Science.gov

Sample records for boiler burning straw

  1. Burning wastes in steam boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Feeley, F.G.

    1984-01-01

    A review of the advantages and precautions in the burning of a wide variety of industrial wastes is presented. The reasons for burning industrial wastes are economics and pollution control. The incineration of the following industrial wastes is discussed: pulp cooking liquors, wood wastes, coffee grounds and other biomass, pitch and tars, gases, and miscellaneous solid fuels. Boiler cycles and types are also discussed. (RCK)

  2. Gaseous and particulate emission profiles during controlled rice straw burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchis, E.; Ferrer, M.; Calvet, S.; Coscollà, C.; Yusà, V.; Cambra-López, M.

    2014-12-01

    Burning of rice straw can emit considerable amounts of atmospheric pollutants. We evaluated the effect of rice straw moisture content (5%, 10%, and 20%) on the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) and on the organic and inorganic constituents of released particulate matter (PM): dioxins, heavy metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Four burning tests were conducted per moisture treatment using the open chamber method. Additionally, combustion characteristics, including burning stages, durations, temperature, and relative humidity, were recorded. Burning tests showed flaming and smoldering stages were significantly longer in 20% moisture treatment (P < 0.05) compared with the rest. The amount of burned straw and ashes decreased with increasing straw moisture content (P < 0.001). Carbon dioxide was the main product obtained during combustion with emission values ranging from 692 g CO2 kg dry straw-1 (10% moisture content) to 835 g CO2 kg dry straw-1 (20% moisture content). Emission factors for PM were the highest in 20% moisture treatment (P < 0.005). Fine PM (PM2.5) accounted for more than 60% of total PM mass. Emission factors for dioxins increased with straw moisture content, being the highest in 20% moisture treatment, although showing a wide variability among burning tests (P > 0.05). Emissions factors for heavy metals were low and similar among moisture treatments (P > 0.05). Emission factors for individual PAHs were generally higher in 20% moisture treatment. Overall, emission factors of atmospheric pollutants measured in our study were higher in the 20% moisture content. This difference could be attributed to the incomplete combustion at higher levels of rice straw moisture content. According to our results, rice straw burning should be done after straw drying and under minimal moisture conditions to lower pollutant emission levels.

  3. Boiler efficiency calculation for multiple fuel burning boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Khodabakhsh, F.; Munukutla, S.; Clary, A.T.

    1996-12-31

    A rigorous method based on the output/loss approach is developed for calculating the coal flow rate for multiple fuel burning boilers. It is assumed that the ultimate analyses of all the fuels are known. In addition, it is assumed that the flow rates of all the fuels with the exception of coal are known. The calculations are performed iteratively, with the first iteration taking into consideration coal as the only fuel. The results converge to the correct answer after a few number of iterations, typically four or five.

  4. [Observational study of black carbon aerosol during straw-burning period].

    PubMed

    Wu, De-xia; Wei, Qing-nong; Wei, Jian-li; Liu, Shi-sheng; Feng, Wei-wei

    2008-12-01

    Black carbon aerosol (BC) has been measured at three sites in Hefei City during May and June, 2007. Analyzing these real-time BC data, the concentration characters and the sources of black carbon aerosol can be found. The average concentrations of BC in normal period and straw-burning period are 4.85 microg/m3 and 8.38 microg/m3, respectively. The significant difference shows that the straw-burning is one of the main sources. The correlation coefficients between daily average concentration of BC and PM10 is 0.74, while the values of BC/PM10 in normal period and straw-burning period are 4.7% and 7.9%, respectively. Through comparing to the BC concentration during straw-burning period in 2004, the results indicated that pollution of BC has reduced after straw-burning was forbidden by the government. PMID:19256359

  5. Contributions of open crop straw burning emissions to PM2.5 concentrations in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Libo; Liu, Yongqiang; Hao, Lu

    2016-01-01

    PM2.5 inventories have been developed in major Chinese cities to quantify the contributions from various sources based on annual emissions. This approach, however, could substantially underestimate the contribution from open straw burning during the harvest or other active burning periods. This study examines this issue by estimating monthly and annual straw-burning PM2.5 emissions in China and comparing with them with the corresponding emissions from other anthropogenic sources. Annually burned straw PM2.5 emissions during 1997 ∼ 2013 for 31 China provinces were calculated based on crop and related burning information for 12 months based on satellite detection of agricultural burning. Annual emissions from other anthropogenic sources were collected from the literature and allocated to monthly values using air pollution index measurements. The results indicate that the annual PM2.5 emissions from open straw burning in China were 1.036 m tons. The monthly PM2.5 emission ratios of straw burning to other anthropogenic sources during June, the harvest period for many regions, were several times larger than the annual ratios at national, regional, and province levels, suggesting that, in contrast to annual emissions that were used in the PM2.5 inventories in Chinese cities to assess the contributions from other sources, monthly emissions should be used to assess the contributions from straw burning during the harvest or other active burning periods. The larger contributions from straw burning shown in this study also suggest that substantial reduction of open field straw burning would dramatically improve air quality in many Chinese regions during the harvest or other active burning periods.

  6. Interaction mechanisms of organic contaminants with burned straw ash charcoal.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenhai; Chen, Baoliang

    2010-01-01

    Black carbons (e.g., charcoal) have a great impact on the transport of organic contaminants in soil and water because of its strong affinity and ubiquity in the environment. To further elucidate their interaction mechanism, sorption of polar (p-nitrotoluene, m-dinitrobenzene and nitrobenzene) and nonpolar (naphthalene) aromatic contaminants to burned straw ash charcoal under different de-ashed treatments were investigated. The sorption isotherms fitted well with Freundlich equation, and the Freundlich N values were all around 0.31-0.38, being independent of the sorbate properties and sorbent types. After sequential removal of ashes by acid treatments (HCl and HCl-HF), both adsorption and partition were enhanced due to the enrichment of charcoal component. The separated contribution of adsorption and partition to total sorption were quantified. The effective carbon content in ash charcoal functioned as adsorption sites, partition phases, and hybrid regions with adsorption and partition were conceptualized and calculated. The hybrid regions increased obviously after de-ashed treatment. The linear relationships of Freundlich N values with the charring-temperature of charcoal or biochar (the charred byproduct in biomass pyrolysis) were observed based on the current study and the cited publications which included 15 different temperatures (100-850 degrees C), 10 kinds of precursors of charcoal/biochar, and 10 organic sorbates. PMID:21235190

  7. Bridging the experience gap: Burning tires in a utility boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Denhof, D.

    1993-03-01

    For many communities, a solution to waste tire management problems may be no farther than the nearest coal-fired utility or industrial boiler. Sending waste tires to be used as a fuel in existing boilers is one way communities can prevent tires from creating problems in landfills, or from growing into nuisances and potentially dangerous stockpiles while waiting for recycling markets to develop. For utilities, using tire-derived fuel can help control fuel costs and conserve coal. When the State of Wisconsin sought alternatives to disposing of waste tires in its landfills, Wisconsin Power & Light came forward to meet the challenge. Now, the electric utility is shredding and burning more than 1 million tires a year at its coal-fired generating station in southern Wisconsin.

  8. Rice straw burning in Southeast Asia as a source of CO and COS to the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Ba Cuong; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Putaud, Jean-Philippe

    1994-08-01

    Atmospheric samples were collected during rice straw burning at four different locations in Viet Nam during the dry and wet seasons (March 1992, February 1993, and August 1992, respectively). The samples were analyzed for CO2, CO, and COS. The emission ratios relative to CO2 for rice straw burning during the dry season were comparable to those observed on samples collected during burning of savanna in Africa or forest in the United States. On the contrary, during the wet season the emission ratios for CO and COS relative to CO2 were 2 to 10 times higher. With these emission ratios and estimates of rice production from southeastern Asia, we estimated that burning of rice straw emits annually about 2.1 Tmol of CO (25 Tg C) and 0.6 Gmol of COS (0.02 Tg S) to the atmosphere. Taking into account these new results, CO and COS fluxes from biomass burning could be reevaluated by 5-21% and 10-67%, respectively, with regard to previous estimates of these gas emissions from all biomass burning activities.

  9. Tracers and impact of open burning of rice straw residues on PM in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viana, M.; López, J. M.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; García-Gacio, D.; Blanco-Heras, G.; López-Mahía, P.; Piñeiro-Iglesias, M.; Sanz, M. J.; Sanz, F.; Chi, X.; Maenhaut, W.

    Biomass burning emissions of rice straw residues may be carried out near urban agglomerations and may present a potential health risk for the population. Thus, tracers of these emissions should be clearly identified. We present a detailed chemical characterisation, including inorganic and organic tracer species, of PM 10 aerosol at a rural site located close to the urban agglomeration of Valencia (Eastern Spain) during the rice straw burning season in 2006. Our results show that open burning of rice field residues increased daily PM 10 concentrations on a regional scale (approximately 17,400 ha) by 10-15 μg m -3 on average, with a maximum of 30 μg m -3 on peak episodic days. PM 10 levels during open burning events were especially enriched in oxalate, fluoranthene, C 31n-alkane, levoglucosan, K, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), oleic acid, Cl -, Na, NO 3-, and V. High enrichments were also obtained for Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd, and Na, probably as a consequence of the bioaccumulation of trace metals in rice straw and the influence of sea spray and brackish waters on the crops. Anthropogenic contributions from lubricant oil residues, probably from agricultural machinery or nearby traffic emissions, were also detected in the levels of n-alkanes (C 19). The high Carbon Preference Index (CPI; >3.5) obtained for n-alkanoic acids confirmed their mostly biogenic origin. Organic tracers were more sensitive than inorganic species to the influence of indirect (regional scale or long-range transported) biomass burning emissions. Source apportionment of the PM 10 mass by means of PCA-MLRA showed that rice straw burning reached maximum contributions up to 40% of the PM 10 mass during peak episodes.

  10. Spatial estimation of PM2.5 emissions from straw open burning in Tianjin from 2001 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guanyi; Guan, Yanan; Tong, Ling; Yan, Beibei; Hou, Li'an

    2015-12-01

    Straw open burning in suburban areas contributes to an important proportion of air pollution threatening air quality of neighbouring highways and airports. This paper presents the characteristics of straw open burning-derived air pollution to understand its impact mechanism and take effective control measurements. In this study, PM2.5 emissions inventory from straw open burning was established at a high spatial resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° in Tianjin using geographic information systems (GIS) for the period of 2001-2012. PM2.5 emissions increased by 209.15% in the past nine years at an annual average rate of 23.24% from 2.95 Gg in 2002 to 6.17 Gg in 2010. WuQing District covering 13.17% of Tianjin land contributed to PM2.5 emission of 28.21% of total PM2.5 emissions from straw open burning.

  11. Conversion of KVGM-100-150 boilers to cyclone-swirl burning of gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shtym, K. A.; Solov'eva, T. A.

    2015-03-01

    Heating sources of Vladivostok with boilers reconstructed in 2011 to gas burning is presented. The historical reference of the experience of boiler conversion to cyclone-swirl technology of burning of fuel oil and gas is given. Stages of the primary furnace and boiler upgrading are shown. Taking BKZ 75-16 and BKZ-120-100 boilers as examples, the principal differences of the swirl type of fuel burning from the burner type are demonstrated. Data of the KVGM-100-150 MTs boiler with cyclone-swirl burning of gas and fuel oil is represented. The mathematical model developed for the primary furnace with the 65 MW capacity gives detailed explanations to the features of mixing in the combustion chamber of the primary furnace, which substantiate conditions and places of the fuel injection. The practical result is supported by test data obtained on the operating equipment. To enhance the effectiveness of fuel consumption on six converted KVGM-100-150 MTs boilers, the convective section was restructured and the water circulation circuit was optimized. Comparative analysis of estimated and operating characteristics showed the efficiency increment. The application of cyclone-swirl technology made it possible to increase the effectiveness of the KVGM-100-150 boiler and improve its environmental indicators.

  12. 40 CFR 266.110 - Waiver of DRE trial burn for boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the total heat input to the maximum design heat input; (c) Primary fuels and hazardous waste fuels... HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.110..., and that do not burn hazardous waste containing (or derived from) EPA Hazardous Waste Nos. F020,...

  13. 40 CFR 266.110 - Waiver of DRE trial burn for boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the total heat input to the maximum design heat input; (c) Primary fuels and hazardous waste fuels... HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.110..., and that do not burn hazardous waste containing (or derived from) EPA Hazardous Waste Nos. F020,...

  14. 40 CFR 266.110 - Waiver of DRE trial burn for boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the total heat input to the maximum design heat input; (c) Primary fuels and hazardous waste fuels... HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.110..., and that do not burn hazardous waste containing (or derived from) EPA Hazardous Waste Nos. F020,...

  15. 40 CFR 270.66 - Permits for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 124.10(c)(1)(ix) and to the appropriate units of State and local government as set forth in 40 CFR... furnaces burning hazardous waste. 270.66 Section 270.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROGRAM Special Forms of Permits § 270.66 Permits for boilers and industrial furnaces burning...

  16. SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Annex Volume C. Boiler emission report. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    The Solvent-Refined Coal (SRC) test burn program was conducted at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) located in Bruceton, Pa. One of the objectives of the study was to determine the feasibility of burning SRC fuels in boilers set up for fuel oil firing and to characterize emissions. Testing was conducted on the 700-hp oil-fired boiler used for research projects. No. 6 fuel oil was used for baseline data comparison, and the following SRC fuels were tested: SRC Fuel (pulverized SRC), SRC Residual Oil, and SRC-Water Slurry. Uncontrolled particulate emission rates averaged 0.9243 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu for SRC Fuel, 0.1970 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu for SRC Residual Oil, and 0.9085 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu for SRC-Water Slurry. On a lb/10/sup 6/ Btu basis, emissions from SRC Residual Oil averaged 79 and 78%, respectively, lower than the SRC Fuel and SRC-Water Slurry. The lower SRC Residual Oil emissions were due, in part, to the lower ash content of the oil and more efficient combustion. The SRC Fuel had the highest emission rate, but only 2% higher than the SRC-Water Slurry. Each fuel type was tested under variable boiler operating parameters to determine its effect on boiler emissions. The program successfully demonstrated that the SRC fuels could be burned in fuel oil boilers modified to handle SRC fuels. This report details the particulate emission program and results from testing conducted at the boiler outlet located before the mobile precipitator take-off duct. The sampling method was EPA Method 17, which uses an in-stack filter.

  17. Conversion of a recovery boiler to bark burning

    SciTech Connect

    Barsin, J.A.; Pottera, J.; Stewart, G.

    1988-03-01

    Georgia-Pacific (GP) operates a large integrated pulp and paper mill in Crossett, Ark., which produces in excess of 1400 dry tons/day of various grades of bleached kraft paper. Steam generation in the mill is approximately 1.2 million lb/h, which is supplied by a 1500-ton recovery boiler, a 400,000-lb/h wood-waste boiler, and two power boilers. Because GP wanted to minimize its use of natural gas as a boiler fuel and because it had a retired recovery boiler which could be converted, the decision was made to proceed with this fuel conversion product as a means of reducing energy costs per ton of product. This paper also discusses the biomass fuel handling system.

  18. Characterization of gaseous and semi-volatile organic compounds emitted from field burning of rice straw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Tipayarom, Aungsiri; Bich, Thuy Ly; Tipayarom, Danutawat; Simpson, Christopher D.; Hardie, David; Sally Liu, L.-J.

    2015-10-01

    Rice straw (RS) field burning, commonly practiced in Asia, produces large amounts of toxic air pollutants but has not been comprehensively characterized. This study conducted field and laboratory measurements for gaseous pollutants and semi-VOCs (16 PAHs, 16 chlorinated pesticides and 14 PCBs) in RS burning smoke to determine emission factors (EFs) and emission concentration profiles. Paddy burning experiments were done following common practices used by farmers in Southeast Asia and EFs were estimated using the carbon balance method. Laboratory hood experiments simulated burning of dry RS (moisture content ∼ 5%) and normal RS (moisture ∼ 23-30%). Semi-VOCs were analyzed separately in the particulate (PM) and gas phases, and the levels measured in smoke were compared with those in the paddy background and in general ambient air to identify enrichment of the compounds. Lower EFs of all pollutants were obtained for hood burning dry RS as compared to hood burning normal RS. EFs of all detected pollutants in the field burning were higher than hood burning. The EFs of field burning in mg kg-1 RS were 760 for benzene, 230 for toluene, 510 for SO2, 490 for NO2, 260 for total PAHs (88% in gas phase), 0.11 for total PCBs (59% in gas phase) and 0.23 for OCPs (62% in gas phase). The EF of aldehydes determined in the hood experiment was 80-150 mg kg-1 RS. As compared to ambient air, RS smoke had significant enrichment of light PAHs, fluoranthene in PM and acenaphthylene in gas phase. Smoke had a higher proportion of benzene in BTEX than roadside air. Levels of PCBs, OCPs and aldehydes were higher in the burning smoke compared to ambient air, but there was no significant enrichment of particular compounds. This study provides appropriate ranges of EFs for developing emission inventory of RS spread field burning.

  19. Characterization of gaseous and semi-volatile organic compounds emitted from field burning of rice straw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Tipayarom, Aungsiri; Bich, Thuy Ly; Tipayarom, Danutawat; Simpson, Christopher D.; Hardie, David; Sally Liu, L.-J.

    2015-10-01

    Rice straw (RS) field burning, commonly practiced in Asia, produces large amounts of toxic air pollutants but has not been comprehensively characterized. This study conducted field and laboratory measurements for gaseous pollutants and semi-VOCs (16 PAHs, 16 chlorinated pesticides and 14 PCBs) in RS burning smoke to determine emission factors (EFs) and emission concentration profiles. Paddy burning experiments were done following common practices used by farmers in Southeast Asia and EFs were estimated using the carbon balance method. Laboratory hood experiments simulated burning of dry RS (moisture content ˜ 5%) and normal RS (moisture ˜ 23-30%). Semi-VOCs were analyzed separately in the particulate (PM) and gas phases, and the levels measured in smoke were compared with those in the paddy background and in general ambient air to identify enrichment of the compounds. Lower EFs of all pollutants were obtained for hood burning dry RS as compared to hood burning normal RS. EFs of all detected pollutants in the field burning were higher than hood burning. The EFs of field burning in mg kg-1 RS were 760 for benzene, 230 for toluene, 510 for SO2, 490 for NO2, 260 for total PAHs (88% in gas phase), 0.11 for total PCBs (59% in gas phase) and 0.23 for OCPs (62% in gas phase). The EF of aldehydes determined in the hood experiment was 80-150 mg kg-1 RS. As compared to ambient air, RS smoke had significant enrichment of light PAHs, fluoranthene in PM and acenaphthylene in gas phase. Smoke had a higher proportion of benzene in BTEX than roadside air. Levels of PCBs, OCPs and aldehydes were higher in the burning smoke compared to ambient air, but there was no significant enrichment of particular compounds. This study provides appropriate ranges of EFs for developing emission inventory of RS spread field burning.

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSION FROM OPEN BURNING OF RICE STRAW

    PubMed Central

    Oanh, Nguyen Thi Kim; Bich, Thuy Ly; Tipayarom, Danutawat; Manadhar, Bhai R.; Prapat, Pongkiatkul; Simpson, Christopher D.; Liu, L-J Sally

    2010-01-01

    Emission from field burning of crop residue, a common practice in many parts of the world today, has potential effects on air quality, atmosphere and climate. This study provides a comprehensive size and compositional characterization of particulate matter (PM) emission from rice straw (RS) burning using both in situ experiments (11 spread field burning) and laboratory hood experiments (3 pile and 6 spread burning) that were conducted during 2003–2006 in Thailand. The carbon balance and emission ratio method was used to determine PM emission factors (EF) in the field experiments. The obtained EFs varied from field to hood experiments reflecting multiple factors affecting combustion and emission. In the hood experiments, EFs were found to be depending on the burning types (spread or pile), moisture content and the combustion efficiency. In addition, in the field experiments, burning rate and EF were also influenced by weather conditions, i.e. wind. Hood pile burning produced significantly higher EF (20±8 g kg−1 RS) than hood spread burning (4.7±2.2 g kg−1 RS). The majority of PM emitted from the field burning was PM2.5 with EF of 5.1±0.7 g m−2 or 8.3±2.7 g kg−1 RS burned. The coarse PM fraction (PM10-2.5) was mainly generated by fire attention activities and was relatively small, hence the resulting EF of PM10 (9.4±3.5 g kg−1 RS) was not significantly higher than PM2.5. PM size distribution was measured across 8 size ranges (from <0.4 μm to >9.0 μm). The largest fractions of PM, EC and OC were associated with PM1.1. The most significant components in PM2.5 and PM10 include OC, water soluble ions and levoglucosan. Relative abundance of some methoxyphenols (e.g., acetylsyringone), PAHs (e.g., fluoranthene and pyrene), organochlorine pesticides and PCBs may also serve as additional signatures for the PM emission. Presence of these toxic compounds in PM of burning smoke increases the potential toxic effects of the emission. For illustration, an

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSION FROM OPEN BURNING OF RICE STRAW.

