A; Werner, Elizabeth; Siegel, Paul B; Denbow, D Michael

    2005-03-16

    There is an association between autonomic nervous system output and obesity. The sympathetic nervous system stimulates lipid metabolism and regulates food intake and, hence, body weight. Leptin, produced by adipocytes in proportion to their size, has been shown to directly stimulate the satiety center. In the experiment reported here, food and water intake were compared after intracerebroventricular administration of human recombinant leptin to lines of chickens that had undergone divergent selection for over 45 generations from a common White Rock base population for high (HWS) or low (LWS) body weight at 8 weeks-of-age. Leptin caused a linear decrease in food intake in chickens from the LWS line whereas no effect was observed in those from the HWS line. The HWS chickens tended to have reduced water intake post leptin administration. Others reported that leptin decreased food intake in both broiler and Leghorn chickens. Leptin concentration in the central nervous system may not contribute directly to the difference of body weight between HWS and LWS chickens. PMID:15763584

  3. Metabolic consequences of chronic sleep restriction in rats: changes in body weight regulation and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Barf, R P; Van Dijk, G; Scheurink, A J W; Hoffmann, K; Novati, A; Hulshof, H J; Fuchs, E; Meerlo, P

    2012-10-10

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between short or disrupted sleep and an increased risk to develop obesity. In animal studies, however, sleep restriction leads to an attenuation of weight gain that cannot be explained by changes in energy intake. In the present study, we assessed whether the attenuated weight gain under conditions of restricted sleep is a consequence of an overall increase in energy expenditure. Adult male rats were subjected to a schedule of chronic sleep restriction (SR) for 8 days with a 4h window of unrestricted rest per day. Electroencephalogram and electromyogram recordings were performed to quantify the effect of the sleep restriction schedule on sleep-wake patterns. In a separate experiment, we measured sleep restriction-induced changes in body weight, food intake, and regulatory hormones such as glucose, insulin, leptin and corticosterone. To investigate whether a change in energy expenditure underlies the attenuation of weight gain, energy expenditure was measured by the doubly labeled water method from day 5 until day 8 of the SR protocol. Results show a clear attenuation of weight gain during sleep restriction but no change in food intake. Baseline plasma glucose, insulin and leptin levels are decreased after sleep restriction which presumably reflects the nutritional status of the rats. The daily energy expenditure during SR was significantly increased compared to control rats. Together, we conclude that the attenuation of body weight gain in sleep restricted rats is explained by an overall increase in energy expenditure together with an unaltered energy intake. PMID:22995976

  4. High throughput analyses of epistasis for swine body dimensions and organ weights.

    PubMed

    Wei, W H; Duan, Y; Haley, C S; Ren, J; de Koning, D J; Huang, L S

    2011-02-01

    High throughput analyses were performed to detect epistatic QTL in 17 body dimension and organ weight traits from a large F(2) pig population derived from a White Duroc and Erhualian intercross. The analyses used a nested test framework to handle multiple tests and a combined search algorithm to map epistatic QTL with empirical genome-wide thresholds derived via prior permutation. Alternative statistical models (e.g. including vs. excluding carcass weight as a covariate) were tested to develop an in-depth understanding of the role of epistasis in these kinds of traits. Epistasis signals were detected in only two or three traits under each statistical model studied. The interaction component of each pair of epistatic QTL explained a small proportion (0.7 to 2.1%) of the phenotypic variance in general. About half of the detected epistatic QTL pairs involved one of the two major QTL on porcine chromosomes 7 and 4. In those traits, the Erhualian allele consistently increased the phenotypes for the chromosome 7 QTL but decreased them for the chromosome 4 QTL. Models including carcass weight as covariate detected epistasis in body dimension traits whereas those excluding carcass weight found epistasis in organ weight traits. In addition, the epistasis results suggested that a QTL on chromosome 14 could be important for a number of organ weight traits. Using the high-throughput analysis tool to examine different statistical models was essential for the generation of a complete picture of epistasis in a whole category of traits. PMID:20528845

  5. Body Weight and ADHD: Examining the Role of Self-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Choudhry, Zia; Sengupta, Sarojini M.; Harvey, William J.; Fortier, Marie-Ève; Schmitz, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Objective Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a complex and heterogeneous childhood disorder that often coexists with other psychiatric and somatic disorders. Recently, a link between ADHD and body weight dysregulation has been reported and often interpreted as impaired self-regulation that is shared between the two conditions. The objective of this study is to investigate the relation between body weight/BMI and cognitive, emotional and motor characteristics in children with ADHD. Methods 284 ADHD children were stratified by weight status/BMI according to WHO classification and compared with regard to their neurocognitive characteristics, motivational style, and motor profile as assessed by a comprehensive battery of tests. All comparisons were adjusted for demographic characteristics of relevance including, socioeconomic status (SES). Results Both Obese and overweight ADHD children exhibited significantly lower SES compared to normal weight ADHD children. No significant differences were observed between the three groups with regards to their neurocognitive, emotional and motor profile. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence that differences in weight/BMI are not accounted for by cognitive, motivational and motor profiles. Socio-economic characteristics are strongly associated with overweight and obesity in ADHD children and may inform strategies aimed at promoting healthier weight. PMID:23383165

  6. Supplementation with a fish protein hydrolysate (Micromesistius poutassou): effects on body weight, body composition, and CCK/GLP-1 secretion

    PubMed Central

    Nobile, Vincenzo; Duclos, Elisa; Michelotti, Angela; Bizzaro, Gioia; Negro, Massimo; Soisson, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Background Fish protein hydrolysates (FPHs) have been reported as a suitable source of proteins for human nutrition because of their balanced amino acid composition and positive effect on gastrointestinal absorption. Objective Here, we investigated the effect of a FPH, Slimpro®, obtained from blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) muscle by enzymatic hydrolysis, on body composition and on stimulating cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. Design A randomized clinical study was carried out on 120, slightly overweight (25 kg/m2 ≤ BMI<30 kg/m2), male (25%) and female (75%) subjects. FPH was tested in a food supplement at two doses (1.4 and 2.8 g) to establish if a dose–effect relationship exists. Product use was associated with a mild hypocaloric diet (−300 kcal/day). Body composition (body weight; fat mass; extracellular water; and circumference of waist, thighs, and hips) and CCK/GLP-1 blood levels were measured at the beginning of the study and after 45 and 90 days of product use. CCK/GLP-1 levels were measured since they are involved in controlling food intake. Results Treated subjects reported an improvement of body weight composition and an increased blood concentration of both CCK and GLP-1. No differences were found between the 1.4 and 2.8 g FPH doses, indicating a plateau effect starting from 1.4 g FPH. Conclusions Both 1.4 and 2.8 g of FPH were effective in improving body composition and in increasing CCK and GLP-1 blood levels. PMID:26829186

