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1

Inhibition of Human Cervical Cancer Cell Growth by Ethanolic Extract of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. (Punarnava) Root  

PubMed Central

In Indian traditional medicine, Boerhaavia diffusa (punarnava) roots have been widely used for the treatment of dyspepsia, jaundice, enlargement of spleen, abdominal pain and as an anti-stress agent. Pharmacological evaluation of the crude ethanolic extract of B. diffusa roots has been shown to possess antiproliferative and immunomodulatory properties. The extract of B. diffusa was studied for anti-proliferative effects on the growth of HeLa cells and for its effect on cell cycle. Bio-assays of extracts from B. diffusa root showed that a methanol?:?chloroform fraction (BDF 5) had an antiproliferative effect on HeLa cells. After 48?h of exposure, this fraction at a concentration of 200??g?mL?1 significantly reduced cell proliferation with visible morphological changes in HeLa cells. Cell cycle analysis suggests that antiproliferative effect of BDF 5 could be due to inhibition of DNA synthesis in S-phase of cell cycle in HeLa cells, whereas no significant change in cell cycle was detected in control cells. The fraction BDF 5 caused cell death via apoptosis as evident from DNA fragmentation and caspase-9 activation. Thus the extract has potential to be evaluated in detail to assess the molecular mechanism-mediated anticancer activities of this plant.

Srivastava, Rakhi; Saluja, Daman; Dwarakanath, Bilikere S.; Chopra, Madhu

2011-01-01

2

CHEMOPREVENTIVE ACTION OF BOERHAAVIA DIFFUSA ON DMBA-INDUCED SKIN CARCINOGENESIS IN MICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract : Abstract : Abstract : Abstract : Boerhaavia diffusa, Linn (Fam: Nyctagenaceae), is widely used for the treatment of Jaundice in various parts of India. In the present study, cancer chemopreventive property of B. diffusa was evaluated on 7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced skin papillomagenesis in male Swiss albino mice (6-7 weeks old). A single topical application of 7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene

RUPJYOTI BHARALI; MOHAMMED R. H. AZAD; JAWAHIRA TABASSUM

2003-01-01

3

Boerhaavia diffusa - A Wild Herb with Potent Biological and Antimicrobial Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boerhaavia diffusa, commonly known as punarnava in Sanskrit, is a herbaceous plant of the family Nyctaginaceae. The whole plant or its specific parts (leaves, stem, and roots) are known to have medicinal properties and have a long history of use by indigenous and tribal people in India. The medicinal value of this plant in the treatment of a large number

L P Awasthi; H N Verma

4

Preliminary study on crystal dissolution activity of Rotula aquatica, Commiphora wightii and Boerhaavia diffusa extracts.  

PubMed

Several Ayurvedic plants are known to have activity against diverse urinary crystals. The traditional knowledge of Ayurveda, collective clinical experience in arthritis and the earlier experimental studies on urinary crystals led to the selection of three plants, viz. Rotula aquatica, Commiphora wightii Bhandari syn. C.mukul. and Boerhaavia diffusa for screening anticrystal activity against basic calcium phosphate (BCP), calcium pyrophosphate (CPPD) and monosodium urate monohydrate (MSUM). The effects of each plant were assayed on microcrystals in 24-well microplates in vitro. Our results show that the aqueous extracts of only R. aquatica and C. wightii have shown crystal dissolving activity against MSUM. PMID:18644427

Raut, Ashwinikumar A; Sunder, Sudha; Sarkar, Subrata; Pandita, Nancy S; Vaidya, Ashok D B

2008-07-01

5

Anti-Convulsant Activity of Boerhaavia diffusa: Plausible Role of Calcium Channel Antagonism  

PubMed Central

“Ethnopharmacological” use of roots of Boerhaavia diffusa (B. diffusa) in the treatment of epilepsy in Nigerian folk medicine and reports showing the presence of a calcium channel antagonistic compound “liriodendrin” in its roots, led us to undertake the present study. The study was designed to investigate the methanolic root extract of B. diffusa and its different fractions including liriodendrin-rich fraction for exploring the possible role of liriodendrin in its anti-convulsant activity. Air-dried roots of B. diffusa were extracted with methanol by cold maceration. The methanol soluble fraction of extract thus obtained was successively extracted to obtain liriodendrin-rich fraction and two side fractions, that is, chloroform fraction and phenolic compound fraction. Anti-convulsant activity of methanolic extract (1000, 1500 and 2000?mg?kg?1, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) and its different fractions, that is, liriodendrin-rich fraction (10, 20 and 40?mg?kg?1, i.p., chloroform fraction (20?mg?kg?1, i.p.) and phenolic compound fraction (1?mg?kg?1, i.p.) were studied in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures (75?mg?kg?1, i.p.). The crude methanolic extract of B. diffusa and only its liriodendrin-rich fraction showed a dose-dependent protection against PTZ-induced convulsions. The liriodendrin-rich fraction also showed significant protection against seizures induced by BAY k-8644. These findings reiterated the anti-convulsant activity of methanolic extract of B. diffusa roots. Furthermore, it can be concluded that the observed anti-convulsant activity was due to its calcium channel antagonistic action as this activity was retained only in the liodendrin-rich fraction, which has additionally been confirmed by significant anti-convulsant activity of liriodendrin-rich fraction in BAY k-8644-induced seizures.

Kaur, Mandeep; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

2011-01-01

6

Phytochemical investigation of Turnera diffusa.  

PubMed

A phytochemical investigation of Turnera diffusa afforded 35 compounds, comprised of flavonoids, terpenoids, saccharides, phenolics, and cyanogenic derivatives, including five new compounds (1-5) and a new natural product (6). These compounds were characterized as luteolin 8-C-E-propenoic acid (1), luteolin 8-C-beta-[6-deoxy-2-O-(alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-xylo-hexopyranos-3-uloside] (2), apigenin 7-O-(6' '-O-p-Z-coumaroyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside) (3), apigenin 7-O-(4' '-O-p-Z-coumaroylglucoside) (4), syringetin 3-O-[beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-d-glucopyranoside] (5), and laricitin 3-O-[beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-d-glucopyranoside] (6). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods. PMID:17284070

Zhao, Jianping; Pawar, Rahul S; Ali, Zulfiqar; Khan, Ikhlas A

2007-02-07

7

Flavonoids and arbutin from Turnera diffusa.  

PubMed

The infusion of the aerial parts of Turnera diffusa was phytochemically examined. Chromatographic procedures led to the isolation of a new flavone glycoside, five known flavonoids and p-arbutin. Structures were determined by 1D- and 2D NMR experiments, as well as ES-MS and UV spectra. PMID:12562080

Piacente, Sonia; Camargo, Ely E S; Zampelli, Aurelia; Gracioso, Juliano S; Souza Brito, Alba R; Pizza, Cosimo; Vilegas, Wagner

8

Phytotoxic compounds from roots of Centaurea diffusa Lam.  

PubMed Central

An extract of roots of Centaurea diffusa (diffuse knapweed) yielded caryophyllene oxide and linoleic acid which were shown to be phytotoxic. Also isolated were germacrene B, a previously-known phytotoxin as well as the inactive polyene aplotaxene. A combination of these compounds, if transferred to the soil, could be one factor in the invasive behavior of this weed. Contrary to a literature report, 8-hydroxyquinoline was not detected in root exudates of in vitro grown C. diffusa nor could it be identified in the root extract. However, a recent report from a different group maintains that 8-hydroxyquinoline can be released from roots of C. diffusa following a diurnal rhythm.

Quintana, Naira; El Kassis, Elie G; Stermitz, Frank R

2009-01-01

9

Cellular organization in the marine demosponge Callyspongia diffusa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine-structural analysis of the tissues of the marine demosponge Callyspongia diffusa was carried out using scanning electron microscopu and ethanol cryofracture. Micrographic data reveal the pathway of water movement through the sponge, and allow accurate measurement of the dimensions of successive structural filters in the aquiferous system. Understanding the organization and cytoarchitecture of the normal tissues of this sponge provides

I. S. Johnston; W. H. Hildemann

1982-01-01

10

Anti-Aromatase Activity of the Constituents from Damiana (Turnera diffusa)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Damiana (Turnera diffusa Willd. Ex Schult) has traditionally been used as an herbal aphrodisiac. Aim of the study: The study was aimed to investigate the anti-aromatse activity and the estrogenic activity of the constituents isolated from T. diffusa. Material and me...

11

Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. (Bishkhapra)  

PubMed Central

World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended that traditional health and folk medicine systems are proved to be more effective in health problems worldwide. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. is a herb used in Ayurvedic medicine. The principal constituent of T. portulacastrum Linn. is ecdysterone and the other constituents are trianthenol, 3-acetylaleuritolic acid, 5,2’-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-6,8-dimethylflavone, leptorumol, 3,4-dimethoxy cinnamic acid, 5-hydroxy-2-methoxybenzaldehyde, p-methoxybenzoic acid, and beta cyanin. Different parts of Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. are traditionally used as analgesic, stomachic, laxative, treatment of blood disease, anemia, inflammation, and night blindness. Laboratory investigations on extracts of the plant have demonstrated significant pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, diuretic, analgesic, hepatoprotective, and anticarcinogenic. This article compiles all updated information related to T. portulacastrum Linn. Scientifically proved activities are co-related with traditional concepts. Scientific evidence exists with respect to their major and minor constituents. The novelty and applicability of T. portulacastrum are hidden. Such things should be overcome through modern scientific concepts.

Shivhare, Manoj K.; Singour, P. K.; Chaurasiya, P. K.; Pawar, Rajesh S.

2012-01-01

12

Linn Cove Viaduct.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The film shows the construction of the Linn Cove Viaduct, part of the Blue Ridge Parkway. This bridge was built by an innovative construction method, which allowed it to be built from the top down without disturbing the landscape. It took four years to bu...

1994-01-01

13

Successful biological control of diffuse knapweed, Centaurea diffusa, in British Columbia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological control program for diffuse knapweed, Centaurea diffusa Lamarck, a Eurasian plant that has invaded large areas of grasslands in western North America, has gone on for over 35years. This program involved the release of 12 biological control agents of which four are numerous and widely distributed; two species of Tephritid flies, Urophora affinis and Urophora quadrifasciata, the root

Judith H. Myers; Caroline Jackson; Hillary Quinn; Shannon R. White; Jenny S. Cory

2009-01-01

14

Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor expression by Chinese medicine of Hedyotis diffusa Willd herbal compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hedyotis diffusa Willd herbal compounds (HDWHCs) are commonly used as Chinese medicine to treat cancer patients with established clinical therapeutic\\u000a efficacy in China. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In this study, we used freeze-dried powder\\u000a of the water extracts of HDWHCs to investigate the potential mechanisms of HDWHCs in cancer treatment. HDWHCs treatment significantly\\u000a inhibited vascular

Min Wang; Zhumei Shi; Dan Liu; Gong-Yu Zhang; Jiahao Sha; Bing-Hua Jiang

2010-01-01

15

Stimulating property of Turnera diffusa and Pfaffia paniculata extracts on the sexual behavior of male rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexually potent and sexually sluggish\\/impotent male rats were treated orally with different amounts of Turnera diffusa and Pfaffia paniculata fluid extracts (0.25, 0.50, 1.0?ml\\/kg). While having no effect on the copulatory behavior of sexually potent rats, both plant\\u000a extracts – singly or in combination – improved the copulatory performance of sexually sluggish\\/impotent rats. The highest\\u000a dose of either extract (1?ml\\/kg)

R. Arletti; A. Benelli; E. Cavazzuti; G. Scarpetta; A. Bertolini

1999-01-01

16

Comparative fungal responses in managed plant communities infested by spotted ( Centaurea maculosa Lam.) and diffuse ( C. diffusa Lam.) knapweed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam.) and diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa Lam.) infested plant communities that are being studied for improved management practices to enhance native perennial grass species were evaluated for selected fungal responses during 2000–2003. Replicated plots were treated using combinations of carbohydrate addition to reduce soil N availability, reseeding with desirable mid- and late-seral plant species, and reintroducing

Donald A. Klein; Mark W. Paschke; Tamara L. Heskett

2006-01-01

17

Stimulating property of Turnera diffusa and Pfaffia paniculata extracts on the sexual-behavior of male rats.  

PubMed

Sexually potent and sexually sluggish/impotent male rats were treated orally with different amounts of Turnera diffusa and Pfaffia paniculata fluid extracts (0.25, 0.50, 1.0 ml/kg). While having no effect on the copulatory behavior of sexually potent rats, both plant extracts--singly or in combination--improved the copulatory performance of sexually sluggish/impotent rats. The highest dose of either extract (1 ml/kg) (as well as the combination of 0.5 ml/kg of each extract) increased the percentage of rats achieving ejaculation and significantly reduced mount, intromission and ejaculation latencies, post-ejaculatory interval and intercopulatory interval. Neither extract affected locomotor activity. These results seem to support the folk reputation of Turnera diffusa and Pfaffia paniculata as sexual stimulants. PMID:10227074

Arletti, R; Benelli, A; Cavazzuti, E; Scarpetta, G; Bertolini, A

1999-03-01

18

140. Linn Cove contact station. Center opened in 1987 to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

140. Linn Cove contact station. Center opened in 1987 to provide information about the Linn Cove viaduct. Looking south-southeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

19

Oldenlandia diffusa and Scutellaria barbata augment macrophage oxidative burst and inhibit tumor growth.  

PubMed

Oldenlandia diffusa (OD) and Scutellaria barbata (SB) have been used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating liver, lung and rectal tumors. In this study we determined the effects of these phytochemicals on oxidative burst as an indicator of phagocytic function in a murine macrophage cell line J774 using an automated micro-fluorometric assay. A dose-dependent augmentation of oxidative burst was observed with OD as well as SB. The effect of OD and SB on the growth of a murine renal cell carcinoma (Renca) was also determined. Balb/c mice were transplanted subcutaneously with 1 x 10(5) Renca cells and were randomized into groups of 10 to receive oral feeding of OD (4 mg/day), SB (4 mg/day), or saline as control. Oral feeding with either OD or SB significantly inhibited the growth of Renca in mice. The data of this study show that OD and SB are capable of enhancing macrophage function in vitro and inhibiting tumor growth in vivo. PMID:10851520

Wong, B Y; Lau, B H; Jia, T Y; Wan, C P

1996-02-01

20

Correlation between chromatographic fingerprint and antioxidant activity of Turnera diffusa (Damiana).  

PubMed

In the present contribution, the partial least squares (PLS) method was used to establish a correlation between the antioxidant activity (obtained by DPPH assay) and chromatographic profiles of TURNERA DIFFUSA extracts. Chromatograms were obtained using HPLC-DAD. A model was constructed using 40 samples with 2550 X variables corresponding to the responses obtained at different times; the Y variables consisted of experimental values of antioxidant activity of each extract (measured as EC??). Prior to this analysis, alignment of chromatograms was performed based on consideration of seven high-intensity signals present in all samples. The PLS1 model was validated by cross-validations; its capacity was evaluated using correlation parameters R˛, root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC), and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP). The best results were achieved with zero order chromatograms using five-point smoothing (R˛?=?0.96, RMSEC?=?3.31, and RMSEP?=?7.86). Under these conditions, the optimal number of components was five. The model was applied to the prediction of antioxidant activity of commercial products; no significant differences were found between the experimental and predicted antioxidant activities for 83?% of them. PMID:21259186

Garza-Juárez, Aurora; Salazar-Cavazos, Ma de la Luz; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Pérez-Meseguer, Jonathan; de Torres, Noemi Waksman

2011-01-21

21

Mosquito larvicidal activity of oleic and linoleic acids isolated from Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mosquito control programs, botanical origin may have the potential to be used successfully as larvicides. The larvicidal\\u000a activity of crude acetone, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and petroleum ether extracts of the leaf of Centella asiatica Linn., Datura metal Linn., Mukia scabrella Arn., Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam, extracts of whole plant of Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad, and Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.

A. Abdul Rahuman; P. Venkatesan; Geetha Gopalakrishnan

2008-01-01

22

Analysis of iridoid glucosides in Hedyotis diffusa by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS method was developed for analysis of iridoid glucosides (IGs) from Hedyotis diffusa Willd. The optimized separation condition was achieved with the Complex Sample Analysis Software System (CSASS) software, under which the whole analytes were achieved complete resolution especially for some isomeric IGs. Based on the UV and fragmentations, eleven IGs were detected. According to the fragmentation patterns of the three standard IGs, especially those of the isomeric standards, seven IGs including three pairs of isomers were unambiguous/tentatively identified. For the isomeric IGs with methyl ester or carboxyl group at C-4, the extents of the losses of CH3OH and/or H2O from their molecular and/or the aglycone adducts are useful for the differentiation of the stereoisomers in positive ion (PI) mode, which depends on the stereochemistry of the hydroxyl group on the cyclopentanoid unit. PMID:18579330

Li, Cunman; Xue, Xingya; Zhou, Dayong; Zhang, Feifang; Xu, Qing; Ren, Lingling; Liang, Xinmiao

2008-05-20

23

Immunostimulant effects of Capparis zeylanica Linn. leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to explore the immunomodulatory activity of ethanolic and water extracts of Capparis zeylanica Linn. (family: Capparidaceae) leaves on neutrophil adhesion test, humoral response to sheep red blood cells, delayed-type hypersensitivity, phagocytic activity and cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression.Pre-treatment of water extract (300mg\\/kg, oral) of Capparis zeylanica evoked a significant increase in neutrophil adhesion to nylon fibres. The augmentation

B. V. Ghule; G. Murugananthan; P. D. Nakhat; P. G. Yeole

2006-01-01

24

Effects of Centella Asiatica Linn. Leaves and Garcinia Mangostana Linn. hull on the Healing of Dermal Wounds in Diabetic Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Diabetes is a condition which is known to be associated with a variety of connective tissue abnormalities which contribute to impaired wound healing, leading to the chronic ulcer formation. Centella asiatica Linn. and Garcinia mangostana Linn. are widely used as Thai traditional medicine including wound treatment. However, the effects of both plant extracts in diabetic condition had not been

Jirat Nganlasom; Tunda Suttitum; Dusit Jirakulsomchok; Anucha Puapairoj

2008-01-01

25

Shelf-Life Extension of Nigerian Pepper (Capsicum Frutescens Linn and Capsicum Annuum Linn) Following Gamma Irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shelf-life extension of two types of Nigerian pepper (Capsicum frutescens linn and Capsicum annuum linn) was determined after gamma irradiation from a Cobalt-60 Gamma Irradiator, Model Gamma Cell 220. Capsicum frutescens linn "Atarodo, Hausa type" and "Atarodo, Ibadan local" were studied while Capsicum annuum linn "Sombo" was also studied within a period of fifty four days. The samples were irradiated with different gamma doses ranging from 0.5 â?? 4.0 kGy. The result obtained showed that, the shelflife extension of Capsicum frutescens linn "Atarodo Hausa type" is forty-two days, while that of Capsicum frutescens linn "Atarodo Ibadan local" is forty eight days while the shelf-life extension of Capsicum annuum linn "Sombo" is fiftyâ??four days. The optimum dose for the shelf-life extension of the pepper studied was 1.0 kGy. The irradiation of these food composites has clearly revealed the merits of food preservation by irradiation through considerable shelf-life extension without degrading the quality of the food irradiated.

Owoade, L. R.; Ademola, J. A.

2012-06-01

26

Tuberculostatic activity of henna (Lawsonia inermis Linn.).  

PubMed

The tuberculostatic activity of the herb henna (Lawsonia inermis Linn.) was tested in vitro and in vivo. On Lowenstein Jensen medium, the growth of tubercle bacilli from sputum and of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was inhibited by 6 micrograms/ml of the herb. In vivo studies on guinea pigs and mice showed that the herb at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight led to significant resolution of experimental tuberculosis following infection with M. tuberculosis H37Rv. PMID:2125156

Sharma, V K

1990-12-01

27

Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.: A phytopharmacological review  

PubMed Central

Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Asteraceae) is widely used in Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat vitiated conditions of epilepsy, mental illness, hemicrania, jaundice, hepatopathy, diabetes, leprosy, fever, pectoralgia, cough, gastropathy, hernia, hemorrhoids, helminthiasis, dyspepsia and skin diseases. There are reports providing scientific evidences for hypotensive, anxiolytic, neuroleptic, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, bronchodialatory, antihyperglycemic and hepatoprotective activities of this plant. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from this plant including sesquiterpene lactones, eudesmenolides, flavanoids and essential oil. A comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents, ethnobotanical uses and pharmacological activities reported are included in this review for exploring the immense medicinal potential of this plant.

Galani, Varsha J.; Patel, B. G.; Rana, D. G.

2010-01-01

28

[Xanthones from leaves of Calophyllum inophyllum Linn].  

PubMed

To study the xanthones from the leaves of Calophyllum inophyllum Linn., several chromatography methods were employed to isolate the constituents. Investigation on the CHCl3 extract led to the isolation of a new xanthone named inophyxanthone A (1) and four known compounds, which were pancixanthone A (2), gerontoxanthone B (3), jacareubin (4) and pyranojacareubin (5). Among them, compound 2 was obtained from this plant firstly, and compound 3 was obtained for the first time from this genus. The structure of inophyxanthone A (1) was identified as 1, 3, 5-trihydroxy-2-(1, 1-dimethylallyl)xanthone by spectral analysis. PMID:19408685

Li, Yuan; Li, Zhan-Lin; Liu, Ming-Sheng; Li, Dan-Yi; Zhang, Hui; Hua, Hui-Ming

2009-02-01

29

Loranthus micranthus Linn.: Biological Activities and Phytochemistry  

PubMed Central

Loranthus micranthus Linn. is a medicinal plant from the Loranthaceae family commonly known as an eastern Nigeria species of the African mistletoe and is widely used in folkloric medicine to cure various ailments and diseases. It is semiparasitic plant because of growing on various host trees and shrubs and absorbing mineral nutrition and water from respective host. Hence, the phytochemicals and biological activities of L. micranthus demonstrated strong host and harvesting period dependency. The leaves have been proved to possess immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiarrhoeal, and hypolipidemic activities. This review summarizes the information and findings concerning the current knowledge on the biological activities, pharmacological properties, toxicity, and chemical constituents of Loranthus micranthus.

Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Hajrezaei, Maryam; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

2013-01-01

30

Physical Characteristics and Optimum Land Utilization, Linn County, Oregon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Linn County has for a number of years conducted basic planning studies. These studies have aided the development of city comprehensive plans, guided the development of parks, recreation areas, roads and other public facilities and stimulated the adoption ...

1970-01-01

31

PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON CURCUMA AMADA (LINN.) RHIZOME (ZINGIBERACEAE)  

PubMed Central

The macroscopic and microscopic characters, physical constant values, extractive values, ash values and the behaviour of powder drug on treatment with different chemical regents, microchemical and histochemical analyses were conducted to characterize some pharmacognostical parameters of Curcuma amada linn. (Zingiberaceae).

Chitra, M.; Thoppil, J.E.

2002-01-01

32

Liquid CO 2 extraction of Murraya paniculata Linn. flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Murraya paniculata (Linn.) Jack syn M. exotica Linn. commonly known as orange jessamine is grown in gardens for its large clusters of fragrant flowers. Extraction of the fresh flowers with liquid CO2 provides a floral extract in 0.64% yields. The major components in the extract were phenyl ethyl alcohol (3.3%), indole (1.2%), E-nerolidol (7.6%), benzyl benzoate (7.0%), phenyl ethyl benzoate

Prasant Kumar Rout; Y. Ramachandra Rao; Satyanarayan Naik

2010-01-01

33

Two new flavones from Tridax procumbens Linn.  

PubMed

Two new flavones, 8,3'-dihydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxy-6-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl flavone (1) and 6,8,3'-trihydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (2) were isolated from Tridax procumbens Linn., together with the four known compounds puerarin (3), esculetin (4), oleanolic acid (5) and betulinic acid (6). The structures of the two new flavones were elucidated based on chemical analysis and spectral methods (IR, 1D and 2D NMR, ESI-MS, HR-ESI-MS). The antioxidant activity of the two new flavones were evaluated by two methods, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, and the data showed that compounds 1 and 2 have certain antioxidant activity, with the antioxidant activity of compound 2 being stronger than that of compound 1. PMID:20877227

Xu, Runsheng; Zhang, Jing; Yuan, Ke

2010-09-09

34

In vitro crystallization, characterization and growth-inhibition study of urinary type struvite crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of urinary stones, known as nephrolithiasis or urolithiasis, is a serious, debilitating problem throughout the world. Struvite—NH4MgPO4·6H2O, ammonium magnesium phosphate hexahydrate, is one of the components of urinary stones (calculi). Struvite crystals with different morphologies were grown by in vitro single diffusion gel growth technique with different growth parameters. The crystals were characterized by powder XRD, FT-IR, thermal analysis and dielectric study. The powder XRD results of struvite confirmed the orthorhombic crystal structure. The FT-IR spectrum proved the presence of water of hydration, metal-oxygen bond, N-H bond and P-O bond. For thermal analysis TGA, DTA and DSC were carried out simultaneously. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of dehydration/decomposition process were calculated. Vickers micro-hardness and related mechanical parameters were also calculated. The in vitro growth inhibition studies of struvite by the juice of Citrus medica Linn as well as the herbal extracts of Commiphora wightii, Boerhaavia diffusa Linn and Rotula aquatica Lour were carried out and found potent inhibitors of struvite.

Chauhan, Chetan K.; Joshi, Mihir J.

2013-01-01

35

Immunostimulant effects of Capparis zeylanica Linn. leaves.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to explore the immunomodulatory activity of ethanolic and water extracts of Capparis zeylanica Linn. (family: Capparidaceae) leaves on neutrophil adhesion test, humoral response to sheep red blood cells, delayed-type hypersensitivity, phagocytic activity and cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression. Pre-treatment of water extract (300 mg/kg, oral) of Capparis zeylanica evoked a significant increase in neutrophil adhesion to nylon fibres. The augmentation of humoral immune response to sheep red blood cells by ethanolic and water extracts (150-300 mg/kg) is evidenced by increase in antibody titres in mice. A dose-related increase in both primary and secondary antibody titre was observed. Oral administration of ethanolic and water extracts of Capparis zeylanica leaves, at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg in mice, dose dependently potentiated the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction induced by sheep red blood cells. Immunomodulatory activity was also assessed by serological and haematological tests. Capparis zeylanica extracts prevented myelosuppression in mice treated with cyclophosphamide drug. The study comprised the acute toxicity and preliminary phytochemical screening of the ethanol and water extracts. PMID:16766150

Ghule, B V; Murugananthan, G; Nakhat, P D; Yeole, P G

2006-11-24

36

Neuropharmacological activity of Lippia nodiflora Linn.  

PubMed Central

Introduction: In the recent years, plants containing flavonoids have gained much more interest in research area, as they are found to be specific ligands for benzodiazepine receptors. Material and Methods: In our investigation, we evaluated the neuropharmacological profile of petroleum, chloroform and ethanolic extracts of aerial part of Lippia nodiflora Linn. With experimental models using test such as potentiation of diazepam-induced sleeping time, locomotor activity, motor coordination, exploratory behavior pattern, elevated plus maze and maximal electroshock convulsions. Diazepam at doses of 5, 4, and 1 mg/kg served as standard. Results: Results showed that the ethanolic extract of L. nodifl ora at both doses (250 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) and its chloroform extract at a higher dose of 500 mg/kg produced central inhibitory (sedative) effects, anticonvulsant effect and anxiolytic effect in mice. Values were statistically significant (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01) when compared to the control group. The petroleum ether extract of plant at both dose levels (250 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) did not produce any central effects. Conclusion: In conclusion, we can say that the ethanolic and chloroform extracts showed the central inhibitory activity due to the presence of fl avonoids and this fact was also supported by the finding that the petroleum ether extract did not show any central effect and flavonoids were not found in it.

Thirupathy, Kumaresan P.; Tulshkar, Asish; Vijaya, C.

2011-01-01

37

Anthelmintic Activity of Rhizomes of Nymphaea rubra Linn.  

PubMed

The Anthelmintic activity of petroleum ether, methanol and chloroform extract of rhizomes of Nymphaea rubra Linn were evaluated separately and the activities were compared with that of Albendazole. The petroleum ether, ethanol and chloroform extract exhibited dose dependent activity. The ethanolic extract showed remarkable Anthelmintic activity. PMID:22557358

Behera, S K; Mohapatra, T K; Dash, Vikash

2010-01-01

38

Anthelmintic Activity of Rhizomes of Nymphaea rubra Linn  

PubMed Central

The Anthelmintic activity of petroleum ether, methanol and chloroform extract of rhizomes of Nymphaea rubra Linn were evaluated separately and the activities were compared with that of Albendazole. The petroleum ether, ethanol and chloroform extract exhibited dose dependent activity. The ethanolic extract showed remarkable Anthelmintic activity.

Behera, S. K.; Mohapatra, T. K.; Dash, Vikash

2010-01-01

39

Application of Dr. Linn's Recommendations for Developing Accountability Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considered recommendations made by R. Linn (2000) and made a preliminary determination of the degree of cohesion between the Arkansas Comprehensive Testing, Assessment, and Accountability (ACTAAP) program and those recommendations. The ACTAAP appears to be an exemplary program in the early stages of development. (SLD)

Mulvenon, Sean W.; Ganley, Barbara J.

2001-01-01

40

In vitro organogenesis from leaf explants of Annona squamosa Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple shoot formation was induced from excised leaf explants of Annona squamosa Linn. (custard apple) seedlings on a Murashige and Skoog basal medium containing benzylaminopurine and kinetin. Various auxins in combination with the above medium produced callusing of the explants. In an investigation of environmental factors affecting shoot induction it was seen that the maximum number of shoots were obtained

S. Nair; P. K. Gupta; M. V. Shirgurkar; A. F. Mascarenhas

1985-01-01

41

Antioxidant properties of different fractions of Vitex negundo Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitex negundo Linn. (VN), belonging to family Verbenaceae, is an aromatic shrub distributed throughout India. In the ayurvedic system of medicine it is used as a drug of choice to manage pain, inflammation and other related diseases. It contains many polyphenolic compounds, terpenoids, glycosidic iridoids and alkaloids. Since polyphenolic compounds have high antioxidant potential, the antioxidant potency of V. negundo

Om Prakash Tiwari; Yamini B. Tripathi

2007-01-01

42

Pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies on curcuma amada (linn.) rhizome (zingiberaceae).  

PubMed

The macroscopic and microscopic characters, physical constant values, extractive values, ash values and the behaviour of powder drug on treatment with different chemical regents, microchemical and histochemical analyses were conducted to characterize some pharmacognostical parameters of Curcuma amada linn. (Zingiberaceae). PMID:22557083

Chitra, M; Thoppil, J E

2002-10-01

43

Safety evaluation of ambrette ( Abelmoschus moschatus linn) seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seeds of ambrette (Abelmoschus moschatus Linn), after selective extraction of fragrance from the seed coat, are flaked and extracted with hexane to obtain a fatty\\u000a oil. The FA composition and iodine value of the oil indicate it possesses saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated\\u000a FA in ratios close to the recommendations of the United Nations World Health Organization; these characteristics make

Y. R. Rao; K. S. Jena; D. Sahoo; P. K. Rout; Shakir Ali

2005-01-01

44

BRONCHODILATOR EFFECT OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF Euphorbia hirta linn  

PubMed Central

The bronchodilator effect of alcoholic extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn was evaluated at different doses (50,100 and 200mg/kg,p.o), using histamine aerosol test model. A dose dependent bronchodilator effect was observed in E. hirta pretreated animals. The extract of E. hirta at a dose of 200mg/kg was found to be more effective in histamine induced broncho constriction and a significant (p<0.001) effect was observed.

Sundari, S. Karpagam Kumara; Kumarappan, C T.; Jaswanth, A.; Valarmathy, R

2004-01-01

45

BRONCHODILATOR EFFECT OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF Euphorbia hirta linn.  

PubMed

The bronchodilator effect of alcoholic extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn was evaluated at different doses (50,100 and 200mg/kg,p.o), using histamine aerosol test model. A dose dependent bronchodilator effect was observed in E. hirta pretreated animals. The extract of E. hirta at a dose of 200mg/kg was found to be more effective in histamine induced broncho constriction and a significant (p<0.001) effect was observed. PMID:22557124

Sundari, S Karpagam Kumara; Kumarappan, C T; Jaswanth, A; Valarmathy, R

2004-01-01

46

256. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

256. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete segmental concrete segmental viaduct to be built with the progressive method in the United States. It contains nearly every type of highway construction within its length. With is super elevation of up to ten degrees and its tight horizontal and spiral curves, it was the most complicated bridge of its type built to that time. Looking south-southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

47

136. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

136. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete segmental viaduct to be built with the progressive method in the United States. It contains nearly every type of highway geometry within its length. With its super elevation of up to ten degrees and its tight horizontal and spiral curves, it was the most complicated bridge of its type built to that time looking south-southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

48

Direct shoot regeneration from nodal explants of Sida cordifolia Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was developed to initiate multiple shoots from mature nodal explants of Sida cordifolia Linn. High frequency of regeneration was achieved on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2.0 mg l?1 6-benzylaminopurine, 0.5 mg l?1 ?-naphthalene acidic acid, 1.0 mg l?1 adenine sulfate, and 10% (v\\/v) coconut milk. Multiple shoots were initiated within 21 d and the above media was capable of

I. Sivanesan; Byoung Ryong Jeong

2007-01-01

49

Comparative Screening of Immunomodulatory Activity of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. and Ethanolic Extract of Cleome gynandra Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: The assesement of immunomodulatory activity of hydro-alcoholic extract of flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. (75, 150 and 300 mg\\/kg, p.o.) and ethanolic extracts of aerial parts of Cleome gynandra Linn. (50, 100 and 200 mg\\/kg, p.o.) were done by carbon clearance method for non-specific immunity, haemagglutination antibody titre method for humoral immunity and footpad swelling method for

Kalpesh Gaur; M. L. Kori; R. K. Nema

50

Oldenlandia diffusa extracts exert antiproliferative and apoptotic effects on human breast cancer cells through ER?/Sp1-mediated p53 activation.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the most frequent tumor and a major cause of death among women. Estrogens play a crucial role in breast tumor growth, which is the rationale for the use of hormonal antiestrogen therapies. Unfortunately, not all therapeutic modalities are efficacious and it is imperative to develop new effective antitumoral drugs. Oldenlandia diffusa (OD) is a well-known medicinal plant used to prevent and treat many disorders, especially cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of OD extracts on breast cancer cell proliferation. We observed that OD extracts strongly inhibited anchorage-dependent and -independent cell growth and induced apoptosis in estrogen receptor alpha (ER?)-positive breast cancer cells, whereas proliferation and apoptotic responses of MCF-10A normal breast epithelial cells were unaffected. Mechanistically, OD extracts enhance the tumor suppressor p53 expression as a result of an increased binding of ER?/Sp1 complex to the p53 promoter region. Finally, we isolated ursolic and oleanolic acids as the bioactive compounds able to upregulate p53 expression and inhibit breast cancer cell growth. These acids were greatly effective in reducing tamoxifen-resistant growth of a derivative MCF-7 breast cancer cell line resistant to the antiestrogen treatment. Our results evidence how OD, and its bioactive compounds, exert antiproliferative and apoptotic effects selectively in ER?-positive breast cancer cells, highlighting the potential use of these herbal extracts as breast cancer preventive and/or therapeutic agents. PMID:22213398

Gu, Guowei; Barone, Ines; Gelsomino, Luca; Giordano, Cinzia; Bonofiglio, Daniela; Statti, Giancarlo; Menichini, Francesco; Catalano, Stefania; Andň, Sebastiano

2012-10-01

51

Multi-wavelength high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprints and chemometrics to predict the antioxidant activity of Turnera diffusa as part of its quality control.  

PubMed

The determination of the antioxidant activity of Turnera diffusa using partial least squares regression (PLSR) on chromatographic data is presented. The chromatograms were recorded with a diode array detector and, for each sample, an enhanced fingerprint was constructed by compiling into a single data vector the chromatograms at four wavelengths (216, 238, 254 and 345 nm). The wavelengths were selected from a contour plot, in order to obtain the greater number of peaks at each of the wavelengths. A further pretreatment of the data that included baseline correction, scaling and correlation optimized warping was performed. Optimal values of the parameters used in the warping were found by means of simplex optimization. A PLSR model with four latent variables (LV) explained 52.5% of X variance and 98.4% of Y, with a root mean square error for cross validation of 6.02. To evaluate its reliability, it was applied to an external prediction set, retrieving a relative standard error for prediction of 7.8%. The study of the most important variables for the regression indicated the chromatographic peaks related to antioxidant activity at the used wavelengths. PMID:22405537

Lucio-Gutiérrez, J Ricardo; Garza-Juárez, Aurora; Coello, J; Maspoch, S; Salazar-Cavazos, M L; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Waksman de Torres, Noemi

2012-02-23

52

Evaluation of thin-layer chromatography methods for quality control of commercial products containing Aesculus hippocastanum, Turnera diffusa, Matricaria recutita, Passiflora incarnata, and Tilia occidentalis.  

PubMed

In Mexico, plant-derived products with health claims are sold as herbal dietary supplements, and there are no rules for their legal quality control. Aesculus hippocastanum, Turnera diffusa, Matricaria recutita, Passiflora incarnata, and Tilia occidentalis are some of the major commercial products obtained from plants used in this region. In this paper, we describe the effectiveness of thin-layer chromatography methods to provide for the quality control of several commercial products containing these plants. Standardized extracts were used. Of the 49 commercial products analyzed, only 32.65% matched the chromatographic characteristic of standardized extracts. A significant number of commercial products did not match their label, indicating a problem resulting from the lack of regulation for these products. The proposed methods are simple, sensitive, and specific and can be used for routine quality control of raw herbals and formulations of the tested plants. The results obtained show the need to develop simple and reliable analytical methods that can be performed in any laboratory for the purpose of quality control of dietary supplements or commercial herbal products sold in Mexico. PMID:17760328

Ramírez-Durón, Rosalba; Ceniceros-Almaguer, Lucía; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Salazar-Cavazos, Ma de la Luz; Waksman de Torres, Noemi

53

Application of low-pressure gas chromatography-ion-trap mass spectrometry to the analysis of the essential oil of Turnera diffusa (Ward.) Urb.  

PubMed

Turnera diffusa Willd. var. afrodisiaca (Ward) Urb. (syn. T. aphrodisiaca) belongs to the family of Turneraceae and is an aromatic plant growing wild in the subtropical regions of America and Africa. It is widely used in the traditional medicine as e.g. anti-cough, diuretic, and aphrodisiac agent. This work presents a 3 min chromatographic analysis using low-pressure (LP) gas chromatography (GC)-ion-trap (IT) mass spectrometry (MS). The combination of a deactivated 0.6 m x 0.10 mm i.d., restrictor with a wide-bore CP-Wax 52 capillary column (10 m x 0.53 mm i.d., 1 microm) reduces the analysis time by a factor of 3-7 in comparison to the use of a conventional narrow bore column. Chromatographic conditions have been optimized to achieve the fastest separation with the highest signal/noise ratio in MS detection. These results allow fast and reliable quality control of the essential oil to be achieved. PMID:14971493

Godoi, Ana F L; Vilegas, Wagner; Godoi, Ricardo H M; Van Vaeck, Luc; Van Grieken, René

2004-02-20

54

Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Leaves of Melastoma malabathricum Linn.  

PubMed Central

The antidiarrhoeal effect of the water extract of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. (Melastomataceae) leaves were investigated by employing four experimental models of diarrhea in Swiss mice. Melastoma malabathricum water extract treated mice showed significant reduction in the fecal output and protected them from castor oil-induced diarrhoea. The extract also reduced the intestinal fluid secretion induced by magnesium sulphate and gastrointestinal motility after charcoal meal administration in the mice. No mortality and visible signs of general weakness was observed in the mice following the test extract administration up to 2000 mg/kg dose.

Sunilson, J. A. J.; Anandarajagopal, K.; Kumari, A. V. A. G.; Mohan, S.

2009-01-01

55

Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Leaves of Melastoma malabathricum Linn.  

PubMed

The antidiarrhoeal effect of the water extract of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. (Melastomataceae) leaves were investigated by employing four experimental models of diarrhea in Swiss mice. Melastoma malabathricum water extract treated mice showed significant reduction in the fecal output and protected them from castor oil-induced diarrhoea. The extract also reduced the intestinal fluid secretion induced by magnesium sulphate and gastrointestinal motility after charcoal meal administration in the mice. No mortality and visible signs of general weakness was observed in the mice following the test extract administration up to 2000 mg/kg dose. PMID:20376227

Sunilson, J A J; Anandarajagopal, K; Kumari, A V A G; Mohan, S

2009-11-01

56

Chemical composition of essential oil from Calligonum polygonoides Linn.  

PubMed

The essential oil from air dried buds and roots of Calligonum polygonoides Linn., has been extracted from dry steam distillation and analysed for chemical composition by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 27 and 10 compounds were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively, accounting for 68.42% and 82.12% total contents of the essential oils of buds and roots, respectively. It contains a complex mixture of terpenoids, hydrocarbons, phenolic compounds, acid derivatives and ketones. The main component of essential oil was ethyl homovanillate (11.79%) in buds and drimenol (29.42%) in roots. PMID:22574752

Samejo, Muhammad Qasim; Memon, Shahabuddin; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Khan, Khalid Mohammed

2012-05-11

57

Microscopic characterization of Scoparia dulcis Linn.(Scrophulariaceae)  

PubMed Central

This manuscript covers a detailed pharmacognostic evaluation of Scoparia dulcis Linn. whole plant (Scrophulariaceae), including morphology, microscopy, physicochemical, and phytochemical screening. Microscopy of different plant part was done by performing transverse sections and longitudinal sections, which were identified by the different staining reagents and dyes. Physicochemical constants were done for whole plant; it includes ash value, extractive value and moisture content. Phytochemical screening was done for aqueous and methanolic extract in maceration and soxhletion, results revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, phenolic compound, flavonoids, saponins, proteins, and amino acids. These study includes parameters to establish the authenticity of S. dulcis and can possibly help to differentiate the drug from its other species.

Mishra, Manas Ranjan; Mishra, Ashutosh; Pradhan, Dusmanta Kumar; Behera, Rajani Kanta; Jha, Shivesh; Panda, Ashok Kumar; Choudhary, Punit Ram

2012-01-01

58

Two new pentacyclic triterpenoids from Lantana camara LINN.  

PubMed

Two new pentacyclic triterpenoids, namely lantanoic acid (1) and camaranoic acid (2), and six known compounds such as lantic acid, camarinic acid, camangeloyl acid, camarinin, oleanonic acid, and ursonic acid were isolated from the aerial parts of Lantana camara LINN. Structures of the new constituents were elucidated by chemical transformation and spectral studies including 1D ((1)H- and (13)C-NMR) and 2D ((1)H-(1)H correlation spectroscopy (COSY), nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY), (1)H-(1)H total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY), J-resolved, (1)H-detected heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (HMQC), and heteronuclear multiple bond connectivity (HMBC)) NMR spectroscopy. PMID:18758109

Begum, Sabira; Zehra, Syeda Qamar; Siddiqui, Bina Shaheen

2008-09-01

59

Ursolic acid from Oldenlandia diffusa induces apoptosis via activation of caspases and phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta in SK-OV-3 ovarian cancer cells.  

PubMed

Although ursolic acid isolated from Oldenlandia diffusa (Rubiaceae) was known to have anticancer activities in prostate, breast and liver cancers, the underlying mechanism of ursolic acid in ovarian cancer cells was not investigated so far. In the present study, the apoptotic mechanism of ursolic acid was elucidated in SK-OV-3 ovarian cancer cells by 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulphophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) assay, cell cycle analysis and Western blotting. Ursolic acid exerted cytotoxicity against SK-OV-3 and A2780 ovarian cancer cells with IC?? of ca. 50 and 65?µM, respectively. Apoptotic bodies were observed in ursolic acid treated SK-OV-3 cells. Also, ursolic acid significantly increased ethidium homodimer stained cells and sub-G1 apoptotic portion in SK-OV-3 cells. Consistently, Western blotting revealed that ursolic acid effectively cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), caspase-9 and -3, suppressed the expression of survival genes such as c-Myc, Bcl-x(L) and astrocyte elevated gene (AEG)-1, and upregulated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in SK-OV-3 cells. Interestingly, ursolic acid suppressed ?-catenin degradation as well as enhanced phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK 3?). Furthermore, GSK 3? inhibitor SB216763 blocked the cleavages of caspase-3 and PARP induced by ursolic acid and proteosomal inhibitor MG132 disturbed down-regulation of ?-catenin, activation of caspase-3 and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) induced by ursolic acid in SK-OV-3 cells. Overall, our findings suggest that ursolic acid induces apoptosis via activation of caspase and phosphorylation of GSK 3? in SK-OV-3 cancer cells as a potent anti-cancer agent for ovarian cancer therapy. PMID:22791147

Song, Young-Hoon; Jeong, Soo-Jin; Kwon, Hee-Young; Kim, Bonglee; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Yoo, Dong-Youl

2012-01-01

60

Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical investigation of leaves of Pandanus odoratissimus Linn.f.  

PubMed

Pandanus odoratissimus Linn.f. (Syn: Pandanus fascicularis Lamk) belongs to the family Pandanacea, is a palm like small tree or shrub, which usually grow in old world tropics and few warm temperate regions. Mostly all parts are medicinally used. In the present study, histological, physical, powdered characteristics and preliminary phytochemical investigations were carried out on the leaves of Pandanus odoratissimus Linn.f. PMID:22557302

Chilakwad, Sneha R; Manjunath, K P; Akki, Kusum S; Savadi, R V; Deshpande, Netravati

2008-10-01

61

Analgesic effect of Lepidium sativum Linn. (Chandrashura) in experimental animals.  

PubMed

Lepidium sativum Linn, which is known as "Aselio" locally, is frequently used by the villagers for the treatment of Sandhivata (osteoarthritis), with good therapeutic relief. Here, we have to observe the analgesic activity of the seed of Lepidium sativum Linn in albino rats and Swiss albino mice with different parameters. The analgesic study was performed with acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice, formaldehyde-induced paw licking response in rats and tail flick response in mice. Experiments were carried out in two groups - therapeutic dose group and double dose group - with comparison with the control group. In the acetic acid-induced writhing syndrome, latency of onset was highly significantly increased in the therapeutic dose group and significant increase was found in the double dose group. In the formaldehyde-induced paw licking response, the test drug produced significant inhibition of neurogenic pain in the double dose group and significant inhibition of inflammatory pain in the therapeutic dose group. In the tail flick response, the test drug produced a mild to moderate effect in the therapeutic dose group and also in the double dose group. PMID:22131742

Raval, Nita D; Ravishankar, B

2010-07-01

62

Microscopic characterization of Scoparia dulcis Linn.(Scrophulariaceae).  

PubMed

This manuscript covers a detailed pharmacognostic evaluation of Scoparia dulcis Linn. whole plant (Scrophulariaceae), including morphology, microscopy, physicochemical, and phytochemical screening. Microscopy of different plant part was done by performing transverse sections and longitudinal sections, which were identified by the different staining reagents and dyes. Physicochemical constants were done for whole plant; it includes ash value, extractive value and moisture content. Phytochemical screening was done for aqueous and methanolic extract in maceration and soxhletion, results revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, phenolic compound, flavonoids, saponins, proteins, and amino acids. These study includes parameters to establish the authenticity of S. dulcis and can possibly help to differentiate the drug from its other species. PMID:23929991

Mishra, Manas Ranjan; Mishra, Ashutosh; Pradhan, Dusmanta Kumar; Behera, Rajani Kanta; Jha, Shivesh; Panda, Ashok Kumar; Choudhary, Punit Ram

2012-07-01

63

Vitiquinolone - A quinolone alkaloid from Hibiscus vitifolius Linn.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigations of the powdered root of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. (Malvaceae) was extracted successively with n-hexane and chloroform. Analysis of the n-hexane extract by GC-MS led to the identification of twenty-six components by comparison of their mass spectra with GC-MS library data. A novel quinolone alkaloid, vitiquinolone (5) together with eight known compounds viz. ?-Amyrin acetate (1), n-octacosanol (2), ?-Amyrin (3), stigmasterol (4), xanthyletin (6), alloxanthoxyletin (7), xanthoxyletin (8) and betulinic acid (9) were isolated from chloroform extract by column chromatography over silica gel. The structure of vitiquinolone was established on the basis of spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, 1D, 2D NMR and ESI-MS. The known compounds were identified on the basis of their physical and spectroscopic data as reported in the literature. PMID:24128571

Ramasamy, D; Saraswathy, A

2013-09-07

64

Studi efektivitas sediaan gel antiseptik tangan ekstrak daun sirih (Piper betle Linn.) Antiseptic activity evaluation of piper leave from Piper betle Linn extract in hand gel antiseptic preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that piper leaves (sirih) from Piper betle Linn has been used traditionally as medicine, for example for mouthwash and wound curing. The usage of hand gels antiseptic preparation was getting increased in the current time as the incidence of desease caused by virus and bacteria like SARS appears.This research was aimed to develop preparation of hand gels

Retno Sari; Fakultas Farmasi

2006-01-01

65

Evaluation of hypolipidemic activity of leaf juice of Catharanthus roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. in guinea pigs.  

PubMed

Our aim of the study was to evaluate the hypolipidemic activity of leaf juice of Catharanthus roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. in guinea pigs. Adult guinea pigs of either sex were divided into seven groups: group 1 - normal diet; group 2 - high fat diet; group 3 and 4 - normal diet plus leaf juice of Catharanthus roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. in the dose of 0.5 and 1 mL/kg, respectively; group 5 and 6- high fat diet with leaf juice of Catharanthus roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. in the dose of 0.5 and 1 mL/kg, respectively; group 7 - high fat diet plus atorvastatin (3 mg/kg). Above diet treatment was given for six weeks and drug was given during last three weeks. Serum lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c, VLDL-c, HDL-c) was performed in each group of animals before and at the end of six weeks. Histological study of aorta, liver and kidney was done in group 1, 2, 6 and 7 and blood cell count was done in animals that were treated juice of C. roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. before and after juice administration. Simultaneous administration of leaf juice of C. roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. in the dose of 0.5 mL/kg prevents the rise of serum lipid parameters and decreases the fatty changes in the tissue induced by high fat diet, whereas in the dose of 1 mL/kg not only counteracts the elevation, but also significantly (p < 0.05) reduces the serum level LDL-c and the ratio of total cholesterol and HDL-c. Leaf juice of C. roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. possesses significant lipid lowering and anti atherosclerotic activity. PMID:22125959

Patel, Yogesh; Vadgama, Vishalkumar; Baxi, Seema; Chandrabhanu; Tripathi, B

66

In vitro H+ -K+ ATPase inhibitory potential of methanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn.  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study was undertaken to study in vitro H+ -K+ ATPase inhibitory potential of methanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. Materials and Mathods: Total phenolic and flavonoid contents from extract was quantified and H+ -K+ ATPase inhibition assay was performed in presence of different concentrations of standard (omeprazole) and methanol extract. Results: Extract showed significant (*P < 0.05) proton pump inhibitory activity in the goat gastric mucosal homogenate which was comparable to standard. Conclusions: These findings showed that methanolic extract of C. quadrangularis Linn. is potent inhibitor of proton pump.

Yadav, Priyanka; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Rai, Gopal

2012-01-01

67

Antibacterial activities and phytochemical analysis of Cassia fistula (Linn.) leaf.  