    PubMed

    Oanh, Nguyen Thi Kim; Bich, Thuy Ly; Tipayarom, Danutawat; Manadhar, Bhai R; Prapat, Pongkiatkul; Simpson, Christopher D; Liu, L-J Sally

    2011-01-01

    Emission from field burning of crop residue, a common practice in many parts of the world today, has potential effects on air quality, atmosphere and climate. This study provides a comprehensive size and compositional characterization of particulate matter (PM) emission from rice straw (RS) burning using both in situ experiments (11 spread field burning) and laboratory hood experiments (3 pile and 6 spread burning) that were conducted during 2003-2006 in Thailand. The carbon balance and emission ratio method was used to determine PM emission factors (EF) in the field experiments. The obtained EFs varied from field to hood experiments reflecting multiple factors affecting combustion and emission. In the hood experiments, EFs were found to be depending on the burning types (spread or pile), moisture content and the combustion efficiency. In addition, in the field experiments, burning rate and EF were also influenced by weather conditions, i.e. wind. Hood pile burning produced significantly higher EF (20±8 g kg(-1) RS) than hood spread burning (4.7±2.2 g kg(-1) RS). The majority of PM emitted from the field burning was PM(2.5) with EF of 5.1±0.7 g m(-2) or 8.3±2.7 g kg(-1) RS burned. The coarse PM fraction (PM(10-2.5)) was mainly generated by fire attention activities and was relatively small, hence the resulting EF of PM(10) (9.4±3.5 g kg(-1) RS) was not significantly higher than PM(2.5). PM size distribution was measured across 8 size ranges (from <0.4 μm to >9.0 μm). The largest fractions of PM, EC and OC were associated with PM(1.1). The most significant components in PM(2.5) and PM(10) include OC, water soluble ions and levoglucosan. Relative abundance of some methoxyphenols (e.g., acetylsyringone), PAHs (e.g., fluoranthene and pyrene), organochlorine pesticides and PCBs may also serve as additional signatures for the PM emission. Presence of these toxic compounds in PM of burning smoke increases the potential toxic effects of the emission. For

  2. Characterization of particulate matter emission from open burning of rice straw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Ly, Bich Thuy; Tipayarom, Danutawat; Manandhar, Bhai Raja; Prapat, Pongkiatkul; Simpson, Christopher D.; Sally Liu, L.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Emission from field burning of crop residue, a common practice in many parts of the world today, has potential effects on air quality, atmosphere and climate. This study provides a comprehensive size and compositional characterization of particulate matter (PM) emission from rice straw (RS) burning using both in situ experiments (11 spread field burning) and laboratory hood experiments (3 pile and 6 spread burning) that were conducted during 2003-2006 in Thailand. The carbon balance and emission ratio method was used to determine PM emission factors (EF) in the field experiments. The obtained EF varied from field to hood experiments reflecting multiple factors affecting combustion and emission. In the hood experiments, EF were found to be depending on the burning types (spread or pile), moisture content and the combustion efficiency. In addition, in the field experiments, burning rate and EF were also influenced by weather conditions, i.e. wind. Hood pile burning produced significantly higher EF (20 ± 8 g kg -1 RS) than hood spread burning (4.7 ± 2.2 g kg -1 RS). The majority of PM emitted from the field burning was PM 2.5 with EF of 5.1 ± 0.7 g m -2 or 8.3 ± 2.7 g kg -1 RS burned. The coarse PM fraction (PM 10-2.5) was mainly generated by fire attention activities and was relatively small, hence the resulting EF of PM 10 (9.4 ± 3.5 g kg -1 RS) was not significantly higher than PM 2.5. PM size distribution was measured across 8 size ranges (from <0.4 μm to >9.0 μm). The largest fractions of PM, EC and OC were associated with PM 1.1. The most significant components in PM 2.5 and PM 10 include OC, water soluble ions and levoglucosan. Relative abundance of some methoxyphenols (e.g., acetylsyringone), PAHs (e.g., fluoranthene and pyrene), organochlorine pesticides and PCBs may also serve as additional signatures for the PM emission. Presence of these toxic compounds in PM of burning smoke increases the potential toxic effects of the emission. For illustration

  3. 40 CFR 270.22 - Specific part B information requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. 270.22 Section 270.22 Protection of... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. When an owner or operator of a cement... production furnace becomes subject to RCRA permit requirements after October 12, 2005, or when an owner...

  4. 40 CFR 270.22 - Specific part B information requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. 270.22 Section 270.22 Protection of... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. When an owner or operator of a cement... production furnace becomes subject to RCRA permit requirements after October 12, 2005, or when an owner...

  5. 40 CFR 270.22 - Specific part B information requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. 270.22 Section 270.22 Protection of... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. When an owner or operator of a cement... production furnace becomes subject to RCRA permit requirements after October 12, 2005, or when an owner...

  6. 40 CFR 270.22 - Specific part B information requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. 270.22 Section 270.22 Protection of... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. When an owner or operator of a cement... production furnace becomes subject to RCRA permit requirements after October 12, 2005, or when an owner...

  7. 40 CFR 270.22 - Specific part B information requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. 270.22 Section 270.22 Protection of... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. When an owner or operator of a cement... production furnace becomes subject to RCRA permit requirements after October 12, 2005, or when an owner...

  8. OVERFIRE AIR TECHNOLOGY FOR TANGENTIALLY FIRED UTILITY BOILERS BURNING WESTERN U.S. COAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an investigation and evaluation of the effectiveness of overfire air in reducing NOx emissions from tangentially fired boilers burning Western U.S. coal. Results are compared with those obtained during phase II, 'Program for Reduction of NOx from Tange...

  9. Monitoring the impact of straw burning on particulate pollution using satellite and in-situ observations in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, C.

    2015-12-01

    The North China Plain is one of the main grain producing areas of China, but is also a severe straw burning zone. Winter wheat and summer corn harvests in this area usually occur from the beginning of Jun and Oct, respectively. After harvest, farmers usually burn out the remaining straw for convenience. However, straw burning can release a large quantity of air pollutants and can consequently result in a significant deterioration in regional air quality. To monitor the impact of straw burning on particulate pollution, daily MODIS thermal anomaly products (MOD14 and MYD14) were used to identify dates and regions of straw burning. Then the corresponding MODIS AOD products (MOD04 and MYD04) and particulate matter (PM) concentration observations from ground stations were integrated using a geostatistical method. By combining the accurate station-based PM observations and satellite data of well spatial coverage, PM concentration distribution maps were generated. Meanwhile, NCEP reanalysis data were used to obtain the corresponding surface wind pattern maps. Preliminary results show that satellite and station-based observations can indicate the impact of straw burning on PM pollution during harvest time. Air qualities during these times are obviously affected by the straw burning and surface wind field. Moreover, the air quality of the southeast study region is susceptible to the straw burning in adjacent areas due to the characteristic of the terrain.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A SIMPLE INDICATOR FOR MEASURING THE PERFORMANCE OF INCINERATORS, INDUSTRIAL FURNACES, AND BOILERS BURNING HAZARDOUS WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the development of a simple indicator-- Unsatisfied Oxygen Demand (UOD)--for measuring the performance of incinerators, industrial furnaces, and boilers burning hazardous waste. urrent RCRA regulations use destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of the princi...

  11. Straw pellets as fuel in biomass combustion units

    SciTech Connect

    Andreasen, P.; Larsen, M.G.

    1996-12-31

    In order to estimate the suitability of straw pellets as fuel in small combustion units, the Danish Technological Institute accomplished a project including a number of combustion tests in the energy laboratory. The project was part of the effort to reduce the use of fuel oil. The aim of the project was primarily to test straw pellets in small combustion units, including the following: ash/slag conditions when burning straw pellets; emission conditions; other operational consequences; and necessary work performance when using straw pellets. Five types of straw and wood pellets made with different binders and antislag agents were tested as fuel in five different types of boilers in test firings at 50% and 100% nominal boiler output.

  12. The influence of fuel mass load, oxygen supply and burning rate on emission factor and size distribution of carbonaceous particulate matter from indoor corn straw burning

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Guofeng; Xue, Miao; Wei, Siye; Chen, Yuanchen; Wang, Bing; Wang, Rong; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yanyan; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Wei, Wen; Zhao, Qiuyue; Li, Bin; Wu, Haisuo; Tao, Shu

    2014-01-01

    The uncertainty in emission estimation is strongly associated with the variation in emission factor which could be influenced by a variety of factors, like fuel property, stove type, fire management and even methods used in measurements. The impacts of these factors were usually complicated and often interacted with each other. In the present study, controlled burning experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of fuel mass load, air supply and burning rate on the emission of carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) from indoor corn straw burning. Their impacts on PM size distribution were also studied. The results showed that EFs of PM (EFPM), organic carbon (EFOC) and element carbon (EFEC) was independent of the fuel mass load. The differences among them under different burning rates or air supply amounts were also found to be insignificant (p > 0.05) in the tested circumstances. PM from the indoor corn straw burning was dominated by fine PM, and PM with diameter less than 2.1 μm contributed about 86.4±3.9% of the total. The size distribution of PM was also influenced by the burning rate and changed air supply conditions. On average, EFPM, EFOC and EFEC for corn straw burned in a residential cooking stove were 3.84±1.02, 0.846±0.895 and 0.391±0.350 g/kg, respectively. EFPM, EFOC and EFEC were found to be positively correlated with each other, but they were not significantly correlated with EF of co-emitted CO, suggesting a special attention should be paid to the use of CO acting as a surrogate for other incomplete pollutants. PMID:23923424

  13. Computational investigations of low-emission burner facilities for char gas burning in a power boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Morozov, I. V.; Zaychenko, M. N.; Sidorkin, V. T.

    2016-04-01

    Various variants for the structure of low-emission burner facilities, which are meant for char gas burning in an operating TP-101 boiler of the Estonia power plant, are considered. The planned increase in volumes of shale reprocessing and, correspondingly, a rise in char gas volumes cause the necessity in their cocombustion. In this connection, there was a need to develop a burner facility with a given capacity, which yields effective char gas burning with the fulfillment of reliability and environmental requirements. For this purpose, the burner structure base was based on the staging burning of fuel with the gas recirculation. As a result of the preliminary analysis of possible structure variants, three types of early well-operated burner facilities were chosen: vortex burner with the supply of recirculation gases into the secondary air, vortex burner with the baffle supply of recirculation gases between flows of the primary and secondary air, and burner facility with the vortex pilot burner. Optimum structural characteristics and operation parameters were determined using numerical experiments. These experiments using ANSYS CFX bundled software of computational hydrodynamics were carried out with simulation of mixing, ignition, and burning of char gas. Numerical experiments determined the structural and operation parameters, which gave effective char gas burning and corresponded to required environmental standard on nitrogen oxide emission, for every type of the burner facility. The burner facility for char gas burning with the pilot diffusion burner in the central part was developed and made subject to computation results. Preliminary verification nature tests on the TP-101 boiler showed that the actual content of nitrogen oxides in burner flames of char gas did not exceed a claimed concentration of 150 ppm (200 mg/m3).

  14. Development of a FI CIRC{trademark} fluidized bed boiler to burn waste tires

    SciTech Connect

    Dervin, C.; Waldron, D.J.; Haas, J.C.

    1997-12-31

    Disposal of tires is becoming a problem due to higher landfill charges and environmental concerns. Typically tires have a higher calorific value than coal, contain less nitrogen, ash, and sulfur than most coals and are a potential source of energy for power and process steam generation. In 1995 a Fines Circulating (FI CIRC{trademark}) fluidized bed boiler was selected to burn tires for a project in the city of Fulton, Illinois. Fuels ranging from Petroleum Coke to Brown coal had already been successfully fired in commercial plants and preliminary pilot plant testing showed no problems in firing tires. During the development of the project, financiers raised concerns about the optimum fuel size, combustion characteristics, removal of wires from the fluidized bed, and the control of emissions from the plant. A testing program was devised which included hot and cold pilot plant testing to evaluate the characteristics of firing shredded tires. The results and the impact on the boiler design are presented.

  15. Emissions of parent, nitrated, and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from indoor corn straw burning in normal and controlled combustion conditions

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Guofeng; Xue, Miao; Wei, Siye; Chen, Yuanchen; Wang, Bin; Wang, Rong; Lv, Yan; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yanyan; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Wei, Wen; Zhao, Qiuyue; Li, Bin; Wu, Haisuo; Tao, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Emission factors (EFs) of parent polycyclic aromatic (pPAHs), nitrated PAHs (nPAHs), and oxygenated PAHs (oPAHs) were measured for indoor corn straw burned in a cooking brick stove in both normal and controlled burning conditions. EFs of total 28 pPAHs, 6 nPAHs and 4 oPAHs were 7.9±3.4, 6.5±1.6×10-3, and 6.1±1.4×10-1 mg/kg, respectively. By controlling the burning conditions, it was found that the influence of fuel charge size on EFs of the pPAHs and derivatives was insignificant. Measured EFs increased significantly in a fast burning mainly because of the oxygen deficient atmosphere formed in the stove chamber with a small volume. In both restricted and enhance air supply conditions, EFs of pPAHs, nPAHs and oPAHs were significantly higher than those measured in normal burning conditions. Though EFs varied in different burning conditions, the composition profiles and calculated isomer ratios were similar without significant differences. The results from the stepwise regression model showed that fuel burning rate, air supply amount, and modified combustion efficiency were three most significant influencing factors, explaining 72-85% of the total variations. PMID:24494494

  16. 40 CFR 63.1217 - What are the standards for liquid fuel boilers that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true What are the standards for liquid fuel boilers that burn hazardous waste? 63.1217 Section 63.1217 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1216 - What are the standards for solid fuel boilers that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true What are the standards for solid fuel boilers that burn hazardous waste? 63.1216 Section 63.1216 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National...

  18. Gasification of rice straw in a fluidized-bed gasifier for syngas application in close-coupled boiler-gasifier systems.

    PubMed

    Calvo, L F; Gil, M V; Otero, M; Morán, A; García, A I

    2012-04-01

    The feasibility and operation performance of the gasification of rice straw in an atmospheric fluidized-bed gasifier was studied. The gasification was carried out between 700 and 850 °C. The stoichiometric air-fuel ratio (A/F) for rice straw was 4.28 and air supplied was 7-25% of that necessary for stoichiometric combustion. Mass and power balances, tar concentration, produced gas composition, gas phase ammonia, chloride and potassium concentrations, agglomeration tendencies and gas efficiencies were assessed. Agglomeration was avoided by replacing the normal alumina-silicate bed by a mixture of alumina-silicate sand and MgO. It was shown that it is possible to produce high quality syngas from the gasification of rice straw. Under the experimental conditions used, the higher heating value (HHV) of the produced gas reached 5.1 MJ Nm(-3), the hot gas efficiency 61% and the cold gas efficiency 52%. The obtained results prove that rice straw may be used as fuel for close-coupled boiler-gasifier systems. PMID:22297044

  19. Burning of hazardous waste in boilers and industrial furnaces--EPA. Final rule: corrections; technical amendments.

    PubMed

    1991-07-17

    On February 21, 1991, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a final rule to regulate air emissions from the burning of hazardous waste in boilers and industrial furnaces (56 FR 7134). Today's notice corrects typographical and editorial errors that appeared in the regulatory text, including corrections to appendices II and III, and adds two appendices, appendix IX and appendix X, to part 266. Appendices IX and X were not ready at the time of publication; therefore, a note was placed in the appropriate location in the rule to inform readers that these appendices were to be published at a later date. Copies of these appendices were, however, made available to the public through the RCRA Docket maintained at EPA and through the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). PMID:10112734

  20. An economic analysis of using alternative fuels in a mass burn boiler.

    PubMed

    Kaylen, Michael S

    2005-11-01

    In this study the economic feasibility of using alternative fuels in a mass burn boiler for a chemical plant in northeastern Missouri is analyzed. The key consideration is whether biomass (switchgrass and crop residues) is economically preferred to other available fuels. Research reveals an abundance of alternative fuels for which the plant would receive a tipping fee, including municipal solid waste and used tires. Since the plant would have to pay for biomass, it does not appear in the optimal solution. An economic optimization model shows the marginal cost to the plant of using biomass would increase as more biomass is used, displacing quantities of more valuable (in terms of tipping fees per BTU) waste materials. PMID:16084375

  1. Low NO{sub x} retrofit of a NSPS boiler burning sub-bituminous western fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Costanzo, M.A.; Perry, D.M.; Sharman, J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the goals, equipment selection and operating results of the low NO{sub x} conversion project of an NSPS boiler burning western sub-bituminous fuel. The subject unit is a nominal 500 MW non-B&W boiler commissioned in 1981. The original firing equipment was designed in accordance with the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) instituted in the 1970s. This original equipment included 24 scroll type burners in an opposed wall configuration with 3 rows and 4 columns of burners on the front and rear walls. Eight overfire air ports were included with a port located above each column of burners. Each level of four burners is supplied with pulverized coal from one of six pulverizers. The original and current fuel is a low sulfur sub-bituminous class C Powder River Basin Coal. The stated goal for the low NO{sub x} project was a maximum NO{sub x} emission rate of 0.35 lb/MBtu with a corresponding carbon content in the fly ash not to exceed two times the pre-retrofit operating conditions. The existing pulverizer performance was poor and at any given time no more than five mills were available for service. Therefore, the project No{sub x}, and unburned carbon (UBC) requirements must be achieved with any five out of six existing mills operating.

  2. Effects of burnings of wax apple stubble and rice straw on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran concentrations in air and soil.

    PubMed

    Kao, Jen-Ho; Chen, Kang-Shin; Tsai, Cheng-Hsien; Li, Hsing-Wang; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2007-04-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were made in ambient air, ash, and soil impacted by the open burning of wax apple and rice straw residues. Measurements showed that the mean PCDD/F concentration (0.458 pg I-TEQ/Nm3; international toxicity equivalence) in air at two wax apple orchards during open burning increased markedly, -8.1 times higher than that (0.057 pg I-TEQ/Nm3); before open burning. In addition, the mean PCDD/F concentration (0.409 pg I-TEQ/Nm3) in ambient air at a rice straw field was 4.6 times higher than that (0.089 pg I-TEQ/Nm3) before open burning. After burning the residues of wax apple stubble and rice straw, the contents of PCDD/F in ashes were 1.393 and 1.568 ng I-TEQ/kg-ash, respectively, and the contents of PCDD/F in soil were 2.258 and 2.890 ng I-TEQ/kg-soil, respectively. Therefore, the turnover of soil with the ash after open burning over years will result in the accumulation of PCDD/Fs in farm soils. PMID:17458464

  3. Optimization of regimes for the feed of highly concentrated culm-anthracite coal dust for burning in a TPP-210A boiler

    SciTech Connect

    L.V. Golyshev; G.A. Dovgoteles

    2007-05-15

    Results are presented for regime adjustment of feed systems for a TPP-210A boiler for the burning of highly concentrated culm-anthracite coal dust. As compared with nonoptimal regimes, optimal regimes of high-concentration-feed systems improve the economy of the boiler by 1.7% on average.

  4. Molecular composition and size distribution of sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids in airborne particles during a severe urban haze event caused by wheat straw burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gehui; Chen, Chunlei; Li, Jianjun; Zhou, Bianhong; Xie, Mingjie; Hu, Shuyuan; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Chen, Yan

    2011-05-01

    Molecular compositions and size distributions of water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC, i.e., sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids) in particles from urban air of Nanjing, China during a severe haze event caused by field burning of wheat straw were characterized and compared with those in the summer and autumn non-haze periods. During the haze event levoglucosan (4030 ng m -3) was the most abundant compound among the measured WSOC, followed by succinic acid, malic acid, glycerol, arabitol and glucose, being different from those in the non-haze samples, in which sucrose or azelaic acid showed a second highest concentration, although levoglucosan was the highest. The measured WSOC in the haze event were 2-20 times more than those in the non-hazy days. Size distribution results showed that there was no significant change in the compound peaks in coarse mode (>2.1 μm) with respect to the haze and non-haze samples, but a large difference in the fine fraction (<2.1 μm) was found with a sharp increase during the hazy days mostly due to the increased emissions of wheat straw burning. Molecular compositions of organic compounds in the fresh smoke particles from wheat straw burning demonstrate that sharply increased concentrations of glycerol and succinic and malic acids in the fine particles during the haze event were mainly derived from the field burning of wheat straw, although the sources of glucose and related sugar-alcohols whose concentrations significantly increased in the fine haze samples are unclear. Compared to that in the fresh smoke particles of wheat straw burning an increase in relative abundance of succinic acid to levoglucosan during the haze event suggests a significant production of secondary organic aerosols during transport of the smoke plumes.

  5. SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Volume 2. Engineering evaluation report. Final technical report. [Oil-fired boiler to solvent-refined coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    Volume 2 of this report gives the results of an engineering evaluation study and economic analysis of converting an existing 560-MW residual (No. 6) oil-fired unit to burn solvent refined coal (SRC) fuel forms. Volume 1 represents an integrated overview of the test program conducted at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. Three SRC forms (pulverized SRC, a solution of SRC dissolved in process-derived distillates, and a slurry of SRC and water) were examined. The scope of modifications necessary to convert the unit to each of the three SRC fuel forms was identified and a capital cost of the necessary modifications estimated. A fuel conversion feasibility study of the boiler was performed wherein boiler modifications and performance effects of each fuel on the boiler were identified. An economic analysis of the capital and operating fuel expenses of conversion of the unit was performed. It was determined that conversion of the unit to any one of the three SRC fuel forms was feasible where appropriate modifications were made. It also was determined that the conversion of the unit can be economically attractive if SRC fuel forms can be manufactured and sold at prices discounted somewhat from the price of No. 16 Fuel Oil. As expected, greater discounts are required for the pulverized SRC and the slurry than for the solution of SRC dissolved in process-derived distillates.

  6. Using satellite image-based maps to improve sugarcane straw burning emission estimates in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    França, D.; Longo, K.; Rudorff, B.; Aguiar, D.; Freitas, S. R.; Stockler, R.; Pereira, G.