  7. High fat diet and body weight have different effects on cannabinoid CB1 receptor expression in rat nodose ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Cluny, N.L.; Baraboi, E.D.; Mackie, K; Burdyga, G.; Richard, D.; Dockray, G.J.; Sharkey, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    Energy balance is regulated, in part, by orexigenic signaling pathways of the vagus nerve. Fasting-induced modifications in the expression of orexigenic signaling systems have been observed in vagal afferents of lean animals. Altered basal cannabinoid (CB)1 receptor expression in the nodose ganglia in obesity has been reported. Whether altered body weight or a high fat diet modifies independent or additive changes in CB1 expression is unknown. We investigated the expression of CB1 and orexin 1 receptor (OX-1R) in nodose ganglia of rats fed ad libitum or food deprived (24h), maintained on low or high fat diets (HFD), with differing body weights. Male Wistar rats were fed chow or HFD (diet-induced obese: DIO or diet-resistant: DR) or were body weight matched to the DR group but fed chow (wmDR). CB1 and OX-1R immunoreactivity were investigated and CB1 mRNA density was determined using in situ hybridization. CB1 immunoreactivity was measured in fasted rats after sulfated cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK8s) administration. In chow rats, fasting did not modify the level of CB1 mRNA. More CB1 immunoreactive cells were measured in fed DIO, DR and wmDR rats than chow rats; levels increased after fasting in chow and wmDR rats but not in DIO or DR rats. In HFD fasted rats CCK8s did not reduce CB1 immunoreactivity. OX-1R immunoreactivity was modified by fasting only in DR rats. These data suggest that body weight contributes to the proportion of neurons expressing CB1 immunoreactivity in the nodose ganglion, while HFD blunts fasting-induced increases, and CCK-induced suppression of, CB1-immunoreactivity. PMID:24145047

  8. Effects of soy vs. casein protein on body weight and glycemic control in female monkeys and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Janice D; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Cline, J Mark; Lees, Cynthia J; Franke, Adrian A; Zhang, Li; Ayers, Melissa R; Schultz, Carrie; Kaplan, Jay R

    2009-09-01

    Nutritional interventions are important for reducing obesity and related conditions. Soy is a good source of protein and also contains isoflavones that may affect plasma lipids, body weight, and insulin action. Described here are data from a monkey breeding colony in which monkeys were initially fed a standard chow diet that is low fat with protein derived from soy. Monkeys were then randomized to a defined diet with a fat content similar to the typical American diet (TAD) containing either protein derived from soy (TAD soy) or casein-lactalbumin (TAD casein). The colony was followed for over two years to assess body weight, and carbohydrate and lipid measures in adult females (n=19) and their offspring (n=25). Serum isoflavone concentrations were higher with TAD soy than TAD casein, but not as high as when monkey chow was fed. Offspring consuming TAD soy had higher serum isoflavone concentrations than adults consuming TAD soy. Female monkeys consuming TAD soy had better glycemic control, as determined by fructosamine concentrations, but no differences in lipids or body weight compared with those consuming diets with TAD casein. Offspring born to dams consuming TAD soy had similar body weights at birth but over a two-year period weighed significantly less, had significantly lower triglyceride concentrations, and like adult females, had significantly lower fructosamine concentrations compared to TAD casein. Glucose tolerance tests in adult females were not significantly different with diet, but offspring eating TAD soy had increased glucose disappearance with overall lower glucose and insulin responses to the glucose challenge compared with TAD casein. Potential reasons for the additional benefits of TAD soy observed in offspring but not in adults may be related to higher serum isoflavone concentrations in offspring, presence of the diet differences throughout more of their lifespan (including gestation), or different tissue susceptibilities in younger animals. PMID:19484707

  9. Can limiting dietary variety assist with reducing energy intake and weight loss??

    PubMed Central

    Raynor, Hollie A.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the high prevalence of overweight and obesity, developing strategies to improve weight loss and weight loss maintenance is imperative. One dietary environmental variable that has received little attention in being targeted in an intervention to assist with obesity treatment is dietary variety. Experimental research has consistently shown that greater dietary variety increases consumption, with the effect of variety on consumption hypothesized to be a consequence of the differential experience of the more varied sensory properties of food under those conditions with greater dietary variety. As reduced energy intake is required for weight loss, limiting variety, particularly in food groups that are high in energy-density and low in nutrient-density, may assist with reducing energy intake and improving weight loss. A series of investigations, both observational and experimental, were conducted to examine if limiting variety in an energydense, non-nutrient-dense food group, snack foods (i.e., cookies, chips), assisted with reducing energy intake of the food group and improving weight loss. Results of the investigations suggest that a prescription for limiting variety in a food group can be implemented during obesity treatment, limiting variety is associated with the occurrence of monotony, and that reducing food group variety is related to decreased consumption of that food group. Future research is needed to ascertain the long-term effect of prescriptions targeting dietary variety on weight loss and weight loss maintenance. PMID:22450259

  10. Blood lead level association with lower body weight in NHANES 1999–2006

    SciTech Connect

    Scinicariello, Franco; Buser, Melanie C.; Mevissen, Meike; Portier, Christopher J.

