Sample records for boerhaavia diffusa linn

  1. Behavioural and neuroendocrine effects of aqueous extract of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. in mice using tail suspension and forced swim tests--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, Dinesh; Valecha, Rekha

    2014-01-01

    The present study was done to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of B. diffusa on depression in mice using behavioral models such as tail suspension test (TST) and forced swim test (FST). The extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, po) was administered for 14 successive days to Swiss young albino mice. On 14th day, 60 min after administration, mice were subjected to TST and FST. The administration of aqueous extract of B. diffusa (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, po) significantly decreased immobility period in both TST and FST, indicating significant antidepressant-like activity. The lowest dose (50 mg/kg) of the extract decreased the immobility period most significantly in FST, showing most potent antidepressant-like action. The efficacy of the extract (50 mg/kg) was comparable to fluoxetine (20 mg/kg). The extract did not show any significant effect on locomotor activity. The extract showed significant monoamine oxidase -A inhibitory activity. There was no significant effect of the extract on plasma corticosterone levels. Prazosin (alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist), sulpiride (selective D2-receptor antagonist), baclofen (GABA(B) agonist), and p-CPA (tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor) significantly attenuated the extract-induced antidepressant-like effect, when tested in TST. The extract might produce antidepressant-like effect by interaction with alpha1-adrenoceptors, dopamine-D2 receptors, serotonergic, and GABA(B) receptors. Thus, aqueous extract of B. diffusa showed significant antidepressant-like activity in mice probably through involvement of monoaminergic and GABAergic systems. PMID:24617015

  2. Punarnavine, an alkaloid from Boerhaavia diffusa exhibits anti-angiogenic activity via downregulation of VEGF in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Saraswati, Sarita; Alhaider, Abdulqader A; Agrawal, S S

    2013-11-25

    Punarnavine, a quinolizidine alkaloid isolated from Boerhaavia diffusa is known to possess analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepato-protective, immunomodulatory and anti-proliferative properties. However, its roles in tumor angiogenesis and the involved molecular mechanism are still unknown. Therefore, we examined its anti-angiogenic effects and mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. We examined the effect of punarnavine on VEGF-A expression by RT-PCR, Western blotting and ELISA. In vivo antiangiogenic activity was determined using sponge implant angiogenesis assay and antitumor activity was evaluated against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma tumor. Punarnavine significantly inhibited endothelial cell migration and invasion and capillary structure formation of HUVECs. Punarnavine significantly at 50 ?M inhibited MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in HUVECs in vitro. Punarnavine inhibited neovascularization in sponge implant assay. Punarnavine (15 mg/kg bw/d) treatment showed dose-dependent decrease in the ascitic fluid volume by 60.94% and tumor volume by 86.40% in Ehrlich ascites model. Reduction in peritoneal angiogenesis with punarnavine treatment suggests the anti-angiogenic activity of punarnavine. The present study sheds light on the potent anti-angiogenic of the punarnavine and can be extended further to develop therapeutic protocols for treatment of cancer. PMID:24060680

  3. BDP-30, a systemic resistance inducer from Boerhaavia diffusa L., suppresses TMV infection, and displays homology with ribosomeinactivating proteins.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shalini; Verma, H N; Srivastava, Aparana; Prasad, Vivek

    2015-03-01

    Root extract of Boerhaavia diffusa L. induced systemic resistance in tobacco against Tobacco mosaic virus. A 30 kDa protein was isolated as the active component, called BDP-30 on the basis of the molecular weight and source plant. BDP-30, a glycoprotein, was found to be temperature and protease resistant. It was basic, possessing a pI greater than 9.0. In-gel proteolytic digestion of BDP-30 generated two peptides that possessed the amino acid sequence KLYDIPPLR and KVTLPYSGNYER by LC/MS/MS. Both peptides shared absolute sequence identity with trichosanthin, a ribosome-inactivating protein from Trichosanthes kirilowii, and a 78 percent and 100 percent homology respectively with an RIP from Bryonia dioica, bryodin. Further, effort was made to look at the fate of TMV in induced resistant Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi, a systemic host of the virus, at specified days after inoculation in control and treated plants. TMV coat protein (CP) was detected by immunoblot 7 days post inoculation up to 21 days in the control set, but not in treated resistant plants. TMV RNA was detected by RT-PCR using TMV-CP specific primers. Resistant tobacco did not show presence of TMV RNA up to 21 days of inoculation. This suggests that BDP-30 may be suppressing TMV replication. PMID:25740147

  4. RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous quantitation of boeravinone E and boeravinone B in Boerhaavia diffusa extract and its formulation.

    PubMed

    Bhope, S G; Gaikwad, P S; Kuber, V V; Patil, M J

    2013-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of two major rotenoids, boeravinone E and boeravinone B, in Boerhaavia diffusa extract and its formulation. Chromatographic separation was carried out on an Inertsil ODS-3 column by using gradient mobile phase containing 0.1% v/v orthophosphoric acid in water and acetonitrile. The detection was carried out at 276 nm. The method was validated for specificity, precision, accuracy and robustness. The linearity (r(2) = 0.9989 and 0.9991) was found to be in the range of 7.26-35.75 µg mL(-1) and 2.20-11.00 µg mL(-1) for boeravinone E and B, respectively. The percent recovery observed from the extract sample was 95.22-95.83. PMID:22480291

  5. Phytochemical, Therapeutic, and Ethnopharmacological Overview for a Traditionally Important Herb: Boerhavia diffusa Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shikha; Aeri, Vidhu; Gaur, Praveen Kumar; Jachak, Sanjay M.

    2014-01-01

    Boerhavia diffusa (BD) is a plant of rasayana category as per ayurvedic claims. It is reported to possess antiaging, disease prevention, and life strengthening activities which hold enormous influence in disease burden and affordability/availability of healthcare in the world. Objective. This paper has been compiled to comment on the studies reported for BD to highlight its chemical and therapeutic potential along with its ethnopharmacological considerations. Methods. In the present paper, a detailed account of chemical constituents and pharmacological activities has been presented. All the findings were correlated with modern pharmacological activities to appraise the value of BD. Results. Chemical analysis of BD gives a wide variety of chemical constituents, namely, rotenoids, flavonoids, xanthones, purine nucleoside, lignans, and steroids. Various ethnopharmacological reports emphasize its role in disorders of reproductive system, gastrointestinal system, respiratory system, urinary system, hepatic system/jaundice, cardiovascular system, and cancer. Conclusions. The studies on the therapeutic activities of BD range from studies on crude extracts to isolated compounds; however some of the studies require sophistication and validated results. BD is a plant of enormous importance in the purview of its chemical and therapeutic properties. PMID:24949473

  6. Flavonoids and phenol glycosides from Boerhavia diffusa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rakesh Maurya; B. Sathiamoorthy; Mundkinajeddu Deepak

    2007-01-01

    Four new compounds were isolated from Boerhavia diffusa namely eupalitin 3-O-?-D-galactopyranosyl-(1?????2?)-O-?-D-galactopyranoside (1), 3,3?,5-trihydroxy-7-methoxyflavone (4), 4?,7-dihydroxy-3?-methylflavone (5) and 3,4-dimethoxyphenyl-1-O-?-D-apiofuranosyl-(1????3?)-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (7) along with eight known compounds. The structures were elucidated by analysis of their spectroscopic data. §?CDRI Communication No. 6713

  7. Flavonoids and phenol glycosides from Boerhavia diffusa.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Rakesh; Sathiamoorthy, B; Deepak, Mundkinajeddu

    2007-02-01

    Four new compounds were isolated from Boerhavia diffusa namely eupalitin 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1''' --> 2'')-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside (1), 3,3',5-trihydroxy-7-methoxyflavone (4), 4',7-dihydroxy-3'-methylflavone (5) and 3,4-dimethoxyphenyl-1-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1'' --> 3')-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7) along with eight known compounds. The structures were elucidated by analysis of their spectroscopic data. PMID:17365699

  8. Clarification of the phenotypic characteristics and anti-tumor activity of Hedyotis diffusa.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong-Zin; Bau, Da-Tian; Kuo, Chao-Lin; Tsai, Ru-Yin; Chen, Yu-Chang; Chang, Yu-Hao

    2011-01-01

    Hedyotis diffusa Willd. (Rubiaceae) is an important folk herb used to prevent and cure hepatitis and liver cancer in Taiwan. For differentiation of H. diffusa from counterfeits, macroscopic and microscopic characters of H. diffusa, H. corymbosa and H. tenelliflora were examined in this study. According to Trypan blue exclusion assay and Western blot analysis, H. diffusa had a significant inhibition of cell growth and induction of cell apoptosis in COLO 205 (colon cancer), Hep 3B (hepatocellular carcinoma) and H460 (lung cancer) cell lines. This study also used high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to determine the quality control of H. diffusa. The HPLC data showed that ursolic and oleanolic acid are the components of the H. diffusa, consisting of approximately 4.66-4.80% and 1.86-1.96%, respectively. Our study also demonstrated that ursolic acid has significant anti-tumor activity in COLO 205, Hep 3B and H460 cancer cells. PMID:21213409

  9. La zecca Ixodes ricinus I. ricinus, la comune zecca dei boschi, diffusa nelle

    E-print Network

    Neteler, Geogr. Markus - Fondazione Edmund Mach

    La zecca Ixodes ricinus I. ricinus, la comune zecca dei boschi, è diffusa nelle zone temperate e si'Europa centrale il ciclo completo di sviluppo di I. ricinus varia da 24 a 38 mesi circa. Uno dei fattori

  10. Novel cyclotides from Hedyotis diffusa induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Enping; Wang, Dongguo; Chen, Jiayu; Tao, Xiulin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hedyotis diffusa is a well-known herb in traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) which is used to treat various cancers including prostate cancer. Recently, lots of cyclotides possessing anti-cancer activities were found in Hedyotis family plants, suggesting that H.diffusa may also contain these bioactive ingredients. Cyclotides are heat-stable macrocyclic peptides from plants that display a wide range of biological activities. Currently, over 250 cyclotides have been discovered. Objective: This study tried to isolate novel cyclotides from H.diffusa and further investigate their anti-cancer activities for the prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Methods: The novel cyclotides from H.diffusa were isolated and purified by High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), amino acid sequences in their primary structure were confirmed using Edman degradation and gene cloning. Colorimetric cell viability assay (CCK8 assay), wound healing assay and human prostate cancer xenograft were used to analyze their anti-prostate cancer activity in vitro and in vivo. Results: Three novel cyclotides, termed as Diffusa cyclotide 1 to 3 (DC1-3) from the leaves and root of H.diffusa, were isolated firstly based on my knowledge. Using Edman degradation sequencing and gene cloning, we confirmed their amino acid sequence and obtained precursors of these peptides. By CCK8 assay, all present cyclotides showed potent cytotoxicity against all three prostate cancer cell lines, especially for DC3. In migration assay and wound healing assay, DC3 inhibited the cell migration and invasion Of LNCap cells. By model of prostate xenograft, DC3 could significantly inhibit development of the tumor in weight and size compared to the placebo. Conclusion: The novel cyclotides extracted from H.Diffusa have anti-cancer effects, and they are potential bioactive ingredients in H.diffusa.

  11. Evaluation of the effect of Boerhavia diffusa on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sawardekar, Swapna Bal; Patel, Tejal Chetan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ayurvedic literature claims that Boerhavia diffusa possesses rejuvenative properties especially related to the urinary system. Objective: To evaluate effect of aqueous extract of root of Boerhavia diffusa in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Study was conducted in two parts, using 40 rats in each part. Rats were equally divided into five groups for each part. Group 1: Normal control, Group 2: Disease control and Groups 3, 4, and 5: ?-lipoic acid (ALA) and 200 and 400 mg/kg of B. diffusa, respectively. All groups, except Group 1, concomitantly received gentamicin 150 mg/kg/day for 10 days. Parameters measured in part I were blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, kidney malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH) levels, kidney injury on histopathology; in part II, paraaminohippurate (PAH) clearance. Statistical Analysis: Mean ± SD of body weight, creatinine, BUN, MDA, GSH and PAH clearance were compared using parametric tests. Median histopathology scores were compared using Kruskal–Wallis test. ‘P’ value of < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: High dose of gentamicin caused significant elevation in BUN, serum creatinine and kidney MDA, fall in kidney GSH and histopathological damage in disease control group as compared with normal control (P < 0.05). Treatment with B. diffusa prevented changes in above parameters, comparable to ALA. Effects of both doses of B. diffusa were significantly better than disease control (P < 0.05).B. diffusa did not show significant improvement in PAH clearance, which was reduced due to gentamicin damage. Conclusion: B. diffusa exerted protection against structural and functional damage induced by gentamicin possibly due to its antioxidant properties.

  12. Successful biological control of diffuse knapweed, Centaurea diffusa, in British Columbia, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith H. Myers; Caroline Jackson; Hillary Quinn; Shannon R. White; Jenny S. Cory

    2009-01-01

    The biological control program for diffuse knapweed, Centaurea diffusa Lamarck, a Eurasian plant that has invaded large areas of grasslands in western North America, has gone on for over 35years. This program involved the release of 12 biological control agents of which four are numerous and widely distributed; two species of Tephritid flies, Urophora affinis and Urophora quadrifasciata, the root

  13. A dinoflagellate symbiont of the coral Oculina diffusa Lamarck (Cnidaria : Anthozoa) 

    E-print Network

    Gouldy, Ralph Roland

    1978-01-01

    of Specimens The Algal Symbiont Culture Media Inoculation and Culture Condition Staining . RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Distribution of Oculina diffusa Lam. in Texas Growth and Life Cycle of the Alga . Histochemistry of the Alga Comparison of the Algal.... 14 Growth and Life Cycle of thr Alga Culture of the algal symbiont was successful in only a few of the inocula-media combinations tested. The medium used by HcLaughlin and Zahl (Table 1) for culture of G. microadriaticum gave poor results...

  14. Improvement of friable callus production of Boerhaavia paniculata Rich and the investigation of its lipid profile by GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Souza, Joanne M M; Berkov, Strahill; Santos, Alberdan S

    2014-09-01

    In this study, a protocol to induce high amount of friable callus of Boerhaavia paniculata RICH and a lipidomics technique were applied to investigate the profile of lipids to relate to those present in the roots of this plant that presented anti-inflammatory activity in the crude hexane extract. The callus culture was induced from seeds in solidified Murashige and Skoog medium containing different amounts of glucose and different concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The explants were kept in a germination chamber at 30±2°C with a photoperiod of 16 h under light intensity of 27 µmol m-2 s-1 for 4 weeks. The best results for friable callus formation and development of the biomass were obtained in the treatment containing 2.26 µM 2.4-D and glucose (1.5 %; w/v). Lipidomics techniques were applied in hexane fraction showing higher concentrations of the steroids ?-sitosterol (3.53 mg/100 g dc-dry cells), and fatty acids, especially 2-hydroxy-tetracosanoic acid (0.34 mg/100 g dc), eicosanoic acid (86.25 mg/100 g dc), stearic acid (420.83 mg/100 g dc), tetradecanoic acid (10.74 mg/100 g dc) and linoleic acid (100.61 mg/100 g dc). The lipid profile of callus versus that found in the roots of wild plant is described in this work. PMID:25211097

  15. Antiviral activity in vitro of Urtica dioica L., Parietaria diffusa M. et K. and Sambucus nigra L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Uncini Manganelli; L. Zaccaro; P. E. Tomei

    2005-01-01

    Parietaria diffusa M. et K., Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) and Sambucus nigra L. (Caprifoliaceae) are plants usually used in popular medicine of central Italy for treating numerous diseases, first of all Herpes zoster. Several plant products have been described as potential antiviral agents, with special attention being devoted to those having retroviruses as etiological agents, including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS),

  16. Identification of fruits of Tribulus terrestris Linn. and Pedalium murex Linn.: A pharmacognostical approach.

    PubMed

    Kevalia, Jignesh; Patel, Bhupesh

    2011-10-01

    Gokshura is a well-known Ayurvedic drug that is used in many preparations. Botonically it is identified as Tribulus terrestris Linn., especially the roots and fruits of the plant. But instead the fruits of another plant Pedalium murex Linn. are commonly used and the drug is frequently substituted. Pharmacognostical study has been carried out to identify the distinguishing features, both morphological and microscopic, of the fruits of Tribulus terrestris Linn. and Pedalium murex Linn. This knowledge should help reduce the problem of substitution of the genuine drug. PMID:22661853

  17. Determination of Oleanolic and Ursolic Acids in Hedyotis diffusa Using Hyphenated Ultrasound-Assisted Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction and Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Show-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA) were extracted from Hedyotis diffusa using a hyphenated procedure of ultrasound-assisted and supercritical carbon dioxide (HSC–CO2) extraction at different temperatures, pressures, cosolvent percentages, and SC–CO2 flow rates. The results indicated that these parameters significantly affected the extraction yield. The maximal yields of OA (0.917?mg/g of dry plant) and UA (3.540?mg/g of dry plant) were obtained at a dynamic extraction time of 110?min, a static extraction time of 15?min, 28.2?MPa, and 56°C with a 12.5% (v/v) cosolvent (ethanol/water = 82/18, v/v) and SC–CO2 flowing at 2.3?mL/min (STP). The extracted yields were then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the OA and UA. The present findings revealed that H. diffusa is a potential source of OA and UA. In addition, using the hyphenated procedure for extraction is a promising and alternative process for recovering OA and UA from H. diffusa at high concentrations.

  18. Correlation between chromatographic fingerprint and antioxidant activity of Turnera diffusa (Damiana).

    PubMed

    Garza-Juárez, Aurora; Salazar-Cavazos, Ma de la Luz; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Pérez-Meseguer, Jonathan; de Torres, Noemi Waksman

    2011-06-01

    In the present contribution, the partial least squares (PLS) method was used to establish a correlation between the antioxidant activity (obtained by DPPH assay) and chromatographic profiles of TURNERA DIFFUSA extracts. Chromatograms were obtained using HPLC-DAD. A model was constructed using 40 samples with 2550 X variables corresponding to the responses obtained at different times; the Y variables consisted of experimental values of antioxidant activity of each extract (measured as EC??). Prior to this analysis, alignment of chromatograms was performed based on consideration of seven high-intensity signals present in all samples. The PLS1 model was validated by cross-validations; its capacity was evaluated using correlation parameters R², root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC), and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP). The best results were achieved with zero order chromatograms using five-point smoothing (R²?=?0.96, RMSEC?=?3.31, and RMSEP?=?7.86). Under these conditions, the optimal number of components was five. The model was applied to the prediction of antioxidant activity of commercial products; no significant differences were found between the experimental and predicted antioxidant activities for 83?% of them. PMID:21259186

  19. Mosquito larvicidal activity of oleic and linoleic acids isolated from Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Abdul Rahuman; P. Venkatesan; Geetha Gopalakrishnan

    2008-01-01

    In mosquito control programs, botanical origin may have the potential to be used successfully as larvicides. The larvicidal\\u000a activity of crude acetone, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and petroleum ether extracts of the leaf of Centella asiatica Linn., Datura metal Linn., Mukia scabrella Arn., Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam, extracts of whole plant of Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad, and Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.

  20. Linn Parish April 24th, 2014

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    Linn Parish April 24th, 2014 $15 million health clinic envisioned in Spokane's U some of Spokane's largest players in the health care field are planning a $15 million primary-care clinic in Spokane's University District that would serve as a training ground for new physicians

  1. Pharmacognosy of Cassia Alata Linn – leaves

    PubMed Central

    Mohideen, S.; Sasikala, E.; ARUHAJ, P.

    2005-01-01

    Cassia alata Linn, Commonly known as semaiagathi in Tamil is well known for its various medicinal properties in Indian systems of medicine. Various parts of this plant are used as vermicide, astringent, purgative, expectorant and to treat skin diseases. The present work deals with the anatomy, quantitative microscopy, physical constants and fluorescence analysis of the plant leaves. PMID:22557177

  2. Hedyotis diffusa Combined with Scutellaria barbata Are the Core Treatment of Chinese Herbal Medicine Used for Breast Cancer Patients: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Yuan-Chieh; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Yang, Sien-Hung; Lin, Yi-Hsien; Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Jiun-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which is the most common type of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) used in Taiwan, is increasingly used to treat patients with breast cancer. However, large-scale studies on the patterns of TCM prescriptions for breast cancer are still lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the core treatment of TCM prescriptions used for breast cancer recorded in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. TCM visits made for breast cancer in 2008 were identified using ICD-9 codes. The prescriptions obtained at these TCM visits were evaluated using association rule mining to evaluate the combinations of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) used to treat breast cancer patients. A total of 37,176 prescriptions were made for 4,436 outpatients with breast cancer. Association rule mining and network analysis identified Hedyotis diffusa plus Scutellaria barbata as the most common duplex medicinal (10.9%) used for the core treatment of breast cancer. Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (19.6%) and Hedyotis diffusa (41.9%) were the most commonly prescribed herbal formula (HF) and single herb (SH), respectively. Only 35% of the commonly used CHM had been studied for efficacy. More clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHM used to treat breast cancer. PMID:24734104

  3. Antifungal activity of essential oils from basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.) and sweet fennel (Ocimum gratissimum Linn.): Alternative strategies to control pathogenic fungi in organic rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Apinya Piyo; Pitipong Thobunluepop

    This in vitro study was aimed to evaluate the mycelium growth and spore germination inhibition properties of Thai medicinal essential oils. The oil from two species of Thai medicinal plant; Basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn) and Sweet Fennel (Ocimum gratissimum linn.), were applied against 7 species of rice pathogenic fungi; Alternaria brassicicola, Aspergillus flavus, Bipolaris oryzae, Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium proliferatum, Pyricularia

  4. Anticough and antimicrobial activities of Psidium guajava Linn. leaf extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pranee Jaiarj; Paranee Khoohaswan; Yuwadee Wongkrajang; Penchom Peungvicha; Potjanee Suriyawong; M. L. Sumal Saraya; Orawan Ruangsomboon

    1999-01-01

    The anticough activity of Psidium guajava Linn. (guava) leaf extract was evaluated in rats and guinea pigs. The results showed that water extract of the plant at doses of 2 and 5 g\\/kg, p.o. decreased the frequency of cough induced by capsaicin aerosol by 35 and 54%, respectively, as compared to the control, within 10 min after injection of the

  5. The look of Ireland: The representation of Ireland in Gael Linn's \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Mairead Pratschke

    2005-01-01

    Gael Linn's Amharc Éireann (literally translated as Look at Ireland) film series began in 1956 as monthly short documentary films on topics of domestic interest and was transformed in 1959 to weekly newsreels. It was a cultural nationalist project sponsored by Gael Linn, a newly-formed Irish language protection organization whose mandate was the revitalisation of the Irish language through the

  6. UPPER PLEISTOCENE GULO GULO (LINNE , 1758) REMAINS FROM THE SRBSKO CHLUM-KOMIN HYENA

    E-print Network

    UPPER PLEISTOCENE GULO GULO (LINNE´ , 1758) REMAINS FROM THE SRBSKO CHLUM-KOMIN HYENA DEN CAVE sites. The Gulo gulo Linne´ material was found in one of the largest Ice Age spotted-hyena dens of carnivore scavenging. The absence of juvenile G. gulo suggests possible importation of the wolverines

  7. A high sensitivity of children to swimming associated gastrointestinal illness (response to letter by Linn)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We disagree with Mr. Linn?s interpretation of our paper, ?High Sensitivity of Children to Swimming-Associated Gastrointestinal Illness?.1 His comments are focused on hypothetical interpretation of our results as related to criteria development rather than the science presented. ...

  8. In vitro antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activities of Bauhinia variegata Linn

    PubMed Central

    Rajani, G.P.; Ashok, Purnima

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Bauhinia variegata Linn. for in vitro antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the stem bark and root of B. variegata Linn. were prepared and assessed for in vitro antioxidant activity by various methods namely total reducing power, scavenging of various free radicals such as 1,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), super oxide, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide. The percentage scavenging of various free radicals were compared with standard antioxidants such as ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA). The extracts were also evaluated for antihyperlipidemic activity in Triton WR-1339 (iso-octyl polyoxyethylene phenol)-induced hyperlipidemic albino rats by estimating serum triglyceride, very low density lipids (VLDL), cholesterol, low-density lipids (LDL), and high-density lipid (HDL) levels. Result: Significant antioxidant activity was observed in all the methods, (P < 0.01) for reducing power and (P < 0.001) for scavenging DPPH, super oxide, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide radicals. The extracts showed significant reduction (P < 0.01) in cholesterol at 6 and 24 h and (P < 0.05) at 48 h. There was significant reduction (P < 0.01) in triglyceride level at 6, 24, and 48 h. The VLDL level was also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced from 24 h and maximum reduction (P < 0.01) was seen at 48 h. There was significant increase (P < 0.01) in HDL at 6, 24, and 48 h. Conclusion: From the results, it is evident that alcoholic and aqueous extracts of B. variegata Linn. can effectively decrease plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and VLDL and increase plasma HDL levels. In addition, the alcoholic and aqueous extracts have shown significant antioxidant activity. By the virtue of its antioxidant activity, B. variegata Linn. may show antihyperlipidemic activity. PMID:20177495

  9. 136. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    136. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete segmental viaduct to be built with the progressive method in the United States. It contains nearly every type of highway geometry within its length. With its super elevation of up to ten degrees and its tight horizontal and spiral curves, it was the most complicated bridge of its type built to that time looking south-southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  10. STUDIES OF PHARMACOGNOSTICAL PROFILES OF DANSONIA DIGITATA linn.

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakirubha, T; Ramprasath, D; Karunambigai, K; Nagavalli, D; Hemalatha, S

    2004-01-01

    The macroscopic characters of the whole plant, physical constant values, extractive values, preliminary phyto-chemical tests, fluorescence characters under ultra-violet light after treatment with different reagents of the powdered leaves form the tree of Adansonia digitata linn., [Bombacaceae] were studied to fix some pharmacognostical parameters. Preliminary phytochemical screening on the methanolic extract of the plant was also performed. These studies will help in identification of this plant for further research. PMID:22557153

  11. Evaluation of thin-layer chromatography methods for quality control of commercial products containing Aesculus hippocastanum, Turnera diffusa, Matricaria recutita, Passiflora incarnata, and Tilia occidentalis.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Durón, Rosalba; Ceniceros-Almaguer, Lucía; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Salazar-Cavazos, Ma de la Luz; Waksman de Torres, Noemi

    2007-01-01

    In Mexico, plant-derived products with health claims are sold as herbal dietary supplements, and there are no rules for their legal quality control. Aesculus hippocastanum, Turnera diffusa, Matricaria recutita, Passiflora incarnata, and Tilia occidentalis are some of the major commercial products obtained from plants used in this region. In this paper, we describe the effectiveness of thin-layer chromatography methods to provide for the quality control of several commercial products containing these plants. Standardized extracts were used. Of the 49 commercial products analyzed, only 32.65% matched the chromatographic characteristic of standardized extracts. A significant number of commercial products did not match their label, indicating a problem resulting from the lack of regulation for these products. The proposed methods are simple, sensitive, and specific and can be used for routine quality control of raw herbals and formulations of the tested plants. The results obtained show the need to develop simple and reliable analytical methods that can be performed in any laboratory for the purpose of quality control of dietary supplements or commercial herbal products sold in Mexico. PMID:17760328

  12. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Bioactive Compound Ferulic Acid Contained in Oldenlandia diffusa on Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hao; Liang, Qing-Hua; Xiong, Xin-Gui; Chen, Jiang; Wu, Dan; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Yong; Huang, Xi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to identify the active compounds in Oldenlandia diffusa (OD) decoction and the compounds absorbed into plasma, and to determine whether the absorbed compounds derived from OD exerted any anti-inflammatory effects in rats with collagen induced arthritis (CIA). Methods. The UPLC-PDA (Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography Photo-Diode Array) method was applied to identify the active compounds both in the decoction and rat plasma. The absorbable compound was administered to the CIA rats, and the effects were dynamically observed. X-ray films of the joints and HE stain of synovial tissues were analyzed. The levels of IL-1? and TNF-? in the rats from each group were measured by means of ELISA. The absorbed compound in the plasma of CIA rats was identified as ferulic acid (FA), following OD decoction administration. Two weeks after the administration of FA solution or OD decoction, the general conditions improved compared to the model group. The anti-inflammatory effect of FA was inferior to that of the OD decoction (P < 0.05), based on a comparison of IL-1? TNF-? levels. FA from the OD decoction was absorbed into the body of CIA rats, where it elicited anti-inflammatory responses in rats with CIA. Conclusions. These results suggest that FA is the bioactive compound in OD decoction, and FA exerts its effects through anti-inflammatory pathways. PMID:24883069

  13. Cassia fistula Linn: Potential candidate in the health management.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Arshad H

    2015-01-01

    Cassia fistula Linn is known as Golden shower has therapeutics importance in health care since ancient times. Research findings over the last two decade have confirmed the therapeutics consequence of C. fistula in the health management via modulation of biological activities due to the rich source of antioxidant. Several findings based on the animal model have confirmed the pharmacologically safety and efficacy and have opened a new window for human health management. This review reveals additional information about C. fistula in the health management via in vivo and in vitro study which will be beneficial toward diseases control. PMID:26130932

  14. A new biologically active flavonol glycoside from Psoralea corylifolia (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Yadava, R N; Verma, Vikash

    2005-08-01

    A new biologically active flavonol glycoside (1) mp 264-265 degrees C, C32H38O20, [M]+ 742 (EIMS) has been isolated from the methanol-soluble fraction of the defatted seeds of Psoralea corylifolia (Linn.). It was characterised as the new flavonol glycoside 3,5,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-7-methoxyflavone-3'-O-alpha-L-xylopyranosyl(1-->3)-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl(1-->4)-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside by several colour reactions, spectral analysis and chemical degradations. Compound 1 showed anti-microbial activity against various bacteria and fungi. PMID:16087643

  15. Anti-inflammatory activity of Sapindus trifoliatus Linn.

    PubMed

    Arul, B; Kothai, R; Jacob, Philip; Sangameswaran, B; Sureshkumar, K

    2004-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extract of the seeds of Sapindus trifoliatus Linn. was studied in wister rats using the carrageenan induced left hind paw edema, carrageenan induced pleurisy and cotton pellet induced granuloma model. The ethanolic extract (150 mg/kg, p.o.) produced the inhibition of carrageenan induced rat paw edema. It also showed an inhibitory effect on leukocyte migration and a reduction on the pleural exudates as well as reduction on the granuloma weight in the cotton pellet granuloma method. The results indicated that the ethanolic extract produced significant (P < 0.001) anti-inflammatory activity when compared with the standard and untreated control. PMID:15927924

  16. Cassia fistula Linn: Potential candidate in the health management

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Arshad H.

    2015-01-01

    Cassia fistula Linn is known as Golden shower has therapeutics importance in health care since ancient times. Research findings over the last two decade have confirmed the therapeutics consequence of C. fistula in the health management via modulation of biological activities due to the rich source of antioxidant. Several findings based on the animal model have confirmed the pharmacologically safety and efficacy and have opened a new window for human health management. This review reveals additional information about C. fistula in the health management via in vivo and in vitro study which will be beneficial toward diseases control.

  17. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of Cleome viscosa Linn. extract

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nishant Kumar; Dixit, Vinod Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Cleome viscosa Linn. (Capparidaceae) against carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) induced hepatotoxicity in experimental animal models. Materials and Methods: Leaf powder of Cleome viscosa was extracted with ethanol. The hepatoprotective activity of the extract was assessed in CCI4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Various biochemical parameters were estimated and histopathological studies were also performed on rat liver. The hepatoprotective activity was also supported by determining a functional parameter, i.e. thiopental-induced sleep of mice poisoned with CCl4. Results: The test material was found effective as hepatoprotective, through in vivo and histopathological studies. The extract was found to be effective in shortening the thiopental induced sleep in mice poisoned with CCl4. The hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract was comparable to that of silymarin, a standard hepatoprotective agent. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that ethanolic extract of Cleome viscosa has significant hepatoprotective activity. PMID:20177580

  18. Vitiquinolone--a quinolone alkaloid from Hibiscus vitifolius Linn.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, D; Saraswathy, A

    2014-02-15

    Phytochemical investigations of the powdered root of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. (Malvaceae) was extracted successively with n-hexane and chloroform. Analysis of the n-hexane extract by GC-MS led to the identification of twenty-six components by comparison of their mass spectra with GC-MS library data. A novel quinolone alkaloid, vitiquinolone (5) together with eight known compounds viz. ?-Amyrin acetate (1), n-octacosanol (2), ?-Amyrin (3), stigmasterol (4), xanthyletin (6), alloxanthoxyletin (7), xanthoxyletin (8) and betulinic acid (9) were isolated from chloroform extract by column chromatography over silica gel. The structure of vitiquinolone was established on the basis of spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, 1D, 2D NMR and ESI-MS. The known compounds were identified on the basis of their physical and spectroscopic data as reported in the literature. PMID:24128571

  19. Anti-inflammatory activity of Coldenia procumbens Linn.

    PubMed

    Arul, B; Kothai, R; Sureshkumar, K; Christina, A J M

    2005-07-01

    Anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Coldenia procumbens Linn. was studied in Wister rats using the carrageenan induced left hind paw edema, carrageenan induced pleurisy and cotton pellet induced granuloma model. The ethanolic extract (150 mg/kg, p.o.) produced the inhibition of carrageenan induced rat paw edema. It also showed an inhibitory effect on leukocyte migration and a reduction on the pleural exudates as well as reduction on the granuloma weight in the cotton pellet granuloma method. The results indicated that the ethanolic extract produced significant (P<0.001) anti-inflammatory activity when compared with the standard and untreated control. PMID:16380339

  20. Larvicidal Activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the Larvae of Bancroftian Filariasis Vector Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepak; Chawla, Rakesh; Dhamodaram, P.; Balakrishnan, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives. The plan of this work was to study the larvicidal activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. These larvae are the most significant vectors. They transmit the parasites and pathogens which cause a deadly disease like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so forth, which are considered harmful towards the population in tropic and subtropical regions. Methods. The preliminary laboratory trail was undertaken to determine the efficacy of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of dried whole plant of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae at various concentrations against the late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus by following the WHO guidelines. Results. The results suggest that 100% mortality effect of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) was observed at 200 and 300?ppm (parts per million). The results obviously showed use of plants in insect control as an alternative method for minimizing the noxious effect of some pesticide compounds on the environment. Thus the extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) is claimed as more selective and biodegradable agent. Conclusion. This study justified that plant Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) has a realistic mortality result for larvae of filarial vector. This is safe to individual and communities against mosquitoes. It is a natural weapon for mosquito control. PMID:24688786

  1. Development and anti-microbial potential of topical formulations containing Cocos nucifera Linn.

    PubMed

    Sheshala, Ravi; Ying, Ling Teck; Hui, Ling Shiau; Barua, Ankur; Dua, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    In order to achieve better treatment for local wounds and bacterial infections, topical formulations containing Cocos nucifera Linn. were developed. These formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical properties and antimicrobial efficacy against various strains of microorganisms. Semisolid formulations containing 5% w/w of Cocos nucifera Linn. were prepared by employing different dermatological bases and were evaluated for their physical appearance, pH, rheological properties, FTIR-spectroscopic analysis, thermodynamic stability and stability studies. The antimicrobial activity of each prepared formulation was determined using disk-diffusion method against various strains of microorganisms. All the prepared formulations were found to be stable and exhibited suitable physicochemical characteristics including pH, viscosity and spreadability which are necessary for an ideal topical preparation, in addition to strong antimicrobial activity. Carbopol gel base was found to be the most suitable dermatological base for Cocos nucifera Linn. in comparsion to other bases. Cocos nucifera Linn. formulations showed great potential for wounds and local bacterial infections. Moreover, carbopol gel base with its aesthetic appeal was found to be a suitable dermatological base for Cocos nucifera Linn. semisolid formulation as it had demonstrated significant physicochemical properties and greater diffusion when assessed using disk- diffusion method. PMID:23746224

  2. Antidiabetic effect of seeds of Strychnos potatorum Linn. in a streptozotocin-induced model of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Asish; Chatterjee, Suparna; Chowdhury, Rama; Sen, Sangita; Sarkar, Dipak; Chatterjee, Mitali; Das, Jayasree

    2012-01-01

    The antidiabetic effect of seeds of Strychnos potatorum Linn. was evaluated in a model of diabetes mellitus using streptozotocin (40 mg/kg b.w., i.p.). Changes in fasting blood sugar were estimated periodically for 12 weeks along with weekly measurement of body weight, food and water intake for 4 weeks. The antidiabetic effects were compared with glipizide as the reference hypoglycemic drug. Strychnos potatorum Linn. (100 mg/kg p.o.) significantly reduced fasting blood sugar, the effects being comparable with glipizide (40 mg/kg, p.o.), an established hypoglycemic drug. It also increased body weight along with decreased food and water intake in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Taken together, Strychnos potatorum Linn. shows promise as an effective hypoglycemic compound worthy of future pharmacological investigations. PMID:23061291

  3. Metabolite footprinting of Plasmodium falciparum following exposure to Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude extract.

    PubMed

    Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Mubaraki, Murad A; Ward, Stephen A; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2014-10-01

    Multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum is the major health problem in the tropics. Discovery and development of new antimalarial drugs with novel modes of action is urgently required. The aim of the present study was to investigate antimalarial activities of Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude ethanolic extract including its bioactive compounds as well as the metabolic footprinting of P. falciparum following exposure to G. mangostana Linn. extract. The median (range) IC50 (concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50%) values of ethanolic extract of G. mangostana Linn., ?-mangostin, ?-mangostin, gartanin, 9-hydroxycarbaxathone, artesunate, and mefloquine for 3D7 vs K1 P. falciparum clones were 12.6 (10.5-13.2) vs 4.5 (3.5-6.3) ?g/ml, 7.3 (7.1-8.5) vs 5.0 (3.7-5.9) ?g/ml, 47.3 (46.8-54.0) vs 35.0 (30.0-43.7) ?g/ml, 9.2 (8.1-11.9) vs 6.8 (6.2-9.1) ?g/ml, 0.6 (0.4-0.8) vs 0.5 (0.4-0.7) ?g/ml, 0.4 (0.2-1.2) vs 0.7 (0.4-1.0)ng/ml, and 5.0 (4.2-5.0) vs 2.7 (2.5-4.6) ng/ml, respectively. The action of G. mangostana Linn. started at 12 h of exposure, suggesting that the stage of its action is trophozoite. The 12-h exposure time was used as a suitable exposure time for further analysis of P. falciparum footprinting. G. mangostana Linn. extract was found to target several metabolic pathways particularly glucose and TCA metabolisms. The malate was not detected in culture medium of the exposed parasite, which may indirectly imply that the action of G. mangostana Linn. is through interruption of TCA metabolism. PMID:25102435

  4. Hepatoprotection by Elephantopus scaber Linn. in CCl4-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, M G; Latha, M S

    2001-10-01

    The efficacy of the medicinal plant Elephantopus scaber Linn. (Asteraceae), to prevent carbon teterachloride (CCI4)-induced chronic liver dysfunction in the rats was examined by determining different biochemical markers in serum and tissues. In serum, liver function marker enzymes like aspartate aminotrasferase (AST), alanine aminotrasferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and also protein were evaluated. The concentrations of total lipid, cholesterol and phospholipids were studied in serum and the different tissues. The concentration of serum triglycerides was also studied. The biochemical changes induced by CCI4 in different tissues particularly in the liver tissue improved following treatment with E. scaber Linn. The results suggest the hepatoprotective effect of this medicinal plant. PMID:11883157

  5. Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Effect of Leaves of Cassia sophera Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Arijit; Karan, Sanjay Kumar; Singha, Tanushree; Rajalingam, D.; Maity, Tapan Kumar

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extracts of Cassia sophera Linn. leaves was evaluated against carbon-tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced hepatic damage in rats. The extracts at doses of 200 and 400?mg/kg were administered orally once daily. The hepatoprotection was assessed in terms of reduction in histological damage, changes in serum enzymes, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (AST), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, and total protein levels. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and total bilirubin were restored towards the normalization significantly by the extracts. The decreased serum total protein level was significantly normalized. Silymarin was used as standard reference and exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that Cassia sophera leaves have potent hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats. This study suggests that possible activity may be due to the presence of flavonoids in the extracts. PMID:22690244

  6. Wound healing activity of Sida cordifolia Linn. in rats

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Rajesh S.; Chaurasiya, Pradeep K.; Rajak, Harish; Singour, Pradeep K.; Toppo, Fedelic Ashish; Jain, Ankit

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The present study provides a scientific evaluation for the wound healing potential of ethanolic (EtOH) extract of Sida cordifolia Linn. (SCL) plant. Materials and Methods: Excision, incision and burn wounds were inflicted upon three groups of six rats each. Group I was assigned as control (ointment base). Group II was treated with 10% EtOH extract ointment. Group III was treated with standard silver sulfadiazine (0.01%) cream. The parameters observed were percentage of wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength including histopathological studies. Result: It was noted that the effect produced by the ethanolic extract of SCL ointment showed significant (P < 0.01) healing in all wound models when compared with the control group. All parameters such as wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength and histopathological studies showed significant (P < 0.01) changes when compared with the control. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract ointment of SCL effectively stimulates wound contraction; increases tensile strength of excision, incision and burn wounds. PMID:24130382

  7. Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Leaves of Alocasia indica (Linn).

    PubMed

    Mulla, W A; Salunkhe, V R; Kuchekar, S B; Qureshi, M N

    2009-05-01

    The free radical scavenging potential of the plant Alocasia indica(Linn.) was studied by using different antioxidant models of screening like scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical, nitric oxide radical, superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical, iron chelating activity, total antioxidant capacity, non-enzymatic glycosylation of haemoglobin, rapid screening for antioxidant compounds by thin layer chromatography. The hydroalcoholic extract at 1000 mug/ml showed maximum scavenging of superoxide radical (87.17) by riboflavin-NBT-system, followed by scavenging of stable radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical (83.48%), nitric oxide radical (74.09%) hydroxyl radical (60.96%) at the same concentration. However the extract showed only moderate activity by iron chelation (68.26%). That could be due to higher phenolic content in the extract. This finding suggests that hydro alcoholic extract of A. indica possess potent in vitro antioxidant activity as compared to the standard ascorbic acid. The results justify the therapeutic applications of the plant in the indigenous system of medicine, augmenting its therapeutic value. PMID:20490298

  8. Anticough and antimicrobial activities of Psidium guajava Linn. leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Jaiarj, P; Khoohaswan, P; Wongkrajang, Y; Peungvicha, P; Suriyawong, P; Saraya, M L; Ruangsomboon, O

    1999-11-01

    The anticough activity of Psidium guajava Linn. (guava) leaf extract was evaluated in rats and guinea pigs. The results showed that water extract of the plant at doses of 2 and 5 g/kg, p.o. decreased the frequency of cough induced by capsaicin aerosol by 35 and 54%, respectively, as compared to the control, within 10 min after injection of the extract, (P < 0.01). However, the anticough activity is less potent than that of 3 mg/kg dextromethorphan which decreased frequency of cough by 78% (P < 0.01). An experiment on isolated rat tracheal muscle showed that the extract directly stimulated muscle contraction and also synergized with the stimulatory effect of pilocarpine. This effect was antagonized by an atropine. Moreover, growth of Staphylococcus aureus and beta-streptococcus group A, as determined by the disc diffusion method, was inhibited by water, methanol and chloroform extract of dry guava leaves (P < 0.001). The LD50 of guava leaf extract was more than 5 g/kg, p.o. These results suggest that guava leaf extract is recommended as a cough remedy. PMID:10619385

  9. Assessment of Antiobesity Potential of Achyranthes aspera Linn. Seed

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Neerja; Sharma, Surendra Kumar; Vasudeva, Neeru

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the quality control parameters, quantitative phytochemical analysis (total phenols, total flavonoids, and total saponin content), and the antiobesity effect of ethanol extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn. seed (EAA) by employing in vitro and in vivo models. In in vitro study, the inhibitory activity of EAA on pancreatic amylase and lipase was measured. The in vivo pancreatic lipase activity was evaluated by measurement of plasma triacylglycerol levels after oral administration of EAA along with lipid emulsion to Swiss albino mice. The EAA inhibited pancreatic amylase and lipase activity in vitro and elevations of plasma triacylglycerol level in mice. Furthermore, the antiobesity effect of EAA (900?mg/kg) was assessed in mice fed a high-fat diet with or without EAA for 6 weeks. EAA significantly suppressed the increase in body, retroperitoneal adipose tissue, liver weights, and serum parameters, namely; total cholesterol, total triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol level. The anti obesity effects of EAA in high-fat-diet-treated mice may be partly mediated through delaying the intestinal absorption of dietary fat by inhibiting pancreatic amylase and lipase activity. Histopathological effects of EAA on the liver of mice were also assessed. PMID:22919417

  10. Bioactivity studies on Cassia alata Linn. leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Villaseñor, Irene M; Canlas, Arlyn P; Pascua, Marcy Paul I; Sabando, May N; Soliven, Leen Aloha P

    2002-03-01

    The hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of Cussia alata Linn. were tested for their antimutagenic, antifungal, analgesic, antiinflammatory and hypoglycaemic activities. At a dosage of 5 mg/20 g mouse, the hexane extract was analgesic as it reduced the number of squirms induced by acetic acid by 59.5%. Both the hexane and EtOAc extracts exhibited antiinflammatory activity at a dosage of 5 mg/20 g mouse with a 65.5% and 68.2% decrease in carrageenan-induced inflammation, respectively. The chloroform extract was antimutagenic, at a dosage of 2 mg/20 g mouse, with a 65.8% inhibition in the mutagenicity of tetracycline. It was also the most active against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, at a concentration of 50 mg/mL but it had no activity against Candida albicans. The hexane and EtOAc extracts showed some activity against both organisms, with the EtOAc extract being more active against C. albicans. The EtOAc extract was hypoglycaemic. At a dosage of 5 mg/20 g mouse, it decreased the blood sugar level of mice by 58.3%. Pharmacological studies showed that all extracts caused an immediate decrease in motor activity, enophthalmus, hyperemia, micturition and diarrhoea. At a dosage of 150 mg/20 g mouse, the EtOAc extract caused paralysis, screen grip loss and enophthalmus accompanied by drooping and closure of the eyelids. PMID:11933153

  11. Antibacterial activities and phytochemical analysis of Cassia fistula (Linn.) leaf

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Sujogya K.; Padhi, L. P.; Mohanty, G.

    2011-01-01

    Cassia fistula Linn. which belongs to family Leguminosae is a medium-sized tree and its different parts are used in ayurvedic medicine as well as home remedies for common ailments. Sequential extraction was carried out using solvents viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, methanol and water from leaf of the plant were investigated for preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial property. Results of the study showed that all the extracts had good inhibitory activity against Gram-positive test organism. Although all five extracts showed promising antibacterial activity against test bacterial species, yet maximum activity was observed in ethanol extract. The minimum inhibitory concentration ranged in between 94 to 1 500 ?g/ml. Evaluation of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, protein and amino acids, saponins, and triterpenoids revealed the presence of most of constituents in polar extracts (ethanol, methanol, and aqueous) compared with nonpolar extracts (petroleum ether and chloroform). Furthermore, the ethanol extract was subjected to TLC bioautography and time-kill study against Staphylococcus epidermidis. All the findings exhibit that the leaf extracts have broad-spectrum activity and suggest its possible use in treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:22171295

  12. Antibacterial activities and phytochemical analysis of Cassia fistula (Linn.) leaf.

    PubMed

    Panda, Sujogya K; Padhi, L P; Mohanty, G

    2011-01-01

    Cassia fistula Linn. which belongs to family Leguminosae is a medium-sized tree and its different parts are used in ayurvedic medicine as well as home remedies for common ailments. Sequential extraction was carried out using solvents viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, methanol and water from leaf of the plant were investigated for preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial property. Results of the study showed that all the extracts had good inhibitory activity against Gram-positive test organism. Although all five extracts showed promising antibacterial activity against test bacterial species, yet maximum activity was observed in ethanol extract. The minimum inhibitory concentration ranged in between 94 to 1 500 ?g/ml. Evaluation of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, protein and amino acids, saponins, and triterpenoids revealed the presence of most of constituents in polar extracts (ethanol, methanol, and aqueous) compared with nonpolar extracts (petroleum ether and chloroform). Furthermore, the ethanol extract was subjected to TLC bioautography and time-kill study against Staphylococcus epidermidis. All the findings exhibit that the leaf extracts have broad-spectrum activity and suggest its possible use in treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:22171295

  13. Pharmacological screening of Coriandrum sativum Linn. for hepatoprotective activity

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, A.; Bigoniya, P.; Raj, V.; Patel, K. K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Coriandrum sativum (Linn.), a glabrous, aromatic, herbaceous annual plant, is well known for its use in jaundice. Essential oil, flavonoids, fatty acids, and sterols have been isolated from different parts of C. sativum. The plant has a very effective antioxidant profile showing 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, lipoxygenase inhibition, phospholipid peroxidation inhibition, iron chelating activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, superoxide dismutation, glutathione reduction and antilipid peroxidation due to its high total phenolic content with the presence of constituents like pyrogallol, caffeic acid, glycitin, etc. Materials and Methods: This study was aimed at investigating the hepatoprotective activity of C. sativum against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), with estimation of serum serum glutamyl oxaloacetic acid transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamyl pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaine phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin, and with liver histopathology. Results: Ethanolic extract was found to be rich in alkaloids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting showed the presence of iso-quercetin and quercetin. C. sativum signifies hepatoprotection by reducing the liver weight, activities of SGOT, SGPT, and ALP, and direct bilirubin of CCl4 intoxicated animals. Administration of C. sativum extract at 300 mg/kg dose resulted in disappearance of fatty deposit, ballooning degeneration and necrosis, indicating antihepatotoxic activity. Conclusion: The results of this study have led to the conclusion that ethanolic extract of C. sativum possesses hepatoprotective activity which may be due to the antioxidant potential of phenolic compounds. PMID:21966166

  14. Antiinflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Mimusops elengi Linn

    PubMed Central

    Purnima, A.; Koti, B. C.; Thippeswamy, A. H. M.; Jaji, M. S.; Swamy, A. H. M. Vishwantha; Kurhe, Y. V.; Sadiq, A. Jaffar

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, 70% ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi Linn. bark was assessed for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in animals. The antiinflammatory activity of ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o) was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models. Analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddy’s hot plate models and antipyretic activity was assessed by Brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o) significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced paw oedema at 3rd and 4th h and in cotton pellet model it reduced the transudative weight and little extent of granuloma weight. In analgesic models the ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi decreases the acetic acid-induced writhing and it also reduces the rectal temperature in Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia. However, Mimusops elengi did not increase the latency time in the hot plate test. These results show that ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi has an antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity. PMID:21218059

  15. SIZE, AGE, SEXUAL MATURITY; AND SEX RATIO IN OCEAN QUAHOGS, ARCTICA ISLANDICA LINNE,

    E-print Network

    SIZE, AGE, SEXUAL MATURITY; AND SEX RATIO IN OCEAN QUAHOGS, ARCTICA ISLANDICA LINNE, OFF LONG) and moderate (491 tubule development. Only 28 clams were fully mature. Age and growth were assessed from most other bivalves, lack external characteristics for a de- termination of sex, maturation

  16. Neuroprotective effects of quercetin, rutin and okra ( Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.) in dexamethasone-treated mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walaiporn Tongjaroenbuangam; Nootchanart Ruksee; Piyanete Chantiratikul; Noppakun Pakdeenarong; Watee Kongbuntad; Piyarat Govitrapong

    2011-01-01

    The administration of dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid receptor agonist, causes neuronal death in the CA3 layer of the hippocampus, which has been associated with learning and memory impairments. This study aimed to examine the ability of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.) extract and its derivatives (quercetin and rutin) to protect neuronal function and improve learning and memory deficits in mice subjected

  17. J. Linnes BE 428 Device and Diagnostic Design Fall 2014 COURSE DESCRIPTION

    E-print Network

    Vajda, Sandor

    of biomedical devices and diagnostics. The course is designed for undergraduates in their Sophomore and Junior studies of biomedical device designs and hands-on prototyping sessions are used extensively throughoutJ. Linnes BE 428 Device and Diagnostic Design Fall 2014 COURSE DESCRIPTION Course BE 428 Device

  18. Activity of tabanids (Insecta: Diptera: Tabanidae) attacking the reptiles Caiman crocodilus (Linn.) (Alligatoridae) and Eunectes murinus (Linn.) (Boidae), in the central Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ruth L M; Henriques, Augusto L; Rafael, José A

    2002-01-01

    Tabanid females are better known as hematophagous on man and other mammals, and linked to mechanical transmission of parasites. The association between tabanids and reptiles is poorly known, but has been gaining more corroboration through experiments and occasional observation in the tropics. The present study was conducted at a military base (CIGS/BI-2), situated 54 km from Manaus, Amazonas, in a small stream in a clearing (02 degrees 45'33"S; 59 degrees 51'03"W). Observations were made monthly, from April 1997 to March 1998, during two consecutive days. At the same time, other vertebrate animals were offered, including humans. However in this paper only data obtained on a common caiman, Caiman crocodilus (Linn.), and an anaconda, Eunectes murinus (Linn.), in diurnal observations from 05:30 a.m. to 18:30 p.m., will be discussed. A total of 254 tabanid specimens were collected, 40 from the anaconda and 214 from the caiman. Four tabanid species were recorded on these two reptiles: Stenotabanus cretatus Fairchild, S. bequaerti Rafael et al., Phaeotabanus nigriflavus (Kröber) and Tabanus occidentalis Linn. Diurnal activities showed species-specific patterns. The first three species occurred only in the dry season. T. occidentalis occurred during the whole observation period, and with increased frequency at the end of the dry season. We observed preferences for body area and related behavior of the host. Observations on the attack of tabanids on one dead caiman are also presented. PMID:11992164

  19. Effect of new rotenoid glycoside from the fruits of Amorpha fruticosa LINNE on the growth of human immune cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hak Ju Lee; Ha Young Kang; Cheol Hee Kim; Hyo Sung Kim; Min Chul Kwon; Sang Moo Kim; Il Shik Shin; Hyeon Yong Lee

    2006-01-01

    A new compound, rotenoid isoflavone glycoside named, 6?-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-12a-hydroxydalpanol was isolated from the methanolic (MeOH) fruit extract of Amorpha fruticosa LINNE by means of multi-stage column chromatography. Immuno-modulatory activities of this new glycoside were compared with\\u000a the partitioned fractions of Amorpha fruticosa LINNE. Both of the fractions and purified single compound showed a 19% relatively low cytotoxicity at a maximum concentration

  20. Manilkara zapota (Linn.) Seeds: A Potential Source of Natural Gum

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sudarshan; Bothara, Sunil B.

    2014-01-01

    Mucilage isolated from seeds of Manilkara zapota (Linn.) P. Royen syn. is a plant growing naturally in the forests of India. This mucilage is yet to be commercially exploited, and characterized as polymer. Various physicochemical methods like particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been employed to characterize this gum in the present study. Particle size analyses suggest that mucilage has particle size in nanometer. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the mucilage has irregular particle size. The glass transition temperature of the gum was observed to be 138°C and 136°C by differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermal analysis, respectively. The thermogravimetric analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability. The average molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 379180, by gel permeation chromatography, while the viscosity of mucilage was observed to be 219.1 cP. The X-ray diffraction spectrometry pattern of the mucilage indicates a completely amorphous structure. Elemental analysis of the gum revealed the contents of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur to be 80.9 (%), 10.1 (%), 1.58 (%), and 512 (mg/kg), respectively. Mucilage had specific content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, lower concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, lead, and nickel. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3441?cm?1 (–OH), 1660?cm?1 (Alkenyl C–H & C=C Stretch), 1632?cm?1 (–COO–), 1414?cm?1 (–COO–), and 1219?cm?1 (–CH3CO). Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR, indicated the presence of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, and fructose. PMID:24729907

  1. Manilkara zapota (Linn.) Seeds: A Potential Source of Natural Gum.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sudarshan; Bothara, Sunil B

    2014-01-01

    Mucilage isolated from seeds of Manilkara zapota (Linn.) P. Royen syn. is a plant growing naturally in the forests of India. This mucilage is yet to be commercially exploited, and characterized as polymer. Various physicochemical methods like particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been employed to characterize this gum in the present study. Particle size analyses suggest that mucilage has particle size in nanometer. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the mucilage has irregular particle size. The glass transition temperature of the gum was observed to be 138°C and 136°C by differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermal analysis, respectively. The thermogravimetric analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability. The average molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 379180, by gel permeation chromatography, while the viscosity of mucilage was observed to be 219.1 cP. The X-ray diffraction spectrometry pattern of the mucilage indicates a completely amorphous structure. Elemental analysis of the gum revealed the contents of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur to be 80.9 (%), 10.1 (%), 1.58 (%), and 512 (mg/kg), respectively. Mucilage had specific content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, lower concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, lead, and nickel. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3441?cm(-1) (-OH), 1660?cm(-1) (Alkenyl C-H & C=C Stretch), 1632?cm(-1) (-COO-), 1414?cm(-1) (-COO-), and 1219?cm(-1) (-CH3CO). Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR, indicated the presence of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, and fructose. PMID:24729907

  2. Comparative micromorphological study of wild and micropropagated Dioscorea bulbifera Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Sonibare, Mubo A.; Adeniran, Adedapo A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the leaf epidermis of wild and micropropagated Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. (D. bulbifera) in order to document useful diagnostic features that may be employed for correct crude drug identification and to clear any taxonomic uncertainties in the micropropagated medicinal plant. Methods Growth responses of micropropagated D. bulbifera were observed on Murashige Skoog medium supplemented with 6-benzylamino purine (1.0 mg/L)+?-naphthaleneacetic acid (0.2 mg/L)+cysteine (20 mg/L) using nodal segments as explants. Leaves of the wild and micropropagated plants were studied microscopically. Results More than 80% shoot regeneration and formation of 10%-30% whitish-brown callus were observed within 3 weeks. The highest root proliferation was obtained from Murashige Skoog medium of 6-benzylamino purine (0.05 mg/L) and ?-naphthaleneacetic acid (0.01 mg/L) with mean root length of (27.00±1.25) mm and elongated single shoot of mean length (38.00±11.09) mm. Leaf epidermal features that revealed similarities between the wild and micropropagated plants included amphistomatic condition, presence of mucilage, glandular unicellular trichome with multicellular head, polygonal cells with smooth walls, stomata type and shape. Slight variations included thick cuticular wall with closed stomata in wild plant compared to thin walled opened stomata in the in vitro plant. Opening of stomata accounted for larger average stomata sizes of (7.68±0.38) µm and (6.14±0.46) µm on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively of the micropropagated plant compared to the wild. Conclusions The diagnostic features obtained in the study could serve as a basis for proper identification for quality control for standardization of the medicinal plant. PMID:25182434

  3. Cholinergic basis of memory-strengthening effect of Foeniculum vulgare Linn.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Hanumanthachar; Parle, Milind

    2006-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with a decline in cognitive abilities. Dementia is one of the age-related mental problems and a characteristic symptom of Alzheimer's disease. Nootropic agents are used in situations where there is organic disorder in learning abilities. The present work was undertaken to assess the potential of Foeniculum vulgare Linn. extract as a nootropic and anticholinesterase agent in mice. Methanolic extract of the whole plant of F. vulgare Linn. administered for eight successive days ameliorated the amnesic effect of scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg) and aging- induced memory deficits in mice. The passive avoidance paradigm served as the exteroceptive behavioral model for assessing memory. F. vulgare extract increased step-down latency and acetylcholinesterase inhibition in mice significantly. Hence, F. vulgare can be employed in treatment of cognitive disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:17004908

  4. Aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris Linn induces cell growth arrest and apoptosis by down-regulating NF-?B signaling in liver cancer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hye Jin Kim; Jin Chul Kim; Jung Sun Min; Mi-jee Kim; Ji Ae Kim; Myung Ho Kor; Hwa Seung Yoo; Jeong Keun Ahn

    2011-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevanceA medicinal herb Tribulus terrestris Linn has been used to treat various diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma.The aim of the present study was to investigate the anticancer activity of Tribulus terrestris Linn (TT) in liver cancer cells.