    2014-12-01

    Since the last decade, the global demand for biofuel production has been increasing every year due to the growing need for energy supply security and mitigation of greenhouse gases (GHG). Currently, sugarcane ethanol is one of the most widely used biofuels and Brazil is already the world's largest sugarcane producer, devoting almost 50% of it to ethanol production. The state of São Paulo is the major sugarcane producer in this country, with a cultivated area of about 5.4 Mha in 2011. Approximately 2 million hectares were harvested annually from 2006 to 2011 with the pre-harvest straw burning practice, which emits trace gases and particulate material to the atmosphere. The assessment and monitoring of sugarcane burning impacts are fundamental in order to mitigate the negative impacts of pre-harvest burning and consolidate the environmental benefits of sugarcane ethanol. Although some official inventories created by the Brazilian government have indicated the prevalence of emissions from sugarcane straw burning in total agricultural residue emissions, specific information about emissions of gases and aerosols during pre-harvest burning of sugarcane is still scarce in Brazil. This study aimed to contribute to the improvement of estimates of emissions from sugarcane burning through the use of specific parameters for sugarcane straw burning and a method which has avoided underestimations resulting from the unique characteristics of this type of biomass fire. In this investigation, emissions of several air pollutants released by sugarcane burning during the harvest season were estimated through the integrated use of remote sensing based maps of sugarcane burned area and a numerical tool for the state of São Paulo from 2006 to 2011. Average estimated emissions (Gg/year) were 1,130 ± 152 for CO, 26 ± 4 for NOX, 16 ± 2 for CH4, 45 ± 6 for PM2.5, 120 ± 16 for PM10 and 154 ± 21 for NMHC (non-methane hydrocarbons). An intercomparison among annual emissions from this

  7. A burn mass casualty event due to boiler room explosion on a cruise ship: preparedness and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Akin; Namias, Nicholas; O'Keeffe, Terence; Pizano, Louis; Lynn, Mauricio; Prater-Varas, Robin; Quintana, Olga Delia; Borges, Leda; Ishii, Mary; Lee, Seong; Lopez, Peter; Lessner-Eisenberg, Sharon; Alvarez, Angel; Ellison, Tom; Sapnas, Katherine; Lefton, Jennifer; Ward, Charles Gillon

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to review our experience with a mass casualty incident resulting from a boiler room steam explosion aboard a cruise ship. Experience with major, moderate, and minor burns, steam inhalation, mass casualty response systems, and psychological sequelae will be discussed. Fifteen cruise ship employees were brought to the burn center after a boiler room explosion on a cruise ship. Eleven were triaged to the trauma resuscitation area and four to the surgical emergency room. Seven patients were intubated for respiratory distress or airway protection. Six patients had >80 per cent burns with steam inhalation, and all of these died. One of the 6 patients had 99 per cent burns with steam inhalation and died after withdrawal of support within the first several hours. All patients with major burns required escharotomy on arrival to trauma resuscitation. One patient died in the operating room, despite decompression by laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome and pericardiotomy via thoracotomy for cardiac tamponade. Four patients required crystalloid, 20,000 mls/m2-27,000 ml/m2 body surface area (BSA) in the first 48 hours to maintain blood pressure and urine output. Three of these four patients subsequently developed abdominal compartment syndrome and died in the first few days. The fourth patient of this group died after 26 days due to sepsis. Five patients had 13-20 per cent bums and four patients had less than 10 per cent burns. Two of the patients with 20 per cent burns developed edema of the vocal cords with mild hoarseness. They improved and recovered without intubation. The facility was prepared for the mass casualty event; having just completed a mass casualty drill several days earlier. Twenty-six beds were made available in 50 minutes for anticipated casualties. Fifteen physicians reported immediately to the trauma resuscitation area to assist in initial stabilization. The event occurred at shift change; thus, adequate support

  8. Characteristics of particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emitted from industrial grade biomass boilers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoyang; Geng, Chunmei; Sun, Xuesong; Yang, Wen; Wang, Xinhua; Chen, Jianhua

    2016-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are carcinogenic or mutagenic and are important toxic pollutants in the flue gas of boilers. Two industrial grade biomass boilers were selected to investigate the characteristics of particulate-bound PAHs: one biomass boiler retro-fitted from an oil boiler (BB1) and one specially designed (BB2) biomass boiler. One coal-fired boiler was also selected for comparison. By using a dilution tunnel system, particulate samples from boilers were collected and 10 PAH species were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total emission factors (EFs) of PAHs ranged from 0.0064 to 0.0380 mg/kg, with an average of 0.0225 mg/kg, for the biomass boiler emission samples. The total PAH EFs for the tested coal-fired boiler were 1.8 times lower than the average value of the biomass boilers. The PAH diagnostic ratios for wood pellets and straw pellets were similar. The ratio of indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene/[indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene+benzo(g,h,i)perylene] for the two biomass boilers was lower than those of the reference data for other burning devices, which can probably be used as an indicator to distinguish the emission of biomass boilers from that of industrial coal-fired boilers and residential stoves. The toxic potential of the emission from wood pellet burning was higher than that from straw pellet burning, however both of them were much lower than residential stove exhausts. PMID:26969542

  9. SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Volume 1. Integrated report. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    This burn test program was conducted during the period of August 1982 to February 1983 to demonstrate that Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) products can displace petroleum as a boiler fuel in oil- and gas-designed boilers. The test program was performed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). Three forms of SRC (pulverized SRC, a solution of SRC dissolved in process-derived distillates, and a slurry of SRC and water) and No. 6 Fuel Oil were evaluated in the 700-hp (30 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hour) watertube, oil-designed boiler facility at PETC. The test program was managed by the International Coal Refining Company (ICRC) and sponsored by the Department of Energy. Other organizations were involved as necessary to provide the expertise required to execute the test program. This final report represents an integrated overview of the test program conducted at PETC. More detailed information with preliminary data can be obtained from separate reports prepared by PETC, Southern Research Institute, Wheelabrator-Frye, Babcock and Wilcox, and Combustion Engineering. These are presented as Annex Volumes A-F. 25 references, 41 figures, 15 tables.

  10. A study for development of emission factors for trace gases and carbonaceous particulate species from in situ burning of wheat straw in agricultural fields in india

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, Shivraj; Sharma, C.; Singh, D. P.; Dixit, C. K.; Singh, Nahar; Sharma, P.; Singh, K.; Bhatt, S.; Ghude, S.; Gupta, V.; Gupta, Raj K.; Tiwari, M. K.; Garg, S. C.; Mitra, A. P.; Gupta, Prabhat K.

    Major crops subject to field burning of crop residue (FBCR) generated an estimated 284 Tg of residue in India, of which 40% was contributed by wheat in the year 2000. About 7.5% of this total generated wheat straw was subjected to on-site burning, that is expected to emit large amounts of trace gases and particulate matter (PM) to the atmosphere, whose country-specific estimates and emission factors (EFs) are presently not available. An in situ experiment for wheat straw burning was undertaken for developing India specific EFs. The EFs of CO2, CH4, CO, N2O, NOx, NO and NO2 were found to be 1787±36, 3.6±2.7, 28.1±20.1, 0.74±0.46, 1.70±1.68, 0.78±0.71 and 0.56±0.47gkg-1, whereas those for organic carbon (OC), black carbon (BC) and total carbon (TC) were 0.3±0.1, 0.2±0.1, and 0.5±0.2gkg-1, respectively. Although these EFs have been generated from a single field experiment nevertheless they address important information gap on FBCR in the region. Further, the total emissions of CH4, CO2, CO, N2O, NOx, NO, NO2, OC, BC and TC from wheat straw burning in India for the year 2000 was estimated as 68±51, 34435±682, 541±387, 14±9, 33±32, 15±14, 11±9, 6±2, 3±1 and 10±4 Gg, respectively.

  11. Feasibility of burning refuse derived fuel in institutional size oil-fired boilers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of retrofitting existing oil-fired boilers of institutional size, approximately 3.63 to 36.3 Mg steam/h (8000 to 80,000 lbs steam/h) for co-firing with refuse-derived fuel (RDF). Relevant quantities describing mixtures of oil and RDF and combustion products for various levels of excess air are computed. Savings to be realized from the use of RDF are derived under several assumptions and allowable costs for a retrofit are estimated. An extensive survey of manufacturers of burners, boilers, and combustion systems showed that no hardware or proven design is yet available for such retrofit. Approaches with significant promises are outlined: the slagging burner, and a dry ash double vortex burner for low heat input from RDF. These two systems, and an evaluation of a small separate RDF dedicated combustor in support of the oil-fired boiler, are recommended as topics for future study.

  12. REVIEW OF CONCURRENT MASS EMISSION AND OPACITY MEASUREMENTS FOR COAL-BURNING UTILITY AND INDUSTRIAL BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of concurrent particulate emissions and opacity measurements based on visual observations and/or in-stack transmissometry for more than 400 compliance, acceptance, or experimental tests on coal-fired utility and industrial boilers. The sampling, which inc...

  13. NO formation during agricultural straw combustion.

    PubMed

    Ren, Qiangqiang; Zhao, Changsui; Duan, Lunbo; Chen, Xiaoping

    2011-07-01

    NO formation during combustion of four typical kinds of straw (wheat straw, rice straw, cotton stalk and corn stalk) which belong to soft straw and hard straw was studied in a tubular quartz fixed bed reactor under conditions relevant to grate boiler combustion. Regarding the real situation in biomass fired power plants in China, NO formation from blended straw combustion was also investigated. Nitrogen transfer during blended straw pyrolysis was performed using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) coupled with a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The results show that NO conversion for the four straws during combustion is distinctive. Over 70% fuel-N converts into NO for cotton stalk, while only 37% for wheat straw under the same condition. When wheat straw and cotton stalk were mixed, N-NO conversion increases. The limestone addition promotes NO emission during cotton stalk combustion. The presence of SO(2) in atmosphere suppresses NO formation from straw combustion. PMID:21592786

  14. 40 CFR 270.66 - Permits for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR 124.10(c)(1)(ix) and to the appropriate units of State and local government as set forth in 40 CFR 124.10(c)(1)(x) announcing the scheduled commencement and completion dates for the trial burn....

  15. Characteristics of Ambient Black Carbon Mass and Size-Resolved Particle Number Concentrations during Corn Straw Open-Field Burning Episode Observations at a Rural Site in Southern Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Yang, Li-Sing

    2016-01-01

    Information on the effect of open-field burning of agricultural residues on ambient black carbon (BC) mass and size-resolved particle number concentrations is scarce. In this study, to understand the effect of such open-field burning on short-term air quality, real-time variations of the BC mass and size-resolved particle number concentrations were monitored before and during a corn straw open-field burning episode at a rural site. Correlations between the BC mass and size-resolved particle number concentrations during the episode were investigated. Moreover, the particle number size distribution and absorption Ångström exponent were determined for obtaining the characteristics of aerosol emissions from the corn straw open-field burning. The results can be used to address public health concerns and as a reference for managing similar episodes of open-field burning of agricultural residues. PMID:27399754

  16. Characteristics of Ambient Black Carbon Mass and Size-Resolved Particle Number Concentrations during Corn Straw Open-Field Burning Episode Observations at a Rural Site in Southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Yang, Li-Sing

    2016-01-01

    Information on the effect of open-field burning of agricultural residues on ambient black carbon (BC) mass and size-resolved particle number concentrations is scarce. In this study, to understand the effect of such open-field burning on short-term air quality, real-time variations of the BC mass and size-resolved particle number concentrations were monitored before and during a corn straw open-field burning episode at a rural site. Correlations between the BC mass and size-resolved particle number concentrations during the episode were investigated. Moreover, the particle number size distribution and absorption Ångström exponent were determined for obtaining the characteristics of aerosol emissions from the corn straw open-field burning. The results can be used to address public health concerns and as a reference for managing similar episodes of open-field burning of agricultural residues. PMID:27399754

  17. Operating and maintenance experiences at the Shamokin clum-burning boiler plant

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, H.W.; Laukaitis, J.F.; Fisher, B.L.; Gmeindl, F.D.; Lockman, H.

    1983-01-01

    A general overview of operating and maintenance experience at the Shamokin plant illustrates the feasibility of using anthracite refuse (culm) and fluidized-bed technology. Successful burning of the low-grade fuel took place over a range of operating conditions. The article describes a series of performance tests and the major maintenance items. 2 references, 7 figures.

  18. Estimation of capability of changing the boilers TP-14A at Kumertau Termal Power Station to burning B3 grade coal from Verkhne-Sokursky deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supranov, V. M.; Shtegman, A. V.; Fomenko, E. A.

    2016-04-01

    Currently, TP-14A boilers should be changed into burning off-design fuel: grade B3 coal of Verkhne-Sokursky deposit. Its share (by heat) in the fuel balance should be not less than 80%. A test burning of Verkhne-Sokursky coal was carried out, which showed that, in its present form, the boilers and dust-systems are not suitable to operate with this fuel, because their characteristics significantly differs from the project one. It is impossible to maintain the overheating temperature at the required level during operation on only coal; it is difficult to maintain the temperature behind the mills at the level of 200°C. The joint burning the coal with natural gas allows to solve these problems at operation of one or two mills. However, substantial fuel underburning, essential thermal maldistributions on the steam flows, and emissions of NO x above permissible values is observed. Based on the results of test burning and joint calculations of furnace, boiler, and dust-systems, ways to solve these problems were developed. For modeling the furnace process, the Fluent and Sigma Flame software were used. Adapted mathematical models of the boiler and dust-preparing systems were created using the Boiler Designer and Stoker software. It is necessary to reconstruct the boiler plants, which can perform in two stages. In the first stage, the existing burners are replaced by the burners with turning nozzles and two-stage burning is arranged, and the inertial separators and recirculation of the drying agent are installed on the mills. In the second stage, the change to concentric burning is carried out, the heating surface of radiation part of the steam superheater increases, and the preset included hammer part is installed at the mill. It is shown that a positive effect should be obtained already after the first stage of reconstruction. The second stage of reconstruction will require additional expenses, but its implementation will allow to a greater extent to eliminate the

  19. Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... doing so puts you in danger as well. Chemical and Electrical Burns For chemical and electrical burns, call 911 or your local ... the power source has been turned off. For chemical burns: Dry chemicals should be brushed off the ...

  20. Method of burning sulfur-containing fuels in a fluidized bed boiler

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Brian C.

    1982-01-01

    A method of burning a sulfur-containing fuel in a fluidized bed of sulfur oxide sorbent wherein the overall utilization of sulfur oxide sorbent is increased by comminuting the bed drain solids to a smaller average particle size, preferably on the order of 50 microns, and reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed. In comminuting the bed drain solids, particles of spent sulfur sorbent contained therein are fractured thereby exposing unreacted sorbent surface. Upon reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed, the newly-exposed unreacted sorbent surface is available for sulfur oxide sorption, thereby increasing overall sorbent utilization.

  1. Source profiles of particulate matter emissions from a pilot-scale boiler burning North American coal blends.

    PubMed

    Lee, S W

    2001-11-01

    Recent awareness of suspected adverse health effects from ambient particulate matter (PM) emission has prompted publication of new standards for fine PM with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5). However, scientific data on fine PM emissions from various point sources and their characteristics are very limited. Source apportionment methods are applied to identify contributions of individual regional sources to tropospheric particulate concentrations. The existing industrial database developed using traditional source measurement techniques provides total emission rates only, with no details on chemical nature or size characteristics of particulates. This database is inadequate, in current form, to address source-receptor relationships. A source dilution system was developed for sampling and characterization of total PM, PM2.5, and PM10 (i.e., PM with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 pm) from residual oil and coal combustion. This new system has automatic control capabilities for key parameters, such as relative humidity (RH), temperature, and sample dilution. During optimization of the prototype equipment, three North American coal blends were burned using a 0.7-megawatt thermal (MWt) pulverized coal-fired, pilot-scale boiler. Characteristic emission profiles, including PM2.5 and total PM soluble acids, and elemental and carbon concentrations for three coal blends are presented. Preliminary results indicate that volatile trace elements such as Pb, Zn, Ti, and Se are preferentially enriched in PM2.5. PM2.5 is also more concentrated in soluble sulfates relative to total PM. Coal fly ash collected at the outlet of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) contains about 85-90% PM10 and 30-50% PM2.5. Particles contain the highest elemental concentrations of Si and Al while Ca, Fe, Na, Ba, and K also exist as major elements. Approximately 4-12% of the materials exists as soluble sulfates in fly ash generated by coal blends containing 0.2-0.8% sulfur by mass

  2. Boiler saves pollution problem

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, J.A.

    1981-02-01

    Monarch Furniture Industries, High Point, N.C. replaced their old locomotive-type boiler in 1978 with a multifuel boiler system from Energy Systems, Inc. of Chattanooga. The system burns the company's wood wastes, supplemented with low-cost coal in winter. It generates 17,250 lbs. per hour of steam, gives a much cleaner burn than the old boiler, and has a calculated payback period of 1.67 years.

  3. 40 CFR 63.1216 - What are the standards for solid fuel boilers that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1216 What are the standards for solid fuel boilers... standards in lieu of the standards under 40 CFR 266.105, 266.106, and 266.107 to control those pollutants....

  4. 40 CFR 63.1216 - What are the standards for solid fuel boilers that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1216 What are the standards for solid fuel boilers... standards in lieu of the standards under 40 CFR 266.105, 266.106, and 266.107 to control those pollutants....

  5. Assessment of Straw Biomass Feedstock Resources in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Straw is produced as a coproduct of cereal grain and grass seed production on 6.2 million acres in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. Some of this straw residue is returned to the soil for conservation purposes, but markets for excess straw are limited. As a consequence, much of this straw was burne...

  6. Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... are burns treated? In many cases, topical antibiotics (skin creams or ointments) are used to prevent infection. For third-degree burns and some second-degree ones, immediate blood transfusion and/or extra fluids ... is skin grafting? There are two types of skin grafts. ...

  7. Field Measurement on the Emissions of PM, OC, EC and PAHs from Indoor Crop Straw Burning in rural China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Siye; Shen, Guofeng; Zhang, Yanyan; Xue, Miao; Xie, Han; Lin, Pengchuan; Chen, Yuanchen; Wang, Xilong; Tao, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Field measurements were conducted to measure emission factors of particulate matter (EFPM), organic carbon (EFOC), elemental carbon (EFEC), 28 parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (EF28pPAHs), and 4 oxygenated PAHs (EF4oPAHs) for four types of crop straws burnt in two stoves with similar structure but different ages. The average EFPM, EFOC, EFEC, EF28pPAHs, and EF4oPAHs were 9.1±5.7 (1.8 – 22 as range), 2.6±2.9 (0.30 – 12), 1.1±1.2 (0.086 – 5.5), 0.26±0.19 (0.076 – 0.96), 0.011±0.14 (1.3×10−4 – 0.063) g/kg, respectively. Much high EF28pPAHs was observed in field compared with the laboratory derived EFs and significant difference in EF28pPAHs was identified among different crop residues, indicating considerable underestimation when laboratory derived EFs were used in the inventory. The field measured EFPM, EFOC, and EFEC were significantly affected by stove age and the EFs of carbonaceous particles for the 15-year old stove were approximately 2.5 times of those for the 1-year old stove. PMID:24012787

  8. 40 CFR 63.1217 - What are the standards for liquid fuel boilers that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1217 What are the standards for liquid fuel boilers... standards in lieu of the standards under 40 CFR 266.105, 266.106, and 266.107 to control those pollutants....

  9. 40 CFR 63.1217 - What are the standards for liquid fuel boilers that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1217 What are the standards for liquid fuel... standards in lieu of the standards under 40 CFR 266.105, 266.106, and 266.107 to control those pollutants....

  10. 40 CFR 63.1217 - What are the standards for liquid fuel boilers that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1217 What are the standards for liquid fuel boilers... standards in lieu of the standards under 40 CFR 266.105, 266.106, and 266.107 to control those pollutants....

  11. 40 CFR 63.1217 - What are the standards for liquid fuel boilers that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1217 What are the standards for liquid fuel... standards in lieu of the standards under 40 CFR 266.105, 266.106, and 266.107 to control those pollutants....

  12. [Burns].

    PubMed

    Arai, Takao

    2016-02-01

    Burns extending deep into the skin and those affecting a wide surface area trigger various responses in the body and pose a serious threat to life. Therefore, the degree of severity needs to be determined accurately, and appropriate transfusion and local management should be provided accordingly. Systematic and meticulous management that considers not just the risk of death but also functional prognosis is essential from the early stage of burn injuries. Such management requires comprehensive care by a medical team concerning infections, nutrition and rehabilitation. This article outlines the current status of intensive care for severe burns. PMID:26915244

  13. Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... to your body's tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight, or radiation. Scalds from hot liquids and ... to infections because they damage your skin's protective barrier. Treatment for burns depends on the cause of ...

  14. Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Surgery . 18th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 22. Holmes JH, Heimbach DM. Burns. In: Brunicardi FC, Andersen DK, Billiar TR, et al, eds. Schwartz's Principles of Surgery . 9th ed. New ...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1216 - What are the standards for solid fuel boilers that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1216 What are the standards for solid fuel boilers that... standards in lieu of the standards under 40 CFR 266.105, 266.106, and 266.107 to control those pollutants....

  16. 40 CFR 63.1216 - What are the standards for solid fuel boilers that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1216 What are the standards for solid fuel boilers that... standards in lieu of the standards under 40 CFR 266.105, 266.106, and 266.107 to control those pollutants....

  17. Ways of solving environmental problems while transferring the boilers for burning water-bitumen mixture instead of fuel oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotler, V. R.; Sosin, D. V.

    2009-03-01

    Information concerning a new kind (for Russia) of liquid fuel, i.e., water-bitumen mixture (orimulsion), is presented. The application of the new fuel instead of the fuel oil at a boiler of a power unit of 350-MW capacity makes it possible to decrease sufficiently the expenditures for fuel while keeping the main environmental indices.

  18. Occurrence and destruction of PAHs, PCBs, CIPhs, CIBzs, and PCDD/Fs in ash from gasification of straw.

    PubMed

    Asikainen, Arja H; Kuusisto, Mikko P; Hiltunen, Matti A; Ruuskanent, Juhani

    2002-05-15

    Two experiments were performed with an atmospheric circulating fluidized bed gasifier (ACFBG), the first with pelletized straw and the second with loose straw, to investigate the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chlorophenols (CIPhs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated benzenes (ClBzs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in the bottom ash and fly ash formed during gasification. Only PAHs were present in large amounts, and only in the fly ash, ranging from 300 to 555 mg/kg ash in the tests with pelletized straw and from 73 to 118 mg/kg ash in those with loose straw. These amounts are so high that environmentally safe disposal or reuse of the ash would be difficult, so the development of a technique to handle the problem was included in the project. The method investigated was to burn the fly ash in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler in order to destroy the PAHs. This worked surprisingly well, eliminating 99% of the PAHs, without any further formation of the other harmful organic compounds analyzed. Thus, this method could actually be useful in practice. Especially the fact that the formation of PCDD/Fs was minimal during gasification and further treatment of the ash in the CFB boiler makes the gasification technique highly competitive relative to conventional combustion methods. PMID:12038829

  19. SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Annex Volume A. Southern Research Institute report. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    Combustion tests were performed using three forms of Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) as the fuel for a 700 hp oil-designed water-tube boiler at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). This report contains the results from a program of measurements and analyses performed by Southern Research Institute (SoRI) under contract to the International Coal Refining Company (ICRC). The major objectives of the work performed by Southern Research Institute were: (1) to characterize the particulate matter resulting from the combustion of Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) and its fuel forms, and (2) to develop estimates of the specific collection areas required for varying levels of collection of fly ash from SRC combustion in electrostatic precipitators. The report contains physical and chemical characterizations of particles collected during the combustion experiments, and a discussion of electrostatic precipitation of SRC fly ash based on performance measurements with a small-scale precipitator and on simulations using a mathematical model. 9 references, 90 figures, 14 tables.

  20. 40 CFR 266.101 - Management prior to burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.101 Management prior to burning. (a) Generators. Generators of hazardous waste that is burned in a boiler or industrial furnace... burned in a boiler or industrial furnace are subject to part 263 of this chapter. (c) Storage...

  1. 40 CFR 266.101 - Management prior to burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.101 Management prior to burning. (a) Generators. Generators of hazardous waste that is burned in a boiler or industrial furnace... burned in a boiler or industrial furnace are subject to part 263 of this chapter. (c) Storage...

  2. 40 CFR 266.101 - Management prior to burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.101 Management prior to burning. (a) Generators. Generators of hazardous waste that is burned in a boiler or industrial furnace... burned in a boiler or industrial furnace are subject to part 263 of this chapter. (c) Storage...

  3. 40 CFR 266.101 - Management prior to burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.101 Management prior to burning. (a) Generators. Generators of hazardous waste that is burned in a boiler or industrial furnace... burned in a boiler or industrial furnace are subject to part 263 of this chapter. (c) Storage...

  4. 40 CFR 266.101 - Management prior to burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.101 Management prior to burning. (a) Generators. Generators of hazardous waste that is burned in a boiler or industrial furnace... burned in a boiler or industrial furnace are subject to part 263 of this chapter. (c) Storage...

  5. Formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans on secondary combustor/boiler ash from a rotary kiln burning hazardous waste.