    2013-12-15

    Background: Lead exposure is associated with low birth-weight. The objective of this study is to determine whether lead exposure is associated with lower body weight in children, adolescents and adults. Methods: We analyzed data from NHANES 1999–2006 for participants aged ≥ 3 using multiple logistic and multivariate linear regression. Using age- and sex-standardized BMI Z-scores, overweight and obese children (ages 3–19) were classified by BMI ≥ 85th and ≥ 95th percentiles, respectively. The adult population (age ≥ 20) was classified as overweight and obese with BMI measures of 25–29.9 and ≥ 30, respectively. Blood lead level (BLL) was categorized by weighted quartiles. Results: Multivariate linear regressions revealed a lower BMI Z-score in children and adolescents when the highest lead quartile was compared to the lowest lead quartile (β (SE) = − 0.33 (0.07), p < 0.001), and a decreased BMI in adults (β (SE) = − 2.58 (0.25), p < 0.001). Multiple logistic analyses in children and adolescents found a negative association between BLL and the percentage of obese and overweight with BLL in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartile (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.30–0.59; and OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.88, respectively). Adults in the highest lead quartile were less likely to be obese (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.35–0.50) compared to those in the lowest lead quartile. Further analyses with blood lead as restricted cubic splines, confirmed the dose-relationship between blood lead and body weight outcomes. Conclusions: BLLs are associated with lower body mass index and obesity in children, adolescents and adults. - Highlights: • NHANES analysis of BLL and body weight outcomes • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in children and adolescent • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in adults.

  11. Effects of a Body-Weight Supporting Kite on Sprint Running Kinematics in Well-Trained Sprinters.

    PubMed

    Kratky, Sascha; Buchecker, Michael; Pfusterschmied, Jrgen; Szekely, Csaba; Mller, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Kratky, S, Buchecker, M, Pfusterschmied, J, Szekely, C, and Mller, E. Effects of a body-weight supporting kite on sprint running kinematics in well-trained sprinters. J Strength Cond Res 30(1): 102-108, 2016-Data of elite sprinters indicate that faster athletes realize shorter ground contact times compared with slower individuals. Furthermore, the importance of the so-called "front side mechanics" for elite sprint performance is frequently emphasized by researchers and coaches. Recently, it was demonstrated that using a body-weight supporting kite during full-effort sprints in highly trained sprinters leads to a reduction in ground contact time. The aim of this study was to investigate possible negative effects of this body-weight supporting device on sprint running kinematics, which was not clarified in previous studies. Eleven well-trained Austrian sprinters performed flying 20-m sprints under 2 conditions: (a) free sprint (FS); and (b) body-weight supported sprint (BWS). Sprint cycle characteristics were recorded during the high-speed phase by a 16 camera 3D-system (Vicon), an optical acquisition system (Optojump-next), and a high-speed camera. Paired sample t-tests and Cohen's d effect size were used to determine differences between sprinting conditions. Compared with FS, BWS caused a decrease in ground contact time by 5.6% and an increase in air time by 5.5% (both p < 0.001), whereas stride length and rate remained unchanged. Furthermore, a reduced hip joint extension at and after take-off, an increased maximal hip joint flexion (i.e., high knee position), and a smaller horizontal distance of the touchdown to the center of gravity could be observed (all p < 0.01). These results indicate no negative effects on front side mechanics during BWS and that sprinting with a body-weight supporting kite seems to be a highly specific method to reduce ground contact time in well-trained sprinters. PMID:26270692

  12. Increasing metabolic rate despite declining body weight in an adult parasitoid wasp.

    PubMed

    Casas, Jrme; Body, Mlanie; Gutzwiller, Florence; Giron, David; Lazzari, Claudio R; Pincebourde, Sylvain; Richard, Romain; Llandres, Ana L

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic rate is a positive function of body weight, a rule valid for most organisms and the basis of several theories of metabolic ecology. For adult insects, however, the diversity of relationships between body mass and respiration remains unexplained. The aim of this study is to relate the respiratory metabolism of a parasitoid with body weight and foraging activity. We compared the metabolic rate of groups of starving and host-fed females of the parasitoid Eupelmus vuilleti recorded with respirometry for 7days, corresponding to the mean lifetime of starving females and over half of the lifetime of foraging females. The dynamics of carbohydrate, lipid and protein in the body of foraging females were quantified with biochemical techniques. Body mass and all body nutrients declined sharply from the first day onwards. By contrast, the CO2 produced and the O2 consumed increased steadily. Starving females showed the opposite trend, identifying foraging as the reason for the respiration increase of feeding females. Two complementary physiological processes explain the unexpected relationship between increasing metabolic rate and declining body weight. First, host hemolymph is a highly unbalanced food, and the excess nutrients (protein and carbohydrate) need to be voided, partially through excretion and partially through respiration. Second, a foraging young female produces eggs at an increasing rate during the first half of its lifetime, a process that also increases respiration. We posit that the time-varying metabolic rate contributions of the feeding and reproductive processes supplements the contribution of the structural mass and lead to the observed trend. We extend our explanations to other insect groups and discuss the potential for unification using Dynamic Energy Budget theory. PMID:26025197

  13. Ancestral paternal genotype controls body weight and food intake for multiple generations

    PubMed Central

    Yazbek, Soha N.; Spiezio, Sabrina H.; Nadeau, Joseph H.; Buchner, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Current treatments have largely failed to slow the rapidly increasing world-wide prevalence of obesity and its co-morbidities. Despite a strong genetic contribution to obesity (4070%), only a small percentage of heritability is explained with current knowledge of monogenic abnormalities, common sequence variants and conventional modes of inheritance. Epigenetic effects are rarely tested in humans because of difficulties arranging studies that distinguish conventional and transgenerational inheritance while simultaneously controlling environmental factors and learned behaviors. However, growing evidence from model organisms implicates genetic and environmental factors in one generation that affect phenotypes in subsequent generations. In this report, we provide the first evidence for paternal transgenerational genetic effects on body weight and food intake. This test focused on the obesity-resistant 6C2d congenic strain, which carries the Obrq2aA/J allele on an otherwise C57BL/6J background. Various crosses between 6C2d and the control C57BL/6J strain showed that the Obrq2aA/J allele in the paternal or grandpaternal generation was sufficient to inhibit diet-induced obesity and reduce food intake in the normally obesity-susceptible, high food intake C57BL/6J strain. These obesity-resistant and reduced food intake phenotypes were transmitted through the paternal lineage but not the maternal lineage with equal strength for at least two generations. Eliminating social interaction between the father and both his offspring and the pregnant dam did not significantly affect food intake levels, demonstrating that the phenotype is transmitted through the male germline rather than through social interactions. Persistence of these phenotypes across multiple generations raises the possibility that transgenerational genetic effects contribute to current metabolic conditions. PMID:20696673