  5. Anti-inflammatory effect of phenethyl isothiocyanate, an active ingredient of Raphanus sativus Linne

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phil-Dong Moon; Na-Ra Han; Hyun-Ja Jeong; Hyung-Min Kim

    Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) is an active ingredient of Raphanus sativus Linne (Cruciferae). However, regulatory mechanism of PEITC involved in caspase-1 signalling has not been fully elucidated in mast cells. First, PEITC inhibited the production of IL-6 through the inhibition of caspase-1\\/receptor-interacting protein 2, followed by regulation of NF-?B\\/I?B? pathway or p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase mitogen-activated protein kinases. Second, PEITC

  6. Anti-inflammatory activity of ‘TAF’ an active fraction from the plant Barleria prionitis Linn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Singh; S. Bani; D. K. Gupta; B. K. Chandan; A. Kaul

    2003-01-01

    ‘TAF’ fraction from the methanol–water extract of Barleria prionitis Linn. was evaluated for anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities against different acute and chronic animal test models. It exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity against different inflammagens like carrageenan, histamine and dextran. The anti-inflammatory activity in adrenalectomised rats was maintained showing that the effect of fraction ‘TAF’ is not activated by the pituitary–adrenal axis.

  7. Aphrodisiac activity of methanol extract of leaves of Passiflora incarnata Linn in mice.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Kamaldeep; Kumar, Suresh; Sharma, Anupam

    2003-04-01

    The aphrodisiac properties of the methanol extract of leaves of Passiflora incarnata Linn. have been evaluated in mice by observing the mounting behaviour. The methanol extract of P. incarnata exhibited significant aphrodisiac behaviour in male mice at all doses, i.e. 75, 100 and 150 mg/kg. Amongst these, the highest activity was observed with the 100 mg/kg dose when the mountings were calculated about 95 min after the administration of the test extracts. PMID:12722149

  8. The inhibitory activity of aldose reductase in vitro by constituents of Garcinia mangostana Linn.

    PubMed

    Fatmawati, Sri; Ersam, Taslim; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-01-15

    We investigated aldose reductase inhibition of Garcinia mangostana Linn. from Indonesia. Dichloromethane extract of the root bark of this tree was found to demonstrate an IC50 value of 11.98 µg/ml for human aldose reductase in vitro. From the dichloromethane fraction, prenylated xanthones were isolated as potent human aldose reductase inhibitors. We discovered 3-isomangostin to be most potent against aldose reductase, with an IC50 of 3.48 µM. PMID:25636870

  9. Post-Coital Antifertility Activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. Roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neeru Vasudeva; S. K. Sharma

    2008-01-01

    Ancient literature mentions the use of a number of plants\\/preparations for fertility regulation. Some local contraceptive agents have also been described in Ayurvedic and Unani texts. Documented experiments or clinical data are, however, lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the antifertility and estrogenic activity of ethanolic extract of the roots of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. A strong anti-implantation

  10. Supernumerary chromosomes in the human bed bug, Cimex lectularius Linn. (Cimicidae:Hemiptera)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norihiro Ueshima

    1967-01-01

    The chromosome complement in the human bed bug, Cimex lectulariusLinn., is 26+X1X2Y in the male and 26+X1X1X2X2 in the female. However, a population from Cairo, Egypt has 4 supernumerary X chromosomes. In the hybrid between the Berkeley population (with no supernumeraries) and the Cairo population (with 4 supernumeraries), the behavior of supernumeraries was observed during embryogenesis and oogenesis as well

  11. In vitro clonal propagation of Clerodendrum serratum (Linn.) Moon (barangi): a rare and threatened medicinal plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sharma; S. K. Rai; D. K. Purshottam; M. Jain; D. Chakrabarty; A. Awasthi; K. N. Nair; Ashok Kumar Sharma

    2009-01-01

    An in vitro process for rapid clonal propagation of Clerodendrum serratum (Linn.) Moon, a rare and threatened medicinal shrub, has been developed. Nodal stem segments having axillary bud, taken from\\u000a field-grown plant, showed bud-break within 15 days of culture on modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) (Physiol Plant 15:473–497,\\u000a 1962) medium supplemented with 0.25 mg\\/l each of 6-benzylaminopurine and indole-3-acetic acid along with

  12. Comparative pharmacogonostic studies of genuine and commercial samples of trianthema decandra linn.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, S; Venkataraman, R

    2000-07-01

    Trianthema decandra Linn. (Fam ficoidaceae) Commonly known a "Vellai sharunai'on Tamil and Punaranavi in Sanskrit the roots are used in hepatitis, asthma and suppression of menses the genuine and tree commercial samples of the root of R. Decandra in have been compared pharmacognostically for the first time in the present investigation all the pharmacognostic findings reveal adulteration in the commercial samples. PMID:22556996

  13. Partial purification of a hypoglycemic fraction from the unripe fruits of Momordica charantia Linn (bitter gourd)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subbiah Pugazhenthi; P. Suryanarayana Murthy

    1995-01-01

    A new method was developed to purify partially an orally active hypoglycemic fraction from the unripe fruits ofMomordica charantia Linn. The residue after centrifugation of the fruit juice was extracted with ethanol and the concentrated ethanolic extract\\u000a was further extracted with diethyl ether. In normal rabbits after oral administration, the ether extract at a dose of 0.75\\u000a g\\/kg body wt

  14. Snake venom neutralising factor from the root extract of Emblica officinalis Linn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Sarkhel; A. K. Chakravarty; R. Das; Aparna Gomes; A. Gomes

    2011-01-01

    The folk use of the Indian medicinal plant Emblica officinalis Linn. root extract and its active compound (Pthalate in nature) against snake venom has been established in experimental animal\\u000a models. From the root extract of Emblica officinalis, a compound was isolated through silica gel column chromatography and the structure was determined by UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR & EIMS studies. The

  15. Lepidium sativum Linn.: a current addition to the family of mucilage and its applications.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Vipul D; Maheriya, Pankaj M; Jani, Girish K; Patil, Prasant D; Patel, Bhumit N

    2014-04-01

    Mucilage from the last decades has been found to be very attractive, interesting and useful in development of desired pharmaceutical dosage forms. Various applications of plant based mucilage have a wide potentiality in drug formulations. Lepidium sativum Linn. (family: Brassicaceae) is one of the mucilage containing fast growing, edible annual herb. Its various parts (roots, leaves and seeds) have been used to treat various human ailments. It mainly contains alkaloids, saponins, anthracene glycosides, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, flavanoids, and sterols as chief phytochemical constituents. Its seed extracts have been screened for various biological activities like hypotensive, anti-microbial, bronchodilator, hypoglycemic and allelopathic, whereas its seed coat mucilage has been isolated using different methods to make it effective excipient of desired functionality as a part of pharmaceutical applications. Through keen references of reported work on Lepidium sativum Linn., in this review, we have focused on its seed coat mucilage isolation methods, chemical constituents, pharmacological profile and versatile application of Lepidium sativum Linn. PMID:24418343

  16. Effect of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf extract on diethylnitrosamine induced hepatic injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, Kannampalli; Mohan, Chandrasekaran Victor Raj; Gobianand, Kuppannan; Karthikeyan, Sivanesan

    2007-04-01

    The hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf extract on liver injury induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) was investigated. Wistar rats weighing 200+/-10g were administered a single dose of DEN (200mg/kg b.w., i.p.) and left for 30 days. For hepatoprotective studies, ethanolic leaf extract (ELE) of C. fistula Linn. (500mg/kg b.w., p.o.) was administered daily for 30 days. AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, gamma-GT and bilirubin were estimated in serum and liver tissue. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), SOD and CAT were also estimated in liver tissue as markers of oxidative stress. DEN induced hepatotoxicity in all the treated animals were evident by elevated serum ALT, AST, ALP and bilirubin levels and a simultaneous fall in their levels in the liver tissue after 30 days. Induction of oxidative stress in the liver was evidenced by increased LPO and fall in the activities of SOD and CAT. ELE administration for 30 days prevented the DEN induced hepatic injury and oxidative stress. In conclusion, it was observed that ELE of C. fistula Linn. protects the liver against DEN induced hepatic injury in rats. PMID:17289008

  17. Evaluation of antiarthritic activity of Strychnos potatorum Linn seeds in Freund's adjuvant induced arthritic rat model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Strychnos potatorum Linn (Loganiaceae) is a moderate sized tree found in southern and central parts of India, Sri Lanka and Burma. In traditional system of medicine, Strychnos potatorum Linn seeds were used for various ailments including inflammation, diabetes etc. To investigate the folkloric use of the seeds the present study was carried out on Freund's adjuvant induced arthritic rats. Methods The present study states the effect of the aqueous extract (SPE) and the whole seed powder (SPP) of Strychnos potatorum Linn seeds on the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) induced arthritic rat paw edema, body weight changes and alterations in haematological and biochemical parameters in both developing and developed phases of arthritis. Histopathology of proximal interphalangeal joints and radiology of hind legs were studied. Results In FCA induced arthritic rats, there was significant increase in rat paw volume and decrease in body weight increment, whereas SPP and SPE treated groups, showed significant reduction in paw volume and normal gain in body weight. The altered haematological parameters (Hb, RBC, WBC and ESR) and biochemical parameters (blood urea, serum creatinine, total proteins and acute phase proteins) in the arthritic rats were significantly brought back to near normal by the SPP and SPE treatment at the dose of 200 mg/kg/p.o in both developing and developed phases of arthritis. Further the histopathological and radiological studies revealed the antiarthritic activity of SPP and SPE by indicating fewer abnormalities in these groups when compared to the arthritic control group. Conclusion In conclusion, both SPP and SPE at the specified dose level of 200 mg/kg, p.o. showed reduction in rat paw edema volume and it could significantly normalize the haematological and biochemical abnormalities in adjuvant induced arthritic rats in both developing and developed phases of FCA induced arthritis. Further the histopathological and radiological studies confirmed the antiarthritic activity of SPP and SPE. PMID:20939932

  18. Antianaphylactic and mast cell stabilization activity of Strychnos potatorum Linn. seed

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Umesh Jayantarao; Savali, Anil Sidram; Jirankali, Manjunath C.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The antianaphylactic activity of Strychnos potatorum Linn seed extract was evaluated by using compound 48/80 induced anaphylaxis and mast cell stabilization was studied by using peritoneal mast cells of rats. The possible antianaphylactic and mast cell stabilization mechanism was evaluated by using compound 48/80 induced mast cell activation and level of nitric oxide in rat peritoneal mast cells. Materials and Methods: Anaphylactic shock in mice was induced by the intraperitoneal administration of 8 mg/kg compound 48/80, prior to induction of anaphylaxis the animals were treated with S. potatorum Linn. seed extract administered orally 1 h before administration of compound 48/80, the rate mortality was observed in each group of animals. Mast cell stabilization was seen by preincubation of mast cells with the compound 48/80 and the extracts. Results: This study indicates that the chloroform, petroleum ether, and methanolic extracts were shown potent and has significant (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001) inhibitory effects on compound 48/80 induced anaphylactic reaction and mast cell activation. This compound also inhibited significantly compound 48/80 induced increased level of nitric oxide in rat peritoneal mast cells. Conclusion: We conclude from this study that the different extracts of S. potatorum seed have potent antianaphylactic activity through mast cell stabilization and inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis. The inhibitory effect of S. potatorum Linn. on release of histamine and nitric oxide protects from compound 48/80 induced anaphylactic reaction may be through blocking vasodilatation, decrease vascular resistance, hypotension and tachycardia induced by immunogenic agent used in this study. PMID:22022171

  19. Determination of antioxidant capacity, ?-amylase and lipase inhibitory activity of Crotalaria juncea Linn in vitro inhibitory activity of Crotalaria Juncea Linn.

    PubMed

    Dinakaran, Sathis Kumar; Banji, David; Avasarala, Harani; Banji, Otilia

    2014-06-01

    The present study involves the determination of antioxidant capacity and in vitro ?-amylase and lipase inhibitory activity of the Crotalaria juncea Linn extract. The content of polyphenols, flavonoids, and tannins in the extracts was estimated by spectrophotometry. Antioxidant activity on goat liver lipid peroxidation and linoleic acid emulsion were determined and ?-amylase and lipase inhibitory activity was also evaluated. All the extracts had shown antioxidant property, ?-amylase, and lipase inhibitory properties. Aqueous extract was found to show maximum antioxidant activity on goat liver. Antilipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity were determined to be 66.94 ± 0.616 (p < .01) and 59.54 ± 0.2 (p < .01), respectively. Maximum ?-amylase and lipase inhibitory activities of 71.42 ± 1.37 (p < .01) and 57.14 ± 2.74% (p < .01), respectively, were exhibited by macerated methanol extract. The results had shown that all the extracts exhibited low inhibition and antioxidant activity as compared to standard. PMID:24670121

  20. ????????????????????????? ( Eugenia caryophyllus Bullocks & Harrison ) ??????????? (Acorus calamus Linn.) ????????????????????? ????????????????? Inhibitory Effect of Extracts from Clove ( Eugenia caryophyllus Bullocks & Harrison ) and Sweet flag (Acorus calamus Linn. ) on Some Pathogenic Bacteria ??????? ?????????1*, ????? ????????1, ???? ?????????1 , ???? ?????1, ????????? ?????????2 ??? ????? ??????????1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingmanee Tragoolpua; Matcha Porn-in; Ranu Yucharoen; Narumol Thongwai

    Crude extracts of Eugenia caryophyllus Bullocks & Harrison and Acorus calamus Linn. at concentrations of 3.3% and 33%. were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in this study. Using paper disc diffusion method, Eugenia caryophyllus Bullocks & Harrison extract at 33% could inhibit all strains better than 3.3%. Inhibition of the extract on MRSA

  1. Post-Coital Antifertility Activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. roots

    PubMed Central

    Vasudeva, Neeru

    2008-01-01

    Ancient literature mentions the use of a number of plants/preparations for fertility regulation. Some local contraceptive agents have also been described in Ayurvedic and Unani texts. Documented experiments or clinical data are, however, lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the antifertility and estrogenic activity of ethanolic extract of the roots of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. A strong anti-implantation (inhibition 100%) and uterotropic activity was observed at the dose level of 400?mg/kg body weight. Histological studies were carried out to confirm this effect. PMID:18317554

  2. Note: A new biologically active flavonol glycoside from Psoralea corylifolia (Linn.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. N. Yadava; Vikash Verma

    2005-01-01

    A new biologically active flavonol glycoside (1) mp 264–265°C, C32H38O20, [M] 742 (EIMS) has been isolated from the methanol-soluble fraction of the defatted seeds of Psoralea corylifolia (Linn.). It was characterised as the new flavonol glycoside 3,5,3?,4?-tetrahydroxy-7-methoxyflavone-3?-O-?-l-xylopyranosyl(1?3)-O-?-l-arabinopyranosyl(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside by several colour reactions, spectral analysis and chemical degradations. Compound 1 showed anti-microbial activity against various bacteria and fungi.

  3. A comparative study on growth pattern of Langali (Gloriosa superba Linn.) under wild and cultivated conditions

    PubMed Central

    Asha, K. V.; Rajashekhara, N.; Chauhan, M.G.; Ravishankar, B.; Sharma, P. P.

    2010-01-01

    Langali (Gloriosa superba Linn.), obtained from wild habitat and by experimental cultivation under three groups, viz., control, cultivated as per the modern agricultural guidelines and as per the norms of Vriksha-ayurveda was compared and analyzed. Methods of Vriksha-ayurveda give good result in the case of Langali in terms of yield. Failure of control groups both in seed and tuber batches denotes that this plant needs some treatment for vegetative propagation under artificial conditions. Ayurveda group may be considered as a better one in the assessment of reproduction capacity in terms of yield of seeds. PMID:22131723

  4. A new biologically active flavone glycoside from the seeds of Cassia fistula (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Yadava, R N; Verma, Vikash

    2003-03-01

    A new bioactive flavone glycoside 1 [mp 252-254 degrees C, C28H32O16, [M]+ 624 (EIMS)] was isolated from the acetone soluble fraction of the defatted seeds of Cassia fistula (Linn.). It was characterized as a new bioactive flavone glycoside 5,3',4'-tri-hydroxy-6-methoxy-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside by several colour reactions, spectral analysis and chemical degradations. Compound 1 showed anti-microbial activity. PMID:12608640

  5. Antioxidant activity of Cassia fistula (Linn.) flowers in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Manonmani, G; Bhavapriya, V; Kalpana, S; Govindasamy, S; Apparanantham, T

    2005-02-10

    Aqueous extract of Cassia fistula (Linn.) flowers (ACF) was screened for its antioxidant effect in alloxan induced diabetic rats. An appreciable decrease in peroxidation products viz thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, conjugated dienes, hydroperoxides was observed in heart tissues of ACF treated diabetic rats. The decreased activities of key antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione in diabetic rats were brought back to near normal range upon ACF treatment. These results suggest that ACF has got promising antioxidative activity in alloxan diabetic rats. PMID:15652272

  6. Antispasmodic activity of the tertiary base of Daucus carota, Linn. seeds.

    PubMed

    Gambhir, S S; Sen, S P; Sanyal, A K; Das, P K

    1979-01-01

    A nitrogen containing base responding to Mayer's test and Dragendorff's reagent for tertiary bases has been isolated from the seeds of Daucus carota Linn. The effects of the base as its bromide have been studied on smooth muscles of ileum, uterus, blood vessels and trachea of different species of animals. The tertiary base has been found to have papaverine like nonspecific smooth muscle relaxant and spasmolytic activity, but its activity was found to be about one-tenth of that of papaverine. PMID:521127

  7. A new labdane-type diterpene from the bark of Juniperus chinensis Linn.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-I; Chen, Wen-Ching; Shao, Yi-Yuan; Yeh, Guey-Ru; Yang, Ning-Sun; Chiang, Wenchang; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung

    2008-01-01

    From the bark of Juniperus chinensis Linn., a new labdane-type diterpene, methyl 14,15-dihydroxy-8(17),12E-labdadien-19-oate (1a), together with nine known compounds, trans-communic acid, cis-communic acid, 15,16-bisnor-13-oxo-8(17),11E-labdadien-19-oic acid, sandaracopimaric acid, 7-oxosandaracopimaric acid, sugiol, 7-oxototarol, alpha-cedrol and beta-sitosteryl-1-O-beta-glucopyranoside were isolated. The structures of those compounds were elucidated based on spectral analysis and chemical evidences. PMID:18855216

  8. Urease inhibitory activity of ursane type sulfated saponins from the aerial parts of Zygophyllum fabago Linn.

    PubMed

    Khan, Saleha Suleman; Khan, Ajmal; Khan, Afsar; Wadood, Abdul; Farooq, Umar; Ahmed, Amir; Zahoor, Aqib; Ahmad, Viqar Uddin; Sener, Bilge; Erdemoglu, Nurgun

    2014-02-15

    Five ursane type sulfated saponins have been isolated from the aerial parts of Zygophyllum fabago Linn. (locally called Chashum). The urease inhibitory effects of these compounds have been investigated for the first time as well as their molecular docking studies have also been carried out to check the structure-activity relationship. The IC50 values of these compounds could not be found due to paucity of the samples. The molecular docking studies were performed only for the most active compound mono sodium salt of 3?,23-di-O-sulfonyl-23-hydroxyurs-20(21)-en-28-oic acid 28-O-[?-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (Zygofaboside A; 1). PMID:24182987

  9. Antioxidant activity measured in different solvent fractions obtained from Mentha spicata Linn.: An analysis by ABTS .+ decolorization assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ponnan Arumugam; Perumal Ramamurthy; Sathiyavedu Thyagarajan Santhiya; Arabandi Ramesh

    Antioxidant compounds are abundantly available in plants and play an important role in scavenging free ra- dicals, thus providing protection to humans against oxidative DNA damage. Mentha spicata Linn ., commonly called spearmint, belongs to the family lamiaceae. It was selected in the present study because Menth a extracts have antioxidant properties due to the presence of eugenol, caffeic acid,

  10. Lipid lowering activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) in hyperlipidaemic models of Wistar albino rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Vijaya; M Ramanathan; B Suresh

    Lipid lowering effect of 50% ethanolic extract of the leaves of A. marmelos (Linn.) was evaluated in triton and diet induced hyperlipidaemic models of Wistar albino rats. The extract at 125 and 250 mg\\/kg dose levels inhibited the elevation in serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels on Triton WR 1339 administration in rats. The extract at the same dose levels significantly

  11. Local management practices influence the viability of the baobab ( Adansonia digitata Linn.) in different land use types, Cinzana, Mali

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shivcharn S Dhillion; Gunnar Gustad

    2004-01-01

    In west Africa, the alarming rate of land use intensification and the assumed deterioration of parkland species calls for assessments of locally valued non-timber forest product (NTFP) yielding populations. This study focused on the baobab tree, Adansonia digitata Linn., in Cinzana, Mali. Here by conducting biological inventories in different land use types and interviews we addressed the following central questions.

  12. CORROSION INHIBITION OF CARBON STEEL IN LOW CHLORIDE MEDIA BY AN AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS LINN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Anuradha; R. Vimala; B. Narayanasamy; J. Arockia Selvi; Susai Rajendran

    2007-01-01

    The inhibition efficiency (IE) of an aqueous extract of white flower, namely, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn., in controlling corrosion of carbon steel immersed in an aqueous solution containing 60 ppm of Clhas been evaluated by the mass loss method. The flower extract (FE) shows good IE. In the presence of Zn, excellent IE is shown by the flower extract. A synergistic effect

  13. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of wild bitter melon ( Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser.) in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shu-Jing Wu; Lean-Teik Ng

    2008-01-01

    Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser. (Cucurbitaceae), also known as “Shan Ku Gua”, is a wild variety of bitter melon (BM) in Taiwan. The size of its fruits is only about one-fifth of the commonly seen BM. It is commonly consumed as vegetable and also used as a popular folk medicine. In this study, the antioxidant and free radical scavenging

  14. Anxiolytic activity of Nymphaea alba Linn. in mice as experimental models of anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Thippeswamy, B.S.; Mishra, Brijesh; Veerapur, V.P.; Gupta, Gourav

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present work was to evaluate the anxiolytic effect of an ethanolic extract of Nymphaea alba Linn. in mice. Materials and Methods: The elevated plus maze test (EPMT), light and dark test (L and DT) and open field test (OFT) were used to assess the anxiolytic activity of the ethanolic extract of N. alba Linn. in mice. In addition, aggressive behavior and motor coordination was also assessed by foot shock induced aggression test (FSIAT) and rota rod test (RRT). Diazepam 1 mg/kg served as a standard anxiolytic drug, administered orally. Results: The ethanolic extract of N. alba (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased the percentage of time spent and number of entries in open arm in EPMT. In L and DT, the extract produced significant increase in time spent, number of crossing and decrease in the duration of immobility in light box. In OFT, the extract showed significant increase in number of rearings, assisted rearings and number of square crossed, all of which are demonstrations of exploratory behavior. In FSIAT, N. alba extract attenuated aggressive behavior related to anxiolytic activity, such as number of vocalization, leaps, rearing, biting/attacks and facing each other in paired mice. Furthermore, the extract produced skeletal muscle relaxant effect assessed by RRT. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that an ethanolic extract of N. alba may possess anxiolytic activity and provide a scientific evidence for its traditional claim. PMID:21455422

  15. Ficus hispida Linn.: A review of its pharmacognostic and ethnomedicinal properties

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammad; Chaudhary, Nisha

    2011-01-01

    Ficus hispida (FH) Linn. is a moderate sized tree found throughout the year and is grown wild or cultivated for its edible fruits and folklore value. Traditionally, different parts of the plant have been used in the treatment of ulcers, psoriasis, anemia, piles jaundice, vitiligo, hemorrhage, diabetes, convulsion, hepatitis, dysentery, biliousness, and as lactagogue and purgative. FH contains wide varieties of bioactives from different phytochemical groups like alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids, sterols, phenols, flavonoids, gums and mucilage, glycosides, saponins, and terpenes. Various scientific works have been published to establish the scientific basis of traditional medicinal values attributed to FH. Furthermore, newer pharmacological activities like antineoplastic, cardioprotective, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects were also reported recently. Till now, no work has been published to elaborate the pharmacognostic features of FH Linn. The present review is, therefore, an effort to give a detailed account on its pharmacognosy and phytochemistry, and an extensive survey on its pharmacological activities. Moreover, we are trying to establish the mechanism of action behind its earlier reported pharmacology. The review also looks at the future formulation based delivery approaches of its lipophilic bioactives, which is done to enhance its dissolution so as to increase its bioavailability, and thus the associated pharmacological action. PMID:22096323

  16. Chemical composition and resistance-modifying effect of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Erlânio O.; Silva, Natálya F.; Rodrigues, Fabiola F. G.; Campos, Adriana R.; Lima, Sidney G.; Costa, José Galberto M.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the chemical constituents, antibacterial and modulatory activities of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn were studied. The essential oil was extracted from the leaves of L. camara by hydrodistillation method using Clevenger's apparatus and its chemical constituents were separated and identified by GC-MS, and the relative content of each constituent was determined by area normalization. Among the 25 identified components, bicyclogermacrene (19.42%), isocaryophyllene (16.70%), valecene (12.94%) and germacrene D (12.34%) were the main constituents. The oil was examined to antibacterial and modulatory activities against the multiresistant strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by microdilution test. The results show an inhibitory activity to E. coli (MIC 512 ?g/ml) and S. aureus (MIC 256 ?g/ml). The synergism of the essential oil and aminoglycosides was verified too, with significant reduction of MICs (7 ×, 1250-5 ?g/ml) against E. coli. It is suggested that the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn could be used as a source of plant-derived natural products with resistance-modifying activity. PMID:20668570

  17. Paederia foetida Linn. leaf extract: an antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The primary objective of the present investigation is to evaluate the antidiabetic, antihyperlidemic and antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of the Paederia foetida Linn. (PF) leaf extract in the streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods Single intraperitoneal injection (IP) of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight) was used for induction of diabetes is swiss albino (wistar strain) rats. The induction of diabetes was confirmed after 3 days as noticing the increase in blood sugar level of tested rats. PF at a once a daily dose of 100 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, p.o. along with glibenclamide 10 mg/kg, p.o. was also given for 28 days. On the 28th day rats from all the groups fasted overnight fasted and the blood was collected from the puncturing the retro orbit of the eye under mild anesthetic condition. There collected blood sample was used to determine the antihyperlipidemic, hypoglycemic and antioxidant parameters. Results The oral acute toxicity studies did not show any toxic effect till the dose at 2000 mg/kg. While oral glucose tolerance test showed better glucose tolerance in tested rats. The statistical data indicated that the different dose of the PF significantly increased the body weight, hexokinase, plasma insulin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxides. It also decreases the level of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, malonaldehyde, glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-1-6-biphosphate and glycated hemoglobin in STZ induced diabetic rats. The histopathology of STZ induce diabetic rats, as expected the test dose of PF extract considerably modulates the pathological condition of various vital organ viz. heart, kidney, liver, pancreas as shown in the histopathology examinations. Conclusions Our investigation has clearly indicated that the leaf extract of Paederia foetida Linn. showed remarkable antihyperglycemic activity due to its possible systematic effect involving in the pancreatic and extra pancreatic mechanism. Forever, the antihyperlipidemic activity was exerted possible by lowering the higher level of lipid profile and decreasing the intercalated disc space in the heart. The antioxidant activity of extract was due to inhibition of lipid peroxidation and increasing the SOD, GPx and CAT. It was corroborate that the extract shown the Paederia foetida Linn leaves potential to be act as antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant properties. PMID:24564866

  18. Phytochemical evaluation of the wild and cultivated varieties of Eranda Mula (Roots of Ricinus communis Linn.)

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Krunal A.; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, V. J.; Kalyani, Renuka; Khanpara, Komal

    2013-01-01

    In Ayurveda, the roots of Eranda (Ricinus communis Linn.) are used in the treatment Amavata (rheumatism), Sotha (inflammation), Katisula (backache), Udararoga (disease of abdomen), Jwara (fever), etc, Due to high demand, root of the cultivated variety is mainly used in place of wild. But, a comparative phytochemical profile of both varieties is not available till date. Considering this, a preliminary study has been done to ensure basic phytochemical profile of both the varieties. Preliminary physicochemical parameters, phytochemical screening, quantitative estimation of alkaloid, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), and heavy metal analysis were carried-out in the study. Analysis of physicochemical data reveals no significant difference in between both varieties of roots, while alkaloid was found to be more in cultivated variety (0.34%) than wild one (0.15%). Though, the analytical profiles are almost identical, except the quantity of alkaloid; inferences should be made through well designed pharmacological and clinical studies. PMID:24250131

  19. Hyperascyrones A-H, polyprenylated spirocyclic acylphloroglucinol derivatives from Hypericum ascyron Linn.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hucheng; Chen, Chunmei; Liu, Junjun; Sun, Bin; Wei, Guangzheng; Li, Yan; Zhang, Jinwen; Yao, Guangmin; Luo, Zengwei; Xue, Yongbo; Zhang, Yonghui

    2015-07-01

    Eight polyprenylated spirocyclic acylphloroglucinol derivatives (PSAPs), hyperascyrones A-H, were isolated from the aerial parts of Hypericum ascyron Linn., together with six known analogs. Their structures were established by spectroscopic analyses including HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR, and their absolute configurations were determined by electronic circular dichroism calculations (ECD, Gaussian 09). Structures of previously reported tomoeones C, D, G, and H were revised. Hyperascyrones A-H were evaluated for their cytotoxic and anti-HIV-1 activities, with hyperascyrones C and G exhibiting significant cytotoxicities against HL-60 cell lines with IC50 values of 4.22 and 8.36?M, respectively. In addition, the chemotaxonomic significance of these compounds was also discussed. PMID:25800107

  20. Anti-inflammatory effect of Chandrashura (Lepidium sativum Linn.) an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Raval, Nita D; Ravishankar, B; Ashok, B K

    2013-07-01

    Lepidium sativum Linn. (Chandrashura) of Family Cruciferae (Brassicaceae) is being used by the people of Gujarat for treating inflammatory condition like arthritis. To evaluate its anti-inflammatory activity, Charles Foster albino rats were selected and experiments were carried out in three groups, therapeutic dose group, twice of therapeutic dose group and control group. In Carrageenan-induced paw oedema, the test drug produced moderate anti-inflammatory activity; however, the effect did not show statistically significant activity due to variation in the data of the control group. In formaldehyde-induced paw oedema in rats, the test drug produced moderate to significant suppression. This indicates that Chandrashura has a strong inhibitory effect on proliferation of fibroblasts and also probably has connective tissue modulation effect. PMID:24501528

  1. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory potential of Pavetta indica Linn. leaf extract (family: Rubiaceae) in rats.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Subhash C; Mohana Lakshmi, S; Ashok Kumar, C K; Sur, Tapas K; Boominathan, R

    2003-08-01

    The anti-inflammatory potential of methanol extract of Pavetta indica Linn. leaves (Family: Rubiaceae) was evaluated against several models of inflammation such as carragenin, histamine and dextran induced pedal inflammation in rats. The extract showed 48.41%, 41.10% and 24.22% inhibition respectively; when compared to that of control animals. The effect was comparable with that of the standard drug indomethacin, a standard non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Simultaneous subplantar administration of the extract and carrageenin in a mixture helps in differentiating true anti-inflammatory action from an apparent anti-inflammatory effect due to counter-irritant activity. The methanol extract also effectively and significantly reduced cotton pellet induced granuloma. The percentage of inhibition was 62.78 at the dose 500 mg/kg, thereby suggesting its activity in the proliferative phase of the inflammatory process. PMID:12916086

  2. Annona reticulata Linn. (Bullock's heart): Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties

    PubMed Central

    Jamkhande, Prasad G.; Wattamwar, Amruta S.

    2015-01-01

    From the beginning of human civilization plants and plant based chemicals are the most important sources of medicines. Phytochemical and different products obtained from plant are used as medicines, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food supplements. Annona reticulata Linn. (??? niú x?n gu?; Bullock's heart) is a versatile tree and its fruits are edible. Parts of A. reticulata are used as source of medicine and also for industrial products. It possesses several medicinal properties such as anthelmintic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, wound healing and cytotoxic effects. It is widely distributed with phytochemicals like tannins, alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, flavonoids and steroids. Present article is an attempt to highlight over taxonomy, morphology, geographical distribution, phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities of A. reticulata reported so far. PMID:26151026

  3. Chemistry and hepatoprotective activity of an active fraction from Barleria prionitis Linn. in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Singh, B; Chandan, B K; Prabhakar, A; Taneja, S C; Singh, J; Qazi, G N

    2005-05-01

    Iridoid enriched fraction IF from the ethanol-water extract of aerial parts (leaves and stems) of Barleria prionitis Linn. was evaluated for hepatoprotective activity in various acute and chronic animal test models of hepatotoxicity. It afforded significant hepatoprotection against carbon tetrachloride, galactosamine and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity. Silymarin, was used as reference hepatoprotective. In the safety evaluation study the oral LD50 was found to be more than 3000 mg/kg, with no signs of abnormalities or any mortality observed for 15 days period under observation after single dose of drug administration whereas intraperitoneal LD50 was found to be 2530 mg/kg+/-87 mg/kg. SE (n=10) in mice. The studies revealed significant and concentration dependent hepatoprotective potential of 'IF' as it reversed the majority of the altered hepatic parameters in experimental liver damage in rodents. PMID:16106393

  4. Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.): A review

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nirmal; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Plants are used as medicine since ancient time, in organized (Ayurveda, Unani & Siddha) and unorganized (folk, native & tribal) form. In these systems, drugs are described either in Sanskrit or vernacular languages. Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.) is a medicinal plant which is used in several diseases. It is commonly known as Marodphali, Marorphali, Enthani etc. due to screw like appearance of its fruit. Avartani is used as a folk medicine to treat snake bite, diarrhoea and constipation of new born baby. In the research, antioxidant, hypolipidaemic, antibacterial and antiplasmid activities, cardiac antioxidant, antiperoxidative potency, brain-antioxidation potency, anticancer activity, antinociceptive activity, hepatoprotective activity, anti-diarrheal activity and wormicidal activity in this plant were reviewed. PMID:25183085

  5. Biological activities of fructooligosaccharide (FOS)-containing Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. extract.

    PubMed

    Manosroi, Jiradej; Khositsuntiwong, Narinthorn; Manosroi, Aranya

    2014-02-01

    Fructooligosaccharide (FOS), a prebiotic was extracted from the grain of Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. (Job's tears) by hot water extraction at 60 °C for 1 h. The resulting dried powder extract was assayed for FOS content of 1-kestose (GF2), nystose (GF3) and 1-?-D-fructofuranosylnystose (GF4) using HPLC equipped with RI detector. Total FOS content of the extract was 24.98?±?7.48% (g/100 g crude extract). The biological activity including antioxidant and cytotoxicity of the FOS-containing extract was determined. The antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical scavenging of FOS-containing extract was comparable to vitamin C (0.97 fold of vitamin C) with a slight lipid peroxidation inhibition activity. The extract exhibited no cytotoxic effect on normal human skin fibroblast. These results have confirmed not only the source of FOS from Job's tears extract but also its potential application as antioxidant in food or cosmetic products. PMID:24493893

  6. Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.): A review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nirmal; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Plants are used as medicine since ancient time, in organized (Ayurveda, Unani & Siddha) and unorganized (folk, native & tribal) form. In these systems, drugs are described either in Sanskrit or vernacular languages. Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.) is a medicinal plant which is used in several diseases. It is commonly known as Marodphali, Marorphali, Enthani etc. due to screw like appearance of its fruit. Avartani is used as a folk medicine to treat snake bite, diarrhoea and constipation of new born baby. In the research, antioxidant, hypolipidaemic, antibacterial and antiplasmid activities, cardiac antioxidant, antiperoxidative potency, brain-antioxidation potency, anticancer activity, antinociceptive activity, hepatoprotective activity, anti-diarrheal activity and wormicidal activity in this plant were reviewed. PMID:25183085

  7. Studies on the activity of Cyperus rotundus Linn. tubers against infectious diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Daswani, Poonam G.; Brijesh, S.; Tetali, Pundarikakshudu; Birdi, Tannaz J.

    2011-01-01

    To study the antidiarrheal activity of the decoction of Cyperus rotundus Linn. tubers using representative assays of diarrheal pathogenesis and understand its mechanism of action.Antibacterial, antigiardial and antirotaviral activities were studied. Effect on adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and invasion of enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and Shigella flexneri to HEp-2 cells was evaluated as a measure of effect on colonization. Effect on enterotoxins such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) heat labile toxin (LT), heat stable toxin (ST) and cholera toxin (CT) was also assessed. The decoction showed antigiardial activity, reduced bacterial adherence to and invasion of HEp-2 cells and affected production of CT and action of LT. The decoction of C. rotundus does not have marked antimicrobial activity and exerts its antidiarrheal action by mechanisms other than direct killing of the pathogen. PMID:21713044

  8. Antioxidative responses of Salvinia (Salvinia natans Linn.) to aluminium stress and it's modulation by polyamine.

    PubMed

    Mandal, C; Ghosh, N; Maiti, Saborni; Das, K; Gupta, Sudha; Dey, N; Adak, M K

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidative stress response of free-floating aquatic fern (Salvinia natans Linn.) was studied under increasing toxic amount of aluminium (Al) and its modulation by exogenous application of polymaine. Increased levels of superoxide (O2 (-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) species from affected tissues suggested that plants were undergoing oxidative stress and it was concominant with increased accumulation of Al in a dose dependent manner. Application of polyamine like putrescine (Put) led to a decrease in oxidative stress as revealed by reduced level of O2 (-) and H2O2. Al toxicity resulted into decreased biomass that was ameliorated by the application of Put. The changes observed in lipid peroxidation (MDA) and protein oxidation also indicated that plats are undergoing Al induced oxidative stress. In order to circumvent the oxidative stress resulting from Al toxicity, plants enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant pathways were active. The ratio of both oxidized and reduced cellular glutathione exhibited significant variation in response to Al stress and was improved upon Put treatment. Peroxidase and glutathione were upregulated whereas catalse was downregulated under varying doses of Al. Isozyme profile of above enzymes also showed a trend with increasing amount of Al. The nuclear disintegration study using comet assay was indicative of Al induced oxidative stress. In the present study, we have explored the antioxidative response of aquatic fern Salvinia natans Linn in response to Al toxicity. The application of polyamine Put improved the overall antioxidative response and thus would make it a better candidate to be used as hyper accumulator of Al and other toxic metals. PMID:24381441

  9. Anti-anxiety Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Different Parts of Angelica archangelica Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhat, Zulfiqar Ali

    2012-01-01

    Angelica archangelica Linn.is a herb distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Indian and Chinese system of medicine, it is used for nervous disorders and cerebral diseases. Previously the aqueous extract of the A. archangelica was evaluated for anxiolytic activity and was found to have significant potential for the same. The present study is aimed to evaluate the anxiolytic activity of methanol extract of root (MER), stem (MES), leaf (MEL), fruit (MEF) and whole plant (MEW) of Angelica archangelica Linn. All the extracts (MER, MES, MEL, MEF and MEW) were evaluated for anxiolytic effects using elevated plus maze test (EPM) model in rats. Methanol extracts of different parts of A.archangelica had increased number of entries and time spent in open arms while they decreased the number of entries and duration of time spent in closed arm of the EPM. In a similar fashion, the diazepam increased the percentage of time spent and percentage of arm entries in the open arms (*P <0.05, **P <0.01). Whole plant and the root had the maximum, leaf and fruits showed intermediate, while stem had the least anxiolytic activity (*P <0.05, **P <0.01) in EPM (Figure 1-5). The head dip count in DZ, SMR400, SML400, SMF400 and SMW400 in open arm are significantly shown in Table 1. The DZ, SMF400 and SMW did not show the fecal bolus while other groups were reduced the fecal bolus significantly (**P <0.01) as compared to control (Table 1). Whole plant and leaf showed the most, root and fruit the intermediate and stem the least anxiolytic activity (**P <0.01) in EPM. PMID:24716138

  10. A review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. (Vitaceae).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Jyoti; Arya, Renu; Gupta, Ankit

    2011-07-01

    Cayratia trifolia Linn. Domin Syn. Vitis trifolia (Family: Vitaceae) is commonly known as Fox grape in English; Amlabel, Ramchana in Hindi and Amlavetash in Sanskrit. It is native to India, Asia and Australia. It is a perennial climber having trifoliated leaves with 2-3 cm long petioles and ovate to oblong-ovate leaflets. Flowers are small greenish white and brown in color. Fruits are fleshy, juicy, dark purple or black, nearly spherical, about 1 cm in diameter. It is found throughout the hills in India. This perennial climber is also found in the hotter part of India from Jammu and Rajasthan to Assam extending into the peninusular India upto 600 m height. Whole plant of Cayratia trifolia has been reported to contain yellow waxy oil, steroids/terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins upon preliminary phytochemical screening. Leaves contain stilbenes (piceid, reveratrol, viniferin, ampelopsin). Stem, leaves, roots are reported to possess hydrocyanic acid, delphinidin and several flavonoids such as cyanidin is reported in the leaves. This plant also contains kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, triterpenes and epifriedelanol. Infusion of seeds along with extract of tubers is traditionally given orally to diabetic patients to check sugar level of blood. Paste of tuberous is applied on the affected part in the treatment of snake bite. Whole plant is used as diuretic, in tumors, neuralgia and splenopathy. Its climbers wrapped around the neck of frantic bullock and poultice of leaves are used to yoke sores of bullock. The bark extract shows the antiviral, antibacterial, antiprotozoal, hypoglycemic, anticancer and diuretic activity. This article focuses on the upgraded review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. and triggers further investigation on this plant. PMID:22279376

  11. Determination of polyphenols and free radical scavenging activity of Tephrosia purpurea linn leaves (Leguminosae)

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Avani; Patel, Amit; Patel, Amit; Patel, N. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Leaves of Tephrosia purpurea Linn. (sarpankh), belonging to the family Leguminaceae, are used for the treatment of jaundice and are also claimed to be effective in many other diseases. This research work was undertaken to investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaves. Method: The therapeutic effects of tannins and flavonoids can be largely attributed to their antioxidant properties. So, the quantitative determinations were undertaken. All the methods are based on UV-spectrophotometric determination. Result: The total phenolic content of aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed the content values of 9.44 ± 0.22% w/w and 18.44 ± 0.13% w/w, respectively, and total flavonoid estimation of aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed the content values of 0.91 ± 0.08% w/w and 1.56 ± 0.12%w/w, respectively, for quercetin and 1.85 ± 0.08% w/w and 2.54 ± 0.12% w/w, respectively, for rutin. Further investigations were carried out for in vitro antioxidant activity and radical scavenging activity by calculating its percentage inhibition by means of IC50values, all the extracts’ concentrations were adjusted to fall under the linearity range and here many reference standards like tannic acid, gallic acid, quercetin, ascorbic acid were taken for the method suitability. Conclusion: The results revealed that leaves of this plant have antioxidant potential. The results also show the ethanolic extract to be more potent than the aqueous decoction which is claimed traditionally. In conclusion, T. purpurea Linn. (Leguminosae) leaves possess the antioxidant substance which may be responsible for the treatment of jaundice and other oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:21808558

  12. Antiulcerogenic potential of Strychnos potatorum Linn seeds on aspirin plus pyloric ligation-induced ulcers in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Sanmugapriya, E; Venkataraman, S

    2007-05-01

    Strychnos potatorum (Fam: Loganiaceae) Linn seeds are useful in the treatment of gastropathy in Indian traditional system of medicine. The present study describes the antiulcerogenic potential of S. potatorum Linn seeds on aspirin plus pyloric ligation (Aspirin+PL)-induced gastric ulcer model to substantiate its folklore claim. The seed powder (SPP) and aqueous extract of the seeds (SPE) at two doses 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. prevented ulcer formation by decreasing acid secretory activity and increasing the mucin activity in rats. The antiulcerogenic potential was further confirmed by the histopathological studies of stomach mucosa. The results indicate that SPP and SPE exhibit antiulcerogenic activity by both antisecretory and mucoprotective actions. The mucoprotective action of SPP and SPE may be due to the presence of polysaccharides in seeds. The antiulcerogenic potential of SPP and SPE was compared with the standard antiulcer drug, ranitidine. PMID:17317130

  13. Hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa linne on liver injuries induced by chronic ethanol consumption and potentiated by carbon tetrachloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Song-Chow Lin; Chia-Hsien Lin; Chun-Ching Lin; Yun-Ho Lin; Chin-Fa Chen; I-Cheng Chen; Li-Ya Wang

    2002-01-01

    Arctium lappa Linne (burdock) is a perennial herb which is popularly cultivated as a vegetable. In order to evaluate its hepatoprotective effects, a group of rats (n=10) was fed a liquid ethanol diet (4 g of absolute ethanol\\/80 ml of liquid basal diet) for 28 days and another group (n=10) received a single intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 ml\\/kg carbon tetrachloride

  14. Monitoring of the active layer at Kapp Linne', SVALBARD 1972-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerman, J.

    2003-04-01

    The active layer has been monitored at ten sites in the vicinity of Kapp Linné, (78o03'42" 13o37'07") Svalbard during the period 1972 - 2002. The ten sites differ in elevation, distance from the sea, vegetation cover, substrate and active periglacial processes. From 1994 the International permafrost Association "CALM" standard grids, with measurement within 100x100m squares, has been applied. Microclimate and soil temperatures have been monitored by data logger covering levels form 2 m above to 7m below the ground. The macroclimate is covered by complete data series from the nearby weather station at Kapp Linne’, covering the period 1912 to 2002. A number of periglacial processes, especially slope processes, are monitored parallel with the active layer. The mean active layer for the sites varies between 1,13m and 0,43m. The deepest active layer is found in the exposed, well drained raised beach ridges and the shallowest in the bogs. The interannual variability during the observation period do not correlate well with the MAAT but better with the summer climate, June - August mean or DDT. The data clearly illustrate colder summers during the period 1972 to 1983 and after that steadily increasing summer temperatures. The active layer follows the same general pattern with good correlations. There are several surface indications as a response to the deepening active layer especially in the bogs. Thermokarst scars appear frequently and a majority of the palsa like mounds and pounus have disappeared. A drastic change in the vegetation on the bogs has also occurred, from dry heath to wet Carex vegetation. In summary the observations from Kapp Linne’ are; 1. A clear trend towards milder summers, 2. A clear trend towards deeper active layers, 3. All sites show a similar pattern, 4. The bogs are getting strikingly wetter, 5. Mounds in the bog sites are disappearing, 6. The slow slope processes are getting accelerated, 7. Thermokarst depressions and scars are appearing in a small scale at all sites, 8. Soil temperatures are increasing at all levels down to 7 m.

  15. Mint oil (Mentha spicata Linn.) offers behavioral radioprotection: a radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion study.

    PubMed

    Haksar, A; Sharma, A; Chawla, R; Kumar, Raj; Lahiri, S S; Islam, F; Arora, M P; Sharma, R K; Tripathi, R P; Arora, Rajesh

    2009-02-01

    Mentha spicata Linn. (mint), a herb well known for its gastroprotective properties in the traditional system of medicine has been shown to protect against radiation-induced lethality, and recently its constituents have been found to possess calcium channel antagonizing properties. The present study examined the behavioral radioprotective efficacy of mint oil (obtained from Mentha spicata), particularly in mitigating radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA), which has been proposed as a behavioral endpoint that is mediated by the toxic effects of gamma radiation on peripheral systems, primarily the gastrointestinal system in the Sprague-Dawley rat model. Intraperitoneal administration of Mentha spicata oil 10% (v/v), 1 h before 2 Gy gamma radiation, was found to render significant radioprotection against CTA (p < 0.05), by blocking the saccharin avoidance response within 5 post-treatment observational days, with the highest saccharin intake being observed on day 5. This finding clearly demonstrates that gastroprotective and calcium channel antagonizing properties of Mentha spicata can be effectively utilized in preventing radiation-induced behavioral changes. PMID:18853399

  16. Study on the diuretic activity of Strychnos potatorum Linn. seed extract in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Biswas, S; Murugesan, T; Maiti, K; Ghosh, L; Pal, M; Saha, B P

    2001-11-01

    Methanol extract of Strychnos potatorum Linn. seeds (SPSE) was evaluated for its diuretic activity in Wistar albino rats. The SPSE was administered at the graded doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg body weight. The parameters which were taken into account during the experimental on each rat were: total urine volume (corrected for water intake during the test period), body weight before and after the experiment, and the concentration of sodium, potassium, and chloride ions in urine. The total urine volumes of the SPSE (600 mg/kg)-treated rats were evaluated nearly two and half fold then compared with the control (saline treated) group. Excretion of cations (sodium and potassium ions) and anions (chloride ions) also increased significantly with respect to the control group. The diuretic effect was comparable with that of the standard drug Furosemide. The increase of cations in the urine on treatment with Strychnospotatorum seed extract (SPSE) was dose-dependent. This effect supports the use of the Strychnos potatorum seeds as a diuretic in folk remedies. PMID:11824523

  17. Protective Effect of Thunbergia laurifolia (Linn.) on Lead Induced Acetylcholinesterase Dysfunction and Cognitive Impairment in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Phyu, Moe Pwint; Tangpong, Jitbanjong

    2013-01-01

    Thunbergia laurifolia (linn., TL), a natural phenolic compound, has been reported to have many benefits and medicinal properties. The current study ascertains the total phenolic content present in TL aqueous leaf extract and also examines the antioxidant ability of the extract in preserving acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of mice exposed to lead in vivo and in vitro model. Mice were given lead acetate (Pb) in drinking water (1?g/L) together with TL 100 and 200?mg/kg/day. The result showed that Pb induced AChE dysfunction in both in vitro and in vivo studies. TL significantly prevented Pb induced neurotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner which was indicated by comparatively better performance of TL treated mice in Morris Water Maze Swimming Test and increased AChE activity in the tissue sample collected from the brains of these mice. TL also exhibited the greatest amount of phenolic content, which has a significant positive correlation with its antioxidant capacity (P < 0.05). Taken together, these data suggested that the total phenolic compounds in TL could exhibit antioxidant and in part neuroprotective properties. It may play a potential treatment strategy for Pb contamination. PMID:24455676

  18. Nephroprotective effect of Bauhinia variegata (Linn.) whole stem extract against cisplatin-induced nephropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Pani, Saumya R; Mishra, Satyaranjan; Sahoo, Sabuj; Panda, Prasana K

    2011-04-01

    The nephroprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata (Linn.) whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy was investigated by an in vivo method in rats. Acute nephrotoxicity was induced by i.p. injection of cisplatin (7 mg/kg of body weight (b.w.)). Administration of ethanol extract at dose levels of 400 and 200 mg/kg (b.w.) to cisplatin-intoxicated rats for 14 days attenuated the biochemical and histological signs of nephrotoxicity of cisplatin in a dose-dependent fashion. Ethanol extract at 400 mg/kg decreased the serum level of creatinine (0.65 ± 0.09; P<0.001) and urea (32.86 ± 5.88; P<0.001) associated with a significant increase in body weight (7.16 ± 1.10; P<0.001) and urine volume output (11.95 ± 0.79; P<0.05) as compared to the toxic control group. The ethanol extract of B. variegata at 400 mg/kg (b.w.) exhibited significant and comparable nephroprotective potential to that of the standard polyherbal drug cystone. The statistically (one-way-ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison) processed results suggested the protective action of B. variegate whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy. PMID:21572659

  19. Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Tulsi): an ethnomedicinal plant for the prevention and treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Piyali; Bishayee, Anupam

    2013-08-01

    Ocimum sanctum Linn., commonly known as 'Tulsi' or 'Holy Basil', is considered to be the most sacred herb of India. Several anatomical parts of O. sanctum are known to have an impressive number of therapeutic properties and accordingly find use in several traditional systems of medicine, such as Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha. Scientific investigations have shown that O. sanctum has a plethora of biological and pharmacological activities. The presence of an impressive number of phytoconstituents in O. sanctum could explain its exceptional beneficial effects. Although several recent articles provide an overview of the various pharmacological properties of O. sanctum, the use of this herb for either prevention or therapy of oncologic diseases has not been exclusively and critically discussed in the literature. The present review critically and comprehensively examines the current knowledge on the chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of O. sanctum. The review also examines, in detail, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the antineoplastic effects of O. sanctum. Finally, we discuss the role of synergy, current limitations, and future directions of research toward the effective use of this ethnomedicinal plant for the prevention and treatment of human cancer. PMID:23629478

  20. Toxicological Study of Ocimum sanctum Linn Leaves: Hematological, Biochemical, and Histopathological Studies.

    PubMed

    Gautam, M K; Goel, R K

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to study the acute and subacute toxicity studies with orally administered 50% ethanolic leaves extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn (OSE). In acute toxicity tests, four groups of mice (n = 6/group/sex) were orally treated with doses of 200, 600, and 2000?mg/kg, and general behavior, adverse effects, and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days. In subacute toxicity study, rats received OSE by gavage at the doses of 200, 400, and 800?mg/kg/day (n = 6/group/sex) for 28 days, and biochemical, hematological, and histopathological changes in tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and testis/ovary) were determined. OSE did not produce any hazardous symptoms or death and CNS and ANS toxicities in the acute toxicity test. Subacute treatment with OSE did not show any change in body weight, food and water consumption, and hematological and biochemical profiles. In addition, no change was observed both in macroscopic and microscopic aspects of vital organs in rats. Our result showed that Ocimum sanctum extract could be safe for human use. PMID:24616736

  1. Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaf extracts inhibit acetylcholinesterase and improve cognition in rats with experimentally induced dementia.

    PubMed

    Giridharan, Vijayasree Vayalanellore; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan Amirthalingam; Mani, Vasudevan; Ashok Dundapa, Taranalli; Watanabe, Kenichi; Konishi, Tetsuya

    2011-09-01

    Cognitive disorders such as dementia, attention deficits, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been well investigated. However, effective interventions for the promotion and progression of AD are unavailable to date. The present work was undertaken to investigate the effects of the aqueous (300 and 500 mg/kg) and alcoholic (300 and 500 mg/kg) extracts of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves as an antidementic and anticholinesterase agent and also as an immunostimulant in rats. Maximal electroshock, atropine, and cyclosporine were used to induce dementia. The passive avoidance task was used for assessing memory. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was estimated in different parts of the brain, and immune status was studied using dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) skin sensitivity tests. In all the three models both aqueous and alcoholic O. sanctum extracts decreased the time taken to reach the shock-free zone and the number of mistakes and significantly decreased the AChE activity in rats. O. sanctum treatment significantly increased the induration in the DNCB skin test. Therefore, O. sanctum was shown to be useful for the management of experimentally induced cognitive dysfunctions in rats. PMID:21812651

  2. Toxicological Study of Ocimum sanctum Linn Leaves: Hematological, Biochemical, and Histopathological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, M. K.; Goel, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to study the acute and subacute toxicity studies with orally administered 50% ethanolic leaves extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn (OSE). In acute toxicity tests, four groups of mice (n = 6/group/sex) were orally treated with doses of 200, 600, and 2000?mg/kg, and general behavior, adverse effects, and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days. In subacute toxicity study, rats received OSE by gavage at the doses of 200, 400, and 800?mg/kg/day (n = 6/group/sex) for 28 days, and biochemical, hematological, and histopathological changes in tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and testis/ovary) were determined. OSE did not produce any hazardous symptoms or death and CNS and ANS toxicities in the acute toxicity test. Subacute treatment with OSE did not show any change in body weight, food and water consumption, and hematological and biochemical profiles. In addition, no change was observed both in macroscopic and microscopic aspects of vital organs in rats. Our result showed that Ocimum sanctum extract could be safe for human use. PMID:24616736

  3. Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of methanolic leaf and root extracts of Clitoria ternatea Linn. in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kamilla, Linggam; Ramanathan, Surash; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Mansor, Sharif Mahsufi

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Clitoria ternatea Linn. (C. ternatea) is an Ayurvedic herb traditionally used as medicine to relieve inflammatory, rheumatism, ear diseases, fever, arthritis, eye ailments, sore throat and body ache. This study aims to evaluate and elucidate the possible mechanism underlying the antinociceptive action of methanolic extracts of C. ternatea leaf and root using several antinociception models. Materials and Methods: The different antinociception models such as hot plate, tail-flick and formalin tests were used along with naloxone (a non-selective opioid antagonist) to establish the antinociceptive activity of both leaf and root extracts. Results: Both C. ternatea leaf and root extracts markedly demonstrated antinociceptive action in experimental animals. Results of formalin test showed that the antinociceptive activity of the extracts may be mediated at both central and peripheral level. Moreover, the results of hot plate and tail-flick tests further implies that C. ternatea root extract mediates antinociceptive activity centrally at supraspinal and spinal levels whereas, the C. ternatea leaf extract's antinociceptive activity is mediated centrally at supraspinal level only. It is believed that the opioid receptors are probably involved in antinociceptive activity of both C. ternatea root extract. Conclusions: Our studies support the traditional use of C. ternatea leaf and root against pain. The extracts can also be utilised as a new source of central analgesics in treatment of pain. PMID:25298581

  4. Morinda citrifolia Linn leaf extract possesses antioxidant activities and reduces nociceptive behavior and leukocyte migration.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Mairim Russo; Santos, Rodrigo Correia; Guimarães, Adriana Gibara; Dos Santos, João Paulo Almeida; da Conceicão Santos, Alan Diego; Alves, Izabel Almeida; Gelain, Daniel Pens; de Lima Nogueira, Paulo Cesar; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; de Souza Araújo, Adriano Antunes

    2011-10-01

    Herbal drugs have been used since ancient times to treat a wide range of diseases. Morinda citrifolia Linn (popularly known as "Noni") has been used in folk medicine by Polynesians for over 2,000 years. It is reported to have a broad range of therapeutic effects, including effects against headache, fever, arthritis, gingivitis, respiratory disorders, infections, tuberculosis, and diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antibacterial properties of the aqueous extract from M. citrifolia leaves (AEMC). Antioxidant activity was observed against lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radicals. The antinociceptive effect of AEMC was observed in the acetic acid-induced writhing test at the higher dose. Moreover, AEMC significantly reduced the leukocyte migration in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg and showed mild antibacterial activity. Together, the results suggest that properties of M. citrifolia leaf extract should be explored further in order to achieve newer tools for managing painful and inflammation conditions, including those related to oxidant states. PMID:21548805

  5. Nephroprotective effect of Bauhinia variegata (Linn.) whole stem extract against cisplatin-induced nephropathy in rats

    PubMed Central

    Pani, Saumya R.; Mishra, Satyaranjan; Sahoo, Sabuj; Panda, Prasana K.