    PubMed

    Addink, R; Altwicker, E R

    2004-10-18

    Ash from the secondary combustor/boiler of a rotary kiln burning hazardous chemical waste was tested in the laboratory for its potential to form polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F). The ash contained only a small quantity of "native" PCDD/F, i.e., formed on the ash in the facility. However, it produced a considerable amount of these compounds when heated in 10% O(2)/N(2) under "de novo" conditions, i.e., with residual carbon (present on the ash as result of incomplete combustion) as the only organic material. The ash yielded PCDD/F for up to 90 min; gave PCDD/F yields proportional to the amount of ash used in the reaction bed; and displayed an optimum temperature range for formation (397-548 degrees C) higher than seen for most municipal solid waste (MSW) fly ashes. The role of copper and iron as catalytic material on the ash is discussed. PMID:15511574

  6. STRAW UTILIZATION IN REGION 10 STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    While agricultural burning has been going on for many years in Oregon, Idaho and Washington among grass seed and wheat growers as a means for reducing or eliminating straw wastes, over these years it has become more apparent that ag burning has adverse environmental and human hea...

  7. Tested R-value for straw bale walls and performance modeling for straw bale homes

    SciTech Connect

    Commins, T.R.; Stone, N.I.

    1998-07-01

    Since the late 1800's, houses have been built of straw. Contrary to nursery rhymes, these houses have proved sturdy and comfortable and not at all easy to blow down. In the last several years, as people have experimented with new and old building materials and looked for ways to halt rice field stubble burning, there has been a resurgence of homes built with straw. Unfortunately, there has been very little testing to determine the thermal performance of straw bale walls or to discover how these walls affect a home's heating and cooling energy consumption. Reported R-values for straw bale walls range from R-17 to R-54, depending on the test procedure, the type of straw used and the type of straw bale wall system. This paper reports on a test set-up by the California Energy Commission (Commission) and conducted in a nationally accredited lab, Architectural Testing Inc. (ATI) in Fresno, California. The paper describes the tested straw bale wall assemblies, the testing process, and problems encountered in the construction and testing of the walls. The paper also gives a reasonable R-value to use in calculating thermal performance of straw bale houses and presents findings that show that straw bale construction can decrease the heating and cooling energy usage of a typical house by up to a third over conventional practice.

  8. Temporal Changes in Tall Fescue Straw Residue Degradation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In grass seed agriculture, straw residue is a byproduct. Traditionally it has been thought of as a “waste” product yielding little additional net income to the grower. Straw residue can be baled and sold to Asian or local markets, open field burned, or flailed and left on the soil surface or incorpo...

  9. Small boiler uses waste coal

    SciTech Connect

    Virr, M.J.

    2009-07-15

    Burning coal waste in small boilers at low emissions poses considerable problem. While larger boiler suppliers have successfully installed designs in the 40 to 80 MW range for some years, the author has been developing small automated fluid bed boiler plants for 25 years that can be applied in the range of 10,000 to 140,000 lbs/hr of steam. Development has centered on the use of an internally circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler, which will burn waste fuels of most types. The boiler is based on the traditional D-shaped watertable boiler, with a new type of combustion chamber that enables a three-to-one turndown to be achieved. The boilers have all the advantages of low emissions of the large fluid boilers while offering a much lower height incorporated into the package boiler concept. Recent tests with a waste coal that had a high nitrogen content of 1.45% demonstrated a NOx emission below the federal limit of 0.6 lbs/mm Btu. Thus a NOx reduction on the order of 85% can be demonstrate by combustion modification alone. Further reductions can be made by using a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system and sulfur absorption of up to 90% retention is possible. The article describes the operation of a 30,000 lbs/hr boiler at the Fayette Thermal LLC plant. Spinheat has installed three ICFB boilers at a nursing home and a prison, which has been tested on poor-grade anthracite and bituminous coal. 2 figs.

  10. Super Boiler 2nd Generation Technology for Watertube Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mr. David Cygan; Dr. Joseph Rabovitser

    2012-03-31

    This report describes Phase I of a proposed two phase project to develop and demonstrate an advanced industrial watertube boiler system with the capability of reaching 94% (HHV) fuel-to-steam efficiency and emissions below 2 ppmv NOx, 2 ppmv CO, and 1 ppmv VOC on natural gas fuel. The boiler design would have the capability to produce >1500 F, >1500 psig superheated steam, burn multiple fuels, and will be 50% smaller/lighter than currently available watertube boilers of similar capacity. This project is built upon the successful Super Boiler project at GTI. In that project that employed a unique two-staged intercooled combustion system and an innovative heat recovery system to reduce NOx to below 5 ppmv and demonstrated fuel-to-steam efficiency of 94% (HHV). This project was carried out under the leadership of GTI with project partners Cleaver-Brooks, Inc., Nebraska Boiler, a Division of Cleaver-Brooks, and Media and Process Technology Inc., and project advisors Georgia Institute of Technology, Alstom Power Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Phase I of efforts focused on developing 2nd generation boiler concepts and performance modeling; incorporating multi-fuel (natural gas and oil) capabilities; assessing heat recovery, heat transfer and steam superheating approaches; and developing the overall conceptual engineering boiler design. Based on our analysis, the 2nd generation Industrial Watertube Boiler when developed and commercialized, could potentially save 265 trillion Btu and $1.6 billion in fuel costs across U.S. industry through increased efficiency. Its ultra-clean combustion could eliminate 57,000 tons of NOx, 460,000 tons of CO, and 8.8 million tons of CO2 annually from the atmosphere. Reduction in boiler size will bring cost-effective package boilers into a size range previously dominated by more expensive field-erected boilers, benefiting manufacturers and end users through lower capital costs.

  11. 40 CFR 761.71 - High efficiency boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false High efficiency boilers. 761.71... PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.71 High efficiency boilers. (a) To burn mineral oil dielectric fluid containing a PCB concentration of ≥50 ppm, but boiler shall comply with the...

  12. 40 CFR 761.71 - High efficiency boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High efficiency boilers. 761.71... PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.71 High efficiency boilers. (a) To burn mineral oil dielectric fluid containing a PCB concentration of ≥50 ppm, but boiler shall comply with the...

  13. SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Annex Volume B. DOE-Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center report. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) combustion tests were conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. Combustion and flue-gas treatment of three different physical forms of SRC, as well as a No. 6 fuel oil, were evaluated. The three SRC fuels were (1) pulverized SRC Fuel; (2) SRC Residual Fuel Oil; and (3) SRC/Water Slurry. The SRC Residual Fuel Oil was a solution of SRC Fuel dissolved in heated process solvent. Approximately 500 tons of pulverized SRC Fuel and 30,000 gallons of SRC Residual Fuel Oil were combusted in a 700 hp (30 x 130 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr fuel input) oil-designed watertube package boiler. Sixty four-hour ASME combustion tests with three different SRC fuels were successfully concluded. The principal parameters evaluated were excess air levels and combustion air preheat temperature levels. Extensive data were collected on flue-gas levels of O/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/, CO, unburned hydrocarbons, SO/sub x/, NO/sub x/, uncontrolled particulates, uncontrolled opacity and carbon content of the flue-gas particulates. Boiler and combustion efficiencies were measured. The particulates were characterized via mass loadings, impactors, in-situ resistivity measurements, ultra-fine sampling, optical large particle sampling, five-stage cyclone sampling and chemical analysis of various cut sizes. A three-field pilot electrostatic precipitator (ESP) containing over 1000 square feet of plate collection area, a reverse air fabric filter pilot dust collector and a commercial pulse-jet fabric filter dust collector were operated at high collection efficiency. The results will be valuable in making recommendations for future tests and will provide a basis for conversion of industrial oil-fired boilers to SRC fuels. 11 references, 20 figures, 29 tables.

  14. Influence of air-staging on the concentration profiles of NH{sub 3} and HCN in the combustion chamber of a CFB boiler burning coal

    SciTech Connect

    Kassman, H.; Karlsson, M.; Aamand, L.E.

    1999-07-01

    The characterization of the concentration profiles of NH{sub 3} and HCN are of great importance for increasing the knowledge of the formation and destruction pathways of NO and N{sub 2}O in a fluidized bed boiler. Further improvements of the sampling methods for the determination of both NH{sub 3} and HCN in the combustion chamber in full-scale CFB boilers are also needed. A gas-sampling probe connected to a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) instrument and a gas-quenching (GQ) probe in which the sample is quenched directly in the probe tip by a circulating trapper solution were used. The FTIR technique is based on analysis of hot combustion gases, whereas the trapper solutions from the GQ probe were analyzed by means of wet chemistry. The tests were performed during coal combustion in a 12 MW CFB boiler, which was operated at three air-staging cases with the addition of limestone for sulfur capture. The concentration profiles of NH{sub 3} and HCN in the combustion chamber showed a different pattern concerning the influence of air-staging. The highest levels of NH{sub 3} were observed during reducing condition (severe air-staging), and the lowest were found under oxidizing conditions (no air-staging). The levels of HCN were much lower than those measured for NH{sub 3}. The highest levels of HCN were observed for reversed air-staging and severe air-staging showed almost no HCN. The potential reactors involving NH{sub 3} and HCN in the combustion chamber as well as the potential measurement errors in each sampling technique are discussed for the three air-staging cases.

  15. SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Annex Volume E. Evaluation of fabric filter for particulate emission control. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    Three types of Solvent Refined Coal Fuels namely, Pulverized SRC Fuel Solids, SRC Residual Fuel Oil and SRC Fuel Water Slurry were fired, one at a time, in a 700 HP boiler designed for oil firing. The purpose was to demonstrate the suitability of SRC Fuels in serving as an alternative to fuel oil and to evaluate the feasibility of fabric filters for control of emissions from SRC fuel fired boilers. Two types of fabric filters, namely a Pulse Jet, full scale Baghouse and a Reverse Air, pilot scale filter were tested. The Pulse Jet Baghouse was an existing full scale unit with a cloth area of 1924 square feet and a gas flow capacity of approximately 10,000 ACFM at 400/sup 0/F. The Reverse Air Pilot Filter was a bench scale, portable unit with a cloth area of 1 square foot and a gas flow capacity of up to 6 ACFM at 400/sup 0/F. This report presents the results of particulate mass emission rates, operating conditions and performance of the two fabric filters. The particulate emissions from all fuel types were easily controlled to less than 0.01 lb/million Btu within normal and conventional working range of the fabric filters and with no special or restrictive operating conditions.

  16. Intelligent Control System of Stack-boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Li; Jingxia, Niu; Jianhua, Lang; Shaofeng, Li; Zhi, Li

    Boiler combustion control system's basic task is to make fuel burn calories adapt to the needs of the water temperature and ensure the economical combustion and the safe operation. In the foundations which have analyzed the stack-boiler's work process and control system structure, the system designed by using the self-learning and self-optimizing fuzzy control system of the PC to make air/coal ratio achieve the best and realize the optimized combustion; through PLC to accelerate the speed of response to the boiler, and speed up the PC to optimize the speed and realize the double loop control system for stack-boiler. The control system in premise of the stack-boiler reaches the goal of the load to achieve the highest efficiency of the boiler combustion.

  17. A comparative LCA of rice straw utilization for fuels and fertilizer in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H

    2013-12-01

    Life cycle assessment of four rice straw utilization systems including; (1) direct combustion for electricity, (2) biochemical conversion to bio-ethanol and biogas, (3) thermo-chemical conversion to bio-DME, and (4) incorporation into the soil as fertilizer have been conducted to compare their environmental performances. The results showed that per ton of dry rice straw, the bio-ethanol pathway resulted in the highest environmental sustainability with regards to reductions in global warming and resource depletion potentials. Rice straw bio-DME was preferable vis-à-vis reduction in acidification potential. Rice straw electricity and fertilizer also brought about several environmental benefits. The key environmental benefit of rice straw utilization came from avoiding the deleterious effects from burning straw in situ in the field. Recommendations for enhancing environmental sustainability of rice straw utilization for fuels and fertilizer are provided. PMID:24076147

  18. Fallow season straw and water management effects on methane emissions in California rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, G. J.; Scow, K. M.; Hill, J. E.

    2000-09-01

    In response to legislative mandate to reduce postharvest straw burning and environmental concerns to restore wetland habitat for Pacific flyway waterfowl, California rice growers are incorporating straw into soil and flooding rice fields in winter. These changes were hypothesized to alter soil carbon cycling pathways across the region. The principal objective of this study was to determine how various winter fallowed straw and water management changes would affect year-round methane emissions. Main plots were winter flood and nonflood, and subplots had straw treatments: burned, soil incorporated, or rolled (partially soil incorporated). Results showed the principal factor controlling methane emissions was the interaction of flooding and straw amendments. The presence of either water or straw alone led to low emissions. Winter emissions accounted for 50% of annual totals in straw-amended treatments despite lower temperatures and the presence of plants in summer. Summer emissions were significantly influenced by winter straw amendments but not by winter flood. Postdrain peaks after winter drain accounted for 10-13% of annual emissions in treatments with amended straw. Although rolled and incorporated treatments had similar straw inputs, methane fluxes from rolled treatments were higher than from incorporated treatments. Measurements of methane should be conducted year-round to capture fallow and postdrain fluxes and improve global emission estimates. Regional emission estimates showed that 2.6 times more methane was emitted after flooding plus incorporation was implemented than before the legislative mandate was enacted.

  19. Design considerations of B&W internal circulation CFB boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Kavidass, S.; Belin, F.; James, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    Worldwide, the use of Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) boiler technology is rapidly increasing due to the ability to burn low grade fuels while meeting the required NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, CO, VOC, and particulate emissions requirements. The CFB boiler can produce steam economically for process and electric power generation. This paper discusses various aspects of Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) internal recirculation circulating fluidized-bed (IR-CFB) boiler design including fuel, boiler process parameters, and emissions. The B&W CFB boiler is unique in design. It utilizes proven impact-type particle separators (U-beams) with in-furnace solids recirculation recirculation. The paper describes the methodology for setting up process parameters, heat duty, boiler design, including auxiliary equipment selection and advantages. The paper also updates the ongoing IR-CFB boiler contracts.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A FIRETUBE BOILER FIRING COAL/OIL/WATER MIXTURES. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This volume is a compendium of detailed emission and test data from field tests of a firetube industrial boiler burning a coal/oil/water (COW) mixture. The boiler was tested while burning COW fuel, and COW with soda ash added (COW+SA) to serve as an SO2 sorbent. The test data inc...

  1. Boiler MACT Technical Assistance (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    Fact sheet describing the changes to Environmental Protection Act process standards. The DOE will offer technical assistance to ensure that major sources burning coal and oil have information on cost-effective, clean energy strategies for compliance, and to promote cleaner, more efficient boiler burning to cut harmful pollution and reduce operational costs. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is expected to finalize the reconsideration process for its Clean Air Act pollution standards National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters (known as Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT)), in Spring 2012. This rule applies to large and small boilers in a wide range of industrial facilities and institutions. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will offer technical assistance to ensure that major sources burning coal or oil have information on cost-effective clean energy strategies for compliance, including combined heat and power, and to promote cleaner, more efficient boilers to cut harmful pollution and reduce operational costs.

  2. Airborne endotoxin associated with particles of different sizes and affected by water content in handled straw.

    PubMed

    Madsen, A M; Nielsen, S H

    2010-07-01

    High exposures to endotoxin are observed in environments where organic materials are handled and lower exposures are found in e.g. indoor air. Inhaled endotoxin contributes significantly to the induction of airway inflammation and dysfunction. The size of an inhaled particle influences the deposition in the airways and the following health symptoms. The objective is to characterise the distribution of endotoxin on airborne particles of different sizes in straw storage halls with high exposure and in other environments with lower exposure levels to endotoxin. Furthermore we have studied the influence of water content of handled straw on the size distribution of endotoxin containing particles. Total, inhalable, thoracic and respirable endotoxin and particles have each been quantified in aerosols from boiler rooms and straw storage halls at 24 power plants, including 21 biofuel plants. Inhalable, thoracic and respirable endotoxin have been quantified in aerosols from offices and outdoor air. The endotoxin concentration was higher in airborne thoracic dust than in airborne 'total dust'. The median respirable fraction in the straw storage halls, boiler rooms at biofuel plants, boiler rooms at conventional plants, offices and outdoors was respectively 42%, 9%, 19%, 24% and 34%. Thoracic endotoxin per number of thoracic particles was higher than respirable endotoxin per number of respirable particles at the biofuel plants. In straw storage halls the fraction of endotoxin of respirable size was highest on the days with lowest water content in the received straw. Furthermore the exposures to all endotoxin fractions were highest on days with the lowest water content in the received straw. In conclusion the highest exposures and concentrations of endotoxin occur or tend to occur from thoracic dust. A high variation in endotoxin concentrations and in fractions of respirable or thoracic size is found in the different working areas. This is important in the risk assessment and

  3. Fossil-Fired Boilers

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1993-09-23

    Boiler Performance Model (BPM 3.0S) is a set of computer programs developed to analyze the performance of fossil-fired utility boilers. The programs can model a wide variety of boiler designs, and can model coal, oil, or natural gas firing. The programs are intended for use by engineers performing analyses of alternative fuels, alternative operating modes, or boiler modifications.

  4. Sustainable production of bioenergy and bio-char from the straw of high biomass soybean lines via fast pyrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The straws of two high-biomass soybean lines developed at ARS for bioenergy were subjected to thermochemical conversion by fast pyrolysis. The objective was to evaluate the potential use of the straw for the production of liquid fuel intermediates that can be burned “as is” and/or potentially upgra...

  5. 40 CFR 761.71 - High efficiency boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manner similar to the manner in which it will be operated when low concentration PCB liquid is burned...) methods as follows: Carbon and hydrogen content using ASTM D-3178-84, nitrogen content using ASTM E-258-67... section. (ii) The quantity of low concentration PCB liquid burned in the boiler each month. (iii)...

  6. Building a Straw Bridge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Science, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This project is for a team of students (groups of two or three are ideal) to design and construct a model of a single-span bridge, using plastic drinking straws as the building material. All steps of the design, construction, testing and critiquing stages should be recorded by students in a journal. Students may like to include labelled diagrams,…

  7. Design considerations of B&W internal circulation CFB boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Kavidass, S.; Alexander, K.C.

    1995-12-31

    Worldwide, the use of Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) boiler technology is rapidly increasing due to the ability to burn low grade fuels while meeting the required NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, CO, VOC, and particulate emissions requirements. The CFB boiler can produce steam economically for process and electric power generation. This paper discusses various aspects of Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) internal recirculation circulating fluidized-bed (IR-CFB) boiler design including fuel, boiler process parameters, and emissions. The B&W CFB boiler is unique in design. It utilizes proven impact-type particle separators (U-beams) with in-furnace solids recirculation. The paper describes the methodology for setting up process parameters, heat duty, boiler design, including auxiliary equipment selection and advantages.

  8. What factors influence choice of waste management practice? Evidence from rice straw management in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Launio, Cheryll C; Asis, Constancio A; Manalili, Rowena G; Javier, Evelyn F; Belizario, Annabelle F

    2014-02-01

    This study applied a multinomial logit model to understand why farmers choose to burn, incorporate or remove rice straw in the field. Four hundred randomly selected farmers were interviewed in four major rice-producing provinces covering the 2009 wet and 2010 dry seasons. Results of the model with burning as the baseline category indicate farm type, location dummies, number of household members with older than 13 years, cow ownership and distance from farm to house as significant variables influencing farmers' choice of straw incorporation or removal over burning. Significant perception variables are the negative impacts of open-field burning, awareness of environmental regulations and attitude towards incentives. Other factors significantly influencing the decision to incorporate over-burn are training attendance and perceptions of effects of straw incorporation. Income from non-rice farming, total area cultivated, tenure status, presence of burning and solid waste management provincial ordinances are significant factors affecting choice to remove over burn. Continually providing farmers' training in rice production, increasing demand for rice straw for other uses, and increasing awareness of environmental laws and regulations are policy directions recommended. PMID:24519228

  9. Determinants of rice residue burning in the field.

    PubMed

    Haider, Mohammed Ziaul

    2013-10-15

    This study determines the factors that influence rice residue burning in the field. We consider the southwest region of Bangladesh as the study site. Our results indicate that while straw length, low-elevation land, and distance of the plot from homestead positively and significantly influence the rice residue burning decision, residue price negatively and significantly influences the residue burning decision of farmers. Our study proposes subsidies for the purchase of new varieties of seeds and/or education in order to persuade farmers to move to short-straw varieties on high/medium-elevation lands as policy interventions for handling the residue burning issue. Another option might be to switch from residue burning to incorporation. Research and development efforts into shortening straw length and shortening the time period between planting and harvesting time are among other options that would mitigate the problem under consideration. PMID:23722172

  10. Startup, Commissioning and Operation of Fenyi 100MW CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Yu, Wugao; Bo, Shi

    The first 100MW CFB boiler, designed by the Thermal Power Research Institute and manufactured by Harbin Boiler Company Limited, has been successfully running in Jiangxi Fenyi Power Plant since 2003. Local high ash content anthracite and lean coal that are very difficult to burn out are used in the 100 MW CFB boiler. The results of the 100MW CFB boiler shows that the CFB boiler can run in 30% MCR and startup with two under bed burners, and the boiler efficiency higher than 88% can be got after the combustion modification test. The CFB boiler can be operated with full load and reaches design parameters. The emissions of NO, N2O and CO are less than 7Omg/m3, 30mg/m3, and 125mg/m3, respectively, and SO2 less than 400mg/m3 after limestone injection. The bottom ash temperature from bed ash coolers is less than 120°C after its modification. Coal blockage at the coal storage silo is the main problem influencing the CFB boiler continuous operation. The running experiences for 5 years proved that the CFB boiler performance is successful, and the results were applied in 210 MW and 330 MW CFB Boiler design of Fenyi Power Plant.

  11. Guide to Low-Emission Boiler and Combustion Equipment Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Oland, CB

    2002-05-06

    Boiler owners and operators who need additional generating capacity face a number of legal, political, environmental, economic, and technical challenges. Their key to success requires selection of an adequately sized low-emission boiler and combustion equipment that can be operated in compliance with emission standards established by state and federal regulatory agencies. Recognizing that many issues are involved in making informed selection decisions, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) sponsored efforts at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop a guide for use in choosing low-emission boilers and combustion equipment. To ensure that the guide covers a broad range of technical and regulatory issues of particular interest to the commercial boiler industry, the guide was developed in cooperation with the American Boiler Manufacturers Association (ABMA), the Council of Industrial Boiler Owners (CIBO), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The guide presents topics pertaining to industrial, commercial, and institutional (ICI) boilers. Background information about various types of commercially available boilers is provided along with discussions about the fuels that they burn and the emissions that they produce. Also included are discussions about emissions standards and compliance issues, technical details related to emissions control techniques, and other important selection considerations. Although information in the guide is primarily applicable to new ICI boilers, it may also apply to existing boiler installations.

  12. Burning Issue: Handling Household Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... hot objects or liquid, fire, friction, the sun, electricity, or certain chemicals. Each year, about a half- ... infant or elderly. the burn was caused by electricity, which can lead to “invisible” burns. Burns Burns ...