PubMed

Cassia fistula Linn. which belongs to family Leguminosae is a medium-sized tree and its different parts are used in ayurvedic medicine as well as home remedies for common ailments. Sequential extraction was carried out using solvents viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, methanol and water from leaf of the plant were investigated for preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial property. Results of the study showed that all the extracts had good inhibitory activity against Gram-positive test organism. Although all five extracts showed promising antibacterial activity against test bacterial species, yet maximum activity was observed in ethanol extract. The minimum inhibitory concentration ranged in between 94 to 1 500 ?g/ml. Evaluation of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, protein and amino acids, saponins, and triterpenoids revealed the presence of most of constituents in polar extracts (ethanol, methanol, and aqueous) compared with nonpolar extracts (petroleum ether and chloroform). Furthermore, the ethanol extract was subjected to TLC bioautography and time-kill study against Staphylococcus epidermidis. All the findings exhibit that the leaf extracts have broad-spectrum activity and suggest its possible use in treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:22171295

Panda, Sujogya K; Padhi, L P; Mohanty, G

2011-01-01

68

Antibacterial activity of Lawsonia inermis Linn (Henna) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the antibacterial activity of henna (Lawsonia inermis Linn) obtained from different regions of Oman against a wide array of micro-organisms. Methods Fresh henna samples were obtained from different regions of Oman as leaves and seeds. 100 g fresh and dry leaves and 50 g of fresh and dry seeds were separately soaked in 500 mL of ethanol for three days, respectively, with frequent agitation. The mixture was filtered, and the crude extract was collected. The crude extract was then heated, at 48 °C in a water bath to evaporate its liquid content. The dry crude henna extract was then tested for its antibacterial activity using well-diffusion antibiotic susceptibility technique. Henna extracts were investigated for their antibacterial activity at different concentrations against a wide array of different micro-organisms including a laboratory standard bacterial strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCTC 10662) (P. aeruginosa) and eleven fresh clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa obtained from patients attending the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH). 2-Hydroxy-p-Nathoqinone-Tech (2-HPNT, MW=174.16, C10H6O3) was included as control (at 50% concentration) along with the henna samples tested. Results Henna samples demonstrated antibacterial activity against all isolates but the highest susceptibility was against P. aeruginosa with henna samples obtained from Al-sharqyia region. Conclusions Omani henna from Al-sharqyia region demonstrates high in vitro anti-P. aeruginosa activity compared with many henna samples from different regions of Oman.

Habbal, O; Hasson, SS; El-Hag, AH; Al-Mahrooqi, Z; Al-Hashmi, N; Al-Bimani, Z; Al-Balushi, MS; Al-Jabri, AA

2011-01-01

69

Antidiarrheal activity of flowers of Ixora Coccinea Linn. in rats  

PubMed Central

Ixora coccinea Linn (Rubiaceae), a small shrub cultivated throughout India, has been reported to possess a number of medicinal properties. It has traditionally been used for the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery. However the claims of Ayurveda have to be validated by suitable experimental models. The present study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of I. coccinea for its antidiarrheal potential against several experimental models of diarrhea in albino Wistar rats. Here, we report the effects of aqueous extracts of flowers of I. coccinea in the castor oil induced diarrhea model. The gastrointestinal transit rate was expressed as the percentage of the longest distance traversed by charcoal divided by the total length of the small intestine. Weight and volume of intestinal content induced by castor oil were studied by the enteropooling method. Loperamide was used as a positive control. The plant-extract showed significant (P<0.001) inhibitor activity against castor oil induced diarrhea and castor oil induced enteropooling in rats at the dose of 400 mg/kg. There was also significant reduction in gastrointestinal motility in the charcoal meal test. Results obtained in this study substantiate the antidiarrheal effect of the aqueous extract and its use by traditional practitioners in the treatment of diarrhea.

Maniyar, Yasmeen; Bhixavatimath, Prabhu; Agashikar, N. V.

2010-01-01

70

Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Effect of Leaves of Cassia sophera Linn.  

PubMed

In the present study, the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extracts of Cassia sophera Linn. leaves was evaluated against carbon-tetrachloride- (CCl(4)-) induced hepatic damage in rats. The extracts at doses of 200 and 400?mg/kg were administered orally once daily. The hepatoprotection was assessed in terms of reduction in histological damage, changes in serum enzymes, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (AST), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, and total protein levels. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and total bilirubin were restored towards the normalization significantly by the extracts. The decreased serum total protein level was significantly normalized. Silymarin was used as standard reference and exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that Cassia sophera leaves have potent hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats. This study suggests that possible activity may be due to the presence of flavonoids in the extracts. PMID:22690244

Mondal, Arijit; Karan, Sanjay Kumar; Singha, Tanushree; Rajalingam, D; Maity, Tapan Kumar

2012-05-29

71

Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Effect of Leaves of Cassia sophera Linn.  

PubMed Central

In the present study, the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extracts of Cassia sophera Linn. leaves was evaluated against carbon-tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced hepatic damage in rats. The extracts at doses of 200 and 400?mg/kg were administered orally once daily. The hepatoprotection was assessed in terms of reduction in histological damage, changes in serum enzymes, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (AST), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, and total protein levels. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and total bilirubin were restored towards the normalization significantly by the extracts. The decreased serum total protein level was significantly normalized. Silymarin was used as standard reference and exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that Cassia sophera leaves have potent hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats. This study suggests that possible activity may be due to the presence of flavonoids in the extracts.

Mondal, Arijit; Karan, Sanjay Kumar; Singha, Tanushree; Rajalingam, D.; Maity, Tapan Kumar

2012-01-01

72

Pharmacological screening of Coriandrum sativum Linn. for hepatoprotective activity  

PubMed Central

Objective: Coriandrum sativum (Linn.), a glabrous, aromatic, herbaceous annual plant, is well known for its use in jaundice. Essential oil, flavonoids, fatty acids, and sterols have been isolated from different parts of C. sativum. The plant has a very effective antioxidant profile showing 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, lipoxygenase inhibition, phospholipid peroxidation inhibition, iron chelating activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, superoxide dismutation, glutathione reduction and antilipid peroxidation due to its high total phenolic content with the presence of constituents like pyrogallol, caffeic acid, glycitin, etc. Materials and Methods: This study was aimed at investigating the hepatoprotective activity of C. sativum against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), with estimation of serum serum glutamyl oxaloacetic acid transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamyl pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaine phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin, and with liver histopathology. Results: Ethanolic extract was found to be rich in alkaloids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting showed the presence of iso-quercetin and quercetin. C. sativum signifies hepatoprotection by reducing the liver weight, activities of SGOT, SGPT, and ALP, and direct bilirubin of CCl4 intoxicated animals. Administration of C. sativum extract at 300 mg/kg dose resulted in disappearance of fatty deposit, ballooning degeneration and necrosis, indicating antihepatotoxic activity. Conclusion: The results of this study have led to the conclusion that ethanolic extract of C. sativum possesses hepatoprotective activity which may be due to the antioxidant potential of phenolic compounds.

Pandey, A.; Bigoniya, P.; Raj, V.; Patel, K. K.

2011-01-01

73

Wound healing activity of Sida cordifolia Linn. in rats  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The present study provides a scientific evaluation for the wound healing potential of ethanolic (EtOH) extract of Sida cordifolia Linn. (SCL) plant. Materials and Methods: Excision, incision and burn wounds were inflicted upon three groups of six rats each. Group I was assigned as control (ointment base). Group II was treated with 10% EtOH extract ointment. Group III was treated with standard silver sulfadiazine (0.01%) cream. The parameters observed were percentage of wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength including histopathological studies. Result: It was noted that the effect produced by the ethanolic extract of SCL ointment showed significant (P < 0.01) healing in all wound models when compared with the control group. All parameters such as wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength and histopathological studies showed significant (P < 0.01) changes when compared with the control. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract ointment of SCL effectively stimulates wound contraction; increases tensile strength of excision, incision and burn wounds.

Pawar, Rajesh S.; Chaurasiya, Pradeep K.; Rajak, Harish; Singour, Pradeep K.; Toppo, Fedelic Ashish; Jain, Ankit

2013-01-01

74

Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Leaves of Alocasia indica (Linn)  

PubMed Central

The free radical scavenging potential of the plant Alocasia indica(Linn.) was studied by using different antioxidant models of screening like scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical, nitric oxide radical, superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical, iron chelating activity, total antioxidant capacity, non-enzymatic glycosylation of haemoglobin, rapid screening for antioxidant compounds by thin layer chromatography. The hydroalcoholic extract at 1000 ?g/ml showed maximum scavenging of superoxide radical (87.17) by riboflavin-NBT-system, followed by scavenging of stable radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical (83.48%), nitric oxide radical (74.09%) hydroxyl radical (60.96%) at the same concentration. However the extract showed only moderate activity by iron chelation (68.26%). That could be due to higher phenolic content in the extract. This finding suggests that hydro alcoholic extract of A. indica possess potent in vitro antioxidant activity as compared to the standard ascorbic acid. The results justify the therapeutic applications of the plant in the indigenous system of medicine, augmenting its therapeutic value.

Mulla, W. A.; Salunkhe, V. R.; Kuchekar, S. B.; Qureshi, M. N.

2009-01-01

75

Antiinflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Mimusops elengi Linn  

PubMed Central

In the present study, 70% ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi Linn. bark was assessed for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in animals. The antiinflammatory activity of ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o) was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models. Analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddy’s hot plate models and antipyretic activity was assessed by Brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o) significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced paw oedema at 3rd and 4th h and in cotton pellet model it reduced the transudative weight and little extent of granuloma weight. In analgesic models the ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi decreases the acetic acid-induced writhing and it also reduces the rectal temperature in Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia. However, Mimusops elengi did not increase the latency time in the hot plate test. These results show that ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi has an antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity.

Purnima, A.; Koti, B. C.; Thippeswamy, A. H. M.; Jaji, M. S.; Swamy, A. H. M. Vishwantha; Kurhe, Y. V.; Sadiq, A. Jaffar

2010-01-01

76

Studies on the chemical composition and biological activity of essential oil from Cyperus rotundus Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sesquiterpene caryophyllene in its alcohol form has been identified for the first time from the essential oil of the tubers of Cyperus rotundus Linn. The structure of the alcohol has been identified by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Bioefficacy of the oil and its hydrocarbon, ketonic and alcoholic fractions is reported for maize and mungbean.

R. S. Dhillon; S. Singh; S. Kundra; A. S. Basra

1993-01-01

77

Skull Asymmetry, Ear Structure and Function, and Auditory Localization in Tengmalm's Owl, Aegolius funereus (Linne)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ear apertures in the skin of Tengmalm's owl, Aegolius funereus (Linne) (Strigiformes), are slit-like and ca. 24 mm long. This equals the height of the skull. The ear opening in the skin is bounded by a continuous fold of skin that is developed into a preaural and a postaural flap. The preaural flap carries the facial disk feathers that

R. A. Norberg

1978-01-01

78

Nematicidal natural products from the aerial parts of Lantana camara Linn.  

PubMed

Lantanilic acid, camaric acid and oleanolic acid possessing nematicidal activity were isolated from the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Lantana camara Linn. through bio-assay guided fractionation. These compounds exhibited 98%, 95% and 70% mortality respectively against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita at 0.5% concentration. Conventional nematicide furadan showed 100% mortality at this concentration. PMID:16010828

Qamar, F; Begum, S; Raza, S M; Wahab, A; Siddiqui, B S

2005-09-01

79

Diurnal fluctuations in oxygen release from roots of Acorus calamus Linn in a modeled constructed wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen is known to be released from plant roots, but has seldom been quantified for wetland plants. Our study aims to quantify oxygen release from the roots of one wetland species in China, and use this knowledge as a basis for future modeling. We measured diurnal fluctuations in oxygen release from the roots of Acorus calamus Linn in a modeled

C. Dong; W. Zhu; M. Gao; L. F. Zhao; J. Y. Huang; Y. Q. Zhao

2011-01-01

80

AntiDiabetic Activity of Terminalia Catappa Linn. Leaf Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of suggested anti diabetic potential, effect of aqueous and cold extracts of Terminalia Catappa Linn (Combretaceae) leaves, on fasting blood sugar levels and serum biochemical analysis in alloxan- induced diabetic rats was investigated. All the extracts of Terminalia Catappa produced a significant anti diabetic activity at dose levels of 1\\/5 th of their lethal doses. Concurrent histological studies

SYED MANSOOR AHMED; VRUSHABENDRA SWAMY BM; P GOPKUMAR; R DHANAPAL

81

Antioxidant activity of Cassia fistula (Linn.) flowers in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extract of Cassia fistula (Linn.) flowers (ACF) was screened for its antioxidant effect in alloxan induced diabetic rats. An appreciable decrease in peroxidation products viz thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, conjugated dienes, hydroperoxides was observed in heart tissues of ACF treated diabetic rats. The decreased activities of key antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and

G. Manonmani; V. Bhavapriya; S. Kalpana; S. Govindasamy; T. Apparanantham

2005-01-01

82

Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Clitoria ternatea Linn. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of Clitoria ternatea Linn. leaves and flowers extract on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The effect of aqueous extract of C. ternatea leaves and flowers on serum glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, protein, urea, creatinine were examined in control and extract treated diabetic rats. Glycogen was examined both in the liver

P. Daisy; Kanakappan Santosh; M. Rajathi

83

Antihyperglycemic and antilipidperoxidative effects of Pongamia pinnata (Linn.) Pierre flowers in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and antilipid peroxidative effect of ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata (Linn.) Pierre (Leguminosae) flowers (PpEt) in normal rats and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Hyperglycemia, elevated lipid peroxidation [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)] and disturbed nonenzymatic [Vitamin E, Vitamin C and glutathione] and enzymatic antioxidants status were noticed in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The

R. Punitha; S. Manoharan

2006-01-01

84

Effect of soil sodicity on the growth, yield and chemical composition of groundnut ( Arachis hypogaea Linn.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A replicated field experiment was conducted to study the effect of exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) on the yield, chemical composition, protein and oil content and uptake of nutrients by groundnut (Arachis hypogaea Linn.) variety M-13. ESP over 15 delayed germination and emergence of flowers. There was continuous decrease in dry matter yield at 30 and 60 days of growth,

S. B. Singh; I. P. Abrol

1985-01-01

85

The Rasch Model in Vertical Equating of Tests: A Critique of Slinde and Linn.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer generated data are used to show that Slinde and Linn's criticism of the usefulness of the Rasch model for equating (EJ 189 585) may have been the result of an artifact produced by the manner in which the samples were chosen in their study. (CTM)

Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

1979-01-01

86

Errata to the Werts-Linn Comments on Boyle's "Path Analysis and Ordinal Data."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Werts-Linn procedure for dealing with categorical errors of measurement in "Comments on Boyle's 'Path Analysis and Ordinal Data'" in The American Journal of Sociology, volume 76, number 6, May 1971, is shown to be inappropriate to the problem of ordered categories. (For related document, see TM 002 301.) (DB)

Werts, Charles E.; Linn, Robert L.

87

Acetyl cholinesterase inhibition potential and antioxidant activities of ferulic acid isolated from Impatiens bicolor Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferulic acid was isolated from ethyl acetate extract of Impatiens bicolor Linn. and identified by X-ray analysis. The acetylcholine esterase inhibition, radical scavenging activity (DPPH scavenging assay) and FRAP assay were carried out on the compound. It was found that the effect of ferulic acid was strongly dose dependent i.e., 25 - 175 µg\\/ml in DPPH assay, 50 - 150

Durre Shahwar; Shafiq Ur Rehman; Muhammad Asam Raza

88

IN VITRO FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF MIMUSOPS ELENGI LINN  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, antioxidant potential of the methanol extract of the leaves of Mimusops elengi Linn. was evaluated by using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity. The extract showed significant activities in all antioxidant assays compared to the reference antioxidant ascorbic acid in a dose dependent manner. In DPPH scavenging assay the IC50 value

M. R. Saha; S. M. R. Hasan; R. Akter; M. M. Hossain; M. S. Alam; M. A. Alam; M. E. H. Mazumder

2008-01-01

89

Anti-diarrhoeal evaluation of Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. leaf extract in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of leaves of Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. (MECP) (Family: Verbenaceae) for its anti-diarrhoeal potential against several experimental models of diarrhoea in Wistar albino rats. MECP showed significant inhibitory activity against castor oil induced diarrhoea and PGE2 induced enteropooling in rats. The extract also showed a significant reduction in gastrointestinal motility

Sheba Rani; Nazeer Ahamed; Sangeetha Rajaram; Radha Saluja; S. Thenmozhi; T. Murugesan

1999-01-01

90

Anticancer activity of aerial parts of Aerva lanata Linn Juss ex Schult against Dalton's Ascitic Lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and AimTraditional medicine has a long history of serving people all over the world. In recent years, the use of traditional medicine information in cancer research received considerable interest. Aerva lanata Linn Juss has been used in traditional and folklore medicine for the treatment of cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of methanol

R. Rajesh; K. Chitra; Padmaa M. Paarakh; N. Chidambaranathan

2011-01-01

91

Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical analysis of different market samples of Ashoka (Saraca indica Linn)  

PubMed Central

Different market samples of Ashoka (Saraca indica Linn) were analyzed to screen the genuinity of the samples available in the market in the name of Ashoka. All the samples were subjected for Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical analysis and found that all the samples were derived from the different botanical sources.

Nataraj, H R; Hiremanth, S K

2009-01-01

92

Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical analysis of different market samples of Ashoka (Saraca indica Linn).  

PubMed

Different market samples of Ashoka (Saraca indica Linn) were analyzed to screen the genuinity of the samples available in the market in the name of Ashoka. All the samples were subjected for Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical analysis and found that all the samples were derived from the different botanical sources. PMID:22557344

Nataraj, H R; Hiremanth, S K

2009-10-01

93

Antioxidant properties of different fractions of tubers from Pueraria tuberosa Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pueraria tuberosa Linn. (PT), Leguminosae, is a perennial climber, growing throughout tropical parts of India. In the Ayurvedic system of medicine, it is used as a drug of choice to manage pain, inflammation and other related diseases. The antioxidant potency of P. tuberosa was investigated for the first time. Total antioxidant capacity was determined using an ABTS?+ assay. Lipid peroxidation

Nidhi Pandey; J. K. Chaurasia; O. P. Tiwari; Yamini B. Tripathi

2007-01-01

94

Phytochemical investigation and evaluation of in vitro free radical scavenging activity of Tabernaemontana divaricata Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluate the in vitro free radical scavenging activity of the leaves of Tabernaemontana divaricata Linn. Petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts of T. divaricata were prepared with successive extraction in a soxhlet apparatus. Each extract was selected to study the free radical scavenging activity by superoxide scavenging assay method. It was found that the aqueous extract contained carbohydrates, glycosides,

Sachin Jain; Avijeet Jain; Neetesh Jain; D. K. Jain; Neelam Balekar

2010-01-01

95

Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Studies on the Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn. is extensively used in Indian traditional and folklore medicines to cure various human ailments. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and sugars. In vitro antibacterial studies on the ethanolic leaf extracts were carried out on ten medically important bacterial strains, including Salmonella typimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia,

M. Sathiya; P. Parimala; K. Muthuchelian

2008-01-01

96

The use of Psidium guajava Linn. in treating wound, skin and soft tissue infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial potential of the crude leaves extracts of Psidium guajava Linn. against some bacteria associated with surgical wound, burns, skin and soft tissue infections were investigated under different conditions. Phytochemical screening of the crude leaves extracts revealed the presence of some bioactive compounds that have been associated with antimicrobial activities. Aqueous extracts was more potent in inhibiting the growth

El-Mahmood Muhammad Abubakar

97

Nematicidal natural products from the aerial parts of Lantana camara Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lantanilic acid, camaric acid and oleanolic acid possessing nematicidal activity were isolated from the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Lantana camara Linn. through bio-assay guided fractionation. These compounds exhibited 98%, 95% and 70% mortality respectively against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita at 0.5% concentration. Conventional nematicide furadan showed 100% mortality at this concentration.

F. Qamar; S. Begum; S. M. Raza; A. Wahab; B. S. Siddiqui

2005-01-01

98

Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Evaluation of the leaves of Bauhinia purpurea Linn.  

PubMed

Various pharmacognostic parameters including macroscopy, microscopy, chemomicroscopy and behaviour of powdered drug on treatment with different chemical reagents were studied on the leaves of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. (Family Caesalpinaceae). Phytochemical screening of the plant part with various solvents revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids, phytosterols, saponins and glycosides in it. PMID:22557422

Pahwa, S; Mazumder, R; Bhattacharya, S; Kumari, S; Mazumder, A; Singh, D P

2010-10-01

99

Study on anti-diabetic activities of crude methanolic extracts of Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) sourced from five different host trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypoglycaemic and anti-hyperglycemic activities of dried leaves of Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) (Loranthaceae), parasitic on Persea americana, Baphia nitda, Kola acuminata, Pentaclethra macrophylla, Azadirchta indica, were evaluated in normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. Normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats were treated (intraperitoneally) with 200mg\\/kg of the respective methanolic extracts of Loranthus micranthus (Linn.), glibenclamide (positive control), and 20% (v\\/v) Tween

P. O. Osadebe; G. B. Okide; I. C. Akabogu

2004-01-01

100

Effect of new rotenoid glycoside from the fruits of Amorpha fruticosa LINNE on the growth of human immune cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new compound, rotenoid isoflavone glycoside named, 6?-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-12a-hydroxydalpanol was isolated from the methanolic (MeOH) fruit extract of Amorpha fruticosa LINNE by means of multi-stage column chromatography. Immuno-modulatory activities of this new glycoside were compared with\\u000a the partitioned fractions of Amorpha fruticosa LINNE. Both of the fractions and purified single compound showed a 19% relatively low cytotoxicity at a maximum concentration

Hak Ju Lee; Ha Young Kang; Cheol Hee Kim; Hyo Sung Kim; Min Chul Kwon; Sang Moo Kim; Il Shik Shin; Hyeon Yong Lee

2006-01-01

101

Protective Effects of Capparis zeylanica Linn. Leaf Extract on Gastric Lesions in Experimental Animals.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to study the anti-ulcer activity of the methanolic extract of the leaves of Capparis zeylanica Linn on experimental animal models. The methanol extract of Capparis zeylanica Linn. leaves was investigated for anti-ulcer activity against aspirin plus pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer in rats. HCl-Ethanol induced ulcer in mice and indomethacin induced ulcer in rats at 200 mg/kg body weight p.o. A significant (p<0.01, p<0.001) anti-ulcer activity was observed in all the models. Pylorus ligation showed significant (p<0.01) reduction in gastric volume, free acidity and ulcer index as compared to control. It also showed 88.5% ulcer inhibition in HCl-ethanol induced ulcer and 83.78% inhibition in indomethacin induced ulcer. PMID:23407576

Sini, Karanayil R; Sinha, Barij N; Rajasekaran, Aiyolu

2011-01-01

102

Glycogen contents in the rat uterus: response to Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. extracts.  

PubMed

Ethanolic extracts (50%), as well the benzene extracts, of H. rosa-sinensis Linn. have reduced significantly the glycogen contents in the uterus of adult rat. Both the extracts exhibit a clear-cut dose-response relation. The inhibition in glycogen contents increases as the dose is increased. Of the 2, benzene extract seems to be more potent. The results are due to antiestrogenic nature of the extracts. PMID:477902

Prakash, A O

1979-08-15

103

Post-Coital Antifertility Activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. Roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ancient literature mentions the use of a number of plants\\/preparations for fertility regulation. Some local contraceptive agents have also been described in Ayurvedic and Unani texts. Documented experiments or clinical data are, however, lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the antifertility and estrogenic activity of ethanolic extract of the roots of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. A strong anti-implantation

Neeru Vasudeva; S. K. Sharma

2008-01-01

104

Glycogen contents in the rat uterus: Response to Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Ethanolic extracts (50%), as well the benzene extracts, ofH. rosa-sinensis Linn. have reduced significantly the glycogen contents in the uterus of adult rat. Both the extracts exhibit a clear-cut dose-response relation. The inhibition in glycogen contents increases as the dose is increased. Of the 2, benzene extract seems to be more potent. The results are due to antiestrogenic nature

Anand O. Prakash

1979-01-01

105

Partial purification of a hypoglycemic fraction from the unripe fruits of Momordica charantia Linn (bitter gourd)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method was developed to purify partially an orally active hypoglycemic fraction from the unripe fruits ofMomordica charantia Linn. The residue after centrifugation of the fruit juice was extracted with ethanol and the concentrated ethanolic extract\\u000a was further extracted with diethyl ether. In normal rabbits after oral administration, the ether extract at a dose of 0.75\\u000a g\\/kg body wt

Subbiah Pugazhenthi; P. Suryanarayana Murthy

1995-01-01

106

Oxidative Stress and the Role of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum Linn.) in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of cumin (Cuminum cyminum Linn.) on tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in experimental diabetes mellitus was evaluated. Albino rats, non-diabetic and diabetic [those injected with alloxan monohydrate (150 mg kg body weight) intraperitoneally to induce diabetes mellitus, blood glucose in the range of 200–300 mg dl, were used in the study. Cumin (0.25 g kg body weight in

Dhandapani Surya; Ramasamy Subramanian Vijayakumar; Namasivayam Nalini

2005-01-01

107

Antioxidative and Neuroprotective Activities of Extracts from the Fruit Hull of Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidative and neuroprotective activities of various extracts from the fruit hull of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn., GM). Materials and Methods: Four extracts: water, 50% ethanol, 95% ethanol and ethyl acetate, were used. The antioxidative activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging assay at extract concentrations of 1, 10, 50 and

Wanlop Weecharangsan; Praneet Opanasopit; Monrudee Sukma; Tanasait Ngawhirunpat; Uthai Sotanaphun; Pongpan Siripong

2006-01-01

108

Isolation and structural elucidation of chemical constituents from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruits ofMorinda citrifolia, Linn. afforded a new constituent, morinaphthalenone (1), and three known constituents, scopoletin (2), 1, 3-dimethoxy-anthraquinone (3) and 1, 2-dihydroxy-anthraquinone (4). The structures of these isolated compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods, including 1D- and 2D-NMR (COSY-45,\\u000a HMQC, HMBC) techniques, as well as by comparison with published values.

Bina S. Siddiqui; Fouzia A. Sattar; Fayaz Ahmad; Sabira Begum

2007-01-01

109

Snake venom neutralising factor from the root extract of Emblica officinalis Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The folk use of the Indian medicinal plant Emblica officinalis Linn. root extract and its active compound (Pthalate in nature) against snake venom has been established in experimental animal\\u000a models. From the root extract of Emblica officinalis, a compound was isolated through silica gel column chromatography and the structure was determined by UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR & EIMS studies. The

S. Sarkhel; A. K. Chakravarty; R. Das; Aparna Gomes; A. Gomes

2011-01-01

110

Effect of dried fruits of Solanum nigrum LINN against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats.  

PubMed

Ethanol extract of Solanum nigrum LINN was investigated for its hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats. The ethanol extract showed remarkable hepatoprotective activity. The activity was evaluated using biochemical parameters such as serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin. The histopathological changes of liver sample in treated animals were compared with respect to control. PMID:14600413

Raju, Kuppuswamy; Anbuganapathi, Govindaraju; Gokulakrishnan, Velusamy; Rajkapoor, Balasubramanian; Jayakar, Balasundarm; Manian, Sellamuthu

2003-11-01

111

Comparative pharmacogonostic studies of genuine and commercial samples of trianthema decandra linn.  

PubMed

Trianthema decandra Linn. (Fam ficoidaceae) Commonly known a "Vellai sharunai'on Tamil and Punaranavi in Sanskrit the roots are used in hepatitis, asthma and suppression of menses the genuine and tree commercial samples of the root of R. Decandra in have been compared pharmacognostically for the first time in the present investigation all the pharmacognostic findings reveal adulteration in the commercial samples. PMID:22556996

Gopalakrishnan, S; Venkataraman, R

2000-07-01

112

Determination of Rutin in Amaranthus spinosus Linn. Whole Plant Powder by HPTLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, precise and accurate high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method has been established for the determination\\u000a of rutin in the whole plant powder of Amaranthus spinosus Linn. Rutin has been reported to have anti-diabetic, anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activity. A\\u000a methanol extract of the whole plant powder was used for the experimental work. The concentration of rutin in the whole plant

V. L. Suryavanshi; P. A. Sathe; M. M. Baing; G. R. Singh; S. N. Lakshmi

2007-01-01

113

Biodiesel production and optimization from Calophyllum inophyllum linn oil (honne oil)--a three stage method.  

PubMed

The present work examines the production of a biodiesel from a non-edible oil namely honne oil (Calophyllum inophyllum linn). A three stage process viz., pre-treatment, alkali catalyzed transesterification and post treatment adopted for the production is discussed. The reaction parameters such as methanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, temperature and time have been optimized for the production of biodiesel. The yield of biodiesel from the honne oil under the optimized conditions is found to be 89%. PMID:19505820

Venkanna, B K; Venkataramana Reddy, C

2009-06-07

114

Aphrodisiac activity of methanol extract of leaves of Passiflora incarnata Linn in mice.  

PubMed

The aphrodisiac properties of the methanol extract of leaves of Passiflora incarnata Linn. have been evaluated in mice by observing the mounting behaviour. The methanol extract of P. incarnata exhibited significant aphrodisiac behaviour in male mice at all doses, i.e. 75, 100 and 150 mg/kg. Amongst these, the highest activity was observed with the 100 mg/kg dose when the mountings were calculated about 95 min after the administration of the test extracts. PMID:12722149

Dhawan, Kamaldeep; Kumar, Suresh; Sharma, Anupam

2003-04-01

115

Determination of marker constituents from Cissus quadrangularis Linn. and their quantitation by HPTLC and HPLC.  

PubMed

Four marker constituents, namely, onocer-7-ene-3 alpha, 21 beta-diol, delta-amyrin, delta-amyrone and 3,3',4,4'-tetrahydroxybiphenyl of an Ayurvedic crude drug Cissus quadrangularis Linn. are defined for standardisation purposes. 3,3',4,4'-Tetrahydroxybiphenyl has been isolated for the first time from this drug. The contents of the marker constituents were quantitatively determined by HPTLC and HPLC methods in samples collected from five different geographic zones of India. PMID:11705245

Mehta, M; Kaur, N; Bhutani, K K

116

Hepatoprotective effects of rubiadin, a major constituent of Rubia cordifolia Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hepatoprotective effects of rubiadin, a major constituent isolated from Rubia cordifolia Linn., were evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in rats. Rubiadin at a dose of 50, 100 and 200mg\\/kg was administered orally once daily for 14 days. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic activities of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum alkaline phosphatase

Guntupalli M. Mohana Rao; Chandana V. Rao; Palpu Pushpangadan; Annie Shirwaikar

2006-01-01

117

Phanginin A–K, diterpenoids from the seeds of Caesalpinia sappan Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first chemical study on the seeds of Caesalpinia sappan Linn. led to isolation of 11 cassane-type diterpenes, named phanginin A–K (1–11). The skeleton present in compounds 1–8 is rather unusual, consisting of a cassane-type diterpene with an ether bridge between C-19\\/C-20 in compounds 1–6 and C-11\\/C-20 in compounds 7 and 8. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of

Orapun Yodsaoue; Sarot Cheenpracha; Chatchanok Karalai; Chanita Ponglimanont; Suchada Chantrapromma; Hoong-Kun Fun; Akkharawit Kanjana-Opas

2008-01-01

118

The reversible antifertility effect of Piper betle Linn. on Swiss albino male mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the antifertility effect of an extract (alcoholic) of the leaf-stalk of Piper betle Linn., one set of experiments with two different doses in Swiss male albino mice were evaluated. Initially, 500 mg of the leaf-stalk extractive for 30 days and then 1000 mg for next 30 days\\/animal\\/day\\/kg body weight were administered orally. The extract reduced fertility to 0%

Madhumita Sarkar; Paramita Gangopadhyay; Bidyut Basak; Kausiki Chakrabarty; Julie Banerji; Purnima Adhikary; Asima Chatterjee

2000-01-01

119

Potent antiulcerogenic activity of ethanol extract of leaf of Piper betle Linn by antioxidative mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment of an ethanolic extract of leaf ofPiper betle linn at a dose of 200mg\\/kg body weight, orally administered to rats for ten consecutive days, was found to possess a significant\\u000a protective action against gastric lesions induced by indomethacin. The extract pretreatment resulted in significant increase\\u000a in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity, increase in mucus, hexosamine and total

Biswajit Majumdar; Susri Ray Chaudhuri; Arun Ray; Sandip K Bandyopadhyay

2002-01-01

120

An evaluation of toxicity of Taxus baccata Linn. (Talispatra) in experimental animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A toxicological study was performed in albino mice and rat with methanolic extract and isolated alkaloid of Taxus baccata Linn. (family: Taxaceae). LD50 study showed the higher toxic activity in stem (TXA-1,2,3) as compared with leaf (TXB-1,2,3) extract. As the extract were further fractionated into crude alkaloids and purified by chromatography the toxicity of these fractions were found to be

K Shanker; N. K. R Pathak; V. P Trivedi; J. P. N Chansuria; V. B Pandey

2002-01-01

121

Effect of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf extract on diethylnitrosamine induced hepatic injury in rats.  

PubMed

The hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf extract on liver injury induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) was investigated. Wistar rats weighing 200+/-10g were administered a single dose of DEN (200mg/kg b.w., i.p.) and left for 30 days. For hepatoprotective studies, ethanolic leaf extract (ELE) of C. fistula Linn. (500mg/kg b.w., p.o.) was administered daily for 30 days. AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, gamma-GT and bilirubin were estimated in serum and liver tissue. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), SOD and CAT were also estimated in liver tissue as markers of oxidative stress. DEN induced hepatotoxicity in all the treated animals were evident by elevated serum ALT, AST, ALP and bilirubin levels and a simultaneous fall in their levels in the liver tissue after 30 days. Induction of oxidative stress in the liver was evidenced by increased LPO and fall in the activities of SOD and CAT. ELE administration for 30 days prevented the DEN induced hepatic injury and oxidative stress. In conclusion, it was observed that ELE of C. fistula Linn. protects the liver against DEN induced hepatic injury in rats. PMID:17289008

Pradeep, Kannampalli; Mohan, Chandrasekaran Victor Raj; Gobianand, Kuppannan; Karthikeyan, Sivanesan

2006-12-30

122

Immunohistochemical studies on the processes of serotonin neurons and their ramification in the central nervous system--with regard to the possibility of the existence of Golgi's rete nervosa diffusa.  

PubMed

Using various vertebrates from teleost to macacus, we studied, by the modified PAP method, the serotonin neurons that are distributed mainly in the raphe nuclei area, focussing on their process ramifications, and obtained the following results. 1. The shapes of serotonin neurons were varied. They were multipolar with many long, thick dendrites. In most of the neurons, more than two axons originated either from the stem of a dendrite or from its tip. 2. The axons contained spherical or spindle-shaped varicosities of varied sizes (diameter 0.5-6 micron). On a few occasions, they became large, Herring body-like droplets. 3. The axons were classified into four groups according to the shape and size of the varicosities they contained: stem fibers, A-fibers (tract fibers), B-fibers (branching fibers) and C-fibers (ground fibers). 4. The axon not only branched frequently, but formed a true network by way of frequent anastomosis at the level of B- and C-fibers. Serotonin fibers do not have endings that correspond to telodendrons, but conduct impulses through "en passant" type synapses. 5. A supraependymal plexus is formed over large areas of the ventricular system. This vast network is considered to be formed by the syncytial continuity of axonal reticulum of many serotonin neurons. 6. Serotonin neurons, and probably noradrenaline neurons as well, should be classified as a third type of neuron, which belong to neither the Deiters type nor the Golgi type neuron. Their characteristic feature is the long, reticular axons, and it is highly probable that this neuron system forms the "rete nervosa diffusa" proposed by GOLGI. PMID:6819840

Sano, Y; Takeuchi, Y; Kimura, H; Goto, M; Kawata, M; Kojima, M; Matsuura, T; Ueda, S; Yamada, H

1982-09-01

123

????????????????????????? ( Eugenia caryophyllus Bullocks & Harrison ) ??????????? (Acorus calamus Linn.) ????????????????????? ????????????????? Inhibitory Effect of Extracts from Clove ( Eugenia caryophyllus Bullocks & Harrison ) and Sweet flag (Acorus calamus Linn. ) on Some Pathogenic Bacteria ??????? ?????????1*, ????? ????????1, ???? ?????????1 , ???? ?????1, ????????? ?????????2 ??? ????? ??????????1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude extracts of Eugenia caryophyllus Bullocks & Harrison and Acorus calamus Linn. at concentrations of 3.3% and 33%. were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in this study. Using paper disc diffusion method, Eugenia caryophyllus Bullocks & Harrison extract at 33% could inhibit all strains better than 3.3%. Inhibition of the extract on MRSA

Yingmanee Tragoolpua; Matcha Porn-in; Ranu Yucharoen; Narumol Thongwai

124

Post-Coital Antifertility Activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. roots.  

PubMed

Ancient literature mentions the use of a number of plants/preparations for fertility regulation. Some local contraceptive agents have also been described in Ayurvedic and Unani texts. Documented experiments or clinical data are, however, lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the antifertility and estrogenic activity of ethanolic extract of the roots of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. A strong anti-implantation (inhibition 100%) and uterotropic activity was observed at the dose level of 400 mg/kg body weight. Histological studies were carried out to confirm this effect. PMID:18317554

Vasudeva, Neeru; Sharma, S K

2008-03-01

125

Effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. on oestrous cycle & reproductive organs in rats.  

PubMed

The effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. on the estrous cycle and reproductive organs was studied in female albino rats. Depending on the dose and duration of treatment, the benzene extract of the flowers disrupted the estrous cycle. Treatment for 30 days resulted in a significant (p less than .05) reduction in the weight of the ovaries, uterus, and pituitary gland. Ovarian follicular atresia and uterine atrophy were observed. Treatment resulted in degranulated gonadotrophs in the pituitary, with the extent of damage being dose-dependent. PMID:1035904

Kholkute, S D; Chatterjee, S; Udupa, K N

1976-11-01

126

A comparative study on growth pattern of Langali (Gloriosa superba Linn.) under wild and cultivated conditions.  

PubMed

Langali (Gloriosa superba Linn.), obtained from wild habitat and by experimental cultivation under three groups, viz., control, cultivated as per the modern agricultural guidelines and as per the norms of Vriksha-ayurveda was compared and analyzed. Methods of Vriksha-ayurveda give good result in the case of Langali in terms of yield. Failure of control groups both in seed and tuber batches denotes that this plant needs some treatment for vegetative propagation under artificial conditions. Ayurveda group may be considered as a better one in the assessment of reproduction capacity in terms of yield of seeds. PMID:22131723

Asha, K V; Rajashekhara, N; Chauhan, M G; Ravishankar, B; Sharma, P P

2010-04-01

127

A comparative study on growth pattern of Langali (Gloriosa superba Linn.) under wild and cultivated conditions  

PubMed Central

Langali (Gloriosa superba Linn.), obtained from wild habitat and by experimental cultivation under three groups, viz., control, cultivated as per the modern agricultural guidelines and as per the norms of Vriksha-ayurveda was compared and analyzed. Methods of Vriksha-ayurveda give good result in the case of Langali in terms of yield. Failure of control groups both in seed and tuber batches denotes that this plant needs some treatment for vegetative propagation under artificial conditions. Ayurveda group may be considered as a better one in the assessment of reproduction capacity in terms of yield of seeds.

Asha, K. V.; Rajashekhara, N.; Chauhan, M.G.; Ravishankar, B.; Sharma, P. P.

2010-01-01

128

Hepatoprotective effect of Bacoside-A, a major constituent of Bacopa monniera Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacoside-A (B-A) was evaluated for its hepatoprotective activity against d-GalN induced liver injury in rats. B-A is a major constituent isolated from the plant Bacopa monniera Linn. B-A (10mg\\/kg of body weight) was administered orally once daily for 21 days and then d-GalN (300mg\\/kg of body weight) was injected on 21st day after final administration of B-A. B-A reduces the

T. Sumathi; A. Nongbri

2008-01-01

129

Antihyperglycemic Activity of Various Fractions of Cassia auriculata Linn. in Alloxan Diabetic Rats.  

PubMed

Present work describes the potent antidiabetic fraction from flowers of Cassia auriculata Linn. Hydromethanolic extract along with its ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions were evaluated for antidiabetic activity in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. The n-butanol fraction exhibited significant reduction (p<0.001) in blood glucose levels and was also found effective in restoring the blood lipids and proteins to normal level. The activity was found comparable with standard drug phenformin. The hydromethanolic extract and its fractions were subjected to preliminary qualitative chemical investigations which indicated the presence of phenolic compounds, carbohydrates, tannins, steroids and amino acids. PMID:20046718

Surana, S J; Gokhale, S B; Jadhav, R B; Sawant, R L; Wadekar, Jyoti B

130

Antihyperglycemic Activity of Various Fractions of Cassia auriculata Linn. in Alloxan Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Present work describes the potent antidiabetic fraction from flowers of Cassia auriculata Linn. Hydromethanolic extract along with its ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions were evaluated for antidiabetic activity in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. The n-butanol fraction exhibited significant reduction (p<0.001) in blood glucose levels and was also found effective in restoring the blood lipids and proteins to normal level. The activity was found comparable with standard drug phenformin. The hydromethanolic extract and its fractions were subjected to preliminary qualitative chemical investigations which indicated the presence of phenolic compounds, carbohydrates, tannins, steroids and amino acids.

Surana, S. J.; Gokhale, S. B.; Jadhav, R. B.; Sawant, R. L.; Wadekar, Jyoti B.

2008-01-01

131

A new antioxidant xanthone from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The air-dried fruit hulls of Garcinia mangostana Linn. were extracted with 85% ethanol. Furthermore, a new xanthone, 1,3,6-trihydroxy-2,5-bis(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-6?,6?-dimethyl-4?,5?-dihydropyrano[2?,3??:?7,8]xanthone, along with five known xanthones related to their antioxidant activity was purified by silica gel column chromatography and then identified using spectroscopic methods (1D and 2D NMR, MS). The antioxidant activities were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capability. An activity-guided isolation and

Yan Zhao; Jin-Ping Liu; Dan Lu; Ping-Ya Li; Lian-Xue Zhang

2010-01-01

132

Inhibitory effects and mechanisms of Hydrilla verticillata (Linn.f.) Royle extracts on freshwater algae.  

PubMed

To pursue an effective way to control freshwater algae, four extracts from a submerged macrophyte Hydrilla verticillata (Linn.f.) Royle were tested to study its inhibitory effects on Anabaena flos-aquae FACHB-245 and Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick FACHB-9. Extract with the highest inhibiting ability was further studied in order to reveal the inhibitory mechanism. The results demonstrated that H. verticillata extracts inhibited the growth of A. flos-aquae and C. pyrenoidosa, and methanol extract had the highest inhibiting ability. The mechanism underlying the algal growth inhibition involves the superoxide anion radical generation that induces the damage of cell wall and release of intracellular components. PMID:22210445

Zhang, T-T; He, M; Wu, A-P; Nie, L-W

2012-01-01

133

Molecular characterization of ten cultivars of Canna lilies (Canna Linn.) using PCR based molecular markers (RAPDs and ISSRs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular markers like RAPD and ISSR were used to study the genomic affinity among 10 cultivars of Canna lilies (Canna linn.). 15 numbers of decamer oligonucleotide primers produced a total of 103 bands out of which 20 were monomorphic and among the polymorphic bands there were 16 unique bands. Three ISSR primers produced 27 bands among which there were 21

Biswabijayinee Patra; Laxmikanta Acharya; Arup Kumar Mukherjee; Manoj Kumar Panda; Pratap Chandra Panda

134

CORROSION INHIBITION OF CARBON STEEL IN LOW CHLORIDE MEDIA BY AN AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS LINN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibition efficiency (IE) of an aqueous extract of white flower, namely, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn., in controlling corrosion of carbon steel immersed in an aqueous solution containing 60 ppm of Clhas been evaluated by the mass loss method. The flower extract (FE) shows good IE. In the presence of Zn, excellent IE is shown by the flower extract. A synergistic effect

K. Anuradha; R. Vimala; B. Narayanasamy; J. Arockia Selvi; Susai Rajendran

2007-01-01

135

Surface Ultrastructural Studies on the Germination, Penetration and Conidial Development of Aspergillus Flavus Link : Fries Infecting Silkworm, Bombyx Mori Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillosis is a common disease of the silkworm Bombyx mori Linn., caused by an insect mycopathogen Aspergillus flavus Link : Fries. The present study reveals the germination, penetration and conidial development of A. flavus on the larval integument of B. mori under SEM. Four different strains (NB18, KA, NB4D2 and NB7) of B. mori was surface inoculated with ca. of

Vineet Kumar; G. P. Singh; A. M. Babu

2004-01-01

136

FT-IR AND SEM-EDS COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS, ECLIPTA ALBA HASSK AND ECLIPTA PROSTRATA LINN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared and energy dispersive X-ray spectra of plant parts (leaf, stem, and root) of the medicinal plants Eclipta alba Hassk and Eclipta prostrata Linn were recorded. The vibrational assignments, intensities and wave number (cm-1) of dominant peak were obtained from absorption spectra. Probable assignments of the bands were made with respect to the components present in the samples. The microphotograph

S. MURUGANANTHAM; G. ANBALAGAN; N. RAMAMURTHY

137

Hepatoprotective Effects of Arctium lappa Linne on Liver Injuries Induced by Chronic Ethanol Consumption and Potentiated by Carbon Tetrachloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arctium lappa Linne (burdock) is a perennial herb which is popularly cultivated as a vegetable. In order to evaluate its hepatoprotective effects, a group of rats (n = 10) was fed a liquid ethanol diet (4 g of absolute ethanol\\/ 80 ml of liquid basal diet) for 28 days and another group (n = 10) received a single intraperitoneal injection

Song-Chow Lin; Chia-Hsien Lin; Chun-Ching Lin; Yun-Ho Lin; Chin-Fa Chen; I-Cheng Chen; Li-Ya Wang

2002-01-01

138

Minimum inhibitory concentration of adherence of Punica granatum Linn (pomegranate) gel against S. mutans, S. mitis and C. albicans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of a Punica granatum Linn (pomegranate) phytotherapeutic gel and miconazole (Daktarin® oral gel) against three standard streptococci strains (mutans ATCC 25175, sanguis ATCC 10577 and mitis ATCC 9811), S. mutans clinically isolated and Candida albicans either alone or in association. The effect of minimum inhibitory concentrations of the gels

Maria do Socorro; Vieira PEREIRA; Maria Helena Pereira; Maria do Socorro Vieira Pereira; Jane Sheila Higino; Maria Helena Pereira Peixoto

2006-01-01

139

Lipid lowering activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) in hyperlipidaemic models of Wistar albino rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipid lowering effect of 50% ethanolic extract of the leaves of A. marmelos (Linn.) was evaluated in triton and diet induced hyperlipidaemic models of Wistar albino rats. The extract at 125 and 250 mg\\/kg dose levels inhibited the elevation in serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels on Triton WR 1339 administration in rats. The extract at the same dose levels significantly

C Vijaya; M Ramanathan; B Suresh

140

Physiological changes in certain test plants under automobile exhaust pollution.  

PubMed

Plants are the only living organisms which have to suffer a lot from automobile exhaust pollution because they remain static at their habitat. But such roadside plants like Nerium indicum Mill., Boerhaavia diffusa L., Amaranthus spinosus L., Cephalandra indica Naud., and Tabemaemontana divaricata L. can easily avoid the effects of air pollution by altering their physiological pathways pertaining to photosynthesis and respiration. Stomatal closure in Boerhaavia, Amaranthus, Cephlandra and stomatal clogging in Nerium and Tabemaemontana help these plants in preventing the entry of poisonous gases. The increased activity of the enzyme Phosphoenol Pyruvate Carboxylase (PEPCase) belonging to C4 pathway helps Nerium and Boerhaavia (both C3 plants) in carbon fixation under stress condition. Photorespiration is favoured in Amaranthus, Cephalandra and Tabernaemontana to compensate for the over production of ATP in them. Owing an inefficient gaseous exchange in Boerhaavia and Tabemaemontana, the activity of Glucose 6--Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6-PD) also increases for the preferential shift to Pentose Phosphate Pathway to produce excess NADPH+H+ which are likely to re-oxidize by metabolic reactions not linked to electron transport chain. PMID:16850874

Mandal, Madhumanjari

2006-01-01

141

Anxiolytic activity of Nymphaea alba Linn. in mice as experimental models of anxiety  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of the present work was to evaluate the anxiolytic effect of an ethanolic extract of Nymphaea alba Linn. in mice. Materials and Methods: The elevated plus maze test (EPMT), light and dark test (L and DT) and open field test (OFT) were used to assess the anxiolytic activity of the ethanolic extract of N. alba Linn. in mice. In addition, aggressive behavior and motor coordination was also assessed by foot shock induced aggression test (FSIAT) and rota rod test (RRT). Diazepam 1 mg/kg served as a standard anxiolytic drug, administered orally. Results: The ethanolic extract of N. alba (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased the percentage of time spent and number of entries in open arm in EPMT. In L and DT, the extract produced significant increase in time spent, number of crossing and decrease in the duration of immobility in light box. In OFT, the extract showed significant increase in number of rearings, assisted rearings and number of square crossed, all of which are demonstrations of exploratory behavior. In FSIAT, N. alba extract attenuated aggressive behavior related to anxiolytic activity, such as number of vocalization, leaps, rearing, biting/attacks and facing each other in paired mice. Furthermore, the extract produced skeletal muscle relaxant effect assessed by RRT. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that an ethanolic extract of N. alba may possess anxiolytic activity and provide a scientific evidence for its traditional claim.

Thippeswamy, B.S.; Mishra, Brijesh; Veerapur, V.P.; Gupta, Gourav

2011-01-01

142

Preliminary pharmacological evaluation of Martynia annua Linn leaves for wound healing  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the wound healing potential of fractions from ethanol extract of Martynia annua (M. annua) Linn leaves. Methods Ethanol extract of M. annua Linn leaves was fractionate into three different fractions (MAF-A, MAF-B and MAF-C) which were screened for wound healing potential using two models: excision and incision on rats. The thin layer chromatography (TLC) profile of all fractions were analyzed and TLC of luteolin was also done. The Povidone-Iodine Ointment was used as reference for comparision. Excision and incision wounds were created on dorsal portion of rats for study. Wound contraction, biochemical parameters (protein level and hydroxyproline level) and histopathological study were performed in excision wound model whereas incision model was used for determination of tensile strength. Results The wound contraction and tensile strength of skin tissues were observed significantly greater in MAF-C fraction treated group than other two fractions (P<0.01). In excision wound method (on day 18) protein content and hydroxyproline were found significantly higher in MAF-C group than control group (P<0.01). Histopathological study also showed better angiogenesis, matured collagen fibres and fibroblast cells as compared with the control group. Conclusions In conclusion, our findings suggest that fraction MAF-C from ethanol extract of M. annua leaves is found most effective in wound healing.

Santram, Lodhi; Singhai, AK

2011-01-01

143

Chemical composition and resistance-modifying effect of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn  

PubMed Central

In this work, the chemical constituents, antibacterial and modulatory activities of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn were studied. The essential oil was extracted from the leaves of L. camara by hydrodistillation method using Clevenger's apparatus and its chemical constituents were separated and identified by GC-MS, and the relative content of each constituent was determined by area normalization. Among the 25 identified components, bicyclogermacrene (19.42%), isocaryophyllene (16.70%), valecene (12.94%) and germacrene D (12.34%) were the main constituents. The oil was examined to antibacterial and modulatory activities against the multiresistant strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by microdilution test. The results show an inhibitory activity to E. coli (MIC 512 ?g/ml) and S. aureus (MIC 256 ?g/ml). The synergism of the essential oil and aminoglycosides was verified too, with significant reduction of MICs (7 ×, 1250-5 ?g/ml) against E. coli. It is suggested that the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn could be used as a source of plant-derived natural products with resistance-modifying activity.

Sousa, Erlanio O.; Silva, Natalya F.; Rodrigues, Fabiola F. G.; Campos, Adriana R.; Lima, Sidney G.; Costa, Jose Galberto M.