    2011-01-01

    The nephroprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata (Linn.) whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy was investigated by an in vivo method in rats. Acute nephrotoxicity was induced by i.p. injection of cisplatin (7 mg/kg of body weight (b.w.)). Administration of ethanol extract at dose levels of 400 and 200 mg/kg (b.w.) to cisplatin-intoxicated rats for 14 days attenuated the biochemical and histological signs of nephrotoxicity of cisplatin in a dose-dependent fashion. Ethanol extract at 400 mg/kg decreased the serum level of creatinine (0.65 ± 0.09; P<0.001) and urea (32.86 ± 5.88; P<0.001) associated with a significant increase in body weight (7.16 ± 1.10; P<0.001) and urine volume output (11.95 ± 0.79; P<0.05) as compared to the toxic control group. The ethanol extract of B. variegata at 400 mg/kg (b.w.) exhibited significant and comparable nephroprotective potential to that of the standard polyherbal drug cystone. The statistically (one-way-ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison) processed results suggested the protective action of B. variegate whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy. PMID:21572659

  6. Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses

    PubMed Central

    Adinortey, Michael Buenor; Galyuon, Isaac K.; Asamoah, Nicholas Oteng

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used by traditional practitioners to treat several ailments. Ethnomedicinal studies on Trema orientalis Linn. Blume (Ulmaceae) have shown that it is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, oliguria, and malaria. This article is aimed at providing comprehensive information on the medicinal uses, biology, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological data available on T. orientalis. This has been done to explore its therapeutic potential for future research opportunities. This review was compiled with information obtained from databases such as Medline, Elsevier, Springer, Science Direct, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Compounds present in the plant include tannins, saponins, flavanoids, triterpenes, phytosterols, and several constituents of xanthones. Some pharmacological research done on the plant has focused on, hypoglycemic activity, analgesic, anti-inflammatory activities, anti-plasmodial activity, diuretic activity, laxativity effect, anti-convulsant activity, anti-helmintic activity, anti-sickling effect, anti-oxidant, and anti-bacterial activity. This compilation strongly supports the view that T. orientalis has beneficial therapeutic properties, and indicates its potential as an effective herbal remedy for several diseases. The promising results from several research works could be further substantiated by clinical trials. PMID:23922459

  7. Cancer chemopreventive potential of luteolin-7-O-glucoside isolated from Ophiorrhiza mungos Linn.

    PubMed

    Baskar, Arul Albert; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Michael, Gabriel Paulraj; Al Numair, Khalid S

    2011-01-01

    The anticarcinogenic potential of the phytocompound Luteolin-7-O-Glucoside (LUT7G), isolated from the leaves of Ophiorrhiza mungos Linn, was studied against 4 different cancer cell lines (COLO 320 DM, AGS, MCF-7, and A549) and normal VERO cell line. The ability of LUT7G to induce apoptosis was determined by its antiradical activity, DNA fragmentation, expression of ?-catenin, and chemopreventive efficacy in vivo by administering rats with DMH (20 mg/kg b.w., s.c.) for 4 consecutive wk and supplementing with 3 different doses throughout the experimental period of 16 wk. LUT7G scavenged 80% of DPPH radicals generated in vitro at 1000 ?M and suppressed the expression of ?-catenin to 40% at 120 ?M concentrations. LUT7G induced apoptosis by scavenging ROS and suppressing the expression of ?-catenin in COLO 320 DM cells and effectively inhibited ACF development in DMH-induced experimental carcinogenesis. Hence LUT7G can be a potent anticancer drug for colon carcinogenesis. PMID:21161823

  8. Anti-inflammatory activity of 'TAF' an active fraction from the plant Barleria prionitis Linn.

    PubMed

    Singh, B; Bani, S; Gupta, D K; Chandan, B K; Kaul, A

    2003-04-01

    'TAF' fraction from the methanol-water extract of Barleria prionitis Linn. was evaluated for anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities against different acute and chronic animal test models. It exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity against different inflammagens like carrageenan, histamine and dextran. The anti-inflammatory activity in adrenalectomised rats was maintained showing that the effect of fraction 'TAF' is not activated by the pituitary-adrenal axis. Significant anti-arthritic activity was observed in adjuvant-induced polyarthritis test in rats. 'TAF' also showed inhibition of vascular permeability and leucocytes migration in vivo into the site of inflammatory insult.Ibuprofen (Cadilla India Ltd., Mumbai) was used as a standard reference drug. The oral (p.o.) LD(50) was more than 3000mg/kg, with no signs of abnormalities or any mortality observed for 15 days after single-dose drug administration. The intraperitoneal (i.p.) LD(50) was found to be 2530mg/kg (+/-87mg/kg S.E.) [Proceedings of Society of Experimental Biological Medicine 57 (1944) 261]. PMID:12639739

  9. Correct Identification of Passiflora incarnata Linn., a Promising Herbal Anxiolytic and Sedative.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Kamaldeep; Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Suresh; Sharma, Anupam

    2001-01-01

    Passiflora incarnata Linn. and Passiflora edulis Sims are the two important plants of the family Passifloraceae that have often been reported as synonymous because of their identical morphological and microscopic characteristics. P. incarnata is a popular sedative and anxiolytic, whereas, P. edulis is rarely reported to possess significant central nervous system depressant activity. P. edulis, as the name of the species reflects, is mainly grown for edible purposes. During a survey of literature on the genus Passiflora, it was noticed that in many references the two plants are mentioned synonymously. The designation by Sir William J. Hooker in 1843, followed by the citation of P. edulis as the synonym of P. incarnata in Index Kewensis of 1895, not only substantiated the controversial identity but also caused confusion to researchers. The prevailing confusion might have led to improper selection of the bioactive plant, thereby accounting for inconclusive and contradictory pharmacological reports on either of the two plants. In this work, we establish key identification parameters to differentiate P. incarnata from P. edulis. Various leaf constants such as vein-islet number, vein-termination number, stomatal number, and stomatal index are different for the two species. Physicochemical parameters such as ash values and extractive values and the thin layer chromatography profile of the petroleum ether extract of P. incarnata and P. edulis are also distinct and different. Various clinical uses of P. incarnata for anxiety and allied diseases are discussed. PMID:12639407

  10. Physical Stability and HPLC Analysis of Indian Kudzu (Pueraria tuberosa Linn.) Fortified Milk

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Subha; Katara, Antariksha; Pandey, Madan M.; Arora, Sumit; Singh, R. R. B.; Rawat, A. K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Functional foods provide health benefit beyond basic nutrition. Functional foods fortified with plant ingredients are well known. Ayurveda (Indian System of Medicine) has found several ways in which the medicinal benefits of herbs can be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one such carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals for targeted health benefits. Indian Kudzu or Pueraria tuberosa Linn. (Fabaceae) is an important medicinal plant of Ayurveda, and experiments suggest that it enhances the health benefits of milk when taken with milk as a carrier. Different milk combinations with P. tuberosa were prepared by homogenizing pasteurized toned milk with its ethanolic and hot water extracts and their stability with reference to pH and coagulation was studied over a period of 15 days. The combinations were also analyzed for puerarin, the major isoflavone C-glucoside present in P. tuberosa, through high-performance liquid chromatography using photo diode array detector. It was observed that there was no precipitate formation and the pH also did not change during the study period indicating their physical stability under the experimental conditions. Also there was no significant change in the content of puerarin during the study period, thereby indicating the chemical stability of the samples. These studies will be useful for developing milk nutraceuticals fortified with Indian Kudzu which has the potential to be included as an ingredient in health and functional foods. PMID:23690842

  11. Cholinesterase inhibition activity of Marsilea quadrifolia Linn. an edible leafy vegetable from West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Bhadra, Santanu; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Bandyopadhyay, A

    2012-01-01

    Maesilea quadrifolia Linn. (Marsileaceae) is a leafy vegetable well known in India. The current study aims to explore the phytochemical profile of M. quadrifolia and investigate its anti-cholinesterase potential. The methanol extract of the plant was subjected to qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening (total alkaloidal content, saponin content and phenol content) and its anti-cholinesterase potential was tested by TLC bioautography and other screening methods using acytylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The study revealed that the extract contains various classes of phytoconstituents including steroids, saponins, alkaloids and other polyphenols. Total alkaloid, phenolic and saponin contents were found to be 19.3?mg?g?¹ and 158.5?±?1.02?mg?g?¹ as gallic acid equivalents and 2.63?mg?g?¹ of the extract, respectively. The TLC bioautography method exhibited the inhibition of both enzymes. In a microtiter plate assay, the IC?? values of the extract for AChE and BChE were found to be 51.89?±?0.24?µg?mL?¹ and 109.43?±?2.82?µg?mL?¹, respectively. These findings suggest that M. quadrifolia is a potential lead as an AChE and BChE inhibitor, which may be useful in the management of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:21978132

  12. Determination of Proximate, Minerals, Vitamin and Anti-Nutrients Composition of Solanum verbascifolium Linn.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sam, S. M.; Udosen, I. R.; Mensah, S. I.

    2012-07-01

    The proximate, minerals, vitamins and anti-nutrients composition of Solanum verbascifolium Linn were determined. The proximate composition showed that moisture content was (85.5%), protein was (32.55%), lipid was (2.90%), ash was (7.20%), fibre was (4.80%), carbohydrate was (52.55%) and caloric value was (366.50%) respectively. This was found to be rich in protein and considerably high amount of carbohydrate. The anti-nutrient composition analysis revealed the presence of hydrocyanide (1.39mg/100g), Oxalate (114.40mg/100g), all of which are below toxic level except for oxalic acid. For mineral and vitamin compositions, potassium was significantly (P>0.05) higher than iron, sodium, calcium and phosphorus while vitamin A retinol was (371.72mg/100g) and vitamin C ascorbic acid (39.99mg/100g). Based on these findings the plant is recommended for consumption and for further investigation as a potential raw material for pharmaceutical industry.

  13. Anti-proliferative and antioxidative activities of Thai noni/Yor (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Thani, Wasina; Vallisuta, Omboon; Siripong, Pongpan; Ruangwises, Nongluck

    2010-03-01

    In this study the leaves of the Thai noni/Yor, (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) were extracted by several methods and evaluated against human cancer cell lines: KB (human epidermoid carcinoma), HeLa (human cervical carcinoma), MCF-7 (human breast carcinoma) and HepG2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma) cell lines as well as a Vero (African green monkey kidney) cell line, employing the MTT colorimetric method, comparing it to damnacanthal, rutin, and scopoletin. The dichloromethane extract of the fresh leaf showed a better inhibitory effect against KB and HeLa cells with IC50 values of 21.67 and 68.50 microg/ml, respectively. The dichloromethane extract of dried leaves revealed cytotoxicity against the KB cell line with an IC50 value of 39.00 microg/ml. Other extracts, as well as rutin and scopoletin, showed reduced anti-proliferative effects on all cancer cell lines (IC50 103 to over 600 microg/ml). Interestingly, the damnacanthal had potent cytotoxicity against all cancer cell lines and Vero cell lines. These results suggest Thai noni extracts may be safer than the pure compounds, due to their higher safety ratios, which is a good indicator for possible cancer treatment. Several non-aqueous extracts from the leaves showed antioxidant properties, giving IC50 values of 0.20-0.35 mg/ml. It can be concluded the leaves of M. citrifolia may have benefit as a food supplement for chemoprevention against epidermoid and cervical cancers. PMID:20578533

  14. Antibacterial Activities of Jatropha curcas (LINN) on Coliforms Isolated from Surface Waters in Akure, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Dada, E. O.; Ekundayo, F. O.; Makanjuola, O. O.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the antibacterial activities of hot water, ethanol and acetone extracts of Jatropha curcas (LINN) leaves on coliforms isolated from surface waters using growth inhibition indices based on agar plate technique. The percentage recovery of the extracts was 19.17%, 18.10% and 18.80% for hot water, ethanol and acetone respectively. Phytochemical screening of the extracts was also determined. Qualitative phytochemical screening showed that the plant extracts contained steroids, tannins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides, while alkaloids, phlobatannin, terpenoids and anthraquinones were absent. Only ethanolic extract did not possess saponins. Aqueous extracts of J. curcas compared most favourably with the standard antibiotics (gentamycin) on all the coliform bacteria except on K. pneumoniae and E. coli likely due to a measurably higher antibacterial activity compared to the organic extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the aqueous extract ranged from 3.00 to 7.00 mg/L while minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 4.00 to 10.00 mg/L. Aqueous extract of J. curcas could be used as antibacterial agents against diseases caused by coliforms. PMID:24711746

  15. Identification of bacterial endophytes associated with traditional medicinal plant Tridax procumbens Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Preveena, Jagadesan; Bhore, Subhash J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In traditional medicine, Tridax procumbens Linn. is used in the treatment of injuries and wounds. The bacterial endophytes (BEs) of medicinal plants could produce medicinally important metabolites found in their hosts; and hence, the involvement of BEs in conferring wound healing properties to T. Procumbens cannot be ruled out. But, we do not know which types of BEs are associated with T. Procumbens. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the fast growing and cultivable BEs associated with T. procumbens. Materials and Methods: Leaves and stems of healthy T. Procumbens plants were collected and cultivable BEs were isolated from surface-sterilized leaf and stem tissue samples using Luria-Bertani (LB) agar (medium) at standard conditions. A polymerase chain reaction was employed to amplify 16S rRNA coding gene fragments from the isolates. Cultivable endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) were identified using 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence similarity based method of bacterial identification. Results: Altogether, 50 culturable EBIs were isolated. 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequences analysis using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) revealed identities of the EBIs. Analysis reveals that cultivable Bacillus spp., Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter spp., Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Pantoea spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Terribacillus saccharophilus are associated with T. Procumbens. Conclusion: Based on the results, we conclude that 24 different types of culturable BEs are associated with traditionally used medicinal plant, T. Procumbens, and require further study. PMID:24501447

  16. Physico-chemical properties of Tecoma stans Linn. seed oil: a new crop for vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Sbihi, Hassen Mohamed; Mokbli, Sadok; Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2015-07-01

    Tecoma stans Linn. is known to have various medicinal and therapeutic properties. However, to our knowledge, no information is available regarding their seed oils. In this study, the fatty acid (FA) compositions, physico-chemical properties and antioxidant capacities of T. stans seed oils (TSOs) were investigated. The oil content of the seeds was 15%. The FAs of the TSOs were analysed by GC-MS. ?-Linolenic (45.47%), oleic (23.56%), linoleic (11.48%), palmitic (6.09%) and stearic (4.12%) acids were the major detected FAs. ?-Linolenic acid and stearidonic acid, unusually FAs, were also present (1.04% and 6.65%, respectively). The total tocol content in the TSOs was found to be 266.06 mg/100 g. The main component was ?-tocopherol (78.93%). The total phenolic content (168.69 mg GAE/100 g oil) and total flavonoid content (5.54 mg CE/g oil) were also determined in the TSOs. PMID:25813239

  17. Microscopic evaluation and seasonal variations of anthraquinone glycosides of cultivated Cassia fistula Linn.

    PubMed

    Abo, K A; Adeyemi, A A; Sobowale, A O

    2001-01-01

    In this report, we present the results of the microscopy, seasonal variations and spectrophotometric estimation of hydroxy-anthraquinone glycosides of culitivated Cassia fistula Linn. The total glycoside contents ofthe morphological parts of this species at different stages of growth are also presented. The study shows that anthraquinone glycosides are concentrated in the leaves (1.75%) and flowers (1.58%) at peak flowering. Notable seasonal variations were observed in the cultivated species. Hydroxyanthraquinones reached peak levels druing the months of September (1.08%) and October (2.20%). There was a significant drop (P < 0.05) in glycoside content during most part of the rainy season. It has been established that anthraquinone glycosides, rather than the aglycones, are the active forms and hence an estimation of the total glycoside content of a sample is a reliable indication of biological activity. The advantages of using the natural anthraquinone laxative when the glycoside content is highest are discussed. The study has provided useful information on the best period for harvesting the morphological parts of C. fistula for drug development. PMID:14510141

  18. Clinical study of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in Oligozoospermia: A double blind study.

    PubMed

    Sellandi, Thirunavukkarasu M; Thakar, Anup B; Baghel, Madhav Singh

    2012-07-01

    Infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting on an average 8-12% of couples worldwide. Low sperm count (Oligozoospermia) is one of the main causes of male infertility and it is correlated with Kshina Shukra. The fruits of Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris. Linn) are considered to act as a diuretic and aphrodisiac; they used for urolithiasis, sexual dysfunctions, and infertility. Hence, it was planned to study the effect of Gokshura in the management of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), and to evade the preconception, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed. In this study, eligible subjects between the age of 21 and 50 years, with a complaint of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), were randomized to receive either Gokshura granules or placebo granules for 60 days. The primary outcome measures were percentage changes in the Pratyatmaka Lakshanas (cardinal symptoms) of Kshina Shukra, Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, the semenogram, and in the Quality of the Sexual Health Questionnaire. The placebo granules showed 70.95% improvement, whereas, the Gokshura granules showed 78.11% improvement in Rogi bala (Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, and the Quality of Sexual Health) and Rogabala (Semen Analysis and Pratyatmaka Lakshanas). The Gokshura granules have shown superior results in the management of Kshina Shukra, as compared to the placebo granules. PMID:23723641

  19. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis Linn flower extracts.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zulfiqar Ali; Naqvi, Syed Ali-Raza; Mukhtar, Ammara; Hussain, Zaib; Shahzad, Sohail Anjum; Mansha, Asim; Ahmad, Matloob; Zahoor, Ameer Fawad; Bukhari, Iftikhar Hussain; Ashraf-Janjua, Muhammad Ramazan-Saeed; Mahmood, Nasir; Yar, Muhammad

    2014-05-01

    Antioxidant and antibacterial potential of different solvent extracts of locally grown Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn was evaluated. The antioxidant activity was assessed by estimation of total flavonoids contents, total phenolic contents, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation capacity. Agar disc diffusion method was used to assess antibacterial potential of crude extract of H. rosa-sinensis. The yield of the crude extracts (23.21 ± 3.67 and 18.36 ± 2.98% in 80% methanol and ethanol solvents was calculated, respectively. Methanol and ethanol extract of H. rosa-sinensis showed total phenolics 61.45 ± 3.23 and 59.31 ± 4.31 mg/100g as gallic acid equivalent, total flavonoids 53.28 ± 1.93 and 32.25±1.21 mg/100g as catechine equivalent, DPPH free radical scavenging activity 75.46±4.67 and 64.98 ± 2.11% and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation potential 75.8 ±3.22 and 61.6 ± 2.01% respectively, was measured. Antibacterial study against three human pathogens such as staphlococus sp. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli showed growth inhibitory effect in the range of 12.75 ± 1.17 to 16.75 ± 2.10 mm. These results showed H. rosa-sinensis indigenous to Kallar Kahar and its allied areas bear promising medicinal values and could be used for developing herbal medicines to target oxidative stress and infectious diseases. PMID:24811803

  20. Antihypertensive and Diuretic Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Colocasia esculenta Linn. Leaves in Experimental Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Vasant, Otari Kishor; Vijay, Bhalsing Gaurav; Virbhadrappa, Shete Rajkumar; Dilip, Nandgude Tanaji; Ramahari, Mali Vishal; Laxamanrao, Bodhankar Subhash

    2012-01-01

    Colocasia esculenta Linn (CE) is traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as high blood pressure, rheumatic pain, pulmonary congestion, etc. Hence in present study, the effect of aqueous extract of CE leaves (AECE) was evaluated for antihypertensive and acute diuretic activity in rats. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids in AECE. The animals did not show any sign of toxicity and mortality after the administration of AECE 2000 mg/Kg in acute oral toxicity study. The administration of AECE (100, 200, and 400 mg/Kg/day, p.o.) for six weeks and AECE (10, 20, and 40 mg/Kg, IV) on the day of experiment in renal artery-occluded hypertensive rats and AECE (20 and 40 mg/Kg, IV) in noradrenalin-induced hypertension in rats produced significant (p < 0.05) anti-hypertensive effects. AECE (400 mg/Kg, p.o.) showed positive diuretic activity at 5 h. AECE (200 and 400 mg/Kg, p.o.) significantly increased sodium and chloride content of urine in 5 h and 24 h and additionally potassium in 24 h urine. Hence, the results of the present study revealed the antihypertensive and weak diuretic activity of AECE. These effects may be attributed due to the ACE inhibitory, vasodilatory, ?-blocking, and/ or Ca2+ channel blocking activities, which were reported for the phytoconstitunts, specifically flavonoids such as vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and isoorientin present in the leaves of CE. PMID:24250487

  1. Anti-diarrhoeal investigation from aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum Linn. Seed in Albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan; Sahoo, Saroj Kumar; Sarangi, Sarada Prasad; Sagar, Rakesh; Kori, Mohan Lal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Umbelliferae), commonly known as Jeera. It is native from mediterranean region, but today widely cultivated in Asian countries. It has been reported to possess various medicinal properties and an important food ingredient. The seed of the plant are claimed for treatment of diarrhoea by various traditional practitioners. Objectives: Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate aq. extract of C. cyminum seeds (ACCS) against diarrhoea on albino rats. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into five groups and the control group was applied with 2% acacia suspension, the standard group with loperamide (3 mg/kg) or atropine sulphate (5mg/kg) and three test groups administered orally with 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg of ACCS. The antidiarrhoeal effect was investigated by castor oil induce diarrhoea model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced enteropooling model, intestinal transit by charcoal meal test. Results: The ACCS showed significant (P < 0.001) inhibition in frequency of diarrhoea, defecation time delaying, secretion of intestinal fluid as well as intestinal propulsion as compared to control and the graded doses of tested extract followed dose dependent protection against diarrhoea. Conclusions: The study reveals that the ACCS is a potent antidiarrhoeal drug which supports the traditional claim. PMID:25002800

  2. Antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity of Clitorea ternatea Linn. on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Talpate, Karuna A.; Bhosale, Uma A.; Zambare, Mandar R.; Somani, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol extract of Clitorea ternatea Linn. (EECT) was evaluated for its antihyperglycemic and antioxidative activity in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Antihyperglycemic activity of EECT was studied in normal fasted and glucose fed hyperglycemic and epinephrine induced hyperglycemic rats by estimating fasting serum glucose (FSG) by glucose oxidisae or peroxidase enzymatic method. Antioxidant activity of EECT was studied by assaying lipid peroxide/Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total nitric oxide, catalase (CAT) and glutathione levels in diabetic rats. The EECT (200 and 400 mg/kg) showed significant antihyperglycemic activity by decreasing FSG in all hyperglycemic models except epinephrine induced hyperglycemic rats; in which improvement in FSG was observed only with EECT in 400 mg/kg dose, whereas significant decrease in TBARS (P < 0.001), nitric oxide (P < 0.001) and significant increase in SOD (P < 0.001), CAT (P < 0.01) and reduced glutathione levels (P < 0.001) was observed in animals treated with EECT (200 and 400 mg/kg) compared to diabetic control group. The results indicated that EECT has remedial effects on hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. PMID:24696583

  3. Study on anti-diabetic activities of crude methanolic extracts of Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) sourced from five different host trees.

    PubMed

    Osadebe, P O; Okide, G B; Akabogu, I C

    2004-12-01

    The hypoglycaemic and anti-hyperglycemic activities of dried leaves of Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) (Loranthaceae), parasitic on Persea americana, Baphia nitda, Kola acuminata, Pentaclethra macrophylla, Azadirchta indica, were evaluated in normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. Normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats were treated (intraperitoneally) with 200 mg/kg of the respective methanolic extracts of Loranthus micranthus (Linn.), glibenclamide (positive control), and 20% (v/v) Tween 20 solution (negative control). The sugar levels of the withdrawn blood samples were determined by o-toluidine spectrophotometric method. The studies indicate that the crude methanolic extract of Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) exhibited statistically significant hypoglycaemic (P < 0.001) and anti-hyperglycemic (P < 0.001) activities in normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats, respectively. The hypoglycaemic effect was found to be dose-dependent. The maximum effect of the mistletoe extract (400 mg/kg) from Persea americana on alloxan-induced diabetic rats was found to be statistically comparable with that of the positive control, glibenclamide, at 24 h after administration, with a percentage reduction of blood sugar levels of 82.59 and 83.34%, respectively. Acute toxicity tests of the methanolic extracts of Persea americana, Baphia nitda, Kola acuminata, Pentaclethra macrophylla, Azadirchta indica host trees in mice gave LD(50) values of 11650, 11650, 5900, 5900 and 5900 mg/kg, respectively, which are all within the practically non-toxic range. The methanolic extract of African mistletoe was found to be a good candidate for alternative and/or complimentary medicine in the management of diabetes mellitus. The leaves of the Eastern Nigerian species of the African mistletoe harvested from Kola acuminata, Azadirchta indica and Baphia nitda host trees exhibited comparatively better anti-hyperglycemic activities among the host trees studied. PMID:15507325

  4. Optimisation of phenolics recovery from Vitex agnus-castus Linn. leaves by high-pressure and temperature extraction.

    PubMed

    Lataoui, Mohammed; Seffen, Mongi; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Casazza, Alessandro Alberto; Converti, Attilio; Perego, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    To optimise recovery of phenolics from Vitex agnus-castus Linn., a non-conventional high-pressure (2-24 bar) and temperature (100-180°C) extraction method was used under nitrogen atmosphere with methanol as a solvent. Optimal temperature was between 100 and 140°C, and optimal extraction time was about one half that of conventional solid/liquid extraction at room temperature. Final yields of total polyphenols, total flavonoids, o-diphenols and anthocyanins extraction were 2.0, 3.0, 2.5 and 11-fold those obtained by conventional extraction. PMID:24404955

  5. Protective effect of Hypericum perforatum Linn (St. John's wort) against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis on human neuroblastoma cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mi-Hyeon Jang; Taeck-Hyun Lee; Min-Chul Shin; Geon-Ho Bahn; Jong-Woo Kim; Dong-Hoon Shin; Ee-Hwa Kim; Chang-Ju Kim

    2002-01-01

    The medicinal plant Hypericum perforatum Linn, commonly known as St. John's wort, has been used as an antidepressant. To investigate whether St. John's wort possesses a protective effect against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cytotoxicity in neuronal cells, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay, flow cytometry analysis, DNA fragmentation assay, and caspase-3 enzyme assay were

  6. Far infrared-assisted extraction followed by capillary electrophoresis for the determination of bioactive constituents in the leaves of Lycium barbarum Linn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haotian Duan; Yi Chen; Gang Chen

    2010-01-01

    In this work, a method based on capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection and far infrared-assisted extraction has been developed for the determination of rutin, gentisic acid, and quercetin in the leaves of Lycium barbarum Linn. The effects of detection potential, irradiation time, and the voltage applied on the infrared generator were investigated to acquire the optimum analysis conditions. The detection

  7. Onset of puberty and ovarian steroidogenesis following adminstration of methanolic extract of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. stem and Corchorus olitorius Linn. seed in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gupta; U. K. Mazumder; D. K. Pal; S. Bhattacharya

    2003-01-01

    The effect of methanolic extract (ME) of Cuscuta reflexa stem Roxb. and Corchorus olitorius Linn. seed on the onset of reproductive maturity and the ovarian steroidogenesis was studied by means of biochemical techniques. ME of Cuscuta reflexa stem and Corchorus olitorius seed treatment causes a remarkable delay in sexual maturation as evidenced by the age at vaginal opening and apperance

  8. ANTIPLAQUE AND ANTIGINGIVITIS EFFECTS OF A GEL CONTAINING PUNICA GRANATUM LINN EXTRACT. A DOUBLE-BLIND CLINICAL STUDY IN HUMANS

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Alexandre Daher Yunes; Maia, Juliana Lemos; Pereira, Sérgio Luís da Silva; de Lemos, Telma Leda Gomes; Mota, Olívia Morais de Lima

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of a gel containing 10% Punica granatum Linn extract were evaluated using a 21-day partial-mouth experimental model of gingivitis. Methods: 23 volunteers participated in this cross-over, doubleblind study, carried out in 2 phases of 21 days each. For each period of the experiment, an acrylic toothshield was made for each volunteer to carry the test or placebo gel as well as to avoid brushing of the 4 experimental teeth (posterior teeth in the lower left quadrant). The subjects were randomly assigned to use either the placebo gel (control group) or the test gel (experimental group) and were instructed to brush the remaining teeth normally 3 times a day. On days 0 and 21, the visible plaque index (VPI) and gingival bleeding index (GBI) were recorded. Results: The results did not show statistically significant difference between control and experimental groups for either of the indices (VPI and GBI). Conclusion: The gel containing 10% Punica granatum Linn extract was not efficient in preventing supragingival dental plaque formation and gingivitis. PMID:19089066

  9. Gastroprotective effect of Piper betle Linn. leaves grown in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Arawwawala, L. D. A. M.; Arambewela, L. S. R.; Ratnasooriya, W. D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Piper betle Linn. (Piperaceae) is used as a remedy for gastric ulcers in traditional medicinal systems in Sri Lanka. However, the gastroprotective activity has never been proven scientifically using betel leaves grown in Sri Lanka. Objective: To evaluate the gastroprotective activity of hot aqueous extract (HAE) and cold ethanolic extract (CEE) of P. betle in rats as the experimental model. Materials and Methods: Three doses (200, 300, and 500 mg/kg/bw) of both extracts were evaluated for the gastroprotective activity against ethanol induced gastric ulcers in rats. The parameters evaluated were (a) effects of HAE on mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa, (b) acidity (total and free), (c) volume and (d) pH of the gastric juice. Results: Oral administration of HAE and CEE provided marked dose dependent (HAE: r2 = 0.97; CEE: r2 = 0.96) and significant (P ? 0.05) protection against gastric damage caused by absolute ethanol. The gastroprotective effect of CEE was comparable with that of HAE. Further, gastroprotective activity of the highest dose of both extracts were significantly greater (P ? 0.05) than that of misoprostol, the reference drug. The HAE significantly (P ? 0.05) increased the mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa and inhibited the volume of gastric acid. However, acidity (total and free) and pH of the gastric juice remained unaltered. Conclusion: It is concluded that both HAE and CEE of P. betle leaves have a strong gastroprotective activity. PMID:24812474

  10. Fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using annato seeds (Bixa orellana Linn)

    SciTech Connect

    Haryanto, Ditia Allindira; Landuma, Suarni; Purwanto, Agus [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta 632112 (Indonesia)

    2014-02-24

    The Fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using Annato seeds has been conducted in this study. Annato seeds (Bixa orellana Linn) used as a sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cell. The experimental parameter was concentration of natural dye. Annato seeds was extracted using etanol solution and the concentration was controlled by varying mass of Annato seeds. A semiconductor TiO{sub 2} was prepared by a screen printing method for coating glass use paste of TiO{sub 2}. Construction DSSC used layered systems (sandwich) consists of working electrode (TiO{sub 2} semiconductor-dye) and counter electrode (platina). Both are placed on conductive glass and electrolytes that occur electrons cycle. The characterization of thin layer of TiO{sub 2} was conducted using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscpy) analysis showed the surface morphology of TiO{sub 2} thin layer and the cross section of a thin layer of TiO{sub 2} with a thickness of 15–19 ?m. Characterization of natural dye extract was determined using UV-Vis spectrometry analysis shows the wavelength range annato seeds is 328–515 nm, and the voltage (V{sub oc}) and electric current (I{sub sc}) resulted in keithley test for 30 gram, 40 gram, and 50 gram were 0,4000 V; 0,4251 V; 0,4502 V and 0,000074 A; 0,000458 A; 0,000857 A, respectively. The efficiencies of the fabricated solar cells using annato seeds as senstizer for each varying mass are 0,00799%, 0,01237%, and 0,05696%.

  11. Arsenic toxicity in garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.): significance of potassium nutrition.

    PubMed

    Umar, Shahid; Gauba, Nidhi; Anjum, Naser A; Siddiqi, Tariq O

    2013-09-01

    In a hydroponic culture, experiments were performed to study the influence of potassium (K) supplementation (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg L(-1)) on the arsenic (As; 0, 8, and 10 mg L(-1))-accrued changes in growth traits (plant biomass, root-shoot length) and the contents of lepidine, As and K, in garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.) at 10 days after treatment. The changes in these traits were correlated with shoot proline content, protein profile, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.8.1.7), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11). In general, As-alone treatments significantly decreased the growth traits but lead to significant enhancements in shoot proline and enzyme activities. K-supplementation to As-treated L. sativum seedlings decreased shoot-As content, reduced As-induced decreases in growth traits but enhanced the content of shoot proline, and the activities of the studied enzymes maximally with K100 + As8 and As10 mg L(-1). Both 8 and 10 mg L(-1) of As drastically downregulated the shoot proteins ranging from 43-65 kDa. With As10 mg L(-1), there was a total depletion of protein bands below 23 kDa; however, K80 mg L(-1) maximally recovered and upregulated the protein bands. Additionally, protein bands were downregulated (at par with As-alone treatment) above K80 mg L(-1) level. Interestingly, As-stress increased lepidine content in a dose-dependent manner which was further augmented with the K-supplementation. It is suggested that K protects L. sativum against As-toxicity by decreasing its accumulation and strengthening antioxidant defense system and protein stability. PMID:23529401

  12. Influence of various host plants on the consumption and utilization of food by Pieris brassicae (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Ansari, M S; Hasan, F; Ahmad, N

    2012-04-01

    Pieris brassicae (Linn.) is a destructive cosmopolitan pest of cruciferous crops. It is present wherever its host plants occur, and it is considered to be one of the most widely distributed of all the Lepidoptera. We investigated the affect of various host plants on the food consumption and utilization by P. brassicae. We quantified consumption of food, larval duration, pupal duration and weight on cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), radish (Raphanus sativus), broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and mustard (Brassica campestris) under laboratory conditions. Insect-host relationships can be better understood by knowing the rate of food consumption, its digestibility and conversion of food eaten to body tissue. The consumption of food generally increased with the advancement of larval age. In our study we found that consumption of food was highest on radish and lowest on broccoli. The highest consumption of a particular host does not always indicate greater suitability of that host, until and unless other factors like consumption index (CI), relative growth rate (RGR), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), approximate digestibility (AD) and efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD) are also considered. In the current investigation, factors like CI, RGR, ECI and ECD were highest on cabbage. Low body weight of pupa is associated with rapid development. On cabbage, the weight of pupa of both sexes was found lowest. Thus, from the present study, it can be concluded that cabbage is a more suitable host for P. brassicae than other host plants evaluated. Hence, on cabbage, the values of Waldbauer indices were highest and P. brassicae developed with a faster rate. PMID:22030306

  13. Study of alpha-amylase and urease inhibitory activities of Melilotus indicus (Linn.) All.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Dildar; Younas, Saba; Anwer-Mughal, Qaria Mumtaz

    2014-01-01

    Melilotus indicus (Linn.) All. is a small herb distributed throughout Pakistan and has a number of ethnomedicinal uses. It is also consumed as a vegetable. In the present work, we are reporting the alpha-amylase and urease inhibitory activities of methanolic extract of M. indicus and its sub-fractions in different solvents. Both the methanolic extract and its fractions in chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water showed remarkable inhibitory activities against alpha-amylase with the IC50 values being 1.29, 1.45, 1.07, 1.45 and 2.10 mg/mL respectively. The efficacy of the methanolic extract was comparable with that of acarbose (1.20 mg/mL), while the ethyl acetate fraction was more potent. The urease inhibitory activities of methanolic extract and chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fractions were more prominent with IC50 values being 0.95, 0.89, 1.53, 0.98 and 4.90 ?g/mL respectively. The activity of methanolic extract was slightly higher than that of thiourea (0.97 ?g/mL) which in turn was slightly higher than that of n-butanolic fraction. The chloroform fraction showed the highest anti-urease activity. All the plant samples showed enzyme inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, they were manifold more effective against urease than alpha-amylase. The combination of the plant extract with acarbose considerably increased the potency of the latter. The findings suggest that enzyme inhibitory activities of the vegetable M. indicus may have pharmacological significance against diabetes mellitus and gastrointestinal ulcers. PMID:24374453

  14. Quality assessment and anti-obesity activity of Stellaria media (Linn.) Vill

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity is recognized as a social problem, associated with serious health risks and increased mortality. Numerous trials have been conducted to find and develop new anti-obesity drugs through herbal sources to minimize side effects associated with the present anti-obesity drugs. The present study was designed to evaluate the quality control parameters, quantitative phytochemical analysis (total phenolic, total flavonoids and total saponin content), and the anti-obesity effect of lyophilized juice (LJ) of Stellaria media (Linn.) Vill. by employing in vitro and in vivo models. Methods In vitro studies were performed to evaluate the inhibitory activity of LJ on pancreatic amylase and lipase. The in vivo pancreatic lipase activity was evaluated by measurement of plasma triacylglycerol levels after oral administration of lipid emulsion to swiss albino mice. Furthermore, the anti-obesity effect of LJ was assessed at two doses, 400?mg/kg and 900?mg/kg body weight in mice fed a high-fat-diet with or without LJ for 6?weeks. Results The LJ inhibited pancreatic amylase and lipase activity in vitro and elevated plasma triacylglycerol level in mice. LJ suppressed the increase in body weight, retroperitoneal adipose tissue, liver weights and serum parameters viz., total cholesterol, total triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol level at the dose of 900?mg/kg body weight of the mice fed with high fat diet. The total phenolic, flavonoid and saponin contents were found to be 0.26?mg/g, 1.4?mg/g and 1.19??g/g respectively of LJ. Conclusion The anti-obesity effects of LJ in high-fat-diet fed mice may be partly mediated through delaying the intestinal absorption of dietary fat and carbohydrate by inhibiting digestive enzymes. PMID:22943464

  15. Neuroprotective effects of quercetin, rutin and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.) in dexamethasone-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Tongjaroenbuangam, Walaiporn; Ruksee, Nootchanart; Chantiratikul, Piyanete; Pakdeenarong, Noppakun; Kongbuntad, Watee; Govitrapong, Piyarat

    2011-10-01

    The administration of dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid receptor agonist, causes neuronal death in the CA3 layer of the hippocampus, which has been associated with learning and memory impairments. This study aimed to examine the ability of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.) extract and its derivatives (quercetin and rutin) to protect neuronal function and improve learning and memory deficits in mice subjected to dexamethasone treatment. Learning and memory functions in mice were examined using the Morris water maze test. The results showed that the mice treated with dexamethasone had prolonged water maze performance latencies and shorter time spent in the target quadrant while mice pretreated with quercetin, rutin or okra extract prior to dexamethasone treatment showed shorter latencies and longer time spent in target quadrant. Morphological changes in pyramidal neurons were observed in the dexamethasone treated group. The number of CA3 hippocampal neurons was significantly lower while pretreated with quercetin, rutin or okra attenuated this change. Prolonged treatment with dexamethasone altered NMDA receptor expression in the hippocampus. Pretreatment with quercetin, rutin or okra extract prevented the reduction in NMDA receptor expression. Dentate gyrus (DG) cell proliferation was examined using the 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry technique. The number of BrdU-immunopositive cells was significantly reduced in dexamethasone-treated mice compared to control mice. Pretreatment with okra extract, either quercetin or rutin was found to restore BrdU-immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus. These findings suggest that quercetin, rutin and okra extract treatments reversed cognitive deficits, including impaired dentate gyrus (DG) cell proliferation, and protected against morphological changes in the CA3 region in dexamethasone-treated mice. The precise mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of these plant extracts should be further investigated. PMID:21740943

  16. Isolation, characterization, and evaluation of Cassia fistula Linn. seed and pulp polymer for pharmaceutical application

    PubMed Central

    Killedar, Suresh G; Nale, Ashwini B; more, Harinath N; Nadaf, Sameer J; Pawar, Anuja A; Tamboli, Umarfarukh S

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Present work, is an effort toward exploring the potential of Cassia fistula Linn. seed gum as an extended release polymer and laxative. While, C. fistula pulp polymer has evaluated as suspending agent. Materials and Methods: For extended release application, total five batches (F1-F5) were prepared by varying the ratio of drug:polymer as 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5, respectively. The granules were prepared by wet granulation method and further evaluated for micromeritic properties such as angle of repose (?), Carr's compressibility index (CCI), and Hausner's ratio. Further compacts were evaluated by hardness, thickness, swelling index, in-vitro dissolution, and so on. Laxative activity was evaluated by administration of seed polymer (100 mg/kg) alone or in combination with bisacodyl (2.5 mg/kg) in 1% Tween 80. Zinc oxide suspension was prepared by varying the concentration of C. fistula pulp polymer and compared with suspension made by use of tragacanth, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and bentonite. Results: Result showed that granules were free flowing, while the compact extended the drug release up to 10 h (72.84 ± 0.98; batch F5) and followed Higuchi matrix release kinetics. This extended release might be due to the formation of polyelectrolyte complex because of gluco-mannose in seed gum. Result of in-vivo laxative activity showed that seed polymer reduced faeces weight after 24 h compared to control (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Pulp polymer showed good sedimentation volume, but alone fails to stabilize the suspension for a longer period, so it could be useful in combination with other suspending agents and can be useful as novel excipient. PMID:25426443

  17. Nocardia rhizosphaerae sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from the coastal rhizosphere of Artemisia Linn., China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Liu, Wei; Feng, Wei-Wei; Zhou, Xiao-Qi; Bai, Juan-Luan; Yuan, Bo; Ju, Xiu-Yun; Cao, Cheng-Liang; Huang, Ying; Jiang, Ji-Hong; Lv, Ai-Jun; Qin, Sheng

    2015-07-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain KLBMP S0043(T), was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Artemisia Linn. collected from the coastal region of Lianyungang, Jiangsu Province, in east China and was studied in detail for its taxonomic position. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain KLBMP S0043(T) is a member of the genus Nocardia. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity indicated that strain KLBMP S0043(T) is closely related to Nocardia asteroides NBRC 15531(T) (97.61 %) and Nocardia neocaledoniensis SBHR OA6(T) (97.38 %); similarity to other type strains of the genus Nocardia was found to be less than 97.2 %. The organism has chemical and morphological features consistent with its classification in the genus Nocardia such as meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell wall peptidoglycan and arabinose and galactose as the diagnostic sugars. The predominant menaquinone was identified as MK-8(H4?-cycl). Mycolic acids were detected. The diagnostic phospholipids were found to be diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides. The predominant cellular fatty acids were identified as C16:0, C18:0, C18:1?9c, 10-methyl C18:0 [tuberculostearic acid (TBSA)] and summed feature 3 (C16:1?7c/C16:1?6c). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 71.4 mol%. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the strain from its most closely related strains. Based on morphological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain KLBMP S0043(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Nocardia, for which the name Nocardia rhizosphaerae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KLBMP S0043(T) (=CGMCC 4.7204 (T) = KCTC 29678(T)). PMID:25896308

  18. Rapid identification of molecular changes in tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) upon ageing using leaf spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Depanjan; Srimany, Amitava; Pradeep, T

    2012-10-01

    Tulsi or Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is a medicinally important plant. Ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) are among its major constituents which account for many medicinal activities of the plant. In the present work, we deployed a new ambient ionization method, leaf spray ionization, for rapid detection of UA, OA and their oxidation products from tulsi leaves. Tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) has been performed on tulsi leaf extracts in methanol to establish the identity of the compounds. We probed changes occurring in the relative amounts of the parent compounds (UA and OA) with their oxidized products and the latter show an increasing trend upon ageing. The findings are verified by ESI-MS analysis of tulsi leaf extracts, which shows the same trend proving the reliability of the leaf spray method. PMID:22900261

  19. Comparative physico-chemical profile of Gunja (Abrus precatorius Linn.) seeds processed through water and Nimbu Swarasa (lemon juice).

    PubMed

    Roy, Sudipta; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, Vinay J

    2013-10-01

    Gunja (Abrus precatorius Linn.), known as Indian liquorice, is reputed as one of the world's most deadly but most beautiful seed belonging to the family Fabaceae, characterised under the Upavisha (semi-poisonous drugs) and used extensively in various Ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommended the administration of Gunja only after proper Shodhana (purification procedures) in different media such as Godugdha (cow's milk), Kanji (sour gruel), etc., Apart from the classical methods, some traditional practitioners use Nimbu Swarasa for the Shodhana of Gunja seeds. In this study, an attempt has been made to carry out Shodhana of Gunja seeds using Nimbu Swarasa and water. This study revealed differences in physico-chemical parameters of purified samples, in comparison to raw drugs. PMID:24696580

  20. Protective effects of saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) on genotoxins-induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, K; Abraham, Suresh K; Santhiya, S T; Ramesh, A

    2003-06-01

    The modifying effects of the aqueous extract of saffron (dried stigmas of Crocus sativus Linn.) on cisplatin (CIS), cyclophosphamide (CPH), mitomycin-C (MMC) and urethane (URE) induced alterations in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status were investigated in Swiss albino mice. Three doses of saffron (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg body weight) were orally administered to mice for 5 consecutive days prior to administration of genotoxins. A significant reduction in the extent of lipid peroxidation with a concomitant increase in the liver enzymatic (SOD, CAT, GST, GPx) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione) were observed in saffron pretreated animals compared with the genotoxins alone treated animals. However, the modulatory effects were not always dose dependent. Our data suggest that saffron may exert its chemopreventive effects by modulation of lipid peroxidation, antioxidants and detoxification systems. PMID:12820227

  1. The phytochemistry, traditional uses and pharmacology of Piper Betel. linn (Betel Leaf): A pan-asiatic medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Fazal, Farhan; Mane, Prajwal P; Rai, Manoj P; Thilakchand, Karadka R; Bhat, Harshith P; Kamble, Prathibha S; Palatty, Princy L; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2014-08-26

    Since antiquity, Piper betel. Linn, commonly known as betel vine, has been used as a religious, recreational and medicinal plant in Southeast Asia. The leaves, which are the most commonly used plant part, are pungent with aromatic flavor and are widely consumed as a mouth freshener. It is carminative, stimulant, astringent and is effective against parasitic worms. Experimental studies have shown that it possess diverse biological and pharmacological effects, which includes antibacterial, antifungal, larvicidal, antiprotozal, anticaries, gastroprotective effects, free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antiulcer and chemopreventive activities. The active principles hydroxychavicol, allylpyrocatechol and eugenol with their plethora of pharmacological properties may also have the potential to develop as bioactive lead molecule. In this review, an attempt is made to summarize the religious, traditional uses, phytochemical composition and experimentally validated pharmacological properties of Piper betel. Emphasis is also placed on aspects warranting detail studies for it to be of pharmaceutical/clinical use to humans. PMID:25159859

  2. Abroma augusta Linn bark extract-mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its application in catalytic reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Subhajit; Bag, Braja Gopal; Basu, Ranadhir

    2014-11-01

    The bark extract of Abroma augusta Linn is rich in medicinally important phytochemicals including antioxidants and polyphenols. First one step green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been described utilizing the bark extract of Abroma augusta L. and chloroauric acid under very mild reaction conditions. The phytochemicals present in the bark extract acted both as a reducing as well as a stabilizing agent, and no additional stabilizing and capping agents were needed. Detailed characterizations of the stabilized AuNPs were carried out by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. The catalytic activity of the freshly synthesized gold nanoparticles has been demonstrated for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol, and the kinetics of the reduction reaction have been studied spectrophotometrically.

  3. Effects of Flower and Fruit Extracts of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. on Growth of Pathogenic Bacteria: Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Che Omar, Siti Nurhadis; Ong Abdullah, Janna; Khairoji, Khairul Anuar; Chin Chin, Sieo; Hamid, Muhajir

    2013-01-01

    Melastoma malabathricum Linn. is a shrub that comes with beautiful pink or purple flowers and has berries-like fruits rich in anthocyanins. This study was carried out with the aim to evaluate the inhibitory activities of different concentrations of the M. malabathricum Linn. flower and fruit crude extracts against Listeria monocytogenes IMR L55, Staphylococcus aureus IMR S244, Escherichia coli IMR E30, and Salmonella typhimurium IMR S100 using the disc diffusion method. The lowest concentrations of the extracts producing inhibition zones against the test microorganisms were used to determine their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs). In addition, the growth of Listeria monocytogenes IMR L55 and Staphylococcus aureus IMR S244 grown in medium supplemented with the respective extracts at different temperatures (4°C, 25°C, and 37°C) and pHs (4, 6, 7, and 8) was determined. PMID:23662136

  4. The nonpeptide ?-eudesmol from Juniperus virginiana Linn. (Cupressaceae) inhibits ?-agatoxin IVA-sensitive Ca 2+ currents and synaptosomal 45 Ca 2+ uptake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenji Asakura; Toshiyuki Kanemasa; Kazuyuki Minagawa; Kiyomi Kagawa; Mitsuyoshi Ninomiya

    1999-01-01

    Recently, the ?-agatoxin IVA (?-Aga-IVA)-sensitive Ca2+ channel has been demonstrated to play an important role in the physiological neurotransmitter release in mammalian nerve terminals. In this study, we demonstrate that ?-eudesmol from Juniperus virginiana Linn. (Cupressaceae) inhibits ?-Aga-IVA-sensitive Ca2+ channels in rat brain synaptosomes and cerebellar Purkinje cells. Thirty millimolar KCl-induced 45Ca2+ uptake into the synaptosomes was inhibited by ?-Aga-IVA

  5. Protective effects of burdock ( Arctium lappa Linne) on oxidation of low-density lipoprotein and oxidative stress in RAW 264.7 macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bor-Sen Wang; Gow-Chin Yen; Lee-Wen Chang; Wen-Jye Yen; Pin-Der Duh

    2007-01-01

    The protective effects of burdock (Arctium lappa Linne) on oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and nitric oxide production were investigated. The results showed that methanolic extracts of burdock (MEB) and their major components, chlorogenic acid (CHA) and caffeic acid (CA), showed marked antioxidant activity against oxidative damage of liposome (p<0.05), deoxyribose (p<0.05) and protein (p<0.05). In addition, at a concentration

  6. Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Wound Healing Potentials of Ethanol Extract of Wedelia biflora Linn D.C. Leaves.

    PubMed

    Biswas, D; Yoganandam, G P; Dey, A; Deb, L

    2013-03-01

    To rationalize scientifically the traditional claim on use of Wedelia biflora (Linn.) D. C. for the treatment of wounds and infections, the present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial and wound healing activity of ethanol extract of leaves of W. biflora. In in vitro assays the test extract was subjected to antimicrobial activity by agar well-diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration method in different microbial strains. Wound healing activity of the test extract was studied by excision wound model and incision wound model in Wistar albino rats. In excision wound model, 97.90% wound healing was recorded in 10% w/w extract treated group on 16(th) days of postsurgery, whereas only 58.50% was observed in control group. In incision model, higher breaking strength, high hydroxyl proline content and histopathological study in extract treated groups revealed higher collagen redeposition than the control group. The agar well-diffusion evaluation and minimum inhibitory concentration established antimicrobial efficacy of ethanol extracts of W. biflora. These observations established the traditional claim and therapeutic activity of W. biflora and it could be a potent wound healing candidate for use in future. PMID:24019563

  7. Genotoxic assessment of calcium hypochlorite and Strychnos potatorum Linn. seeds-two commonly used water purifying agents.

    PubMed

    Neelamkavil, Sandhya Vincent; Thoppil, John E

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The role of water in our daily lives cannot be highlighted enough, and ensuring the availability of pure water is an urgent need. Bleaching powder (calcium hypochlorite) and Strychnos potatorum Linn. seeds are commonly used in water purification as a disinfectant and anticoagulant, respectively, yet their safety levels have not been analyzed so far. Hence, a genotoxic assessment was conducted using Allium cepa chromosome aberration assay. Reduction in mitotic index and increase in abnormality percentage was observed for both, but this effect was dose dependent. All values were statistically significant at p<0.05%. Bleaching powder was found to be cytotoxic and genotoxic compared with the control. Abnormality percentage was found to be significantly high when compared with the positive control. Chromosome aberrations like binucleate condition, micronuclei formation, stickiness, and lesions could only be observed in root meristems treated with positive control and bleaching powder. The seeds of S. potatorum expressed mild cytotoxicity, but the genotoxic effect was found to be negligible when compared with positive control. Other chromosome aberrations observed included chromosome bridges, c-metaphases, chromosome laggards, shift in microtubule organizing centre, polyploidy, early movement of chromosomes, vagrant chromosomes, as well as diagonal, disturbed, and scattered arrangement of chromosomes. Thus, the genotoxic effect of bleaching powder warns people to use a safer choice of S. potatorum in water purification, whenever possible, as in the condition of muddy, coagulated water. PMID:25411981

  8. Plant regeneration from organogenic callus and assessment of clonal fidelity in Elephantopus scaber Linn., an ethnomedicinal herb.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Jyothi; Thomas, T Dennis

    2015-04-01

    An efficient callus induction and plant regeneration system has been standardized for an ethnomedicinal plant, Elephantopus scaber Linn. Two explants i. e. seeds and leaf segments were used for callus induction. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 5.0 ?M 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D) and 0.5 ?M kinetin (Kn) gave the optimum frequency (89 %) of callus induction from seed explant. The results showed that the highest response in terms of percent callus regenerating (91 %) and number of shoots (56) per culture was recorded on MS medium supplemented with 6.0 ?M N6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and 1.5 ?M ? naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). The best rooting of regenerated shoots was obtained on half strength MS medium supplemented with 6.0 ?M indole-3- butyric acid (IBA). On this medium, 100 % of the shoots produced roots with a mean number of 3.2 roots per shoot. The positive role of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) along with potting mix has been well established in the present study. Of the various potting mix employed for plant acclimatization, the highest response of 100 % plant survival was noticed when autoclaved garden soil, sand (2:1) and VAM was utilized as potting mix. Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) were used to establish the clonal fidelity of regenerated plantlets and the banding profiles from callus derived plants were monomorphic and similar to those of mother plant, thus ascertaining the true-to-type nature of these plants. PMID:25964719

  9. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic antioxidants from Malus baccata (Linn.) Borkh. using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Wang, Zhenyu; Li, Xiaoyu

    2013-05-01

    In this study, the optimum extraction conditions for maximum recovery of the content of total phenolics (TPC) and total antioxidant abilities were analyzed for Malus baccata (Linn.) Borkh. using response surface methodology. The effects of ethanol percentage (X1 ,%), ultrasonic power (X2 , W) and extraction temperature (X3 , °C) on the total phenolic content (Y1 ) and antioxidant ability (Y2 ) were evaluated. A second-order polynomial model produced a satisfactory fitting of the experimental data with regard to total phenolic content (R(2) = 0.9942, P < 0.0001) and antioxidant ability (R(2) = 0.9966, P < 0.0001). The optimized conditions were ethanol concentration of 61.0%, ultrasonic power of 308.6 W, extraction temperature of 51.1°C for TPC and 60.5%, 311.4 W, 51.6°C for antioxidant ability, the predicted values agreed well with the experimental values. Results implied that the major phenolic compounds in obtained extracts as chlorogenic acid, quercetin-3-gal/glu, quercetin-3-xyl/ara, phloretin-2-xyloside, quercetin-3- rhamnoside, and phloridzin. PMID:23436450

  10. Effect of purificatory measures through cow's urine and milk on strychnine and brucine content of Kupeelu (Strychnos nuxvomica Linn.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Swarnendu; Shukla, V J; Acharya, Rabinarayan

    2012-01-01

    Strychnos nux vomica Linn.(Loganaceae) commonly known as Nux vomica (Kupeelu), is a poisonous plant and its seeds are used widely in Ayurvedic system of medicine since time immemorial. Ayurveda advocates that nux vomica seeds are to be administered in therapeutics only after going through certain purificatory measures (Shodhana). There are more than six media: cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel), castor oil (Eranda taila) and fresh ginger juice (Ardraka swarasa) etc., which have been reported in different classical texts of Ayurveda for proper processing of nux vomica seeds. In this study, an attempt has been made to purify the seeds by using three different methods as described in ancient treatise by using cow's urine and cow's milk as media alone and together. This study revealed that all the methods studied reduced the toxicity of strychnine and brucine contents in comparison to the raw seeds as determined by HPTLC. Out of these three methods maximum reduction in strychnine and brucine contents was found when the seeds were purified by keeping them in cow's urine for seven days followed by boiling in cow's milk for three hrs. PMID:23983327

  11. Anti-Inflammatory, gastrointestinal and hepatoprotective effects of Ocimum sanctum Linn: an ancient remedy with new application.

    PubMed

    Kamyab, Amir A 'lam; Eshraghian, Ahad

    2013-12-01

    Herbal medicine has a long background equal to history of humankind. Several plants have been used as remedies in ancient Persian, Egyptian, Chinese and Indian civilizations. The plant Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Tulsi) is one of these medicinal plants with a wide variety of applications in traditional medicine. In modern era, it has been shown to be effective against diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancers, bronchitis, and found to have anti-microbial properties. Several experimental studies have confirmed its anti-inflammatory properties and its role in modulation of both cellular and humeral immunity. Recently its efficacy against inflammatory response, hepatic injury and gastric ulcer has been elucidated in animal studies. In liver, essential oils and extracts of Ocimum sanctum could prevent oxidative stress by increasing glutathione peroxidae and catalase and were also effective in prevention of hepatic steatosis. In gastric epithelial tissue different derivatives of Ocimum sanctum had anti-ulcer and anti-secretory characteristics and could heal gastric ulceration. These beneficial properties of this medicinal plant can mainly originate from its major biochemically active constituents like eugenol, carvacrol, ursolic acid, ?-caryophyllene and rosmarinic acid. Here in, we reviewed current literature about anti-inflammatory, gastric and hepatoprotective properties of Ocimum sanctum. PMID:24266685

  12. Effect of Shodhana (processing) on Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) with special reference to strychnine and brucine content.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Swarnendu; Shukla, V J; Acharya, Rabinarayan

    2011-07-01

    Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) commonly known as nux vomica is a poisonous plant used extensively in various ayurvedic formulations, with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommended the administration of Kupeelu only after purification in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (sour gruel), and so on. Apart from the classical methods some other methods are also adopted by the traditional practitioners using castor oil (Eranda taila), ginger juice (Ardraka swarasa), in the purification of Kupeelu seeds. In the present study an attempt has been made to purify the seeds by performing two different methods (one classical and another traditional) using Kanji and Ardrakaswarasa as Shodhana media. This study reveals that both the methods studied reduce the strychnine and brucine contents in comparison to the raw seeds as determined by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). After purification in Kanji and Ardraka swarasa, the strychnine content was reduced by 39.25% and 67.82%, respectively, and the brucine content in the purified seeds was also found to have decreased by 17.60% and 40.06%, in comparison to the raw seeds. PMID:22529660

  13. A comparative anti-inflammatory activity of raw and processed Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) seeds on albino rats.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Swarnendu; Kumar, Vijay; Ashok, Bk; Acharya, R N; Ravishankar, B

    2011-10-01

    Seeds of Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.), a known poisonous drug, is used extensively in various Ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommends the administration of Kupeelu only after passing through specific purificatory procedures in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel) etc. Strychnos nux vomica seeds are extensively advocated for nervous debility, paralysis, and weakness of limbs, sexual weakness, dyspepsia, and dysentery and in rheumatism where it can be assumed that besides other properties, Kupeelu may have some sort of anti-inflammatory activity too. In the present study, the powder of raw and processed Kupeelu seeds (processed / purified with Kanji i.e sour gruel) as test drugs were assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by employing Carrageenan and Formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema in Wistar strain albino rats at a dose of 22.5 mg/kg body weight orally. This study reveals that both raw and purified Kupeelu showed presence of highly significant anti-inflammatory activity against formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema, but did not have similar activity against Carrageenan induced hind paw oedema. PMID:23284209

  14. Hypolipidemic activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of Cyperus scariosus Linn. root in guinea pigs fed with a high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Chawda, Hiren M; Mandavia, Divyesh R; Parmar, Pravin H; Baxi, Seema N; Tripathi, Chandrabhanu R

    2014-11-01

    Lipid-lowering and antioxidant activities of a hydroalcoholic extract of Cyperus scariosus Linn. root (HCS) were evaluated in guinea pigs fed with a high cholesterol diet. Serum lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and HDL-C), atherogenic indices and serum enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, and CK-MB) were performed in each group at 0 days and at the end of 60 days. Histological study of liver and kidney was done in groups 1, 2, 5, 6 and 7. The total phenolic and flavonoid content in HCS and its antioxidant activity were evaluated by the DPPH assay. Both doses of HCS decreased serum lipid profile and atherogenic indices (P < 0.05). HCS has lipid lowering, immunosuppressive and antioxidant properties, and mays have value in atherosclerosis prevention. The higher dose of HCS also reduced serum AST, ALP, and LDH levels and rosuvastatin increased AST and ALP levels (P < 0.05). Histology of the liver showed decreased lipid accumulation and improvement in hepatocytes in HCS-treated animals. The antioxidant activity of HCS may be responsible for its lipid lowering and cytoprotective action. HCS had significant lipid lowering and antioxidant activity, which; may be due to the phenolic compounds. HCS may be a safe and cost effective alternative to current statin therapy for patients with dyslipidaemia. PMID:25480512

  15. Lipid lowering effect of S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide from Allium cepa Linn in high cholesterol diet fed rats.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Kumud; Augusti, K T

    2007-02-12

    The lipid lowering action of S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide (SMCS) isolated from Allium cepa Linn (family: Liliaceae) was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats fed on 1% cholesterol diet, in comparison to the hypolipidemic drug gugulipid. Administration of SMCS at a dose of 200mg/kg body weight for 45 days ameliorated the hyperlipidemic condition. The lipid profile in serum and tissues showed that concentrations of cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipids were significantly reduced when compared to their untreated counterparts. The total lipoprotein lipase activity in the adipose tissue was decreased with also a decrease in the free fatty acid levels in serum and tissues. The activities of the lipogenic enzymes glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme as also of HMG CoA reductase in the tissues remained low on treatment indicating that both the drugs did not favor lipogenesis and cholesterogenesis in the hyperlipidemic animals. The fecal excretion of bile acids and sterols was further increased upon treatment with the drugs. The results are directive to that both gugulipid and SMCS cause reduction of endogenous lipogenesis, increase catabolism of lipids and subsequent excretion of metabolic by-products through the intestinal tract. However, gugulipid is a better drug than SMCS at a low dose of 50mg/kg body weight. PMID:16987625

  16. Synthesis, activity, and QSAR studies of tryptamine derivatives on third-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti Linn.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rafael R B; Brito, Thaysnara B; Nepel, Angelita; Costa, Emmanoel V; Barison, Andersson; Nunes, Rogéria S; Santos, Roseli L C; Cavalcanti, Sócrates C H

    2014-01-01

    Special attention has been given to the mosquito Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae) owing to numerous dengue epidemic outbreaks worldwide. Failure to control vector spreading is accounted for unorganized urban growth and resistance to larvicides and insecticides. Therefore, researchers are currently searching for new and more efficient larvicides and insecticides to aid dengue control measures. Triptamine is known to affect insect behavior, development, and physiology. Expression of this compound in plants has reduced the growth rate of herbivore insects. In view of these facts, it was of our interest to synthesize triptamine amide derivatives as potential larvicides against Ae. aegypti, establishing a Structure-Activity Relationship. Eleven amide derivatives of triptamine were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for their larvicidal activity against third-instar Ae. aegypti larvae. N-(2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl)-2,2,2-trichloroacetamide exhibited the highest overall larvicidal potency, while N-(2-(1H-Indol-3-yl)ethyl) acetamide displayed the lowest larvicidal potency. A regression equation correlating the larvicidal activity with Log P was obtained. We have found a clear relationship between the larvicidal activity of non-chlorinated compounds and Log P. Analysis of the relationship between Log P and larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti may be useful in the evaluation of potential larvicidal compounds. PMID:24295020

  17. Comparative study of chemical composition and antioxidant activity of fresh and dry rhizomes of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.).