  13. Old boilers to profitable use with local biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hankala, J.

    1998-07-01

    To convert an old plant is often an economically advantageous alternative for a new boiler. The most important sources of biomass in industrial countries are residues from forestry, industry and agriculture. Sludges and wastes from industry, communities and households also contain useful energy. Still in many places there are existing power plants which can be converted to burn biofuels with low investment costs. An efficient and proven way is to convert an existing boiler to fluidized bed combustion (FBC) or use atmospheric circulating fluidized bed biofuel gasification connected to an existing boiler. Modern Fluidized Bed Combustion and Gasification gives us a possibility to burn biomass, sludges and many kinds of wastes in an efficient way with low emissions. Fluidized bed technologies are divided into bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) solutions. When making a boiler conversion to fluidized bed combustion, lower furnace of an existing boiler is converted and fuel receiving, handling and transportation system is installed. In many cases most of the existing boiler heating surfaces and a majority of the existing auxiliary equipment can be utilized. The circulating fluidized bed gasifier consists of the inside refractory-lined steel vessel, where fuel is gasified in a hot fluidized gas solid particle suspension. In the gasifier, the biofuels will be converted to combustible gas at atmospheric pressure at the temperature 800--900 C. The hot gas from the gasifier will be cooled down to 650--750 C in the air preheater. The hot gas is led directly to separate burners, which are located in the existing boiler furnace. The gas is burned in the boiler and replaces a part of the coal used in the boiler. Typical fuels for the FBC-boilers are wet fuels such as bark, wood waste, peat and sludges. These fuels normally contain 40--70% water.

  14. Application of the denitrification-decomposition model to predict carbon dioxide emissions under alternative straw retention methods.

    PubMed

    Chen, Can; Chen, Deli; Pan, Jianjun; Lam, Shu Kee

    2013-01-01

    Straw retention has been shown to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from agricultural soils. But it remains a big challenge for models to effectively predict CO2 emission fluxes under different straw retention methods. We used maize season data in the Griffith region, Australia, to test whether the denitrification-decomposition (DNDC) model could simulate annual CO2 emission. We also identified driving factors of CO2 emission by correlation analysis and path analysis. We show that the DNDC model was able to simulate CO2 emission under alternative straw retention scenarios. The correlation coefficients between simulated and observed daily values for treatments of straw burn and straw incorporation were 0.74 and 0.82, respectively, in the straw retention period and 0.72 and 0.83, respectively, in the crop growth period. The results also show that simulated values of annual CO2 emission for straw burn and straw incorporation were 3.45 t C ha(-1) y(-1) and 2.13 t C ha(-1) y(-1), respectively. In addition the DNDC model was found to be more suitable in simulating CO2 mission fluxes under straw incorporation. Finally the standard multiple regression describing the relationship between CO2 emissions and factors found that soil mean temperature (SMT), daily mean temperature (T mean), and water-filled pore space (WFPS) were significant. PMID:24453915

  15. Application of the Denitrification-Decomposition Model to Predict Carbon Dioxide Emissions under Alternative Straw Retention Methods

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Deli; Pan, Jianjun; Lam, Shu Kee

    2013-01-01

    Straw retention has been shown to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from agricultural soils. But it remains a big challenge for models to effectively predict CO2 emission fluxes under different straw retention methods. We used maize season data in the Griffith region, Australia, to test whether the denitrification-decomposition (DNDC) model could simulate annual CO2 emission. We also identified driving factors of CO2 emission by correlation analysis and path analysis. We show that the DNDC model was able to simulate CO2 emission under alternative straw retention scenarios. The correlation coefficients between simulated and observed daily values for treatments of straw burn and straw incorporation were 0.74 and 0.82, respectively, in the straw retention period and 0.72 and 0.83, respectively, in the crop growth period. The results also show that simulated values of annual CO2 emission for straw burn and straw incorporation were 3.45 t C ha−1 y−1 and 2.13 t C ha−1 y−1, respectively. In addition the DNDC model was found to be more suitable in simulating CO2 mission fluxes under straw incorporation. Finally the standard multiple regression describing the relationship between CO2 emissions and factors found that soil mean temperature (SMT), daily mean temperature (Tmean), and water-filled pore space (WFPS) were significant. PMID:24453915

  16. Study of pozzolanic properties of wheat straw ash

    SciTech Connect

    Biricik, H.; Akoez, F.; Berktay, I.; Tulgar, A.N.

    1999-05-01

    As an agricultural product, wheat straw contains considerable amounts of SiO{sub 2}. When burned it leaves an ash very rich in SiO{sub 2} that has a pozzolanic character. Wheat is an important agricultural product in Turkey. In this study, wheat straws are ground to 1--5-mm size and subjected to preburning treatment. The preburned material is later burned in controller conditions for 5 hours at 570 and 670 C. The ash is cooled suddenly and ground to 90--200 {micro} size. The standard test specimens are produced from ash and mechanically, chemically, and physically tested for determination of its pozzolanic properties. It is obtained that the ash has pozzolanic activity.

  17. Fuel switching for Clean Air Act compliance-boiler considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Warchol, J.J.; Kitto, B. Jr.; Kulig, J.S.

    1995-03-01

    Boiler considerations in fuel switching for Clean Air Act Compliance are outlined. The following topics are discussed: fuel switching options, major fuel characteristics, coal receiving and handling, dust control, grindability vs coal rank, pulverizers and burners, burning profiles, deposition zones in a coal-fired boiler, sootblower location, flues, ducts, and fans, air heaters, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), fly ash resistivity, potential ESP upgrades, ash handling system, auxiliary power system, economic factors, site considerations, and political issues. A summary and conclusion is presented.

  18. Biomass Burning

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-07-27

    Projects:  Biomass Burning Definition/Description:  Biomass Burning: This data set represents the geographical and temporal distribution of total amount of biomass burned. These data may be used in general circulation models (GCMs) and ...

  19. Coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO sub x control demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Haggard, R.W. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    It is the objective of the Coal Reburning for Cyclone Boiler NOx Control Project to fully establish that the coal reburning clean coal technology offers cost-effective alternatives to cyclone operating electric utilities for overall oxides of nitrogen control. The project will evaluate the applicability of the reburning technology for reducing NOx emissions in full scale cyclone-fired boilers which use coal as a primary fuel. The performance goals while burning coal are: (1) Greater than 50 percent reduction in NOx emissions, as referenced to the uncontrolled (baseline) conditions at full load. (2) No serious impact on cyclone combustor operation, boiler efficiency or boiler fireside performance (corrosion and deposition), or boiler ash removal system performance.

  20. Coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO sub x control demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    It is the objective of the Coal Reburning for Cyclone Boiler NO{sub x} Control Project to fully establish that the cola reburning clean coal technology offers cost-effective alternatives to cyclone operating electric utilities for overall oxides of nitrogen control. The project will evaluate the applicability of the reburning technology for reducing NO{sub x} emissions in full scale cyclone-fired boilers which use coal as a primary fuel. The performance goals while burning coal are: (1) Greater than 50 percent reduction in NO{sub x} emissions, as referenced to the uncontrolled (baseline) conditions at full load. (2) No serious impact on cyclone combustor operation, boiler efficiency or boiler fireside performance (corrosion and deposition), or boiler ash removal system performance.

  1. Rivesville multicell fluidized-bed boiler. Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this program is to design, construct and test a multicell fluidized-bed boiler as a pollution-free method of burning high-sulfur or highly corrosive coals without excessive maintenance problems. The fluidized-bed boiler will provide approximately 300,000 pounds of steam per hour. Steam pressure and temperature conditions were selected to meet requirements of the site at which the boiler was installed.

  2. Development and Demonstration of a Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-01

    Burns & McDonnell Engineering Company, in collaboration with Frito-Lay, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, CPL Systems, Inc., Alpha Boilers, and Kansas State University will demonstrate use of a biomass boiler in the food processing industry. The 60,000 lb/hr innovative biomass boiler system utilizing a combination of wood waste and tire-derived fuel (TDF) waste will offset all natural gas consumption at Frito-Lay's Topeka, Kansas, processing facility.

  3. BOILER PERF MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Winslow, J.C. )

    1988-01-01

    The BOILER PERFORMANCE MODEL is a package of eleven programs for predicting the heat transfer performance of fossil-fired utility boilers. The programs can model a wide variety of boiler designs, provide boiler performance estimates for coal, oil or gaseous fuels, determine the influence of slagging and fouling characteristics on boiler performance, and calculate performance factors for tradeoff analyses comparing boilers and fuels. Given a set of target operating conditions, the programs can estimate control settings, gas and steam operating profiles through the boiler, overall boiler efficiency, and fuel consumption. The programs are broken into three categories: data, calculation, and reports with a central processor program acting as the link allowing the user to access any of the data or calculation programs and easily move between programs. The calculations are divided among the following five programs: heat duty calculation, combustion calculation, furnace performance calculation, convection pass performance calculation, and air heater performance calculation. The programs can model subcritical or supercritical boilers, most configurations of convective passes including boilers that achieve final reheat steam temperature control by split back pass, boilers with as many as two reheat circuits and/or multiple attemperator stations in series, and boilers with or without economizers and/or air heaters. Either regenerative or tubular air heaters are supported. For wall-fired or tangentially-fired furnaces, the furnace performance program predicts the temperature of the flue gases leaving the furnace. It accounts for variations in excess air, gas recirculation, burner tilt, wall temperature, and wall cleanliness. For boilers having radiant panels or platens above the furnace, the convective pass program uses the results of the combustion chamber calculation to estimate the gas temperature entering the convective pass.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A WATERTUBE BOILER FIRING A COAL-WATER SLURRY. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a compendium of detailed test sampling and analysis data obtained in field tests of a watertube industrial boiler burning a coal/water slurry (CWS). Test data included in the report include preliminary stack test data, boiler operating data, and complete flue gas em...

  5. BOILER DESIGN CRITERIA FOR DRY SORBENT SO2 CONTROL WITH LOW-NOX BURNERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the development of boiler design criteria for application of dry sorbent control technology with low-NOx burners on tangentially fired pulverized-coal-burning boilers. A comprehensive review of past and current research in the area of sorbent SOx control prov...

  6. OVERVIEW OF POLLUTION FROM COMBUSTION OF FOSSIL FUELS IN BOILERS OF THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the fossil-fuel-fired boiler population of the U.S. It presents data on the number and capacity of boilers for categories most relevant to producing pollution. Information presented includes: type of fuel burned (coal, residual oil, distillate oil, natural ga...

  7. 33. BOILER HOUSE FURNACE AND BOILER Close view of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. BOILER HOUSE - FURNACE AND BOILER Close view of the Dorward Engineering Company furnace and boiler which provided steam to the cooking retorts in the adjacent room. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  8. 51. BOILER ROOM. SMALL BOILER ON LEFT OF UNKNOWN MANUFACTURE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. BOILER ROOM. SMALL BOILER ON LEFT OF UNKNOWN MANUFACTURE, WITH INDUCTION MOTORS. HARTLEY BOILER, MONTGOMERY, ALABAMA, ON RIGHT. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  9. Carbon sequestration in European soils through straw incorporation: limitations and alternatives.

    PubMed

    Powlson, D S; Riche, A B; Coleman, K; Glendining, M J; Whitmore, A P

    2008-01-01

    We compared alternate uses of cereal straw (4.25t dry matter ha(-1) containing 1.7t carbon (C)) for their effectiveness in relation to climate change mitigation. The scenarios were (1) incorporation into soil to increase soil organic carbon (SOC) content ("carbon sequestration") and (2) combustion to generate electricity. The Rothamsted Carbon Model was used to estimate SOC accumulation in a silty clay loam soil under the climatic conditions of north-west Europe. Using straw for electricity generation saved seven times more CO2 than from SOC accumulation. This comparison assumed that electricity from straw combustion displaced that generated from coal and used the mean annual accumulation of SOC over 100yr. SOC increased most rapidly in the early years, but then more slowly as a new equilibrium value was approached. We suggest that increased SOC from straw incorporation does not represent genuine climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. In Europe, most straw not already incorporated in the field where it is grown is subsequently returned elsewhere, e.g., after use for animal bedding and production of manure. Only additional retention of C in soil compared to the alternative use represents sequestration. Maintenance of SOC for soil functioning is a more appropriate rationale for returning straw to soil than climate change mitigation. This analysis shows that considerably greater climate change mitigation is achieved through saved CO2 emissions by burning straw for electricity generation, replacing some use of fossil fuel. PMID:18061434

  10. Compartment B3, boiler room; showing boiler facing of boiler #5 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment B-3, boiler room; showing boiler facing of boiler #5 aft to forward from passing room B-25. (030A) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. Improving boiler efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, L.

    1982-06-24

    Boilers and burners are designed to operate most efficiently at, or near, full load. This fact seems to indicate that on/off operation is more efficient; however, standby losses must be considered. This article examines various types of industrial boiler heat losses that reduce efficiency and discusses methods for improving operation.

  12. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? 63.1218 Section 63.1218 Protection of... Fuel Boilers, Liquid Fuel Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1218 What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? (a) Emission limits...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? 63.1218 Section 63.1218 Protection of... Fuel Boilers, Liquid Fuel Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1218 What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? (a) Emission limits...

  14. 39. (Credit JTL) Interior of boiler room looking east; boiler ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. (Credit JTL) Interior of boiler room looking east; boiler casing in background, boiler feedwater pumps and feedwater heater in middle ground; hot well on columns in left foreground. Steam lines from boilers to high service engines pass overhead. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  15. 68. 1911 BOILER HOUSE LOOKING SOUTH. BOILERS ARE CA. 1945. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. 1911 BOILER HOUSE LOOKING SOUTH. BOILERS ARE CA. 1945. SPACE HEATING BOILER S REPLACED ORIGINAL 8 VERTICAL HIGH PRESSURE STEAM POWER BOILERS. THE ORIGINAL SHEET METAL FLUE IS IN THE UPPER CENTER. - Boston Manufacturing Company, 144-190 Moody Street, Waltham, Middlesex County, MA

  16. Drying Milk With Boiler Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broussard, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Considerable energy saved in powdered-milk industry. Only special requirement boiler fired with natural gas or other clean fuel. Boiler flue gas fed to spray drier where it directly contacts product to be dried. Additional heat supplied by auxillary combustor when boiler output is low. Approach adaptable to existing plants with minimal investment because most already equipped with natural-gas-fired boilers.

  17. Mobilizable RDF/d-RDF burning program

    SciTech Connect

    Niemann, K.; Campbell, J.

    1982-03-01

    The Mobilizable RDF/d-RDF Burning Program was conceived to promote the utilization of refuse-derived fuels (RDF) as a supplement to existing fossil fuel sources in industrial-sized boilers. The program explores the design, development, and eventual construction of densified-RDF (d-RDF) for use in boiler combustion testing as a supplement to stoker coal or wood wastes. The equipment would be mounted on trailers and assembled and operated at preselected sites throughout the country where approximately 750 tons of RDF would be produced and test burned in a local boiler. The equipment, to include a transportable RDF boiler metering and feed system, would then be moved and operated at two to three test sites annually. The program is intended to encourage the construction of permanent resource recovery facilities by involving local waste handling groups in operating the equipment and producing fuel, and potential local fuel users in testing the fuel in their boilers. The Mobilizable Program was developed from two separate tasks. The first task developed the concept behind the program and defined its operational and organizational structure. The second task, a follow-up to the first, was intended principally to finalize test locations, develop equipment designs and specifications, and formalize a management program. This report summarizes the principal findings of both tasks. It identifies the criteria used to identify test locations, outlines the program's management structure, presents design and performance specifications for both the fuel production equipment and boiler fuel feed systems, and provides a detailed evaluation of the parameters involved in burning RDF in industrial-sized boilers. Final conclusions and recommendations identify problem areas encountered in the program, and discuss possible future directions for such a program.

  18. VALIDATION OF FIRESIDE PERFORMANCE INDICES: FOULING/CORROSION EVALUATION OF MDF PARTICLEBOARD AND BLENDS WITH WHEAT STRAW BOARD

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Jay R. Gunderson; Donald P. McCollor

    1999-02-01

    Sauder Woodworking currently fires a large portion of all wood wastes in a boiler producing process steam. It is investigating using particleboard made from wheat straw in its manufacturing process and is concerned with the effects of the inorganics on its boiler. Wheat straw board contains higher ash contents and increased levels of potassium, creating concern over fouling characteristics in Sauder's tight boiler design. In addition, the wheat straw board contains high concentrations of chlorine, which may affect boiler tube corrosion when fired in combination with the particleboard wastes currently generated. Sauder has engaged the services of the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) at the University of North Dakota to investigate the potential detrimental effects of firing blends containing wheat straw on boiler tube fouling and corrosion. Additional funding for this project was provided through the U.S. Department of Energy Jointly Sponsored Research Program (DOE JSRP) project ''Validation of Fireside Performance Indices'' to validate, improve, and expand the PCQUEST (Predictive Coal Quality Effects Screening Tool) program. The PCQUEST fuel database is constantly expanding and adding new fuels, for which the algorithms may need refinement and additional verification in order to accurately predict index values. A key focus is on performing advanced and conventional fuel analyses and adding these analyses to the PCQUEST database. Such fuels include coals of all ranks and origins, upgraded coals, petroleum coke, biomass and biomass-coal blends, and waste materials blended with coal. Since there are differences in the chemical and mineral form of the inorganic content in biomass and substantial differences in organic matrix characteristics, analysis and characterization methods developed for coal fuels may not be applicable. The project was seen to provide an excellent opportunity to test and improve the ability of PCQUEST to handle nontypical soil and

  19. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy at high temperatures in industrial boilers and furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blevins, Linda G.; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Sickafoose, Shane M.; Walsh, Peter M.

    2003-10-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied (1) near the superheater of an electric power generation boiler burning biomass, coal, or both; (2) at the exit of a glass-melting furnace burning natural gas and oxygen; and (3) near the nose arches of two paper mill recovery boilers burning black liquor. Difficulties associated with the high temperatures and high particle loadings in these environments were surmounted by use of novel LIBS probes. Echelle and linear spectrometers coupled to intensified CCD cameras were used individually and sometimes simultaneously. Elements detected include Na, K, Ca, Mg, C, B, Si, Mn, Al, Fe, Rb, Cl, and Ti.

  20. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy at high temperatures in industrial boilers and furnaces.

    PubMed

    Blevins, Linda G; Shaddix, Christopher R; Sickafoose, Shane M; Walsh, Peter M

    2003-10-20

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied (1) near the superheater of an electric power generation boiler burning biomass, coal, or both; (2) at the exit of a glass-melting furnace burning natural gas and oxygen; and (3) near the nose arches of two paper mill recovery boilers burning black liquor. Difficulties associated with the high temperatures and high particle loadings in these environments were surmounted by use of novel LIBS probes. Echelle and linear spectrometers coupled to intensified CCD cameras were used individually and sometimes simultaneously. Elements detected include Na, K, Ca, Mg, C, B, Si, Mn, Al, Fe, Rb, Cl, and Ti. PMID:14594073

  1. Reduction in nitrogen oxides emission on TGME-464 boiler of IRU power plant (Estonia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Ionkin, I. L.

    2015-01-01

    The possibility for realization of measures on a reduction in nitrogen oxides emission on a TGME-464 (plant no. 2) boiler of the IRU power plant (Tallinn, Estonia) is investigated. Low-cost techno-logical measures, namely, nonstoichiometric burning and burning with the moderate controlled chemical underburning, are proposed and experimentally tested. Recommendations on the implementation of low-emission modes of burning natural gas into mode diagrams of the boiler are given. Nitrogen oxides emissions are reduced to the required level as a result of the implementation of the proposed measures.

  2. Plasma-supported coal combustion in boiler furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Askarova, A.S.; Karpenko, E.I.; Lavrishcheva, Y.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B.

    2007-12-15

    Plasma activation promotes more effective and environmentally friendly low-rank coal combustion. This paper presents Plasma Fuel Systems that increase the burning efficiency of coal. The systems were tested for fuel oil-free start-up of coal-fired boilers and stabilization of a pulverized-coal flame in power-generating boilers equipped with different types of burners, and burning all types of power-generating coal. Also, numerical modeling results of a plasma thermochemical preparation of pulverized coal for ignition and combustion in the furnace of a utility boiler are discussed in this paper. Two kinetic mathematical models were used in the investigation of the processes of air/fuel mixture plasma activation: ignition and combustion. A I-D kinetic code PLASMA-COAL calculates the concentrations of species, temperatures, and velocities of the treated coal/air mixture in a burner incorporating a plasma source. The I-D simulation results are initial data for the 3-D-modeling of power boiler furnaces by the code FLOREAN. A comprehensive image of plasma-activated coal combustion processes in a furnace of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler was obtained. The advantages of the plasma technology are clearly demonstrated.

  3. Determination of PM10 and its ion composition emitted from biomass burning in the chamber for estimation of open burning emissions.

    PubMed

    Sillapapiromsuk, Sopittaporn; Chantara, Somporn; Tengjaroenkul, Urai; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon; Prapamontol, Tippawan

    2013-11-01

    Biomass samples including agricultural waste (rice straw and maize residue) and forest leaf litter were collected from Chiang Mai Province, Thailand for the burning experiment in the self-designed stainless steel chamber to simulate the emissions of PM10. The burning of leaf litter emitted the highest PM10 (1.52±0.65 g kg(-1)). The PM10-bound ions emitted from the burning of rice straw and maize residue showed the same trend, which was K(+)>Cl(-)>SO4(2-)>NH4(+)>NO3(-). However, the emissions from maize residue burning were ~1.5-2.0 times higher than those from the rice straw burning. The ion content emitted from leaf litter burning was almost the same for all ion species. Noticeably, K(+) and Cl(-) concentrations were ~2-4 times lower than those emitted from agricultural waste burning. It can be deduced that K(+) and Cl(-) were highly emitted from agricultural waste burning due to the use of fertilizer and herbicides in the field, respectively. Based on emission values obtained from the chamber, the pollutant emission rate from open burning was calculated. Burned areas in Chiang Mai Province were 3510 and 866 km(2) in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Forest burning was 71-88%, while agricultural land burning accounted for 12-29% (rice field: crop field=1:3) of total burned area. Therefore, emissions of PM10 from open burning in Chiang Mai were 3051 ton (2010) and 705 ton (2011). Major ions emitted from agricultural waste burning were found to be K(+) and Cl(-), while those from forest burning were SO4(2-) and K(+). PMID:23891258

  4. Burning coal's waste

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, J.M.; Duffy, T.J.

    1988-07-01

    In an old Pennsylvania coal valley, growing fresh produce and eliminating ancient waste piles both depend on a fluidized bed boiler cogeneration plant. The builders of a complex now nearing completion at Archbald, however, will soon begin to turn two of the waste piles, called culm banks, into economic assets. Culm will burn although it has a low, variable heat content. The project combines several recently developed technologies to use culm as fuel for a fluidized bed boiler cogeneration plant that will heat a hydroponic greenhouse. What makes the venture economically viable are the products that will be sold: 23 mw of electricity to the local utility and fresh produce to meet burgeoning demands in East Coast supermarkets. For instance, if the ''salad plant'' were completely devoted to growing lettuce, 3 million heads could be harvested in 11 hydroponic seasons a year. The owners, Archbald Power Corp., chose a 271 acre stie that had been mined for anthracite by both open pit and deep shaft methods.