  14. Aerobic exercise training without weight loss reduces dyspnea on exertion in obese women.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Vipa; Stickford, Jonathon L; Bhammar, Dharini M; Babb, Tony G

    2016-01-15

    Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) is a common symptom in obesity. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training without weight loss could reduce DOE. Twenty-two otherwise healthy obese women participated in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise training program, exercising 30min/day at 70-80% heart rate reserve, 4 days/week. Subjects were grouped based on their Ratings of Perceived Breathlessness (RPB) during constant load 60W cycling: +DOE (n=12, RPB≥4, 37±7 years, 34±4kg/m(2)) and -DOE (n=10, RPB≤2, 32±6 years, 33±3kg/m(2)). No significant differences between the groups in body composition, pulmonary function, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed pre-training. Post-training,peak was improved significantly in both groups (+DOE: 12±7, -DOE: 14±8%). RPB was significantly decreased in the +DOE (4.7±1.0-2.5±1.0) and remained low in the -DOE group (1.2±0.6-1.3±1.0) (interaction p<0.001). The reduction in RPB was not significantly correlated with the improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness. Aerobic exercise training improved cardiorespiratory fitness and DOE and thus appears to be an effective treatment for DOE in obese women. PMID:26593640

  15. Changes in Body Weight and Health-Related Quality of Life: 2 Cohorts of US Women

    PubMed Central

    Pan, An; Kawachi, Ichiro; Luo, Nan; Manson, JoAnn E.; Willett, Walter C.; Hu, Frank B.; Okereke, Olivia I.

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that body weight is a determinant of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). However, few studies have examined long-term weight change with changes in HRQoL. We followed 52,682 women aged 4671 years in the Nurses' Health Study (in 19922000) and 52,587 women aged 2946 years in the Nurses Health Study II (in 19932001). Body weight was self-reported, HRQoL was measured by the Medical Outcomes Study's 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, and both were updated every 4 years. The relationship between changes in weight and HRQoL scores was evaluated at 4-year intervals by using a generalized linear regression model with multivariate adjustment for baseline age, ethnicity, menopausal status, and changes in comorbidities and lifestyle factors. Weight gain of 15 lbs (1 lb = 0.45 kg) or more over a 4-year period was associated with 2.05-point lower (95% confidence interval: 2.14, 1.95) physical component scores, whereas weight loss of 15 lbs or more was associated with 0.89-point higher (95% confidence interval: 0.75, 1.03) physical component scores. Inverse associations were also found between weight change and physical function, role limitations due to physical problems, bodily pain, general health, and vitality. However, the relations of weight change with mental component scores, social functioning, mental health, and role limitations due to emotional problems were small. PMID:24966215

  16. Multicenter evaluation of an interdisciplinary 52-week weight loss program for obesity with regard to body weight, comorbidities and quality of life—a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Bischoff, S C; Damms-Machado, A; Betz, C; Herpertz, S; Legenbauer, T; Löw, T; Wechsler, J G; Bischoff, G; Austel, A; Ellrott, T

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of a structured multidisciplinary non-surgical obesity therapy program on the basis of a temporary low-calorie-diet for 12 weeks, and additional intervention modules to enhance nutritional education, to increase physical activity and to modify eating behavior. Design: Prospective multicenter observational study in obese individuals undergoing a medically supervised outpatient-based 52-week treatment in 37 centers in Germany. Subjects: A total of 8296 participants with a body mass index (BMI) of >30 kg m−2 included within 8.5 years. Measurements: Main outcome measures were body weight loss, waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, quality of life and adverse events. Results: In females, initial body weight was reduced after the 1-year-intervention by 19.6 kg (95% confidence intervals 19.2–19.9 kg) and in males by 26.0 kg (25.2–26.8) according to per protocol analysis of 4850 individuals. Intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis revealed a weight reduction of 15.2 kg (14.9–15.6) in females and 19.4 kg (18.7–20.1) in males. Overall, the intervention resulted in mean reduction in WC of 11 cm; it reduced the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome by 50% and the frequency of hypertension from 47 to 29% of all participants (ITT, all P<0.001). The beneficial effects could be documented for up to 3 years and comprised significant improvement of health-related quality of life. The incidence of adverse effects was low; the only event repeatedly observed and possibly related to either the intervention or the underlying disease was biliary disorders. Conclusion: The present non-surgical intervention program is a highly effective treatment of obesity grades I–III and obesity-related diseases, and therefore, could be a valuable basis for future weight maintenance strategies required for sustained success. PMID:21673653

  17. Level of satiety: In vitro energy metabolism in brain during hypophagic and hyperphagic body weight recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Kasser, T.R.; Harris, R.B.; Martin, R.J. )

    1989-12-01

    Rates of in vitro glucose and fatty acid oxidation were examined in four brain sites during hypophagic and hyperphagic recovery of normal body weight. Rats were fed 40, 100, or 160% of normal intake, via gastric intubation, for 3 wk. Another group of rats was starved until body weight loss was equivalent to weight loss in 40%-fed rats. Groups of rats were killed at the conclusion of tube feeding or fasting and at specific periods during recovery of body weight. Brain sites examined were the ventrolateral hypothalamus (VLH), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), a caudal brain stem site encompassing the area postrema-nucleus of the solitary tract (AP-NTS), and cortex. During recovery, rats previously fed 160% of normal intake (anorectic) maintained low rates of VLH fatty acid oxidation and were hypophagic until most excess fat was depleted. Conversely, rats previously fed 40% of normal intake (hungry) maintained high rates of VLH fatty acid oxidation and were hyperphagic until most deficient fat was repleted. Rats previously starved maintained high rates of VLH fatty acid oxidation during hyperphagic recovery, although levels of VLH fatty acid oxidation and food intake were initially low on refeeding. Rates of glucose oxidation in the brain sites examined did not relate well to energy balance status and the needed adjustments in food intake. The results indicated that the level of glucose oxidation in the VLH and AP-NTS responded to the level of energy immediately coming into the system (food intake).