2010-01-01

144

Ethanol extract of the leaves of Psidium guajava Linn enhances sperm output in healthy Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Reactive oxygen species (ROS), among other factors, have been implicated in the aetiology of male infertility. Thus, the roles of antioxidants at improving sperm production and quality are being investigated. The present study was designed to assess the effect of the ethanol extract of fresh leaves of Psidium guajava Linn. on the sperm parameters of healthy male Wistar rats. A total of 18 rats, weighing between 108-124 g, were divided into 3 groups of 6 animals each. Animals in groups 1 and 2 were administered 250 mg/kg/d and 500 mg/kg/d of guava leaf extract (GLE) orally for 53 days respectively. Group 3 animals received normal saline. Sperm count increased from 56.2+/-0.3 (x10(6)) in the control to 57.1+/-0.2 (x10(6)) in group 1 animals, and from 56.2+/-0.3 (x10(6)) in the control to 72.3+/-0.4 (x10(6)) in group 2 animals. Similarly, dose-dependent increases in the percentages of motile spermatozoa were observed in GLE-treated animals compared to the control group. These findings suggest that the extracts of the leaves of Psidium guajava Linn. possess beneficial effects on sperm production and quality, and may thus improve the sperm parameters of infertile males with oligospermia and nonobstructive azoospermia. PMID:19205576

Akinola, O B; Oladosu, O S; Dosumu, O O

2007-06-01

145

Effect of leaf extract of Capparis zeylanica Linn. on spatial learning and memory in rats.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the nootropic activity of Capparis zeylanica Linn. leaves in rats. The raw material of Capparis zeylanica leaves was successively extracted with petroleum ether and methanol using a Soxhlet apparatus and macerated to form an aqueous extract. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated for their effect on spatial learning and memory in rats using the Morris water maze task. Three doses (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg; p.o.) of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Capparis zeylanica were administered for 7 successive days to separate groups of animals. Results showed that both the extracts significantly enhanced memory, as shown by decrease in escape latency time. Furthermore, methanolic and aqueous extracts in all doses tested significantly increased the time spent in the target quadrant during the probe trial, indicating retention of spatial memory of the location of a previously placed platform in the target quadrant. These findings indicate that methanolic and aqueous extracts of Capparis zeylanica Linn. leaves have potent nootropic activity. The anti-oxidant property of Capparis zeylanica may contribute favorably to the memory enhancement effect. However, further studies are needed to identify the exact mechanism of action. PMID:22261859

Solanki, Ruchi; Chaudhary, Amrendra Kumar; Singh, Ranjit

2012-01-20

146

Effect of Tectona grandis Linn. seeds on hair growth activity of albino mice  

PubMed Central

The seeds of Tectona grandis Linn. are traditionally acclaimed as hair tonic in the Indian system of medicine. Studies were therefore undertaken in order to evaluate petroleum ether extract of T. grandis seeds for its effect on hair growth in albino mice. The 5% and 10% extracts incorporated into simple ointment base were applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino mice. The time required for initiation of hair growth as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as positive control. The result of treatment with minoxidil 2% is 49% hair in anagenic phase. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the extracts compared to control animals. The treatment was successful in bringing a greater number of hair follicles (64% and 51%) in anagenic phase than standard minoxidil (49%). The results of treatment with 5% and 10% petroleum ether extracts were comparable to the positive control minoxidil.

Jaybhaye, Deepali; Varma, Sushikumar; Gagne, Nitin; bonde, Vijay; Gite, Amol; Bhosle, Deepak

2010-01-01

147

A new antioxidant xanthone from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana Linn.  

PubMed

The air-dried fruit hulls of Garcinia mangostana Linn. were extracted with 85% ethanol. Furthermore, a new xanthone, 1,3,6-trihydroxy-2,5-bis(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-6',6'-dimethyl-4',5'-dihydropyrano[2',3':7,8]xanthone, along with five known xanthones related to their antioxidant activity was purified by silica gel column chromatography and then identified using spectroscopic methods (1D and 2D NMR, MS). The antioxidant activities were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capability. An activity-guided isolation and purification process were used to identify the components, showing the strong DPPH radical-scavenging activity of G. mangostana. PMID:20954095

Zhao, Yan; Liu, Jin-Ping; Lu, Dan; Li, Ping-Ya; Zhang, Lian-Xue

2010-10-01

148

Minor secondary metabolic products from the stem bark of Plumeria rubra Linn. displaying antimicrobial activities.  

PubMed

Four new iridoids viz., plumeridoids A, B, and C and epiplumeridoid C were isolated from the stem bark of Plumeria rubra Linn. together with twenty-four known compounds viz., 1-( P-hydroxyphenyl)propan-1-one, isoplumericin, plumericin, dihydroplumericin, allamcin, fulvoplumerin, allamandin, plumieride, P- E-coumaric acid, 2,6-dimethoxy- P-benzoquinone, scopoletin, cycloart-25-en-3 beta,24-diol, 2,4,6-trimethoxyaniline, ajunolic acid, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, beta-amyrin acetate, betulinic acid, lupeol and its acetate, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl octacosanoate, glucoside of beta-sitosterol, and a mixture of common sterols (stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol). Their structures were determined by means of spectroscopic data including HREIMS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 2D NMR (HMQC, HMBC, NOESY) and by comparison with published data. All but one of thirteen tested compounds exhibited antifungal, antialgal, and/or antibacterial activities. PMID:19937550

Kuigoua, Guy Merlin; Kouam, Simeon F; Ngadjui, Bonaventure T; Schulz, Barbara; Green, Ivan R; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Krohn, Karsten

2009-11-20

149

Studies on the activity of Cyperus rotundus Linn. tubers against infectious diarrhea  

PubMed Central

To study the antidiarrheal activity of the decoction of Cyperus rotundus Linn. tubers using representative assays of diarrheal pathogenesis and understand its mechanism of action.Antibacterial, antigiardial and antirotaviral activities were studied. Effect on adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and invasion of enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and Shigella flexneri to HEp-2 cells was evaluated as a measure of effect on colonization. Effect on enterotoxins such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) heat labile toxin (LT), heat stable toxin (ST) and cholera toxin (CT) was also assessed. The decoction showed antigiardial activity, reduced bacterial adherence to and invasion of HEp-2 cells and affected production of CT and action of LT. The decoction of C. rotundus does not have marked antimicrobial activity and exerts its antidiarrheal action by mechanisms other than direct killing of the pathogen.

Daswani, Poonam G.; Brijesh, S.; Tetali, Pundarikakshudu; Birdi, Tannaz J.

2011-01-01

150

Evaluation of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Linn. for anti-inflammatory and antiulcer activities  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of aerial parts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (Linn.) Sw. for anti-inflammatory and antiulcer activities. Materials and Methods: Anti-inflammatory action of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of C. pulcherrima (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w.) (CPE and CPA) were evaluated by cotton pellet granuloma models. Pylorus ligation and aspirin induced ulcer models were employed for evaluating antiulcer activity for both the extracts. Ulcerogenic potential of CP was also evaluated. Result: The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of C. pulcherrima significantly decreased (P<0.01) the granuloma tissue development. CPE and CPA at both the doses exhibited significant (P<0.01) antiulcer activity by decreasing the ulcer score in both the ulcer models and it was not ulcerogenic. Conclusion: The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of aerial parts of C. pulcherrima (CPE and CPA) possess significant anti-inflammatory and antiulcer activities.

Sharma, Vivek; Rajani, G.P.

2011-01-01

151

Anti-diabetic activity of alcoholic extract of Celosia argentea Linn. seeds in rats.  

PubMed

Celosia argentea Linn. commonly known as "Cocks Comb" and its seeds are widely used in Indian folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of an alcoholic extract of Celosia argentea seeds (ACAS) on blood glucose and body weight in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. ACAS was found to reduce the increase of blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic rats (27.8% at 250 mg/kg and 38.8% at 500 mg/kg body weight). Chronic administration of ACAS significantly (p<0.01) reduced the blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic rats for two weeks. Also the extract prevented a decrease in body weight in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. These results suggest that the ACAS possesses anti-diabetic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. PMID:11995938

Vetrichelvan, Thangarasu; Jegadeesan, Maniappan; Devi, Bangaru Adigalar Uma

2002-04-01

152

Phanginin A-K, diterpenoids from the seeds of Caesalpinia sappan Linn.  

PubMed

The first chemical study on the seeds of Caesalpinia sappan Linn. led to isolation of 11 cassane-type diterpenes, named phanginin A-K (1-11). The skeleton present in compounds 1-8 is rather unusual, consisting of a cassane-type diterpene with an ether bridge between C-19/C-20 in compounds 1-6 and C-11/C-20 in compounds 7 and 8. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic techniques. In addition, the X-ray structure of phanginin A (1) is reported. Only phanginin I (9) exhibited cytotoxic effect against KB cell line with IC50 value of 4.4 microg/ml. PMID:18178229

Yodsaoue, Orapun; Cheenpracha, Sarot; Karalai, Chatchanok; Ponglimanont, Chanita; Chantrapromma, Suchada; Fun, Hoong-Kun; Kanjana-Opas, Akkharawit

2008-03-01

153

CNS activity of aqueous extract of root of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (Vitaceae).  

PubMed

In Ayurveda, Cissus quadrangularis Linn. is used to treat anorexia, asthma, sickle cell, colds, pain, and malaria. Aqueous C. quadrangularis extract was evaluated in vivo for its antiepileptic activity by using the maximal electroshock and isonicotinic hydrazide acid models, for its analgesic activity by using the hot plate method, and for its smooth muscle relaxant activity by using the rotarod method. Adult male Swiss mice were used for this study and animals were divided into 6 animals per group. Doses of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight protected the mice against maximal electroshock seizure, and delayed the onset time of seizures induced by isonicotinic hydrazide acid. Prominent analgesic activity was observed using the hot plate method. The paw licking time was delayed significantly. The extract also displayed prominent smooth muscle relaxant activity. The results suggest that the aqueous extracts of C. quadrangularis roots possess anticonvulsant, analgesic, and smooth muscle relaxant properties. PMID:22435569

Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, Ashish Kumar; Saraf, Shubhini A; Gupta, Rajiv

2010-03-01

154

Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of Ficus carica Linn. leaves.  

PubMed

Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) is commonly known as edible fig. The leaves, roots, fruits and latex of the plant are medicinally used in different diseases. The leaves are claimed to be effective in various inflammatory conditions like painful or swollen piles, insect sting and bites. However, there has been no report on anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Our study validated the traditional claim with pharmacological data. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of the drug could be due to the presence of steroids and flavanoids, respectively, which are reported to be present in the drug. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory activity of the drug could be due to its free radical scavenging activity. Further work is also required to isolate and characterise the active constituents responsible for the anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:21644169

Ali, B; Mujeeb, M; Aeri, V; Mir, S R; Faiyazuddin, M; Shakeel, F

2011-06-12

155

Determination of polyphenols and free radical scavenging activity of Tephrosia purpurea linn leaves (Leguminosae)  

PubMed Central

Background: Leaves of Tephrosia purpurea Linn. (sarpankh), belonging to the family Leguminaceae, are used for the treatment of jaundice and are also claimed to be effective in many other diseases. This research work was undertaken to investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaves. Method: The therapeutic effects of tannins and flavonoids can be largely attributed to their antioxidant properties. So, the quantitative determinations were undertaken. All the methods are based on UV-spectrophotometric determination. Result: The total phenolic content of aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed the content values of 9.44 ± 0.22% w/w and 18.44 ± 0.13% w/w, respectively, and total flavonoid estimation of aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed the content values of 0.91 ± 0.08% w/w and 1.56 ± 0.12%w/w, respectively, for quercetin and 1.85 ± 0.08% w/w and 2.54 ± 0.12% w/w, respectively, for rutin. Further investigations were carried out for in vitro antioxidant activity and radical scavenging activity by calculating its percentage inhibition by means of IC50values, all the extracts’ concentrations were adjusted to fall under the linearity range and here many reference standards like tannic acid, gallic acid, quercetin, ascorbic acid were taken for the method suitability. Conclusion: The results revealed that leaves of this plant have antioxidant potential. The results also show the ethanolic extract to be more potent than the aqueous decoction which is claimed traditionally. In conclusion, T. purpurea Linn. (Leguminosae) leaves possess the antioxidant substance which may be responsible for the treatment of jaundice and other oxidative stress-related diseases.

Patel, Avani; Patel, Amit; Patel, Amit; Patel, N. M.

2010-01-01

156

Insecticidal and genotoxic activity of Psoralea corylifolia Linn. (Fabaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823  

PubMed Central

Background Indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides to eradicate mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance. Plants provide a reservoir of biochemical compounds; among these compounds some have inhibitory effect on mosquitoes. In the present study the larvicidal, adulticidal and genotoxic activity of essential oil of Psoralea corylifolia Linn. against Culex quinquefasciatus Say was explored. Methods Essential oil was isolated from the seeds of P. corylifolia Linn. Larvicidal and adulticidal bioassay of Cx. quinquefasciatus was carried out by WHO method. Genotoxic activity of samples was determined by comet assay. Identification of different compounds was carried out by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry analysis. Results LC50 and LC90 values of essential oil were 63.38±6.30 and 99.02±16.63 ppm, respectively against Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The LD50 and LD90 values were 0.057±0.007 and 0.109±0.014 mg/cm2 respectively against adult Cx. quinquefasciatus,. Genotoxicity of adults was determined at 0.034 and 0.069 mg/cm2. The mean comet tail length was 6.2548±0.754 ?m and 8.47±0.931 ?m and the respective DNA damage was significant i.e. 6.713% and 8.864% in comparison to controls. GCMS analysis of essential oil revealed 20 compounds. The major eight compounds were caryophyllene oxide (40.79%), phenol,4-(3,7-dimethyl-3-ethenylocta-1,6-dienyl) (20.78%), caryophyllene (17.84%), ?-humulene (2.15%), (+)- aromadendrene (1.57%), naphthalene, 1,2,3,4-tetra hydro-1,6-dimethyle-4-(1-methyl)-, (1S-cis) (1.53%), trans- caryophyllene (0.75%), and methyl hexadecanoate (0.67%). Conclusion Essential oil obtained from the seeds of P. corylifolia showed potent toxicity against larvae and adult Cx. quinquefasciatus. The present work revealed that the essential oil of P. corylifolia could be used as environmentally sound larvicidal and adulticidal agent for mosquito control.

2013-01-01

157

A review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. (Vitaceae)  

PubMed Central

Cayratia trifolia Linn. Domin Syn. Vitis trifolia (Family: Vitaceae) is commonly known as Fox grape in English; Amlabel, Ramchana in Hindi and Amlavetash in Sanskrit. It is native to India, Asia and Australia. It is a perennial climber having trifoliated leaves with 2-3 cm long petioles and ovate to oblong-ovate leaflets. Flowers are small greenish white and brown in color. Fruits are fleshy, juicy, dark purple or black, nearly spherical, about 1 cm in diameter. It is found throughout the hills in India. This perennial climber is also found in the hotter part of India from Jammu and Rajasthan to Assam extending into the peninusular India upto 600 m height. Whole plant of Cayratia trifolia has been reported to contain yellow waxy oil, steroids/terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins upon preliminary phytochemical screening. Leaves contain stilbenes (piceid, reveratrol, viniferin, ampelopsin). Stem, leaves, roots are reported to possess hydrocyanic acid, delphinidin and several flavonoids such as cyanidin is reported in the leaves. This plant also contains kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, triterpenes and epifriedelanol. Infusion of seeds along with extract of tubers is traditionally given orally to diabetic patients to check sugar level of blood. Paste of tuberous is applied on the affected part in the treatment of snake bite. Whole plant is used as diuretic, in tumors, neuralgia and splenopathy. Its climbers wrapped around the neck of frantic bullock and poultice of leaves are used to yoke sores of bullock. The bark extract shows the antiviral, antibacterial, antiprotozoal, hypoglycemic, anticancer and diuretic activity. This article focuses on the upgraded review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. and triggers further investigation on this plant.

Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Jyoti; Arya, Renu; Gupta, Ankit

2011-01-01

158

The butanol fraction of Eclipta prostrata (Linn) effectively reduces serum lipid levels and improves antioxidant activities in CD rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eclipta prostrata (Linn) has been used as a traditional medicinal plant to prevent lipidemia and atherosclerosis in Asia. However, its functional properties and the underlying mechanism of action have not been clearly defined. This study was conducted to elucidate the biological basis for hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities of E prostrata. Charles River Sprague-Dawley CD rats (specific pathogen-free\\/viral antibody-free Crj\\/Bgi male,

Dae-Ik Kim; Sung-Hyen Lee; Jin-Ho Choi; Hyun Soon Lillehoj; Mi-Hee Yu; Gun-Soon Lee

2008-01-01

159

In vivo induction of multiple shoots for scaling up of propagation of tree mangrove Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (Linn.) Sav. (Rhizophoraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vivo shoot induction in hypocotyls and rooting of the regenerated shoots of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (Linn.) Sav., was standardised as a new method of vegetative propagation. Rooting response of the air-layers made from multiple shoots with the aid of exogenously applied plant growth regulators (IAA+IBA) by pre-girdling is studied. Multiple shoots were induced in 80 % of the hypocotyls treated

U. C. Basak; P. Das

160

A comparative study of efficacy of Tugaksheeree [Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.] in management of Amlapitta  

PubMed Central

Amlapitta is a disease caused by increase of Amla Guna of Pitta. Starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants viz., Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) are used as Tugaksheeree. In the present clinical study, the efficacy of Tugaksheeree was studied on 67 patients of Amlapitta. A 0 total of 84 patients suffering from Amlapitta were selected from the O.P.D. and I.P.D. sections in the department of Dravyaguna, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Hospital, Jamnagar, and were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty four patients completed the treatment course in Group I, and 33 patients completed the treatment course in Group II. The efficacy of drug Tugaksheeree was studied through internal administration of the starches of C. angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) in Group I and M. arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) in Group II with the dose of 4 g TID with water for 30 days. Both the drugs were found highly effective in treating Amlapitta. They significantly relieved the cardinal symptoms viz., Avipaka, Tikta-amlodgara, Daha, Shoola, Chhardi and the associated symptoms viz., Aruchi, Gaurava, Udaradhmana, Antrakujana, Vit bheda, Shiroruja, Angasada, and Trit. Statistically significant increase in body weight was noticed in both the groups. This may be because the drugs corrected the Agni and acted as Brihmana and Dhatupushtikara. Both the drugs did not produce any side effects. Therefore, both these drugs (C. angustifolia Roxb. and M. arundinacea Linn.) can be used as substitutes for each other.

Rajashekhara, N.; Sharma, P. P.

2010-01-01

161

Studies on the active components and antioxidant activities of the extracts of Mimosa pudica Linn. from southern China  

PubMed Central

Background: The total flavonoid (TF) and total phenolic (TP) contents of the ethanol extracts of the whole plant, stem, leaf, and seed of Mimosa pudica Linn belonging to the genus Mimosa (Family: Fabaceae alt. Leguminosae), which originates from the subtropical regions of southern China, were determined in this experiment. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity of the extracts and 5 flavonoid monomers of M. pudica Linn. were also evaluated by 2 assays, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. In addition, correlation analysis was also made in the present study. Results: The results showed that leaf extracts contained the highest amount of TF and TP, and the content was significantly higher than that found in other parts of the plant. Moreover, the sequence of antioxidant activity of the ethanol extracts was as follows: leaf > the whole plant > seed > stem; the sequence of the 5 flavonoid monomers was as follows: 5,7,3´,4´-tetrahydroxy-6-C-[?-D-apiose-(1?4)]-?-D-glycopyranosyl flavone (1) > isorientin (2) > orientin (3) > isovitexin (4) > vitexin (5), and the antioxidant activity of compound 1 is equivalent to the synthetic antioxidant trolox or a bit stronger than trolox, and significant correlations were found among the active ingredient contents and the results of antioxidant activity. Conclusion: The present study suggested that M. pudica Linn. could be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants.

Zhang, Jing; Yuan, Ke; Zhou, Wen-long; Zhou, Jian; Yang, Ping

2011-01-01

162

L'idea: una redazione diffusa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Created for the 100 years of the Deutsches Museum, the 100 classi are a 'diffuse' editorial office - a team of classes geographically distributed but connected online - that promotes science and technology education on a European dimension. Aiming at fighting against the decline of scientific vocations and the digital divide, the 100 classi Project experiments new ways of integrating

Raffaella Morichetti

2007-01-01

163

Rapid and easy identification of Illicium verum Hook. f. and its adulterant Illicium anisatum Linn. by fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography.  

PubMed

Illicium verum Hook. f. is used as an herbal tea to treat colic pain in infants. Reports suggest that Star anise herbal tea may be adulterated with Illicium anisatum Linn. A short and rapid method using microscopy and gas chromatography (GC) was developed to detect I. anisatum Linn., an adulterant in the powdered mixture of I. verum. Anatomical differences in the epicarp cells of I. verum and I. anisatum fruits were clearly defined as examined under fluorescent microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A GC method was developed for quick identification of possible I. anisatum adulteration with I. verum. PMID:16001842

Joshi, Vaishali C; Srinivas, Pullela V; Khan, Ikhlas A

164

Antipsychotic-like activity of Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Noni fruit is widely consumed in tropical regions of Indonesia to the Hawaiian Islands. The noni plant has a long history of use as a medicinal plant to treat a wide variety of ailments including CNS disorders. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the antipsychotic effect of noni fruits (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) using mouse models of apomorphine-induced climbing behaviour and methamphetamine-induced stereotypy (licking, biting, gnawing and sniffing). Methods In acute study, the methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia (MMC) at different doses 1, 3, 5, 10 g/kg was administered orally one hour prior to apomorphine (5 mg/kg, i.p) and methamphetamine ( 5 mg/kg, i.p) injection respectively in Swiss albino mice. In chronic studies, (TAHITIAN NONI® Juice, TNJ) was made available freely in daily drinking water at 30, 50 and 100% v/v for 7 days; 30 and 50% v/v for 21 days respectively. On the test day, an equivalent average daily divided dose of TNJ was administered by oral gavage one hour prior to apomorphine treatment. Immediately after apomorphine/ methamphetamine administration, the animals were placed in the cylindrical metal cages and observed for climbing behaviour/ stereotypy and climbing time. Results The acute treatment of MMC (1, 3, 5, 10 g/kg, p.o) significantly decreased the apomorphine-induced cage climbing behaviour and climbing time in mice in a dose dependent manner. The MMC also significantly inhibited methamphetamine-induced stereotypy behaviour and climbing time in mice dose-dependently. The 7 and 21 days treatment of TNJ in drinking water at 50 and 100%v/v significantly alleviated the apomorphine-induced climbing behaviour and climbing time in mice. Conclusions The present study results demonstrated the antidopaminergic effect of Morinda citrifolia Linn. in mice, suggesting that noni has antipsychotic-like activity which can be utilized in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. However further studies are warranted to identify the active principles responsible for the antipsychotic activity of noni.

2012-01-01

165

In vitro evaluation of inhibitory nature of extracts of 18-plant species of Chhindwara against 3-keratinophilic fungi.  

PubMed

Effect of extract of 18 plant species, viz., Acorus calamus, Adhatoda vasica, Amomum subulatum, Andrographis paniculata, Boerhaavia diffusa, Cassia occidentalis, Centella asiatica, Cymbopogon citratus, Hemidesmus indicus, Hyptis suaveolens, Malvestrum sp., Passiflora edulis, Pergularia daemia, Peristrophe bicalyculata, Shuteria hirsuta, Solanum nigrum, Tecoma stans, and Verbascum chinense on the growth of Microsporum gypseum, Chrysosporium tropicum and Trichophyton terrestre was evaluated and discussed. The sensitivity of the keratinophilic fungi was evaluated by dry-weight method. The maximum inhibition of mycelial growth was shown by M. gypseum (86.62%) followed by T. terrestre (81.86%) and C. tropicum (74.06%) when treated with S. hirsuta whereas the minimum inhibition was exhibited by M. gypseum (0.29%), C. tropicum (0.16%) and T. terrestre (1.76%) when tested with the extract of P. edulis, A. vasica and B. diffusa respectively. PMID:10386016

Qureshi, S; Rai, M K; Agrawal, S C

166

Hypoglycaemic effects of some plant extracts are possibly mediated through inhibition in corticosteroid concentration.  

PubMed

To unravel the possible mechanism of glucose lowering activity, effects of ten different plant extracts in the regulation of serum cortisol and glucose concentrations were evaluated in male mice. While the extracts of Inula racemosa, Boerhaavia diffusa and Ocimum sanctum decreased the serum concentration of both cortisol and glucose, Aegle marmelos, Azadirachta indica and Gymnema sylvestre extracts could exhibit hypoglycaemic activity without altering the serum cortisol concentration. It appears that the hypoglycaemic effects of former three plant extracts are mediated through their cortisol inhibiting potency, whereas the mechanism for other plant extracts could be different. Lipid-peroxidation was not enhanced by any of the plant extracts (some were in fact, antiperoxidative in nature). As I. racemosa, B. diffusa and O. sanctum exhibited antiperoxidative, hypoglycaemic and cortisol lowering activities, it is suggested that these three plant extracts may potentially regulate corticosteroid induced diabetes mellitus. PMID:15587591

Gholap, S; Kar, A

2004-11-01

167

Studies on Wound Healing Activity of Heliotropium indicum Linn. Leaves on Rats  

PubMed Central

The petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts of Heliotropium indicum Linn. (Family: Boraginaceae) were separately evaluated for their wound healing activity in rats using excision (normal and infected), incision, and dead space wound models. The effects of test samples on the rate of wound healing were assessed by the rate of wound closure, period of epithelialisation, wound breaking strength, weights of the granulation tissue, determination of hydroxyproline, super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and histopathology of the granulation tissues. Nitrofurazone (0.2%?w/w) in simple ointment I. P. was used as reference standard for the activity comparison. The results revealed significant promotion of wound healing with both methanol and aqueous extracts with more promising activity with the methanol extract compared to other extracts under study. In the wound infection model (with S. aureus and P. aeruginosa), the methanol extract showed significant healing activity similar to the reference standard nitrofurazone. Significant increase in the granulation tissue weight, increased hydroxyproline content, and increased activity of SOD and catalase level with the animals treated with methanol extract in dead space wound model further augmented the wound healing potential of H. indicum. The present work substantiates its validity of the folklore use.

Dash, G. K.; Murthy, P. N.

2011-01-01

168

Antibacterial activity of leaves extracts of Trifolium alexandrinum Linn. against pathogenic bacteria causing tropical diseases  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate antibacterial potential of Trifolium alexandrinum (T. alexandrinum) Linn. against seven gram positive and eleven gram negative hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains responsible for many tropical diseases. Methods Non-polar and polar extracts of the leaves of T. alexandrinum i.e., hexane, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), methanol (MeOH) and aqueous (AQ) extracts at five different concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 mg/mL) were prepared to evaluate their antibacterial value. NCCL standards were strictly followed to perform antimicrobial disc susceptibility test using disc diffusion method. Results Polar extracts demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. EtOAc and MeOH extracts showed maximum antibacterial activity with higher inhibition zone and were found effective against seventeen of the tested pathogens. While AQ plant extract inhibited the growth of sixteen of the test strains. EtOAc and MeOH plant extracts inhibited the growth of all seven gram positive and ten of the gram negative bacterial strains. Conclusions The present study strongly confirms the effectiveness of crude leaves extracts against tested human pathogenic bacterial strains causing several tropical diseases. Since Egyptian clover is used as a fodder plant, it could be helpful in controlling various infectious diseases associated with cattle as well.

Khan, Abdul Viqar; Ahmed, Qamar Uddin; Shukla, Indu; Khan, Athar Ali

2012-01-01

169

Nephroprotective effect of Bauhinia variegata (Linn.) whole stem extract against cisplatin-induced nephropathy in rats.  

PubMed

The nephroprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata (Linn.) whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy was investigated by an in vivo method in rats. Acute nephrotoxicity was induced by i.p. injection of cisplatin (7 mg/kg of body weight (b.w.)). Administration of ethanol extract at dose levels of 400 and 200 mg/kg (b.w.) to cisplatin-intoxicated rats for 14 days attenuated the biochemical and histological signs of nephrotoxicity of cisplatin in a dose-dependent fashion. Ethanol extract at 400 mg/kg decreased the serum level of creatinine (0.65 ± 0.09; P<0.001) and urea (32.86 ± 5.88; P<0.001) associated with a significant increase in body weight (7.16 ± 1.10; P<0.001) and urine volume output (11.95 ± 0.79; P<0.05) as compared to the toxic control group. The ethanol extract of B. variegata at 400 mg/kg (b.w.) exhibited significant and comparable nephroprotective potential to that of the standard polyherbal drug cystone. The statistically (one-way-ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison) processed results suggested the protective action of B. variegate whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy. PMID:21572659

Pani, Saumya R; Mishra, Satyaranjan; Sahoo, Sabuj; Panda, Prasana K

2011-04-01

170

Nephroprotective effect of Bauhinia variegata (Linn.) whole stem extract against cisplatin-induced nephropathy in rats  

PubMed Central

The nephroprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata (Linn.) whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy was investigated by an in vivo method in rats. Acute nephrotoxicity was induced by i.p. injection of cisplatin (7 mg/kg of body weight (b.w.)). Administration of ethanol extract at dose levels of 400 and 200 mg/kg (b.w.) to cisplatin-intoxicated rats for 14 days attenuated the biochemical and histological signs of nephrotoxicity of cisplatin in a dose-dependent fashion. Ethanol extract at 400 mg/kg decreased the serum level of creatinine (0.65 ± 0.09; P<0.001) and urea (32.86 ± 5.88; P<0.001) associated with a significant increase in body weight (7.16 ± 1.10; P<0.001) and urine volume output (11.95 ± 0.79; P<0.05) as compared to the toxic control group. The ethanol extract of B. variegata at 400 mg/kg (b.w.) exhibited significant and comparable nephroprotective potential to that of the standard polyherbal drug cystone. The statistically (one-way-ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison) processed results suggested the protective action of B. variegate whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy.

Pani, Saumya R.; Mishra, Satyaranjan; Sahoo, Sabuj; Panda, Prasana K.

2011-01-01

171

Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Tulsi): an ethnomedicinal plant for the prevention and treatment of cancer.  

PubMed

Ocimum sanctum Linn., commonly known as 'Tulsi' or 'Holy Basil', is considered to be the most sacred herb of India. Several anatomical parts of O. sanctum are known to have an impressive number of therapeutic properties and accordingly find use in several traditional systems of medicine, such as Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha. Scientific investigations have shown that O. sanctum has a plethora of biological and pharmacological activities. The presence of an impressive number of phytoconstituents in O. sanctum could explain its exceptional beneficial effects. Although several recent articles provide an overview of the various pharmacological properties of O. sanctum, the use of this herb for either prevention or therapy of oncologic diseases has not been exclusively and critically discussed in the literature. The present review critically and comprehensively examines the current knowledge on the chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of O. sanctum. The review also examines, in detail, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the antineoplastic effects of O. sanctum. Finally, we discuss the role of synergy, current limitations, and future directions of research toward the effective use of this ethnomedicinal plant for the prevention and treatment of human cancer. PMID:23629478

Bhattacharyya, Piyali; Bishayee, Anupam

2013-08-01

172

Evaluation of Nutritional and Antioxidant Status of Lepidium latifolium Linn.: A Novel Phytofood from Ladakh.  

PubMed

Lepidium latifolium Linn. (perennial pepperweed) is one of the preferred phytofoods among cold arid region of Ladakh, India and its leaves contribute significantly to people's diet. This study was conducted to determine its nutritive value and antioxidant activity. Plant samples from three different locations were selected in the present study. Results showed that this plant is an excellent source of glucosinolates, notably sinigrin that is present in very high amount (?70-90%). Its value ranged from 149 to 199 µg per g fresh weight. Fatty acid composition analysis showed that its leaves were abundant in unsaturated fatty acids, specifically linolenic acid (18?3) whose percentage is about 50%. Higher glucose and crude protein along with higher nitrogen to sulfur ratio, supplements the nutritive value of this plant. Based on total phenol, flavanoids, free radical scavenging activity and DNA protective activity showed that this ecotype of perennial pepperweed contains high antioxidant properties. The percentage inhibition for O2 (-) scavenging activity ranged from 41.3% to 83.9%. Higher content of phenols (26.89 to 50.51 mg gallic acid equivalents per g dry weight) and flavanoids (38.66 to 76.00 mg quercetin equivalents per g dry weight) in leaves could be responsible for the free radical scavenging activity of this plant. Depending upon the location of the plants, variations were observed in different activities. Based on the systematic evaluation in this study, preparations of Lepidium latifolium from Ladakh can be promoted as substitute to dietary requirements. PMID:23936316

Kaur, Tarandeep; Hussain, Khadim; Koul, Sushma; Vishwakarma, Ram; Vyas, Dhiraj

2013-08-02

173

Flood of June 4, 2002, in the Indian Creek Basin, Linn County, Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Severe flooding occurred on June 4, 2002, in the Indian Creek Basin in Linn County, Iowa, following thunderstorm activity over east-central Iowa. The rain gage at Cedar Rapids, Iowa, recorded a 24-hour rainfall of 4.76 inches at 6:00 p.m. on June 4th. Radar indications estimated as much as 6 inches of rain fell in the headwaters of the Indian Creek Basin. Peak discharges on Indian Creek of 12,500 cubic feet per second at County Home Road north of Marion, Iowa, and 24,300 cubic feet per second at East Post Road in southeast Cedar Rapids, were determined for the flood. The recurrence interval for these peak discharges both exceed the theoretical 500-year flood as computed using flood-estimation equations developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. Information about the basin and flood history, the 2002 thunderstorms and associated flooding, and a profile of high-water marks are presented for selected reaches along Indian and Dry Creeks.

Eash, David A.

2004-01-01

174

Anti-proliferative and antioxidative activities of Thai noni/Yor (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) leaf extract.  

PubMed

In this study the leaves of the Thai noni/Yor, (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) were extracted by several methods and evaluated against human cancer cell lines: KB (human epidermoid carcinoma), HeLa (human cervical carcinoma), MCF-7 (human breast carcinoma) and HepG2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma) cell lines as well as a Vero (African green monkey kidney) cell line, employing the MTT colorimetric method, comparing it to damnacanthal, rutin, and scopoletin. The dichloromethane extract of the fresh leaf showed a better inhibitory effect against KB and HeLa cells with IC50 values of 21.67 and 68.50 microg/ml, respectively. The dichloromethane extract of dried leaves revealed cytotoxicity against the KB cell line with an IC50 value of 39.00 microg/ml. Other extracts, as well as rutin and scopoletin, showed reduced anti-proliferative effects on all cancer cell lines (IC50 103 to over 600 microg/ml). Interestingly, the damnacanthal had potent cytotoxicity against all cancer cell lines and Vero cell lines. These results suggest Thai noni extracts may be safer than the pure compounds, due to their higher safety ratios, which is a good indicator for possible cancer treatment. Several non-aqueous extracts from the leaves showed antioxidant properties, giving IC50 values of 0.20-0.35 mg/ml. It can be concluded the leaves of M. citrifolia may have benefit as a food supplement for chemoprevention against epidermoid and cervical cancers. PMID:20578533

Thani, Wasina; Vallisuta, Omboon; Siripong, Pongpan; Ruangwises, Nongluck

2010-03-01

175

Morinda citrifolia Linn leaf extract possesses antioxidant activities and reduces nociceptive behavior and leukocyte migration.  

PubMed

Herbal drugs have been used since ancient times to treat a wide range of diseases. Morinda citrifolia Linn (popularly known as "Noni") has been used in folk medicine by Polynesians for over 2,000 years. It is reported to have a broad range of therapeutic effects, including effects against headache, fever, arthritis, gingivitis, respiratory disorders, infections, tuberculosis, and diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antibacterial properties of the aqueous extract from M. citrifolia leaves (AEMC). Antioxidant activity was observed against lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radicals. The antinociceptive effect of AEMC was observed in the acetic acid-induced writhing test at the higher dose. Moreover, AEMC significantly reduced the leukocyte migration in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg and showed mild antibacterial activity. Together, the results suggest that properties of M. citrifolia leaf extract should be explored further in order to achieve newer tools for managing painful and inflammation conditions, including those related to oxidant states. PMID:21548805

Serafini, Mairim Russo; Santos, Rodrigo Correia; Guimarăes, Adriana Gibara; Dos Santos, Joăo Paulo Almeida; da Conceicăo Santos, Alan Diego; Alves, Izabel Almeida; Gelain, Daniel Pens; de Lima Nogueira, Paulo Cesar; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; de Souza Araújo, Adriano Antunes

2011-05-06

176

Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae) leaf extracts mitigate UVB-induced erythema.  

PubMed

Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae) leaves have been used in tropical folk medicine to treat topical inflammation and burns. A carbomer gel base, containing the ethanol extract and juice pressed from the leaves, was evaluated for potential allergenic properties in a repeat-insult patch test in 49 volunteers. To investigate the topical photo-protective properties, the combined ethanol extract and leaf juice were evaluated in a UVB-induced erythema model in 25 volunteers. The crude ethanol extract of M. citrifolia leaves was also evaluated in vitro for potential anti-inflammatory activity in a histamine H-1 receptor antagonism assay. There was no evidence of allergenic potential in the repeat-insult patch test. When the combination of ethanol extract and leaf juice was applied, the UVB dose required to induce erythema was almost 3.5 times greater than with untreated skin (P < 0.001). In the histamine H-1 receptor-binding assay, the crude ethanol extract of M. citrifolia leaves inhibited receptor binding by 57%. These results suggest that M. citrifolia leaves are safe for topical use and may be useful in mitigating UVB-induced injury to the skin. PMID:19283442

West, Brett J; Deng, Shixin; Palu, Afa K; Jensen, C Jarakae

2009-03-13

177

Voltammetric determination of antioxidant character in Berberis lycium Royel, Zanthoxylum armatum and Morus nigra Linn plants.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activity potential of three different plant extracts was investigated against superoxide anion radical while employing cyclic voltammetry technique. The plants Berberis lyceum Royle, Morus nigra Linn and Zanthoxylum armatum were selected because of their potential use in the traditional medicine. The voltammetric response of the electrochemically generated superoxide anion radial in DMSO was monitored in the absence and presence of the plat extracts. The decrease in the current was interpreted in terms of antiradical activity of the added extract. The thermodynamic feasibility of the radical scavenging by extracts was accounted in terms of antioxidant activity coefficient (K(ao)) and standard Gibbs free energy (?G(o)). The values of K(ao) and ?G(o) ranged from 1.0 x 102 to 57 x 102 L(-1) and -18 to -27 kJmol(-1), respectively. The possible mechanism of the antioxidant reaction was regarded as E(r)C(i) mechanism i.e. reversible electron transfer followed by hydrogen atom transfer- an irreversible chemical reaction. PMID:22713934

Ahmed, Safeer; Shakeel, Faria

2012-07-01

178

Clinical study of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in Oligozoospermia: A double blind study  

PubMed Central

Infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting on an average 8-12% of couples worldwide. Low sperm count (Oligozoospermia) is one of the main causes of male infertility and it is correlated with Kshina Shukra. The fruits of Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris. Linn) are considered to act as a diuretic and aphrodisiac; they used for urolithiasis, sexual dysfunctions, and infertility. Hence, it was planned to study the effect of Gokshura in the management of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), and to evade the preconception, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed. In this study, eligible subjects between the age of 21 and 50 years, with a complaint of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), were randomized to receive either Gokshura granules or placebo granules for 60 days. The primary outcome measures were percentage changes in the Pratyatmaka Lakshanas (cardinal symptoms) of Kshina Shukra, Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, the semenogram, and in the Quality of the Sexual Health Questionnaire. The placebo granules showed 70.95% improvement, whereas, the Gokshura granules showed 78.11% improvement in Rogi bala (Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, and the Quality of Sexual Health) and Rogabala (Semen Analysis and Pratyatmaka Lakshanas). The Gokshura granules have shown superior results in the management of Kshina Shukra, as compared to the placebo granules.

Sellandi, Thirunavukkarasu M.; Thakar, Anup B.; Baghel, Madhav Singh

2012-01-01

179

Antifertility effect of Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek) seed extract in female albino rats.  

PubMed

In the present study, the effect of oral administration of Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek) seed extract on fertility index, uterine weight and various histological and biochemical parameters of uterus were studied in the adult cyclic Wistar rats. Average number of embryos and implantation losses in the pregnant animals treated with dharek seed extract was also studied. The extract was prepared using a flash evaporator at 35 degrees C and dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on per kg body weight basis. The results indicated a reduction in fertility index and average number of embryos in mated rats treated with the dharek extract. Pre-implantation, post-implantation and total prenatal mortalities were increased in rats treated with dharek seed extract during early (D1-D7) and late (D7-D18) stages of gestation period at doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) body wt day(-1). Histological studies showed a significant reduction in myometrial thickness, uterine gland diameter, luminal diameter of uterine glands and luminal epithelial cell height in rats treated with dharek seed extract at 1mg kg(-1) body wt day(-1) for 18 days. Pits and folds in luminal epithelial, mitotic activity in luminal and glandular epithelial cells of uterus were observed to be absent. Biochemically, a significant increase in protein and glycogen contents was observed. Thus, in conclusion, the application of this plant extract in rodent control programme may help to elevate the socioeconomic status of the society. PMID:17948733

Mandal, Reshu; Dhaliwal, Patwant Kaur

2007-10-01

180

Antioxidant activity of some polyphenol constituents of the medicinal plant Phyllanthus amarus Linn.  

PubMed

Phyllanthus amarus Linn is a widely distributed tropical medicinal plant highly valued for its therapeutic properties. The antioxidant activity of some of its principal constituents, namely amariin, 1-galloyl-2,3-dehydrohexahydroxydiphenyl (DHHDP)-glucose, repandusinic acid, geraniin, corilagin, phyllanthusiin D, rutin and quercetin 3-O-glucoside were examined for their ability to scavenge free radicals in a range of systems including 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS)/ferrylmyoglobin, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and pulse radiolysis. In addition, their ability to protect rat liver mitochondria against oxidative damage was determined by measuring the ROO* radical induced damage to proteins and lipids and *OH radical induced damage to plasmid DNA. The compounds showed significant antioxidant activities with differing efficacy depending on the assays employed. Amariin, repandusinic acid and phyllanthusiin D showed higher antioxidant activity among the ellagitannins and were comparable to the flavonoids, rutin and quercetin 3-O-glucoside. PMID:18796238

Londhe, Jayant S; Devasagayam, Thomas P A; Foo, L Yeap; Ghaskadbi, Saroj S

2008-01-01

181

Comparative powder microscopy of Alpinia calcarata Roscoe and Alpinia galanga (Linn.) Willd.  

PubMed

Medicinal plant materials are being adulterated in commerce due to many reasons such as similar morphological features, same name as written in classical text, presence of similar active principles in the substituted plant etc., that may badly affect the therapeutic activity of the finished products. Therefore, systematic identification is becoming essential in order to produce standardized finished herbal products. The present study includes two medicinal plant rhizomes; Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Heenaratta) and A. galanga (Linn.) Willd (Aratta) whose microscopical build up was different from each other and was assessed by standard Pharmacognostical methods. Diagnostic identification characters of A. calcarata were compound starch grins, triangular-shaped starch grains, and plenty of simple starch grains in one parenchyma cell compared to that of A. galanga. Diamond-shaped silica crystals were found only on A. galanga rhizome powder. Present study has revealed an easy technique to identify two similar medicinal plant materials microscopically and this method can also be employed to detect the degree of adulteration in powdered raw medicinal plant materials as well. PMID:23723656

Wijayasiriwardena, Chandima; Premakumara, Sirimal

2012-07-01

182

Comparative powder microscopy of Alpinia calcarata Roscoe and Alpinia galanga (Linn.) Willd  

PubMed Central

Medicinal plant materials are being adulterated in commerce due to many reasons such as similar morphological features, same name as written in classical text, presence of similar active principles in the substituted plant etc., that may badly affect the therapeutic activity of the finished products. Therefore, systematic identification is becoming essential in order to produce standardized finished herbal products. The present study includes two medicinal plant rhizomes; Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Heenaratta) and A. galanga (Linn.) Willd (Aratta) whose microscopical build up was different from each other and was assessed by standard Pharmacognostical methods. Diagnostic identification characters of A. calcarata were compound starch grins, triangular-shaped starch grains, and plenty of simple starch grains in one parenchyma cell compared to that of A. galanga. Diamond-shaped silica crystals were found only on A. galanga rhizome powder. Present study has revealed an easy technique to identify two similar medicinal plant materials microscopically and this method can also be employed to detect the degree of adulteration in powdered raw medicinal plant materials as well.

Wijayasiriwardena, Chandima; Premakumara, Sirimal

2012-01-01

183

Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis caused during Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.) fruit  

PubMed Central

Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.; Ancardiaceae) is mentioned under Upavisha group in Ayurvedic classics and it is described as a poisonous medicinal plant in Drugs and Cosmetics Act (India), 1940. Fruit of Bhallataka is used either as a single drug or as an ingredient in many compound formulations of Indian systems of medicine to cure many diseases. Tarry oil present in the pericarp of the fruit causes blisters on contact. The major constituent of the tarry oil is anacardic acid and bhilawanol, a mixture of 3-n-pentadec(en)yl catechols. Bhilawanol A and B are known as Urushiols, and also, anacardic acid is closely related to Urushiol. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis is the medical name given to allergic rashes produced by the oil Urushiol. This paper deals with five case reports of contact dermatitis caused during different stages of Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka fruit due to improper handling of the utensils and disposal of media used in Shodhana procedure and their Ayurvedic management. To combat these clinical conditions, the affected persons were advised external application with pounded Nimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) leaves on the affected parts and internal administration of Sarivadyasava 30 ml thrice daily after food and Triphala Churna 5 g before food twice daily. Reduction of itching and burning sensation was observed after topical application.

llanchezhian, R.; Joseph C., Roshy; Rabinarayan, Acharya

2012-01-01

184

Chronic toxicity study of Butea monosperma (Linn.) Kuntze seeds in albino rats  

PubMed Central

In the present study, toxic effects of powder of seeds of Butea monosperma (Linn.) Kuntze were evaluated for a period of 3 months in albino rats. Control group received distilled water. The powder suspension was orally given to the treated group at a dose of 800 mg/kg/day for 90 days. Parameters like body weight, weight of important organs, biochemical, hematological parameters, bone marrow cytology and histopathology of vital organs were studied. Test drug administration did not affect the body weight, organ weight and bone marrow cytology to a significant extent. Among the 18 hematological parameters studied, significant changes were observed in three parameters, namely, significant decrease in hemoglobin content, red blood cell count and hematocrit. Of 16 biochemical parameters studied, significant changes were observed in 5 parameters, namely, decrease in total protein, albumin, bilirubin and significant increase in very low density lipoprotein and triglyceride. The histopathology of 18 organs revealed changes such as fatty changes, glomerular congestion and tubular hemorrhage in the kidneys, decrease in the cellularity of the spleen, epithelial disruption in jejunum, decrease in spermatogenesis in the testis, epithelial proliferation in ventral prostate and decrease in epithelial proliferation in the uterus. Thus, toxicity profile obtained from the present study shows that B. monosperma seeds are likely to produce toxic effect when administered in a powder form.

Donga, Shilpa; Shukla, Vinay J.; Ravishankar, B.; Ashok, B. K.; Mishtry, I. U.

2011-01-01

185

Effects of Tamarind (Tamarindus indicus Linn) seed extract on Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom.  

PubMed

Snake bite has been regarded as an important health problem in Myanmar since early 1960's. In the recent years, there has been growing interest in alternative therapies and therapeutic use of natural products, especially those derive from plants. In Myanmar and Indian traditional medicine, various plants have used as a remedy for treating snake bite. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of alcohol extract of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica Linn.) seed on some biologic properties of Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom (RVV). The Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzyme, coagulase enzyme and caseinolytic enzyme activities of Russell's viper venom (RVV) were reduced when mixed and incubated with the extract. When the RVV and the different amount of extracts were preincubated and injected intramuscularly into mice, all of them survived, but all the mice in the control group died. On the other hand, when RVV were injected first followed by the extract into mice, all of them died. If the extract was injected near the site where Russell's viper venom was injected, all the mice survived for more than 24 hours and the survival time prolonged but they all died within 96 hours. In conclusion, according to the results obtained, the extract neutralizes some biologic properties of the Russell's viper venom and prolonged the survival time if the extract was injected near the site where the Russell's viper venom was injected. PMID:23202603

Maung, K M; Lynn, Z

2012-12-01

186

Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay of the Leaves Extract of Dillenia indica Linn  

PubMed Central

The crude methanolic extract of Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Organic solvent (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) fractions of methanolic extract and methanolic fraction (aqueous) were screened for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Besides, the fractions were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Among the four fractions tested, n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform fractions showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The average zone of inhibition was ranged from 6 to 8 mm at a concentration of 400 µg/disc. But the aqueous fraction was found to be insensitive to microbial growth. Compared to vincristine sulfate (with LC50 of 0.52 µg/ ml), n-hexane and chloroform fractions demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity (having LC50 of 1.94 µg/ml and 2.13 µg/ml, respectively). The LC50 values of the carbon tetrachloride and aqueous fraction were 4.46 µg/ml and 5.13 µg/ ml, respectively. The study confirms the moderate antimicrobial and potent cytotoxic activities of Dillenia indica leaves extract and therefore demands the isolation of active principles and thorough bioassay.

Apu, AS; Muhit, MA; Tareq, SM; Pathan, AH; Jamaluddin, ATM; Ahmed, M

2010-01-01

187

Determination of Proximate, Minerals, Vitamin and Anti-Nutrients Composition of Solanum verbascifolium Linn.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proximate, minerals, vitamins and anti-nutrients composition of Solanum verbascifolium Linn were determined. The proximate composition showed that moisture content was (85.5%), protein was (32.55%), lipid was (2.90%), ash was (7.20%), fibre was (4.80%), carbohydrate was (52.55%) and caloric value was (366.50%) respectively. This was found to be rich in protein and considerably high amount of carbohydrate. The anti-nutrient composition analysis revealed the presence of hydrocyanide (1.39mg/100g), Oxalate (114.40mg/100g), all of which are below toxic level except for oxalic acid. For mineral and vitamin compositions, potassium was significantly (P>0.05) higher than iron, sodium, calcium and phosphorus while vitamin A retinol was (371.72mg/100g) and vitamin C ascorbic acid (39.99mg/100g). Based on these findings the plant is recommended for consumption and for further investigation as a potential raw material for pharmaceutical industry.

Sam, S. M.; Udosen, I. R.; Mensah, S. I.

2012-07-01

188

Antinociceptive activity of the methanolic extract of Kaempferia galanga Linn. in experimental animals.  

PubMed

Kaempferia galanga Linn. (Zingiberaceae) presents many chemical constituents of the volatile oil extracted from the rhizome. The rhizome of Kaempferia galanga is used by people in many regions for relieving toothache, abdominal pain, muscular swelling and rheumatism. In this study we investigated the antinociceptive activity in mice and rats using acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin, hot plate and tail-flick tests. The extract at test doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. clearly demonstrated antinociceptive activity in all tests. This activity was dose- and time-dependent. The extract administered at 200 mg/kg, p.o. had a stronger antinociceptive effect than aspirin (100 mg/kg, p.o.) but less than morphine (5 mg/kg, s.c.). Naloxone (2 mg/kg, i.p.) abolished the antinociceptive action of both morphine (5 mg/kg, s.c.) and the extract (200 mg/kg, p.o.) in a similar manner. In conclusion, the methanol extract of Kaempferia galanga markedly demonstrated the antinociceptive action in experimental animals. The antinociceptive mechanisms appear to be both peripherally and centrally mediated actions and the opioid receptors are probably involved. Therefore, our studies support the use in traditional medicine of Kaempferia galanga against pain caused by various disorders. PMID:18486374

Ridtitid, Wibool; Sae-Wong, Chutha; Reanmongkol, Wantana; Wongnawa, Malinee

2008-04-11

189

Mutagenicity of Pueraria mirifica Airy Shaw & Suvatabandhu and antimutagenicity of Thunbergia laurifolia Linn.  

PubMed

Thunbergia laurifolia Linn has been reputed to have antitoxic effects for all toxic substances. In this present study, we evaluated its effect against the mutagenicity induced by aqueous extracts from Pueraria mirifica Airy Shaw & Suvatabundhu in male rats. The formation of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes was induced by oral administration of an aqueous extract of P. mirifica at the doses of 400, 600, and 800 mg/kg to the rats for 30 days. The results were that the extracts of P. mirifica at doses of 600 and 800 mg/kg acted as a mutagenic agent by inducing higher frequencies of micronuclei as compared to the controls. For the antimutagenic test, P. mirifica extract at a dose of 600 mg/kg (minimal effective dose) was mixed with fresh and dried extracts of T. laurifolia in proportions of 7:3 and 1:1, respectively. The results of 4-week-treatment indicated that aqueous extracts of T. laurifolia, prepared by both fresh and dry methods, could significantly inhibit the induction of micronuclei as induced by P. mirifica. It could be concluded from the results that, under certain circumstances, T. laurifolia exhibits a significant antimutagenic activity. The use of P. mirifica and T. laurifolia as fusion herbal medicines is suggested. PMID:16438216

Saenphet, K; Kantaoop, P; Saenphet, S; Aritajat, S

2005-01-01

190

A comparative study of efficacy of Tugaksheeree [Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.] in management of Amlapitta.  