    PubMed

    Singh, G; Kapoor, I P S; Singh, Pratibha; de Heluani, Carola S; de Lampasona, Marina P; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2010-04-01

    The phytoconstituents of essential oil and ethanol oleoresin of fresh and dry rhizomes of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.) were analyzed by GC-MS. The major constituents were aromatic-turmerone (24.4%), alpha-turmerone (20.5%) and beta-turmerone (11.1%) in fresh rhizome and aromatic-turmerone (21.4%), alpha-santalene (7.2%) and aromatic-curcumene (6.6%) in dry rhizome oil. Whereas, in oleoresins, the major components were alpha-turmerone (53.4%), beta-turmerone (18.1%) and aromatic-turmerone (6.2%) in fresh and aromatic-turmerone (9.6%), alpha-santalene (7.8%) and alpha-turmerone (6.5%) in dry rhizome. Results showed that alpha-turmerone, a major component in fresh rhizomes is only minor one in dry rhizomes. Also, the content of beta-turmerone in dry rhizomes is less than a half amount found in fresh rhizomes. The antioxidant properties have been assessed by various lipid peroxidation assays as well as DPPH radical scavenging and metal chelating methods. The essential oil and ethanol oleoresin of fresh rhizomes have higher antioxidant properties as compared dry ones. PMID:20096323

  18. Analysis of endophytic fungi in roots of Santalum album Linn. and its host plant Kuhnia rosmarinifolia Vent.*

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Si-sheng; Chen, Xiao-mei; Guo, Shun-xing

    2014-01-01

    Santalum album Linn. is an evergreen and hemi-parasitic tree, the heartwood-sandalwood of which was used during a long history in traditional Chinese medicine. Kuhnia rosmarinifolia Vent. is a good host for 1- or 2-year-old growing S. album. The interaction between S. album and K. rosmarinifolia is still little known. Many studies have been carried out on a number of plants for identification and diversity of endophytes. In this study, in total 25 taxa of endophytic fungi were isolated from the roots of S. album and the roots of K. rosmarinifolia. The most frequently isolated genera were Penicillium sp. 1 and Fusarium sp. 1 in the roots of S. album and K. rosmarinifolia, respectively. S. album is a root parasite of K. rosmarinifolia. The interesting result is that they apparently do not share the same endophytic fungi isolates. This study for the first time explored the content of endophytic fungi from S. album and K. rosmarinifolia, which provides important information for further studies. PMID:24510703

  19. Safety Evaluation of Oral Toxicity of Carica papaya Linn. Leaves: A Subchronic Toxicity Study in Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Zakiah; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Abdul Rashid, Badrul Amini; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    The subchronic toxicity effect of the leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn. in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats was investigated in this study. The extract was prepared by dissolving the freeze dried extract of the leaves in distilled water and was administered orally to SD rats (consisted of 10 rats/sex/group) at 0 (control), 0.01, 0.14, and 2?g/kg body weight (BW) for 13 weeks. General observation, mortality, and food and water intake were monitored throughout the experimental period. Hematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and histopathological changes were evaluated. The study showed that leaf extract when administered for 13 weeks did not cause any mortality and abnormalities of behavior or changes in body weight as well as food and water intake. There were no significant differences observed in hematology parameters between treatment and control groups; however significant differences were seen in biochemistry values, for example, LDH, creatinine, total protein, and albumin. However, these changes were not associated with histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested that daily oral administration of rats with C. papaya leaf extract for 13 weeks at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in traditional medicine practice did not cause any significant toxic effect. PMID:25530788

  20. Selected hydrogeologic data from the Cedar Rapids Area, Benton and Linn counties, Iowa, October 1992 through March 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schnoebelen, D.J.; Schulmeyer, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    The city of Cedar Rapids, Iowa, obtains its water supply from shallow wells screened in the alluvial aquifer along the Cedar River. A cooperative study between the city of Cedar Rapids, Iowa, and the U.S. Geological Survey was started in March 1992 to assess the water quality and water quantity of the ground-water resource. This report summarizes selected hydrogeologic data collected from October 1992 through March 1996. Information collected includes water quality (major ions, nutrients, and pesticides), ground-water levels, multiprobe-instrument (water levels, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen monitored at 15-, 30-, or 60-minute intervals), well information (location, casing type, screen interval, and depth), and geophysical seismic- refraction and seismic-reflection data (estimated depth to bedrock and alluvial thickness along the Cedar River). Geologic, hydrologic, and water-quality data were collected from domestic, municipal, observation, and industrial wells and the Cedar River. Well-construction data for more than 300 wells in the Cedar Rapids area in Benton and Linn Counties, Iowa, were compiled primarily from records on file with the Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Geologic Survey Burea (Iowa City).

  1. Protective effect of Cassia fistula Linn. on diethylnitrosamine induced hepatocellular damage and oxidative stress in ethanol pretreated rats.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, Kannampalli; Raj Mohan, Chandrasekaran Victor; Gobianand, Kupannan; Karthikeyan, Sivanesan

    2010-01-01

    Diethylnitrosamine (DEN), found in many commonly consumed foods, is widely reported to induce cancer in animals and humans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the leaf extract of the medicinal plant Cassia fistula Linn. against diethylnitrosamine induced liver injury in ethanol pretreated rats. Albino Wistar rats, pretreated with ethanol for 15 days, were administered a single dose of DEN. Thirty days after DEN administration, hepatotocellular damage was observed histologically, along with elevated levels of serum AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, ?-GT and bilirubin and a simultaneous fall in the levels of the marker enzymes in the liver tissue. Liver oxidative stress was confirmed by elevated levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and a decrease in enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants activities. Oral administration of the ethanolic leaf extract (ELE) of Cassia fistula for 30 days to ethanol + DEN treated rats significantly improved the above alterations in the markers of hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress, resulting in the reversal of most of the parameters studied and were comparable to the standard hepatoprotective drug silymarin. PMID:21157638

  2. Anacardium occidentale Linn. (Anacardiaceae) stem bark extract induces hypotensive and cardio-inhibitory effects in experimental animal models.

    PubMed

    Tchikaya, Francis Olivier; Bantsielé, Guy Bernard; Kouakou-Siransy, Gisèle; Datté, Jacques Yao; Yapo, Paul Angoue; Zirihi, Noel Guedé; Offoumou, Michel Atté

    2011-01-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn. (Anacardiaceae) is a plant largely used in Africa for the treatment of different diseases. In Côte d'Ivoire it's commonly used for the treatment of hypertension. The present study was carried out in order to assess the effects of Anacardium occidentale extract (ANOE) on cardiovascular parameters in animal models. A mercury manometer kymograph of Ludwig was used to measure the blood pressure of normotensive rabbits in control conditions (normal physiological solution) and under the influence of ANOE. The contractile activity of an isolated rat heart was also measured in control conditions and under the influence of ANOE in different physiological media using a modified Langendhorff (1895) apparatus. The aqueous Anacardium occidentale (ANOE) bark extract applied intravenously in different doses (12, 40, 90, and 167 mg/kg b.w.), produced a significant dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure of previously normotensive rabbits (up to 89% vs control). Atropine (1 mg/ml) pre-treatment failed to reverse the hypotensive effects elicited by the extract. ANOE applied to isolated rat heart preparations in different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10 µg/ml) induced negative inotropic and chronotropic effects. Atropine pre-treatment of heart preparations (0.1 µg/ml) failed to reverse the negative effects induced by ANOE. The extract's action on heart contractile activity studied in modified culture media further confirmed its cardio-inhibitory effects. ANOE induced strong hypotensive and cardio-inhibitory effects in animal models. PMID:22654226

  3. Inhibitory effects of bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn. on bacterial mutagenesis and aberrant crypt focus forma? tion in the rat colon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sawitree Chiampanichayakul; Keiko Kataoka; Hideki Arimochi; Tomomi Kuwahara; Haruyuki Nakayama; Usanee Vinitketkumnuen; Yoshinari Ohnishi

    2001-01-01

    Antimutagenicity and chemopreventive activity of an 80%-ethanol extract of bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn.) against the formation of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) was investigated. The bitter melon extract was nonmutagenic and inhibited the mutagenicity of heterocyclic amines 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoline and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine, and aflatoxin B1 in the Salmonella mutation assay. To examine the inhibitory effect of bitter melon on AOM-induced

  4. Development of HPLC method by UV-VIS detection for the quantification of phenolic acids in different Ocimum sanctum Linn. extracts.

    PubMed

    Shafqatullah; Khan, Rasool; Hassan, Waseem; Hussain, Arshad; Asadullah; Rehman, Khaliqur; Ali, Javid

    2014-09-01

    A simple and rapid chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of five phenolic acids including Gallic acid, Chloroganic acid, Syringic acid, Benzoic acid and Vanillic acid by HPLC with UV-VIS detector. These Phenolic acids were separated by analytical column Intersil ODS-3 C18, a gradient elution system of ACN and acidified water solution with 1ml/min flow rate and quantified in a total run of 30 minutes at 210nm wavelength. In the quantitative analysis of these compounds showed good regression (0.995-0.999). The limit of detection [LOD] and limit of quantification [LOQ] of these compounds were in the range of 0.15-0.46 and 0.42-2.47 ?g/mL. The average recoveries were between 95.8-103.1% and their RSD values were less than 3.34%. By the proposed method Gallic acid, Chloroganic acid and Syringic acid were found and quantified in Methanolic, Ethanolic and Acetonic extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves. While the two other phenolic acids benzoic acid and vanillic acid was not found in the extracts of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves. PMID:25176382

  5. Assessment of the cytotoxic and anti-viral potential of aqueous extracts from different parts of Acacia nilotica (Linn) Delile against Peste des petits ruminants virus.

    PubMed

    Raheel, Rizwana; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ejaz, Sohail; Javeed, Aqeel; Altaf, Imran

    2013-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV); a negative sense single stranded RNA enveloped virus that causes Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), is dramatically affecting the health status of ruminants all around the world resulting in extensive economical losses in livestock sector. Acacia nilotica (Linn) Delile; a tannin-rich medicinal plant distributed throughout subcontinent, is traditionally used as food for ruminants and possesses anti-viral potential against different RNA viruses. In the current study, aqueous extracts from the bark, leaves and pods of A. nilotica (Linn) Delile indica were evaluated for their cytotoxicity and anti-viral activities against PPRV by adopting MTT colorimetric assay and anti-viral assay using Vero cell line. Aqueous extract from the leaves presented significantly better (P<0.05) anti-PPRV activities in comparison to pods extract. On the contrary, bark extract did not show any anti-viral activity. The data presented in the study could pave a way toward the discovery of novel anti-viral chemicals in the plants against PPRV and other viral diseases. PMID:23262040

  6. Anti-Obesity Effects of Melastoma malabathricum var Alba Linn in Rats Fed with a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Karupiah, Sundram; Ismail, Zhari

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is one of the major public health problems worldwide and it is generally associated with many diseases. Although synthetic drugs are available for the treatment of obesity, herbal remedies may provide safe, natural, and cost-effective alternative to synthetic drugs. One example of such drugs is Melastoma malabathricum var Alba Linn (MM). Although several studies have been reported for the pharmacological activities of MM, there is no report on the anti-obesity effect of MM. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the anti-obesity potential of methanolic extract of MM. The anti-obesity effect of MM on rats fed with a high-fat diet was investigated through determination of the changes in body weight, fat weight, organ weights, and blood biochemicals. The animals in this study were divided into three groups: a normal group with a standard diet (N), a control group fed with high-fat diet (C), and a MM treatment group fed with high-fat (HFD + MM) diet for 8 weeks. There was no significant difference in the amount of food intake between control and HFD + MM treatments. These results also suggest that MM does not induce a dislike for the diet due to its smell or taste. The study shows that MM significantly prevented increases in body weight, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and total lipids that resulted from the high-fat diet. MM also decreased the epididymal fat (E-fat) and retroperitoneal fat (R-fat) weights and phospholipid concentrations induced by the high-fat diet. On the basis of these findings, it was concluded that MM had anti-obesity effects by suppressing body weight gain and abdominal fat formation. PMID:25374344

  7. In vitro antibacterial activity and acute toxicity studies of aqueous-methanol extract of Sida rhombifolia Linn. (Malvaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many bacteria among the Enterobacteria family are involved in infectious diseases and diarrhoea. Most of these bacteria become resistant to the most commonly used synthetic drugs in Cameroon. Natural substances seem to be an alternative to this problem. Thus the aim of this research was to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the methanol and aqueous-methanol extracts of Sida rhombifolia Linn (Malvaceae) against seven pathogenic bacteria involved in diarrhoea. Acute toxicity of the most active extract was determined and major bioactive components were screened. Methods The agar disc diffusion and the agar dilution method were used for the determination of inhibition diameters and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MICs) respectively. The acute toxicity study was performed according WHO protocol. Results The aqueous-methanol extract (1v:4v) was the most active with diameters of inhibition zones ranging from 8.7 - 23.6 mm, however at 200 ?g/dic this activity was relatively weak compared to gentamycin. The MICs of the aqueous-methanol extract (1v:4v) varied from 49.40 to 78.30 ?g/ml. Salmonella dysenteriae was the most sensitive (49.40 ?g/ml). For the acute toxicity study, no deaths of rats were recorded. However, significant increase of some biochemical parameters such as aspartate amino-transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and creatinine (CRT) were found. The phytochemical analysis of the aqueous methanol extract indicated the presence of tannins, polyphenols, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids and saponins Conclusion The results showed that the aqueous-methanol extract of S. rhombifolia exhibited moderate antibacterial activity. Some toxic effects were found when rats received more than 8 g/kg bw of extract. Antibacterial; Enterobacteria; Acute toxicity; Phytochemical analysis PMID:20663208

  8. Protective effect of Calendula officinalis Linn. flowers against 3-nitropropionic acid induced experimental Huntington's disease in rats.

    PubMed

    Shivasharan, B D; Nagakannan, Pandian; Thippeswamy, Boreddy Shivanandappa; Veerapur, Veeresh Prabakar; Bansal, Punit; Unnikrishnan, Mazhuvancherry K

    2013-10-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) and nitric oxide mechanisms have been recently proposed in 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced neurotoxicity. The compounds, having antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and estrogenic effects, have been suggested for neuroprotection in different experimental models. Calendula officinalis Linn. flower extract (COE) is known for its potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, estrogenic and neuroprotective activities. Hence, the present study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of COE on 3-NP-induced neurotoxicity in rats by observing behavioral changes, OS and striatal damage in rat brain. Adult female Wistar rats were pretreated with vehicle or COE (100 and 200 mg/kg) for 7 days, followed by cotreatment with 3-NP (15 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) for the next 7 days. At the end of the treatment schedule, rats were evaluated for alterations in sensory motor functions and short-term memory. Animals were sacrificed and brain homogenates were used for the estimation of lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione, total thiols, glutathione S-transferase, catalase and nitrite. A set of brain slices was used for the evaluation of neuronal damage in the striatal region of the brain. 3-NP caused significant alterations in animal behavior, oxidative defense system evidenced by raised levels of LPO and nitrite concentration, and depletion of antioxidant levels. It also produced a loss of neuronal cells in the striatal region. Treatment with COE significantly attenuated behavioral alterations, oxidative damage and striatal neuronal loss in 3-NP-treated animals. The present study shows that COE is protective against 3-NP-induced neurotoxicity in rats. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and estrogenic properties of COE may be responsible for its neuroprotective action. PMID:23590827

  9. Histological studies of neuroprotective effects of Curcuma longa Linn. on neuronal loss induced by dexamethasone treatment in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Issuriya, Acharaporn; Kumarnsit, Ekkasit; Wattanapiromsakul, Chatchai; Vongvatcharanon, Uraporn

    2014-10-01

    Long term exposure to dexamethasone (Dx) is associated with brain damage especially in the hippocampus via the oxidative stress pathway. Previously, an ethanolic extract from Curcuma longa Linn. (CL) containing the curcumin constituent has been reported to produce antioxidant effects. However, its neuroprotective property on brain histology has remained unexplored. This study has examined the effects of a CL extract on the densities of cresyl violet positive neurons and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive (GFAP-ir) astrocytes in the hippocampus of Dx treated male rats. It showed that 21 days of Dx treatment (0.5mg/kg, i.p. once daily) significantly reduced the densities of cresyl violet positive neurons in the sub-areas CA1, CA3 and the dentate gyrus, but not in the CA2 area. However, CL pretreatment (100mg/kg, p.o.) was found to significantly restore neuronal densities in the CA1 and dentate gyrus. In addition, Dx treatment also significantly decreased the densities of the GFAP-ir astrocytes in the sub-areas CA1, CA3 and the dentate gyrus. However, CL pretreatment (100mg/kg, p.o.) failed to protect the loss of astrocytes in these sub-areas. These findings confirm the neuroprotective effects of the CL extract and indicate that the cause of astrocyte loss might be partially reduced by a non-oxidative mechanism. Moreover, the detection of neuronal and glial densities was suitable method to study brain damage and the effects of treatment. PMID:25440530

  10. Biochemical Evaluation of the Hypoglycemic Effects of Extract and Fraction of Cassia fistula Linn. in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Jarald, E E; Joshi, S B; Jain, D C; Edwin, S

    2013-07-01

    Various extracts of flowers of Cassia fistula Linn (Leguminosae) such as petroleum ether (60-80°), chloroform, acetone, ethanol, aqueous, and crude aqueous extracts and two fractions of ethanol extract were tested for antihyperglycemic activity in glucose-overloaded hyperglycemic rats. The effective antihyperglycemic extracts and fraction were tested for their hypoglycemic activity at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. To confirm their utility in higher models, the effective extracts and fraction of C. fistula were subjected to antidiabetic study in an alloxan-induced diabetic model at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Biochemical parameters like glucose, urea, creatinine, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, hemoglobin, and glycosylated hemoglobin were also assessed in experimental animals. The petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of C. fistula and the water-soluble fraction of ethanol extract were found to exhibit significant antihyperglycemic activity. The extracts, at the given doses, did not produce hypoglycemia in fasted normal rats, and the fraction exhibited weak hypoglycemic effect after 2 h of the treatment. Treatment of diabetic rats with ethanol extract and water-soluble fraction of this plant restored the elevated biochemical parameters significantly (P<0.05) to the normal level. No activity was found in the petroleum ether extract of the plant. Comparatively, the water-soluble fraction of ethanol extract was found to be more effective than the ethanol extract, and the activity was comparable with that of the standard, glibenclamide (5 mg/kg). PMID:24302797

  11. Potentiation of the antiinflammatory effect of Anacardium occidentale (Linn.) stem-bark aqueous extract by grapefruit juice.

    PubMed

    Ojewole, J A O

    2004-04-01

    In an attempt to scientifically appraise some of the ethnomedical uses of Anacardium occidentale Linn. (family: Anacardiaceae), the present study was undertaken to examine the antiinflammatory effect of the plant's stem-bark aqueous extract in rats. Young adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were used. The antiinflammatory effect of A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract alone and in combination with grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) juice was investigated on fresh egg albumin-induced rat paw edema. Like diclofenac (100 mg/kg p.o.), aqueous extract of A. occidentale stem-bark (800 mg/kg p.o.) produced time-related, sustained and significant reduction (p < 0.05-0.001) of the fresh egg albumin-induced acute inflammation of the rat hind paw. However, the antiinflammatory effect of the plant extract was found to be approximately 8-15 times less than that of diclofenac. Coadministration of grapefruit juice (5 ml/kg p.o.) with A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract (800 mg/kg p.o.) or diclofenac (100 mg/kg p.o.) significantly potentiated (p < 0.05-0.001) the antiinflammatory effects of the crude plant extract and diclofenac on fresh egg albumin-induced rat paw edema. Although A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract is less potent than diclofenac as an antiinflammatory agent, the results of this experimental animal study indicate that the plant extract possesses antiinflammatory activity, and thus lend pharmacological support to the folkloric use of the plant in the management and/or control of arthritis and other inflammatory conditions among the Yoruba-speaking people of western Nigeria. PMID:15148523

  12. Ecology and Management of Diffuse Knapweed (Centaurea diffusa Lam.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jim Jacobs; Sharlene Sing

    A close relative of spotted knapweed in the Asteraceae taxonomic family, diffuse knapweed is typically biennial, reproducing exclusively by seed. It forms a rosette with a central crown and tap root in the juvenile stage and a single upright stem one to three feet (0.3 to 0.9 m) tall with numerous spreading branches at maturity. White (occasionally purple) flowers are

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhiza enhanced arsenic resistance of both white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) plants in an arsenic-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yan; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Smith, F Andrew; Wang, Youshan; Chen, Baodong

    2008-09-01

    In a compartmented cultivation system, white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), with their roots freely intermingled, or separated by 37 microm nylon mesh or plastic board, were grown together in an arsenic (As) contaminated soil. The influence of AM inoculation on plant growth, As uptake, phosphorus (P) nutrition, and plant competitions were investigated. Results showed that both plant species highly depended on mycorrhizas for surviving the As contamination. Mycorrhizal inoculation substantially improved plant P nutrition, and in contrast markedly decreased root to shoot As translocation and shoot As concentrations. It also showed that mycorrhizas affected the competition between the two co-existing plant species, preferentially benefiting the clover plants in term of nutrient acquisition and biomass production. Based on the present study, the role of AM fungi in plant adaptation to As contamination, and their potential use for ecological restoration of As contaminated soils are discussed. PMID:18060670

  14. A New Flavone Glycoside, 5Hydroxy 7,3?,4?,5?-Tetra-Methoxyflavone 5-O-?-D-Xylopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-L-Rhamnopyranoside from Bauhinia Variegata Linn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. N. Yadava; V. M. S. Reddy

    2001-01-01

    A new flavone glycoside m.f. C30H36O15, m.p. 252–253°C, [M] 636 (EIMS) was isolated from the acetone soluble fraction of the concentrated 95% ethanolic extract of the seeds of Bauhinia variegata (Linn). It was identified as 5-hydroxy7,3?,4?,5?-tetra-methoxyflavone 5-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-?-L-rhamnopyranoside (1) by various colour reactions, chemical degradations and spectral techniques.

  15. Laboratory evaluation of the hypoglycemic effect of Anacardium occidentale Linn (Anacardiaceae) stem-bark extracts in rats.

    PubMed

    Ojewole, J A O

    2003-04-01

    This study evaluated the hypoglycemic effect of stem-bark extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn., of the Anacardiaceae family, in normal (normoglycemic) and in streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. Young adult, male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were used. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the test rats by intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (STZ, 90 mg/kg). In one set of experiments, graded doses of the aqueous and methanolic stem-bark extracts of A. occidentale (100-800 mg/kg p.o.) were separately administered to groups of fasted normal and fasted diabetic rats. In another set of experiments, 800 mg/kg p.o. of the aqueous or methanolic extract of the plant, a dose which produced maximal hypoglycemic effects in both fasted normal and diabetic rats in the previous set of experiments, were used. The hypoglycemic effects of single doses (i.e., 800 mg/kg p.o.) of A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous and methanolic extracts were compared with those of insulin (5 microU/kg s.c.) and glibenclamide (0.2 mg/kg p.o.) in both fasted normal and fasted diabetic rats. Following acute treatment, relatively moderate-to-high doses of A. occidentale stem-bark extracts (100-800 mg/kg p.o.) produced dose-dependent, significant reductions (p< 0.05-0.001) in the blood glucose concentrations of both fasted normal and fasted diabetic rats. On their own, both insulin (5 microU/kg s.c.) and glibenclamide (0.2 mg/kg p.o.) produced significant reductions (p< 0.01-0.001) in the blood glucose concentrations of the fasted normal and fasted diabetic rats. At single doses of 800 mg/kg p.o., A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous and methanolic extracts significantly reduced (p< 0.001) the mean basal blood glucose concentrations of fasted normal and fasted diabetic rats. The hypoglycemic effect of the methanolic plant extract was found to be slightly more pronounced than that of the aqueous plant extract in both the normal and diabetic rats examined. A. occidentale contains a diverse group of chemical compounds. Since methanol extractives of plants usually contain many chemical compounds, each of which is capable of producing definite biological activities via different mechanisms, it is difficult to draw any logical conclusion on the mechanism of the hypoglycemic effect of such a diverse mixture of chemical compounds contained in the plant extracts used in this study. While it is possible that the hypoglycemic effects of the plant extracts may be due, at least in part, to their terpenoid and/or coumarin contents, the mechanism of their hypoglycemic action remains largely speculative. However, this is unlikely to be due to the stimulation of pancreatic beta-cells and subsequent secretion of insulin. Although A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous or methanolic extract is less potent than insulin as an antidiabetic agent, the results of this experimental animal study indicate that it possesses hypoglycemic activity, and thus lends credence to the folkloric use of the plant in the management and/or control of adult-onset, type-2 diabetes mellitus among the Yoruba-speaking people of Western Nigeria. PMID:12743624

  16. Studies on hepatoprotective and antioxidant actions of Strychnos potatorum Linn. seeds on CCl4-induced acute hepatic injury in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Sanmugapriya, E; Venkataraman, S

    2006-04-21

    Strychnos potatorum Linn. seeds are used in the Indian traditional system of medicine for the treatment of hepatopathy, nephropathy, gonorrhoea, leucorrhoea, gastropathy, bronchitis, chronic diarrhoea, strangury, renal and vesicle calculi, diabetes and eye diseases. The present study describes the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the seed powder (SPP) and aqueous extract (SPE) of Strychnos potatorum seeds against CCl4-induced acute hepatic injury. Hepatic injury was achieved by injecting 3 ml/kg, s.c. of CCl4 in equal proportion with olive oil. Both SPP and SPE at the doses 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. offered significant (p < 0.001) hepatoprotective action by reducing the serum marker enzymes like serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT). They also reduced the elevated levels of ALP and serum bilirubin. Reduced enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidant levels and elevated lipid peroxide levels were restored to normal by administration of SPP and SPE. Histopathological studies further confirmed the hepatoprotective activity of SPP and SPE when compared with the CCl4 treated control groups. The results obtained were compared with Silymarin (50 mg/kg, p.o.), the standard drug. In conclusion, SPE (200 mg/kg, p.o.) showed significant hepatoprotective activity similar to that of the standard drug, Silymarin (50 mg/kg, p.o.). PMID:16388923

  17. Isolation, Characterization, and RP-HPLC Estimation of P-Coumaric Acid from Methanolic Extract of Durva Grass (Cynodon dactylon Linn.) (Pers.)

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, Ramadoss; Devadasu, Chapala; Srinivasa Babu, Puttagunta

    2015-01-01

    P-coumaric acid is a nonflavonoid phenolic acid and is a major constituent of the species Cynodon dactylon Linn. (Pers.). In this study isolation of P-coumaric acid was achieved by preparative TLC and the compound thus isolated was characterised by UV, mass, and H1 NMR spectral analysis. An isocratic RP-HPLC method was developed for the estimation of P-coumaric acid from methanolic extracts of durva grass. The chromatographic separations were achieved by RP-C18 column (250?mm?×?4.6?mm, 5??), Shimadzu LC-20AT Prominence liquid chromatograph, and a mobile phase composed of water?:?methanol?:?glacial acetic acid (65?:?34?:?1?v/v). The flow rate was 1.0?mL/min and the analyses of column effluents were performed using UV-visible detector at 310?nm. Retention time of P-coumaric acid was found to be 6.617?min. This method has obeyed linearity over the concentration range of 2–10??g/mL and the regression coefficient obtained from linearity plot for P-coumaric acid was found to be 0.999. RP-HPLC method was validated in pursuance of ICH guidelines. PMID:25788944

  18. Lupeol Is One of Active Components in the Extract of Chrysanthemum indicum Linne That Inhibits LMP1-Induced NF-?B Activation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yoon-Jae

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported that seventy percent ethanol extract of Chrysanthemum indicum Linne (CIE) strongly reduces Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) survival by inhibiting virus-encoded latent infection membrane protein 1 (LMP1)-induced NF-?B activation. To identify an active compound(s) in CIE that inhibits LMP1-induced NF-?B activation, activity-guided fractionation was employed. The CH2Cl2 fraction of CIE strongly reduced LMP1-induced NF-?B activation and LCL viability with relatively low cytotoxic effects on primary human foreskin fibroblast (HFF), HeLa or Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL41) cells. Furthermore, lupeol, a pentacyclic triterpene, was identified in the CH2Cl2 fraction of CIE to attenuate LMP1-induced NF-?B activation and LCL viability. This study demonstrates that lupeol is one of active compounds in the CH2Cl2 fraction of CIE that inhibits LMP1-induced NF-?B activation and reduces NF-?B-dependent LCL viability. PMID:24303085

  19. Therapy with methanolic extract of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb and Ocimum sanctum Linn reverses dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in alloxan induced type I diabetic rat model.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prem Kumar; Baxi, Darshee; Banerjee, Sudip; Ramachandran, A V

    2012-07-01

    Methanolic extracts of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb (P. marsupium) and Ocimum sanctum Linn (O. sanctum) were prepared separately and then administered to both non-diabetic and alloxan induced diabetic adult female Wistar rats as a mixture of both at a dosage of 500mg/kg body weight, and its effect was checked on serum and tissue lipids together with corticosterone, estrogen and progesterone profile. Further, tissue load of metabolites (cholesterol), enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status together with lipid peroxidation levels and serum markers of hepatic and renal damage were also assessed. Results of the present study strongly support the possibility of this herbal combination in humans to meet the objective of achieving a holistic amelioration and cure of diabetes as, the herbal extract mixture of P. marsupium and O. sanctum has succeeded in not only rectifying dyslipidemia but also in restoring the endogenous antioxidant levels to the pre diabetic status. Herbal preparations are ideal candidates of choice and in this context, the present combination of P. marsupium and O. sanctum provides compelling evidence for a holistic efficacy in amelioration of associated diabetic manifestations/dysregulations. PMID:21106356

  20. Effect of noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) fruit and its bioactive principles scopoletin and rutin on rat vas deferens contractility: an ex vivo study.

    PubMed

    Pandy, Vijayapandi; Narasingam, Megala; Kunasegaran, Thubasni; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MMC) and its bioactive principles, scopoletin and rutin, on dopamine- and noradrenaline-evoked contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. MMC (1-40 mg/mL), scopoletin (1-200 ?g/mL), and rutin hydrate (0.6-312.6 ?g/mL) dose-dependently inhibited the contractility evoked by submaximal concentrations of both dopamine and noradrenaline, respectively. Haloperidol and prazosin, reference dopamine D2, and ? 1-adrenoceptors antagonists significantly reversed the dopamine- and noradrenaline-induced contractions, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, MMC per se at higher doses (60-100 mg/mL) showed dose-dependent contractile response in rat vas deferens which was partially inhibited by high doses of haloperidol but not by prazosin. These results demonstrated the biphasic effects of MMC on dopaminergic system; that is, antidopaminergic effect at lower concentrations (<40 mg/mL) and dopaminergic agonistic effect at higher concentrations (>60 mg/mL). However, similar contractile response at high doses of scopoletin (0.5-5 mg/mL) and rutin hydrate (0.5-5 mg/mL) per se was not observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the bioactive principles of MMC, scopoletin, and rutin might be responsible for the antidopaminergic and antiadrenergic activities of MMC. PMID:25045753

  1. Effect of Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) Fruit and Its Bioactive Principles Scopoletin and Rutin on Rat Vas Deferens Contractility: An Ex Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Narasingam, Megala; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MMC) and its bioactive principles, scopoletin and rutin, on dopamine- and noradrenaline-evoked contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. MMC (1–40?mg/mL), scopoletin (1–200??g/mL), and rutin hydrate (0.6–312.6??g/mL) dose-dependently inhibited the contractility evoked by submaximal concentrations of both dopamine and noradrenaline, respectively. Haloperidol and prazosin, reference dopamine D2, and ?1-adrenoceptors antagonists significantly reversed the dopamine- and noradrenaline-induced contractions, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, MMC per se at higher doses (60–100?mg/mL) showed dose-dependent contractile response in rat vas deferens which was partially inhibited by high doses of haloperidol but not by prazosin. These results demonstrated the biphasic effects of MMC on dopaminergic system; that is, antidopaminergic effect at lower concentrations (<40?mg/mL) and dopaminergic agonistic effect at higher concentrations (>60?mg/mL). However, similar contractile response at high doses of scopoletin (0.5–5?mg/mL) and rutin hydrate (0.5–5?mg/mL) per se was not observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the bioactive principles of MMC, scopoletin, and rutin might be responsible for the antidopaminergic and antiadrenergic activities of MMC. PMID:25045753

  2. Comparative Studies on the Fungi and Bio-Chemical Characteristics of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) in Rivers State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuku, E. C.; Ogbonna, D. N.; Onuegbu, B. A.; Adeleke, M. T. V.

    Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake gourd but low in carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C when compared to the mineral fractions of tomatoes which has high values of calcium, iron, vitamins A and C. The mycoflora predominantly associated with the fruit rot of tomato were Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger, while other fungi isolates from Snake gourd include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari, Penicillium ita/icum and Neurospora crassa. Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger were common spoilage fungi to both the Tomato and Snake gourd. All the fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic. The duration for storage of the fruits at room temperature (28±1°C) showed that Tomato could store for 5 days while Snake gourd stored for as much as 7 days. Sensory evaluation shows that Snake gourd is preferred to Tomatoes because of its culinary and medicinal importance.

  3. Isolation of beta-mannanase from Cocos nucifera Linn haustorium and its application in the depolymerization of beta-(1,4)-linked D-mannans.

    PubMed

    Soumya, Rema S; Abraham, Emilia T

    2010-05-01

    Beta-mannanase was extracted from coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn) haustorium and purified through ammonium sulfate precipitation and sepharose 6B-lectin affinity chromatography. Coconut beta-mannanase is an acidic protein with a pI of 3.75. The molecular mass of coconut beta-mannanase (sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) was found to be 44 kDa and was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The optimum temperature and pH for enzyme activity was 70 degrees C and 5.2. The enzyme was used for the preparation of neutraceutical dietary supplement from galactomannans of guar gum and tender coconut kernel having a beta-(1,4)-linked D-mannose backbone. Depolymerized guar gum has 92% of oligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization of 3 and 7. Tender coconut kernel has a degree of polymerization of 9-39 oligosaccharides along with disaccharides and trisaccharides. Hence this mannanase will be useful to depolymerize beta-(1,4)-linked D-mannose polysaccharides from most plant sources to produce prebiotics in a cost-effective technique. PMID:20085503

  4. Investigation of Antidiabetic, Antihyperlipidemic, and In Vivo Antioxidant Properties of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. in Type 1 Diabetic Rats: An Identification of Possible Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, S.; Asokkumar, K.; Uma Maheswari, M.; Ravi, T. K.; Sivashanmugam, A. T.; Saravanan, S.; Rajasekaran, A.; Dharman, J.

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was aimed to study the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and in vivo antioxidant properties of the root of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced type 1 diabetic rats. Administration of ethanolic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus root (EESIR) 100 and 200?mg/kg to the STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant (P < .01) reduction in blood glucose and increase in body weight compared to diabetic control rats. Both the doses of EESIR-treated diabetic rats showed significant (P < .01) alteration in elevated lipid profile levels than diabetic control rats. The EESIR treatment in diabetic rats produced significant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels than diabetic control rats. Administration of EESIR 200?mg/kg produced significant (P < .01) higher antioxidant activity than EESIR 100?mg/kg. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of EESIR revealed the presence of biomarkers gallic acid and quercetin. In conclusion, EESIR possess antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and in vivo antioxidant activity in type 1 diabetic rats. Its antioxidant and lipid lowering effect will help to prevent diabetic complications, and these actions are possibly due to presence of above biomarkers. PMID:20953435

  5. Management of IUD-associated menorrhagia in female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Barthwal, M; Srivastava, K

    1991-03-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of antifibrinolytic agents (epsilon-aminocaproic acid, EACA; tranexamic acid, AMCA), anti-inflammatory drugs (indomethacin, IND; ibuprofen, IBU; naproxen, NAP) and root extract of the plant Boerhaavia diffusa (BD) on menstrual cycle length (MCL), duration of menstrual flow (DMF), menstrual iron loss (MIL) and activity of uterine tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in IUD-fitted monkeys. Premature onset of menstruation was observed in IUD-fitted monkeys (26.0 +/- 0.7 days, mean +/- SE) as compared to controls (28.7 +/- 0.4 days). No noteworthy change was observed in the MCL of drug treated monkeys as compared to IUD-fitted monkeys. An increase of 155%, 123.2%, and 288% was observed in the DMF, MIL and tPA activity after IUD insertion as compared to controls. Antifibrinolytic agents reduced the DMF, MIL and activity of tPA in IUD-fitted monkeys up to 117.4%, 116.4%, and 254%, whereas anti-inflammatory drugs caused a decrease only up to 69%, 95.1%, and 138%, respectively. Conclusively, root extract of B. diffusa treated IUD-fitted monkeys showed noticeable reduction in their DMF (124%), MIL (120.8%) and tPA activity (272%). PMID:1908176

  6. Characterization and inhibitive study of gel-grown hydroxyapatite crystals at physiological temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parekh, Bharat; Joshi, Mihir; Vaidya, Ashok

    2008-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite is very useful for various biomedical applications, due to its chemical similarity with mineralized bone of human. Hydroxyapatite is also responsible for arthropathy (joint disease). In the present study, the growth of hydroxyapatite crystals was carried out by using single-diffusion gel growth technique in silica hydro gel media, at physiological temperature. The growth of hydroxyapatite crystals under slow and controlled environment in gel medium can be simulated in a simple manner to the growth in human body. The crystals, formed in the Liesegang rings, were characterized by powder XRD, FTIR and dielectric study. The diffusion study is also carried out for the hydroxyapatite crystals using the moving boundary model. The inhibitive influence of various Ayurvedic medicinal plant extracts such as Boswellia serrata gum resin , Tribulus terrestris fruits, Rotula aquatica roots, Boerhaavia diffusa roots and Commiphora wightii, on the growth of hydroxyapatite was studied. Roots of R. aquatica and B. diffusa show some inhibition of the hydroxyapatite crystals in vitro. This preclinical study will be helpful to design the therapy for prevention of hydroxyapatite-based ailments.

  7. Toxicological Evaluation of Pooled Selected Fractions of Mimosa invisa and Protective Effect of Herbal Decoction.

    PubMed

    Usha, P T A; Gopakumar, N; Chandrasekhran Nair, A M; Nair, N Divakran

    2011-01-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity produced by the pooled selected fractions of Mimosa invisa in rabbits. An attempt was made to protect the animal from the toxicity using a decoction containing Hygrophila auriculata, Tribulus terrestris and Boerhaavia diffusa. Eighteen adult rabbits were divided into three groups of six animals each. Group I served as control. Group II received pooled fraction of M. invisa at 0.4 g/kg orally. Group III was administered with pooled fraction along with the decoction containing H. auriculata, T. terrestris and B. diffusa equivalent to 5 g/kg. The experiment was conducted for 20 days. Group II showed significant increase in biochemical parameters like alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, gamma glutamyl tranferase, creatine kinase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and urea, suggesting liver and kidney toxicity. Histopathological examination of the liver and kidney supported these findings. Heart also showed mild histopathological changes. Administration of decoction reversed the biochemical and histopathological changes, indicating the protective effect of decoction. PMID:21430929

  8. Isolation and characterisation of phosphate solubilising microorganisms from the cold desert habitat of Salix alba Linn. in trans Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Chatli, Anshu S; Beri, Viraj; Sidhu, B S

    2008-06-01

    Phosphate solubilising microorganisms (PSM) (bacteria and fungi) associated with Salix alba Linn. from Lahaul and Spiti valleys of Himachal Pradesh were isolated on Pikovskaya (PVK), modified Pikovskaya (MPVK) and National Botanical Research Institute agar (NBRIP) media by spread plating. The viable colony count of P-solubilising bacteria (PSB) and fungi (PSF) was higher in rhizosphere than that of non-rhizosphere. The frequency of PSM was highest on MPVK followed by NBRIP and PVK agar. The maximum proportion of PSM out of total bacterial and fungal count was found in upper Keylong while the least in Rong Tong. The PSB frequently were Gram-positive, endosporeforming, motile rods and belonged to Bacillus sp. The PSF mainly belonged to Penicillium sp., Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, A. spp. and non-sporulating sterile. Amongst the isolates with high efficiency for tricalcium phosphate (TCP) solubilisation, seven bacterial and seven fungal isolates dissolved higher amount of P from North Carolina rock phosphate (NCRP) than Mussoorie rock phosphate (MRP) and Udaipur rock phosphate (URP). However, the organisms solubilised higher-P in NBRIP broth than PVK broth. SBC5 (Bacillus sp.) and SBC7 (Bacillus sp.) bacterial isolates exhibited maximun P solubilisation (40 and 33 ?g ml(-1) respectively) whereas FC28 (Penicillium sp.) isolate (52.3 ?g ml(-1)) amongst fungi while solubilising URP. The amount of P solubilised was positively correlated with the decrease in pH of medium. SBC5 (Bacillus sp.), SBC7 (Bacillus sp.) and SBC4 (Micrococcus) decreased the pH of medium from 6.8 to 6.08 while FC28 (Penicillium sp.) and FC39 (Penicillium sp.) isolates of fungi recorded maximum decrease in pH of medium from 6.8 to 5.96 in NBRIP broth. PMID:23100719

  9. Drug/substance reversal effects of a novel tri-substituted benzoflavone moiety (BZF) isolated from Passiflora incarnata Linn.--a brief perspective.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Kamaldeep

    2003-12-01

    The present work is a mini-review of the author's original work on the plant Passiflora incarnata Linn., which is used in several parts of the world as a traditional medicine for the management of anxiety, insomnia, epilepsy and morphine addiction. A tri-substituted benzoflavone moiety (BZF) has been isolated from the bioactive methanol extract of this plant, which has been proposed in the author's earlier work to be responsible for the biological activities of this plant. The BZF moiety has exhibited significantly encouraging results in the reversal of tolerance and dependence of several addiction-prone psychotropic drugs, including morphine, nicotine, ethanol, diazepam and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, during earlier pharmacological studies conducted by the author. In addition to this, the BZF moiety has exhibited aphrodisiac, libido-enhancing and virility-enhancing properties in 2-year-old male rats. When administered concomitantly with nicotine, ethanol and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for 30 days in male rats, the BZF also prevented the drug-induced decline in sexuality in male rats. Because the BZF moiety isolated from P. incarnata is a tri-substituted derivative of alpha-naphthoflavone (7,8-benzoflavone), a well-known aromatase-enzyme inhibitor, the mode of action of BZF has been postulated to be a neurosteroidal mechanism vide in which the BZF moiety prevents the metabolic degradation of testosterone and upregulates blood - testosterone levels in the body. As several flavonoids (e.g. chrysin, apigenin) and other phytoconstituents also possess aromatase-inhibiting properties, and the IC50 value of such phytomoieties is the main factor determining their biochemical efficacy, by altering their chemical structures to attain a desirable IC50 value new insights in medical therapeutics can be attained, keeping in view the menace of drug abuse worldwide. PMID:14690874

  10. Flower Bud Transcriptome Analysis of Sapium sebiferum (Linn.) Roxb. and Primary Investigation of Drought Induced Flowering: Pathway Construction and G-Quadruplex Prediction Based on Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jinyan; Mao, Yingji; Liu, Wenbo; Shen, Yangcheng; Wu, Lifang

    2015-01-01

    Sapium sebiferum (Linn.) Roxb. (Chinese Tallow Tree) is a perennial woody tree and its seeds are rich in oil which hold great potential for biodiesel production. Despite a traditional woody oil plant, our understanding on S. sebiferum genetics and molecular biology remains scant. In this study, the first comprehensive transcriptome of S. sebiferum flower has been generated by sequencing and de novo assembly. A total of 149,342 unigenes were generated from raw reads, of which 24,289 unigenes were successfully matched to public database. A total of 61 MADS box genes and putative pathways involved in S. sebiferum flower development have been identified. Abiotic stress response network was also constructed in this work, where 2,686 unigenes are involved in the pathway. As for lipid biosynthesis, 161 unigenes have been identified in fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. Besides, the G-Quadruplexes in RNA of S. sebiferum also have been predicted. An interesting finding is that the stress-induced flowering was observed in S. sebiferum for the first time. According to the results of semi-quantitative PCR, expression tendencies of flowering-related genes, GA1, AP2 and CRY2, accorded with stress-related genes, such as GRX50435 and PRX?39562. This transcriptome provides functional genomic information for further research of S. sebiferum, especially for the genetic engineering to shorten the juvenile period and improve yield by regulating flower development. It also offers a useful database for the research of other Euphorbiaceae family plants. PMID:25738565

  11. Clinical study on the effect of decoction of Pavetta indica Linn. in treatment of Purishaja Krimi with special reference to Enterobius vermicularis infestation.

    PubMed

    Ediriweera, E R H S S; Rajapaksha, R P V J; Rathnayaka, R L Y U; Premakeerthi, W M S A; Premathilaka, S

    2013-07-01

    Pavetta indica Linn. (Family: Rubiaceae; Sanskrit name: Papata) is 2-5 m tall, shrub or small tree with opposite branches and grows in the Asia - Pacific region including Sri Lanka. Purishaja Krimi is one of the worm infestations described in Ayurveda. Enterobius vermicularis is among the most common of worms affecting children and adults. E. vermicularis is considered as one type of Purishaja Krimi. Sri Lankan traditional and ayurvedic physicians use P. indica to treat different ailments including Purishaja Krimi (E. vermicularis) infestations successfully. Since no scientific studies have been undertaken to study these effects so far, the present clinical study was carried out to evaluate the effect of P. indica in treatment of E. vermicularis infestation. Fifty patients between age of 5 and 12 years (Group A and B) and 50 patients between 13 and 65 years (Group C and D) with symptoms of E. vermicularis infestations such as itching in the anal region, impaired appetite, abdominal pain, eructation, diarrhea or constipation and presence of ova in stools were selected. Two decoction of the trail drug with different concentration was prepared. Group A and Group B were treated with 60 ml of decoction 1 and 60 ml of placebo respectively, twice daily for 14 days. Group C and Group D were treated with 120 ml of decoction 2 and 120 ml of placebo respectively, twice daily for 14 days. Groups A and C showed complete or partial reduction of symptoms, that is; itching in the anal region, impaired appetite, abdominal pain, eructation, diarrhea and also ova of E. vermicularis were absent in stools after treatment with P. indica. Decoction of P. indica can be recommended as an effective treatment for Purishaja Krimi (E. vermicularis infestation). PMID:24501518

  12. Juniperus communis Linn oil decreases oxidative stress and increases antioxidant enzymes in the heart of rats administered a diet rich in cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Gumral, Nurhan; Kumbul, Duygu Doguc; Aylak, Firdevs; Saygin, Mustafa; Savik, Emin

    2015-01-01

    It has been asserted that consumption of dietary cholesterol (Chol) raises atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and that Chol causes an increase in free radical production. Hypercholesterolemic diet has also been reported to cause changes in the antioxidant system. In our study, different doses of Juniperus communis Linn (JCL) oil, a tree species growing in Mediterranean and Isparta regions and having aromatic characteristics, were administered to rats; and the levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay (TBARS) were examined in the heart tissue of rats. In this study, 35 Wistar Albino male adult rats weighing approximately 250-300 g were used. The rats were divided into five groups of seven each. The control group was administered normal pellet chow, and the Chol group was administered pellet chow including 2% Chol, while 50 JCL, 100 JCL, and 200 JCL groups were administered 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg JCL oil dissolved in 0.5% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, respectively, in addition to the pellet chow containing 2% Chol, by gavage. After 30 days, the experiment was terminated and the antioxidant enzyme activities were examined in the heart tissue of rats. While consumption of dietary Chol decreases the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT in heart tissue of rats (not significant), administeration of 200 mg/kg JCL oil in addition to Chol led to a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Administering Chol led to a significant increase in TBARS level. Administering 100 and 200 mg/kg JCL oil together with Chol prevented significantly the increase in lipid peroxides. As a result of the study, JCL oil showed oxidant-antioxidant effect in the heart tissue of rats. PMID:23293127

  13. Evidence-based assessment of antiosteoporotic activity of petroleum-ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Potu, Bhagath K; Nampurath, Gopalan K; Chamallamudi, Mallikarjuna R; Prasad, Keerthana; Nayak, Soubhagya R; Dharmavarapu, Praveen K; Kedage, Vivekananda; Bhat, Kumar MR

    2009-01-01

    The increasing incidence of postmenopausal osteoporosis and its related fractures have become global health issues in the recent days. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is the most frequent metabolic bone disease; it is characterized by a rapid loss of mineralized bone tissue. Hormone replacement therapy has proven efficacious in preventing bone loss but not desirable to many women due to its side-effects. Therefore we are in need to search the natural compounds for a treatment of postmenopausal symptoms in women with no toxic effects. In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of petroleum-ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (CQ), a plant used in folk medicine, on an osteoporotic rat model developed by ovariectomy. In this experiment, healthy female Wistar rats were divided into four groups of six animals each. Group 1 was sham operated. All the remaining groups were ovariectomized. Group 2 was fed with an equivolume of saline and served as ovariectomized control (OVX). Groups 3 and 4 were orally treated with raloxifene (5.4 mg/kg) and petroleum-ether extract of CQ (500 mg/kg), respectively, for 3 months. The findings were assessed on the basis of animal weight, morphology of femur, and histochemical localization of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (an osteoblastic marker) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) (an osteoclastic marker) in upper end of femur. The study revealed for the first time that the petroleum-ether extract of CQ reduced bone loss, as evidenced by the weight gain in femur, and also reduced the osteoclastic activity there by facilitating bone formation when compared to the OVX group. The osteoclastic activity was confirmed by TRAP staining, and the bone formation was assessed by ALP staining in the femur sections. The color intensity of TRAP and ALP enzymes from the images were evaluated by image analysis software developed locally. The effect of CQ was found to be effective on both enzymes, and it might be a potential candidate for prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The biological activity of CQ on bone may be attributed to the phytogenic steroids present in it. PMID:19736603

  14. Minireview on Achillea millefolium Linn.

    PubMed

    Akram, Muhammad

    2013-09-01

    Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) is an important medicinal plant with different pharmaceutical uses. A. millefolium has been used for centuries to treat various diseases including malaria, hepatitis and jaundice. A. millefolium is commonly prescribed to treat liver disorders. It is also used as an anti-inflammatory agent and is a hepatoprotective herb. A. millefolium is considered safe for supplemental use. It has antihepatotoxic effects also. It is prescribed as an astringent agent. It is prescribed in hemorrhoids, headache, bleeding disorders, bruises, cough, influenza, pneumonia, kidney stones, high blood pressure, menstrual disorders, fever, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, osteoarthritis, hemorrhagic disorders, chicken pox, cystitis, diabetes mellitus, indigestion, dyspepsia, eczema, psoriasis and boils. PMID:23959026

  15. L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals for plant cell biological studies and as a growth enhancing agent for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae)

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, M. Sajimol, E-mail: sajimollazar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, St.Teresa's College , Kochi-11, Kerala (India); Mathew, Lizzy [Department of Botany, St.Teresa's College , Kochi-11, Kerala (India); Alex, Roselin [Department of Biotechnology, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi-22 (India); Deepa, G. D. [NCAAH, Cochin University of Science and Technology,Kochi-22, Kerala (India); Jayalekshmi, S., E-mail: jayalekshmi@cusat.ac.in [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi-22 (India)

    2014-01-28

    In the present work, the prospects of ZnS:Mn nanocrystals capped with L- serine, a bio-compatible amino acid, synthesized by wet chemical route, as efficient fluorescent probes for plant cell biological studies have been investigated. The present synthesis route using bio-compatible material is a low cost and easy to control method. The colloidal stability of the capped nano crystals is very good as they remain stable without settling down for long time. It is observed that L- serine significantly modifies the structural and optical characteristics of the ZnS:Mn nanocrystals and hence is suitable as a bio-compatible capping agent. The structural properties of L- serine capped nanocrystals were investigated by XRD technique. The size of the L- serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals is found to be around 2 nm . The optical characterization of the nanocrystals was carried out on the basis of photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic studies. The intense photoluminescence emission observed around 597nm for L-serine capped ZnS:Mn offers high prospects of applications in bio-imaging fields. The unique optical properties of nanoparticles make them appealing as in vivo and in vitro fluorophores in a variety of biological investigations. In the present study, L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals were used as a staining dye in fluorescent microscope for observing cell division, cell structure etc. These nanocrystals were also incorporated into the culture media along with the normal auxin- cytokinin hormone combinations in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae), an Ayurvedic medicine. The results suggest that L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals can act as efficient enhancers towards quick callusing and shoot proliferation.

  16. An open label, randomized, fixed-dose, crossover study comparing efficacy and safety of sildenafil citrate and saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) for treating erectile dysfunction in men naïve to treatment.

    PubMed

    Safarinejad, M R; Shafiei, N; Safarinejad, S

    2010-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) have been perceived by the public as a strong aphrodisiac herbal product. However, studies addressing the potential beneficial effects of saffron on erectile function (EF) in men with ED are lacking. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saffron administration on EF in men with ED. After a 4-week baseline assessment, 346 men with ED (mean age 46.6+/-8.4 years) were randomized to receive on-demand sildenafil for 12 weeks followed by 30 mg saffron twice daily for another 12 weeks or vice versa, separated by a 2-week washout period. To determine the type of ED, penile color duplex Doppler ultrasonography before and after intracavernosal injection with 20 microg prostaglandin E(1), pudendal nerve conduction tests and impaired sensory-evoked potential studies were performed. Subjects were assessed with an International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire, Sexual Encounter Profile (SEP) diary questions, patient and partner versions of the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS) questionnaire and the Global Efficacy Question (GEQ) 'Has the medication you have been taking improved your erections?' No significant improvements were observed with regard to the IIEF sexual function domains, SEP questions and EDITS scores with saffron administration. The mean changes from baseline values in IIEF-EF domain were +87.6% and +9.8% in sildenafil and placebo groups, respectively (P=0.08). We did not observe any improvement in 15 individual IIEF questions in patients while taking saffron. Treatment satisfaction as assessed by partner versions of EDITS was found to be very low in saffron patients (72.4 vs 25.4, P=0.001). Mean per patient 'yes' responses to GEQ was 91.2 and 4.2% for sildenafil and saffron, respectively (P=0.0001). These findings do not support a beneficial effect of saffron administration in men with ED. PMID:20520621

  17. Effect of Unex on ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Jarald, Elias Edwin; Kushwah, Pankaj; Edwin, Sheeja; Asghar, Suhail; Patni, Showkat Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Unex capsule on albino rats as a preventive agent against the development of kidney stones. The Unex capsule is a marketed product of Unijules Life Sciences, Nagpur, containing the extracts of Boerhaavia diffusa and Tribulus terrestris. Activity of Unex was studied using the ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis model. Standard drug used was Cystone. Several parameters were used including urinary volume, urine pH, urine analysis, and serum analysis to assess the activity. The results indicated that the administration of Unex to rats with ethylene glycol-induced lithiasis significantly reduced and prevented the growth of urinary stones (P < 0.01). Also, the treatment of lithiasis-induced rats by Unex restored all the elevated biochemical parameters (creatinine, uric acid, and blood urea nitrogen), restored the urine pH to normal, and increased the urine volume significantly (P < 0.01) when compared to the model control drug. This study supports the usage of Unex in urolithiasis and the utility could further be confirmed in other animal models. PMID:21845008

  18. Effect of Unex on ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in rats.

    PubMed

    Jarald, Elias Edwin; Kushwah, Pankaj; Edwin, Sheeja; Asghar, Suhail; Patni, Showkat Ahmad

    2011-07-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Unex capsule on albino rats as a preventive agent against the development of kidney stones. The Unex capsule is a marketed product of Unijules Life Sciences, Nagpur, containing the extracts of Boerhaavia diffusa and Tribulus terrestris. Activity of Unex was studied using the ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis model. Standard drug used was Cystone. Several parameters were used including urinary volume, urine pH, urine analysis, and serum analysis to assess the activity. The results indicated that the administration of Unex to rats with ethylene glycol-induced lithiasis significantly reduced and prevented the growth of urinary stones (P < 0.01). Also, the treatment of lithiasis-induced rats by Unex restored all the elevated biochemical parameters (creatinine, uric acid, and blood urea nitrogen), restored the urine pH to normal, and increased the urine volume significantly (P < 0.01) when compared to the model control drug. This study supports the usage of Unex in urolithiasis and the utility could further be confirmed in other animal models. PMID:21845008

  19. Elevated CO2 increases Cs uptake and alters microbial communities and biomass in the rhizosphere of Phytolacca americana Linn (pokeweed) and Amaranthus cruentus L. (purple amaranth) grown on soils spiked with various levels of Cs.

    PubMed

    Song, Ningning; Zhang, Ximei; Wang, Fangli; Zhang, Changbo; Tang, Shirong

    2012-10-01

    General concern about increasing global atmospheric CO(2) levels owing to the ongoing fossil fuel combustion and elevated levels of radionuclides in the environment, has led to growing interest in the responses of plants to interactive effects of elevated CO(2) and radionuclides in terms of phytoremediation and food safety. To assess the combined effects of elevated CO(2) and cesium contamination on plant biomass, microbial activities in the rhizosphere soil and Cs uptake, Phytolacca americana Linn (pokeweed, C3 specie) and Amaranthus cruentus L. (purple amaranth, C4 specie) were grown in pots of soils containing five levels of cesium (0, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg Cs kg(-1)) under two levels of CO(2) (360 and 860 ?L L(-1), respectively). Shoot and root biomass of P. americana and Amaranthus crentus was generally higher under elevated CO(2) than under ambient CO(2) for all treatments. Both plant species exhibited higher Cs concentration in the shoots and roots under elevated CO(2) than ambient CO(2). For P. americana grown at 0, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg Cs kg(-1), the increase magnitude of Cs concentration due to elevated CO(2) was 140, 18, 11, 34 and 15% in the shoots, and 150, 20, 14, 15 and 19% in the roots, respectively. For A. cruentus, the corresponding value was 118, 28, 21, 14 and 17% in the shoots, and 126, 6, 11, 17 and 22% in the roots, respectively. Higher bioaccumulation factors were noted for both species grown under elevated CO(2) than ambient CO(2). The populations of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi, and the microbial C and N in the rhizosphere soils of both species were higher at elevated CO(2) than at ambient CO(2) with the same concentration of Cs. The results suggested that elevated CO(2) significantly affected plant biomass, Cs uptake, soil C and N concentrations, and community composition of soil microbes associated with P. americana and A. cruentus roots. The knowledge gained from this investigation constitutes an important advancement in promoting utilization of CO(2) fertilization for improvement of phytoextraction of soils contaminated with radionuclides. PMID:22507353

  20. Pollination mechanism in Coriandrum sativum Linn. (Apiaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A K Koul; I A Hamal; S K Gupta

    1989-01-01

    Exposed nectar, abundant pollen production, zygomorphic flowers and compact umbels are the contrivances which attract in large\\u000a numbers a wide variety of insect species to coriander flowers. Some of these visitors carry coriander pollen from one flower\\/umbel\\u000a to another and by so doing act as potential pollinators; others are only casual visitors.

  1. Increased seed consumption by biological control weevil tempers positive CO2 effect on invasive plant (Centaurea diffusa) fitness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predicted increases in atmospheric CO2 and temperature may benefit some invasive plants, increasing the need for effective invasive plant management. Biological control can be an effective means of managing invasive plants, but the varied responses of plant-insect interactions to climate change make...