  18. Eating Behavior Dimensions: Associations With Energy Intake And Body Weight: A Review

    PubMed Central

    French, Simone A.; Epstein, Leonard H; Jeffery, Robert W.; Blundell, John E.; Wardle, Jane

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to spark integrative thinking in the area of eating behaviors by critically examining research on exemplary constructs in this area. The eating behaviors food responsiveness, enjoyment of eating, satiety responsiveness, eating in the absence of hunger, reinforcing value of food, eating disinhibition and impulsivity/self-control are reviewed in relation to energy intake, body mass index and weight gain over time. Each of these constructs has been developed independently, and little research has explored the extent to which they overlap or whether they differentially predict food choices, energy intake and weight gain in the naturalistic environment. Most available data show positive cross-sectional associations with body mass index, but fewer studies report associations with energy intake or food choices. Little prospective data are available to link measures of eating behaviors with weight gain. Disinhibition has the largest and most consistent body of empirical data that link it prospectively with weight gain. An overarching conceptual model to integrate the conceptual and empirical research base for the role of eating behavior dimensions in the field of obesity research would highlight potential patterns of interaction between individual differences in eating behaviors, specific aspects of the individual’s food environment and individual variation in state levels of hunger and satiety. PMID:22796186

  19. Effect of Zingiber zerumbet essential oils and zerumbone inhalation on body weight of Sprague Dawley rat.

    PubMed

    Batubara, I; Suparto, I H; Sadiah, S; Matsuoka, R; Mitsunaga, T

    2013-10-01

    Zingiber zerumbet contained the typically essential oils. The research aims to evaluate the effect Z. zerumbet essential oil and zerumbone inhlation on rats body weight, food consumption, parasympathetic nerve activity and brown adipose tissue temperature. The essential oils of Z. zerumbet was isolated from the rhizome of Z. zerumbet. The component in the oil and zerumbone structure was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The structure of zerumbone crystal was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The Sprague dawley male adult rats were divided into 4 groups namely Normal Diet (ND) group, High Fat Diet (HFD) group, HFD inhaled Z. zerumbet essential oils group and HFD inhaled zerumbone group. The results showed that inhalation of Z. zerumbet essential oils and zerumbone increased the food consumption as well as increased the body weight. The increasing body weight of rats which inhaled Z. zerumbet essential oils and zerumbone is by decreasing the sympathetic nerve activity. In conclusion, inhaling Z. zerumbet essential oils and zerumbone as the major component of the oils increased the weight gain. PMID:24502166

  20. Metabolic Abnormalities Are Common among South American Hispanics Subjects with Normal Weight or Excess Body Weight: The CRONICAS Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Benziger, Catherine P.; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H.; Checkley, William; Smeeth, Liam; Málaga, Germán; Miranda, J. Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to characterize metabolic status by body mass index (BMI) status. Methods The CRONICAS longitudinal study was performed in an age-and-sex stratified random sample of participants aged 35 years or older in four Peruvian settings: Lima (Peru’s capital, costal urban, highly urbanized), urban and rural Puno (both high-altitude), and Tumbes (costal semirural). Data from the baseline study, conducted in 2010, was used. Individuals were classified by BMI as normal weight (18.5–24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0–29.9 kg/m2), and obese (≥30 kg/m2), and as metabolically healthy (0–1 metabolic abnormality) or metabolically unhealthy (≥2 abnormalities). Abnormalities included individual components of the metabolic syndrome, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and insulin resistance. Results A total of 3088 (age 55.6±12.6 years, 51.3% females) had all measurements. Of these, 890 (28.8%), 1361 (44.1%) and 837 (27.1%) were normal weight, overweight and obese, respectively. Overall, 19.0% of normal weight in contrast to 54.9% of overweight and 77.7% of obese individuals had ≥3 risk factors (p<0.001). Among normal weight individuals, 43.1% were metabolically unhealthy, and age ≥65 years, female, and highest socioeconomic groups were more likely to have this pattern. In contrast, only 16.4% of overweight and 3.9% of obese individuals were metabolically healthy and, compared to Lima, the rural and urban sites in Puno were more likely to have a metabolically healthier profile. Conclusions Most Peruvians with overweight and obesity have additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, as well as a majority of those with a healthy weight. Prevention programs aimed at individuals with a normal BMI, and those who are overweight and obese, are urgently needed, such as screening for elevated fasting cholesterol and glucose. PMID:26599322

  1. Effect of swimming activity on relative weight and body composition of juvenile rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpkins, D.G.; Hubert, W.A.; Del Rio, C.M.; Rule, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    Fisheries managers often assess body condition using relative weight (Wr) because it provides a comparative measure of fish plumpness among individuals and populations. However, it is not known whether the morphological information that Wr summarizes reflects physiological measures, such as relative lipid reserves, in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The purpose of this study was to determine whether swimming activity affects either the Wr or proximate body composition of juvenile (total length, 170-260 mm) rainbow trout. When rainbow trout from a hatchery were fed ad libitum for 147 d, inactive (no current) and active (15 cm/s current velocity) fish did not differ in Wr However, inactive rainbow trout maintained relatively constant lipid levels, whereas active fish declined in lipid content. Relative weight may provide a comparable measure of body form, but it is not an accurate index of lipid content between active and inactive rainbow trout fed an excess ration. For assessing the physiological condition of rainbow trout, measurement of proximate body composition appears to be more accurate than indices based on length and weight.