  5. Mechanical support for straw tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Joestlein, H.

    1990-03-11

    A design is proposed for mounting a large number of straw tubes to form an SSC central tracking chamber. The assembly is precise and of very low mass. The fabrication is modular and can be carried out with a minimum of tooling and instrumentation. Testing of modules is possible prior to the final assembly. 4 figs.

  6. 42. BOILER HOUSE FOURTH FLOOR, FORCED DRAFT FANS ABOVE BOILERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. BOILER HOUSE FOURTH FLOOR, FORCED DRAFT FANS ABOVE BOILERS (SEE DRAWING Nos. 10 & 11 OF 13) - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

  7. 4. INTERIOR, CENTRAL BOILER ROOM, LOWER LEVEL, BOILERS, FROM SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR, CENTRAL BOILER ROOM, LOWER LEVEL, BOILERS, FROM SOUTHWEST CORNER OF ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Heating Plant, North of B Street & West of Third Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  8. Interior view of boiler house looking south. Boiler units are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of boiler house looking south. Boiler units are on left. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  9. Burning indecision: analyzing your fuel options

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, G.M.; Dean, J.W.; Shelley, D.

    1982-09-01

    Indecision on the part of boiler purchasers reflects their uncertainty over whether to shift to coal or to count on a long-term stability in oil prices. The tradeoffs between coal and natural gas costs are another factor as are the size of the capital investment, environmental standards, and government incentives. A fuel-choice analysis of a Michigan gas-burning facility illustrates the complexity of boiler investment decisions. Each site requires a specific evaluation of all the fuel and regulatory factors before a realistic decision is possible. 4 figures, 1 table. (DCK)

  10. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF BOILER HOUSE FROM SOUTHWEST. THE BOILER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF BOILER HOUSE FROM SOUTHWEST. THE BOILER HOUSE WAS USED FOR HEATING THE MILL; HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER FOR PRODUCTION WAS PURCHASED FROM THE COLUMBUS LIGHT & POWER COMPANY. NORTH END OF 1924 MILL TO RIGHT, c. 1970 WINDOWLESS WEAVE ROOM ADDITION TO LEFT. - Stark Mill, Boiler House, 117 Corinth Road, Hogansville, Troup County, GA

  11. Super Boiler: First Generation, Ultra-High Efficiency Firetube Boiler

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop and demonstrate a first-generation ultra-high-efficiency, ultra-low emissions, compact gas-fired package boiler (Super Boiler), and formulate a long-range RD&D plan for advanced boiler technology out to the year 2020.

  12. Performance of High Temperature Air Combustion Boiler with Low NOx Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hiromichi; Ito, Yoshihito; Tsuruta, Naoki; Yoshikawa, Kunio

    Thermal performance in the experiments and three-dimensional numerical simulations for a high temperature air combustion boiler where fuel can be efficiently combusted by high temperature preheated air (800°C-1000°C) is examined. The boiler can burn not only natural gas but also low calorific gas (e. g. full gasification gas obtained from coal or wastes). In the boiler, four regenerative burners are installed. This boiler has new features that not only air but also gasification gas is heated up to 900°C, and combination of burners is switched every 15 seconds where two burners are used as inlets of fuel and air and the other two burners are used as outlets of exhaust gas. Natural gas and syngas obtained from coal are burned. The NOx emission for each fuel is less than 50ppm. The heat transfer of three-dimensional calculation is predicted higher than that of experiment.

  13. Effects of soil attributes and straw accumulation on the sorption of hexazinone and tebuthiuron in tropical soils cultivated with sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Junior, Ernani V; Giori, Fabrício G; Nascimento, Altina L; Tornisielo, Valdemar L; Regitano, Jussara B

    2015-01-01

    Brazil is the largest sugarcane producer in the world in which hexazinone (3-cyclohexyl-6-dimethylamino-1-methyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-dione) and tebuthiuron (1-(5-tert-butyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-1,3-dimethylurea) are heavily used. Sugarcane harvesting is changing from the manual system with previous straw burning to the mechanized system without straw burning. The lack of burning results in soil organic carbon accumulation mainly in clayey soils, which should affect herbicides availability and fate. Therefore, we evaluated sorption of these herbicides in soil samples with and without straw burning. Both herbicides presented low apparent sorption coefficients (mean K(d,app)= 0.6 and 2.4 L kg(-1) for hexazinone and tebuthiuron, respectively), suggesting that they may leach to groundwater. Moreover, their sorption correlated primarily with soil organic carbon (SOC), but iron oxide contents extracted with ammonium oxalate (Fe2O3(AOX)) also affected it (K(d,app) = -0.228 + 0.0397 SOC + 0.117 Fe2O3(AOX) for hexazinone and K(d,app) = -1.407 + 0.201 SOC + 0.348 Fe2O3(AOX) for tebuthiuron). Soil organic carbon accumulation due to straw maintenance in the field positively affected sorption of both herbicides, but its effects were not enough to classify them as "non-leachers." PMID:25714455

  14. Crop Rotation and Straw Residue Effects on Soil Carbon In Three Grass Seed Cropping Systems Of Western Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As grass seed crop field burning in western Oregon was phased-out, alternative non-thermal practices, such as post harvest straw residue removal or incorporation to the soil, and crop rotations were being developed. There is little information available on the practicality and impacts of non-thermal...

  15. Combustion of waste fuels in a fluidized-bed boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Zylkowski, J.; Ehrlich, S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports on a project whose objectives are to determine the impact of the waste fuels on Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (AFBC) operating procedures, boiler performance, and emissions and to assess the potential for fuel-specific operating problems. The low-grade waste fuels investigated are hogged railroad ties, shredded rubber tires, peat, refuse-derived fuel, and one or more agricultiral wastes. The Northern States Power (NSP) Company converted their French Island Unit No. 2 stoker-fired boiler to a fluidized-bed combustor designed to burn wood waste. NSP and EPRI are investigating cofiring other waste fuels with wood waste. Topics considered include fluidized-bed boiler conversion, fuel resources, economic justification, environmental considerations, the wood-handling system, an auxiliary fuel system, the air quality control system, ash handling and disposal, and the alternate fuels test program.

  16. Case study - fast work in Chesapeake on a wastewood boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, S.L.; Habeishi, F.G.

    1983-08-01

    The project began in April 1980 and was on an extremely tight ''fast-track'' schedule to take advantage of available funding and energy tax credits. It was completed in December 1981, 19 months after the boiler was purchased. In spite of the congested location and the need to maintain normal mill operations, the work was completed on schedule. The project included a 190,000-kg/hour (420,000-lb/hour) waste-fuel-fired boiler, auxiliaries, and a new woodyard complete with flume, slasher, barking drum, chipper, screens, and materials-handling system. The boiler is designed to burn bark, oil as an auxiliary fuel, wastewater sludge, and strong waste gases.

  17. Biomass Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Pinto, Joseph P.

    1993-01-01

    Biomass burning may be the overwhelming regional or continental-scale source of methane (CH4) as in tropical Africa and a significant global source of CH4. Our best estimate of present methane emissions from biomass burning is about 51.9 Tg/yr, or 10% of the annual methane emissions to the atmosphere. Increased frequency of fires that may result as the Earth warms up may result in increases in this source of atmospheric methane.

  18. Utilization of felled trees as supplemental boiler fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lederer, C.C.; Schugar, S.

    1983-04-01

    A valuable natural resource, wood, is being generated in tremendous quantities every year in the City of Detroit as a result of the City's obligation to fell and remove dead trees, principally elms. The bulk of this resource, 115,000 tons of wood every year, is presently being burned at the City's public works facilities, serving only to fill the air with smoke. There are a number of ways to use this wood productively instead of wasting it. The purpose of our project was to explore the economic and technical feasibility of using the wood to supplement coal in a type of existing small industrial boiler that normally would not be considered as suitable for burning a coal/wood mixture, the boiler equipped with a single-retort, underfeed coal stoker. 4 figs.

  19. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues.

    PubMed

    Belal, Elsayed B

    2013-01-01

    A rice straw - cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 °C, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L(-1). PMID:24159309

  20. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues

    PubMed Central

    Belal, Elsayed B.

    2013-01-01

    A rice straw - cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 °C, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L−1. PMID:24159309

  1. Research, Development and Demonstration of Bio-Mass Boiler for Food Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Steve; Knapp, David

    2012-07-01

    Frito-Lay is working to reduce carbon emissions from their manufacturing plants. As part of this effort, they invested in a biomass-fired boiler at the Topeka, Kansas, plant. Frito-Lay partnered with Burns & McDonnell Engineering, Inc. and CPL Systems, Inc., to design and construct a steam producing boiler using carbon neutral fuels such as wood wastes (e.g. tree bark), shipping pallets, and used rubber vehicle tires. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) joined with Frito-Lay, Burns & McDonnell, and CPL to analyze the reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions that result from use of biomass-fired boilers in the food manufacturing environment. DOE support provided for the data collection and analysis, and reporting necessary to evaluate boiler efficiencies and reductions in CO2 emissions. The Frito-Lay biomass-fired boiler has resulted in significant reductions in CO2 emissions from the Topeka production facility. The use of natural gas has been reduced by 400 to 420 million standard cubic feet per year with corresponding reductions of 24,000 to 25,000 tons of CO2. The boiler does require auxiliary functions, however, that are unnecessary for a gas-fired boiler. These include heavy motors and fans for moving fuel and firing the boiler, trucks and equipment for delivering the fuel and moving at the boiler plant, and chippers for preparing the fuel prior to delivery. Each of these operations requires the combustion of fossil fuels or electricity and has associated CO2 emissions. Even after accounting for each of these auxiliary processes, however, the biomass-fired boiler results in net emission reductions of 22,500 to 23,500 tons of CO2 per year.

  2. A demonstration of pig lard as an industrial boiler fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Badger, M.; Larsen, J.; Clemens, T.; Moyer, D.; Wehr, T.

    1999-07-01

    Hatfield Quality Meats is a family owned regional meat processor and vendor and has multiple facilities in Pennsylvania. The main plant and corporate offices are located in Hatfield, Pennsylvania where they process 7,000 hogs per day. Two of Hatfield's by-products are lard and choice white grease (CWG), both of which are produced in large quantities. The lard, which is stored warm and liquid, is sold by tanker truck to veal producers, by 55-gallon drums to commercial bakeries, in 5-gallon pails to a variety of restaurants, and periodically in 1-pound tins to grocery stores. The CWG, which is a rendered product, is also sold to veal producers. A decrease in sales could leave the company with large excess of these products and difficult disposal problems. Hatfield Quality Meats, Lehigh University, and Penn State's the Energy Institute evaluated the liquid lard as an industrial boiler fuel and obtained the necessary handleability and combustion data to allow for its use as a supplemental fuel in Hatfield's process, were burned in Penn State's research boiler. The boiler, which has a nominal firing rate of two million Btu/h, is a 150 psig working pressure, A-frame watertube boiler. In addition to the lard samples, No.6 fuel oil was fired for baseline comparison. This paper discusses the comparison of lard and No.6 fuel oil as boiler fuels. Issues discussed include fuel characterization, material handling, combustion performance, flame character and stability, and emissions.

  3. Study on Combustion Characteristics of Lignite in a CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, J.; Zou, T. S.; Wu, J. X.; Jiang, C.; Gao, J. L.; Wu, J.; Su, D.; Song, D. Y.

    The shortage of coal promotes the lignite utility in power plant because of the rapid economy development recently. However, lignite is high in moisture content as well as volatile content and low in calorific value. It is very difficult to burn in traditional pulverized coal fired boiler. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler is an alternative with low pollutant emission. Some CFB boilers are built and put into commercial operation in Northeast China and East Inner Mongolia where lignite is abundant. The operation experiences of these boilers are introduced in this paper. The effect of coal particle size on bottom ash ratio, combustion efficiency, thermal efficiency, pollution emission, and ash deposits in convective heating surface were investigated. It was found that for the lignite fired CFB boiler, the largest coal particle size should be 20 to 40mm to maintain bed material balance. But the bottom ash only shares less than 10% of the total ash. Due to high volatile content in the lignite, the combustion efficiency could achieve more than 99%. Meanwhile, NOx emission was relative low and satisfied national environment protection requirement. It is suggested that flue gas velocity in convective heating surface should be ranged in a certain scope to prevent ash deposit and erosion.

  4. Corrosion of boiler tube alloys in refuse firing: Shredded vs bulk refuse

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, H.H. ); Daniel, P.L.; Blue, J.D. )

    1994-08-01

    Results of corrosion probe exposures at two mass burning incinerators were compared with those conducted in a unit burning refuse-derived fuel. Tests were conducted with carbon steel, low-alloy steels, stainless steels, and high nickel-chromium alloys. Corrosion rates at similar metal and gas temperatures were essentially the same for both types of fuel. Boiler tube performance in the waterwalls of other incinerators confirmed these results. Boiler design and operating conditions appear to be more important factors in tube wastage than the extent of refuse processing.

  5. Postcombustion and its influences in 135 MWe CFB boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Shaohua Li; Hairui Yang; Hai Zhang; Qing Liu; Junfu Lu; Guangxi Yue

    2009-09-15

    In the cyclone of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler, a noticeable increment of flue gas temperature, caused by combustion of combustible gas and unburnt carbon content, is often found. Such phenomenon is defined as post combustion, and it could introduce overheating of reheated and superheated steam and extra heat loss of exhaust flue gas. In this paper, mathematical modeling and field measurements on post combustion in 135MWe commercial CFB boilers were conducted. A novel one-dimensional combustion model taking post combustion into account was developed. With this model, the overall combustion performance, including size distribution of various ashes, temperature profile, and carbon content profiles along the furnace height, heat release fraction in the cyclone and furnace were predicted. Field measurements were conducted by sampling gas and solid at different positions in the boiler under different loads. The measured data and corresponding model-calculated results were compared. Both prediction and field measurements showed post combustion introduced a temperature increment of flue gas in the cyclone of the 135MWe CFB boiler in the range of 20-50{sup o}C when a low-volatile bituminous coal was fired. Although it had little influence on ash size distribution, post combustion had a remarkable influence on the carbon content profile and temperature profile in the furnace. Moreover, it introduced about 4-7% heat release in the cyclone over the total heat release in the boiler. This fraction slightly increased with total air flow rate and boiler load. Model calculations were also conducted on other two 135MWe CFB boilers burning lignite and anthracite coal, respectively. The results confirmed that post combustion was sensitive to coal type and became more severe as the volatile content of the coal decreased. 15 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Burning rubber

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    Mario Andretti, look out You are about to be surpassed in the burning rubber category by a joint venture between Oxford Energy Company and General Electric. The two companies are building the first whole tire-to-energy facility in the US in Modesto, California. This $41 million facility does not require tires to be shredded prior to incineration; it has the capacity to burn 700 tires per minute. The electricity generated will be provided to a utility company. Oxford says there are two billion waste tires on the ground and this number is increasing by 220 million a year. Of that amount, only 18 million a year are recycled.

  7. Fuel Ethanol Production from Barley Straw

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley straw used in this study contained 34.1±0.6% cellulose, 22.6±0.4% hemicelluloses, and 13.3±0.2% lignin (moisture, 6.5±0.0%). Several pretreatments (dilute acid, lime, and alkaline peroxide) and enzymatic saccharification procedures were evaluated for the conversion of barley straw to monomer...

  8. Production of fuel ethanol from wheat straw

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat straw contains about 70% carbohydrates that can serve as a low cost feedstock for production of fuel ethanol. The pretreatment of wheat straw is essential prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. Research needs to be carried out to develop an efficient pretreatment method which can greatly help enzyme...

  9. Optimising boiler performance.

    PubMed

    Mayoh, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Soaring fuel costs continue to put the squeeze on already tight health service budgets. Yet it is estimated that combining established good practice with improved technologies could save between 10% and 30% of fuel costs for boilers. Paul Mayoh, UK technical manager at Spirax Sarco, examines some of the practical measures that healthcare organisations can take to gain their share of these potential savings. PMID:19192603

  10. Moisture in a straw bale wall

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.Z.; Fremouw, S.; Kline, J.; Northcutt, D.; Wang, Z.; Weiser, R.

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this project was to see if there was sufficient moisture to promote fungus growth within a straw bale wall. To determine the level of moisture, the walls in a straw bale building were instrumented to monitor relative humidity. The year-long monitoring began in August, 1997. During the monitoring period the building's interior relative humidity ranged from 22 to 71% and the exterior relative humidity ranged from 10 to 94%. The maximum straw bale relative humidity recorded was 85%, which occurred on February 21 on the south side of the building in a lower bale on the exterior side. The minimum straw bale relative humidity occurred on August 13 on the east side of the building in a lower bale on the exterior side and was 27%. In the 23 studies of mold growth in straw bales the authors reviewed, mold growth occurred between 70 and 91% relative humidity.

  11. Burning Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2006-01-01

    Former Baltimore cop and teacher Ed Burns isn't a masochist. The writer-producer for "The Wire," a critically applauded HBO series about life and death on the streets of Baltimore, is just feverishly trying to save public schools. He thinks American education is hopelessly screwed up, but that it's also the country's only hope. So it makes sense…

  12. Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

  13. 2. RICE THRESHING MILL WITH CHIMNEY STACK. Fire burned on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. RICE THRESHING MILL WITH CHIMNEY STACK. Fire burned on top of water pipe at base of chimney stack and steam went thru pipes to boiler on south side of wall. - Mansfield Plantation, Rice Threshing Mill, U.S. Route 701 vicinity, Georgetown, Georgetown County, SC

  14. Interior view of boiler house looking north. Boiler units are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of boiler house looking north. Boiler units are on right. HAER Engineer/Historian Donald C. Jackson on right is interviewing Garry Dobbins concerning operation of the facility. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  15. Anthracite culm fired fluidized-bed boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Lentz, E.C.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses a DOE-sponsored project to design, fabricate, install and demonstrate a system which can be fired with anthracite refuse coal (culm) or other coal. It is estimated that there are over 800 culm banks containing approximately 900 million ton of material in the northeast Pennsylvania area, which represents 1 billion barrels (159 GL) of oil equivalent. Culm combustion tests were conducted to establish and confirm the start-up and load following control systems to be used in the fluidized-bed boiler. The main purpose of the examined project is to demonstrate to industry that mine-site preparation/delivery of ready-to-burn fuel and disposal of the ash can be accomplished reliably, economically, and without detriment to the industrial or community environment.

  16. Pyroflow Compact: The next generation CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, S.L.

    1995-12-31

    CFB technology is the modern way to burn coal and other solid fuels. This technology was specifically developed to address today`s needs for fuel flexibility and low emissions. The low furnace temperatures characteristic of CFB technology provide for (a) low NO{sub x} emissions, (b) low SO{sub 2} emissions via simple furnace limestone injection and (c) the ability to fire a wide range of fuels because slagging is avoided. Lack of pulverizers and stack gas scrubbers results in a simple design with low maintenance costs and high availability. Ahlstrom, responsible for many innovations in CFB technology, has recently developed an improved CFB boiler design called the Pyroflow Compact. This new design retains all the benefits of the proven AHLSTROM PYROFLOW{reg_sign}CFB boiler while providing many advantages. This paper will describe the design features of the new Pyroflow Compact design, the advantages of this new design, operating experience, an up-to-date list of projects and Ahlstrom`s future plans for the new design.

  17. Design considerations for sludge fired fluidized bed incinerator-cum-boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Bapat, D.W.; Vishwanathan, K.

    1997-12-31

    Thermal Limited, a major player in the field of Fluidized Bed Boilers in India, has supplied on a turnkey basis, three boilers each of 22.5 tons per hour capacity as a part of Cogeneration system for PT. South Pacific Viscose, Indonesia. The plant generates huge volumes of sludge from its effluent Treatment Plant (ETP). The sludge produced from the ETP has a moisture content of about 98%, which is subsequently reduced to about 78% using a decanter before feeding the sludge into the boiler. The waste sludge has a negative heating value ({minus}150 kcal/kg on NCV basis) and required coal as support fuel for burning. The plant`s requirement was to incinerate the entire sludge generated in the plant, which meant that nearly 50% of the fuel fed to the boiler consisted of the waste sludge. Additional requirements were to burn coal and oil as back-up fuels. This paper deals with the challenges encountered and various design features provided in the configuration of the incinerator-cum-boiler including conveying, feeding and spreading arrangement of the waste sludge for effective incineration in addition to burning coal and oil. Also included in the paper is a brief description of the automatic control logics for combustion control and bed temperature control.

  18. [Predicting low NOx combustion property of a coal-fired boiler].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hao; Mao, Jianbo; Chi, Zuohe; Jiang, Xiao; Wang, Zhenhua; Cen, Kefa

    2002-03-01

    More attention was paid to the low NOx combustion property of the high capacity tangential firing boiler, but the NOx emission and unburned carbon content in fly ash of coal burned boiler were complicated, they were affected by many factors, such as coal character, boiler's load, air distribution, boiler style, burner style, furnace temperature, excess air ratio, pulverized coal fineness and the uniformity of the air and coal distribution, etc. In this paper, the NOx emission property and unburned carbon content in fly ash of a 600 MW utility tangentially firing coal burned boiler was experimentally investigated, and taking advantage of the nonlinear dynamics characteristics and self-learning characteristics of artificial neural network, an artificial neural network model on low NOx combustion property of the high capacity boiler was developed and verified. The results illustrated that such a model can predicate the NOx emission concentration and unburned carbon content under various operating conditions, if combined with the optimization algorithm, the operator can find the best operation condition of the low NOx combustion. PMID:12048812

  19. Burning vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Priyanka; Hobday, Dorian; Fitzgerald O'Connor, Edmund; D'Cruz, David

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 69-year-old man who was found collapsed close to a heat source and admitted to hospital for severe sepsis. He was also found to have widespread blistering and ulceration of his right leg; however, a history was unobtainable due to reduced consciousness levels. The leg lesions had the initial appearance of mixed depth burns and a management plan was made to transfer the patient to a burns unit for debridement. It was subsequently noted that the patient had a previous diagnosis of seropositive erosive rheumatoid arthritis. A biopsy of the leg lesion was performed and a diagnosis of rheumatoid vasculitis confirmed. Treatment with systemic steroids, intravenous antibiotics and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for severe hypogammaglobulinaemia was started, and the patient was not transferred for surgical debridement. Rheumatoid vasculitis is a rare and extremely serious complication of rheumatoid arthritis that can manifest in a number of ways, occasionally mimicking other conditions. This case is essential to raise awareness of rare, severe rheumatoid vasculitis and of the potential for its misdiagnosis as a mixed depth burn. PMID:27118745

  20. Lead accumulation in the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea, from lead contaminated rice straw and stubble.