  2. Effects of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.), a Thai Medicinal Plant, on the Mutagenicity of Various Known Mutagens in Salmonella typhimurium and on Formation of Aberrant Crypt Foci Induced by the Colon Carcinogens Azoxymethane and 2Amino1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5- b]pyridine in F344 rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Chewonarin; T Kinouchi; K Kataoka; H Arimochi; T Kuwahara; U Vinitketkumnuen; Y Ohnishi

    1999-01-01

    The 80% ethanol extract of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.), a medicinal plant in Thailand, was examined for antimutagenic and chemopreventive activity in a colon carcinogenesis model. It reduced about 60–90% of the mutagenicity induced by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and other heterocyclic amines 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline(MeIQ),2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline(MeIQx),3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1), 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2),2-amino-6-methyldipyrido[1,2-a:3?,2?-d]imidazole (Glu-P-1),2-aminodipyrido[1,2-a:3?,2?-d]imidazole (Glu-P-2), at a concentration of 12.5mg\\/plate in the Salmonella mutation assay. The

  3. Effects of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.), a Thai medicinal plant, on the mutagenicity of various known mutagens in Salmonella typhimurium and on formation of aberrant crypt foci induced by the colon carcinogens azoxymethane and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Chewonarin, T; Kinouchi, T; Kataoka, K; Arimochi, H; Kuwahara, T; Vinitketkumnuen, U; Ohnishi, Y

    1999-06-01

    The 80% ethanol extract of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.), a medicinal plant in Thailand, was examined for antimutagenic and chemopreventive activity in a colon carcinogenesis model. It reduced about 60-90% of the mutagenicity induced by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and other heterocyclic amines 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline(MelQ),2-amino-3, 8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline(MelQx),3-amino-1,4-dimet hyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1), 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2),2-amino-6-methyldipyrido[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-1),2-aminodipyrido[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-2), at a concentration of 12.5 mg/plate in the Salmonella mutation assay. The extract showed no mutagenicity and no antibacterial activity below this dose. Mutagenicity of methylazoxymethanol (MAM) acetate, which, like PhIP, is a colon carcinogen,was also efficiently inhibited by the roselle extract. To investigate chemoprevention by roselle in a colon carcinogenesis model, we examined the inhibitory effects of the roselle extract in F344 rats in which aberrant crypt focus (ACF) formation was induced by azoxymethane (AOM) and PhIP. In the initiation stage, the number of AOM-induced ACF in the colon was significantly decreased by roselle (17-25%) compared with that in rats treated with AOM alone. The amount of O6-methylguanine in the colonic mucosa tended to be decreased in the roselle-treated rats. The number of PhIP-induced ACF was also significantly decreased by roselle treatment (22%) at a concentration of 1.0 g/kg body weight in the initiation stage. However, in the post-initiation stage of AOM-induced ACF formation, roselle increased the number of ACF, especially the number of foci which had more than three crypts/focus. These results indicate that roselle has antimutagenic activity against MAM acetate and heterocyclic amines and that it decreases the number of AOM- and PhIP-induced ACF in the initiation stage, although it rather increased the number of ACF in the post-initiation stage. PMID:10478827

  4. www.botan.uu.se Giftigt hos Linn

    E-print Network

    Flener, Pierre

    fylld av giftiga växter,gifternas funktion, mord i litteraturen och deckargåtor. Under ca två timmar får- mord i böckernas värld. Vi löser deckargåtor och fundera kring varför växter är giftiga. Sista

  5. Study on the Antibacterial Potential of Physalis Minima Linn

    PubMed Central

    Patel, T.; Shah, K.; Jiwan, K.; Shrivastava, Neeta

    2011-01-01

    Physalis minima is an important medicinal plant of Indian System of Medicine. This plant is reported for its diuretic, laxative and antiinflammatory activities. However, the plant is not well scrutinized for its antimicrobial potential. The major chemical constituents reported from the plant are phenolics and alkaloids, which suggest that the plant may turn out to be a potent antiinfective agent. The aim of the study was to find out the antibacterial potential of mature berries of P. minima using streak plate, well diffusion, determination of minimum inhibitory concentration and bioautographic methods against a battery of Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains. Results of the study showed that methanol and chloroform extracts of P. minima exhibited potent inhibitory activity against all the bacterial strains tested. Minimum inhibitory concentration found out was 100 ?g in both the extracts. Bioautography assay showed polar compounds present in the crude extract are responsible for the antimicrobial action. PMID:22131635

  6. Anti inflammatory activity of Myrica nagi Linn. Bark

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Tejaa; Dudhpejiya, Ashvin; Sheath, Navin

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated the anti inflammatory activity of ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of bark of M. nagi using carrageenan and histamine induced rat paw edema. Adult Wistar albino rats were subjected to carrageenan and histamine induced rat paw edema tests. In carrageenan induced rat paw edema the effects of ethyl acetate and aqueous extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg showed % inhibition of edema 27% and 22% respectively than the standard drug aspirin (28%). These ethyl acetate and aqueous extract extracts also showed % inhibition of edema 25% and 18% respectively than the standard drug (27%) when rats challenged with histamine induced rat paw edema. Future research should focus on the identification and the anti inflammatory activity of the constituents from this plant. PMID:22557437

  7. The life-history of Ranunculus sceleratus Linn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bahadur Singh

    1936-01-01

    A FAIR amount of work has already been done on the morphology of the Ranunculacem. Representatives from all the divisions and tribes have been worked out, but the genus Ranunculus itself has not received the attention it deserves. Since this is usually considered to be one of the most primitive genera of the dicotyledons, and Ranunculus sceleratus probably the most

  8. Tagetes erecta Linn. and its mosquitocidal potency against Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Nikkon, Farjana; Habib, M Rowshanul; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Karim, M Rezaul

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate mosquitocidal effects of ethanolic extract of flowers of Tagetes erecta (T. erecta) and its chloroform and petroleum ether soluble fractions against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). Methods The fresh flowers of T. erecta were extracted in cold with ethanol (5.0 L) and after concentration, the ethanol extract was fractionated with chloroform and petroleum ether to afford a brownish syrupy suspension of ethanol extract (50.0 g), petroleum ether soluble fraction (18.6 g) and chloroform soluble fraction (23.8 g). The larvicidal effect of ethanol extract and their solvent fractions were determined by the standard procedure of WHO against different instars of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Results Among the tested samples the chloroform soluble fractions showed the highest toxicity and consequently, the lowest LC50 values (14.14 µg/mL, 17.06 µg/mL, 36.88 µg/mL and 75.48 µg/mL) for all the instars larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus. The larvae showed comparative tolerance in the course of increasing age and time. Conclusions It can be concluded that the flowers of T. erecta are very effective natural larvicide and could be useful against Cx. quinquefasciatus. PMID:23569756

  9. Antioxidant activity of tuberosin isolated from Pueraria tuberose Linn

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidant activity of Pueraria tuberose DC, (PT) Leguminosae (Fabaceae) has already been reported by us and here an active compound has been isolated and its action on expression of iNOS protein has been explored by using LPS induced changes in attached rat peritoneal macrophage cell culture. The pure compound was isolated by column chromatography and its structure was characterized by spectral studies, which was identified as tuberosin (5 hydroxy 3,4,7,3',4' pentamethoxy flavone). Its antioxidant capacity was determined and compared with alcoholic extract as EC50 value for scavenging potential towards pre-generated monocation ABTS* radical, superoxide radicals, hydroxyl radicals, metal chelation property and on lipid peroxidation. Further, rat peritoneal macrophages were isolated, cultured and the attached macrophages were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with different concentrations of tuberosin (pretreatment for 30 min). After 17 h the released NO content, in culture supernatant, was indirectly estimated as accumulated nitrite by Griess reagent. To understand the mechanism of action, the extent of expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase genes, the iNOS protein was assessed in macrophage lysate by using its antibody on western blot analysis. Tuberosin significantly scavenged all the species of FRs, described above and it also inhibited the LPS induced release of NO and amount of iNOS protein in macrophages. All the changes were significant and concentration dependent. Thus it could be suggested that tuberosin, is one of the active principles of Pueraria tuberose, which directly scavenges various species of Free radicals (FRs) and also inhibits LPS induced inflammatory changes in macrophages. PMID:20836891

  10. Antioxidant activity of tuberosin isolated from Pueraria tuberose Linn.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Nidhi; Tripathi, Yamini B

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidant activity of Pueraria tuberose DC, (PT) Leguminosae (Fabaceae) has already been reported by us and here an active compound has been isolated and its action on expression of iNOS protein has been explored by using LPS induced changes in attached rat peritoneal macrophage cell culture. The pure compound was isolated by column chromatography and its structure was characterized by spectral studies, which was identified as tuberosin (5 hydroxy 3,4,7,3',4' pentamethoxy flavone). Its antioxidant capacity was determined and compared with alcoholic extract as EC50 value for scavenging potential towards pre-generated monocation ABTS* radical, superoxide radicals, hydroxyl radicals, metal chelation property and on lipid peroxidation. Further, rat peritoneal macrophages were isolated, cultured and the attached macrophages were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with different concentrations of tuberosin (pretreatment for 30 min). After 17 h the released NO content, in culture supernatant, was indirectly estimated as accumulated nitrite by Griess reagent. To understand the mechanism of action, the extent of expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase genes, the iNOS protein was assessed in macrophage lysate by using its antibody on western blot analysis. Tuberosin significantly scavenged all the species of FRs, described above and it also inhibited the LPS induced release of NO and amount of iNOS protein in macrophages. All the changes were significant and concentration dependent. Thus it could be suggested that tuberosin, is one of the active principles of Pueraria tuberose, which directly scavenges various species of Free radicals (FRs) and also inhibits LPS induced inflammatory changes in macrophages. PMID:20836891

  11. Persistency of transovarial dengue virus in Aedes aegypti (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Rohani, A; Zamree, I; Joseph, R T; Lee, H L

    2008-09-01

    A study was conducted to examine the persistency of transovarial dengue virus type 2 (DEN-2) in a Selangor strain of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Two hundred 4-5 day old female mosquitoes were fed with blood containing dengue virus. The infected mosquitoes were reared to the 7th generation; each generation was screened for the virus using immunological staining methods. The virus was detectable until the 5th generation but absent in the 6th and the 7th generations. Therefore, dengue virus type 2 can be transmitted transovarially in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes until the fifth generation under laboratory conditions. PMID:19058573

  12. Chenopodium album Linn: review of nutritive value and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Poonia, Amrita; Upadhayay, Ashutosh

    2015-07-01

    Green leafy vegetables have generated interest worldwide as they exhibit multiple benefits for health of human beings. Vegetables can form the cheapest and most readily available sources of important vitamins, minerals, fibres and essential amino acids particularly. In most of the developing countries where the daily diet is dominated by starchy staple foods, vegetables can form the cheapest and most readily available sources of important vitamins, minerals, fibres and essential amino acids. Across the globe there are several local and wild vegetables which are under-exploited because of inadequate scientific information on knowledge of their nutritional potentials. A resurgence of interest has developed in wild vegetables for their possible medicinal values in diets. C. album is under exploited vegetable which has high functional potential apart from basic nutritional benefits. The plant is used in diet not only to provide minerals, fibre, vitamins and essential fatty acids but also enhance sensory and functional value of the food. The plant has been traditionally used as a bloodpurifier, diuretic, sedative, hepatoprotective, antiscorbutic laxative and as an anthelmentic against round and hookworms. Pharmacological studies have revealed that the plant possesses anthelmentic, sperm immobilizing and contraceptive properties. It is also claimed to be antipruritic and antinociceptive in action. Therefore C. album holds a great potential for in depth biological evaluation. No significant work has ever been carried out for processing parameters for this potentially useful plant. Significance and future scope of C. album for public and dietary awareness of its nutritional status has been discussed in this review. PMID:26139865

  13. Anxiolytic effects of Equisetum arvense Linn. extracts in mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, Navdeep; Kaur, Sarabjit; Bedi, P M S; Kaur, Divneet

    2011-05-01

    The petroleum ether (PE), chloroform (CH), ethanol (ETH) and water extracts of E. arvense stems were evaluated for anti-anxiety activity in mice using elevated plus maze model. Ketamine induced hypnosis and actophotometer was used to evaluate sedative effect with various extracts in mice. The results were compared with standard drug diazepam. The ethanolic extract of E. arvense (50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly increased the time-spent and the percentage of the open arm entries in the elevated plus-maze model which was comparable to diazepam. Ethanolic extract (100 mg/kg) prolonged the ketamine-induced total sleeping time and decreased the locomotor activity in mice. The results suggest that the ethanolic extract of E. arvense seems to possess anxiolytic effect with lower sedative activity than that of diazepam. The results could be attributed to the flavonoid content of the ethanolic extract. PMID:21615059

  14. New flavanone and chalcone glucosides from Bidens bipinnata Linn.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai; Kuang, Hai-Xue; Okada, Yoshihito; Okuyama, Toru

    2005-02-01

    A new flavanone glucoside, bidenoside F, and a new chalcone glucoside, bidenoside G, along with the known compound iso-okanin 7-O-(4'',6''-diacetyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside have been isolated from the aerial parts of Bidens bipinnata L. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic methods. PMID:15621604

  15. Antiulcer Activity of Indigenous Plant Operculina turpethum Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Ignatius, Vidya; Narayanan, Madhusudhanan; Subramanian, Venkataraman; Periyasamy, Balasubramanian Maruthaiveeran

    2013-01-01

    In the Indian traditional system of medicine Operculina turpethum is commonly used to treat various ailments including peptic ulcer, inflammation, and pain. Ulcer preventive and ulcer protective activities of HAOP and MOP stem bark extracts of Operculina turpethum (100?mg/kg, b.w., orally) were evaluated employing aspirin + pylorus ligation (APL) model in experimental rats. The results suggested that both extracts (HAOP and MOP) possess enhanced ulcer preventive and protective activities when compared with the standard drug ranitidine. HAOP showed more pronounced effect when compared to MOP. Further the result of the histopathological and biochemical studies also confirms potent ulcer preventive and protective nature of a extracts in a similar manner. PMID:23476683

  16. [Chemical constituents of the leaves of Acanthopanax trifoliatus (Linn) Merr].

    PubMed

    Du, J; Gao, L

    1992-06-01

    Nevadensin (A), kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (B), taraxerol (C) and taraxerol-acetate (D) were isolated from the leaves of Acanthopanax trifoliatus. A and B were isolated for the first time. Pharmacological experiments have shown that nevadensin possesses expectorant and antitussive actions. PMID:1418581

  17. Copper Availability and Accumulation by Portulaca Oleracea Linn. Stem Cutting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Deepa; P. Senthilkumar; S. Sivakumar; P. Duraisamy; C. V. Subbhuraam

    2006-01-01

    The Cu accumulation capacity of stem cuttings of Portulaca oleracea was assessed in two different soils, alfisol and vertisol, which differ from each other mainly due to their clay content~—\\u000a several fold lower in the former than in the latter. The DTPA extractable concentration of Cu in soil and the level of its\\u000a accumulation in stem cuttings were, therefore, greater

  18. Date Fruits (Phoenix dactylifera Linn): An Emerging Medicinal Food

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Praveen K. Vayalil

    2012-01-01

    Date palm is one of the oldest trees cultivated by man. In the folk-lore, date fruits have been ascribed to have many medicinal properties when consumed either alone or in combination with other herbs. Although, fruit of the date palm served as the staple food for millions of people around the world for several centuries, studies on the health benefits

  19. Date Fruits (Phoenix dactylifera Linn): An Emerging Medicinal Food

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Praveen K. Vayalil

    2011-01-01

    Date palm is one of the oldest trees cultivated by man. In the folk-lore, date fruits have been ascribed to have many medicinal properties when consumed either alone or in combination with other herbs. Although, fruit of the date palm served as the staple food for millions of people around the world for several centuries, studies on the health benefits

  20. Hyoscyamal, a new tetrahydrofurano lignan from Hyoscyamus niger Linn.

    PubMed

    Begum, A Sajeli; Verma, Shweta; Sahai, Mahendra; Schneider, Kathrin; Süssmuth, Roderich

    2009-01-01

    In addition to the isolation and complete characterisation of a new lignan, hyoscyamal, three other compounds, balanophonin, pongamoside C and pongamoside D have been isolated from the seeds of Hyoscyamus niger. The structures of the compounds were settled on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. This is the first report on the isolation of these compounds from a solanaceous plant. PMID:19401911

  1. Hyoscyamal, a new tetrahydrofurano lignan from Hyoscyamus niger Linn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Sajeli Begum; Shweta Verma; Mahendra Sahai; Kathrin Schneider; Roderich Süssmuth

    2009-01-01

    In addition to the isolation and complete characterisation of a new lignan, hyoscyamal, three other compounds, balanophonin, pongamoside C and pongamoside D have been isolated from the seeds of Hyoscyamus niger. The structures of the compounds were settled on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. This is the first report on the isolation of these compounds from a solanaceous plant.

  2. A new flavonol glycoside from the Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Haibing; Liu, Huixin; Yuan, Ke

    2012-01-01

    Background: Abelmoschus esculentus L. belonging to the family Malvaceae is a kind of one year herbage plant, which is one of the most important vegetables widely grown in Nigeria for its tender fruits and young leaves. It's easy to be cultivated and grows well in both tropical and temperate zones, that is, it is widely planted from Africa to Asia, South European to America. A new flavonol glycoside characterized as 5,7,3?,4?-tetrahydroxy-4??-O-methyl flavonol -3-O-?-D- glucopyranoside (1) has been isolated from the fruit of A. esculentus together with one known compound 5,7,3?,4?-tetrahydroxy flavonol -3-O-[?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?6)]-?-D-glucopyranoside (2). The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of its spectral data, including 2-D NMR and mass (MS) spectra. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated by 2 assays, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The present work deals with the isolation, identification and antioxidant activity of the two compounds. Materials and Methods: The compounds were isolated by Diaion HP-20, Sephedex LH-20 column chromatography methods, their structures were identified by physicochemical properties and spectroscopic analysis. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated by two assays, e.g., DPPH and FRAP. Results: Two flavonol glycosides have been isolated from the fruit of Abelmoschus esculentus L. for the first time, and the compound 1 was a new compound, the compound 2 was isolated from the plant for the first time. Conclusion: The results show that the two flavonol glycosides have strong ability for scavenging DPPH and FRAP free radical by the experiment of antioxidant activities, so A. esculentus may be a natural antioxidants resource. PMID:22438657

  3. A New Steroidal Saponin from Tribulus Terrestris Linn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenji Sun; Jin Gao; Guangzhong Tu; Zunwu Guo; Yongmin Zhang

    2002-01-01

    A new steroidal saponin containing six monosaccharides was obtained from the total plant of Tribulus terrestris and elucidated based on chemical spectroscopic analysis, especially on 2D-NMR technology as 26- O - g - d -glucopyranosyl-22-methoxy-furostane-3- O -{ g - d -xylopyranosyl(1 M 3)-[ g - d -xylopyranosyl(1 M 2)- g - d -glucopyranosyl(1 M 4)]}-[ f - l -rhamnopyranosy(1 M

  4. Date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera Linn): an emerging medicinal food.

    PubMed

    Vayalil, Praveen K

    2012-01-01

    Date palm is one of the oldest trees cultivated by man. In the folk-lore, date fruits have been ascribed to have many medicinal properties when consumed either alone or in combination with other herbs. Although, fruit of the date palm served as the staple food for millions of people around the world for several centuries, studies on the health benefits are inadequate and hardly recognized as a healthy food by the health professionals and the public. In recent years, an explosion of interest in the numerous health benefits of dates had led to many in vitro and animal studies as well as the identification and quantification of various classes of phytochemicals. On the basis of available documentation in the literature on the nutritional and phytochemical composition, it is apparent that the date fruits are highly nutritious and may have several potential health benefits. Although dates are sugar-packed, many date varieties are low GI diet and refutes the dogma that dates are similar to candies and regular consumption would develop chronic diseases. More investigations in these areas would validate its beneficial effects, mechanisms of actions, and fully appreciate as a potential medicinal food for humans all around the world. Therefore, in this review we summarize the phytochemical composition, nutritional significance, and potential health benefits of date fruit consumption and discuss its great potential as a medicinal food for a number of diseases inflicting human beings. PMID:22214443

  5. Cuminum cyminum Linn. and Coriandrum sativum Linn. extracts modulate Chromium genotoxicity in Allium cepa chromosomal aberration assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arti Sharma; Manish Kumar; Satwinderjeet Kaur

    Since ancient times, herbs and spices have enjoyed rich tradition for their flavor enhancement characteristics and for their\\u000a medicinal properties. Ayurveda prescribes more than 700 plant based medicines that contain spices and food additives to encourage\\u000a good health. Diet is an important factor in prevention of diseases. Besides flavor and taste to cuisines, they also improve\\u000a immune system. Taking this

  6. Effect of Tamarindus indica Linn. and Cassia fistula Linn. stem bark extracts on oxidative stress and diabetic conditions.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Anoop; Singh, Vijender

    2013-01-01

    Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula are traditionally important medicinal plants. Stem barks of these plants have not been much explored for their potential hypoglycemic and oxidative stress conditions. The main aim of present study was to evaluate antidiabetic activity along with renal complications and antioxidant potential of alcoholic extracts of stem barks of these plants. Alcoholic extracts of stem barks of Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula were evaluated for anti-hyperglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Biochemical parameters including blood glucose, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, serum albumin, total protein and creatinine were studied. Antioxidant potential in DPPH, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical induced in vitro assay methods were evaluated. Acute toxicity studies were carried out to establish the safety of the drugs according to OECD guidelines. There was a significant decrease in blood glucose level in diabetic rats treated with the alcoholic extracts of both plants. Serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, serum albumin, total proteins and body weight were recovered to normal levels at the end of the studies. Alcoholic extract of stem bark of both plants showed significant antioxidant activity in DPPH, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical induced in vitro assay methods. Acute toxicity studies with the extracts of both plants showed no signs of toxicity up to a dose level of 2000 mg/p.o. It can be concluded from the study that Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula stem barks possess blood glucose lowering effect along with antioxidant effect and protective effect on renal complications associated with hyperglycemia. PMID:24383324

  7. Effect of solvent residues of Vitex negundo Linn. and Cassia fistula Linn. on pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. and its larval parasitoid, Dinarmus vagabundus (Timberlake).

    PubMed

    Raja, N; Albert, S; Ignacimuthu, S

    2000-03-01

    Effect of solvent residues of Vitex negundo L. and Cassia fistula L. leaves (0.5 and 1%) was studied on egg laying and adult emergence of Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. and on percentage of larval parasitism by Dinarmus vagabundus (Timberlake). Cowpea seeds treated with methanol and aqueous extract of Vitex, at these concentrations (0.5 and 1%), significantly reduced the number of eggs and emergence of F1 adults of C. maculatus. Both Vitex and Cassia extracts did not affect the percentage of parasitism by D. vagabundus on C. maculatus grubs. PMID:10927878

  8. Preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant activities of Parkinsonia aculeata Linn.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sonia; Vig, Adarsh Pal

    2014-01-01

    Butanol and hexane leaves extracts of Parkinsonia aculeata L. (Fabaceae) were assessed for its antioxidant potential by in vitro methods. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of plant extracts were studied using different in vitro assays. UPLC analysis of extracts was carried out for the identification of chemical constituents. The total phenolic contents of the butanol and hexane leaf extract were 42 mgGAE/g and 34 mgGAE/g whereas flavonoid contents of these extracts were found to be 0.044 mgRE/g and 0.005 mgRE/g, respectively. Among both extracts, butanol extract shows maximum inhibition (%) of 93.88%, 80.02%, 52.06%, 94.68%, and 69.37% in DPPH, non-site-specific and site-specific, FTC, and TBA assays and absorbance of 0.852 and 0.522 in reducing power and CUPRAC assay at the highest concentration tested. The FRAP and TAC values of butanol extract were found to be 678 ?M Fe(II)/g and 36 mgAAE/100 mg. UPLC analysis of extracts revealed the presence of various polyphenols. The tested plant extracts were found to possess potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity which may be due to the presence of flavonoids and polyphenols. PMID:24822217

  9. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and In Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Parkinsonia aculeata Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sonia; Vig, Adarsh Pal

    2014-01-01

    Butanol and hexane leaves extracts of Parkinsonia aculeata L. (Fabaceae) were assessed for its antioxidant potential by in vitro methods. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of plant extracts were studied using different in vitro assays. UPLC analysis of extracts was carried out for the identification of chemical constituents. The total phenolic contents of the butanol and hexane leaf extract were 42?mgGAE/g and 34?mgGAE/g whereas flavonoid contents of these extracts were found to be 0.044?mgRE/g and 0.005?mgRE/g, respectively. Among both extracts, butanol extract shows maximum inhibition (%) of 93.88%, 80.02%, 52.06%, 94.68%, and 69.37% in DPPH, non-site-specific and site-specific, FTC, and TBA assays and absorbance of 0.852 and 0.522 in reducing power and CUPRAC assay at the highest concentration tested. The FRAP and TAC values of butanol extract were found to be 678??M Fe(II)/g and 36?mgAAE/100?mg. UPLC analysis of extracts revealed the presence of various polyphenols. The tested plant extracts were found to possess potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity which may be due to the presence of flavonoids and polyphenols. PMID:24822217

  10. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil from Mentha spicata (Linn.) against three mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, M; Sivakumar, R; Rajeswari, M; Yogalakshmi, K

    2012-05-01

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects and serve as the most important vectors for spreading human diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and filariasis. The continued use of synthetic insecticides has resulted in resistance in mosquitoes. Synthetic insecticides are toxic and affect the environment by contaminating soil, water, and air, and then natural products may be an alternative to synthetic insecticides because they are effective, biodegradable, eco-friendly, and safe to environment. Botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. Mentha spicata, an edible and medicinal plant, is chiefly distributed in Southeast Asia and South Asia. In the present study, the toxicity of mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf essential oil (EO) and their major chemical constituents from Mentha spicata against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The chemical composition of the leaf EO was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). GC-MS revealed that the EO of M. spicata contained 18 compounds. The major chemical components identified were carvone (48.60%), cis-carveol (21.30%), and limonene (11.30%). The EO had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, A. aegypti, and A. stephensi with LC(50) values of 62.62, 56.08, and 49.71 ppm and LC(90) values of 118.70, 110.28, and 100.99 ppm, respectively. The three major pure constituents extracted from the M. spicata leaf EO were also tested individually against three mosquito larvae. The LC(50) values of carvone, cis-carveol, and limonene appeared to be most effective against A. stephensi (LC(50) 19.33, 28.50, and 8.83 ppm) followed by A. aegypti (LC(50) 23.69, 32.88, and 12.01 ppm), and C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) 25.47, 35.20, and 14.07 ppm). The results could be useful in search for newer, safer, and more effective natural larvicidal agents against C. quinquefasciatus, A. aegypti, and A. stephensi. PMID:22139403

  11. A novel role of ethephon in controlling the noxious weed Ipomoea cairica (Linn.) Sweet.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhong-Yu; Zhang, Tai-Jie; Su, Jin-Quan; Soon Chow, Wah; Liu, Jia-Qin; Chen, Li-Ling; Li, Wei-Hua; Peng, Shao-Lin; Peng, Chang-Lian

    2015-01-01

    Several auxin herbicides, such as 2, 4-D and dicamba, have been used to eradicate an exotic invasive weed Ipomoea cairica in subtropical China, but restraining the re-explosion of this weed is still a challenge. Since ethylene is one of the major intermediate functioning products during the eradication process, we explored the possibility, mechanism and efficiency of using ethephon which can release ethylene to control Ipomoea cairica. The results of the pot experiment showed that 7.2?g /L ethephon could totally kill Ipomoea cairica including the stems and roots. The water culture experiment indicated that ethephon released an abundance of ethylene directly in leaves and caused increases in electrolyte leakage, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), abscisic acid (ABA) and H2O2 and decreases in chlorophyll content and photosynthetic activity, finally leading to the death of Ipomoea cairica. The field experiment showed that the theoretical effective concentration of ethephon for controlling Ipomoea cairica (weed control efficacy, WCE = 98%) was 4.06?g/L and the half inhibitory concentration (I50) was 0.56?g/L. More than 50% of the accompanying species were insensitive to the phytotoxicity of ethephon. Therefore, ethephon is an excellent alternative herbicide for controlling Ipomoea cairica. PMID:26087386

  12. RNA-Seq Analysis and De Novo Transcriptome Assembly of Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus Linne)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chul Wook; Kim, Hyun-Soon; Min, Sung Ran; Moon, Jae Sun; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Jeon, Jae-Heung; Cho, Hye Sun

    2014-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) has long been cultivated as a vegetable and as a source of fructans (inulin) for pharmaceutical applications in diabetes and obesity prevention. However, transcriptomic and genomic data for Jerusalem artichoke remain scarce. In this study, Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed on samples from Jerusalem artichoke leaves, roots, stems and two different tuber tissues (early and late tuber development). Data were used for de novo assembly and characterization of the transcriptome. In total 206,215,632 paired-end reads were generated. These were assembled into 66,322 loci with 272,548 transcripts. Loci were annotated by querying against the NCBI non-redundant, Phytozome and UniProt databases, and 40,215 loci were homologous to existing database sequences. Gene Ontology terms were assigned to 19,848 loci, 15,434 loci were matched to 25 Clusters of Eukaryotic Orthologous Groups classifications, and 11,844 loci were classified into 142 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. The assembled loci also contained 10,778 potential simple sequence repeats. The newly assembled transcriptome was used to identify loci with tissue-specific differential expression patterns. In total, 670 loci exhibited tissue-specific expression, and a subset of these were confirmed using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. Gene expression related to inulin biosynthesis in tuber tissue was also investigated. Exsiting genetic and genomic data for H. tuberosus are scarce. The sequence resources developed in this study will enable the analysis of thousands of transcripts and will thus accelerate marker-assisted breeding studies and studies of inulin biosynthesis in Jerusalem artichoke. PMID:25375764

  13. Rooting and juvenile growth differences in half-sib seedlings of Gmelina arborea, Linn.

    E-print Network

    Hicks, Van Joseph

    1980-01-01

    older material by Coorts and Hull {1972) with the highbrush blueberry {Vaccinium corymbosum), and also with various ulmus species {Doran and McKenzie 1949, Bretz and Swingle 1950, and Schreiber and Kawase 1975). Successful rooting of softwood... (Vaccinium corymbosum L. ) by hard and softwood cuttings. The Plant Propagator 18(2):9-12. 9 d, J. 1974. 9 9 d t' f i9~1t d~gl 7 by cuttings. New Zealand J. Forestry Sci. 4(2):191-203. Davis, E. A. 1970. Propagation of shrub oak from cuttings. Bot. Gaz. 131...

  14. The toxicity of Indian Calotropis procera RBr latex in the black rat, Rattus rattus Linn.

    PubMed

    Pahwa, R; Chatterjee, V C

    1988-08-01

    Toxicity studies with latex of Calotropis procera RBr were conducted in the black rat, Rattus rattus. The latex was fed through bait prepared from wheat flour, ground nut oil and sugar at concentrations of 5, 7.5 or 10% (W/W). The bait was fed up to mortality and for a maximum of 10 days. The signs produced were passivity, sluggishness, sedation, dyspnea, weakness, reduction in weight, anorexia, diarhhea, hematuria, bleeding from nose, eyes and anus, eye lens opacity, mild tetanic convulsions, collapse and death. The observed mortalities were 56.25, 68.75 and 87.5% with the respective doses. Histopathological studies showed: cloudy swelling of hepatocytes, inflammatory changes, Kupffer cell hyperlasia, cytoplasmic granulation, hepatocytolysis, compactness of lobular architecture, and occasional hemorrhage in the liver; cloudy swelling of convoluted tubular epithelium, inflammatory changes and hemorrhage in the kidney; erosion, increased mucus secretion, congestion and infiltration of lymphocytes in portions of the alimentary canal. PMID:3176304

  15. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of ethanolic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.

    PubMed

    Ali, Adam; Shyum Naqvi, Syed Baqir; Gauhar, Shahnaz; Saeed, Rehana

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intensity of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Sphaeranthus indicus on albino mice and rat of either sex. The flowers of S. indicus are an important herb used in folk eastern medicines. In this study, the ethanolic extract of S. indicus in doses of 300 and 500 mg/kg was used. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by measuring the mean decrease in hind paw volume after the sub planter injection of carrageenan. The analgesic activity was tested against acetic acid induced writhing response using albino rats. Result of the study shows that at the end of one hour the inhibition of paw edema was 42.66 and 50.5% respectively and the percentage of protection from writhing was 62.79 and 68.21 respectively. S. indicus possesses several important pharmaceutical and pharmacological properties. The current study describes that flower of S. indicus has significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Conclusion of the study is that this herbal medicine can be used as an alternative therapy for the treatment of minor to moderate types of inflammation and as a painkiller. PMID:21715276

  16. Isolation and identification of mosquito larvicidal compound from Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Abdul Rahuman; Geetha Gopalakrishnan; P. Venkatesan; Kannappan Geetha

    2008-01-01

    Larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, acetone and methanol extracts of five medicinal plants,\\u000a Abutilon indicum, Aegle marmelos, Euphorbia thymifolia, Jatropha gossypifolia and Solanum torvum were assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest\\u000a larval mortality

  17. Mosquito larvicidal activity of gluanol acetate, a tetracyclic triterpenes derived from Ficus racemosa Linn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Abdul Rahuman; P. Venkatesan; Kannappan Geetha; Geetha Gopalakrishnan; A. Bagavan; C. Kamaraj

    2008-01-01

    The larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, acetone, and methanol extracts of the leaf and bark\\u000a of Ficus racemosa (Moraceae) was assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24-h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects;\\u000a however, the highest larval mortality was found in

  18. REPORT ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF OREGANO (ORIGANUM VULGARE LINN.) AGAINST GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SABAHAT SAEED; PERWEEN TARIQ

    The present investigation is focused on antibacterial potential of infusion, decoction and essential oil of oregano (Origanum vulgare) against 111 Gram-positive bacterial isolates belonging to 23 different species related to 3 genera. Infusion and essential oil exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus saprophyticus, S. aureus, Micrococcus roseus, M. kristinae, M. nishinomiyaensis, M. lylae, M. luteus, M. sedentarius, M. varians, Bacillus megaterium,

  19. Formation of sporangia and zoospores by a Labyrinthomyxa sp. parasitic in Macoma Balthica Linne

    E-print Network

    Valiulis, George Arvidas

    1968-01-01

    with reference to D. marinum, have been extensive. A great impetus was given to the study of D. marinum when Ray (1952) devised a technique for diagnosing the presence of this para- site in oyster tissue, His technique, which consisted of culturing the host... probably formed in the seawater as part of the life cycle of this parasite. At about the same time that D. marinum was first described, Andrews and Hewatt began extensive studies of oyster mortalities in the lower Chesapeake Bay region (Andrews 1955...

  20. Hypoglycaemic effects of alcoholic root extract of Borassus flabellifer (Linn.) in normal and diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Titas; Radhakrishnan, Rajesh; Murugananthan, Gopal; Talwar, Sahil; K, Nandakumar

    2013-07-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the alcoholic (ALEBF) extract of B. flabellifer for their hypoglycaemic effects in normal and diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in rats by single dose administration of alloxan (120 mg/kg, i.p.) or by injecting dexamethasone (10 mg/kg, i.p.) for 10 days. In normal rats, ALEBF (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) had significantly decreased the blood glucose level in a dose dependent manner after repeated administration for 7 days. In alloxan induced diabetic rats, extract (ALEBF) had decreased blood sugar level and improved glucose tolerance in alloxan induced diabetic rats at the end of 1st, 2nd , 3rd and 4th week after test extract treatment. However, the insulin levels of extract treated group did not significantly change after 28 days treatment with the extract. It did not alter the insulin levels. In alloxan model, repeated dose administration of ALEBF had showed significant increase in body weight, prevention of elimination of sugar in urine and reduced the mortality rate induced by alloxan. In dexamethasone induced insulin resistance diabetic rats, repeated administration of ALEBF inhibited the increase in blood glucose level, improved glucose tolerance and reduced the insulin levels as compared dexamethasone induced diabetic rats. PMID:23811441

  1. Studies on nest construction and nest microclimate of the Baya weaver, Ploceus philippinus (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Asokan, S; Ali, A Mohamed Samsoor; Nagarajan, R

    2008-05-01

    The nest construction pattern at different stages of nest and variations in the nest microclimate, i.e., temperature and light intensity were assessed in different nests of Baya weaver (Ploceus philippinus) between November 2002 and March 2003 in Nagapattinam and Tiruvarur District of Tamil Nadu, India. The Baya weaver constructed nests in palm (Borassus flabellifer), coconut (Cocos nucifera) and date palm trees (Phoneix psuilla) and majority of the nests were found in the solitary palm. The male bird only involved in the construction and took 18 days to construct a single nest. The birds spent different amount of working hours (in terms of days) for completing various stages of nests viz., wad, ring and helmet stage and in which the 'helmet stage took a maximum of eight days. Furthermore, totally eight active nests were selected and once in a week the variations in the nest microclimate was investigated with reference to atmospheric temperature and light intensity (two active nests) across day throughout the study period. The mean temperature of the nests ranged from 25 degrees C to 29 degrees C and light intensity varied between 25 Lux and 625 Lux. The analysis of variance (ANOVA and ANCOVA) indicated that the nest microclimate varied among the nests in different hr of a day PMID:18972698

  2. Utilization of chitosan as an antimicrobial agent for pasteurized palm sap (Borassus flabellifer Linn.) during storage.

    PubMed

    Naknean, Phisut; Jutasukosol, Keawta; Mankit, Theerarat

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the potential of chitosan for improvement the quality of pasteurized palm sap during storage. First, the effect of chitosan content on sensory attributes was investigated to select suitable concentration of chitosan for further study. Fresh palm sap was enriched with chitosan at various concentrations (0-2 g/L) and pasteurized at 80 °C for 10 min, consequently evaluated by consumers. It was found that samples added chitosan in the range of 0-1.00 g/L were considered acceptable. Thus, the addition chitosan in the concentration of 0-1.00 g/L was chosen for further study. The sample without chitosan addition was used as a control sample. Each selected sample was determined for their qualities during storage at 1 week interval. It was found that lightness and transmittance values of all samples tended to increase during storage. Lower PPO and invertase activity were observed in all chitosan-treated samples compared to control sample. Chitosan could minimize the loss of sucrose and the increase in glucose and fructose content during storage. In addition, an increase in chitosan concentration resulted in the increase in DPPH radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, the addition of chitosan could retard the development of microorganism during storage as demonstrated by lower microbial loads compared to control sample. It can be concluded that a combination of pasteurization with chitosan addition (0.50 g/L) and low temperature storage could preserve palm sap for approximately 6 weeks. Thus, the incorporation of chitosan in palm sap could be used as an alternative way to extend shelf life of pasteurized palm sap. PMID:25694681

  3. Antihepatotoxic effect of golden berry (Physalis peruviana Linn.) in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated rats.

    PubMed

    Taj, Darakhshan; Khan, Hira; Sultana, Viqar; Ara, Jehan; Ehteshamul-Haque, Syed

    2014-05-01

    Liver is the main site in the body for intense metabolism and excretion. A number of chemicals and drugs which are used routinely cause liver damage. The present study investigates the antihepatotoxic effect of Physalis peruviana whole ripe fruit, water and ethanol extracts of fruit in normal as well as in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) intoxicated rats. The CCl(4) treated rats showed marked elevation in liver enzymes: alanine transaminse, aspratate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and other biochemical parameters: bilirubin, creatinine and urea, thus indicating liver injury. Whereas animal treated/fed with various preparations of Physalis peruviana showed significant lowering effect (p<0.05) in the elevated levels of serum markers like ALAT, ASAT, ALP, LDH, creatinine, urea and bilirubin indicating the protection against hepatic cell damage. The water extract of Physalis peruviana showed highest activity in both rat models while ripe fruit and ethanol extract showed moderate activity compared to standard drug. PMID:24811807

  4. Preventive and curative effects of Achyranthes aspera Linn. extract in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Anshu; Singla, Surinder K; Gandhi, Manish; Tandon, Chanderdeep

    2012-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of Achyranthes aspera in preventing and reducing the growth of calcium oxalate stones in ethylene glycol induced nephrolithiatic model. Hyperoxaluria was induced in rats using ethylene glycol (EG, 0.4%) and ammonium chloride (1%) for 15 days and was then replaced with EG (0.4%) only. Upon administration of cystone (750 mg/kg body wt.), aqueous extract of A. aspera (500 and 1000 mg/kg body wt.), levels of renal injury markers (lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase) were normalized with a decrease in serum urea and serum creatinine. Concurrent treatment reduced changes in the architecture of renal tissue and also decreased the size of crystals thereby helping in quick expulsion of the crystals. The present results indicated that Achyranthes aspera had an ability to maintain renal functioning and reduced renal injury. PMID:22439435

  5. Hepatoprotective activity of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Alocasia indica (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Mulla, Wahid A; Salunkhe, Vijay R; Bhise, Satish B

    2009-10-01

    Oral administration of hydroalcoholic extract of A. indica (250 and 500 mg/kg) effectively inhibited CCl4 and paracetamol induced changes in the serum marker enzymes, cholesterol, serum protein and albumin in a dose-dependent manner as compared to the normal and the standard drug silymarin-treated groups. Hepatic steatosis, fatty infiltration, hydropic degeneration and necrosis observed in CCl4 and paracetamol-treated groups were completely absent in histology of the liver sections of the animals treated with the extracts. The results suggests that the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of A. indica possess significant potential as hepatoprotective agent. PMID:20112809

  6. Overview for various aspects of the health benefits of Piper longum linn. fruit.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Suresh; Kamboj, Jitpal; Suman; Sharma, Sunil

    2011-06-01

    Herbal remedies have become popular, due in part to the lower risk of adverse reactions. Thousands of plants have been used traditionally to treat various diseases. Among them, species of the genus Piper are important medicinal plants used in various systems of medicine. The Piper longum fruit has been used in traditional medicine, including the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Although there are numerous indications for its use, controlled trials are needed to determine its efficacy. The primary constituents isolated from various parts of P. longum are piperine, piperlongumine, sylvatin, sesamin, diaeudesmin piperlonguminine, pipermonaline, and piperundecalidine. It is most commonly used to treat chronic bronchitis, asthma, constipation, gonorrhea, paralysis of the tongue, diarrhea, cholera, chronic malaria, viral hepatitis, respiratory infections, stomachache, bronchitis, diseases of the spleen, cough, and tumors. This study provides detailed information about the P. longum fruit, including phytochemistry, pharmacological profile and safety profile. In view of the commercial, economic, and medicinal importance of the P. longum plant, it is useful for researchers to study the plant in detail. PMID:21704957

  7. Anticonvulsant potential of holy basil, Ocimum sanctum Linn., and its cultures.

    PubMed

    Jaggi, Raj K; Madaan, Reecha; Singh, Balbir

    2003-11-01

    Callus cultures from stem of O. sanctum were induced on slightly modified Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium and supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, 1-2 ppm) and kinetin (kn, 1 ppm). Different extractives of stem, leaf and stem callus of O. sanctum were tested for anticonvulsant activity against standard drug phenytoin using maximal electroshock (MES) model. Ethanol and chloroform extractives of stem, leaf and stem calli were effective in preventing tonic convulsions induced by transcorneal electroshock. PMID:15332507

  8. Production of scopadulcic acid B from Scoparia dulcis Linn. using a Luffa sponge bioreactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annie J. Mathew; K. Jayachandran

    2009-01-01

    Production of Scopadulcic acid B (SDB), a diterpene having antiviral and anti-tumour activity, was accomplished by immobilizing\\u000a suspension culture-derived cells of Scoparia dulcis on Luffa sponge matrix. The yield of SDB in shake flask cultures was 50.85 mg\\/g of cells after 30 days of incubation while, in Luffa sponge inoculated columns SDB production was scaled up to 350.57 mg\\/g of cells by the

  9. Mustard seed (Sinapis Alba Linn) attenuates imiquimod-induced psoriasiform inflammation of BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Runping; Zhou, Qiang; Wen, Chunmiao; Hu, Jian; Li, Hengjin; Zhao, Ming; Zhao, Hua

    2013-07-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease with undefined etiology. All present treatments are symptomatic. The unsatisfactory outcome in the treatment of psoriasis is partially due to the poor compliance to the present therapies with more or less side-effects. As is known, drug homologous food is a popular intervention of some chronic diseases in Chinese traditional medicine. Mustard seed, consumed largely as a spice and a medicine in China, has recently been found to possess the bioactivities of anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation and anticancer. Therefore, it was supposed that mustard seed may have effects on psoriasis, and it was preliminarily validated using a BALB/c mouse model of psoriasiform inflammation induced by the topical application of imiquimod cream (Aldara) for 6 days consecutively. It was found that the forage containing 5% mustard seed obviously attenuated imiquimod-induced psoriasiform inflammation, but did not clear it completely, accompanied by reduced infiltrations of T cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) and macrophages in lesional skin; reduced percentages of pDC and macrophages in the composition of immunocytes of spleens; reduced content of lesion nuclear factor-?B p65, plasma malondialdehyde, lesion inducible nitric oxide synthase, interferon-?, interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-22 at mRNA and protein levels; increased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase; and increased percentage of CD4(+) T cells and increased ratio of CD4(+) /CD8(+) T cells in the composition of immunocytes of spleen. These results presented herein provide a basis for mustard seed to be used as a promising intervention for psoriasis in the future. PMID:23682616

  10. Mustard seeds (Sinapis Alba Linn) attenuate azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Haifeng; Zhu, Minggu; Guo, Wen; Jin, Ling; Chen, Weihong; Brunk, Ulf T; Zhao, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Mustard seeds (MS), which are consumed in considerable amounts by the Japanese people that, interestingly, have the longest life expectancy in the world, are known to contain a number of yet not fully defined but quite powerful anti-oxidants. A suspension of extracted MS was found to suppress oxidized-LDL-induced macrophage respiratory burst in vitro, to prevent growth, and to induce apoptotic death of SW480 cells (a human colon cancer cell line), while no such effects were found for normal 3T3 cells. A diet enriched with MS decreased plasma levels of the lipid peroxidation product malonaldehyde in mice exposed to the colon cancer-inducer azoxymethane (AOM). Such a diet also dose-dependently enhanced the activity of several anti-oxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and GSH-peroxidase and, moreover, reduced AOM-mediated formation of colon adenomas by about 50%. Further studies are required to detail and explore the beneficial effects of MS and their rich content of powerful anti-oxidants. PMID:21605497

  11. Antifungal susceptibility and growth inhibitory response of oral Candida species to Brucea javanica Linn. extract

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Candida species have been associated with the emergence of resistant strains towards selected antifungal agents. Plant products have been used traditionally as alternative medicine to ease candidal infections. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antifungal susceptibility patterns and growth inhibiting effect of Brucea javanica seeds extract against Candida species. Methods A total of seven Candida strains that includes Candida albicans ATCC14053, Candida dubliniensis ATCCMYA-2975, Candida glabrata ATCC90030, Candida krusei ATCC14243, Candida lusitaniae ATCC64125, Candida parapsilosis ATCC22019 and Candida tropicalis ATCC13803 were used in this study. The antifungal activity, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of B. javanica extract were evaluated. Each strain was cultured in Yeast Peptone Dextrose broth under four different growth environments; (i) in the absence and presence of B. javanica extract at respective concentrations of (ii) 1 mg/ml (iii) 3 mg/ml and (iv) 6 mg/ml. The growth inhibitory responses of the candidal cells were determined based on changes in the specific-growth rates (?) and doubling time (g). The values in the presence of extract were computed as percentage in the optical density relative to that of the total cells suspension in the absence of extract. Results B. javanica seeds extract exhibited antifungal properties. C. tropicalis showed the highest growth rate; 0.319?±?0.002 h-1, while others were in the range of 0.141?±?0.001 to 0.265?±?0.005 h-1. In the presence of extract, the lag and log phases were extended and deviated the ?- and g-values. B. javanica extract had significantly reduced the ?-values of C. dubliniensis, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis at more than 80% (??

  12. A new bioactive triterpenoid saponin from the seeds of Lactuca scariola Linn.

    PubMed

    Yadava, R N; Jharbade, Jitendra

    2007-05-20

    A new triterpenoid saponin, 3-O-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl]-oleanolic acid; has been isolated from the seeds of Lactuca scariola. Its structure was determined by various spectral analysis and chemical degradations. This compound shows antimicrobial activity against various bacteria and fungi. PMID:17497422

  13. Aqueous extract of Ficus religiosa linn. reduces oxidative stress in experimentally induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kirana, H; Agrawal, S S; Srinivasan, B P

    2009-10-01

    One of the major etiologies in pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes especially complications is oxidative stress. Aqueous extract of Ficus religiosa at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg orally decreased the fasting blood glucose in streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats. The drug had enzyme induction effect with respect to catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, however decreased the exaggerated activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in type 2 diabetic rats. F. religiosa modulated the enzymes of antioxidant defence system to combat oxidative stress. As a result, glutathione (GSH-reduced form) was restored and inhibited the formation of malondialdehyde. Drug at higher dose (200 mg/kg) had more pronounced effect. F. religiosa, a rasayana group of plant drug having anti-diabetic activity along with antioxidant potential was beneficial in treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:20112810

  14. Aqueous extracts of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.) varieties inhibit ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activities in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of aqueous extracts of two varieties (red and white) of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle) calyces on carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes (?-amylase and ?-glucosidase), with the aim of providing the possible mechanism for their antidiabetes properties. Aqueous extracts were prepared (1:100 w/v) and the supernatant used for the analysis. The extracts caused inhibition of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activities in vitro.The IC(50) revealed that the red variety (25.2 ?g/mL) exhibited higher ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity than the white variety (47.4 ?g/mL), while the white variety (90.5 ?g/mL) exhibited higher ?-amylase inhibitory activity than the red variety (187.9 ?g/mL). However, the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities of both calyces were higher than that of their ?-amylase. In addition, the red variety possessed higher antioxidant capacity as exemplified by the (•)OH scavenging abilities, Fe(2+) chelating ability, and inhibition of Fe(2+)-induced pancreatic lipid peroxidation in vitro. The enzyme inhibitory activities and antioxidant properties of the roselle extracts agreed with their phenolic content. Hence, inhibition of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase, coupled with strong antioxidant properties could be the possible underlying mechanism for the antidiabetes properties of H. sabdariffa calyces; however, the red variety appeared to be more potent. PMID:23216107

  15. Germ-cell origin in the adult caecilian Ichthyophis glutinosus (Linn)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Seshachar

    1937-01-01

    In Ichthyophis glutinosus, no residual spermatogonia traceable to primordial germ cells of the embryo are seen, the primary spermatogonia of each season being formed afresh. Their only source so far as the adult is concerned, is the lining of the collecting duct and its numerous branches which ramify in the testis. No evidences of their origin from the surface epithelial

  16. Dterminisme gntique du nombre de cca pyloriques chez la Truite fario (Salmo Trutta, Linn)

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Déterminisme génétique du nombre de cæca pyloriques chez la Truite fario (Salmo Trutta, Linné) et objet l'estimation de la variabilité génétique de ce caractère chez la Truite fario (Salmo trutta Linné la Truite arc-en-ciel (Salmo Gairdneri, Richardson) III. - Effet du génotype et de la taille des

  17. Dterminisme gntique du nombre de cca pyloriques chez la Truite fario (Salmo trutta, Linn)

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Déterminisme génétique du nombre de cæca pyloriques chez la Truite fario (Salmo trutta, Linné) et!xGOT et al., 1976) nous avions décrit cette variabilité intraspécifique chez la Truite Fario (Salmo trutta la Truite arc-en-ciel (Salmo gairdneri, Richardson) II. - Effet du génotype du milieu d'élevage et de

  18. Population dynamics of some coccids (Coccoidea: Hemiptera) infesting sandal ( Santalum album Linn.) in Bangalore, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramachandran Sundararaj; Raja Muthukrishnan

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the population dynamics of four important coccids viz., Aonidiella orientalis (Newstead), Ceroplastes actiniformis Green, Cardiococcus bivalvata (Green) and Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner) infesting sandal in Bangalore, India. Meteorological data viz., monthly mean maximum and minimum temperatures, morning and evening relative humidity and total rainfall were also collected\\u000a during the experimental period for statistical analysis to

  19. Reversible contraception with chloroform extract of Carica papaya linn. seeds in male rabbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nirmal K Lohiya; N Pathak; Pradyumna K Mishra; B Manivannan

    1999-01-01

    The contraceptive efficacy and reversibility of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in adult male rabbits were investigated. Eighteen adult male rabbits were divided into three groups of six animals each; Group I—control, Group II—administered chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya at 20 mg\\/animal\\/d for 150 d by gavage, and Group III—administered the seed extract

  20. Analysis of the origin of Johnson grass, Sorghum halepense (Linn.), by protein electrophoresis 

    E-print Network

    Collier, Glen Eldon

    1971-01-01

    . Source Origin S. 818 1 (S. 81 1 * S. ~it 2 (869-3) * S. ~hl (FS) S. ~hl (869-3) (FS) TX414 Kaoliang 869-3 869-5 Dr. J. D. Smith China 8' This identification is tentative. 12 Insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), commercially avail- able...-bonding and irreversibly by covalent condensation following oxidation. Loomis and Bettaile devised s technique to adsorb these phenolic compounds snd allow for the isolation of ective enzymes. Insoluble polyvinylpyrroli- done (PVP), which contains groups similar...

  1. Propagation of Robinia pseudoacacia Linn. and Grewiaoptiva Drummond from rooted stem cuttings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Swamy; S. Puri; K. Kanwar

    2002-01-01

    Rapid vegetative propagation of promising multipurpose trees is an important need in agroforestry development. Grewia optiva andRobinia pseudoacacia are two such species, about the propagation of which very little is known. The rooting ability of stem cuttings harvested\\u000a from juvenile (2 year-old) and mature hardwood(15 year-old) trees of Robinia pseudoacacia andGrewia optiva was significantly influenced by the period or season

  2. Molecular approaches to improvement of Jatropha curcas Linn. as a sustainable energy crop.

    PubMed

    Sudhakar Johnson, T; Eswaran, Nalini; Sujatha, M

    2011-09-01

    With the increase in crude oil prices, climate change concerns and limited reserves of fossil fuel, attention has been diverted to alternate renewable energy sources such as biofuel and biomass. Among the potential biofuel crops, Jatropha curcas L, a non-domesticated shrub, has been gaining importance as the most promising oilseed, as it does not compete with the edible oil supplies. Economic relevance of J. curcas for biodiesel production has promoted world-wide prospecting of its germplasm for crop improvement and breeding. However, lack of adequate genetic variation and non-availability of improved varieties limited its prospects of being a successful energy crop. In this review, we present the progress made in molecular breeding approaches with particular reference to tissue culture and genetic transformation, genetic diversity assessment using molecular markers, large-scale transcriptome and proteome studies, identification of candidate genes for trait improvement, whole genome sequencing and the current interest by various public and private sector companies in commercial-scale cultivation, which highlights the revival of Jatropha as a sustainable energy crop. The information generated from molecular markers, transcriptome profiling and whole genome sequencing could accelerate the genetic upgradation of J. curcas through molecular breeding. PMID:21584678

  3. Hepatoprotective effects of Solanum nigrum Linn extract against CCl 4-iduced oxidative damage in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui-Mei Lin; Hsien-Chun Tseng; Chau-Jong Wang; Jin-Jin Lin; Chia-Wen Lo; Fen-Pi Chou

    2008-01-01

    Solanum nigrum L. (SN) is an herbal plant that has been used as hepatoprotective and anti-inflammation agent in Chinese medicine. In this study, the protective effects of water extract of SN (SNE) against liver damage were evaluated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced chronic hepatotoxicity in rats. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were orally fed with SNE (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0gkg?1 bw) along with

  4. Toxic effects of oral administration of extracts of dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. (Malvaceae).

    PubMed

    Fakeye, Titilayo O; Pal, Anirban; Bawankule, D U; Yadav, N P; Khanuja, S P S

    2009-03-01

    The effects of a 90-day oral administration of water and alcohol extracts of dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa were evaluated in albino rats. Haematological, biochemical and histopathological changes were monitored every 30 days.The death of the animals was preceded by a severe loss in weight, accompanied with diarrhoea in animals on the 2000 mg/kg dose. There was an increase in food intake (g) per kg body weight per day in the aqueous (A) and ethanol (E) 300 mg/kg extract groups. Significant reductions in the erythrocyte count with no difference in total leucocyte count were observed. The activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was enhanced by the administration of aqueous and 50% ethanol extract with a significant increase in its level at higher doses (p < 0.05). Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatinine levels were significantly affected by all the extracts at the different dose levels. However, aqueous extracts exhibited a significant increase in creatinine levels (p < 0.05) at higher doses. The cholesterol levels were generally not significantly affected by the extracts. No significant histopathological changes were observed, although there was a significant reduction in the weight of the spleen of the animals administered with ethanol and water extracts when compared with the control (p < 0.01). Other organs were of the same relative weight. PMID:19003943

  5. Changes in urinary chemical composition in healthy volunteers after consuming roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.) juice.