  2. Body weight prediction in early fossil hominids: towards a taxon-"independent" approach.

    PubMed

    Hartwig-Scherer, S

    1993-09-01

    The choice of a model taxon is crucial when investigating fossil hominids that clearly do not resemble any extant species (such as Australopithecus) or show significant differences from modern human proportions (such as Homo habilis OH 62). An "interhominoid" combination is not adequate either, as scaling with body weight is strongly divergent in African apes and humans for most skeletal predictors investigated here. Therefore, in relation to a study of seven long bone dimensions, a new taxon-"independent" approach is suggested. For a given predictor, its taxonomic "independence" is restricted to the size range over which the body weight-predictor relationship for African apes and humans converges. Different predictors produce converging body weight estimates (BWEs) for different size ranges: taxon-"independent" estimates can be calculated for small- and medium-sized hominids (e.g., for weights below 50 kg) using femoral and tibial dimensions, whereas upper limb bones provide converging results for large hominids (above 50 kg). If the remains of Australopithecus afarensis really belong to one species, the relationship of male (above 60 kg) to female body weight (approximately 30 kg) does not fall within the observed range of modern hominoids. Considering Sts 14 (22 kg) to represent a small-sized Australopithecus africanus, the level of encephalization lies well above that of extant apes. If OH 62 (approximately 25 kg), with limb proportions less human-like than those of australopithecines, indeed represents Homo habilis (which has been questioned previously), an increase in relative brain size would have occurred well before full bipedality, an assumption running counter to current assumptions concerning early human evolution. PMID:8238289

  3. Body weight gain in patients with bilateral deep brain stimulation for dystonia.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Marc E; Capelle, Hans-Holger; Lütjens, Götz; Ebert, Anne D; Hennerici, Michael G; Krauss, Joachim K; Blahak, Christian

    2016-03-01

    In patients with Parkinson's disease, significant weight gain following chronic deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been reported. Recently, relevant weight gain could be demonstrated also following subthalamic nucleus DBS in patients with primary cervical dystonia. Prospective analyses of body weight changes following DBS in patients with dystonia, however, have not been published so far. We aimed to analyse the changes of body weight following DBS in patients with dystonia. The body mass index (BMI) of 17 consecutive patients with segmental or generalised dystonia (mean age 54.6 ± 16.1 years) treated with bilateral DBS of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) (n = 14) or the thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus (n = 3) was measured preoperatively (pre-OP) and at three follow-up (FU) time points post-DBS surgery (FU1 = 7 months, FU2 = 17 months, FU3 = 72 months). All patients benefited from marked improvement in their dystonia. The mean BMI pre-OP (SD) was 22.5 (±3.7) kg/m(2) and increased stepwise to 24.0 (±3.3) kg/m(2) at FU1, 24.4 (±3.7) kg/m(2) at FU2 and 24.9 (±3.7) kg/m(2) at FU3 (p < 0.05 at all three FUs compared to pre-OP). Relative BMI increase and improvement of dystonia were correlated (p = 0.025). Chronic bilateral GPi DBS in patients with dystonia is associated with significant body weight gain, in particular during the first 6 months post-OP. This probably is a result of improvement of dystonic motor symptoms and recovery of eating dysfunction rather than a target-specific phenomenon. PMID:26296627

  4. Five-Factor Model Personality Traits and the Objective and Subjective Experience of Body Weight.

    PubMed

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    Research on personality and adiposity has focused primarily on middle-aged and older adults. The present research sought to (a) replicate these associations in a young adult sample, (b) examine whether sex, race, or ethnicity moderate these associations, and (c) test whether personality is associated with the subjective experience of body weight and discrepancies between perceived and actual weight. Participants (N = 15,669; Mage  = 29; 53% female; ∼40% ethnic/racial minority) from Wave 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health completed a Five-Factor Model personality measure and reported their weight, height, and perception of weight category (e.g., overweight); trained staff measured participants' height, weight, and waist circumference. Conscientiousness was associated with healthier weight, with a nearly 5 kg difference between the top and bottom quartiles. Neuroticism among women and Extraversion among men were associated with higher adiposity. Neuroticism was also associated with misperceived heavier weight, whereas Extraversion was associated with misperceived taller and leaner. The associations were similar across race/ethnic groups. Personality is associated with objective and subjective adiposity in young adulthood. Although modest, the effects are consistent with life span theories of personality, and the misperceptions are consistent with the conceptual worldviews associated with the traits. PMID:25329238

  5. The Multidimensional Relationship between Early Adult Body Weight and Womens Childbearing Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Frisco, Michelle L.; Weden, Margaret M.; Lippert, Adam M.

    2011-01-01

    This study has three primary goals that make an important contribution to the literature on body weight and childbearing experiences among United States women. It sheds light on the physiological and social nature of this relationship by examining whether the consequences of early adult weight for lifetime childbearing are shaped by historical social context, womens social characteristics, and their ability to marry. We analyze data from two female cohorts who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY79). Cohort 1 entered early adulthood before the U.S. obesity prevalence increased. Cohort 2 entered early adulthood after the obesity prevalence increased. We find that early adult weight is negatively related to the childbearing trajectories and marital status of Cohort 1 but not Cohort 2. Failing to account for race/ethnicity and womens educational background as confounders masks some of these associations, which are evident for both White and Black women. Our results suggest that the health consequences of body weight do not fully drive its impact on childbearing. Rather, the lifetime fertility consequences of early adult weight are malleable, involve social processes, and are dependent on social context. PMID:21944717

  6. A Mediation Model Linking Body Weight, Cognition, and Sleep-Disordered Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Gozal, David

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Academic success involves the ability to use cognitive skills in a school environment. Poor academic performance has been linked to disrupted sleep associated with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). In parallel, poor sleep is associated with increased risk for obesity, and weight management problems have been linked to executive dysfunction, suggesting that interactions may be operational between SDB and obesity to adversely affect neurocognitive outcomes. Objectives: To test whether mediator relationships exist between body weight, SDB, and cognition. Methods: Structural equation modeling was conducted on data from 351 children in a community-based cohort assessed with the core subtests of the Differential Abilities Scales after an overnight polysomnogram. Body mass index, apneahypopnea index, and cognitive abilities were modeled as latent constructs. Measurements and Main Results: In a sample of predominantly white children 6 to 10 years of age, SDB amplified the adverse cognitive and weight outcomes by 0.55- to 0.46-fold, respectively. Weight amplified the risk by 0.39- to 0.40-fold for SDB and cognitive outcomes, respectively. Poor ability to perform complex mental processing functions increased the risk of adverse weight and SDB outcomes by 2.9- and 7.9-fold, respectively. Conclusions: Cognitive functioning in children is adversely affected by frequent health-related problems, such as obesity and SDB. Furthermore, poorer integrative mental processing may place a child at a bigger risk for adverse health outcomes. PMID:22071385