    PubMed

    Kumhomkul, Thapakorn; Panich-pat, Thanawan

    2013-08-01

    Straw mushrooms were grown on lead contaminated rice straw and stubble. Study materials were dried, acid digested, and analyzed for lead using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed the highest lead concentration in substrate was 445.350 mg kg⁻¹ in Treatment 3 (T3) and the lowest was BD (below detection) in Treatment 1 (T1). The maximum lead content in straw mushrooms was 5.072 mg kg⁻¹ dw in pileus of T3 and the minimum lead content in straw mushrooms was BD in egg and mature (stalk and pileus) stage of T1. The lead concentration in straw mushrooms was affected by the age of the mycelium and the morphology of mushrooms. Mushrooms' lead uptake produced the highest accumulation in the cell wall. Some lead concentrations in straw mushrooms exceeded the EU standard (>3 mg kg⁻¹ dw). PMID:23749039

  1. CALCINATION OF CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS FOR CONTROL OF SO2 EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper summarizes the results of an experimental study that focused on the production of high surface area materials from various sorbents. (NOTE: Injecting calcium-based sorbents into coal burning utility boilers to control SO2 emissions is being considered by the EPA as an a...

  2. UTILITY BOILER DESIGN/COST COMPARISON: FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION VS. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a conceptual design, performance, and cost comparison of utility scale (750-925 MWe) coal-burning power plants employing three alternative technologies: conventional boiler with a stack gas scrubber (CWS), atmospheric-pressure fluidized-bed combustion ...

  3. DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT INJECTION TECHNOLOGY ON A TANGENTIALLY COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILER (YORKTOWN LIMB DEMONSTRATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes activities conducted and results achieved in an EPA-sponsored program to demonstrate Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) technology on a tangentially fired coal-burning utility boiler, Virginia Power's 180-MWe Yorktown Unit No. 2. his successfully d...

  4. Preliminary investigation of fungal bioprocessing of wheat straw for production of straw-thermoplastic composites.

    PubMed

    Thompson, David N; Houghton, Tracy P; Lacey, Jeffrey A; Shaw, Peter G; Hess, J Richard

    2003-01-01

    Straw utilization for composites is limited by poor resin and polymer penetration, and excessive resin consumption owing to the straw cuticle, fines, and lignin-hemicellulose matrix. White-rot fungi degrade these components of straw and could, therefore, potentially be used to improve resin penetration and resin binding without the use of physical or chemical pretreatments. Although long treatment times and large footprints the limit use of fungal treatments on a large scale, distributed fungal pretreatments could alleviate land requirements. In this article, we present progress toward the development of a passive fungal straw upgrading system utilizing whiterot fungi. PMID:12721465

  5. Design and research of retrofitting PC boiler into CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.P.; Lu, J.D.; Huang, L.; Liu, H.; Lin, Z.; Liu, D.C.

    1997-12-31

    In China, there are a large number of aged pulverized coal (PC) boilers at aging utility power plants. Many of them are beyond their reasonable working life or in a condition of unreliable operation, low combustion efficiency, and serious air pollution. It is very important and urgent to retrofit the aged PC boilers, and repower the aging utility power plants in China. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers have been developed rapidly, and paid great attention to in China. There are many striking advantages to retrofit an aged boiler with a CFB boiler. The retrofitting is suitable to meet the needs of effective utilization of low-grade coal, reducing SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions and repowering an aging power plant. The cost is much lower than that of building a new CFB unit. The National Laboratory of Coal Combustion (NLCC) has always paid great attention to studying and developing CFB combustion technology in connection with Chinese national conditions, and has evolved distinguishing technology features of its own. This paper introduces a new design concept of retrofitting PC boiler into Pi ({Pi}-shaped) CFB boiler with downward exhaust cyclone, and relevant research work and results of design and calculation.

  6. Particulate matter characteristics during agricultural waste burning in Taichung City, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Man-Ting; Horng, Chuen-Liang; Su, Yi-Ru; Lin, Li-Kai; Lin, Yu-Chi; Chou, Charles C-K

    2009-06-15

    Agricultural waste burning is performed after harvest periods in June and November in Taiwan. Typically, farmers use open burning to dispose of excess rice straw. PM(2.5) and PM(2.5-10) measurements were conducted at National Chung Hsing University in Taichung City using a dichotomous sampler. The sampling times were during straw burning periods after rice harvest during 2002-2005. Ionic species including SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-), NH(4)(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Cl(-) and Na(+) and carbonaceous species (EC and OC) in PM(2.5) and PM(2.5-10) were analyzed. The results showed that the average PM(2.5) and PM(2.5-10) concentrations were 123.6 and 31.5 microg m(-3) during agricultural waste burning periods and 32.6 and 21.4 microg m(-3) during non-waste burning periods, respectively. The fine aerosol ionic species including Cl(-), K(+) and NO(3)(-) increased 11.0, 6.7 and 5.5 times during agricultural burning periods compared with periods when agricultural waste burning is not performed. K(+) was found mainly in the fine mode during agricultural burning. High nitrogen oxidation ratio was found during agricultural waste burning periods which might be caused by the conversion of Nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) to NO(3)(-). It is concluded that agricultural waste burning with low dispersion often causes high PM(2.5) and gases pollutant events. PMID:18995960

  7. Sharing Drug 'Snorting Straws' Spreads Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_160112.html Sharing Drug 'Snorting Straws' Spreads Hepatitis C Study highlights more fallout from opioid epidemic ... to snort opioids is a major cause of hepatitis C infection, a new study finds. The sharing ...

  8. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Shamanna, S.; Schobert, H.H.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1992-10-13

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in an oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing will determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting and operating boilers will be identified to assess the viability of future oil-to-coal retrofits.

  9. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Wincek, R.T.; Clark, D.A.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1993-04-21

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing wig determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will be identified

  10. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Boiler number. 230.47 Section 230.47..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known,...

  11. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Boiler number. 230.47 Section 230.47..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known,...

  12. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Boiler number. 230.47 Section 230.47..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known,...

  13. 30 CFR 77.413 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boilers. 77.413 Section 77.413 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.413 Boilers. (a) Boilers shall be equipped with guarded, well-maintained water... the gages shall be kept clean and free of scale and rust. (b) Boilers shall be equipped with...

  14. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler number. 230.47 Section 230.47..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known,...

  15. 30 CFR 77.413 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boilers. 77.413 Section 77.413 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.413 Boilers. (a) Boilers shall be equipped with guarded, well-maintained water... the gages shall be kept clean and free of scale and rust. (b) Boilers shall be equipped with...

  16. 30 CFR 77.413 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boilers. 77.413 Section 77.413 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.413 Boilers. (a) Boilers shall be equipped with guarded, well-maintained water... the gages shall be kept clean and free of scale and rust. (b) Boilers shall be equipped with...

  17. 30 CFR 77.413 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers. 77.413 Section 77.413 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.413 Boilers. (a) Boilers shall be equipped with guarded, well-maintained water... the gages shall be kept clean and free of scale and rust. (b) Boilers shall be equipped with...

  18. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Boiler number. 230.47 Section 230.47..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known,...

  19. 30 CFR 77.413 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boilers. 77.413 Section 77.413 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.413 Boilers. (a) Boilers shall be equipped with guarded, well-maintained water... the gages shall be kept clean and free of scale and rust. (b) Boilers shall be equipped with...

  20. Coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO{sub x} control demonstration. Quarterly report No. 7, October, November, and December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Haggard, R.W. Jr.

    1991-12-31

    It is the objective of the Coal Reburning for Cyclone Boiler NOx Control Project to fully establish that the coal reburning clean coal technology offers cost-effective alternatives to cyclone operating electric utilities for overall oxides of nitrogen control. The project will evaluate the applicability of the reburning technology for reducing NOx emissions in full scale cyclone-fired boilers which use coal as a primary fuel. The performance goals while burning coal are: (1) Greater than 50 percent reduction in NOx emissions, as referenced to the uncontrolled (baseline) conditions at full load. (2) No serious impact on cyclone combustor operation, boiler efficiency or boiler fireside performance (corrosion and deposition), or boiler ash removal system performance.

  1. Coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO{sub x} control demonstration. Quarterly report No. 6, July--September, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    It is the objective of the Coal Reburning for Cyclone Boiler NO{sub x} Control Project to fully establish that the cola reburning clean coal technology offers cost-effective alternatives to cyclone operating electric utilities for overall oxides of nitrogen control. The project will evaluate the applicability of the reburning technology for reducing NO{sub x} emissions in full scale cyclone-fired boilers which use coal as a primary fuel. The performance goals while burning coal are: (1) Greater than 50 percent reduction in NO{sub x} emissions, as referenced to the uncontrolled (baseline) conditions at full load. (2) No serious impact on cyclone combustor operation, boiler efficiency or boiler fireside performance (corrosion and deposition), or boiler ash removal system performance.

  2. An annular-furnace boiler for the 660-MW power unit for ultrasupercritical parameters intended for firing brown slagging coals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serant, F. A.; Belorutskii, I. Yu.; Ershov, Yu. A.; Gordeev, V. V.; Stavskaya, O. I.; Katsel, T. V.

    2013-12-01

    We present the main technical solutions adopted in designing annular-furnace boilers intended for operation on brown coals of the prospective Maikubensk open-cast mine in Kazakhstan as part of 660-MW power units for ultrasupercritical steam conditions. Results from 3D modeling of combustion processes are presented, which clearly show the advantages furnaces of this kind have over a traditional furnace in burning heavily slagging brown coals. The layout of the main and boiler auxiliary equipment in the existing boiler cell of the 500-MW power unit at the Ekibastuz GRES-1 district power station is shown. Appropriate attention is paid to matters concerned with decreasing harmful emissions.

  3. Burn problem fuel oils without emissions headaches

    SciTech Connect

    Martel, G.; Veratti, T.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that if particulate emissions from oil-fired boilers are not what they should be, the problem may be the quality of the oil or how that quality is determined. Shows how an electric utility was able to pinpoint a problem it recently had with one of its units that burns low-quality fuel oil, and subsequently reduced its emissions through a combination of equipment optimization techniques and fuel additives. Presents graphs which show that: lower viscosities reduce emissions; suspended-sediment-by-hot-filtration (SHF) in the feed oil has a linear effect on particulate emissions; and balancing catalyst rates with percent O/sub 2/ is an economic imperative when reducing emissions from an oil-fired boiler.

  4. [Corn straw composting in the field and in situ fertilizer effect].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-nan; Zhang, Chang-hua; Liang, Yong-jiang; Chen, Qi-di; Shi, Jun-xiong; Du, Ru-wan; Luo, Jian-jun; Yuan, Ling

    2014-12-01

    According to the fact that corn straws remain or burned in the field in hilly and mountainous areas of Southwest China, which causes organic matter waste and serious atmospheric pollution, it is necessary to develop an efficient method to compost the corn straws. In the present experiment, corn straws were placed on the landside and land corner for composting with thermophilic cellulous bacteria inoculated, chemical nitrogen and nitrogen absorption agent added, and then covered with polyethylene film (bio-composting). Thereafter, flue-cured tobacco grown in the same land was fertilized with the compost to study the fertilizer effect. The results showed that the temperature in bio-compost increased quickly (over than 35 degrees C within 2 to 3 days) but decreased slowly compared to natural composting (control). In the bio-compost, temperature over than 50 degrees C lasted for about 15 days and the number of bacteria was 100 to 1000 times higher than in the control de- spite that microbial groups decreased in the high temperature period. After 90 days of bio-composting, corn straws contained water less than 25% with pH 6. 14 and showed brown or black color and fragmental or farinose physical state, indicating good decomposition and humification. Meanwhile, the active organic matter and nutrients, including N, P and K, were significantly increased. The yield, mean price, economical output of flue-cured tobacco leaves were increased and the leaf quality was improved by application of chemical fertilizers plus the compost at the ratio of 1:1. Therefore, bio-composting could utilize efficiently corn straws and eliminate air pollution, which is worth popularization in hilly and mountain areas. PMID:25876401

  5. Chemical corrosion potential in boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Bairr, D.L.; McDonough, C.J.

    1998-12-31

    Misuse or abuse of chelants has long been recognized as a potential corrosion problem in boilers. In recent years all polymer chemical treatment programs have been introduced and although they are much more benign even all polymer programs must be properly designed and controlled. Under extreme conditions a similar corrosion potential exists. This paper discusses the potential for chelant or polymer corrosion in boilers and the proper safeguards. Case histories are presented.

  6. Boiler-turbine life extension

    SciTech Connect

    Natzkov, S.; Nikolov, M.

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  7. CFB boiler at Gardanne (France)

    SciTech Connect

    Jaud, P.; Jacquet, L.; Delot, P.; Bayle, F.

    1995-06-01

    Among the new Clean Coal Technologies, {open_quotes}Circulating Fluidized Bed{close_quotes} is one of the most promising. Today, the largest project in commissioning`s the 250 MWe Provence CFB boiler, located near MARSEILLE in the south of France. At such a size, the CFB technique has now reached a capacity corresponding to thermal power plants operated by utilities. This new unit is a very important step towards larger size i.e. 400 MWe and greater. The SO{sub 2} emissions of this CFB boiler are guaranteed to be less than 400 mg / Nm{sup 3} at 6% O{sub 2} with the ratio of Ca/S lower than 3 while total sulfur in local coal used can reach 3.68 %. The purpose of the Provence project was to replace the existing pulverized coal boiler unit 4, commissioned in 1967, of the Provence power plant, with a new CFB boiler while reusing most of the existing equipment. The new boiler has been ordered from GEC ALSTHOM STEIN INDUSTREE (GASI) by Electricite de France (EDF) on behalf of the SOPROLIF consortium. Architect Engineering and construction management was performed by EDF jointly with Charbonnages de France (CdF: the French Coal Board). The 250 MWe CFB boiler is of the superheat-reheat type. The first firing of the boiler is due in April 1995. The poster session will describe the progress in the construction of the plant and provides technical details of the new boiler and auxiliaries.

  8. Ram Burn Observations (RAMBO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    Ram Burn Observations (RAMBO) is a Department of Defense experiment that observes shuttle Orbital Maneuvering System engine burns for the purpose of improving plume models. On STS-107 the appropriate sensors will observe selected rendezvous and orbit adjust burns.

  9. Nitrous oxide emissions from sugarcane straw left on the soil surface in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galdos, M. V.; Cerri, C. E.; Carvalho, J. L.; Cerri, C. C.

    2012-12-01

    In Brazil, the largest exporter of ethanol from sugarcane in the world, burning the dry leaves and tops in order to facilitate the harvest and transportation of the stalks is still a common practice. Burning plant residues causes emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2, CH4 and N2O, besides the release of charcoal particles into the atmosphere. Due to a combination of pressure from changes in the public opinion and economical reasons, in Brazil sugarcane harvest is changing from a burned into an unburned system. Since manual harvest of sugarcane without burning is not economically feasible, mechanical harvesters have been developed that can take the stalk and leave the residues on the field, forming a mulch, in a system called green cane management. It is expected that 80% of the cane harvested in the main producing regions in Brazil will be harvested without burning by 2014. The conversion from burning sugarcane to green management of sugarcane will have impacts on the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nitrogen in the plant soil system. The green cane management results in the deposition of large amounts of plant litter on the soil surface after harvest, ranging from 10 to 20 tons per hectare, which impact the whole production process of sugarcane, influencing yields, fertilizer management and application, soil erosion, soil organic matter dynamics as well as greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, N2O, CH4). From a GHG perspective, the conservation of sugarcane residues prevents emissions from the burning process, may promote carbon sequestration in soils and releases nitrogen during the decomposition process replacing the need for, and GHG emissions from, fossil fuel based nitrogen fertilizer sources. Measurements of soil C and N stocks and associated greenhouse gas emissions from the burned and unburned sugarcane systems and in the sugarcane expansion areas are still scarce. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to quantify the nitrous oxide

  10. PCDD/F EMISSIONS FROM BURNING WHEAT AND RICE FIELD RESIDUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents the first known values for emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) from combustion of agricultural field biomass. Wheat and rice straw stubble collected from two western U.S. states were tested in a field burn simulation to dete...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? 63.1218 Section 63.1218 Protection of..., Liquid Fuel Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1218 What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? (a) Emission limits for existing sources....

  12. Improved NOx emissions and combustion characteristics for a retrofitted down-fired 300-MWe utility boiler.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengqi; Ren, Feng; Chen, Zhichao; Liu, Guangkui; Xu, Zhenxing

    2010-05-15

    A new technique combining high boiler efficiency and low-NO(x) emissions was employed in a 300MWe down-fired boiler as an economical means to reduce NO(x) emissions in down-fired boilers burning low-volatile coals. Experiments were conducted on this boiler after the retrofit with measurements taken of gas temperature distributions along the primary air and coal mixture flows and in the furnace, furnace temperatures along the main axis and gas concentrations such as O(2), CO and NO(x) in the near-wall region. Data were compared with those obtained before the retrofit and verified that by applying the combined technique, gas temperature distributions in the furnace become more reasonable. Peak temperatures were lowered from the upper furnace to the lower furnace and flame stability was improved. Despite burning low-volatile coals, NO(x) emissions can be lowered by as much as 50% without increasing the levels of unburnt carbon in fly ash and reducing boiler thermal efficiency. PMID:20429548

  13. Neijiang Power Plant -- Experiences with the largest CFB boiler in China

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Shenshou; Hotta, A.

    1997-12-31

    The 100 MWe Neijiang Thermal Power Plant owned by Sichuan Electric Power Administration (SEPA) started operation in June 1996. The power plant is equipped with Foster Wheeler CFB Boiler, which is designed to produce 114 kg/s of superheated steam at 98 bar pressure and 540 C temperature. The local Sichuan anthracite coal, which is burned in the boiler, features high ash and high sulphur content and has been difficult to burn in some PC or stoker fired boilers. The new CFB boiler has proven to be very suitable for this coal and large turn-down ratio and good load following capability have been achieved. The Neijiang CFB boiler has demonstrated that the stringent emission levels could be easily achieved with good overall economy. The construction of the project, which was done in a tight schedule jointly with Foster Wheeler and SEPA in close and excellent cooperation, is described in this paper in addition to some technical details of the power plant. Also the observations made during the commissioning as well as the performance data are presented.

  14. Vacuum straw tracker test beam run

    SciTech Connect

    Wah, Yau; /Chicago U.

    2005-08-01

    This memorandum of understanding requests beam time at Fermilab during the 2005 Meson Test Beam run to measure the detection inefficiency of vacuum straw tubes. One of the future kaon experiments at J-PARC has the goal to measure the branching ratio of the neutral kaon ''Golden Mode'' K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} with a few hundred event sensitivity. This future J-PARC experiment is a follow up of a current KEK experiment, E391a which has been taking data since February 2004. E391a is a collaboration of five countries (Japan, United States, Russia, Korea, and Taiwan) with ten institutions (KEK, Saga U, Yamagata U, Osaka U, U of Chicago, Pusan U, JINR, NDA, Kyoto U, National Taiwan U, and RCNP). The branching ratio of K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} {nu} {nu} is small, about 3 x 10{sup -11}. To first order, all kaon decays with final states with charged particles need to be vetoed, and those include K{sub e3}, K{sub {mu}3}, and K{sub {+-}0} (about 80% of all neutral kaon decay). The standard and typical veto power comes from sheet scintillator and may not be adequate. Vacuum straw tubes provides additional, independent and orthogonal veto power, but the detection inefficiency has not been known or measured in a detail way. The inefficiency of the straw has three sources, the electronics, the straw wall/wire, and the gas. We like to perform beam test to measure all three sources. There is much experience in straw detector technology, and some in vacuum straw technology (CKM R&D effort). The possible use of straws in the future K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} {nu} {nu} experiment will allow absolute photon/electron energy calibration (via K{sub {+-}0} decays), possible measurement of photon inefficiencies (via K{sub 000} with {pi}{sup 0} Dalitz), and as mentioned, charged particle veto. The results of this proposed beam test will provide new knowledge on the absorption cross section and will direct us on design issues for future neutral kaon decay experiments. Regarding

  15. Burning Mouth Syndrome and "Burning Mouth Syndrome".

    PubMed

    Rifkind, Jacob Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is distressing to both the patient and practitioner unable to determine the cause of the patient's symptoms. Burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is used only after nutritional deficiencies, mucosal disease, fungal infections, hormonal disturbances and contact stomatitis have been ruled out. This article will explore the many causes and treatment of patients who present with a chief complaint of "my mouth burns," including symptomatic treatment for those with burning mouth syndrome. PMID:27209717

  16. Berkeley Lab to Help Build Straw Bale Building

    SciTech Connect

    Worsham, S.A.; Van Mechelen, G.

    1998-12-01

    The Shorebird Environmental Learning Center (SELC) is a new straw bale building that will showcase current and future technologies and techniques that will reduce the environmental impacts of building construction and operations. The building will also serve as a living laboratory to test systems and monitor their performance. The project will be the model for a building process that stops using our precious resources and reduces waste pollution. The rice straw that will be used for the bale construction is generally waste material that is typically burned--millions of tons of it a year--especially in California's San Joaquin Valley. Buildings have significant impacts on the overall environment. Building operations, including lighting, heating, and cooling, consume about 30% of the energy used in the United States. Building construction and the processes into making building materials consume an additional 8% of total energy. Construction also accounts for 39% of wood consumed in the U S, while 25% of solid waste volume is construction and demolition (C &D) debris. The SELC will incorporate a variety of materials and techniques that will address these and other issues, while providing a model of environmentally considered design for Bay Area residents and builders. Environmental considerations include energy use in construction and operations, selection of materials, waste minimization, and indoor air quality. We have developed five major environmental goals for this project: (1) Minimize energy use in construction and operations; (2) Employ material sources that are renewable, salvaged, recycled, and/or recyclable; (3) Increase building lifespan with durable materials and designs that permit flexibility and modification with minimal demolition; (4) Reduce and strive to eliminate construction debris; and (5) Avoid products that create toxic pollutants and make a healthy indoor environment.

  17. Combustion of Schlamm in ACFB boilers -- The Charbonnages de France Group's experience

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, M.; Rollin, J.P.