    PubMed

    Kirdpon, S; Nakorn, S N; Kirdpon, W

    1994-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes of urine in normal subjects after consuming roselle juice in different concentrations and durations which may help the treatment and prevention of renal stone disease. Thirty-six healthy men participated in the study, in which urinalysis, urine electrolytes and indices for measurements of concentration of urine were determined before, during and after roselle juice consumption. The urine after consumption of roselle juice showed a decrease of creatinine, uric acid, citrate, tartrate, calcium, sodium, potassium and phosphate but not oxalate in urinary excretion. The CPR values of the majority of each individual increased and means PI values decreased in phase 1. Contrarily, the CPR values of the majority of volunteers decreased and means PI values increased in phase 2. In conclusion a low dose of roselle juice (16 g/day) caused more significant decrease in salt output in the urine than a high dose (24 g/day). The urinary changes were similar to the observations on villagers with and without stones in northeastern Thailand. PMID:7869018

  6. Anxiolytic and sedative effects of extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn (family Malvaceae).

    PubMed

    Fakeye, T O; Pal, A; Khanuja, S P S

    2008-03-01

    Aqueous (A), hydroalcoholic (AE) and ethanolic (E) extracts and fractions of dried calyxes of Hibiscus sabdariffa were evaluated for anxiolytic property using elevated-plus maze (EPM), and sedative properties using ketamine-induced sleep in animal models. The extracts exhibited a dose-dependent increase in the time spent in the open arm with ethanol extracts having the best anxiolytic activity. The extracts at A 5 mg/kg, AE 5 mg/kg and A 50 mg/kg did not cause an increase in time spent in the open arms (p < 0.05) but other doses significantly did when compared with the vehicle control. The fractions of the hydroalcoholic extracts showed no significant anxiolytic activity. Neither the extracts nor the fractions significantly reduced or increased latency to sleep after a single dose except AE 300 (p < 0.01). There was significant reduction in onset of sleep, and increase in sleeping time with A and AE extracts with multiple doses at A 300, AE 50 and AE 300 mg/kg dose groups (p < 0.001, p < 0.01 and p < 0.05 respectively). A reduction in sleeping time after several daily doses of ethanol extracts doses was observed. A single dose of one of the fractions (EAC at 50 mg/kg) caused a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in sleep duration. The study showed that extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa possess anxiolytic and sedative effects which become more pronounced with administration of repeated doses of the extracts. PMID:18756855

  7. Larvicidal and ovicidal activity of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf extract against filarial and malarial vector mosquitoes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Govindarajan; A. Jebanesan; T. Pushpanathan

    2008-01-01

    Methanolic leaf extract of Cassia fistula was tested for larvicidal and ovicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi. The extract was found to be more lethal to the larvae of A. stephensi than C. quinquefasciatus with LC50 values of 17.97 and 20.57 mg\\/l, respectively. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 120 h after\\u000a treatment. The percent hatchability was

  8. Seabuckthorn(Hippophae Linn. sps.) - A potential Resource for Biodiversity conservation in Nepal Himalayas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Sahim Ansari

    Seabuckthorn (Hippophae L.) berry is very rich source of vitamins and it possesses a number of unique medicinal properties, which have a great potential to provide health-foods & a variety of medicines. However, despite rich under exploited potential, Nepal is yet to harness the rich potential of Seabuckthorn in producing foods, medicines, juices, and other cosmetic products where as countries

  9. ANTIOXIDANT AND IMMUNOSTIMULANT EFFECT OF CARICA PAPAYA LINN. AQUEOUS EXTRACT IN ACRYLAMIDE INTOXICATED RATS

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed Sadek, Kadry

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and immunostimulant effects of The Carica papaya fruit aqueous extract (CPF, Caricaceae) against acrylamide induced oxidative stress and improvement of Immune functions which affected by free radicals liberating acrylamide in rats. Material and methods: Sixty male wistar albino rats (195-230g) were assigned to four groups, (fifteen/group). The first group used as control group and received normal physiological saline orally daily. The second group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water. The third group was gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The fourth group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water and gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The chosen dose of papaya fruit extract was based on the active pharmacological dose range obtained from the orientation study earlier conducted. The experimental period was extended to forty day. At the expiration of the experimental period and night fasting, blood samples were collected from the orbital venous sinus. The sera were separated and used for determining of IgG and IgM and the stomach, liver and kidney homogenates for estimation of MDA, GSH level, SOD and CAT activity as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and antioxidative stress. Results and discussion: The obtained results revealed that, acrylamide caused significant increases in MDA and decrease of GSH level, SOD and CAT activity due to the oxidative stress induced by acrylamide on membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids in rat’s stomach, liver and kidney while administration of CPF aqueous extract, was significantly ameliorated the increased levels of MDA and decline of GSH, SOD and CAT activity in the stomach, liver and kidney tissues caused by acrylamide toxicity. Meanwhile, CPF aqueous extract significantly increased immune functions (IgG and IgM) while acrylamide significantly decrease it specially IgG. Thus, this study suggests that acrylamide-induced oxidative stress in rats can be ameliorated by administration of CPF aqueous extract. PMID:23322975

  10. In vitro analysis of antioxidant activities of Oxalis corniculata Linn. fractions in various solvents.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Dildar; Zara, Saman; Baig, Hira

    2012-01-01

    As part of our search for natural antioxidants, this work presents an evaluation of antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of Oxalis corniculata and its sub-fractions in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water. The total phenolic contents in terms of µg of gallic acid equivalents per mg of dried mass were approximately 21.0, 28.2, 34.5, 162.0, 70.0, and 49.2 in methanolic, hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanolic and aqueous fractions respectively, while the flavonoid contents in these solvents were 362.4, 214.1, 317.1, 177.1, 98.8 and 53.5 respectively in terms of µg of rutin per mg of dried mass. In DPPH assay, the ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest free radical scavenging activity, 24.0% with 1 mg/mL concentration. The second strongest fraction was chloroform (21.5%). The EC50 and TEC50 values of the methanolic extract were 3.63 mg/mL and 23 min respectively. The FRAP values in terms of µg of ascorbic acid equivalents per mg of dried mass for these solvents were 288.0, 1705.3, 437.1, 72.0, 28.0, and 44.0 respectively while total antioxidant activity measured by phosphomolybdate assay in terms of µg of ascorbic acid equivalents per mg of dried mass were 50.0, 117.0, 78.6, 57.8, 3.4 and 8.3 respectively. All the samples showed remarkable ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation exhibiting much better and sustainable peroxidation inhibitory activity than the standard butylated hydroxyanisole. PMID:24082338

  11. Anticonvulsant activity of raw and classically processed Vacha (Acorus calamus Linn.) rhizomes

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Savitha D.; Ashok, B. K.; Acharya, R. N.; Ravishankar, B.

    2012-01-01

    The rhizome of Vacha (Acorus calamus) has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of various ailments, such as epilepsy, headache, eye disorders, insomnia, loss of memory, etc. Previous studies demonstrated that Vacha rhizome is having significant anticonvulsant activity against various induced seizures models in experimental animals. Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia of India has advocated Shodhana (purificatory procedures) to be done prior to its use. In the present study a comparative anticonvulsant activity of raw and Shodhita (classically processed) Vacha rhizomes were screened against Maximal Electro Shock (MES) seizure model to assess the effect of classical purificatory procedure on pharmacological action of Vacha. Phenytoin was used as standard antiepileptic drug for comparison. Pretreatment with both raw and classically processed Vacha samples exhibited significant anticonvulsant activity by decreasing the duration of tonic extensor phase. Further classically processed Vacha statistically decreased the duration of convulsion and stupor phases of MES-induced seizures. The results obtained from the present study clearly confirmed the anticonvulsant activity of raw Vacha and subjecting to classical Shodhana procedure did not alter the efficacy of Vacha rhizomes instead it enhanced the activity profile of the Vacha. PMID:23049196

  12. 76 FR 30382 - Willamette Valley National Wildlife Refuge Complex, Benton, Linn, Marion, and Polk Counties, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ...semipermanent, and permanent wetlands; wet prairies, upland prairie/oak savannas, oak woodlands, mixed deciduous-coniferous forests, riparian, and riverine and stream habitats. Agricultural lands, the majority managed as grass...

  13. Protective effect of sesaminol from Sesamum indicum Linn. against oxidative damage in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenming; Dai, Mingjun; Wang, Xiang; Yuan, Fengjiao; Chen, Fengxiang; Zhang, Weiyun

    2013-10-01

    Sesaminol is one component of sesame oil and has been widely used as the stabilizer to extend the storage period of food oil in China. In this study, we tried to investigate the antioxidant activity of sesaminol on rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells oxidative damaged by H2 O2 . Cell viability, LDH level and apoptosis of the PC12 cells were assayed after treatment with sesaminol for 3?h and exposure to H2 O2 . Furthermore, superoxide (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and intracellular ROS were assayed after exposure of the PC12 cells to H2 O2 . The results showed that pre-treatment with sesaminol prior to H2 O2 exposure significantly elevated cell survival rate and SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activity. Meanwhile, sesaminol declined the secreted LDH level, apoptosis rate and ROS level of H2 O2 exposed cells. Thus, sesaminol may protect PC12 against oxidative injury. PMID:23280945

  14. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Solvent Extracts of Tagetes erectus Linn ( Asteraceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NV Shinde; KG Kanase

    Purpose: Traditionally, the leaves of Tagetes erectus L. are used in India for the alleviation of pain and inflammation. The objective of this study was to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of this plant material in an animal model. Methods: The chloroform, methanol and ether extracts of the leaves of Tagetes erectus L. (family: Asteraceae) were tested against acetic

  15. Neuropharmacological actions of panchagavya formulation containing Emblica officinalis Gaerth and Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn in mice.

    PubMed

    Achliya, Girish S; Wadodkar, Sudhir G; Avinash, K Dorle

    2004-05-01

    A panchagavya Ayurvedic formulation containing E. officinalis, G. glabra, and cow's ghee was evaluated for its effect on pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures, maximal electroshock-induced seizures, spontaneous motor activity, rota-rod performance (motor coordination) and antagonism to amphetamine in mice. The formulation (300, 500 mg/kg, po) produced a significant prolongation of pentobarbital-induced sleeping time and reduced spontaneous locomotor activity. The formulation also significantly antagonised the amphetamine induced hyper-locomotor activity (500, 750 mg/kg, po) and protected mice against tonic convulsions induced by maximal electroshock (500, 750 mg/kg, po). The formulation slightly prolonged the phases of seizure activity but did not protect mice against lethality induced by pentylenetetrazole. The formulation did not show neurotoxicity. The results suggest that the panchagavya formulation is sedative in nature. PMID:15233476

  16. Glycyrrhiza glabra (Linn.) and Lavandula officinalis (L.) cell suspension cultures-based biotransformation of ?-artemether.

    PubMed

    Patel, Suman; Gaur, Rashmi; Upadhyaya, Mohita; Mathur, Archana; Mathur, Ajay K; Bhakuni, Rajendra S

    2011-07-01

    The biotransformation of ?-artemether (1) by cell suspension cultures of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Lavandula officinalis is reported here for the first time. The major biotransformed product appeared as a grayish-blue color spot on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with transparent crystal-like texture. Based on its infrared (IR) and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, the product was characterized as a tetrahydrofuran (THF)-acetate derivative (2). The highest conversion efficiencies of 57 and 60% were obtained when 8-9-day-old cell suspensions of G. glabra and L. officinalis were respectively fed with 4-7 mg of compound 1 in 40 ml of medium per culture and the cells were harvested after 2-5 days of incubation. The addition of compound 1 at the beginning of the culture cycle caused severe growth depression in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in poor bioconversion efficiency of ~25% at 2-5 mg/culture dose only. PMID:21544685

  17. The food habits of an herbivorous fish ( Oreochromis niloticus Linn.) in Lake Awasa, Ethiopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Getachew; C. H. Fernando

    1989-01-01

    The natural food ofOreochromis niloticus in Lake Awasa was studied from the stomach contents of 10 fish measuring 18–32 cm (standard length) monthly from August 1984 to April 1986.Chroococcus, Oscillatoria andBotryococcus were found to be important food items in the diet. Animal foods were observed on rare occasions and these were mainly Rotifera. Blue-green algae as a group contribute about

  18. The relationship between grain yield and waxy endosperm in Sorghum bicolor (Linn.) Moench 

    E-print Network

    Aydin, Selahattin

    2005-08-29

    In sorghum, a single recessive gene Wx conditions waxy endosperm type. While parental inbred lines and hybrids with waxy endosperm have been developed, there has been little to no adoption of these hybrids by producers, ...

  19. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. leaves in experimental colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kandhare, Amit D; Raygude, Kiran S; Ghosh, Pinaki; Ghule, Arvindkumar E; Gosavi, Tejas P; Badole, Sachin L; Bodhankar, Subhash L

    2012-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the ameliorative effect of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (HRS) in acetic acid induced experimental colitis in male wistar rats. Methods The animals were administered with 2 mL acetic acid (4%) via intra rectal. The animals were divided into various treatment groups (n=6). Prednisolone was used as standard drug and HRS was administered at a dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. The control group of animals received 1 mL of vehicle (distilled water). Ulcer area, ulcer index, spleen weight, colon weight to length ratio, macroscopic score, haematological parameters, colonic superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), nitric oxide (NO) and histological changes were recorded after the treatment regimen of 11 days. Results Intrarectal instillation of acetic acid caused enhanced ulcer area, ulcer index, spleen weight, colon weight to length ratio, colonic MPO, MDA, NO and TNF-? It caused significant decreased level of SOD and GSH. Pretreatment with HRS for 7 days exhibited significant effect in lowering of oxidative stress, colonic NO, TNF-? and elevation of SOD and GSH at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg in acetic acid induced colitis. Conclusions The present investigation demonstrates HRS is of potent therapeutic value in the amelioration of experimental colitis in laboratory animals by inhibiting the proinflammatory mediator like NO and TNF-?. PMID:23569927

  20. Structure-activity relationships of larvicidal monoterpenes and derivatives against Aedes aegypti Linn.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sandra R L; Melo, Manuela A; Cardoso, Andrea Valença; Santos, Roseli L C; de Sousa, Damião P; Cavalcanti, Sócrates C H

    2011-06-01

    In the search for larvicidal compounds against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae), a collection of monoterpenes were selected and evaluated. R- and S-limonene exhibited the highest larvicidal potency (LC(50)=27 and 30 ppm, respectively), followed by ?-terpinene (LC(50)=56 ppm) and RS-carvone (LC(50)=118 ppm). Structural characteristics which may contribute to the understanding of the larvicidal activity of monoterpenes were empirically identified. The presence of heteroatoms in the basic hydrocarbon structure decreases larvicidal potency. Conjugated and exo double bonds appear to increase larvicidal potency. Replacement of double bonds by more reactive epoxides decreases the larvicidal potency. The presence of hydroxyls in the cyclic structure resulted in decreased potency, probably due to increased polarity indicanting that lipophilicity seems to play an important role in increasing the larvicidal potency in this set of compounds. PMID:21376365

  1. Protective Effects of Aqueous Extract of Solanum nigrum Linn. Leaves in Rat Models of Oral Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucositis is one of the most debilitating side effects in patient undergoing chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Leaves of the plant Solanum nigrum are used in folklore medicine to treat oral ulcers in India. However, no pharmacological investigation has been carried out till date. Aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves (AESN) was prepared and subjected to various phytochemical screening. HPLC analysis of the ethyl acetate fraction was carried out. The aqueous extract (100 and 200?mg/kg) was further evaluated for its protective effect on two rat models: (a) busulfan plus infrared radiation (chemoradiotherapy) induced oral mucositis and (b) methotrexate (chemotherapy) induced oral mucositis. Various parameters including body weight change, food intake, and mortality were measured. AESN showed protective effect in both models of oral mucositis; however, the higher dose was more effective in chemotherapy induced oral mucositis. A reduction in oral mucositis score (P < 0.05) was observed in the treatment groups. Significant (P < 0.05) improvement in food intake was also observed in AESN treated groups. Aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves has protective effect on chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy induced oral mucositis in rats. PMID:25506066

  2. Histochemical study of shoot-root apices in Panicum miliaceum Linn. seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. K. Rudramuniyappa; M. G. Panchaksharappa

    1975-01-01

    The histochemical nature of shoot and root apices inPanicum miliaceum L. seedlings was studied using light microscopic histochemical procedures on tissue-sections. The substances localized are:\\u000a RNA, proteins, polysaccharides and reducing sugars.\\u000a \\u000a The shoot apex generally shows uniform distribution of starch grains in all the zones, the presence of which is noticed more\\u000a in the subtending area of the shoot apex.

  3. Rooting and juvenile growth differences in half-sib seedlings of Gmelina arborea, Linn

    E-print Network

    Hicks, Van Joseph

    1980-01-01

    in American elm and mulberry. Basal cuttings also have been shown to be superior to terminal cuttings in rooting ability with the apple and 91 lt d 5th 1955, Th dlyl915), d~t' 1 h' scleroxylon (Okoro 1974) . Ilier (1970) working with willows, reported... propagation principles and practices. 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, N. J. 662 p. Ilier, S. 1970. Effect of the position of the cutting in the shoot on the rooting and shoot growth of some willows. Nauch Trud Lesotekh Inst 18...

  4. A review on phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of miswak (Salvadora persica Linn)

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Jamal; Siddique, Khalid M.; Bi, Salma; Mujeeb, Mohd

    2011-01-01

    The miswak is a natural toothbrush made from the twigs of the Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). Its use predates the inception of Islam and is frequently advocated in the Hadith (the traditions relating to the life of Prophet MuhammadPBUH). In addition to strengthening the gums, it prevents tooth decay, eliminating toothaches and halt further increase in decay that has already set in. It creates a fragrance in the mouth, eliminates bad odor, improves the sense of taste, and causes the teeth to glow and shine. The other parts of the tree have therapeutic values as corrective, deobstruent, liver tonic, diuretic, analgesic, anthelmintic, astringent, lithontriptic, carminative, diuretic, aphrodisiac, and stomachic. The present review is therefore an effort to give detailed survey of the literature on phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of miswak. PMID:21430961

  5. Preliminary phytochemical analysis and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of Trewia nudiflora Linn. roots and leaves.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, N; Srivastava, Mayank; Tiwari, Pallavi

    2013-11-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the major causative factors of many chronic and degenerative diseases. Plants have been used in traditional medicine in different parts of world for thousands of years and continue to provide new remedies for human kind. The present study was to investigate the preliminary phytochemical analysis of various extracts of roots and leaves of Trewia nudiflora (Euphorbiaceae) and antioxidant activity by 1,1,diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. The preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of several phytochemicals including alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, phenolic compounds and tannins. The ethanol and aqueous extracts of roots and leaves of Trewia nudiflora showed significant antioxidant activity compared to standard drug ascorbic acid. PMID:24511756

  6. Influence of fungal elicitation on glycyrrhizin production in transformed cell cultures of Abrus precatorius Linn

    PubMed Central

    Karwasara, Vijai Singh; Tomar, Priti; Dixit, Vinod K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Glycyrrhizin, obtained from Abrus precatorius (Indian liquorice), is a phytoconstituent of importance for pharmaceutical and food industries. Materials and Methods: High producing and fast growing cell lines of A. precatorius were developed by transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens for glycyrrhizin production. Its maximum transformation efficiency of 85% was obtained by infecting leaves with A. tumefaciens MTCC-431 supplemented with 50 ?M acetosyringone. Thorough culture growth kinetics with sugar consumption profiles was established. Results: A twofold increase in glycyrrhizin productivity was obtained in transformed A. precatorius cell suspension cultures over the untransformed cultures. The fungal elicitors prepared from Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus stolonifer were tested at different concentrations to enhance glycyrrhizin production in transformed cell suspension cultures of A. precatorius. Maximum enhancement of 4.9- and 3.8-fold in glycyrrhizin contents, were obtained with A. niger (7.5% v/v) and R. stolonifer (5.0% v/v), respectively, on the 5th day after elicitor treatment. Conclusion: This study indicates the prospective of the amalgamation of elicitation methodology with transformed cell cultures for the large-scale production of glycyrrhizin. PMID:22262933

  7. A study on the therapeutic efficacy of Cassia alata, Linn. leaf extract against Pityriasis versicolor.

    PubMed

    Damodaran, S; Venkataraman, S

    1994-03-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of Cassia alata leaf extract against Pityriasis versicolor has been reported for the first time involving humans. For the collection of clinically effective antifungal compounds from the leaves of Cassia alata, a simple procedure has been devised. A 10-year human study indicates that the leaf extract can be reliably used as a herbal medicine to treat Pityriasis versicolor. The leaf extract has no side-effects. PMID:8046939

  8. Purification and characterization of polygalacturonase-inhibitory proteins from Psidium guajava Linn. (guava) fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aishwarya Deo; N. V Shastri

    2003-01-01

    The presence of polygalacturonase inhibitory proteins [PGIPs] in plant cell walls, has acquired importance since the finding that they play a role in resistance of plants to fungal attack. PGIP activity has been demonstrated in many plant species in diverse families. PGIPs have now been shown to be similar to signal transaction molecules and have been found to be homologous

  9. Antimicrobial and antiviral activities of polyphenolics from Cocos nucifera Linn. (Palmae) husk fiber extract.

    PubMed

    Esquenazi, Daniele; Wigg, Marcia D; Miranda, Mônica M F S; Rodrigues, Hugo M; Tostes, João B F; Rozental, Sonia; da Silva, Antonio J R; Alviano, Celuta S

    2002-12-01

    The decoction of Cocos nucifera L. husk fiber has been used in northeastern Brazil traditional medicine for treatment of diarrhea and arthritis. Water extract obtained from coconut husk fiber and fractions from adsorption chromatography revealed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The crude extract and one of the fractions rich in catechin also showed inhibitory activity against acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1-ACVr). All fractions were inactive against the fungi Candida albicans, Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Cryptococcus neoformans. Catechin and epicatechin together with condensed tannins (B-type procyanidins) were demonstrated to be the components of the water extract. PMID:12558183

  10. Alterations in enzymes in an Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn.), exposed to vanadium

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, A.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Chatterjee, M. [Jadavpur Univ., Calcutta (India)

    1995-02-01

    The increase in air and water borne concentrations of vanadium, a physiologically and pharmacologically active substance, has caused renewed interest in the toxicology of this metal. Toxicity studies of vanadium on fish are comparatively scarce. Cytochrome P-450 monoxygenases and conjugating enzymes are important in fish metabolism and elimination of endogenous as well as foreign lipophilic compounds. These enzymes are also known to participate in activation and inactivation of carcinogenic and environmental chemicals. (In vitro) investigations have shown that fish metabolize xenobiotics by mechanisms very similar to those found in mammals. Impairment of drug-metabolizing enzymes is thus deleterious to the organism. Heavy metals are known to influence this group of enzymes. This prompted us to investigate the effect of vanadate, in a dose-responsive and time-dependent manner, on the relative rates and patterns of hepatic glutathione transferase (GST) activity, UDP-glucuronyl transferase (UDPGT) activity and cytochrome P-450 (Cyt P-450) level in an Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus. We chose an aquatic species for our experiment since the environment where aquatic animals live is the main destination of industrial and agricultural wastes. The variations recorded in the level and activity of cytochrome P-450, glutathione transferase and UDP-glu-curonyl transferase are discussed in relation to carcinogenic risk depending on the environment of the fish. In support of the above, petroleum has been found to induce cytochrome P-450 and subsequently produce high levels of neoplasia in fish. Furthermore, GST, UDPGT and Cyt P-450 have been reported as reliable markers for preneoplastic lesions in liver. 21 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Hypoglycemic and antiperglycemic effects of Semecarpus anacardium linn in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kothai, R; Arul, B; Kumar, K Suresh; Christina, A J M

    2005-01-01

    The effect of ethanolic extract of dried nuts of Semecarpus anacardium on blood glucose level was investigated in both normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. The blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 1, 2 and 3 hours after the treatment. The ethanolic extract of S. anacardium (100 mg/kg) reduced the blood glucose of normal rat from 84 +/- 1.4 to 67 +/- 1.7 mg/dl, 3 hours after oral administration of the extract (P < 0.05). It also significantly lowered blood glucose level in alloxan induced diabetic rat from 325 +/- 2.2 to 144 +/- 1.4 mg/dl, 3 hours after oral administration of the extract (P < 0.05). The antihyperglycemic activity of S. anacardium was compared with tolbutamide, an oral hypoglycemic agent. PMID:16260409

  12. Acaricidal effect of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf ethanolic extract against Rhipicephlaus (Boophilus) annulatus.

    PubMed

    Sunil, A R; Amithamol, K K; Juliet, S; Nair, S N; Ajithkumar, K G; Soorya, V C; Divya, T M; Jyothymol, G; Ghosh, S; Ravindran, R

    2013-06-01

    The present study evaluates the acaricidal properties of crude ethanolic extract of Cassia fistula leaves for controlling Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus based on adult immersion test (AIT). The percentage of adult mortality, inhibition of fecundity and hatching of ova laid were studied at different concentrations of the extract ranging from 50 to 100 mg / ml. The results were compared using one-way ANOVA. The extract produced complete inhibition of hatching of eggs at concentrations above 80 mg / ml of the extract. Mortality of adult engorged female ticks and inhibition of fecundity were concentration dependent. The LC50 value of extract against R. (B.) annulatus was 97.1 mg / ml. PMID:23959488

  13. Larvicidal and ovicidal activity of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf extract against filarial and malarial vector mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, M; Jebanesan, A; Pushpanathan, T

    2008-01-01

    Methanolic leaf extract of Cassia fistula was tested for larvicidal and ovicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi. The extract was found to be more lethal to the larvae of A. stephensi than C. quinquefasciatus with LC(50) values of 17.97 and 20.57 mg/l, respectively. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 120 h after treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. The egg raft of C. quinquefasciatus was found to be more hatchable than A. stephensi. The results show that the leaf extract of C. fistula is promising as a larvicidal and ovicidal agent against C. quinquefasciatus and A. stephensi. PMID:17989995

  14. In vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of Cassia fistula Linn. fruit pulp extracts.

    PubMed

    Bhalodia, N R; Nariya, P B; Acharya, R N; Shukla, V J

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study is to assess the antimicrobial activity Cassia fistula fruit pulp extracts on some bacterial and fungal strains. Hydro alcohol and chloroform extracts of Cassia fistula fruit pulp were evaluated for the potential antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity was determined in both the extracts using the agar disc diffusion method. Extracts were effective on tested microorganisms. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of solvent extracts (5, 25, 50, 100, 250 ?g/mL) of C. fistula were tested against two gram positive, two gram negative human pathogenic bacteria and three fungi, respectively. Crude extracts of C. fistula exhibited moderate to strong activity against most of the bacteria tested. The tested bacterial strains were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coil, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and fungal strains were Aspergillus. niger, Aspergillus. clavatus, Candida albicans. The antibacterial potential of the extracts were found to be dose dependent. The antibacterial activities of the C. fistula were due to the presence of various secondary metabolites. Hence, these plants can be used to discover bioactive natural products that may serve as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals research activities. PMID:23049197

  15. Bioefficacy of Cassia fistula Linn. (Leguminosae) leaf extract against chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, M

    2009-01-01

    The leaf extract of Cassia fistula with different solvens viz, methanol, benzene and acetone were studied for the larvicidal, ovicidal and repellent activity against Aedes aegypti. The extract exhibited dose dependent activity and produced significant mortality. The 24 h LC50 concentration of the extract against Aedes aegypti were observed at 10.69, 18.27 and 23.95 mg/l respectively. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 120.00 h after treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. The crude extract of Cassia fistula shows significant repellency against Aedes aegypti. These results clearly reveal that the crude extract of Cassia fistula served as a potential larvicidal, ovicidal and repellent agent against chikungunya vector mosquito, PMID:19499844

  16. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and venotonic effects of Cissus quadrangularis Linn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ampai Panthong; Wanicha Supraditaporn; Duangta Kanjanapothi; Tawat Taesotikul; Vichai Reutrakul

    2007-01-01

    Cissus quadrangularis, a medicinal plant indigenous to Asia and Africa, is used for many ailments, especially for the treatment of hemorrhoid. The effects associated with hemorrhoid, i.e. analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities as well as the venotonic effect of the methanol extract of C. quadrangularis (CQ) were assessed in comparison with reference drugs. In the analgesic test, CQ provoked a significant

  17. TISSUE LIPID PROFILE OF RATS ADMINISTERED AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS. LINN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kate E. Imafidon

    2010-01-01

    The effect of orally administered aqueous extract of the leaves of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis on tissue lipid profile of albino rats has been determined. Consequently 20 albino rats were divided into 4 groups of 5 rats each. They were given rats mash and water ad libitum for 4 weeks, during which they were subjected to different dosages of the aqueous extract.

  18. [Influence of fertilizers on yield and yield components of opium from Papaver somniferum Linn].

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Takeo; Hatakeyama, Yoshio; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Shimomura, Koichiro

    2003-01-01

    The effect of fertilizer on the yield and yield components of opium from Papaver somniferum L.cv.Ikkanshu were investigated from 1993 to 1995. The weight of opium per one capsule was tendency to increase in the order of peat moss > pulverized charcoal > compound fertilizer, but the differences among the results were not significant. Furthermore, no difference in the capsule weight per 100 m2 and the yields of opium and alkaloids per 100 m2 were detected. The significant difference was only observed when the data were compared among the weights and yields of different years. The difference among the yield of opium was mainly due to the weight of opium per one capsule. The weight of opium per one capsule showed a high correlation with capsule husk weight. The alkaloids contents in opium obtained with a different fertilizer application showed no difference. Morphine content at the first lancing was about 11%, and the value decreased with the order of lancing. On the contrary, the codeine and the thebaine content did not change during lancing and the value were 6-7% and 3%, respectively. The papaverine and the noscapine content decreased in the order of lancing. PMID:14740399

  19. Isolation and Identification of Trigonelline from the Tissue Culture of Allium sativum Linn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kapil Kumar Saxena; Shikha Roy

    Trigonelline is an important bioactive compound of plants. Tissue culture technique is being used for producing bioactive compounds. The Trigonelline was extracted the in vitro raised callus of A. sativum. The amount of Trigonelline was higher in 8 weeks old callus (0.86 mg\\/g d.w.). The maximum growth index of A. sativum (7.90) was observed in eight weeks old callus tissue.

  20. Ethnopharmacological studies of Tribulus terrestris (Linn). in relation to its aphrodisiac properties.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Manish; Sundaramoorthy, S

    2012-01-01

    Synergism and antagonism impact of different plant metabolites present in crude fruit extract of Tribulus terrestris 'the herbal Viagra' have been studied. Variability in plant composition, biomass and metabolites concentration in different modules was significantly contributed by spatial factor. However the edhaphic parameters also changes with both spatial and temporal factors significantly. Fruit is the officinal part and the fruit production significantly related with soil nitrogen (P<0.01), whereas the soil nitrogen and pH also influenced the alkaloid content in fruit (P<0.05). The linear relation between fruit protein and fruit alkaloid (P<0.01) also observed and the relationship in between different soil parameters were established. Bioassay work confirmed its aphrodisiac properties, and site III is suggested for maximum biomass and high concentration of different metabolites. PMID:24082329

  1. Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris linn on liver and kidney in cadmium intoxicated rats.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, G Dhana; Kumar, P Ravi; Bharavi, K; Annapurna, P; Rajendar, B; Patel, Pankaj T; Kumar, C S V Satish; Rao, G S

    2012-02-01

    Administration of cadmium (Cd) significantly increased the peroxidation markers such as malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls along with significant decrease in antioxidant markers such as super oxide dismutase and reduced glutathione in liver and kidney tissues. Cadmium also caused a significant alteration in hepatic and renal functional markers in serum viz. total protein, albumin, alanine transaminase, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. Prominent pathological changes observed in liver were severe vascular and sinusoidal congestion with diffuse degenerative changes and mononuclear infiltration into peripheral areas, while the kidney showed vascular and glomerular congestion, cloudy swelling of tubular epithelium. Coadministration of ethonolic extract of T. terrestris or vitamin E along with Cd significantly reversed the Cd induced changes along with significant reduction in Cd load. PMID:22670477

  2. A new pentacyclic triterpene with potent antibacterial activity from Limnophila indica Linn. (Druce).

    PubMed

    Brahmachari, Goutam; Mandal, Narayan C; Roy, Rajiv; Ghosh, Ranjan; Barman, Soma; Sarkar, Sajal; Jash, Shyamal K; Mondal, Sadhan

    2013-10-01

    A new pentacyclic triterpenoid constituent, characterized as 3-oxo-olean-12(13),18(19)-dien-29?-carboxylic acid (1) on the basis of detailed spectral studies, was isolated from the aerial parts and roots of Limnophila indica (Scrophulariaceae). Compound 1 exhibited considerable antibacterial activity against three Gram-positive bacteria viz. Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes (MICs within a range of 25-30 ?g/ml) and moderate activity against four Gram-negative bacteria Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pantoea ananatis (MICs within a range of 30-100 ?g/ml). The plant pathogenic bacterium P. ananatis and human pathogenic S. typhimurium responded at comparatively higher concentrations of the compound 1, which were 75 and 100 ?g/ml respectively. The compound inhibited the growth of Gram-positive B. subtilis and Gram-negative P. aeruginosa completely with a clear bactericidal mode of action at their MIC values. The compound upon treatment on both B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa released substantial amount of nucleic acid in the external medium and also effected the change of morphology towards pleomorphicity, thereby indicating its probable action on cell membrane. Furthermore, the triterpenoid 1 was found not to inhibit a probiotic lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis LABW4 under in vitro condition and to possess no toxicity in Swiss albino mice. PMID:23876368

  3. Isolation and characterization of bioactive and antibacterial compound from Helianthus annuus linn.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, S; Bama, P; Deccaraman, M; Vijayalakshimi, M; Murugesan, K; Kalaichelvan, P T; Arumugam, P

    2008-12-01

    A bioactive compound with antibacterial activity was isolated and purified from the extract of leaves of sunflower, Helianthus annuus. The bioactive compound was characterized using 1H and 13C NMR. The compound induced auxin, gibberellins and cytokinin in Oryza sativa and Phaseolus mungo. It also showed activity against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. PMID:19245180

  4. Assessment of Anti-inflammatory Activity of Taxus Baccata Linn. Bark Extract.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Satyajit; Mariappan, G; Sarkar, Dipankar; Sarkar, Piyali

    2010-01-01

    Taxus baccata (L) known as Sthauneyaka in Sanskrit(1) has wide range of biological activities including analgesic, anti-malarial, anti-rheumatic, sedative, anti-spasmodic, aphrodisiac and anti-asthmatic. In the present study, the dried and powdered bark of Taxus baccata (L) was extracted with 95% ethanol and ether at room temperature and screened for their anti--inflammatory activity by Carrageenan-induced paw edema method in rat. 95% ethanol extract exhibits potent anti-inflammatory activity at 200mg/kg four hours after administration in comparison with ether extract, as well reference standard, Aspirin. The observed pharmacological activities provide a scientific basis for the folklore use of the plant in treating acute inflammation. PMID:22557354

  5. Antiproliferative and antioxidant activity of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) leaves in Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites transplanted mice

    PubMed Central

    Chockalingam, Vijaya; Kadali, SDV Suryakiran; Gnanasambantham, Pratheesh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present investigation was performed to evaluate the antiproliferative and antioxidant activity of Aegle marmelos leaves in Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites (DLA)-bearing mice. Materials and Methods: The DLA cells maintained in vivo in Swiss albino mice were used for developing ascitic tumor in mice by intraperitoneal transplantation. The standardized 50% ethanolic extract of A. marmelos leaves (AMEE) was administered intraperitoneally in dose levels 200 and 400 mg/kg, after 24 hours of tumor inoculation in mice for two weeks. Results: The AMEE treatment significantly prevented (P<0.001) the increase in body weight due to tumor cell growth and increased the mean survival time of the tumor-bearing mice as compared to the untreated DLA control mice. The treatment of DLA-bearing mice brought down the Alanine Aminotransferase (ALAT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (ASAT), and alkaline phosphatase to normal levels. The extract decreased the levels of hepatic lipid peroxidation and increased the levels of hepatic antioxidants Glutathione, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), and catalase. All the changes observed with AMEE treatment were dose dependent. Conclusion: The hydroalcoholic extract of A. marmelos exhibits strong antitumor and antioxidant activities in DLA-bearing mice. PMID:22529480

  6. Methanolic extract of leaves of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn modulates oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Adya Prasad; Tripathi, Yamini Bhusan

    2011-10-01

    The leaves of Jasminum grandiflorum (JG) are in clinical use in Ayurveda for wound management. Since, oxidative stress and inflammation are the primary causes in delayed wound healing, so here its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities have been investigated using in vitro as well as in vivo models. The solvent-free methanolic extract of dried leaves of JG were tested for its trapping capacity toward pre-generated ABTS•+ radicals, instantly generated superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, along with metal chelation property, reducing power and total phenolic content. Further, it was tested on LPS-induced nitric oxide and cell viability, on primary culture of rat peritoneal macrophages. Its anti-inflammatory property was also tested on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. This extract significantly inhibited iron-induced lipid peroxidation and trapped ABTS•+, superoxide and OH radicals. It significantly inhibited nitric oxide (NO) release, without affecting the cell viability at 800 ?g/ml concentration and reduced the formation of paw edema in rats. Thus, it could be suggested that the aforesaid anti-inflammatory properties of JG leaves are associated to its high phenolic content (2.25±0.105 mg/l of gallic acid equivalent), reducing power and its free radical-scavenging property. PMID:21701798

  7. Organic Tracers from Asphalt in Propolis Produced by Urban Honey Bees, Apis mellifera Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Alqarni, Abdulaziz S.; Rushdi, Ahmed I.; Owayss, Ayman A.; Raweh, Hael S.; El-Mubarak, Aarif H.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    2015-01-01

    Propolis is a gummy material produced by honey bees to protect their hives and currently has drawn the attention of researchers due to its broad clinical use. It has been reported, based only on observations, that honey bees also collect other non-vegetation substances such as paint or asphalt/tar to make propolis. Therefore, propolis samples were collected from bee hives in Riyadh and Al-Bahah, a natural area, Saudi Arabia to determine their compositional characteristics and possible sources of the neutral organic compounds. The samples were extracted with hexane and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that the major compounds were n-alkanes, n-alkenes, methyl n-alkanoates, long chain wax esters, triterpenoids and hopanes. The n-alkanes (ranging from C17 to C40) were significant with relative concentrations varying from 23.8 to 56.8% (mean = 44.9+9.4%) of the total extracts. Their odd carbon preference index (CPI) ranged from 3.6 to 7.7, with a maximum concentration at heptacosane indicating inputs from higher plant vegetation wax. The relative concentrations of the n-alkenes varied from 23.8 to 41.19% (mean = 35.6+5.1%), with CPI = 12.4-31.4, range from C25 to C35 and maximum at tritriacontane. Methyl n-alkanoates, ranged from C12 to C26 as acids, with concentrations from 3.11 to 33.2% (mean = 9.6+9.5%). Long chain wax esters and triterpenoids were minor. The main triterpenoids were ?- and ?-amyrins, amyrones and amyryl acetates. The presence of hopanes in some total extracts (up to 12.5%) indicated that the bees also collected petroleum derivatives from vicinal asphalt and used that as an additional ingredient to make propolis. Therefore, caution should be taken when considering the chemical compositions of propolis as potential sources of natural products for biological and pharmacological applications. Moreover, beekeepers should be aware of the proper source of propolis in the flight range of their bee colonies. PMID:26075382

  8. Garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.) seed oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen; Tan, Chin Ping; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2012-12-01

    Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress) is a fast growing annual herb, native to Egypt and west Asia but widely cultivated in temperate climates throughout the world. L. sativum seed oil (LSO) extracted from plants grown in Tunisia was analyzed to determine whether it has potential as a raw material for biodiesel production. The oil content of the seeds was 26.77%, mainly composed of polyunsaturated (42.23%) and monounsaturated (39.62%) fatty acids. Methyl esters (LSOMEs) were prepared by base-catalyzed transesterification with a conversion rate of 96.8%. The kinematic viscosity (1.92 mm(2)/s), cetane number (49.23), gross heat value (40.45), and other fuel properties were within the limits for biodiesel specified by the ASTM (American Standard for Testing and Materials). This study showed that LSOMEs have the potential to supplement petroleum-based diesel. PMID:23073108

  9. Wind Tunnels in Pheromone Research T. C ~ a k e r 'and C E. Linn. ~ r : ~

    E-print Network

    -generated smoke, one quickly sees that even with access doors to push-fan-type tunnels left open, actions they are placed directly upwind of the smoke source. If the tunnel is housed in a small room, though, walking are in flight. With pulling-type tunnels, however, even without observer movement any crack, hole, pinhole leak

  10. Brine shrimp lethality and acute oral toxicity studies on Swietenia mahagoni (Linn.) Jacq. seed methanolic extract

    PubMed Central

    Sahgal, Geethaa; Ramanathan, Surash; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Mordi, Mohd. Nizam; Ismail, Sabariah; Mansor, Sharif Mahsufi

    2010-01-01

    Background: The seeds of Swietenia mahagoni have been applied in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, malaria, amoebiasis, cough, chest pain, and intestinal parasitism. Here we are the first to report on the toxicity of the Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic (SMCM) seed extract. Methods: SMCM seed extract has been studied for its brine shrimp lethality and acute oral toxicity, in mice. Results: The brine shrimp lethality bioassay shows a moderate cytotoxicity at high concentration. The LC50 for the extract is 0.68 mg/ml at 24 hours of exposure. The LD50 of the SMCM seed extract for acute oral toxicity in mice is greater than 5000 mg/kg. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic seed extract may contain bioactive compounds of potential therapeutic significance which are relatively safe from toxic effects, and can compromise the medicinal use of this plant in folk medicine. PMID:21808570

  11. Biogeographical variation in community response to root allelochemistry: novel weapons and exotic invasion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge M. Vivanco; Harsh P. Bais; Frank R. Stermitz; Giles C. Thelen; Ragan M. Callaway

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Centaurea diffusa is one of the most destructive invasive weeds,in the western USA and allelopathy appears to contribute to its invasiveness (Callaway & Aschehoug 2000). Here we identify a chemical from the root exudates of C. diffusa, 8-hydroxyquinoline, not previously reported as a natural product, and find that it varies biogeographically in its natural concentration and its effect as

  12. Coccidia of Brazilian edentates: Eimeria cyclopei n.sp. from the silky anteater, Cyclopes didactylus (Linn.) and Eimeria choloepi n.sp. from the two-toed sloth, Choloepus didactylus (Linn.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph Lainson; Jeffrey J. Shaw

    1982-01-01

    Summary  \\u000aEimeria cyclopei n.sp. is described from the silky anteater, Cyclopes didactylus, from Pará State, north Brazil. Undifferentiated oocysts, passed in the faeces, complete sporulation in seven days at 26 to 28°C. Oocysts are ellipsoidal to sub-spherical, with a mean size of 28.1 × 23.6 m: the wall is 1.5 to 2.0 m thick, apparently with an outer thin, colourless

  13. MADERA PRESERVADA DE ALAMO (Populus Linn.) COMO MATERIAL DE CONSTRUCCION RESISTENTE AL ATAQUE DE HONGOS E INSECTOS ALAMO (Populus Linn.) PRESERVED WOOD FOR USE AS A STRUCTURAL AND FRAMING TIMBER, RESISTANT TO MUSHROOMS AND INSECTS ATTACK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EEA Santa Cruz

    Windbreaks now occupies around 500 hectares in Santa Cruz province (ARGENTINA). Populus nigra is the most common specie for the purposes of sheltering plantations and livestock by wind. Wood treated with certain preservatives provide high quality material, primarily suited for use as a structural and framing timber. The responses of two poplars woods origins was evaluated. Test of available CCA-C

  14. In-silico homology modeling of three isoforms of insect defensins from the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Linn., 1762)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Dhananjeyan; R. Sivaperumal; R. Paramasivan; V. Thenmozhi; B. K. Tyagi

    2009-01-01

    Dengue is a serious public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. It is caused by any of the four serologically\\u000a distinct dengue viruses, namely DENV1–4. The viruses are transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Understanding various defence mechanisms\\u000a of insects has become a prime area of research worldwide. In insects, the first line of defence against invading pathogens\\u000a includes cellular mechanisms

  15. In vitro studies on antilithiatic activity of seeds of Dolichos biflorus Linn. and rhizomes of Bergenia ligulata Wall.

    PubMed

    Garimella, T S; Jolly, C I; Narayanan, S

    2001-06-01

    Soxhlet extracts of seeds of Dolichos biflorus and rhizomes of Bergenia ligulata were tested for their in vitro antilithiatic/anticalcification activity by the homogeneous precipitation method. The extracts were compared with an aqueous extract of cystone (a marketed preparation) for their activities. Also a combination of the extracts of the two plants was tested. Extracts of Dolichus biflorus showed activity almost equivalent to cystone while Bergenia ligulata showed less activity and the combination was not as active as the individual extracts. PMID:11406861

  16. HPLC assisted chemobiological standardization of ?-glucosidase-I enzyme inhibitory constituents from Piper longum Linn-An Indian medicinal plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Srinivas V. Pullela; Ashok K. Tiwari; UmaMaheswara S. Vanka; Anuradha Vummenthula; Hari B. Tatipaka; Krishna R. Dasari; Ikhlas A. Khan; Madhusudana R. Janaswamy

    2006-01-01

    Formulations of traditional medicines are usually made up of complex mixture of herbs. However, effective quality control methods in order to select right quality materials are lacking. Though Piper longum is a widely used herb in several Ayurvedic formulations prescribed for various diseases, there is no analytical method in the literature so far which can help in selecting the right

  17. Profiling of Glucosinolates and Flavonoids in Rorippa indica (Linn.) Hiern. (Cruciferae) by UHPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMSn

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    An UHPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMSn profiling method was used to identify the glucosinolates and flavonoids of Rorippa indica (Cruciferae), a wild vegetable and Chinese herb used to treat cough, diarrhea, and rheumatoid arthritis. Thirty-three glucosinolates, more than 40 flavonol glycosides, and 18 other phenolic and common organic compounds were identified. The glucosinolates and polyphenols were separated by UHPLC. High-resolution deprotonated molecules provided high accuracy mass values that were used to determine formulas and provide putative identification of the glucosinolates and flavonoids. The fragments from multistage mass spectrometry were used to elucidate the structures. The concentrations of the main components were based on UV peak areas and molar relative response factors with a single calibration standard. This study found this plant to be a rich source for glucosinolates, containing 24 new glucosinolates, including 14 glucosylated glucosinolates that were previously unidentified. PMID:24893216

  18. Desmodium gangeticum (Linn.) DC. exhibits antihypertrophic effect in isoproterenol-induced cardiomyoblasts via amelioration of oxidative stress and mitochondrial alterations.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Vandana; Pangayarselvi, Balasubramaniam; Prathapan, Ayyappan; Raghu, Kozhiparambil Gopalan

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy occurs in response to increased workload, such as hypertension or valvular heart disease. Oxidative stress has been implicated in cardiac hypertrophy and in its transition to heart failure. This study was taken up with the objective to evaluate the role of oxidative stress in cardiomyoblast hypertrophy and its modulation by Desmodium gangeticum (DG) that has been traditionally used in Ayurveda, an Indian system of medicine. The methanolic root extract was analyzed for total phenolic content and tested for antioxidant potential. Hypertrophy was induced by exposing H9c2 cell line to ?-adrenergic receptor agonist, isoproterenol (ISO), for 96 hours. Analyses of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial transmembrane potential ([INCREMENT]?m), and integrity of permeability transition were performed in ISO as well as Desmodium and ISO-cotreated cells. The results demonstrated potent free radical scavenging activity of DG. Cell line studies showed significant increase in ROS generation, dissipation of [INCREMENT]?m, and permeability transition pore opening in ISO-treated cells. Desmodium was found to attenuate ISO-induced hypertrophy by reduction of ROS generation, restoration of [INCREMENT]?m, and prevention of permeability transition pore opening. This study is the first documentation of the modulatory effect of DG on cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:23052030

  19. Hematological effects of repeated graded doses of the methanol extract of Paullinia pinnata (Linn.) leaves in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Adeyemo-Salami, Oluwatoyin A.; Ewuola, Emmanuel O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Paullinia pinnata is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of various diseases, including anemia in West Africa. Aim: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of increasing doses of the methanolic leaves extract of P. pinnata on hematological parameters in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six male Wistar albino rats were grouped into six groups of six animals each. Five doses; 50,100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight of the P. pinnata extract were administered separately to five groups. The sixth group served as a control and received only the vehicle (70% physiological saline: 30% Tween 80 [v/v]). Administration was done orally daily for 28 days at 24 h interval. On day 29, the animals were made inactive, blood was then collected from the heart and various hematological parameters were evaluated. Statistical Analysis: Analysis of variance was employed. Results: The packed cell volume and red blood cell count increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the treatment groups except at 200 mg/kg dose. The hemoglobin concentration increased in all the treatment groups. The values for the neutrophils at 50, 100, 200 and 800 mg/kg doses were higher than that of the control. The white blood cell count increased significantly (P < 0.05) at 50 and 400 mg/kg doses compared to the control and exceeded the normal physiological range. Conclusion: The maximum tolerable dose is 200 mg/kg body weight of the methanolic leaves extract of P. pinnata and the extract has anti-anemic property with the ability to increase neutrophils count. PMID:26109785

  20. Clinical study on erectile dysfunction in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects and its management with Ficus relegiosa Linn.

    PubMed

    Virani, Nilesh V; Chandola, H M; Vyas, S N; Jadeja, D B

    2010-07-01

    Healthy sexual functioning plays an essential role in maintaining the harmony and happiness in marital life. It provides a media to express love, which is the base for all sorts of creative activities. The absence of this function hampers the marital relationship, leading to frustration and, sometimes, ending in divorce, and causes inadequacy in performing the routine duties. In this study, 53 patients having diabetes mellitus were surveyed to find out the incidence of erectile dysfunction (ED). Considering the high prevalence of the disease and the need to look for alternative medicine, a clinical trial on 44 patients of ED was carried out. These patients were divided into two main groups: diabetic and non-diabetic, and were further divided into two subgroups as trial group and placebo group. In the trial group, Ashvattha Kshirpaka prepared with 10 g powder of its root bark, stem bark, fruit and tender leaf buds was given twice a day. In both the diabetic and the non-diabetic subjects, Ashvattha provided encouraging results on ED as well as on seminal parameters in comparison to the placebo. PMID:22131726

  1. Efficacy of herbal essential oils as insecticide against Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) and Anopheles dirus (Peyton and Harrison).

    PubMed

    Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Soonwera, Mayura

    2011-09-01

    The essential oils of Cananga odorata (ylang ylang), Citrus sinensis (orange), Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass), Cymbopogon nardus (citronella grass), Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus), Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove), were tested for their insecticide activity against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles dirus using the WHO standard susceptibility test. These were applied in soybean oil at dose of 1%, 5% and 10% (w/v). C. citratus had the KT, values against the three mosquito species tested but the knockdown rates (at 10, 30 and 60 minutes) were lower than some essential oils. C. citratus oil had high insecticidal activity against Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. dirus, with LC50 values of < 0.1, 2.22 and < 0.1%, respectively. Ten percent C. citratus gave the highest mortality rates (100%) 24 hours after application. This study demonstrates the potential for the essential oil of C. citratus to be used as an insecticide against 3 species of mosquitoes. PMID:22299433

  2. Evaluation of anxiolytic activity of aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum Linn. in mice: A preliminary experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Latha, K.; Rammohan, B.; Sunanda, B. P. V.; Maheswari, M. S. Uma; Mohan, Surapaneni Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the anxiolytic effect of Coriandrum sativum (CS) aqueous extract in mice. To compare the antianxiety activity of CS against standard drug diazepam (3 mg/kg). Materials and Methods: After obtaining Institutional Animal Ethics Committee approval, Swiss albino mice (18–25 g) of either sex were randomly divided into five groups of six animals each. Dried powder of CS leaves was boiled with distilled water, cooled, filtered, placed on a hotplate for complete evaporation, finally weighed and stored. The control group, test group, and standard drugs group received saline, CS extract (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg), diazepam (3 mg/kg), respectively, by oral feeding. The antianxiety effect was assessed by elevated plus maze (EPM) in mice. Results: In EPM, it implied that CS 50 mg/kg (Group III), 100 mg/kg (Group IV), and 200 mg/kg (Group V) significantly (P < 0.001) increases the number of entries in open arms compared to control. The time spent in open arms also increased in all the doses of CS extract significantly. Conclusion: The current study demonstrates statistically significant dose-dependent antianxiety activity of CS leaves. PMID:26109787

  3. A study of cytogenetical relationships between Sorghum vulgare Pers., S. virgatum (HACK.) Stapf, and S. halepense (Linn

    E-print Network

    Mouftah, Samir Pacha Mohamed Sabri

    1966-01-01

    . Furthermore, Longley (32) suggested the possibility of its origin as an autotetraploid derived from a ten chromosome annual form. On the other hand, Huskins and Smith (27), Duara and Stebbins (10), Hadley (24), and Krishnaswamy and Raman (30) report. ed... chromosome pairing was the common rule in such hyb 'd. 1'b 1 t 4 gg 1 d tb S. 4~1 established as a result of the natural doubling of a natural hybrid bt S. ~l dS. ~ti hgd'gl f North Africa. Their explanation for the occurrence of the strong rhizomes...

  4. Immunomodulatory effect of red onion (Allium cepa Linn) scale extract on experimentally induced atypical prostatic hyperplasia in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Elberry, Ahmed A; Mufti, Shagufta; Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah; Abdel Sattar, Essam; Ghareib, Salah A; Mosli, Hisham A; Gabr, Salah A

    2014-01-01

    Red onion scales (ROS) contain large amounts of flavonoids that are responsible for the reported antioxidant activity, immune enhancement, and anticancer property. Atypical prostatic hyperplasia (APH) was induced in adult castrated Wistar rats by both s.c. injection of testosterone (0.5?mg/rat/day) and by smearing citral on shaved skin once every 3 days for 30 days. Saw palmetto (100?mg/kg) as a positive control and ROS suspension at doses of 75, 150, and 300?mg/kg/day were given orally every day for 30 days. All medications were started 7 days after castration and along with testosterone and citral. The HPLC profile of ROS methanolic extract displayed two major peaks identified as quercetin and quercetin-4'-?-O-D-glucoside. Histopathological examination of APH-induced prostatic rats revealed evidence of hyperplasia and inflammation with cellular proliferation and reduced apoptosis Immunohistochemistry showed increased tissue expressions of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-?, IGF-1, and clusterin, while TGF-?1 was decreased, which correlates with the presence of inflammation. Both saw palmetto and RO scale treatment have ameliorated these changes. These ameliorative effects were more evident in RO scale groups and were dose dependent. In conclusion, methanolic extract of ROS showed a protective effect against APH induced rats that may be attributed to potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. PMID:24829522

  5. Methanolic Extract of Ficus carica Linn. Leaves Exerts Antiangiogenesis Effects Based on the Rat Air Pouch Model of Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Eteraf-Oskouei, Tahereh; Allahyari, Saeideh; Akbarzadeh-Atashkhosrow, Arezu; Delazar, Abbas; Pashaii, Mahdiyeh; Gan, Siew Hua; Najafi, Moslem

    2015-01-01

    The antiangiogenesis effect of Ficus carica leaves extract in an air pouch model of inflammation was investigated in rat. Inflammation was induced by injection of carrageenan into pouches. After antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content (TPC) investigations, the extract was administered at 5, 25, and 50?mg/pouch, and then the volume of exudates, the cell number, TNF?, PGE2, and VEGF levels were measured. Angiogenesis of granulation tissues was determined by measuring hemoglobin content. Based on the DPPH assay, the extract had significant antioxidant activity with TPC of 11.70?mg GAE/100?g dry sample. In addition, leukocyte accumulation and volume of exudate were significantly inhibited by the extract. Moreover, it significantly decreased the production of TNF?, PGE2, and VEGF, while angiogenesis was significantly inhibited by all administered doses. Interestingly, attenuation of angiogenesis and inflammatory parameters (except leukocyte accumulation) by the extract was similar to that shown by diclofenac. The extract has anti-inflammatory effects and ameliorated cell influx and exudation to the site of the inflammatory response which may be related to the local inhibition of TNF?, PGE2, and VEGF levels as similarly shown by diclofenac. The antiangiogenesis and anti-VEGF effects of Ficus carica may be correlated with its significant antioxidant potentials. PMID:25977699

  6. Synthetic reactive dye wastewater treatment by narrow-leaved cattails ( Typha angustifolia Linn.): Effects of dye, salinity and metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Nilratnisakorn; P. Thiravetyan; W. Nakbanpote

    2007-01-01

    Narrow-leaved cattails were studied in synthetic reactive dye wastewater (SRDW) under caustic conditions. The effects of the toxic dye were expressed in terms of relative plant growth rate and the appearance of symptoms such as necrosis, and chronic or acute wilting. The dye toxicity was 25.33 mg l?1 which was close to approximate the concentration of dye residue from the textile

  7. Decolorization of basic, direct and reactive dyes by pre-treated narrow-leaved cattail ( Typha angustifolia Linn.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duangrat Inthorn; Siritham Singhtho; Paitip Thiravetyan; Eakalak Khan

    2004-01-01

    The efficiency of basic, direct and reactive dye removal from water by narrow-leaved cattail (NLC) powder treated with distilled water (DW-NLC), 37% formaldehyde+0.2 N sulfuric acid (FH-NLC), or 0.1 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH-NLC) at various pH levels (3, 5, 7, and 9) was tested. Desorption of the adsorbed dyes was also investigated. The type of NLC treatment and pH of

  8. Synthetic reactive dye wastewater treatment by narrow-leaved cattails (Typha angustifolia Linn.): effects of dye, salinity and metals.

    PubMed

    Nilratnisakorn, S; Thiravetyan, P; Nakbanpote, W

    2007-10-01

    Narrow-leaved cattails were studied in synthetic reactive dye wastewater (SRDW) under caustic conditions. The effects of the toxic dye were expressed in terms of relative plant growth rate and the appearance of symptoms such as necrosis, and chronic or acute wilting. The dye toxicity was 25.33 mg l(-1) which was close to approximate the concentration of dye residue from the textile effluent in the public stream. The system pH and % color removal were decreased, indicating that narrow-leaved cattail can treat wastewater. The average system pH decreased from 9 to 7. The maximum color removal was approximately 60% when cultured under soil conditions. The SEM image of narrow-leaved cattail root after treatment with SRDW indicated that the root cortex was damaged and the crystalline sodium salts deposited in the root cells which caused evaporation and transpiration decreased in SRDW. The salinity under caustic conditions also affects the growth of the plants. The maximum sodium removal was approximately 44% and was found in the SRDW under soil conditions within 14 days. A small amount of sodium could enhance the relative growth rate. However, the sodium removal of the plants was limited after the third week of treatment. It should be noted that narrow-leaved cattails are known to avoid the textile dye and salt stress conditions during SRDW treatment through special mechanisms such as salt accumulation in the roots or shedding of older leaves. In addition, elements such as silicon, calcium and iron in plants might help the plant to detoxify by forming complexes with dye molecules. PMID:17688914

  9. A constructed wetland model for synthetic reactive dye wastewater treatment by narrow-leaved cattails (Typha angustifolia Linn.).

    PubMed

    Nilratnisakorn, S; Thiravetyan, P; Nakbanpote, W

    2009-01-01

    Textile wastewater is contaminated by reactive dye causing unattractive levels of wastewater color, high pH and high salt content when discharged into public water systems. Decolorization of textile wastewater by plant, phytoremediation, is an alternative, sustainable method which is suitable for long term operation. Narrow-leaved cattails are one species of wetland plant with efficiency for decolorizing and remediating textile wastewater. In addition, chemical oxygen demand (COD) can be lowered and dye residue can be removed. The plant also showed a good salt tolerance even after being exposed to a salt solution for 15 days. The narrow-leaved cattails were set up in a constructed wetland model with a vertical flow system operating from bottom to top for synthetic reactive dye wastewater (SRDW) removal. Narrow-leaved cattails could achieve the removal of SRDW at approximately 0.8 g(SRDW) m(-2) day(-1). Decolorization of SRDW by this plant was approximately 60%. The advantage of this method is that it is suitable for textile wastewater management and improvement of wetland. These plants could lower COD, remove dye, sodium and total dissolved solids (TDS) whereas other biological and chemical methods could not remove TDS and dye in the same time. These results suggested that the spongy cell structure of this plant has the ability to absorb large amounts of water and nutrients. Physico-chemical analysis revealed increasing amounts of sulfur, silicon, iron and calcium in the plant leafs and roots after exposure to wastewater. Proteins or amide groups in the plant might help in textile dye removal. Regarding decolorization, this plant accumulates dye in the intercellular space and still grows in this SRDW condition. Hence, it can be noted here that narrow-leaved cattails are efficient for textile dye wastewater treatment. PMID:19759459

  10. Decolorization of basic, direct and reactive dyes by pre-treated narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia Linn.).

    PubMed

    Inthorn, Duangrat; Singhtho, Siritham; Thiravetyan, Paitip; Khan, Eakalak

    2004-09-01

    The efficiency of basic, direct and reactive dye removal from water by narrow-leaved cattail (NLC) powder treated with distilled water (DW-NLC), 37% formaldehyde+0.2 N sulfuric acid (FH-NLC), or 0.1 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH-NLC) at various pH levels (3, 5, 7, and 9) was tested. Desorption of the adsorbed dyes was also investigated. The type of NLC treatment and pH of the dye solution had little effect on removal of basic dyes, and efficiencies ranged from 97% to 99% over the range of pH used. Over a wide range of pH levels, all types of treated cattail powder had negative charges and probably attracted the basic dyes possessing positive charges. Efficiency of removal by the three NLC treatments ranged from 37% to 42% for direct dyes and from 22% to 54% for direct dyes at pH 7. The pH of the dye solution had substantial effects on the efficiency of removal in direct and reactive dyes. Dye removal was highest at pH 3, with 99% for a direct dye (Sirius Red Violet RL) and 96% for a reactive dye (Basilen Red M-5B). There was mutual attraction between negatively charged direct dye molecules and positively charged molecules on the surface of the FH-treated cattail. In tests of desorption of dyes from cattail in distilled water, the desorption percentage for FH-NLC after adsorbing basic, direct and reactive dyes was 6%, 10% and 35%, respectively, which indicated a chemisorption mechanism for basic and direct dyes and some physiosorption for reactive dyes. PMID:15182837

  11. Profiling of glucosinolates and flavonoids in Rorippa indica (Linn.) Hiern. (Cruciferae) by UHPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS(n).

    PubMed

    Lin, Long-Ze; Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei; Zhang, Ren-Wei; Fan, Xiao-E; Li, Lai-Wei; Harnly, James M

    2014-07-01

    An UHPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS(n) profiling method was used to identify the glucosinolates and flavonoids of Rorippa indica (Cruciferae), a wild vegetable and Chinese herb used to treat cough, diarrhea, and rheumatoid arthritis. Thirty-three glucosinolates, more than 40 flavonol glycosides, and 18 other phenolic and common organic compounds were identified. The glucosinolates and polyphenols were separated by UHPLC. High-resolution deprotonated molecules provided high accuracy mass values that were used to determine formulas and provide putative identification of the glucosinolates and flavonoids. The fragments from multistage mass spectrometry were used to elucidate the structures. The concentrations of the main components were based on UV peak areas and molar relative response factors with a single calibration standard. This study found this plant to be a rich source for glucosinolates, containing 24 new glucosinolates, including 14 glucosylated glucosinolates that were previously unidentified. PMID:24893216

  12. In-silico homology modeling of three isoforms of insect defensins from the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Linn., 1762).