  7. Body Diffusion-weighted MR Imaging in Oncology: Imaging at 3 T.

    PubMed

    Koh, Dow-Mu; Lee, Jeong-Min; Bittencourt, Leonardo Kayat; Blackledge, Matthew; Collins, David J

    2016-02-01

    Advances in hardware and software enable high-quality body diffusion-weighted images to be acquired for oncologic assessment. 3.0 T affords improved signal/noise for higher spatial resolution and smaller field-of-view diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). DWI at 3.0 T can be applied as at 1.5 T to improve tumor detection, disease characterization, and the assessment of treatment response. DWI at 3.0 T can be acquired on a hybrid PET-MR imaging system, to allow functional MR information to be combined with molecular imaging. PMID:26613874

  8. Quantitative trait loci affecting body weight and fatness from a mouse line selected for extreme high growth.

    PubMed Central

    Brockmann, G A; Haley, C S; Renne, U; Knott, S A; Schwerin, M

    1998-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing body weight were mapped by linkage analysis in crosses between a high body weight selected line (DU6) and a control line (DUKs). The two mouse lines differ in body weight by 106% and in abdominal fat weight by 100% at 42 days. They were generated from the same base population and maintained as outbred colonies. Determination of line-specific allele frequencies at microsatellite markers spanning the genome indicated significant changes between the lines on 15 autosomes and the X chromosome. To confirm these effects, a QTL analysis was performed using structured F2 pedigrees derived from crosses of a single male from DU6 with a female from DUKs. QTL significant at the genome-wide level were mapped for body weight on chromosome 11; for abdominal fat weight on chromosomes 4, 11, and 13; for abdominal fat percentage on chromosomes 3 and 4; and for the weights of liver on chromosomes 4 and 11, of kidney on chromosomes 2 and 9, and of spleen on chromosome 11. The strong effect on body weight of the QTL on chromosome 11 was confirmed in three independent pedigrees. The effect was additive and independent of sex, accounting for 21-35% of the phenotypic variance of body weight within the corresponding F2 populations. The test for multiple QTL on chromosome 11 with combined data from all pedigrees indicated the segregation of two loci separated by 36 cM influencing body weight. PMID:9725853

  9. DHA effect on chemotherapy-induced body weight loss: an exploratory study in a rodent model of mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Hajjaji, Nawale; Couet, Charles; Besson, Pierre; Bougnoux, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Body weight loss during the course of cancer disease has been associated with poor prognosis. Beside cancer-associated cachexia, weight loss can also result from chemotherapy. This work explored whether a model of mammary tumors in female Sprague Dawley rats could be appropriate to study the effect of doxorubicin on body weight, described weight change in this model, and assessed the effect of DHA on weight during chemotherapy. After tumor induction, rats were randomly assigned to a control or a DHA-enriched diet, and treated with doxorubicin or placebo twice a week for 2.5 wk (n = 6 in each group). Body weight, food intake, and tumor growth were monitored. Neither the induction of tumors nor their initial development impaired body weight gain. No reduction in food intake was observed. Tumor growth was similar between groups from day 1 to day 11. Although doxorubicin induced body weight loss from day 4 compared to placebo (P< 0.01) in rats fed the control diet, it did not induce body weight loss in rats fed the DHA-enriched diet (P = 0.02), indicating that DHA had a protective effect. These results indicate that doxorubicin can induce body weight loss in this model and that a DHA-enriched diet can prevent this effect. PMID:23035949

  10. Body contouring surgery in a massive weight loss patient: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Prabhat; Aggarwal, Aditya; Khazanchi, Rakesh Kumar

    2008-01-01

    The number of patients with history of extreme overweight and massive weight loss (MWL) has risen significantly. Majority of patients are left with loose, ptotic skin envelopes, and oddly shaped protuberances, subsequent to weight loss. Redundant skin and fat can be seen anywhere on the body following MWL. This group of population presents many unique problems and challenges. Body contouring surgery after MWL is a new and exciting field in plastic surgery that is still evolving. Conventional approaches do not adequately cater to the needs of these patients. Complete history, detailed physical examination, clinical photographs and lab investigations help to plan the most appropriate procedure for the individual patient. Proper counseling and comprehensive informed consent for each procedure are mandatory. The meticulous and precise markings based on the procedure selected are the cornerstones to achieve the successful outcome. Lower body contouring should be performed first followed six months later by breast, lateral chest and arm procedures. Thighplasty is usually undertaken at the end. Body contouring operations are staged at few months' intervals and often result in long scars. Staging is important as each procedure can have positive impact on adjacent areas of the body. Secondary procedures are often required. However, proper planning should lead to fewer complications and improved aesthetic outcome and patient satisfaction. PMID:20174535

  11. A residential summer camp can reduce body fat and improve health-related quality of life in obese children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an earlier report, we showed that a 2-week, residential summer camp (Kamp K'aana) led to improved body weight, body mass index, body mass index z score, and self-esteem among obese children. To assess whether improvements in body weight and self-esteem translate into improvement in body fat and w...

  12. Body weight and rumen-reticulum capacity in tule elk and mule deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weckerly, F.W.; Bleich, V.C.; Chetkiewicz, C.-L.B.; Ricca, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between body size and rumen-reticulum capacity among conspecific individuals is predicted to be isometric. We examined whether the relationship between body weight and rumen-reticulum capacity was isometric in adult male and female rule elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes) and in adult female mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). We detected no effect of sex on this relationship in elk, and the slope of the regression was 1.0 for one measure of rumen-reticulum capacity and <1.0 for another. Among deer, the slope of the relationship was <1.0 in one measure of rumen-reticulum capacity, and we detected no relationship with the other.

  13. Body Weight Impact on Puberty: Effects of High-Calorie Diet on Puberty Onset in Female Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Kurian, Joseph R.; Keen, Kim L.; Shiel, Nicholas A.; Colman, Ricki J.; Capuano, Saverio V.