PubMed

Amlapitta is a disease caused by increase of Amla Guna of Pitta. Starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants viz., Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) are used as Tugaksheeree. In the present clinical study, the efficacy of Tugaksheeree was studied on 67 patients of Amlapitta. A 0 total of 84 patients suffering from Amlapitta were selected from the O.P.D. and I.P.D. sections in the department of Dravyaguna, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Hospital, Jamnagar, and were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty four patients completed the treatment course in Group I, and 33 patients completed the treatment course in Group II. The efficacy of drug Tugaksheeree was studied through internal administration of the starches of C. angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) in Group I and M. arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) in Group II with the dose of 4 g TID with water for 30 days. Both the drugs were found highly effective in treating Amlapitta. They significantly relieved the cardinal symptoms viz., Avipaka, Tikta-amlodgara, Daha, Shoola, Chhardi and the associated symptoms viz., Aruchi, Gaurava, Udaradhmana, Antrakujana, Vit bheda, Shiroruja, Angasada, and Trit. Statistically significant increase in body weight was noticed in both the groups. This may be because the drugs corrected the Agni and acted as Brihmana and Dhatupushtikara. Both the drugs did not produce any side effects. Therefore, both these drugs (C. angustifolia Roxb. and M. arundinacea Linn.) can be used as substitutes for each other. PMID:22048544

Rajashekhara, N; Sharma, P P

2010-10-01

191

Study on anti-diabetic activities of crude methanolic extracts of Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) sourced from five different host trees.  

PubMed

The hypoglycaemic and anti-hyperglycemic activities of dried leaves of Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) (Loranthaceae), parasitic on Persea americana, Baphia nitda, Kola acuminata, Pentaclethra macrophylla, Azadirchta indica, were evaluated in normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. Normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats were treated (intraperitoneally) with 200 mg/kg of the respective methanolic extracts of Loranthus micranthus (Linn.), glibenclamide (positive control), and 20% (v/v) Tween 20 solution (negative control). The sugar levels of the withdrawn blood samples were determined by o-toluidine spectrophotometric method. The studies indicate that the crude methanolic extract of Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) exhibited statistically significant hypoglycaemic (P < 0.001) and anti-hyperglycemic (P < 0.001) activities in normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats, respectively. The hypoglycaemic effect was found to be dose-dependent. The maximum effect of the mistletoe extract (400 mg/kg) from Persea americana on alloxan-induced diabetic rats was found to be statistically comparable with that of the positive control, glibenclamide, at 24 h after administration, with a percentage reduction of blood sugar levels of 82.59 and 83.34%, respectively. Acute toxicity tests of the methanolic extracts of Persea americana, Baphia nitda, Kola acuminata, Pentaclethra macrophylla, Azadirchta indica host trees in mice gave LD(50) values of 11650, 11650, 5900, 5900 and 5900 mg/kg, respectively, which are all within the practically non-toxic range. The methanolic extract of African mistletoe was found to be a good candidate for alternative and/or complimentary medicine in the management of diabetes mellitus. The leaves of the Eastern Nigerian species of the African mistletoe harvested from Kola acuminata, Azadirchta indica and Baphia nitda host trees exhibited comparatively better anti-hyperglycemic activities among the host trees studied. PMID:15507325

Osadebe, P O; Okide, G B; Akabogu, I C

2004-12-01

192

Physico-Phytochemical investigation and Anti-inflammatory screening of Capsicum annum L. and Hemidesmus indicus (Linn.) R. Br.  

PubMed

Capsicum annum L. (Family: Solanaceae) and Hemidesmus indicus (Linn.) R.Br. (Family: Asclepiadaceae) are commonly used in Tamilnadufor treating various ailments in the native system of medicine. The hydroalcoholic extracts of both plants at dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight showed demonstrable anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced hind paw model in rats. Nevertheless, the overall anti-inflammatory activity exhibited by the extracts are found to be less as compared with that of standard drug Indometacin. Preliminary physico-phytochemical analysis of the plants in question were attempted. The results are highlighted and discussed. PMID:22557366

Vijayalakshmi, K; Shyamala, R; Thirumurugan, V; Sethuraman, M; Rajan, S; Badami, Shrishailappa; Mukherjee, Pulok K

2010-04-01

193

Physico-Phytochemical investigation and Anti-inflammatory screening of Capsicum annum L. and Hemidesmus indicus (Linn.) R. Br  

PubMed Central

Capsicum annum L. (Family: Solanaceae) and Hemidesmus indicus (Linn.) R.Br. (Family: Asclepiadaceae) are commonly used in Tamilnadufor treating various ailments in the native system of medicine. The hydroalcoholic extracts of both plants at dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight showed demonstrable anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced hind paw model in rats. Nevertheless, the overall anti-inflammatory activity exhibited by the extracts are found to be less as compared with that of standard drug Indometacin. Preliminary physico-phytochemical analysis of the plants in question were attempted. The results are highlighted and discussed.

Vijayalakshmi, K.; Shyamala, R.; Thirumurugan, V.; Sethuraman, M.; Rajan, S.; Badami, Shrishailappa; Mukherjee, Pulok K.

2010-01-01

194

Structural characterization of a heteropolysaccharide isolated from hot water extract of the stems of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. ( Amaranthus gangeticus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water-soluble polysaccharide (PS-I), isolated from the aqueous extract of the stems of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. (Amaranthus gangeticus L.), was found to consist of l-arabinose, methyl-d-galacturonate, d-galactose, and 3-O-Ac-l-rhamnose in a molar ratio of nearly 1:1:1:1. On the basis of total acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, and NMR studies (1H, 13C, TOCSY, DQF-COSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC, and HMBC), the

Ramsankar Sarkar; Chanchal K. Nandan; Soumitra Mandal; Pradip Patra; Debsankar Das; Syed. S. Islam

2009-01-01

195

Studies on activity of various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn against drug induced gastric ulcer in mammals  

PubMed Central

AIM: To examine the antiulcerogenic effects of various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn on acid, ethanol and pylorus ligated ulcer models in rats and mice. METHODS: Various crude extracts of petroleum ether, chloroform, or aqueous at a dose of 2 g/kg po did not produce any signs or symptoms of toxicity in treated animals. In the pyloric ligation model oral administration of different extracts such as petroleum ether, chloroform and aqueous at 375 mg/kg po, standard drug ranitidine 60 mg/kg po and control group 1% Tween 80, 5 mL/kg po to separate groups of Wister rats of either sex (n = 6) was performed. Total acidity, ulcer number, scoring, incidence, area, and ulcer index were assessed. RESULTS: There was a decrease in gastric secretion and ulcer index among the treated groups i.e. petroleum ether (53.4%), chloroform (59.2%), aqueous (67.0%) and in standard drug (68.7%) when compared to the negative control. In the 0.6 mol/L HCl induced ulcer model in rats (n = 6) there was a reduction in ulcerative score in animals receiving petroleum ether (50.5%), chloroform (57.4%), aqueous (67.5%) and standard. drug (71.2%) when compared to the negative control. In the case of the 90% ethanol-induced ulceration model (n = 6) in mice, there was a decrease in ulcer score in test groups of petroleum ether (53.11%), chloroform (62.9%), aqueous (65.4%) and standard drug ranitidine (69.7%) when compared to the negative control. It was found that pre-treatment with various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn in three rat/mice ulcer models ie ibuprofen plus pyloric ligation, 0.6 mol/L HCl and 90% ethanol produced significant action against acid secretion (49.3 ± 0.49 vs 12.0 ± 0.57, P < 0.001). Pre-treatment with various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn showed highly -significant activity against gastric ulcers (37.1 ± 0.87 vs 12.0 ± 0.57, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn. 375 mg/kg body weight clearly shows a protective effect against acid secretion and gastric ulcers in ibuprofen plus pyloric ligation, 0.6 mol/L HCl induced and 90% ethanol-induced ulcer models.

Londonkar, Ramesh L; Poddar, Pramod V

2009-01-01

196

Lipid lowering activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) in hyperlipidaemic models of Wistar albino rats.  

PubMed

Lipid lowering effect of 50% ethanolic extract of the leaves of A. marmelos (Linn.) was evaluated in triton and diet induced hyperlipidaemic models of Wistar albino rats. The extract at 125 and 250 mg/kg dose levels inhibited the elevation in serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels on Triton WR 1339 administration in rats. The extract at the same dose levels significantly attenuated the elevated serum total cholesterol and triglycerides with an increase in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in high-fat diet- induced hyperlipidaemic rats. The standard drugs atorvastatin in the former and gemfibrozil in the latter studies showed slightly better effects. PMID:19405383

Vijaya, C; Ramanathan, M; Suresh, B

2009-03-01

197

The study of using RGB color sensor to measure the Curcuminiods amount in Turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.) and Zedoary (Curcuma Zedoarie Rose.) by comparing colors with HSL system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the use of RGB color sensor to measure amount of Curcuminoids in Turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.) and Zedoary (Curcuma Zedoarie Rose.). The measured data of fresh Turmeric sample from the color sensor in HSL (hue saturation lightness) was then compared with amount of Curcuminoids obtained by conventional method of UV-spectrophotometry. The mathematical relationship between these two kinds

Sarawut Supannarach; Dusit Thanapatay

2008-01-01

198

Far infrared-assisted extraction followed by capillary electrophoresis for the determination of bioactive constituents in the leaves of Lycium barbarum Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a method based on capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection and far infrared-assisted extraction has been developed for the determination of rutin, gentisic acid, and quercetin in the leaves of Lycium barbarum Linn. The effects of detection potential, irradiation time, and the voltage applied on the infrared generator were investigated to acquire the optimum analysis conditions. The detection

Haotian Duan; Yi Chen; Gang Chen

2010-01-01

199

Spatial distribution and species composition of tree seeds and seedlings under the canopy of the shrub, Chromolaena odorata Linn., in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial distribution and species composition of tree seedlings and seeds under the canopy of the shrub, Chromolaena odorata Linn., were investigated at a 4ha disturbed site that was surrounded by natural forests on two sides. For the seedling study, one hundred and eight 5m2 circular plots were established systematically (at 20m intervals) with a random start point. For the

Y. A. K Honu; Q. L Dang

2002-01-01

200

Observations on the role of the honey bee and bumble bee as pollinators of white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) in the Timaru district and Mackenzie country  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations on the role of the honey bee and the bumble bee in the pollination of white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) were made in the Timaru District and Mackenzie Country of New Zealand over 2 seasons.Bumble bees were of no importance in the Timaru area, although they played an important part in the Mackenzie Country, where honey bee densities were

T. Palmer-Jones; I. W. Forster; G. L. Jeffery

1962-01-01

201

Suppressive effects of wild bitter gourd ( Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata ser.) fruit extracts on inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the studyBitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is used to treat various diseases including inflammation. A wild species of bitter gourd, Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata ser. (WBG), is considered to be more potent in disease prevention than is bitter gourd; however, little is known about the biological and physiological characteristics of WBG.

Chong-Kuei Lii; Haw-Wen Chen; Wen-Tzu Yun; Kai-Li Liu

2009-01-01

202

Hepatoprotective role of Abelmoschus esculentus (Linn.) Moench., on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Chronic liver disease has become a global health problem. The research for prominent herbal agents for the management of liver diseases is widely increased. Objective: The root of Abelmoschus esculentus (Linn.) Moench., (Malvaceae) has been used as a remedy for liver disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of the ethanol extract of A. esculentus root. Materials and method: The antioxidant effect was assessed using DPPH and hydroxy radical scavenging assays. The hepatoprotective effect of the extract was evaluated using CCl4 intoxicated HepG2 cell line and Wistar rats by estimating the levels of hepatic and antioxidant markers. Results: The extract of A. esculentus showed IC50 values of 270.99 and 532.86?µg/mL for DPPH and hydroxy radical scavenging assays, respectively. The incubation of HepG2 cells with CCl4 drastically decreased the cell viability and increased the leakage of transaminases. Pre-treatment with the extract significantly restored the cell death by 31.25 and 39.04% at 200 and 400?µg/mL concentrations, respectively. The reduction of ALT leakage by the treatment was 18.62, 38.59 and 52.15% compared to the CCl4 treated cells at 100, 200 and 400?µg/mL, respectively. In in-vivo experiments also the treatment reduced the levels of transaminases, ALP, MDA, total bilirubin and hepatic TNF? levels as well as increased the antioxidant levels in a dose dependent manner. Histological observations of liver sections showed reduction in steatosis, necrosis and inflammation. Conclusion: The results substantiated the hepatoprotective activity of A. esculentus through its antioxidant capacity. PMID:23581558

Saravanan, Subramanian; Pandikumar, Perumal; Pazhanivel, Natesan; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

2013-05-17

203

Trypsin inhibitors from ridged gourd (Luffa acutangula Linn.) seeds: purification, properties, and amino acid sequences.  

PubMed

Two trypsin inhibitors, LA-1 and LA-2, have been isolated from ridged gourd (Luffa acutangula Linn.) seeds and purified to homogeneity by gel filtration followed by ion-exchange chromatography. The isoelectric point is at pH 4.55 for LA-1 and at pH 5.85 for LA-2. The Stokes radius of each inhibitor is 11.4 A. The fluorescence emission spectrum of each inhibitor is similar to that of the free tyrosine. The biomolecular rate constant of acrylamide quenching is 1.0 x 10(9) M-1 sec-1 for LA-1 and 0.8 x 10(9) M-1 sec-1 for LA-2 and that of K2HPO4 quenching is 1.6 x 10(11) M-1 sec-1 for LA-1 and 1.2 x 10(11) M-1 sec-1 for LA-2. Analysis of the circular dichroic spectra yields 40% alpha-helix and 60% beta-turn for La-1 and 45% alpha-helix and 55% beta-turn for LA-2. Inhibitors LA-1 and LA-2 consist of 28 and 29 amino acid residues, respectively. They lack threonine, alanine, valine, and tryptophan. Both inhibitors strongly inhibit trypsin by forming enzyme-inhibitor complexes at a molar ratio of unity. A chemical modification study suggests the involvement of arginine of LA-1 and lysine of LA-2 in their reactive sites. The inhibitors are very similar in their amino acid sequences, and show sequence homology with other squash family inhibitors. PMID:8924202

Haldar, U C; Saha, S K; Beavis, R C; Sinha, N K

1996-02-01

204

Pharmacognostic Standardization, Physico- and Phytochemical Evaluation of Amaranthus Spinosus Linn. Root  

PubMed Central

Amaranthus spinosus Linn. (Amaranthaceae) is found throughout India. This tree species has been of interest to researchers because it is a medicinal plant employed in the Indian traditional system of medicine. Pharmacognostic standardization; physico-and phytochemical evaluation of the roots of Amaranthus spinosus was carried out, to determine its macro-and microscopical characters, and also some of its quantitative standards. Microscopical studies were done by using the trinocular microscope. Total ash, water-soluble ash, acid-insoluble ash, sulfated ash values, and alcohol-and water-soluble extractive values were determined for physico-chemical evaluations. A preliminary phytochemical screening was also done to detect different phytoconstituents. Microscopically, the root showed cork, cortex, stellar region, and calcium oxalate crystals. Powder microscopy showed anamalous secondary growth in between the xylem vessels and Calcium Oxalate crystals in the cortex region. Total ash was approximately three times more than acid insoluble and water soluble ash. The ethanol soluble extractive was approximately the same as the water soluble extractive. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of the Petroleum-ether extract using Benzene : Ethyl acetate (6 : 1), showed six spots. In the chloroform extract, using Benzene : Ethyl acetate (4 : 1) nine spots were seen, and in the ethanol extract, using Chloroform: Methanol (93 : 7), only four spots were observed, using Iodine vapor as a viewing medium. Phytochemically, the root exhibited terpenes, alkaloids, glycosides, and sugars. These findings might be useful to supplement information with regard to its identification parameters, which are assumed significant in the way of acceptability of herbal drugs, in the present scenario, which lacks regulatory laws to control the quality of herbal drugs.

Jhade, D; Ahirwar, D; Jain, R; Sharma, NK; Gupta, S

2011-01-01

205

Evaluation of hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic potential of Tridax procumbens (Linn.)  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes is a metabolic disorder affecting carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. Tridax procumbens Linn. (Family-Asteraceae; common name-Dhaman grass) is common herb found in India. Traditionally, the tribal inhabitants of Udaipur district in Rajasthan (India) uses the leaf powder (along with other herb) orally to treat diabetes. There is a need to evaluate extracts of this plant in order to provide scientific proof for it's application in traditional medicine system. Methods Extraction of whole plant of T. procumbens using 50%methanol. The extract was tested for acute and sub-chronic anti-hyperglycemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats and for acute toxicity test among normal rats. Observations on body weight as well as on the oral glucose tolerance levels were also recorded. Results Oral administration of acute and sub chronic doses (250 and 500 mg/kg b.wt.) of T. procumbens extract showed a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in fasting blood glucose levels in diabetic rats, however the decline in blood sugar levels in normal rats was not observed. In acute study the maximum percent blood glucose reduction (68.26% at 250 mg/kg and 71.03% at 500 mg/kg body weight) in diabetic rats was observed at 6 h. The anti-hyperglycemic effects were not dependent of dose and the OGTT and Body weight supported the antihyperglycemic action of the drug. The results of anti-diabetic effect of T. procumbens were compared with the reference standard drug Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg b.wt.). Conclusion These test results support traditional medicinal use of, T. procumbens for the treatment of diabetes mellitus with corrections in body weight and oral glucose tolerance and no visible signs or symptoms of toxicity in normal rats indicating a high margin of safety. These results warrant follow-up through bioassay-directed isolation of the active principles.

2009-01-01

206

Chemopreventive properties and molecular mechanisms of the bioactive compounds in Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne.  

PubMed

Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne is a traditional Chinese rose tea and has been effectively used in folk medicines for treatment of hypertension, inflammatory conditions. H. sabdariffa aqueous extracts (HSE) were prepared from the dried flowers of H. sabdariffa L., which are rich in phenolic acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins. In this review, we discuss the chemopreventive properties and possible mechanisms of various H. sabdariffa extracts. It has been demonstrated that HSE, H. sabdariffa polyphenol-rich extracts (HPE), H. sabdariffa anthocyanins (HAs), and H. sabdariffa protocatechuic acid (PCA) exert many biologic effects. PCA and HAs protected against oxidative damage induced by tert-butyl droperoxide (t-BHP) in rat primary hepatocytes. In rabbits fed cholesterol and human experimental studies, these studies imply HSE could be pursued as atherosclerosis chemopreventive agents as they inhibit LDL oxidation, foam cell formation, as well as smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation. The extracts also offer hepatoprotection by influencing the levels of lipid peroxidation products and liver marker enzymes in experimental hyperammonemia. PCA has also been shown to inhibit the carcinogenic action of various chemicals in different tissues of the rat. HAs and HPE were demonstrated to cause cancer cell apoptosis, especially in leukemia and gastric cancer. More recent studies investigated the protective effect of HSE and HPE in streptozotocin induced diabetic nephropathy. From all these studies, it is clear that various H. sabdariffa extracts exhibit activities against atherosclerosis, liver disease, cancer, diabetes and other metabolic syndromes. These results indicate that naturally occurring agents such as the bioactive compounds in H. sabdariffa could be developed as potent chemopreventive agents and natural healthy foods. PMID:21291361

Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Chen, Jing-Hsien; Wang, Chau-Jong

2011-01-01

207

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of flower extract of Millingtonia hortensis Linn. on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Objective: Millingtonia hortensis Linn is an abundant resource of flavonoids, which might be beneficial in protecting liver tissue from injury. The hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of M. hortensis on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity and the possible mechanism involved therein were investigated in rats. Materials and Methods: Preliminary phytochemical studies were carried out to determine the total phenol and flavonoid contents. 30 adult Wistar rats were allocated into 5 groups. Control group received vehicle, group-2 received CCl4 alone (1 ml/kg body weight, intraperitonially), groups 3 - 5 received the ethanolic flower extract in 2 dose levels (200 and 400 mg/kg) and Curcumin (100 mg/kg) as a standard for 8 days orally, followed by CCl4 as a single dose on the 8th day. 48 hours later, blood was withdrawn, serum was subjected to biochemical assessments, and liver homogenate was examined for lipid peroxides, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and total protein levels. Furthermore, hepatic tissues were subjected to histopatological studies. Results: CCl4 treatment produced a profound increase in the levels of malondialdehyde, hepatic marker enzymes and bilirubin content compared with the control (P < 0.05). Pre-treatment with the flower extract of M. hortensis significantly enhanced the levels of endogenous antioxidants and reduced the levels of hepatic marker enzymes in relation to the CCl4 treated group (P < 0.05). Balloning degeneration and fatty changes in hepatocytes was prevented by pre-treatment with the flower extract. Conclusion: The antioxidant nature of the flower extract of M. hortensis could be responsible for averting damage to the liver.

Babitha, S.; Banji, David; Banji, Otilia J. F.

2012-01-01

208

Antiinflammatory and analgesic effects of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extract in rats and mice.  

PubMed

In many parts of Africa, the leaf, stem-bark, and roots of Psidium guajava Linn. (Family: Myrtaceae) are used traditionally for the management, control, and/or treatment of an array of human disorders. In an effort to scientifically appraise some of the ethnomedical properties of P. guajava leaf, and probe its efficacy and safety, the present study was undertaken to examine the antiinflammatory and analgesic properties of the plant's leaf aqueous extract in some experimental animal paradigms. The antiinflammatory property of the aqueous leaf extract was investigated in rats, using fresh egg albumin-induced pedal (paw) edema, while the analgesic effect of the plant extract was evaluated by the "hot-plate" and "acetic acid" test models of pain in mice. Diclofenac (100 mg/kg, i.p.) and morphine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) were used respectively as standard, reference antiinflammatory and analgesic agents for comparison. P. guajava leaf aqueous extract (PGE, 50-800 mg/kg, i.p.) produced dose-dependent and significant (p < 0.05-0.001) inhibition of fresh egg albumin-induced acute inflammation (edema) in rats. The plant extract (PGE, 50-800 mg/kg, i.p.) also produced dose-dependent and significant (p < 0.05-0.001) analgesic effects against thermally and chemically induced nociceptive pain in mice. The numerous tannins, polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids, ellagic acid, triterpenoids, guiajaverin, quercetin, and other chemical compounds present in the plant are speculated to account for the observed antiinflammatory and analgesic effects of the plant's leaf extract. In summary, the findings of this experimental animal study indicate that the leaf aqueous extract of P. guajava possesses analgesic and antiinflammatory properties, and thus lend pharmacological credence to the suggested ethnomedical, folkloric uses of the plant in the management and/or control of painful, arthritic and other inflammatory conditions in some rural communities of Africa. PMID:17003849

Ojewole, J A O

2006-09-01

209

Evaluation of gut modulatory and bronchodilator activities of Amaranthus spinosus Linn.  

PubMed Central

Background The aqueous-methanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus (A. spinosus Linn.,) whole plant, was studied for its laxative, spasmolytic and bronchodilator activities to validate some of its medicinal uses. Methods The crude extract of A. spinosus was studied in-vivo for bronchodilator and laxative activities and in-vitro using isolated tissue preparations which were mounted in tissue baths assembly containing physiological salt solutions, maintained at 37°C and aerated with carbogen, to assess the spasmolytic effect and to find out the possible underlying mechanisms. Results In the in-vivo experiments in mice, the administration of A. spinosus increased fecal output at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg showing laxative activity. It also inhibited carbachol-induced bronchospasm in anesthetized rats at 1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg indicative of bronchodilator activity. When tested on isolated gut preparations, the plant extract showed a concentration-dependent (0.01-10.0 mg/ml) spasmogenic effect in spontaneously contracting rabbit jejunum and guinea-pig ileum. The spasmogenic effect was partially blocked in tissues pretreated with atropine (0.1 ?M). When tested on K+ (80 mM)-induced sustained contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum, the plant extract caused complete relaxation and also produced a shift in the Ca++ concentration-response curves (CRCs) towards right, similar to diltiazem. In rabbit trachea, the plant extract completely inhibited K+ (80 mM) and carbachol (CCh, 1 ?M)-induced contractions at 1 mg/ml but pretreatment of tissue with propranolol (1 ?M), caused around 10 fold shift in the inhibitory CRCs of the plant extract constructed against CCh-induced contraction. The plant extract (up to 0.3 mg/ml) also increased both force and rate of spontaneous contractions of isolated guinea-pig atria, followed by relaxation at higher concentration (1.0-5.0 mg/ml). The cardio-stimulant effect was abolished in the presence of propranolol, similar to that of isoprenaline. Activity-directed fractionation revealed that the spasmolytic component(s) was separated in the organic fraction, whereas the spasmogenic component was concentrated in the aqueous fraction. Conclusion These results indicate that A. spinosus possesses laxative activity partially mediated through cholinergic action. The spasmolytic effect was mediated through calcium channel blocking (CCB), while bronchodilator activity through a combination of ?-adrenergic and CCB pathways, which may explain the traditional uses of A. spinosus in gut and airways disorders.

2012-01-01

210

Antiinflammatory, analgesic and hypoglycemic effects of Mangifera indica Linn. (Anacardiaceae) stem-bark aqueous extract.  

PubMed

Previous studies in our laboratories and elsewhere have shown that some members of Anacardiaceae family possess antiinflammatory, analgesic and hypoglycemic effects in man and mammalian experimental animals. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to examine the antiinflammatory, analgesic and antidiabetic properties of the stem-bark aqueous extract of Mangifera indica Linn., M. indica a member of the Anacardiaceae family, in rats and mice. The stem-bark powder of M. indica was Soxhlet extracted with distilled water and used. The analgesic effect of the plant's extract was evaluated by the hot-plate and acetic acid test models of pain in mice, while the antiinflammatory and antidiabetic effects of the stem-bark extract were investigated in rats, using fresh egg albumin-induced paw edema, and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus, respectively. Morphine (MPN, 10 mg/kg i.p.), diclofenac (DIC, 100 mg/kg i.p.), and chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg p.o.) were used respectively as reference analgesic, antiinflammatory, and hypoglycemic agents for comparison. M. indica stem-bark aqueous extract (MIE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) produced dose-dependent and significant (p<0.05-0.001) analgesic effects against thermally and chemically induced nociceptive pain stimuli in mice. MIE (50-800 mg/kg i.p.) also significantly (p<0.05-0.001) inhibited fresh egg albumin-induced paw edema, and caused significant (p<0.05-0.001) hypoglycemic effects in rats. It is suggested that the analgesic effects of MIE (50-800 mg/kg i.p.) may be peripherally and centrally mediated. The different chemical constituents of the plant, especially the polyphenolics, flavonoids, triterpenoids, mangiferin, and other chemical compounds present in the plant may be involved in the observed antiinflammatory, analgesic, and hypoglycemic effects of the plant's extract. However, the results of this experimental animal study lend pharmacological credence to the suggested folkloric uses of the plant in the management and control of painful, arthritic and other inflammatory conditions, as well as in the management of adult-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus in some rural African communities. PMID:16273134

Ojewole, J A O

2005-10-01

211

Rapid identification of molecular changes in tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) upon ageing using leaf spray ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Tulsi or Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is a medicinally important plant. Ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) are among its major constituents which account for many medicinal activities of the plant. In the present work, we deployed a new ambient ionization method, leaf spray ionization, for rapid detection of UA, OA and their oxidation products from tulsi leaves. Tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) has been performed on tulsi leaf extracts in methanol to establish the identity of the compounds. We probed changes occurring in the relative amounts of the parent compounds (UA and OA) with their oxidized products and the latter show an increasing trend upon ageing. The findings are verified by ESI-MS analysis of tulsi leaf extracts, which shows the same trend proving the reliability of the leaf spray method. PMID:22900261

Sarkar, Depanjan; Srimany, Amitava; Pradeep, T

2012-10-01

212

Structural characterization of a heteropolysaccharide isolated from hot water extract of the stems of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. (Amaranthus gangeticus L.).  

PubMed

A water-soluble polysaccharide (PS-I), isolated from the aqueous extract of the stems of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. (Amaranthus gangeticus L.), was found to consist of L-arabinose, methyl-D-galacturonate, D-galactose, and 3-O-Ac-L-rhamnose in a molar ratio of nearly 1:1:1:1. On the basis of total acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, and NMR studies ((1)H, (13)C, TOCSY, DQF-COSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC, and HMBC), the structure of the repeating unit of the PS-I is determined as: -->5)-alpha-L-Araf-(1-->4)-beta-D-Galp-(1-->2)-3-O-Ac-beta-L-Rhap-(1-->4)-alpha-D-Gal-A6Me-(1--> PMID:19804879

Sarkar, Ramsankar; Nandan, Chanchal K; Mandal, Soumitra; Patra, Pradip; Das, Debsankar; Islam, Syed S

2009-09-17

213

Antioxidant and Antilipid Peroxidation Potential of Supercritical Fluid Extract and Ethanol Extract of Leaves of Vitex Negundo Linn.  

PubMed Central

Supercritical fluid extract and ethanol extract of Vitex negundo Linn. were subjected to the chromatographic evaluation for identification of their constituents. Free radical scavenging activity of both extracts was studied by subjecting them to DPPH assay. IC50 values of ethanol and supercritical fluid extract of Vitex negundo indicate that ethanol extract has stronger reducing potential and ability to scavenge free radicals as compared to the supercritical fluid extract. The in vivo effect of extracts on lipid peroxidation was studied using ethanol induced oxidative stress model in rat. Ingestion of extracts for 14 days exhibited significant reduction in plasma MDA level of stressed animals. Ethanol extract exhibited higher in vivo antilipid peroxidation potential as compared to supercritical fluid extract which correlated well with radical scavenging potential of extract.

Nagarsekar, K. S.; Nagarsenker, M. S.; Kulkarni, S. R.

2011-01-01

214

Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate and Anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate Isolated from Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) Flower  

PubMed Central

A phytochemical study on the flowe r of Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) using silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography, led to the first time isolation of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (compound 1) and anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate (compound 2). The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic analyses (IR, HRTOFMS and NMR). The antibacterial and antifungal activities of ethyl acetate extract, compound 1 and compound 2 were measured using the disc diffusion method. Ethyl acetate extract and compound 1 presented better results than compound 2. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extract and compounds were found to be in the range of 16~128 µg/ml. The cytotoxicity (LC50) against brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia salina) were also evaluated and found to be 14.61 µg/ml for ethyl acetate, 9.19 µg/ml for compound 1 and 15.55 µg/ml for compound 2.

Habib, M. Rowshanul

2009-01-01

215

Protective effects of saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) on genotoxins-induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.  

PubMed

The modifying effects of the aqueous extract of saffron (dried stigmas of Crocus sativus Linn.) on cisplatin (CIS), cyclophosphamide (CPH), mitomycin-C (MMC) and urethane (URE) induced alterations in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status were investigated in Swiss albino mice. Three doses of saffron (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg body weight) were orally administered to mice for 5 consecutive days prior to administration of genotoxins. A significant reduction in the extent of lipid peroxidation with a concomitant increase in the liver enzymatic (SOD, CAT, GST, GPx) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione) were observed in saffron pretreated animals compared with the genotoxins alone treated animals. However, the modulatory effects were not always dose dependent. Our data suggest that saffron may exert its chemopreventive effects by modulation of lipid peroxidation, antioxidants and detoxification systems. PMID:12820227

Premkumar, K; Abraham, Suresh K; Santhiya, S T; Ramesh, A

2003-06-01

216

Effects of Flower and Fruit Extracts of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. on Growth of Pathogenic Bacteria: Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium  

PubMed Central

Melastoma malabathricum Linn. is a shrub that comes with beautiful pink or purple flowers and has berries-like fruits rich in anthocyanins. This study was carried out with the aim to evaluate the inhibitory activities of different concentrations of the M. malabathricum Linn. flower and fruit crude extracts against Listeria monocytogenes IMR L55, Staphylococcus aureus IMR S244, Escherichia coli IMR E30, and Salmonella typhimurium IMR S100 using the disc diffusion method. The lowest concentrations of the extracts producing inhibition zones against the test microorganisms were used to determine their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs). In addition, the growth of Listeria monocytogenes IMR L55 and Staphylococcus aureus IMR S244 grown in medium supplemented with the respective extracts at different temperatures (4°C, 25°C, and 37°C) and pHs (4, 6, 7, and 8) was determined.

Che Omar, Siti Nurhadis; Ong Abdullah, Janna; Khairoji, Khairul Anuar; Chin Chin, Sieo; Hamid, Muhajir

2013-01-01

217

Purification of three orally active hypoglycemic compounds Kakara Ib, IIIa 1 and IIIb 1 from the unripe fruits of Momordica charantia Linn (Bitter gourd)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three orally active hypoglycemic compounds Kakara Ib, IIIa1 and IIIb1 were purified from the unripe fruits ofMomordica charantia Linn (bitter gourd). Powder of the dried fruits was extracted with benzene and the extract was purified further by sillicic\\u000a acid column chromatography. They were homogeneous by HPLC. Kakara Ib (400 mg\\/kg), IIIa1 (100 mg\\/kg) and IIIb1 (300 mg\\/kg) improved glucose tolerance

S. Pugazhenthi; P. S. Murthy

1996-01-01

218

150 kDa glycoprotein isolated from Solanum nigrum Linne stimulates caspase-3 activation and reduces inducible nitric oxide production in HCT116 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to investigate the apoptotic effects of glycoprotein (SNL glycoprotein, 150-kDa) isolated from Solanum nigrum Linne, which has been used as an antipyretic and anticancer agent in folk medicine. We found that SNL glycoprotein consists of carbohydrate content (69.74%) and protein content (30.26%), which contains more than 50% hydrophobic amino acids such as glycine and proline.

Sei-Jung Lee; Kye-Taek Lim

2006-01-01

219

The scanning electron microscopic study of the infection and conidial development of Aspergillus tamarii Kita on its host, the silkworm, Bombyx mori Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of Aspergillosis on the integument of the silkworm, Bombyx mori Linn., was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Aspergillosis is a fungal disease caused by an insect mycopathogen Aspergillus tamarii Kita, which infects the silkworms in countries where sericulture (the rearing of silkworms)is prevalent. The present study\\u000a showed the course of infection and the conidial development of A. tamarii on

Vineet Kumar

2007-01-01

220

Effects of a Chinese Herbal Medicine, Guan-Jen-Huang (Aeginetia indica Linn.), on Renal Cancer Cell Growth and Metastasis.  

PubMed

Aeginetia indica Linn. (Guan-Jen-Huang, GJH), a traditional Chinese herb, has the potential to be an immunomodulatory agent. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of GJH in the treatment of renal cancer. Concentration-effect curves for the influence of GJH on cellular proliferation showed a biphasic shape. Besides, GJH had a synergistic effect on cytotoxicity when combined with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)which may be due to the alternation of the chemotherapeutic agent resistance-related genes and due to the synergistic effects on apoptosis. In addition, treatment with GJH extract markedly reduced 786-O cell adherence to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and decreased 786-O cell migration and invasion. In a xenograft animal model, GJH extract had an inhibitory effect on tumor cell-induced metastasis. Moreover, western blot analysis showed that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in 786-O cells was significantly decreased by treatment with GJH extract through inactivation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B). These results suggest that GJH extract has a synergistic effect on apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic agents and an inhibitory effect on cell adhesion, migration, and invasion, providing evidence for the use of water-based extracts of GJH as novel alternative therapeutic agents in the treatment of human renal cancer. PMID:22028734

Liu, Yu-Huei; Li, Meng-Luen; Hsu, Meng-Yu; Pang, Ya-Yueh; Chen, I-Ling; Chen, Ching-Kuei; Tang, Sai-Wen; Lin, Hsuan-Yuan; Lin, Jung-Yaw

2011-10-18

221

Field note: phytoremediation of petroleum sludge contaminated field using sedge species, Cyperus rotundus (Linn.) and Cyperus brevifolius (Rottb.) Hassk.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to degrade total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in a petroleum sludge contaminated site (initial TPH concentration of 65,000-75,000 mg kg(-1)) with two native sedge species namely Cyperus rotundus (Linn.) and Cyperus brevifolius (Rottb.) Hassk. Fertilized and unfertilized treatments were maintained separately to record the influence of fertilizer in TPH degradation. The average biomass production (twenty plants from each treatment) of C. rotundus was 345.5 g and that of C. brevifolius was 250.6 g in fertilized soil during 360 days. Decrease in soil TPH concentration was higher in fertilized soil (75% for C. rotundus and 64% for C. brevifolius) than in unfertilized soil (36% for C. rotundus and 32% for C. brevifolius). In unvegetated treatments, decrease in soil TPH concentration in fertilized (12%) and unfertilized soil (8%) can be attributed to natural attenuation and microbial degradation. TPH accumulation in roots and shoots was significantly higher in fertilized soil in comparison to unfertilized soils (p < 0.05). Most probable number (MPN) in planted treatments was significantly higher than in unplanted treatments (p < 0.05). PMID:23819282

Basumatary, Budhadev; Saikia, Rubul; Das, Hamendra Chandra; Bordoloi, Sabitry

2013-01-01

222

Selected hydrogeologic data from the Cedar Rapids Area, Benton and Linn counties, Iowa, October 1992 through March 1996  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The city of Cedar Rapids, Iowa, obtains its water supply from shallow wells screened in the alluvial aquifer along the Cedar River. A cooperative study between the city of Cedar Rapids, Iowa, and the U.S. Geological Survey was started in March 1992 to assess the water quality and water quantity of the ground-water resource. This report summarizes selected hydrogeologic data collected from October 1992 through March 1996. Information collected includes water quality (major ions, nutrients, and pesticides), ground-water levels, multiprobe-instrument (water levels, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen monitored at 15-, 30-, or 60-minute intervals), well information (location, casing type, screen interval, and depth), and geophysical seismic- refraction and seismic-reflection data (estimated depth to bedrock and alluvial thickness along the Cedar River). Geologic, hydrologic, and water-quality data were collected from domestic, municipal, observation, and industrial wells and the Cedar River. Well-construction data for more than 300 wells in the Cedar Rapids area in Benton and Linn Counties, Iowa, were compiled primarily from records on file with the Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Geologic Survey Burea (Iowa City).

Schnoebelen, D. J.; Schulmeyer, P. M.

1996-01-01

223

Ontogenesis of the collapsed layer during haustorium development in the root hemi-parasite Santalum album Linn.  

PubMed

The structure and development of collapsed layers of the haustorium were studied in Santalum album Linn. Through light and transmission electron microscopy, it was shown that the collapsed layers originated from starch-containing cells when the haustorium developed an internal gland, thickened gradually and ultimately developed into the mantle, which, combined with the sucker, buckled the host root. We report on the presence of inter-collapsed layers for the first time. These layers develop after penetration into the host and are located between the intrusive tissues and the vascular meristematic region, gradually linking the collapsed layers and remains around the sucker. The proliferation of cells in the meristematic region and the 'host tropism' of cortical layers contribute to pressure within the haustorium and result in development of the collapsed layers. Besides, starch-containing cells that turn into collapsed layers are vulnerable to pressure as they lack a large vacuole, have uneven cell wall thickness and a loose cell arrangement. We proposed that the functions of collapsed layers are to efficiently assure that cell inclusion and energy concentrate at the inner meristematic region and are recycled to affect penetration, reinforce the physical connection between the sandalwood haustorium and host root, and supply space for haustorial development. PMID:23590414

Yang, X; Zhang, X; Teixeira da Silva, J A; Liang, K; Deng, R; Ma, G

2013-04-17

224

Protective effect of Cassia fistula Linn. on diethylnitrosamine induced hepatocellular damage and oxidative stress in ethanol pretreated rats.  

PubMed

Diethylnitrosamine (DEN), found in many commonly consumed foods, is widely reported to induce cancer in animals and humans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the leaf extract of the medicinal plant Cassia fistula Linn. against diethylnitrosamine induced liver injury in ethanol pretreated rats. Albino Wistar rats, pretreated with ethanol for 15 days, were administered a single dose of DEN. Thirty days after DEN administration, hepatotocellular damage was observed histologically, along with elevated levels of serum AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, ?-GT and bilirubin and a simultaneous fall in the levels of the marker enzymes in the liver tissue. Liver oxidative stress was confirmed by elevated levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and a decrease in enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants activities. Oral administration of the ethanolic leaf extract (ELE) of Cassia fistula for 30 days to ethanol + DEN treated rats significantly improved the above alterations in the markers of hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress, resulting in the reversal of most of the parameters studied and were comparable to the standard hepatoprotective drug silymarin. PMID:21157638

Pradeep, Kannampalli; Raj Mohan, Chandrasekaran Victor; Gobianand, Kupannan; Karthikeyan, Sivanesan

2010-05-07

225

Wild bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser.) extract and its bioactive components suppress Propionibacterium acnes-induced inflammation.  

PubMed

In this study, we aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of wild bitter melons (WBM; Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser.) on Propionibacterium acnes-induced inflammation and to identify the bioactive components. Our results showed that ethyl acetate (EA) extract of WBM fruit in vitro potently suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 levels in P. acnes-stimulated THP-1 cells. Furthermore, concomitant intradermal injection of WBM EA extract in mice effectively attenuated P. acnes-induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. To further investigate the bioactive components, we found that both saponifiable (S) and nonsaponifiable (NS) fractions of WBM EA extract significantly suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine and MMP-9 levels. Phytol and lutein, identified in the NS fraction, also inhibited cytokine production. Moreover, S and NS fractions of EA extract, phytol and lutein, activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? and ? in the transactivation assay. Our results suggested that PPAR? or PPAR? signalling may contribute, at least in part, to the anti-inflammatory activity of WBM. PMID:22953813

Hsu, Chin; Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Li, You-Yi; Wu, Wen-Huey; Huang, Ching-Jang; Tsai, Po-Jung

2012-05-22

226

Some morphological and anatomical studies of leaves and flowers of Murraya paniculata (Jack) Linn. in vivo and in vitro.  

PubMed

In the present study, various explants of Murraya paniculata (Jack) Linn., such as cotyledons, shoots and young stems were cultured on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP) under 25 +/- 1 degree C with 16 h light and 8 h dark and also 8 h light and 16 h dark to obtain complete plant regeneration. In vitro flowering was observed from shoot explants cultured on MS supplemented with 0.5-2.0 mg L(-1) Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) and also on MS basal medium under similar conditions. The leaves and flowers obtained from both in vivo and in vitro conditions were examined and compared. Morphological studies such as leaf clearing, epidermal peeling were studied using light and scanning electron microscope. Macromorphological studies of the flowers produced from in vivo and in vitro conditions were also examined. Morphologically, there were no differences between in vivo and in vitro flowers except the flowers produced from tissue culture systems were smaller in size with protruding stigmas. Differences were also found in the number of layers of palisade cells and the presence or absence of epicuticle layer of the leaves. Leaves produced from tissue culture system were smaller in size with membranous texture. Stomata were present only on the abaxial surfaces of both in vivo and in vitro leaves but the stomata were raised above the epidermis in the latter. PMID:18810972

Taha, Rosna Mat; Haron, Noorma Wati

2008-04-01

227

Coulomb breakup reactions of 11Li in the coupled-channel 9Li+n+n model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the three-body Coulomb breakup of a two-neutron halo nucleus 11Li. We use the coupled-channel 9Li+n+n three-body model, which includes the coupling between last neutron states and the various two-particle-two-hole (2p-2h) configurations in 9Li due to the tensor and pairing correlations. The three-body scattering states of 11Li are described by using the combined methods of complex scaling and the Lippmann-Schwinger equation. The calculated breakup cross section successfully reproduces the experiments. The large mixing of the s state in the halo ground state of 11Li is shown to play an important role in the explanation of shape and strength of the breakup cross section. In addition, we predict the invariant mass spectra for binary subsystems of 11Li. It is found that the two kinds of virtual s states of 9Li-n and n-n systems in the final three-body states of 11Li largely contribute to make low-lying peaks in the invariant mass spectra. On the other hand, in the present analysis, it is suggested that the contributions of the p-wave resonances of 10Li are hardly confirmed in the spectra.

Kikuchi, Yuma; Myo, Takayuki; Kat?, Kiyoshi; Ikeda, Kiyomi

2013-03-01

228

Anxiolytic activity of methanol leaf extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn in mice using experimental models of anxiety  

PubMed Central

Objective: To study the anxiolytic activity of methanol extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn (Amaranthaceae). Materials and Methods: Male Swiss albino mice were used. Methanolic extract of Achyranthes aspera (MEAA) was administered in the doses of 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg p.o. Hole board (HB), open field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM) and light/dark exploration (LDE) tests were used for determination of anxiolytic activity. Results: The methanolic extract of Achyranthes aspera significantly increased the number and duration of head poking in HB test. The extract also significantly increased the time spent and the number of entries in open arm in EPM. In LDE test, the extract produced significant increase in time spent and number of crossings and decreased the duration of immobility in light box. In OFT, the extract showed significant increase in number of rearing, assisted rearing and the squares crossed. Conclusion: In the present study, MEAA exhibited anxiolytic activity which might be attributed to its phyto-constituents viz. alkaloid, steroid and triterpenes. Since Achyranthes aspera is ubiquitous and abundantly grown, it could be a fairly economical therapeutic agent for management of anxiety disorders.

Barua, Chandana C.; Talukdar, Archana; Begum, Shameem Ara; Borah, Prabodh; Lahkar, Mangala

2012-01-01

229

Anti-urolithiatic effect of ethanolic extract of pedalium murex linn. Fruits on ethylene glycol-induced renal calculi.  

PubMed

Purpose: To evaluate effect of ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex Linn. fruits on experimentalmodel of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.Materials and Methods: Thirty-six male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided in 6 groups.Normal controls received distilled water for 28 days. Other five groups received ethylene glycol(1% v/v) in distilled water for 28 days. Pedalium murex ethanolic extract was given 200 mg/kgand 400 mg/kg orally in distilled water for 28 days in prophylactic groups (III and IV) and from15th to 28th days in treatment groups (V and VI). The urea, creatinine, random blood sugar, aspartateaminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin and calcium weremeasured on 28th day. 24 hr urinary oxalate and volume were measured on day 0 and 28. On day28, kidneys were removed, weighed and subjected to histopathological examination. Calcium oxalatecrystallization was evaluated by renal histopathology and in-vitro method of mineralization.All parameters were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis or one-way ANOVA with post-hoc test.Results: Pedalium murex showed significant improvement in renal function and kidney weight inprophylactic groups as compared to ethylene glycol controls. It did not show any effect on urinaryoxalate, urine volume and any other serological parameters. Calcium oxalate crystallization wassignificantly reduced in all the Pedalium murex treated groups (P < .05). Calcium oxalate and phosphatemineralization were also inhibited by 33% and 57%.Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex fruits possess significant activity for preventionof renal calculi. PMID:24078501

Mandavia, Divyesh R; Patel, Mahendra K; Patel, Jayshree C; Anovadiya, Ashish P; Baxi, Seema N; Tripathi, Chandrabhanu Rajkishor

2013-09-26

230

A comparative anti-inflammatory activity of raw and processed Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) seeds on albino rats  

PubMed Central

Seeds of Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.), a known poisonous drug, is used extensively in various Ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommends the administration of Kupeelu only after passing through specific purificatory procedures in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel) etc. Strychnos nux vomica seeds are extensively advocated for nervous debility, paralysis, and weakness of limbs, sexual weakness, dyspepsia, and dysentery and in rheumatism where it can be assumed that besides other properties, Kupeelu may have some sort of anti-inflammatory activity too. In the present study, the powder of raw and processed Kupeelu seeds (processed / purified with Kanji i.e sour gruel) as test drugs were assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by employing Carrageenan and Formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema in Wistar strain albino rats at a dose of 22.5 mg/kg body weight orally. This study reveals that both raw and purified Kupeelu showed presence of highly significant anti-inflammatory activity against formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema, but did not have similar activity against Carrageenan induced hind paw oedema.

Mitra, Swarnendu; Kumar, Vijay; Ashok, BK; Acharya, R N; Ravishankar, B

2011-01-01

231

Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Wound Healing Potentials of Ethanol Extract of Wedelia biflora Linn D.C. Leaves  

PubMed Central

To rationalize scientifically the traditional claim on use of Wedelia biflora (Linn.) D. C. for the treatment of wounds and infections, the present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial and wound healing activity of ethanol extract of leaves of W. biflora. In in vitro assays the test extract was subjected to antimicrobial activity by agar well-diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration method in different microbial strains. Wound healing activity of the test extract was studied by excision wound model and incision wound model in Wistar albino rats. In excision wound model, 97.90% wound healing was recorded in 10% w/w extract treated group on 16th days of postsurgery, whereas only 58.50% was observed in control group. In incision model, higher breaking strength, high hydroxyl proline content and histopathological study in extract treated groups revealed higher collagen redeposition than the control group. The agar well-diffusion evaluation and minimum inhibitory concentration established antimicrobial efficacy of ethanol extracts of W. biflora. These observations established the traditional claim and therapeutic activity of W. biflora and it could be a potent wound healing candidate for use in future.

Biswas, D.; Yoganandam, G. P.; Dey, A.; Deb, L.

2013-01-01

232

Effect of guava (Psidium guajava Linn.) leaf soluble solids on glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of aqueous and ethanol soluble solid extracts of guava (Psidium guajava Linn.) leaves on hypoglycemia and glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) and nicotinamide were injected into Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to induce type 2 diabetes. Acute and long-term feeding tests were carried out, and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to follow the changes in plasma glucose and insulin levels was performed to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of guava leaf extracts in diabetic rats.The results of acute and long-term feeding tests showed a significant reduction in the blood sugar level in diabetic rats fed with either the aqueous or ethanol extract of guava leaves (p < 0.05). Long-term administration of guava leaf extracts increased the plasma insulin level and glucose utilization in diabetic rats. The results also indicated that the activities of hepatic hexokinase, phosphofructokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in diabetic rats fed with aqueous extracts were higher than in the normal diabetic group (p < 0.05). On the other hand, diabetic rats treated with the ethanol extract raised the activities of hepatic hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (p < 0.05) only. The experiments provided evidence to support the antihyperglycemic effect of guava leaf extract and the health function of guava leaves against type 2 diabetes. PMID:18819164

Shen, Szu-Chuan; Cheng, Fang-Chi; Wu, Ning-Jung

2008-11-01

233

Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic antioxidants from Malus baccata (Linn.) Borkh. using response surface methodology.  

PubMed

In this study, the optimum extraction conditions for maximum recovery of the content of total phenolics (TPC) and total antioxidant abilities were analyzed for Malus baccata (Linn.) Borkh. using response surface methodology. The effects of ethanol percentage (X1 ,%), ultrasonic power (X2 , W) and extraction temperature (X3 , °C) on the total phenolic content (Y1 ) and antioxidant ability (Y2 ) were evaluated. A second-order polynomial model produced a satisfactory fitting of the experimental data with regard to total phenolic content (R(2) = 0.9942, P < 0.0001) and antioxidant ability (R(2) = 0.9966, P < 0.0001). The optimized conditions were ethanol concentration of 61.0%, ultrasonic power of 308.6 W, extraction temperature of 51.1°C for TPC and 60.5%, 311.4 W, 51.6°C for antioxidant ability, the predicted values agreed well with the experimental values. Results implied that the major phenolic compounds in obtained extracts as chlorogenic acid, quercetin-3-gal/glu, quercetin-3-xyl/ara, phloretin-2-xyloside, quercetin-3- rhamnoside, and phloridzin. PMID:23436450

Wang, Lu; Wang, Zhenyu; Li, Xiaoyu

2013-04-23

234

Nutritional, microbial and organoleptic qualities of fish patties prepared from carp (Cyprinus carpio Linn.) of three weight groups.  

PubMed

Fish patty from common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linn.) which has low consumer preference due to the presence of intramuscular spines was developed and the effects of fish weight and the type of extender on product quality were determined. Six different types of fish patties were prepared by using the fish belonging to 3 weight groups (250-500 g, 501-750 g, and 751-1,000 g) and using 2 extenders (boiled potato and corn flour). Patties containing potato had higher moisture (70.6-73.3%), protein (31.5-32.7%) and lipid (3.3-4.6%) contents than those with corn flour (60-65.2, 27.8-33.3, 2.6-3.8%, respectively). Cooking decreased protein but increased lipid, soluble sugars, and gross energy contents of patties. Corn flour used patties gave higher cooking yield than those with boiled potato. These also had higher fat retention capacity and gross energy values. The 501-750 g group patties containing boiled potato had significantly higher scores for texture and overall acceptability. PMID:23572741

Sehgal, Harjeet S; Shahi, Meenakshi; Sehgal, Gurpreet K; Thind, Sukhcharan S

2010-10-29

235

Effect of Mimosa pudica (Linn.) extract on anxiety behaviour and GABAergic regulation of 5-HT neuronal activity in the mouse.  