    1998-07-01

    Within the context of the rehabilitation of Emile Huchet Power Plant Unit 4 owned by the ``SNET'', a company of the CHARBONNAGES DE FRANCE Group, a new CFB boiler with an electrical capacity of 125 MW has been commissioned in 1990 in replacement for an existing pulverized-coal boiler. This boiler constituted at the time an experimental unit on two accounts. It was an innovation through its size but also its specific design which allows to burn schlamm--a coal washing residue--in the form of pulp. The boiler design answered the CHARBONNAGES DE FRANCE Group's need to eliminate old settling ponds containing schlamm which, from the technical and economic point of view, could not be burnt using conventional combustion techniques owing to its specific characteristics (fine, high-ash product with a very high moisture and clay content). This original method of injection as well as the pulp preparation process suited to this type of injection have been designed and developed by CdF INGENIERIE and the CERCHAR (CdF Group) after many investigations and tests. The experience gained at Emile Huchet Power Plant for more than 7 years confirms that the CFB boiler is a clean combustion technique which is perfectly suited to the combustion of schlamm injected in the form of pulp. The CFB unit burns exclusively schlamm conditioned in the form of pulp with 33% of moisture, and this with a high degree of efficiency, low emission values and a very good availability. This talk include a description of the CFB boiler and the pulp preparation plant as well as a presentation of the boiler performances and of the experience gained by the CHARBONANGES DE FRANCE Group since the new CFB unit has been commissioned.

  18. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.; McGowan, J.G.

    1995-12-31

    The development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 and the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment. Economics may one day dictate that it makes sense to replace oil or natural gas with coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn these fuels. The objective of the current program is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of this overall objective, the following specific areas were targeted: A coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb/MBtu; Achieving combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and Calculating economic payback periods as a function of key variables. The overall program has consisted of five major tasks: (1) A review of current state-of-the-art coal firing system components; (2) Design and experimental testing of a prototype HEACC burner; (3) Installation and testing of a HEACC system in a commercial retrofit application; (4) Economic evaluation of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications; and (5) Long term demonstration under commercial user demand conditions. This paper will summarize the latest key experimental results (Task 3) and the economic evaluation (Task 4) of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications. 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. The trial burn experience - planning, preparation, and pitfalls

    SciTech Connect

    Kellett, C.D.

    1997-12-31

    For RCRA Part B permitting, Boilers and Industrial Furnaces permits are required to submit a plan, obtain agency approval, and conduct a trial burn. Cement kilns undergoing this process have particular difficulties with the vagaries of trial burn requirements. To demonstrate compliance with BIF standards, a cement kiln is challenged to develop a safe, yet productive operating envelope which will prevail for the term of the Part B permit. In developing this operating envelope, the kiln must be operated in a number of scenarios to show compliance with the performance standards. The requirement of a number of scenarios is necessitated by conflicting operating parameters. In addition to traditional trial burn goals, cement kilns have also been requested to provide supplementary trial burn emissions data for an indirect risk assessment. Based upon the author`s recent experiences with trial burns and BIF compliance testing, the important aspects of planning, preparation for, and conducting a trial burn at a cement kiln will be presented. This paper will provide insight into how to design a trial burn considering conflicting parameters, effectively prepare the kiln process and people involved with a trial burn, and, conducting a successful trial burn. 3 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. Boiler using combustible fluid

    DOEpatents

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  1. Controlling boiler emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Katzel, J.

    1992-10-22

    This paper reports that if you are confused about how to interpret the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, you are not alone. The massive document runs several hundred pages and consists of 11 titles, each addressing a different aspect of air quality. In some cases, specific emissions levels are established; in others, they are left to the discretion of state and local governments. In many ways, the impact of the CAAA right now is no impact. But now is not the time for plant engineers to play any waiting games. The annual cost of complying with the comprehensive environmental legislation is estimated at $4 to $7 billion. Despite the ambiguity and uncertainty, one conclusion appears clear: control of emissions, especially nitrogen oxides, from all types of boilers and process units can be expected to become more stringent. More and more equipment and industries will fall under the regulations as they are implemented by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). An newly available and improved strategies and technologies will make it more and more difficult to circumvent the law. As the general concepts of the legislation are molded into specifics, plant engineers are well advised to take an active role in shaping the attainment and control programs being formed by their state sand in understanding and applying available control technologies.

  2. Numerical modeling of pulverized coal combustion at thermal power plant boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askarova, Aliya; Bolegenova, Saltanat; Maximov, Valeryi; Beketayeva, Meruyert; Safarik, Pavel

    2015-06-01

    The paper deals with development and application the numerical model for solution of processes at combustion chamber of the thermal power plant boiler. Mathematical simulation is based on solution of physical and chemical processes occuring at burning pulverized coal in the furnace model. Three-dimensional flows, heat and mass transfer, chemical kinetics of the processes, effects of thermal radiation are considered. Obtained results give quantitative information on velocity distributions, temperature and concentration profiles of the components, the amount of combustion products including harmful substances. The numerical model becomes a tool for investigation and design of combustion chambers with high-efficiency and reliable operation of boiler at thermal power plants.

  3. Burns in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Maghsoudi, Hemmat; Aghamohammadzadeh, Naser; Khalili, Nasim

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT AND AIMS: Diabetic burn patients comprise a significant population in burn centers. The purpose of this study was to determine the demographic characteristics of diabetic burn patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective data were collected on 94 diabetic burn patients between March 20, 2000 and March 20, 2006. Of 3062 burns patients, 94 (3.1%) had diabetes; these patients were compared with 2968 nondiabetic patients with burns. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical analysis software SPSS 10.05. Differences between the two groups were evaluated using Student's t-test and the chi square test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. RESULTS: The major mechanism of injury for the diabetic patients was scalding and flame burns, as was also the case in the nondiabetic burn patients. The diabetic burn patients were significantly older, with a lower percentage of total burn surface area (TBSA) than the nondiabetic burn population. There was significant difference between the diabetic and nondiabetic patients in terms of frequency of infection. No difference in mortality rate between diabetic and nondiabetic burn patients was observed. The most common organism in diabetic and nondiabetic burn patients was methicillin-resistant staphylococcus. Increasing %TBSA burn and the presence of inhalation injury are significantly associated with increased mortality following burn injury. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetics have a higher propensity for infection. Education for diabetic patients must include caution about potential burn mishaps and the complications that may ensue from burns. PMID:19902035

  4. Bioconversion of lime pretreated wheat straw to fuel ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lime pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification methods were evaluated for conversion of wheat straw cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars. The maximum yield of monomeric sugars from wheat straw (8.6%, w/v) by lime pretreatment (100 mg/g straw, 121 deg C, 1 h) and enzymatic hydrolysis ...

  5. [Carbon isotopic compositions of n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids in the smoke from combustion of rice straw].

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Sun, Li-Na; Li, Jiu-Hai; Xu, Hui

    2012-12-01

    In order to investigate the carbon isotopic fractionation in n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids in smoke from rice straw combustion, six types of rice straw were burned in laboratory under flaming and smoldering conditions, and the compound specific isotopic compositions for the two classes of biomarkers in the smoke were determined. The results showed that the delta13C values of individual n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids released from flaming burns of all the rice species ranged from -28.6 per thousand to -38.8 per thousand and from -29.6 per thousand to -41.9per thousand, respectively, and that the mean delta13C values for the two compound classes in the flaming smoke for the six types of rice straw were in the range of -32.6 per thousand to -36. 4per thousand and -34.0 per thousand to -36.2 per thousand, respectively. Moreover, the n-alkanes in the smoke from the most straws were more depleted in 13C in general than the identical substances with equal carbon number in corresponding unburned biomass. The magnitude of the isotopic discrimination (delta) was up to 4.1per thousand. Conversely, the n-alkanoic acids in the smoke tended to be more enriched in 13C than the corresponding biomarkers in the unburned straw for all of the species, and the delta was up to 6.3 per thousand. The delta13C values of the individual n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids in the smoke from smoldering burns of the six species varied between -31.7 per thousand and -39.0 per thousand and between -31.3 per thousand and -38.8 per thousand, respectively. The average values for the two compound classes in the smoke for a species were in the range of -35.1 per thousand to -36.4 per thousand and -34.4 per thousand to -35.6 per thousand, respectively. The compound specific delta13C values of the n-alkanes in the smoke for most species were smaller than those of the same substances in the corresponding rice straw, and the greatest delta was 6.1 per thousand. However, the delta13C values of n-alkanoic acids

  6. Assessment of combustion of oil shale refinery by-products in a TP-101 boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorkin, V. T.; Tugov, A. N.; Vereshchetin, V. A.; Mel'nikov, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    The most cost-efficient method for utilization of the oil shale refinery by-products, viz., the retort gas and the shale gasoline, for power generation is combustion of these products in power-generating oil shale-fired boilers. Calculation studies carried out at the Estonian electric power plant in Narva, an enterprise of EESTI ENERGIA, have shown that recycling of the flue gases in the furnace of a TP-101 boiler enables an increase in the portion of the oil shale refinery by-products burned in the boiler from the current 7% to 40%. Recycling of the flue gases is aimed at maintaining the temperatures in the furnace at a level characteristic of combustion of oil shale and reducing the nitric oxide concentration in the retort gas burners' flame. The degree of the flue gas recycling depends on the percentage of the burnt oil shale refinery by-products in the total heat generation and increases with the increasing percentage. For the threshold value of 40% under the rated conditions, the flue gas recycling accounts for 10%. A complete changeover of the boiler to combustion of only the retort gas in place of the oil shale does not seem to be possible, since this will necessitate major modification to the TP-101 boiler heating surfaces. Considering the obtained results, as a pilot project, one boiler furnace was modified by installing six retort gas burners and a flue gas recycling system.

  7. New controls spark boiler efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Engels, T. )

    1993-09-01

    Monsanto's NutraSweet plant in University Park, IL, produces aspartame, the patented NutraSweet artificial sweetener product. Until recently, boiler control was managed by a '60s-era Fireye jackshaft system in which air and natural gas were mechanically linked with an offset to compensate for oxygen trim. The interlocking devices on the Fireye system were becoming obsolete, and the boiler needed a new front end retrofitted for low emissions. In order to improve boiler control efficiency, we decided to modernize and automate the entire boiler control system. We replaced the original jackshaft system, and installed a Gordon-Piet burner system, including gas valves, air dampers, blowers, and burner. The upgrade challenges included developing a control strategy and selecting and implementing a process control system. Since our plant has standardized on the PROVOX process management information system from Fisher Controls (now Fisher-Rosemount Systems) to support most of our process, it was a natural and logical choice for boiler controls as well. 2 figs.

  8. Program to Train Boiler Operators Developed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This program initiated by Nalco Chemical, a major supplier of chemicals for boiler feedwater treatment, uses texts, audiovisual aids, and hands-on experience and is designed to boost the efficiency of boiler operators. (BB)

  9. Boiler for generating high quality vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, V. H.; Marto, P. J.; Joslyn, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    Boiler supplies vapor for use in turbines by imparting a high angular velocity to the liquid annulus in heated rotating drum. Drum boiler provides a sharp interface between boiling liquid and vapor, thereby, inhibiting the formation of unwanted liquid droplets.

  10. Pathophysiology of burns.

    PubMed

    Keck, Maike; Herndon, David H; Kamolz, Lars P; Frey, Manfred; Jeschke, Marc G

    2009-01-01

    Burn injury represents a significant problem worldwide. Advances in therapy strategies, based on better understanding of the pathophysiologic responses after burn injury have improved the clinical outcome of patients with burn injuries over the past years. This article describes the present understanding of the pathophysiology of a burn injury including both the local and systemic responses, focusing on the many facets of organ and systemic effects directly resulting from hypovolemia and circulating mediators following burn trauma. PMID:19652939

  11. Slow pyrolysis of rice straw: analysis of products properties, carbon and energy yields.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinje; Lee, Yongwoon; Ryu, Changkook; Park, Young-Kwon

    2014-03-01

    Among many uses of rice straw, application of its biochar from pyrolysis to the soil is receiving greater interest for increased crop productivity and sequestration of CO2. This study investigated slow pyrolysis of rice straw at 300-700°C to characterize the yields and detailed composition of the biochar, bio-oil and non-condensable gases. Biochar was analyzed for pH, microscopic surface area and pore volume distribution. Although the mass yield for the organic fraction was only about 25% above 500°C, biochar was the primary product of pyrolysis containing 40% of energy and 45% of carbon from the straw. The utilization of by-products (bio-oil and gases) as energy resources was essential, since the sum of energy yield was about 60%. The gases could be burned to produce the heat for an auto-thermal pyrolysis process, but the heat balance was significantly influenced by the moisture content of the raw material. PMID:24423650

  12. Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the LNS Burner as retrofitted to the host cyclone boiler for effective low-cost control of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions while firing a bituminous coal. The LNS Burner employs a simple, innovative combustion process to burn pulverized coal at high temperatures and provides effective, low-cost control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The coal ash contains sulfur and is removed in the form of molten slag and flyash. Cyclone-fired boiler units are typically older units firing high-sulfur bituminous coals at very high temperatures which results in very high NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions. The addition of conventional emission control equipment, such as wet scrubbers, to these older cyclone units in order to meet current and future environmental regulations is generally not economic. Further, the units are generally not compatible with low sulfur coal switching for S0{sub 2} control or selective catalytic reduction technologies for NO{sub x} control. Because the LNS Burner operates at the same very high temperatures as a typical cyclone boiler and produces a similar slag product, it may offer a viable retrofit option for cyclone boiler emission control. This was confirmed by the Cyclone Boiler Retrofit Feasibility Study carried out by TransAlta and an Operating Committee formed of cyclone boiler owners in 1989. An existing utility cyclone boiler, was then selected for the evaluation of the cost and performance study. It was concluded that the LNS Burner retrofit would be a cost-effective option for control of cyclone boiler emissions. A full-scale demonstration of the LNS Burner retrofit was selected in October 1988 as part of the DOE's Clean Coal Technology Program Round II.

  13. Straw Rockets Are out of This World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillman, Joan

    2013-01-01

    To capture students' excitement and engage their interest in rocketships and visiting planets in the solar system, the author designed lessons that give students the opportunity to experience the joys and challenges of developing straw rockets, and then observing which design can travel the longest distance. The lessons are appropriate for…

  14. Final test report on the combustion of solvent-refined coal in a 100 hp firetube boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Y.S.; Wieczenski, D.E.; Snedden, R.B.; Bellas, G.T.; Joubert, J.I.; Curio, A.R.; Wildman, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Although solid Solvent-Refined Coal (SRC-I) was burned successfully in a coal-designed utility boiler in 1977, the feasibility of using this fuel in more compact oil- or gas-designed units at signficantly higher heat liberation rates remained uncertain. Combustion tests were conducted at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center using a 100 hp (3450 lb of steam per hour) firetube boiler, designed to burn No. 6 oil. The fuel was produced at an SRC pilot plant in Wilsonville, Alabama, from high-sulfur Kentucky coal, and 0.8% sulfur and 0.3% ash. In the combustion tests, SRC was fed to the boiler in three different physical forms: (1) a slurry composed of 70% by weight SRC-I process solvent and 30% by weight solid SRC pulverized to 92% minus 200 mesh; (2) a molten liquid at approx. 600/sup 0/F, using superheated steam at 800/sup 0/F for atomization, and preheated combustion air at 400/sup 0/F in a conventional oil burner; and (3) a solid, pulverized to 90% minus 325 mesh, using preheated secondary combustion air at 550/sup 0/F. The slurry and molten forms were burned at full boiler load at a heat liberation rate of 184,000 Btu/ft/sup 3/-hr. Carbon conversion efficiencies were generally 99.7% or greater, and boiler efficiencies were about 82%, the same as when burning No. 6 fuel oil. The pulverized SRC was burned at approx. 50% of full boiler load (1656 to 1803 lb of steam per hour) due to the limitations on the burner that was available. Carbon conversion efficiencies ranged from 98.6 to 99.6%, and boiler efficiency again was about 82%. The test results indicate that SRC-I, including the solid form, can probably be burned without derating in larger oil-designed industrial boilers of watertube design. Such units usually operate at heat liberation rates in the range of 25,000-50,000 Btu/ft/sup 3/-hr, significantly lower than rates employed in these tests.

  15. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Ship's boilers. (a) Before work is performed in the fire, steam, or water spaces of a boiler where employees may be subject to injury from the direct escape of a high temperature medium such as steam, or... employees are working in the boilers shall be hung in a conspicuous location in the engine room. This...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Ship's boilers. (a) Before work is performed in the fire, steam, or water spaces of a boiler where employees may be subject to injury from the direct escape of a high temperature medium such as steam, or... that employees are working in the boilers shall be hung in a conspicuous location in the engine...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Ship's boilers. (a) Before work is performed in the fire, steam, or water spaces of a boiler where employees may be subject to injury from the direct escape of a high temperature medium such as steam, or... that employees are working in the boilers shall be hung in a conspicuous location in the engine...

  18. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Ship's boilers. (a) Before work is performed in the fire, steam, or water spaces of a boiler where employees may be subject to injury from the direct escape of a high temperature medium such as steam, or... employees are working in the boilers shall be hung in a conspicuous location in the engine room. This...

  19. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Ship's boilers. (a) Before work is performed in the fire, steam, or water spaces of a boiler where employees may be subject to injury from the direct escape of a high temperature medium such as steam, or... that employees are working in the boilers shall be hung in a conspicuous location in the engine...

  20. Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance

    DOEpatents

    James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J

    2013-07-30

    A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

  1. Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance

    DOEpatents

    James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J.

    2012-12-25

    A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

  2. 30 CFR 57.13030 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... American Society of Mechanical Engineers to protect against hazards from overpressure, flameouts, fuel...) The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, 1977, published by the American Society of Mechanical... VIIRecommended Rules for Care of Power Boilers (2) The National Board Inspection Code, a Manual for Boiler...

  3. Combustion characteristics and NO formation for biomass blends in a 35-ton-per-hour travelling grate utility boiler.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengqi; Zhao, Wei; Li, Ruiyang; Wang, Zhenwang; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Guangbo

    2009-04-01

    Measurements were taken for a 35-ton-per-hour biomass-fired travelling grate boiler. Local mean concentrations of O(2), CO, SO(2) and NO gas species and gas temperatures were determined in the region above the grate. For a 28-ton-per-hour load, the mass ratios of biomass fly ash and boiler slag were 42% and 58%, the boiler efficiency was 81.56%, and the concentrations of NO(x) and SO(2) at 6% O(2) were 257 and 84 mg/m(3). For an 18-ton-per-hour load, the fuel burning zone was nearer to the inlet than it was for the 28-ton-per-hour load, and the contents of CO and NO in the fuel burning zone above the grate were lower. PMID:19091555

  4. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor: Phase 3 industrial boiler retrofit. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.L.; Thornock, D.E.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.; McGowan, J.G.

    1998-03-01

    Economics and/or political intervention may one day dictate the conversion from oil or natural gas to coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn oil or gas. In recognition of this future possibility the US Department of Energy, Federal Energy Technical Center (DOE-FETC) supported a program led by ABB Power Plant Laboratories with support from the Energy and Fuels Research Center of Penn State University with the goal of demonstrating the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of the overall goal the following specific objectives were targeted: develop a coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical and operational requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; maintain boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; maintain NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb NO{sub 2} per million Btu; achieve combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and determine economic payback periods as a function of key variables.

  5. EFFECTS OF SORBENT INJECTION FOR SULFUR DIOXIDE REMOVAL ON PARTICULATE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes studies undertaken to quantify the effects of dry SO2 sorbent injection on electrostatic precipitator (ESP) operation with a coal-burning utility boiler. The specific operation of interest was EPA's limestone injection, multistage burners (LIMB) process. The ...

  6. Operating experience at the Shamokin Culm burning steam generation plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, P.A.; Laukaitis, J.F.; Lockman, H.W.; Samela, D.; Smith, W.G.; Tsoumpas, G.

    1983-06-01

    After 9200 hours of operation it can be concluded that low grade anthracite culm refuse fuel can be properly combusted in a fluidized-bed boiler. The Shamokin Culm Burning Steam Generation Plant has demonstrated environmental compliance while operating over a wide range of operational variables. As changes in equipment and materials are implemented and other fuels are combusted, it is expected that a further demonstration of the Plant's capabilities will be realized.

  7. Clinical forensic evidence in burns: rescuer burns.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pramod; Gopal, Kirun; Ramnani, Sunil

    2006-12-01

    In the literature no systematic study is available on rescuer burn for victims of burn injury. This is a retrospective study of nine patients (five admitted and four outpatients) were treated in this hospital as rescuer burns in 3.5 years. All nine patients were males. Average age of the patient treated on outpatient basis was 47 years (ranging between 44 and 52) and total burn area ranged for 1-4%. Average age of the five patients treated on inpatient basis was 32.6 years (ranging between 30 and 34). The total burn area ranged from 14.5 to 38%. During the period of study, in addition to nine rescuer burns, one patient sustained burn before the rescue attempt due to the victim hugging the rescuer. Based on the study of patterns of burn, these patients were found to have three grades of burn injury: Grade 1--upper extremity involvement only. (A) only one upper extremity involvement, (B) both upper extremities involvement, Grade 2--upper extremity/extremities and face involvement, Grade 3--upper extremity/extremities, face-neck, adjacent chest and lower extremity involvement. PMID:17011132

  8. Atmospheric pollutant emission factors from open burning of agricultural and forest biomass by wind tunnel simulations. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, B.M.; Turn, S.Q.; Williams, R.B.; Goronea, M.; Abd-el-Fattah, H.

    1996-04-01

    Atmospheric pollutant emission factors were determined by wind tunnel simulations of spreading and pile fires for 8 different types of fuel including barley, rice and wheat straw, corn stover, almond and walnut tree prunings, and Douglas fir and Ponderosa pine slash. Cereal straws and stover were burned in fires spreading against an impressed wind, pile burns in wood fuels were naturally ventilaled through the side doors. Emission factors were determined for each fuel for CO, NO, NOx, SO2, total hydrocarbons, methane, nonmethane hydrocarbons, total sulfur, CO2, particulate matter, volatile organic matter (VOC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Elemental compositions of particulate matter were determined by size category. Bulk aerosol absorption coefficients were determined from light transmission measurements through filter samples. Emission rates were correlated against burning conditions and fuel compositions. Factor affecting the burning rates and emission factors included inlet air temperature, loading rate, and wind speed.

  9. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, Jianyang; Walsh, P.M.; Schobert, H.H.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1992-05-29

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with less than 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in an oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels.

  10. Design, construction, operation, and evaluation of a prototype culm combustion boiler/heater unit

    SciTech Connect

    D'Aciermo, J.; Richards, H.; Spindler, F.

    1983-10-01

    A process for utilizing anthracite culm in a fluidized bed combustion system was demonstrated by the design and construction of a prototype steam plant at Shamokin, PA, and operation of the plant for parametric tests and a nine month extended durability test. The parametric tests evaluated turndown capability of the plant and established turndown techniques to be used to achieve best performance. Throughout the test program the fluidized bed boiler durability was excellent, showing very high resistence to corrosion and erosion. A series of 39 parametric tests was performed in order to demonstrate turndown capabilities of the atmospheric fluidized bed boiler burning anthracite culm. Four tests were performed with bituminous coal waste (called gob) which contains 4.8 to 5.5% sulfur. Heating value of both fuels is approximately 3000 Btu/lb and ash content is approximately 70%. Combustion efficiency, boiler efficiency, and emissions of NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/ were also determined for the tests.