    PubMed

    Dhananjeyan, K J; Sivaperumal, R; Paramasivan, R; Thenmozhi, V; Tyagi, B K

    2009-05-01

    Dengue is a serious public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. It is caused by any of the four serologically distinct dengue viruses, namely DENV1-4. The viruses are transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Understanding various defence mechanisms of insects has become a prime area of research worldwide. In insects, the first line of defence against invading pathogens includes cellular mechanisms and a battery of antimicrobial peptides such as defensins, cecropins etc. Defensins--cationic, cysteine-rich peptides consisting of approximately 40 amino acids with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive bacteria--have been reported from a wide range of organisms. In the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, three isoforms of defensins are reported to be expressed in a spatial and temporal fashion. This report presents the three-dimensional structures of the three isoforms of Ae. aegypti defensins predicted by comparative modeling. Prediction was done with Modeller 9v1 and the structures validated through a series of tests. The best results of the prediction study are presented, and may help lead to the discovery of new synthetic peptides or derivatives of defensins that could be useful in the control of vector-borne diseases. PMID:19085024

  13. Potential fishery of Nile perch Lates niloticus Linne (Pisces: Centropomidae) in Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, East Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ezekiel N. Okemwa

    1984-01-01

    From bottom trawls, Lates niloticus (Lin.) in Nyanza Gulf was observed to have a gulf-wide distribution. Lates dominated the catch at Homa point. Catch rates in kg h-1 varied from one location to another and from month to month.

  14. Productivity of kayu putih (Melaleuca leucadendron LINN) tree plantation managed in non-timber forest production systems in Java, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Budiadi; Yoichi Kanazawa; Hiroaki T. Ishii; M. Sambas Sabarnurdin; Priyono Suryanto

    2005-01-01

    Kayu putih oil, extracted from the kayu putih tree (Melaleuca leucadendron), is an important non-timber forest product (NTFP)\\u000a in Indonesia. We compared productivity of kayu putih tree plantations among three different sites in East, Central, and West\\u000a Java, Indonesia. Leaf-twig, and branch production per tree differed significantly among the three sites. Tree biomass production\\u000a was highest at the site in

  15. Antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of Amaranthus viridis Linn in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ashok Kumar, B S; Lakshman, K; Jayaveea, K N; Sheshadri Shekar, D; Saleemulla Khan; Thippeswamy, B S; Veerapur, Veeresh P

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of whole plant of Amaranthus viridis (MEAV) in alloxan (ALX) induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was confirmed after 5 days of single intraperitoneal injection of ALX (140 mg/kg) in albino Wister rats. MEAV (200 and 400 mg/kg) and glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o.) orally administered daily for 15 days, blood was withdrawn for glucose determination on 0, 1, 10 and 15 days respectively. On the 15th day, overnight fasted rats were sacrificed and blood was collected for the determination of high density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), total glycerides (TG) and total proteins (TP). For in vivo antioxidant activity of MEAV, liver tissues were homogenized and the assay of lipid peroxidation and was measured as Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and total thiols (TT) were performed in control, ALX and MEAV treated rats. MEAV at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg showed significant reduction is blood glucose, lipid profiles and significant improvement in MDA, GSH, CAT and TT when compared to diabetic control group. In vitro ?-amylase inhibition activity of MEAV was also studied. We concluded that MEAV possess antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities. PMID:20643534

  16. Antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of Amaranthus viridis Linn in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. S. Ashok Kumar; K. Lakshman; K. N. Jayaveea; D. Sheshadri Shekar; Saleemulla Khan; B. S. Thippeswamy; Veeresh P. Veerapur

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of whole plant of Amaranthus viridis (MEAV) in alloxan (ALX) induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was confirmed after 5 days of single intraperitoneal injection of ALX (140mg\\/kg) in albino Wister rats. MEAV (200 and 400mg\\/kg) and glibenclamide (10mg\\/kg, p.o.) orally administered daily for 15

  17. Antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic activities of Terminalia pallida Linn. fruits in high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats

    PubMed Central

    Sampathkumar, M. T.; Kasetti, R. B.; Nabi, S. A.; Sudarshan, P. Renuka; Swapna, S.; Apparao, C.

    2011-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia contributes significantly in the manifestation and development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD). Although synthetic lipid-lowering drugs are useful in treating hyperlipidemia, there are number of adverse effects. So the current interest has stimulated the search for new lipid-lowering agents with minimal side effects from natural sources. The present study was designed to investigate the antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic potentiality of ethanolic extract of Terminalia pallida fruits in high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. T. pallida fruits ethanolic extract (TPEt) was prepared using Soxhlet apparatus. Sprague-Dawley male rats were made hyperlipidemic by giving high fat diet, supplied by NIN (National Institute of Nutrition), Hyderabad, India. TPEt was administered in a dose of 100?mg/kg.b.w./day for 30 days in high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. The body weights, plasma lipid, and lipoprotein levels were measured before and after the treatment. TPEt showed significant antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic activities as evidenced by significant decrease in plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels coupled together with elevation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and diminution of atherogenic index in high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. There was a significantly reduced body weight gain in TPEt-treated hyperlipidemic rats than in the control group. The present study demonstrates that TPEt possesses significant antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic properties, thus suggesting its beneficial effect in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21966168

  18. Smallholder Cacao (Theobroma cacao Linn.) cultivation in agroforestry systems of West and Central Africa: challenges and opportunities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Duguma; J. Gockowski; J. Bakala

    2001-01-01

    The cultural features, management practice, environmental sustainability, and economic profitability of smallholder cacao\\u000a (Theobroma cacao)production in West and Central Africa are reviewed. The aim is tohighlight factors affecting the cacao production and marketing\\u000a sectorand to propose appropriate strategies to ensure sustainable and profitable cacao production in the region. The cacao\\u000a cultivation system causes minimum damage to soil resources. In terms

  19. Evaluation of in vitro aldose reductase inhibitory potential of different fraction of Hybanthus enneaspermus Linn F. Muell

    PubMed Central

    Patel, DK; Kumar, R; Kumar, M; Sairam, K; Hemalatha, S

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the aldose reductase inhibitory (ARI) activity of different fractions of Hybanthus enneaspermus for potential use in diabetic cataract. Methods Total phenol and flavonoid content of different fractions was determined. ARI activity of different fractions in rat lens was investigated in vitro. Results The results showed significant level of phenolic and flavonoid content in ethyl acetate fraction [total phenol (212.15±0.79 mg/g), total flavonoid (39.11±2.27 mg/g)] and aqueous fraction [total phenol (140.62±0.57 mg/g), total flavonoid (26.07±1.49 mg/g)] as compared with the chloroform fraction [total phenol (68.56±0.51 mg/g), total flavonoid (13.41±0.82 mg/g)] and petrolium ether fraction [total phenol (36.68±0.43 mg/g), total flavonoid (11.55±1.06 mg/g)]. There was a significant difference in the ARI activity of each fraction, and it was found to be the highest in ethyl acetate fraction [IC50 (49.26±1.76 µg/mL)] followed by aqueous extract [IC50 (70.83±2.82 µg/mL)] and it was least in the petroleum ether fraction [IC50 (118.89±0.71 µg/mL)]. Chloroform fraction showed moderate activity [IC50 (98.52±1.80 µg/mL)]. Conclusions Different fractions showed significanct amount of ARI activity, where in ethyl acetate fraction it was found to be maximum which may be due to its high phenolic and flavonoid content. The extract after further evaluation may be used in the treatment of diabetic cataract. PMID:23569883

  20. The microstructural effects of aqueous extract of Garcinia kola (Linn) on the hippocampus and cerebellum of malnourished mice

    PubMed Central

    Ajayi, Sunday A; Ofusori, David A; Ojo, Gideon B; Ayoka, Oladele A; Abayomi, Taiwo A; Tijani, Adekilekun A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the neuroprotective effects of aqueous extract of Garcinia kola on neurotoxin administered malnourished mice adopting histological procedure. Methods The study was carried out using thirty-two adult malnourished mice which were randomly assigned into four groups (n=8): A, B, C and D. Group A served as control, while the other groups served as the experimental groups. Animals in group A were fed malnourished diet ad libitum and given water liberally. Animals in group B were administered with 3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) (neurotoxin) only at 20 mg/kg body weight, group C were given only Garcinia kola extracts, and group D were pre-treated with Garcinia kola extracts at 200 mg/kg for seven days prior to administration of neurotoxin at 20 mg/kg body weight. After three days of neurotoxins administration in the relevant groups, the brains were excised and fixed in formal calcium for histological processing. Results The study showed that hippocampal and cerebellar neurons of animals in group B exhibited some cellular degeneration and blood vessel blockage, which were not seen in groups A, C and D. Cresyl violet staining was least intense in group B than in groups A, C and D. Despite the fact that animals in group D has equal administration of 3-Nitropropionic acid concentration, there were no traces of neural degeneration as it was evidenced in group B. Conclusions It is concluded that Garcinia kola has protective effects on the neurons of the hippocampus and cerebellum of malnourished mice. PMID:23569771

  1. Effect of trace metals on the restoration potential of leaves of the medicinal plant, Portulaca oleracea linn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Palaniswamy Thangavel; Venkatasamy Subburam

    1998-01-01

    The effect of Cd, Cu, Zn, Hg, and Pb solutions at various concentrations, on the restoration potential of the leaves ofPortulaca oleracea was tested. All the trace metals completely affected the shoot regeneration. The degree of their effect on root regeneration,\\u000a however, varied. Early initiation of parental leaf decay was also observed. The order of their relative effect on the

  2. Interactive effects of selenium and mercury on the restoration potential of leaves of the medicinal plant, Portulaca oleracea Linn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Thangavel; A Shahira Sulthana; V Subburam

    1999-01-01

    Leaves of Portulaca oleracea have the potential of regeneration, when grown in a distilled water medium. The two heavy metals, Se and Hg individually and in combination affected both shoot and root development. They completely arrested shoot development at all concentrations. However, they produced concentration-dependent changes in the development of roots, which ranged from their complete inhibition to variation in

  3. Effects of Biochemical Alteration in Animal Model after Short-Term Exposure of Jatropha curcas (Linn) Leaf Extract

    PubMed Central

    Igbinosa, Osamuyimen O.; Oviasogie, Efosa F.; Igbinosa, Etinosa O.; Igene, Otibhor; Igbinosa, Isoken H.; Idemudia, Omoruyi G.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate potential toxic effect of Jatropha curcas leaves methanol extract on laboratory rats as well as determine its LD50. A total of 80 male Wistar rats were used as the experimental animals, 40 for LD50 determination and the other 40 for toxicity study. Based on the pretest that was done in order to establish a range of toxicity, 4 dosages (86.00, 58.00, 46.00, and 34.0?kg/body weight) were chosen. The rats were randomly assigned into four groups with 10 rats in each group. Rats in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were given 0?mg/kg, 500?mg/kg, 1000?mg/kg, and 2000?mg/kg body weight of Jatropha curcas extract, respectively, by oral intubation for 21 days. Thereafter, clinical signs, change in body weight, toxicity symptoms, and biochemical parameters were obtained. The LD50 at 95% confidence limits for rats was 46.0?mg/kg body weight (44.95–52.69?mg/kg body mass). There was no clinical and biochemical signs of toxicity when the extract was administered at 500, 1000, and 2000?mg/kg body weight, respectively (P > 0.05). Results obtained from this study suggest that liver, kidney, and haematological system of rats tolerated methanolic leave extract of Jatropha curcas at a certain concentration. PMID:23781161

  4. VITEXIN DERIVATIVES AS CHEMICAL MARKERS IN THE DIFFERENTIATION OF THE CLOSELY RELATED SPECIES PASSIFLORA ALATA CURTIS. AND PASSIFLORA QUADRANGULARIS LINN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geison M. Costa; Andressa C. Gazola; Fernanda A. Madóglio; Silvana M. Zucolotto; Flávio H. Reginatto; Leonardo Castellanos; Freddy A. Ramos; Carmenza Duque; Eloir P. Schenkel

    2012-01-01

    The species of Passiflora are widely used in folk medicine as mild sedatives and tranquilizers. P. alata and P. quadrangularis are distributed throughout South America, with widespread occurrence in Brazil and Colombia. Due to the difficulty in making a botanical distinction between these species, especially in the absence of flowers and fruits, the use of chemical markers for these plants

  5. This resource guide is designed to help families with aging adults living in Linn and Benton Counties access as much

    E-print Network

    Escher, Christine

    ---------- 19-20 Checklists for Nursing Homes/Assisted Living Facilities---- 21-22 Hospice------------------------------------------ 23-24 Oregon Hospice------------------------------------- 23-24 National Hospice works with local and statewide agencies, businesses and organizations to provide services

  6. [Inheritance of the white-flower and its influence to related characters in eggplant (Solanum melongem Linn)].

    PubMed

    Lin, Gui-Rong; Li, Bao-Jiang; Wei, Yu-Tang

    2006-06-01

    The inheritance of the white-flower and its influence to related characters in eggplant were studied with the white-flowered mutant of XIANLVQIE and its maternal bred. Result showed that the flower color was attributed to a couple of complete dominance genes. Purple color flower "Col" was dominant to the white "col". Compared with the purple-flowered strain, the white-flowered strain not only grew more blooming, but also had more stamens in one flower, less pollens in one anther and less seeds in one fruit. In the meanwhile, in white-flowered eggplants, microspore and fruit was bigger, and yield was higher than purple-flowered. The white-flowered strain could be used as a variety and the white-flowered character could be used as a marker to appraise purity of hybrid in eggplant. PMID:16818435

  7. Henna (Lawsonia inermis Linn.) inducing haemolysis among G6PD-deficient newborns. A new clinical observation.

    PubMed

    Kandil, H H; al-Ghanem, M M; Sarwat, M A; al-Thallab, F S

    1996-12-01

    Over a 10-year period, 15 glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient male newborns were admitted to Al-Jahra Hospital with acute haemolysis a few days after applying henna dye over the body, which is a unique Bedouin tribal practice to celebrate the arrival of the first-born boy. Laboratory investigations revealed significant anaemia, reticulocytosis and indirect hyperbilirubinaemia among the index newborns as compared with controls (p < 0.001). The mean (SD) haemoglobin concentration in index patients was 113.4 (13.4) g/l vs 171.2 (11.2) g/l in controls, reticulocytic count 13.8% (4.2%) vs 1.4% (0.74%), and indirect bilirubin 382.8 (58.7) mumol/l vs 63.7 (61.4) mumol/l. G6PD-deficient newborns with haemolysis linked to henna application had delayed age at presentation and a higher reticulocytic count and hyperbilirubinaemia compared with non-henna-induced haemolysis (p < 0.05). Percutaneous henna absorption is well recognized and clinical findings support the harmful effect of henna on G6PD-deficient red blood cells. A local health education programme has been established to prevent the use of henna dye in infancy. PMID:8985525

  8. Topically applied standardized aqueous extract of Curcuma longa Linn. suppresses endotoxin-induced uveal inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Renu; Gupta, S K; Agarwal, Puneet; Srivastava, Sushma

    2013-10-01

    Aqueous extract of C. longa when administered 4 h after induction of E. coli lipopolysaccharide-induced uveitis in rats showed significantly suppressed inflammation with a significantly lower mean clinical grade, histopathological grade and aqueous humor (AH) protein level compared to vehicle treated group. Although, prednisolone group showed significantly lower clinical grade, histopathological grades and AH protein levels compared to C. longa group, TNF-alpha levels did not differ significantly. Moreover, when the aqueous extract was administered starting from 3 days before induction of uveitis, the mean clinical and histopathological grade as well as AH protein and TNF-alpha levels were comparable to C. longa group when treatment was administered 4 h after induction of uveitis. It is concluded that topically applied standardized aqueous extract of C. longa suppresses endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats by reducing TNF-alpha activity. PMID:24266103

  9. Evaluation of hepatoprotective effect of methanolic extract of Clitoria ternatea (Linn.) flower against acetaminophen-induced liver damage

    PubMed Central

    Nithianantham, Kuppan; Ping, Kwan Yuet; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Jothy, Subramanion L; Darah, Ibrahim; Chen, Yeng; Chew, Ai-Lan; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Clitoria ternatea (C. ternatea) flower extract against acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity. Methods The antioxidant property of C. ternatea flower extract was investigated by employing established in vitro antioxidant assay. The C. ternatea flower extract was studied in this work for its hepatoprotective effect against acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity in mice. Activity was measured by monitoring the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, billirubin and glutathione with histopathological analysis. Results The amount of total phenolics and flavonoids were estimated to be 105.40±2.47 mg/g gallic acid equivalent and 72.21±0.05 mg/g catechin equivalent respectively. The antioxidant activity of C. ternatea flower extract was 68.9% at a concentration of 1 mg/mL and was also concentration dependant, with an IC50 value of 327.00 µg/mL. The results of acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity experiment showed that mice treated with the extract (200 mg/kg) showed a significant decrease in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and bilirubin levels, which were all elevated in the paracetamol group (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the level of glutathione was found to be restored in extract treated animals compared to the groups treated with acetaminophen alone (P<0.05). Therapy of extract also showed its protective effect on histopathological alterations and supported the biochemical finding. Conclusion The present work confirmed the hepatoprotective effect of C. ternatea flower against model hepatotoxicant acetaminophen.

  10. Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, M.; Rajeswary, M.; Sivakumar, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activity of P. dulce plant extracts was studied in the range of 60 to 450 mg/l against early third instar larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The ovicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 100 to 750 mg/l under the laboratory conditions. Mean per cent hatchability of the eggs were observed after 48 h post treatment. Results: All leaf and seed extracts showed moderate larvicidal and ovicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of P. dulce against the larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti with the LC50 and LC90 values 145.43, 155.78 mg/l and 251.23, 279.73 mg/l, respectively. The per cent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Zero hatchability was observed at 400 mg/l for leaf methanol extract and 625 mg/l for seed methanol extract of P. dulce against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seed extracts have low potency against the two mosquitoes. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. PMID:24056567

  11. Effect of pretreatment of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf extract against subacute CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, K; Mohan, C Victor Raj; Anand, K Gobi; Karthikeyan, S

    2005-06-01

    CCl4 alone treatment (0.lml of liquid paraffin/100g body weight, ip) for 7 days followed by 0.l ml of CCl4 (in liquid parafiin/100g body weight, ip) from day 8 till day 14, caused a 16 fold increase in lipid peroxidation and a 50% reduction in catalase and glutathione reductase in liver tissue of rats accompanied by an increase in the activities of transaminases. alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and gamma - glutamyl transpeptidase in serum as compared to liquid paraffin treated control. Pretreatment of ethanolic leaf extract of C. fistula (500mg/kg body weight/day for 7 days) followed by CCl4 treatment (0.1 ml/100g body weight from day 8 till day 14) completely reversed back lipid peroxidation and the activities of catalase and glutathione reductase in the liver tissue towards normalcy. This treatment also reversed the elevated levels of the enzymes in the serum. Ethanolic leaf extract alone treatment did not produce any change in all the parameters studied. The results suggest antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties of C. fistula during its pretreatment against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:15991578

  12. Immunohistochemical localization of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide in the brain of the catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Singru, Praful S; Mazumdar, Minakshi; Sakharkar, Amul J; Lechan, Ronald M; Thim, Lars; Clausen, Jes Thorn; Subhedar, Nishikant K

    2007-05-10

    The organization of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CARTp, 54-102) immunoreactivity was investigated in the brain of the catfish, Clarias batrachus. CARTp-immunoreactivity was observed in several granule cells of the olfactory bulbs, in dot-like terminals around mitral cells, and in the fibers of the medial olfactory tracts. While several groups of discrete cells in the telencephalon showed CARTp-immunoreactivity, the immunostained fibers were widely distributed in the area dorsalis and ventralis telencephali. Immunoreactivity was seen in several periventricular and a few magnocellular neurons, and in a dense fiber network throughout the preoptic area. Varying degrees of immunoreactive fibers were seen in the periventricular region in the thalamus, hypothalamus, and pituitary. Some neurons in the nucleus preglomerulosus medialis and lateralis, central nucleus of the inferior lobes, nucleus lobobulbaris of the posterior tuberculum, and nucleus recessus posterioris showed distinct CARTp-immunoreactivity. Considerable immunoreactivity was seen in the optic tectum, rostral torus semicircularis, central pretectal area, and granule cells of the cerebellum. While only isolated immunoreactive cells were seen at three distinct sites in the metencephalon, a fiber network was seen in the facial and vagal lobes and periventricular and ventral regions of the medulla oblongata. The pattern of the CARTp distribution in the brain of C. batrachus suggests that it may play an important role in the processing of sensory information, the regulation of hormone secretion by hypophysial cell types, and motor and vegetative function. Finally, as in other animal species, CARTp seems to play a role in the processing of gustatory information. PMID:17348009

  13. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) immunoreactivity in the forebrain and pituitary of the teleost, Clarias batrachus (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Mazumdar, Minakshi; Singru, Praful; Sakharkar, Amul; Deshmukh, Makrand; Subhedar, Nishikant

    2005-04-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1-immunoreactivity (GLP-ir) was seen in several olfactory receptor neurons in the olfactory epithelium and in the olfactory nerve fascicles that extend caudally to the bulb and innervate the glomerular layer. Thick GLP-ir fascicles were seen in the medial olfactory tracts (MOT); these probably represent the extrabulbar olfactory projections. GLP-ir fibers in the MOT penetrate into the telencephalon, swing dorsocaudally into the area ventralis telencephali/pars supracommissuralis (Vs) just above the anterior commissure. The immunoreactive fascicles continue caudally in the dorsal hypothalamus and are traceable as far as the lateral recesses. Scattered GLP-ir fibers were seen in the ventral telencephalon and preoptic area. While several immunoreactive cells were seen in the pars intermedia of the pituitary gland, few were encountered in the rostral pars distalis and proximal pars distalis. Role for the peptide in the processing of olfactory information and in the regulation of pituitary gland may be suggested. PMID:20035454

  14. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) immunoreactivityin the forebrain and pituitary of the teleost, Clarias batrachus (Linn.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minakshi Mazumdar; Praful Singru; Amul Sakharkar; Makrand Deshmukh; Nishikant Subhedar

    2005-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1-immunoreactivity (GLP-ir) was seen in several olfactory receptor neurons in the olfactory epithelium\\u000a and in the olfactory nerve fascicles that extend caudally to the bulb and innervate the glomerular layer. Thick GLP-ir fascicles\\u000a were seen in the medial olfactory tracts (MOT); these probably represent the extrabulbar olfactory projections. GLP-ir fibers\\u000a in the MOT penetrate into the telencephalon, swing dorsocaudally

  15. Effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Paederia foetida Linn. on acetic acid induced colitis in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Das, Swarnamoni; Kanodia, Lalit; Mukherjee, Apurba; Hakim, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Paederia foetida on acetic acid induced colitis in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of Paederia foetida (EEPF) was prepared by percolation method. Acute toxicity test was done by using Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development guidelines. Albino rats were divided into four groups of five animals each. Groups A and B received 3% gum acacia. Groups C and D received EEPF 500 mg/kg body weight (BW) and 5-aminosalisylic acid 100 mg/kg BW respectively. Colitis was induced by transrectal administration of 4% acetic acid on 5th day. All animals were sacrificed after 48 h of colitis induction and distal 10 cm of the colon was dissected. Colon was weighed for disease activity index (DAI) and scored macroscopically and microscopically. Biochemical assessment of tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was done in colonic tissue homogenate and malondialdehyde (MDA) was estimated in serum. Results: P. foetida showed significant (P < 0.05) reduction in DAI, macroscopic and microscopic lesion score as well as significant (P < 0.05) improvement in MPO, MDA, CAT, and SOD level as compared to Group B. Conclusions: The ethanolic extract of leaves of P. foetida showed significant amelioration of experimentally induced colitis, which may be attributed to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant property. PMID:24130378

  16. Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of santalbic acid and a study of triacylglycerol species in Santalum album (Linn.) seed oil.

    PubMed

    Lie Ken Jie, M S; Pasha, M K; Ahmad, F

    1996-10-01

    Methyl ricinoleate (1) was treated with bromine and the dibromo derivative (2) was reacted with ethanolic KOH under ultrasonic irradiation to give 12-hydroxy-octadec-9-ynoic acid upon acidification with dil. HCI. The latter compound was methylated with BF3/methanol to give methyl 12-hydroxy-octadec-9-ynoate (3). Compound 3 was treated with methanesulfonyl chloride in the presence of triethylamine in CH2Cl2 to give methyl 12-mesyloxy-octadec-9-ynoate (4). Reaction of methyl 12-mesyloxy-octadec-9-ynoate with aqueous KOH under ultrasonic irradiation (20 kHz) gave (11E)-octadecen-9-ynoic acid (5, santalbic acid, 40%) and (11Z)-octadecen-9-ynoic acid (6, 60%) on acidification with dil. HCI. These isomers were separated by urea fractionation. The 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic properties of the methyl ester and the triacylglycerol (TAG) esters of these enynoic fatty acid isomers were studied. The carbon shifts of the unsaturated carbon nuclei of the methyl ester of the E-isomer were unambiguously assigned as 88.547 (C-9), 79.287 (C-10), 109.760 (C-11), and 143.450 (C-12) ppm, while the unsaturated carbon shifts of the (Z)-enynoate isomer appeared at 94.277 (C-9), 77.561 (C-10), 109.297 (C-11), and 142.668 (C-12) ppm. In the 13C NMR spectral analysis of the TAG molecules of type AAA containing either the (Z)- or (E)-enyne fatty acid, the C-1 to C-6 carbon atoms on the alpha- and beta-acyl positions were differentiated. The unsaturated carbon atoms in the alpha- and beta-acyl chains were also resolved into two signals except that of the C-11 olefinic carbon. Sandal (Santalum album) wood seed oil (a source of santalbic acid) was separated by silica chromatography into three fractions. The least polar fraction (7.2 wt%) contained TAG which had a random distribution of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, of which oleic acid (69%) was the predominant component. The second fraction (3.8 wt%) contained santalbic acid (58%) and oleic acid (28%) together with some other normal fatty acids. Santalbic acid in this fraction was found in both the alpha- and beta-acyl positions of the glycerol "backbone." The most polar fraction (89 wt%) consisted of TAG containing santalbic acid only. The distribution of the various fatty acids on the glycerol "backbone" was supported by the results from the 13C NMR spectroscopic analysis. PMID:8898308

  17. Tribulus terrestris (Linn.) Attenuates Cellular Alterations Induced by Ischemia in H9c2 Cells Via Antioxidant Potential.

    PubMed

    Reshma, P L; Lekshmi, V S; Sankar, Vandana; Raghu, K G

    2015-06-01

    Tribulus terrestris L. was evaluated for its cardioprotective property against myocardial ischemia in a cell line model. Initially, methanolic extract was prepared and subjected to sequential extraction with various solvents. The extract with high phenolic content (T. terrestris L. ethyl acetate extract-TTME) was further characterized for its chemical constituents and taken forward for evaluation against cardiac ischemia. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of phenolic compounds like caffeic acid (12.41?±?0.22?mg?g(-1) ), chlorogenic acid (0.52?±?0.06?mg?g(-1) ) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (0.60?±?0.08?mg?g(-1) ). H9c2 cells were pretreated with TTME (10, 25, 50 and 100?µg/ml) for 24?h before the induction of ischemia. Then ischemia was induced by exposing cells to ischemia buffer, in a hypoxic chamber, maintained at 0.1% O2 , 95% N2 and 5% CO2 , for 1?h. A significant (p???0.05) increase in reactive oxygen species generation (56%), superoxide production (18%), loss of plasma membrane integrity, dissipation of transmembrane potential, permeability transition pore opening and apoptosis had been observed during ischemia. However, pretreatment with TTME was found to significantly (p???0.05) attenuate the alterations caused by ischemia. The overall results of this study partially reveal the scientific basis of the use of T. terrestris L. in the traditional system of medicine for heart diseases. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25858861

  18. Detoxification of toxic phorbol esters from Malaysian Jatropha curcas Linn. kernel by Trichoderma spp. and endophytic fungi.

    PubMed

    Najjar, Azhar; Abdullah, Norhani; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Ahmad, Syahida; Oskoueian, Ehsan; Abas, Faridah; Gherbawy, Youssuf

    2014-01-01

    The presence of phorbol esters (PEs) with toxic properties limits the use of Jatropha curcas kernel in the animal feed industry. Therefore, suitable methods to detoxify PEs have to be developed to render the material safe as a feed ingredient. In the present study, the biological treatment of the extracted PEs-rich fraction with non-pathogenic fungi (Trichoderma harzianum JQ350879.1, T. harzianum JQ517493.1, Paecilomyces sinensis JQ350881.1, Cladosporium cladosporioides JQ517491.1, Fusarium chlamydosporum JQ350882.1, F. chlamydosporum JQ517492.1 and F. chlamydosporum JQ350880.1) was conducted by fermentation in broth cultures. The PEs were detected by liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESIMS) and quantitatively monitored by HPLC using phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate as the standard. At day 30 of incubation, two T. harzianum spp., P. sinensis and C. cladosporioides significantly (p < 0.05) removed PEs with percentage losses of 96.9%-99.7%, while F. chlamydosporum strains showed percentage losses of 88.9%-92.2%. All fungal strains could utilize the PEs-rich fraction for growth. In the cytotoxicity assay, cell viabilities of Chang liver and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell lines were less than 1% with the untreated PEs-rich fraction, but 84.3%-96.5% with the fungal treated PEs-rich fraction. There was no inhibition on cell viability for normal fungal growth supernatants. To conclude, Trichoderma spp., Paecilomyces sp. and Cladosporium sp. are potential microbes for the detoxification of PEs. PMID:24504029

  19. Acute and chronic toxicity of pawpaw (Carica papaya) seed powder to adult Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linne 1757)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ezekiel O. Ayotunde; Benedict O. Ofem

    2008-01-01

    This experiment determined the toxicity of pawpaw seed powder to adult tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, the most cultivable fish species in Africa. The 96 h static bioassay experiment was conducted to determine the median lethal concentration (LC50) for adult Nile tilapia, to pawpaw seed, Carica papaya. Two hundred live, and apparently healthy O. niloticus measuring 11.5 - 14.6 cm total length

  20. Methanolic Extract of Ficus carica Linn. Leaves Exerts Antiangiogenesis Effects Based on the Rat Air Pouch Model of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Eteraf-Oskouei, Tahereh; Allahyari, Saeideh; Akbarzadeh-Atashkhosrow, Arezu; Delazar, Abbas; Pashaii, Mahdiyeh; Gan, Siew Hua; Najafi, Moslem

    2015-01-01

    The antiangiogenesis effect of Ficus carica leaves extract in an air pouch model of inflammation was investigated in rat. Inflammation was induced by injection of carrageenan into pouches. After antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content (TPC) investigations, the extract was administered at 5, 25, and 50?mg/pouch, and then the volume of exudates, the cell number, TNF?, PGE2, and VEGF levels were measured. Angiogenesis of granulation tissues was determined by measuring hemoglobin content. Based on the DPPH assay, the extract had significant antioxidant activity with TPC of 11.70?mg GAE/100?g dry sample. In addition, leukocyte accumulation and volume of exudate were significantly inhibited by the extract. Moreover, it significantly decreased the production of TNF?, PGE2, and VEGF, while angiogenesis was significantly inhibited by all administered doses. Interestingly, attenuation of angiogenesis and inflammatory parameters (except leukocyte accumulation) by the extract was similar to that shown by diclofenac. The extract has anti-inflammatory effects and ameliorated cell influx and exudation to the site of the inflammatory response which may be related to the local inhibition of TNF?, PGE2, and VEGF levels as similarly shown by diclofenac. The antiangiogenesis and anti-VEGF effects of Ficus carica may be correlated with its significant antioxidant potentials. PMID:25977699

  1. Detoxification of Toxic Phorbol Esters from Malaysian Jatropha curcas Linn. Kernel by Trichoderma spp. and Endophytic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Najjar, Azhar; Abdullah, Norhani; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Ahmad, Syahida; Oskoueian, Ehsan; Abas, Faridah; Gherbawy, Youssuf

    2014-01-01

    The presence of phorbol esters (PEs) with toxic properties limits the use of Jatropha curcas kernel in the animal feed industry. Therefore, suitable methods to detoxify PEs have to be developed to render the material safe as a feed ingredient. In the present study, the biological treatment of the extracted PEs-rich fraction with non-pathogenic fungi (Trichoderma harzianum JQ350879.1, T. harzianum JQ517493.1, Paecilomyces sinensis JQ350881.1, Cladosporium cladosporioides JQ517491.1, Fusarium chlamydosporum JQ350882.1, F. chlamydosporum JQ517492.1 and F. chlamydosporum JQ350880.1) was conducted by fermentation in broth cultures. The PEs were detected by liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESIMS) and quantitatively monitored by HPLC using phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate as the standard. At day 30 of incubation, two T. harzianum spp., P. sinensis and C. cladosporioides significantly (p < 0.05) removed PEs with percentage losses of 96.9%–99.7%, while F. chlamydosporum strains showed percentage losses of 88.9%–92.2%. All fungal strains could utilize the PEs-rich fraction for growth. In the cytotoxicity assay, cell viabilities of Chang liver and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell lines were less than 1% with the untreated PEs-rich fraction, but 84.3%–96.5% with the fungal treated PEs-rich fraction. There was no inhibition on cell viability for normal fungal growth supernatants. To conclude, Trichoderma spp., Paecilomyces sp. and Cladosporium sp. are potential microbes for the detoxification of PEs. PMID:24504029

  2. Immunomodulatory Effect of Red Onion (Allium cepa Linn) Scale Extract on Experimentally Induced Atypical Prostatic Hyperplasia in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Elberry, Ahmed A.; Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah; Abdel Sattar, Essam; Ghareib, Salah A.; Mosli, Hisham A.; Gabr, Salah A.

    2014-01-01

    Red onion scales (ROS) contain large amounts of flavonoids that are responsible for the reported antioxidant activity, immune enhancement, and anticancer property. Atypical prostatic hyperplasia (APH) was induced in adult castrated Wistar rats by both s.c. injection of testosterone (0.5?mg/rat/day) and by smearing citral on shaved skin once every 3 days for 30 days. Saw palmetto (100?mg/kg) as a positive control and ROS suspension at doses of 75, 150, and 300?mg/kg/day were given orally every day for 30 days. All medications were started 7 days after castration and along with testosterone and citral. The HPLC profile of ROS methanolic extract displayed two major peaks identified as quercetin and quercetin-4?-?-O-D-glucoside. Histopathological examination of APH-induced prostatic rats revealed evidence of hyperplasia and inflammation with cellular proliferation and reduced apoptosis Immunohistochemistry showed increased tissue expressions of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-?, IGF-1, and clusterin, while TGF-?1 was decreased, which correlates with the presence of inflammation. Both saw palmetto and RO scale treatment have ameliorated these changes. These ameliorative effects were more evident in RO scale groups and were dose dependent. In conclusion, methanolic extract of ROS showed a protective effect against APH induced rats that may be attributed to potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. PMID:24829522

  3. Evaluation of Hexane Extract of Tuber of Root of Cyperus rotundus Linn (Cyperaceae) for Repellency against Mosquito Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Singh, S. P.; Raghavendra, K.; Dash, A. P.

    2009-01-01

    Hexane extract of tuber of plant Cyperus rotundus (Cyperaceae) was screened under laboratory conditions for repellent activity against mosquito vector Anopheles culicifacies Giles species A (Diptera: Culicidae), Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae), and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The Cyperus rotundus tuber extract was used to determine their effect on mosquito vector, and comparison with the DEET (NN Diethyl 1-3 methyl Benzamide, formerly known as diethyl 1-m-toluamide). The tuber extracts showed more effective at all the dose. Result obtained from the laboratory experiment showed that the tuber extracts are more effective for repellency of allthe mosquito vector even at low dose. Clear dose response relationships were established with the highest dose of 10% tuber extract evoking 100% repellency. Percent protection obtained against An. culicifacies Giles species A 100% repellency in 4 hours, 6 hours, An. stephensi 100% repellency in 6 hours and Cx. quinquefasciatus was 100% repellency in 6 hours at the 10% concentration. Against DEET- 2.5% An. culicifacies A 100% repellency in 1 hour, 2 hours, 6 hours, An. stephensi have shown 100% repellency in 6 hours, and Culex quinquefasciatus have shown 100% repellency in 1 hour, 2 hours, 6 hours. The consolidated data of the repellency observed in different species is given and it is evident that the over all repellency rates varied between 80 and 100% for different repellents concentrations (2.5%, 5%, and 10%). The extract can be applied as an effective personal protective measure against mosquito bites. PMID:20798887

  4. Evaluation of Hexane Extract of Tuber of Root of Cyperus rotundus Linn (Cyperaceae) for Repellency against Mosquito Vectors.

    PubMed

    Singh, S P; Raghavendra, K; Dash, A P

    2009-01-01

    Hexane extract of tuber of plant Cyperus rotundus (Cyperaceae) was screened under laboratory conditions for repellent activity against mosquito vector Anopheles culicifacies Giles species A (Diptera: Culicidae), Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae), and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The Cyperus rotundus tuber extract was used to determine their effect on mosquito vector, and comparison with the DEET (NN Diethyl 1-3 methyl Benzamide, formerly known as diethyl 1-m-toluamide). The tuber extracts showed more effective at all the dose. Result obtained from the laboratory experiment showed that the tuber extracts are more effective for repellency of allthe mosquito vector even at low dose. Clear dose response relationships were established with the highest dose of 10% tuber extract evoking 100% repellency. Percent protection obtained against An. culicifacies Giles species A 100% repellency in 4 hours, 6 hours, An. stephensi 100% repellency in 6 hours and Cx. quinquefasciatus was 100% repellency in 6 hours at the 10% concentration. Against DEET- 2.5% An. culicifacies A 100% repellency in 1 hour, 2 hours, 6 hours, An. stephensi have shown 100% repellency in 6 hours, and Culex quinquefasciatus have shown 100% repellency in 1 hour, 2 hours, 6 hours. The consolidated data of the repellency observed in different species is given and it is evident that the over all repellency rates varied between 80 and 100% for different repellents concentrations (2.5%, 5%, and 10%). The extract can be applied as an effective personal protective measure against mosquito bites. PMID:20798887

  5. Chemical composition and antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities of the essential oils from Bidens pilosa Linn. var. Radiata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farah Deba; Tran Dang Xuan; Masaaki Yasuda; Shinkichi Tawata

    2008-01-01

    The present study describes the chemical composition, antibacterial and antifungal activities of essential oils from Bidens pilosa, a traditional medicinal plant widely distributed in the subtropics and tropics. The essential oils from the fresh leaves and flowers of B. pilosa were analyzed by GC–MS. Forty-four components were identified, of which ?-caryophyllene (10.9% and 5.1%) and ?-cadinene (7.82% and 6.13%) were

  6. Larvicidal and oviposition activity of Cassia obtusifolia Linn (Family: Leguminosae) leaf extract against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Rajkumar; A. Jebanesan

    2009-01-01

    The ethanolic leaf extract of Cassia obtusifolia was investigated for their larvicidal and oviposition deterrence effects against Anopheles stephensi. Concentrations ranging from 25 to 125 mg\\/l were assessed at 24 h post-treatment against late third instar larvae. The leaf\\u000a extract had significant larvicidal effect with LC50 and LC90 values were 52.2 and 108.7 mg\\/l, respectively. In oviposition behaviour study, four different concentrations ranging

  7. Toxicity of aristolochic acids isolated from Aristolochia indica Linn (Aristolochiaceae) against the malarial vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Pradeepa, Venkatraman; Sathish-Narayanan, Subbiah; Kirubakaran, Suyambulingam Arunachalam; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan

    2015-06-01

    With the growth of resistance to overused insecticides, vector management has become highly problematic. Hence more concentration has been focused on botanicals. Therefore our present study was aimed to evaluate the toxicity of compounds, aristolochic acid I and aristolochic acid II from the methanol extract of Aristolochia indica L. (Aristolochiaceae) leaves on larvae of Anopheles stephensi L. (Diptera: Culicidae) employing World Health Organization standard larvicide testing procedures. The soxhlet extraction was carried out using polar solvent, methanol. The isolated toxic compounds were purified through RP-HPLC. The FTIR spectroscopic studies revealed different peak values with functional groups in the mixed compounds (AA-I and AA- II). These two aristolochic acids were further studied through (13)C and (1)HNMR analysis with confirmed by structures. Bioassay-guided fractionation through flash chromatography lead to the isolation of two larvicidal compounds namely aristolochic acid I and II. In these bioassays, the larvae were exposed to concentrations of 100, 250, 500,750 and 1000?ppm for each compound. Between the two, AA-I exerted no significant toxicity difference (P?

  8. Antifertility screening of plants. 3. Effect of six indigenous plants on early pregnancy in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Vohora, S B; Garg, S K; Chaudhury, R R

    1969-05-01

    The effect of 6 indigenous plants on early pregnancy in albino rats was tested by a screening procedure standardized in this laboratory. Pe troleum ether, alcoholic, and aqueous extracts of each plant were tested for antifertilizing, antizygotic, blastocystotoxic, antiimplantation, and early abortifacient activity. The aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves and alcoholic extract of Polygonum hydropiper Linn. roots showed encouraging results while the extracts of Abroma augusta Linn. roots, Calotropis gigantea Linn. flowers and leaves, Michaelia champaka Linn. unripe fruit, and Plumbago rosea Linn. roots did not show any antiimplantation activity. None of the rats delivered to experimental rats showed evidence of teratogenicity up to the age of 1 month. PMID:5820437

  9. Determination of Some Fatty Acids in Local Plant Seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wanna Kanchanamayoon

    Some fatty acids: palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, in plant seeds were determined. The plant seed samples were Sesamum indicum Linn., Perilla frutescens(Linn.) Britt, Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Corchorus olitorius L., Hibiscus canabinus, Tamarindus indica Linn., Irivingia ex. Malayana oliv. A. Benn. The samples were methylated to methylester by methanolic hydrochloric and extracted by toluene. The fatty

  10. Antimalarial efficacy of dynamic compound of plumbagin chemical constituent from Plumbago zeylanica Linn (Plumbaginaceae) against the malarial vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Pradeepa, Venkatraman; Sathish-Narayanan, Subbiah; Kirubakaran, Suyambulingam Arunachalam; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan

    2014-08-01

    In the present investigation, the effective root compound of plumbagin of Plumbago zeylanica (Plumbaginaceae) was evaluated for chemical constituent and antimalarial effect against the fourth instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera). In the chromatographic analyses of root compound with Rf value of 0.788 and NMR analyses also revealed that the effective compound contain naphthoquinone plumbagin were identified as the major chemical constituent. Larval mortality was observed after 3 h of exposure period. The plumbagin compound showed remarkable larvicidal activity against A. stephensi (LC50 32.65 and LC9072.27 ppm). Histopathological effects of compound was observed in the treated larvae. Based on the results, the plumbagin compound of P. zeylanica can be considered as a new source of natural larvicide for the control of malarial vector. PMID:25028206

  11. Parasiticidal and brine shrimp cytotoxicity potential of crude methanolic extract of rind of Punica granatum Linn against round worms and tape worms.

    PubMed

    Ali, Niaz; Jamil, Ayesha; Shah, Syed Wadood Ali; Shah, Ismail; Ahmed, Ghayour; Junaid, Muhammad; Ahmed, Zahoor

    2015-05-01

    Rind of Punica granatum is traditionally used for anthelmintic purposes. The current work describes the possible anthelmintic activity of crude methanolic extract of Punica granatum (Pg. Cr) against round worms (Ascaridia galli) and the tape worms (Raillietina spiralis). Brine shrimp cytotoxicity is also performed. Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity was tested using different concentrations (1000 ?g/mL, 100 ?g/mL and 10 ?g/mL) of Pg.Cr. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Pg. Cr was determined against the parasites using albendazole and piperazine citrate as standard anthelmintic drugs in concentration 10 mg/ml. LC50 value for Brine shrimp cytotoxicity was 189.44 ±28 ?g/mL. In test concentration of 40mg/ml of the Pg. Cr, Raillietina spiralis was paralyzed in 23 minutes. However, for parasiticidal activity (death of the parasite), it took less time (40 minutes) as compared to standard Albendazole. Time taken for death of the parasite Raillietina spiralis, in concentration 40 mg /ml, is 40 min. While standard drugs took more time to kill the Raillietina spiralis. Pg. Cr took 19 minutes to paralyze the Ascaridia galli at concentration 40 mg/ml whereas; it took 48 minutes for to kill the parasite Ascaridia galli. The current work confirms the traditional use of rind of Punica granatum as anthelmintic against Raillietina spiralis and Ascaridia galli. Results of brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay warrant for the isolation of cytotoxic compounds. List of abbreviation- Pg. Cr = Crude methanolic extract of Punica granatum. PMID:26004729

  12. HPLC assisted chemobiological standardization of alpha-glucosidase-I enzyme inhibitory constituents from Piper longum Linn-An Indian medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Pullela, Srinivas V; Tiwari, Ashok K; Vanka, UmaMaheswara S; Vummenthula, Anuradha; Tatipaka, Hari B; Dasari, Krishna R; Khan, Ikhlas A; Janaswamy, Madhusudana R

    2006-12-01

    Formulations of traditional medicines are usually made up of complex mixture of herbs. However, effective quality control methods in order to select right quality materials are lacking. Though Piper longum is a widely used herb in several Ayurvedic formulations prescribed for various diseases, there is no analytical method in the literature so far which can help in selecting the right quality material with proper proportions of the active ingredients (alpha-glucosidase-I enzyme inhibitory principles). We employed a systematic bioassay guided fractionation method and isolated pipataline, pellitorine, sesamin, brachystamide B and guineensine as active principles. A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed to quantify these active principles in the plant material, which can serve as an effective quality control tool. The separation was carried out using a Discovery HS F5 C-18 (ODS) column and the solvent system used was a gradient comprising of (A) acetonitrile and (B) water with a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The detection was performed using a PDA detector. Regression equation pertaining to all the bioactive isolates revealed a linear relationship (r2 > 0.9995). The detection limits (S/N = 3) ranged from 0.005 to 0.001 microg/ml. Of all the active isolates, sesamin was identified to be present in maximum quantities (0.91%) where as brachystamide B was found in minimum quantity (0.01%). PMID:16872768

  13. Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Holy Basil) ethanolic leaf extract protects against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced genotoxicity, oxidative stress, and imbalance in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, P; Murugan, R Senthil; Abbas, H; Abraham, S K; Nagini, S

    2007-09-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of ethanolic Ocimum sanctum leaf extract against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced genotoxicity, oxidative stress, and imbalance in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. Four different concentrations of ethanolic O. sanctum leaf extract (100, 200, 300, and 400 mg/kg of body weight) were administered to Wistar rats by intragastric intubation for five consecutive days followed by intraperitoneal injection of DMBA (35 mg/kg of body weight) 90 minutes after the final dose of the extract. Administration of DMBA increased bone marrow micronuclei, phase I enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonyl formation. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in the activities of phase II detoxification enzymes and antioxidants in the liver, erythrocytes, and bone marrow. Pretreatment with ethanolic O. sanctum leaf extract at a concentration of 300 mg/kg of body weight significantly reduced micronuclei formation and phase I enzymes as well as lipid and protein oxidation with enhanced antioxidant and phase II enzyme activities. The results of the present study suggest that ethanolic O. sanctum leaf extract inhibits DMBA-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress by modulating xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, reducing the extent of lipid and protein oxidation and up-regulating antioxidant defenses. PMID:17887944

  14. Dietary mustard seeds (Sinapis alba Linn) suppress 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced immuno-imbalance and colonic carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Minggu; Yuan, Haifeng; Guo, Wen; Li, Xinyan; Jin, Lin; Brunk, Ulf T; Han, Jiahuai; Zhao, Ming; Lu, Yawei

    2012-04-01

    In a Wistar rat model, prolonged supplementation of mustard seed (MS) to the diet significantly ameliorates the induction of colorectal carcinomas by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). The expression of the splenocyte major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) was found significantly enhanced, whereas that of the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) was significantly decreased. Compared to that of control animals, the proportion of spleenic B- and dendritic cells (DC) was amplified in the MS group. The expressions of MHCI, as well as that of MHCII, were increased in DC cells; whereas in B cells, MHCI expression was augmented but that of MHCII moderately decreased. The percentages of CD8+CD28+ and CD4+CD28+ cells were increased in the MS group, while the CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ subset was depressed. Plasma analysis showed that DMH-exposure induced amplified amounts of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-10, and transforming growth factor-beta, whereas MS feeding counteracted this effect but enhanced IL-2, IL12p70, IL21, TNF-alpha, and interferon-gamma. In the SW480 colon adenocarcinoma cell-line, the cytotoxicity of spleenic T-cells from MS-fed animals was significantly increased. In the DMH-exposed rats, the expression of perforin in the spleenic T-cells was dramatically decreased, whereas MS abolished this depression. In summary, dietary MS suppresses DMH-induced immuno-imbalance as well as colon carcinogenesis in rats. PMID:22420317

  15. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. Displays Anti-Inflammatory Responses during Chemically Induced Rat Mammary Tumorigenesis through Simultaneous and Differential Regulation of NF-?B and Nrf2 Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Animesh; Bishayee, Anupam

    2015-01-01

    Trianthema portulacastrum, a medicinal and dietary plant, has gained substantial importance due to its various pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. We have recently reported that a characterized T. pofrtulacastrum extract (TPE) affords a considerable chemoprevention of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced rat mammary tumorigenesis though the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. The objective of this study was to investigate anti-inflammatory mechanisms of TPE during DMBA mammary carcinogenesis in rats by monitoring cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Mammary tumors were harvested from our previous study in which TPE (50–200 mg/kg) was found to inhibit mammary tumorigenesis in a dose-response manner. The expressions of intratumor COX-2, HSP90, NF-?B, inhibitory kappaB-alpha (I?B?) and Nrf2 were determined by immunohistochemistry. TPE downregulated the expression of COX-2 and HSP90, blocked the degradation of I?B?, hampered the translocation of NF-?B from cytosol to nucleus and upregulated the expression and nuclear translocation of Nrf2 during DMBA mammary carcinogenesis. These results in conjunction with our previous findings suggest that TPE prevents DMBA-induced breast neoplasia by anti-inflammatory mechanisms mediated through simultaneous and differential modulation of two interconnected molecular circuits, namely NF-?B and Nrf2 signaling pathways. PMID:25622256

  16. The effects of herbal essential oils on the oviposition-deterrent and ovicidal activities of Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Anopheles dirus (Peyton and Harrison) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say).

    PubMed

    Siriporn, P; Mayura, S

    2012-03-01

    The effect of oviposition-deterrent and ovicidal of seven essential oils were evaluated towards three mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles dirus and Culex quinquefasciatus. The oviposition activity index (OAI) values of six essential oils namely Cananga odorata, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Eucalyptus citriodora, Ocimum basilicum and Syzygium aromaticum indicated that there were more deterrent than the control whereas Citrus sinensis oil acted as oviposition attractant. At higher concentration (10%) of Ca. odorata (ylang ylang flowers) showed high percent effective repellency (ER) against oviposition at 99.4% to Ae. aegypti, 97.1% to An. dirus and 100% to Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The results showed that mean numbers of eggs were lower in treated than in untreated water. In addition, there was an inverse relationship between essential oil concentrations and ovicidal activity. As the concentration of essential oil increased from 1%, 5% and up to 10% conc., the hatching rate decreased. The essential oil of Ca. odorata at 10% conc. gave minimum egg hatch of 10.4% (for Ae. aegypti), 0.8% (for An. dirus) and 1.1% (for Cx. quinquefasciatus) respectively. These results clearly revealed that the essential oil of Ca. odorata served as a potential oviposition-deterrent and ovicidal activity against Ae. aegypti, An. dirus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. PMID:22543614

  17. Insect repellent activity of medicinal plant oils against Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Anopheles minimus (Theobald) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say based on protection time and biting rate.

    PubMed

    Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Soonwera, Mayura

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated insect bite protection and length of the protection with 30 repellents which were divided into 3 categories: plant oil, essential oil and essential oil with ethyl alcohol, tested against three mosquito species, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles minimus and Culex quinquefasciatus, under laboratory conditions. The plant oil group was comprised of Phlai (Zingiber cassumunar) and Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum). Both substances were effective as repellents and feeding deterrents against An. minimus (205 minutes protection time and a biting rate of 0.9%), Cx. quinquefasciatus (165 minutes protection time and 0.9% biting rate) and Ae. aegypti (90 minutes protection time and 0.8% biting rate). Essential oil from citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) exhibited protection against biting from all 3 mosquito species: for An. minimus, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, the results were 130 minutes and 0.9%, 140 minutes and 0.8%, and 115 minutes and 0.8%, respectively. The period of protection time against Ae. aegypti for all repellent candidates tested was lower than the Thai Industrial Standards Institute (TISI) determined time of greater than 2 hours. PMID:21073057

  18. Beneficial effects of a polar fraction of garlic (Allium sativum Linn) oil in rats fed with two different high fat diets.

    PubMed

    Augusti, K T; Chackery, Julie; Jacob, Julie; Kuriakose, Sinu; George, Sharlet; Nair, Sunitha S

    2005-01-01

    Feeding a diet containing 20% of sesame oil (SO) or coconut oil (CNO) along with 2% cholesterol to rats for two months showed differences in their serum and tissue lipid profile and certain enzyme activities. Hyperlipidemia and related oxidative effects were more pronounced in coconut oil fed rats than those fed sesame oil. Feeding a combination of the oils (10% CNO +10% SO) lowered significantly the hyperlipidemia and certain other deleterious effects of CNO. Feeding a polar fraction of garlic oil (PFGO) prepared in the same way as for ajoene and administered at a dosage of 100 mg/kg along with each of the above oil containing diets counteracted significantly the hyperlipidemic, oxidant and also most of the other deleterious effects of the oils like raised lipid levels in serum and tissues, raised serum levels of AST and tissue levels of HMGCoA reductase and the lowered serum and tissue levels of glutathione reductase. The results support the claims that ajoene, the major polar compound of garlic oil, has very good biological action, which warrants further study. PMID:15691069

  19. DECOLORIZATION OF BASIC, DIRECT, AND REACTIVE DYES BY PRE-TREATED NARROW-LEAVED CATTAIL (TYPHA ANGUSTIFOLIA LINN.). (R829415E01)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  20. Efficacy of aggregation pheromone in trapping red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier) and rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros Linn.) from infested coconut palms.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthy, A K; Chandrashekharaiah, M; Kandakoor, Subhash B; Nagaraj, D N

    2014-05-01

    Red palm weevil and Rhinoceros beetle are the major pests inflicting severe damage to coconut palms. Due to ineffectiveness of the current management practices to control the two important pests on coconut, a study was conducted to know the attractiveness of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle to aggregation pheromone. Olfactometer studies indicated that the aggregation pheromone of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle attracted significantly more number of weevils (13.4 females and 7.6 male weevils) and beetles (6.5 male and 12.3 female beetles), respectively than control. Similarly, field studies found that both 750 and 1000 mg pheromone dosage lures of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle trapped significantly higher numbers of weevils (695.80 and 789 weevils, respectively) and beetles (98 and 108 beetles, respectively) in traps (P < 0.05), respectively. On an average (n = 6 field trials) 80-85% red palm weevil and 72-78% rhinoceros beetle population got trapped. Observations indicated activity of red palm weevil throughout the year and of rhinoceros beetle from September to March around Bangalore, South India. Pheromone traps for red palm weevil can be placed in fields from June to August and October to December and September to February for rhinoceros beetle. Population reductions of the two coleopteran pests by pheromone traps are compatible with mechanical and cultural management tools with cumulative effects. PMID:24813002

  1. Antifertility studies of the root extract of the Barleria prionitis Linn in male albino rats with special reference to testicular cell population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R S; Kumar, P; Dixit, V P; Dobhal, M P

    2000-05-01

    Oral administration of root extract of Barleria prionitis L. to male rats (100 mg/rat per day) for the period of 60 days did not cause body weight loss. The root extract brought about an interference with spermatogenesis. The round spermatids were decreased by 73.6% (P< or =0.001). No significant change was found in the population of secondary spermatocytes. However, the population of preleptotene spermatocytes were decreased by 41.9%. The extract reduced the fertility of male rats by 100%. Cross sectional surface area of Sertoli cells and mature Leydig cell numbers were significantly reduced (36.9%). The total protein, sialic acid contents of the testes, epididymides, seminal vesicle and prostate were reduced. Testicular glycogen contents were low. Antifertility effects of Barleria seemed to be mediated by disturbances in testicular somatic cells functions (Leydig and Sertoli cells) resulting in the physio-morphological events of spermatogenesis. PMID:10771200

  2. Antifertility studies of the root extract of the Barleria prionitis Linn in male albino rats with special reference to testicular cell population dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Gupta; Pramod Kumar; V. P. Dixit; M. P. Dobhal

    2000-01-01

    Oral administration of root extract of Barleria prionitis L. to male rats (100 mg\\/rat per day) for the period of 60 days did not cause body weight loss. The root extract brought about an interference with spermatogenesis. The round spermatids were decreased by 73.6% (P?0.001). No significant change was found in the population of secondary spermatocytes. However, the population of

  3. Restoration of chronic- ?9-THC-induced decline in sexuality in male rats by a novel benzoflavone moiety from Passiflora incarnata Linn

    PubMed Central

    Dhawan, Kamaldeep; Sharma, Anupam

    2003-01-01

    The present study comprised treatment of healthy male rats with ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, 10 mg kg?1, p.o.), and combinations of THC with benzoflavone moiety (BZF, 10 and 20 mg kg?1, p.o.) isolated from Passiflora incarnata Linneaus, over a period of 30 days. Upon 30-days chronic administrations, the THC-treated male rats had a significant loss of libido (mounting behaviour with non-oestrous female rats), decrease in sperm count, and number of impregnated pro-estrous female rats. Co-administration of BZF (10 and 20 mg kg?1 p.o.) afforded significant protection against the chronic-THC-induced decrease in libido, mating performance and fertility during 30-day experimental regimen. The 20 mg kg?1 dose of BZF exhibited better results. Upon discontinuation of THC, treatment with BZF (10 and 20 mg kg?1 p.o.) also facilitated the early restoration chronic-THC-induced decline in libido, sperm count and sexual fertility within 7 days. PMID:12522080

  4. Restoration of chronic-Delta 9-THC-induced decline in sexuality in male rats by a novel benzoflavone moiety from Passiflora incarnata Linn.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Kamaldeep; Sharma, Anupam

    2003-01-01

    1 The present study comprised treatment of healthy male rats with Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, 10 mg kg(-1), p.o.), and combinations of THC with benzoflavone moiety (BZF, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1), p.o.) isolated from Passiflora incarnata Linneaus, over a period of 30 days. 2 Upon 30-days chronic administrations, the THC-treated male rats had a significant loss of libido (mounting behaviour with non-oestrous female rats), decrease in sperm count, and number of impregnated pro-estrous female rats. 3 Co-administration of BZF (10 and 20 mg kg(-1) p.o.) afforded significant protection against the chronic-THC-induced decrease in libido, mating performance and fertility during 30-day experimental regimen. The 20 mg kg(-1) dose of BZF exhibited better results. 4 Upon discontinuation of THC, treatment with BZF (10 and 20 mg kg(-1) p.o.) also facilitated the early restoration chronic-THC-induced decline in libido, sperm count and sexual fertility within 7 days. PMID:12522080

  5. The susceptibility of cell lines of Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes pseudoscutellaris (Theobald) to infection with Bluetongue virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jennings; J. Boorman

    1979-01-01

    Summary Bluetongue virus multiplied in cell lines derived fromAedes albopictus andAedes pseudoscutellaris cells. Virus reached a maximum titre in theAe. pseudoscutellaris cells three days post inoculation, and inAe. albopictus cells six days p. i. Virus growth was demonstrated in both cell lines at 27° C and 37° C. Significant titres of virus were still present in theAe. albopictus cells after

  6. Geology and geothermal resources of the Santiam Pass area of the Oregon Cascade Range, Deschutes, Jefferson and Linn Counties, Oregon. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, B.E. [ed.