PubMed

Mimosa pudica (Linn.) (M. pudica L.) is a plant used in some countries to treat anxiety and depression. In the present study we investigated the effects of an aqueous extract of M. pudica L. on mouse anxiety-like behaviour using the elevated T maze, and on regulation of dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neuronal activity using an in-vitro mouse brain slice preparation. Acute treatment with M. pudica L. extract had an anxiolytic effect on behaviour in the elevated T maze, specifically on inhibitory avoidance behaviour. Acute application of the extract alone had no effect on the activity of DRN 5-HT neurones. However, when co-applied with the GABA(A) receptor agonist THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol), the extract enhanced the inhibitory effect of the THIP on DRN 5-HT neurones. These observed effects of M. pudica L. on both behaviour and GABA modulation of 5-HT neuronal activity are similar to the effects of diazepam, the established anxiolytic and positive modulator of the GABA(A) receptor. This study suggests that the aqueous extract of M. pudica L. contains a positive modulator of GABA(A) receptor function and provides impetus for further investigation of the neuropharmacologically active constituents of the extract. PMID:21427203

Ayissi Mbomo, Rigobert; Gartside, Sasha; Ngo Bum, Elizabeth; Njikam, Njifutie; Okello, Ed; McQuade, Richard

2011-03-22

236

Isolation of a haemorrhagic protein toxin (SA-HT) from the Indian venomous butterfish (Scatophagus argus, Linn) sting extract.  

PubMed

A haemorrhagic protein toxin (SA-HT) was isolated and purified from the spine extract of the Indian venomous butterfish, S. argus Linn, by two step ion exchange chromatography. The toxin was homogeneous in native and SDS-PAGE gel. SDS-molecular weight of the toxin was found to be 18.1 +/- 0.09 kDa. SA-HT produced severe haemorrhage on stomach wall but devoid of cutaneous haemorrhage. UV, EDTA, trypsin, protease, cyproheptadine, indomethacin, acetylsalicylic acid and BW755C treatment significantly antagonized the haemorrhagic activity of SA-HT. The toxin produced dose and time dependent oedema on mice hind paw, which was significantly encountered by cyproheptadine, indomethacin and BW755C. SA-HT increased capillary permeability on guinea pig dorsal flank. On isolated guineapig ileum, rat fundus and uterus, SA-HT produced slow contraction which was completely antagonised by prostaglandin blocker SC19220. On isolated rat duodenum, SA-HT produced slow relaxation. SA-HT significantly increased plasma plasmin, serum MDA level and decreased serum SOD level indicating the possible involvement of cyclooxygenase and lipooxygenase pathway. PMID:15233468

Karmakar, S; Muhuri, D C; Dasgupta, S C; Nagchaudhuri, A K; Gomes, A

2004-05-01

237

Protective effect of Hypericum perforatum Linn (St. John's wort) against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis on human neuroblastoma cells.  

PubMed

The medicinal plant Hypericum perforatum Linn, commonly known as St. John's wort, has been used as an antidepressant. To investigate whether St. John's wort possesses a protective effect against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced cytotoxicity in neuronal cells, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay, flow cytometry analysis, DNA fragmentation assay, and caspase-3 enzyme assay were performed on SK-N-MC human neuroblastoma cells. Cells treated with H(2)O(2) exhibited several apoptotic features, while those pre-treated with St. John's wort prior to H(2)O(2) exposure showed a decreased occurrence of apoptotic features. In addition, pre-treatment with St. John's wort inhibited H(2)O(2)-induced increase in caspase-3 enzyme activity. These results suggest that St. John's wort may exert a protective effect against H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cells. PMID:12165406

Jang, Mi-Hyeon; Lee, Taeck-Hyun; Shin, Min-Chul; Bahn, Geon-Ho; Kim, Jong-Woo; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Ee-Hwa; Kim, Chang-Ju

2002-08-30

238

Isolation and Structure Determination of a Benzofuran and a Bis-Nor-Isoprenoid from Aspergillus Niger Grown on the Water Soluble Fraction of Morinda Citrifolia Linn. Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaves of Morinda citrifolia, Linn. afforded a new benzofuran and a bis-nor-isoprenoid, blumenol C, hitherto unreported from this source. The structures of these have been elucidated as 5-benzofuran carboxylic acid-6-formyl methyl ester (1) and 4-(3?(R)-hydroxybutyl)-3,5,5, trimethyl-cyclohex-2-en-1-one (2) respectively through spectroscopic studies. The NMR data (including 1D, 2D techniques) and stereochemistry at C-3? of Compound 2 is also being reported

Bina S. Siddiqui; Fouzia A. Sattar Ismail; Tahsin Gulzar; Sabira Begum

2003-01-01

239

Green coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn) shell extract mediated size controlled green synthesis of polyshaped gold nanoparticles and its application in catalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shell extract of green coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn) has been utilized for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles at room temperature under very mild condition without any extra stabilizing or capping agents. The size of the synthesized gold nanoparticles could be controlled by varying the concentration of the shell extract. The stabilized gold nanoparticles were analyzed by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, HRTEM, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. The catalytic activity of the freshly synthesized gold nanoparticles was studied for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol and the kinetics of the reduction reaction were studied spectrophotometrically.

Paul, Koushik; Bag, Braja Gopal; Samanta, Kousik

2013-08-01

240

Brazilein, a compound isolated from Caesalpinia sappan Linn., induced growth inhibition in breast cancer cells via involvement of GSK-3?/?-Catenin/cyclin D1 pathway.  

PubMed

Caesalpinia sappan Linn. has long been used in traditional medicine in China. Here, the anticancer activity of brazilein, a compound isolated from C. sappan Linn. was investigated. MTT assay showed that the IC50 value of brazilein against human breast cancer MCF-7 cells was 7.23±0.24?mol/L. PI staining and flow cytometry analysis indicated that brazilein caused cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. Western blot and RT-PCR assay demonstrated that cyclin D1, a key factor of the G1 to S phase progression, was downregulated in a concentration-dependent manner by brazilein treatment. Further Western blot and RNA interference assay showed that brazilein treatment activated GSK-3? and following reduced ?-Catenin protein, which accounted for the downregulation of cyclin D1 and blockage of cell cycle at G1 phase. Together, all these results illustrated that brazilein induced growth inhibition of breast cancer cells and downregulation of GSK-3?/?-Catenin pathway was involved in its action mechanism. PMID:23948132

Tao, Li-Yang; Li, Jian-Ying; Zhang, Jian-Ye

2013-08-13

241

Inhibition of melanogenesis versus antioxidant properties of essential oil extracted from leaves of Vitex negundo Linn and chemical composition analysis by GC-MS.  

PubMed

This study was aimed at investigating the antimelanogenic and antioxidative properties of the essential oil extracted from leaves of V. negundo Linn and the analysis of the chemical composition of this essential oil. The efficacy of the essential oil was evaluated spectrophotometrically, whereas the volatile chemical compounds in the essential oil were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results revealed that the essential oil effectively suppresses murine B16F10 tyrosinase activity and decreases the amount of melanin in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, the essential oil significantly scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals, and showed potent reducing power versus metal-ion chelating properties in a dose-dependent pattern. The chemical constituents in the essential oil are sesquiterpenes (44.41%), monoterpenes (19.25%), esters (14.77%), alcohols (8.53%), aromatic compound (5.90%), ketone (4.96%), ethers (0.4%) that together account for 98.22% of its chemical composition. It is predicted that the aromatic compound in the essential oil may contribute to its antioxidant activities. The results indicated that essential oil extracted from V. negundo Linn leaves decreased melanin production in B16F10 melanoma cells and showed potent antioxidant activities. The essential oil can thereby serve as an inhibitor of melanin synthesis and could also act as a natural antioxidant. PMID:22466851

Huang, Huey-Chun; Chang, Tzu-Yun; Chang, Long-Zen; Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Hsieh, Wan-Yu; Chang, Tsong-Min

2012-03-30

242

Bactericidal Activity of Methanol Extracts of Crabapple Mangrove Tree (Sonneratia caseolaris Linn.) Against Multi-Drug Resistant Pathogens  

PubMed Central

The crabapple mangrove tree, Sonneratia caseolaris Linn. (Family: Sonneratiaceae), is one of the foreshore plants found in estuarine and tidal creek areas and mangrove forests. Bark and fruit extracts from this plant have previously been shown to have an anti-oxidative or cytotoxic effect, whereas flower extracts of this plant exhibited an antimicrobial activity against some bacteria. According to the traditional folklore, it is medicinally used as an astringent and antiseptic. Hence, this investigation was carried out on the extract of the leaves, pneumatophore and different parts of the flower or fruit (stamen, calyx, meat of fruit, persistent calyx of fruit and seeds) for antibacterial activity using the broth microdilution method. The antibacterial activity was evaluated against five antibiotic-sensitive species (three Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria) and six drug-resistant species (Gram-positive i.e. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium and Gram-negative i.e. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-Escherichia coli, multidrug-resistant–Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acenetobacter baumannii). The methanol extracts from all tested parts of the crabapple mangrove tree exhibited antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, but was mainly a bactericidal against the Gram-negative bacteria, including the multidrug-resistant strains, when compared with only bacteriostatic on the Gram-positive bacteria. Using Soxhlet apparatus, the extracts obtained by sequential extraction with hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate revealed no discernable antibacterial activity and only slightly, if at all, reduced the antibacterial activity of the subsequently obtained methanol extract. Therefore, the active antibacterial compounds of the crabapple mangrove tree should have a rather polar structure.

Yompakdee, C.; Thunyaharn, S.; Phaechamud, T.

2012-01-01

243

Effects of allelochemical extracted from water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes Linn.) on the growth, microcystin production and release of Microcystis aeruginosa.  

PubMed

This study explored the optimisation of a method of extracting allelochemicals from Pistia stratiotes Linn., identified the optimal dose range for the allelochemicals' anti-algal effect and investigated their impact on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa, as well as the production and release of microcystin-LR (MC-LR). Based on measured changes in algal cell density and chlorophyll a (Chl-a) content, the allelochemicals were confirmed to have the strongest anti-algal effect with the lowest half-effect concentration of 65 mg L(-1) when they were extracted using ethyl acetate as the extraction solvent, 1:20 g mL(-1) as the extraction ratio and 1 h as the extraction time. The allelochemicals extracted from P. stratiotes using this optimal method exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on the growth of algae when used within a dose range of 60-100 mg L(-1); the relative inhibitory ratio reached 50-90 %, and Chl-a content reduced 50-75 % in algae cell cultures within 3-7 days. In addition, the extracted allelochemical compounds demonstrated no significant impact on the extracellular release of MC-LR during the culturing period. The amount of intracellular MC-LR per 10(6) algal cells increased depending on the increasing dose of allelochemicals from P. stratiotes after 7 days of culturing and maintained stability after 16 days. There was no increase in the total amount of MC-LR in the algal cell culture medium. Therefore, the application of allelochemicals from P. stratiotes to inhibit M. aeruginosa has a high degree of ecological safety and can be adopted in practical applications for treating water subjected to algae blooms because the treatment can effectively inhibit the proliferation of algal cells without increasing the release of cyanotoxin. PMID:23653319

Wu, Xiang; Wu, Hao; Chen, Junren; Ye, Jinyun

2013-05-08

244

The butanol fraction of Eclipta prostrata (Linn) effectively reduces serum lipid levels and improves antioxidant activities in CD rats.  

PubMed

Eclipta prostrata (Linn) has been used as a traditional medicinal plant to prevent lipidemia and atherosclerosis in Asia. However, its functional properties and the underlying mechanism of action have not been clearly defined. This study was conducted to elucidate the biological basis for hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities of E. prostrata. Charles River Sprague-Dawley CD rats (specific pathogen-free/viral antibody-free Crj/Bgi male, 180 +/- 10 g) were fed experimental diets supplemented with 0 mg (control), 25 mg (E25), 50 mg (E50), or 100 mg (E100) of a freeze-dried butanol fraction of E. prostrata per kilogram of diet for 6 weeks. Serum triacylglycerol and total cholesterol levels were significantly lower in the E50 and E100 groups by 9.8% to 19.0% and by 10.7% to 13.4%, respectively, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were significantly reduced in the same groups by 10.3% to 13.0% compared with the untreated control group. The E50 and E100 groups also showed significantly increased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels (13.0%-19.1%) compared with the control group. Atherogenic indices were decreased by 9.8% to 30.5% in all groups fed diets supplemented with E. prostrata. Furthermore, serum hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxide, and oxidized protein levels were significantly decreased in the E50 and E100 groups. These results clearly demonstrate the effects of E. prostrata on serum lipid and oxidative metabolism in rats. The health-promoting effects of E. prostrata, which were demonstrated in this study in a rat model, may have implications for atherosclerosis and hypercholesterolemia in humans. PMID:19083459

Kim, Dae-Ik; Lee, Sung-Hyen; Choi, Jin-Ho; Lillehoj, Hyun Soon; Yu, Mi-Hee; Lee, Gun-Soon

2008-08-01

245

Ecology and Management of Diffuse Knapweed (Centaurea diffusa Lam.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A close relative of spotted knapweed in the Asteraceae taxonomic family, diffuse knapweed is typically biennial, reproducing exclusively by seed. It forms a rosette with a central crown and tap root in the juvenile stage and a single upright stem one to three feet (0.3 to 0.9 m) tall with numerous spreading branches at maturity. White (occasionally purple) flowers are

Jim Jacobs; Sharlene Sing

246

Adsorption of Pb(II) on activated carbon prepared from Polygonum orientale Linn.: kinetics, isotherms, pH, and ionic strength studies.  

PubMed

Low-cost activated carbon was prepared from Polygonum orientale Linn. (PL) by phosphoric acid activation. Its ability to adsorb Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions was examined. Through SEM, XRD, BET, and FTIR analyses, the PL-activated carbon (PLAC) was found to have a porous structure with a surface area of about 1400 m(2)/g. Carboxyl groups played an important role in the adsorption of Pb(II) through blocking studies. The sorption system followed a pseudo second-order kinetic model, and the equilibrium time was obtained after 30 min. The adsorption isotherms were simulated well by the Langmuir model. The adsorption of Pb(II) on PLAC was strongly dependent on pH and ionic strength, indicating an ion-exchange mechanism. Regeneration studies showed that PLAC could be used several times by desorption with an HCl reagent. PMID:20362430

Wang, Li; Zhang, Jian; Zhao, Ran; Li, Ye; Li, Cong; Zhang, Chenglu

2010-04-01

247

Potential application of extracts from Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan) culture.  

PubMed

Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves with green and red coloration were tested for bactericidal activity with pathogenic bacteria and their acute toxicity to Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan). Powder of Indian almond leaves was extracted with water at the ratio of 1:10 (w/v) and then freeze-dried to a dry powder. Bactericidal efficacy was tested against 28 isolates of pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Enterobacter spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Pseudomonas spp., Shewanella putrefaciens, Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp.) isolated from Siamese fighting fish. A paper disc diffusion method was tested on Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) by inoculating 1 x 106 CFU/mL of each bacterial suspension. Paper disks (5 mm) were impregnated with either 10 microl of green or red Indian almond leaf extract at a concentration of 12,000 ppm, then laid on the surface of the MHA. The results revealed that aqueous extract of red Indian almond leaves could inhibit the growth of tested bacteria better than the green extract. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. Extracts of green and red leaves were diluted in Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB) to obtain a starting extract concentration of 6,000 ppm then twofold serially diluted in a 96-well microtitre plate. The pathogenic bacteria were inoculated into each well at a density of 1 x 105 CFU/mL and incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 h. The growth of bacteria was detected by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliium bromide. The MIC of the red leaf extract ranged from 187.5 to 375 ppm which was lower than for green leaf extract (375-750 ppm). The MBC range of the red leaf extract was 375-750 ppm which was lower than for the green leaf extract (750-1,500 ppm). Acute toxicity tests (96-h LC50) of Indian almond green and red leaf water extracts in Siamese fighting fish were conducted. A logarithmic-spaced series of Indian almond leaf extract concentrations (6 concentrations) between the highest concentration that did not kill fish and the lowest concentration that killed all fish were used. Each concentration had three replicates (20 fish/replication). Mortality was observed after 96 hours. The LC50 value was calculated using probit analysis. The 96-h LC50 value for green and red leaf extracts was 1,765.69 and 1,651.21 ppm, respectively. When Siamese fighting fish were cultured in water added with Indian almond water extract at 5 concentrations for 5 days and then challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila at a concentration of 1 x 106 CFU/mL, the survival rate of the Siamese fighting fish infected by A. hydrophila could be decreased by bathing with Indian almond red leaf extract at 750 ppm while green leaf Indian almond extract was effective for Aeromonad septicemia therapy in Siamese fighting fish when used at a concentration of 1,000 ppm. In conclusion, red leaf Indian almond aqueous extract had high potential for the control of pathogenic bacteria at a concentration of 750 ppm which should be safe for Siamese fighting fish taking into consideration the toxic level of the extract. PMID:23885412

Purivirojkul, Watchariya

2012-01-01

248

Polyphenolic compounds from flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. and their inhibitory effect on alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity in vitro.  

PubMed

Graded concentrations (0.1-100 mg/mL reaction mixture) of the methanolic extract of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn., its water-soluble fraction as well as compounds isolated from this fraction were tested for their inhibitory effect on alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity in vitro. Both the methanolic extract and its water-soluble fraction showed significant inhibitory effects on the enzyme activity in vitro. On screening the activity of the compounds isolated from the water-soluble fraction, its high inhibitory activity was attributed to the presence of quercetin-7-O-galactoside which showed a high potent inhibition of the enzyme activity reaching 100% at 100 mg/mL reaction mixture. Phytochemical investigations of the water-soluble fraction were also carried out and afforded ten polyphenolic compounds including two new natural compounds, namely kaempferol-7-O-[6'''-O-p-hydroxybenzoyl-beta-D-glucosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside] and scutellarein-6-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside-8-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside). The chemical structure of the isolated compounds was elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectral data. PMID:22191209

Salib, Josline Y; Daniel, Enas N; Hifnawy, Mohamed S; Azzam, Shadia M; Shaheed, Iman B; Abdel-Latif, Sally M

249

Comparative studies on cellular behaviour of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn. cv. Grenadin) grown in vivo and in vitro for early detection of somaclonal variation.  

PubMed

The present study deals with the cytological investigations on the meristematic root cells of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn.) grown in vivo and in vitro. Cellular parameters including the mitotic index (MI), chromosome count, ploidy level (nuclear DNA content), mean cell and nuclear areas, and cell doubling time (Cdt) were determined from the 2?mm root tip segments of this species. The MI value decreased when cells were transferred from in vivo to in vitro conditions, perhaps due to early adaptations of the cells to the in vitro environment. The mean chromosome number was generally stable (2n = 2x = 30) throughout the 6-month culture period, indicating no occurrence of early somaclonal variation. Following the transfer to the in vitro environment, a significant increase was recorded for mean cell and nuclear areas, from 26.59 ± 0.09? ?m˛ to 35.66 ± 0.10? ?m˛ and 142.90 ± 0.59? ?m˛ to 165.05 ± 0.58? ?m˛, respectively. However, the mean cell and nuclear areas of in vitro grown D. caryophyllus were unstable and fluctuated throughout the tissue culture period, possibly due to organogenesis or rhizogenesis. Ploidy level analysis revealed that D. caryophyllus root cells contained high percentage of polyploid cells when grown in vivo and maintained high throughout the 6-month culture period. PMID:23766703

Yaacob, Jamilah Syafawati; Taha, Rosna Mat; Khorasani Esmaeili, Arash

2013-05-22

250

Brucine, an alkaloid from seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica Linn., represses hepatocellular carcinoma cell migration and metastasis: the role of hypoxia inducible factor 1 pathway.  

PubMed

Brucine is an alkaloid derived from the seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica Linn. which have long been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in China. HCC prognosis can be greatly influenced by metastasis. There has thus far been little research into brucine as a source of anti-metastasis activity against HCC. In this study, we revealed that brucine dramatically repressed HepG2 and SMMC-7721 HCC cell migration with few cytotoxic effects. Hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a key transcription factor mediating cell migration and invasion. Brucine suppressed HIF-1-dependent luciferase activity in HepG2 cells. The transcriptions of four known HIF-1 target genes involved in HCC metastasis, i.e., fibronectin, matrix metallopeptidase 2, lysyl oxidase, and cathepsin D, were also attenuated after brucine treatment. Experiments in vivo showed that an intraperitoneal injection of 5 and 15 mg/kg of brucine resulted in dose-dependent decreases in the lung metastasis of H22 ascitic hepatoma cells. Moreover, a dosage of brucine at 15 mg/kg exhibited very low toxic effects to tumor-bearing mice. Consistently, brucine downregulated expression levels of HIF-1 responsive genes in vivo. Our current study demonstrated the capacity of brucine in suppressing HCC cell migration in vitro and lung metastasis in vivo. The inhibition of the HIF-1 pathway is implicated in the anti-metastasis activity of brucine. PMID:23933019

Shu, Guangwen; Mi, Xue; Cai, Jian; Zhang, Xinlin; Yin, Wu; Yang, Xinzhou; Li, You; Chen, Lvyi; Deng, Xukun

2013-08-07

251

Comparative Studies on the Fungi and Bio-Chemical Characteristics of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) in Rivers State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake gourd but low in carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C when compared to the mineral fractions of tomatoes which has high values of calcium, iron, vitamins A and C. The mycoflora predominantly associated with the fruit rot of tomato were Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger, while other fungi isolates from Snake gourd include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari, Penicillium ita/icum and Neurospora crassa. Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger were common spoilage fungi to both the Tomato and Snake gourd. All the fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic. The duration for storage of the fruits at room temperature (28±1°C) showed that Tomato could store for 5 days while Snake gourd stored for as much as 7 days. Sensory evaluation shows that Snake gourd is preferred to Tomatoes because of its culinary and medicinal importance.

Chuku, E. C.; Ogbonna, D. N.; Onuegbu, B. A.; Adeleke, M. T. V.

252

Plant regeneration through callus organogenesis and true-to-type conformity of plants by RAPD analysis in Desmodium gangeticum (Linn.) DC.  

PubMed

An efficient plant regeneration protocol was established for an endangered ethnomedicinal plant Desmodium gangeticum (Linn.) DC. Morphogenic calli were produced from 96 % of the cultures comprising the immature leaf explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (4.0 mg?l(-1)) in combination with 6-benzylaminopurine (BA; 0.8 mg?l(-1)). For callus regeneration, various concentrations of BA (1.0-5.0 mg?l(-1)) or thidiazuron (TDZ; 1.0-5.0 mg?l(-1)) alone or in combination with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA; 0.2-1.0 mg?l(-1)) were used. Highest response of shoot regeneration was observed on MS medium fortified with TDZ (4.0 mg?l(-1)) and IAA (0.5 mg?l(-1)) combination. Here, 100 % cultures responded with an average number of 22.3 shoots per gram calli. Inclusion of indole-3-butyric acid in half MS medium favored rooting of recovered shoots. Out of 45 rooted plants transferred to soil, 40 survived. Total DNA was extracted from the leaves of the acclimatized plants of D. gangeticum. Analysis of random amplified polymorphic DNA using 13 arbitrary decanucleotide primers showed the genetic homogeneity in all the ten plants regenerated from callus with parental plant, suggesting that shoot regeneration from callus could be used for the true-to-type multiplication of this plant. PMID:23340869

Cheruvathur, Meena K; Abraham, Jyothi; Thomas, T Dennis

2013-01-23

253

Distribution of major xanthones in the pericarp, aril, and yellow gum of mangosteen (garcinia mangostana linn.) fruit and their contribution to antioxidative activity.  

PubMed

Xanthone compounds in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) fruit have been reported to have biological activities including antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, and the major xanthone compounds in mangosteen are ?-mangostin and ?-mangostin. The objectives of this research were to quantify and qualify the major xanthones in each part of the mangosteen fruit with and without yellow gum from the point of view of effective utilization of agricultural product. Quantitative evaluation revealed that yellow gum had extremely high amounts of ?-mangostin and ?-mangostin (382.2 and 144.9 mg/g on a wet basis, respectively) followed by pericarp and aril. In mangosteen fruit with yellow gum inside, xanthones seemed to have shifted from the pericarp and to have concentrated in a gum on the surface of aril, and there was almost no difference between the amounts of ?-mangostin and ?-mangostin in whole fruits with and without yellow gum. Pericarp and yellow gum showed much higher radical-scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant potential than the aril. PMID:23649258

Sukatta, Udomlak; Takenaka, Makiko; Ono, Hiroshi; Okadome, Hiroshi; Sotome, Itaru; Nanayama, Kazuko; Thanapase, Warunee; Isobe, Seiichiro

2013-05-07

254

The protective effects of Curcuma longa Linn. extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats via upregulation of Nrf2.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the potentially protective effects of Curcuma longa Linn. extract (CLE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with 50 or 100mg/kg of CLE or 100mg/kg of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) for 14 days before CCl4 administration. In addition, the CLE control group was pretreated with 100mg/kg CLE for only 14 days. Three hours after the final treatment, a single dose of CCl4 (20mg/kg) was administrated intraperitoneally to each group. After the completion of this phase of the experiment, food and water were removed 12 h prior to the next step. The rats were then anesthetized by urethane and their blood and liver were collected. It was observed that the aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities of the serum, and the hepatic malondialdehyde levels had significantly decreased in the CLE group when compared with the CCl4-treated group. The antioxidant activities, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities, in addition to glutathione content, had increased considerably in the CLE group compared with the CCl4-treated group. Phase II detoxifying enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferase, were found to have significantly increased in the CLE group as opposed to the CCl4-treated group. The content of Nrf2 was determined by Western blot analysis. Pretreated CLE increased the level of nuclear translocated Nrf2, and the Nrf2 then increased the activity of the antioxidant and phase II detoxifying enzymes. These results indicate that CLE has protective effects against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, via activities of antioxidant and phase II detoxifying enzymes, and through the activation of nuclear translocated Nrf2. PMID:20890099

Lee, Hyeong-Seon; Li, Li; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Bilehal, Dinesh; Li, Wei; Lee, Dong-Seok; Kim, Yong-Ho

2010-09-01

255

Antibacterial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of extracts and fractions of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. stem bark and Ageratum conyzoides Linn. leaves.  

PubMed

Many species of plants in African countries are widely used in the rural communities where there is little or no access to modern medicine. However, the safety and effectiveness of these medicinal plants are poorly evaluated. The stem bark of Parkia biglobosa Jacq. and leaves of Ageratum conyzoides Linn. were investigated for their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. The plant materials were extracted with 95% ethanol, and fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The antibacterial effects of the extracts and fractions of the plant materials were assayed on the bacterial cultures of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium perfringes. Ethanol extracts of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides were screened for cytotoxicity using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Two cancer cell lines (SK-MES 1 and SK-LU 1) and one normal cell line (human skin fibroblast cell line, FS5) were used for the screening of the extracts and the fractions obtained. The ethanolic extracts and fractions of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides showed the best activity against E. coli, S. aureus and MRSA. All fractions of A. conyzoides leaves have no activity against P. aeruginosa. Human lung cancer cell lines (SK-LU 1 and SK-MES 1) and human skin fibroblast cell line (FS5 cells) were treated with various concentrations (3.9?g/ml-2mg/ml) of the extracts and fractions for 24h. SK-MES 1 cells are more susceptible to treatment with the plant fractions. All the fractions of A. conyzoides leaves and the petroleum ether fraction of P. biglobosa were cytotoxic to SK-MES 1 cells, which to some extent may support their traditional inclusion in herbal preparations for treatment of cancer. The overall results provided evidence that the studied plant extracts might be potential sources of new antibacterial and anticancer drug. PMID:22797325

Adetutu, Adewale; Morgan, Winston A; Corcoran, Olivia; Chimezie, F

2012-07-01

256

Drug/substance reversal effects of a novel tri-substituted benzoflavone moiety (BZF) isolated from Passiflora incarnata Linn.--a brief perspective.  

PubMed

The present work is a mini-review of the author's original work on the plant Passiflora incarnata Linn., which is used in several parts of the world as a traditional medicine for the management of anxiety, insomnia, epilepsy and morphine addiction. A tri-substituted benzoflavone moiety (BZF) has been isolated from the bioactive methanol extract of this plant, which has been proposed in the author's earlier work to be responsible for the biological activities of this plant. The BZF moiety has exhibited significantly encouraging results in the reversal of tolerance and dependence of several addiction-prone psychotropic drugs, including morphine, nicotine, ethanol, diazepam and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, during earlier pharmacological studies conducted by the author. In addition to this, the BZF moiety has exhibited aphrodisiac, libido-enhancing and virility-enhancing properties in 2-year-old male rats. When administered concomitantly with nicotine, ethanol and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for 30 days in male rats, the BZF also prevented the drug-induced decline in sexuality in male rats. Because the BZF moiety isolated from P. incarnata is a tri-substituted derivative of alpha-naphthoflavone (7,8-benzoflavone), a well-known aromatase-enzyme inhibitor, the mode of action of BZF has been postulated to be a neurosteroidal mechanism vide in which the BZF moiety prevents the metabolic degradation of testosterone and upregulates blood - testosterone levels in the body. As several flavonoids (e.g. chrysin, apigenin) and other phytoconstituents also possess aromatase-inhibiting properties, and the IC50 value of such phytomoieties is the main factor determining their biochemical efficacy, by altering their chemical structures to attain a desirable IC50 value new insights in medical therapeutics can be attained, keeping in view the menace of drug abuse worldwide. PMID:14690874

Dhawan, Kamaldeep

2003-12-01

257

Modestobacter roseus sp. nov., an endophytic actinomycete isolated from the coastal halophyte Salicornia europaea Linn., and emended description of the genus Modestobacter.  

PubMed

A novel actinomycete, designated strain KLBMP 1279(T), was isolated from surface-sterilized roots of a coastal halophyte, Salicornia europaea Linn., collected from Jiangsu Province, in the east of China. The taxonomic status of this organism was established using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain KLBMP 1279(T) was closely related to Modestobacter marinus 42H12-1(T) (99.5% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Modestobacter versicolor CP153-2(T) (98.4%) and Modestobacter multiseptatus AA-826(T) (97.5%). Chemotaxonomic characteristics were consistent with its assignment to the genus Modestobacter in that the isolate had meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell wall, MK-9(H4) as major menaquinone and a polar lipid profile containing diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, two unknown aminophospholipids and an unknown phospholipid. The predominant fatty acids were iso-C16:0, iso-C15:0 and C17:1?8c. The DNA G+C content was 71.7 mol%. However, DNA-DNA hybridization assays as well as physiological and biochemical analyses differentiated strain KLBMP 1279(T) from its closest phylogenetic relatives. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic evidence, the isolate KLBMP 1279(T) represents a novel species of the genus Modestobacter, for which the name Modestobacter roseus sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is KLBMP 1279(T) (=KCTC 19887(T)=NBRC 108673(T)=DSM 45764(T)). An emended description of the genus Modestobacter is also proposed. PMID:23148095

Qin, Sheng; Bian, Guang-Kai; Zhang, Yue-Ji; Xing, Ke; Cao, Cheng-Liang; Liu, Chang-Hong; Dai, Chuan-Chao; Li, Wen-Jun; Jiang, Ji-Hong

2012-11-12

258

Evidence-based assessment of antiosteoporotic activity of petroleum-ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis  

PubMed Central

The increasing incidence of postmenopausal osteoporosis and its related fractures have become global health issues in the recent days. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is the most frequent metabolic bone disease; it is characterized by a rapid loss of mineralized bone tissue. Hormone replacement therapy has proven efficacious in preventing bone loss but not desirable to many women due to its side-effects. Therefore we are in need to search the natural compounds for a treatment of postmenopausal symptoms in women with no toxic effects. In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of petroleum-ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (CQ), a plant used in folk medicine, on an osteoporotic rat model developed by ovariectomy. In this experiment, healthy female Wistar rats were divided into four groups of six animals each. Group 1 was sham operated. All the remaining groups were ovariectomized. Group 2 was fed with an equivolume of saline and served as ovariectomized control (OVX). Groups 3 and 4 were orally treated with raloxifene (5.4 mg/kg) and petroleum-ether extract of CQ (500 mg/kg), respectively, for 3 months. The findings were assessed on the basis of animal weight, morphology of femur, and histochemical localization of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (an osteoblastic marker) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) (an osteoclastic marker) in upper end of femur. The study revealed for the first time that the petroleum-ether extract of CQ reduced bone loss, as evidenced by the weight gain in femur, and also reduced the osteoclastic activity there by facilitating bone formation when compared to the OVX group. The osteoclastic activity was confirmed by TRAP staining, and the bone formation was assessed by ALP staining in the femur sections. The color intensity of TRAP and ALP enzymes from the images were evaluated by image analysis software developed locally. The effect of CQ was found to be effective on both enzymes, and it might be a potential candidate for prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The biological activity of CQ on bone may be attributed to the phytogenic steroids present in it.

Potu, Bhagath K; Nampurath, Gopalan K; Chamallamudi, Mallikarjuna R; Prasad, Keerthana; Nayak, Soubhagya R; Dharmavarapu, Praveen K; Kedage, Vivekananda; Bhat, Kumar MR

2009-01-01

259

Evidence-based assessment of antiosteoporotic activity of petroleum-ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis.  

PubMed

The increasing incidence of postmenopausal osteoporosis and its related fractures have become global health issues in the recent days. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is the most frequent metabolic bone disease; it is characterized by a rapid loss of mineralized bone tissue. Hormone replacement therapy has proven efficacious in preventing bone loss but not desirable to many women due to its side-effects. Therefore we are in need to search the natural compounds for a treatment of postmenopausal symptoms in women with no toxic effects. In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of petroleum-ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (CQ), a plant used in folk medicine, on an osteoporotic rat model developed by ovariectomy. In this experiment, healthy female Wistar rats were divided into four groups of six animals each. Group 1 was sham operated. All the remaining groups were ovariectomized. Group 2 was fed with an equivolume of saline and served as ovariectomized control (OVX). Groups 3 and 4 were orally treated with raloxifene (5.4 mg/kg) and petroleum-ether extract of CQ (500 mg/kg), respectively, for 3 months. The findings were assessed on the basis of animal weight, morphology of femur, and histochemical localization of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (an osteoblastic marker) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) (an osteoclastic marker) in upper end of femur. The study revealed for the first time that the petroleum-ether extract of CQ reduced bone loss, as evidenced by the weight gain in femur, and also reduced the osteoclastic activity there by facilitating bone formation when compared to the OVX group. The osteoclastic activity was confirmed by TRAP staining, and the bone formation was assessed by ALP staining in the femur sections. The color intensity of TRAP and ALP enzymes from the images were evaluated by image analysis software developed locally. The effect of CQ was found to be effective on both enzymes, and it might be a potential candidate for prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The biological activity of CQ on bone may be attributed to the phytogenic steroids present in it. PMID:19736603

Potu, Bhagath K; Rao, Muddanna S; Nampurath, Gopalan K; Chamallamudi, Mallikarjuna R; Prasad, Keerthana; Nayak, Soubhagya R; Dharmavarapu, Praveen K; Kedage, Vivekananda; Bhat, Kumar M R

2009-01-01

260

Involvement of adenosine and standardization of aqueous extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) on cardioprotective and cardiodepressant properties in ischemic preconditioning and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion induced cardiac injury  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated the effect of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) aqueous extracts on ischemic preconditioning and ischemia-reperfusion induced cardiac injury, as well as adenosine involvement in ischemic preconditioning and garlic extract induced cardioprotection. A model of ischemia-reperfusion injury was established using Langendorff apparatus. Aqueous extract of garlic dose was standardized (0.5%, 0.4%, 0.3%, 0.2%, 0.1%, 0.07%, 0.05%, 0.03%, 0.01%), and the 0.05% dose was found to be the most effective. Higher doses (more than 0.05%) were highly toxic, causing arrhythmia and cardiodepression, whereas the lower doses were ineffective. Garlic exaggerated the cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning. The cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning and garlic cardioprotection was significantly attenuated by theophylline (1,000 µmol/L) and 8-SPT (10 mg/kg, i.p.) and expressed by increased myocardial infarct size, increased LDH level, and reduced nitrite and adenosine levels. These findings suggest that adenosine is involved in the pharmacological and molecular mechanism of garlic induced cardioprotection and mediated by the modulation of nitric oxide.

Sharma, Ashish Kumar; Munajjam, Arshee; Vaishnav, Bhawna; Sharma, Richa; Sharma, Ashok; Kishore, Kunal; Sharma, Akash; Sharma, Divya; Kumari, Rita; Tiwari, Ashish; Singh, Santosh Kumar; Gaur, Samir; Jatav, Vijay Singh; Srinivasan, Barthu Parthi; Agarwal, Shyam Sunder

2012-01-01

261

Analysis of essential oils from wild and micropropagated plants of damiana ( Turnera diffusa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Damiana is a medicinal plant with many traditional uses and a reputation as an aphrodisiac. Essential oils produced by this plant are used in traditional medicine, and for the preparation of liquors and tea. The composition of essential oils from wild damiana, plants grown with micropropagated methods involving cell suspension, and explants in solid medium, is presented. Relevant differences are

Lilia Alcaraz-Meléndez; Javier Delgado-Rodríguez; Sergio Real-Cosío

2004-01-01

262

Analysis of essential oils from wild and micropropagated plants of damiana (Turnera diffusa).  

PubMed

Damiana is a medicinal plant with many traditional uses and a reputation as an aphrodisiac. Essential oils produced by this plant are used in traditional medicine, and for the preparation of liquors and tea. The composition of essential oils from wild damiana, plants grown with micropropagated methods involving cell suspension, and explants in solid medium, is presented. Relevant differences are observed in oils coming from wild and micropropagated plants, where micropropagated plants being more uniform with respect to quality and quantity. The most abundant constituents of the oils were caryophyllene oxide, caryophyllene, delta-cadinene, elemene and 1,8-cineol. PMID:15567246

Alcaraz-Meléndez, Lilia; Delgado-Rodríguez, Javier; Real-Cosío, Sergio

2004-12-01

263

Hybridization and invasion: an experimental test with diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa Lam.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A number of studies have suggested a causative link between hybridization and invasion. In this study, we experimentally test for such a link through a greenhouse common garden study with artificially created Backcross 1 (BC1) diffuse knapweed hybrids. In comparison with diffuse knapweed plants of n...

264

Effect of Unex on ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in rats.  

PubMed

This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Unex capsule on albino rats as a preventive agent against the development of kidney stones. The Unex capsule is a marketed product of Unijules Life Sciences, Nagpur, containing the extracts of Boerhaavia diffusa and Tribulus terrestris. Activity of Unex was studied using the ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis model. Standard drug used was Cystone. Several parameters were used including urinary volume, urine pH, urine analysis, and serum analysis to assess the activity. The results indicated that the administration of Unex to rats with ethylene glycol-induced lithiasis significantly reduced and prevented the growth of urinary stones (P < 0.01). Also, the treatment of lithiasis-induced rats by Unex restored all the elevated biochemical parameters (creatinine, uric acid, and blood urea nitrogen), restored the urine pH to normal, and increased the urine volume significantly (P < 0.01) when compared to the model control drug. This study supports the usage of Unex in urolithiasis and the utility could further be confirmed in other animal models. PMID:21845008

Jarald, Elias Edwin; Kushwah, Pankaj; Edwin, Sheeja; Asghar, Suhail; Patni, Showkat Ahmad

2011-07-01

265

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of aromatic turmerone from Curcuma longa Linn. induces apoptosis through reactive oxygen species-triggered intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.  

PubMed

The mechanisms underlying the antiproliferative and antitumor activities of aromatic turmerone (ar-turmerone), a volatile turmeric oil isolated from Curcuma longa Linn., have been largely unknown. In this study, 86% pure ar-turmerone was extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide and liquid-solid chromatography and its potential effects and molecular mechanisms on cell proliferation studied in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Ar-turmerone exhibited significant antiproliferative activity, with 50% inhibitory concentrations of 64.8 ± 7.1, 102.5 ± 11.5, and 122.2 ± 7.6 ?g/mL against HepG2, Huh-7, and Hep3B cells, respectively. Ar-turmerone-induced apoptosis, confirmed by increased annexin V binding and DNA fragmentation, was accompanied by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, increased Bax and p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) levels, Bax mitochondrial translocation, cytochrome c release, Fas and death receptor 4 (DR4) augmentation, and caspase-3, -8, and -9 activation. Exposure to caspase inhibitors, Fas-antagonistic antibody, DR4 antagonist, and furosemide (a blocker of Bax translocation) effectively abolished ar-turmerone-triggered apoptosis. Moreover, ar-turmerone stimulated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and activation; treatment with JNK and ERK inhibitors markedly reduced PUMA, Bax, Fas, and DR4 levels and reduced apoptosis but not ROS generation. Furthermore, antioxidants attenuated ar-turmerone-mediated ROS production; mitochondrial dysfunction; JNK and ERK activation; PUMA, Bax, Fas, and DR4 expression; and apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that ar-turmerone-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells is through ROS-mediated activation of ERK and JNK kinases and triggers both intrinsic and extrinsic caspase activation, leading to apoptosis. On the basis of these observations, ar-turmerone deserves further investigation as a natural anticancer and cancer-preventive agent. PMID:22946656

Cheng, Shao-Bin; Wu, Li-Chen; Hsieh, Yun-Chih; Wu, Chi-Hao; Chan, Yu-Ju; Chang, Li-Hsun; Chang, Chieh-Ming J; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Teng, Chieh-Lin; Wu, Chun-Chi

2012-09-12

266

Induction of apoptosis in A431 skin cancer cells by Cissus quadrangularis Linn stem extract by altering Bax-Bcl-2 ratio, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and PARP cleavage.  

PubMed

Skin is generally damaged through genetic and environmental factors such as smoking, exposure to xenobiotics, heat, hormonal changes, and ultraviolet light. These factors can cause skin diseases. Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (CQ) has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of skin diseases since ancient times. Taking in to consideration the medicinal properties exhibited by this genus, it was decided to investigate the anti-cancer activity of CQ. Extracts obtained from CQ and their phenolic contents were subjected to in vitro evaluation of anticancer activity by using A431 (skin epidermoid carcinoma, human) cell line. The A431 cells were treated with different extracts of CQ in a dose dependent manner. Out of five extracts, the acetone extract demonstrated significant anti-cancer activity in the A431 cell line. Hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts also exhibited cytotoxicity but to a comparatively lesser extent than the acetone extract. The GI(50) value of the acetone extract was found to be 8 ?g mL(-1), whereas GI(50) value of purified fraction of acetone extract, termed as AFCQ (active acetone fraction of CQ) with respect to A431 cells, was found to be 4.8 ?g mL(-1). Furthermore, the mechanism of anticancer activity exhibited by AFCQ was investigated by comparing its effect with the standard anticancer drug Doxorubicin (DOX) by evaluating the status of apoptotic markers after treatment of A431 cells with AFCQ and DOX. Bax-Bcl-2 ratio along with the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytoplasm, which is a hallmark of apoptosis, was also evaluated. Cleavage of PARP revealed that AFCQ induces apoptosis in A431 cells with reference to DOX. PMID:23175101

Bhujade, Arti; Gupta, G; Talmale, S; Das, S K; Patil, M B

2013-02-01

267

An open label, randomized, fixed-dose, crossover study comparing efficacy and safety of sildenafil citrate and saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) for treating erectile dysfunction in men naďve to treatment.  

PubMed

Saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) have been perceived by the public as a strong aphrodisiac herbal product. However, studies addressing the potential beneficial effects of saffron on erectile function (EF) in men with ED are lacking. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saffron administration on EF in men with ED. After a 4-week baseline assessment, 346 men with ED (mean age 46.6+/-8.4 years) were randomized to receive on-demand sildenafil for 12 weeks followed by 30 mg saffron twice daily for another 12 weeks or vice versa, separated by a 2-week washout period. To determine the type of ED, penile color duplex Doppler ultrasonography before and after intracavernosal injection with 20 microg prostaglandin E(1), pudendal nerve conduction tests and impaired sensory-evoked potential studies were performed. Subjects were assessed with an International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire, Sexual Encounter Profile (SEP) diary questions, patient and partner versions of the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS) questionnaire and the Global Efficacy Question (GEQ) 'Has the medication you have been taking improved your erections?' No significant improvements were observed with regard to the IIEF sexual function domains, SEP questions and EDITS scores with saffron administration. The mean changes from baseline values in IIEF-EF domain were +87.6% and +9.8% in sildenafil and placebo groups, respectively (P=0.08). We did not observe any improvement in 15 individual IIEF questions in patients while taking saffron. Treatment satisfaction as assessed by partner versions of EDITS was found to be very low in saffron patients (72.4 vs 25.4, P=0.001). Mean per patient 'yes' responses to GEQ was 91.2 and 4.2% for sildenafil and saffron, respectively (P=0.0001). These findings do not support a beneficial effect of saffron administration in men with ED. PMID:20520621

Safarinejad, M R; Shafiei, N; Safarinejad, S

2010-06-03

268

Trochus niloticus, Linn, in Andaman Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

DR. YONGE in `` A Year on the Great Barrier Reef '' (Putnam: 1930) states that certain animals like the horse-hoof clam spawn `` at the peak of summer '' others like Trochus niloticus `` during the entire winter ''.

C. Amirthalingam

1932-01-01

269

Comprehensive Plan, West Linn, Oregon, Preliminary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The plan includes analysis and projection of local population, land use, arterial streets, schools and other public facilities, parks and open space. Neighborhoods and communities are identified. (Author)

1970-01-01

270

Chemical Profile of Tridax procumbens Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: The proximate, mineral and phytochemical composition of T. procumbens was investigated. The proximate profile included moisture (90.05±0.00%), crude protein (3.44±0.00% WW and 34.57±0.00% DW), crude fat (0.60±0.02% WW and 6.03±0.20%), total carbohydrate (5.10±0.02% WW and 51.26±0.20% DW), crude fibre (0.61±0.04% WW and 6.13±0.40% DW), total metabolizable energy value (39.56±0.26kcal\\/100 g WW and 397.59±2.61kcal\\/100 g DW) and a total

C. Ikewuchi Jude; C. Ikewuchi Catherine; M. Igboh Ngozi

2009-01-01

271

Flavonoids of Murraya peniculata (Linn.) Jack  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sri Lankan Mcrrraya panicuhra has bmil oxanlined for flavones and found to contain 3'. 4', 5, 5'. 7.8 - hexamethoxyflavone and 3, 3'. 4', 5, 5'. 7, 8 - heptamethoxyflavone. 1. Iutroduction Murraya is a genus of the family Rutaceae native to south-east Asia. Murraya koenigii Spreng (Sinh. Icarapincha) has been investigated intensively in recent years and as many

E. B. DE SILVA; Sri Latzka; M. MAHENDRAW; M R. C. JENNINGS

272

Pharmacognostic study of Lepidium sativum Linn (Chandrashura).  

PubMed

Pharmacognosy is the study of naturally occurring biological substances, principally those derived from plants that find use in medicine. The word "Pharmacognosy" is derived from the Greek "Pharmacon," "a drug" and "gignosco," to acquire knowledge of. It is closely related to both botany and plant chemistry and both originated from the earlier scientific studies on medicinal plant. The plant kingdom still holds many species of plants containing substances of medicinal value which have yet to be discovered large number of plants constantly being screened for their possible pharmacological value. The plant Chandrashura is being used for the treatment of Amavata, Sandhivata, and Katishula successfully. Here, an attempt is made to study the plant pharmacognostically; the part taken for study is the seed. Diagnostic features of seed and seed powder were also worked out and the details were presented. PMID:22131769

Raval, Nita D; Pandya, T N

2011-01-01

273

Synergistic effect of Eugenia jambolana Linn. and Solidago canadensis Linn. leaf extracts with deltamethrin against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti Linn. at Mysore.  

PubMed

With the goal in mind to minimize the application of environmentally hazardous chemical insecticides, the larvicidal activity of two plant extracts along with deltamethrin was studied at University of Mysore. The extracts of Solidago canadensis and Eugenia jambolana were employed for working out the synergistic efficacy against Aedes aegypti larvae, as the extracts of both the plants exhibited high efficacy when applied individually. The deltamethrin when analyzed separately, LC50 and LC90 values were 0.00045 and 0.00148 ppm, respectively. Synergistic studies with two plant extracts on deltamethrin revealed S. canadensis as more effective with synergistic factor(SF) of 4.090 for LC50 value and 4.781 for LC90 followed by E. jambolana with SF 1.80 for LC50 and 2.467 for LC90 at 1:1 ratio of the phytoextracts and deltamethrin. Thus, S. canadensis was found to be a better larvicidal and synergistic agent. Combination of phytochemical and insecticide were found to be more effective than insecticides or phytochemicals alone which could be a good ecofriendly and cost-effective approach to reduce the dose of chemicals with high residual effect to be applied in vector control programs. PMID:23179216

Raghavendra, B S; Prathibha, K P; Vijayan, V A

2012-11-23

274

Field evaluation of aqueous extract of Melia azedarach Linn. seeds against cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae Linn. (Homoptera: Aphididae), and its predator Coccinella septempunctata Linn. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extract of Melia azedarach seeds were tested against cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae, and its predator Coccinella septempunctata in a cabbage field. The field experiment was conducted at Bridge to Israel children village farm, around the vicinity of Tewodros campus, University of Gondar, where the cabbage was grown fully organically. A field experiment was started in the middle of April

Gebremariam Kibrom; Kahsay Kebede; Gebrelibanos Weldehaweria; Goyetom Dejen; Selemawit Mekonen; Ershan Gebreegziabher; Raja Nagappan

2012-01-01

275

Development and validation of an HPLC-DAD analytical procedure for quality control of damiana (Turnera diffusa), using an antioxidant marker isolated from the plant.  

PubMed

Damiana is a shrub used as a dietary supplement and as an additive in several foods. This report presents the first validated analytical method for QC of products made from damiana. Through bioassay-guided fractionation, the compound showing the best antioxidant activity, determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl assay in TLC, was purified and identified as 8-C-beta-[6-deoxy-2-O-(alpha-1-rhamnopyranosyl)-xylo- hexopyranos-3-uloside] (Cl50 5.56 g/mL). This is the only natural source from which this compound has been reported, and has been found in all native damiana samples analyzed. Therefore, it was used as a biomarker to develop an HPLC-diode-array detection analytical procedure using the first-order derivative of the chromatograms. Separation was achieved using an AccQ Tag C18 150 x 3.9 mm (4 microm) column, with a gradient of methanol and 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid in water. The method was shown to be accurate, sensitive, and reproducible, providing a useful quantitative means to apply QC to damiana products. PMID:20922948

Pérez-Meseguer, Jonathan; Garza-Juárez, Aurora; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Salazar-Cavazos, Ma Luz; de la Torre Rodríguez, Yael C; Rivas-Galindo, Verónica; Waksman de Torres, Noemí

276

Henna (Lawsonia inermis Linn.) induced haemolytic anaemia in siblings.  

PubMed

Henna is a traditional cosmetic agent and is used worldwide. It is used worldwide not only as a cosmetic agent to stain the hair, skin and nails but also is applied to the body on lesions in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis or fungal infections. Different pathologies have been described as caused by henna. The aim of this study is to draw attention to the adverse effects of henna, applied over the whole body, observed in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme deficient siblings. In the present paper, we report on two siblings with G6PD deficiency who developed haemolytic anaemia following topical application of henna to their whole body to treat skin lesions. Their parents were also found to be G6PD deficient. Even though anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects of henna have been shown, it may cause severe side-effects in some cases. For this reason, especially, in the regions where G6PD enzyme deficiency is common, people should be informed about the side-effects of topical henna application and clinicians should be aware of these manifestations. PMID:15206514

Kök, A N; Ertekin, M V; Ertekin, V; Avci, B

2004-05-01

277

The evidence based wound healing activity of Lawsonia inermis Linn.  