    2012-01-01

    Secular trends toward a declining age at puberty onset with correlated changes in body weight have been reported in economically advanced countries. This has been attributed to excess calorie intake along with reduced physical activity in children. However, because the timing of puberty in humans is also influenced by other factors, such as genetic traits, living conditions, geographical location, and environmental chemicals, it is difficult to distinguish the effect of diet and body size from other factors in a human population. Here we report that feeding juvenile female rhesus monkeys born and raised at the Wisconsin National Primate Research Center with a high-calorie diet results in acceleration of body growth and precocious menarche. The monkeys fed a high-calorie diet also had an elevated body mass index. The most significant treatment effects on circulating hormones were increased leptin and IGF-I levels throughout the experiment. The findings of this study suggest the importance of close monitoring of juvenile feeding behaviors as an important intervention to reduce the prevalence of precocious development and metabolic diseases in adulthood. PMID:22315448

  14. Walking during body-weight-supported treadmill training and acute responses to varying walking speed and body-weight support in ambulatory patients post-stroke.

    PubMed

    Aaslund, Mona Kristin; Helbostad, Jorunn Lgdheim; Moe-Nilssen, Rolf

    2013-05-01

    Rehabilitating walking in ambulatory patients post-stroke, with training that is safe, task-specific, intensive, and of sufficient duration, can be challenging. Some challenges can be met by using body-weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT). However, it is not known to what degree walking characteristics are similar during BWSTT and overground walking. In addition, important questions regarding the training protocol of BWSTT remain unanswered, such as how proportion of body-weight support (BWS) and walking speed affect walking characteristics during training. The objective was therefore to investigate if and how kinematic walking characteristics are different between overground walking and treadmill walking with BWS in ambulatory patients post-stroke, and the acute response of altering walking speed and percent BWS during treadmill walking with BWS. A cross-sectional repeated-measures design was used. Ambulating patients post-stroke walked in slow, preferred, and fast walking speed overground and at comparable speeds on the treadmill with 20% and 40% BWS. Kinematic walking characteristics were obtained using a kinematic sensor attached over the lower back. Forty-four patients completed the protocol. Kinematic walking characteristics were similar during treadmill walking with BWS, compared to walking overground. During treadmill walking, choice of walking speed had greater impact on kinematic walking characteristics than proportion of BWS. Faster walking speeds tended to affect the kinematic walking characteristics positively. This implies that in order to train safely and with sufficient intensity and duration, therapists may choose to include BWSTT in walking rehabilitation also for ambulatory patients post-stroke without aggravating gait pattern during training. PMID:23039016

  15. Microsatellite DNA polymorphisms and the relation with body weight in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiuli; Shan, Xue; Qiu, Xuemei; Meng, Xiangying; Chang, Yaqing

    2009-05-01

    The relationship between microsatellite polymorphism and body weight of captive bred Chinese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was investigated in two local populations in Dalian. Among ten loci discovered, nine show changes except for AJ07 loci. Seven loci were found highly polymorphic in both populations. For each locus in two populations, the average number of alleles is 6.428 6 and 6.285 7, the average observed heterozygosity at 0.225 7 and 0.245 9, the expected heterozygosity at 0.776 8 and 0.748 8, the polymorphism information content (PIC) at 0.709 2 and 0.674 6, respectively. Further analysis show significant correlation between A. japonicus body weight and occurrence markers AJ02 and AJ04. The findings of the relation may be helpful for molecular breeding, as well as the marker-assisted selection of sea cucumbers.

  16. A Genetic Map of Quantitative Trait Loci for Body Weight in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Keightley, P. D.; Hardge, T.; May, L.; Bulfield, G.

    1996-01-01

    The genetic basis of body weight in the mouse was investigated by measuring frequency changes of microsatellite marker alleles in lines divergently selected for body weight from a base population of a cross between two inbred strains. In several regions of the genome, sharp peaks of frequency change at linked markers were detected, which suggested the presence of single genes of moderate effect, although in several other regions, significant frequency changes occurred over large portions of chromosomes. A method based on maximum likelihood was used to infer effects and map positions of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) based on genotype frequencies at one or more marker loci. Eleven QTLs with effects in the range 0.17-0.28 phenotypic standard deviations were detected; but under an additive model, these did not fully account for the observed selection response. Tests for the presence of more than one QTL in regions where there were large changes of marker allele frequency were mostly inconclusive. PMID:8770600

  17. A dynamical model for describing behavioural interventions for weight loss and body composition change

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Barrientos, J.-Emeterio; Rivera, Daniel E.; Collins, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    We present a dynamical model incorporating both physiological and psychological factors that predicts changes in body mass and composition during the course of a behavioral intervention for weight loss. The model consists of a three-compartment energy balance integrated with a mechanistic psychological model inspired by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The latter describes how important variables in a behavioural intervention can influence healthy eating habits and increased physical activity over time. The novelty of the approach lies in representing the behavioural intervention as a dynamical system, and the integration of the psychological and energy balance models. Two simulation scenarios are presented that illustrate how the model can improve the understanding of how changes in intervention components and participant differences affect outcomes. Consequently, the model can be used to inform behavioural scientists in the design of optimised interventions for weight loss and body composition change. PMID:21673826

  18. Relation between biomass and body weight of plankton in a steady state oceanic ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.; Mullin, M.M.

    1986-03-01

    In the size range from 10/sup -4/ to 10/sup 3/ ..mu..g (carbon) body weight, the biomass of plankton in the euphotic layer of the North Pacific Central Gyre decreases as an allometric function of body weight. Even in a steady state ecosystem such as that analyzed here, there is variability in space and time; this suggests that one must be careful in extrapolating the relation to less predictable marine areas. In obtaining dynamic information from biomass spectra, one must distinguish changes due to the flow of energy within the spectrum (growth, predation, reproduction) from changes due to emigration from or immigration into the spectrum of the particular area sampled, such as those due to the diel vertical migration of macrozooplankton in the largest size classes.

  19. Control of body weight versus tumorigenesis by concerted action of leptin and estrogen.

    PubMed

    He, Zhao; Feng, Gen-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    Improper body weight control is most critical to the development of morbid obesity, which is often associated with alternation in leptin (Ob) signaling in the central nervous system