    1992-10-01

    This open-file report presents the results of the Santiam Pass drilling program. The first phase of this program was to compile all available geological, geophysical and geothermal data for the Santiam Pass area and select a drill site on the basis of these data (see Priest and others, 1987a), A summary of the drilling operations and costs associated with the project are presented in chapter 1 by Hill and Benoit. An Overview of the geology of the Santiam Pass area is presented by Hill and Priest in chapter 2. Geologic mapping and isotopic age determinations in the Santiam Pass-Mount Jefferson area completed since 1987 are summarized in chapter 2. One of the more important conclusions reached in chapter 2 is that a minimum of 2 km vertical displacement has occurred in the High Cascade graben in the Santiam Pass area. The petrology of the Santiam Pass drill core is presented by Hill in chapter 3. Most of the major volcanic units in the core have been analyzed for major, minor, and trace element abundances and have been studied petrographically. Three K-Ar ages are interpreted in conjunction with the magnetostratigraphy of the core to show that the oldest rocks in the core are approximately 1.8 Ma. Geothermal and geophysical data collected from the Santiam Pass well are presented by Blackwell in chapter 4. The Santiam Pass well failed to penetrate beneath the zone of lateral groundwater flow associated with highly permeable Quaternary volcanic rocks. Calculated geothermal gradients range from about 50{degree}C/km at depth 700-900 m, to roughly 110{degree}C/km from 900 m to the bottom of the well at 929 m. Heat-flow values for the bottom part of the hole bracket the regional average for the High Cascades. Blackwell concludes that heat flow along the High Cascades axis is equal to or higher than along the western edge of the High Cascades.

  7. Effect of water extract of the bark of Buchanania lanzan linn. on behaviour and chromatophores of a fresh water fish, Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, U S; Rathod, V; Vankhede, G N

    2001-07-01

    Fish exposed to 150 ppm and 250 ppm doses saparately, showed eratic swimming with hyper-excitability, spiralling, convulsion and mortality. However at 350 ppm dose fish became lethargic and steady at the bottom of aquarium. This behaviour appears to be due to sedative effects of fish implicating the phychoactive nature of the plant B. Ianzan. At 150 ppm to 350 ppm doses, fish scale changed from reticulate to punctate chromatophores; and treated fish when transferred to fresh water, were slowly regained to normal behaviour after 96 h exposure. Hence doses regaining from 150 ppm to 350 ppm is considered to be psychoative in nature. In higher doses 450 ppm and 550 ppm fish could survive only 76 h and 4.30 h respectively and then died indicating toxicity of plant for the said doses. It is found that scale present on its body is most suitable test system for the study of psychoactivity and toxicity of plant extracts on fish, Labeo rohita. PMID:12017267

  8. Reproduction phase-related variations in neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity in the olfactory system, forebrain, and pituitary of the female catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Mazumdar, Minakshi; Sakharkar, Amul J; Singru, Praful S; Subhedar, Nishikant

    2007-10-10

    The aim of this study was to determine whether neuropeptide Y (NPY) immunoreactivity in the cells and fibers in the forebrain and pituitary of Clarias batrachus is linked to the annual reproductive cycle. A steady rise in luteinizing hormone (LH) immunoreactivity was seen in the pituitary through preparatory (February-April) and prespawning (May-June) phases; it was greatly reduced during spawning (July-August; P < 0.001) and partially replenished during postspawning (September-November; P < 0.01) through resting (December-January) phases. Although NPY immunoreactivity in olfactory receptor neurons and olfactory nerve layer in olfactory bulb was gradually augmented during resting through prespawning phases (P < 0.001), attaining a peak in spawning phase (P < 0.001), a dramatic decline was encountered during postspawning phase (P < 0.001). A similar pattern was also observed in NPY-containing fibers of the medial olfactory tract (MOT) and pituitary. However, a different pattern of NPY immunoreactivity was observed in the neurons of nucleus entopeduncularis (NE) and nucleus preopticus periventricularis (NPP). Whereas these neurons and fibers in the forebrain showed significant augmentation during the resting through prespawning phases (P < 0.001), the immunoreactivity dramatically declined during spawning (P < 0.001) and was partially replenished in the postspawning phase. Testosterone injection of juveniles significantly augmented (P < 0.001) NPY immunoreactivity in NE neurons. We suggest that NPY cells of NE and NPP, and related fiber systems, might be involved in processing of sex steroid-borne information and regulation of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone-LH axis. PMID:17701999

  9. Petroleum Ether Extract of Cissus Quadrangularis (LINN) Stimulates the Growth of Fetal Bone during Intra Uterine Developmental Period: A Morphometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Potu, Bhagath Kumar; Rao, Muddanna S; N, Gopalan Kutty; Bhat, Kumar MR; Chamallamudi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Nayak, Soubhagya Ranjan

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect Cissus quadrangularis plant petroleum ether extract on the development of long bones during the intra-uterine developmental stage in rats. METHODS Pregnant rats (n=12) were randomly assigned into either a control group (n=6) or a Cissus quadrangularis treatment (n=6) group. Pregnant rats in the Cissus quadrangularis group were treated with Cissus quadrangularis petroleum ether extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight from gestation day 9 until delivery. The animals in the control group received an equal volume of saline. Newborn pups were collected from both groups for alizarin red S - alcian blue staining to differentiate ossified and unossified cartilage. The ossified cartilage (bone) was morphometrically analyzed using Scion image software. RESULTS Morphometric analysis revealed that the percentage of the total length of ossified cartilage (bone) in pups born to treated dams was significantly higher (P<0.001– 0.0001) than that of the control group. CONCLUSION The results of the present study suggest that maternal administration of Cissus quadrangularis petroleum ether extract during pregnancy can stimulate the development of fetal bone growth during the intra-uterine developmental period. PMID:19061006

  10. Holy basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) essential oil delivery to swine gastrointestinal tract using gelatin microcapsules coated with aluminum carboxymethyl cellulose and beeswax.

    PubMed

    Chitprasert, Pakamon; Sutaphanit, Polin

    2014-12-31

    Holy basil essential oil (HBEO) can be applied as a feed additive; however, its benefits depend on the available amount in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, the physicochemical properties, including the release properties of three different microcapsules, HBEO-loaded gelatin microcapsules (UC), UC coated with aluminum carboxymethyl cellulose (CC), and UC coated with aluminum carboxymethyl cellulose-beeswax composite (CB), were compared. The encapsulation efficiency, HBEO content, and 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity for the microcapsules were 95.4 ± 0.17%, 66.7-67.7%, and 94.3-96.5%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) revealed nonuniform HBEO distributions in honeycomb-like networks in the microcapsules. An X-ray diffraction analysis determined that UC and CC microcapsules were amorphous, but CB microcapsules were semicrystalline. UV-vis spectrophotometer and CLSM analyses results determined that HBEO was released from CC and CB microcapsules in greater amounts than from UC microcapsules in simulated intestinal fluid. Therefore, the HBEO amount reaching the intestine can be controlled using the optimal encapsulation system. PMID:25382222

  11. Chemopreventive and Antilipidperoxidative Efficacy of Piper longum (Linn.) on 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) Induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil, Namasivayam; Manoharan, Shanmugam; Balakrishnan, Subramanian; Rajmani Ramachandran, Cinnamanoor; Muralinaidu, Radhakrishnan

    Aim of the present study was to find out the chemopreventive efficacy of Piper longum, a plant having diverse medicinal properties, in 7,12-dimethyl benz (a) anthracene (DMBA) induced oral carcinogenesis. The mechanistic pathway for its chemopreventive potential was analysed by measuring lipid peroxidation and antioxidants status in DMBA induced oral cancer. DMBA painting in hamster buccal pouch three times per week for 14 weeks resulted in well developed, well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Elevated lipid peroxidation and decline in antioxidants were noticed in tumor bearing hamsters as compared to control animals. Oral administration of ethanolic extract of Piper longum dried fruits (PLEFet) on alternate days to DMBA painting significantly prevented the tumor incidence, volume and burden and restored the status of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in DMBA painted hamsters. Our results indicate that the dried fruits of P. longum has suppressing effects on cell proliferation, which is probably due to its antilipid peroxidative and antioxidative potential during DMBA induced oral carcinogenesis.

  12. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of an ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Tridax procumbens (Linn.) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Petchi, Ramesh R.; Parasuraman, S.; Vijaya, C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of an ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Tridax procumbens (Asteraceae) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: The whole plant of T. procumbens was collected in different regions of Madurai districts, Tamil Nadu. The air dried whole plant of T. procumbens was extracted with ethanol (95%) in a Soxhlet apparatus for 72 h. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by streptozotocin (50 mg/jk, i.p.) and nicotinamide (120 mg/kg, i.p) injection. The dry mass of the extract was used for preliminary phytochemical and pharmacological analysis. Diabetic rats were treated with glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg, p.o.) or T. procumbens extract (250 and 500 mg/k, p.o.) for 21 consecutive days. The blood samples were collected at regular intervals to access hypoglycemic effect of an ethanolic extract of the whole plant of T. procumbens. At the end of the experiment, serum lipid profile and liver enzymes levels were analyzed for all the experimental animals and compared with diabetic control. Results: The preliminary phytochemical analysis of an ethanolic extract of the whole plant of T. procumbens indicated the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, and phenolic compounds. The ethanolic extract of the whole plant of T. procumbens at 250 and 500 mg/kg has significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activities. The diabetic control animals exhibited a significant decrease in body weight compared with control animals. T. procumbens inhibited streptozotocin-induced weight loss and significantly alter the lipid levels. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of the whole plant of T. procumbens showed significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activities against streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. PMID:24808679

  13. Effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. ethanol flower extract on blood glucose and lipid profile in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Archana Sachdewa; L. D Khemani

    2003-01-01

    Blood glucose and total lipid levels were determined in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats after oral administration of an ethanol flower extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. A comparable hypoglycemic effect was evidenced from the data obtained after 7 and 21 days of oral administration of the extract and glibenclamide. Maximal diminution in blood glucose (41–46%) and insulin level (14%) was noticed

  14. Oregon State University | College of Public Health and Human Sciences A Resource Guide to

    E-print Network

    Escher, Christine

    Health Department.................. 9 Boys & Girls Club of Corvallis......................... 9 Boys & Girls Club of Albany........................... 9 Boys & Girls Club of East Linn County.............. 9 Boys & Girls Club of Lebanon

  15. PhysiologicalEntomology (1995)20,349-361 Functional organization of the macroglomerular

    E-print Network

    1995-01-01

    full pheromone-mediated behaviour Key words. Lepidoptera, Trichoplusia ni, olfaction, sex pheromone-tunnelbioassaysconducted by Linn et a1 (1984)demonstratedthatmalecabbageloopermoths,Trichoplusia ni (Hubner

  16. RECOMMENDED MONITORING FOR FOCAL SPECIES APPENDIX R

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    documented in the basin Musk thistle Carduus nutans EX T NT NT Davy's sedge Carex davyi EN T Mud sedge Carex limosa RA T One documentation; needs to be confirmed; occurs in sphagnum bogs Lake Tahoe Watershed Comments Mariposa sedge* Carex mariposana AE T Documented last year Diffuse knapweed Centaurea diffusa EX

  17. Neues zur Flora des Burgenlandes, von Niederösterreich, Wien und Oberösterreich

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. MELZER

    1996-01-01

    New for the Flora of the Burgenland are Festuca diffusa, lnula hirta x \\/. salicina and Sedum sarmentosum, for Vienna Centaurea jacea subsp. macroptilon and Viburnum rhytidophyllum, for Upper Austria Bidens bipinnatus, Rumex palustris x R. stenophyllus and Solarium nitidibaccatum, for Upper Austria Polycnemum majus and Echinochloa muricata (this species is also new for the rest of Austria). New localities

  18. THE IMPACT OF KNAPWEED ON MONTANA'S ECONOMY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven A. Hirsch; Jay A. Leitch

    1996-01-01

    The economic impact of three invasive, exotic weeds--diffuse, spotted, and Russian knapweed (Centaurea diffusa, C. maculosa, and Acroptilon repens)--on Montana's economy was estimated using a procedure developed for another invasive weed species. Published data and that from a survey of county weed boards were used to estimate direct negative impacts of over $14 million annually due to infestation of over

  19. United States Department of Agriculture NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE

    E-print Network

    Technical Note No. MT-20 May 2008 Ecology and Management of Diffuse Knapweed (Centaurea diffusa Lam.) By Jim Jacobs, Invasive Species Specialist, NRCS, Bozeman, Montana Sharlene Sing, Assistant Research Professor, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana Figure 1. Diffuse knapweed flowerheads. Abstract A close

  20. Supercooling capacity of Urophora affinis and U. quadrifasciata (Diptera: Tephritidae) on spotted knapweed: comparisons among plants, sites, time of season, and gall densities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert M Nowierski; Bryan C Fitzgerald; Zheng Zeng

    2001-01-01

    Larval supercooling points of Urophora affinis Frauenfeld and U. quadrifasciata (Meigen) were compared among plants, six research sites in western Montana, four fall\\/winter time periods, and among gall densities. These two tephritid fly species are introduced biological control agents of spotted knapweed, Centaurea maculosa Lamarck, and diffuse knapweed, Centaurea diffusa Lamarck. Few differences in larval supercooling points for U. affinis

  1. Field cage assessment of interference among insects attacking seed heads of spotted and diffuse knapweed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Smith; M. Mayer

    2005-01-01

    Field studies were conducted to determine the competitive interactions between introduced biological control agents that attack the seed heads of spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe ssp. micranthos) and diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa). Two weevils, Bangasternus fausti and Larinus minutus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were each paired with the previously established fly, Urophora affinis (Diptera: Tephritidae). Each species was released either alone or in

  2. seedlings does influence neighboring siblings. The use of silenced plants to establish the allelopathic potential of a

    E-print Network

    Sanders, Nathan J.

    at the Univer- sity of Montana compared allelopathic effects of exotic invasives on species from their native to describe the general effects of Centaurea species, and chemicals contained in their root exudates, which. Centaurea diffusa and C. maculosa roots exude 8-hydroxyquinoline and (±)-catechin, respectively, in both

  3. Invasive Plants Versus Their New and Old Neighbors: A Mechanism for Exotic Invasion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ragan M. Callaway; Erik T. Aschehoug

    2000-01-01

    Invading exotic plants are thought to succeed primarily because they have escaped their natural enemies, not because of novel interactions with their new neighbors. However, we find that Centaurea diffusa, a noxious weed in North America, has much stronger negative effects on grass species from North America than on closely related grass species from communities to which Centaurea is native.

  4. Farmers' Attitude towards a Participatory Research Method Used to Evaluate Weed Management Strategies in Bananas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganpat, Wayne G.; Isaac, Wendy-Ann P.; Brathwaite, Richard A. I.; Bekele, Isaac

    2009-01-01

    In this study, farmers were engaged in a participatory research project and their attitudes evaluated. The purpose was to identify the characteristics of farmers who are favourably predisposed towards meaningful participation in the process. Several cover crops were tested for possible use in the management of watergrass ("Commelina diffusa"), a…

  5. The antiamoebic effect of a crude drug formulation of herbal extracts against Entamoeba histolytica in vitro and in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youvraj R. Sohni; Padmaja Kaimal; Ranjan M. Bhatt

    1995-01-01

    The antiamoebic effect of a crude drug formulation against Entamoeba histolytica was studied. In the traditional system of medicine in India, the formulation has been prescribed for intestinal disorders. It comprises of five medicinal herbs, namely, Boerhavia diffusa, Berberis aristata, Tinospora cordifolia, Terminalia chebula and Zingiber officinale. The dried and pulverized plants were extracted in ethanol together and individually. In

  6. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROFILE OF SOME COLOURING PLANTS USED IN HOMOEOPATHY

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, P.; Sunilkumar

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this paper deal with the physico chemical aspects of certain colouring plants namely. Bixa orellana Linn. (Leaves) and Lawsonia inermis Linn (Leaves). The determined data under the physico chemical, chromatographic and spectrophotometric studies can be taken as a pharmacopoeial standards. PMID:22557040

  7. Analysis of Anthocyanin, Flavonoids, and Phenolic Acid Contents of Ten Fruits and Antioxidant Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Supachai Samappito; Luchai Butkhup

    2010-01-01

    Methanolic extracts from ten fruits were examined for anthocyanin, flavonoids and phenolic acid constituents, and antioxidant capacity. The fruits included: mao luang (Antidesma bunius Linn.), mao khipla (Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn.), mulberry (Morus alba Linn.), wild grape (Tetrastigma quadrangulatum), red grape (Vitis vinifera), blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilus), strawberry (Fragaria ananassa), red raspberry (Rubus idaeus), cherry (Prunus avium), and black currant (Ribes nigrum).

  8. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, FROM PARK AND MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, FROM PARK AND MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS, ALONG 20TH STREET NORTH TOWARDS THE BIRMINGHAM CITY CENTER WITH BIRMINGHAM MUSEUM OF ART (BOTTOM LEFT), BIRMINGHAM MUNICIPAL AUDITORIUM (BOTTOM RIGHT), BIRMINGHAM CITY HALL (CENTER RIGHT), JEFFERSON COUNTY COURTHOUSE (CENTER LEFT) AND LINN PARK (CENTER) - Linn Park, Bounded by Park Place, Eighth Avenue, Short Twentieth & Twenty-first Streets, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  9. An analysis of the representational pattterns of English language learners receiving special education services in school districts in South Texas

    E-print Network

    Contreras, Diana Linn

    2007-09-17

    AN ANALYSIS OF THE REPRESENTATIONAL PATTERNS OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS RECEIVING SPECIAL EDUCATION SERVICES IN SCHOOL DISTRICTS IN SOUTH TEXAS A Dissertation by DIANA LINN CONTRERAS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A...&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2006 Major Subject: Curriculum and Instruction © 2006 DIANA LINN...

  10. The Case of the Radio Communication Project in Nepal: A Culture-Centered Rejoinder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutta, Mohan Jyoti; Basnyat, Iccha

    2008-01-01

    In this rebuttal to Linn's critique (see EJ802887), the authors state that, while Linn provides a thoughtful critique of the culture-centered approach by questioning its feasibility, he missed the idea that the very concept of effectiveness is brought under scrutiny by the culture-centered approach, with the focus being on examining the universal…

  11. The chemical composition and membrane stability activity of some herbs used in local therapy for anemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. S. Falade; I. O. Otemuyiwa; A. Oladipo; O. O. Oyedapo; B. A. Akinpelu; S. R. A. Adewusi

    2005-01-01

    The chemical composition and the membrane stabilizing activity of the decoctions of the dry Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. (Malvaceae) calyx (Sobo in a Nigerian language), Theobroma cacao Linn. (N.O. Sterculiaceae) root (cocoa) and the dry stalk of white and red cultivars of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poaceae) were determined. These herbs are often used locally for the management of anemia. Ash

  12. Effects of Neem Flowers, Thai and Chinese Bitter Gourd Fruits and Sweet Basil Leaves on Hepatic Monooxygenases and Glutathione S-transferase Activities, and In Vitro Metabolic Activation of Chemical Carcinogens in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. R Kusamran; A Ratanavila; A Tepsuwan

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of feeding of four vegetables commonly consumed in Thailand, namely, flowers of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica var. siamensis), fruits of Thai and the Chinese bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn.) and leaves of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn) on the levels of phase I enzymes, which include cytochrome P450 (P450),

  13. Anti-Phytopthora capsici Activities and Potential Use as Antifungal in Agri culture of Alpinia galanga Swartz, Curcuma longa Linn, Boesenbergia pandurata Schut and Chromolaena odorata : Bioactivities Guided Isolation of Active Ingredie nts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilart Pompimon; Jinnantina Jomduang; Uma Prawat; Samlee Mankhetkorn

    Problem statement: Plant derived fungicides are now being subjects of many research groups. These secondary metabolites have enormous potential to inspire and influence modern agrochemical research. The study aimed to investiga te the antifungal activity and their potential use as fungicides in the agriculture of crude extracts and purified compounds derived from plants used in traditional medicines. Approach: Four medicinal

  14. Growth and cesium uptake responses of Phytolacca americana Linn. and Amaranthus cruentus L. grown on cesium contaminated soil to elevated CO2 or inoculation with a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium Burkholderia sp. D54, or in combination.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shirong; Liao, Shangqiang; Guo, Junkang; Song, Zhengguo; Wang, Ruigang; Zhou, Xiaomin

    2011-12-30

    Growth and cesium uptake responses of plants to elevated CO(2) and microbial inoculation, alone or in combination, can be explored for clean-up of contaminated soils, and this induced phytoextraction may be better than the natural process. The present study used open-top chambers to investigate combined effects of Burkholderia sp. D54 inoculation and elevated CO(2) (860 ?L L(-1)) on growth and Cs uptake by Phytolacca americana and Amaranthus cruentus grown on soil spiked with various levels of Cs (0-1000 mg kg(-1)). Elevated CO(2) and bacterial inoculation, alone or in combination, significantly increased biomass production with increased magnitude, ranging from 22% to 139% for P. americana, and 14% to 254% for A. cruentus. Total tissue Cs in both plants was significantly greater for bacterial inoculation treatment singly, and combined treatments of bacterial inoculation and elevated CO(2) than for the control treatment in most cases. Regardless of CO(2) concentrations and bacterial inoculation, A. cruentus had higher tissue Cs concentration, Cs transfer factors and concentration ratios than P. americana, but they had slightly different contents of antioxidant enzymes. It is concluded that combined effects of elevated CO(2) and microbial inoculation with regard to plant ability to grow and remove radionuclides from soil can be explored for CO(2)- and microbe-assisted phytoextraction technology. PMID:22074893

  15. Vasa vasorum anti-angiogenesis through H2O2, HIF-1?, NF-?B, and iNOS inhibition by mangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract (Garcinia mangostana Linn) in hypercholesterol-diet-given Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain

    PubMed Central

    Wihastuti, Titin Andri; Sargowo, Djanggan; Tjokroprawiro, Askandar; Permatasari, Nur; Widodo, Mohammad Aris; Soeharto, Setyowati

    2014-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress in atherosclerosis produces H2O2 and triggers the activation of nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-?B) and increase of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The formation of vasa vasorum occurs in atherosclerosis. Vasa vasorum angiogenesis is mediated by VEGFR-1 and upregulated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?). The newly formed vasa vasorum are fragile and immature and thus increase plaque instability. It is necessary to control vasa vasorum angiogenesis by using mangosteen pericarp antioxidant. This study aims to demonstrate that mangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract can act as vasa vasorum anti-angiogenesis through H2O2, HIF-1?, NF-?B, and iNOS inhibition in rats given a hypercholesterol diet. Methods This was a true experimental laboratory, in vivo posttest with control group design, with 20 Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain rats divided into five groups (normal group, hypercholesterol group, and hypercholesterol groups with certain doses of mangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract: 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight). The parameters of this study were H2O2 measured by using colorimetric analysis, as well as NF-?B, iNOS, and HIF-1?, which were measured by using immunofluorescence double staining and observed with a confocal laser scanning microscope in aortic smooth muscle cell. The angiogenesis of vasa vasorum was quantified from VEGFR-1 level in aortic tissue and confirmed with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results Analysis of variance test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed mangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract had a significant effect (P<0.05) in decreasing vasa vasorum angiogenesis through H2O2, HIF-1?, NF-?B, and iNOS inhibition in hypercholesterol-diet-given R. norvegicus Wistar strain. Conclusion Mangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract 800 mg/kg body weight is proven to decrease vasa vasorum angiogenesis. Similar studies with other inflammatory parameters are encouraged to clarify the mechanism of vasa vasorum angiogenesis inhibition by mangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract. PMID:25187725

  16. Molecular tracing of white muscardine in the silkworm, Bombyx mori (Linn.) II. Silkworm white muscardine is not caused by artificial release or natural epizootic of Beauveria bassiana in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue; Huang, Cui; He, Lingmin; Zhang, Shengli; Li, Zengzhi

    2015-02-01

    The fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana causes serious economic losses in sericulture. Its origin is usually attributed to the release of B. bassiana insecticides against pine caterpillars (Dendrolimus punctuatus). In the present study, 488 B. bassiana isolates obtained from silkworm (Bombyx mori) collected from 13 Chinese provinces, and 327 B. bassiana isolates obtained from D. punctatus collected from 9 provinces, were analyzed for population genetic structure using the ISSR technique based on genetic distance. A UPGMA dendrogram clustered them into three independent clades: two B. mori clades and one D. punctatus clade. A 3-D principal component analysis further divided them into two completely independent host groups, revealing high host-specificity. This suggested that white muscardine occurring in B. mori populations throughout southern China was not caused by any B. bassiana strain either naturally prevailing in D. punctatus populations or by any strain artificially released as a fungal insecticide against D. punctatus. We further investigated the genetic differentiation coefficient Gst and gene flow between B. mori-pathogenic and D. punctatus-pathogenic B. bassiana isolates from across China and from five provinces inhabited by both B. mori and D. punctatus. The Gst value across China was computed as 0.410, while the values of the five provinces ranged from 0.508 to 0.689; all above 0.25, which is the threshold for significant genetic differentiation. This suggests that B. bassiana strains isolated from the two different hosts maintained their respective heredity without a convergent homogenization trend, and reduces the possibility that the host range of the caterpillar isolates could expand and enhance their virulence in B. mori. These findings indicate that the use of B. bassiana does not threaten the safety of sericulture. PMID:25541121

  17. Effects of selected heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Ni, and Cd) in the aquatic medium on the restoration potential and accumulation in the stem cuttings of the terrestrial plant, Talinum triangulare Linn.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, K; Sivakumar, S; Senthilkumar, P; Prabha, D; Subbhuraam, C V; Song, Y C

    2009-10-01

    The heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cd) accumulation capacity of the stem cuttings of the terrestrial, ornamental plant, Talinum triangulare was assessed in hydroponic medium. The stem cuttings of T. triangulare, grew well in distilled water regenerating roots and aerial parts. On exposure to various concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cd, a concentration dependent decrease was observed in the number of leaves produced and roots regenerated and an increase in the number of days required for the initiation of roots. The number of leaves produced showed an increasing trend in almost all treatment concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cd with an increase in the duration of experiment, whereas, with an increase in the treatment concentration of metals a significant (P < 0.05) decrease was observed in the number of leaves produced. The number of days required for root initiation in metal solutions, however, increased with increasing concentration of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cd. The root development was completely arrested from 10 mg l(-1) of Ni and 4 mg l(-1) of Cd. Compared to the control, a significant decrease was recorded in the number of roots produced in all treatment concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cd. Pink colouration of metal solution consequent to leaching of plant pigment from T. triangulare was observed which was not persistent and disappeared after a few days. Decaying of stem was observed when exposed to Ni and Cd but not to Cu and Pb. Although, copper accumulation by T. triangulare at treatment concentration of 15 and 20 mg l(-1) exceeded 1,000 mg kg(-1) dry matter, necessary pot culture experiment is required before "T. triangulare" can be definitely classified as a Cu hyperaccumulator. PMID:19590954

  18. Effects of Copper Sulfate and Copper Nitrate in Aquatic Medium on the Restoration Potential and Accumulation of Copper in Stem Cuttings of the Terrestrial Medicinal Plant, Portulaca Oleracea Linn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Mohanapriya; P. Senthilkumar; S. Sivakumar; M. Dineshkumar; C. V. Subbhuraam

    2006-01-01

    The stem cuttings of the terrestrial, ornamental plant, Portulaca oleracea, grew well in distilled water by producing adventitious roots and leaves. However, when exposed to various concentrations of sulfate and nitrate salts of copper resulted in a suppression of root growth, increase in initiation time of roots and sprouts and decay of stem cuttings from the cut open end, decrease

  19. The resistance of recent marine carbonate sediments to solution

    E-print Network

    Jansen, John F

    1962-01-01

    . The samples include: sr 1 ? No nt as t res annularis plus encrusting foraminifera 2 ? Coral and shell sand from Alacrsn Reef 3 ? Nontas tres anno'J gris Bottom sediment 5 ? Strombus gigas Linne 6F ? Lucina pensylvanica Linne (fresh and unweathered) 6W... ? Lucina pensylvanica Linne (worn and weathered) 7 ? Glycymeris pectinata Gmelin 13 ? Bottom sediment containing algal material Sample numbers 1 and 3 were collected by Dr. Brian Logan on Camp eche Bank in the Gulf of Mexico. Sample numbers 2z 5, 6F, 6...

  20. Plant Community Response to the Decline of Diffuse Knapweed in a Colorado Grassland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. T. Bush; T. R. Seastedt; D. Buckner

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT Long-term reductions in invasive plant species are few, and studies documenting the response of plant communities to such reductions are equally rare. We quantified plant species richness and cover during a nine-year period at a grassland site in central Colorado where,the introduction of biological control insects reduced,the invasive non-native forb diffuse knapweed,(Centaurea diffusa). This reduction opened,up 25 percent of

  1. Extraction and analysis of ellagic acid from novel complex sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio F. Aguilera-Carbo; Christopher Augur; Lilia A. Prado-Barragan; Cristóbal N. Aguilar; Ernesto Favela-Torres

    2008-01-01

    Ellagic acid (EA) was quantified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RPHPLC) coupled with photodiode\\u000a array detection (DAD) in five fine-powdered plants collected from the semiarid region of Mexico. Samples analysed included\\u000a Jatropha dioica branches (Dragon’s blood), Euphorbia antisyphyllitica branches (Candelilla), Turnera diffusa Willd leaves (Damiana), Flourensia cernua leaves (hojasén) and Punica granatum husk (pomegranate) at two maturity stages (“turning” or

  2. Ecology. Plant invader may use chemical weapons.

    PubMed

    Jensen, M N

    2000-10-20

    On page 521, plant ecologists offer a novel explanation for the success of invasive plants. By comparing how one species of knapweed, Centaurea diffusa, behaves with its natural neighbors and with foreign plant species that evolved separately, they found that the invader apparently gains an edges in its adopted home not only by ditching its herbivores but by wielding weaponry: chemicals exuded from its roots that hamper its new neighbors' growth. PMID:11183749

  3. Long-term plant growth legacies overwhelm short-term plant growth effects on soil microbial community structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Kulmatiski; Karen H. Beard

    2011-01-01

    Plant–soil feedbacks are gaining attention for their ability to determine plant community development. Plant–soil feedback models and research assume that plant–soil interactions occur within days to weeks, yet, little is known about how quickly and to what extent plants change soil community composition. We grew a dominant native plant (Pseudoroegneria spicata) and a dominant non-native plant (Centaurea diffusa) separately in

  4. Cytotoxicity screening of some South American Solanaceae.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Murillo, B; Fajardo, V M; Suárez, M

    2001-08-01

    Alcoholic extracts of seven plants belonging to the Solanaceae family were phytochemically screened and evaluated for their cytotoxic activity by Brine Shrimp Test (BST) with Artemia salina larvae, Inhibition of Cell Division Test (ICDT) on sea urchin Loxechinus albus fertilized eggs and inhibition of crown gall tumors on Potato Disk Bioassay (PDB). From Salpichroa diffusa, bioassay-guided chromatographic separation afforded some active fractions from which epi-katonic acid was identified. PMID:11543969

  5. Development of a weighted-average estimator from a maximum-likelihood estimator and an instrumental-variable estimator in a structural model

    E-print Network

    Gruben, David Christopher

    1987-01-01

    . and Linn, R. L. (1976), "Analyzing Ratings With Cor- related Intrajudge Measurement Errors", Educational and Psychological Mea- surernent, 2, 319-28. Werts, C. E. , Breland, H. M. , Grandy, J. , and Rock, D. R. (1980), "Using Longitu- dinal Data...

  6. The Role of Self-Incompatibility and Sexual Selection in the Gymnosperm-Angiosperm Transition: A Hypothesis

    E-print Network

    Zavada, Michael S.; Taylor, Thomas N.

    1986-10-01

    the pollen grain coating and the stigmatic surface during compatible and incompatible interspecific pollinations in Raphanus. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 7:165-175. Dilcher, D. L. 1979. Early angiosperm reproduction: an introductory report. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol...

  7. Isolation of Uridine Diphosphate-Glycosyl Compounds from the Slug

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W. Wheat

    1960-01-01

    An examination of the acidsoluble nucleotides of Limax maximus Linne revealed, among others, several uridine diphosphate-glycosyl compounds. Nucleotides isolated and identified were the uridine diphosphates of glucose, acetylglucosamine, and acetylgalactosamine.

  8. BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN NURSING *Registered Nurse (RN)

    E-print Network

    Dasgupta, Dipankar

    Neal-Chaffen James E. Mullins, IV Alyssa Christine Northcutt Kenya Liliana Osorio Tony D. Overstreet Katharine Alice Gean Ellzey Tammie Linn Floersh * Lucy Frye Kimberly J. Gambrell * Mari Jasmine Ikerd Tara Colleen

  9. 76 FR 40722 - Pacific Green Power, LLC; Notice Of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ...Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Two Girls Creek Hydroelectric Project (Two Girls Creek Project or project) to be located on Two Girls Creek, near Sweet Home, Linn County, Oregon. The project would...

  10. 76 FR 60488 - Pacific Green Power, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ...July 25, 2011. d. Submitted by: Pacific Green Power, LLC. e. Name of Project: Two Girls Creek Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On Two Girls Creek River, in Linn County, Washington. The project occupies United States lands...

  11. Turmeric

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Names: turmeric, turmeric root, Indian saffron Latin Name: Curcuma longa turmeric.jpg © Steven Foster On this page: ... www.naturaldatabase.com on July 22, 2009. Turmeric ( Curcuma longa Linn.) and curcumin. Natural Standard Database Web ...

  12. 8. GENERAL VIEW OF SHINGLE CUTTING SAWS THAT HANDLE BOLTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. GENERAL VIEW OF SHINGLE CUTTING SAWS THAT HANDLE BOLTS AFTER DEBARKING; AFTER DEBARKING THE BOLTS ARE SENT TO THE SHINGLE WEAVER FOR SAWING - Lester Shingle Mill, 1602 North Eighteenth Street, Sweet Home, Linn County, OR

  13. OrnithOlOgical MOnOgraphs (Continued on inside back cover)

    E-print Network

    Sura, Philip

    Grey Parrot, Psittacus erithacus Linne (Aves: Psittacidae): Description and Theoretical Mechanical-Warblers. E. H. Burtt, Jr. x + 122 pp. 1986. $15.00 ($12.50). No. 39. The Lingual Apparatus of the African

  14. 75 FR 54649 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ...and Associated Resources in Oklahoma AD MPS) 2626-2648 E Eleventh St, Tulsa, 10000805 OREGON Lane County The Big `O', Skinner Butte, Eugene, 10000800 Linn County Santiam Wagon Road, Willamette National Forest, Deschutes National Forest,...

  15. Range Con: a management evaluation system for assessing sucess of selected range improvement practices 

    E-print Network

    Ekblad, Steven Linn

    1989-01-01

    RANGE CON: A MANAGEMENT EVALUATION SYSTEM FOR ASSESSING SUCCESS OF SELECTED RANGE IMPROVEMENT PRACTICES A Thesis by STEVEN LINN EKBLAD Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1989 Major Subject: Range Science RANGE CON: A MANAGEMENT EVALUATION SYSTEM FOR ASSESSING SUCCESS OF SELECTED RANGE IMPROVEMENT PRACTICES A Thesis by STEVEN LINN EEBLAD Approved as to style...

  16. The geology of the basal sandstone-mudstone unit of the Blackhawk Landslide, Lucerne Valley, California 

    E-print Network

    Kuzior, Jerry Linn

    1983-01-01

    THE GEOLOGY OF THE BASAL SANDSTONE-MUDSTONE UNIT OF THE BLACKHAWK LANDSLIDE, LUCERNE VALLEY, CALIFORNIA A Thesis by JERRY LINN KUZIOR Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1983 Major Subject: Geology THE GEOLOGY OF THE BASAL SANDSTONE-MUDSTONE UNIT OF THE BLACKHANK LANDSLIDE, LUCERNE VALLEY, CALIFORNIA A Thesis by JERRY LINN KUZIOR Approved as to style and content by: Brann Jo...

  17. Studies on the rhizosphere mycoflora of broad bean and cotton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. A. Youssef; A. T. Mankarios

    1974-01-01

    Investigations were made on the effect of species of fungi isolated from therhizosphere of broad bean (Vicia faba Linn.) variety Giza I, and cotton (Gossypium barbadense Linn.) variety Giza 47, on plant growth. Broad bean rhizosphere fungi differently affected plant growth.Fusarium moniliforme, Penicillium martensii, Rhizopus stolonifer, andCladosporium sphaerospermum stimulated both root and shoot growth.Aspergillus niger andAlternaria tenuis have an inhibitory

  18. The uptake of copper by plants dominantly growing on copper mining spoils along the Yangtze River, the People's Republic of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shirong Tang; B.-M. Wilke; Changyong Huang

    1999-01-01

    Elsholtzia haichowensis Sun., Commelina communis Linn., and Rumex acetosa Linn. are the dominant species that vastly grow\\u000a over the copper mining spoil heaps and copper-contaminated soil of the areas along the middle and lower streams of the Yangtze\\u000a River. Each has its own ecological habits. Chemical analytical data show that these plants can accumulate copper to various\\u000a extents, depending on

  19. Single- and dual-wavelength radar determination of liquid-water content in a Texas thunderstorm

    E-print Network

    Linn, Charles Theodore

    1976-01-01

    SINGLE- AND DUAL-WAVELENGTH RADAR DETERMINATION OF LIQUID-WATER CONTENT IN A TEXAS THUNDERSTORM A Thesis by CHARLES THEODORE LINN l Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1976 Major Subject: Meteorology SINGLE-AND DUAL-WAVELENGTH RADAR DETERMINATION OF LIQUID-WATER CONTENT IN A TEXAS THUNDERSTORM A Thesis by CHARLES THEODORE LINN Approved as to style and content by: (Ch rman...

  20. Evaluation of 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful as antiandrogens.

    PubMed

    Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

    2014-08-01

    This study demonstrates 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful in the management of androgenic disorders. Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst (GL), Urtica dioica Linn. (UD), Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming. (CB), Tribulus terrestris Linn. (TT), Pedalium murex Linn. (PM), Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (SI), Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (CR), Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (CC), Benincasa hispida Cogn. (BH), Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (PN) and Echinops echinatus Linn. (EE) were included in the study. Petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts of these herbs were tested for their 5?-reductase inhibitory activity against the standard 5?-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. A biochemical method to determine the activity of 5?-reductase was used to evaluate the inhibition of different extracts to the enzyme. The optical density (OD) value of each sample was measured continuously with ultraviolet spectrophotometer for the reason that the substrate NADPH has a specific absorbance at 340 nm. As the enzyme 5?-reductase uses NADPH as a substrate, so in the presence of 5?-reductase inhibitor, the NADPH concentration will increase with the function of time. This method thus implicates the activity of 5?-reductase. The method proved to be extremely useful to screen the herbs for their 5?-reductase inhibitory potential. GL, UD, BH, SI and CR came out to be promising candidates for further exploring their antiandrogenic properties. PMID:23710567

  1. Effects of nutritional history on nitrogen assimilation in congeneric temperate and tropical scleractinian corals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piniak, G.A.; Lipschultz, F.

    2004-01-01

    The nutritional history of corals is known to affect metabolic processes such as inorganic nutrient uptake and photosynthesis, but little is known about how it affects assimilation efficiency of ingested prey items or the partitioning of prey nitrogen between the host and symbiont. The temperate scleractinian coral Oculina arbuscula and its tropical congener Oculina diffusa were acclimated to three nutritional regimes (fed twice weekly, starved, starved with an inorganic nutrient supplement), then fed Artemia nauplii labeled with the stable isotope tracer 15N. Fed corals of both species had the lowest assimilation efficiencies (36-51% for O. arbuscula, 38-57% for O. diffusa), but were not statistically different from the other nutritional regimes. Fed and starved corals also had similar NU4+ excretion rates. This is inconsistent with decreased nitrogen excretion and reduced amino acid catabolism predicted by both the nitrogen recycling and conservation paradigms. In coral host tissue, ???90% of the ingested 15N was in the TCA-insoluble (protein and nucleic acids) and ethanol-soluble (amino acids/low molecular weight compounds) within 4 h of feeding. The TCA-insoluble pool was also the dominant repository of the label in zooxanthellae of both species (40-53% in O. arbuscula, 50-60% in O. diffusa). However, nutritional history had no effect on the distribution of prey 15N within the biochemical pools of the host or the zooxanthellae for either species. This result is consistent with the nitrogen conservation hypothesis, as preferential carbon metabolism would minimize the effects of starvation on nitrogen-containing biochemical pools. ?? Springer-Verlag 2004.

  2. Invasive plants versus their new and old neighbors: a mechanism for exotic invasion.

    PubMed

    Callaway, R M; Aschehoug, E T

    2000-10-20

    Invading exotic plants are thought to succeed primarily because they have escaped their natural enemies, not because of novel interactions with their new neighbors. However, we find that Centaurea diffusa, a noxious weed in North America, has much stronger negative effects on grass species from North America than on closely related grass species from communities to which Centaurea is native. Centaurea's advantage against North American species appears to be due to differences in the effects of its root exudates and how these root exudates affect competition for resources. Our results may help to explain why some exotic species so successfully invade natural plant communities. PMID:11039934

  3. Complete genome sequences of two begomoviruses infecting weeds in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Chirinos, Dorys T; Geraud-Pouey, Francis; Moriones, Enrique; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    The complete sequences of isolates of two new bipartite begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) found infecting weeds in Venezuela are provided. The names proposed for these new begomoviruses are "Datura leaf distortion virus" (DLDV), isolated from a Datura stramonium L. (family Solanaceae) plant, and "Dalechampia chlorotic mosaic virus" (DCMV), isolated from infected Dalechampia sp. (family Euphorbiaceae) and Boerhavia diffusa L. (family Nyctaginaceae) plants. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these new begomoviruses segregated in two distinct clades of New World begomoviruses. To our knowledge, this is the first record of a begomovirus infecting Dalechampia sp. plants. Also, this is the first report of a begomovirus infecting Boerhavia spp. and Datura spp. in Venezuela. PMID:22926716

  4. Human rabies--Iowa, 2002.

    PubMed

    2003-01-24

    On September 28, 2002, a man aged 20 years residing in Linn County, Iowa, died from rabies encephalitis caused by infection with a variant of rabies virus associated with silver-haired (Lasionycteris noctivagans) and eastern pipistrelle (Pipistrellus subflavus) bats. This is the first case of human rabies in Iowa since 1951. This report summarizes the investigation of the case by the Linn County and Iowa public health departments. Bats found in living quarters should be submitted to local public health laboratories for rabies testing. PMID:12570321

  5. Tolerance and recovery responses of playa halophytes to light, salinity and temperature stresses during seed germination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Zaheer Ahmed; M. Ajmal Khan

    2010-01-01

    Halogeton glomeratus (M. Bieb.) C.A. Mey., Lepidium latifolium Linn. and Peganum harmala Linn. are distributed in temperate salt playa habitats of Upper Hunza, Pakistan. Seeds were germinated under various salinity (0–500mM NaCl), light (12h-light:12h-dark and 24h-dark) and temperature (5\\/15, 10\\/20, 15\\/25, 20\\/30, and 25\\/35°C, dark\\/light) regimes for 20 days to determine the optimal conditions for germination and recovery of seeds

  6. Immunomodulatory activity of alcoholic extract of Mangifera indica L. in mice.

    PubMed

    Makare, N; Bodhankar, S; Rangari, V

    2001-12-01

    Mangifera indica Linn, a plant widely used in the traditional medicinal systems of India, has been reported to possess antiviral, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, the alcoholic extract of stem bark of Mangifera indica Linn (Extract I containing mangiferin 2.6%), has been investigated for its effect on cell mediated and humoral components of the immune system in mice. Administration of test extract I produced increase in humoral antibody (HA) titre and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) in mice. It is concluded that test extract I is a promising drug with immunostimulant properties. PMID:11694357

  7. Biochemical parameters of plants as indicators of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, A K; Gautam, Mukesh

    2007-01-01

    In the present study species like Mangifera indica, Linn., Cassia fistula, Linn., and Eucalyptus hybrid were exposed to different air pollution load for short duration (active biomonitoring). Variation in biochemical parameters like chlorophyll, protein, soluble sugar free amino acid, ascorbic acid, nitrate reductase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase in the leaves were found to be pollution load dependent. These variations can be used as indicators of air pollution for early diagnosis of stress or as a marker for physiological damage to trees prior to the onset of visible injury symptoms. Just by analyzing these biochemical indicators air quality can also be assessed. PMID:17717999

  8. Review on medicinal uses, pharmacological, phytochemistry and immunomodulatory activity of plants.

    PubMed

    Akram, M; Hamid, A; Khalil, A; Ghaffar, A; Tayyaba, N; Saeed, A; Ali, M; Naveed, A

    2014-01-01

    Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Researchers have discovered some important compounds from plants. The present work constitutes a review of the medicinal plants whose immunomodulant activity has been proven. We performed PUBMED, EMBASE, Google scholar searches for research papers of medicinal plants having immunomodulant activity. Medicinal plants used by traditional physicians or reported as having immunomodulant activity include Acacia concocinna, Camellia sinensis, Lawsonia inermis Linn, Piper longum Linn, Gelidium amansii, Petroselinum crispum, Plantago major and Allium sativum. Immunomodulant activities of some of these medicinal plants have been investigated. The medicinal plants documented have immunomodulant activity and should be further investigated via clinical trial. PMID:25280022

  9. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    Survey of Binary Azeotropes by Paul C. Yates Re: article by R. J. Glinski, C. W. Smith, and J. B. Cooke Cheating Probabilities? Probably Not by David J. Miller Re: a criticism by C. Jonah and a note by G. T. Rizzuto and F. Walters trans-Cyclohexane-1,2-diamine by Richard S. Treptow Re: article by P. J. Walsh, D. K. Smith, and C. Castello Micropreparation of [RuH2PPh3)4] by Francisco J. Arnáiz Re: article by D. E. Linn, Jr. The author replies D. E. Linn's response follows

  10. Traditional phytotherapy in Central Italy (Marche, Abruzzo, and Latium).

    PubMed

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the more significant results of extensive ethnopharmacobotanical research carried out by the author in the years 1977-2000 in 175 localities of three regions of Central Italy (Marche, Abruzzo, and Latium) have been reported and compared. The usages of 80 species belonging to 36 families are described, of which 71 were used in human therapy and 29 in veterinary medicine. Uses are suited with the number of localities in which they have been mentioned. Among the wild plant mainly still used, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, and Sambucus nigra are particularly highly considered, while major uses of plants concern these plants in addition to Allium sativum, Rubus ulmifolius, Parietaria diffusa, Cynodon dactylon, and Ficus carica. Unusual phytotherapic uses concern Brassica oleracea, Taraxacum officinale (warts), Ruscus aculeatus, S. nigra (chilblains), Allium cepa (chilblains; to remove thorns and splinters), Juglans regia, R. ulmifolius (burns), and Euphorbia paralias (bites of weevers). Among new uses with only one quotation, we remember Cirsium arvense (intestinal disturbances), Centaurea bracteata (cough), Lupinus albus (calluses), Melittis melissophyllum (eye inflammations, antispasmodic), and Artemisia absinthium (tendon inflammations), while among plants employed in various regions with interesting less-known properties, there are C. arvense (emergency haemostatic), P. diffusa (insect bites), and Scrophularia canina (antiseptic and cicatrizing agent for wounds in bovines and sheep). PMID:15664457

  11. Effects of dieldrin on brown trout in field and laboratory studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Dacre; D. Scott

    1973-01-01

    The effects on brown trout, Salmo trutta Linn., and bottom fauna of the Silver Stream, Otago, New Zealand following an accidental discharge of 55 litres of a dieldrin spray in September 1963 are described. The 24 h LC50 for dieldrin was found to be 0.016 ppm. Residue levels of dieldrin in skeletal muscles, liver, and brain were measured, using a

  12. Graduate History Awards 2012-2013 Department of History, Florida Atlantic University

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    collection on the history of World War II and/or American Jewish life in the 20th century. Weiner SpiritGraduate History Awards 2012-2013 Department of History, Florida Atlantic University Due by Friday, Department of History cc: Zella Linn (zlinn@fau.edu), Office Administrator, Department of History Name

  13. Graduate History Awards 2011-2012 Department of History, Florida Atlantic University

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    collection on the history of World War II and/or American Jewish life in the 20th century. Weiner SpiritGraduate History Awards 2011-2012 Department of History, Florida Atlantic University Due by Friday, Department of History cc: Zella Linn (zlinn@fau.edu), Office Administrator, Department of History Name

  14. Amazing Altered Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieling, Linda W.

    2006-01-01

    Linda Kieling, an art teacher at Rosemont Ridge Middle school in West Linn, Oregon, describes an altered book art project she introduced to her students. Alteration of books is a form of recycling that started in the eleventh century when Italian monks recycled old manuscripts written on vellum by scraping off the ink and adding new text and…

  15. Simula'ng Condor Stephen McGough, Clive Gerrard & Jonathan Noble

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    : Easton Flats Bowsden Court Freeman Hospital Great North Road to: Easton Flats Bowsden Court Freeman School Fell (open 24hrs) Pool, Dean, Linn Merz Court University Libraries Robinson Library (Main Library users ~23 hours) Power Usage Effec'veness (PUE) ­ depends on loca

  16. The Relationship between Kindergarten Students' Home Block Play and Their Spatial Ability Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Tracy Anne

    2010-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly aware of the role of spatial skills in preparing children for future mathematics achievement (National Mathematics Advisory Panel, 2008). In addition, sex differences have been consistently documented showing boys score higher than girls in assessments of spatial ability, particularly mental rotation (Linn & Peterson,…

  17. Making Mitosis Visible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Michelle; Linn, Marcia C.; Hollowell, Gail P.

    2008-01-01

    The Technology-Enhanced Learning in Science (TELS) center, a National Science Foundation-funded Center for Learning and Teaching, offers research-tested science modules for students in grades 6-12 (Linn et al. 2006). These free, online modules engage students in scientific inquiry through collaborative activities that include online…

  18. Insects Mistaken for the Mexican Cotton Boll Weevil.

    E-print Network

    Sanderson, E. Dwight (Ezra Dwight)

    1904-01-01

    nearly half an inch long is found very comnlonly in the hollow stems of the so- called " Bloodweed' ' or ' .Horseweed' ' (Erigeron eanadense Linn. ) to- gether with larvae and pupae. The weevils emerge in March and April in large numl?ers and are very...

  19. The Sweetest Chocolate Milk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Kristie J.

    2010-01-01

    Using a nonroutine problem can be an effective way to encourage students to draw on prior knowledge, work together, and reach important conclusions about the mathematics they are learning. This article discusses a problem on the mathematical preparation of chocolate milk which was adapted from an old book of puzzles (Linn 1969) and has been used…

  20. Issues with Self-Monitoring Assessments: Comments on Koretz and Beguin (2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip; Haberman, Shelby J.; Zwick, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Several researchers (e.g., Klein, Hamilton, McCaffrey, & Stecher, 2000; Koretz & Barron, 1998; Linn, 2000) have asserted that test-based accountability, a crucial component of U.S. education policy, has resulted in score inflation. This inference has relied on comparisons with performance on other tests such as the National Assessment of…

  1. Modular columns to study depth-dependence behavior of mosquito larvae and toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.

    PubMed

    Meir, Michal; Ben-Dov, Eitan; Zaritsky, Arieh

    2011-03-01

    Modular transparent column system was designed to study depth-dependence behavior of mosquito larvae. The system was used in preliminary experiments to evaluate the effect of water depth on the larvicidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis de Barjac against bottom feeder larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linn.) (Diptera: Culicidae), and suggestions for increasing the efficiency of the device are discussed. PMID:21167119

  2. The Influence of Classroom Instruction and Test Preparation on School Accountability Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Karen Adair Carter

    2012-01-01

    Federal and state educational agencies provide guidelines for public schools across the United States to follow (Linn, 2008; Levy, 2008). During a time of high-stakes testing fueled by school accountability standards, educators strive to meet requirements for academic growth in order to maintain a successful accountability level and avoid being…

  3. SMS-Based Contextual Web Search New York University

    E-print Network

    Subramanian, Lakshminarayanan

    .3 [Information Storage and Retrieval]: Information Search and Retrieval-- Search Process General Terms Algorithms. In a desktop search users are able to use a simple search interface to enter queries that often re- turnSMS-Based Contextual Web Search Jay Chen New York University jchen@cs.nyu.edu Brendan Linn New York

  4. Establishment of Physalis minima hairy roots culture for the production of physalins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Jualang Azlan; M. Marziah; M. Radzali; R. Johari

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the technique used to induce the hairy roots in Physalis minima (Linn.). Different types of explants obtained from in vitro germinated seedlings were aseptically co-cultivated with A. rhizogenesstrain LBA9402 in different media. Root growth and production of physalins were investigated in various basal media grown under dark and light conditions, and compared to that of normal root

  5. The phyllolepid placoderm Cowralepis mclachlani : Insights into the evolution of feeding mechanisms in jawed vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert K. Carr; Zerina Johanson; Alex Ritchie

    2009-01-01

    Remarkably preserved specimens of Cowra- lepis mclachlani Ritchie, 2005 (Proc Linn Soc NSW 126:215-259) (Phyllolepida, Placodermi) represent a unique ontogenetic sequence adding to our understanding of anat- omy, function, and phylogeny among basal jawed verte- brates (gnathostomes). A systematic review demonstrates that the Phyllolepida are a subgroup of the Arthrodira. Con- sideration of visceral and neurocranial characters supports the hypothesis

  6. Herbal fish toxicant used by fishers of Karbi-Anglong district, Assam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bhagaban Kalita; Amalesh Dutta; M Choudhury; Assam Guwahati

    Use of plant, Polygonum hydropiper Linn. (Smartweed) as fish toxicant by the tribal people of Karbi-Anglong district of Assam for catching fish from natural aquatic resources as well as for removal of uneconomical fishes from the aquaculture pond has been discussed. Indigenous Technical Knowledge on aquaculture has generously been passed on to newer generation by older ones. Plant's botanical identity,

  7. Congratulations to the following UIUC Presenters at the Is-SoTL Meeting Indiana University Bloomington

    E-print Network

    Liberzon, Daniel

    . Iwaoka (U. of Michael Loui Washington), & Grady W. Chism (The Ohio State University) Gauging Success of Non-major Scholarship of Teaching Michael Scott Gary Gladding Documenting, Measuring, Evaluating into Student's Academic Lives Cheelan Bo-Linn, Heidi Elmendorf (Georgetown) & Michael Loui Undergraduate

  8. Cellulase in Anoplophora glabripennis adults fed on original host tree species and non-original host trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-juan Li; Xiong-fei Yan; You-qing Luo; Gui-fang Tian; Yin-jie Nian; Hong Sun

    2010-01-01

    Cellulase activities of Anoplophora glabripennis (Motsch.) adults from two host plants (Populus simonii × P. pyramidliscr cv. Opera Hsu. and Salix matsudana Koidz) fed on three different host tree species (Acer negundo Linn., S. matsudana Koidz and P. simonii × P. pyramidliscr cv. Opera Hsu.) were investigated. Enzyme activities of endoglucanase and ?-glucosidase in the intestines of the insects were

  9. Implications of Calcium Nutrition on the Response of Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae) to Soil Salinity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pratiksha M. Vaghela; Ashish D. Patel; Indu Bhushan Pandey; Amar Nath Pandey

    2010-01-01

    Effects of Ca (Ca) level on the response of germination and seedling growth of Salvadora persica Linn. (Salvadoraceae) to sodium chloride (NaCl) salinity in soil were investigated. Salinity significantly retarded the seed germination and seedling growth, but the injurious effects of NaCl on seed germination were ameliorated and seedling growth was restored with Ca supply at the critical level to

  10. Immobilization of glycolate oxidase from Medicago falcata on magnetic nanoparticles for application in biosynthesis of glyoxylic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Zhu; Jiang Pan; Bin Hu; Hui-Lei Yu; Jian-He Xu

    2009-01-01

    Glycolate oxidase was isolated from Medicago falcata Linn. after a screening from 13 kinds of C3 plant leaves, with higher specific activity than the enzyme from spinach. The M. falcata glycolate oxidase (MFGO) was partially purified and then immobilized onto hydrothermally synthesized magnetic nanoparticles via physical adsorption. The magnetic nanoparticles were characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy

  11. Ursethoxy acid, a new triterpene from Lantana camara.

    PubMed

    Begum, Sabira; Wahab, Aneela; Siddiqui, Bina S

    2002-08-01

    A new pentacyclic triterpene, named ursethoxy acid (1) was isolated from the aerial parts of Lantana camara Linn. Its structure has been elucidated as 3,25-epoxy-3alpha-ethoxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid through extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR (COSY-45, NOESY, J-resolved, HMQC and HMBC) studies. PMID:12168757

  12. Subjects: Trematoda and Trematode Diseases, Part 7: Supergenera and Genera R-S 

    E-print Network

    Farr, Marion M.; Breen, Virginia L.; Doss, Mildred A.; Roach, Katharine F.

    1968-01-01

    with topical fluorinated steroids, 3-month- old boy. case report Acarus aegyptius Fabricius Pavesi, P., 1880 a, 384. as syn. of Hyalomma aegyptium (Linn?) 1767 Acarus farris Mead Briggs, A. R.j and Oryctolagus cuniculus Hughes, ?. ?., 1966 a Great Britain...

  13. Rheopexy of synovial fluid and protein aggregation

    E-print Network

    the observed rheopexy and the remarkable lubrication properties of synovial fluid. Keywords: hyaluronic acid increases by 300% to mZ0.01­0.03 (Linn 1968; Mabuchi et al. 1994). Adding 10 mg mlK1 hyaluronic acid network with the long-chain polysaccharide sodium hyaluronate under physiological conditions. Neutron

  14. SEAS Safety Program SEAS SAFETY PROGRAM 2012-2103

    E-print Network

    Safety Administrative Support · Linn Eichler & Christie Gilliland Safety Inspection Support · Lab Safety #12;SEAS Safety ProgramSEAS Safety Program Services Provided to SEAS Research Labs · Annual Lab Safety · Relay relevant information back to your lab group · Report incidents to SEAS safety committee · Attend

  15. SEAS Safety Program SEAS SAFETY PROGRAM 2013-2014

    E-print Network

    Support · Linn Eichler & Christie Gilliland Safety Inspection Support · Lab Safety Officers (~ 40 safety Provided to SEAS Research Labs · Annual Lab Safety Inspections · Report and Feedback from/after Lab to your lab group · Report incidents to SEAS safety committee · Attend annual lab inspection (SEAS + EHSEM

  16. Obituary: Kenneth L. Franklin, 1923-2007

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joe Rao; Neil Degrasse Tyson

    2007-01-01

    Renowned astronomer and astronomy popularizer Kenneth L. Franklin died early Monday morning, June 18, 2007, in Boulder, Colorado, two weeks after undergoing heart surgery. He was 84 years old. Kenneth Linn Franklin, the only child of Myles and Ruth (Houston) Franklin, was born March 25, 1923 in Alemeda, California. Ken obtained his Ph.D. in astronomy in 1953 at the University

  17. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Conservation Aquaculture Project : Environmental Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1997-01-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is responding to the need to prevent the extinction of the Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) between Libby Dam in Montana and Corra Linn Dam in British Columbia. Construction and operation of Libby Dam altered the natural flow of the Kootenai River, especially the normal May-to-July flows needed for natural reproduction and recruitment. It also

  18. 259. View of the stone curbing used at the Hefner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    259. View of the stone curbing used at the Hefner Overlook. This is a common feature at all overlooks on the parkway. All stone on the parkway, except for the Linn Cove Viaduct was quarried from within fifty miles of where it was used. Looking north. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  19. Evaluation of certain leaf extracts against red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae Nietner (Acarina: Tetranychidae) infesting tea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duraikannu Vasanthakumar; Amsalingam Roobakkumar; Mariappan S. R. Subramaniam; Pandian Kumar; Chandran Sundaravadivelan; Azariah Babu

    2012-01-01

    Leaf extracts of some common plants such as Vitex negundo (Linn. & Paracetamol), Gliricidia maculata (HBK), Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck), Morinda tinctoria (Roxb) and Pongamia glabra (Vent) were evaluated for their acaricidal activity against the red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae, in the laboratory using the leaf disc method under controlled conditions. Leaves collected from the above mentioned plants were shade-dried followed

  20. Gender Similarities in Math Performance from Middle School through High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scafidi, Tony; Bui, Khanh

    2010-01-01

    Using data from 10 states, Hyde, Lindberg, Linn, Ellis, and Williams (2008) found gender similarities in performance on standardized math tests. The present study attempted to replicate this finding with national data and to extend it by examining whether gender similarities in math performance are moderated by race, socioeconomic status, or math…