PubMed

The ethanol extract of Lawsonia inermis (200 mg/kg/day) was used to evaluate the wound healing activity on rats using excision, incision and dead space wound models. The animals were divided into three groups of six each in the excision model and two groups of six each in the incision model and dead space models. The topical application was made in the case of excision wound model, whereas, oral treatment was done with incision and dead space wound models. The following differences were noted in the group of experimental animals which were treated with an extract of L. inermis when compared with the control and reference standard animals: a high rate of wound contraction (p < 0.001), a decrease in the period of epithelialization (p < 0.001), high skin breaking strength (p < 0.001), a significant increase in the granulation tissue weight (p < 0.001) and hydroxyproline content (p < 0.05). The extract-treated animals showed 71% reduction in the wound area when compared with controls which was 58%. Histological studies of the tissue obtained on day 10 from the extract-treated group showed increased well organized bands of collagen, more fibroblasts and few inflammatory cells when compared with the controls which showed inflammatory cells, scanty collagen fibres and fibroblasts. Enhanced wound contraction, increased skin breaking strength, hydroxyproline and histological findings suggest the use of L. inermis in the management of wound healing. PMID:17533628

Nayak, B Shivananda; Isitor, Godwin; Davis, E M; Pillai, G K

2007-09-01

278

Ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological review of Mimusops elengi Linn.  

PubMed Central

Mimusops elengi is Indian native plant and is used for a long time in the history of the medicine. Plant was well studied in majority of the world because of its high potential medicinal value. Traditionally all different part of this plant, namely leaf, root, fruit, seed, bark and flower are used to cure various kinds of disorders. Information compiled here will be useful to improve the present investigation of several health care research regarding the Mimusops elengi.

Gami, Bharat; Pathak, Smita; Parabia, Minoo

2012-01-01

279

Anti inflammatory activity of Myrica nagi Linn. Bark  

PubMed Central

The present study evaluated the anti inflammatory activity of ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of bark of M. nagi using carrageenan and histamine induced rat paw edema. Adult Wistar albino rats were subjected to carrageenan and histamine induced rat paw edema tests. In carrageenan induced rat paw edema the effects of ethyl acetate and aqueous extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg showed % inhibition of edema 27% and 22% respectively than the standard drug aspirin (28%). These ethyl acetate and aqueous extract extracts also showed % inhibition of edema 25% and 18% respectively than the standard drug (27%) when rats challenged with histamine induced rat paw edema. Future research should focus on the identification and the anti inflammatory activity of the constituents from this plant.

Patel, Tejaa; Dudhpejiya, Ashvin; Sheath, Navin

2011-01-01

280

Foliar spirality and aestivation of flowers in Hibiscus cannabinus Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary InHibiscus cannabinus a negative association exists between the foliar spirality and the aestivation of corolla. Moreover, it is seen that the fruits developed from left-twiting flowers of left-spiralled plants and those of the right-twisting flowers of right-spiralled plants are better in quality.

S. S. Ghosh; T. A. Davis

1978-01-01

281

Antidiabetic activity of flower buds of Michelia champaca Linn  

PubMed Central

Objective: To identify the antihyperglycemic activity of various extracts, petroleum ether (60-80°), chloroform, acetone, ethanol, aqueous and crude aqueous, of the flower buds of Michelia champaca, and to identify the antidiabetic activity of active antihyperglycemic extract. Materials and Methods: Plant extracts were tested for antihyperglycemic activity in glucose overloaded hyperglycemic rats. The effective antihyperglycemic extract was tested for its hypoglycemic activity at two-dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively. To confirm its utility in the higher model, the effective extract of M. champaca was subjected to antidiabetic study in alloxan induced diabetic model at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively. The biochemical parameters, glucose, urea, creatinine, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, hemoglobin and glycosylated hemoglobin were also assessed in the experimental animals. Results: The ethanolic extract of M. champaca exhibited significant antihyperglycemic activity but did not produce hypoglycemia in fasted normal rats. Apart from this extract, the crude aqueous and petroleum ether extracts were found active only at the end of the first hour. Treatment of diabetic rats with ethanolic extract of this plant restored the elevated biochemical parameters significantly (P<0.05) (P<0.01) and the activity was found dose dependent. Conclusion: This study supports the traditional claim and the ethanolic extract of this plant could be added in traditional preparations for the ailment of various diabetes-associated complications.

Jarald, E. Edwin; Joshi, S.B.; Jain, D.C.

2008-01-01

282

Somatic embryogenesis in Jatropha curcas Linn., an important biofuel plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jatropha curcas L. is one potential source of non-edible biofuel-producing energy crop. Its importance also lies in its medicinal properties.\\u000a The species is primarily propagated through heterozygous seeds, and thus the seed oil content varies from 4 to 40%. Moreover,\\u000a due to its perennial nature, seed setting requires 2 to 3 years time. The seed viability and rate of germination are

Timir baran Jha; Priyanka Mukherjee; Mukul Manjari Datta

2007-01-01

283

Physicochemical and phytochemical standardization of berries of Myrtus communis Linn  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Herbal medicines are gaining more and more attention all over the world due to their long historical clinical practice and less side effects. The major limitation with herbal medicines is that the lack of standardization technique. Initially, the crude drugs were identified by comparison only with the standard description available. Materials and Methods: Standardization of drugs means confirmation of its identity and determination of its quality and purity. The quality control standards of various medicinal plants, used in indigenous system of medicine, are significant nowadays in view of commercialization of formulations based on medicinal plants. The quality of herbal drugs is the sum of all factors, which contribute directly or indirectly to the safety, effectiveness, and acceptability of the product. Lack of quality control can affect the efficacy and safety of drugs that may lead to health problems in the consumers. Standardization of drugs is needed to overcome the problems of adulteration and is most developing field of research now. Therefore, there is an urgent need of standardized drugs having consistent quality. Results: The drug showed the presence of phyto-chemical constituents. Powdered drug was treated with different reagents and examined under UV light. Different reagents showed different colors of the drug at 2 wavelengths. The percentage of physiological active compounds viz. total phenolics, tannins, volatile oil, fixed oil, and alkaloids were also observed. Conclusion: Myrtus communis L. (Family: Myrtaceae) is one of the important drug being used in Unani system of medicine for various therapeutic purposes. In this study, an attempt has been made to study berries of M. communis from physico-chemical and phytochemical standardization point of view.

Sumbul, Sabiha; Ahmad, M. Aftab; Asif, M.; Akhtar, Mohd; Saud, Ibne

2012-01-01

284

Tagetes erecta Linn. and its mosquitocidal potency against Culex quinquefasciatus  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate mosquitocidal effects of ethanolic extract of flowers of Tagetes erecta (T. erecta) and its chloroform and petroleum ether soluble fractions against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). Methods The fresh flowers of T. erecta were extracted in cold with ethanol (5.0 L) and after concentration, the ethanol extract was fractionated with chloroform and petroleum ether to afford a brownish syrupy suspension of ethanol extract (50.0 g), petroleum ether soluble fraction (18.6 g) and chloroform soluble fraction (23.8 g). The larvicidal effect of ethanol extract and their solvent fractions were determined by the standard procedure of WHO against different instars of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Results Among the tested samples the chloroform soluble fractions showed the highest toxicity and consequently, the lowest LC50 values (14.14 µg/mL, 17.06 µg/mL, 36.88 µg/mL and 75.48 µg/mL) for all the instars larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus. The larvae showed comparative tolerance in the course of increasing age and time. Conclusions It can be concluded that the flowers of T. erecta are very effective natural larvicide and could be useful against Cx. quinquefasciatus.

Nikkon, Farjana; Habib, M Rowshanul; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Karim, M Rezaul

2011-01-01

285

Antioxidant activity of tuberosin isolated from Pueraria tuberose Linn  

PubMed Central

Antioxidant activity of Pueraria tuberose DC, (PT) Leguminosae (Fabaceae) has already been reported by us and here an active compound has been isolated and its action on expression of iNOS protein has been explored by using LPS induced changes in attached rat peritoneal macrophage cell culture. The pure compound was isolated by column chromatography and its structure was characterized by spectral studies, which was identified as tuberosin (5 hydroxy 3,4,7,3',4' pentamethoxy flavone). Its antioxidant capacity was determined and compared with alcoholic extract as EC50 value for scavenging potential towards pre-generated monocation ABTS* radical, superoxide radicals, hydroxyl radicals, metal chelation property and on lipid peroxidation. Further, rat peritoneal macrophages were isolated, cultured and the attached macrophages were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with different concentrations of tuberosin (pretreatment for 30 min). After 17 h the released NO content, in culture supernatant, was indirectly estimated as accumulated nitrite by Griess reagent. To understand the mechanism of action, the extent of expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase genes, the iNOS protein was assessed in macrophage lysate by using its antibody on western blot analysis. Tuberosin significantly scavenged all the species of FRs, described above and it also inhibited the LPS induced release of NO and amount of iNOS protein in macrophages. All the changes were significant and concentration dependent. Thus it could be suggested that tuberosin, is one of the active principles of Pueraria tuberose, which directly scavenges various species of Free radicals (FRs) and also inhibits LPS induced inflammatory changes in macrophages.

2010-01-01

286

Antinociceptive activity of Vitex-negundo Linn leaf extract.  

PubMed

Tail flick test in rats and acetic acid induced writhing in mice were employed to study the antinociceptive activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Vitex-negundo (VN) (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o). The effect was compared with meperidine (40 mg/kg, sc) in tail flick method and aspirin (50 mg/kg, p.o) in writhing test as a standard control respectively. An interaction with naloxone hydrochloride was also studied in tail flick method for its mechanism of central analgesic action. The test drug showed significant analgesic activity in dose dependant manner in both the experimental models. In comparison to standard drug (meperidine), more than ten times dose of VN extract was required to produce comparable significant antinociceptive activity. The sub-effective dose (5 mg/kg, po) of VN potentiated the analgesic activity of meperidine (4 mg/kg, sc) and aspirin (25 mg/kg, po). Naloxone (1 mg/kg, sc) did not reverse the analgesic effect of VN extract. Our observations suggest that VN possesses both central and peripheral analgesic activity. The central analgesic action does not seem to be mediated through opioid receptors. It, may prove to be a useful adjuvant therapy along with standard analgesic drug. PMID:16170984

Gupta, R K; Tandon, V R

2005-04-01

287

Antimicrobial activities of the rhizome extract of Zingiber zerumbet Linn  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate antimicrobial effects of ethanolic extract of Zingiber zerumbet (Z. zerumbet) (L.) Smith and its chloroform and petroleum ether soluble fractions against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Methods The fresh rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbet were extracted in cold with ethanol (4.0 L) after concentration. The crude ethanol extract was fractionated by petroleum ether and chloroform to form a suspension of ethanol extract (15.0 g), petroleum ether fraction (6.6 g) and chloroform soluble fraction (5.0 g). The crude ethanol extract and its petroleum ether and chloroform fractions were evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activity against thirteen pathogenic bacteria and three fungi by the disc diffusion method. Commercially available kanamycin (30 µg/disc) was used as standard disc and blank discs impregnated with the respective solvents were used as negative control. Results At a concentration of 400 µg/disc, all the samples showed mild to moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity and produced the zone of inhibition ranging from 6 mm to 10 mm. Among the tested samples, the crude ethanol extract showed the highest activity against Vibrio parahemolyticus (V. parahemolyticus). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the crude ethanol extract and its fractions were within the value of 128-256 µg/mL against two Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria and all the samples showed the lowest MIC value against V. parahemolyticus (128 µg/mL). Conclusions It can be concluded that, potent antibacterial and antifungal phytochemicals are present in ethanol extract of Z. zerumbet (L).

Kader, Golam; Nikkon, Farjana; Rashid, Mohammad Abdur; Yeasmin, Tanzima

2011-01-01

288

Radioprotective properties of polyphenols from Phyllanthus amarus Linn.  

PubMed

Radioprotective activity of pure compounds isolated from the plant Phyllanthus amarus was studied using rat liver mitochondria and pBR322 plasmid DNA as an in vitro model system. These compounds were ellagitannins namely amariin, 1-galloyl-2,3-dehydrohexahydroxydiphenyl (DHHDP)-glucose, repandusinic acid, geraniin, corilagin, phyllanthusiin D, and flavonoids namely rutin, and quercetin 3-O-glucoside. The activity was then correlated with their hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity. Both ellagitannins and flavonoids effectively prevented lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in mitochondria. The compounds also prevented radiation induced single strand breaks in pBR322 plasmid DNA. The radioprotective activity of ellagitannins and flavonoids could be due to their ability to scavenge different radicals more or less efficiently, relieving the oxidative stress. Protection conferred by flavonoids, rutin and quercetin 3-O-glucoside to rat liver mitochondria and plasmid pBR322 DNA from radiation induced damage was due to their strong hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. The inhibitory effect of ellagitannins on lipid peroxidation in liver mitochondria was due to their efficient superoxide radical scavenging ability. This is the first report about the radioprotective activity of pure ellagitannins from Phyllanthus amarus. PMID:19461166

Londhe, Jayant S; Devasagayam, Thomas P A; Foo, L Yeap; Ghaskadbi, Saroj S

2009-05-19

289

Antioxidant activity of tuberosin isolated from Pueraria tuberose Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant activity of Pueraria tuberose DC, (PT) Leguminosae (Fabaceae) has already been reported by us and here an active compound has been isolated and its action on expression of iNOS protein has been explored by using LPS induced changes in attached rat peritoneal macrophage cell culture. The pure compound was isolated by column chromatography and its structure was characterized by

Nidhi Pandey; Yamini B Tripathi

2010-01-01

290

Comparative Leaf Anatomy of Ficus Linn. Species (Moraceae) from Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in leaf anatomy of 25 Ficus species in Nigeria have been undertaken to unravel the relationship among the species with a view to providing a set of stable taxonomic characters. Anatomy of the lamina and midrib featured characters that are described in detail for the first time in the Ficus species of Nigeria thus providing the basis for infra-generic

M. A. Sonibare; A. A. Jayeola; A. Egunyomi

2006-01-01

291

Wound healing potential of Pterocarpus santalinus linn: a pharmacological evaluation.  

PubMed

The need for new therapeutics for wound healing has encouraged the drive to examine the nature and value of plant products. Ayurveda, the Indian traditional system of medicine, mentions the values of medicinal plants for wound healing. One of these is Pterocarpus santalinus. This article describes a pharmacological study to evaluate its toxicity as well as wound-healing potential in animal studies. Powder made from the wood of the P. santalinus tree was used to make up an ointment in a petroleum jelly base. No toxic effects were observed in 72 hours. Studies were done on punch and burn wound models on normal and diabetic rats using the test ointment, untreated and vehicle controls, and standard therapy. Physical and biochemical measurements were made. The test ointment-treated wounds healed significantly faster. On healing, collagenesis and biochemical measurements yielded supportive data. These studies permit the conclusion that the P. santalinus ointment is safe and effective in treating acute wounds in animal models. PMID:15866805

Biswas, Tuhin Kanti; Maity, Lakshmi Narayan; Mukherjee, Biswapati

2004-09-01

292

RAPD Profile for Authentication of Medicinal Plant Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correct identification and quality assurance is indispensable to ensure reproducible medicinal quality of herbal drugs. Authentication is especially useful in case of those medicinal herbs that are frequently substituted or adulterated with other species or varieties morphologically and phytochemically indistinguishable. In this study, the RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) technique was employed for authentication of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. from its

Salim Khan; Khanda Jabeen Mirza; Malik Zainul Abdin

2009-01-01

293

Endophytic Penicillium citrinum Thom. from Scoparia dulcis Linn.  

PubMed

Scoparia dulcis of Scrophulariaceae is an annual herb distributed through out the tropics. Penicillium citrinum was obtained from apparently healthy roots, stem, leaves and fruits of this plant. Callus and multiple shoots produced during micropropagation from various explants were also symptomless but showed occurrence of Penicillium citrinum when cultured in Murashige & Skoog liquid medium for the production of secondary metabolites. PMID:22815580

Mathew, Annie J; Jayachandran, K; Mathew, Jyothis

2010-11-25

294

Antennal sense organs in the isopod Ligia oceanica (linn)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antennal tips of the isopod Ligia oceanica each bear approximately one hundred specialized sensory hairs. Their structure has been analysed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy and electrophysiological methods used to investigate some of their functions. Each hair has a double outer sheath protecting the inner structures which are only in contact with the external environment through a laterally

C. G. Alexander

1977-01-01

295

Antimicrobial efficacy and phytochemical analysis of indigofera trita linn.  

PubMed

An in vitro antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of various extracts of Indigofera trita L. viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts were carried out. A total of 21 microorganisms (19 bacteria and 2 fungal strains) were used for antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method and a standard procedure was used to identify the phytochemical constituents. Petroleum ether extract showed moderate inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus (14.40 mm), S. epidermidis (14.20 mm), Salmonella paratyphi A (12.80 mm), Streptococcus mutans (12.20 mm), Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, S. typhi and Burkholderia cepacia (12.00 mm). The chloroform extract also showed antimicrobial activity against S. epidermidis (14.20 mm), S. typhimurium (12.60 mm), S. paratyphi A, S. brunei and Yersinia enterocolitica (12.00 mm). The acetone extract of I. trita showed considerable inhibitory activity against S. epidermidis (18.20 mm), S. typhimurium (14.60 mm), S. infantis (13.80 mm), S. aureus (13.40 mm), Y. enterocolitica (13.00 mm) and Enterobacter aerogenes (12.00 mm) were documented. Ethanol extract showed significant antimicrobial activity against S. epidermidis (18.60 mm), S. paratyphi A (14.60 mm), Y. enterocolitica (13.40 mm), S. typhi (12.40 mm), S. aureus, E. aerogenes, S. typhimurium and S. infantis (12.00 mm). Aqueous extract of I. trita considerably inhibited S. epidermidis (13.80 mm), S. paratyphi A and Y. enterocolitica (12.20 mm), E. aerogenes and Haemophilus parahaemolyticus (12.00 mm). All the five extracts showed a minimal antifungal activity when compared to antibacterial activity. The result revealed that the antimicrobial properties of I. trita might be associated with the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, saponins, phytosterols and alkaloids. PMID:24146483

Kumar, Raju Senthil; Moorthy, Kannaiyan; Vinodhini, Raja; Punitha, Thambidurai

2013-04-12

296

Ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological review of Mimusops elengi Linn.  

PubMed

Mimusops elengi is Indian native plant and is used for a long time in the history of the medicine. Plant was well studied in majority of the world because of its high potential medicinal value. Traditionally all different part of this plant, namely leaf, root, fruit, seed, bark and flower are used to cure various kinds of disorders. Information compiled here will be useful to improve the present investigation of several health care research regarding the Mimusops elengi. PMID:23570006

Gami, Bharat; Pathak, Smita; Parabia, Minoo

2012-09-01

297

Antiulcer Activity of Indigenous Plant Operculina turpethum Linn.  

PubMed Central

In the Indian traditional system of medicine Operculina turpethum is commonly used to treat various ailments including peptic ulcer, inflammation, and pain. Ulcer preventive and ulcer protective activities of HAOP and MOP stem bark extracts of Operculina turpethum (100?mg/kg, b.w., orally) were evaluated employing aspirin + pylorus ligation (APL) model in experimental rats. The results suggested that both extracts (HAOP and MOP) possess enhanced ulcer preventive and protective activities when compared with the standard drug ranitidine. HAOP showed more pronounced effect when compared to MOP. Further the result of the histopathological and biochemical studies also confirms potent ulcer preventive and protective nature of a extracts in a similar manner.

Ignatius, Vidya; Narayanan, Madhusudhanan; Subramanian, Venkataraman; Periyasamy, Balasubramanian Maruthaiveeran

2013-01-01

298

Antioxidant activity of tuberosin isolated from Pueraria tuberose Linn.  

PubMed

Antioxidant activity of Pueraria tuberose DC, (PT) Leguminosae (Fabaceae) has already been reported by us and here an active compound has been isolated and its action on expression of iNOS protein has been explored by using LPS induced changes in attached rat peritoneal macrophage cell culture. The pure compound was isolated by column chromatography and its structure was characterized by spectral studies, which was identified as tuberosin (5 hydroxy 3,4,7,3',4' pentamethoxy flavone). Its antioxidant capacity was determined and compared with alcoholic extract as EC50 value for scavenging potential towards pre-generated monocation ABTS* radical, superoxide radicals, hydroxyl radicals, metal chelation property and on lipid peroxidation. Further, rat peritoneal macrophages were isolated, cultured and the attached macrophages were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with different concentrations of tuberosin (pretreatment for 30 min). After 17 h the released NO content, in culture supernatant, was indirectly estimated as accumulated nitrite by Griess reagent. To understand the mechanism of action, the extent of expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase genes, the iNOS protein was assessed in macrophage lysate by using its antibody on western blot analysis. Tuberosin significantly scavenged all the species of FRs, described above and it also inhibited the LPS induced release of NO and amount of iNOS protein in macrophages. All the changes were significant and concentration dependent. Thus it could be suggested that tuberosin, is one of the active principles of Pueraria tuberose, which directly scavenges various species of Free radicals (FRs) and also inhibits LPS induced inflammatory changes in macrophages. PMID:20836891

Pandey, Nidhi; Tripathi, Yamini B

2010-09-14

299

Antimycobacterial activity of flavonoids from Lantana camara Linn.  

PubMed

Linaroside (1) and lantanoside (2), two flavonoids isolated from Lantana camara and their common acetyl derivative (3) were examined for antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, strain H(37)Rv. These compounds exhibited 30, 37 and 98% inhibition, respectively at 6.25 microg mL(-1) concentration. Among these flavonoids acetylated compound was found to be the most active. PMID:18415851

Begum, S; Wahab, A; Siddiqui, B S

2008-04-15

300

Study on the antibacterial potential of physalis minima linn.  

PubMed

Physalis minima is an important medicinal plant of Indian System of Medicine. This plant is reported for its diuretic, laxative and antiinflammatory activities. However, the plant is not well scrutinized for its antimicrobial potential. The major chemical constituents reported from the plant are phenolics and alkaloids, which suggest that the plant may turn out to be a potent antiinfective agent. The aim of the study was to find out the antibacterial potential of mature berries of P. minima using streak plate, well diffusion, determination of minimum inhibitory concentration and bioautographic methods against a battery of Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains. Results of the study showed that methanol and chloroform extracts of P. minima exhibited potent inhibitory activity against all the bacterial strains tested. Minimum inhibitory concentration found out was 100 ?g in both the extracts. Bioautography assay showed polar compounds present in the crude extract are responsible for the antimicrobial action. PMID:22131635

Patel, T; Shah, K; Jiwan, K; Shrivastava, Neeta

2011-01-01

301

Antimutagenicity of some flowers grown in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutagenicity of dichloromethane, methanol and water extracts of Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn., Curcuma sessilis Gage, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn., Ixora coccinea Linn., Millingtonia hortensis Linn., Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., Plumeria obtusa Linn., Punica granatum Linn., Rhinacanthus nasutus ((Linn.) Kurz.) and Syzygium malaccense ((Linn.) Merr.& Perry) before and after nitrite treatment was firstly investigated in the Ames test. Their antimutagenicity against

O. Wongwattanasathien; K. Kangsadalampai; L. Tongyonk

2010-01-01

302

Cuminum cyminum Linn. and Coriandrum sativum Linn. extracts modulate Chromium genotoxicity in Allium cepa chromosomal aberration assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since ancient times, herbs and spices have enjoyed rich tradition for their flavor enhancement characteristics and for their\\u000a medicinal properties. Ayurveda prescribes more than 700 plant based medicines that contain spices and food additives to encourage\\u000a good health. Diet is an important factor in prevention of diseases. Besides flavor and taste to cuisines, they also improve\\u000a immune system. Taking this

Arti Sharma; Manish Kumar; Satwinderjeet Kaur

303

Effect of Piper longum Linn, Zingiber officianalis Linn and Ferula species on gastric ulceration and secretion in rats.  

PubMed

Use of Dipaniya Mahakasaya, a group consisting of 10 herbal drugs, has been suggested in Charaka Samhita to improve digestion. Out of these 10 plants, three, viz. P. longum (water decoction), Z. officianalis (water decoction) and Ferula species (colloidal solution) were studied for their antiulcer and mechanism of antiulcer effects in rats. All the drugs in the dose of 50 mg/kg, p.o., 60 min prior to experiment, showed significant protection against gastric ulcers induced by 2 hr cold restraint stress, aspirin (200 mg/kg, 4 hr) and 4 hr pylorus ligation. The antiulcerogenic effect seemed to be due to the augmentation of mucin secretion and decreased cell shedding rather than offensive acid and pepsin secretion which however, were found to be increased by them. PMID:11324171

Agrawal, A K; Rao, C V; Sairam, K; Joshi, V K; Goel, R K

2000-10-01

304

Efeitos da radiacao gama em Sitophilus oryzae (Linne, 1763) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). (Gamma radiation effects in Sitophilus oryzae (Linne, 1763) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae)).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lethal effects were studied for the egg, larval and pupal stages as well as sterilization of adults of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) by the application of gamma radiation. Irradiation of pupae with an estimated dosis of 7887 (+-) 158 rad inhibits adult emergency...

J. M. Pacheco

1973-01-01

305

Hepatoprotective action of ethanolic extracts of Melia azedarach Linn. and Piper longum Linn and their combination on CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

A comparison of analysis in evaluating the hepatoprotective action of ethanolic extract of M. azedarach (MAE) and P. longum (PLE) with their combination biherbal extract (BHE) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage is reported in albino rats. There was a marked elevation of serum marker enzyme levels in CCl4 treated rats, which were restored towards normalization in the drug (MAE and/or PLE:50 mg/kg body weight po, once daily for 14 days) treated animals. The biochemical parameters like total protein, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and urea were also restored towards normal levels. The combined BHE showed more significant reduction of the enzymes than MAE or PLE against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity. The results strongly indicate that BHE has more potent hepatoprotective action than MAE or PLE individually against CCl4 induced hepatic damage in rats. Among these extracts, BHE showed similar hepatoprotective action to silymarin, which was the positive control in this study. PMID:21614891

Rajeswary, H; Vasuki, R; Samudram, P; Geetha, A

2011-04-01

306

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of Ocimum basilicum Linn. and Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. against H2O2 and CCL4 induced hepatotoxicity in goat liver.  

PubMed

Significant hepatoprotective effects were obtained by ethanolic extract of leaves of O. basilicum and T. foenum-graecum against liver damage induced by H2O2 and CCl4 as evidenced by decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes (enzymatic and non enzymatic). The extract also showed significant anti lipid peroxidation effects in vitro, besides exhibiting significant activity in superoxide radical and nitric oxide radical scavenging, indicating their potent antioxidant effects. PMID:19761043

Meera, R; Devi, P; Kameswari, B; Madhumitha, B; Merlin, N J

2009-07-01

307

Hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties of combination of Curcumin from Curcuma longa , Linn, and partially purified product from Abroma augusta , Linn. in streptozotocin induced diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary spice components ofCurcuma longa andAbroma augusta have been screened for their protective effect against reactive oxygen species induced lipid peroxidation. They have been\\u000a found to be efficient antioxidant when administered in combination. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect\\u000a of oral administration (300mg\\/Kg) of the aqueous extract of turmeric whose active ingredient isCurcumin andAbromine powder as

Halim Eshrat M. Ali Hussain; M. Ali Hussain

2002-01-01

308

Hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties of combination ofCurcumin fromCurcuma longa, Linn, and partially purified product fromAbroma augusta, Linn. in streptozotocin induced diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary spice components of Curcuma longa and Abroma augusta have been screened for their protective effect against reactive oxygen species induced lipid peroxidation. They have been found to be efficient antioxidant when administered in combination . The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of oral administration (300 mg \\/ Kg) of the aqueous extract of turmeric whose

Halim Eshrat; M. Ali Hussain

2002-01-01

309

Screening of medicinal plant extracts for antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methanolic crude extracts of Desmodium gangeticum (Linn.), Eclipta alba (Linn.) Ocimum sanctum (Linn.), Piper longum (Linn.), Solanum nigrum (Linn.) and Amaranthus caudatus (Linn.) were screened for their free radical scavenging properties using ascorbic acid as standard antioxidant. Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. The overall antioxidant activity of D. gangeticum was found to

Prakash Veeru; Mishra Pankaj Kishor; Mishra Meenakshi

2009-01-01

310

Brine shrimp lethality and acute oral toxicity studies on Swietenia mahagoni (Linn.) Jacq. seed methanolic extract  

PubMed Central

Background: The seeds of Swietenia mahagoni have been applied in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, malaria, amoebiasis, cough, chest pain, and intestinal parasitism. Here we are the first to report on the toxicity of the Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic (SMCM) seed extract. Methods: SMCM seed extract has been studied for its brine shrimp lethality and acute oral toxicity, in mice. Results: The brine shrimp lethality bioassay shows a moderate cytotoxicity at high concentration. The LC50 for the extract is 0.68 mg/ml at 24 hours of exposure. The LD50 of the SMCM seed extract for acute oral toxicity in mice is greater than 5000 mg/kg. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic seed extract may contain bioactive compounds of potential therapeutic significance which are relatively safe from toxic effects, and can compromise the medicinal use of this plant in folk medicine.

Sahgal, Geethaa; Ramanathan, Surash; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Mordi, Mohd. Nizam; Ismail, Sabariah; Mansor, Sharif Mahsufi

2010-01-01

311

Results of Limited Scope Review at Kids and Company of Linn County's Head Start Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pursuant to Public Law 110-134, Improving Head Start for School Readiness Act of 2007, Head Start is a national program that promotes school readiness by enhancing the cognitive, social, and emotional development of children through the provision of healt...

2010-01-01

312

The use of Lawsonia inermis linn. (henna) in the management of burn wound infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of water and chloroform extracts of the leaves of Lawsonia inermis (henna plant) against the primary invaders of burnt wounds was investigated. Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sp, Pseudemonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysporum, and Aspergillus niger were treated with extracts of the leaves of L. inermis for antimicrobial activity using in vitro agar incorporation method and

H. S. Muhammad; S. Muhammad

313

TISSUE LIPID PROFILE OF RATS ADMINISTERED AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS. LINN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of orally administered aqueous extract of the leaves of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis on tissue lipid profile of albino rats has been determined. Consequently 20 albino rats were divided into 4 groups of 5 rats each. They were given rats mash and water ad libitum for 4 weeks, during which they were subjected to different dosages of the aqueous extract.

Kate E. Imafidon

2010-01-01

314

In vivo and in vitro evaluation of hair growth potential of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum ether extract of leaves and flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was evaluated for its potential on hair growth by in vivo and in vitro methods. In vivo, 1% extract of leaves and flowers in liquid paraffin was applied topically over the shaved skin of albino rats and monitored and assessed for 30 days. The length of hair and the different

N Adhirajan; T Ravi Kumar; N Shanmugasundaram; Mary Babu

2003-01-01

315

In vivo and in vitro evaluation of hair growth potential of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn.  

PubMed

Petroleum ether extract of leaves and flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was evaluated for its potential on hair growth by in vivo and in vitro methods. In vivo, 1% extract of leaves and flowers in liquid paraffin was applied topically over the shaved skin of albino rats and monitored and assessed for 30 days. The length of hair and the different cyclic phases of hair follicles, like anagen and telogen phases, were determined at different time periods. In vitro, the hair follicles from albino rat neonates were isolated and cultured in DMEM supplemented with 0.01 mg/ml petroleum ether extract of leaves and flowers. From the study it is concluded that the leaf extract, when compared to flower extract, exhibits more potency on hair growth. PMID:12963149

Adhirajan, N; Ravi Kumar, T; Shanmugasundaram, N; Babu, Mary

2003-10-01

316

Is Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. a potential source of antifertility agents for males?  

PubMed

The effects of oral administration of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of flowers of H. r. sinensis (250 mg/kg BW/day, 30 days) on the reproductive organs of male rats have been examined. The results indicate that the organ weights were unaffected by the extracts: weights of the testis, epididymis, ventral prostate, and seminal vesicle of the treated animals were not significantly different from those of the controls. The testis and epididymis of the rats also showed normal histological features, irrespective of treatment. No apparent toxicity of the extracts was discernible. PMID:6142019

Tan, C H

1983-01-01

317

Effect of NPK Fertilizer on Chemical Composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) Seeds  

PubMed Central

An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15?:?15?:?15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250?kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100?kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47?mg/100?g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100?g/ha.

Oloyede, F. M.; Obisesan, I. O.; Agbaje, G. O.; Obuotor, E. M.

2012-01-01

318

Preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of roots of Paeonia officinalis Linn.  

PubMed Central

Objective To carry out a preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of the roots of Paeonia officinalis (P. officinalis) L. Methods Preliminary phytochemical investigation was done as per standard procedures. Acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per OECD 425 guidelines. The antihepatotoxic activity of aqueous extract of root of P. officinalis was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. Aqueous extract of P. officinalis at the dose levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight was administered daily for 14 d in experimental animals. Liver injury was induced chemically, by CCl4 administration (1 mL/kg i.p.). The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP), total bilirubin and total protein (TP) along with histopathological studies. Result Phytochemical screening revealed that the roots of P. officinalis contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, terpenes, steroids and proteins. The aqueous extract did not cause any mortality up to 2?000 mg/kg. In rats that had received the root extract at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, the substantially elevated AST, ALT, SALP, total bilirubin levels were significantly lowered, respectively, in a dose dependent manner, along with CCl4 while TP levels were elevated in these groups. Histopathology revealed regeneration of the livers in extract treated groups while Silymarin treated rats were almost normal. Conclusions The aqueous extract of P. officinalis is safe and possesses antihepatotoxic potential.

Ahmad, Feroz; Tabassum, Nahida

2013-01-01

319

A review on phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of miswak (Salvadora persica Linn).  

PubMed

The miswak is a natural toothbrush made from the twigs of the Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). Its use predates the inception of Islam and is frequently advocated in the Hadith (the traditions relating to the life of Prophet Muhammad(PBUH)). In addition to strengthening the gums, it prevents tooth decay, eliminating toothaches and halt further increase in decay that has already set in. It creates a fragrance in the mouth, eliminates bad odor, improves the sense of taste, and causes the teeth to glow and shine. The other parts of the tree have therapeutic values as corrective, deobstruent, liver tonic, diuretic, analgesic, anthelmintic, astringent, lithontriptic, carminative, diuretic, aphrodisiac, and stomachic. The present review is therefore an effort to give detailed survey of the literature on phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of miswak. PMID:21430961

Akhtar, Jamal; Siddique, Khalid M; Bi, Salma; Mujeeb, Mohd

2011-01-01

320

Evaluation of Myrtus communis Linn. berries (common myrtle) in experimental ulcer models in rats.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of the dried berries of Myrtus communis L. in gastric ulcer against ethanol, indomethacin and pyloric ligation induced models in Wistar rats. Two doses of aqueous extracts of M. communis (AE( 1) and AE(2)) at the dose 105 and 175 mg/kg, respectively, and methanolic extracts (ME(1) and ME(2)) at the dose of 93 and 154 mg/kg, respectively, were administered orally to animals prior to the exposure of ulcerogens. The parameters taken to assess anti-ulcer activity were ulcer index, gastric juice volume, gastric pH, total acidity, gastric wall mucus and histopathological studies. Oral administration of AE(1) and AE(2) significantly reduced the ulcer index in all models of ulcers. Low dose of aqueous extract and high dose of methanolic extract of M. communis exhibited more significant effect in comparison to omeprazole (standard drug) in ethanol-induced ulcer model. Both the doses of aqueous and methanolic extracts also reduced the gastric juice volume, total acidity and increased the gastric pH and gastric wall mucus content in all the models of ulcers used in the present study. Histopathological examinations of gastric tissues of rats treated with the aqueous and methanolic extracts in indomethacin-induced ulcer exhibited significant ulcer-protective effect at both the dose levels. PMID:20197454

Sumbul, Sabiha; Ahmad, Mohd Aftab; Asif, Mohd; Saud, Ibne; Akhtar, Mohd

2010-03-02

321

Antimicrobial properties and action of galangal ( Alpinia galanga Linn.) on Staphylococcus aureus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethanol extracts of the Zingiberaceae family (galangal, ginger, turmeric and krachai) were evaluated for antimicrobial action on Staphylococcus aureus 209P and Escherichia coli NIHJ JC-2 by using an agar disc diffusion assay. The galangal extract had the strongest inhibitory effect against S. aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the galangal extract was 0.325mg\\/ml and the minimum bactericidal concentration

Jirawan Oonmetta-aree; Tomoko Suzuki; Piyawan Gasaluck; Griangsak Eumkeb

2006-01-01

322

Preventive and curative effects of Achyranthes aspera Linn. extract in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of Achyranthes aspera in preventing and reducing the growth of calcium oxalate stones in ethylene glycol induced nephrolithiatic model. Hyperoxaluria was induced in rats using ethylene glycol (EG, 0.4%) and ammonium chloride (1%) for 15 days and was then replaced with EG (0.4%) only. Upon administration of cystone (750 mg/kg body wt.), aqueous extract of A. aspera (500 and 1000 mg/kg body wt.), levels of renal injury markers (lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase) were normalized with a decrease in serum urea and serum creatinine. Concurrent treatment reduced changes in the architecture of renal tissue and also decreased the size of crystals thereby helping in quick expulsion of the crystals. The present results indicated that Achyranthes aspera had an ability to maintain renal functioning and reduced renal injury. PMID:22439435

Aggarwal, Anshu; Singla, Surinder K; Gandhi, Manish; Tandon, Chanderdeep

2012-03-01

323

76 FR 30382 - Willamette Valley National Wildlife Refuge Complex, Benton, Linn, Marion, and Polk Counties, OR  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration Act. Public Outreach We began public outreach by publishing a Notice of Intent in the Federal Register (73 FR 11137; February 29, 2008), announcing our intent to complete a CCP and EA and inviting public comments. In January 2008,...

2011-05-25

324

Oil and brine inclusions at the Jumbo and Prescott mines, Linn County, Kansas  

SciTech Connect

Well north of the Tri-State district, small deposits containing Pb, Zn, and Ba associated with organic matter occur in M. Pennsylvanian beds. One of these, the Jumbo Pb mine lies 2.5 km SE of Pleasanton, Kansas, and takes the form of a mineralized pipe or circle deposit. Similar mineralization occurs at the Prescott Zn deposit located approximately 12 km SSE of the Jumbo in a abandoned coal mine. Several minerals at both mines contain amber petroleum inclusions, fluorescent in UV light. Primary oil inclusions in sphalerite from the Jumbo and Prescott mines homogenize at 83-93/sup 0/C. Freezing data for aqueous inclusions in sphalerite imply salinities of 21-23 wt% NaCl equivalent. Some primary inclusions in calcite contain translucent reddish crystals, which may be a daughter mineral, possibly ferroan dolomite. It is not clear whether organics have played an active chemical role in either transporting or precipitating the sulfides of the Jumbo and Prescott mines. Nevertheless, data from both mines are consistent with the basinal brine theory of origin postulated for Mississippi Valley-type deposits and suggest the possibility that these small deposits formed at or near a local oil-water interface or that local formational waters were exceptionally rich in oil droplets.

Blasch, S.R.; Ragan, V.M.; Coveney, R.M. Jr.

1985-01-01

325

Mosquito larvicidal activity of gluanol acetate, a tetracyclic triterpenes derived from Ficus racemosa Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, acetone, and methanol extracts of the leaf and bark\\u000a of Ficus racemosa (Moraceae) was assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24-h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects;\\u000a however, the highest larval mortality was found in

A. Abdul Rahuman; P. Venkatesan; Kannappan Geetha; Geetha Gopalakrishnan; A. Bagavan; C. Kamaraj

2008-01-01

326

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ALBIZZIA LEBBECK (LINN.) BENTH. IN ALLOXAN DIABETIC RATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing demand for natural anti-diabetic drugs, as continuous oral administration of insulin can culminate in many side effects and toxicity. In our endeavour to formulate some cost-effective herbal medicines for diabetes, we undertook this study to evaluate the antioxidant potential of aqueous extract of Albizzia lebbeck (ALL) in diabetic rats. The oxidative stress in alloxan-induc ed diabetic

C. R. RESMI; M. R. VENUKUMAR; M. S. LATHA

327

Antibacterial activity of oregano (Origanum vulgare Linn.) against gram positive bacteria.  

PubMed

The present investigation is focused on antibacterial potential of infusion, decoction and essential oil of oregano (Origanum vulgare) against 111 Gram-positive bacterial isolates belonging to 23 different species related to 3 genera. Infusion and essential oil exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus saprophyticus, S. aureus, Micrococcus roseus, M. kristinae, M. nishinomiyaensis, M. lylae, M. luteus, M. sedentarius, M. varians, Bacillus megaterium, B. thuringiensis, B. alvei, B. circulans, B. brevis, B. coagulans, B. pumilus, B. laterosporus, B. polymyxa, B. macerans, B. subtilis, B. firmus, B. cereus and B. lichiniformis. The infusion exhibited maximum activity against B. laterosporus (17.5 mm mean zone of inhibition+/-1.5 Standard deviation) followed by B. polymyxa (17.0 mm+/-2.0 SD) and essential oil of oregano exhibited maximum activity against S. saprophyticus (16.8 mm+/-1.8 SD) followed by B. circulans (14.5 mm+/-0.5 SD). While all these tested isolates were found resistant to decoction of oregano. PMID:19783523

Saeed, Sabahat; Tariq, Perween

2009-10-01

328

REPORT ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF OREGANO (ORIGANUM VULGARE LINN.) AGAINST GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation is focused on antibacterial potential of infusion, decoction and essential oil of oregano (Origanum vulgare) against 111 Gram-positive bacterial isolates belonging to 23 different species related to 3 genera. Infusion and essential oil exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus saprophyticus, S. aureus, Micrococcus roseus, M. kristinae, M. nishinomiyaensis, M. lylae, M. luteus, M. sedentarius, M. varians, Bacillus megaterium,

SABAHAT SAEED; PERWEEN TARIQ

329

Lake Victoria wetlands and the ecology of the Nile tilapia, oreochromis niloticus linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ecological study of wetlands was undertaken in northern Lake Victoria (East Africa) between 1993 and 1996 with a major aim of characterising shallow vegetation-dominated interface habitats, and evaluating their importance for fish, in particular, for the stocked and socio-economically important Oreochromis niloticus LINNÉ (the Nile tilapia). From field and laboratory experiments, five major habitat types could be defined by

J. S. Balirwa

1998-01-01

330

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of turmeric oil from Curcuma longa Linn and purification of turmerones  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates separation and purification of three turmerones from the turmeric oil extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide. Nearly, 800g of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of 75g of 0.42mm turmeric powders at 333K and 300bar obtained 6.98wt% turmeric oil within 2.5h. A response-surface methodology is adopted for optimizing supercritical carbon dioxide extraction to disclose that the combination of 320K and

Li-Hsun Chang; Ting-Ting Jong; Ho-Shin Huang; Yung-Feng Nien; Chieh-Ming J. Chang

2006-01-01

331

[Influence of fertilizers on yield and yield components of opium from Papaver somniferum Linn].  

PubMed

The effect of fertilizer on the yield and yield components of opium from Papaver somniferum L.cv.Ikkanshu were investigated from 1993 to 1995. The weight of opium per one capsule was tendency to increase in the order of peat moss > pulverized charcoal > compound fertilizer, but the differences among the results were not significant. Furthermore, no difference in the capsule weight per 100 m2 and the yields of opium and alkaloids per 100 m2 were detected. The significant difference was only observed when the data were compared among the weights and yields of different years. The difference among the yield of opium was mainly due to the weight of opium per one capsule. The weight of opium per one capsule showed a high correlation with capsule husk weight. The alkaloids contents in opium obtained with a different fertilizer application showed no difference. Morphine content at the first lancing was about 11%, and the value decreased with the order of lancing. On the contrary, the codeine and the thebaine content did not change during lancing and the value were 6-7% and 3%, respectively. The papaverine and the noscapine content decreased in the order of lancing. PMID:14740399

Kumagai, Takeo; Hatakeyama, Yoshio; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Shimomura, Koichiro

2003-01-01

332

Hypoglycaemic and amylase inhibitory activities of leaves of Spondias mombin Linn.  

PubMed

Suppressing the production of glucose by inhibiting a-amylase / a-glucosidase activity is one of the therapeutic approaches for decreasing postprandial hyperglycaemia and a strategy for evaluating antidiabetic activity. We investigated leaves of Spondias mombin because our previous ethnobotanical survey showed that it is used by traditional healers to manage diabetes in South West Nigeria. We report a bioactivity-guided study of S. mombin using glucose loading (1 g/kg) alloxan-induced diabetic rats and inhibition of a-amylase as basis for isolation of active constituents. Hyperglycaemia was induced in albino rats and blood glucose levels monitored for 180 mins using a glucometer. Powdered leaves were macerated with 80% Methanol. The active extract was fractionated on column chromatography packed with silica gel G6OA eluting with gradient mixtures of pet. ether and ethylacetate. The most active a-amylase inhibiting fraction was purified on thin layer chromatography (TLC) and pure compound identified by spectroscopy. Peak decrease in blood glucose of 41.4% (p < 0.05) was recorded after 60 mins. This activity-guided study produced an active TLC band (69.8% amylase inhibition, p < 0.05) from which a-sitosterol was characterized as the main inhibitor. This is first report of hypoglycaemic and amylase inhibitory activities of S. mombin. The role of phytosterols in control of diabetes mellitus is discussed. This study justifies the ethnopharmacological use of this species in recipes for management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:20499628

Fred-Jaiyesimi, A A; Wilkins, M R; Abo, K A

2009-12-01

333

Anxiolytic and sedative effects of extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn (family Malvaceae).  

PubMed

Aqueous (A), hydroalcoholic (AE) and ethanolic (E) extracts and fractions of dried calyxes of Hibiscus sabdariffa were evaluated for anxiolytic property using elevated-plus maze (EPM), and sedative properties using ketamine-induced sleep in animal models. The extracts exhibited a dose-dependent increase in the time spent in the open arm with ethanol extracts having the best anxiolytic activity. The extracts at A 5 mg/kg, AE 5 mg/kg and A 50 mg/kg did not cause an increase in time spent in the open arms (p < 0.05) but other doses significantly did when compared with the vehicle control. The fractions of the hydroalcoholic extracts showed no significant anxiolytic activity. Neither the extracts nor the fractions significantly reduced or increased latency to sleep after a single dose except AE 300 (p < 0.01). There was significant reduction in onset of sleep, and increase in sleeping time with A and AE extracts with multiple doses at A 300, AE 50 and AE 300 mg/kg dose groups (p < 0.001, p < 0.01 and p < 0.05 respectively). A reduction in sleeping time after several daily doses of ethanol extracts doses was observed. A single dose of one of the fractions (EAC at 50 mg/kg) caused a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in sleep duration. The study showed that extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa possess anxiolytic and sedative effects which become more pronounced with administration of repeated doses of the extracts. PMID:18756855

Fakeye, T O; Pal, A; Khanuja, S P S

2008-03-01

334

Effects of water extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa, Linn (Malvaceae) 'Roselle' on excretion of a diclofenac formulation.  

PubMed

The effect of beverages prepared from the dried calyx of the flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa on the excretion of diclofenac was investigated using a controlled study in healthy human volunteers. A high pressure liquid chromatographic method was used to analyse the 8 h urine samples collected after the administration of diclofenac with 300 mL (equivalent to 8.18 mg anthocyanins) of the beverage administered daily for 3 days. An unpaired two-tailed t-test was used to analyse for significant difference observed in the amount of diclofenac excreted before and after administration of the beverage. There was a reduction in the amount of diclofenac excreted and the wide variability observed in the control with the water beverage of Hibiscus sabdariffa (p < 0.05). There is an increasing need to counsel patients against the use of plant beverages with drugs. PMID:17094172

Fakeye, T O; Adegoke, A O; Omoyeni, O C; Famakinde, A A

2007-01-01

335

Bacopa monniera Linn. extract modulates antioxidant and marker enzyme status in fibrosarcoma bearing rats.  

PubMed

Antioxidative property and tumor inhibitive property of B. monniera (20mg/kg body wt, sc) was examined in 3-methylcholanthrene induced fibrosarcoma rats. Antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the levels of glutathione (GSH) and the rate of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the liver and kidney tissues were assessed. A significant increase was noted for the rate of LPO with a corresponding decrease in the antioxidant enzyme status in fibrosarcoma bearing rats. In fibrosarcoma bearing rats, the tumor markers like lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and sialic acid (SA) were increased in the serum. Treatment with B. monniera extract significantly increased the antioxidant enzyme status, inhibited lipid peroxidation and reduced the tumor markers. It can be concluded that B.monniera extract promotes the antioxidant status, reduces the rate of lipid peroxidation and the markers of tumor progression in the fibrosarcoma bearing rats. PMID:15573526

Rohini, G; Sabitha, K E; Devi, C S Shyamala

2004-08-01

336

The Sensory Responses of the House Fly, Musca Domestica Linn., to Attractants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anesthetization (cold) and aspiration tests were conducted with house flies to determine detrimental effects to the flies. Olfactometer tests were conducted with over 40 chemical materials for their attractiveness or repellency to house flies. Tests were ...

D. A. Garrett

1965-01-01

337

Effect of Cassia auriculata Linn. root extract on cisplatin and gentamicin-induced renal injury.  

PubMed

The ethanol extract of the roots of Cassia auriculata was studied for its nephroprotective activity in cisplatin- and gentamicin-induced renal injury in male albino rats. In the cisplatin model, the extract at doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg body wt. reduced elevated blood urea and serum creatinine and normalized the histopathological changes in the curative regimen. In the gentamicin model, the ethanol extract at a dose of 600 mg/kg body wt. reduced blood urea and serum creatinine effectively in both the curative and the preventive regimen. The extract had a marked nitric oxide free-radical-scavenging effect. The findings suggest that the probable mechanism of nephroprotection by C. auriculata against cisplatin- and gentamicin-induced renal injury could be due to its antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging property. PMID:16121515

Annie, S; Rajagopal, P L; Malini, S

2005-08-01

338

Effect of Cassia auriculata Linn. on serum glucose level, glucose utilization by isolated rat hemidiaphragm.  

PubMed

An aqueous leaf extract of Cassia auriculata (C. auriculata) was found to lower the serum glucose level in normal rats. Maximum reduction in serum glucose level was observed after 4 h at a dose levels of 100, 200, 400 mg/kg body weight of the extract. In normal rats the serum glucose level reduction at 4th h was 23% by 100 mg/kg body weight and 31% by 200 mg/kg body weight. In alloxan-induced diabetic rats, chronic administration of the extract significantly reduced the serum glucose level from third day to till the end of the experiment. The extract was also found to inhibit the body weight reduction induced by alloxan administration. Glucose uptake and glycogen deposition studies suggest that C. auriculata leaf extract probably has no direct insulin like effect which can enhance the peripheral utilization of glucose. PMID:12007712

Sabu, M C; Subburaju, T

2002-05-01

339

Biopotency of Acalypha indica Linn on Membrane Bound ATPases and Marker Enzymes urolithic Rats  

PubMed Central

The ethanolic extract of Acalypha indica was tested for its biopotency on membrane bound enzymes and marker enzymes in urolithiasis in male wistar albino rats. Calcium oxalate urolithiasis was induced by 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for 30 days. There was a significant decrease in membrane bound enzymes such as Ca2+ ATPase, Mg2+ ATPase, Na+K+ ATPase and marker enzymes Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alanine Transaminase (ALT), Acid phosphatase (ACP) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) in liver and kidney. The AST, ALT, ACP and ALP were increased in serum and urine of rats. Therapeutic treatment with plant extract (200mg/kg b.wt.dose-1 day-1 oral-1) has significantly ameliorated to near normalcy in the curative group. These results of the present study concluded that A. indica can play an important role in the prevention of disorders associated with kidney stone formation.

Sathya, M.; Kokilavani, R.; Teepa, K.S. Ananta; Balakrishnan, A.

2011-01-01

340

Clove (Syzygium aromaticum Linn) extract rich in eugenol and eugenol derivatives shows bone-preserving efficacy.  

PubMed

This study examined the efficacy of hydroalcoholic extract of dried clove buds, which is rich in phenolic compounds namely eugenol and eugenol derivatives (precursors of flavones, isoflavones and flavonoids), on different primary and secondary osteoporotic marker changes in an ovariectomised (OVX) rat model of osteoporosis. Female Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operated control (A), OVX (B) and OVX plus 50% hydroalcoholic extract of dried clove buds for 4 weeks (C). Results indicated that, compared to control, serum alkaline phosphatase (AP; 48.25%, p?

Karmakar, Subhra; Choudhury, Monalisa; Das, Asankur Sekhar; Maiti, Anasuya; Majumdar, Sangita; Mitra, Chandan

2011-06-28

341

A new pentacyclic triterpene with potent antibacterial activity from Limnophila indica Linn. (Druce).  

PubMed

A new pentacyclic triterpenoid constituent, characterized as 3-oxo-olean-12(13),18(19)-dien-29?-carboxylic acid (1) on the basis of detailed spectral studies, was isolated from the aerial parts and roots of Limnophila indica (Scrophulariaceae). Compound 1 exhibited considerable antibacterial activity against three Gram-positive bacteria viz. Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes (MICs within a range of 25-30?g/ml) and moderate activity against four Gram-negative bacteria Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pantoea ananatis (MICs within a range of 30-100?g/ml). The plant pathogenic bacterium P. ananatis and human pathogenic S. typhimurium responded at comparatively higher concentrations of the compound 1, which were 75 and 100?g/ml respectively. The compound inhibited the growth of Gram-positive B. subtilis and Gram-negative P. aeruginosa completely with a clear bactericidal mode of action at their MIC values. The compound upon treatment on both B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa released substantial amount of nucleic acid in the external medium and also effected the change of morphology towards pleomorphicity, thereby indicating its probable action on cell membrane. Furthermore, the triterpenoid 1 was found not to inhibit a probiotic lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis LABW4 under in vitro condition and to possess no toxicity in Swiss albino mice. PMID:23876368

Brahmachari, Goutam; Mandal, Narayan C; Roy, Rajiv; Ghosh, Ranjan; Barman, Soma; Sarkar, Sajal; Jash, Shyamal K; Mondal, Sadhan

2013-07-20

342

Molecular diversity and phylogeny of rhizobia associated with Lablab purpureus (Linn.) grown in Southern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an introduced plant, Lablab purpureus serves as a vegetable, herbal medicine, forage and green manure in China. In order to investigate the diversity of rhizobia associated with this plant, a total of 49 rhizobial strains isolated from ten provinces of Southern China were analyzed in the present study with restriction fragment length polymorphism and\\/or sequence analyses of housekeeping genes

Yue Li Chang; En Tao Wang; Xin Hua Sui; Xiao Xia Zhang; Wen Xin Chen

2011-01-01

343

Molecular diversity and phylogeny of rhizobia associated with Lablab purpureus (Linn.) grown in Southern China.  

PubMed

As an introduced plant, Lablab purpureus serves as a vegetable, herbal medicine, forage and green manure in China. In order to investigate the diversity of rhizobia associated with this plant, a total of 49 rhizobial strains isolated from ten provinces of Southern China were analyzed in the present study with restriction fragment length polymorphism and/or sequence analyses of housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, IGS, atpD, glnII and recA) and symbiotic genes (nifH and nodC). The results defined the L. purpureus rhizobia as 24 IGS-types within 15 rrs-IGS clusters or genomic species belonging to Bradyrhizobium, Rhizobium, Ensifer (synonym of Sinorhizobium) and Mesorhizobium. Bradyrhizobium spp. (81.6%) were the most abundant isolates, half of which were B. elkanii. Most of these rhizobia induced nodules on L. purpureus, but symbiotic genes were only amplified from the Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium leguminosarum strains. The nodC and nifH phylogenetic trees defined five lineages corresponding to B. yuanmingense, B. japonicum, B. elkanii, B. jicamae and R. leguminosarum. The coherence of housekeeping and symbiotic gene phylogenies demonstrated that the symbiotic genes of the Lablab rhizobia were maintained mainly through vertical transfer. However, a putative lateral transfer of symbiotic genes was found in the B. liaoningense strain. The results in the present study clearly revealed that L. purpureus was a promiscuous host that formed nodules with diverse rhizobia, mainly Bradyrhizobium species, harboring different symbiotic genes. PMID:21498018

Chang, Yue Li; Wang, En Tao; Sui, Xin Hua; Zhang, Xiao Xia; Chen, Wen Xin

2011-04-16

344

Anti-ulcer effect of Nigella sativa Linn. against gastric ulcers in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

world1-3. It is active as an aromatic, respiratory stim u- lant, diuretic, hypoglycemic, anti tumour and an analg e- sic4-6. The seed contains alkaloids nigellicin, nigellidin, quanazoline, tannin, steroid ?-spinasterol, campsterol, cholesterol, stigmas 7-en-3-beta-ol, stigmasterol and flavonoids of trigillin quercetin -3-glucoside7-11. The study assumes significance in the context that prolonged use of synthetic anti-ulcer drugs leads to adverse drug reactions

B. Rajkapoor; R. Anandan; B. Jayakar

345

Hypoglycaemic effects of alcoholic root extract of Borassus flabellifer (Linn.) in normal and diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to investigate the alcoholic (ALEBF) extract of B. flabellifer for their hypoglycaemic effects in normal and diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in rats by single dose administration of alloxan (120 mg/kg, i.p.) or by injecting dexamethasone (10 mg/kg, i.p.) for 10 days. In normal rats, ALEBF (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) had significantly decreased the blood glucose level in a dose dependent manner after repeated administration for 7 days. In alloxan induced diabetic rats, extract (ALEBF) had decreased blood sugar level and improved glucose tolerance in alloxan induced diabetic rats at the end of 1st, 2nd , 3rd and 4th week after test extract treatment. However, the insulin levels of extract treated group did not significantly change after 28 days treatment with the extract. It did not alter the insulin levels. In alloxan model, repeated dose administration of ALEBF had showed significant increase in body weight, prevention of elimination of sugar in urine and reduced the mortality rate induced by alloxan. In dexamethasone induced insulin resistance diabetic rats, repeated administration of ALEBF inhibited the increase in blood glucose level, improved glucose tolerance and reduced the insulin levels as compared dexamethasone induced diabetic rats. PMID:23811441

Debnath, Titas; Radhakrishnan, Rajesh; Murugananthan, Gopal; Talwar, Sahil; K, Nandakumar

2013-07-01

346

Effect of Alstonia scholaris (Linn.) R. Br. on stress and cognition in mice.  

PubMed

Effect of stress and its modulation by methanolic extract of bark of Alstonia scholaris was studied using acute restraint stress model in mice. The extract was also evaluated for nootropic and antioxidant potential to support anti-stress activity testing. Acute restraint stress resulted in significant increase of plasma corticosterone, glucose, protein, cholesterol and triglyceride levels in stress group of animals. Methanolic extract pretreatment at 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg for 7 days displayed promising anti-stress effect by normalizing these stress-induced biochemical perturbations in plasma of mice. Effect on cognitive functions was evaluated using passive avoidance model and elevated plus maze model. Pretreatment with extract at 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg augmented acquisition and retention of memory of learned task as evidenced by increased step-down and shortened-transfer latency in passive avoidance model and elevated plus maze model, respectively. Diazepam (2 mg/kg, ip) and piracetam (200 mg/kg, po) were used as standard drugs for anti-stress and nootropic activity testing. Further, the extract at 200 microg/ml showed maximum scavenging of stable radical 1,1-diphenyl, 2-picryl hydrazyl at 90.11% and nitric oxide radical at 62.77%. The present study, thus, provided scientific support for anti-stress (adaptogenic), antioxidant and nootropic activities of methanolic extract of bark of Alstonia scholaris. PMID:19317351

Kulkarni, Mrugaya P; Juvekar, Archana R

2009-01-01

347

Methanolic extract of leaves of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn modulates oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators.  

PubMed

The leaves of Jasminum grandiflorum (JG) are in clinical use in Ayurveda for wound management. Since, oxidative stress and inflammation are the primary causes in delayed wound healing, so here its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities have been investigated using in vitro as well as in vivo models. The solvent-free methanolic extract of dried leaves of JG were tested for its trapping capacity toward pre-generated ABTS•+ radicals, instantly generated superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, along with metal chelation property, reducing power and total phenolic content. Further, it was tested on LPS-induced nitric oxide and cell viability, on primary culture of rat peritoneal macrophages. Its anti-inflammatory property was also tested on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. This extract significantly inhibited iron-induced lipid peroxidation and trapped ABTS•+, superoxide and OH radicals. It significantly inhibited nitric oxide (NO) release, without affecting the cell viability at 800 ?g/ml concentration and reduced the formation of paw edema in rats. Thus, it could be suggested that the aforesaid anti-inflammatory properties of JG leaves are associated to its high phenolic content (2.25±0.105 mg/l of gallic acid equivalent), reducing power and its free radical-scavenging property. PMID:21701798

Chaturvedi, Adya Prasad; Tripathi, Yamini Bhusan

2011-06-24

348

Free Radical Scavenging Potential and Reducing Capacity of Flowers of Nerium oleander Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nerium oleander (Apocynaceae) is a drought-tolerant evergreen free-flowering shrub that has been used in Chinese folk medicine. The present study evaluated the free radical-scavenging activity of the extracts of N. oleander flowers in aqueous, n.hexane, petroleum ether, ethylacetate, and ethanol using in vitro assays of 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging assay, lipid peroxidation inhibition assay, nitric oxide radical-scavenging assay, and reducing potential. Further,

V. Gayathri; S. Ananthi; R. P. Parameswari; Hannah R. Vasanthi

2012-01-01

349

Determination of gallic acid in Phyllanthus emblica Linn. dried fruit powder by HPTLC  

PubMed Central

Objective: Emblica (Phyllanthus emblica L.), an euphorbiaceous plant, is widely distributed in subtropical and tropical areas of India, China and Indonesia. The fruits possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic properties. In the current article a new, simple, sensitive, selective, precise, and robust high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed and validated for the determination of gallic acid in dried fruit powder of Phyllanthus emblica. Materials and Methods: The quantitative determination of gallic acid was performed on TLC aluminium plates pre-coated with silica gel 60F-254 as the stationary phase. The linear ascending development was carried out in a twin trough glass chamber saturated with a mobile phase consisting of toluene: ethyl acetate: formic acid: methanol (3:3:0.8:0.2) at room temperature (25 ± 2°C). Camag TLC scanner III was used for spectrodensitometric scanning and analysis, in the absorbance mode, at 278 nm. Results: The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r2 = 0.99977 in the concentration range of 40 – 240 ng spot—1, with respect to the peak area. According to the guidelines of the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH), the method was validated for precision, accuracy, and recovery. Conclusion: Statistical analysis of the data showed that the method was reproducible and selective for the estimation of gallic acid.

Sawant, Laxman; Pandita, Nancy; Prabhakar, Bala

2010-01-01

350

Cassia tora Linn Cream Inhibits Ultraviolet-B-Induced Psoriasis in Rats  

PubMed Central

The aim of present study was to determine the antipsoriatic activity of newly formulated O/W creams of methanolic extract of Cassia tora L. leaves by using ultraviolet-B-induced psoriasis in rat. The plant Cassia tora L. is traditionally claimed to be useful in the treatment of a number of skin diseases. However, there are no established scientific reports for its antipsoriatic activity. Methanolic Cassia tora L. leaves extract was used to prepare various concentrations of O/W creams and tested for acute dermal toxicity study. The different O/W creams showed good physical characteristics and passed the sensitivity, irritation, grittiness and bleeding test. The results of acute dermal toxicity showed that the creams were safe up to the dose of 2000?mg/kg. In case of psoriasis model, histopathological analysis revealed that there were absence of Munro's microabscess, elongation of rete ridges, and capillary loop dilation in the section in Test 2 (0.1%) and standard group. O/W creams and methanolic extract of Cassia tora L. leaves exhibited significant reduction in percentage of relative epidermal thickness and spleen index as compared to positive control. We concluded that topical O/W creams and crude extract containing methanolic extract of Cassia tora L. leaves have potent antipsoriatic activity in ultraviolet-B-induced psoriasis in rat.

Singhal, Manmohan; Kansara, Niraj

2012-01-01

351

Persistence of metaflumizone on cabbage (Brassica oleracea Linne) and soil, and its risk assessment.  

PubMed

Metaflumizone is a novel sodium channel blocker insecticide of semicarbazone class. It provides good to excellent control of most of the economically important lepidopterous pests and certain pests in the orders Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, Isoptera, and Siphonaptera. Although metaflumizone has been marketed globally for several years and got registered in India in the year 2009, specifically for the control of DBM on cabbage, to our knowledge, no food safety aspects of metaflumizone residue on cabbage have ever been reported in the literature in India or elsewhere. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the persistence of metaflumizone on cabbage and soil, vis-a-vis its risk assessment, following two spray applications of metaflumizone 220 SC (Verismo®), each at recommended and double dose of 200 and 400 g?a.i.?ha(-1) respectively. Initial residue deposits of metaflumizone on cabbage were 0.46 and 0.51 mg?kg(-1) at recommended and 0.76 and 0.85 mg?kg(-1) at double the recommended dose following the first spray and second spray application. The residues persisted beyond 5 days from both the treatments and dissipated with the half-life ranging from 1.7-2.1 days. Initial deposits of metaflumizone on soil ranged from 0.23-0.37 mg?kg(-1) and degraded with a half life ranging from 4.0-4.8 days. No degradation product of metaflumizone was detected in cabbage and soil at any point of time. Soil samples collected from the treated field after 7 days were free from any residue of metaflumizone or its metabolites. A pre-harvest waiting period of 3 days after application was suggested based on calculation of theoretical maximum daily intake. PMID:23224645

Chatterjee, Niladri Sekhar; Gupta, Suman

2012-12-07

352

A new bioactive triterpenoid saponin from the seeds of Lactuca scariola Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new triterpenoid saponin, 3-O-[?-D-galactopyranosyl-(1???3)-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(1???4)-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl]-oleanolic acid; has been isolated from the seeds of Lactuca scariola. Its structure was determined by various spectral analysis and chemical degradations. This compound shows antimicrobial activity against various bacteria and fungi.

R. N. Yadava; Jitendra Jharbade

2007-01-01

353

In vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of Cassia fistula Linn. fruit pulp extracts.  

PubMed

Aim of the study is to assess the antimicrobial activity Cassia fistula fruit pulp extracts on some bacterial and fungal strains. Hydro alcohol and chloroform extracts of Cassia fistula fruit pulp were evaluated for the potential antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity was determined in both the extracts using the agar disc diffusion method. Extracts were effective on tested microorganisms. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of solvent extracts (5, 25, 50, 100, 250 ?g/mL) of C. fistula were tested against two gram positive, two gram negative human pathogenic bacteria and three fungi, respectively. Crude extracts of C. fistula exhibited moderate to strong activity against most of the bacteria tested. The tested bacterial strains were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coil, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and fungal strains were Aspergillus. niger, Aspergillus. clavatus, Candida albicans. The antibacterial potential of the extracts were found to be dose dependent. The antibacterial activities of the C. fistula were due to the presence of various secondary metabolites. Hence, these plants can be used to discover bioactive natural products that may serve as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals research activities. PMID:23049197

Bhalodia, N R; Nariya, P B; Acharya, R N; Shukla, V J

2012-01-01

354

Persistence of ethion residues on cucumber, Cucumis sativus (Linn.) using gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorus detector.  

PubMed

Residues of ethion were estimated in cucumber by gas liquid chromatography following three applications of the insecticide at 375 and 750 g a.i ha(-1). The average initial deposits of ethion on cucumber fruits were found to be 2.40 and 4.97 mg kg(-1) at single and double dosages, respectively. Residues of ethion dissipated below the maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.5 mg kg(-1) in 7 days. Half-life (T1/2) for degradation of ethion on cucumber was observed to be 2.92 days at recommended dosage. A waiting period of 7 days is suggested for safe consumption of cucumber. PMID:17701089

Singh, G; Singh, B; Battu, R S; Jyot, G; Singh, B; Joia, B S

2007-08-16

355

Persistence of Ethion Residues on Cucumber, Cucumis sativus (Linn.) using Gas Chromatography with Nitrogen Phosphorus Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residues of ethion were estimated in cucumber by gas liquid chromatography following three applications of the insecticide\\u000a at 375 and 750 g a.i ha?1. The average initial deposits of ethion on cucumber fruits were found to be 2.40 and 4.97 mg kg?1 at single and double dosages, respectively. Residues of ethion dissipated below the maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.5 mg kg?1 in 7 days. Half-life (T1\\/2)

G. Singh; B. Singh; R. S. Battu; G. Jyot; B. S. Joia

2007-01-01

356

Observations on the social behaviour of free ranging groups of tame Asiatic elephant ( Elephas maximus Linn )  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is based on 645 hr of observations on the social behaviour of tame elephants maintained at three wildlife sanctuaries\\u000a of Bandipur, Mudumalai and Anaimalai in South India. These elephants are wild captured adults, and their calves born in captivity.\\u000a The observations were carried out when the elephants are left free for grazing in their natural habitat, where they

Madhav Gadgil; P Vijayakumaran Nair

1984-01-01

357

Effect of tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum Linn.) on sperm count and reproductive hormones in male albino rabbits  

PubMed Central

Fresh leaves of Ocimum Sanctum (OS) were used to study its effect on male reproductive function (sperm count and reproductive hormones) in male albino rabbits. Animals in the test group received supplementation of 2 g of fresh leaves of OS per rabbit for 30 days, while the control group was maintained on normal diet for the same duration. Sperm count and hormonal estimation [testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH)] were done in serum samples of both groups and compared. A significant decrease was noted in the sperm count in test group rabbits. Serum testosterone levels showed marked increase while FSH and LH levels were significantly reduced in OS-treated rabbits. The results suggest the potential use of OS as an effective male contraceptive agent.

Sethi, Jyoti; Yadav, Mridul; Sood, Sushma; Dahiya, Kiran; Singh, Veena

2010-01-01

358

Anticonvulsant activity of raw and classically processed Vacha (Acorus calamus Linn.) rhizomes.  

PubMed

The rhizome of Vacha (Acorus calamus) has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of various ailments, such as epilepsy, headache, eye disorders, insomnia, loss of memory, etc. Previous studies demonstrated that Vacha rhizome is having significant anticonvulsant activity against various induced seizures models in experimental animals. Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia of India has advocated Shodhana (purificatory procedures) to be done prior to its use. In the present study a comparative anticonvulsant activity of raw and Shodhita (classically processed) Vacha rhizomes were screened against Maximal Electro Shock (MES) seizure model to assess the effect of classical purificatory procedure on pharmacological action of Vacha. Phenytoin was used as standard antiepileptic drug for comparison. Pretreatment with both raw and classically processed Vacha samples exhibited significant anticonvulsant activity by decreasing the duration of tonic extensor phase. Further classically processed Vacha statistically decreased the duration of convulsion and stupor phases of MES-induced seizures. The results obtained from the present study clearly confirmed the anticonvulsant activity of raw Vacha and subjecting to classical Shodhana procedure did not alter the efficacy of Vacha rhizomes instead it enhanced the activity profile of the Vacha. PMID:23049196

Bhat, Savitha D; Ashok, B K; Acharya, R N; Ravishankar, B

2012-01-01

359

A rapid method for isolation of piperine from the fruits of Piper nigrum Linn.  

PubMed

A simple, rapid and efficient method has been developed for the isolation of piperine from the fruits of Piper nigrum. The method involves extraction of the fruit powder with glacial acetic acid, from which piperine is partitioned into chloroform and subsequently crystallized. The identity of the compound was confirmed by its melting point, comparison of UV, IR, and mass spectral data with those from a reference standard, and co-chromatography with the reference standard using thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The purity of the compound was ascertained by TLC, by recording UV absorption spectra at the start, middle, and end positions of the spot on the plate, and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). PMID:18404304

Kanaki, Niranjan; Dave, Mansi; Padh, Harish; Rajani, Mandapati

2008-02-16

360

Protective effect of stem bark of Ceiba pentandra linn. against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats  

PubMed Central

The present study reports protective activity of ethyl acetate fraction of methanol extract of stem bark of Ceiba pentandra against paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. The ethyl acetate fraction (400 mg/kg) was administered orally to the rats with hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol (3 gm/kg). Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was used as positive control. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting of ethyl acetate fraction revealed presence of its major chemical constituents. A significant (P < 0.05) reduction in serum enzymes GOT (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), GPT alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin content and histopathological screening in the rats treated gave indication that ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic extract of Ceiba pentandra possesses hepatoprotective potential against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

Bairwa, Nirmal K.; Sethiya, Neeraj K.; Mishra, S. H.

2010-01-01

361

Seabuckthorn(Hippophae Linn. sps.) - A potential Resource for Biodiversity conservation in Nepal Himalayas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seabuckthorn (Hippophae L.) berry is very rich source of vitamins and it possesses a number of unique medicinal properties, which have a great potential to provide health-foods & a variety of medicines. However, despite rich under exploited potential, Nepal is yet to harness the rich potential of Seabuckthorn in producing foods, medicines, juices, and other cosmetic products where as countries

A. Sahim Ansari

362

Cocos nucifera Linn. (Palmae) husk fiber ethanolic extract: antioxidant capacity and electrochemical investigation.  

PubMed

The present study aims to determine the antioxidant capacity of the ethanolic extracts of husk fiber of four coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) varieties (yellow dwarf, green dwarf, giant and hybrid) and to evaluate the electrochemical behavior of these extracts on a glassy carbon electrode and on a modified glassy carbon electrode. The highest values of total phenolic content were obtained for the hybrid (531 ± 24 mg GAE g(-1) dry extract) and yellow dwarf (501 ± 29 mg GAE g(-1) dry extract) varieties and the lowest was for the green dwarf variety with 58 ± 9 mg GAE g(-1) dry extract. The ability of the extracts to scavenge DPPH? radicals was in the order of giant > yellow dwarf > hybrid > green dwarf and the IC50 values varied from 8.6 to 55.9 ?g mL(-1). All varieties showed reducing potential by the use of FRAP and CUPRAC methods, with the lowest performance obtained for the green dwarf variety. Additionally, through the use of mimetic biomembranes, ethanolic extracts of coconut husk were shown to protect lipids against oxidative damage independent of the variety. The main antioxidants identified in the extract of yellow dwarf variety by UPLC-MS were quercetin and catechin. Cyclic voltammetric studies of the ethanolic extracts on glassy carbon electrode confirmed the presence of easily oxidized compounds, and the high antioxidant capacity of the varieties. This capacity was expressed as mg quercetin equivalents g(-1) dry extract and ranged from 25.9 up to 53.5 mg QE g(-1). A poly-xanthurenic acid (poly-Xa)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) / glassy carbon modified electrode (poly-Xa/MWCNT/GCE) was used for this purpose. Our findings suggest that these extracts are potentially important antioxidant supplements for the everyday human diet, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, thereby aggregating value to the enormous amount of waste from the coconut industry, mostly used for burning purposes. PMID:23092165

Oliveira, Monika Bezerra dos Santos; Valentim, Iara Barros; de Vasconcelos, Camila Calado; Omena, Cristhiane Maria Bazílio; Bechara, Etelvino José Henriques; da Costa, Joăo Gomes; Freitas, Mikael de Lima; Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart; Goulart, Marília Oliveira Fonseca

2013-02-01

363

Identification of major aroma compounds in the leaf of Morinda citrifolia Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morinda citrifolia, commonly named noni, has been used as food and as a folk medicine throughout the tropics. The use of the leaves to make\\u000a hot water beverages is increasing in popularity, especially in Japan and the United States. To better understand the effects\\u000a of processing on the content of the major aroma compounds, volatile oils were collected from samples

Brett J. West; Bing-nan Zhou

2008-01-01

364

Structure of ovaries and oogenesis in the snow scorpionfly boreus hyemalis (LINNE)(MECOPTERA : BOREIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ovaries of the snow scorpionfly, Boreus hyemalis (Mecoptera : Boreidae) are panoistic and comprise 7–8 ovarioles. Each ovariole consists of a terminal filament, elongated vitellarium, and ovariole stalk (=pedicel) only ; in adult specimens, functional germaria are absent. Five consecutive stages of oogenesis i.e., early, mid- and late previtellogenesis, vitellogenesis, and choriogenesis have been distinguished in imagines. Oocyte nuclei

Szczepan M Bilinski; Jürgen Büning

1998-01-01

365

Larvicidal activity of Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Labiatae) against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane, and methanol leaf and flower extracts of Ocimum sanctum were studied against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The highest larval mortality was found in leaf extract of O. sanctum against the larvae of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. The LC50 values of O. sanctum against the larvae of A. aegypti

A. Mohamed Anees

2008-01-01

366

Anti-arthritic activity of ethanolic extract of Tridax procumbens (Linn.) in Sprague Dawley rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the anti-arthritic effect of whole plant ethanolic extract of Tridax procumbens (Asteraceae) in female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats using the Freund's Complete Adjuvant (FCA) model. Materials and Methods: The plant was collected from different regions of Madurai District, Tamil Nadu, and the phytoconstituents were identified through chemical tests. Ethanol (95%) was used to obtain the whole plant extraction through Soxhlet extractor. Female SD rats were used for anti-arthritic screening. Arthritis was induced using FCA, and the anti-arthritic effect of the ethanolic extract of T. procumbens was studied at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg. The effects were compared with those of indomethacin (10 mg/kg). At the end of the study, the liver enzyme levels were determined and a radiological examination was carried out. Result: The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of T. procumbens indicated the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and saponins. T. procumbens at 250 and 500 mg/kg significantly inhibited the FCA-induced arthritis in the rats. This was manifested by as a decrease in the paw volume. The arthritic control animals exhibited a significant decrease in body weight compared with control animals without arthritis. T. procumbens animals showed dose dependent reduction in decrees in body weight and arthritis. At the same time, T. procumbens significantly altered the biochemical and haematological changes induced by FCA (P < 0.05). The anti-arthritic effect of T. procumbens was comparable with that of indomethacin. Conclusion: The whole plant extract of T. procumbens showed significant anti-arthritic activity against FCA-induced arthritis in female SD rats.

Petchi, R Ramesh; Vijaya, C; Parasuraman, S

2013-01-01

367

Abortifacient activity of Plumeria rubra (Linn) pod extract in female albino rats.  

PubMed

To evaluate the potential abortifacient activity of the aqueous, alcohol, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of P. rubra pod in female albino rats 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight doses of each extract were administered from day 11 to 15 of pregnancy and animals were allowed to go full-term. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, simple phenolics, steroids, tannins and saponins. Clinical toxicity symptoms such as respiratory distress, salivation, weight loss, dull eyes, diarrhea, and change in the appearance of fur as well as mortality were not observed in the animals at any period of the experiment. All the four extracts of P. rubra pods exhibited abortifacient activity (8-100%). The extracts significantly reduced the number of live fetuses, whereas the resorption index and post implantation losses increased significantly. The % of abortion was found to be highest (100%) with 200 mg/kg dose of alcoholic extract of P. rubra pods. PMID:23214263

Dabhadkar, Dinesh; Zade, Varsha

2012-10-01

368

Isolation and structure elucidation of three glycosides and a long chain alcohol from Polianthes tuberosa Linn.  

PubMed

Three glycosides and a long chain alcohol were isolated from the bulbs of Polianthes tuberosa, these were identified as 3,29-dihydroxystigmast-5-ene-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside (1), ethyl beta-D-galactopyranoside (2), ethyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside (3), and 1-tricosanol (4). The structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic and chemical methods. All four isolated compounds were screened for their cytotoxicity, antibacterial and antifungal activities, none of the compounds showed any significant activity. PMID:12168766

Kha, Khalid Mohammed; Perveen, Shahnaz; Ayattollahi, S Abdul Majid; Saba, Nikhat; Rashid, Adil; Firdous, Sadiqa; Haider, Syed Moazzam; Ullah, Zia; Rahat, Shagufta; Khan, Zarrar

2002-08-01

369

???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Composition and antituberculosis activity of the volatile oil of Heliotropium indicum Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile oil from the aerial parts of H. indicum was isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed by a combination of gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oil was obtained in 0.004% yield as a light brown liquid. The major constituents of the volatile oil of H. indicum were phytol (49.1%), 1-dodecanol (6.4%) and ?-linalool (3.0%). In

Theeraphan Machan; John Korth; Boonsom Liawruangrath; Saisunee Liawruangrath; Stephen G. Pyne

370

Garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.) seed oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.  

PubMed

Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress) is a fast growing annual herb, native to Egypt and west Asia but widely cultivated in temperate climates throughout the world. L. sativum seed oil (LSO) extracted from plants grown in Tunisia was analyzed to determine whether it has potential as a raw material for biodiesel production. The oil content of the seeds was 26.77%, mainly composed of polyunsaturated (42.23%) and monounsaturated (39.62%) fatty acids. Methyl esters (LSOMEs) were prepared by base-catalyzed transesterification with a conversion rate of 96.8%. The kinematic viscosity (1.92 mm(2)/s), cetane number (49.23), gross heat value (40.45), and other fuel properties were within the limits for biodiesel specified by the ASTM (American Standard for Testing and Materials). This study showed that LSOMEs have the potential to supplement petroleum-based diesel. PMID:23073108

Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen; Tan, Chin Ping; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

2012-09-11

371

Hypoglycemic activity of Cassia javanica Linn. in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

In present work, one of the ornamentals and medicinally less known plant Cassia javanica has been explored for hypoglycemic potential. It aimed to check the hypoglycemic effect of C. javanica leaves on normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats by acute and sub-acute studies. Prior to the hypoglycemic study, acute oral toxicity testing of drug was performed. Later, the effects of single and multiple doses of test drug were studied using various parameters. Dried powdered leaf material was used as an oral drug. The preliminary phytochemistry of drug was done by standard qualitative tests. Diabetes was induced in rats by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ. Single and multiple doses of test drug (0.5 g/kg body weight/day) were given to normal and diabetic rats. The parameters studied were blood glucose, serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, and serum proteins. The results of test drug were compared with standard hypoglycemic drug-glibenclamide (0.01 g/kg/day). Statistical analysis was done by ‘Student's ‘t’ test’ and one way ANOVA test. In preliminary phytochemistry, antidiabetic compounds were detected. Unlike acute, subacute treatment of test drug showed highly significant reduction (37.62%) in blood glucose level of diabetic rats in ten days. This effect was considerably good in comparison with standard drug (63.51%). The test drug and standard drug exhibited insignificant change in the abnormal levels of serum metabolites of diabetic rats. Preclinically, C. javanica was proved to be effective hypoglycemic agent.

Kumavat, Urmila C.; Shimpi, Shraddha N.; Jagdale, Sandesh P.

2012-01-01

372

Essential Oil Composition and Antibacterial Studies of Vitex negundo Linn. Extracts  

PubMed Central

Essential oils from fresh leaves, flowers and dried fruits of Vitex negundo were obtained by hydrodistillation. Using Soxhlet extractor five successive extracts from dried and powdered leaves were also taken. The chemical constituents of essential oil of leaves, flowers and dried fruits were analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS techniques. Main constituents identified in leaves oil were ?-guaiene, carryophyllene epoxide and ethyl-hexadecenoate; in flowers oil - ?-selinene, germacren-4-ol, carryophyllene epoxide and (E)-nerolidol while fruit oil showed ?-selinene, ?-cedrene, germacrene D and hexadecanoic acid as the main constituents. ?-Caryophyllene was only the constituent identified as common to all three oils. ?-Guaiene and guaia-3,7-diene were identified as common constituents in leaf and dried fruit oil while leaf and flower oils showed p -cymene, valencene, caryophyllene epoxide and (E)-nerolidol as common constituent. All the essential oils and successive extracts were evaluated for antibacterial potential against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial strains. Each of the essential oils and extracts were found to give promising results against B. subtilis and E. coli. Ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts showed prominent antibacterial activity against all the tested strains. Fruits and leaves oil were found to be most active against E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. Only flowers oil was found to be active against P. aeruginosa.

Khokra, S. L.; Prakash, O.; Jain, S.; Aneja, K. R.; Dhingra, Yogita

2008-01-01

373

Essential Oil Composition and Antibacterial Studies of Vitex negundo Linn. Extracts.  

PubMed

Essential oils from fresh leaves, flowers and dried fruits of Vitex negundo were obtained by hydrodistillation. Using Soxhlet extractor five successive extracts from dried and powdered leaves were also taken. The chemical constituents of essential oil of leaves, flowers and dried fruits were analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS techniques. Main constituents identified in leaves oil were delta-guaiene, carryophyllene epoxide and ethyl-hexadecenoate; in flowers oil - alpha-selinene, germacren-4-ol, carryophyllene epoxide and (E)-nerolidol while fruit oil showed beta-selinene, alpha-cedrene, germacrene D and hexadecanoic acid as the main constituents. beta-Caryophyllene was only the constituent identified as common to all three oils. alpha-Guaiene and guaia-3,7-diene were identified as common constituents in leaf and dried fruit oil while leaf and flower oils showed p -cymene, valencene, caryophyllene epoxide and (E)-nerolidol as common constituent. All the essential oils and successive extracts were evaluated for antibacterial potential against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial strains. Each of the essential oils and extracts were found to give promising results against B. subtilis and E. coli. Ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts showed prominent antibacterial activity against all the tested strains. Fruits and leaves oil were found to be most active against E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. Only flowers oil was found to be active against P. aeruginosa. PMID:20046787

Khokra, S L; Prakash, O; Jain, S; Aneja, K R; Dhingra, Yogita

374

Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Three Glycosides and a Long Chain Alcohol from Polianthes Tuberosa Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three glycosides and a long chain alcohol were isolated from the bulbs of Polianthes tuberosa , these were identified as 3,29-dihydroxystigmast-5-ene-3- O - g - d -galactopyranoside ( 1 ) 1 , ethyl g - d -galactopyranoside ( 2 ), ethyl- f - d -galactopyranoside ( 3 ), and 1-tricosanol ( 4 ). The structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic

Khalid Mohammed Khan; Shahnaz Perveen; S. Abdul Majid Ayattollahi; Nikhat Saba; Adil Rashid; Sadiqa Firdous; Syed Moazzam Haider; Zia Ullah; Shagufta Rahat; Zarrar Khan

2002-01-01

375

Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of roots of Murraya koenigii (Linn.) Spreng. (Rutaceae).  

PubMed

Murraya koenigii, family Rutaceae, commonly known as Curry leaf plant is a highly valued plant for its medicinal value and characteristic aroma. The plant is a rich source of carbazole alkaloids. The petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of roots of the plant were screened for phytochemical properties and antimicrobial activity for Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, steroids and flavonoids in the root extracts of the plant. The study shows that all the extracts possess remarkable antibacterial activity. Additionally, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts also had antifungal activity. PMID:24031791

Vats, Manisha; Singh, Harneet; Sardana, Satish

2011-12-01

376

The clinical evaluation of Pterocarpus santalinus Linn. Ointment on lower extremity wounds--a preliminary report.  

PubMed

Pterocarpus santalinus is described in the Ayurveda for its wide spectrum of medicinal properties including wound healing. Previously the authors reported animal studies that demonstrated that an ointment made from the bark of this tree was effective without any toxic effects. They used the same ointment in 6 cases of lower extremity wounds. Healing was observed in all wounds. The study was not controlled, the findings are presented here as case studies. Further studies are planned to develop a wound healing ointment from a locally available and inexpensive plant. PMID:15866819

Biswas, Tuhin Kanti; Maity, Lakshmi Narayan; Mukherjee, Biswapati

2004-12-01

377

In vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of Cassia fistula Linn. fruit pulp extracts  

PubMed Central

Aim of the study is to assess the antimicrobial activity Cassia fistula fruit pulp extracts on some bacterial and fungal strains. Hydro alcohol and chloroform extracts of Cassia fistula fruit pulp were evaluated for the potential antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity was determined in both the extracts using the agar disc diffusion method. Extracts were effective on tested microorganisms. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of solvent extracts (5, 25, 50, 100, 250 ?g/mL) of C. fistula were tested against two gram positive, two gram negative human pathogenic bacteria and three fungi, respectively. Crude extracts of C. fistula exhibited moderate to strong activity against most of the bacteria tested. The tested bacterial strains were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coil, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and fungal strains were Aspergillus. niger, Aspergillus. clavatus, Candida albicans. The antibacterial potential of the extracts were found to be dose dependent. The antibacterial activities of the C. fistula were due to the presence of various secondary metabolites. Hence, these plants can be used to discover bioactive natural products that may serve as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals research activities.

Bhalodia, N. R.; Nariya, P. B.; Acharya, R. N.; Shukla, V. J.

2012-01-01

378

Assessment of Anti-inflammatory Activity of Taxus Baccata Linn. Bark Extract.  

PubMed

Taxus baccata (L) known as Sthauneyaka in Sanskrit(1) has wide range of biological activities including analgesic, anti-malarial, anti-rheumatic, sedative, anti-spasmodic, aphrodisiac and anti-asthmatic. In the present study, the dried and powdered bark of Taxus baccata (L) was extracted with 95% ethanol and ether at room temperature and screened for their anti--inflammatory activity by Carrageenan-induced paw edema method in rat. 95% ethanol extract exhibits potent anti-inflammatory activity at 200mg/kg four hours after administration in comparison with ether extract, as well reference standard, Aspirin. The observed pharmacological activities provide a scientific basis for the folklore use of the plant in treating acute inflammation. PMID:22557354

Dutta, Satyajit; Mariappan, G; Sarkar, Dipankar; Sarkar, Piyali

2010-01-01

379

Elicitation as yield enhancement strategy for glycyrrhizin production by cell cultures of Abrus precatorius Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycyrrhizin is an important phytoconstituent of licorice which is widely used in the pharmaceutical and food industry. As\\u000a the roots and leaves of Abrus precatorius also contain glycyrrhizin, it can be used as an alternative source of glycyrrhizin. In spite of extensive research work undertaken\\u000a with cultures of Glycyrrhiza glabra, the glycyrrhizin production remains elusive. Successful production of glycyrrhizin in

Vijai Singh Karwasara; Rinki Jain; Priti Tomar; V. K. Dixit

2010-01-01

380

A flavonol triglycoside and investigation of the antioxidant and cell stimulating activities of Annona muricata Linn.  

PubMed

Chemical investigation on leaves of Annona muricata resulted in the isolation of the flavonol triglycoside, quercetin 3-O-?-rhamnosyl-(1?? ? 6?)-?-sophoroside, together with twelve known phenolics. The structures of these compounds were established by 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques and mass spectrometry data. The in vitro antioxidant studies of the investigated aqueous ethanol extract and its column fractions were accomplished using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method. A stimulating effect on HaCaT human keratinocytes by the leaf extract was also assessed. Il-6 production after UV irradiation was not influenced by A. muricata leaf extract. PMID:22644843

Nawwar, Mahmoud; Ayoub, Nahla; Hussein, Sahar; Hashim, Amani; El-Sharawy, Reham; Wende, Kristian; Harms, Manuela; Lindequist, Ulrike

2012-05-29

381

Evaluation of Antioxidant and Cerebroprotective Effect of Medicago sativa Linn. against Ischemia and Reperfusion Insult  

PubMed Central

Antioxidants have been the focus of studies for developing neuroprotective agents to be used in the therapy for stroke, which is an acute and progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Medicago sativa (MS) has a long tradition of use as ayurvedic and homoeopathic medicine in central nervous system disorders. The plant has been reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic effects. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of methanol extract of MS on ischemia and reperfusion-induced cerebral injury in mice. Bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO) for 15?min followed by 24-h reperfusion, resulted in significant elevation in infarct size, xanthine oxidase (XO) activity, superoxide anion (O•?2) production and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels, and significant depletion in endogenous antioxidant [reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total tissue sulfhydryl (T-SH) groups] systems in mice brain. Further, BCAO led to impairment in short-term memory and motor coordination. Pre-treatment with MS (100 or 200?mg?kg?1, p.o.) markedly reduced cerebral infarct size, XO, O•?2 and TBARS levels, significantly restored GSH, SOD and T-SH levels and attenuated impairment in short-term memory and motor coordination. In addition, MS directly scavenged free radicals generated against a stable radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and O•?2 generated in phenazine methosulphate-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide systems, and also inhibited XD/XO conversion and resultant O•?2 production. The data from this study suggest that treatment with MS enhances the antioxidant defense against BCAO-induced global cerebral ischemia and exhibits neuroprotective activity.

Bora, Kundan Singh; Sharma, Anupam

2011-01-01

382

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae Linn against paracetamol intoxication in rats.  

PubMed

Paracetamol caused liver damage as evident by significant increase in the activities of aspartate and alanine transferases. There were general statistically significant losses in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione transferase and an increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the liver of paracetamol treated group compared with the control group. However, treatment with ethanol extract of A. flos-aquae (EEAFA) was able to counteract these effects. Protection offered by silymarin (standard reference drug) seemed relatively greater. The results suggest that EEAFA can act as hepatoprotective agent against paracetamol induced toxicity as an antioxidant. PMID:21117453

Kuriakose, Gini C; Kurup, Muraleedhara G

2010-11-01

383

Isolation and identification of mosquito larvicidal compound from Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet.  

PubMed

Larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, acetone and methanol extracts of five medicinal plants, Abutilon indicum, Aegle marmelos, Euphorbia thymifolia, Jatropha gossypifolia and Solanum torvum were assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in petroleum ether extract of A. indicum. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of A. indicum led to the separation and identification of a beta-sitosterol as a potential new mosquito larvicidal compound with LC50 value of 11.49, 3.58 and 26.67 ppm against Aedes aegypti L, Anopheles stephensi Liston and C. quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), respectively. 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectral data confirmed the identification of the active compound. beta-sitosterol has been recognized as the active ingredient of many medicinal plant extracts. All the crude extracts when screened for their larvicidal activities indicated toxicity against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. This article reports the isolation and identification of the beta-sitosterol as well as bioassay data for the crude extracts. There are no reports of beta-sitosterol in the genus A. indicum, and their larvicidal activities are being evaluated for the first time. Results of this study show that the petroleum ether extract of A. indicum may be considered as a potent source and beta-sitosterol as a new natural mosquito larvicidal agent. PMID:18176816

Abdul Rahuman, A; Gopalakrishnan, Geetha; Venkatesan, P; Geetha, Kannappan

2008-01-03

384

Celosia argentea Linn. leaf extract improves wound healing in a rat burn wound model.  

PubMed

Celosia argentea (CA) is used in traditional medicine for sores, ulcers, and skin eruptions. The present study was aimed at investigating the healing efficacy of CA extract in an ointment formulated (10 % w/w) as an alcohol extract of CA using a rat burn wound model. Wound closure occurred earlier in the treated rats (15 days vs. 30 in the untreated group; p < 0.05). Granulation tissue collected on every fifth day of healing showed an increase in collagen and hexosamine content at a faster rate in the treated wounds. This correlated with the accelerated wound closure observed in the treated groups. To probe the cellular basis of this effect, we investigated the effect of this extract on two major cellular responses; cell proliferation and cell motility, in two key cell lineages, fibroblasts and keratinocytes. CA was not toxic at concentrations of < 3 microg/ml in fibroblasts and < 30 microg/ml in keratinocytes. The alcohol extract promoted cell motility and proliferation of primary dermal fibroblasts at 0.1-1.0 microg/ml but did not alter these responses in primary keratinocytes. In an initial examination of molecular mechanisms, we found that the CA extract did not alter fibroblast and keratinocyte responses to the wound repair-associated epidermal growth factor receptor ligands. In short, we demonstrate a salutary action of the CA extract on wound healing, and suggest that this may be due to mitogenic and motogenic promotion of dermal fibroblasts. PMID:15555053

Priya, Kulasekaran S; Arumugam, Gnanamani; Rathinam, Bhuvaneswari; Wells, Alan; Babu, Mary

385

Anti inflammatory activity of an isolated flavonoid fraction from Celosia argentea Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flavonoid fraction from alcoholic extract of the leaves of Celosia argentea L (Amaranthaceae) was investigated for anti-inflammatory activity in animal models. Results of the study revealed that flavonoid possesses significant anti-inflammatory properties when investigated by employing carrageenan induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet induced chronic inflammatory models. The study showed significant dose dependent anti-inflammatory activities in both the

S. Bhujbal; S. Chitlange; Anupama A. Suralkar; B. Shinde; Manohar J. Patil

386

Pattern of anti-HIV dipyranocoumarin expression in callus cultures of Calophyllum inophyllum Linn.  

PubMed

Callus cultures of Calophyllum inophyllum were established using seed, nodal/ internodal and leaf explants on WPM basal medium supplemented with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid), and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) in different combinations and concentrations with the view to study the influence of hormones on callus induction and the pattern of expression of dipyranocoumarins including anti-HIV, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors inophyllum B and P in callus cultures. 96.01% seed explants, 87.50% nodal/internodal explants and 86.66% leaf explants were converted into calluses when inoculated on WPM supplemented with IBA 4.0 mg l(-1) along with BAP 1.0 mg l(-1), IBA 4.0 mg l(-1), and picloram 6.0 mg l(-1) along with BAP 2.0 mg l(-1), respectively. Calluses induced from seed explants were white, friable and irregular whereas nodal/internodal and leaf explants induced dark brown, nodular and compact calluses. In order to facilitate the rapid quantitative analysis of dipyranocoumarins under study, a novel HPLC method capable of separating all six dipyranocoumarins in a single isocratic run has been optimized. Quantitative HPLC analysis of callus extracts revealed that highest inophyllum B (40.59 mg 100g callus(-1)) was expressed in callus induced from seed explant on medium containing 2.0 mg l(-1) indole-3-butyric acid, while highest inophyllum P (141.35 mg 100g callus(-1)) was estimated in seed callus induced on medium containing 2.0 mg l(-1) indole-3-butyric acid along with BAP 1.0 mg l(-1). PMID:17601621

Pawar, Kiran D; Joshi, Swati P; Bhide, Sunil R; Thengane, Shubhada R

2007-05-06

387

Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of roots of Murraya koenigii (Linn.) Spreng. (Rutaceae)  

PubMed Central

Murraya koenigii, family Rutaceae, commonly known as Curry leaf plant is a highly valued plant for its medicinal value and characteristic aroma. The plant is a rich source of carbazole alkaloids. The petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of roots of the plant were screened for phytochemical properties and antimicrobial activity for Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, steroids and flavonoids in the root extracts of the plant. The study shows that all the extracts possess remarkable antibacterial activity. Additionally, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts also had antifungal activity.

Vats, Manisha; Singh, Harneet; Sardana, Satish

2011-01-01

388

Antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. leaves and calyces extracts in rats.  

PubMed

Antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activities of the extracts of leaves and calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were investigated by studying their in vitro inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation and in vivo effects on cholesterol induced hyperlipidemia. Highest antioxidant activity was exhibited by ethanolic extract of calyces followed by ethanolic extract of leaves followed by aqueous extract of leaves of H. sabdariffa. In cholesterol induced hyperlipidemic model, groups of rats treated with extracts of calyces and leaves of H. sabdariffa showed a significant decrease in the serum TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, TAG values alongwith an increase in serum HDL-C levels. The treated groups also showed significant decrease in the atherogenic index, LDL-C: HDL-C risk ratios, and in the levels of SGOT, SGPT and ALP activities compared to cholesterol induced hyperlipidemic control group. Significant antihyperlipidemic activity was shown by ethanolic extract of calyces, followed by ethanolic extract of leaves. It was observed from the histopathological findings that rats fed with H. sabdariffa extracts showed decrease in granular degeneration caused by cholesterol feedings. Results suggest that the ethanolic extracts of calyces and leaves of H. sabdarifa containing polyphenols and flavanols possess significant antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activities. PMID:19382724

Ochani, Pooja C; D'Mello, Priscilla

2009-04-01

389

Toxic effects of oral administration of extracts of dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. (Malvaceae).  

PubMed

The effects of a 90-day oral administration of water and alcohol extracts of dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa were evaluated in albino rats. Haematological, biochemical and histopathological changes were monitored every 30 days.The death of the animals was preceded by a severe loss in weight, accompanied with diarrhoea in animals on the 2000 mg/kg dose. There was an increase in food intake (g) per kg body weight per day in the aqueous (A) and ethanol (E) 300 mg/kg extract groups. Significant reductions in the erythrocyte count with no difference in total leucocyte count were observed. The activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was enhanced by the administration of aqueous and 50% ethanol extract with a significant increase in its level at higher doses (p < 0.05). Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatinine levels were significantly affected by all the extracts at the different dose levels. However, aqueous extracts exhibited a significant increase in creatinine levels (p < 0.05) at higher doses. The cholesterol levels were generally not significantly affected by the extracts. No significant histopathological changes were observed, although there was a significant reduction in the weight of the spleen of the animals administered with ethanol and water extracts when compared with the control (p < 0.01). Other organs were of the same relative weight. PMID:19003943

Fakeye, Titilayo O; Pal, Anirban; Bawankule, D U; Yadav, N P; Khanuja, S P S

2009-03-01

390

MINERAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS PARTS OF CISSUS QUADRANGULARIS LINN  

PubMed Central

Ash, minerals and biochemical contents were determined in various parts of root, stem and leaf of Cissus quadrangularis. The maximum ash content was observed in the root. The maximum concentration of carbohydrate and protein in the root and phosphorus, iron, calcium and lipids in the stem were observed.

Udayakumar, R.; Sundaran, M.; Krishna, Raghuram

2004-01-01

391

Lytic bacteriophages specific to Flavobacterium columnare rescue catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn.) from columnaris disease.  

PubMed

This investigation was aimed to find out appropriate strategy against antibiotic resistant bacterial fish pathogen, F. columnare. This pathogen was found persistently associated with fishes causing columnaris disease and ensuing mass mortality in hatchery and culture system of Sub - Himalayan region. Nine lytic F. columnare phages (FCP1 - FCP9) specific to its fifteen isolates were isolated from the water and bottom sediments of various geo-climatic regions of North India. The F. columnare phage FCP1 (made of hexagonal head and non contractile long tail belonging to family Podovariedae, a member of DNA virus) exhibited broader host range to lyse 9 out of 15 isolates of F. columnare. Therapeutic ability of FCP1 phage was assessed in C. batrachus inoculated intramuscularly (im) with virulent bacterial isolate FC8 and post inoculated (PI) with FCP1 phage (@ 10(8) : 10(6):: cfu : pfu) through intramuscular (im), immersion (bath) and oral (phage impregnated feed) treatment. Significant (p < 0.001) reduction (less than 10(-3) cfu ml(-1)) in host bacterium in the sera, gill, liver and kidney of challenged fishes was noted after 6 hr of phage treatment. Quantum of phage played a significant role in bringing down bacterial population as in the sera of dose 1 (@ 4.55 x 10(6) pfu ml(-1)) and dose 2 (@ 9.15 x 10(6) pfu ml(-1)) treated fishes mean log10 cfu value reduced by 3 logs (58.39%) and 5 logs (73.77%) at 96 hr, respectively. Phage treatment led to disappearance of gross symptoms, negative bacteriological test, detectable phage and 100% survival in experimentally infected C. batrachus. Result of this study provides evidence of profound lytic impact of FCP1 phage and represents its interesting therapeutic importance against antibiotic resistant F. columnare. PMID:21882649

Prasad, Yogendra; Arpana; Kumar, Dinesh; Sharma, A K

2011-03-01

392

Ethanolic extract of Piper betle Linn. leaves reduces nociception via modulation of arachidonic acid pathway  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the peripheral analgesic effect of Piper betle leaf extract (PBE) along with establishing its putative mechanism of action. Materials and Methods: Male Swiss albino mice after pre-treatment (1 h) with different doses of PBE were injected 0.8% (v/v) acetic acid i.p.; the onset and number of writhes were noted up to 15 min. To evaluate the mechanism of action, the murine peritoneal exudate was incubated with PBE for 1 h, followed by exposure to arachidonic acid (AA) and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by flow cytometry using 2’,7’-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. Results: PBE in a dose dependent manner significantly reduced acetic acid induced writhing response in mice (P < 0.001). In peritoneal exudates, PBE significantly inhibited AA induced generation of ROS, P < 0.01. Conclusions: The present study indicates that PBE has promising analgesic activity, worthy of future pharmacological consideration.

De, Soumita; Maroo, Niteeka; Saha, Piu; Hazra, Samik; Chatterjee, Mitali

2013-01-01

393

Hepatoprotective effects of Solanum nigrum Linn extract against CCl 4-iduced oxidative damage in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solanum nigrum L. (SN) is an herbal plant that has been used as hepatoprotective and anti-inflammation agent in Chinese medicine. In this study, the protective effects of water extract of SN (SNE) against liver damage were evaluated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced chronic hepatotoxicity in rats. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were orally fed with SNE (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0gkg?1 bw) along with

Hui-Mei Lin; Hsien-Chun Tseng; Chau-Jong Wang; Jin-Jin Lin; Chia-Wen Lo; Fen-Pi Chou

2008-01-01

394

Hepatoprotective properties of Caesalpinia sappan Linn. heartwood on carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity.  

PubMed

Aim of the study was to investigate the methanol and aqueous extracts of heartwood of C. sappan for its hepatoprotective activity against CCl4 induced toxicity in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes and animals. Freshly isolated rat hepatocytes were exposed to CCl4 (1%) along with/without various concentrations of methanolic and aqueous extract of C. sappan (1000-800 microg/ml) and the levels of selected liver enzymes were estimated. Antihepatotoxic effect of methanolic extract was observed in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes at concentrations 1000-800 microg/ml and was found to be similar to that of standard drug silymarin. Wistar strain albino rat model was used for the investigation of in vivo hepatoprotective properties of aqueous and methanolic extract of C. sappan (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight). Liver damage was induced by ip administration of CCl4 (30%) suspended in olive oil (1 ml/kg body weight). Both the tested extracts showed potent hepatoprotective activity at 200 mg/kg body weight test dose which was comparable with that of the standard silymarin used in similar test dose. The methanolic and aqueous extract was able to restore the biochemical levels to normal which were altered due to CCl4 intoxication in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes and also in animals. PMID:21506498

Srilakshmi, V Sathya; Vijayan, P; Raj, P Vasanth; Dhanaraj, S A; Chandrashekhar, H Raghu

2010-09-01

395

Pharmacognostic studies on ‘Sappan’ ( Caesalpinia sappan Linn.) and its market samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Sappan’ is considered a valuable astringent, alterative tonic, emmenagogue, blood purifier and anticoagulant. It strengthens\\u000a the bones and teeth and is also used in boils and eruptions. The drug is ascribed to the heartwood ofCaesalpinia sappan. Accordingly, a detailed pharmacognosy ofCaesalpinia sappan was carried out and eight market samples of ‘Sappan’ procured from various parts of the country were evaluated

Shanta Mehrotra; H P Sharma

1984-01-01

396

Antioxidant and Tumor Cell Suppression Potential of Premna Serratifolia Linn Leaf  

PubMed Central

Herbal and natural products have been used in folk medicine for centuries throughout the world. There has been renewed interest in screening higher plants for novel biologically active compounds, particularly those that effectively intervene in human ailments in the field of chronic diseases. The present study has been taken up to evaluate the free radical scavenging activity and tumor cell suppression potential of Premna serratifolia leaf in various in vitro model systems. The methanolic extract of P. serratifolia leaf was obtained by soxhlet extraction method. The superoxide radical scavenging activity, nitric oxide radical, hydroxyl radical, DPPH radical and ABTS radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation were determined. The tumor cell suppression cell potential was determined in three different cancer cell lines MCF7 (breast cancer), HepG2 (liver cancer) and A549 (lung cancer) by SRB assay. The study showed that the methanolic extract of P. serratifolia was having free radical scavenging activity against superoxide radical, nitric oxide radical, hydroxyl radical, DPPH radical, ABTS radical and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The IC50 value showed the efficacy was dose dependent. The test extract showed cytotoxic activity against MCF7, HepG2 and A549 cells. The GI50, TGI and LC50 values were determined against each cell line and compared with standard drug Adriamycin. The present study proved the free radical scavenging activity and tumor cell suppression potential of P. serratifolia leaf in the selective in vitro model systems. The further study has to be carried out in the aspects of isolation of functional molecules of the extract.

Selvam, Thamizh N.; Venkatakrishnan, V.; Damodar, Kumar S.; Elumalai, Preetham

2012-01-01

397

An ethanolic extract of leaves of Piper betle (Paan) Linn mediates its antileishmanial activity via apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unprecedented increase in the incidence of unresponsiveness to antimonial compounds has highlighted the urgent need to\\u000a develop new antileishmanial agents. The leaves of Piper betle (locally known as Paan) have long been in use in the Indian indigenous system of medicine for its antimicrobial properties\\u000a but its antileishmanial potential has not been studied. Accordingly, an ethanolic extract of leaves

Avijit Sarkar; Rupashree Sen; Piu Saha; Sudipto Ganguly; Goutam Mandal; Mitali Chatterjee

2008-01-01

398

Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of serial extracts from leaves of Aegle marmelos (Linn.).  

PubMed

The in vitro antimicrobial activity of serial petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts from leaves of Aegle mawmelos were investigated against bacterial and fungal species. All the extracts exhibited broad spectrum antimicrobial activity with zones of inhibition ranging from 10 to 22 mm against bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, beta Streptococcus haemolyticus group A, Proteus mimrabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aenrginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, fungi: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Aspergillusflavus. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the minimal microbicidal concentrations (MMC) of the extracts ranged from 1.25 to 10 mg/mL and 2.5 to 20 mg/mL respectively. Assessment of antibacterial efficacy of different extract revealed that Staphylococcus aureus, beta Streptococcus haemolyticus group A, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli showed high susceptibility to petroleum ether extract. Proteus mimrabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae showed high susceptibility to chloroform extract and Salmonella typhi showed high susceptibility to methanol extract. Petroleum ether extract exhibited the highest antifungal efficacy against all tested fungal species. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phenols, sterols in petroleum ether and chloroform extracts, whereas tannins, flavonoids, coumarins, saponins and triterpenoids in methanol extract. The ability of the leaf extracts of Aegle manmelos to inhibit growth of bacteria and fungi is an indication of its broad spectrum antimicrobial activity which could be a potential source for development of novel bioactive antimicrobial agents. PMID:21928713

Kothari, Saroj; Mishra, Vaibhav; Bharat, Savita; Tonpay, Shrinivas D

399

Mechanical properties of cumin seed ( Cuminum cyminum linn.) under compressive loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The moisture dependent mechanical properties of cumin seed were measured in terms of average compressive force, seed rupture force, deformation and energy absorbed. The cumin seeds in the moisture content range of 7 to 22% d.b. were quasi-statically loaded in the horizontal and vertical orientations. The force increased with increasing deformation and decreasing moisture content in the horizontal and vertical

K. K. Singh; T. K. Goswami

1998-01-01

400

Mineral and biochemical analysis of various parts of cissus quadrangularis linn.  

PubMed

Ash, minerals and biochemical contents were determined in various parts of root, stem and leaf of Cissus quadrangularis. The maximum ash content was observed in the root. The maximum concentration of carbohydrate and protein in the root and phosphorus, iron, calcium and lipids in the stem were observed. PMID:22557157

Udayakumar, R; Sundaran, M; Krishna, Raghuram

2004-10-01

401

Antiosteoporotic effect of ethanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on ovariectomized rat.  

PubMed

Ethanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis was evaluated for its anti-osteoporotic activity in ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis at two different dose levels of 500 and 750 mg/kg per day. Healthy female albino rats were divided into five groups of six animals each. First group was sham operated and served as control. All the remaining groups were ovariectomized. Group 2 was fed with equivolume of saline and served as ovariectomized control. Groups 3-5 were orally treated with Raloxifen (5.4 mg/kg) and ethanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis (500 and 750 mg/kg), respectively. The findings assessed on the basis of biomechanical, biochemical and histopathological parameters showed that the ethanol extract of the plant had a definite antiosteoporotic effect. PMID:14611887

Shirwaikar, Annie; Khan, Saleemulla; Malini, S

2003-12-01

402

Malathion exposure induces the endocrine disruption and growth retardation in the catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn.).  

PubMed

Many hormones are known for their role in the regulation of metabolic activities and somatic growth in fishes. The present study deals with the effects of malathion (an organophosphorous pesticide) on the levels of metabolic hormones that are responsible for promotion of somatic and ovarian growth of the freshwater catfish, Clarias batrachus. Malathion treatment for thirty days drastically reduced the food intake and body weight of fish. These fish also exhibited a great avoidance to food. Exposure of catfish to malathion reduced the levels of thyroxine (T(4)), triiodothyronine (T(3)), growth hormone (GH), insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I), testosterone (T) and estradiol-17? (E(2)) in a dose dependent manner during all the studied reproductive phases, in general, except that malathion increased the level of GH during the quiescence phase. Significant reduction in muscle and hepatic protein content also occurred in the malathion-treated fish. Malathion exposure induced lipolysis too in the liver and muscle. The results thus support that malathion treatment disrupts the endocrine functions and the olfactory sensation responsible for food intake and gustatory feeding behavior, which ultimately leads to retardation of fish growth. PMID:23174696

Lal, Bechan; Sarang, Mukesh Kumar; Kumar, Pankaj

2012-11-19

403

Analgesic and anticonvulsant effects of saponin isolated from the leaves of Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn. in mice.  

PubMed

Saponin (SN1) isolated from C. infortunatum leaves in doses of 30, 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg, ip provided 36.28, 60.47, 90.71, 100% protection respectively from writhing induced by 1.2% v/v acetic acid. In hot plate method, SN1 not only produced analgesia in mice but also potentiated the analgesic action of pentazocine and aspirin. The anticonvulsant activity was tested by leptazol-induced seizures. SN1 decreased the duration of seizures and gave protection in a dose dependent manner against leptazol-induced convulsions. The results suggest that saponin has significant analgesic and anticonvulsant effects. PMID:19957887

Pal, Dilipkumar; Sannigrahi, Santanu; Mazumder, Upal Kanti

2009-09-01

404

Review of the phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties of Alstonia Scholaris Linn. R. Br (Saptaparna).  

PubMed

The use of ethnornedical information has immensely contributed to health care, and scientific studies have shown that the evaluation of traditionally used medicines may provide leads towards effective drug discovery. Since antiquity, Alstonia scholaris connmonly known as devil's tree has been used for the treatment of many human ailments. Literature suggests that Alstonia scholaris is useful in treating malaria, abdominal disorders, dyspepsia, leprosy, skin diseases, tumors, chronic and foul ulcers, asthma, bronchitis, helminthiasis, agalactia, and debility. Preclinical studies have shown that it possesses anti-microbial, anti-diarrhoeal, anti-plasmodial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory hepatoprotective, nootrophic, anti-stress, anti-fertility, immunomodulatory, analgesic, anti-ulcer, wound healing, anti-cancer, chemopreventive, radiation protection, radiation sensitization, and chemosensitization activities. The diverse pharmacological observations are supposed to be due to the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and phenolic acids. The bark and leaf extract when administered orally did not induce lethality or adverse affects at the limit doses of 2 000 mg/kg body weight. However when administered intraperitoneally at high concentrations, the extract showed systemic and developmental toxicities. This review addresses the experimentally authenticated facts and also suggests the need for research on chemical and pharmacological properties of Alstonia scholaris. PMID:22457172

Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

2012-03-28

405

Glycyrrhiza glabra (Linn.) and Lavandula officinalis (L.) cell suspension cultures-based biotransformation of ?-artemether.  

PubMed

The biotransformation of ?-artemether (1) by cell suspension cultures of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Lavandula officinalis is reported here for the first time. The major biotransformed product appeared as a grayish-blue color spot on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with transparent crystal-like texture. Based on its infrared (IR) and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, the product was characterized as a tetrahydrofuran (THF)-acetate derivative (2). The highest conversion efficiencies of 57 and 60% were obtained when 8-9-day-old cell suspensions of G. glabra and L. officinalis were respectively fed with 4-7 mg of compound 1 in 40 ml of medium per culture and the cells were harvested after 2-5 days of incubation. The addition of compound 1 at the beginning of the culture cycle caused severe growth depression in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in poor bioconversion efficiency of ~25% at 2-5 mg/culture dose only. PMID:21544685

Patel, Suman; Gaur, Rashmi; Upadhyaya, Mohita; Mathur, Archana; Mathur, Ajay K; Bhakuni, Rajendra S

2011-05-05

406

Rationale of using Vinca minor Linne dry extract phytocomplex as a vincamine's oral bioavailability enhancer.  

PubMed

Vincamine is a poorly soluble potent neuroprotector and cerebral vasodilator, used for the treatment for CNS disorders. In some cases, the bioavailability of pure compounds is strongly influenced by the co-administration of other constituents, and in some cases, the so called 'phytocomplex' may act as enhancer of absorption of selected phytochemicals. In this paper, the oral bioavailability of vincamine when administered as a standardised Vinca minor L. leaf dry extract rather than pure indole alkaloid is demonstrated to be higher. The chosen alkaloid-enriched and standardised dry extract was widely characterised by means of HPLC-MS, PXRD, DSC, XPS, (13)C and (15)N solid-state NMR (SSNMR) using pure vincamine as a matter of comparison. Then, the in vitro dissolution performances of the two products and their in vivo bioavailability in rats were evaluated. The sevenfold improvement in oral bioavailability of the dry extract with respect to the pure vincamine was ascribed to interactions between the indole alkaloid and the corollary of ingredients of the dry extract, giving rise to the protonation of the alkaloid vincamine, thus enhancing its dissolution in physiological fluids. Present data demonstrate that alkaloid vincamine administered as a whole plant extract has a higher bioavailability compared to the pure chemical compound. PMID:23238273

Hasa, Dritan; Perissutti, Beatrice; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Chierotti, Michele R; Gobetto, Roberto; Grabnar, Iztok; Cepek, Cinzia; Voinovich, Dario

2012-12-11

407

Antinociceptive activity of Sesbania sesban (Linn) wood extracts, a preliminary study.  

PubMed

The wood of the plant Sesbania sesban, is reported to have antinociceptive activity. To validate its folk use in the treatment of pain, wood was extracted successively with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and water to produce respective extracts. The extracts (50 and 100 mg/kg, ip) were screened for antinociceptive activity using hot plate test and acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice. Petroleum ether, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts showed significant and dose-dependent activity in both the tests. In order to find out the involvement of opioid receptors, effect of naloxone (1 mg/kg, sc) on the action of extracts was checked in hot plate test. Petroleum ether, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts showed significant and dose dependant antinociceptive activity. The antinociceptive action of the extracts was blocked by naloxone, suggesting involvement of opioid receptors in the action. PMID:22279943

Nirmal, S A; Bairagi, J H; Patil, A N; Pal, S C; Upasani, C D; Mandal, S C

2012-01-01

408

Polyphenolic Contents and Antioxidant Potential of Stem Bark Extracts from Jatropha curcas (Linn)  

PubMed Central

We assessed the polyphenolic contents and antioxidant potential of the aqueous, ethanol and methanol stem bark extracts of Jatropha curcas. The total phenol, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthocyanidin contents of the extracts were evaluated to determine their effect on the antioxidant property of this plant, using standard phytochemical methods. The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts of the plant were also assessed against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2?-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing, nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anion, (O2?) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) using spectroscopic methods and results were compared with that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid as standards. The concentrations of different classes of phenolic compounds were higher in methanol and ethanol extracts compared to aqueous extracts. There was correlation between total phenol, total flavonoids, total flavonol and total proanthocyanidins (r = 0.996, 0.978, 0.908, and 0.985) respectively. There was correlations between the amount of phenolic compounds and percentage inhibition of DPPH radicals scavenging activity of the extract (r = 0.98). Findings from the present study indicated that J. curcas is a potential source of natural antioxidants and may be a good candidate for pharmaceutical plant based products.

Igbinosa, Osamuyimen O.; Igbinosa, Isoken H.; Chigor, Vincent N.; Uzunuigbe, Olohirere E.; Oyedemi, Sunday O.; Odjadjare, Emmanuel E.; Okoh, Anthony I.; Igbinosa, Etinosa O.

2011-01-01

409

Biogeographical variation in community response to root allelochemistry: novel weapons and exotic invasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Centaurea diffusa is one of the most destructive invasive weeds,in the western USA and allelopathy appears to contribute to its invasiveness (Callaway & Aschehoug 2000). Here we identify a chemical from the root exudates of C. diffusa, 8-hydroxyquinoline, not previously reported as a natural product, and find that it varies biogeographically in its natural concentration and its effect as

Jorge M. Vivanco; Harsh P. Bais; Frank R. Stermitz; Giles C. Thelen; Ragan M. Callaway

2004-01-01

410

Carbon dioxide fixation by epidermal and mesophyll tissues of Tulipa and Commelina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rates of 14CO2 fixation by epidermal tissue of Tulipa gesneriana (tulip) and Commelina diffusa are only slightly higher in the light than in the dark while in mesophyl tissues rates are much greater in the light. The first products of 14CO2 fixation by epidermal tissue of Tulipa gesneriana and C. diffusa in the light and dark are malate and aspartate.

C. M. Willmer; P. Dittrich

1974-01-01

411

Effect of Herbal Molluscicides and Their Combinations on the Reproduction of the Snail Lymnaea acuminata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of sublethal treatment (20 and 60% of LC 50\\/24 h) of the plant-derived molluscicides Annona squamosa Linn. and Lawsonia inermis Linn. and their combinations with other herbal molluscicides, such as Cedrus deodara Roxb, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, bulb powder of Allium sativum Linn. and Polianthes tuberosa Linn., and oleoresin of Zingiber officinale Rosc., and acetogenins extracted from the seeds

Amrita Singh; D. K. Singh

2004-01-01

412

Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of some Thai culinary plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant capacity of red and green bird chili (Capsicum frutescens Linn.), red and green chili spur pepper (Capsicum annuum Linn. var. acuminatum Fingerh.), red and white holy basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn.), garlic (Allium sativum Linn.), and pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Decne.), which have been normally used in Thailand as food ingredients, was estimated by three different methods: ferric reducing antioxidant

Wiwat Wangcharoen; Wallaya Morasuk

413

Experimental Studies of Mimicry in some North American Butterflies  

Microsoft Academic Search

EXPERIMENTS have been conducted to test the effectiveness of presumed mimicry in two groups of North American butterflies : (1) Danaus plexippus Linn. (model) and Limenitis archippus archippus Cram. (mimic), the monarch and viceroy respectively ; (2) Battus philenor Linn. (model) and Papilio troilus Linn., P. polyxenes Stoll, and P. glaucus Linn. (black female) (mimics).

Jane Van Zandt Brower

1957-01-01

414

Coccidia of Brazilian edentates: Eimeria cyclopei n.sp. from the silky anteater, Cyclopes didactylus (Linn.) and Eimeria choloepi n.sp. from the two-toed sloth, Choloepus didactylus (Linn.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000aEimeria cyclopei n.sp. is described from the silky anteater, Cyclopes didactylus, from Pará State, north Brazil. Undifferentiated oocysts, passed in the faeces, complete sporulation in seven days at 26 to 28°C. Oocysts are ellipsoidal to sub-spherical, with a mean size of 28.1 × 23.6 m: the wall is 1.5 to 2.0 m thick, apparently with an outer thin, colourless

Ralph Lainson; Jeffrey J. Shaw

1982-01-01

415

In Vitro Cytotoxic, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities of Mesua beccariana (Baill.) Kosterm., Mesua ferrea Linn., and Mesua congestiflora Extracts.  

PubMed

The in vitro cytotoxicity tests on the extracts of Mesua beccariana, M. ferrea, and M. congestiflora against Raji, SNU-1, HeLa, LS-174T, NCI-H23, SK-MEL-28, Hep-G2, IMR-32, and K562 were achieved using MTT assay. The methanol extracts of Mesua beccariana showed its potency towards the proliferation of B-lymphoma cell (Raji). In addition, only the nonpolar to semipolar extracts (hexane to ethyl acetate) of the three Mesua species indicated cytotoxic effects on the tested panel of human cancer cell lines. Antioxidant assays were evaluated using DPPH scavenging radical assay and Folin-Ciocalteu method. The methanol extracts of M. beccariana and M. ferrea showed high antioxidant activities with low EC50 values of 12.70 and 9.77? ? g/mL, respectively, which are comparable to that of ascorbic acid (EC50?=?5.62? ? g/mL). Antibacterial tests were carried out using four Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria on Mesua beccariana extracts. All the extracts showed negative results in the inhibition of Gram negative bacteria. Nevertheless, methanol extracts showed some activities against Gram positive bacteria which are Bacillus cereus, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), while the hexane extract also contributed some activities towards Bacillus cereus. PMID:24089682

Teh, Soek Sin; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Mah, Siau Hui; Yong, Yoke Keong; Lim, Yang Mooi; Rahmani, Mawardi; Ahmad, Zuraini

2013-09-08

416

The effect of methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica Linn. on the growth of clinical isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei.  

PubMed

Burkholderia pseudomallei (Pseudomonas pseudomallei) causes melioidosis, a life-threatening infection common among paddy cultivators in Southeast Asian countries. No plant materials have been investigated for its activity against B. pseudomallei. Therefore, a preliminary study was carried out using disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods to evaluate the anti-B. pseudomallei activity of five Indian medicinal plants documented to have been used for several ailments in the ancient Indian scriptures. The leaf extracts of Tamarindus indica, Lawsonia inermis, and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, the rhizome extracts of Curcuma longa and the seeds of Vigna radiata were prepared using methanol as solvent. The disc diffusion and MIC methods were used to assess the anti-B. pseudomallei activity of the plants tested. Only methanol leaf extracts of Tamarindus indica exhibited anti-B. pseudomallei activity starting from disc concentrations of 150 mug by the disc diffusion method. The other plants failed to show any zone of inhibition. MIC assay revealed that the MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) for B. pseudomallei were 125 mug/ml. Our preliminary finding showed that methanolic extracts of Tamarindus indica has anti-B. pseudomallei inhibitory potentials under in vitro conditions. Extensive animal studies may be required before investigating the role of Tamarindus indica for treating melioidosis. PMID:16518004

Muthu, Shankar Esaki; Nandakumar, Subhadra; Rao, Usha Anand

2005-12-01

417

Henna (Lawsonia inermis Linn.) inducing haemolysis among G6PD-deficient newborns. A new clinical observation.  

PubMed

Over a 10-year period, 15 glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient male newborns were admitted to Al-Jahra Hospital with acute haemolysis a few days after applying henna dye over the body, which is a unique Bedouin tribal practice to celebrate the arrival of the first-born boy. Laboratory investigations revealed significant anaemia, reticulocytosis and indirect hyperbilirubinaemia among the index newborns as compared with controls (p < 0.001). The mean (SD) haemoglobin concentration in index patients was 113.4 (13.4) g/l vs 171.2 (11.2) g/l in controls, reticulocytic count 13.8% (4.2%) vs 1.4% (0.74%), and indirect bilirubin 382.8 (58.7) mumol/l vs 63.7 (61.4) mumol/l. G6PD-deficient newborns with haemolysis linked to henna application had delayed age at presentation and a higher reticulocytic count and hyperbilirubinaemia compared with non-henna-induced haemolysis (p < 0.05). Percutaneous henna absorption is well recognized and clinical findings support the harmful effect of henna on G6PD-deficient red blood cells. A local health education programme has been established to prevent the use of henna dye in infancy. PMID:8985525

Kandil, H H; al-Ghanem, M M; Sarwat, M A; al-Thallab, F S

1996-12-01

418

Phase II clinical trial on effect of the long turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn) on healing of peptic ulcer.  

PubMed

The study examined patients who had symptoms indicating peptic ulcer. Forty-five patients, 24 males and 21 females, aged between 16-60 years were included in the study. Twenty-five patients, 18 males and 7 females, were endoscoped, their ulcers located in the duodenal bulb and gastric (angulus). The ulcer sizes varied between 0.5 to 1.5 cm in diameter. Capsule-filled turmeric was given orally in the dose of 2 capsules (300 mg each) five times daily, one half to an hour before meals, at 16.00 hours and at bedtime continuously. The result after 4 weeks of treatment showed that ulcers were absent in 48% or 12 cases (DU 9 and GU 3). Eighteen cases (DU 13 and GU 5) had absence of ulcer after 8 weeks of treatment. Nineteen cases (76%) (DU 14 and GU 5) did not have ulcers after 12 weeks of treatment. The rest, 20 cases were not found to have ulcers and some were not endoscoped. They appeared to have erosions, gastritis and dyspepsia. They received turmeric capsules for 4 weeks of treatment. The abdominal pain and discomfort satisfactorily subsided in the first and second week. They could take normal foods instead of soft meals. Blood chemistry and hematology of all 54 patients had no significant changes in hematological system, liver and renal functions both before and after treatment. PMID:11485087

Prucksunand, C; Indrasukhsri, B; Leethochawalit, M; Hungspreugs, K

2001-03-01

419

In vivo toxicity of dimethoate on proteins and transaminases in the liver tissue of fresh water fish Clarias batrachus (Linn)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental pollution due to extensive usage of the pesticides to enhance farm productivity and inexpensive control of vector-borne diseases without proper management has far reaclfing effect on the survival potential of aquatic animals. Some of these toxic chemicals may persist in the environment for long periods, often unchanged. These chemicals, apart from affecting the target pests also affects the nontarget

G. Begum; S. Vijayaraghavan

1995-01-01

420

Effect of Punica granatum Linn. (flowers) on blood glucose level in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Gulnar farsi’, male abortive flowers of Punica granatum L., are used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Unani medicine. Oral administration of its aqueous-ethanolic (50%, v\\/v) extract led to significant blood glucose lowering effect in normal, glucose-fed hyperglycaemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. This effect of the extract was maximum at 400 mg\\/kg, b.w.

M. A Jafri; M Aslam; Kalim Javed; Surender Singh

2000-01-01

421

Sem study on the invasion of Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow) on silkworm, shape Bombyx mori Linn. causing green muscardine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mature conidia of Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow) germinate on the larval integument of Bombyx mori within 24 h and penetrate\\u000a the cuticle within 36 h after inoculation at 24.0 1.0 C temperature and 80.0 5.0% relative humidity. The penetrating\\u000a hyphae multiply by budding and septa formation in the hemocoel, and the larva succumbs to the infection 6–7 days post-treatment.\\u000a The

Vineet Kumar; G. P. Singh; Virendra Kumar; A. M. Babu; R. K. Datta

1997-01-01

422

Dynamics of feeding responses in Pieris brassicae Linn. as a function of chemosensory input : a behavioural, ultrastructural and electrophysiological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study of contact chemoreception in Pieris brassicae L. is divided into three major parts, viz. 1. behavioural analyses, 2. the identification and description of sense organs and 3. investigations concerning the sensory physiology. In a separate section some of the results were put into a coherent discussion.In the behavioural studies the food selection behaviour was investigated as well

W. C. Ma

1972-01-01

423

Evaluation of larvicidal nature of fleshy fruit wall of Momordica charantia Linn. (family: cucurbitaceae) in the management of mosquitoes.  

PubMed

In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant-based insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticides, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal potential of the various fruit wall extracts of Momordica charantia (cucurbitaceae) against two species of mosquito vectors, Anophels stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. Among the extracts tested, petroleum ether (LC(50) = 27.60; 17.22 ppm and 41.36; 15.62 ppm) extract was found more effective than carbon tetrachloride (LC(50) = 49.58; 16.15 ppm and 80.61; 27.64 ppm) and methanol (LC(50) = 142.82; 95.98 ppm and 1,057.49; 579.93 ppm) extracts towards anopheline and culicine larvae after 24 and 48 h of exposure respectively. Thus, all fruit wall extracts of M. charantia are toxic to both the larval species. M. charantia may, therefore, act as an effective biolarvicide against mosquitoes in the future. PMID:19760435

Maurya, Prejwltta; Sharma, Preeti; Mohan, Lalit; Batabyal, Lata; Srivastava, C N

2009-09-18

424

A constructed wetland model for synthetic reactive dye wastewater treatment by narrow-leaved cattails (Typha angustifolia Linn.).  

PubMed

Textile wastewater is contaminated by reactive dye causing unattractive levels of wastewater color, high pH and high salt content when discharged into public water systems. Decolorization of textile wastewater by plant, phytoremediation, is an alternative, sustainable method which is suitable for long term operation. Narrow-leaved cattails are one species of wetland plant with efficiency for decolorizing and remediating textile wastewater. In addition, chemical oxygen demand (COD) can be lowered and dye residue can be removed. The plant also showed a good salt tolerance even after being exposed to a salt solution for 15 days. The narrow-leaved cattails were set up in a constructed wetland model with a vertical flow system operating from bottom to top for synthetic reactive dye wastewater (SRDW) removal. Narrow-leaved cattails could achieve the removal of SRDW at approximately 0.8 g(SRDW) m(-2) day(-1). Decolorization of SRDW by this plant was approximately 60%. The advantage of this method is that it is suitable for textile wastewater management and improvement of wetland. These plants could lower COD, remove dye, sodium and total dissolved solids (TDS) whereas other biological and chemical methods could not remove TDS and dye in the same time. These results suggested that the spongy cell structure of this plant has the ability to absorb large amounts of water and nutrients. Physico-chemical analysis revealed increasing amounts of sulfur, silicon, iron and calcium in the plant leafs and roots after exposure to wastewater. Proteins or amide groups in the plant might help in textile dye removal. Regarding decolorization, this plant accumulates dye in the intercellular space and still grows in this SRDW condition. Hence, it can be noted here that narrow-leaved cattails are efficient for textile dye wastewater treatment. PMID:19759459

Nilratnisakorn, S; Thiravetyan, P; Nakbanpote, W

2009-01-01

425

Effect of azadirachtin on haematological and biochemical parameters of Argulus-infested goldfish Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758).  

PubMed

Argulosis hampers aquaculture production and alters the host physiology and growth. Azadirachtin is recognized as a potential antiparasitic agent against Argulus sp. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of different concentration of azadirachtin solution on haematological and serum biochemical parameters of Argulus-infested goldfish Carassius auratus. Ninety Argulus-infested goldfish were randomly divided into six equal groups. Fish of group 1-5 were treated with azadirachtin solution through bath of 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L(-1) as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively, and group 6 was exposed to 2% DMSO solution without azadirachtin and considered as negative control T0(-). Along with six treatment groups, a positive control T0(+) of healthy goldfish free from Argulus infestation was also maintained. Parasitic mortality was evaluated after 3 days of consecutive bath treatment. After 7 days of post-treatment, the blood and serum were drawn from each of the treatment groups and haematological and serum biochemical parameters were evaluated. Total leucocyte count (TLC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), blood glucose, total protein (TP), globulin, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) were significantly (p < 0.05) high in negative control group when compared with positive control group. It could be concluded that Argulus infestation altered marked haematological and serum biochemical parameters. However, in treated groups complete elimination of Argulus was found in T4 and T5 groups. Also significant (p < 0.05) reduction in haematological and serum biochemical parameters of all the treatment groups were recorded in comparison with negative control group. In addition, T4 and T5 groups showed significantly (p < 0.05) high superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, total erythrocyte count (TEC) and haemoglobin (Hb). However, higher mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), blood glucose and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in T5 group revealed that higher concentration of azadirachtin have notable effects on activity of vital tissues function and physiology of the host. Argulus spp. from infested goldfish could be eliminated using bath treatment with solution of azadirachtin having concentration of 15 mg L(-1) and that also shifted haematological and serum biochemical parameters towards homeostasis. PMID:23090629

Kumar, Saurav; Raman, R P; Kumar, Kundan; Pandey, P K; Kumar, Neeraj; Mallesh, B; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Abhay

2012-10-23

426

In vitro and in vivo antiparasitic activity of Azadirachtin against Argulus spp. in Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758).  

PubMed

Argulus is one of the most common and predominant ectoparasites which cause serious parasitic disease and is a potent carrier of viruses and bacteria in the ornamental fish industry. In recent years, organic (herbs)-based medicines are widely used to cure the disease, and neem (Sarbaroganibarini) medicine is very popular and effective throughout the world. The present study was conducted to find the effects of Azadirachtin against Argulus spp. on Carassius auratus under in vitro and in vivo conditions. The 96-h median lethal concentration (LC(50)) for Azadirachtin EC 25% against Carassius auratus was found to be 82.115 mg L(-1). The antiparasitic activity test under in vitro and in vivo was evaluated at 1 (T1), 5 (T2), 10 (T3), 15 (T4) and 20 mg L(-1) (T5) to treat Argulus for 3 h and 72 h, respectively. In vitro effect of Azadirachtin solution led to 100% mortality of Argulus at 20 and 15 mg L(-1) for 2.5 and 3 h, respectively. Whereas, under in vivo test, the 100% antiparasitic efficacy of Azadirachtin solution was found at 15 and 20 mg L(-1) for 72 and 48 h, respectively. The EC(50) for 48 h was 20 mg L(-1), and thus, therapeutic index is 4.10. The results provided evidence that Azadirachtin can be used as a potential agent for controlling Argulus. PMID:22042504

Kumar, Saurav; Raman, R P; Kumar, Kundan; Pandey, P K; Kumar, Neeraj; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Abhay

2011-11-01

427

Antiparasitic efficacy of piperine against Argulus spp. on Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758): in vitro and in vivo study.  

PubMed

Argulus are common aquatic ectoparasites that create one of the major threats to aquaculture due to absence of suitable therapy. Piperine, a bioactive component of Piper longum, has medicinal properties and acts as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antifungal, considering eco-friendliness and cost-effectiveness. The present study aimed to evaluate antiparasitic effect of piperine against an ectoparasite Argulus spp. on Carassius auratus. Artificial Argulus infection was carried out by cohabitation method, and the fishes were selected for in vivo study when intensity of Argulus infestation was observed to be 15-20 Argulus per fish. In vitro and in vivo studies were performed at different concentration 1.0 (T (1)), 3.0 (T (2)), 5.0 (T (3)), 7.0 (T (4)), and 9.0 mg l(-1) (T (5)) of piperine solution to treat Argulus for 3 and 72 h, respectively. The acute toxicity test for piperine EC 97 % against goldfish was performed for 96 h. The 96 h median lethal concentration (LC(50)) for piperine was found to be 52.64 mg l(-1). In vitro effect of piperine solution led to 100 % mortality of Argulus at 9.0 mg l(-1) in 3 h whereas, under in vivo test, the 100 % antiparasitic efficacy of piperine solution was found at 9.0 mg l(-1) in 48 h. The EC(50) for 48 h was 9.0 mg l(-1), and thus, therapeutic index is 5.8. The results revealed that piperine at a concentration of 9.0 mg l(-1) can be used as a potential natural agent for controlling Argulus parasite. PMID:22864920

Kumar, Abhay; Raman, R P; Kumar, Kundan; Pandey, P K; Kumar, Vikash; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Saurav

2012-08-05

428

Antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of Amaranthus viridis Linn in alloxan induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of whole plant of Amaranthus viridis (MEAV) in alloxan (ALX) induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was confirmed after 5 days of single intraperitoneal injection of ALX (140 mg/kg) in albino Wister rats. MEAV (200 and 400 mg/kg) and glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o.) orally administered daily for 15 days, blood was withdrawn for glucose determination on 0, 1, 10 and 15 days respectively. On the 15th day, overnight fasted rats were sacrificed and blood was collected for the determination of high density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), total glycerides (TG) and total proteins (TP). For in vivo antioxidant activity of MEAV, liver tissues were homogenized and the assay of lipid peroxidation and was measured as Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and total thiols (TT) were performed in control, ALX and MEAV treated rats. MEAV at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg showed significant reduction is blood glucose, lipid profiles and significant improvement in MDA, GSH, CAT and TT when compared to diabetic control group. In vitro ?-amylase inhibition activity of MEAV was also studied. We concluded that MEAV possess antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities. PMID:20643534

Ashok Kumar, B S; Lakshman, K; Jayaveea, K N; Sheshadri Shekar, D; Saleemulla Khan; Thippeswamy, B S; Veerapur, Veeresh P

2010-07-18

429

Evaluation of hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects of Datura metel (Linn.) seeds in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seed powder of Datura metel was tested for its hypoglycemic activity in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Graded doses (25, 50 and 75mg\\/kg, p.o.) of the seed powder when given to both normal and diabetic rats produced significant reduction in blood glucose at the 8h. The effect was found to be dose dependent with all treatments at the doses

B Krishna Murthy; S Nammi; M. K Kota; R. V Krishna Rao; N Koteswara Rao; A Annapurna

2004-01-01

430

Antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of Amaranthus viridis Linn in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of whole plant of Amaranthus viridis (MEAV) in alloxan (ALX) induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was confirmed after 5 days of single intraperitoneal injection of ALX (140mg\\/kg) in albino Wister rats. MEAV (200 and 400mg\\/kg) and glibenclamide (10mg\\/kg, p.o.) orally administered daily for 15

B. S. Ashok Kumar; K. Lakshman; K. N. Jayaveea; D. Sheshadri Shekar; Saleemulla Khan; B. S. Thippeswamy; Veeresh P. Veerapur

2010-01-01

431

Protective effect of Cassia glauca Linn. on the serum glucose and hepatic enzymes level in streptozotocin induced NIDDM in rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective effect of Cassia glauca leaf extracts on normal and non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in rats. The study was further carried out to investigate the effect of different fractions of the active extract of Cassia glauca, on normal and NIDDM rats, and the effect of active fraction on the blood glucose and hepatic enzymes level. Methods: Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) at a dose of 90mg/kg, i.p. in neonates. Different extracts of cassia glauca (100mg/kg, p.o.) were administered to the diabetic rats. Acetone extract was found to lower the serum glucose level significantly in diabetic rats. Further, the acetone extract was subjected to column chromatography and four fractions were obtained on the basis of TLC. All the four fractions (100mg/kg, p.o.) were administered to the diabetic rats. Fraction 1 (F1) caused the maximum reduction in the blood glucose level. The results of the test were compared with the standard antidiabetic drug glibenclamide (5mg/kg, p.o.). Results: Fraction 1 of acetone extract caused a significant reduction in the levels of hepatic enzyme Aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), creatine kinase (CK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Conclusion: Improvement in the blood sugar level and normalization of liver functions by Cassia glauca indicates that the plant has hepatoprotective potential, along with antidiabetic activity, and it provides a scientific rationale for the use of Cassia glauca as an antidiabetic agent.

Farswan, Mamta; Mazumder, Papiya Mitra; Percha, V.

2009-01-01

432

Ameliorative Effect of Fructo-Oligosaccharide Rich Extract of Orchis latifolia Linn. on Sexual Dysfunction in Hyperglycemic Male Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most prevalent modern degenerative disease that has been implicated for deleterious effects\\u000a on male reproductive function possibly due to an increased oxidative stress. Fructans and fructooligosaccharides (FOS’s) which\\u000a are also considered as functional food components, have been reported to produce a benevolent effect against streptozotocin\\u000a induced oxidative stress. The aqueous extract of Orchis latifolia

Mayank Thakur; Vinod Kumar Dixit

2008-01-01

433

Efficacy of herbal essential oils as insecticide against Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) and Anopheles dirus (Peyton and Harrison).  

PubMed

The essential oils of Cananga odorata (ylang ylang), Citrus sinensis (orange), Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass), Cymbopogon nardus (citronella grass), Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus), Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove), were tested for their insecticide activity against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles dirus using the WHO standard susceptibility test. These were applied in soybean oil at dose of 1%, 5% and 10% (w/v). C. citratus had the KT, values against the three mosquito species tested but the knockdown rates (at 10, 30 and 60 minutes) were lower than some essential oils. C. citratus oil had high insecticidal activity against Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. dirus, with LC50 values of < 0.1, 2.22 and < 0.1%, respectively. Ten percent C. citratus gave the highest mortality rates (100%) 24 hours after application. This study demonstrates the potential for the essential oil of C. citratus to be used as an insecticide against 3 species of mosquitoes. PMID:22299433

Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Soonwera, Mayura

2011-09-01

434

Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

Background & objectives: In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activity of P. dulce plant extracts was studied in the range of 60 to 450 mg/l against early third instar larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The ovicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 100 to 750 mg/l under the laboratory conditions. Mean per cent hatchability of the eggs were observed after 48 h post treatment. Results: All leaf and seed extracts showed moderate larvicidal and ovicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of P. dulce against the larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti with the LC 50 and LC 90 values 145.43, 155.78 mg/l and 251.23, 279.73 mg/l, respectively. The per cent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Zero hatchability was observed at 400 mg/l for leaf methanol extract and 625 mg/l for seed methanol extract of P. dulce against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seed extracts have low potency against the two mosquitoes. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. PMID:24056567

Govindarajan, M; Rajeswary, M; Sivakumar, R

2013-07-01

435

Preliminary studies on antihepatotoxic effect of Physalis peruviana Linn. (Solanaceae) against carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver injury in rats.  

PubMed

Physalis peruviana is a medicinal herb used by Muthuvan tribes and Tamilian native who reside in the shola forest regions of Kerala, India against jaundice. It was evaluated for its antihepatotoxic, phytochemical analysis and the acute toxicity of the most promising extract in rats. Water, ethanol and hexane extracts of Physalis peruviana (500mg/kg body weight) showed antihepatotoxic activities against CCl(4) induced hepatotoxicity. The ethanol and hexane extracts showed moderate activity compared to water extract, which showed activity at a low dose of 125mg/kg. The results were judged from the serum marker enzymes. Histopathological changes induced by CCl(4) were also significantly reduced by the extract. Further, the extract administration to rats resulted in an increase in hepatic GSH and decrease in MDA. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of various components in the crude aqueous extract. The extract was found to be devoid of any conspicuous acute toxicity in rats. PMID:17161567

Arun, M; Asha, V V

2006-11-11

436

Sem study on the invasion of Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow) on silkworm, Bombyx mori Linn. causing green muscardine.  

PubMed

The mature conidia of Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow) germinate on the larval integument of Bombyx mori within 24 h and penetrate the cuticle within 36 h after inoculation at 24.0 +/- 1.0 degrees C temperature and 80.0 +/- 5.0% relative humidity. The penetrating hyphae multiply by budding and septa formation in the hemocoel, and the larva succumbs to the infection 6-7 days post-treatment. The hyphal bodies elongate and become interwoven with other hyphae forming a mycelial complex across different tissues. The ramification of hyphae along the epidermal tissue results in larval mummification in 7-8 days. Numerous conidiophores emerge, producing a confluent white fungal mat over the entire surface of the host larva by 9-10 days. Pale green conidia develop, making the larval body green. Life cycle of the fungus on B. mori is completed in 10-11 days. PMID:16283452

Kumar, V; Singh, G P; Kumar, V; Babu, A M; Datta, R K

1997-01-01

437

Evaluation of Eupatorium cannabinum Linn. oil in enhancement of shelf life of mango fruits from fungal rotting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils extracted from 17 higher plants belonging to different families were screened against Botryodiplodia theobromae and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing stem end rot disease and anthracnose disease in mango respectively. The essential oil of Eupatorium cannabinum was found to be fungitoxic in nature against both the mango-rotting fungi. Eupatorium oil was standardized through physico-chemical and fungitoxic properties. Gas Liquid Chromatography

R. K. Dubey; Rajesh Kumar; Ć Jaya; N. K. Dubey

2007-01-01

438

The study of aqueous extract of Ficus religiosa Linn. on cytokine TNF-? in type 2 diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Chronic systemic inflammation is an early process in pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Hence the present study was aimed to investigate the effect of traditionally known plant Ficus religiosa on elevated glucose and inflammatory marker namely tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? in type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: Type 2 diabetes was induced by administering streptozotocin (90 mg/kg, i.p.) in neonatal rat model. Aqueous extract of F. religiosa at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg was given orally to desired group of animals for a period of 4 weeks. After 4 weeks of drug treatment, parameters such as fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose and TNF-? in serum were analyzed. Results: Aqueous extract of F. religiosa at both dose levels i.e., 100 and 200 mg/kg decreased the elevated glucose and TNF-? in type 2 diabetic rats. The extract at 200 mg/kg had more pronounced effect. Conclusion: Modulation of cytokine TNF-? by the aqueous extract of F. religiosa indicates that the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory property of the plant is related with its potential anti-diabetic activity.

Kirana, H.; Jali, M. V.; Srinivasan, B. P.

2011-01-01

439

Larvicidal and oviposition activity of Cassia obtusifolia Linn (Family: Leguminosae) leaf extract against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

The ethanolic leaf extract of Cassia obtusifolia was investigated for their larvicidal and oviposition deterrence effects against Anopheles stephensi. Concentrations ranging from 25 to 125 mg/l were assessed at 24 h post-treatment against late third instar larvae. The leaf extract had significant larvicidal effect with LC(50) and LC(90) values were 52.2 and 108.7 mg/l, respectively. In oviposition behaviour study, four different concentrations ranging from 100 to 400 mg/l were studied against gravid female mosquitoes. The results of oviposition study indicated that the leaf extract showed concentration dependent oviposition deterrent activity. At higher concentration (400 mg/l) showed 92.5% effective repellency against oviposition, followed by 300, 200 and 100 mg/l showed 87.2%, 83.0% and 75.5%, respectively. The larvicidal and oviposition deterrent effect of C. obtusifolia against A. stephensi make this plant product promising as an alternative to synthetic insecticide in mosquito control programs. PMID:18818950

Rajkumar, S; Jebanesan, A

2008-09-26

440

Effect of pretreatment of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf extract against subacute CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

CCl4 alone treatment (0.lml of liquid paraffin/100g body weight, ip) for 7 days followed by 0.l ml of CCl4 (in liquid parafiin/100g body weight, ip) from day 8 till day 14, caused a 16 fold increase in lipid peroxidation and a 50% reduction in catalase and glutathione reductase in liver tissue of rats accompanied by an increase in the activities of transaminases. alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and gamma - glutamyl transpeptidase in serum as compared to liquid paraffin treated control. Pretreatment of ethanolic leaf extract of C. fistula (500mg/kg body weight/day for 7 days) followed by CCl4 treatment (0.1 ml/100g body weight from day 8 till day 14) completely reversed back lipid peroxidation and the activities of catalase and glutathione reductase in the liver tissue towards normalcy. This treatment also reversed the elevated levels of the enzymes in the serum. Ethanolic leaf extract alone treatment did not produce any change in all the parameters studied. The results suggest antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties of C. fistula during its pretreatment against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:15991578

Pradeep, K; Mohan, C Victor Raj; Anand, K Gobi; Karthikeyan, S

2005-06-01

441

Geology and geothermal resources of the Santiam Pass area of the Oregon Cascade Range, Deschutes, Jefferson and Linn Counties, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This open-file report presents the results of the Santiam Pass drilling program. The first phase of this program was to compile all available geological, geophysical and geothermal data for the Santiam Pass area and select a drill site on the basis of these data (see Priest and others, 1987a), A summary of the drilling operations and costs associated with the

Hill

1992-01-01

442

Geology and geothermal resources of the Santiam Pass area of the Oregon Cascade Range, Deschutes, Jefferson and Linn Counties, Oregon  

SciTech Connect

This open-file report presents the results of the Santiam Pass drilling program. The first phase of this program was to compile all available geological, geophysical and geothermal data for the Santiam Pass area and select a drill site on the basis of these data (see Priest and others, 1987a), A summary of the drilling operations and costs associated with the project are presented in chapter 1 by Hill and Benoit. An Overview of the geology of the Santiam Pass area is presented by Hill and Priest in chapter 2. Geologic mapping and isotopic age determinations in the Santiam Pass-Mount Jefferson area completed since 1987 are summarized in chapter 2. One of the more important conclusions reached in chapter 2 is that a minimum of 2 km vertical displacement has occurred in the High Cascade graben in the Santiam Pass area. The petrology of the Santiam Pass drill core is presented by Hill in chapter 3. Most of the major volcanic units in the core have been analyzed for major, minor, and trace element abundances and have been studied petrographically. Three K-Ar ages are interpreted in conjunction with the magnetostratigraphy of the core to show that the oldest rocks in the core are approximately 1.8 Ma. Geothermal and geophysical data collected from the Santiam Pass well are presented by Blackwell in chapter 4. The Santiam Pass well failed to penetrate beneath the zone of lateral groundwater flow associated with highly permeable Quaternary volcanic rocks. Calculated geothermal gradients range from about 50[degree]C/km at depth 700-900 m, to roughly 110[degree]C/km from 900 m to the bottom of the well at 929 m. Heat-flow values for the bottom part of the hole bracket the regional average for the High Cascades. Blackwell concludes that heat flow along the High Cascades axis is equal to or higher than along the western edge of the High Cascades.

Hill, B.E. (ed.)

1992-10-01

443

Desmodium gangeticum (Linn.) DC. exhibits antihypertrophic effect in isoproterenol-induced cardiomyoblasts via amelioration of oxidative stress and mitochondrial alterations.  

PubMed

Cardiac hypertrophy occurs in response to increased workload, such as hypertension or valvular heart disease. Oxidative stress has been implicated in cardiac hypertrophy and in its transition to heart failure. This study was taken up with the objective to evaluate the role of oxidative stress in cardiomyoblast hypertrophy and its modulation by Desmodium gangeticum (DG) that has been traditionally used in Ayurveda, an Indian system of medicine. The methanolic root extract was analyzed for total phenolic content and tested for antioxidant potential. Hypertrophy was induced by exposing H9c2 cell line to ?-adrenergic receptor agonist, isoproterenol (ISO), for 96 hours. Analyses of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial transmembrane potential ([INCREMENT]?m), and integrity of permeability transition were performed in ISO as well as Desmodium and ISO-cotreated cells. The results demonstrated potent free radical scavenging activity of DG. Cell line studies showed significant increase in ROS generation, dissipation of [INCREMENT]?m, and permeability transition pore opening in ISO-treated cells. Desmodium was found to attenuate ISO-induced hypertrophy by reduction of ROS generation, restoration of [INCREMENT]?m, and prevention of permeability transition pore opening. This study is the first documentation of the modulatory effect of DG on cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:23052030

Sankar, Vandana; Pangayarselvi, Balasubramaniam; Prathapan, Ayyappan; Raghu, Kozhiparambil Gopalan

2013-01-01

444

Effects of biochemical alteration in animal model after short-term exposure of Jatropha curcas (Linn) leaf extract.  

PubMed

This study aims to evaluate potential toxic effect of Jatropha curcas leaves methanol extract on laboratory rats as well as determine its LD50. A total of 80 male Wistar rats were used as the experimental animals, 40 for LD50 determination and the other 40 for toxicity study. Based on the pretest that was done in order to establish a range of toxicity, 4 dosages (86.00, 58.00, 46.00, and 34.0?kg/body weight) were chosen. The rats were randomly assigned into four groups with 10 rats in each group. Rats in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were given 0?mg/kg, 500?mg/kg, 1000?mg/kg, and 2000?mg/kg body weight of Jatropha curcas extract, respectively, by oral intubation for 21 days. Thereafter, clinical signs, change in body weight, toxicity symptoms, and biochemical parameters were obtained. The LD50 at 95% confidence limits for rats was 46.0?mg/kg body weight (44.95-52.69?mg/kg body mass). There was no clinical and biochemical signs of toxicity when the extract was administered at 500, 1000, and 2000?mg/kg body weight, respectively (P > 0.05). Results obtained from this study suggest that liver, kidney, and haematological system of rats tolerated methanolic leave extract of Jatropha curcas at a certain concentration. PMID:23781161

Igbinosa, Osamuyimen O; Oviasogie, Efosa F; Igbinosa, Etinosa O; Igene, Otibhor; Igbinosa, Isoken H; Idemudia, Omoruyi G

2013-05-27

445

Decolorization of basic, direct and reactive dyes by pre-treated narrow-leaved cattail ( Typha angustifolia Linn.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of basic, direct and reactive dye removal from water by narrow-leaved cattail (NLC) powder treated with distilled water (DW-NLC), 37% formaldehyde+0.2 N sulfuric acid (FH-NLC), or 0.1 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH-NLC) at various pH levels (3, 5, 7, and 9) was tested. Desorption of the adsorbed dyes was also investigated. The type of NLC treatment and pH of

Duangrat Inthorn; Siritham Singhtho; Paitip Thiravetyan; Eakalak Khan

2004-01-01

446

Synthetic reactive dye wastewater treatment by narrow-leaved cattails ( Typha angustifolia Linn.): Effects of dye, salinity and metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Narrow-leaved cattails were studied in synthetic reactive dye wastewater (SRDW) under caustic conditions. The effects of the toxic dye were expressed in terms of relative plant growth rate and the appearance of symptoms such as necrosis, and chronic or acute wilting. The dye toxicity was 25.33 mg l?1 which was close to approximate the concentration of dye residue from the textile

S. Nilratnisakorn; P. Thiravetyan; W. Nakbanpote

2007-01-01

447

MODULATING EFFECT OF SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM LINN. NUT EXTRACT ON GLUCOSE METABOLIZING ENZYMES IN AFLATOXIN B 1INDUCED EXPERIMENTAL HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The herbal remedy extended bySemecarpus anacardiumnut extract agains t Aflatoxin B1mediated hepatocellular carcinoma was established by studies on carbohydrate metabol